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Full text of "The Brihad Āraṇyaka Upanishad"

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BIBLIOTHECA INDICA; 

COLLECTION OF ORIENTAL WOUKS 

rOBLIlBID THDIB TH> FATBOHIOE Of T>l 

Aon. Court at Sixntaxi of t||t Catft intiU Compan;, 



ASUTIC SOCIETY OP BENGAL. 

Vol. n. PiBT III. 
Nob. 27, 88 & 135. 




THE BRIHAD A'RANYAKA UPANISHAD, 



THE COMMENTAET OF 8* ANKARA ACHAETA OH" ITS 
FIEST CHAFFEE, 

translated from the 0rt6inal sanscrit 

' Bt Db. E. Eosb. 



PBIKTBD BT J. THOMAS, AT THB BAPTIBT UI93IOE( BBBSB. 
J 856. 



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PREFACE. 

It was my intention to have accompanied this transla- 
tion of the Briliad Aranyaka Upaniahad with an intro- 
duction in the manner adopted in my translation of the 
minor Upanishads ; but as the state of my health compels 
me to rest for a time from literary labours, and as I do 
not wish to delay any longer the publication of a work 
which has been several years in progress, I am obliged 
to forego my wishes on the subject, reserving for the 
future the publication of my views on this Upanishad in 
a separate form. 

I would only add here the reason which induced me 
to discontinue the translation of S'ankara's commentary. 
At the commencement of the work I deemed it desirable 
to anglicise the commentary in order to assist the student 
in understanding so difficult an author as S'ankara ; tbisf 
I presume, has been accomplished by the portion I have 
translated in the first two fasciculi, and it appeared to 
me useless to continue with the translation of the whole 
commentary, as it is cumbrous and generally adds nothing 
to the explanation of the text, an opinion which was 
also held by several of my Oriental friends in Europe. 
In the latter part of my work, accordingly, I translated 
only such passages of the commentary as elucidate the 
text, and gave, generally in my own words, S'ankara's 
prefatory remarks to the different Brahmanas, these 
remarks being interesting for the views expounded there- 
in as well as for the insight which they offer into the 
connexion of the various parts of this Upanishad. 



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SANKARA'S INTEODTJCTION. 



Om ! Salutation to BramliA (or BrBinh&) and the other Rlsbb, per- 
fect in the tTaditioiial knowledge of firamha, whose names are enume- 
rated in the lineage from teacher to teacher.* Salutation to the reli- 
^ous in8tructois.+ 

This biieft commentary of the V&jasan^yi Bramha Upauishad, which 
commences with the words : " The dawn is the head of the sacrificial 
horse," is composed for the sake of those who wish to liberate them- 
selves from the world, in order that th^ may acquire the knowledge, that 
Bramha§ and the bou1|| are the same, a knowledge, bj which the libera- 
tion from the cause of the world* is accomplished. This knowledge of 
Bramha is called Upaniahad, because it completely annihOates the 
world, together with its cauae (ignorance) in such as possess this know- 
ledge i for this is the meaning of the word Sad.f preceded by Upani4 
A work which treats on the same knowledge, is also called Upanishad. 



* Brnnlui Buhit ire th« aagM, who in coatinaoiu moctiiion from Bramha, 
Bnmhi, Parunkti, &c. taoght the knowledge of the uniTertal sou). They are 
enumerated in the Tuiu Bramha, a part of the present Upaniahad. V. p. 503, &C. 

■f The plural ii here the pinral is majeBtatii, mMning the preceptor of Sankara 
Ach&rja, whose name was Gdvinda. 

X Brief it ia called, in companion with the more roluminons commentary, called 
tbe Bhartri Prapancha Bbfahja. 

i Bramha, tite universal soul. 

II The iodiTidnal bouI. According to the Vfdantiats the soul, independent of the 
tiodj, is tlie SDhitance which ia pure eiistence, knowledgs and bliss, and which 
most therefore not be confonnded witb itt facultiet, the semes, the mind, iat^l. 
led. Sec. 

* The canse of the world is ignorance, 
t Sad meani to destroy, or to go. 

t Upa means near, Ni expretiei certaintj. 



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2 Introduction. 

The abore-mentloned Upaniahad, which contuns 6 chapters, is called 
Aranyaka, as being spoken in a deaert, and Brihad (great) from its 
extent. • 
. The connexion of this Upanishad with the ceremonial partf of the 
Vidas vill now be mentioned. The whole V^da has the design to 
explain by what means objects of desire and avemon that cannot 
be proved by perception or inference, may be obtuned or removed ; for 
every man has naturally the wish to obtain objects of desire, and 
remove objects of aversion. The V^da has not to investigate objects 
of the senses, becanse the knowledge of what satiafiea desires, or re- 
moves objects of aversion, ia produced by perception and inference. J 

Further, unless there ia a knowledge of the esistence of the soul in 
another life, there cannot be a wiah to obtmn or remove objects of de- 
tire or aversion in a sabaequent life ; this is clear from the conduct of 
those who§ do not admit any other desires but th<Me, prompted by one's 
own nature. In consequence the V^aic science is founded on the 
Icnovaledge of the existence of the soul, relative to a former life, and 
upon the special means by which objects of desire and aversion in 
another life may be obtedned or removed. The existence of the sonl as 
independent of the body, is evident from positive declarations of the 
V&laa, as shown by the following passages : "This ia the investigation 

* ThU Upanisbad, beeides the namea of Vfyi^D.nfeyi Biamhs Upauiehud and 
Brifaad Araa^aka Upaoiabad, bean alga the denominBdaa of Kiawa UpaDisbad. 

t Tbe V£dti9 are divided ia two paita, tbe firat ii tbe Karma-kliQ^, the ceremo- 
Dial part, alao Pdna-kttniis, and treats on ceremoniei, the second ii the Jn&na- 
k£ii4a, ths part which coatauig knowledge, also named Uttara-kaiida or.potterim 
psji:, and nnfolda tbe knowledge of Bramha or the niiiienal lonl. 

X The Mfmioiakai and V^tntia aBaert five kioda of evidence, vii. perceptic 
ference, verbal commmueation. comparison and pTcnimption. Soms add alio prl 
vatioD. The CbtirTikas recognise but one, t<i. perception. The followers o' 
Kanada and those of Sogata (Bnddha) acknowledge two, perception and inference 
Tbe Stbch7B> reckon three, including affirmation. The Naiyfiyicoa, or follower* o 
06tama, count foar, viz. the forgoing together with compatison. Tbe Frabhikaraa, 
aa firit observed, admit five. And the reel of the MfmanBakea, in both tcboola, 
prior and later Mfm&naa, enumerate a!x. Col. M. E. Vol. I. pp. :)03, 304. In onr 
paaeage perception and inlbrence include the other kinds of evidence. 

\ The Ldkfiyatikai are here meant according to Ananda Girl. They do not ac- 
knowledge the eiiatence of the aonl, independent of the body, and accordingly do 
not perfonn any actions relative to a fatare life. 



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Introduction. 3 

whether after the death of man the toulexUtti some assert, the toul 
exifita ; the soul does not exist, assert others." This is the commeace- 
meat of one Jlpanuhad, * and it concludes with the words : it exists.'l' 

Another passage says : " Some souls afUr death are horn (again) to 
obtain a body like animalB, others are changed into the condition of 
a trunk, according to their works, according to their knowledge of 
the V£das."t 

Another passage commences: "It (the soul) is itself light, its know- 
ledge and ceremonial works follow it (in another life) ; man becomes 
holy by holy work.'* 

Another passage which commences: " I will declare" § concludes 
with the words: the toul it knowledge. 

The assertion, that the exittence of the soul, lu independent of the 
body, can be proved by perception, is not correct ; for there is a contra- 
dictory assertion of such who argne the contrary. 

For, if from perception a knowledge of the existence of the soul in 
connexion with another body, conld be derived, we should not be op- 
posed to the L6kfiyatikas|| and Bauddhas,* who assert that the soul 

• S«e Kitha Upiuuhid, I. 20. 
t K. V. VI. 13. 

t K. U. V. 6—7. 

S Britaid Annjaka tJ. p. 345. 

II The Cbiritts* (or 8iin7ȣdii) n n^med rrom one of their teacher*, the Muni 
.ChirWikR. From TrUhsipati they are called alio Varhaapatfai. The appellation 
8iui;ai£dii, impliei the aaaertel of the anrealit; end emptineia of the ualierae, and 
another deaigDition, l£ki.j»X&, expreauu tbeii adoption of the tenet, that thii ba- 
il^ is the Bcall of eiiatence : they were, in ahort, the adiocatea of nutemliim and 
atheism, and have existed from a leij remote period, and itill exist, as weihall heie- 
■fter see. Wilsoa'a Sects of the Hiodag, p. IS. 

Tbef (the Ch£rvikas) restriet to peroepUon the onl; meMis of proof aod soarce of 
knowledga. Others, bowerer. admit probabilitf and tradition. Col. M. E. Vol. I. 
p. 403. Sad£nanda in the V£d£nta Stir*, call* up for refuutioi) no lea* than foat 
folhnreis of Chirvika ; one maintaining, that the groas corporeal frame i> identical 
■Itli the aonl, anoUwr that (he cor|ioreal organs ooostitute the soal, a third afflrmiog 
that Ac litsl tknctiooa do so, a fontth inaisting, that the mind and the soul are the 
•une. CM. E. pp. 403,104. 

* Baoddbas. There ue four sects smong the followers of Buddha: 1. Tlie 
Midhjamicai, who maintain, that all ii roid. 2. The Yttgacliaraa, who assert, that, 
except internal sensslion or intelligence (Vijoyina) all else if void. 3. Sauliiutii.'M. 

B 2 



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4 Introduetion, 

does not esist. For with regard to objects of the sensea, as for 
inHtance a pot, no contradiction takes place, aa if one would assert the 
non-existence of a pot, although it i» perceived by the gentet. If yoa 
hold, snch contradiction may esist by referring to the well known topic 
of the trunk and the man, if the same object is taken by some for a 
trunk, by others for a man, we remind you of the fact, that all dispute 
ceases, when the nature of the object has been ascertained. For there is 
no dispute about the nature of an object of the senses, for instance, of a 
trunk, when it has been ascertained by perception. The Vamfijikas* 
on the other hand, although acknowledging the /, yet reject the 
opinion of the existence of the soul, independent of the internal body. 
Accordingly, since the soul is different from any object of the senses, 
its existence cannot be proved by perception. 

Nor can it be proved by inference. If yon say, that the Sruti applies 
argoments in proving the existence of the soul, and that these argu- 
ments are baaed upon perception, we do not admit this on the ground, 
that there is no perception of the soul, relative to a former birth. 
When, however, the existence of the soul by the V^da is acknowledged, 
and also by common ailments, according to the meaning of the V^da, 
the followers of the V^da, the Mim&nsakag and T^rkikas (or logi- 
dans), will substitute the fiction, as if the perception of the I and the 
arguments in accordance with the T6Ias, were produced by their own 

They kffimi the actual eiistence of external object! no leii than of internal senss- 
ttons. The eitetior objects to be known bj immediatB perception. 4. VBibhiahikM, 
who agree with the latter, except that they contend for a mediate apprehension of 
eiterior objecli, through Images, or ragemblmg forms, represented to the intellect. 
C. M. E. Vol. 1. pp. 390,391. 

* Hence theae Buddhiats (the Sauttibtikaa and Vaibh^hikas, who belisTe, 
that objecta cease to eiiat, when no longer perceived, they have but a brief dura. 
tion, like the flash of lightning, lasting no longer than the perception of them. 
Their identity ia but momentary) are by their adveriaries, the orthodox Hindus, 
designated as Purna— or Sana — Vainiijikaa arguing total perishableneaa, while tha 
foUoweis oC Kati&da, who acknonledge soma of their categoriea to be eternal and 
iniariable, and reclcoa only othera transitory and changeable; and who insist that 
identity ceaaes with any Tariation in the composition of the body, and that a cor. 
poreal frame, receiving nutriment and discharging eicretioni, undergoes continual 
chaoge, and consequent early loss of identity, are for that particular opinion, called 
Aidhavain^tikas ■ arguing half peiisbableuess.' Col. M. E. Vol. I, pp. '393, 394. 



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Introduction. ft ' 

intellect, and hence say, that the soul is proved by peiceptioD and in- 
ference. 

The ceretnonisl part of the V^iaa is intended for the Bpecial ioBtruc- 
tion of him, who nith certainty knows that the soul exists, subject to 
transmigratioiL, and who in consequence ia ansious to avail himself of 
special means to obtain and remove objects of desire and aversion 
in connexion with another body. The ^;norance, however, with r^rd 
to the soul, which pioduces the wish to obtain what is dedred, and to 
remove what is not desired, and which by its nature prides itself 
in the feelings of self, dominion and possession, is not annihilated by 
ceremonial works ; this can only be effected by the opposite knowledf^ 
of the identity of Bramhawith the individual soul. For as long as this 
ignorance is not annihilated, so long the ignorant soul, owing to passion, 
hatred and other natural faults, resulting from works, and owing to 
the transgression of commands and prohibitions of the iS^tra, conti- 
nues to accumulate by thoughts, words and by the body, works which 
are called unholy, and which are the causes of evil concerning events that 
fall within the senses as well as that which do not fall within them. 
AH this is the result of the greater power of natural faults. Hence, t'n 
proportion to the faults, transmigration enrara Jrom the highett ttate 
downwards to the lowest state of inanimate matter. 

Sometimes the purification by means of the Sastra has a greater 
power. Hence the soul acquires by actions of mind, speech and body 
a state which is called virtue, and which is the cause of good. This 
virtue is twofold — virtue resulting from knowledge and mere virtue. 
The reward of the latter is the obtaining of the world of the manes 
(Ktris) and of other like worlds. The reward of virtue, resulting from 
knowledge, is the obtaining of the world of the D^bs, and of other worlds, 
upwards to the world of BramhA. Thus it is said in the iS&stra : sacrifi- 
cial works directed to Bramha, are preferable to works directed to the 
D^vas. Also the Smriti* teaches ; work, according to the V^das, is 
twofold, (such as concerns active life, and such as refers to contem- 
plation ; the former satisfies deures, the latter abstains from them 
through knowledge.) 

If lastly, virtue and vice are equally balanced in a person, be obtains 

the condition of man. Thus by the power of ignorance and other 

* Iduia. 12. Ba. 



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8 Jntroductitm. 

umate &nlts, a soul bu to tranamigrate, in accordance with iti virtue 
or vice, into worldly forms, different in name, ahape and works, from 
the state of the world of Bramh& downwards to the conditbn of inani- 
mate matter. 

Thus thi« manifested world, subject to the connexion between cause 
and effect, was not manifested before iU creation. " Tbia world which, 
like a sprout springs from seed, proceeds from ignorance, which 
is placed as the result from works, from the yrformer and effects 
upon the soul, is without beginning, is without end, is without reahty ." 
To remove the ignorance of a person who shows hj reflections, as just 
described, his dissatisfacttoa with the world, the following Upanishad 
is commenced ; in order that he may obtun the knowledge of Bnunha, 
which is opposite to that ignorance. 

The knowledge, however, of the ceremonies regarding the sacrifice of 
a horse, is required that those who are not fit to perform the horse- 
sacrifice.may obtain by this knowledge the same reward.* 

If one by such passages from the Sruti as the following : " By know- 
ledge or by holy actions the mentioned reward may fie obtained," and 
"He who overcomes even this world," would conclude, that the 
knowledge was only a kind of work, he would be in error, first, because 
passages aa such : *' who offers the sacrificial horse," and " who knowsj" 
him thus," leave it optional, \a 'perform that taerifiee ^ther hy knowledge 
or in reality ,- secondly, because it (this knowledge) is also mentioned in 
the second part of the Sruti, which treats on knowledge ; thirdly, because 
also by other ceremonies a similar representation is mode. Uence it 
follows, that tram knowledge alone the reward of the horse-sacrifice is 
derived. The chief of all ceremonies, however, is the A«wam^ha, 
because its reword includes the universal and special state of Utrauya 
Garbha-t 

* Til. at tbe commencemeDt of the Upinishid a description of the AnmnMht 
OT horK-»crifice, which doe> not properly belong to it, is gitea for the object, thtt 
Br&hmansiuid others may obtain by knowledge the rewud of tbil Sacrifice, which 
can in reality only be performed by kings. 

-f-That is to aay, who knowa the aacrifice oFthe bone to be an emblem of Frajipati. 

X The noiTersal state is Hiranya Garbha aa soul of the nniierse, Or fswira, who 
rules all ; the ipecisl state ii Hiranji Oarbha as present in erery individaal. Here 
the special state means of course the state of a special divinity. 



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IntroduetioM. 7 

Further at this commencement of the knowledge of Brahma, the 
ceremony of the horse-sacrifice is described for the purpose to show 
the worldly tendency of all sacrifices ; for its reward is shown as the 
devourer, which is death. 

If it he said that the regular* ceremonies have no worldly eiFect, we 
deny this on the authority of the Sniti, which enumerates the effects of 
all works. For every ceremony requires the assistance of a wife. "When 
by such wishes as the following, " may I have a wife," which are 
baaed on our very nature, the connection of all ceremonies with ob- 
jects of desire, — moreover, as the reward of the ceremonies to be 
performed by a son, the world of the Rishis or D^vas, have been 
pointed out, the state of Hirauya Garbha will be shown aa reteard of 
the AsKamidha at the end of this chapter by the words : " This world 
is threefold by name, form and work," 

Thus the world is the manifest efiect from all actions. These three 
(names, forms and works) then were before the origin of the world 
not manifested. Again they become manifest from tbe effects of 
the works of all living creatures, as a tree springs from seed. This 
world, which is at the same time manifest and not manifest, the 
object of ignorance, which is morpheas and amorpheus ; is for the sake 
of the ceremony, the performer and the effect, placed through igno- 
rance upon the soul hy its semblance of it. Therefore the sonl, although 
it is separate from the world, although in its nature it is without the 
distinction of name, form and work, although it is without duahty, 
essentially eternal, pure, intelligent and blissful, is yet manifested by 
the difference of ceremony, performer, effect, and by other distinctions. 
Therefore as the erroneous conception of a rope as a snake is removed by 
a correct apprehension, so the knowledge of Bramha is commenced to 
annihilate the ignorance, the cause of desire and other faults, and also 
of works.-of a person who is dissatisfied with this wor/i^ which natu- 
rally represents the distinctions of ceremonial act, of the performer 
and of the effect, and which naturally appUes causes and effects 
by such sentences, as : Qaa is so or so. In this the part, commencing 

* Regnlar caremoniei irs inch, which, if not performed , are cRnsei of lin, and 
if perfonned, are no canaea of merit, ceremoniu which eyetj Brahman is boand to 
perform, m for initince the regnUi ceremoniei, called Sandhya baodaDa. V. Wi- 
d£ata Sira. CalcntU EditUw. p. 2. 



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8 Introduction. 

irith : " The dawn is the head," &c., is designed for the knowledge of 
the horse sacrifice. The sacrifice is represented under the emblem of a 
horse, on account of the eminence of the horse. The eminence agidn 
is derived from the Bacrifice bearing its name, and Irom its being the 
representation of Praj&pati.* 

* Ths Atitam£dba nnd Faruibainfdha, celebr&ted In the mumer directed b; this 
V^da, (white Yajar V£da) are not reallf sactificeB of horaea and men. In the firit 
mentioned cerBQiODy , six hundred and nine animals of varioue prescribed kind*, 
domestic and wild, including birds, fieh, and reptiles, are made fast, the tame ones, U> 
twentj-one poits, and the wild, in the interrala between the pillars ; and after cer- 
tain prayers haie been recited, the lictimg are let loose without injnrj 

Thti mode of performing the Aiwamedha and Puruahamedha, aa emblematic cere- 
monies, not ss real sacrifices, is taught in this Veda and the interpretatioD is fully 
CODfirmed bj ibe ritoats, and by commentators an the Sanhili and BrahmofUi. .. .. 
The horse, which is the subject of the religious ceremony, called Aiwam^dha, is 
alio arawedly an emblem of Tiiij, or the priueial and uuiTcraal manifested being. 
Col. M, E. Vol. I. pp. 61, 62. 



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BRIHAD ARANTAKA UPANISHAD. 

FIRST CHAPTER. 

Firtt Brdmhana. 

Om ! The dawn in truth is the head of the sacrificial horse. 
The sun is the eye ; the wind the breath; the fire, under the 
name Vai^w&nara, the open mouth ; the year the body of the 
sacrificial horse. The heaven is the back ; the atmosphere the 
belly ; the earth the footstool (hoof) ; the quarters the sides ; the 
intermediate quarters the bones of the sides ; the seasons the 

" The dawn is in truth, &c." The dami means here the hour of 
Bramh&. " In truth/' is said for the sake of reminding, and reminds of a 
well known time. " Is the head," from its being the principal time ; for 
the head ia the principal port of the body. For the object of purifying the 
animal, representing in its members the Tarious parts of the ceremonies, 
time and other conditions of the sacrifice are typified by the head and 
other parts. It Is represented as Prajitpati by giving it the emblems of 
Praj&pati ; for the representation of the animal by time, the worlds and 
the divinities is its representation as PrajSpati ; for this is the nature of 
Praj&pati, as Vishnu and other deities are represented under the form 
of an image. "The sun is the eye," as nearest to the head, and as being 
the tutelary deity of the eye.* — " The wind is the breath," from its 
identity with it. " The mouth is fir^ under the name of Vaitwinara ;" 
Vai«w^tnara is the special name of Agni, meaning, whose mouth is wide 
c^D. Agni is also the deity of the mouth. " The year is the body," 
viz. the year, as conttuning twelve or thirteen months. The year is the 
body of the members of time ; for the body is in the midst of the mem- 
bers, as the Sruti says. " Of the sacrificial horse ■" this is here repeated 
for the sake of connection, "The heaven is the back," both being placed 
alike above. "The atmosphere the belly," both being hollow. The 
earth the footstool. The quarters, although four, are the two sides, by 
■ Ai the c^e u neireit to the head, bo the nut neueat to the diwn, Thia i* the 
point of their retemhUnce. Aaanda OirL 



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10 Brikad Aranyakn Upanithad. 

members ; the mouths, the half months, are the joints ; day and 
night the feet ; the constelUttena the bones ; the shy the mus- 
cles ; the half digested food the sand; the rivers arteries and 
veins ; the liver and spleen the mountuns ; the herbs and trees the 
various kinds of hair. The sun, as long as he rises, is the fore- 
part of the body ; the sun as long as he descends, is the hind 
part of the body. The lightning is like yawning ; the shak- 
ing of the ntembera is like the rolling of the thunder ; the 
passing (^ urine is like the ram of the cbmds ; its voice is like 
•peeeh.l, 

^w nmilarily of both. This eompsraon i> not impRiper for tb« reason, 
tkit the number of both is diffnent -, for as the two aides of the horH 
are tttmed to all qmrters, there is no fiiuR in this eomparisen. " The 
istenMdiate quartere," tIi. Agn§yi (regent of the south-east). Sic, the 
bones at the sides, " The Beaaons are the memberB," fton the mnilai. 
nty of the parts of the year with the nembers of the body. " Th« 
nonths aad half months the- johitst" from their nmilarity. "Days 
mai nightH the feet" in plural nnmber from the difference of days, as 
days of Prajfipati, ^ the IMras, (^ the Fitris, aitd of men. "Feet," 
beoMue they proceed ; for the time as body proceeds with the days and 
nights, as with the feet of the horae. " The cotutellations the bones," 
ftmn tbeir nmilar white coIodi'. " The sky," meaning here the chtmb 
of the sky, becan#e the aky was fbrraeriy mentioned as the beUy, are the 
mnedee, from the similarity of both in ooring either water or blood, 
" l^e half digested feed the sand," from the aimilwity of tbe separate 
parts. The rirera, "artMies and yeins," becaoae both ooae. "The Kver 
and tbe spleen," the mountains, rii. the two pieeea of flesh to the right 
and left nnder the heart ; they are caDed " monntmns" from their hud' 
ness and height. The herbs, Rnall plants, the hair of the body ; the 
" trees," die hair of the h(«d, aecordkg to their hkeness. The aun lumg 
until noon is the forepart of the horse above the oare) ; the sun, descend- 
ing from the midst erf his course, is tbe other half, the hips ud bins, 
from their respectire similarity. " The Ugbtning Is like the yawnii^" 
from the Ukeness of the mouth, whm it snddenly (^)ens, irith tbe rend- 
ing of a dend. " The shaking of tbe membere is like the rollmg of 
thunder," from the similarity of the SMi»d. "The passing of the uriRe" 



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Fital XHtiipter. Firal Brdmia^a. 11 

The day is the Mtthknn, placed before the horse ; its birth- 
place it the esfltern sea ; the niffht the other Mahima, which 
is placed behind the horse; its birtbfKkce m the western sea} 
these Mahimaa are placed around the horse. The horse, 
under the name of Haya, carried the gods, under the uame of 
V^i the Oandbarvaa, under the name of Arva, Asurs, under the 
name of Aswa, men. The sea ia ita companiouj the «ea its 
birthplace. 2. 

is like the raining of the clouds — ^botb spriakle alike. The Toice ia iika 
the Belling of the horse s m this there is a aatnral likenen. 1 

" The day," See., thii ia aud in illustration of the golden and ailver cnpa, 
called Mahima, vbiA are placed before and behind the horse. The day 
is the golden cup, from the aimilar splendour (^ both. How ia the day 
placed as the cup b^ore the horse ? By its b«ng an embkm of Pnij&. 
IMiti ; fw I^j&pad who is rqtresented by Aditya (the son), &c. is de- 
rigned by the day. In naming the horse, Praj&pati ia meant, as the 
lightning is manifest by manifeating a tree. The birthplace of the 
gtddrai cup means here the place where it is )tept. Thus the night 
Kf«es»t8 the silTEr cap, from the likeness of the colour, or of tite 
hind-^tart of the horse. Beldnd this bane, the cup, by same Midiima, 
is placed. Its birthphioe is the western sea. Mahima means greatneas ; 
for it shows the opulence of the horse, that tiie golden and silver cups 
ue placed on uther aide. These cupe, Mudet the oante of Mahima, 
are placed around the borae. The repetition is here made for the 
sake of jmuse, viz. the Malumas, which have those distinctiouB, and 
the horse gifted with greatoess. The same praise is int^ded by 
the words : " The horse under the name of Haya." Saj/a is derived 
' from the root Hio^i, the action of going, going in aa eminent luanner, 
nnless it means a peculiar n>oe. " It curies the gods," means eith^ it 
gained the coudituHi of a god by its b^ng the representation <d Pr^yi^ 
patiitvitbecamethecarrieroftbegodB. But is not the office of carrying 
a blame ? By no means ; for carryiag is the nature o( the horse, 
avd as by this nature it acquires an noinence, as beir^ connected 
with the gods and other tu^trior beings, it is rather a praise. In 
the same manner the word V&ji and the other terms of the horse 
denoie different races. The horse, under the name <tf Vfiji, carried 
c 2 



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12 Brikad Aranyaha Upaniihttd. 

Second Brdmha^a. 

There was not any thing here before : this was indeed en- 
veloped by death, who is voracity ; 

the Gandharvas, under the n&me of Arra the Asure, under the 
name of A^wa men. The Bea, which repreaents here the tiniversal 
Bonl, in its compomon ; there is its dwelling place. The sea, its birth- 
place, the canse of its production. la this wa^ the purified birth- 
place, or the purified dwelling-place is praised. In the waters is the 
birth-place of the horse, says the Smti ; thus the sea is its well known 
origin (2.) 

The 01^^ of the fire, required for the performance of the horae-sacri- 
fice, will now be explained. As it is intended to describe the particulars 
of the fire toitA regard to the hor*e taerifiee, the birth of the fire is here 
introduced for its praise. 

"There was not any thing here before." " Here," in this universe, 
-there was not any thing that could be distinguished by difFerences 
of name or shape. " Before," viz. before the creation of the mind and 
other productions. 

'Then was there not the universal void ?* For this follows from the 
passage of the Smti: "There was not any thing here," which means there 
was neither an effect nor a cause. It follows also from the idea of 
production ; for suppose a pot be produced, consequently there is no ex- 
istence of the pot before its production.' 

But hence does not follow the non-existence of Hit cause, aa is evident 
irom the lump of earth (from which the pot is produced ;) let it be 
granted, that there is no existence of a thing, that is not perceived ;t let 
therefore the effect not exist ; this, however, does not affect the exist- 
ence of the cause, aa it can be perceived (before it produces the effect.) 

' No, because before the production there is no perception whatever, 
dther of cause or effect. If then non-perception, which is a negation, is 
the cause of the whole world, neither cause nor effect can be percdved 
before its creation ; therefore the negation of all (cause and effect) must 
be admitted.' 

We deny this. First, hecanse the Smti decUres ; "By death was thk 

* Tliii is tbe opiaion of the Midhjamikat, one of the foar lecta of tha Bauddhaa. 
Vide p. 3. 
t Ai of an effect, Khidi i« not percciTed, before it i» produced bj iti cauie. 



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Firtt Chapter. Second Brimhana. 13 

itideed enveloped ;" for if there was notliiiig to eavelop, and nothing to be 
enveloped, the Srnti could not lay, this was indeed enveloped ; for there 
is no snch a conception u the mn of a barren woman, adorned with a 
eky-flower. And it is said, by death indeed was this enveloped ; there- 
fore, by the evidence of the Sntti, it follows both, that before the crea- 
tion of the world there was a cause which was enveloping, and that there 
was an effect which was envel(q)ed. We deny it secondly, by argument ; 
for we may know by inference existence of cause and effect before 
the production ; for if a real effect takes place, it must be produced by 
a real cause, and cannot be produced by an unreal cause. ' 

The existence of a cause of the world before its creation is argiued in 
the same manner as the existence of the cause of a pot and of other 
productions. If you* argue the non-existence of the cause of the pot, 
&c. from the reason, that the pot could not be produced, unless the 
lump of earth-f and other similar things disappear,^ we cannot agree, 
since earth and other substances are the real causes ; for earth, gold, 
&c. are Hie causes in the production of a pot, and not the peculiar shape 
of the lamp, since, if there is not the former, (earth,) there is not 
the latter, (the pot.) Namely, even if there is not a pecoliar shape 
of the lump, the production of a pot and similu effects takes place from 
such substances alone, as earth, gold and similar caoses. Therefore 
not the peculiar shape of the lump is the cause in the production of a 
pot. On the other Atnd, if there do not exist earth, gold and similar 
substances, the production of a pot, &c. does not take place ; consequently, 
earth, gold, &c. are the causes, not the peculiar shape of the lump ; for 
every cause, when producing an effect, produces this effect only by con- 
cealing (making disappear) its former effects, because it is imposuble 
that from one and the same cause, at one and the some time, many 
effects should be derived.^ 

* Ths opponent of eonrte. 

t From which the pot ii prodnoed. 

X Vki. the opponsnt reitont ia thii wtj : If the etTscI ((or insttmee, the pot) 
hu DO ictaxl Bziitence, the ciuae (the lump ot Mith) doei alio not eiiit. ir the 
efleothu aotnml axiitence, the crnte (the lump of eartli) has dimppeared, I. e. 
aibt* no more. 

J For ioitaDce. The ihape of ■ lamp of earth, from which a pot ia to be made, 
inlut diaappear la order that the ptodoction be poaaible. Thia ahapfi, however, 
ia not the eanse, bat it ia merelf • former efilBct of the aame eaose, eactb. 



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14 Brihmd Jnmfaka VpuutAmd. 

N»r Aoa &e cause diM^exr widi ita former effiect : Utnefim tiw . 
lurodaotum of the pot by the disappearuice of the Ivicp, (idiiA yoa My, 
is the cause) ahows, that the lamp is not the csiue. If yon say, ' thxt 
brfore the prodnctiaD a came does not exist, because, indcfwndcnt of 
the lump of earth, earth and other Bubstances baT« no edBtmoe,' »e ob- 
ject ; for earth and other snbatancM do not disaj^tear with their fbrmcr 
«£fecta, but are yet foimd in the last pioductionB, as in a pot, &c. 

If you maiataki, ' that without the lamp, the pot^ ix., earth and other 
causes ue not perceiTed,' we deny this also, because^ when a pot^ &c. ■ 
produced, the lump, &e. has dig^peaied, while the edrth and other 
real causes are there still remaining. If yon say, ' that the connexion 
{between cause and efiect) depends E^nni comparisoa,* and not upon the 
pnmanence of the cause (in the eSect) ;' we deny this also, for as the 
parts of earth that compose a lump, are found in a pot by mere per- 
cepttoo, there is only a semblanoe of inference, and therefore oomparisoii 
and other similar actions do not take ^oce. 

Moreover the different mode of operadon in peaveption and in m&»- 
imce is not incompatible, because inference, which is always preceded by 
perception, would otherwise have nowhere a place to depend upon. 

If it be supposed, IJiat ' all has only a momentary existence, and ac- 
cordingly in a sentence : that la this, both terms refer only to a momen- 
tary existence,' it follows, that the notion of that is dependent on the 
notion of another that, which is again depeudedl tm another, so that 
thnv is no stabUity. It further follows, that the notion " that is like 
this," is also imposrable, (the term 'this' being dependent on a simi- 
lar seriee) hence the conclunon is nuKTudable : there is no dependence 
whatsoever. The connection between the two nodons of that and 
this is also impossible, because there is no aubjectf to perceive them. 
If you say, ' there is a connection between them by compartSOTi,' we 

* 5Uik«n bu omitted to ga« the argnnent of tb« oppODent, uhloh it bued 
upon &e rappodlioii thst tha TdaCion of came and affect oin onlf be (pprehended 
bj oomptriMO. J^nanda Oiri anpplin thb u foUowi. AU tbat Bziiti it oolf mo- 
Bieotuy ; bnt thete idmIm (caiue and eSect) etht ; tlienlbn tbej ara momentarr. 
If thai the momentaiy ciiateDce of all that sziati, hu b«eQ ahowD, and tha rdatioo 
ot came «d effect d^midi upon oompariioa, ddnaion m naaioidaMe, 

f No uoticiit aobjeot, >o reafonable being, becaoiv it would be iavolTed in the 
tame elernal dutofe. 



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Firtt C&mplo'. SeeMd BrimAma. 15 

«^0ei, becaiiM the nwrtiMl coamnoo of tbe netiona of that sod this 
ttaaolt be andmtood. And if thare b« bo comiectiim betweea one 
object and another object, theide&t^eompanaon eumot takn w l»w , 
- ' Gnstcd, that thei« is no egmpMmoo, the notum of that is po«u< 
ble.' Nc^ becMiBe, like the noticu from compuisoii, the notieiiB of that 
and tlua have no reference to an; real objeet. ■ Graated that all notiona 
hsTe so real ol^t, what thenf You mtut then admit that true aa 
wdl as fiJse notiona refer to object& which are objecta i^ Dothing. If 
yow hMtly aay. 'this maybe so,' we contradict, because, if all notiona are 
withnut object, you cannot form the idea of t, falae notion. Heoee, 
year iqunion, that the notion ot that depends upon comparisoa, is not 
Iru^ and we thn^fore conelade, that the real existence of the csom 
befcre the produetion is ptored. 

This ia also true with i^ard ta the ^ect, on the groand of its mani< 
fertatjon. ' How is the esisteace of the e&ct before its prodnction 
prored on the gronnd of its maniCestMion V * 

ManifeBtation is the ground of this (efiect) — htsce nwnifestadon means 
e pMceptktt dependent on a knowledge which is present; for as in 
common life & pot and similu things, enreloped by darkneu, bec^ae ao 
elgect of knowledge irii«i the cause of enrelaping has been lemoved by 
means ^ h^t, &c., and do therefore not dist^iprare their former exist* 
ence, so also we xtgm the ^istence of this world before its production ; 
for unless a pot exists, it cannot be perceived, even if the sun rises. 

' It certainly b not percdred by you, unless it exists. For if produc- 
tions, as a pot, &c. da at any timef not exist, they are not perceived 

* TIN oljntiVD af &• opfoatrnt, Mtording to Xninda Gki, is, m Mlimt : If 
yoQ wj, that «n effect ii prwid b; iti muifMUtioa, how dsea the uiataioe of the 
efltet faUaw iram iti nukiihiUtiaii ? fi>r from ths eziitcMe af the rihct fbUowi alio 
tta m mm l m^ A an, ud t^n jou mtixuda, that the eiiitence at tlu effect iabaied 
■ficm iu nuUftitation. lliii U a Um circle.— Tbe aniwer of the V£duiti<t U i 
The picrioni aditmee of in effect, which ii nol peretived, is proTsd by Ita niiai. 
f iMMiaa, wIhbIi i* peiodnd. Thera ij tjiece&ira do filie mrcle. Tt* argvaient for 
the pm iou eiiileDce of en effent ie huad on thii preniM i All that i« maiiituted, 
•xlrie beSx* ite naaiibitatfon, a* a pot entelopad by darkoMl. 

t nafewnee U ten made to the p«t and fatura tine ; for if, nja Ananda Girt, « 
cflM, Oat ia daetnijed, M that i* ta be, did eziat like B prearal effect, it maid be aiao 
peMeh«4. TUe, however, it not the cus, and therefore the aTgnment ii not 



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16 Brihad Aranyaka UpanUhad. 

by^yoUiifthesuoeTenriaea. If the Inmp of earth is not mt hand, and na 
enveloping canses, as dsrkneHS, being present:, the effect will not be 
peiceived on the ground that it exists/ 

We do not admit this, becaose there is a twofold kind of envelop- 
ing; for things that envelop aa effect, as a pot, &c. are twofold; first, 
things which screen, as darkness, &c. when the earth and other 
substances are already manifested ; secondly, the modification of the 
parts of earth and other snbatances in the state of another effect as of a 
lump, &c., before the manifestatioa of the earth in tke effect of a pat, 
&c. Accordingly, the perception of an effect, as a pot, although existing 
before its prodndioii, cannot take place, becaoBe it is enveloped (in another 
effect). The distinction, however according to the common ideas of 
destrc^ed, prodaced, existing, not existing, is merely the twofold distinc- 
tion of the ideas of manifestation and diBsppearance.* 

' This is improper, because fhe lump, the two halves of the pot,-!- &g.' 
are different from any ihii^ that envelops ; for any screen, as darkness, 
which envelops any production, aa a pot, &c., appears something differ- 
ent from the pot and similar things, while tiie lump of the two halves 
do noVappear different from the pot. Therefore your assertion, that a 
pot, which is in the state of a lump, or of the two halves, is not per- 
ceived, because it is enveloped, is improper, because it is different tioin 
tiie idea of enveloping.'^ 

* Bf the diHppesnnce of tbe htlf, a pot a dsttroyed i \j remOTiuj; the lamp and 
other eaveloping tbinga, it ii miDifeated ; iti maoifeitation by meuis of ■ light, &c. 
ii its eiuunce ; ita digsppeannce by mnans of the lump, &c. ia its noa-exiitcDce. 

t To nnderatand the followlDg, it ia Qeceaaary to know that the usual mwj among 
tbe Blndiu to make a pot ii, firat to form two lepuste puti, the KapiiUs, tbe 
balvei of the pot, ud to join tbem eftarwardj in the middle. 

X This objectiDD ii bued upon the euppoiitian, that the thiag, wliicb ii envelop- 
ing, ia not identical with the thing, that ia enveloped by it, ai for initanee darluiew 
ii not identical with any thing that is enveloped by it. Therefoie, tlie oppoaent 
■rgoaa, the Inmp of eartb cannot envelop a pot or any other prodnction, bocauie 
both (tbe lump and the pot) are identical. The refntation of this Is twofold, 
according to a distinctioa in the teim identical, viz. tbe aiaertian that the envv- 
loping thitig oannot be identical with tbe thing enveloped, neans either,' tb^ it 
cannot be identical as to it* appearenee in space. Sic. or not identical as to its 
caoae. The first is refuted by the Csct, that tbe contrary takes places, tor instance i 
when milk and water are mixed, water, wlilcb is enveloped by milk, is perceived 
•• one and the same with tbe milk, which coold not be the case, if tbe thing that 



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Fir»t Chapter. Second SrdmAata. 1 7 

We do not agree, for, on the one hand, milk and water (when mixed) 
and similar things, appear in an identical state, although the water and 
umilar things are enveloped by milk, &c. On the other hand, if you 
nj, that * there is nothing which envelops, because the parts of a half 
that is groond to dust are contained in the pot^' &c., ve deny thisi 
for if the different parts are in another effect, there is evidently 
an enveloping. ' There must, however, be an effort to remove what 
envelops, because the pot and other effects, which are in the state 
of the lump or ai the halves, are not percdved in consequence of 
their being enveloped, and accordingly a person, who is desirous of 
any production, as of a pot, must direct his effort to destroy 
what envelops it, and not to the production of the pot. This, how- 
ever, does not exist, and it is therefore improper to say, that there is no 
perception of a thing which exists, because it is enveloped.' We deny 
this, because it is agunst the rule in practice ; for the manifestation of a 
pot, &c. does not take place only by an effort to desbroy obstacle^ 
as b evident from the effi>rt to produce a light, if a pot and other 
prodnctions are envel(^ed in darkness. If you say, ' that this is done to 
destroy daritness, viz. that the effort made to produce a light, is merely 
made t« let darkness disappear, and if the darkness is destroyed, Uie 
pot is* manifest by itself; for there is nothing (no obstacle to the sight) 
in the pot,' we do not grant this, because the perception takes place, when 
the pot is mamfested ; for as the manifested pot is perceived by means 
of a light, so it is not before the light is employed. Therefore the light 
is not for the means to destroy the darkness, but rather for the means 
of manifesting the pot, because the perception takes place by manifesta- 
tion. Sometimes there may be an effort also to destroy what envelops, 
as in the destruction of a screen, &c., but on this account it is not the 
rule. A person who wishes the manifestation of any thing, must make 
an effort to destroy all that envelops. 

This follows also from the success of a work, if done in accordance 
with its rule. We said, that an effect, which abides in the cause, is an 

earelop* mnit be different from the thing Chat a eoTeloped. The gecond i) refot- 
ad on the groond, that different effects in one end the isme cauK are Kparated 
from uch other, and do therefore not de^tiaj each other. — A. 6. 

* That IB to wj, when the Ecieen, dukneu, ii reno>ed, there i* no obstacle 
to itg mtDJCeatition. 



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16 Brihad Aranyaka Vpunitkad. 

obstacle to anotber effect. If then an effort is made to destroy an effect, 
which was before manifeBted, for iuBtatice a lamp, or tbe two halres which 
were before concealed by the lump,* then is produced an effect which is 
called Bplitdng or grinding, &c. A pot, which is enveloped by such 
effects, is not perceived, and requires therefore another effort ; hence 
a person who wishes the manifestation of a pot, can only be successful, 
if tbe needful action of producing a pot is used by him. There- 
fore the effect esists even before its production.' — ^This follows also 
from the dietinctian of the ideas of past and future. It is only 
reasonable, that the ideas of " there was a pot" and " there will be 
a pot," like the idea of " there ia a pot," do not refer to an object 
that does not exist. — It also follows from the actions of any one, who is 
deriroos i^ a future production ; for nobody would act with regard to a 
desire of things that hare no existence. — It follows also finm the truth 
of the knowledge of the Ytigis, with regard to past and liitare eventa. 
If a future pot were not an existing thing, divine knowledge, from imme- 
diate perception with regard to a future pot, would be false. We do not 
tak«notioe here ofan effect, which is perceived at the present time; for ire 
granted befirre inference for the existence of an effect which has been, or 
iohieh it to be. — Thit aUofoUowt from the impossibihty of the contrary. 
When potters are engaged in the fabrication of a pot, it is evident by 
this proof that the pot is to be ; for if with any time the future existence 
of the pot is connected, then to connect with Uiat time a not existing 
pot, is a contradiction ; for a pot, that is to exist, does not exist, means, it 
is not to exist ; it is the same, as if it be said ; This pot now before as 
does not exist.— Further, let potters be engaged in the fabrication irf 
a pot, and let it be said, the pot does not exist before its prodaction. 
If then the meaning of the word not exiatinff, is, that the pot does not 
exist in the same manner, as potters and other artisans, who are en- 
gaged in their work, exist, then there is no contradiction. Why not f 
Because the pot exists in its own form, which is to exist ; for neither the 
existence of the lump, nor of the half, is the existence of the pot ; nor is 
their future existence the future existence of the pot. Taken in this 
view, when potters are engaged in makiiiff a pot, there is 60 contradic- 
tion in the idea of a pot which does not exist before its production. If 

• That U to lay, which tctb befora in the itats of ths lunp i for this ii a pre- 
liouB effect or the nme caan («artb). 



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Firtl Chapter. Seeotid Brdmhaaa. 19 

you, however, prohibit the idea of the condition of Uie pot as « future 
production, there is a contntdidion ; but ' you did not prohibit this ; 
for with every action is not only exiat«nce or futurity conaeeted {but 
bIho the past). Further, among the four privations,* the mutual 
privation with regard to the pot is perceived as something different from 
the pot, as the negation of the pot niay be for example cloth ; but it 
never can become the negation oft. pot itself; for the negation of a pot, 
for instance cloth which exists, is never something negative, but some- 
thing positive. If this is the case, then all the otbern^tions, viz. ante- 
cedent negation, destruction and absolute negation, which may take place 
with r^ard to the pot, are something positive different from the pot 
itself, because tney nave the same connection with it as the mutual nega- 
tion. In this manner refer all negations to something positive. Ifthisis 
the case, the antecedent negation of the pot does not mean a negation of 
the pot itself before its production. Therefore if you say, " the antece- 
dent negation of a pot," you must acknowledge the (existence of the) pot 
itself, or you could not connect it with the genitive case (of the pot). If 
yon say, ' it is connected with it by a rhetorical figure, as If one speaks of 
the body of a stone fignr^' yet, if you pronounce such a sentence as the 
oblation of a pot, the connexion of the rhetorical negation is with the 
pot, and not with the nature of a pot (then the negation Is only artificial 
negation and not the real negation of the pot.) If you say, ' that the nega- 
tion of a pot is something difTerent from the pot,' then we must refer you 
to the answer we have given before. 

. Further, ^^eio^e the production of a pot, there cannot he a con- 
nection of the pot wiiich does not exist with its cause which exists, 
which is, as if you would give horns to a hare, because the connection is 
always mutual. If you say, ' there is no fault in our case, because 
the connexion is only an accidental one,' we object, because even an 
accidental connexion cannot take place for elements, of whicl^ the one 

* NegBtioa or privKlion !■ of two sorts, aniveruil and mutual. Unitenal oega- 
tion comprehendi three ipecies, aateccdeat. emergent and Bbaolute. Antecedent 
priyation is present negation of that which at a future time will be. Emergent 
.negation ii destruction, or ceuation of an effect. Absolute negation extendi throogb 
all time«, past, present and future. Mutual priTBtioQ is difference. It ia recipro- 
Gial negHtioD of identity, essence, or respective peculiarity. (Col. M. E. Vol. I. pp. 
288, 289.) 



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20 Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad. 

For voracity is death. He created this mind, desiring : May 
I have a soul. He went forth worshipping. From him when 
womiiipping, the waters were produced. He then reflected : 
To me, when worshipping, water (Ka) was produced. For 
the same reason fire obtMned the name uf Arlia. Happiness 
is indeed produced for him, who in this manner knows the 
nature of Arka. (1.) 

emts, the other not exista ; for with regard to two elements that 
eidst, either the necessary, or accidental connexion may take place ; 
but it does not take place for elements, of which the one exists, 
the other does not exist, or for elements, of which either does not exist. 
It is therefore proved, that the efFect exists before its production. 
The Upanishad now explains the nature of death, by whom tliis (uni< 
verse) was enveloped by the words ; 

" Who is voracity."* The desire to devour is voracity — this is death, 
for voracity is the true definition of death. By death then whose 
nature is voracity, thi* univ^se was enveloped. How is voracity death T 
The answer is : " For voracity is death." The meaning of the word 
"for" is, that the reason is well known ; for he who desires to devour, 
kills according to his voracity the living creatures. Consequently death 
is represented by voracity i Voracity as a de^re is a quality of the soul in 
its modification as intelligence ; therefore this Hiraaya Garblis, in his 
modification as intelligence, is called death. By tiiis death was this 
etkct enveloped, as a pot and other productions are enveloped by 
earth in its modification as a lump. " He created this mind ;" the 
abovementioned death, by the desire to create the productions, after- 
wards to be spedfied, made the so-called mind, capable to reflect 
on his creation, vii. the internal sense wliich is possessed with the 
faculty to ascertain knowledge, and with other faculties. For what 
purpose did he create the mind? The answer is: " May I have a soul," 
may, by the soul, in its modification as mind, I have mind. Prajapati, 
possessed with mind by the manifestation of mind, having adored 
himself, said : I have succeeded. •' From him," from Prajapati, "when 
worshipping, the waters," the element whose quality is taste, "were 
produced," as the embodied parts of his devotion, that is to say, 
he created the water after the production of the sky and the other two 
* Vid. p. 12. 

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Fint Chapftr. Second Brdmhana. 2! 

Or the waters *are Arka. The froth of the waters, which 
was there, became coneigtent. This became the earth. On 
theereation ofthvs he became fatigued. The splendour, the exu- 
dation of him, when he was fatigued, heated, was poured out as 
fire. (2.) 

elements,* as it accords with the authority of another passage oftheSru- 
ti, and the improbability of aTeverse orderofthecreation. "Hethen 
reflected, when wor8hipping,(Archftte) water (Ka) was produced forme." 
For the same reason, that death was called Arka, Arka or the fire, in its 
connection with the sacrifice of Avwam&lha, obtained the name of Arka ; 
for the second appellation of fire is Arka. The name of Arka, as de- 
rived from Archana, which means to worship for one's welfare, or as 
derived from its connection with water, denotes a quality of fire. To 
bim who in this manner, as bag been mentioned knows the nature of 
Arka, water, or happiness (the word Ka \& used for bath) is indeed, (^ 
a certainty, produced(l.) 

" Or the waters are Arka." Who is again called Arka ? The waters, 
the embodied parts of the devotion, are Arka, as produced from Arka 
or fire. As it is said in the Sruti : And in the waters is placed the fire. 
But tbey are not directly called Arka, because this is the proper place to 
describe the fire, but not the water. And afterwards it is alao scud ; This 
fire is Arka, " The froth of the waters, which was there," Uke the 
cream of curdled milk, " became consistent ■" the froth of the waters, 
heated from within and without by the generative splendour, became 
consistent, " became the earth." The meaning is, that from these 
waters the mundane e^ sprang forth. "On this," on the produc- 
tion of the earth, " he," death, Frajfipati " became fiitigued ;" for every 
body, after the performance of work, gets fatigued, and it is the great 
work of Frajfipati to create the earth. What does it mean that 
he got fatigued 1 From the body of F^jipati, when fatigued, 
heated, distressed, hia creative splendour as esudation, his substance 
was poured out. Which is the fire that was poured out 7 It is Fraji- 
pati as the Biriij (who is throughout splendour) within the egg, the 
first-born, containing within himself the whole onanism of productions. 
He is the first embodied soul, as it is said to the Smriti (2.) 

* Ail and Gre. Taittarf;* Vpaaishad. I. 2. 

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22 Brihad Anaofaka Ujpanuhad. 

He made himself threefold, Aditya as the third, Vayu t>» the 
third. This life ported threefold. His eastern quarter is the 
bead. The quarters on either side are the arms. Then his ^restern 
quarter is the tail, the quarters on either side are the thighs, the 
south and north the flanks, the sky the back, the atmosphere 
the belly ; this earth the breast. This fire is placed in the 
waters ; for wheresoever one repairs, there he is placed. . This 
results from the knowledge of the wise. (3.) 

This Prajfipati, vhrai bom, divided his own self, the organism of all 
productions, threefold. How threefold? bendes Agni and V&yu, he 
made Aditya as the third to complete the number of three ; in the same 
manner, beside Agui and Adltya, Vtiyn as the third, sad also, beside V&yu 
and Aditja, Agni as the third, according to their equal povrer to fill up 
the number of three. This Praj^patj, the life of every individual in the 
world, was divided threefold according to the aature of Agni, Vfiyu, and 
Aditya, especially according to his own nature as death, without giving 
up the nature of Vir&j. This first-born fire, as Arka in its connection 
with the ceremony of the Afwam^ha, this fire as Virlij, which is purified 
according to holy rite, is aUo represented under the symbd of a horse ; 
for, we biud, the whole ori^, as above mentbned, is narrated for his 
praise. Thus is his sacred origin. " His eastern quarter is the head," 
both being alike by their excellence. " The quarters on either side/' viz. 
the quarters of Is& and of Aga^yi, " are the anus." " Then the western 
quarter of the fire is the tail," viz. the part of the hip and Imns, as bung 
opp(»ite to the front part. "The quarters on either side," vis. Vfiyu 
and the seasons, " lire the thighs," being like to the comers of the back ; 
"south and nonh the flanks," bebg like by their connexion with the 
two former quarters. "The heaven the back, the atmosphere the 
belly," as in the forme^ description ; " this earth is the breast," both 
bdng alike by their position downwards. " This fire," being like Prajfi- 
pati, or the fire as the substance of the worlds and of the other created 
beings, "bplacedin the waters." As another passage of the Sruti says: 
thus are all these worlds within the waters. " For wheresoever any body 
repEurs, there he b placed" there he giuns his abode. Who? He who 
thus knows the nature of the fire, which in the manner described is 
placed in the watere ; for this is the fniit of hia knowledge. (3.) 

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Fint Chapter. Second Brimhana. 23 

He deBued : Let a second self of me be produced. By his 
nund he created speech, created union, vtx. the devourer, death. 
The seed which there sprang forth, became. the year. For 
the year was not before him ; he was conceived for the space of 
such time. After the time, which is contained within the space 
of a yeaTjhe createdhim. When he was born, he opened his 
mouth against him. He cried. Thus was speech produced. (4.) 

" He desired" Who ? Death. He by himself, according to the buc* 
cesBiTe order t^creatioDirf tlie water and the other elements, created 
himself witMuth^e^, as the Ylriij, as Agni, coatainiug the orgamHm of 
allproductioDB. Healsotoade himself threefold, asitwaeBaid. How wai 
hiiBctivilj, while he. created T The answer is :" Be," death, " deaired." 
What 7 "Let aHecondealfof me," a body, by which I am possessed with 
a body, " be prodacedi" HaTuig thns deaired, be created, by hid before 
created mind, speech, viz. speech representing the three V^daa ; he creat- 
ed the union ttf speech with the mind, that is to say, he reflected in his 
^ mind on the creation of the three V^daa in their aucceBsire order. Who 7 
Death, represented by Toracity; as it is said, death la represented by the 
deriie to deroilT. This is here repeated, in order thath be not con-^ 
nected with another. . "The seed," the generative seed'both of know- 
ledge and ceremonies, the cause of all productions of Prajfipati, the first 
embodied soul, which (seed) he perceived by his contemplation of the 
three Vedas, "' which there," in that union, " sprung forth, became" 
(being conceited in the form of an egg, after he bad entered with this 
geaeratire seed the water, which he had created in accordance with his 
recollection of its (the water's) prodnction in a former birth) " the year," 
This means, Prajfipati, the framer of the peried, called a year, became 
the year.. "For the year was not before him," before Praj^pati, 
the framer of the annual period. As long as the duration of a year 
is, so l(mg a lime was Prajipati, the framer of the annual period, con- 
ceived. Whatdid he doafter the completion of this time? '^Hecreated 
him" — which ineans, he broke the egg. When the babe, fire, the first em- 
bodied aoul, was ' thus btini, death in accordance with bis voracity, 
" opeiied his mouth against him" to devour him, upon which the babe, 
according to hia natufd ignorance, got id'raid tmd cried. "Thus was 
ejteech produced" the sound of speech produced, (4.) 



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24 BriKad Aranyaka Upanithad. 

He reflected : If I kill him, I shall have only little food. 
On thia reflection he created by that vord in union with 
that Boul all thia whatsoever, the Rig, the Yajur> the Siiua 
V^dsB, the metrea, the sacrifices, mankind, the animals. 

He reBolved to devour all that he had created in this man- 
ner ; for he eats all, therefore he has the name of Aditi. He 
is the eater of this whole universe, this whole universe is hig 
food. He who thus knows him in his nature as Aditi, will obtain 
the reward of this knowledge. (5.) 

" He reJUcted." When death saw the terrified babe crying in soch a 
manner, he reflected : " If I," however d«siroiu of eating, kill at any time 
this babe, " I idiaU have only little food." On this reflection he abstained 
from eating him ; for moch food is required for eating a long time, not a 
little ; for by eating this boy, there Mill be iwly little food, as by the eating 
of the seed there will be want of com. Afler having thus reflected on the 
neceedty of abundant food, he created by the union of the before-men- 
tioned threefold speech with the eoul, the mind, the whole moveable and 
immoveable universe, "all this whatsoever," vii. the Rig, Yajur, S&ma 
V^das, the seven metres, viz. the Giyatri and others, the three kinda of 
Mantras, which are the parts of the body of the St6tra S&stra, with their 
Gfiyatri and other metres, the sacrifices to be performed by Mantras, 
mankind, as the performer of sacrifices, and all the wild and domestic 
animals, neeessaiy for the perfiwmaiice of the sacrifices. ' How is it poan- 
ble, that he created by the threefold speech in its union with the mind, 
the Big and the other V^dss when it was sud before, that he created 
them in this manner V There is no fault in this. The union, which 
the mind has with the three V^dos, does not exist as manifested, 
and the creation is the manifestatioQ of the existing Y^daa by their ap. 
plication to ceremonies. ' He,' Prajflpati, b«ng thus aware of the increase 
of food, "resolved to devour all that he had created," all the actions, the 
causes of actions and the effecU of actions. Death u therefore called 

Aditi, because he eaU all j for Aditi is derived from Atti, he eats. Thus 

it is said in a Msntra : " Aditi is the sky, he is the atmosphere, he is 
mother and father." He is the devourer of the whole world, conddered 
as his food, by being the universal soul ; otherwise there would be a 
contradiction } for no individual can be the eater of the universe. There- 



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First Cluster. Second Brdmhana. 25 

He desired : Let me perform agaia the great sacrifice. He 
became fatigued. He performed penance. When he was 
fMigued, when he had performed penance, glory and power 
departed. Life is gloiy, power ; therefore, when life had depart- 
ed from his body, his body assumed a swollen appearance ; 
there was yet mind within hts body. (6.) 

fore he is the univerBal soul. " This whole luuverse is his food." 
Therefore it is coniiatent that all becomes his food, becflase he, as 
the utuTerBal soul, is the eater, — he, who in the aforesaid manner 
knows this state of Prajtipati, death, or Aditi, viz. this state, accord- 
ing to which he eats every thing, will have such a reward. (5.) 

" He desired," this is said for the purpose to |^ve the description of 
the horse and the hoise-sacnfice. "Let me perform again the great 
sacrifice," The word agun refers to his former birth ; Prai^ati made 
the sacrifice of a horse in his former birth. With this recollection 
lie came again at the commencement of the present Kalpa.* Being 
impressed with the recollection of the ceremonies, the performer and the 
reward ofthehorae sacrifice, he desired: "Let me again perform the great 
sacrifice," and after he had thus desired the great work, he became 
fatigued like all other people. "He perfonned penance." When he was 
tatigoed, when he had performed penance, as in the former descriptioD,-f 
g^ory and power departed . The explanation of the words glory and power 
is given in the Upanishsd itself ; life, viz. the oi^ans of sense, are gloryy 
as being the cause of glory, for by the means of them renown is gained. 
Id the same manner is power in this body ; for if life is extii^;uished, no 
glory, no power is passible. Therefore the oigans of sense are like ^ory 
and power in this body ; thus that glory and power of life departed from 
his body. When the o^ans of sense, the cause of glory and power, had 
departed firom the body of Praj4p&ti, it presented the appearance of tur- 
geseuce; and was unporified. " There was yet mind in his body," al- 
though deserted by Praj&pati, in the same manner as the mind dwells 
on a beloved object, however distant it may be. When he thus remained 
in the body as mind, what did he do ? (6.) 

* Edps, a TBDOTttiiHi of tlie unlierM, one of the great periods, from the leno- 
vation to the destroclloii of the vorld, 

t Vide p. 24. 



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26 Bfihad AroHyaka Upanuhad. • 

He desired : Let tbis my body be pure. Let me have a self by 
this body. Hence it became a horse, because this became 
swollen. And because it became pure, therefore-the ceremony 
gained the name of the Aswam&iha. He who thus knows the 
Aawam^ha, knows also him. 

He knows the Alwam^dha, who knows him in this manner. 
Having left it unrestrained, he considered himself as the 

The answer ia : " He desired," What ? " Let this my body be pure," 
worthy of the sacrifice. " Let me have a self," let me have a body by 
this body." Thus he entered this body. " Because this," this body by 
my separatioD from it, destitute of glory and power, became swollen 
(Afwad) for this reason it became a horse (A.«wb). Hence the name of 
horse (Afws) is evidently intended for the praise of Frsj&pati in this ee- 
rtmony. Further, " because" that whioh was before impure (Am^dhya) 
without glory and power, by his entering again "became pure" (M6- 
dhya,) worthy of sacrifice, "therefore" tiie ceremony hearing the name of 
Afwamddha obtained the name tji Aswam^dba ; for the nature of the 
sacrifice is to have ceremonies, a performer and effects. This is like Pra- 
jfipati. That the horse, by which the sacrifice is accompUshed, is to 
represent Frajipati, is evident from the words of the Sruti ; " The 
dawn is the head of the sacrifidal horse," &c. 

The present passage, however; "He knows the A«wam^dha," ia 
Commenced, in order that the worship of the sacrifidal horse, as an emblem 
of Prajfipati and also of the fire, as it has been described, both of which 
are equal as being the sacrifice and effect, shoold be established. This 
view is obtained first, because in the former passage no verb, enjoining 
theacdon, ia met with, and secondly hecansethe-rite (of the Aswam^dha) 
requites snch a verb.* " He knows the A^wam^dha, who knows 
him," vis. the horse and Arka in hia nature as fire, in this manner, he 
knows the Afwam^dha, none beside, which means, that it should there- 
fore be known in this manner. The Upauishad now explains, why Pra- 

* Posada Oiri tappliei here tbe defect in tbc Drgnment ; for, mja he, a veib en- 
JoiniDg the action, hu been mebtioaed ia the rarmer paeuge bj tbe wordg ■ He 
who knows the nitnre o( AdiCl.' The rite or action which ii by this eitibliihed, he 
conliDnei, refers, bowcTer, onlj to a worabip of aecondarj order; here on the con- 
trary, la the role of Ihe chief worihip eitabliilud. 



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l^nt Chapter. Second BrdmhaM. 27 

horse. After a year be slaughtered it for hia own sake, he 
gave up the animals to the gods, "nierefore they slaughter the 
purified animal, representing in its nature m Praj&pati all deities. 
He is the Aswam^dba who shines. His body is the year. This 
-fire is Arka. These worlds are parts of bis self. They in such 
a manner are Arka and A«wam£dha. They are agun one 

Ji^ati is repreMnted under the symbol of an animAL 'When Praj&pati had 
deaired ; ' Let me again perform the great sacrifice,' and had represented 
himself under the emblem of a sacrificial animal, he considered himself 
as the horse which he left unrestnuned, viz. without rein. After the 
completion of a year, " he slaughtered it for his own sake," by his natnre 
08 Pntjipati representing all deities. " He gave up the animals," all the 
other animals, wild and domestic, according to the d^ei which they re- 
present, " to the gods." Because Frajipati considered himself as the 
horse, " therefore" any other person, who, according to the beforemen- 
tioned manner, represents himself under the emblem of an animal, of the 
sacrificial horse, will thus think : Let me as the representative of all 
deities, being purified, slaughtered, be the divinity of myself. Let the 
other vrild and domestic animals, according to the deities of which they 
are f^mbols, be slaughtered for the other divinities whitOt are my parts." 
In accordance with this, the priests slaughter at present the purified an- 
imal, which in its nature as Prajipati represents all deities. " He is the 
A*man^dha who shines." He who is thus the sacrifice which is per- 
formed by the means of animals, is aUo described as the visible reward, 
inthewords: " He is the A*wajn^dha." Who? He who "shines," 
viz. Sfivitri (the sun) who manifests the world by his splendour. " His 
body," viz. the body of him who is at the same time the reward and 
the sacrifice, " is the year," because his revolution is performed withiu 
a year.* And because the sacrifice which represents him, is only per- 
formed by means of fire, the reward is described by the symbol of the 
sacrifice. This terrestrial fire, Arka, is the cause of per/orminjf the 
taerifice. " These worids," these three worlds, " are parts of hia 
self," of the body of this Arka, which is called Chiti, when applied 
at the sacrifice. Thusit was before aud : " His eastern quarter,"t &c. 

• The wcrifice i> »lio performed in the »p«ce of ■ yetr. 

t Pace 22. 

K 2 

DD.:eab,G00glc 



2fl Brikad Aranyuka UpanuAad. 

divinity, death. He thus conquers the second death. Death 
does not obtain him. Death becomes his soul. He becomes 
one of those deities. 7< 

" They," the fire and Aditya, " in audi a manner," as they are describ- 
ed, "are Aika uid Ajvam^dha," the sacrifice and the reward. Arka, the 
terrestrial fire, as the risible actbn, ia therefore described as like the 
sacrifice, siiice the sacrifice ia accomplished by fire. And because the 
reward (Siritri) is the effect of the sacrifice, it (the reward) is described 
by the emblem of the sacrifice. Therefore it is said, Adi^a ia the 
A«wamMha. " They," c«ue and effect, sacrifice and reward, Agnl and 
Aditya, " are again one dirinity."* Tlus is death. Being before also 
one, he was divided to correspond to the dirision into sacrifice, per- 
former and effect, as it was said : " He divided himself threefold." f He 
becomes again in the time, when the eeremooiea are accomplished, one 
dirinity, via. death representing the reward. Whosoever again knows 
him, the A^wam^dha, death, as one drity in this mamier : — I am thua 
death, the Axwam^dha, one deity ; the ttate of this is gained by me as 
being like the horse and the fire, — " he conquers the second death," that 
ia to say, once hariog died, he ia not born again for the second death. 
Doubting, whether death, although conquered, would stUl not get him 
■gain, it ia said: "Death does not obtain him." Why? "Death 
becomes hia soul," the aoul of him who knowa death in thia manner. 
Or, death being thua the reward, " he becomea one of those ddtiea."^ 
This is hia reward. 

* Ijfe, Bceording to Anuida Gifi. 

t P»g« 22 

X Saiitri and Arlu (aan and fire.) 



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Fint Chapter. Third BrOMhima. S9 

Third Brdmhana Udgitha* Srdkmana. 
TwofoU indeed is the offspring of Prajfipati, the gods and 



What is the cotmexim) of the words -. " Two-fold indeed ii the off- 
spring of Pntj&pKti V The highest reward of ceremoDi&l works, aceom- 
paaied with knowledge, has been mentioned, vix. the state of death 
is the lewaid of the AswamMha. Therefore the Udgitha Brftmhana is 
now commenced to expound, &om wfaencef the ori^ of ceremonial 
works and knowledge which lead to a state identical with death, is de- 

If it should be said : ' The state of death has been before declared as 
the reward of the beforementjoned knowledge and ceremonies. J Now it 
will be asserted, that the rewaid of the knowledge and the ceremonies of 
the Udptha is to overcome the condition of death. Therefore, since 
the rewaid is diffnvnt, it ia of no use to explain the origin of the former 
eerenuHtiea and knowledge.' 

We answer, there is no fault in this ; for as the reward of the Udgi- 
tha is the condition of Agni or Xditya, it ia the same reward which has 
been mentioned for the former ceremonies and knowledge in the words t 
" He becomes one of those deities." ' Is it then not contradictor; to 
gay, that he orercomes death ?'§ No, because the orercoming of death 
means here to be liberated from the contact of innate sin. 

To explain the meaning of the questiDnB ; Who is that death which 
is the contact with innate sin ? Whence is his origin t By whom is 
he oreicome and how t a nairatiTe is given, commeninng with the 
words : " Two-fold indeed." The word " indeed" is used to remind of 

* The Udgiths, ■ part of tba Sims T^da (iccond dutptcr) u a kind of lopg, 
eammeneing with the mjitie ijDabls On, which the print called Udgiti, fiags 
■t the S£ma Yiga. The Sdma Y&ga ia the general name for leven diitiact ritea, 
ti*. Agni St6iDB, Atjagsi StiSniB, Ukth^a, ShlSraiE, Ttijapte Ateritra and ApC6i7iiiia, 
where the Sima, or nooa-pUat jnicc la offered. Gth Chap, of AnraUjana'a Satrai, 

f This acnirce of >U eeremoniei snd knowledge ii the aU-perradiiig lib, aa de- 
icrilMid Id thia Brimhatpa. 

t Aa reward of the Afwamtiha, performed cither ijinbalicallj, or in reality. 

{ Via. ha who peiformt the Udgitha, OTereomea death, while the reward of the 
Arwaaifdlia has been itited ai death. 



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30 Brikad Jranyaka Upafiithad, 

the deinons.* Therefore the gods are thus few in number, the 
demoiiB many. They rivalled in these worlds. The gods of a 

a former state, riz. it reminds of the state of the present Fiaj&pati in 
his former birth. "The offspring of Fmj^ti," means his offspring 
m % former birth. Who are " the gods and the demons T" The 

organef of Praj6pati, speech and the others. How again is the divine 
and demoniacal nature of the offspring? The answer is : The gods 
(D^) who derive their name from manifesting (Djiitana) are such as 
are dedicated to knowledge and works, in accordance with the iS&stras ; 
the demons (Asura) as are dedicated to works and knowledge, the necessir 
ty of which is visible, in accordance with natural perception and inference, 
Theiy are different from the gods or Snraa, because they are satisfied 
within their own life,^ and also because the knowledge and worka of 
the demons are directed to visible wants. "Therefore the gods are 
thus few in number, the demons many ;" for the desire of the oi^^ana to 
act in accordance with natural knowledge and works is stronger than 
the desire to act in accordance with knowledge and works, derived from 
the Sttstras, because the necessity of the fbrmer is evident. Therefore 
the number of the gods is less, because the desire to act in accordance 
vrith the .$^nu, is lessA^ron^,- for it can only be accomplished by 
excesnve exertion. " They," the gods and the demons, being alike the 
parts of the body of Projdpati, rivalled with each other for the sake of 
the enjoyment of these worlds, which may be obtained by actions and 
knowledge dther in accordance with one's own natnre, or in accordance 
with the Sutras. The contest is for victory or defeat, of the nature 
of the gods or demons. Sometimes the nature of the organs in 
accordance with knowledge and works derived from the S&tixtA, is vic- 
torious. When it has the ascendancy, then the demoniacal power of 

* The game nirratiie, nblch here is given it the commeacemeDt of the Uilgiths 
to show the power of life snd iti nnily with tbe (aprema aoul, occnri in the Chu- 
dogya UpBDuhad, Er*C Adhjfji, Snt Frip£thal», wliere it a alio ased M •n intro- 
dnction to the Udgfthi. 

i" I remind here, that the number of orgini, aooording to the Vfduita, !■ eleren, 
Tit. the five orguu of tenie, ^ht, Sic.|flTeorgiaa of action, ipeecb, tbe hand, Jkc., 
and the internal organ, the mind. Here, boweTer, the organa of PrajSpaCi, refer 
□nlj to epeecb, imell, sigbt, hearing and mind, Til. to thote which are required for 
the performtnce of the Udgftha. 

I Ain here la the lenae of «ital air, life ; It wwutt alio 



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Fint Cluster. Third Brdmkofa. 31 

truth Bpobe. Letns nowin this sacrifice overcome the demona 
by the Udgitha. 

the organs which refbrs to visible wants, and proceeds from knowledge 
and works in accordance with perception and inference, is defeated. 
This is the victory of the gods, and the defeat of the demans. Some- 
times the revene takes place, the natnre of the gods is defeated, that of 
the demons is victorious. When the gods are victorious, then, by the 
prevalence of virtue, an ascension easuee up to the obtaining of the 
state of Prajipati. When the demons are victarioua, then, by the pre- 
valence of vice, a descennon ensues down to the state of inanimate 
matter. When both are ahke, then the state of man is obtained. "The 
gods," who by their own small nnmber and the greater number of the 
demons, were defeated by them, of a truth spoke : " Let us in this 
sacrifice," viz. the Jy(iti-St6ma,* "overcome the demons by the 
Udgitha," by taking refuge to the agent of the rite, called Udgftha. 
By defeating the demons, we shall obtain our own divine natnre, as 
manifested by the S&stras. Thus they spoke to each other. 

To take reluge to the nature of the agent of the rite, called Udgftha, 
knowledge and works are reqmred. The work consists in the recital of 
some (afterwards to be mentioned) Mantras, and will be established by 
such passages of the Yajor as : " Let him recite those Mantras." The 
knowledge will now be determined. 

' Bnt is this not rather ArthaT&da,f as concluding the rite of reciting 

* The AgnUtlSmB U a niodificatiCHi at the Jj6tut6ina, ■ ucrifice, offered b; ■ 
penoB who u deiirani of obUiniDg Che enjojment of hetTen. Tlie time of the •>- 
criRco ii the tpring leaioD. The perTannet ii a brihman who luu reid the YMu, 
•nd entertunsthe Miered Gre, The offering is the Sdma (nooD-pUnt) juice, and 
the deities to whom the offering it made, are Indra, V£ju, &c. Tba nnmber of 
prieata reqoiied to perform the ritei, ii lixteea, rii. four Hdtai (who read the Man- 
tras of the Big Tjda), the same number of Adbwarf ua (who recite (he Mantra* of 
the YajuT YUa), of Bramhaa (who aBperintend and direct the riCea of the saetifioe), 
■nd of Udgitaa (who ring the Mantraa of the Sima VMa.) Each of the priests of 
the fbar diiitiont has again ■ separate name and office. Hie cerenioiiieB continoe 
for fire daji. fiabda Kalpa Druma. 

t A. kind of praise. The opponent reaion* in this way. The Udgftha b Artha. 
vida, a kind of praiie, and accordingly not knowledge i tor praiie of the deitiea 
doea not contain a true knowledge of their nature and qnalitiet, becanse it ia merely 
offered for the pnrpoic to make them propitious. JL G. 



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32 Brihad Aranyaka UpiatisAad. 

(be AbhyanSha,* than an attempt to define knowledge?' No, becaiue 
it is BEud in the Smti : " He vho thus knows." ' But then it has the 
object to establish the rite of Udgitha, because in the topic of Udgftha 
it is authorized by the ancient narrative, eommeneinj/ vnlt the words ; 
Two-fold indeed is the offering of Frajipati.' No, becaoee it does not 
belot^ to this subject; further, because the Udgitha is established in 
another place if further, because the rite of reciting the Abhyoroha is 
^ptied in two ceremonies,} and is therefore not invariable ; further, 
because the knowledge must be applied by a person who is perfect in 
his knowledge, and is declared invariable ; farther, because the Sruti 
■ays : " He who overcomes this world," &c., further, because Ufe 
is declared pure, speech and the other organs impure ; for if hfe 
were no object of wordiip, it could not have been declared pure, 
nor speech, and the other orgaus which are tnentioned in the same 
passage with life, impure ; for by the reproof of speech, &c. the praise 
of the principal hfe is evident, as it was also intended. Lastly, because 
Buch and similai rewards are declared as ; He who overcomes death, 
gets resplendent ; for a state which resembles that life, for instance the 
state of the goddess of speech, when like .^pai, is the reward, 

* Let then the worship of life be granted, but no purity and similar 
qualities. If you say, this purity, &c. follows also from the Sruti, we 
reply : it does not, because, as assigned in the act of worship, it is evi- 
dently intended as praise.' (Arthav&da.) 

We do not admit this ; for, as in common life, by acquiring an 
object that is not eontrary to our wishes, we acquire happiness ; for 
m common life a person who obtains an object that is not contrary 

* Some Mantru of the Yijnr V£da, rcdted by a person vho ii dcnnrai of ob- 
Uiuiog ■ divine state, as itnanda Giri eiplaini : D^Tabhiiani an^a inihati, iti 
Abbjardb*. 

t In the Karma KIbda.— £. G. 

X There are twodaiies of eeremoniei, the Haiir Y&ga, (Havir, a kindof ohlatioti, 
vinallT clarified butter. — Wilion Diet.) inclnding serea diettaet ceremonie*. ni. 
Agnyidhan, Dan^wnma Hiia, Chatar liltaya, Paiha Bandatia, tus,, and the 
S6tat Yiga, abo inclndiag leTen claiaes of ritei, which haiG been meatioaed before 
(page 29). The rite of tbe Ui^Cba, whiob it performed b; the Udgfta, ii onlj per- 
formed in the S6nia Yiga, while the Abbyaniha ii incladed in eiUier of the two 
ohuM*. On tbii aiwaant tt it aaid, the AbhrarAha, ai occnrring in (wo plaoea, 
is variable, and it therefore no object of knowledge, ag the Udgitha ii. 



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Firat Chapter. Third Brdutha»a. 33 

to hit toishea, geta hia degire, or be tanu from the undesired object ; 
bnt tills IB not the case by obtaining an object, contnirj to our desires. 
Thus in our cose also, by obtaining an object in accordance with the 
norda of the Sniti, we evidently obtain happiness, not otherwise. More- 
over, there is no proof against the truth of the object of knowledge, 
arisii^ from the word, which is mentioned for the sake of worship. Nor 
is there stated any impedimo^it of the said knowledge. Therefore by 
proving, that we hare acquired happiness, we also acquire the truth (jf 
the object ofinoieledge ; otherwise we evidently acquire on unreal object ; 
for he who in common life acquires ~an object, contrary to bis idea, for 
instance, a trunk instead of a man, or an enemy instead of a friend, has 
evidently obtained something unreal. If in this viiaf, the notions of the 
soul, of Fswara,* and of the goda in accordance with the Sruti, were not 
true, then we should obtain by the 5&stra something illosive. If this 
were the ease, it would be known, as in common life : but this is not 
admitted. 

' This is not true, because Brunha is represented by diffierences of 
name, form, &e. ; but such distiactioos are evidently excluded ttom the 
natore of Bramha. In this perception of Bramhaf the Sk&tts. is guilty 
of the same contradiction, as if a man is perceived as a trunk. There- 
fore we deny that with your obtaining the troth by the iSftstra, you also 
obtain happiness. 

Ve do not admit this argument, on the ground that here is the same 
diatinctioD, as it is with regard to an image. For your assertion, that 
the perception of Biamha by such distinctions, as name, form, which 
ftre excluded from the nature of Bramha, &c., is in the same way con- 
tradictory, as if a man is perceived as a trunk, is not right. Why 
not ? Because by the distinctions of Bramha, who cannot be perceived 
by name, form and other properties ; the perception of Bramha byname,, 
■form, &c., is eatabliahed in the same way, as the perception of Visb- 
na by an image and similar tilings. The perception by name, foTffli 
&c. is, like the image, a mere appliance ; for Bramha is by no means 
name, form, &c. The perceptaon of Bramha by such distinctions, as 
name, form, &c. is by no means in the same way contradictory, as if a 
trunk, before it is ascertained as such, is perceived as a man. 

■ fairarn, tbe inpreme mlcr. The soul, in which theuniveraalit; of ig 



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34 Brihad Aranyaka Upanithad. 

If you tKj, ' that there is only a perceptimi of Bramha, but Bratnh* 
Umseir doca not exist ; for the perception of BrOmka by name, form 
&c. ia juat like the r^resentRtion of Viahna and other goda by an 
image, or of the forefathers by a BrSmhsn,'* we object j for the Rig 
and the other V^das are represented nnder the form of the earth and other 
substances, that is to say, they are represented under the form of sub- 
stances that really exist. Consequently, as the representation of Bramha, 
rsw&ra. Sec. under name, form, &c,, is the Bameffith that just mentioned, 
the reality of Bramha, rawara, &c. is proved. Hence also follows the ob- 
jective reality of all those modes of perception, by which Vishnu and 
other gods' are representedby images, or the forefathera by Brdmhana. 

This {the existence of Bramha, Tswara, &c.) follows also from the 
neceaaity, that every thing that is derived, depends upon the thing 
from which it ia derived ; f» as in the five fires* the fire is only some- 
thing derived, and hence proves the existence of an underived fire, so is 
the nature of Bramha in its distinctions of name, form, etc. only some- 
thing derived, and hence proves the existence of an nnderived Bramha. 

'^is follows also from the fact, that there is no difl^nce between 
the passages of the 8mri referring to ceremonies, and those referring 
to knowledge ; for as the ceremonies of the Dartapaurna M(>sa have 
their peculiar reward, their special rites, and a disposal of their parts 
in a certun order, and as by means of this a tranacendent thing which 
eannot be proved by perception or inference, is taught in Its true nature 
by sentences of the V&la, so also such beings, as the supreme soul, 
Iswaro, the gods, &c., who by their oatnre exclude the ide* of corporeal 
compositim, who overcome death, and who have these and other dis- 
tinctions, are taught by sentences at the V^a, that is to sav, by proofs 
different from perception and inference, and it is therefore right that 
they should be true. 

Nor is there a difference in passages of the Smti referring to cere- 
Bionles, and in such referring to knowledge, as to the formation o( tht 
true notion of them. 

Likewise is the notion (Bnddhi) whose object is the supreme wkA 
and the like substances, neither indefinite nor contradictory. If yon 
say ! ' This ia improper, on the ground that knowledge ia no object of 

* Hie Brimhan nbo eaXt it. the Srfddhs the food intended for the maueB, ia a 
representutive of them. 

f Here theVediiicfirei, b;wbich the cer«modea the hoaseholdei has toperfonut 
tie accompliihed. 

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Firtt Ckafter. ITurel Brimkana. 35 

ceremonial practice. We may gruit, tbRt any rite which has the three 
parts above mentioned,* although it is hejoud common evidence, may 
be communicated by ceremoni^ pr&ctice through sentences, explabing 
the ceremonies i but it is not so with the knowledge of the supreme soul, 
fswara and other aubstancea, in which there is no possible object of 
ceremonial practice. Therefore the part of the Sruti eiplaining cere< 
moiiies, and the part referring to koowledge, hare nothing in common.* 

We do not admit this, on the ground that knowledge has objecliTe 
reality ; for the truth of that knowledge does not depend oa its possi- 
bility to become an object of ceremonial practice, the rites of which 
hare those three parts, and con be performed, — but on its possibility to 
be obtained by proof. Nor has a notion, whose object is that know- 
ledge, reality, becaase it can become an object of practice, but because 
it can be derived from sentences of the V^das. 

If you say : ' Admitting the truth of the substance (Bramha) ob- 
tained by senbeuces of the Vddas, it is either an object of ceremonial 
practise, or it i» not to. If it is such an object, it can be practised ; if 
otiicrwise, it cannot be practised. Aa an object of practice, however, it 
IS not proved by the evidence of sentences ; for there is no connesion of 
words with a sentence, unless there is a ceremonial practice. On the 
other hand, if it is an object of practice, there is also a conuexion of 
words for the sake of the ceremonies. Therefore a sentence dependent 
on practice, may be proved, as for instance : This in this muiner is by 
this person to be performed ; but words, as, this, by this, thus, how 
many so ever yon may string tt^ther, would never form a sentence, 
unless they be connected with such as : let do, may be done, &c. 
Therefore the supreme soul, Tawara, etc. cannot be prored by sentencea. 
And if yon aay, it can be proved by the meaning of the words, we 
reply, that iu this case another kind of proof is necessary .f Therefore 
this Brawka does not exist.' 

* TfacH thrnt parti are i apecial reward, apecial riCel, and apecial arrangement. 

t I beliere thia to be the correct IrangUtion of the sbove paaxge, and the leiiKi 
woDld ba u foUowi : If fon aaaume, that the aupreme BubataDce can be proved b; 
the meaning of the vo^ (PaiUrUia, ttu ilngle worda, in dUtioctioo (ram ttie whole 
KDtCDCe, Vikya) jou bave abuuloBed jonr argnment, which waa, that it ahould be 
proved hj the Vedai ; for the meaniag of noriia or ideaa doet not depend upon 
tbe Viiu, but upon their own coutenta, and requiiea therefore an iavesligation, 
different from the pieient. 



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36 Brihad Aranyaka VpanUkad. 

We do not admit this argument, on the ground that the?e are sen- 
tences which do not require any actions to be intelligible, as for in- 
Btance, there is the four-coloured M^ ; for if this sentence is pro- 
nounced, there arises no notion referring to any possible practice ynih 
rq^ard to M^ru. If this is the case, how is it possible to prevent a con- 
nexion of words in a sentence, expressing the idea of the supreme soul, 
Tswara, he. with the word " exists," in the usual mode of connesion 
between subject and predicate. If you say, 'this is inadmissible, because 
the knowledge of the supreme soul has no final end, as the knowledge 
of M^u, &c. has,' we deny this, for the reward is mentioned in such 
passages of the Sruti, as : "He who Jiaows Bramha, obtains libera, 
tion," and : " The bonds of the heart arc broken," &c. 

The same ia erident from the ceasing of the ignorance and other 
faults which are the orig^ of the world. And since the knowledge of 
Bramha does not depend upon any other hiawledge, it cannot be con- 
Bidered as Artbavftda* (praise) as for instance, a special reward is de- 
clared by the use of the Juhu.f 

Moreover the connection of prohibitions with punishment is learnt 
from the V^da, which is also no object of practice. Nor is there, 
with regard to a forbidden object, any thing required hut to refrain 
ftom an action ; for prohibitory regulations depend in reahty upon the 
knowledge that a certain thing is not to be done. If a hungry man, 
whose mind is impressed with the notion of food, forbidden on account 
of its nature or of accidental circumstances, falls in with poisonedj 
meat, or mth impurej rice, and the idea arises in him, that the one is 
eatable, and tbe other not impure, he is restrained ^^vnt eating by the 
recollection, that food of this or that kind is forbidden to be eaten. The 
same is the case with regard to thirst, when a mirrage produces the 
appearance of water. When by the knowledge of the real nature of a 
thing, the natural knowledge that is opposed to the former, has been 
removed, there no longer remains the injurious desire to eat what is 

* Erery preiae depeodi npon a Tegulation, to which it mppliei tbe motiie. 

f Joha meiDB a spoon of leBvea, to the nie of which i\ ceremoniei, in prafer- 
cnce to any other hind of ipooD, ■ apeciat reward ii attached. 

X Foimaed meat ia Vat meat of an animal, wannded by a poisoned weapon. 

% lUce, etc. ■> impure b; the touch at a person who hoi committed the murder 
of ■ BTamban, or similar ctimea. 



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^al Chapter. Third BriwAana. 37 

foriiidden liy its nature or acddeafol circmnsUnceB. There u n cesw> 
tion from the deaire, which is caaged by such an opposite kncniledge, 
and if that deeire does not exist, no effort is agaia to be made. Hence 
it is evident, that the prohibitory r^ulatious depend npon the know- 
ledge of the true nature of things, and not in any way upon the prac- 
tice of a person. If this is true, then also in our case the r^nla- 
tions, respecting the true knowledge of the supreme soul, &c., are 
founded solely upon the knowledge of the supreme soul itself. In this 
manner, when the worldly knowledge, produced by one's own nature, is 
removed by the recollection of the true knowledge of the supreme 
soul and of similar substances, a person, whose mind is impressed with 
the knowledge of Bramha, has not any desire, caused by a knowledge, 
contrary to that of Bramha, because he knows that those desires have 
no real object. 

' The eating df poisoned meat hanng an undesirable (unreal) object, 
and there being at the same time a recollection of the knowledge of the 
real nature of a thing, we may grant, that the natural knowledge, con- 
trary to the former, which refers to its eating, is abolished ; yet we 
must contend, that the absence of a desire to perform what is com- 
manded by the Sfistra, is not admissible, because there is no object of 
prohUtition, as there is such an absence of. a desire to eat meat as 
before described.' 

We deny this ; for there is in reality no difference between the cause 
of the contrary knowledge and of the cause of the desire of an unde- 
nrable object. As the desire to eat poisoned meat, &c., is cansed by a 
false knowledge, and is the cause of danger, so it ia bIbo with regard to 
the desires of what is commanded by the Stistras. Accordingly, a per~ 
son who perfectly knows the reality of the supreme soul, has consis- 
tently no desire of any actions commanded by the Siitna, because ill 
such desires are the causes of false ideas and of danger, and because by 
the knowledge of the supreme soul, the contrary knowledge is abo- 
lished. 

' This may be granted for the above mentioned prohibitions and com- 
mands, but it cannot be granted for the regular ceremonies ; for these 
are solely produced by the Siatra, and not directed to an unreal object.' 

We do not agree ; for the regular ceremonies are merely commanded 
pa behalf of such persons who are tainted by ignorance, passion, hatred 



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38 Brikad Jranj/aka VpanisAad. 

wad othCT faults ; for as ceremonies wImmo object is a q>eaal denre, as 
those of the Dar«a Fauma M&oa, are commauded on bdialf of a peraoD 
who is tainted hy the fault of deuring heaven, &c. so are the r^ular cere- 
mouirs enjoined on behalf of a person who is stained by the fault of 
ignorance, the cause of all unreality, stained by love and hatred, &c. 
in obtaining the good and avoidii^ the evil, in accordance with the 
impressions of ignorance, and who is anxious to obtain the good and 
avrad the eril of his indiscriminate dedrea, caused by love and hatred ; 
hence they (the regular ceiemonies) do not merely refer to the Sistras. 
Nor can it be ascertained, whether the Agiuh6tra, Dan Fauma Mfisa, 
Chatnr M&bjo, Pimi Bandha and 86ma, are by their own nature 
legaltj ceremonies, or ceremonies, whose object is a special desire ; 
for thnr reference to desire only arises, when they have found an agent, 
who is ttunted with the desire of heaven, &c. Therefore the regular 
ceremonies behoof to one v«ho is tainted with the blame of ignorance, 
&c., and who ,is desirous to obtain the good and to avoid the eril, 
painted out to him by the promptings of his own nature. On the 
other hand, for one who has the true knowledge of the supreme 
«onl, no action is found to be commanded, except the subduing 
of his desires ; for by the imnihilalion of the knowledge concerning 
all other motives, as ceremonies, causes, dirinities, &e. the knowledge 
of the soul is established. And the knowledge with regard to 
actions, performer, &c. beuig ooce annihilated, there does not arise 
B desire of any action, becaiise tins only takes place, if preceded 
by a knowledge of a spedal action, a special motive, &c. ; for there 
is no time to engage into actions for him who has the firm idea of 
Bramha, removed as it is from all notions of apace, time, extension, 
duality, &c. 

If you say ' there is the same time, as if one is about to eat,' we 
deny this ; there is no necessity to engage in eating, &c., all which acts 
are (mly necessary in consequence of ignorance and other faults ; for if 
an action is sometimes performed, and sometimes not, it cannot be 
called a regular action that has been fixed according to a rule. Because 
eating and other actions are merely done in consequence of faults, there 
is no certain rule for them, as there is no certain rule for desires and 
their objects, faults being sometimes prevalent, gometimes subdued. 
Hence, however, does not follow any uncerttdnty for regular actions. 



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Fiht Chapter. Tldrd Brdntkana. 39 

The gods then said to speech : " Do thou for our eitke sing 
the Udgitha." Speech, with the words : " Let it be eo," saiig the 

becftnse time and other circumsttuicefl have been fixed for them by the 
Sisin. 

If yon lastly sny, 'even granted, tbat faults, &c. are the mediate cause 
of actions, (as eating;, &c.) still there may have been fixed a time to 
engage in mcb actions, as eating, as according to the command of the 
Siiin, for ceremonies like the Agni H<Hra, the times of momii^ and 
evening are ippouited,' — we do not agree, because rule and action can- 
not be Hubstitnted for each other, vii. a mle is no action, and an action 
no mle, — hence no objection remains against the snppoeition of 
knowledge. Conieqnently, in acna^ance with the mle of trne know- 
ledge of the supreme soul, which (knowledge) has the power to destroy 
its contrary knowledge of extension, duality, &c., the reality of the rule 
by which all actions are forbidden, is established ; for the absence of 
uiy «igagement in actions is the same, as if there were a prohibition. 
Therefore as the prohibitory regulation of the SbAr& is proved, so also 
the supreme soul, as produced by the SiiitK, and as the sole object of 
die Sfistra, has been proved. 1. 

"Hie gods then," after having thus considered, said to Speech^ 
to the tutelary goddess of' speech : " Do thou for our sake sing the 
Cdgftha," perform the ceremony of Udgitha i.for they considered the 
ceremony of the Udgftha to be perfomwd by the goddess of speech, and 
moreover by Mantras like this: "Do thou leadus from evil to good," 
her OS the goddess called Japamantra. In this ceremony, speech and 
the other organs are pointed Out as the agents of internal worship and 
external rites. For what reason ?* Because their own objects sod all iu- 

* In uilgBiag deratian ud rite* to the ageoejp tl tpeecb end Vat other orgmni, 
■B objactiaii may t>e lude, an Uie grcmul that nU mcney dapaodi according to the 
Mitra npan the mil. If thil k the ease, it depend* wther on the npreme t»«l, 
or i^Mn the aonl in it* modifidtiou *i life. Not on the fint ; for *geocj, .&c, 
depending npon spaeeh and other organ* to nhicb actiie power muat be ascribed i 
otBttet be aadgned to the aont, which, caniidercd in iuelf, ii wholly without iuch a 
power. Moreover, all acttTitf i* tlie effsct of ignorance, which i« Cotallj oppoted to 
the iDpre&ie hwI. Not on the aecond, becsBw life i* oolir tlie general idea of the 
Nmei, and ha thenfore in reality no agencr. Hence il ia oamiX to anign eganc; 
uid •milar Dotkma to the aotlve MDtes. H. O. 



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40 Brihad Arangaka VpanUhad, 

Udgftha for them. She aang to the gods all the enjoyment that 
ia in speech. That she speaks well, ia for herself. 

tercoQTBe concerning knowledge and ceremonies, are in truth only poad- 
ble by their agency ; forty the passage in the sixth chapter* o/' (Am Upa- 
niihad, " it thinks as it were," " it proceeds as it were," it Is evidently 
declared, that the soul has no agency. In the end of this chapter also 
it will be proved, that these three, name, form and action, as resulting 
from work, performer uid effect, in their unmanifested state, are the ob- 
ject of ignorance. That, however, which is different from all unmanifested 
things, and which bears the name of the supreme soul, and is without 
name, form and work, will by such negations, as ; it is not this, it ia not 
this, &c.,be proved as somethiog distinct, to be comprehended under a dif- 
ferent notion. But the mundane soulf the esistenoe of which, as arising 
from all the senses considered as one, is only a fiction, is plainly shown 
as arising from those senses, considered as one, by such passages as : 
" Arlung (rom these elements it is alto destroyed with them." There- 
fore it is right to assign to speech and the other senses the reward, 
obtained by their being the ag«its of knowledge and ceremonies. 

Speech, being addressed by the gods, with the words : Let it be so, 
performed for them, for the sake of their imploratiou, the UdgiUia. 
Which is again the special work which speech by the ceremony of 

* Vide 6t)i cbspter, Zd Br&rohBna, 7th KluQ^ila. 

t There are, according to the Vedinta, foar aheathi or caiei of the NoL Hie 
fint it the intelligent case (Vijainamaya K6*b) and ii formed by intellect and the 
fi>e iatellectual aenaei. The lecoad caw ii the mental (Man6iiiaja^ and coniiat* of 
mind (Manaa) viththe fiie organs of action, Tix.,ipeech, hand, foot, Sic. (I niBy here 
obierie that Colebrooke, in atating, (M. E. p. 372,) that the mental aheath consista 
otthe intellect, joined to the fire seaieaand the mind, ia not qnite correct, aaltii mind 
joined with the fite organs of action.) The third i> the vital case (Prinamaya K6ia) 
formed of the five litol aira, or facnltiea, (reapiratioo, inipiration, circulation, &c.) 
and the five organs of action. The three caaea niuted oompoae the lubtite organism 
of the soul, which therefore comprehenda 17 elementa, vix. Intellect, mind, the ten 
organs, and the five lital aira. Thia subtile organism ia inseparable ft'om the aool, as 
long aa it has to undergo transmigration ; considered as One, it is univeraal oi^^aniam, 
and the soul, to which thla untTersalitj is ascribed, is Hiranysgarbha. (F^dania 
Sira,pp. 8 — 10.) Inonrpasiage the mundane aonl means Biranjagarbha, the aoul 
which has the three caaea, and ia thererore in actual relation with the world. The 
last case i* the natrimeDtal (Aonamaja) which is eompoied of the gross elementa. 



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Firtt Chapter. Third Brdmhana. 41 

The demon* knew, hy thU Udgitha the gods will overcome 
Us. Therefore, running up to him, they pierced him with their 
sin. That is this ain. That one speaks improper words, is the 
sin. 2. 

Udgftha for the Bftke of the godsT The answer is; " All the enjoy- 
ment," which means, all the Ksaiatuice of speech and all <Aff o<A«r organs, 
which hj means of speech is obtaiaed in the intercourse of speaking ; 
for the reward of all is the enjayment, derived from speaking words, Ac- 
It describes this enjoyment in three St6traB, called Pavamfau, and la 
the nine remaining St6tras it assigns the reward of the lUtwig, as 
anthoiised by the Vpanitkad* by the words : " That it speaks well,'* 
that it pronounces well the letters, " is for itself," for me ; for the special 
work of speech is the entire pronunciation of the letters i therefore 
it is mentioned, "thst it speaks well ;" but the effect of speaking as to 
the asdstauce of all, is for the sake of the sacrificer. 

At that time (when the Udgitha was performed) by the contact wluch 
takes places between speech and the well speaking, an oppartanity was 
obtained by the demone of entering tbe deity like a hole.f "The 
demons knew." What T " By this Udgitha tbe gods will orercome 
UH," viz. natnral knowledge and work, by the light of the Udgftha; 
which is knowledge and work in accordance with the iS&stra. " There- 
fore," being aware of this, " mnning ap to him," to the performer of 
die Udgitha, "^ey pierced," worried him with their am, viz. the 
nn of contact, which means, they allied him with their sin. " That is 
this sin ;" " that," tbe nn which was not cast by the demons upon 
the speech of Fraj&pati in bis former birth, " is this sin," wbicb becomes 
manifest. Which ia the sin 7 " That one speaks improper words," viz., 
words contrary to themselves, forbidden by the Sfistra, by which 

* Til. Tba Ritwij, or prieit, who perfonna tbe ocremDiitM, b oat entitled to b 
reward fen bitnielf, b«e«ue Ut wrrieet tn htrgd, aDd ill tha good reraltins 
from tbe ceremonul, will be obUiiud bj the Mcri&cer. HatiiM tbe BpacUl re- 
mvd hcra mBDdoned, doei DOt follow tTom th« Mciiflce, bnt from tb« word of tbe 
Uputiihad. &. G. 

t Tiat meuu, the deit; of ipee^, banng tpokeu well far ita own aaka, 
commit) the aia of ooDtaet, of the eonaazion of a deiira with externel objeoti. 
Therefore b; tbli un an opportaaltf li giren, u it were, a bole of the deltjr, to 
^reeitwitbtbdriln. 



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43 Brihad Aranyaka Vpanithad. 

Then they spoke to the breath : Do thou sing the Udgitlia for 
H8. The breath, with the words :' Let it be w,' Bang the 
Udgitba for them. It sang to the goda all the enjoyment that is 
in breath. That it smells well, is for itself. The demons knew, 
by this Udgitha the gods will overcome us. Therefore running 
up to him, they pierced him with their sin. That is this sin- 
That one smells improper odours, is the sin. 3. 

Then they spoke to the eye : Do thou sing the Udgitha for 
ua. The eye, with the words: * Let it be so,' sang the Udgitha 
for them. It sang to the gods all the enjoyment that is in the 
eye. That it sees well, is for itself. The demon* knew, 
by this Udgitha the gods will overcome us. Therefore run- 
nhig up to him, they pierced him with their siu. That is this 
un. That one sees improper colours, is the sin. 4. 

Then they spoke to the ear : Do thou sing the Udgitha for 
us. The ear, with the words : ' Let it be so,' sang the Udf^tha 
for them. It sang to the gods all the enjoyment that is io 
the ear. That it hears well, is for itself. The demons knew, 

induced, one speaks indecorous, hateful, false aod the like words, even 
agunat his own inclination, " is the sin," known by its befoiementioned 
effect, ¥17., the spe&king of improper words, which is foond in the speech 
of the intelligent creatures of Prajftpati, which being implied by the 
speaking of improper words, is also in the speech of Prajfipati ; for the 
effect is of the same nature as the cause. 2. 

When the gods had in this manner successively examined, whether 
by the performance of the Udgitha the deities were fit to be mani- 
feetedby the Japamantra, and to become objects of derolion, they were 
convinced, that speech tmd the other deities whom they had successiTdj 
ezanuned, were unable to perform the Udgitha ; for by contact, which 
is their connexion with the spedai work which they well performed, 
they were allied with the uji of the demons. Therefore they are not 
meant by the Mantra : " Do thou lead me from evil to good ;" nor are 
they worthy to be worshipped, because they are not pure, and inferior to 
the prindpal life. In the same way as the deity of speech^ &c., the 
deities of touch and of the other organs, although not especially 



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Firtt Chapter. Third Brimhana. 43 

"by this Udg^tlia the goda will overcome us. Therefore, runaing 
up to him, they pierced him with their ain. That ia this sin. 
That one hears improper sounds, is the sin. 5. 

Then they spoke to the mind : Do thou sing the Udgitha for 
118. The mind, with the words : * Let it be so,' sang the Udgi- 
tha for them. It sang to the gods all the enjoyment that ia in 
mind; that it imE^inea well, is for itself. The demona knew, 
by this Udgitha the gods will overcome ua. Therefore running 
up to him, they pierced him with their ain. That is this ain. 
That oue has improper notions, is the ain. In this manner the 
deities came in contact with sin, were pie reed with sin, 6. 

Then the gods spoke indeed to this life whose name ia Xsanya: 
• Do thou sing the Udgitha for ua.' That life, with tlie words i 
' Let it be so,* sang the Udgitha for them. The demons knew, 
.by this Udgitha the gods will overcome us. Therefore running 
up to him, they wished to pierce him with their ain. As a clod 
of earth, by falling upon a rock, ia destroyed, so they were also 

mentioned in thitpatsage, were pierced with sin by the muiifestatioa 
of good and evil works, which means, they were allied with ain. Thus 
-speech nnd the other deities, although gradually worshipped, were 
"unable to protect from death. 3 — 6, 

" Then the goda spoke indeed to this, (the word " this" ia used to 
«how respect) life, whose name ia Asauya," wiiich means, produced in 
the month, which abides in the inner cavity of the mouth ; Do thou 
siDg theUdgitbaforus. The principal hfe, with the words : 'Letitbeso,* 
sang the Udgitha for the gods who had invoked its protection. This and 
what immediately follows, is all alike the former description. When the 
demons, desirous of piercing life with sin, in BccoTdance with the prac- 
tice which they had acquired by repeatedly entering speech and the 
other oi^;ans, attacked by their sin of contact the principal life which 
was free from sin, they became destroyed. To show how, an illustra- 
tion is given. As in common life a clod of earth which is thrown upon 
a rock to reduce it to dust, ia destroyed, reduced to dust itself, so were 
the demons in different ways destroyed. By this destruction of the 
demons, speech and the other organs became free £rom the sins, -which 
G 2 

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44 Briluid JroM/aka Upamshad. 

kltt^ther destroyed. Hence they became gods ; tbe demons 
perisbed. In Ihit maimer he becomea like Aim. By the bouI 
perishes the enemy, Oxe brother's son, of him, who thus koows. 7- 

are the effect oi tbe natural contact, and obstacles to their divim^ ; 
and obtained their own nature by tbe protecting power of the prinrapal 
life which is free from contact. What did they obtain 1 The nature of 
fire, Sco. in accordance with their own cUrinitf, which (nature) will be 
exphuned hereafter, and which they had already before possessed. In 
this state, when tbetr knowledge was darkened by their natural sin, 
they had a notion of an individual body alone. The meaoii^ is ; 
By the separation from that sin, they left off the notion of an individual 
body, and obtuned a notion of the nature of speech, &c. in its identity 
with fire, &c., as it is delirered in the Sliatra. Moreover their oppo- 
nents, "the demons, perished." Perished means, they were destroyed, 
"In thii manner he (the present aacrificer) becomes liit him" (the an- 
cient sacrificer) this means ; As the former sacrifiixr,* desci^bed in 
the ancient narrative — whm be had comprehended the meanbg of the 
Smti pointed out in this narrative, vhen he in the order mentioned 
in the Sruti, had examined speech and the other deities, and abandoned 
them, becanse they are tainted with the sin of contact, when he had 
known by the idea of the soul the priudpalltfe tree from sin, fuid aban- 
doned the idea, that th^ soul is different according to the d^ereneet 
of the individual bodies, as speech and others, which are beUeved to 
be the soul, aa the/ormer taerifieer obtained the nature of the present 
Frajfipati, as manifested by the i^tra, which is the notion of the body, 
as Virij.f and which exhibits speech in its nature aa fire, — so the pre- 
sent sacrificer obtuns the state of Prajfipati in the same manner. " By 
the soul," in its modification of Frajfipati, his sin, contrary to the nature 
of Fr&japati, "the brother's sou, perishes i" for the son of a brother, 
like Bharata and others, may be also not an enemy ; but the sin pro- 
duced by tbe contact of the senses with thm objects, is at the same time 
a brother's son and an enemy, becanse it does not acknowledge the na- 
ture of the supreme soul. This sm then perishes, is reduced to dust, as 
a clod of earth, by its contact with life. Whose is this reward? The 
answer is : "He who thus knows," which means, who thus, Uke the 
* The saerifiow In • (bnnw Urtb. t Vide psge S3. 



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Fint CA^ter. mrd BrMkafa. 45 

They Bpoke. Where was he, who thus established us ? He 
is within the mouth ; hence he is Ayfisya. He u An^rass, 
because be is the essence of the members. 8. 
sudeut Bacrificer, comprehends Ufe by the notion of the bouI. Hstiiig 
described the reward, the Sroti no* shows the reward in the form of 
the narratiTe.* And for what reason T To prove, that the priDdpal 
life, after the deitiea of speech, 8k, have been rejected, ii alone to be 
worshipped by the idea of the soul, on the ground, that it is the com- 
mon natnre (soul) of such separate substances, as speech, &c., the 
Smti goes on in the narratiTe. 7. 

" They," the organs of Prajfipati, baring, by means of the prindpal 
life, {rfitained their diraie nature and their reward, spoke thus ; " Where 
then," the word where shows their reflection. " Where then was he 
who thus established us," that is to say, united us by the true notitm of 
the soul with our divine nature, which was before separated from us ; for 
whosoever is usisted by some body, remembers bis benefactor. In the 
same manner the gods, when they had remembered their benefactor, had - 
reflected on him, percdved him in the soul, which is the whole 
of canses and effects. Why is he within the mouth T Because be is 
evidently in the ether of the mouth (Asya), as everybody will find og 
reflection. Thus also the gods. Life is called Aytuya, because, exdud- 
uig all distinctions of the nature of speech, &c., it was perceived by the 
gods within the internal ether ; therefore is life like Ay&sya, since op- 
posed-to all distinctions, it united the organs, as speech, ftc, with their 
divine nature. Hence it is called also Angirasa, the essence of canses 
and effects ; for An^rssa is a compound of Anga and Basa, — ^Anga 
meaning members, canses and effects, and Basa essence, substance ; the 
whole meaning therefore is the substance, upon which causes and effects 
depend. It is the essence of every thing, because, unless it were pre- 
sent, all would become without eff'ect. The meaning of the whole is : — 
Tiifp, as the essence of causes and effects, and as »n nihil aring all disdnc- 
tions, is the common essence of causes and effects, and also pnrified ; 

* Ananda Qirl expluiu thii •■> : — A* tlia reward, tbllowing fron the wontup of 
the principal life bat been Mtferlli, thencitnordiofthe Upaniihtd: " Thejtpoka," 
&e., refer t« a ipecial ironhip of lib. ffukuv nji thersfore, " Hiving deieribcd 
the reward," wbiob meaos, having ileteribed the reward fiiUowmg from the worihip 
o( the principal Bft, ba is to show ttie wonbip of life, eadowed aiUn^pedal qoaMei, 



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40 Brihad Aranyaka Upanuiad. 

The name of that deity iB Diir ; for death is far (dur) from it. 
Far is death surely also from him who thus linowB. 9. 



«ccoidingly life, without further reference to speech, &c., is to be coq- 
ndered under the idea of the soul; for the soul can but be perceived 
by its own notion, since good is obtained by a notion tliat is not contra- 
dictory ; otherwise evil is obtained. 8. 

If it be thought, that the purity of life has not been proved, we ask, 
ia not this notion (of tbe imparity of life) removed, since life is no place 
for the sin of contact, as speech and the other organs are by well 
speaking, hearing, Hmelliog, &c. ? ' This may be so ; but since it ig 
called the essence of speech and the other organs as diffused through 
all, there is an apprebension that impurity may ensae through speech 
and the other organs, as it does by touching a person who has touched 
a corpse.' To this the Sruti answers: " Life is pure." Wherefore? 
■" The name of that deity is Diir" (far.) The demons, coming in contact 
with hfe, were destroyed, aa a clod of earth is by a stone. This is the 
deity which, abiding in the body of the sacrificer of the present time, 
has been found by the gods ns abiding in the mouth. It is a dei^, 
because it is an object of devotion. Because Its name is Ddr, (Ddriti,) 
its purity is proved by the name of Diir. Whence agun cornea the 
name of Ddr 7 The Smti answers, " because death, viz. sin, which is 
defined by contact, is far (diir) from that deity of life. Ddriti, >s 
the name of life, shows its purity, becanse death, although placed near, 
is yet removed from life, which by its natiure is free from contact. The 
reward of the wise is then mentioned, viz. " Far is death surely from 
bim," from him means from the person who knows in the above de- 
scribed manner. Therefore he worships thus the true life which 
is pure. Upasana (worship) is derived from Upa, which means, 
Manasa upa-agamya (having perceived by the mind) the nature of a deity 
in the same way, as by passages of the Smd in the Arthav&da (praise) 
it is made known as an object of worship — and from Asana, which 
means continued reflection without interposition of worldly notions 
until the idea is manifested, 1 am that deity, just as in the common 
notion, I am & man. This is evident from such passages of tbe Sruti, 
as : "Having thus become a god, he goes to the gods," and: "What 
god art thou in the cnstern quarter?" 9. 



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Fiftt Chapter. Third Brdmhana. 47 

This deity then, after having destroyed the aiii uf the deities, 
viz. deativ, made him depart, where the end is of the quarters. 
There it fixed the abode of the sinaof the deities. Hence let no 
one repair to the outer people; let himnot follow sin, death. 10. 

" This deity then." Is is said, that death is far from it, but 
why agun is death far from him who thus knows T The answer is, 
because death ia opposed to a knowledge of such a kind ; tor sin, which 
is produced by the contact of the senses with thdr objects, is opposed to 
a person, who has the notion, that life is identical with the soul. He Is 
at variance, because be has the notion, that the soul is different according 
to the differences of speech, &c., and because his knowledge is pro- 
duced by his own nature. On the other hand, the notion, that hfe 
is identical with the soul, is produced by the iS'^tra. In consequence 
it is proper to say, that sin is far itom one who has such a notion of 
life, because both are opposed to each other. Therefore by the words : 
" This deity," the Sniti shows the said meaning to be sin, the death of 
speech and the other deities ; for every body dies by the un pro* 
duced by contact of the senses with their objects in accordance with 
his natuTsl ignorance. Sin is therefore called death. Life, by the 
sole notion of its identity with the soul, destroyed die death of the 
deities who had the notion of the identity of life with the soul, and 
is therefore called the destroyer. Sin then is removed ttom a person 
who thus knows by his bmg at variance with it. What did life again, 
when it had destroyed the un, the death of the gods ? The answer is : 
" Life made him depart, where the end is of the quarters," viz, of the 
eastern and the other quarters. But as there is no end of the quarters, 
how can life make him depart there ? The word " quarter" is made 
for the purpose to dengaate the abode of the people possessed of the 
knowledge of the V^das ; the country therefore, inhabited by people 
who do not follow the V^das, ia called the end of the country, the 
desert. Acconhngly, there is no blemish in the expression. The 
deity of life made depart there the sins of the deities, and by con- 
tempt fixed in various ways their abode among the outer people, who 
are without knowledge of the identity of life with the soul. 

For be is by his nature produced by the contact of the senses with 
their objects, and is therefore dependent upon the living creatures. 



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48 Brihad Aranyaka Upanuhad. 

Th«t deity destroyed the sin, death, of those deities. Then 
life, having overcome death, saved them. 11. 

Ijfe, having overcome death, saved the first speech. When 
speech, having overcome death, was libernted, it became fire. 
That fire, having become free after its separation from death, 
shines forth. 12. 

Then life, having overcome death, saved the smell. Hat 

Hence' let them not go to the outer people, not approach them by inter- 
coune in words or other actions. By mtercourHe with them, intercanise 
ia made with nn ; for he is the place of nn. The meaning ia : — Let 
none repair to fail abode which is defined by the end of the qnaiters, 
although it may not be inhabited by the people, nor to that people, 
although it may be far from that country. 10. 

By the words : " That deity," the reward is mentioned, which for 
speech, &c., reanltg from the knowledge, that life is the soul, which 
reward is to acquire the natnre of fire, &c. " Then life, having over- 
come death, saved them." This means : Life is called the destroyer 
of no, death, because sin, death, which causes the separation of the 
■oul^rMn t}fe, has been destroyed by the knowledge that life is one 
with the soul. Therefore this life, having overcome the natural sin, or 
death, saved them, which means, caused the deities of speech and 
the other oigans to gain tfaeir divine nature as fire, &e., which is not 
separated from them (after the destruction of death). 1 1 . 

"Life saved the first speech ;" first means the prindpal, which is 
more efficacious than any other organ to perform the ceremony of the 
Udgitha. The nature of speech, which was saved, after death was over, 
come, is thus described : When speech, after sin or death was over- 
come, had been liberated, it became fire, which means, speech was fire, 
before it became united with death, and became fire again after its eepa- 
radoQ from death ; so ^reat is its difference afler its separation from 
death. This fire, when released, shines forth after its separation from 
death. Before its liberation being allied with death, it was not shining, 
as it is at present ; now again after its separation £rom death, it shines 
forth. 12. 

In the same manner the sense of smell became ur, wind. Wind, 
liberated from death, pmifies. All the particulan are m before. IS, 



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First Chapter. Third Brdmhana. 49 

Bmell, having overcome death, hecame wind. That wind, hav- 
ing hecorae free after its separation from death, purifies. 13. 

Then life, having overcome death, saved the eye. When the 
eye, having overcome death, was liberated, it became ^ditya. 
That Aditya, having become free after its separation from death, 
burns. 14. 

Then life, having overcome death, saved the ear. When the 
ear, having overcome death, was liberated, it became the quar- 
ters ; the quarters after their separation from death, are made 
free. 15. 

Then life, having overcome death, saved the mind. When 
the mind, having overcome death, was liberated, it became the 
moon. That moon, having become free after its separation from 
death, is resplendent. In this manner that goddess having 
overcome death, saves the present sacrijicer. Whosoever thus 
knows, obtains his due reward. 16. 

Then life for its own sake praised by the Udgitha the prime- 
val food ; for whatever food is eaten, the same is eaten by life. 
On this it subsists. ]7> 



Thufl the eye becomes Aditya. He bums. 14, 

Thus the ear became the eastern and the other quarters. 15. 

Mind is Tesplendcnt as moon. As the deity of life, having in its 
identity with speech, &c. as fire, &c., overcome death, sared the former 
sacrificer, so she saves also the present one. He who knows, that life 
is the same with speech and the other four organs in their state as 
fire, &c., obtains the state of life, which he has worshipped, be it as 
fire, air, &c. 16. 

"Then for its own sake," that is to say, as by speech and the other 
organs for their own sake pruse was offered, so also by the principal 
life, when it had prused in the three Favamtiua Stiltras the reward 
which is the state of Praj&pati, common to speech and the other organs, 
it praised it in the nine remaining St&tras food for its own sake. The 
connexion of desire with the agent is authorized by the Upauishad, 
as has been mentioned before. How again must it be understood. 



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60 BriAad Aranyaka Vpfoutkad. 

Tbe gixlfl spoke i * All this is onbf so much. Whatsoever 
food there is, ia prwaed by thee for tliy own Bake. Iict us eat 
of that food.' L^e amwered: 'Do enter me.' They with 
the words : * Let it be so,' every where entered life. There- 
fore whatsoerer food is eaten by life, satisfies them. Him 

that life praised the primary food for its own sakeT To explain 
this, the canse is mentioned in the words : " for whatever," && 
The irord food means here common food ; for whaUoever food in this 
world is eaten by any hving indiridual, " the same is eaten by life." 
Prdga (life) with the preposition Pra ia derived from Ana. Ana, with a 
final s, (Prfiqas) means cart, with a final vowel (Prdi^s) life. The 
meamng is : this ia eaten by life. And the primary food is not only 
eaten by life ; bnt life snbsists on it, when it is transformed into the 
sabstance of its (life's) own body. Therefore the primary food is 
praised by life for the sake of its own sobsbtence. All that is eaten 
by life, is for its own subsistence ; therefore the sin, wiiich arises iiaia 
the contact with the excellence of performance, ia not in life, as it is in 
speech, &c. 17. 

" The gods." ' But is it not improper to assert, that the food 
was thus eaten merely by life, since it is erideot, that food is also the 
cause of the support of speech? &c.' There is no fault in this, 
becanae the support is obtained by the means of life. How again 
is the food suppUed by life, in support of speech and the other oi^ans ? 
To explain this, it is said : " The gods," (Devs) speech and others, 
{they are called gods, D^va, because they manifest their own nature,) 
"spoke" to the principal lift. "All this is only so much;" hence 
there is no more than this. " Whatsoever food," the cause of the sap- 
port of life, is eaten in the world, " is prused by thee for thy own sake," 
which means, is transformed by thy praise into thy own aubstanoe. 
We also are miable to subsist without food ; therefore let ua afterwards 
for onr own sake eat of thy food. Life answered : ' AU of you. if 
demrons of food, every where enter me.' When hfe bad thus apokei^ 
they aunounded and entered hfe with the words, ' Let it be so.' Thm 
the good f(»d. the support of life, which is eaten by life, satisfies 
■peetdi and the other organs whid, entered Ufe by its command j but 
by th«ar own will they have no connexion with food, Therefore tt is 



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Firal Chapter. Third Brdmhana. 51 

enter liis own ; he is the preserver of his own, he is pre- 
eminent ; he walks before, he is un eater of food, he is the lord 
paramount, who thus knows. He who agiiinst one who thus 
knows, amongst his own becomes a rival lord, is not able to 
support his dependents. On the other hand whosoever be- 
comes a follower of such a one, and whosoever, following him, 
strives to support his own dependents, he ia able to provide 
for them. 18. 

He who abides in the month, is ^ngirasa; for he is the 
essence (Rasa) of the members (Anga.) Life is the e 



proper to assert, that food is eaten merely by life. "Therefore" 
Because the deities of speech and the other organs by taking refuge to 
life had entered life in accordance with its command, "therefore 
wbitaoerer food people eat by life, the same satisfies them," via. 
speech and the other oi^ns. Whosoever knows that life is the support 
of speech, &c., and also knows that (he five organs depend upon Uf^ 
"him euter also his own," bis relations, as speech and the other organs 
enter life, which means, he is the supporter of his relations. " He ia 
the preserver of his own," who have entered him, by his own food, as 
life is of speech, &c. Thus " he is pre-eminent." " He nalks before," 
he has the precedence, as life among speech, &c. "Thus he is an eater 
uf food," which means, he is without disease. " He is lord paramount," 
and to guide them he becomes their preserver as independent lord, as life 
of speech, &c. He "who thus knows," vis. life, will obtain the above 
mmtioned reward. " But he who against one who thus knows," viz., 
who thus knows life, " amongst his own," amongst his relations, " be- 
comes a rival lord," like the demons who strove ogunst life, " is not 
sble to support his dependents." On the other hand "whosoever 
amongst his relations becomes a follower of such a one," of a man who 
bai that knowledge, aa speech and others were of life, " and whosoever, 
following such a person, strives to support his own dependents," as speech 
and the other senses, following life, strove to support themselves, " is 
|ble to provide for them," not any other who acts on his own will. 18. 
All this is declared to be the reward, resulting from the knowledge 
of the qualities of life. To establish the idea, that life is the essence 
H 2 



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52 Brikad Aranyaka Vpanishad. 

of the menibera ; for life ia the esaence of the members ; 
therefore, for the reason, that any member, front which life has 
departed, becomea dry, hfe ia the esaence of the members. 19. 
This is also Brihaspati. Speech is Brihali. Life is the pre- 
server (Pati) of Bribati ; therefore it is Brihaapati. 20. 

of canses and etfecta, life is named Angiraaa. Before it was said i " This 
(life) ia An^raaa ■"* hut there was no reason assigned, why it ia 
Angiraaa ; to explain this reason, it is now said : " He who abides within 
the mouth, is Angirasa." For it depends upon this reason, that life is 
the essence of causes and effects ; afterwards the dependence of speech 
and the other organs upon life is stated. How is this dependence to be 
proved? To answer this, it is said: "He who abides within the 
month, ia Xngirasa." Hence it is taken according to its former de- 
scription. The next sentence : " Life is the essence of the members," 
is to remind of the meaning that has been explained before. How is 
life the essence of the members t The answer is ; " For life ;" the 
word 'for* is used to show, that the essence of the members is well 
known. It is well known, that life is the essence of the members, but 
not that speech and the other organs are the essence. Therefore it is 
proper to remind of this by the words : " Life is." How is it again 
well known ? To answer this, it is said, " therefore." The word 
" therefore," which conveys the idea of conclusioQ, must be connected 
with the last part of the sentence. " For the reason that any member, 
from which life has departed, becomes dry," without essence, " there- 
fore" this is the conclusion, " life is the essence of the members.'' 
Hence it is evident, that life is the substance of causes and effects, 
because, when it is not there, dryness, death, ensues. Therefore all living 
creatures live through it. Therefore ia preference to speech and the 
other organs, life is an object of worship. This latter is the meaning 
of the whole deduction. 19. 

" This is." Life is not only the substance (soul) of causes and effects 
which have become forms and works, but also the substance of the Rig, 
Yajur and S&ma VfJdas, which have become words. By the praise of 
life as the soul of all, it is exalted for the sake of worship. " This.'^ 
well known " Angirasa" is also Brihaspati. Why? The answer is: 
" Speech is Brihati," the Vddaic metre Bnhati, composed of thirty-six 
• P.gB 45. 

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Firtt Chapter. Third Brimhana. 53 

This is also Br4iiiha?aspati. Speech is Bramha. Life ia 
the preserver (Pati) of speech ; therefore life ie Bramhanas- 
pati. 21. 

ayllables. Further, Aaustup ia speech. Why ? Because it is swd ia 
a passage of the Sruti : " Speech is ADustup." And this inustap, 
which is like speech, is contained in the Brihati metre.* Therefore it 
is proper to declare it as a well-known fact, that " speech is Brihati." 
Moreover all the Mantras of the Rig V^da are contained in the Brihati, 
because life is praised as Brihati, as a passage of the Sruti says : " Life 
is Brihati." " Let it be known, life is the Rig," says another passage 
of the Sruti. Further : The Rigs are included in life, because they 
partake of the nature of speech. To prove this, it is said : " This life 
is the preserver of this speech, Brihati, Rig, because it produces the 
Rig ; for the Rig is dependent upon the wind, produced by the digestive 
action of the stomach. Lastly, life is the preserver of speech for preserv- 
mg it ; for speech is preserved by life, because without life (breath) it 
is impossible to pronounce a sound. Therefore Brihaspati is the Ufe, 
substance of the Bigs. This is the meaning of the whole. 20. 

life i» also the substance of the Mantras oi the Yajnr, Why? 
"This is also Bramhanaspati. Speech is Bramha," that is to say 
Yajur, which is a kind of speech. " Of this," speech, Yajur, Bramhaija, 
" life is the preserver" (Pati). Therefore it is called Bramhanaspati, as 
before. How again ia this known? The answer is, Brihati and 
Bramha mean the Rig and Yajur, not any thing else ; for since at the 
conclusion of this 'subject it is said : " Speech ia S6ma," it is evident 
that the SSma V^da is the same with speech. In the same manner, if 
speech is Brihati, speech Bramha, and both therefore the same with 
speech ; it is proper to maintain. Rig and Yajur are Brihati and Bramha, 
for they are remninbg ; for as the Sdma is mentioned last, the re- 
mammg two must be the Rig and Yajur. This follows also from the 
difference occurring in speech ; for Rig and Yajiw are different kinds 
of speech. Therefore it is right to say, that they are the same 
with speech. And also from tht !a.ct i)\&i if this were not the case, 
there would not be any distinction between them. The word : "The 
Sfcna is the Udgitha," clearly shows the use of a distinct name. 

• The Aniutap, of 32 sjllables, is contained in the Briliali of 36 sjllables, aa the 
imaller in tbc larger number. — K. G. 



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54 Brihad Aranyaka Upattithad. 

This is also S4tDa. Speech is S&ma, SJuna is Sii and 
Amaa. Therefore the Sima has the nature of S&nia. — Because 
it is like (Saaia) a bee, like a gnat, like an elephant, like these 
three wurlda, like this all, therefore agmn it is called S&ma, 

Therefore it ia also proper to employ the dbtinct names of Brihatf 
ind Brsmha ; otherwise, if distinct names vere not fixed, there would 
be no sense. Further, if special names of them were a mere sound, 
there would be a repetition of the same.* And the names of the Rig, 
Yajur, SJima, Vdgitha, are also succeBsively mentioned in the Sruti. 21 . 
" This is also 8ima." Why ? The answer is i " Speech is S4," 
vii., whatsoever is included in the feminine gender, is S&, speech ; for 
the demonstrative pronoun S& denotes all that is inclnded in the 
feminine gander. In the same manner, this life is Ama, viz., Ama 
means all that is included ia the masculine gender. How hast thou 
obtuned my masculine names ? The answer ia : By hfe. How hast 
thou obtained my feminine names J By speech, as another passage of 
the Siuti says. Both, the names of speech and life are included in 
the sound of Sftma. Accordingly the name of S&ma means a song, 
consisting of the whole of the letters, wordg and tentenees, and depend* 
ing upon life ; therefore the name of S&ma is nothing else but a 
compoond of the names of life and speech, because each letters, 
&G. is produced by and dependent upon life. " This life is SSma" 
and "speech b Sftma." Because the repetition of Sfima shows, 
that S&ma partakes of the nature of speech and life, viz., as com* 
pounded of the words S& and Ama, "therefore the Sama," viz., 
the songs, which ccwsiBt of the whole of the letters, word* and 
tenteneei, must be comprehended under this idea of S&ma. The con- 
nexion of the next sentence is : " Because it is like" (Stuna) all which 
is afterwards mentioned, "therefore again it is Sima." — The word 
"agdn" shows the possibility to explain the meaning of Sdma in ano- 
ther way by the term of 8ama (like). In what way is the likeaess of 
Hfe assumed? The answer is; Itis"like (Sama) a bee," viz., the 
body of a bee, " hke a gnat," viz., like the body of a gnat, " like an ele- 
phant," viz. like the body of an elephant, " hke these three worlds," 
viz., like Frajtipati, whose body is the three worlds i "like this alt," like 

* VU. Sjieech it ipeech. 

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Fir$i Cluster. Tkird BrimhttM. &S 

He obtains unitjr of nature with ^ixa&, or unity of place who 
thus knowB this S&ma. 22. 

This is also Udgitba. Life is Ut ; for by life all this ia 
upraised, Speech is Githa. It is Ut uid Githa> therefore it is 
Ud^tha. 23, 

HinmyikgBTbha, whose form a the world, which Is entirely found in all 
indlTidual bodies, in the bee as well as in all others, as the idea of cow 
is found in all individual cows. This is the likeness (identity) of life. 
Again, this identity is not merely found in the different bodies in pro- 
portion to their size, because life has no shape and is everywhere ; nor 
is the identity in the individual bodies an identity of contraction and 
eipansion, as a light contracts in ajar and expands in a palace; for 
the Sruti says : " All these are like, all are without end." There is, 
however, no contiadictiou between its being everywhere and its being 
litmted to a certain use in the difftrent bodies. lie, who thus knows 
the life whose name isSfima, under the idea of Sama (identity), viz., the 
Ufe, whose greatness is declared in the Sruti, obtains this reward, viz., 
"he gains unity of nature (S&yujya)* with S&ma," m., with hfe, that ia 
to say, unity of body, o^ans and knowledge, or unity of place, that is to 
say, the same world, according to the power of bis meditation, viz., he 
who knows S&ma, life, who meditated on it, until the knowledge of the 
identity of life with the soul became manifest. 22. 

"This is also Ud^tha." The name of Udgftha means here neither 
a portion, a special division, of the S&ma-V^da nor the poitiini, referring 
to songs (Udg&na) because the Udgltha is included in the description 
1^ the Sfima, whieh memnt here life (Si-Ama). Why then is life 
Udgitha ? The answer b ; " Life is Ut ; for by life is all this," 
the uuirerse, " ruaed up" (Uttabdha) that is, supported. The name 
Ut, which elucidates the meaning of Uttabdha, shows a quality of 
Ufe. Therefore, in accordance with the single words in the compound 
of Udgltha, Ut means life, and Githa speech. This Githa, after the 
meaning of the name derived from Gai (to sing) is speech ; but with 
the esoeplion of the sound Githa (song) there is nothing in any part 

* S&j^ija, a kind of salvation, o( vhicb fire Idoda are stated. 1. S&ldLja, the 
abode in Ae same world. Z. Sirshti, equal prosperity, 3. S&mipTa, Ticinilj. 
4. Strapr*! li^BiHM of ToTn. 5. E'katwa, anitf or identitj of natue. 



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M Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad. 

There is also a narrative : Bramliadatta, the grandson of 
Chikit^na, when diinking the resplendent S<ima juice, spoke : 
* Let this resplendent/uice cutoff the head of this man, if Ay^a 
ng irasa performed the Ud^tha by any other than this.' 
Therefore he performed the Ud^tha by speech and life. 24. 

He who knows the wealth of that S&ma here, obtains its 
wealth. The musical notes are its wealth. Therefore let one 

of the Udgitha whiek refert to tinging. Therefore the aasertion, that 
Ufe it JJdgUha, iB proper, viz., Ut is life, and Githa speech, dependent 
upon life ; both terms, tbua compounded in one term, form Udgitha. 23. 

To show the firran^s of the just explained meaning, a narrative 
is commenced witb the vorda : " There," that is, with regard to 
the meaning just espl^ned, a narrative is also known. " Brain- 
hadatta," by name, the youag grandson of Chikitana, when drinking 
at the sacrifice the resplendent ^bainjaice, spoke : " Let this resplen- 
dent juice," that is here in the aacrificial cup and drunk by me, " cut 
off the bead of this man" of me speaking falsely, which means, if I 
speak falsely. How again is tbe meaning of falsehood implied in the 
word* of the TJpaniahad? *' If Ay&sya (be is called Ayfishya Angi- 
rasB, because bis name b derived from the principal life) the per- 
former of the Udgithaiu tbe assembly of tbe former Rishia, who created 
the world, " performed ibe Udgitha by any other," by another deity 
beside speech and life, " than by this," viz., by the above described 
Ufe in union with speech, — then let me be a speaker of falsehood, let 
the Soma cut off the bead of me who has asserted something contra- 
dictory to tbe nature of the deity. In these words he made an 
imprecation, and shows therefore the necessity of the strength of 
the faith in the knowledge, that life i» the Udgitha. The Srati con- 
firms then by its own word the meaning conveyed by the narra- 
tive, viz., by speech, dependent upon life, and by life, transformed 
into his own nature, the Udgdta, AySsya Angirasa, performed the Ud- 
githa. This meaning is established by the imprecation. 24. 

*' Of that SSma here." The word "that" connects it witb the 
above described hfe. The term " here" sbowa it as by a gesture as 
being present. He who knows the wealth of life which is called by 
the word Slima, obtiuns what ? " He obtains its wealth." This is tike 



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Fi^tt Chapter. Third Brdmhami. 57 

who is to perform the duties of s Ritvrig, desire to acquire the 
mueical notes together with speech. By that speech which 
has obtained the musical notes, let him perform the rites of the 
Ritwig. Therefore people are desirous to look during the 
sacrifice upon the sweet-toned petformer of the Udgitka as vpon 
a rich man ; for people detire to look vpon him who has obtained 
wealth. He obtuns wealth, who in such a manner knows the 
wealth of this S&ma. 25. 

He who knows the gold of this SSma, obtains verily its gold. 
The musical notes are its gold. He verily obtains gold, who in 
such a manner knows the gold of this S&oia. 26. 
reward which the Smti shows as an inducement to the heaier, vii, 
"The musical notes are its wealth." The moaical notes, the sweet 
Booud, prodaced ia the throat, are its wealth, its ornament ; for a song, 
adorned with these notes, obtoina wealth. Because this is so, " there- 
fore let him who ia to perform the duties of the Ritwig," the song of 
the lUtwig, viz., the Udgfita — who is anxious to exhibit the wealth of 
the 8&ma by its note, deure to acquire in speech the musical note, 
dependent upon speech. Thia, however, ia eatablished in the course 
of explaining the topic, that the tones of the S&ma are necessarily mu- 
sical notes, and that the musical notes are not acquired by mere desire, 
but by the cleaning of teeth and the drinking of oil, &c. " By that 
speech," that purified speech, "which has obtained the mudcal notes, 
let himperformtheritesof theRitwig." "Therefore." Because the note 
has become the property (Swabhl^ta) of the Sfima, andhence the Sima 
ia adorned with the note a* with wealth (Swa), " therefore people are 
desirous to look during the sacrifice upon the aweet toned performer of 
the Udgitha, aa upon a rich man ; for it is well known, that " people 
desire to look upou him who has obtained wealth" (Swa). A person 
who baa fully obtained the reward resulting from his knowledge of 
this quahty, is described in the words : "He obtains wealth who in 
such a manner knows the wealth of thia S&ma." 25. 

Now another quahty of the Sdma is explained, viz., to be possessed of 
gold. Thia refers also to the sweetness of the notes, with the difference, 
however, that, while the former designated the sweetness of the notea, 
produced in the throat, ttte latter means gold only figuratively. " Ha 



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S8 Mrihad jtranyaia VpamtAmJ. 

He who knows the abode of that S&ma here> abldn. Speech 
is its abode ; for it is well known, that this life verily abides 
in speech, some say, that it abides in food. 27. 

Therefore afterwards the rite of the Abby&r6ha of the Pavamfina 
8t6tra» is defined. The praiser rerily praises the S&oia. Where 
he praises ft, there let him mutter these Mantrtu : From the 

nho knawa the gold of the Simn, obtaina Terily its gold." The meaning 
ift since the same word, SavarQa, denotes a moBieol note, (Surarpa, from 
Su, good, and VarQa, letter) and gold, (Savarpa) common gold becomes 
the regard of him who knows this qualiiy. Its miisicBl note is, as it 
were, its gold. " He who knows the S&ma in such a manner, verily 
obtains its gold," just as it has been described before. 26. 

Then tbe qoahty of abiding is explained, ris. " He who knows the 
■bode of this S&ma.' ' The S4ma abides in speech ,- therefore speech is 
called the abode. He who knows this quality of abiding of the S&ma^ 
" abides." It is proper to aaaign this quahty to him, becanse it ia 
Mid in liie Sivik, according to the manner in which "it ia worship- 
ped." To him, who as in the former description, is deairouB of the 
Rward, and wishes to know which is the abiding place of the Sdma, 
the answer is given ; " Speech is the abode of the Sima." Speech 
means the o^ans of aonud at the root of the tongue and elsewhere."* 
This speech is the abode. Therefore it ia said : " For it is well 
known," because it is well known, that this life abides in speech, in the 
e^ans of speech, the root of the tongue, &c., therefore speech ia the 
ahidii^ place of the S6ma. " Some," others, " say, that it abides in 
food," that it is well known to abide there. And because ndther of 
these two opinions is blamed, therefore it is optional to sss^ the qna- 
Uty of abiding either to speech or to food, 27. 

For him who thns knows life, the rite of mattering prayers is ap- 
pointed. The perfection in mattering prayers which one who tbns 
knows has acquired, b called his knowledge. " Therefore afterwards." 
Because the rite of muttering prayers, the reward of which is the asce»- 
Hon (AbbyiinHia) to a divine state, must be performed by one, perfect 
ifi knowledge, "therefore" it is defined. The muttermg of prayers by 
its eonnczion with the Udgitha might be performed at any time, but 



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Fint Chafter. Third BrdnAma. hi 

nnnnl lead me to the real, from darkness lead me to light, from 
death lead me to immortality. In the words of the Mantra t 
From the unredi lead me to the real, deHth iB the unreal, the real 
immortality; ffum death lead me to immortality, which implies, 
render me immortal. Further in the words : From darkneas lead 

aCGCffding to the word of the Srati: "VnmaixAm," a time infixed 
/or them, nod althcwgh the rite is herewith aswgned to the three 
ParanUlna St^tras, yet the time is i^a restricted by the word*: 
"The praiser verUy praises the Slima." "Where," at what time 
"he," the praiser, "praiaea," commences the Sims, "ther^"at that 
time let lum matter these Mantras. The rite of mutteriag theaa 
Uantras, is cdled Abhyii^ba (ascension) hecaiue a perscm who that 
knam, directly asceads (Abhimnkhy^ia finShati) to the state of a god. 
The pliual YfMtni (these Mantras) shows that three Hantras of tha 
YsJDr are meant. Tke»e Mtmtrat must be read according to the 
accent, which is in the Brimha«a, and not as it is in the Mantras, as 
the second case (E't&ni) proves,* and also their heii% foond in the 
Bnlmhava.f The rite of muttering must be performed by the aacrificer. 
The following are the Mantras of tlie Yajur: "Prom the unreal 
lead me to the real, from darkness lead me to light, from death lead 
me to immortality." As the meaning of the Mantras is concealed, th« 
Bt&mhaqa itself explains it ; <' In the words of the Mantra ! Prom 
the unreal lead me to the real, death is the mireal ;" " death" it is 
called, because his knowledge and works arise from his own natm« ; 
" nnreal" it is called from the very loir degree of its existence. " The 
real immortality," " the real," knowledge and works, derived from the 
lustra, are " immortality, because they are the cause of it. Therefore 
" JTom the unreal," rix., from unreal works and from ignorance " lead 
me to tlie real," ric., to such wwks and knowledge, as are derived from 
the Sietra, that is to say, produce the state of the soul, by which the 
nature of a god is obtained. The meaning of the whole sentence is given 
in the words : " which impUes, render me immortaL" Thus also in 
the next Mantra : " From darkness lead me to light, death is dark- 
ness ■" for every ignorance, from its natural tendency to screen, is dark- 



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60 Bnkad Aranyaka Vpam*had. 

me to ]ight, death is darkness, light immortality ; from death 
lead me to immortality, which implies, render me immortal. In 
the latt Mantra : From death lead me tu immortality, there is 
nothing concealed. — Then in the remaining Stotraa let him 
praise the primeval food for his own sake. Therefore in those 
St<Stras he may chose a hlessiiig. Whatever desire be may 
desire, the same he may chose, viz. the UdgSta who thus knows. 
"Whatever desire he may desire, either for himself or the 

neis ; this as the caase of dying, is death. " Light immortality," the 
divine nature, contrary to the former (darkness) ; knowledge, by its 
natural tendency to manifest, ia light ; this is immortality, because its 
nature is exempt from destruction. Therefore: " From darkness lead me 
to light," OS before, means ; " From death lead me to immortality," which 
implies, " render me immortal," that ie, grant me the divine state of 
PrajApati as reward. The first Mantra means, from a state withont 
causality produce a state that has causality. The second Mantra, however, 
means, fi^m a state that has causality, but which is yet subject to igno- 
rance, produce a state, where the whole effect is accomplished. In the 
third Mantra: " From death lead me to immortality," the whole meaning 
of the two preceding Mantras is given as conclusive. Id the third Mantra, 
therefore, there is not, as in the two preceding, the meaning concealed, 
but it is the real meaning of the text. " Then," having made the song 
ofthesaciificer in the three PavamfinaStdtros, "in the remaining Stdtras 
Jet him," the Udgtkta'" who knows life and has obtained the nature of 
life, " praise the primeval food for his own sake" in the same way, aa 
hfe did. Because such an Udg&ta knows hfe thus, in the manner, 
before described, and hence, Uke life, is able to accomplish the desire ; 
" therefore he," the sacrificer, " may chose in those Stiitraa," at the 
jrecital of them, "a blessing." "Whatever desire he may desire, 
the same he may chose," ask as a boon, viz., " the Udgfita who thus 
knows." "Whatever desire the Udgftta desires," asks, "either 
for himself or for the saorificer, the same he accomplishes by the 
recital." In this sense it is said, that the acquirement of life in 
ite identity vrith the soul takes place by knowledge and works, and 
thei^n is no apprehension of any doubt. It may, however, be matter 
* Ths prieat nbo knowi the Sima Vjda. 



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Firtt Ckapttr. Third BrdmAma. Ht 

t&crificer, the same he accomplisheii by the recital. This verily 
overcomes the worlds. There in verily no douht to be worthy 
of the worlile for him who thus knows this Sftma. 28. 

of donbt, whether in the fthseace of works life is obtained or not. To 
remove this doubt, it ii Bald : " This verily overcomes the worida." 
"This verily," this knowledge of life alone, separated from works, 
" overcomes the worlds," is the canse of gaining the worlds. " There 
is verily no doubt to be worthy of the worlds," nor even a desire ; for if 
one has the firm knowledge, that life is the soul, he has no donbt that 
he will obtain it ; for a man, who is in a village, does not doubt, like 
one in the desert, whether he may arrive at the village. There may. 
be indeed a doubt for one who has not the knowledge of the sonlf 
which ia yet far from him, hut not for one who has it ; he* therefore 
has no apprehension that be should not acquire the state of life as 
identical with the soul. For whom is there not such an appre* 
hension 7 " For him who thus knows the S&ma" to be life, in 
accordance with the greatness, as has been explained, /or Aim therefore 
who Anowi : I am the life, inaccessible to the sins of the demons, 
which consist in the contact of the senses with their objects ; I 
am purified ; I am speech and the other four oi^ans,t which by their 
dependence upon me have obtained their original natnre, as fire, 
mni, &c. which are free from the blembh of the sins of the demons, 
produced by the contact of the senses with their objects, in consequence 
of natural knowledge, and which by dependence upon me are the cause 
of the connection of the primeval food with all the elements ; lam the 
soul of all the elements as the common essence of them ; I am also the 
■oul of speech, embodied in the Rig, Yajur, SElma and Udgitha, be- 
cause I pervade them and am their canse. When I have obtained 
the state of the song of the S^ma, my external wealth, or ornament is the 
sweetness of the notes. When I have obtained the golden state, 
figuratively speaking, the sweetness of the notes, the state of the song, 
my organs are the various places of the throat, &c. Possessed of 
such qiuditiea, I pervade vrith my whole natnre all living beings down to< 
the smallest insect, for I am without shape and every where. He will 
attain tueh a reward, whose worship manifests such a knowledge. 

* Who kno*i that life ii identical with th« lOnl. 

1" Til. DOM, eje, cir snd mind. 



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69 BriAad Jraf.jfaka VpmMaJ. 

Fourth Bnimha^a. 
Thu was before soul, bearing the shape of a man. Lookiog 

"This was before lonl." How the state of Prajfipsd is obtaiued hj 
the nuited effect of knowledge and works, has been described, and also, 
how it is obtuned by the mere knowledge of life, by psssages as : " This 
verily overcomes the worlds," &c. By descriptions of the omnipotence 
and other attiibutea of Prajipati, who is the embodied reward, in the 
creatioD, preservation and destructioa of the world, the eminence of the 
reiraid, resulting from knowledge and works in accordance with the 
V£da8, is further to be dcEcribed. For this object the present Br&m^ 
kana has been commenced. This deieriptioit sets forth the praise of the 
knowledge and worke ordained by the practical* part, because they are of 
great power. But it is at the same time intended to show, that the 
whde reward, resulting from knowledge and works, has a worldly 
tendency ; for it is said, that it is subject to fear and unhappiness ; 
it is further involved in the connexion between cause and effect, and 
as a manifestation of the gross organismf it is not eternal. The second 
part of the Fidaa on the other hand, is intended to show tha 
Uberation, resulting from the mere knowledge of Bramha, which 
will hereafter be explained ; for he who is not dissatisfied with the 
objects of the world, subject as they are to the division of cause and 
effect etc., has no desire to obtain the knowledge, that the soul is one and 
all, as a person who is not thirsty has no desire to drink. Gonsequeiitly 
the description of the remtrd, resulting from knowledge and works, is 
made for the sake of the second part. With regard to this, it will be 
Mid : " This should be known by him." " This is better than a eon." 

"This was before the soul." The soul is here defined as Praj4pati, 
the first-bom from the egg, the embodied soul, as the result from his 
knowledge and works in accordance with the V^das. He was what T 
*' This," produced by the division of body " was the soul," not 
separated from the body of Prajfipati "before," before the productioB 
of other bodies. He was also bearing the shape of man, which means, 
that he was endowed with head, hands and other members i he was 
the Virij, the firat-bom. " Looking round," reflecting, who am I, and 



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nrtt Cluifter. AwM BrAKka^a. 63 

roand, he beheld nothing but himself. He said first: ' This 
am 1/ Hence the name of I was produced. Therefore 
even now b man, when called, Bays fint : * It is I,' and tells 
afterwards any other name that belongs to him. And because 
he as the first of all of them consumed by fire all the bids, 
therefore he it called Puruaha. He verily consumes him, who 

of vhat nature, " he beheld nothing but bimBelf," the fuloesa of lif^ 
the organinn of causes and effects. He beheld only hunself aa the 
nniveraal soul. Then endowed with the reooUectioa of hi* V^daie 
knowledge in a former birth, " be said fint : This am I," vit. Praj&pati, 
the universal soul. " Hence," therefore, because from the reoollection 
of hia knowledge in a former world he called himself I, therefore his 
name was I. The name of I, as proved in this Upanishad, and there- 
fore in the Srati, will aflerwarda be eipluoed. 

"Therefore," because this happened to Praj&pati, as the caose, there- 
fore it happens idso to the living creatures, bis effects ; for eves now a 
Inau "when called," addressed with : * Who art thou 7' mjt first : ' It 
is I,' denoting himself with the name of the soul as the cause, and 
when afterwards asked for his special name, the name of this special 
individaal, he answers by ; 'I am D^vadatta, or Yajnadatta,' &c. ; he 
tells the name, which was given to this indiridual person by father and 
mother. "And because he," Praj4pati in a former birth, which is the 
cause, 88 the fint of those who were desirouB to obtain the state of Pnt- 
jipati by the exennse of reflection on works and knowledge, viz. " as the 
first of all of them," of sU those desirous of obtaining the state of 
Prajfipati, — consumed by the perfect exercise of reflection on works 
and knowledge all the sins of contact, which are obstacles to the 
acquirement of the state of Praj&pati,— because such was the esse,— 
therefore he is called Parusha, because he, Purvam Aushad, (first 
burned.) As that Prajfipati, by consuming all opponte sins, became 
this Pumsha Prajfipati, so also any other consumes, reduces to ashes, 
by the fire of the practice of his reflection on knowledge and works, 
or only by the force of his knowledge. "He verily consumes.'*^ 
Whom ? " Him who before this sage strifes to obtain the sUte of 
Praj&pati." The sage is pointed out as he who thus knows, who accord- 
ing to his power manifests his reflection on knowledge. ' But is it not 



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64 Brihad Armn/aka Vpanithad. 

before this strives to obtain the state of Prajfipati, he naiuelf » 
who thus knows. 1 . 

He was afraid ; therefore man, when alone, is afraid. He tfaea 

nselesB for any one to strive for the state of Praj&pati, if he is con- 
tnmed by one who thus knows 7' There is no fault in this ; for con- 
fluraiDg means here only, that the highest state, that of a Prajipati, is not 
obtained, because the eminence of the reflection on knowledge b want* 
ing. Therefore by the words ; " He consumes him," is it meant, that 
the perfect performer obtains the highest state of Fraj&pati, he, who is 
less perfect, does not obtain it, and by no means, that the less perfect 
performer is actually consumed by the perfect ; thus it is said in common 
life, that a wariior who first rushes into battle, consumea his comba- 
tants, which means, that he exceeds them in prowess. 

To show that the reward of knowledge and works, as set forth in 
the Karma K&nda, which is the state of Praj&pati, praiseworthy aa it 
may be, does yet not overcome this world, it is said : " He was afnud," 
viz. this FrajSpati, who is called the first-bom embodied soul, bearing 
the shape of man, was afraid, as we and other creatures are. Hence 
it is s^d : Because he, bearing the shape of man, endowed with 
tia organised body, was afraid in consequence of his desire agtunst 
his destruction,* " therefore man," on account of his likeness with 
Prajtipati, also now, when alone, " is afraid," And further as 
with us, so also with Prajtipati, the true knowlei^e of himself (the 
soul) is the cause, that the desire against one's destruction is removed. 
Henee it U taid : "He looked round." How? The answer is : "Since 
nothing but myself," but the soul, not a second thing, exists, " of whom 
should I be afraid," while there is no cause of my destruction. 
"Hence," from the true knowledge of himself (the soul) Praj&pati's 
" fear departed," for his fear is merely theeffectof his ignorance, which 
cannot remain with true knowledge, wherefore it is said : " For whom 
should he fear," viz. be who fears, and the meauiog which is intended, 
is, when truth has been asceftuned, fear is removed, smce fear arises 
from a second, from another thing, and a second, another thing, is 
merely the production of ignorance ; for a second thing, of which there is 
no knowledge, cannot be the cause of the origin of fear. Thitsitis said 
* Or of his dciire for hii p 



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Fint Chapter. 7%ird Srdmhofa. 65 

loohed round : Since nothing but myself exists, of whom should 

in a Mantn : What blindness of mind, what diatresa eziata for him who 
isconsciouaofthe trntverfaHdentityT And it is also proper, that by the 
knowledge that all is one, the fear ia removed ; for the knowledge of a 
■eimnd, from which fear may aiiae, is removed by the knowledge that 
all is one ; hence there is nothii^, from whence it conld arise. Here it is 
asked : Whence was produced Prajtipati'B knowledge, that all is one, or 
who instmcted him T 

(Either the knowledge manifested itself without iaatmction. Then 
the same should he the case with ns and similar beings. Or it is 
derived from impresaionB received in a former birth ; then the know- 
ledge that all is the soul, is uaelesa ; for in thit eate, as the knowledge 
of Praj&pati, although existing when he was in the state of a former 
birth, did not remove the cause of the contrary ignorance, because on 
account of his ignorance he was afraid, so also is the knowledge of the 
identity of the soul useless for every one. And if you, Itutly, say, that 
the knowledge removes the ignorance at the time of death, we also 
obiect, because as before, it must agtun be connected with a prior 
knowledge, whence arises the logical fault of a too general argnmcut. 
Hence it must be concluded, that the knowledge of the identity (rf the 
soul is useless.) 

We deny this, on the ground that the knowledge of PrajSpati ia 
produced from the most powerful cause ; for ss in cominon life strength 
of intellect and extent of memory are observed with him from the time 
of his birth, who has acquired various efficacious causes by his pious 
actions, so also with regard to the eminent birth of Praj^pati, united as 
it is with efficient causes, which are purified by his having consumed all 
una, the effects of opposite causes, by the power of moral merit, of 
knowledge and of liberty from worldly desires. Hence it is proper to 
maintain, that Prajipati's knowledge of the identity of the soul, produced 
at the time of his birth, has arisen without any instruction. In this 
respect says the Smrid : " Whose four qualities, his unbounded know- 
ledge, freedom fiy>m paeuon, power and moral merit are innate." 

If yon say, 'if they are innate, fear ia impossible, for darkness does 
not rise with the sun,' we deny thb on the ground, that the notion of 
inuate knowledge has merely the meaning to exclude instruction from 



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6S Brihad Jrmyaka Vpanithad.- 

I be afraid ? Hence hia fear departed j for whom should he fear,^ 
since fear ariaea from another. 2. 

another. If your opinion is, 'that faith, demotion and reTerence are 
no causes of knowledge, and that such causes of hnowledge, as faith, 
devotion and rererence, assigned by the Sm\X and Smriti in Buch 
passages as : " The futhful whose mind is devoted to only one object, 
whose senses are sabdned, gains knowledge,"* " Thou shalt know it 
by reverence,"+ — ^have no causality,' and if you moreoTer say, 'that 
OUT moral merit in oar former birth is the cause of our kaoiriedge 
(in the next birth) aa it is the case with Prajfipati,' we do not agree, 
because we must attend to the distinclioQ of general and special causes, 
as well aa of qualified and unqualified canses ; for in common life obttuus 
a manifold diviwon of causes with regard to effecU dependent npon a 
cause ; in the same manner of general causes. These, aa well as spedal 
causes are again divided into qualified and unqualified causes. To show 
this by an instance we chose the perception of form, as an tSec\ from 
a variety of causes. Here the perception of form m the dark, 
without light, by animals roaming at night, is caused by the contact of 
the eye with form. The cause of perception of form by the YiSgis is 
the mind alone ; for ns it is the contact of the eye with form through 
light. Further by the dirision of light into sunlight, moonlight, &g. are 
prodoced the general divisions of the cause. Moreover there is the other 
division of light, light, especially qualified and hght not qualified. In 
the same manner the cause of the knowledge of the identity of the sonlis 
lometunes work performed in a former birth, as is the case with Prajdpati ; 
■ometimei penance, as the Stuti says : By penance search for Bramha ■,% 
sometimes instmction from the teacher, as follows from such passages of 
the Sroti and Smriti : "A man, who has a teacher, knows." "The 
feithfbl acquires knowledge," "Do thou know it by reverence." "From 
the teacher he must be known, seen, heard," &c. Faith, devotion, &c. 
are direct causes to obtain that knowledge, as they effect separation 
from vice and from other causes of the eontrtiry. The same is the 
case with the hearing, thinking and mental intuition of the V^d&ata, 

* BhagsTidgfta, Poarth chapter. 

t BhagiTidglu, e. 1. 

{ Tsittarf J& UplnUhad Bbrigu VbIU &th Khtgdtu 



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Fittt Chapter. Third BrimAaita. 67 

He did thui not feel delight. Therefore no body, when aloite, 
^ela delight. He waa desirouB ot a second. He was in the 
same state aB husband (Pati) and wife (Ptttni) are when in mutual 
embrace. He divided this self two-fold. Hence were husband 
and wife produced. Therefore was this only a half of himself, 

becauK here ia oompreheaded the present object of knowledge itielf, 
■nd bIso because b; the annihilation of sin and other obstacles the tras 
knowledge of the soul and the mind from itB very nature produces that 
knowledge. Therefore faith, rerermce, &c. are real causes of know- 
ledge. 2. 

From this also follows the worldly state of Fiaj^pati. vis. becaius 
" He," Frajip^, " did thus not feel delight," which means, was un- 
happy, like us and others at the present time ; " therefore," in eonse-. 
qoence of the state of loneliness, &o., "no body, when alone, feels 
detigbt." DeUght means the pleasure, derived from the union with a 
desired object. IJnhappiness is called the state of mental distress, 
foUowmg the separation from an ol;^t of deure, to which one is 
attached. For the remoral of this unhsppiness " he was desirous of 
a second, of a wife able to destroy the unhsppiness. And while he thus 
longed for a wife, his state was as of one, embraced by a wife. And 
because by this itate he desired something real, he was of such a 
state. Of what state I In such a state, as in common life husband 
and wife are, when in embrace for the removal of nnbappiness. " He," 
thns, " divided this " self," which was of such a kind, " two-fold." 
The term " this" is used in order to define the tetfrntA to distinguish 
it IVom the Virdj, the first cause. He was by the removal of the state 
of Vir&j not in the same atste, in which cnrd is, when itt/omter ttafe, 
thst of milk, is entirely removed. Which was then the state of tepa- 
ration t By the objective mental power of Virij, entirely dependent 
upon himself, there was, beside himself, another body in the state of 
hosband and wife ia embrace. And this Vtr&j of such a kind, '■ was 
in the same state," because be is the same subject for two predicates. 
" Hence," from this division (Patanit) husband (Pati) and wife (Patn() 
were produced, which is a description of the common state of husband 
and wife. " Therefore," because this wile is, as it were, the other 
separated half of himself, " therefore was tins," this body, " ox/y the 
K 2 



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48 Brihad AroMyaka Vpaniakad, 

us a split pea w qflhe whole. Thus verily has YSjnavalkya 
declared it. Tbia void ib thus completed by woman. He 
approached her. Hence men were born. 3. 

She verily reflected : How can he approach me, whom he 
has produced from himself ? Alaa, I will conceal myself. Thus 
she became a cow, the other a bull. He approached her. Hence 
hine were bom. The one became a mare, and the other a 

half of himBelf, as a split pea is of Ihe whole." Of whom was it only 
a half before his taking a wife ? The answer is ! " Of his self." 
Thus verily haa Ydjnavalkya, iiiz. the son of Yajnavalka (which 
denotes him who speaks at the sacrifice) D^variti, declared it. It may 
also mean a son of BramhA. Because this male half is vcdd, as want- 
ing the female half, " therefore," again* after the taking of a wife, it is 
again completed by the female half, as a split pea by its being joined 
with its other half. " He," " Praj£pati," under the name of Mann, 
" approached her," by name S8tarttpa,t his own daughter, onder the 
notion that she was his wife. " Hence," from this union, " men were 
bom." 3. 

" She," Satarupfi, recollecting that it is forbidden in the Smriti to 
approach one's own daughter, " verily reflected : How happens this 
improper action, that he can approach me," whom he has produced 
from himself. " Alas, I will now conceal myself," will conceal my- 
self under the disguise of another kmd. " Thug," having thus re- 

* ilnanda obtervei, thst the word " sgiiin" refers to the lune etent in a former 
birtli,— becaase the world n without commencement. 

t T)ie notiOD of Yiiij diTiding hii own labatanca into male and female, oocdh 
in more than one Pori^a. So doea that of an Incettuoui murUse and inteiconrac 
of the firat Menu with hia daughter 8aiar&pi, and the commentatoi* on the Upa- 
Diahad nnderatand that legend to be BUoded to in thia place. But the insticatea 
aacribed to Heno make Tir£} to be the issue of such a separation of persona, and 
Mena himself to be hia offspring. There is indeed, as the reader amj observe from 
the paBBBges dted in the preaeat eiaaj, much disagreement and consequent confa- 
aion, in the gradation of persons interposed by Hindu theologj between the 
supreme being and the created world. Col. M, E. Tol. I. p. 6S. See alao Wilson's 
Tishnu Pura^, where, p. fit, note S,aTer7 iDddiiewofthB oplDlonsofthg diffeteiit 
Pu&)u on tbia subject is giien. 



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First Chapter. Third BrAmhana. 69 

BtallioD, the one a female ass, the other a male ass. He itp- 
proBched her. Hence the one-hoofed kind was bom. The one 
became a female goat, the other a male goat, the one became 
an ewe, the other a ram. He approached her. Hence goats 
and sheep were born. In this manner he created every living 
pair whatsoever down to the ants. 4. 

He knew: I am verily this creation ; fori created this all. 
Hence the name of creation is derived. Verily he who thus 
knows, becomes in this creation like him. 5. 

fleeted, " she became a cow," by herself, and again and again waa 
this the inclination of iSatamp^ incited by the impulse of Unug crea- 
tnree, as well as of Alami. -Therefore- " the other became a bull. He 
f4)proached her," in the same manner, as it has been related before. 
" Hence kine were bora." Thus " the one became a more, and the 
other a Btalli<»i," thus, " the one a female ass, the other a male ass." 
There, by the union of the more nith the stallioa and the anion of 
the other kinds " the one hoofed kind," viz. horseB, mules and asse^ 
" were bom." Thus " the one became a female goat, the other a male 
goat, the one became an ewe, the other a ram. He approached her," 
TO. the one after the other in the order tu tkeg are mentioned, 
" Hence goats and sheep were bom. In this manner be created every 
living pur, male and female, whatsoever, down to the anta," viz. he 
created the world. 4. 

"He," Prajipatl, having created aU this world, "knew." WbatI 
" I am verily this creation." The world is created, therefore the created 
world is called creation. Becauae the world is created by me, there- 
fore, since It is not separated from me, am I the world i it is not dis- 
tinguished from me. Why is this I ? " For I," because " I created this 
whole world," therefore. Because Prajipati called liimself the creation, 
" hence," therefore " the name of creation is derived." " Verily he 
becomes in this creation," in this world of Prttjapati, " Uke him ;" he 
becomes like PrajApati, a creator of the world, which is not different 
from his own self. Who 7 " He who thus knows," knows like 
Prajipati, as baa been said, that he is the world, depending upon the 
notion of the soul, of the elements and of the deities. 5. 



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70 Brikad Araityaha UpaituAaJ. 

Then he churned. From hia mouth, ag the pUce of prodac- 
tton, and from his hands he created the fire. Both therefore 

FnjipaU, hATing thvu created this world u k succeMion of pain, 
wu dearoos of creftting the guardian deitieB of the BrtUunang and of 
the other castei, and at the cammencement tfarowiag hia handa upon 
hia mouth " he churned." Ghnming with hia handa " he created from 
hia mouth," aa the organ of production, and also " from his handa," 
aa organs of production, " the fire," the special bene&ctor of the caste 
of Br&maiu. Because hoth the hands and the mouth are the 
oi^ans of prodncdon of the fire, whose nature is to consume, " there- 
fore both are without hair ;" not the whole, howerer, but only the 
innde ; for hoth resemble in this respect the female organ of produc- 
tion : " for this is inside without hair," Thus also the Br^man wm 
bom from the mouth of Prajipati. Therefore the fire ia the special 
benefactor of the Br£hman, both bdng sprung from the same source, 
as the elder brother is of the younger. Therefore the Brihman has the 
fire as his guardian deity, and the month as his strength, aa proved 
by the Smti and Smriti. Thus he produced from his arms, the seat 
of power, the slayer of Bala," and other gods.f the ruling deities of 
the Kshatriya caste aud also the Eshatriya, Therefore the Kahatriya 
baa Indra as hia guardian deity, and the arm as his strength, aa both 
rSmti and Smriti attest. Thus he created from his thigh, as the seat of 
endeavour — the Vasus^ and others, the ruling deities of the Vie, and 
also the Vi«. Therefore the Vai«ya is devoted to agriculture, ater- 
ehandire and aimilar pursuits, and his guardian deities are the Vaaua, 
&c., according to the evidence of the Sruti and Smriti. Thua he 
created from his feet Pushana,§ the guardian deity of the earth, and 
also the Sddra, who is fitted for serritude, according to the evidence 
of the iS^mti and Smriti. The Upaniahad makes here for the praise of 

• Indra. 

■f Varofii, &a. 

X Tbe Vuiu vera the loiu of Vun. Their namei >re : J(p», Dbran, Somt, 
lAiba (Hre), Anili (wind), AaiU (fire), FntTiiiihi (dafbTeak), anaPribhiia (Ktht.) 
— W, V. P. p. 128. 

} One of ths twclT« Xditju, loiu of K«i]rip> bjr Adili, the dangbter of 
Dakriiu.— L. C. p. 122. 



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Fint Chapter. ITiird Brdmha^a. 71 

are Inaide without hiur ; for the place of production is inside 
without hair. 

That they speak there this word : Sacrifice to this, sacrifice to 
this, hence sacrifice to the one or the other god, is not proper. 
■His is really this creation ; for he verily is alt the ffods. 

the vhole creation, the soppogition, as if the ori^n of the giurdiaa 
deities of the Kshatriya and the other castes had been related, although 
it hai not been done, and yet remains to be related. By this passage 
of the Smti it is accordingly evident, tiiat Frajtipati is alt deitia^ 
because there is no difference between the creator and the creature, 
Asif because the gods are created by Frajtipati. 

The meaning of the subject being thus eBtablished, the blame of the 
contrary notion* of ignorant people is introduced for the praise of 
the meaning, at it &at bee» ettablithed : for the blame of the one is 
the praise of the other, 

"That they," the mere performers of sacrifices, "speak there," 
during the performance of the ceremonies at the time of offering, " this 
word: Sacrifice to this," to Agni> "sacrifice to this," to Indra, &c. 
they do so in accordance with the difference of name, S&stra, 8t6tra, 
work, &G. by considering this or the other different god, for instance 
Agni, &c., as one among others. This should not be thus understood, 
becsuse " his," Praj&pati's, " is really this creation," the whole division 
of the gods s " for he," Frajftpati, as life, " is verily all the gods." 

Here we meet with a contradictory opinion. ' Namely, some say, the 
supreme Hiranyagarbha is meant, others Hiranyagarbha, ns being in a 
worldly state. According to the letter of the Mantras the supreme is 
meant ; for the iSruti says : " They call him Indra, Mittra, Vamna and 
Agni." And another passage : " He who is Bramhfi, who is India and 
Prajdpsti, is all these gods." AlsotheSmritisays ; " Some c^ him Agtu, 
others Mann, others Prajfipati." And further: He who is no object of the 
organ8,t who is unapproachable.t who is infinitely little,§ unmanifested, 
* The contrarr notiim ii, Ibat the deitie* ars indspeodeat bclngi ; tUs view b 
blamed In tlie oezt aentenM of tba Upaniihad. 
t The organa of aetloa are bere meant, accordips to S:iiaDda. 
t To the aenie* of Intellect, eje, e*r, &c. 
f Thii U the caoM, tbat be eannol be percuTed b; the wniei. 



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72 BriAad Armtyaka Vpamthad. 

eternal, whose nature comprehends all elementa, who is not conceived b^ 
thoDght,* sprung thus forth bjr himself. Ua the other hand he is also 
in a woridly state. This follows from the passage of the iSroti, glat- 
tfl^ .■ " Ue consumed all sins;" for unless one is in a worldly state, he 
camiot consume sins. It follows also froni the passage of the iS^ti, 
that he is subject to fear and onhappioess. Also from the other i 
"Being mortal he created immortals." Further, from the letter of the 
Mantra: " Lo the birth of Hinnyngarbha." Also from a passage of the 
Smriti tn the chapter which treats on the results of works ; Sages call 
firamhfi, the creators of the world, virtue, the great, the munanifested, 
the best condition, which can be obtained by the quality of goodness.f 
Therefore a contradictory meaning being obtained, the ailment is 
faulty? 

We do not grant this, because there is no contradiction, if it is con- 
sidered under a different fictitions view, and a different fictitious view is 
obtained, if it is connected with a special fictitious attribute. t In this 
manner it is declared in the Smti : 



* No object of the mind, the intemil khu. 

t ThU puwge ii tslicii from Maoa 12, 50. According to ^DBoda, hj the 
emton ar« msint Mann *ad others, by lirtae Yama, by the great one (Mahat), 
tntelligence, Bnddhi, the fint prodnction of Prakritr, or nlf-eiittiDf Datare, 
■coordiDg to the Sluikhya tyitem. Kuiliilu Bhstti, the eomtnentitor of Mum, 
explain* it differaDtlf, I'a. BTimhi is the Brsmhi with four facea, the oreKon 
Maiicbi and the othen, Mahat and Afyakta (BnmuiireaCed) two of the eanui of 
the S£nkhyB lyBtem, here the totelarj deity of the aame, Tirtoe the embodied 

X 1 translated KulpanC with " fictitions view" and Upadhi with " fictitiooa attri. 
bate, u I wu unable to find more adeqnate wordi. Kalpanli aecordiag to the 
dlotiooariei meani; arrangement, diiljoetion, artifidal making) bnt these wordi do 
not eipreia the meaning, which it ha« according to the V£dinl«, wbera it ii a predi- 
cate, wliioh ii aiugned to a tbing to which it really doea not belong, or the con- 
ceiiing of a thing under an idea which is contrary to ita nature, aa for inatance, if 
Bramba (the infinite son), infinite substance) i* comprehended under the notion of 
infinite mind (manai) or Infinite iDtelligeDee(Bnddlii) which notions are mere anthro- 
pomorphiims. Thus hr ia the Kalpanli indeed an artificial notion, a notion made 
by some eontriiance, or not Founded on the real natnre of the thing. Upadhi, (accord- 
ing to Wilson di*crimiDating or distingaishing property, disgaite, in the Y£d&nta 
this ii eapeeiatl; ^plied lo certain natural forma or propertiea, conaideted aa dis- 



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Fint Ck^er. Third Brdmka^a. 73 

".££ttiDg he proceeds afar, ikepii^ he goes everywhere. Vho beside 
me, U able to kaow tbe god who is happy and not happy/'* Through 
attributes be u ccMiaected with the world ; in reality by himself he ie 
unconuected with the world. This is the identity and di*enaty of 
Hiranyagarbha, and in the same manner of all living creatures, which 
foUowB from the passage of the 5niti : " That art thou." But while 
Hiranyagarbha, in cousequence of the superlative parity of his attri- 
butes is, as it were, almost entirely supreme, as iS'ruti and Smriti de< 
dare, although they show his worldly state as it were, at some places, 
the worldly state of the living creatures, in conseqaenoe of the preva* 
lent impnrity of their attributes, is almost everywhere evident. DiTested, 

gulns of tbe tplrit which I translated with fictitioni ■ttribate, is any qaslitj which 
ii luigned bjr a fictioni nation to tbe infinite Mat; for initaace, omDipolcnce, 
omniicience, &c. If the infinite labitaaca it eooaidered in ita owd nature, It bia 
DO attribute! whateter, and the ootloiu under which it ia thoaght, tIi., eiiitence, 
knowledge, happioeia, are in reality no diffiirent attribatM, but they conititnte the 
one identical mbatance (£tma, tool). 

On the other hand, it ia neceHU7 to form fictitioDa viewa of the infinite Bub. 
itance; for the world cannot be tfaonglit in iCaelf, and therefore reqairei to ba 
thought by tlia infinite aonl, aa entirely depending upon it. The aot of the mind 
by which it traniren the notioni of the world apon Bramba or tbe ioGnite soul, ia 
called Adby&rdpa, which ia in fact tbe game idea with that of Kdpana. Under the 
condition, that tbe world ii conaidered ia Bramlta, Biamha or the iofinile aonl il 
alia oonaidered nnder varioni attribntea, aa for inatance, oniniacienoe, nnireraal 
providenoe, immanent caoae of the world, &e. The Kalpan£, the «jew, although 
fiditiona, ia yet neceaaary, and the Upadbi. the attribute, although not really an 
attribute of Bramha, it atill indiapenaable, if be ia conaidered in hi* relation to the 

There It tiierefore according to the V^d&ota, no contradictian, if attribnlei are 
aieribed to Bramha^ and denied of him, aa long aa the notiona under which both is 
done, are kept aeparate ; namely, he has no attributM, if conaidered in himaelf; he 
hat attribntea fai hia relation to the world. 

* Katha Upaniahad, 2 T, !1. In tlut pataage the wntradictory predicatea are 
founded upon tbe diffeient modea, by which the loul may be conceived. Thua 
" aitting" raferi to its unchingeableneaa, " proceeding" to ita worldly nature, 
whers it proeeeda faster than any other being. The Upaniahads generally repre- 
aent the difficnlty to nuderatand the infinite aoul by aaaigning to it contradictory 
predicates. Thua it la said in the V^ianfya Up. t. 5. If (the aonl) proceedt, 
it doet Dol proceed i it [a far ; tt ii near ; it i* within this nnirerae ; it is without 
thia nniveria. 



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74 Brihad Jrapyaka Upanitkad. 

Then ffhatBoever ia moist, the none he created from Aw 
semen^ this is the S6ma. So much is this whole unirerse, either 
food, or the eater of food, S6ma is the food, and Agni the 
eater of the food. This is the surpassing creation of Bramh£. 
Because he from the better parts created the gods, and alto, 

however, of all di«dnction of attribates, ever^ one obtains the name of 
supreme according to the evidence of the iS'ruti and Smriti. But the 
logicianB who, abandoniag the authority of the holy writings, reason 
much about ezistence and non-eziitence, agency and non-agency, con- 
found the meaning of the iS&tra. Hence the determination of the 
meaning becomes difficult. But for those who without pride follow the 
S&Btn alone, the meaning of the iStutra with regard to deities is as 
clear, as if it were an object of perception. Here it ia intended to in- 
troduce with reference to Frajtipftti, although he is one God, such dis- 
tinctions aa food, &c. Among them the fire has been mentioned ; Ute 
S6nia, as the first food will now be mentioned. 

"Then whatsoever ia," in the world, "moist," in the form of a fluid, 
' the same he created from his semen," from hia seed. Thus it is said 
in the &ati : " From the semen spruig the waters." And the S6rae. is 
also watery ; therefore all that is moist, ia created by Prajdpati from 
his semen. This is, " as it were, the Sdma." " So much is this 
whole universe," that is, there is no more than this. What ia it I 
" Either food," which is SiJma, as nourishing by its flnidi^, or " the 
eater of the food," Agni, by bis heat and harshness. Hence Sdma is 
defined as food. From tbe force of the meaning it ia evident, thiU 
Sdma is all that is eaten, and that Agni is the eater. Sometimes the 
fire, when offering is made by it, becomes SiSma, — Sdma also, when 
offering is made to it, becomes fire, becanse it eats. Whosoever in this 
manner perceives tbe world, as consisting of Agni and S6ma, under the 
idea of tbe soul, is not tiunted by any blame, and becomes also like 
FrajSpBti. " This is the surpassing creation of BramhS," FrajSpati, 
surpassing, because it surpasses his own nature. Which is this crea- 
tion f "Because he from the better parts," tbe parts resemblmg him, 
" created the gods," therefore is the creation of the gods a surpassing 
creation. How ia it again a creation which surpaasea himself T The 



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Fini Chapter. Third Briinhajm. 75 

because he, a mortal, created the immortals, therefore is it a sur- 
passing creation. He vho thus knows, becomes in this surpau- 
ing creation like Prtifdpati. 6. 
That which is this, was then verily onmanifested. That mani- 

anfwer is; "And also, because he, a mortal," of a mortal nature* 
"created the immortals," the gods of immortal nature, after he had 
consomed all his dns by the fire of worka and knonledge, therefore' is 
this snrpassing creation the efElect of perfect knowledge. Therefore 
" he who knows" thia anrpasaing creation of Fraj&pati, u proceeding 
Arom himaelf, rerilj becomes ia this anrpasaing creation like Fnytipati, 
becomes a creator hke Prty^pati. 6. 

"That which is this* was then verily nnnianifested." All V61uc 
causeSit denoted by knowledge and work, depend upon such distinc- 
tions as agent, &c„ and their ultimate reward is the acquirement of 
the state of Praj&pati iX the effect is " so much," yh. this manifested 
world. The Upaniahad ia now to show, how this manifested world, 
depending upon the connection of causes and effects, nss before its 
manifiBstatioa ta the shape of a seed (in its original shape) which ia 
inferred, as the tree is inferred from its effect, the sprout ; for thia tree 
of the world, whose seed ia work and whose field is ^orance, is to be 
taken up with its root, as by its taking up the liberation of man ia 
aceorapUshed. Thus it ia said in the K&thaka :( "Its root is above, 
its branches go downwards." The same is sud in the Gita ; " Its 
toot is above, its branches go downwards." It is also laid in a Fur&ga : 

* Thit which ii thii. Tad idsm (Uwt tbii) Bccardiog to ui Idiotism Id Snucrit, 
whcTB two demoiutr>(i*a prononoi, thii aod that, are eonaected with the uoh 
■nlqeet, ind whera tid {that) reTan to the put time, uid idam (tbii) to ths pTMent 
tima. Ths Y£d£ata freqoentlj uiea thii form of cipreuion to ihow tba Ideatitj 
of the logical anbject in ita coDoeiioD with predicato* which eidudo each other. 

t Vddaic oantei ari here came* of an; mods or form of worldl; eiiaCence, aa 
aaaerted bj the T^dsa i caaiei which lead to Gnal lil>eration from the world, are 
Muordiogljr in this puiage Dot rebrred to i Chii ii evident, nja Aaauda, od the 
ground, that a maltiplicltj of camei cuinat be a rneam of liberatioa which 1* of « 
nnifoTiD Datnre. 

t Or in other worda the nUiniate reward ia the atate oC death. — A. G. 

i Kithalu, 2 Adh. e VoUL T. I. 



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76 Brikad Aranyaka Vptmitkad. 

feated itself by name and form, aa it is eomm&nig taid t " He is 
of this name, of this form." In the same manner that which 

The eternal tree of Bramha. " That," the world in the state of a 
aeed hefore its creation, is named, on account of Us imperceptibility at 
that time, hy the pronoun " that," which denotes any thing that is no 
ohjeet of perception. The word " verily," which is the mark of a nar- 
ratiTe,* ia ased here for the object to make it easily tuderstood, that 
the world was in the state of non-manifestation, because it ia connected 
with the past time. If it is said : Thos it verily was, it ia easily under- 
stood, that the imperceptible state of the vrortd is meant, in the same 
way, as if it is said : There verily was a king Judhiathira. " Whidi is 
this." This denotes the world aa manifested by name, form and work, 
as being in the connexion of cause and effect, in the manner in which 
it has been described. The terms "that" and "this" denote the state 
of imperceptibility and peroeptibili^ of the world, and placed npoa one 
and the same subject, th^ eipress the identity of the worldin its state 
of perceptibility and imperceptibili^. The meaning is : That which 
is this, and this, which is that, was then anmaiufested. If this is the 
case, it is evident that no effect can be produced ftom any thii^ that 
does not exist, and that it cannot be destroyed from any thing that 
exists. 

" That," so described world, which waa not manifested, manifested 
itself by name and form. The reflexive formt " manifested itself" shows, 
that the soul was manifested by itself. " Itmaaifested itself," it dearly 
obtained a perceptible form (^existence, the limits of whose knowledge 
are the differences of name and form, which by its own power^ pro- 
duced the Ttlationt of ruler, agent, and depends upon the action 
of causes. " He is of this name ;" by the pronoun^ " he," which is a 

* The word for nimtiTe is Itihasi. Iti-tu-iw \ thiu Teiily it iru, which for- 
mula commoni J concluding & narratiTe in the V^dai, beciinG tlie term o[* lumtiTe 
generally. 

t KarmK Kartri, where the aigent (Kttrtri) ia iti own object (Karma.) 

X Tioi ia here tnentianed, becanse according to the Vedinta it a oeceuar;, tbit 
the world as au effect oiuat hare a caase. 

{ The word for pronoun i« in Sanscrit, SarTanima. a general name, on the mean- 
ing of which the eipo^ition, as given abate, i> founit«<l. 



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Ftrit Ckapter. Third Br&mkana. 77 

is this also then manifests itself, as it is said ; " He is of this 
name, of this form." He entered this world. 

name without distinction, & name only \& indicated. " He is of this 
name," viz. D^Tadatta, or Jajnadatta is hia name. In the same man. 
ner the piououo " this," in the sentence, he ia of this colour, denotes 
coloor generally, without distinction of white or black, &c. " That," 
unmanifested, substance, " which ia this, then," at that time, manifests 
iUelf, b; name and fonn, in the manner aa it is said : He is of this 
name, this form. 

" He,"* for whom the whole S^traf is commenced, upon whom by 
means of natural ignoraace the notions of agent, ceremony and reward 
are transferred, who is the canse^ of the whole world, from whom^ 
identical with his nature, name and form, not manifested he/ore, are 
nmoifested, as dirty foam from clear water, and who, different from 
either, name and form, of his own nature is eternal, pure, intelligent 
and free, " he," manifesting the before uamabifested name and form, 
which are identical with his own nature, "entered this world," these 
bodies from BramhfL down to inanimate matter, dependent upon works 
and the consequences thereof, and subject to death and other evils. 

* But it was sud, that the unmanifested manifested itself; how can 
it DOW be maintained, that even the supreme soul, manifesting the uu- 
manifested, entered this world ?'§ 

There is no fault in this ; _firat, because the supreme soul was meant 
under the notion of the unmanifested world ; for we said, tbat the un- 
maiufested world, which produces the relationa of a creator, agent, &c., 
and which is dependent upon the action of causes, &c., manifested 
itself; teeonily, because the term "this" ia identical with the term 
" manifested." Aa " this" means manifested, when it has obtained the 

* The Supreme Bramha. 

■f Vii. tha Vfda in id two parti, the KarmEi Kti)}4>i wbich relatei to ceremonies, 
and the Jniiia Ktiij^K, which relitei to the knowledge of Bramha. 

'X Tiz. the only cauK, without anj diffennoe of the nMdiMa «ad material cause, 
as m the Sfnkiija tjttBm. 

% In othar words, before U wat not aud al the iobI, that it manifested the 
world, bat it wai said, that the nomaiufeated maaifkated itielf. How is it there- 
fore raunUteat with that doctrine to labstitnte here the notion o( the wnl for the 
notion of the unmaaifetied. 



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78 Brihad Jram/aia Upanuhad. 

endlese difFerences of ruler of the world and other agents, of cause, Ste^ 
BO means "that" unmanifested, when it has not emitted anf of its ^ffer- 
encea. The only difierence* is, that the one is manifest, the o&er not 
manifest. In common life also the same word has different meanings 
according to the intention of the speaker, as if for instance it is sud : 
The viUage is arrived, the village u empty. Sometimes the word vil- 
lage ma; only mean the dwellings, as in the sentence : the village is 
empty. Sometimes the inhabitants may be intended, as in the sentence : 
the village has arrived. Sometimei both meanings may be intended, 
as in the sentence : let him not enter the village. Thus also in the 
present case. If it is sud : this manifested and unmanifested world, 
where there is no intention to separate them, the sonl and the non-soul 
are meant. Further, this world, sabject to prodaction and destruction, 
means the world alone. Further, the sonl, which is great, not pro- 
duced, not extended, which is not this, which is not that, means the 
soul alone. 

' But how can it he thought that ' h» entered' the world, manifested 
by the supreme manifestor, and everywhere and at every time pervaded 
by him ? For a country, which is not entered before, may be entered 
by any thing of limited extent, as for instance a village by a man, &c., 
but not by antf thinff without limit, a»/or initanee the ether, because 
from its nature it is always present. If he entered it, as a snake a 
Stone, by a modification of qualities,')' we may grant such a modification 
for the snake, but not for the supreme soul, because he entered even 
with his nature. If it be supposed, that, abiding in the effect (the world) 
he vas produced by a modification of qualities, and that by this he 
entered, as a snake, which is produced at the same time, abides in the 
stone, or water in a cocoa-nut, we object, because the Smti says ; hav* 
ing created that he entered it ; for here it is evident, that the creator 
himself, without assuming another mode of existence, when he had 
created the world, entered it afterwards. Thus it is said: having en- 

* Between tha world in iti formar and in ita prewnt lUte. 

t The anake eu be conalderad m a modificitiDn of the atone, beeiiue Moordini 
to the TMinta, both are prodactlciiu of the fin elementa ; therefore there it m 
coDtradietian la contidering the inike a modifleation of Iha fiie elemesti whieh 
abide in a atone. In the aaoie manner it may be thought, that the Infinite aODl 
entered the intellect and other creationi bj ita modificatioa as Ufa. 



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First Ch^ter. Third BrdMhoM. 79 

joyed he goes. There a)so is a matoal differeuce between the actions 
of enjoying and going, lefening to the past and present time, but the 
agmt ia the game. The lame cue is here, and it cannot be thought 
that a modificatioa of existence of him who abides in this eff'tet, is 
produced. 

Nor accoida the idea of an entrance, which denotes the separation 
from one place and the conoezioa with another, with the idea of the 
40ul, which ia without parts and without limits. If it be supposed, that 
the iSruti refers to an entrance, where parts are admitted, we deny this 
OD the authority of pich passages of the iSruti as : for he is radiant, 
without form, he is complete, without parts, without actions ; we deny 
it also on the authority of such passages as prahibit the appUcatioa of 
any differences of quaUties whatsoever to the toul. 

Nor entered he the world oa an image, as there is no separation of a 
second thing. 

Nor did he enter it as a quality utters a substance, because he does 
not depend upon any thing ; for a quality indeed, which in erery way 
depends upon another thing, is oonridered to enter a substance, but 
not so Bramha, as depending upon himself according to the 5ruti. 

Nor as a seed the fruit, because such attributes as an increase and 
decrease of its parts, a production and destruction, are assigned to this 
relation ; but there are no such attributes of Bramha, of whom it is 
said ia the Sruti : He is not produced, he is irithout age, &a. 

Nor as another separate body ; for from the passage of the Sruti : 
This deity reflected, let me manifest name and form, it ia clear that 
the same deity, which enters, also manifests and acts. Also from 
these passages ; " Having created this, he entered it," and : " Having 
opened the place, where the hura divide, he entered by this door."* 
Having considered all forma, having made all names, the hero sits 
inclined." " Thou, yoatb, or thou, O mud, thou, old man with a 
staff, spends thy time," it follows, that no other enters but the supreme 
BouLf 

• AiUMiijm Up. 3VoL 11 P.ithit li to ny, hariDg opened the niddli part o( 
the iknll, obere Um hair* dinde, he «atered tbs body bj Uiii opcnins. 

f Tba fitit put of tha ar|oiiMnt wu to prove, that it ii tb« inprana Hul nhioh 
•Nten ; the lecond ii to thow, that the anpreuw wul ii DOt affwted in it* aatnn bj 



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t)0 Brikad Araayaka Upmtiihad. 

If it be thought, that there is a multiplicity ia the Bapreme mouI, in 
consequence of the Datural differences of the things nhicfa he entered, 
we object from passages of the i^niti as ; " One god he sits at many 
places; being one, he proceeded to msny places. Thou, although 
one, hast entered many, Oue god art thou concealed in all bdjtgs 
thou pervades! all ; thou art the soul trithiu all beings." 

' We shall at present not enquire, whether the idea of entering has 
been established or not ; bat it is clear, that the supreme soul has a 
worldly form, because the things which he entered, have a worldly 
fonn, and are not different from the soul T 
We deny this, because the iSrutt says : He OTercomes death. 
If it is thought that he is in a worldly state, on the ground that ho 
is subject to happiness and unhappiness, we object ; for the iSniti says : 
*' He is not tainted with the unhappiness of the world, he is free from 
it." 

If you say, this is improper, because it ia at rariance with percep- 
tion,"*^ we do not agree, because the difference in objects of perception or 
other sources of knowledge is only produced by the notion of depend* 
ance on attributes.f Such passages of the Srati as ; " Thou doest not 
behold the beholder of the visible." " How could one know him who 
knows I" Unknown is he who knows — prove that knowledge has no 
reference to the soul.^ 

To what then? Knowledge from perception, declared in such sen- 
teuces as : 1 am happy, I am unhappy, is the object of the image of 
the soul, which is reflected in the intellect and in other attributes. 

The same is also shown by the fiction of the identity of the percep- 
tible object (the body) and the subject which perceives (the soul) in a 
sentence like this, I am this$ (body). It follows also Jri^m the pas- 
aageofthe Qruti : " There ia none else but him who sees," by which 
the idea of another «oul is prohibited. 

If you say, that happiness end unhappmees are qualities of the body, 

* With iadivldiul perception, u in coromoD life, people uj: I «m happy, I *m 
nnbapp;. 

t AdcI therefore not bj the loiil, ■« attribDlsi do not really beloDg to tb« ton). 

t AccDrdingt; no perception, for iastance, I am happy. I am anhappr. 

$ Became here the lonl, which ia endowed with the perceptible object, the body, 
la an object ot perception, and thererore the icul in itielf ii not In a irorldlj tUta. 



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Firtt a^ter. Fmrtk SrAHhtata. 81 

becaiue botb mut be predietted of parts of the body,* and that thfre- 
fon from the passage of the Srati i " For the aake of the desire of tba 
sonV't ^ ■* improper to maiatain, that the loal is free from tha 
waild f— we da not agree, because the passage of the Sn&. : " Where 
it is, as it were^ some other thing," shon, that it is for the sake of 
the soul, which is in the state of ignorance. From snch passages t 
*'Kow can it behold anf one." <B. A. 4th A. 5tb B. 15. Bib. 
I. V. II. p. 929.) "There is no difference whatsoerer mth r^ard 
to him. (K. U. 4th. V, 11. B. I. V. VIII. p. 130.) " There is no 
delusion, no grief." (Vij. 8. U. 7. B. I. Vol. VIII. 14) which refer 
to knowledge, it also follows, that unhappineas, as prohibited in them, 
is DO quaUty of the eonl. 

If it is said, ' that the nnworldlj state of the sonl eannot fas admitted 
M contradictory to the aigument of logicians',^ we deny this, because by 
reasoning also it can be proved that the soul is free from nnhappiness ; 
for nnhappiness, which is an object of perception, cannot be attribnted 
to the sonl, which is no object of perception. If you say, ' that unhap- 
pinees is in the same manner a fMility of the sonl, as the sound is » 
quality of the etber,'( we deny this, becanse the sonl and nnhappi* 
Bess are not objects of one and the same kind of knowledge ;y for « 
knowledge of nnhappiness, which is an object of perception, can never 
become an object of the soul, which is eternal, and can only be known 
by inference. Vuhappineit cannot heeome an ohjeet o/tke toul/or 
tiu rmuoH also, that the soul, as one, is no object of anything 
wbatsoerer. 

* On th« gronnd, that etetj ooo who feeli pain ar pleuare in anf part of the 
bodjr, refen thii put to hlmaelf, ti if one Mji, " mj head ichei." 

t Tlwdedniifhap^iNM; bntlf happinen ii ^nted, tb« etmtrtir niut be 
alio admitted, btCMte YmOt art InwpiraUa. 

{ Of the Taii'sihika*, Boeordiiij to wbon the toal bwlba follewiiiK foortMa 
qnalitief : kitdleet, ploMon, paia, detin, aTenion, endwTenr, nnmbet, qvaatitf , 
tejtnltj, coDJanction and diquuction, facaltf , merit and demerit. 

{ Til. the aoDDeiioR betireen fabitauce and qaUitf, which eitiM betireeQ ethei 
■>d aoond, of whieh Ibe one (aoud) la peresptibU, the other (ethei) not peraepti- 
Uc, maj aim odat batweta aosl and happlaste. 

U Thia ii in aooordanoa with the principle, that where there ia ■ reletMa between 
qoelitj aad eaWiaw, tbesa are both peioeiiad by one and Uie Mue kind (aource) 
of knowkdfe, H for Initaaea a jar and iti white oolonr. 



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83 Brilutd A'ram/aka VfWtukml. 

If jea muntain, < that, Uke a light, the loul, altbeagli M^ !■ ait 
object and manifests objects,' ne do not agree, because this is impossible 
at one and the same time,* and because the soul has no parts. Hence 
the idea, that there is a perception of knowledge, and that knowledge 
it at the same time percnred, cannot be admitted witA rt/erenee ta 
ihv aouL 

If it is said : ' Unh^piness and soul, the one of which is bd object 
of perception, the other of inference, are in relation of quality and sab- 
•tance, as maj be known by inference ; for nnhappinees is constantly 
an object of perception, and has an equal dependence i^on a ntbattmee, 
asfbrmhas,' &c. Accordingly, as nnhappinessisjwreetvM/fiyfAeeovf 
through its union with the mind, such attributes aa multiplicity, 
ebangeableness and transientness, must be also assigned to the aool ; 
for, without a change in the substance which is in contact, it is nowhere 
found that a quality is added or remored. Nor haa it at any time 
been found that a lubstance which changes, la without parts, or that 
a Bubstanee whose qualities are trannent, is eternal. Nor is the ether 
eonsidered as an eternal thing by those who follow the 5mti. Nor it 
there any other case.t If yon say, " that a thing, although it changes 
nay be eternal, because the knowledge, ' that is this,' yet remaina," — 
we deny this, because the notion of change cannot be thought without 
the notion of a change of the parts of the thing. 

And if you say, ' that a thing which has parts, may also be eternal,* 
we deny this, because a thing that haa parts, must before hare been 
joined by a union of its parts, by which the idea of a separation is 
established. 

If you say, ' that this is contrary to perception, aa if you see light- 
ning,' we object, because we conclude that its parts have been joined 
before. Therefore it is iropossible to conceive the idea that the soul ia 
the site of unbappiness and other transient qualities. 

And if you say, * on the suppoution that the supreme aeul is irith- 
ont unhappineiH, and that there exists no other soul which is unhappy ; 

* In aeeordaiKe with the doctrina of the Njir*r 1>*t tia ndncl, tliroagli whow 
•geDCf mtrj objsot, oztenul or intcmil, U le p i wa ted to the loal, G*n onlf 
paraeiTe one objeot tX one tiine. 

t Tbe nippadtiDii of ilomi U meant ; for tha ontence of atoau emBot be 
proved bj uj nidence. . 



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Pifat Ckapier. BoartJt SrdmAMM. 8S 

the S'&stra, wlueh ii comntenoed for the psrpoie to nmora unhippineu, 
uhkIcm,' we object, becaase it has the pnrpoie to deitroy the illamoB 
of unhappinesa, which is placed Mpom tie »oul bjr ignonmce. And also 
becauae the unhappinesa of the loul is only fictitioiis, and U rtmoced in 
the tame way, aa a miitake in counUng a commaa nnmber, in which the 
person who coonts, himself is included.* 

As the image of the min, &c. enters the water, so the entrance of 
the Boat means the perceptibiUty 0/ the twl in tU efPect which is mani' 
fested like a reflection. Before the prodnctioa 0/ tlu wtrtd the aoni 
is not pereeired ; afterwards being perceived within the Intellect in the 
effect which is created, manifested, aa the reflection of the inn &c. it 
perceived in water, &c. it is defined, as it were, as entering after the 
creation of the effect. This is evident, for example, from the follow- 
iagpasaages: 

■ " He entered this world." (B. A. U. 1st Adh. 3d B. 7. B. I. 
Vol. II. p. 155.) " Hanng created this world, he veril; entered it." 
(Taittariya V. 2d Adh. «th Ann. B. I. VoL VII. p. 90.) "Havu^ 
opened the place, where the hair is divided, he entered by this door." 
(Aitt. V. 3 Kh. 12 \aigA fi. I. Vol. VII. p. 198.) "Thisdeity 
reflected; Verily, I am these three deities." (Chh. U. 6th Prapa. 3 
Kh. B. I. Vol. III. p. 406.) " Having entered by this life, soul, &c." 
(Chh. U. 6th Prapa. 3d Kh. B. I. Vol. III. pp. 407—411.) 

7!Aia M meant by the entering of the eoul, but tee aay, it is impossi- 
Ue, that the etnU which is all-pervading and without parte, has ever 
a real entrance,, the notion of which is to proceed from one part of ipacei 
place, or time to another. 

Moreover there is nothing else bnt the snpreme soul, as we said 
before in accordance with such passages of the Sraii as the following i 

* TUi Memi to rehr to the following UIb. Ten fliandi having arowed a dangsr' 
gu rivar, wan ■nziani to know, wbetfaer taj nf tbsm had twea loit, ind iccnrd- 
inglf one of tbem csmmaocEdto count, bnt Bmitttag; tiiimeK (A'tma, meuiinf 
the (onl ud hinuelf,) found of coarse, that than were onlf nine. The others 
ineceseiTeIr counted alio, but dirfng it in the same manner aa the first, the re- 
mit was the same. Upon this thej thought, that one had perished in the 
rirer, and broke out in lamentation*. A stranger who puicd bj, perceived the 
canaa of their error, and explaining U to them astisractorily, changed their diatrcM 

H 2 



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84 Brikad A'rttMfaia VpOKuiad. 

Until the ends oi the maU, aa a razor is placed in a nam- 
caae, or Viswambhara in the duelling of Vlswambhara. They 

" Than is nothing else that sees, bean, &c. but 1m." (B. A. 3rd 

A. 6th B. 11. B. 1. Vol. II. p. 637.) 

And the notions of creation, entranee, preaerTatioij, and destruction 
are atorely fonned fw the apprehension of ike aoul. Again the ap- 
prebennon of tit »oal is nijonwd for the sake of 6inl Kberation, 
which is erident from inch passages of the Smti as ; 

•' He knew the sool." (B. A. Ist Adh. 4th B. 10. B. I. Vol. II. p. 
196.) ''Therefme be was this all." (B. A. p. 209.) "He wbo 
knows Bramha, obtains liberatton." (Taitt. 2d A. 1 AnuT. 1 Kb. 

B. I. Vol. VII. p. 37.) " He who knows the supreme Bramha, verily 
becomes Bramfaa." (3 Mub4. U. 2 Kh. 9 M. B. I. and Vol. VIII. 
p. 323.) "The person who has a teacher, knowi Brawthm." {Cbh. 
U. 6 Prapa. 14 Kh. B. I. Vol. 111. p. 459.) " He Utes u long" (ash* 
has nut obtained liberation.) (Chh. U. fitb P. 14th Kl. B. I. Vol. III. 
p. 460). It is also erideat from passages of the 8mriti as : " Then 
forthwith." (Bh. 6. 18th Adh. 55.) Baring known me in troth, he 
enters me. " For it (the knowledge of Bramha) is the highest knowledge; 
for immoitality is thereby gained." (Mans 8. 12tb Add. 85.) 

And the passages with regard ta a creation, &c. serve for the pur- 
pose to eslablisb the knowledge of the identity c^ the soul, becanse the 
notion of difierence is pmhiWted. Therefoie the entrance means the 
peroeptibilitj t^the *ouI, as far as it abides in its effect. 

" Until the ends of the ntuls." (Vide. p. 78.) This means, to the 
ends of the nailstbe conscioosness of the soul extends. How did he enter 
the world T The answer is : Aa in common life, " a razor is pereeived aa 
placed in a raior-case, or as Viswambhara, which meana fire, — so called 
from its supporting (bfaara), the world, Viswa, — is concealed in a nest, 
▼is. in wood, &c., — it is there j for on rubbing wood, &c. fire is per- 
ceived, — and as a rnzor is placed on one siile of the case, and aa fire 
is everywhere pervading wood, &c, bo, the soul, generally and speci- 
ally, abides pervading the body. For there it is observed, performiog 
the functions of inspiration, &c. and of seeing, &c. Therefore " they 
do not bdiold," do not apprehend " him" tbe aonl, which has entRed 
there, endowed as it is with inspiration, &c., seeing and othec functions. 



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rtra Ouster. Fourth JMmkmia. 85 

do not behold \Am. For when incomplete, vhen tnipiring only, 
it is called life, when speaking, apeech, when aeeing, sight, when 



But is ngt in the Bentence ; " They do not behold him," a prohi- 
bition of a thing, which has not been obtained before T for, no donbtt 
the beholding has not been obtained in our text. 

There is no fault in this, for in the passages, relative to the creation, 
preaenatioit, &e, which were directed towards the acquirement o^ the 
knowledge, that the soul is identical, the beholding (knowledge) of it 
(of &e *onl> has been int? odnced. Ihna a Mantra declares : " Bniig 
of this and that form, he became every form for the sake of being 
seen." (Kath. U. 5 V. 9-10 Mantr. B. I. VoL VIII. p. 138. B. K. 
U. 2 A. 5 firamh. 19 Eh. B. I. Vol. It. p. 600 p. 23.) 

The reason, why the toul having the functions of inspiration, expirO' 
tioH, ftc. is not apprehended, is given in the words : " For when in- 
complete ;" because it is not perfect, when inspiring or performing 
other functions. Whence again proeeedt the incompleteness T The 
answer is : for bj " inspiring" perfonning the function of inspiration 
(Prii^sna) it is called life (Fr^a) for by performing the function of 
inspiration (Pr^na) life (Pr^a) inspires, that is to lay, performs no 
' other fonctioD, as a wood-eutler, or a cook if so ealied from hit tpe-, 
tial work. Thereibre because it does not include the other functions, 
it is incomplete. 

In the same manner, " when speaking," performing the function of 
■peaking, it is called speech, " when seeing," it is called sight ; foi. 
because the beholder sees (chasbte) therefore it is called eye (chakthn :) ; 
when hearing (srinwan), it is called ear (srotram.) By the words t 
"when inspirit^ it is called life, when speaking, speech," the origia 
of the power of action is shown, by the words " when seeing, sight, 
when hearing, ear," the origin of the power of knowledge ; for the 
objects of the power of knowledge are name and form ; for nothing ia 
an object of knowledge, unless having name and fonn. The organs 
of perceiring them are the eye and the ear, and the action, to be 
performed by name and form, is intimately united with life. The 
organ of the manifestation ofihU action, which depends upon life, is 
the word. In (his manier speech is mentioned here iu illustratioo of 



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86 < BrUuid J'rm^aia Vpaiutkad. 

hearing, ear, when minding, mind. These are the names of its 
actions. Whosoerer worships one or the other special being, 
separate from that totality, he does not know, for that soul is 
incomplete ; it is determined by this or that individual funcUon. 
The soul ; considering this, let a man worship it ; for in it all 
these differeneet become one. 



the other organs of action, vii. the hand, foot, and the organs of ex- 
cretion and generation ; for it will afterwarda be said : " for this all 
is manifested, or this threefold, name, form and action," (B. A, 
2d A. Ist B. iBt Kh. B. I. Vol. 11. p. 313.) 

. " When minding, mind." Mind (mana -.) is derived from minding 
(mannt€), and it is th« general organ of the manileatation of the power 
of knowledge. 

Tbeie namea of inspiration, &c. are the name* of "ita," the soul's, 
' actions,' that is to say, produced from actions. They are names of 
action, as it were, but not objects of the Eubstimce, (of the soul) alone ; 
therefore they do not manirest the whole substance of the soulj for in 
this manner the soul, although manifested by the action of inspiration, 
&c. and by its forms and names, derived from its different actions, m 
atUl not completely apprehended. 

. "Whosoever worships this or the other special being, — " separated 
from its totality as inspiration, &c. for instance life, or the eye, as a 
being, unmodified by the totality of the other special actions, — tehoto- 
ever wortAipi IhU in his mind under the notion, that it is the soul, 
" he does not know" Bramha. Why ? " for that soul is incomplete," not 
whole, because this soul, ai separated from this totality of inspiratioo, 
&c. teeing, SfC. and determined only by one or the other determining 
action, excludes all the other attributes. As long as a person knows 
himself only as determined by the activity of his own nature, which 
appears in such sentences as j " I see," *' I hear," " I touch," &c. 
so long he does not know perfectly the complete soul. 

How sgain seeing does be know T The text answers : " The soul i" 
for it is called soul (Atma) because it unites (obtuns, Apanvan) all 
the above mentioned different functions of life, &c. The sonlt in this 
manner including all differences, becomes all ; for onlj in iU. notion as 



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■abttanice it imitea (obtains) the differeaecfl, produeecl by actions of 

inspintioD, &c. which are the fictitiooi attribute* of Ike $tml. For 
instance it will be sud ; " fie thinks, as it were, he proceeds, as it 
were." (B. A. 4th A. 3rd B. 8th Kh. B. I. Vol. II. p. 730.) Thecer 
fore "The Bonl, cotiiddering this, let a man worship it ;" for in this 
manner the whole aonl is comprehended bjr its own nodon as sab- 
stance. Whf is it the whole ! Under this donbt it ia said tn the 
text 1 " For in it," " for," becaose, " in it," in this soal, when roxn- 
dered without fictiUons attribntes, like the different reflections of the 
ann in water, the above mentioned difibrences as life, &c. which are 
fictitious attributes of the toul, and bear different names from 
their different functions as inspiration, &c " become one," obtain 
indifference, therefore "the soul; conndering this, let a man wor- 
ship it." 

The passage : " The sonl ; considering this, let a man worship, it is 
pot a regulation, hj which the acquirement of something not acquired 
before is enjoined, as it is acquired on our part ; for the knowledge 
whose object is the sonl, is produced by passages of the SrxW, intended 
to produce the idea i^the supreme soul, for instance 3 " That present, 
perceptible Bramha," (B. A. 3rd A. 4th B. 2 Kh. B. I. Vol. II. p. 
575.) "'Which is soul." (B. A. 4th A. 3rd B. 1st Kh. B. I. Vol. II. 
p. 723.) Whose nature is knowledge &c. (B. &. p. 305.) 

There by the knowledge of the nature of the soul is removed the 
ignorance which is the misunderBtonding that the non-soul is the sou], 
snd which creates the fictions of agent, &c. rite and reward. If this 
^^noraneeis removed, the thinking of the nou-sonl is impossible, because 
desires and other fonlts are impossible. It remains at last only the 
thinking of the sonl. Therefore the worship of the soul is on our part 
not enjoined ; for it is acquired. 

We will not now discuss, whether the acquirement of the worship 
of the sonl is called proceeding from the text, or permanent, but at any 
rate it is regulation for something not acquired before, because, if 
knowledge and worship are the same, it was not acquired before, and 
the identity of the terms of " knowtet^e" and " worship," is evident 
from the passage of lie Sruti, commencing : " He does not know," 
irhere knowledge is praised, and conduding ; "The soul; conridering 
tlu^ let a man worship it," (B. A. p. 173), for by snch pusages of 



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88 BriKad A'rmtyaka Vpattukad. 

theSnitiMi "B^thia he knowi tbii kU." (B. X. p. 185), andi 
<■ He kavr the Bottl," &c. (B. A. p. 198), knowledge is the Bame u 
worabqi, and as it vaa not acquired before, it is also the object of a 
rule. 

Nor show people any actirit;, if only the natnre of a thing is 
related. Therefore that passage is a i^;nlation for acquiring sonae- 
thing not acquired before. 

This follows also from its being identical with a regulation conceni- 
ing rites. As the regulations concerning rites enjoin by snch irorda 
as ; " Let him sacrifice," " let him offer," eo by nmilar words as : 
" Let a man worship it," and i " The soul should be seen," &c. 
the wor»Kip of the amtlia enjoined, wherefore there appears no dif- 
ference between a regolation enjoining the worship of the supreme soiil 
and the former reffulaliont. 

This follows also from the reason, that knowledge is an act of 
the mind. As a person, by whom an oblation is taken for a A&tj, 
■hould reflect on this deity in his mind, before performing a sacrifice^ 
which is commenced by the word : " Vashad," by which this and 
other ceremonies are proved si acts of the mind, so the passage : 
"Let a man worship," indicates, that the «oti/ is to be thought of, 
to be meditated upon, (B. X. A, 2d A. 4th B. 5th Kb. B. I. V. ZI. 
p. 450,) and that the act therefore refers to knowledge. In this 
manner we maintaiaed that the terms " to know" (V^) and " to 
worship" had the same meaning. 

This follows also from the reason that our paeiage possesses the 
three parts of a regulation. For instance in the regulation : " Let 
him sacrifice," &c, vii. what, by what means, and how, the three parts, 
by which future desires are removed, clearly appear. In the same 
manner, if the regulation ; " I<et a man worship," is about to be fixed, 
and at the same time the intentioa, what is to be worshipped, by what 
mesas or how, the three parts are established by a passage like this : 
" Let him who is intent on the duties of abstinence (from desires that 
are forbidden) of the observances of a religious student, of tranquillity 
and self-restraint, of restmg (from all ceremonies), endunmce, &c. 
worship the soul by the mind." 

And as by the enunriadon of the r^olation for the Dara'^>dinanasa, 
ftc the appUc&tioa of all its parts it ettabUtitd, ho by the enoBciatioa 



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firtt Chapter. Fourth BrAmhaiui. 59 

oftherrgolatinn for tlie worship of the soul it eitaUished the iip|ili- 
CKtioQ of the Bubjeet of the iroTship af the loul rS fouod in «// the 
UpMiisbwld. The application of pau^ea as : "He is not this, be is 
not th«L (B. A. 2d A. 3 B. Gth K. B. J. 7. 11. p. 435.) " Without 
STOsa hoAj," one, without duality. (Chb. U. 6 P. 2 K. p. 387.) 
"He orercomes death," &c. ia made by showing the speciality of 
the nature of the soul which is to be worshipped. And the reward is 
liberation or cessation from ignonuice., 

Others say i ' By worshipping should be produced another special 
knowledge whose object is the soul. By this alone the soul is known, 
and ignorance also removed. The knowledge, produced by the word of 
the Vdda, has not the soul for its object. Thii sense b also supported 
by RQch passages as : " Hanng known, let him form Am knowledge i" 
" He is to be seen, to be heard, to be thought of, to be contemplated, 
to be searched, to be enquired." ' 

We do DOt admit the latter view, because its meaning does not differ 
from the former. Nor ia the passage ; "The soul, therefore, let him 
warship it," a regulation for sometliing, not acquired before. Why t 
The words, referring to the nature of the soul, have no otlier meaning, 
of any thing to be dune by the mind or the external senses, beside the 
knowledge, produced by the prohibiting sentences with reference to 
ihe non-soul.* For there a rule has taken effect, where, beaide 
the knowledge produced by merely bearing the words, a person 
is observed as engaged in its execution, aa by the rule of tbs 
Dars'aplinjamiaa : " Let him, who is desirons of heaven, sacrifice ;" 
for the knowledge, produced by the words for the regulation of the 
Dara'apArpamtlsa, ia not alto the performnnce of its ceremonies. This 
is dependent on a perfect knowledge and the other requisites ; hut 
here, on the other hand, beside the knowledge, produced by the passage 
riz. " He is not ttiis, he is not tliat," establishing the idea o/itie soul, 
there arises no activity, asit does with regard to the ceremonies of the 
Dars'apdrgamdsa, ftc. and this far the reason, that the knowledge, pro- 
dueed by that passage, causes the cessation of every activity ; for 
the knowledge of ■ person who is unconcerned in any worldly affair, 
* That iato uy. the KDtmcM which declare the natare of thti loal, hne the 
nme meaning ■■ seDteacu, which prohibit to comprehend the sonl bj attribate* 
of the Don>soQl. 



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90 Brikad Arauyaka Vpaniakad, 

does not produce activity, because such sentences as ; " He is one 
wahont duaUty." (Chh. U. 6 Prap. 2 Eh. B. J. Vol. III. pp. 387, 
389,398.) "Thatartlbou," (&c.pp.448,4a7,453.455, 461.) anni- 
hilMs the knowledge reletiie to non-Brsmhs, or the non-soul. And 
this knowledge \\t^n% annihilated, no desirs tot acUon arises ; fur it 
would be contrsdictoiy. 

If it is said, ' that by the knowledge alone, produced by such pas- 
■ages {as established the nature pf Braniha) there is no annihiUtJon of 
the koowtedge of a non-Bramha, or a non-soul,' we contradict, because 
it is proved by snch passages as : " That art thou," " It ia not this," 
" It is not that," " This is the soul," " One immortal Braniha without 
duality is this," " There is none who sees, fte. but him," " Know thia 
alone u Btamha." (Kaoa U. 4, B. I. Vd. VIII. p. 43.) 

Nor do thost paMaget set forth the object of a rule with reference la 
Sramha to be seen, &g. because this, as we already said, doea not 
differ from the meaning Rnt stated. And we said before, that,— because 
by passages, setting forth the true nature of the soul, jgnch as: 
"That art thou," the knowledge of the soul wm estsblished at the 
time of hearing them, — no performance, different from the regalatioD 
for the object of the seeing, was necessary.* 

1 . If you ssy, ' that, without a rule, by the mere declaration of the 
nature of the sonl, a knowledge of the soul could not arise,' we object, 
because the knowledge of ihe soul is produced by hearing passages 
setting forth the soul, and why do you want to do once more what 
baa been done already T 

2. If you sey, ' knaieledge doea not arise by hearing snch pas- 
sages,' we do not admit this, because we should otherwise have a 
retrogress in infinitum. For as (according to your opinion) by hearing 
the meanings of passages, declaring the sonl, without a regulation, 
knowledge doea not arise, it would follow, that also by hearing the 
meanings of the words of the regulation, knowledge could not arise 
without a regulation, and this would require another regulation. 

* Where ibeo ia the regalutiDQ ? If there is one, it either likes i^lsce— I, with 
Teference to the knowledge of the soal, or 2, to the hearing of the p«sagd, settiiig 
forth the knowledge of the tonl, or 3, to the contiDuitioa of the recollactioD of its 
■MiniD;, or 4, to tlis snMaing of the itita of tha mipd. Bat in all tbeie cues it 
is impoiiible, as will be ibooii preaentlr. A. G. 



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Fir»t Chapter. Fourth BrdmAana. 91 

The same would take place oa heariBg the Utter, bo that a retcogreu 
in infinitnm is evidtal, (by your atwuuiption.) 

3. Further, if you asiume, * that by the contiaiution of the recol- 
lection of the knowledge of the soul, ariiiug from Fid/tie paangeij 
a meaning u produced, different from the knowledge of what, ia 
merely heard, (and that therefore a regulation ia neoeBaar;)' we do 
not agree on the ground, that the meaning has been obtained. At the 
time indeed that the knowledge, whose object ii the loul, ariaee fronk 
hearing paaaages which produce the idea o/the sou), at the lame time 
this knowledge, at the moment of its production, nanihilatea the false 
knowledge with reference to itself. And if the false knowledge whose 
object is the soul, ia annihilated, tbe nattiral recollections aleo, which 
are tbe effects of that /alte inouiledffe and which manifest the differ- 
ences of a substance not the eoul, cease to eiist. 

This follow* also from the knowledge of tbe unreality o/everg other 
thinff i for if the knowledge of the Boul is true, it is alio known, that 
erery other snbstMice ia unreal, as tainted with trannentness, nnhappt- 
ness, impurity and many other faults ; also from the fact, that the sob- 
■tance of the soul ia free from them. Therefore, if the sonl is known, 
there are no longer any recollections of a knowledge with reference to a 
uon-Boul. And as at last there exists in reality a continual recollection 
of [he knowledge only of the soul, no regaUtion can be established. 

This follows also from the anirihilation of alt fuilts, as grief, delusion, 
fear, weariness and other kinds of unhappiness ;* for grief, delusion 
and other faults arise from a knowledge, contrary to that recollec- 
tion, as is proved by soch passagea of the 5ruti as : " What delugibn ia 
there." (Vajaa. S. U. U. I. Vol. Vli. p. 14.) " The wise is not 
afraid." " You hare, Janaka, obtained fearlessleas." (Br. A. p. 
702.) " The bunds ef the heart are broken," &c. <Mi^iij. 2d Kh. 
8th M. B. I. Vol. VII. p. 302.) 

4. If you say, < but then subduing haa another meaning i there- 
tore there ought to be a regulation ; for the subduingof the state of the 
mind (Cbitta) has a meaning different from the knowledge, produced 
by the words of the ¥^da. And in other philoaopbical syatemsf also 

* This nu7 alio be r«ndcretl .... uid olber kiadi of nnbappfMit, which it 
effected b; tliM lecvllcetion ; lot grief, delnnan and other finlta >ri*e from a 
contrary knowledge. f In the YogoMiitra. 

N 2 



:ecb>G00glc 



92 Brihad Aranyaka Vjpanuhad. 

the nature of r rule is knonn by thnt nhich is to be done.' We deny 
this, because it (the subduing of the stnte of the mind) ut not known u 
effecting liberation ; far in the V&linta nothing else but tbe knowledge 
of the soul as BrarnhB is considered as effecting the finfti end of man. 
This follows from a hundred passages such ss these: " Be knows the 
soul alone; hence he became this all." (B. A. p. 209.) "The knower 
of Bramha obtains the supreme Brttmha." (Tsittirija U. 2d. A. 1 A. 
1. M. B. I, Vol. VII. p. 51.) "Whosoever verily knows the supreme 
Bramha, becomes Bramha." " A person who has « teacher, knows." 
(Ghh. 6th P. ] 4th E. B. J. V. III. p. 459.) " To him all becomes for 
erer withont fear." "Whosoever tbuB knows, becomes Britmha," See. 

Moreover the aforetaid subduing depends not upon another cause ; 
for beside the uninterrupted recollection of the knowledge of the soul, 
no other cause exisis for the subduing of the state of the soul, and ia 
this sense it has been stated before ;* without a knowledge of Brambu, 
however, nothing can be thought as cause of liberation. 

Fnrther, there is no intention, and therefore is no regulation. What 
has been said before, 'that, as an intention with regard to a regula- 
tion, — for instance when it is said: " Let him sacrifice," where the 
three parts of a regulation, vis. what, by what means, and how, are 
present,— is removed by underttanding the effect, cause and the 
necessary acts, so it is also here established with reference to the 
regulation for the knowledge of the soul,' we say, this is not true, be- 
cause every intention is annihilated at the very time, when the meaning 
of passages as the following is understood : " One even without dua- 
lity." " That art thou." " He is not this, be is not that." " That 
sou), which is not within, which is not without, is Bramha," &c. 

Nor is the application of a regulation possible, in order to understand 
the meaning of a sentence. And we have already explained the fault of 
a regress in infinitum, following from the application of another rule. 

Further, no rule can be understood to proceed from passages such as : 
" One Bramha even without duality," because it is abolished by the 
declaration of the nature of the soul. 

And if you say, 'there is no proof that this takes place by the 
mere declaration of the nature of a substance. For instance as in the 

* Vii. that the itite of the mind, beside the knowledge of tbe lou), h*i no other 



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Fu-tl Chapter. Fourth Brdmhana. 93 

paassge : " He wept (aradit) ; because he wept, therefore Hudra (a 
name of fire) obtained the aame of Rudra," (Taitt, 8.5thPr. Ist Kh.) 
there is do proof by the mere declaration of the nature of the lubstance, , 
BO there is also no proof in passagei, setting forth the nature of the soul,' 
— we object, because there is a difference. Neither the declaration of 
the nature of a thing, nor the decUration of rites is the cause of the 
proof or uou-proof of a passage (>^M«F^(fa«, bat it is the production of 
knowledge, united with ita necessary effect. Where such a passage is 
met with, it is also proved, and where not, it is not proved. 

Moreover we would ask yoa : Do you admit, that in passages, 
engaged io declariog the nature of firamha, a determined knowledge, 
which is at the same time nnited with its effect, is produced, or is not 
produced 7 If it is produced, why is it not proved ? Do you not see 
the effect of the knowledge in the disappearance of the faults of ig- 
norance, grief, delusion, fear, &c. which are the causes of the world? 
Or do you not bear : What delusion, what grief is there for oue who 
knows the identity. (V. U. X. 7, p. 14.) "I know even Hantraa, 
not the soul." " Being such, U most venerable, I am grieved. vene- 
rable, do teach me to overcome grief." And of the same kind there are 
a faandred other passages of the Upanishads. 

Is then in such passages as ; " He wept," &c. the knowledge a 
determined one and nnited with its efilect, or u it not F If it is not, 
we may admit, that there is no proof for it. If there is no proof for it, 
what does it matter with reference to the passage, produong the know- 
ledge, which is determined and nnited with its effect T And if there 
is no proof for the latter, what confidence csn be placed in passages, 
referring to the Darsiplirnam&a and other ceremonies ? 

' Bnt are the passages, referring to the DarsApiirpamisa and other 
ceremonies, not proved by their producing akoowledge, causing man to 
actf The same is not found in passages, referring to the knowledge 
of the soul.' 

This is true ; however, it is no fault, because we have obtained 
that which is the cause of proof. The cause of proof, namely, is what 
has before been mentioned,* and nothing else.'f This, however, is 

* Vii. uush puugei <i prodnce a knoirledga wbich U deleiauned and at the 
Moie tima aniwd with iti effeol. 

t For tbs cwu« of ■ proof is neithet Ihtt which pmdacei ■ knowledge, bj which 



:ecb>G00glc 



9i Brihad Araia/aka VpanuAad, 

rather a merit than a fault, becniue, if there is something, producing 
a knowleilge united with, itj effect, which annihilates the cause of 
, every action, it cannot be munttuned, that there is no proof of the 
passives, producing the knowledge of the soul, 

' But passi^s, mentioned before, such as : " Having known, let him 
form Am knowledge," are rather destined for the cause of worship, 
without the knowledge of the meanings of the passages.' This «< 
admit; but they do not refer to a rule for aoroething not aci^aired 
before, but to what has been necessarily acquired in our text. 

'How again can the worship of the tout have beeu acquired ia the 
text ? For it has been said, that by tht annihilation of the tum-totUi 
there remains at last (he permanent continuation of the recollection of 
the knowledge of the soul.'* Very good. If this is the case, although 
perfect knowledge has been obtained, yet by the necessary effects of 
works which are the causes of the assumption of a body (transmigra^ 
tion) activity will be indispensable ; for action, having gained entrance 
in word, thought and body, b more powerful than ia the velocity 
of arrows, &c. when in motion. Hence the ef&cacy of knowledge, 
acquired in the course of discussion, is weak. Therefore we said before, 
that the uninterrupted recollection of the knowledge of the soul ii (o 
be effected by dependance upon the force of t^andoning all worldly 
deairea, of indifference to them and of the other essential cauees ; but it 
ii not a regulation for something, not acquired before, because tkt idea 
of A necessity to act has not been obtained. Accordingly such pas- 
sages as ; " Having knonn let him form bis knowledge," are intended to 
establish a rule for the unintermpted recollection of a knowledge, which 
ia obtained ; for another meaning is impossible. 

• By employing the term " considering this," (vide. p. 86.) the 
worship of the non-soulf (under the idea of ihe soul) is rather enjoiaed, 

action i« produced, becauie atberwise no proof of (laiugei were potaible, bj whidi 
•omething ia forbidden, — nor tiiaC which prodoco • knoniedge prohibitory of an 
action, became othermiie do proof of paisagea were jjoiiible which enjoin action, 
— nor that wliich i< diBerent from either, becBUie,ia tliia caie, no proof were poui> 
ble ia accorilance with the firit gupporation. 

* That i« to laj, It lia* not been obtained from the teit, but from looirthing 
elte, not connected with it, vii. the annihilation of the idea of ttie non<ionl. 

t Tbla ia an ohjectioD in the view of the SankU^u viz. tbe noa-tanl ii the 



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Firti Chapter. Ftmrtk Srdmkafa. 93 

u if it w«re sttiU : " tlie dear, conaiderinf; thti woralup it." Here ii not 
theqiulitf of "dear" to be morah'ippei, hut the worthip o/iift, &c. 
which has the quality of " dear," &c. ia here enjoined. la the same 
manner it must also be understood in tlie passage under consideration, 
that bj employiDg the term " the supreme toul," the substance of the 
non-soul, determined by tbe qualities of the soul, is to be worshipped. 
This is also clear from tbe difference of that passage from any other, 
where tbe worship of the loul is enjoined. Thus for insUnce it wilt 
aderwardB be sud ; " Worship tbe soul as the place of dependance" 
la this sentence the worship of the soul is eridently intended by using 
the accusative case. In the sentence under conuderation, bowerer, 
the AccnsnliTe is not employed, and tbere " the soul, considering this 
worship" tbe term " soul" means something different. Therefore it is 
evident, that not tbe worship of tbe soul is enjoined, but of something 
else possessed of the qualities of the soul.' 

We deny this, for aa at tbe end of the passage tbe idea of the wor- 
ship of the soul ia understood j it is also understood, that the sonl alone 
is to be worshipped, viz. " This, even this is to be conceived in this bI), 
viz. this soul," " Because this soul ia more intemsl," '■ He knew tbe 
ioul." 

If you say ' that there does not arise tbe notion of tbe worship (of 
the sonl) as tbe beholding is pmhifaited for him who entered ) for which 
sonl is said to enter, for the same the beholding is forbidden, sg it is 
evident from the passage, obtained iu the text, viz. " They do not 
behold him," (p. 85.) Accordingly the soul is no object of worship.' 

We deny this, for the beholding is merely prohibited, in consequence 
of tbe fault of non-totality, with the intention to guard against the 
fault of non-totality, not with the intention to guard against the wor- 
ship of the soul, because the sonl ts determined in that patiage by the 
differences of inspiration and other actions. 

And if you say, ' that tbe worship of the soul was not intended,' the 
consequeace were, that the passage, referring to the non^totality of the 
soul, which is determined by individaal functions, aa inspiration, &;c. 

FradUns (tbe chief) or Mlili Prakriti (natare M ibe raot of all thingi) whieb, 
■cuording to the pusige, vaald obUin the attributes af the loul, or tbe Bon-ioiil 
M to be thought of uaiicr the uttiibute* of the *aul. 



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96 Brihad Aranyaka Upanitkad. 

Tlih, even this is to be conceived in this all, viz. This sonl { 
for \tf tliis, one knows this all. As verily by a foot-print one 

would tie withont nae, vis. " for that soul ia incomplete ; it is determined 
only by tliis or the other individual fonclion,'* (vide p. 86.) Hence it ia 
proved, that the soul, possessed of many functions, on account of its to- 
tality, is an object of worship. The final application, however, of the 
term " soul" after the term " considering this," is in truth only to show 
that the real notion of the sool ia no object whatever of the inflective 
base of the word atman (soul) and its infleotional terminations, (that 
is to say, the supreme sonl cannot be described by any words,) other- 
wiae the accusative case would have been used : " Let him worship the 
soul," If this were the meaning, (that ia. if, without the formula "con- 
sidering this" the word itmi should be applied) then the inflective base 
and one of its terminations would be applied to the soul. But this is 
not admitted, as is clear from such passages of the Sruti as : " It is not 
this, it is not that," " How should ooe know him who knows," 
" Unknown is he who knows." (B. A. p: 473.) " From whom words 
and the mind return, without having obtained him." (Tutt. U. 2d A. 
9 A. B. J. Vol. VII. p. 119.) The pottage, however: "Let him 
worship the sool as the place," is not a different word, because it is 
designed to remove the worship of the non-soul. 

If it ia said : ' Both the soul and non-soul are to be known, as they 
have the common notion of not being perfectly known. Why then is 
here made an effort to worship the eoul alone, as it is said: "The 
soul, considering this let one worship it," and not also on effort with 
regard to the other knowledge t' The answer to this is : " This, 
even this," which is pbtained in the text, " is to be concdved," to be 
CO mpreli ended, nothing else, " in this all" (the sixth case ■» Semterit, 
" Asya Sarvvasya," is, for the sake of determination, used for the 
seventh, *' Asmin Sarvvasmin,") " this sou)," the nature of the soul. 
Shall tliis not be known 1 1/ to, why not also what is different T 
Because, when known, another knowledge is not required, different 
/ram the knowledge of the tout. Why 1 " for," because, " by this," 
knowledge of the soul, " one koows thb all," all this other which u 
non-soul. 

If the objection is made, ' by another knowledge is not known another 



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Firtt Chapter. Fourth Br&rnhana. 9f 

finds cattle, ao a person who thus knows, finds fame and com- 
pleteness. 7' 

thing,' we shall refute it afteneardt by the pas«a^, referring to the 
drum, &c. (fi. A. U. p. Ab2.) 

How agttin it this to be conceived 1 The anawer ia ; "As Tcrtly," 
in common life, " by a foot-prim" (a foot-print ia called a place marked 
by the hoof of n cow, &c,) " one" who raakea a aearcb by meana of a 
foot-print, " finds," recovera, cattle that have been lost, and whose 
recovery is desired, thus, when the soul is obtained, all u obtained. 

' If the aoul is known, all other is known, and knowledge, loe may 
admit, is obtiined in the text. But then bow can it be called obtain- 
ing, a term whieA ia not anthorized by the textT' Tbu is not the case, 
because the terma of " knowledge" and of " obtaining" have imeaiid 
the same meftning according to the inteiitioa of the speaker ; for the 
non-obtaining of the soul is even igmirance. Therefore is knowledge 
the obtaining of the aoul, and the obtaining of the soul is not, — like the 
obtuningof anything which ia not the soul, — to be comprehended by 
the notion of an acquiring of what was not acquired before, because 
there is no difference (here) between the oUtniner and what is to be 
obtained ; for where the non-soul is to be obtained by the soul, there 
is the Boul the obtainer, and the non-soul what is to be obtained. This 
non-soul) ia not acquired, as concealed by the action of produeing, &c. 
and is to be obtained when producing a special action by the produc- 
tion of a apemi agent ; but it falls under the notion of an acquirement 
of something not acquired before, and ia trangient, becauae it is the 
effect of an action in accordance with a deaire, produced by falae 
kuowledge, as the obtaining of a aon in a dream. But the soul, which 
is contrary to the former (non-soul), is by its nature as soul not concpal- 
ed by the actions of production, &c. Therefore, as there exists the 
nature of something eternally obtained, is ignorance only concealments 
Aa the non-apprehension of mother-of-pearl, although apprehended,* 
which appears through error aa silver, ia merely a concealment of the 
opposite knowledge, ao ia apprehenaion even mere knowledge, becauae 
knowledge has destroyed the concealment by the oppoaite knowledge. 
Thus in tbia case also ia the non-obtaining of the aoul the concealment 
* According to ill nature, addi K, 



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98 Brihad A'ranyaka Vpanishad. 

This is dearer tbitn a aon, dearer than we»lth, dearer thnn any 
other thing, dearer than all, because this ttoul is more inter- 
nal. Whosoever says to one, saying any thing else to be dearer 

of it merely by ignoniTice. Therefore by knowledge must be understood 
an obtfuning, nhich innihiletes ignorance mKn\j, and no other obtaiming. 
Therefcr« we shall gay afterwwdt, that in respect of the obtaining of 
the Hiul, any cRuse, which has any meaning different from knowledge, ia 
useless. Therefore the test, without any doubt, intendiQg to set forth 
the identity 6/ the term* of "knowledge" and "obtaining," after 
having mentioned knowledge in the Uit, sayn : "One fiiida" {rb 
Vindati, " to find," has the meanit^ of Labha " obtaining," this is 
Btsted as the effect from the knowledge of the qualities.) 

As that BOul, by entering with name and form, acquired fame, viz, 
with the names and forms of the soul, &c., and bb it obtained complete- 
ness (Sloka) that is to ssy the totality of life and other action*, so a 
person who thus knows, " finds," obtains, " fame," (kirti) celebrity, 
and " completeueas" (Sloka) a multitude o/followert, together with hii 
friends. 

Or thtpatiage may alio thut be underttood. A person who knows 
the substHuce in the declared manner, ohtaias the knowledge of iden- 
tity (which is understood by the term " kfrti,") desired by those who 
strive for liberation, and the fruit of that knowledge (which is under- 
stood by the term Sloka) liberation, that is to say, the principal fruit. 7- 

And why then is the nnture of the soul to be known without re- 
gard to other things 7 The nnswer is : " This," the nature of the 
soul, " is dearer," more beloved, " than a son ;" for a son is generally 
known as dear. By saying, that it is more beloved even than this, it 
is shown, how exceedingly dear it is. In the ssme manner it is dearer 
than "wealth," gold, jewels, &e ,in the same manner "dearer Man any 
other thing," which is generally known as dear, that is to say, therefore 
dearer than all. 

' Why then is the nature of the soul more beloved, why not rather life> 
&c. 1 The answer is : The totality of life is more internal, ia nearer the 
soul than what is external, a son, wealth, &c., " because this aout," this 
nature of the soul, " is more internal" than what is more internal. 
For a person who in common Ufe is exceedingly dear, must be obtained 



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FirMt Chapter. Fourth Brdmhana. 99 

than the soul ; " What is dear, ia to perUh," he is the Ion), 
therefore verily it should be bo. A person should worship as 
dear even the soul. Whosoever worships as dear tlie soul, to 
him is not dear a perighable object. 8. 



by every effort. In this msnuer ii the aoal the deHrest of all that 
18 dear in common life, that is to say, greiit effotti should be mads 
to obtain it. Why again, discarding an effort, considered as a duty, 
with regard to the obtaining of other dear objects, shall, — by the 
abandonment of either of the dear objecU, the soul and non-aoul, — 
with reference to the obtaining of the production of one, the abandon- 
ment of the other rather be made by the obt^ning of the production 
of the BOul, — why not the contrary ? 

In reply to this it is said : " Whosoever (viji. a person who holds 
that the soul is the dearest object) says to one saying any thing ebe," 
some particular non-soul, for instance a son, &c., ' to be more beloved 
than the aoul,' what? "What is dear," in thy opinion, a soU or the 
like, "is to perish" (rotshyati) is to obtain concealment, or cea»ng 
of life (Pfinasanrodham) that is, " is to be destroyed." On what 
ground cai) he say so ? Becauae " he is the lord," because he is able, 
lit to say BO, therefore it should be so, that he obtains the ceasing of 
life, as has been said by him ; for he is a speaker of truth ; therefore he 
is the lord to say every thing. Some understand by the term " fswara" 
(which has before been eiplained by able, and whose original meaning 
ia ruler, lord) " quick." If it is accomplished, then, abandoning every 
other dear object, a person should worahip as dear only the soul. 
" Whosoever worships ss dear even the soul, to him, it ia considered, ia 
the soul alone dear, and no other abject. Having come to the certainty, 
that any other worldly object which is dear, is even in reality not dear, 
he worships, he meditates ; " to him," who thus knows, " is not dear a 
periahable object," an object whose nature is subject to death. This 
tentenee (let him worship as dear even the soul) is either only a repeti- 
tion of what is certain (of the sentence by which the knowledge of the 
soul is produced) because for one who knows the soul, nothing is dear 
or not dear, or it is said for the praise of the knowledge, that the soul 
is dear, or for the determination of the fruit of the attribute of " dear," 
o 2 



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]00 BriKad A'ranyaka Upanishad. 

This they declare to be the knowledge of Bramha by which 
men think, we shall become all. What then knew that Bramha, 
by which he became all i 9. 

because it is producing faith in the perishable nature of alt dear objects 
in the mind q/' one whose knowledge of the soul is of a sluggish kind. 8. 
The knowledge of Bramha has been decUred in the aphurism : " The 
aonl, considering this, let a roan worship it." Wishing to explain this 
very aphorism, for which the whole Upanishad has been eompoied, the 
text exemplifies it under the desire of setting forth itt necessity (end.) 
" This," viz. the thing to be set forth, to be manifested in the next 
sentence, " they declare" they, viz. the Br&mhaoas, those who are 
desirous to know Bramha, having repaired to the Guru (spiritual 
teacher) the vessel over the future shoreless ocean of the ptiin of exer- 
tion, caused by the uninterrupted reroLution of the wheel of birth, old 
age and death, who are desirous of crossing over to its shore, who are 
separated from the nature of cause and effect, tIs. the cause of virtue 
and rice and its consequences, and who are desirous of obtuoing the 
eternal incomparable good, free from those eautei. 

What do they declare? The answer is: "the knowledge of 
Bramha ;" Bramha means the supreme soul ; the knowledge, by which 
this is comprehended, is the knowledge of Bramha, " men, think, we 
■hall become all" the totality. The term " man," is used for the pur< 
pose to indicate the special subject of this knowledge ;* for men 
alone are the subjects of effecting in a special manner either a state 
of elcTationf or of liberation. This is the intention of the text. Aa 
with regard to works they think, that fruits will Qecessarily follow 
from works, so they think, that from the knowledge of Bramha the 
fruit, which is the state of universal identity, will necessarily follow ; 
for as to their being proved by the V^da, there is no difference between 
them (the works and Bramha.) 

There^ is something^ contradictory indicated. Therefore we ask ; 
" What then knew that Bramha," by whose knowledge men thmk, 

■ In the text is adhikini, wfaldi meant " posunion," " oompeteDt kDOwledge." 
I tranilsted adbiksri, >i convejlng tha idea more eaaotljr. 

f Id the Male of eiiitence, tIi. the state of happiaau in tha dlffarent worldly 

2 In auigning to nuts the notion of inhjeot. 

f Sonething maaui here tha cSbot from knowledgB. A, G, 



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Firtt Chapter. Fourth BrdmhaM. 101 

Bramha verily was thia before ; therefore he knew eren the 
sou), (himself.) 

we ah&lt become all t What knew that, " by nbicb," knowledge, he 
became this all, and Bramha is all according to the Sntti. 

If he, (Bramha) not entirely knowing any thing, became all, then it 
(all) may also belling to others, a)uf of what use would then be the know- 
ledge of Bramha T If knowing tomething it became all, then, aa it is 
effected by knowledge, all (the effect from knowledge) is like the effect 
from work, and therefore the notion of tranBientnesB ia in fact applied. 
Moreover, the effect from a knowledge of Bramha, which (effect) ii the 
state of the natnre of all, has the fault of a regress into infinitnni, 
namely knowing something else thnn this, he became all, and further 
knowing something etae, &c. &c, However, if knowing all, it became 
all, there is not the fault of a contradiction of the meaning of (he S&stra, 
end therefore not the fault of a transientness of the effect. If, knowing 
something only, this Bramha became all, we ask : " What then knew 
that Bramha. by which he became all 7" 9. 

Having thus said, the text gives an answer, untouched by any blem- 
ish : " Bramha," ' ria. the inferior Bramha, because it is obtained 
under the notion of a ' cause of the nature of all ; for it la impos^- 
ble to obtain by knowledge the natare of all with regard to the su- 
preme Bramha, and the text speaks of an ohtuning of the nature of all 
by means of knowledge, in the words ; " Therefore thia became all.'* 
Therefore tbe words : " Bramha verily was this before," cannot mean 
any thing else but the inferior Bramha.' 

Or : * By making man the subject of the knowledge, a BrimhaQa 
who is to become this Bramha, may he designated. For in tlie paa- 
sage ; " Men think, we shall become nil,"* men are obtained in the 
text, and it is said, thut they are in a special manner the subjects 
to effect elevation or liberation ; thie m not laid either of the su- 
preme Bramha, or of the inferior Frajfipati. Therefore, on account of 
Au knowledge of Bramha, is here designated a Bramha (Br&mhaqa), who 
is to become a supreme Bramha, who by the knowledge of the inferior 

• Hera the opinion of the Vrittikriti Is giien, which !■ the tIbw of th« Bh*r- 
triprapinclu Bbisbja, vii. beuoie the natare of all li obuineil nadar the notiaa 
atwmethiug to be iccompUiLad (of aa effect, vii. fiom kaoiTladge)it Ulmpouible, 
that the mpreme Brualu iboBUI b»e obtained [b« Qitora of all by knowledfa. 



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102 Brihad Aranyaka XJpanithad. 

BramliB, vii. the knowledge, thst duality is ideDtity, a Vno«i«dg:e 
which is connected with worka, haa obtiuned the atnte of an iaferior 
Bramha, who haa reaonnced ail enjoyment, and who by obtaining ail, 
baa broken the bonds of desire and work. It appears also in common 
life, that a term is applied with reference to its future stnte, for instance 
in the sentence : " He cooks the boiled rice ; (Oduia means rice 
which is boiled,) and nlao in the S^tra, for insUnce : " Let a 
Pdribrijaka (a person who hss already obtained a state, entirely de- 
voted to the contemplation of God) give to all beings the blettinff of 
fearlessness." In this manner some explain a Br£mhaQa as a perean 
who is to become Bramha.' 

This is not right, because, if the nature of all ia obtained, the fanit 
of transientneSB is committed ; for it is impassible, that in this world 
any person shnuld in reality obtain by any cause another state, and at 
the same time be eternal. In the same manner, if by means of the 
knowledge of Bramha the nature of all should be obtained, and tkU 
itate be at the tame time eternal, there is a contradiction. If on the 
other hand, it friz, the natnre of all) ia considered as non-eternal, the 
before mentioned fiialt takes place, vis. that there ia a resemblance 
with the effects from works. But if you think, ' that the abolition of 
the natnre of non-totality (individual existence) which (nature of non- 
totality) ia the effect of ignorance, and the obtaining of the nature of 
all, is the effect of a knowledge of Bramha,' then the fiction of a person 
who is to become Bramha, is useless. But if you think, that even before 
the knowledge of Bramha every creature by it» potteaeing the nature of 
Bramha, haa eternally obtained the nature of all, that the state of non- 
Bramha and of non-totality is anperimposed in reality by ignorance and 
that, as silrer is auperimpoaed on mother-of-pearl, or as any special place 
(Atala means, literally, a division of the infernal regions) of standing or 
nncleimesB on the sky, so are also here the notions of non-Bramha and 
of non-totality superimposed by ignorance and removed by the know- 
ledge of Bramha ; if you, think thus, then it is right to say, that in reality 
the supreme Bramha was, because in the passage : " Bramha rerily waa 
this before," the literal meaning of the term " Bramha," is lapreme 
Bramha ; for the V^da declares a meaning, as it in reality is ; but the 
fiction, according to which a person who is to become Bramha, is called 
Bramha, at variance with the metuiing of the term " Bramha," is not 



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Pint CAafter. Fourth Brdmhaaa. 103 

right, because a hypothttit, by which the meanit^ of the Sniti is lost, 
■lid a fiction u made of sametbiiig, not acquired ia the Sniti, is inad- 
miasibie, unless there be Bome Btrong neceasity. 

If jou say, ' ^at, vithout being produced by ignorance, there may 
exist the nature of non-Bramha and non- totality,' ne object, because it is 
impossible, that in thit eaie they could be remoTed by the knowledge 
of Bramha ; for it is never observed, that knowledge either destroys or 
creates the attributes of any actual thing, but it ia everywhere ob- 
served as the destroyer of ignorance. In the same manner let also in 
our case the knowledge of Bramha remove the nature of non-Bramha 
and non-ti)ta1ity, as the productions of ignorance; but the knowledge 
of Bramhft is never able to create or destroy auy real thing. Therefore 
the kypotkeiit, by which the meaning q/*tbe 5ruti is lost, and a fiction 
is made of something, not found in the Sruti, is even without use. 

If yon say, ' that ignorance with regard to Bramha is impossible,' 
we do not sigree, because knowledge is enjoined with regard to £raraha ; 
for if mother of pearl hns become an object of the eye, then its nature 
is never known by such a sentence : This is mother-of-pearl and 
not silver, unless there is a superim position of (the notion of) silver 
npon it. In the same maDoer, from such passages as : " This all 
aione existing," "This all alone Bramha," "This all merely the soul," 
" This is not duality, non-Bramba," the knowledge of identity with 
referents to Bramha conld never be enjoined, unless there is a snper- 
imposition of ignorance upon Bramha. We do not say (like you), 
as there is a niperimpotition with regard to mother-of-pearl, so 
there is not a superim position of the nature of non-Bramha (atad.) 
What then 1 Bramha is not the cause of the superim position of 
the nature of non-Bramha upon his own self, and is not the producer of 
ignorance. 

We admit, that Bramha is not producer of ignorance nor deluded ; 
but do not admit, that there is another deluded conscious being (beside 
Bramha) which could be the producer of the ignorance of non-£ramha. 
Tbis is evident from such passages of the 5mti aa : " There is no 
other knoner than him." " There is nothing else which knows but 
him." " That art thou." (Ch. U. p. 448.) " He knew the soul." (B. U, 
184.) ■■ I am the soul." (B. A. p. 205.) " Another is he, another am 
1." " He does not know." And also from such passages of the Smriti 



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104 Brihad Arenyaka VpamtAad, 

as ! " Whosoever beholds Ood tis the same in all beings," etc. (Bhag. 
Oft. 13 Adh. 27th 81.). " I am the soul, O Gu^aktb'a, dwelling in the 
heart of all beiDgs." (B. O. lOth Adh. 20th SI.) " The wise see the 
same. ... in the dc^ and the man who lives upon dog's-meat." (Bh. 
O. Srh Adh. 1 8th SI.) And from suoh Mantras as : " Who beholds 
all beings in the soul," and "In whom all beings are like the >oul." 
(Vij. S. U. M. 6 and 7 B. i. Vol. VII. p. 13.) 

' But if this is the case, then is the advice of the S'istra withont any 
use?' Well, this may in this manner be admitted, KBrawiha ia known ; 
but if you say, 'also the knowledge is useless, wc object,* becaose the 
cessation of non-nnderstanding is visible.' If it is said : ' That ces- 
sation is even impossible, because there is identity,' we abject, because 
this is contradictory to what is visible j for it is ' visible, that there is a 
cessation from non-nnderstanding by the knowledge of identity. 

If any one says, ' that even, when seen, it is impossible,* it is contra* 
dictory to what is nsible ; and a contradiction to what is visible, is by 
no body admitted. 

Nor, ^en viuble, is any thing in reality imposiible, because it is 
even seen. 

If it is sud, ' that the seeing is impossible,' the same ailment holds 
good. 

^U M taid : ' From such passages of the Sruti, as the following : 
" He becomes holy by holy work." (B. X. p. 646.) " Knowledge and 
work entered him." " The Purusha is the comprehender, agent, the 
knowing soal," it is evident, that there is another mundane soul, dif- 
ferent from the supreme tout. And this different tmil is the supreme 
Bramha, which follows from such pasanges of the iSruti as : " He is not 
this, he is not that." (B. A. p. 436.) " The soul liberated from sin, 
without old age, without death." " The rnler of this universe." (B. A. 
p. 626.) 

Also in the S6»tna of KsQ&da, Alcshap&daf and others, God (f swam) is 
proved as different from the mundane soul { for through the desire to 
remove the unhappmess, ariting from the world, activity ia perceived 

* The cetMtion of aon-knowlcilge ii either different from Bramha, and then there 
non-dnslitf ii li»t> or it ii not diTereat, and then it cannot be eomprebended 
nuder the idea of knon ledge. 

t- A ume of Gontami, the fodnder of the Nj(y«. 



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First Cht^ter. Fourth BrAmhana. 
1 am verily Bramha. Therefore he became all. 



witk the embodied muI (and not irith Ch>d), and hence the difierence 
belneen God and mundane lonl u clear. 

And the Sniti and Smriti declare : " He, withont speech, without 
bonanr :" " There is nothing, O Partha, to be done by me m tha 
three worldt." (B. G. 3d A. 22.) " He is to be searched, to be en- 
quired into." (Ch. U. p. 671 .) " A peraoii, knowing him, ii not con- 
taminated." (B. X. B. I. Vol. II. p. 913.) "Whosoever knows 
Bnmha, obtains the sapreme Bramha." (T. U. 2d A lat An. lat M.) 
" He /Bramha) is to be contemplated ui a unifonn manner." (B. X. 
6th Adh. 4th Br. 20. B. I. Vol. II. p. 889.) " Knowing that which 
is undestroyable, Gargi." (B. X. 5th Ad. 8th B. 10. B. I. Vol. II. 
p. 636.) "The firm, knowing him." (B. X. p. 629.) "Thegreat 
word (the letters A. U. M. being joined) is like a bow, and the soul 
like the arrow ; asd Bramha (what) is aimed at by it." (2d Mao4. 
V. 4th M. B. I. p. vol. vii. p. 228.) In all these pasiagea there it a 
declaration of agent and acdon. 

This is also evident from the declaration, that the roada lo elevation 
■re different from the road of him who strives after liberation. If 
there were no difference, to what place could there be proceeded by any 
one? And if there were not, a diBerence of the northern and southern 
roads and of the places to be proceeded to, would be impouible ; but 
if f Ae mundane tout is different from the supreme, all this is possiUe. 
This foUom also from the declaration with reference to the causes of 
knowledge and work. If the mundane soul is different from Bramhat 
the declaration addretied to the former about work and knowledge, as 
being the causes either of elevation or liberation, ia consistent, but it is 
not with reference to God, because all desires are obtained by him.' 

If it is therefore (on all those grounds) said, ' It ia proper, that the 
term " Bramha" means a person who ia to become Bramha,' we ob- 
ject, because the application of the declaration with regard to Bramha 
would be uselesa ; for if the mundane soul, — which is not Bramha, but 
is to become Bramha, on the ttrength of the paatage : " knowing the 
Bowl, I am verily Bramha," — should become ali, the advice with regard 
to Bramha, would be undoubtedly useless, because the effect, which is 
the state of the nature of all, would be accomplished by the knowledge 



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106 Brikad Aranyaka UpanuAad. 

of the Boul, whicli » to be scoompUshed ; * because that knowledge, (viz. 
the knowledge of the regulaLion concerning work) could never be ap- 
plied to the accomplishment of the last aim of man. 

If it ia gaid, ' that the declaration mitA regard to Bramha, in the pas- 
aage : " I am Brnmha," u for the sake of transfonning the mundane 
■onl to the nature of Bramha,' we object ; fur, if the nature of Brjunha 
is not perfectly known, what can the passage, '* I am Bramha" trans- 
form T If his nature is known, a tr&DsfarmatioD is possible.. By pas- 
sages in our text such as : " That soul is verily Bnunhs." (B. X. 6th 
Adh. 4th Br. 5. B. I. Vol. II. p. 849-) "That present perceptible 
Bramha." (B. A. 5th Ad. 4th Br. I. B. I, Vol. II. p. 575.) " Which 
soul." (B. X. p. 575.) "This is true." "This soul." " ^.e who 
knows Bnunha, obtains the supreme," (T. U. 2ndA. 1st A. Ist M.) 
and by such a conclusion as: "From this very soul," the terms 
''Bramha" and '*soul" are more than a thousand times placed on 
the same ground, and therefore it is evident, that they have the same 
meaning j for transformation of another takes place to the nature of 
another, and not to identity. 

And the passage ; " Because this all is that soul," proves the iden- 
tity of the soul, which has been set forth in the text, and which is to 
be seen ajierviardt. Therefore, it is imposuble, that the soul could be 
transformed to the nature of Bramha. 

It is also impossible to conceive with regard to Bramha any other 
effect, because in such passages as ; " He who knows Bramha, becomes 
Bramha," the obtaining of Bramha on/y is declared. 

' If the transformation ia the obtaining of Bramha,' we object i tot 
another state of another is impossible. 

If it ia said, ' that, according to the word of the S'ruti the obtaining 
of the state of Bramha, even implies transformation,' we object, because 
tranaformation is only a notion (not something real), and we said, that 
knowledge had no other agency but to destroy a false knowledge ; a 
word has no power to produce any thing, for the Siatn teaohes, bqt 
does not create ; this is evident. 



* If tt ii uid, that the (dTJoe with refBrenoa to Bramhi it uiefol, ander tlie 
condilioD, that it [■ tb« abject of a regnUtioa, we a>k, whether it b ■ regvlitiinl 
r^udiog work, or r^arding vonhip ? Either anromptioa is contndietor;. 



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f^rtt Chapter. Fourth Br&mhana. 107 

From BQcb passages as : " He entered this vorld ;" (B. A. p. 77.) 
it is certain, that it is the supreme Bramha who entered ; therefore 
it is not right to explun the term "Bnunha" b^ a person who is 
to become Bramha, 

This is also evident on the ground, that the nwoni'njr, wAi'eA ymt 
with to ettabliih, is an obstacle to the admitted meaning ; for the 
knowledge that, like a lump of rock-salt, Bramha is of the same taste 
(substance) without difference without or within, — which is the mean- 
ing intended to be expressed in all Upanishads, is clearly established at 
the end of two KfiQ^*" (of this Upanishad, vis. the Madhu Ktb^ and 
Muni Eitn4n) vix. " This is the declaration" (p. 503) and ; " So far 
extends thit cause o^imroortalitj." (B. X. B. I. Vol. II. p. 930.) 

In the same manner is the knowledge of the identity of Bramha the 
certain meaning of the Upanishads of all the S'ikhaa. 

If by the passage: "He knew even the soul," (p. 101.) a mundane 
soul, different from Brunha, is assumed, it iroutd be an obstacle to the 
admitted meaning. If it were so, then, by the contradiction of the 
commencement and of the conclasion of this S&stra, an inconristency 
would be assumed. 

Also the declaration would be impossible ; for if by the passage i 
"He knew even the soul," a mundane soul were assnmed, there could 
not be a declaration of the knowledge of Bramha, because then the 
passage : " He knew even the sou ," would refer to the knowledge 
of the mundane soul alone. 

If it is said, ' that the term " soul* means something different from 
the knoirer,' we object, because it is the predicate o/T,in the passage ; 
" I am verily Bramha," and if any thing else were the object of know- 
ledge, it would have been determined i " This is that," bnt not i " I 
am." As in the passage ; "I am verily Bramha," Bramha is the pre- 
dicate, and aa it is determined in the passage i " He knew eren the 
Boul," it is distinctly understood, that the soul alone is Bramhs. If 
this is the case, the declaration of the knowledge of Bramha is possibly 
not otherwise ; for the knowledge would be otherwise. 

JVor w th« knowledge of Bramha poatible, if the nature of Bramha 
and non-Bramha vrere to belong to one tubjeet, because there would 

■ For inittnc* the road irtiidi leadi npwudj tbroagh the Are, that ii to mj 
through laeiificei etc. A'. G. 
F 2 



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108 Brikad Arafngaka Vpaniahad. 

be in it^Mj a contradiotiaii, m darkuess m eontradtcioiy st the mani- 
featation of the ana. 

Nor, if both (Bramha and non-Bramha) were the objects of ka6w- 
ledge, would the definite declaration of a knowledge of Bramha be 
proper, hecaose in this ease there shoald be a knowledge of Bramha 
and of the mnnduie soul. 

Nor is it proper to aasame a mbRtance with contradictory attributeB ; 
for in this case, the knowledge of the truth being declared, doubt 
would arise in the mm/ o^ the hearer, and a definite knowledge ia re- 
qiured to accomplish the last end of man. From the following passages 
of the 5niti and Smritj : " Of whom there is even no doubt," " A per- 
son who doubts perishea," it is evident, that whosoever is desirous of 
the welfare of others, mult not sa; the meaniog of a sentence which 
is doubtful. 

If it is maintained, ' that in (your explanation of) the passage t " He 
knew eren the soul; therefore he became all," the not very skilful 
wsngaptton is made of Bramha being, like ns and nmilar beings, an 
^ent* (viz, as the subject of knowledge) we protest, because thia notion 
is conceived in the Sistn ; for it is not our assumption, but that of the 
iSistra ; therefore the Siatn is to be blamed (which yon would probably 
not do.) And by him, «h^ is aniiona about his welfare, most not be 
given up the literal meaning of Bramha by an assumption at Taiionce 
with the meaning of the Sistra. 

An obstinacy on yoar part which goes so far, is also not proper ; for 
all difference with regard to Bramha is only a fiction, and must be 
eonsidered under the notion of identity, as follows from a hundred pas- 
sages, suoh as i " Here is nothing different ;" " for where there is 
duality, as it were;" "one alone without duality." Every action of 
inan in fact with regard to Bnunba is a fiction, wherefore it is sud 
very little, that this asramption is not skiUiil, 

Therefore (in the passage : Bramha verily was this before) " Bramha" 
meani the Bramha who entered, who is the creator. The term " verily" 
is lued for the sake of determination. " This," all that is perceived as 
embodied (i° ^^" shape of a body) " Before." Previously even to 
apprehension (awakening) was Bramha alone, and all this ; bat from 
the moment of the apprehension then i» the opinion, — " I am non- 
Bramha." I am not all,— the effect of superimposition ; hence the 



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Pint Chester. Fourth BrtSmka^a. 109 

■npeiimpoution -. " I am agent, I am peribrmer of ceremooieB, I am tlie 
mandine aool, the enjoyer of fruits, happy, unhappy, Sec. bat ia 
nality there is Bramha alone, and this all which ia separate from him. 
"He" (tat), who hsi ia any manner been made known by a merdful 
iFacher in the lentence ; " Thou art not the mundane eonl," — " knew 
even the bouI," in ita own nature, and the term "eren" mnia the tout, 
free from any differences, superimposed by ignorance. 

' Say then, wh i the aoul in ita own nature which Bramha knew as 
the aool V Do yon not recollect the soul T for it haa been declared 
thus: "He, who having entered this world, inapirea, causes to 
descend, diffnaes, expires and equalises V 

' But thenyoa declare him in tbesamemanner, aaif youaay : "This 
is a cow," "this ia a horse ;" you do not ahow him directly.' 

Well then, the soul is the beholder, the hearer, the thinker, the 

' But then, here also you do not show directly the nature of the agent 
of the actions of aedng, hearing. Sic. ; for the action of going is not the 
uature of the goer, uor the action of cutting the nature of the cutter.' 

Then let ua say, the aool ii the beholder of the beholding, the hearer 
of the bearing, the thinker of the thinking, the knoirer of the knowing, 

' Bnt how difiera this from the Mere beholder T Whether there ia » 
beholder of the beholding, or the beholder of a jar, there ia in erery 
instance a beholder alone; but whether it ia a beholder of the beholding, 
or a beholder of a jar, there ia no difference i for it is eTcn a beholder,' 

There ia a difference. The beholder of the beholding, if there is a 
beholding, constantly sees the beholding ; the beholding ia at no time 
not seen by the beholder ; therefore the beholding belongs permanently 
to the beholder. If the beholding of the beholder is transient, then the 
beholding, which is to be aeea, does at some or the other time not behold, 
as for instance, where a jar and the like ia aeeo by a transient behold* 
ing. MoreoTer, the beholder of that beholding aeea never the beholding, 

' But then, there are two beboltUngs of the beholder, one, the perma- 
nent, which ia inviuble, and the other a tranaient one, which ia visible.' 

Be it so. On the one hand, the tranuent beholding of the beholder 
is evident from the appearance of blindness and non-blindnesa ; for if 
thit beholding were constant, no one would be blind. The permanent 
beholding of the beholder, on the other hand, is evident from the 



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110 Brihad Arantfaia XJpanitkad. 

pusage of the 5niti ; "For there u no rarisnce between the beholder 
and the beholding." (B. A. B. I. Vol. 11. p. 803) It follows also ^m 
inference ; for it is obserred, that in a dream, there is a beholding of the 
blind, by which a jar for instance is an object of manifestation. This 
beholding of the beholder then is not destroyed by the destmction of 
the other beholding. By this nnpcTishable permanent beholding, which 
is identical with itself, which is called aelf-manifesdi^ light, seeing the 
other transient behoMing, which remains la a dream, and which among 
the two beholdingt resembles the knowledge of an impression, the 
beholder is the hekolder of the beholding. If this ia the case, the 
beholding is even his natare, like the heat of the fire, and there is not 
another conscious beholder, as is the opinion of the followers of 
KavUa. "This," Bnunha, "knew eren the soul," 0te. the tout, like 
the permanent beholding, and free from the tranuent beholding 
superimposed by ignorance. 

' But then the knowledge of the knower is prohihited, as follows 
from the passage of the SiniX : "Thou dost not know the knower."' 

We say. No ; for there is no prohibition of knowledge. In the same 
manner must be understood the beholder of the beholding. 

This follows also from its independence of another knowledge ; for, if 
it is known, that the beholding of the beholder is permanent, no other 
beholding, of which the beholder is the object, is expected ; for it 
ceases the desire of a beholding, which is the object of the beholder, as 
this is improbable ; for no one has a desire, if there is no object (of 
the deure.) Nor has the visible heliolding the povrer to make the be- 
holder its object, BO that one could desire it. Nor is there any desire 
of any one whose object is one's own nature. Accordingly, by the 
passage : " He knew even the soul," it is said, that there is a CMsatioa 
from ignorance, but not, that the soul is made ah object. 

How did he know ? The answer of the text is : " I" the beholder of 
the beholding, the soul, "amveiily Bramha,"(ini2"Bramha" nemuths 
present, perceptible soul, which is within all, has overcome hunger, &c., 
which is not this, which ia not that, and has therefore the chanuiten»- 
tics, not to be of gross body, not to be an atom, &c. 

This alone am I, not another mundane soul, as yon said. Therefore 
from a knowledge of snch a kind "he" Bramha "became all." From 
the disappearing of the Baperinipoaition of non-Bramha by the cessa- 



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FirU Ckapler. Fourth BrimkaM. Ill 

Whosoever among the gods comprehended it, he alone be- 
came it J thus whosoever among the Rishia, whoBoever amoilg 
men. 

Knowing that this is that, the Risbi Vfimad^va verily obtained 
these Mantras : I became Manu, I became the Sun. Whoso- 
tion of the e£Fect of it (the anperimpoaidoa of non-Bramha) he became 
all. Therefore it ia' alone proper to lay, " men think, that hy the 
knowledge of Bramha we shall become all." What has been asked 
before : " What then knew that Bramba, from which he became all," 
IB now defined, viz. " Bramba in truth was this before, be knew even 
the Boul, therefore he became this all." 

In respect of this "whosoever among the godi comprehended" the 
soul, in the manner explained (vits. according to its true notion) " be 
alone," the enlightened soul " became it" Bramba ; " tbua whosoever 
smong the Rishis, thus whosoever among men" (comprehended the 
soul, became this all.) 

By the terms " among the gods," &c. a reference is made to the 
diferent worlds, and therefore the knowledge of Bramba is not men- 
tioned thereby, but we declared, that by the passage ; " Bramha 
(Parusha) entered before," Bramba everywhere entered within. There? 
fore the terms " among the gods" are used with reference to the know- 
ledge otihed^erent worlds, which ia produced by the saperimposition 
of body, &c. In reality, however, waa Bramha here and there before, 
viz. before comprehension, in the bodies of the gods, &c. ; otherwise 
, be would be an object of investigation. 

The ttuaning of the paMage* : " He knew even the soul," and also 
" he became all" it, that the fruit of this knowledge of Bramha is the 
obtaining of the nature of all. To establish this meaning firmly, the 
Sruti qaotes some Mantras. Sow l " Knowing, that this" Braoiba, 
"is that," the soul : " I am Bramha," from this knowledge of Bramba 
alone "the Kishi Vfimadi?va," by name, verily " obtained" these Maur 
trat. He, firmly established in the knowledge of the nature of Bramba, 
saw these Mantras : " I became Manu, I became the sun," &c. 

By the words ; " Knowing that this is that," Bramha, the knowledge 
of Bramha is shown j by the words : " I became Manu, I became the 
sun," &c., the text shows, that the fruit of the knowledge of Bramba 
is the, obtaining of the sUte of all. Knowing, he obtained the fruit. 



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112 Brikad Armyaka Upatdahad. 

erer knows this Bramha iiIbo in this time in the tiaXA manner : 
" I am Bramba/' even the gods verily are not able to prevent 
him from ita poesession. (The poseession of the state of all.) 

the state of the nature of all ; thus b; this declaration the text makes 
known the liberation, which is effected by means of the knowledge of 
Bramha, as he who eats gets satisfied. 

Some one may have the impressioD i ' The obtfdning of the state 
of all by the knowledge of Bramha was pouibU for the great gods by 
their extraordinary power, but not at present for beings of the present 
Yuga, especially not for men, because they have only little power.' To 
remove this objection, the test says : " WhasoeTer," free from external 
desires, " knows this" Bramha, — set forth in the text, at having entered 
all beings and possessed of the characteristics of knowledge, action, Sec. 
"also in this," the present, " time," whotoecir knowt this as the soul 
alone in the said manner : I am Bramba, who, having discarded all 
diflferences, superimposed on knowledge by delusions, produced by fie- 
dtions attributes (apadhi), knows : I am only Bramha, not affected by 
any worldly characteristics, who is not within, who is not without, — he, 
from the cessation of the state of non-totality, becomea this all by the 
knowledge of Bramha. There is no difference with regard to Bramha 
or to the knowledge of him among persons of great power, snch as 
Vimad^va, and persons of little power, tuck at the present men. But 
there is a doubt, whether the present men are adequate to obtain the 
fruit of the knowledge of Bramha. To remove thii, the text says ; 
"Even the gods," of extraordinary power "are not able to prevent 
him," who knows Bramha in the said manner, " from its possession," 
from obtaining the state of all like Bramha. How then others ? But 
there is no doubt, that the gods and the like are able to create obstacles 
to obtaining the fruit of the knowledge of Bramha, as it is said : 
" The mortals are in the condition of debtors towards the gods ;" for 
the Sruti shows, that man, even when born, is indebted to the Ristiis 
by the duties of a religious student, to the gods by sacrifices, and to 
the forefathers by hit offspring. This follows from the declaration, 
that men are like beatti to the yoJe, and also from the passage ; 
"Then he or the soul is the place of all beings." 
From this argument : that the gods from the deure to preserve the 
' state of the soul, create obstacles to men, subject to another's will. 



Fir$l Chapter. Ftmrlh BrimAa*a. 113 

like debtoTB, to obu!n tbe state of immortBlitj, — Rrises that appre- 
liennon. Tbe goda pmerre thdr beaata like thnr bodiea ; for the 
t«xt ahowB afterwards, that the maintenance of godi, etc. nhich dependi 
npon work, becomes greater, because each single man is worth many 
beasts ; for it will be aaid : " Therefore it ia not pleasant to them, that 
men should know this." (p. 119.) "As one for his owo bodj rerilj 
wishes welfare, so also wish all beings welfare for one who knows thus." 
(B. X. p. 255.) Ifamonhas the knowledge of Bramha, then, with the 
ceasing of dependance, there exists no longer the nature of one's own 
body and of a dependance like cattle ; this is the intended meaning, as 
is erident from the two passages about "the not bring pleasant," and 
the "welfare." Therefore the gods raise even tothe knowerof Braniha, 
obstacles to obtainug the fruit from the knowledge of Bramha ; for they 
are powerfid. 

'But then, if this is the case, the gods raise obstacles also to 
obtaining other efiects of works, Uke the drinking of what is drink- 
able. Alas then, there is an end of the faith, that practice (of cere^ 
monies and knowledge) is the cause of elevation and liberation. In tbe 
same manner, on account of his inconceivable power, God is able to 
rase obstacles, in the same manner, time, action, charms, drugs and 
penances ; for that they are causes of obtaining or not obtaining tbe 
froit, is evident from the S'^tra and common beUef ; hence there is no 
faith in any practice in accordance with the S'&stras.' 

We reply to this. No ; for all things are produced by their necessary 
causes, and the world shows a variety (of happiness and unhappiness,) 
both of which is impossible under the supposition, that all arises from its 
ovru nature. But when the supposition, that (ceremonial) work is tbe 
caose of (the enjoyment of) happiness and nnhappiDCSS and of other 
conseqneoces, is firmly established andcan&tmed by the statements of the 
Veda, Smriti, argument, and common belief, it is clear, that the gods, 
Tswara and time are not opposed to the ae^iremeitt of the &uit of works, 
becanse works are the causes of what is desired ; for the good or bad work 
of men, independent of the gods, time, Iswara and other agents, is by 
itself without effect (liter, does not produce itself) and if it should even 
have effect by itself, it is not able to give the fruit, as it is the nature of 
action to be produced by agents and other numberless causes. Therefore 
the gods, fs'wars, etc. faTour actions, and hence there cannot be a disbelief 



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1 1 4 Brihad Araityaka Vpanithad. 

For he becomea the soul of them. 

IB to the obUtning of the fruit, SometiiBM sctiona ire rabject also (o 
them (to the gods) becsaie thrir power GMUurt be destroyed ; but whethet 
the nature of action or time, gods, things, etc. is the first or second, 
is not determined, snd U difficult to be understood ; heuce arises the 
delusion of the people. Some say, action is the cause, and not any thing 
else, with reference to the obtaining of the fnut ; others, it is the gods ; 
others, time ; others, the nature of the things ; others, all these tt^ether, 
With regard to this, the statements of the Y^da and the Smrili acknow- 
ledge action as the piindpal canse, as for instance : " Holy gets a person 
by holy action, sinful by sinful." Even if one or the other of those 
offenti with regard to its own object shoold become principal, while at 
the same time the principal power of the others were stopped, yet it 
could not be said, that work is not the prinoipal agent as to the acquire- 
ment of the fruit, because the prindpal agenoy of work is established 
by the S'ittra and argument. 

(But if it be asked, whether tite gods do not hinder the acqnirement 
at the effect of knowledge, we answer :) No, because on the mere cessa- 
tion of ignorance the effect is the obtaining of Bramha. In respect 
of what has been sud, " that the gods ruse obstacles to the effect, 
which is the obtaining of Bramha," the gods have no power to raise 
obstacles. Why 1 because there is no time interrening between the 
knowledge qf Bramha and the effect, which is the obtainiog of Bramha. 
Sow T As in common life at the very time when l^ht is in contact 
with the eye of the beholder, there is the manifestation of colour, 
■0 at the Tcry time when the knowledge, whose object is the soul, 
takes place, there is the disappearance of the ignorance, whose object 
is the soul. Therefore, when the koowledge of Bramha exists, an 
effect contrary to it is impossible, just as it is impossible, that the 
effect of light is darkness. Where (when the knowledge of Bramha 
exists) the knower of Bramha is the wry soul (substance) of the gods^ 
how can they in any way raise obstacles to him T 

The text the* declares, what is this very nature, tie. Bramba, identical 
with himself (whose nature is t^e soul) who is to be thought of, who 
may he known from all the S'^tras; " for be," the knower of Bramha 
•' becomes the tonl of them," of the gods, «t the very time, when there 



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Pint Chapter. Fourth Brdmkana. 115 

exiBts the knowledge of Bramha, \yj tbe mere cessation of the screen of 
ignorance, like the nature of mother-of-pearl, which appears hi silver, 
as we said before. Therefore the endeavoar of the gods has no succcm 
■gainst the soul ; for where an effect eosnei, not referring to the nature 
of the eonl, and where there is a difference of space, time and cantes, 
there, in respect of anr thing whose object is not the soul, the endearour 
of the gods to raise obstacles is successful, but not in respect of the effect 
referring to the nature of the soul, which takes places at the time of the 
knowledge without any difference of space, time and causes, because 
an opportunity (to rsise obstacles) is impossible. 

' Bnt then, since there is no coatinuation of the (first) apprehension 
of the knotriedge af Bramha, and since (after the first apprehension) 
the contrary apprehension (= non-soul), and its effects are apparent, only 
the last apprehension of the soul destroys the ignorance, and not the 
first.'* (If the last knowledge destroys ignorance, it is either, becaose 
it is the last, or because its abject is the soul.) Not under the first alter- 
native, because the last oould not be determined, (Not ander the second) 
for if the first apprehension, whose object b the soal, does not destroy 
the ignorance, then also not the last, because the object is the same. 

If it is said, 'this being the case, the continuation of knowledge 
destroys the ignorance, not a atngte aet of knowledge,' we object ; for 
as long as life, etc. remains, a continuation (of knowledge) u impossible ) 
for as long as there is an apprehension, of which life, etc. is the cause, 
the GOntinuBtion of the apprehension of knowledge is impossible, 
because it is contradictory. 

■ Ai S'uikara hu Ht forth hii argamsnt rather enigmiticillj, I gWs U Id the 
more eipticit form of Aamdii Giri. " ' Bat thin, an oppDneot may laj, the koov- 
ledge which deatroji the ignorance, eannoC be the fint, became after the first know- 
ledge there is no contiaaatian of it, and bscaniB afterwardi the oppoalte knowledga 
and it! afftati take place.' To ahow the fntility of thia objeotion, S'anksra laaames 
the following; ■ItemitiTe, it Hm flrat knowledge does not deatro; the i|nonnce, 
cither the lut kaowledge deitroji it, or the ooatinution oF knowledg*. 

If the Uit kaowled|e deitroji the ignoraace, it ii either, becaoae it i< the laat, 
or becaoie its object ia the wal ; but not under the fint of theM alternatiTea, 
becsuie It could not be determined (which ia the lut) i not under the lecond, 
(beeania Iti ohjeet la the loal) beciaie in Ihii reipeet it ia the tame ai the fint 
knowledge, which, loeording to admitaion, doei not deelro; ignoranoe." The leoond 
pari of the argnment ia clearlf giiea bj S'ankara, wherefore we da not repeat it here. 
(t 2 



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116 Brikad Aranyaia Upanuhad. 

If joa SBj : ' But then by the dUftppearuice of the apprahenrion, of 
which life, etc. is the cnuse, there remains a contianatioa of knowledge 
nnt^ death,' we object, because the contioiiatioa of a so-much-nesa of 
the apprehension is not defined, and there is hence the fault, that the 
meaning of the S'^tra is not defined. By saying, — the continuation 
of a so-much-ness of the apprehension destroys the ignorance, — there 
is nothing defioed, and hence the meaning of the S'&atra ia undefined. 
And this is not desired. 

If it is said, 'that the meaning of the S'^tra is even defined, when 
there is a mere continuation,' we object, because there is no difference 
between the first and Inat knoailedge i for either the first knowledge is 
the continuation of the apprehension, or the last until the time of 
death ; bat ai in this way no difierence is found between the first and 
last apprehensions, the two above mentioned faolts apply. 

If it is said : 'This being the case, then knowledge doM not even 
destroy {gnoraxee,' we object, because our text declares : " Therefore 
he became all," the same is also declared in other passages of the S'ruti 
" The bond of the heart is broken," and " There is no delusion, etc," 

If it is said : ' It is merely far the sake of praise,' (Arthav&da) we 
object, because othennite the same applies to the UpHuishads of all 
the S'jkhas (V^d^c schools) viz. that they are merely for the aake of 
praise ; for the Upanishads of all the S'likhes set forth neither more 
nor less than this meaning. 

If it is said ; ' Let it be so, (that they are for the sake of pruse,) since 
the object of the soul is evident from perception ;' we object, because 
from the said statement (that knowledge destroys ignorance) ignorance, 
grief, delusion, fear and other faults have ceased. 

If it is sud "from perception," the answer has already been 
given. Therefore it cannot be fixed, whether the knoviledge is the 
first, or the last, a continuation, or not a continuation, because the ulti- 
mate effect of knowledge is the cessation of ^orance and other faults. 
That apprehension, whether the first or the last, continuation or no 
continuation, is alone knowledge, which produces the effect, viz. the 
cessation of the faults of ignorance, etc. Having come to this conclu- 
sion, there remains nothing to be fited. 

But what lias been said before : " Since the contrary apprehensioB 
and its effects are apparent, only the last apprehension of the soul 



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Finl Chapter. Fourth Brdmkana. 117 

deatroya the ignorance and not the first," (p. MS) thii alto holds not 
good, becanw the Uat action (in a former biith) ig the cause of the 
production of a body (in this world). The action, — which is the cauie 
of the production of the body, and which, by mnuiH of the fault of 
the opposite apprehenuon of the work, which ia of sueh a nature and 
which has the fanlt of the opposite apprehennon, is able to produce the 
fruit. — thii action puts into effect the opposite apprehension, and the 
faults of passion, etc. by the continuation of the enjoyment of the effect, 
as long as life laats, and only so long, because the entering upon the 
enjoyment of the effects fallows necessarily from their cause, viz. action, 
like arrows which are shot (continae their course, until their velodty ia 
spent). Therefore knowledge does not destroy action of sach a kind 
(which istheeffect of actions in a former world) becaoae it is not oppoa- 
cdtoit. What then (doea it destroy) ? The effect of ignorance, opposite 
to its own (knowledge's) nature, which (effect) has the tendency to 
produce another body (in a future world) even from tffnoranee, which 
is it* support, (it destroys it,) because it determines it ; for it (the 
action) has not yet arrived, (not yet been done) the other action (which 
is the cause of the present body) bos been produced (is passed, and 
cannot therefore be destroyed by knowledge). Moreover, the opposite 
apprehension (opposite to true knowledge) is not produced for the 
knower, because it (the opposite apprehension) is without object ; for 
the opposite apprehension, when produced, is produced as dependent 
upon generality, when the nature of its particular object has not beea 
ascertained, as silver is on motber-of-pearl. But this (opposite appre- 
hension) by the destruction of the site of opposite apprehensions without 
number, does not arise for one who has ascertained the differences of 
objects, as the delution oftilver does not again appear, when a perfect 
apprehension of mother-of-pearl has taken place. 

If you say, 'that recollections, — manifesting opposite apprehensions, 
and arising from impressioos, produced from opposite apprehensions, 
which were made previously to the knowledge, — that thete reeolteetion* 
in the moment of their birth sometimes cause of a sudden the obtain- 
oient of opposite apprehensions, and that, in the same manner, as for 
one who is perfectly acquainted with the divisions of space, yet of a 
sudden • confusion may arise with regard to space, so also for the 
perfect knower an opposite apprehension may be produced, as it via* 



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118 Brikad A'ranyaka Upanithad. 

Then whoooefer worships another deity in such a i 
as : " He is another, another am I," he does not Ifnow ; like a 

before' (the Bttitiament of knowledge) then it taotild foUoto, that there 
is DO Goofidence also in perfect Itnowledge, th&t beoce an activity with 
regard to the knowledge and the works in accordance with the meaulng 
of the S'istra would be inconBiatent, and that proof had become non- 
proof; for a difference between proof and non-proof were impossible. 

Hereby it is ascertained, for what reason there is no liberation from 
the body (immediately) afler the attainment of perfect knowledge. But 
that oonaequent to knowledge, from the very same time, there is a de- 
■tniction of the actions which are collected for a future birth and whose 
fruits have not commenced, has been proved from onr text, which pro- 
hibits any obstacle to the obtaining of the fruit ; also from such passages 
of the S'mti as : "His actions also are annihilated," (1st Mnn<}. B. 1. 
Vol. VIII. p. 302.) " All is his forever," " All sins are shaken off," 
" Having known him, they are not tainted by sin," (B, A. B. I. Vol. II. 
p. 913.) " Him alone do those two not trouble, him good and bad 
actions do not torment," (1. c. p. 910.) " Him he does not torment, be 
is not afraid of any thing ;" (S'. U. B. I. Vol. VII. p. 1 1 9.) also from 
passages of the Smriti such as this : " The fire of knowledge bnms all 
actions to ashes." (Bh. G. 4th Adh. SI. 37.) 

But what be/ore (p. 1 1 2) has been sud, that he is bound by debts, 
is also not applicable, because this refers to ignorance ; for the ignorant 
is a debtor ; for him the notion of agency etc. is true ; thus it will be 
siud afterwards : " Where some other thing exists, there another sees it 
otherwise," and the term "other" means here, what differs from the 
true substance, the soul. Where ignorance exists, there it is another 
thing, as it were ; there, like the moon on the second day after its 
darkness, is an action of sbowiag (one saying. It is this, another. 
It is not this, etc.) dependent on the many agents through ^norance ; 
and the effect, arising from thb (ignorance) is also shown by passages 
such as this: "Another sees it otherwise." (fl. A. p. 813.) Where, 
however, knowledge exists, by the removal of the numberless illusions, 
arising from ignorance, there is shown the impossibility of actions by 
such passages as; "Therefore be sees all." (p. 94.) Therefore the 
Mlate of a debtor is described as referring to ignorance alone, — because 



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Pint Chapter. Fourth Brdmhama. 119 

beast, he is vaed by the godi. 

Ab rerily many beaeta maintfun a man, so every mail main- 
tuna the gods. It IB not pleasant, even if only one beast is 
taken away, bow then, if many ? Therefore it is not pleasant 

that state is the coiuequence of actioos, — not u referring to knowledge. 
This we shall in the next passage explicitly shov bj our explanation, as 
follows ; " Then whosoever," not knowing Brambs, by praise, rererence, 
offering, (of flowers, scents, etc.) oblation (gift of estables), attention 
and contemplation, " worships" (repre»ents to himself the state of 
the excellencies of a deity) " another deity," a deity different from 
the soul "in such a manner as : He is another," not the soul, different 
fhim me, "another am I," subject to Aim, I, like a debtor, have to 
propitiate hiro, — whosoever through such a belief worships, "he" 
through such a belief " does not know" the truth. Such a person is 
not only ignorant, or has the faults of ignorance and the like, but 
like a beast, a cow, etc. is used for the benefit of conveyance, of 
giving milk, etc so far the various benefits he affords through offerings, 
etc. is he used by each of the gods. Therefore he is, like a beast, sub* 
ject to works of all kinds — this ts the meaning. For the effect of the 
work in accordance with the word of the S'&stra, be it work, united with 
knowledge, or be it work alone, done by a person who is ignorant, a 
partaker of the division of caste and the orders of life,* and dependent, 
the ej^eet of gueh a work is elevation from man, etc. to Brsmba ; the 
effect, however, of work, which is at variance with the word of the 
S'tistra and which is done by the promptings of one's own nature, is 
descension from man, etc. down to inanimate matter. For aa here, so 
we shall say the lame at the end of this chapter by the passive i 
" Agdn there are three worlds, etc. (B. A. p. 301."— That the effect 
of knowledge is the obtaining of the state of all, baa been briefly shown ; 
for this whole Upanishad is engaged to show the divisions of knowledge 
and ignorance (or the whole knowledge within this Upanishad is not 
very extenrive as it describes the divisions of ignorance). 

And that this b the meaning of the whole S'^tra, we shall qfter- 
wards show. Because it is so, therefore the gods are able to raise 
* TlieiB are foar, tIi. of tbe nligioiu itadent, of ths honie-holdar, of the an- 
diohts (TsuprMtlw, who roUrsi to the wood,) and of Um mendiunt. 



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120 Brihad d'rattyaka Vpanithad. 

to them, that men should know this. 10. 

obttaclea or to show favour to Ka ignontot maa. This u sfud ia the 
words : " As verily" in common life, " many beasts," cows, horsea, etc. 
" mainUiii a man," their owner, ruler, "bo every" ignorant "man," 
who Btaada for many beasts, " maintains the gods," (the plural " the 
gods," is here used to indicate also the forefathers, etc.) nnder the idea : 
" Indra and the other gods, who are different from me, are my lords ; I 
am like a servant of them. If I adnre them by praise, reverence, gifbs, 
etc. I shall obtain the rewards, given by them, viz. elevation and libera- 
tion." Thus as in this world it is very unpleasant for a posaeasor of 
many beasts, "even if only one beast is taken away," is seized by a 
tiger, etc., so, if one man who stands for many beasts, rises from the 
state of a beast, it is not surprising, that it is unpleasant to the gods, 
as the taking away of many beasts ia to the house- holder. " Therefore 
it ia not pleasant to them," to the gods, — what ? " that men should" in 
any way " know this," truth of the nature of Bramba. In this view it is 
■aid by the venerable Vy^a in the Anugitas (a part of the Mah^bb&rata) 
" The world of the gods is closed for the performers of works ; for the 
gods do not wish, that men abide above." Therefore the gods try to 
exclude, like cattle from tigers, men from the knowledge of Bramha, as 
it is their desire, that they should not be elevated above tAe sphere of 
their use. V^hom they wish to liberaie, to bim they impart belief, etc. 
and unbelief to him whom they wish not to liberate. Therefore let 
a person, desirous of liberation, be intent on the adoration of the 
gods, on reverence and faith, submissive, and assiduously striving for 
the acquirement of knowledge, or for knowledge, as is implied in the 
words of fear : " How then, if many," This is the meaning of the 
passage : " It is not pleasant to the gods." 10. 

The meaning of the S'ttatra has been declared in the SMn : " The 
soul, considering this, let a man worship it." (p. 86.) The relation 
and the necessity of this Siitra, which was to be explsined, has been 
determined by the words ; " They declare, that by the knowledge of 
Bramha, etc." (p. 100.) tt^ther with its Artbavida (by the words: 
"Therefore, whosoever among the gods," etc. (p. 101.), — and the 
subjection of ignorance to the world in the words : " Then whosoever 
worships another deity, etc." (p. 116.) 



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Firtt Chapter. Fowlk BrdmAoMa. 12t 

Bnunha Verily waa tbis before, one aloae. Being one, he did 
not extend. He with concentrated power created the Eshatra 
of elevated nature, viz. all those Kshtttras who are protectors 
among the gods, Indra, Vani^a, Soma, Rudra, Parjanya, Yama, 
Death, and tet&na. Therefore none is greater than the Ksbatra j 

There it has beea said, that tha igaonnt is a debtor, and subject to 
Iht tuiU of another by the necessity to perforin, like a betst, the 
vorkB of the goda and others. What again is the means of performing 
th« necessary works of the godi and others T The differet^t castet 
and orders of life. Which then are the castes T In reply to this the 
present passage is commenced, viz. to show how that ignorant person, 
dependent on another's will and lubject to works in connexion with 
their agents, is busy, Ukt a bea»t, in this vrorld. 

The creation of Indra, etc. has not been described above after the 
creation of Agni (v. p. 70.) ; bat the creation of Agni has been described 
to complete the creation through Prajipati. The creation of Indra, etc. 
iowtver, should there have been shown, because It is its conclusion ; 
bat it is here told in order to show, that the ignorant is the proper 
lubject for the performance of works. 

"Bramha verily waa this before." "Brimha," by the creation of 
AgDi having obtained the nature of Agni (he is called Bramha by 
believing himself to be the caste of Br&bmauaa) " verily was this," 
the caste of Kshatrsa, etc. ; the undivided Bramba, "one alone." There 
was no distinction of the Kshatriya and other castea. " Being one," 
without the ditlinetioM of Kahatra, etc., of preaerver, etc. "he,". 
Bramha, "did not extend,"' which means, was not suflicient for 
eitenEive work. 

Then "he," Bramha, reflecting, I am a Brimha^a, I, who by 
nature desire to perform the work to be done by the Br&mhana 
csste, have to discharge such and such duties, " created" for the 
amplification of work and agent, " with concentrated power the Kahatra 
of elevated nature." Which again is the Kahatra, the Kshatriya 
caste, created by himf To show this, the text spedfies the indi- 
viduals, viz. "all those Kshatras who are protectors among the gods." 
Those who are anointed kings, are here specified " Indra," the king 
of the gods (DiyM) ," Vsruna" of the aquatic animals, " Soma," of 



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122 Brihad Ara*yaha Upanukad, 

therefore the Brfimhana, und«r the Kihatriyaj Torahipa at the 
Rfijuiiya ceremony. The Kihatra alone gives lam his glory. 
Bramha ia tbua the birth-place of the Kahatra. Therefore, 
although the king obtaina the bigheat dignity, lie at laat takea 
refuge in the Bramha aa in hia birth-place. Whoauever deapiaea 
him, he destroys his birth-place. He is a very great sinner, 
like a man who injures a superior. \\, 



the Brfoiha^BB, " Rndra," of beasts, " Fujanya," of lightning, etc. 
"Yama" of the forefftthera, "Death," of penona in ill health, etc. 
and fa'ana of splendonrs. These and others are the Kshatraa among 
the gods. After ihem (the divine Kshatnis) he created the Kahatras 
who are ruled by ladra and other Kahatra deities, vii. the families of 
the moon and sun, as the king Fardravas, etc. For this reason the 
creation of the Kahatraa among the gods has been set forth. 

Because the Kshatra waa created by more coocentrated power than 
the Br&bmnQa, "therefore none ia greater than the Kahatra," who is 
alio the ruler of the Brifamsua caate. "Thererore the BrtihmaQa," 
although the source of the Kahatriya, placed " under the Kshatriya," 
" worahipa" bim who ia placed above. Where T "Atthe Rajasdyacere* 
mony." "The Kahatra alone gjves him bis glory," his repute as Bram. 
ha. TheBitwig, — at theBijasiiyaceremony addressed by the kii^, who 
is anointed and seated on the n^al cbsir, by the words ; " Bramba," 
— repUes again to the king : " O king, thou art Bnunba." He alone ia 
called Kshatra who bestows glory. "Bramha is thus the" well 
known " birth-place of the Kahatra." "Therefore, although the kii^ 
obtuns the highest dignity," in virtue of the anointiog at the B&ja- 
adya oeremony, "he at last" at the completion of the ceremony, 
" takes refuge !n the Bramha." in the firimhapical caste, " as in hia 
birth-place," that is, he Hppouits a family priest. "Whosoever" 
again from the pride of power, " despises," lowers, " him" his birth- 
place, the BribmsQical caste, the Brdhmaiia, he destroys his "own 
birth-place." " He," by so doing, " is a very great sinner ;" (in former 
times the Kshatriya was also a sinner) by his wickedness, because he 
injures hia producer, " like," in common life, " a man who injures," 
defeats, "bis superior" isavery great sinner. 11. 



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Firtt Chapter. Fourth Brdmhma. 123 

He did not extend. He created the Vit> He u all those 
^ds who, according to their cla§Bes, are called VaBUS> Rudrat> 
Adityas, Via'w^^vas, and Maruts. 12. 

He did not extend. He created the oaite of the S'lidnu aa 
the nourisber. This earth is the nourisher ; for it nourithes 
all this whatsoever, 13. 

He did not extend ; he created with concentrated powerjuBtice 
of eminent nature. This justice is the preserver (Kshatn) of 

(As Brunha did not extend before the creation of the Kshetra), lo 
even after the creation of the Kahatra "be" Bramha, "did not 
extend" for the worlc. He did not extend, becaase there was none to 
procure vealtb. " He created the Y\\." to procure wealth for the 
perfonnance of ceremoniea. Wbo again is tbe W%1 "He ie all 
thoae gods sccording to their classes" (for alraoat all tbe Vifs are 
called io, as tbej are counted in classea; for commonly they are 
only capable of collecting wealth, when joined together, and not sing- 
ly) ; the class of " the Ybsub," is eight in number, of " the Budras," 
eleven, of "tbe Adityas" twelve, of "tbe Vis'if^^vaa," means either 
tbe thirteen aona of Vis'wa, or at! (sarve-vis'we) tbe gods, and of " tbe 
Maruts" is seven times seven. 12. 

" He" in want of servants, " did not extend. Be created the caste 
of the S'udras." Which again i« the caste of tbe S'dtlras, created 
by him ? "Tbe nourisher," (Fiishans) because be nonrisbes. Who 
agHin is thatPdsha? Tbe text determines this in a special manner. 
"This," earth, "is Piitha; for it nourishes all this whatsoever." 13. 

" He," after having created tbe four castes, did not extend. " He," 
from a fear of tbe nngovemableneis of tbe Kshatra on account of his 
fiery nature, " seated by concentrated power justice of eminent natnte." 
"This justice," created of eminent nature, " is the preserver," tbe go- 
vsmor even " of tbe Kahatra," more fiery even than the fiery. " There 
is naught higher than justice," because it governs even the Ksbatra ; 
for all are ruled by it. In what manner 7 To this it is replied : 
"Even the weak is eonfident to defeat tbe more powerful" than 
himself, " by" the power of "justice," " as" in common life " tbe 
honee-holder by tbe king," wbo is tbe most powerfid. Therefore it is 
R 2 

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124 Brihad Aranyaka VpanUkad. 

the Kshatra. There is nought higher than justice. Eren the 
weak is confident to defeat the more powerful by juaticej as a 
houtekolder by the king. Verily justice is true. Therefore they 
•ay of a person who speaks the truth, he speaka justice, or 
of a person who speaks justice, he speaks the truth. In this 
manner verily it is both. 14. 

This is the creation of the Bramha, the Kshatra, the Vit and 
the S'udra. He was in the form of Agni (fire) among the 

in thiB manaer evident, that justice a governing aU, becanae it is more 
powerful than all. "Yerily justice," m. a case which has been 
decided accordiog to legal evidence, " ia true." Here " tme" mean^ 
in accordance with the meaning of the S'fistra, and justice means, 
what is transacted in such a manner; it is true, if understood in 
accordance with the meaning of the S'^tra. Because this is so, 
"therefore they" those who are sitting near, who are aware of tbe 
arguments on both parts, " say of a peraou who speaks," at the time 
when a suit is transacted, the "truth" that is, according to the 
S'iatras. " He speaks justice," viz. he speaks according to fitness, which 
is well known and pnrsuant to usage. Thus, on the other hand, they 
say " of a person, who speaks in accordance with justice," to usage, 
« he speaks in accordance with truth," he speaks what does not deviate 
from the S'^tra. " In this manner verily it," which has been mentioned 
before, "is both," viz. the justice, which must be made known 
and which mnst be practised. Therefore justice, as an object of 
knowledge and of practice governs all, as well those who know the 
S'istras as those who do not know them. Therefore, it is the pre- 
server even of the Kshatra. Hence an ignorant person, who is proud 
of justice, acknowledges for the practice of its different parts, its 
difference which is the cause of the Bramha, Kshatra, Vit and S'ddra 
castea. Theae difference! are by their own nature the causes of the 
different agents. 14. 

The passage: "This is the creation of the four castes" "of the 
Bramha, the Kshatra, the Tit and S'ddra," serves as an introduction 
into the next sentence. "He," Bramha, the creator, "waa in the 
form of Agui among the gods," that ia to say in no other form. "As 



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Firit Chapter. Fourth Br&mhana. 125 

gods as Bramha, he was the Brfimfaana among mcD, In the form 
of Ksbatriya Eshatriya, in the form of Vais'ya Vais'ya, in the 
form of S'udro S'udra. Therefore among the godi the place 
(loka) is deaired through Agoi only> Rmong men through the 
Br&hmana, because in their forms Bramha became manifett. 



Brahma," " the Bnthmana cute, he wu the Brdhmaoa," in the form of 
a Br&hmaqa Brahma was among men. Assuming other modifications 
among the other castes, he became in the Kahatriya form a Kshatriya, 
whose tateiary deities are Indra and other goda (ddv<ts ;) in the Yaishya 
form a Vatshya, and in the S'ddta form a S'lidra. 

Because Bramha the creator assumed other and other modifications 
among the Kshatriya and other castes, and remained unmodified only in 
Agni's form, " therefore among the gods the place," the fruit of works, 
" is dedred through Agni only," that is to say, by the performance of 
works, dependent on Agni ; for on this ground is this Brahma evidently 
lepreaented under the form of Agni, tbe locality of works. Therefore it 
ia established, that by the performance of work through Agni, the fmit, 
resulUog fVom it, is desired. " Among men throngh the Br^mana." 
If among men there is a desire of the frnit to be derived from works, 
there is no dependance upon works, of which Agni, etc. is the cause. How 
then? The object of man is effected only by reliance upon the nature 
of the castes. Where, howerer, the accomplishment of the object of man 
is subject to the gods, there it is dependant upon work in conjunction 
with Agni. etc. This follows also from the passage of the Smriti : 
" By muttering prayers, the Brihmai>a, no doubt, is aucceisful, whether 
he performs other work (work, dependant upon fire) or not. Friend ia 
called the Br&hmana."* This ia also evident from his leading the life 
of a religious mendicant.-f- Therefore among men the place, the effect 
of works, is desired through the nature of the Br&bmana alone, " be- 
cause Brahma," the creator, " in their forms," in the forms of the 
Br^maqa and Agni, the forms upon which tbe agents of work are 
dependent, " became manifest." 

* Bj giiing to ill faeingi the bleiiins to be withaut frar. 

-t Whicfa i« to rcnoanee &11 warldlf object* — tbi ouiie of obtaining Che world ot 



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126 Brihad Aranyaka Upanithad. 

ThcQ whosoever, through thia world iiot Beeing the self-like 
world, dies, him the latter, because unknown, does not preserve, 
SB the VMa which is not read, or as other work, which ia not done. 

With reference to thig, gome* say, 'it is the place of the snprenie 
Bou], the obtainmeni o^ which is desired through Agni and the Br&h- 
maoa.' This is not trae ; bectnie a subjection to igoorance existing, 
the dinaion of the castes is introdnced for the subjection to works, it is 
not true, moreover, because it differs from the next passage ; for if here 
(in the present passage) by the term " place," even the supreme soul 
were declared, then in the next passage ; " Not having seen the self-like 
place," the predicate " self-like," would be absurd ; for if there the 
common place (world) which is desired by dependance upon Agnl, la 
different from the self-hke place, then the predicate "Belf-Uke," ia 
proper, because the meaning is the annihilation of the common place 
(world) after death, and beoanse by the term " self-like" there ia no going 
astray from the place of the supreme soul ; bat the works, performed 
by ignorance, would go astray by the term " self-like." And by the 
passage: " Perishes certainly," the going astray of all the effects by 
works will be set forth. By Braroha the castes were created for the 
sake of work, and this work, because it rules all eattet by the notion 
of duty and accomplishes the object of man, has the name of rirtae. 

If therefore by this work alone the self-like place which is called the 
anpreme soul, is obtained, although it is unknown, why then is it neces- 
sary to do any thing with reference to its production? On this ground 
it is said in the text: "Then," which ia to remove the objection of the 
opponent. ' 'Whosoever through thia " world," which is subject to trans- 
migration, whose nature is the aasnropdon of a body, whose caases are the 
desire -and work of ignorance by believing in the work, dependent upon 
Agni, or by believing ia work to be perGormed by the Br&hmaQa caste 
alone, on account of the world which is transient, and whose nature is not 
aelf-like, " not seeing the selMike world," which is called soul from not 
going astray from the nature of the soul, not aeeinff " I am Bratnha," — 
" dies," the Utter, (although "the latter" mesna the aelf-like world, yet it 
is unknown, concealed by ignorance, as a horse, which ia not recognised) 
" does not preserve him,"— as the tenth soul in the well known example 
* Ths GooiinenCarj, called Bhirtriprmpanchikk. 



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Fir at Chapter. Fourth Briiahana. 127 

Erea the great andboly work, whicb a penon who does not know 
in this manner, performs, all this work of him, verily periBhes at 
last. Let a man worship the houI as hit place. Whosoever 
worships the soul alone as his place, his work does verily not 

(ride p. 83.), does not preserve himself, — by the removal of grief, delusion, 
lear and other fanlts. And "as" in common life, " the V^da, which is not 
resd," does not teach work and whatsoever arises from it, " or as other 
work," in common life, for instance ploughing, " which is not done," is 
not manifested by ita own nature, does not preserve him by the yielding 
of its fmit, so the soul, if nnroanifested by its self-like nature, which is 
the eternal sonl, does not preserve him by the innihilation of ignorance. 
'But then, does it not follow from the necessity that work obtains 
it) effect by preserving the cause of the knowledge of the eelf-like 
world, and from the abnudanee of worli, wliich is the cause of the desired 
effect, "that its preserring cause is nndestroyable I" No, becanae 
ewty effect is liable to destruction. Therefore it is said in the textt 
" Even the great," as for instance many As'wam^dha sacrifices, " and 
holy work," which obtains its fruit, as if it were desired (although 
there has l>eea no desire of its fruit) "whioh a person," of extra- 
ordinary magnanimity, "who does not know in this manner," who 
does not know the se^-like place in the said manner, continually "per- 
form^" under the notion, that he shall thereby gain immoTtality, " aU 
tliis work of him," of the ignorant person, "verily perishes at last," at 
tiie end of the enjoyment of the frnit, because desire, the effect or ig. 
norance, is its cause, like some vxmderjkl superhuman power (perished) 
which appeared by tlie delusion of a dream . Since the causes of it (of 
the work) viz. ignorance and derire, are not permanent, it is necessary, 
that its effect is also liable to destruction. Therefore there is no hope 
to preserve for ever the frnit of holy work. "Therefore let a man 
worship the sonl alone" as the self-like place ; the sonl ia the self-like 
place; for in this meaning is the self-like place set forth in the texl^ 
and here is the term of "self-like" not applied. "Whosoever wor- 
ships Ae Bool as hu place," what of him ? It is replied in the text : 
"his work does verily not perish," because there is even no work; 
this is repeated here in order to to establish it firmly. The meaning is, 
as there is constantly worldly onhappiness, conustiog in the decrease 



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128 Brihad Aranyaka Vpaniihad. 

perish. For whatBoerer lie desires from the soul, the same he 
obtains. 15. 

qftKe effect derived from work, so there is not for him (the wise) as if 
one thinks : if Mithila is burned, nothing burna me. Others* explun 
it to mean, ' that the irork of the knowing worshipper of Us ownaelf 
(soul) does not perish by the connexion with a person who does not 
know. Further, for the term of "place," intimately connected with 
work, they in fact aBsnme two meanings ; one is the pUce in the state 
of manifestation, depending upon work, and bearing the name of 
Hiranyt^tarbha. Whosoever worships this place, which ia intimately 
connected with work, which ia manifested and finite, the work of him, 
who knows the finite self aa engaged in work, verily periahes. But 
whoaoever worships the world, which is intimately connected with 
work, comprehending it in its unmanifested state under the notion of 
cause, his work does not perish, because he knows the infinite self 
(soul) OS engaged in work." This aasuuiption ia ingenious, but it 
does not accord with the S'ruti, because by the term " the place of 
selT' the supreme aoul, set forth in the text, ia denoted.' 

The text having mentioned (before) " the place of aelf," omits (now) 
the term "of self" and introducing the term "soul," shows its identity 
with the former by the words ; " whosoever worships the soul alone as 
his place." Tbere is here no possibility for the aaaumption of a place, 
intimately connected with work. 

Moreover it (the place intimately connected with work) is different 
from the supreme place, whose object is knowledge alone. By the 
passage: "The soul is not the place," it is distinguished from the 
places, which are gained by inferior knowledge and the work of a son. 
Therefore " the soul Is not the place," and also : " His place is not 
measured by any work; this is his highest place." By these sentences, 
because they are determined, a corresponding meaning is proper. Thus 
here also, because by the words " the place of self," the predicate is 

If it ia said ' that according to the paasage : " for whatsoever," it is 
improper, that the place of self is the supreme aoul ; for if it is certain, 
that by the worship of him he becomes the supreme soul ; whatsoever 
* Vii. the eiplaiiition, gircn b; tbe Bhartripripandia. 



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Finl Ckapttr. Fourth Br^hnAama. 121 

Next thdt ionl (self) verily ia the place of all being*. 

ba denm, he obtunB from the mhiI, then the declorttian witli regard t* 
the fhih ii improper, nnless it is to cAtaio that soul.' We oaatndie^ 
becaxue it bas the object to estol the woribip of the worltl of letf ; for 
the neanipg is, rrom the place of self alone all that ii dedred i» 
oblaiaed j any thing different from it ii not to be aikcd for, bec«ii« 
all deiiref are aatiified, u it ii said in another pasuge of the S'mti 
(Chh. U. 7th Pr. 16thKh. B. I.Vol. III.p.&24): » From the aoul U 
lib, from the tonl hope." Or it meana toihow theatateof thenniTemd 
flonl aa before (p. lOS). For if the supreme soul ia declared, it is right 
to apply the term " sonl" in the passage ; "tta.. ., from the aonl," 
(p. 1 28) and it means, from the pUce of self, which is let forth a« seal ia 
the text. Otherwise it would hare been said with a predicate, " from th« 
place of work in its nnmanifested state" in order to remora thereby faU 
MJNi ^a place of the supreme sonl in accordance with the text, and te 
remixTe the state of manifestation ; for since it set forth in the text and 
determined, another state, not authorised by the 8'rnti,iBtmposaitile. 15. 
"Next that soul verily." It has before (in the last flectioui 
describing the state of ignorance) been siud, that the ignorant, in 
the conscaons pride of caate and order of life, etc., and gorenwd by 
the law, is, like a beast, subject to another by the necessity of perfwrn- 
ing the works of the gods and others. Which again are the works by 
the necessary perfonnance of whieh he becomes, like a beast, aabject 
to another T And who are the gods and others whom he aaaiats, like « 
beast, by works ? Both ia explained in the text. The term " scxt" il 
iatended aa an introduction to tkepretent sentence. The hooBe-bcdder^ 
as set Corth in the text, who is subject to work, ignorant, and endowed 
with body, senses, etc., ia here called " that soul." The meaning is " ha 
is the place," the object of enjoyment, " of all beings," from tlie gods 
down to the ants, because he affords assiataoce to all by works which 
ere commanded witli reference to the different castes and orders. By 
what special works again affording assiMance does he become the 
place, for what specinl beings? The answer is : " By what he," the 
house-holder, "offers and sacrifices." Sacrifice with reference to 
the deity is an abandonment of maltli (to the deity). If it is 
performed until the aprinkling of the water (on the head of the wicri- 



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130 Brihad Artm^aka Vpmiihad. 

He ii .the piBce of the gods by what he offers and Bacrifiees, 
iurther of the Riahiii by what he leann, further of the fore- 
father! (Pitria) by what he givea to the forefathers, and by hU 
exertions about offspring, further of men by housing them 
and giving them food, further of cattle by finding them 
grass and water, further of beasU of prey, birds, etc. down to 
antfl, by sustaining their life in his dwelling. As every one 
desires the continuance of his place, ao verily desire all beings 

fleer), it is Homa. By this work, vis. by Homs (offering) snd sacrifica 
{T*g«) which it is hi« duty U» perform, "hois," like a besst, subject ta 
ihe will of another, " the pUce of the gods." " Further by what ha 
resdi," vis. his daily reading of the Vfidss, " he is the place of tha 
Bishis." "Farther by what he gives to the forefathers," vist. the 
oblation, water, etc., " and by his exertions about offspring," by that 
work, which be ii hound to perform, " he is the place of the fore- 
fslhm." " Further by housing men." by giving them place, wster^ 
etc. in his house, " and giving them food," via. them who ask him 
for it, whether they Uve in his house or not. "he is the place of 
men." " Further by finding." giving " them grass and water," ha 
is the •' place of cattle." " Further of beasts of prey, birds together 
with ants by anstsining their Ufe in his dwelling," with grains and 
(particles of food guned) by the cleaning of the aacri&cial veaads, 
*' he is the place of them." Because by those works he affords as- 
ustanceto the gods, etc., therefore "ss every one desires continn- 
ance of bis own pisce," of his own body, desires the preservation 
of his nature, from the fear of losing his nature susttiins it always by 
nourishing protecting it, etc., " so verily desire all beings," the gods 
and others, the above mentioned continunoce of life " for him who thus 
knows," who thus frames his soul : " I am to be enjoyed by alt beings, 
I, like a debtor, am bound to mske returns ;" tkat i» to tay, they 
preserve >»'"' for the continuauce of their own existence, as house-holders 
oMsereecattle. Thereforeitissud: " It is not plrsHsnt to them." "This 
verily," that the said works must necessarily be done, like the paying 
of a debt, "is declared," in the chapter of the five great sacrifices, (the 
five great sacrifices, viz. to all b^gs, to men, to the forefathers, to the 
gods, snd to Bramhj^ "and considered," and proved as necessary by 



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First Chapter. Fwrtk BrimhtM. 131 

velfore Tor one who thus knows. ThU verily is declared and 
conaidered. 16. 
Self (the soul) nlone was this before ; he was even one. H& 

coDNderadoB in the chapter of the diitribution of the things, required 
for the five great sacriliceB (ATAddDnprakani^a). 16. 

"Self aloae wu thia before." Ifthe knower of Bntmha it Rherat- 
cd firom the state of cattle, which coasisU in the bondage of dntj, bj* 
whom then haa he been made anbject to the bondage of work, and not 
■gain to the practice at knowledge^ which ia the meaDs of liberation f 
la it not said: "The goda preaerrel" Certainly, bnt theypreserre 
thoie who by the perfonnance of work obtained their own (the goda*) 
itate ; otherwiae it would be in their power to bettow the effeeta ot 
aeliona not done, or destroy the tfteU of actiona done, (that la to aay ; 
etberwiie, tbey would be partial) but Uiey do not preaerre a eommon 
man, who haa not obtained a apedal perfectiun. Therefore it rniut be 
the same (who makea him mbject to the bondage of work) by whoee 
power « ptemom subject to vork ia getting ont of his own plaee. Is 
thidnotignoimncef for the ignorant, getting oat of himaelf, is engaged 
in work T No, ignorance alao ia not the caoae which makes one t« 
tngage in work ; ivx ita character ia to coneeal the tme natnre of a thing ; 
bnt it may be the eanae of making one to eng^e in work, in the same 
manaer, as blindneaa ia the cause, that one is liable to faU into holes; 
etc If this is the eaae, then say, what enasea one to en^ge in woi4c f 
This ia set forth, vis. it ia willing deare. Thns it ia said in the Kithaka 
(4 to P. 2. B. I. Vol. Till. p. 123) ; -Bcmaiohig in tbor natural 
ignorance, yooths engage in sctioas ; follow dtcmal objects of dcnre." 
In the Bhagavadgfti : " It is desire, it is anger, etc." (B. O. 3rd k. 
37.) And in Hann : " Derire is the eanse of sll engsgemmts in action, 
(H. 8. 2d. A. 4.) This mcaaiic ia in all its detail proved tbnmgliont 
this whole diapter. " Self alone was this before." Sdf alone vis. the 
penon who is ignorant by his own nature, wfao is to be eomprcbended 
under the nation of effixt and cause, the Bnunbschiri (the reUgjoNs 
fltndeni). "Bef<we." Prenona totheuniaa wid awife heiscalied srff. 

There was no object of dc«re, as a wife, etc. different from thw self. 
*' Be. was e*en one," poaicaMd of ignorsnee, the eanse of the darin 
<rf a wife, etc., he, waa even alone ; be was pervaded by ^^MiMea^ 
a2 



IS8 Brihud Aranyaka Vpanukad, 

AvuttA i Let nie have a wife ; agafn^ — let ine be born ; itgun^— n 
let me have wealth; agiun, — let me perform work. .Su hx extend^ 
verily deaire. For without desire one dues not get more than 

tho nature of which is to asugn to one's own goal the assamptioDl of 
Rgent, action and fruit. " He desired" What ? " Let me haye a wife." 
Let me, the agent, hare a wife, the cause of the performance of work ; 
without her I am not a fit agent for work ; therefore to accomptiab ths 
performance of work, let me have a wife. " Agun, — let me be bom,"- 
let me be produced as offspring. " Again,— -let me hare wealth," cows,- 
cte., by whiA work is accomplished. " Again let me perform work," the 
canse of elevation and liberation, via. let me perform worli,— by which, — < 
liberated from my debt, I may obtain the places (worlds) of the gods,. 
«tc., — and the ceremonial rites for objects of desire which are the cansea 
by which a son, wealth, hearen, etc. are effected. " So &r extends verilyi 
desire," which means, desire is limited to those objects. So far extend 
the objects which are to be desired^ ris. a wife, taa, weahh and worka> 
rk. the desire as cause. The three worlds, the world of man, the world 
*f the forefathers, and the worldoftbe gods, are the effects of this deairq 
as eause ; for the desire, as canse referring to wife, stw, wealth and work, 
V for tht^ir sake. Therefore this u one desire ; and the other, the desire 
•f the worlds, wbieh is also a desire, depends upon a cause ; in this manner 
denre is two-fold. Hence it will be afterwards (B. A. p. 592), said : 
" These two desires." Because every action is undertaken on account of 
its effect therefore it should be understood, that by the passi^ : " 8o 
far extends desire" the worlds are necessarily implied, and ther^OM 
declared," for if eating is meUioned, it is not necessary to mention 
also satisfaction, becanse eating is merely for the sake of it. These 
two desires, characterised as cause and effect, are the longing, by 
which compelled, the ignorant, who is subject to work, like the silk- 
worm, encases his self (soul) ; that i* to lay, on the road of action not 
attending to himself (the aonl), oni^ baring got out (of himself), he does 
not know his own place (the place which is like himself). Thus it is 
Bud in the Talttariya: " Bewildered by fire, teased by smoke, he does 
not know his own place." How ^ain is it ascertained, that duire ex- 
tends M far, because desires are infinite, for desires haye no end 7 On 
tlua aoooont the reason is stated : Because " without desire one does 



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First Chapter. Ftmrtk BrimhiAa. 133 

tjut. Therefore also now a person, when alone, deiires i Let me 
have a wife,— again, let me be bom,— agun, let me bare wealth, 
— again, let me perforin work. As long as he does not obtain one 
of them, BO long be thinks himKJf incomplete. Hih completeness 
ia this, that the niiutl ia hia aelf (soul) and speech his wife. 

not get more than this," vhich cooBiiti of effect and cause -, for, 
beside cause and effect, nothing, either perceived or not percuTed, it ta 
be gained in tkia world ; for the object to be obtained is deeire, and aa 
tjbia doea not exist without them (cause and effect) it is prop«r to say i 
" Bo far extends rerily desire." Hereby it is said i Wish, the object of 
aetion of the ignorant subject, is two-fold desire, vis. either deaire as effect, 
or as oausa, whether its object is perceiTed or not percuted. Above tJiia 
wish the wise must be elevated. Because in thia mamier the ignorant 
self (aoul) bang desirous, before deaired, and also he who preceded him, 
—(fitr this is the law of the world, and in the same manner was this th» 
ereation of Prajip^ ; /«• it is laid. (p. 64) " he was afraid" by igno* 
anoe. Then (pp. 67.68) i " Hanee, excited by desire, a person is not 
happy whea alone ; to remove the unhappiness, he deaired a wife ; he 
qiproached her ; hence aprtng forth this creation,"— "Hierefore," after 
this ereatiou, " also now," at the present time, " a lonely person," before 
Us being married, desires in accordance with what has been said: "Let 
Ue ha«B a wife, — again, let me be bom,— again, let me have wealth, — 
again, let me perform work." " Aa long as he," who is dios desirous anA 
cudearonring of getting all, a wife, &e., " as long as he does not obtain 
floe of themi" one of what has been mentioned, a wife, &c., "eo long 
he thinks himself incomplete." At last when he obtains all of them, hia 
eompletmess ensues ; but whenhecanaot accomplish his Gompleteneas, 
he is in the state of ineomplrtcDeasi then for the aocompUahing of hia 
wmpletenesa, the text says ; " His completeness," the completeness of 
him, who, as before mendoned is conscious of incompleteness " is this." 
Vhat T (To show this), the totality of effect and cause is dinded. Hers 
(in this dividos) " the mind is" (for every thing else, produced from tkt 
taUMty qfcaoMt and effect is governed by it), by its superiority, "hid 
self (the Bonl)" which means like bis self, as the master of the family ii 
like the soul of the wires, &e., because his wife, son,.&G., follow him. 
In the same maniur is the mind here assumed as the self for thesake of 



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134 BriAad Arofffaka UpanMad. 

Life is their ofhpring, the eye the wealth of man ; for by the 
eyei one obtaiua it,— tlie ear the wealth of the goda ; for by the ear 
one hears it; aelf iaeven his work, — for by self one performs work.- 

The sacrifice is five-fnld, the animal five-fold, the man five- 
fold, five-fold this ail wliatsoever. Whosoever thus knows,, 
the same obtains this all. 17- 

completenesB ; " and" thns alM " speech his wife," on account of speech, 
bmng in like manner governed by the mind. Speech, vis. sound, whose 
characteristic is directing, &c., is received by the migd through the ear, 
&c., oonsidered and revered ; in thit manner ia speech the wife of the 
miad. From both, speech and mind, represented as wife and hnabandr 
nas produced life for the per/ormanct o/ work ; therefore ** life is their 
offspring," as it were. There (if self, wife and offspring are present) 
work characterised by the effort of life, Sec., is to be accomplished 
by the wealth perceived by the eye, and therefore is " the eye the 
wealth of man." Wealth is two-fold, wealth of man and other 
wealth ; therefore it is said, " of man," to distingaiih it from other 
wealth ; for cattle, the wealth connected with man and perceptible by 
the eye, is accomplishiag action ; therefore it represents it. Hence by 
eoDnexionistheeyethe weilthof man; "for," because, " one obtains," 
perraives, " it," the wealth of man, cattle etc., " by the eye" (there- 
fore is the eye the wealth of man). What again is the other kind of 
weslth 7 " The ear the wealth of the gods," becanse knowledge is 
the object of the gods. Knowledge is the weslth of the godi. There- 
fore in onr case is the ear even the object of wealth. "WhyT " For by 
the ear ;" because by the ear " one hears it," the wealth of the gods, 
knowledge, therefore is the ear even the wealth, because knowledge 
is dependent on the ear. How agun i* work to be performed by 
those agents, the first of which is self, and the last wealth ? The answer 
is: "Self is even." Self means A«re the body. How again is self 
(the body) the representative of work 1 because it is the cause of work 
for him (the sacrificer). How is it the cause of work 7 " For by self," 
by the body, " one performs work." In this manner is the complete- 
nesB, whose characteristics are external objects, as a son, &c., accom- 
plished for him, who thiuka himself- incomplete. In this manner 
thovfbre, " The sacrifice is five-fold," to be performed by five, even 



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Firii Chapter^ Fifih BriimAana. 135 

Fyih Brdmhaifa. 
Of the mven provieions which the fiither created by under- 

in the caie of a peroon vho hai ceased from wurk, where it is to be 
performed b; symbols alone. How agnin is the symbol by the mere 
apprehension of five, CRlled a ssciifice T BeeanBe an exteii>al Bacrifice 
also is accomplished by men and animals, and there are five men and 
fire animals, by the application of the mentioned five, miud, speech, &c. 
Therefore it is said : " The animal fiTe-fold, — the man fivefold." 
Although the notion of animal is found also in man, yet there is a dif- 
ference between them, wlierefore " man" has been separately men* 
tioned. What more 1 " Fire-fold this all," the cause and effect of the 
'worki "whatsoever." "Whosoever thus knows," whosoever in this 
manner, represents the five-fold sacrifice as himself, " the same obtains 
this all," the world under the notion of himself. 17. 

There (in the last Brilmhann) ignorance has been introduced by the 
words : " Whosoever worships another deity in such a manner t" " He 
is another, another am I," the same does not know." (B. A. p. 1 16). 
]t has also been said (p. 129,) that the pergon, who has the conacions- 
Jieu of caste and of the different condiiious of life (vis. of a religious 
student, a house-holder, of one who retires to the forest, and of one 
who lives merely for the contemplation of God), who is ruled by bis 
duties, who, compelled by desire, affords assistance to the gods, fore- 
fathers, &c,, through sacrifices and other rites, is the place for all beings. 
And as by each and all of his works he hns been created as the place 
to be enjoyed by all beings, thus he has created all beings and the 
whole world for his own enjoyment. The meaning is, in this manner 
everybody, in accordance with his knowledge and work, is the enjoyer and 
enjoyment, the agent and the object of action of the whole world. To 
understand the identity of the soul, we shall say with reference to know- 
ledge in the chapter treating on the knowledge of the universal essence 
(madhu lit. honey,) : " All is the effect of all, one universal essence." 

He created by the five-fold work whose object in desire, viz. by the 
five-Jold sacrifice, ^&c., the world^for hit enjoyment, and also by 
knowledge (for his cooaideration). This whole world is seven-fold 
divided according to its being cause and effect. They (these parts) 
are called provisions, because they are objects of enjoyment. Hence 



136 Brihad Aranyaka Upmiiihad. 

Htantjing and penance, he Assigned one as the common to all, 
and two to the gods, three he made for himaelf, one he gave to 
the auinutls ; for upon this all is fonnded, whatsoever breathes 
and whatsoever breathes not. Why are they not destroyed 
althoagh always consumed ? Whosoever knom the caaae at 
the non-destruction, he eats the principal food j he goes to the 
gods, he lives eternally. 1. 

The Mantra : " Of the seven provisions which the father creat- 
ed by tinderstanding and penance ; for the father created by un- 

(by the creation of them through work and kaowledge) he is the 
fntherof those pTaviBioni. ThoHcMaatru; " Of the seven pnrrisions," 
&c. are here anuTned as Sdtnu, becanse tbey ihow, compendiously, the 
meaniog of tliote provinona, ti^ther with tbdr appBcation. (The 
term " Yad" is here an adverb in connexion with ' he created.') By 
" nnderstuidin^," knowledge, and "penance," work ; for knowledge 
and work are the meanings of the terms " nnderstandiog," and 
"penance," beet) use they are topics of the text, and not the litend 
meani]^ of than " underslandiDg" and " penance," becanse they 
are not topics of the text; for the five-fold work, to be accom- 
plished by a wife, &c. and aftemardB knowledge by the words : " wh» 
tlius knows, &o.," have been set forth in tbe text. Therefore it arasi 
not be doubted, thst understanding and penance are well known. 
Again : " The seven proviuonR whidi the father created," by kno«rtcdge 
and work, here it must be supplied ; the lanoe 1 will mention.* 1, 

Here is the sense of the Mantras on account of their obaeuntj dif- 
ficult to be understood ; hence the Br&mbaQa is engaged in the expl»- 
nation of them. There what means the Manira i " Of the seven 
provisions which the father created," "The answer is given by tbn 
term for" which is to show, that tbe meaning is well-known ; for the 
meaning is, that tbe meaning of the Mantra it well-known, and therefore 
by the repetition of the Mantra : " The provisions he prodoeed," is t« 
indicate, that the meaning is well-known. Ttterefbre &t hrimhanA says 
without hesitation : " For the father created by understanding and 
penance." Bat how then is &e meaning well-known T The aoawar 



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Firtt Ckofter. ^tk Brdmhaka. 137 

derstandini^ tad pmatice." " He aaugaed one ns the commoD 
to all." The common prorision to all, ia that which » eaten. 

tbe eaiiMS, prodndng the worldBs of which the first is & wife and the 

lut work, is evident, and it is alio deckred by nich pitaagea ai i 

"Let me hare a wife." There it haa been declared, that the wealth 

of tbe gods,-~Tiz. knowledge, — work and a bod are the cause of the 

ireation with reference to the worlds in thdr nature as effects (that 

ii to say, ai the result of good or bad actions.) And also that 

which will be said, is well kaowu. Therefore it is proper to say i 

" By understanding, fte ;" for desire, whose object is (enjoyment 

of) fruit, is well-known in common life, and also desire, whose object 

Is a wife, ftc., whid) is set forth in the passage c "Bo far extends 

denre ;" but as to the object of the knowledge of firamha (which 

is Uberation), desire is impeanble, because then all is one and th« 

same. Thereby (by i^owing, that tbe cause of the world is desire, 

l^odnced by ignorance) it ii also said, that the world is created bj 

Datura], nnsoriptnral knowledge and penance. This follows also from 

tbe reason, that work and knowledge are the cause of oonsequencei 

which ate not desired, down to the state oi inanimate matter. But 

it was intended to esplala the relation of effect and cause in accord- 

Bice with the S'ibtrs; for in the desire to establish the knowledge of 

Bramha, there is included the intention to describe the state, in which the 

world is disregarded ; fer this whole world, whose nature is manifested 

and not manifeitcd, is impure, Iraneient, a componnd of eanse and effecti 

tbe object of nnhapinness and ignorance, and therefore for him who baa 

DO T^ard for this world, the knowledge of Bramba is to be eommeneed. 

There, by the dirision of the provisions, their application is set forth. 

"He astigaed one as the commtHi to ^1," this is a part of tbe Mantra. 

Its esplanstion is as follows: " The connnoo proviaioD to all" to all 

enjoyera, what is it ? " that which is eaten," enjoyed by all beii^ day 

by day ; this common food, the object of all enjoyers, the fathei 

assigned after tbe creation of the prOTision. 

" Whoaoever werAips,"— which means is attached to, (for wershijr 
means aUo attaehment, aa it is clear from common eipreasions anch 
as : "He worships the teacher," " he loorships the king,") " it" — vii. 
the couHooa provinen, which is to be enjoyed, the cause of the preeer- 



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138 Brikad Xranifaka Upmitkad. 

Whosoever worshipB it, the lame doe« not turn from un ; for it 

vation of all liviug beingi, whose principal object is the eDJoymeot of 
proriiion for the aake of the preaerTation of the body, and not work 
for the sake of something unseen, — " the same," being of such a na- 
ture, " doea not turn," is not liberated, " from gin," from Tice. Thus 
a Mantra says; " He enjojs uselets food," &c. (Kr. Yajur fir£mhnna 
2d Adh. 8th Pr. 6th Anva.) Also the Smritl : " Let him not cook 
food for himself" (alone). He, who eats, without giving to the guests, 
is a thief. Even a person who procures abortion,* becomes free from 
iia, if he eats food, after he has first distributed it." 

yi\ty again does he not turn from sin ? " for it is mixed ;" for the 
property, which is enjoyed by the Uving creatures, is undivided (and 
therefore it does not belong to one, aa the property, lefl by a father, 
does not belong to any of his sons, before it is divided) because it 
ia the object of enjoyment for all. Even the morsel, which is put into 
the mouth,, is observed to canae pain in the mind of another ; for. while 
there is the desire, let roe have it, the hope of every one ia thereby ez' 
eluded. Therefore it ia imposuble to take even a mouthful of food, 
without giving pain to another. Thus it ia said in the Smriti : " It is 
the gnilt of man," &c. 

Some (the Bhartriprapancha) say: The food, called that of the 
Vis'wad^ss which is daily given by the house-holder, is here meant. 
This is not evident, like the food, which is sn object of enjoyment for 
all tiring beings ; nor does it agree with the passage ; " that which is 
eaten." Because the food, which is called the food of the TJE/wad^as, 
is included in the food, which is an object of enjoyment for all living 
beings, therefore it is proper to understand the food which may be 
eaten by a dog, a Chin^dla, &c., for it is the food which, besidtf 
the Vis'waddvas, is Uken by a di^, ChiSgi^lB, kc. In this case 
the expression ; " that which is eaten," is proper j for if food ia not to 
mean general food, then it must be sud, thst it has neither been crest* 
ed nor appUed by the father ; but it has been granted, that all food has 
been created and distributed by the father ; and it is very improper to 
say, that a person who haa performed the work, which is called that 
of the Vis'wad^as, and which is in accordance with S'&gtraa, is not re- 
* Aoooiding to Aoanda » penoD, who killi ■ high cute Brihrns^. 



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Ftrtt Chapter. Fifth Brdmkana. 139 

In mixed, "And two to the gode," viz. the aacriRce and the 
oblntion. Again, others say they mean the ceremonies at the 

leiued from all sin. Nor la there a prohibition of it ; nor is it, like the 
actioD of catching fish, bkmed for its owo nstore, because it ia per> 
farmed bj good people, and because the S'niti declares it sin, if it 
19 not done i moreover, otherwise also sin is obtained ; for it is stud 
ID a Mantra : " I am food, I eat him who eats food." — " And two to 
the gods." This is a part of the Mantra. Which ara the two pro- 
visions, which after their creation he assigned to the gods ? The 
answer is : " The sacrifice (Hutam) and the oblation (Prahutam)."* 
Sacrifice is an offering in the fire. The oblation is the taking of the 
offerable food after the sacrifice. Because the father made over these 
two profisioDB, the sacrifice and the oblation, to the gods, therefore 
at this time house-hqlders also " sacrifice to the gods," thinking, this 
food mast be given by us to the gods, " and offer," which means, and 
having sacrified, take the offering. "Again others say," the two 
provisions which were given by the father to the gods, are not the 
sacrifice and the oblation ; what tbenT "They mean the ceremonies at 
the new and full moon (Dars'apdroam&san). Here, according to the first 
supposition, it wilt be said, becanse there b no difference with reference 
to the dual number (dwe, two provisions, which may be as well ap- 
plied to Hataprahute as to Dars'apiiroamjaau) and because they (the 
Euta and Prahuta) are otherwise known, it means the sacrifice (Huta) 
and the oblation (Prahnta). But although the doal number accords 
also with the saerifitfe and the oblation, yet the ceremonies at the new 
sad full moon are also performed by the Srauta fire,f and the notion 
of their being provisions, is yet betteit known, because they are declared 
in a Mantra.f And if a quality and the thing to which it refers, are 
obtained (at the same time) the latter must first be comprehended ; but 
to the ceremonies at the new and full moon the idea of priority must 
* The BnhminB hu twice daily to perform the ceremonir of Homi (the offering 
of gbee in fire). When the food ii readj, > pirt of it ii to l» offered in the fire to 
(hegodt; thi) ii celled Hntam, while another part ii throvD on the ground as an 
offering to those goda, who are called Dharmidi. 

t Tbe boDie-bolder hai to perform bii dnil; ceremoniet, &c,, b; the Smtita fire 
(the fire ordained by the Smriti] and the ceremoniei at Ihs new and fall moon bj 
tbe Sraata lire (the fire, ordained bj the S'nili). 



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149 Bfikad J'ram/aia Upanuhad. 

new ftnd ftill moon. Therefore it ia not their nature to be 
auoeiated with desires. " One he gave to the animalB." This 
is railli ; tor before men as well as animals auhnst on milk alone. 
Therefore they feed the child, when bom, either with melted 
batter, or put him to the breast. Then they call the babe 
bom ; for he does not eat grass. 

be assigned rather than to the sacrifice and oblation. Therefoie it 
is proper to think of tbem by the words : " Jnd two to the gods." 
Because those two provisioiis under the name of the proTisiooa at 
the new and full moon, were designed hj the father for the gods, 
" therefore," in order to remoTe anj objection, that thej are made 
for the gods, " it is not their nature to be aasodated with desires" 
(ishti ;) that the term " ishti" means desire, is clear from the 8'atapatha 
Bifimha^a, (the affix uka in the word, " Ishtijajuka," means a na- 
tural indination). 

" One he gave to the animals." Which is the one provision which the 
father gave to the animals 7 " This is milk :" How again is it known, 
that the animals are the possesaora of that provision ? The text an- 
swers : " For before" because before, at first, " men as well as animals, 
subsist ou milk alone," therefore' this prorision is proper for them ; how 
eould tJiej otherwise before subust on it in accordance with a law T 
How do they before sabiiit on it 1 The answer is : Beoaose men as 
well as animals subsist ou that proviuon (as this application is made 
at the commencement, although there existed also other provisions) 
" therefore they," the three castes, " either feed,'' cause to est, " the 
child, when born," at the ceremony of its birth, " with melted butter," 
together with gold,* "or they put him afterwards to the breast," they 
cause him afterwards to drink aiili. As it is nataral for the others, (vis, 
for animals, different from meu) they put the f/outtff anisuil Srst to 
the bi«Bst. " Then they call the babe bom." Of what size (that 
is to say "age") is the babef To this question it is replied: "for he 
does not eat grass," even until this day he does not eat grass, which 
means, that a veiy yonng child even until this day lives npon milk. 
And what has before been said, "that at first at the ceremony after 
birth they subsist on melted batter, and others on milk (vIe. that 

* It it onlr a tODofaiDf of the toi>|me olth mslteil batter, miied with gaU. 

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Firtt Chapter. Fifth BrimkoM. 141 

Upon thii all ib founded, whatsoever breathes and vhatso- 

crer not breathes; for on milk all u founded, whatsoever 
breathes and whatsoever not breathes. The saying : " a per- 
son, offering throughout the year with milk, overcomes the 

the; aubaist upon milk mtrel; ; this makei no differenoe) far melted 
butter is of the luae natare si milk, being a modificstioa of it. Why 
is the provision for Bnimals, which wsi before (in the Mantra) given in 
the seventh place, explainf d Acre in the fonrth T ThU it dmu, because 
thereby the work is sccomplished ; far all work which refers to burnt- 
offerings. Sec., depends upon milk as its cause. 

And this work (milk) which is to be effected by wealth, is to effect 
the three provision* which will be mentioned, ss the before men< 
tioued two pravisions of the ceremoniea at the new and ihll moon 
(are the cause of the three provisions) ; therefore it (milk) being a 
part of the work (ceremonial work) it is declared to be identical 
with work. Moreover, since there is no difference as to its being 
a cause (ss this proviaioni milk, is a cause in the same way ss the 
former two praviaiaiiB are) and hence the meaning (of the ttro farmer 
provisionB with milk) is similar, the succesriou (in which the topics are 
described in the Mantra) is disregarded (lit. is no reason, that the 
explanation shonld not have been made in a different order.) It is 
also done, becanse the explanation is thereby made more easy ; far the 
provisiona, when treated one after another, can be easily explained, 
end, when explained, are easily understood. 

"Upon this all is founded, whataoever breathes and whatsoever not 
breathes." What is the meaning of this T Theausweria: "Upon this," 
the animal pravisian, " all," be it characteriied ss belonging to tha 
soul, or to the material sphere, or to the superiatendence of deities, 
the whole world, " ia founded," " whatsoever breathes," endowed with 
the effort of breathiug, " and whatsoever not breathes," immoveable 
matter, as rocka, &c. And there (in the text) it is explained by the term 
" for," which illustratea any thing already well knawn. Haw eon it 6e 
tmd thai the notion " to be the foundation of all," belongs to milk T On 
accoont of ita being considered as cause. And it ia the intimate cause 
of all the works connected with bumt-offeringa, and by its nature 
a modification of the oblation of a bnmt-sscrifice. That it is the whole 



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142 Brihad A'rmyaka Upanithad. 

second death," let none understand this in such a manner. 
Which day a person sacrifices, the same day he overcoRies the 
second death. A person who thus knows, will overcome the 
second death that day on which he offers ; for he gires all the 
eatable food to the gods. For what reason do they not 
decrease, although they are continually consumed ? The soul is 

world (which is founded thereon) is establiahed b^ a hundred pasugea 
of the S'ruti nnd Smriti, wherefore it is proper to explain it hy the term 
"for." "The saying:" in other Br&mhaoaa, "a person, offering 
throughout a year with milk, overcomes the second death" (here by the 
year are in fact meant three hundred and sixty days, and in them there 
are seven hundred and twenty burnt- offerings.) By the aaerijieer the 
bricks* which are collected in accordance with the Yajur V^da and the 
days and nights of the year, obtains Praj&pati in the shape of the fire, 
which is called Sambatsara (the annual fire). Having performed in this 
manner offerings throughout the year, a person oTercomes the second 
death ; having died he becomes like the gods, and does not die again. 
This, which is said in the passages of other Brimhanas ; " let none 
understand this in such amanner," let it not be esplained thus. "Which 
day a person sacrifices ; the same dny he overcomCB the second death," 
it does not depend upon the practice of the whole year. " A person who 
thus knows," viz. what has been said, that " Upon milk all is founded," 
because all is a modification of the burn t-offu ring of milk, obtains the 
nature of the world (of Prajipati) in one day. Thus it is said : " He 
overcomes the second death ;" the sage, once dying, being separated from 
the body, becomes the universal soul (the nature of all) which means, 
does not assume a finite body for dying again. What again is the reason, 
that by gaining the nature of all he overcomes death? It is replied; 
" for he gives," because he gives all " the eatable food to the gods," to 
all of them, by his morning and evening bnrnt-offerings ; therefore it is 
proper, that he, — after having made his whole self like a burnt-«fferiag, 
after having gained one identical nature with all the gods by his being the 
provision of all the gods, and after being like all the gods, — should not 
* The ncrificer, or Id hia ateul bin appoiated (obstitute, I* after evcrjr daitj 
ocremon; to pat dowu > brick to muk tb« unmber of cereoiaiuel he has performed 
ID the jear. 



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Firit CAapttr. Fifth BrJbthatut. 143 

verily the cauu that they do not decrease, for he again and 
again produces this provision. 

" Whosoever knows the cause that they do not decrense, — the 
suul is the cause that they do not decrease ; for be produces this 
provision by understanding, by understanding and by works ; if 
he did not produce it^ it would verily decrease, — " he eats food 

die again. In this manner it is also said in a Br&mhana. " The self- 
existing Brttmhs (in the form of Hiraqyagarbha) performed penance. 
Then he rejected : " Verily, there is a limit of penance ; alas, let rae 
offer myaelf in all beings, and all beings in myself," therefore, having 
oifered himself in all beings and all beings in himself, be obtained by his 
escellency over all beings, bis kingdom, his dominion." " For what 
reason do tbey not decrease, although they are continually consumed ?" 
From the time that the provisions after their creation were given by the 
father to the seven different enjoyers, they are consumed by them. Since 
they (the provisions) are the cause of their (of the enjoyers') preserva- 
tion, and since there " continually," without interruption, is a decrease 
of what has been made, their decrease is proper. But tbey do not 
decrease, as is evident, from the world continoing in an unshaken 
manner ; hence there must be a cause for it, that they do not decrease. 
Therefore it is aslced : " For what reason," again, " do tbey hot 
decrease." The reply is : " The soul is verily the cause, that they are 
not decreased." As the father was before the creator of the provisions 
by understanding, and at he waa enjoyer by the five-fold work in con- 
nexion with a wife, &c., in the same manner also those, to whom the 
provisions are given, although they are enjoyers of those provisions^ 
are fathers ; they produce by understanding and penance those provi" 
sious. It is then declared : the sonl which is the enjoyer of the provi- 
sions, is the cause, that they do not decrease. How Is it the cause, 
that tbey do not decrease I The answer is : " For he," becaose he 
" again and again produces this provision," viz. this seven-fold provi- 
rion, which is to be enjoyed, the characteristic of which is to be causei 
and effect, and which consists in the effect of work, — " by understandingr 
by understanding," by knoirledge which will take place at this or the 
other time, " and by works," the efforts of speech, mind and body, " If 
he did not produce it," the mentioned' seven-fold provisions, even for 



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144 Brikad Aranyaka UpanitAad. 

in the true manner/* true meana principal ; therefore he eati 
food in the principal manner, he goet to the goda^ he lives upon 
atrength ; thia is wd for the aake (A pruae. '2. 

an inttant, by knowledge and works, then be would be separated from 
the permaaent enjoy meat, " it would verily decreaie." Aod the mean- 
ing is, therefore, because the soul, the enjoyer of the proTiaions, nniii. 
terraptedly produces tAem according to Am koowledge and action, 
therefore is the soul the cause that they do not decrease, as it is a constant 
agent ; therefore the proTisions, although eonsumed, do not decrease. 
Hence the whole world, the totality, charaetcrised by knowledge and the 
result of action, connsting of effect and cause, being the effect resulting 
Jront action, — because it is an eapanie, concreted by the actions and 
desires of numberless embodied souls, joined together, — of a moment's 
duration, impure, without substance, Uke the eondnualion of a light 
rejleeted on the cnrrent of a river, without sabstance like the trunk of 
the plantain-tree, like foam, like a dei^ption, Hke the water in a mirage, 
like a dream, &c., although Ghangesble aud transient, appears to be 
■nbstantial to those whose knowledge is formed by it. For the sake of 
disregardiug the world it is said : " He produces this prvrbion by 
understanding, by understanding and by works. If he did not produce 
k, it would Terily decrease ;" for in ttus manner the digrtgmrd of those 
who disregard the world, has success : — therefore the scieace of Bramba 
will b« commenced in the fourth chapter. " Vhosoerer knows the eaaae 
that they do not decrease," — the three piavisions to be mentioned ar« by 
this (^portumty explained ; in tlus manner the efiect of true knowle*^ 
is set forth. " Whosoever knows the cause that they do not decrease, 
—the soul is verily the cause that they do not decrease ; for ha 
produces this provision by understanding, by understanding; and by 
works ; if he did not produce it, it would verily decrease, — he eats food 
in the true manner." The sense of thisis espluned : "in the principat 
manner ;" whosoever knows in the prmcipal aianner that the cause of the 
aon-deerease of the provisions is the father, the soul, " he eats the fiiod ;" 
a person who knows is not place*!, as the ignoraot is, in an anndentai 
relation to the food ; haviag become the sobstance of the provision^ h« 
ia alone the enjoyer ; he does not become an object of enjoyment (for 
others) " he goes to the godat'^Dbtaina a godlike state; "he lives upon 



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First Chapter. Fifth Brimhana. 145 

"Three he made for himaelf/' viz. mind, speech, and life ; 
these he made for himself. " I was absent in mind, I did not 
«ee. I was absent in mind, I did not hear ;" in this manner it 
is evident, that a person sees with the mind, hears with the mind. 
Desire, determination, uncertainty, belief, unbelief, steadiness 

strength," and immaTtali^, "this is swd for the sake of praise," it has 
not another meaning relative to an infisibla effect. 2. 

The three provisions, mentioned before which are the effects of the 
five-fold work, exceed in value the others on account of their nature as 
effeots and of their exteosiveness. For the separate explanation of them, 
the present section, iVom the words : '* Three he made for himself," 
until the end of thii Br&mhana is commenced. What is its meaning t 
The answer is; "Mind, speech and life, these," three provisions, 
these mind, speech and Ufe, "he" the father, at the commence- 
ment of the creation, "made for himself," for his own sake. With 
reference to them there is a doubt as to the existence and nature 
of the mind ; hence it is said, the mind exists as something different 
from the ear and the other external oi^sns, because it is well known, 
that, although there is a connexion of the soul with the objects of the 
external oi^ans, yet a person does not (always) apprehend n present 
object. A person, when asked t Dost thou see this form 7 anawers 
for itutanee : My mind wandered somewhere else, " I was absent in 
mind, I did not see." In the same manner, when asked ; Dost thou 
hear my word 1 h* anawert : " I was absent in mind, I did not bear." 
Therefore, it is evident, that that,— in the absence of which s knowledge 
of form, sound, &c., by the eye, ear, &c. {the iiutrumentt fit to appre- 
hend forms, sounds, &c.) does not tnke place, although they (eye, ear, 
&c.) are in connexion with their respective objects, and by the presence 
of which such a knowledge takes place, — is something different, named 
the mind, the internal organ, connected with the objects of all the other 
organs. Therefore " in this manner it is evident, that a person" every 
person "sees with the mind, hears with the mind," because, the mind 
being disturbed, there is no seeing, bearing, &c. The existence of the mind 
having been proved, the followbg is said with reference to its nature : 
" Desire," — the wish to he united with awoman, &c., " determination," 
— the ascertaining of a present object of white, blue, &c., " nncertainty," 

Google 



146 Bri&ad Aramtfaka Vpanithad. 

non-steadinesB, shamej, intellect, fear, all this is the mind alone. 
Therefore, when touched from behind, a person knows by the 
miod. Every sound whatsoever is speech ; for it extends as far 
as the end ; for it is not an object of manifettation. The vital air, 
which goes forwards, the vital air, which goes dowowards, the 

— doubt, " belief," — the knowledge of the existence of actions whose 
effects are not perceived, of ddtiea, Ac, "unbelief," — the knowledge^ 
apposite to tbeformer, "steadineia,"'— the firmness in pain of the bodj, 
&C. "non-steadioess,"— the oppoute of the former, "sliame," — bashful- 
ness ; " intellect," — knowledge ; " fear," — apprebensioa, " all this, Ac 
is the mind," are forms of the mind, of the internal organ. Another 
reaaoa is also mentioned for the existence of the mind. Becansc^ 
"when touched from behind," by some body unpereeived by the eye, 
a persoD ii aware by discrimination, this is a touch of the band, that a 
touch of the knee, therefore exists an internal oigan, called mind. If 
there were nothing which discriminstes, called mind, how could there 
be discrimination by the mere skin ; therefore the mind, the cause of the 
possibility of discriminaUon, exists. Its nature has already been ahowo. 
The three provisions, the effects of actions, viz. mind, speech and 
life, are here to be explained inasmuch as they are subservient to the 
■oul, as they have their material sphere, and as they are superintended 
by deities. Among them, viz. among mind, speech and life, as subser^ 
vient to the soul, the miud has been expldued. Now speech will be 
explained. "Every sound whatsoever," viz. — either that which is 
characterized as a letter, &c. to be pronounced through the palate and 
«thei orguis by the agency of living beings, or the other kind, produo- 
ed by drums, clouds, &c., — every sound "is speech." Such is the 
nature of speech, now its effect will be mentioned. " Por it," for speech 
" extends as far as the end," the conclusion of what ii to be named, the 
determination of the same { " for it," again, as being the maaifester, is 
not to be manifested, as is what is to be named, because its nature is ta 
manifest like a light, &c. ; for what manifeitt, as alight and the lik^ is 
not manifested by some other manifestation. In the same manner speech 
which manifests, is not manifested itself. Thus the S'mti removes the 
regresaum in iufinitum (that any thing which manifests, supposes some 
thing else by which it is manifested, &c). It is not an object of mani- 



Fint Oupter. Fifth BrAmlu^a. 147 

Titnl txVi which goes eveiywhere, the vital air^ which goes up- 
ward*, and the vital air, which equalises, vital air, all this is life 
{Pr&^a:)- fhu^ modified the soul is the modification of miud, 
the modification of speech, and the modification of life. 3. 

They are even the three worlds ; speech ii even this world, 
mind the atmospheric world, life that world. 4. 

festation, and the meaning ii, manifutation is the effect of ipeeeh. — Now 
" tbft vital air, which goes fonrarda," (retpiration, Priba;)iaezpUined. 
BespiratioD is the function of the henrt which is to be discharged by 
the mouth and nose. Beapiration (Pr^ is derived from Pranayanai 
taking Atrwuds). "The viul air which goes downwards," (Fktolence, 
Ap^a) whose function is downwards, from the carrying away of excre- 
menta, urine, &c,, the vital air which goes every nhere," (circulation : 
Ty&aa) has its place from the navel (throughout the whole body) and is 
called Vy&na from its function of regulating (Vyiyamana) ; it is the anion 
of tiie functions of respiratioo and flatulence and the cause of encrgetie 
action. "The vital air, which goes upwards," (Eructation, Udfii)a)i8the 
getting itont, it is the cause of going upwards, the fnnetion of riling 
from the sole of the feet to the head ; " the vital air, which equalises," 
(asiimtlation, Samioa) because it equal^ (Samara) carries (distributes) 
what is eaten and dmnlc ; its place is the stomach, and its function to 
digest the food ; vital air (Ana) is the oomraon fsnction of all thoM 
special functions, and united with the common effort of the body. 
" AH this," the whole of the mentioned functions of respiration, &c., 
is life (Prdoa),— Life, as having a function and subservient to the sonl, 
Ii not mentioned; but its action has been explaiaed by showing tlw 
division of its functions. Explained are the provisions called mind, 
qwech and life, in thnr relation as subservient to the soul. " Thus 
modified," viz. by the modifimticHis commenced by mind, Bpeech and- 
Ufe, as rderring to Praj&pati. 

Whidi is that soid, the whole of canses and effects, the thus or thns- 
no^fied totality, which by those who do not discriminate, from want 
of distinction, is thought to be of the nature of the soul T The mentioned 
totality is the modification of speech, the modification of mind and the 
liiodffication of life ; this also is said for the purpose to determine life. 3. 

The material sphere (Adhibhautika) of these provisiona of Praj^tati 
ti 2 

CtOoqIc 



148 Brihad Aranyaka Upamtkad. 

They are even the three Vedaa ; speech is even the Rig Vida; 
mind the Yajur T^a, and life the Sdtna V^da. 5. 

They are even the gods, the forefathers cmd men ; speech is 
even the gods, mind the forefathers, and life men. 6. 
. They are even father, mother and child ; mind ia even the 
fother, speech the mother, and life the child. 7* 

They are even that which is known, which is wished to be 
known, and which is not known ; whatsoever is known, is of 
the nature of speech ; for speech is known ; speech being 
of such a nature, preserves a person. 8. 

Whatsoever is wished to be known, is of the nature of the 
mind; for the mind is desired to be known ; the mind being 
of such a nature, preserves a person. 9. 

will now be stated. " They" speech, mind and life, are even " the three 
worlds," earth, atmosphere and heaven. Their distinction is " speech 
is even this world," mind the atmosphere, and life that world. 4. 

In the same muiner : " They are even," &c. ; the meaning of these 
words is plain, 5. — 7. 

" They are even that which is known, which is wished to be known, 
and which is not known." Their distinction ia, " whatever is known," 
fully known, " is of the nature of speech ■" and the text gives the rea- 
son for this ; " for speech is known," becauge its nature is to manifest. 
How can that be unknown, which makes other things also known f " By 
speech the nniversal king is known as a companion," will be said after- 
wards. The effect of knowing the nature of speech is " speech being 
of such a nature, being known, preserves him," viz. the person who 
knows the mentioned perfections of speech, that is to say, in the form 
of knowledge becomes a provision, an enjoyment, Tor him. 6. 

In the same manner, " whatsoever," how indistinct soever, desir- 
ed to be known distinctly, " ts wished to be known, is of the nature of 
the mind, for," because, " the mind" on account of its doubtful na- 
ture, " is desired to be known." As before, is described the reward for 
one who knows the perfection of the mind. " The mind," being of 
such a nature, viz. which ia wished to be known " preserves him," 
obtains the nature of a provision by its own chsracteristic to be some- 



Fiftt Chapter. Fifth Brdmhana. N9 

Whatsoever ia not known, is of the nature of life, for life is 
not known ; life being of such a nature, preserves a person. 10. 

Of this speech is earth the body, its illuminating nature 
that fire. Therefore as far as speech extendi, so far extend* 
the earth, so far fiie. 11. 



thing wished to be known. In the same miinner " whatsoever is not 
known," ii not an object of knowledge, nor doubted, " ia of the nature 
of life ; for life is not known," not known in its nature, since it ia not 
heard to be determined. As the distioctioo of apeech, mind and life 
is established by the division into what Is known, what ia wished to be 
known, and what ia not known (vii. by a division, comprehending 
■11 objects of knowledge) the three worlds. See. are oaly mentioned for 
the sake of illuatration. By the passage showing, that the nature of 
what is known is every where, &c., its rule is to be remembered. 
" Life, being of such a nature, preserves him," which means Ufe with 
its unknown nature becomes hia proviuon. Teachers, fathers, &c 
appear to be doubted and their assistance to be not known by disciples, 
sons, &c. lu the same manner is obtained the nature of the provisions 
of mind and life, which are doubted and not known. 10. 
. The material extent of speech, mind and life has been exphuned ; 
now their sphere, as auperuitended by deities, is commenced. " Of this 
speech," which ia shown in the text under the notion of a provision 
of Praj^pali, " ia earth the body," the external locality ; " its iltumi- 
nadng nature," the manifesting organ, located upon the earth, " that" 
earthly, " fire ;" for twofold is Praj^pati's speech, viz. effect, locahty, 
which does not manifest, and secondly organ, which is placed in that 
locality, and which does manifeat. Both of them, earth and fire, are 
the speech of Fraj&pati. "Therefore (tat, explained by S'ankarft 
with tattra, " with reference to this") as far as, to measure "speech, 
extends," in its divisions, viz. in its subserviency to the soul and in its 
material aphere, "ao far extenda the earth," which is established every- 
where under the notion of locality as effect, " so far goes that fire," as 
located in the form of sense, it entered so far with its illuminating na> 
ture the earth. The last (relation, viz. the sphere superintended by 
deities) is the same (and therefore not commented on). It. 



:e(,b>G00glc 



ISO Brihad Aramyaka Vpu*ithad. 

Agtun, of this mind U heaven the body, its UlunuDstiDg natnre 
that Xditya. Therefore aa far as mind extends, so far extends 
hearan, bo far that Xditya. They united in lore. Hence life 
waa produced. He is Indra, he is without rival. A second 
verily 18 a rival. Whosoever knows this, baa no rival. 12. 

Again of this life are the waters the body, the illuminating 
nature that moon. Therefore as far as life extends, so far 



"Again of this mind," which has been declared a provision of Prv 
jipati " is heaven," the plice of heaven, " the body," the effect, the loca- 
lity, " its tUnminating nature," its organ, that which is to be located, 
" that Aditya." There " as far as," in measure, " mind," as Bubaervient 
to the sool, or in its material sphere, " extends, so far" in expaoae, in 
measure, is fixed heaven to be the locality for the illnminatiug organ of 
the mind, " so iar that Aditya," the iUaminadng organ, which reqnirei 
to be located. "They," Agni and Aditya, speech and mind, in their 
nature as superintending deides, mother and fathw, " united in love." 
Both haringi tlu intentUm, I vill do the action, it was — between the 
two places (heaven and earth), — produced by the mind, Aditya, as fa- 
ther, and manifested by speech, Agni, as mother. " Hence" by the union 
of both of them, " life," air, " was produced" for the sake of motion, 
of work. *' He," who was bom " is Indra," the supreme lord (Para- 
mtfwBia) and not only Indra, but "without rival." Withoat riva 
means a person, for whom there exists no rival. Who s|;ain has really 
a rival T " A second verily," a second who approaches with the t'tifnc 
fioM^cDstentiDB, "is" called "arival." Accor^ngly, although speech 
and mind have the nature of a second, yet they entertain no rivalry ; 
for they have a friendly intention towsrds life.— The fruit, arising from 
the knowledge, tliat there is no rivslship from those who were united 
in love, is like that derived from the subserviency to the soul, as fol. 
lows : "Whosoever knows this," life bs it has been described, as beii^ 
without rival, vis. be who has true knowledge, "has no rival," 
no antagonist. 12. 

" Agun, of this life," — of the life, set forth in the text, which is a 
provisiou of Prajipati, not the life which has been declared as ofEapring, 
and described immediately before, " are the mUn the body," tba 



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Firtt Chapter. F\fth BrSmhana. 151 

extend tlie miten, so far extends that moon. They are even 
all alike, all infinite. Whosoever worships them aa finite (be- 
in^) conquers a finite world ; again whosoever worships them 
as infinite (beings) conquers an infinite world. 13. 

That Prajfipati in his likeness of the year consists of 16 parts 
(Kal£). His nights arc even 15 parts ; his fixed part is the 



effect, the locili^ for the organs, " the illnminaUng nature," as bfl* 
fore, "that moon." There "u far u," in measare, " life extends," 
ia its divisions ai subiervient to the soul and as material iphere, " bo fai 
extend" pervade, " the watera," in their measare, "so far" "extendi 
that moon" which is to be located, bo far, haviag entered the waters, and 
being of the nature of seme, it extends, as far as the sphere, subservient 
to the soul, and the material sphere extend.— Those three proviuonst 
created by the father through the five-fold work, bear the names of 
speech, mind and life. The whole world in its iphere, subservient to the 
Mnl, and in its material sphere, is pervaded by them, or, besides them, 
there is nothing whatsoever, either effect or cause. But all these are 
Praj^pat». " The;," speech, mind and hfe, " are even all alike," hav> 
ing the same extent, are as far pervading, as the objects of living beings 
together with the sphere subservieot to the soul and the material 
sphere. Therefore they are "infinite;" because they are present in all 
bodies ; iot a body cannot be conceived without cause and effect ; for it 
la said, that they consist of cause and effect. "Whosoever worships 
them," which are of the nature of Praj jpati, " as finite," limited, un- 
der the notion of their material sphere and their sphere, subservient to 
the soul, "conquers" as the reward in accordance with his worship, 
" a finite world," a world which is limited, which means, " he does not 
get tbrir nature." "Again, whosoever worships them as infinite," aa 
possesnng the nature of all, the nature of all Uving beings, as unlimited 
" oouquers an infinite world." 13. 

It has been said, that the father, after having created seven provi- 
dons by the fivefold work, produced three provisiona for his own sake. 
They are explained to be the effects of the five-fold work. How again 
are they called the effect of the five-fold work t Because even in these 
three proriaions the five-fold .work is perceived, as wealth and work 



.XJotn^lc 



152 BriAad /frant/aka Upanithad. 

sixteenth. He becomes full and wanes by the nights. At the 
day of the nev moon, during the night entering with this six- 
teenth part all that is endowed with life, he is then the next 
day born in the morning. Therefore let in that night nobody 

are there probable, therefore it their cauae alto timilar. There (as 
to the three proTiaiona) the earth and fire are the mother, heaven 
and AdUya the father, and the life (air) which is ia the middle of 
them, is their offspring, as it has been explained. On account of thii 
wealth and work ahould be produced ; this meaua to imply the com- 
mencement: "That Frajipati, in his likenesa of the year," who 
hat been set forth ia the test as consisting of three parta, is de- 
termined in a apecial manner by the nature of the year as consisting of 
Bixteen parts. He, consisting of sixteen parts, is the year, the nature 
of time. " Bia," Fraj^pati's, as the substance of time, " nights," days 
and nighta — meaning lunar daya (tithi) are fifteen patts. " His fixed," 
permanent, "part" remains, as " the sixteenth," as the part (Kalfi) 
which completes the sixteenth. "He" becomes full and wanes by the 
nights ;" by the lunar days which are called parts (KaU) ; for by the 
firat day of a lunation, and by those which succeed it, the moon, Fra- 
jipad, gets full in the light half of the lunation, it grows by the increas- 
ing parts (Kalis) until the orb is full at the day of the full moon ; it 
wanes by ihe decreasing parts in the dark half of the lunation, until the 
one permanent part remains in the dark night. "He," Frajdpati, the 
substance of time, " at the day of the new moon during the night," 
" entering with this sixteenth part," which has been called the perma- 
nent part, " all that is endowed with life," all living beiuga, viz. all that 
drinks water and all that eats annual plants, pervading all this by bis 
identity with the annual plants (or with water) and abiding during the 
dark night, " is then" the next day, "bom in the morning," united 
(the moon) with its second part. — In the following manner ia Frejipalj 
of five-fold nature. The heaven and sun are the mind, the father, — the 
earth and fire speech, the wife, the mother ; and their offspring is life, 
the days of the moon, the parts (KaU) are the wealth, because by thw 
increasing and decreasing they are like wealth, and the work of those 
.puts is what effects the change of the world. In this manner the whole 
Prajipati, has become the effect of the five-fold work, in accordance 

. ., ,..„GooqIc 



First Chapter. Fifth BrdmhoMt. 153 

cut off the life of any one endowed with life, not eren of the 
chameleon ; it is intended for the honour of this deity. 14. 

That Praj&pati who under the likeneBB of the year is possess- 
ed of sixteen parts, is even this. That " this" is a person who 
thus knows. Hii wealth is the 6fteen parts, his soul (self) is 
his sixteenth part. He gets full and wanes eren by wealth. 

with the desires : " Let me haye a wife," — agaia " Let me be born," — 
agun, "Let me have wealth," again, — "Let me perform work;" forai 
the cause so is the effect, is a prindple eren with the common people. 
Because the moon, having that night entered all liring creatares, is 
poBsessed of its permanent part, " therefore," on this groand, " let in 
that night nobody cnt off the life of any one endowed with tife," let 
him not destroy a Unng creature, " not even of a chameleon," for the 
chameleon, as being wicked, is naturally destroyed, since it is consider- 
ed to forebode bad luck, when it is seen. ' Bat then, enmity to 
living beings is prohibited according to the passage of the Smriti: 
" Not killing living creatures, except at holy places." ' Very good, it 
is prohibited ; bat yet it must not be sud, that the sentence means to 
make an exception for any other time than the day of the dark night, 
or an exception for the killing of the chameleon. What then does it 
mean 1 " It is intended for the honour," the adoration, " of this deity, 
viz. the deity of the moon." 

"That Praj&pati," bearing the name of the inviuble, "who nnder 
the likeness of the year is possessed of uxteen parts," must not be 
thought as absolutely invisible, because he " is even this," he is perceived 
visibly. Who is that " this ?" " He is the person who thos knows," 
who knows, that FrajApsti whose nature consists of the three provisions, 
is like himself. By the similarity with what is he Prajap^ti 1 The 
answer is : " His wealth," the wealth in cows, &c. of a person who 
thus knows, "is the fifteen parts." For the sake of his complete- 
ness, " his soul," the individual self, " is his" (the knowing person's) 
sixteenth part, representing the permanent Kal&. " H^" like the 
moon, " gets foil and wanes even by wealth." " It is well known" in 
common life, that " the soul," the individual self, " is like the nave 
of a wheel, wealth like its periphery," represented by the family, 
the external port of the wheel, viz. spokes and circuinference, &o. 



)b,Googlc _ 



151 Brihad dranyaka Vpatiithad. 

It U ukU known, that the bouI U like the nave of a wheel, 
wealth like its periphery. Therefore^ although he suffers 
the toaa of allj if he lirn , be ii bare of tba periphery^ aa it ia 
said. Id. 

Again there are verily three worlds, the world of maa, the 
world of the forefathers, and the world of the gods. The 
world of man is to be conquered by a son, and not by any 
other work, (or knowledge,) by work the world of the fore- 
fathers, by science the world of the goda. The world of the 
" Therefore, although he suflbn the loss of all," of his property, suffen 
dlstrcBS, " if he lives," " by the Bonl," represented by tba nave of the 
wheels " he is bare of," he fau lost " the periphery," the external 
we&lth, the family, ab a wheel, deprived of spokes and drcnmferenoei 
" as it is said)" and the meaning is, if be lives, he is agun increastilg in 
Weslth) represented by the spokes and oircumference. 16, 

It has been explained, how by fivefold vork in connexion with 
Science, the nealth of the gods, Praj&pati is posBesBsd of the nature of 
the three prDvistDns; ithss aftertrards been sdd, how the wealth of a 
wife, &c. is represented by the family. There (in the former section) 
it baa only generally been understood, that a son, work and inferior 
■tience (knowledge of the V^das with reference to ceremonies), are 
causes of obtaining the worlds, but the rule of the specisl connexion of 
a ton, &c., with the effect, which is the obt^ing of the worlds, has not 
been understood. To explain the special connexion of the effects with 
their causes, viz. a son, kti-, the present section is commenced. The term 
" again" has the object to introduce the sentence " there are verily,** 
verily is to shew cettsioty, " three worlds," alone fit to be causes, stated 
by the S'Elstra, neither more nor less. Which are they 1 The answer is t 
" The worid of man, the world of the forefathers, and the WOrld of Um 
gods." Among them " the World of man" is to be gained by, is the 
effect of " a son," IS cause (hoH it is to be gained by a son, will aftep- 
warda be siid) " and not by aay other work," or knowledge, as must 
be supplied here j " by work," alone, as for instance the dtuly burnt- 
offering (Agnihotra) " tba World of the forefathers," is to be gained, 
end not by a sOn, nor by knowledge, — " by science the world of the 
gods," not by a son, nor by work. "The world of itis gods ii the 



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FtrttCh^ter. F^/lk BrdmAofa. 165 

godm U the beat amoDg the worldi. Therefore they prats* 
science. 16. 

Hence again the making over. When ike fa'.ker thinka he 
U to die, then he says to biason i "Thou art Bramha, thou art 
the aacrifice, thoa art the vorld." The son repeats : " I am 
Bramha, I am the saorifice, I am the world." Of all that 

b»t," Uie one nuHt deicrving of praiu, " smei^ the" three, "wprlda." 
"Tberafore the; prvM Mienpe," becnusa it is the cause ef it. 16. 

Ib this maaoer the three canaei, riz, a ion, woric, and knowledge. 
And their applicatiga acoordiDg to the diriaioa of the effect, viz. the 
three worlds which ar« to be accomplished. But a wife, becaiue it is 
BWessWT for the sake of ■ ion and of work, is not a sepsrate canse, 
and is therefore not separately mentioned. Also wealtbi as it is the 
eaase of wofk, is not a separata eaoie. It is evident, that knowledge 
and work are mesne of coui^iiering the worlds in consequence of their 
recorering thNT own nature. But s son not being of the nature of 
WOTki it is not clear, jn wliat manner he is the means of coaqueriog 
€b» worlds, " Henee/' it is to be nplainsd, in this manner " again," 
aftenesnls is oevmenced, " the making over ;" this is the name of the 
woik which is to be now related g for the father makes over the duties 
he has binuelf to perform, in the manner to be mentbned, to bis son ; 
hence this work bears the name of " making over." At what time is this 
to be doaef "When the father thinks, he is to die," by inauspicions 
signs and the like, " then he says to his son (after having called him) : 
' Thou art Bramba, thou art the aacrifice, thoa art the world.' " Thus 
addressed, he " repeats." That is to saf, being instructed before, be 
knows, I have to do this. In this manner he says the three sentences : 
" I am Bramha, I am the sacrifiee, I am the world." Under the idea, 
that the s^Mcofthesame is concealed, the S'ruti continues for its expla- 
nation: "Ofell that has been read" the remainder of what has been 
read, that is to ssy, read or not read "is Bramha the identity," 
is the identity in the term of Bramba. The practice of reading 
with reference to the V^das. which was hitherto thy doty, is heoce* 
forth thou, Braisha ; which means, must be done by thy agency. In 
the same manner, " Of ^1 the sacrifices that were to be performed by 
me," may they be performed by me or not performed, "is sacri- 
X 2 

DC|-:ec by Google 



156 Btihad A'rmyaka Vpatuthad. 

has been read, is Bramha the identity. Of all the sacrifices that 
are to be performed, is sacrifice the identity. Of all the 
worlds that are to be conquered, ia trorld the identity. Thus 
far extends verily all this. All this multitude preserves me 

fice the identity," is the identity in the term sacrifice. The Bacrifices 
which were to be performed by my agency, are henceforth " thou eacri- 
fice," which meaoB, are to be performed by thy agency, " All the 
worlds that are to be conquered," by me, whether they are conquered 
or not conquered, is world the " identity," is the identity in 
the term " world." Henceforward they are " thou world," ta be con- 
quered by thee, henceforward the sacrifice, which it was my duty to 
perform by reading (the Vftias) offerings and conquermg of the worlds, 
is liud by me upon thee, biit I am free from the sacrifice consisting in 
tbe bondage of duty. And the son has understood all In this manner, 
because he was instructed (before). The S'ruti, having considered there 
the intention of the father, gives this esplanation : "Thus far ex- 
tends verily all this," this is the Hmit of all the duties of a house- 
holder, viz. that the V^das are to be read, the sacrifices to be perform- 
ed and the world to be conquered. " All this multitude" (for all this 
burthen, to which I am subject, when taken from me and placed upon 
you) preserves me, saves me from this world. (The past Abhunajat in 
Sanscrit has in tbe S'rati tbe meaning of the future : Palayishyati), 
Because a son, who thus knows, is to liberate Am father from this 
world, from the bandage of duty, " therefore they," the Br^mhaiciaSi 
" call a sou who is thut instructed, Lokya," which means, good for his 
father obtaining tbe worlds. " Therefore they," the fathers, "instructs 
son" under the expectation, that he will be their Lokya (procurer of tbe 
worlds). " "When he," the father, " having such a knowledge," after 
baring delivered to the son tbe sacrifice of duty, " departs from this 
world," dies, " then he enters with those lives the sou," pervades him 
with the speech, mind and hfe set forth in the text. When the cause 
of distinction relative to the bouL (which cause ia ignorance) is removed, 
the speech, mind and life of the father enter all with their nature as 
superintended by deities, vik. in their likeness with the earth, tbe fire 
and the sun. Together vrith those hves the father also enters, because 
the father is transformed into the nature of speech, mind and life ; for 



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Firii Chapter. F^\ Brdmhma. t&7 

from this world. Therefore they call a ton who is instructed, 
hokjA I therefore they instruct him. When be, having such 
a knowledge, departs from this world, then he enters together 
with those lives the son. If by him any thing tlirough negligence, 

the father is tnuiBrormed in such a manner u : " I am the mfiuite 
■peech, mind aadUfe, extending as far asthediitinctioni of what rektes 
to the soul, to matter and to the luperintendence of deities." There, 
fore hia life is a coatinnation of the father's, and it is hence properly 
said, " then together with thoee lives he enters the son ;" for it is 
said, he becomes the soul (sabstfince) of all and (therefore abo) of 
the sou ; and the meaning is, the father who has a thus instructed son, 
continues in this world, is by the likeneis with the son not to be 
thought dead. In this manner it is said in another puiage of the 
S'niti i " He is made his other lonl by holy works." (A. U. B. I. 
Tii. p. 226, M. 4.) Now the test gives the deriTBtion of Puttra (son). 
^' If by him," by the father at any time, " any thing through 
negligence, remains," meanwhile, " andone," nhich ought to be done, 
" the son Uberates him from all this," which, bearing the nature 
of duty, was left undone by the father, and which is an obstacle to 
guniog the worlds, — he liberate* him, by conipIetiDg it (FdrayitWk) 
through his own practice. "Therefore," because he saves the father 
by completing (Pdran^a) hence the name of a son (Puttra). This 
is the trne notion of a son (Puttrasya Puttratvam) that by filing 
(Pdrayittvi) the hole of the father he saves him, " He," the father, 
" continues," although dead, yet immortal, " by a son," of such a kind, 
" in this world." In this manner the father conquers (obtains) b; the son 
this world of man, — not so, however, the worlds of the gods and the 
forefathers by knowledge and work, but (he conquers them) by as- 
Buming their nature alone ; for without assuming their own nature, 
knowledge and work cannot possibly become causes of conquering 
the world by dependance upon another, as it is tbe case with a son. 
" Then," afte'r the father has made over M» dutiet, " those divine" 
belonging to Hiranyagarbha, "immortal," whose nature it is not to 
die, " lives," speech and the others, " enter him." How ? The answer 
is given in the next teetion by the words : " The divine speech, &c." 

In this manner it has been shown by the S'ruti itself, that a son, 
work and inferior knowledge have the power of accomplishing the 



158 Bril&d A'ra^yakg UpgmtAmd. 

leinium undone, the son liberates him from »U this. Hence the 
name of a son (Puttra). He continues by a son alone in this 
worhl. Then those divine, immortal lires enter him. 17. 

worldi of men, or the forefather! and of the gods. la rcBpect of thii 
•ome wranglera (the Mfm^wuku are meant) aot knoving the apeeiBl 
meaoings of the words of the S'ruti, wj, that a son and the other caiuei 
have the power to effect Uberatioa. To silence them thii passage baa 
been given by the S'ruti, commemung with : " Let me have a wife," 
and all the other fivd'old work which accomplishes desire, continning 
with : " 80 far got* the detire" of a son, &c., and oondading with the 
application to the spedal effeeti to be accomplished. Hence it is en>- 
dent, that the passage of die S'mti abont debt refers to an ignorant per- 
Bon, and not to the knowledge of the supreme soul. And it will be said 
(p. 903) : " Of what nse is a eon to us, to whom the loul is the world." 
Others, (the Bhartriprapanehika) on the other hand, maiDtun. tlurt 
the eonqnering of the worlds of the forefathers and gods is eren an ex- 
clasion from them. Therefore a person, who by the joiat perfiirmajme 
of a son, of work and of the inferior knowledge is excluded from those 
three worlds, obtuna liberation by the knowledge of the anpreme aoul ; 
in this way the causes of a son, &c. successively have the power to 
effect UberatioB. To ulence them also the other subseqneat passage of 
the S'rutiiscngaged in showing tfaoeffect, reinltingfor the father, whose 
duty is the performanee of work, who has the knowledge of the nature 
of the three provisions and vrho m^ea over the perjbmumee o^wfaat 
has been left undone. Bat it cannot be said, that the effect is that of 
liberation, becuue it has been shown, that by the effect derived from 
understanding and p«unoe is connexion with the three provitioBS, the 
provisions are again prodaoed. This foUows also from the passa^, 
referring to tbe decrease (of the provisions). " Far what erea does not 
prodttceit, decreases," also from thenaturcofthemeana of the effect in 
the passage : " The body is like li^," and lastly from the oondusioo 
with the nature of oMve, form and work, in the passagV : "Threrfold 
is this, &c.. Nor is it possiibk to infer from this paaaagc, that the 
three caaaes, when united, have ^e power to tdE^t one's liberation aad 
anothet's obtaiuiag the natnre of the three proviuoas, because the pas- 
sage mcMly mtends to show, that the efflsct of a son and of the other 
caoaesistbedMdBMigofthenatuTCof thethreeprafisions. 17, 

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Fir4t Chapter. Fifth Br&nhafa. 159 

From the earth and the fire the divine speech enters him. 
That Bpeech is verily divine, by which, whatever he says, 
comes to pass. 18. 

From the sky and thesun the divine mind enters him. Hat 
rerily is the divine mind, by which he becomes joyful j hence- 
furth he does not grieve. 19. 

From the waters and the moon the divine life enters him. 
That verily is the divine life, which, whether issuing forth, or 
not issuing forth, is not afraid, again which is not lost. The 

"FiQm tbewrth and the fir* the divine speech, {divme refers to 
iti snperin tending deity,) enteri him," after he has made over kit 
dutitti that is to say, the divine speech, as characterised by earth and 
Qre, is the last cause of the speech of all i for speech is obstructed by 
the faults of attachment, &c. with reference to the material elements, 
dad as the faults of a person who has knowledge are removed, it 
(speech) pervades him, like water and the manifestation of a light, on 
the breaking of what c<xicealed them (for instance a vessel). This is 
the sense of the words : " From the earth and the fire the divio* 
speech ent^s him." "That speech is verily diTiae," free from the 
EidUs of untruth and the like, pur^ " by which" (divine speech) 
" whatever he lays," either for himself or anotlier, " comes to pass," 
that is to say, his word is not in vain, is not obatracted. 18. 

In the same manner : " From the sky aad the sun the divme mind 
enters him." And. " that is the divine mind," by the purity of its 
natara, " by which he (the father) becomes joyful," happy, " hence- 
forth" moreover, "he does not grieve," because there is no ctmnexion 
of su^ B cause as grief (with him.) 19. 

In the same manner i " From the waten and the moon the divine 
iiA enters bim. That verily is the divine lift ;" vii. of what no- 
tvn ? the answer is, — " Which, whether issaiag forth," >n all the dis- 
tmctione of lifb, ^'or not iasning forth," in its nature as totality or 
speciality, or also, issuing (brth in sll moveable things, and not issuing 
forth in all immoveable things, " is not afraid," is not connected with 
fear, of which unhappioeis is the cause, " again, is not lost," is not 
destroyed, is not injured. " The pHwn who ksows tfau%" the before 



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160 Brikttd Aranyaka Upanuhad. 

person who thus knows, becomes the aoul of all beings. As 
that deity, so also he. As all beings preserve that deity, bo 
also preserve all beings a person who thus knows. 

Whatever grief the children suffer together with their children, 
remains united with them alone ; what is holy approaches him ; 
for sin does not approach the gods. 20. 

mentioned view of the nature of the three provisions, " becomes the 
soul of all beings," becomes the life of all beings, becomes the mind of 
all beings, becomes their speech, that is to aay, becomes amniscient by 
being the nature of all ; and also omnipotent. " As that deity," the 
before mentioned deity, named Hiranyagarbha, "so also" (also shows, 
that there is no obstacle to his omniscience and omnipotence) "he" 
which fernt 'concludes the illustration. Moreover:* "As all beings, 
" preserve" worship, " that deity," the deity called Hiranyagarbha 
with offerings, &c. " So also preserve all beings a person vrho thus 
knows," which means, they worship him always with offerings and 
the like. 

It has been tud, " he becomes the soul of all beiags." Now it may 
be questioned, whether, by his being the nature of cause and effect of 
all beings, he is not also allied to the happiness and unbappinesB of 
them. This is not the case, because his intellect is unlimited. As to 
persons whose intellect and nature are limited on being censured, 
&c. a connexion with nnhappinesB is evident, as if we say : "I am 
censnred by that man ;" but in virtue of Au being the soul of all, 
there is no unhappiness from such causes produced, as there ia no 
distinctiou of intellect with regard to the nature of the BOol be* 
between the one who is censured and the other who censures, and also, 
as, like the unhappiness of death, there is no cause. For instance. 
If any body dies, unhappiness is produced for somebody (showing 
itself in such words as :) Be is-my son, ray brother, where the cause 
(of the distress) ia a son, a brother. If there is no cause of such a ' 
kind, unhappiness is not produced, even should a person behold the 
death of a person, &c. (who is not related to him). In this manner no 

* Klnha (moreover) u in teit coooected with the preeadiog (mteaae. eom- 
nendDgwIth " S«," I belieTi,bj m clarieal arror, ^ in thitpUoe it Iim no nmi- 
iug, or ■ meuitDg wbieh dsltrof i the limpUdilj of the text. 



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Firtl Chapter. Fifth Brakmana. IGI 

Next therefore the deliberatieu of obeervance. Pmjipati verify 
created the actions. When they were created, they vied with 
each other. With the words, — '* I will apeuk," speech kept the 
observance ; with the words, — '* I will see," eye ; with the words, 
— " I will hear," ear ; in the same tuanner the other actions 

nnhitppiness arises for god nhose nature is uiilimUed, because he hus 
Dot the faults of falae knowledge, &c. which produce the uiihappineis 
of pride, &e. This is meant bj tlje words, — " Wliatever grief his sub- 
jects suffer together with their children," " the Hnme," the uiihappi- 
neas which is the cause of the grief, &c., " remains united with them," 
with his subjects, because it is produced from n limited intellect. 
But what of the universal soul cm be united with or disunited from 
what thing T " What is holy," what is good, — the desired reward means 
here holy [ for a greet many holy actions are done by him, therefore 
its reward, "approaches him who now ooeapies the place of Praj&pati." 
"For sin does not approach the gods," and the meaning is, sin, its 
effect, unhappinesB does not approach the gods, because there is no 
opportunity for the effeci of sin. 20. 

By the words,— "They are all alike, they are all infinite," (p. 151) 
the worship of speech, mind and life has been declared in general, that 
is to say, without their matunl dtatinctinn. Must this now be under- 
stood in the mentioned manner, or is there any possible distinction 
with regard to observance on considering iht eatt ? The answer is, — 
"Next therefore," then follomt "the deliberation of observance," 
of worship, which means the consideration of the action of worship. 
And the consideration turns upon this, which is it among those organs, 
whose work is to be conceived under the idea of observance f " Praji- 
pati verily," after baring created Am offspring, " created the actions," 
which meana the organs, speech and others (for being capable of action, 
they are called actions) and the meaning is ; He created speech and the 
other organs. Again " when they were created, they vied," rivaled, 
"with each other." HowT "With the words, —I will apeak," let me 
not rest from my business, speaking, " speech kept the observance." 
If there is likewise another, my equal, who does not require rest from 
his busineii, let him show his prowess. In the same manner, "with 
the words,—" I will see," eye ; with the words, " I will hear." ear ; ia 



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IS2 Brikad Aranyaka Vpanithad. 

(Karma^i) according to their action. Death, being there as 
fatigue, seized them, he made them his own ; having made them, 
his own, he arrested them. Therefore speech gets even fatigued, 
the eye gets fatigued, the ear gets fatigued. Again he did not 
make his own that lift. They resolved to know that central 
hfe. " He verily is amongst us the best, who moving and not 
moving, not suffers, is not injured. Well then, let us all become 
of the nature of him." Thus all of them becamt; of his nature. 
Therefore they are named by this " Pr&^fih." After him, who 

the Btme manner the other actions," organs, "accoTding to their action." 
" Death," the destroyer, " being there at fatigue," in the form of 
fatigue " seized them," took hold of them. How 7 " He made them," 
the organs engaged in their bHsioeas, "hit own," he appeared under 
the form of fatigue, and "having made them his own, he" death,. 
" arrested them," made them cease from their work. "Therefore," 
even now, "speech," having entered upon its work, "gets even fatigued," 
is made to cease front its work, seized by desth in the form of fatigue. 
In the same manner " the eye gets fatigued, the ear gets fatigued." 
" Agsiu he," death in the form of fatigue " did not make his own 
that life," the principal life. "They" the other organs, " resolved," 
made up their mind, " to know that central life" which even now 
not fatigued by him (death) enters upon its work. 

" He verily is amongst us the best," the most praiseworthy, the 
greatest, "who moving and not moving not suffers," agntn, "is not 
injured. Well then" now " let us all become of the aature of him," 
of life, that is to say, let us consider ourselves as life. Having "thus" 
ascertained, 'our observances are not ButEcieat to protect ms from 
death,' " all of them became of his nature," considering themaelves 
as the nature of life, kept the observances of life. Because by the 
nature of life, viz. by its nature to move and by its nature to manifest, 
the other organi get their nature, — namely, without life uoLhing could 
move ; for only after the action of moving they are observed Co engage 
in their own work, — " therefore tbey," apeecli and the others, "are 
named by this," name of hfe, " Prandh" (lives). "After him," the wise 
person, who in this manner knows that all the oi^ns have the nature 



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Pint Chapter. Fifth Brikmana. 163 

thus knows, is venly called the family in which he is born. 
Whosoever rivals one who thus knows, after having wasted, 
dies at last. This is what refers to the soul. 21. 

Next what refers to the superintendence of deities. With 
the words, — " I wilt burn,*' fire kept the observance, with the 
words, — "I will heat," the sun, with the words, — "I will 
shine,'* the moon. In the same manner the other deities ac- 
cording to their divine nature. As this central life amongst 
those organs, so appeara Vliju (the air), amongst those deities ; 

oflife, niid are colled by the term "life" (PrAna) " i« Terily called 
the fnmily," by tlie people. The family, in which he who thus knows, 
"is born," geta famous by Uie name of the wise person, it is his 
family, as this is the family of Tnpatl. •' Whosoever thus" in the 
manner mentioned, " knows" that Bpeeoli and the other organs have 
'the nature and the nnme of life, gets a reward of such a kind. Again, 
"Whosoever rivals," being his antagonist "one who thus knows," 
knows the nature of life, wastes in this body, " after having wasted, 
dies at last," not on a sudden. " This is whnt refers to the soul," in 
the mentioned manner, the knowledge of the nature of life. This 
conclusion is intended to introduce the exposition of what refers to 
the superintendence Of deities. 21, 

" Next wliat refers to the superintendence of deities," the thinking 
-as to the deities is described. It is the questiotij of which specisl deity 
is it best to keep the ardinance ? All is here like the former deierip- 
Hon about what referred to the soul. " With the words, — " I will burn," 
fire kept the observance, with the words, — " I will heal," thesun, wit^ 
the words, — " I will shine," the moon. In the same manner the other 
deities according to their divine nature." Here is an illustration. 
" As this central Ufe," with reference to the soul, " amongst those 
oigans," speech and the others, was not seixed by death, was not 
compelled to cease from its work, was not disturbed in its own 
observauce of life, so also not "Yiju amongst those deities," 
Agni and others ; " for the other deities," Agui and the rest, tike 
speech &c. with regard to the soul, according to their divine nature, 
" decHne," go down, cease from their works, " not Vtiju," goes down 
Y 2 

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164 Brihad AranyaJca Vpanuhad. 

for the other deities decline, not V&ju. This V&ju indeed is an 
unrestrained deity. 22. 

Here follows this SlokH, — " Whence the sun rises and where 
he setB," — he verily rises from life and sets into life, — " this the 
gods made their sacred law. This sways to-day, this twayt 
to-morrow," What they kept then, they will also observe 

as the central Hie (does not decline). Therefore " this V^ju indeed is 
an unreatrniai^d deity." The reference to the soul and the superia- 
tendence of deities having in this manner been considered, it Is 
ascertained, that the observance of the nature of Vdju (alone) remains 
unbroken. 22. 

" Here" in elucidation of the said meaning " follows this Sloka." 
" Whence," from which wind " the sun rises" (with reference to divine 
superintendence) and from which life (as regards its reference to the 
soul) he ri*e» b; the nature of the eye, agiun into which wind and life at 
eTeniDg and at Ibe sleeping-time of men he sets, " this the gods made" 
kept, " their sacred law." This means, the gods, speech and others 
and fire and others, having before considered the observance of life and 
the observance of VSju. "This sways to-dsy, this sways to-morrow," 
this will be followed by them at the present and future time. Here the 
Br^hma^ explains briefly the meaning of the Mantra. " He," the 
sun, "verily rises from life and sets into it." " This the gods made 
thdr sacred law ; this noayi to.day, this tieat/» to-morrow." What 
does this mean ? It is answered 6y the text : '• What," what obserr:- 
auce, observance of Lfe and of Vftju, " they," speech and the rest, 
and Agni and the rest, " kept then," at that lime, " the same they 
will also observe to-day," the same observance they will keep un- 
broken. But any observance of speech, £c. gets even broken, as it 
has been shown, that at the time of their setting they decline into 
Vfiju and life. — It is said elsewhere, — "When man sleepa, then 
speech, mind, eye, ear, all become life ; when he. awakes, then they 
are born again from life. This b their reference to the sent. Next 
their reference to divine superintendence. When fire is extinguished, 
it disappears in V^ju (air). Therefore it is said, it is lost in 
it i for it it extinguished in the air. When the sun sets, he enters 
into the air, into the air the moon enter* ,■ in the air are placed the 



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Fir$t Chapter. Sixth Brikmana. 165 

to-day. Therefore Jet a man follow only one observance j let 
him breathe, let him expel. Alas, let death not seize me. If a 
person follows it, let him strive to accomplish it. Thereby a 
person gains union nnd dwelling in the same world with that 
deity. 23. 

Sixth Brdhmaisa. 
This (world) is a triad, name, form and work. The names are 
quarters. From the air they Rre born agua." BecaiiRe then the ob^ 
aervaoce ia found in speech and the rest, aud also in Agni and the 
rest, because the obserrnnce, whose nature is to move, is to be obeyed 
by all the godSi " therefore let a man follow only one obserTance." 
Which is it t " Let him breathe," let him perform the function of 
breathing (Priva), " let him expel," let him perform the function of 
expelling (of the descendiug air) ; for there is no ceasing of the function 
of life (Prfina) of which the functions of breathing and expelling are here 
gi»en as examples. "Therefore let a man follow only one observance," 
abnndoning the ftinctioni of all the other otgans. " Alas" (this 
term expresses apprehension) " let not death," as fatigue — " seize me." 
The meaning is, let a person, who is afrfud that he will be seiied by 
death on his abandoning that observance, keep the observance of life. 
" If a person follows it," once has commenced the observancex>f Ufa, 
" let him strive to accomplish it ;" for if he ceases from the observance, 
life is despised, and also the gods are ; therefore let him accomplish it 
even. "Thereby" by that observance,— ^or by the obtaining of the 
nature of life, my functions, for instance speech, &c. and Agni, &c., 
are in all beings, and (my) soul as hfe is the moving cause of all, — by 
the keeping of that observance, " a person gains," obtains " union," 
idenUty of nature, " and dwelling in the same world," identity of 
place, '* with that deity,"'with the deity of life. 23. 

"This" manifested world, characterised as caose and effect, further 
the reward, which consists in obtaining the nature of life (Uiranya- 
garbha), both of which have been set forth as being included in the 
idea of ignorance, and lastly the state of the world before its manifes- 
Utiou, which ii called " un manifested" like the seed of a tree, "is a 
triad." What is this triad? The answer b,— "name, form and 



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166 Brikad Aranyaka UptmitkaJ. 

speech ; the latter is the foundation, for from the aatne all 
iiamee api-iiig forth. This is their community ; for it is in com- 
mon to nil the names ; it is the Bralima of them ; for it upholds 
all names. 1. 



work," that is to say, non-soul, not the soul which is the present, visible 
Brnhma. Therefore the Br&hninna, of which the first words are, — ■ 
" tills is a Iriad," is commenced for the object, that man should turn 
from this (world) ; for the linawledge, resuUiag from the great sentence, 
— " 1 am Brahma," — to adore the soul aloue as the proper place, is 
without effect for one whose thought is uot averted from this (world) 
which is not the soul — the actions (of the mind) with regard to external 
objects and the absolute soul being at Tariance. In this manner it is said 
in theKfttha(4, 1.) "The self-pxiatent subdued the senses which turn 
to external objects j therefore (man) sees the external objects, not the 
Interasl soul, (but) the wise with eje avertud ^from sensual objects) 
and desirous of Immortal nature, beholds the absolute soul." Why 
again falls this world, which is manifested and not manifested, and at 
the same time effect, cause and reward, under the notion of name, fornl 
and work, why shonld it not rather be thought by the notion of the 
soul? 

To answer this, it is said, — "The names" in the order in which 
they are introduced, " are speech," as is called the general term of all 
tonnds. Every sound is even speech ; it is speech in consequence of 
being spoken, the meaning of a sound is merely the general term of 
■ound, " The latter is their foundation," the special cause, of the 
special names, asahillorrock-Balt is the cause or(all) the grains of rock- 
salt. Fur this reason it is said, — "for from the same," general term of 
names, "all names," as Yajnadatts, Dovadatta, according to this or 
any other division, " spring forth," are produced. Separated, as grains of 
salt from a rock of salt ; and the effect is not different from tlie causei 
In the same manner the special (names) being included in the general 
term, how can there be a state of generality and of special objects ? (To 
■how this it is said), — " This," the general term of the sounds^ " is 
their community," of the special names, community from its being 



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Firtt Chapter. Sixth Brdhauma. 167 

Further, the forms are objects of the eye ; the latter is their 
foundation, for front the eame all forms spring forth ; this is 
their community ; for it is common to all the forms. It is the 
Brahma of thein ; for it upholds all forms. 2. 

Further, the works are self (itma) ; the latter ie their foun- 
dution ; for from the same all works spring forth ; this is their 



common, viz. the general term ; " for it is common to all the nnmes," 
«hich are different from it, (and) moreover, because the apeclal names 
are not different (from it) by hariog obtained it (the general idea), 
(for) nothing is perceived to differ from that whose nature it has 
HMumed, BB a jar differs not from the earth (of nhich it is made). 
Uow are the special names said to have obtained it (the general idea of 
speech) T The answer ia, because " it," the thing culled by the name 
of speech, "is the Bmhmaof them," their soul; for hence the names 
obtain it (the generality) ; for nothing ia fuand differing from 
the nature of Bound. This the test explains ; "for this," the general 
notion of sound, " upholds all namey" by giving them Us own nature . 
This, the relation of cause and effect, of the general idea and the 
special objects and of the cammunication of the own nature (of one 
thing to other things) being proved, it is evident, that the special names 
are only sound. The same explanation holds good for the two other 
things. 1. 

" Further, the forms," white, black, &c, " are objects of the eye," 
are the general idea, named "object of the eye," the general idea of 
forms, all that may be manifested. "Fur from the latter all forms 
spring forth ; the same ia their community; for it is common to all 
the forms. It is the Brahma of them ; for it upholds all forms." 2. 

Further all special works, as well such aa thinking, seemg, &c. as 
also such as refer to motion, are said to be contained in the general 
notion of effect. How ? All special works are " sell," the body, the 
general notion ; self are called the works of self ; for it ia aaid, that by 
the self, by the body, people perform their work. Moreover, in the 
body every work ia mauifeated. Therefore by ita being sited there (in the 
body) " the Utter" work, the general idea of work, " ia the founda- 



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168 Brihad Aranyaia Upaniakad. 

cotmnnnity ; for it is common to all works ; it ia the Bralima of 
them; for it upholds all works. Those three are existing, one, 
that self (litma) ; that self, one, existing, is the three. This im- 
mortal (being) ia concealed by existence. Life is verily the 
immortal being, name and form existence. By them that life 
is concealed. 3. 



tion of them," just the SRine as berore. " Those three," name, rorm 
and work, as mentianed before, beiog in matanl dependence, being the 
mntnal cause of manifestation and being united for their mulual de- 
struction, " are," like the (mutoal) support of the three vows of the 
devotee,* " existing, one." Why ia the idea of unity connected with 
the self T It is answered, — "Tliatself," that lump, the combination 
of cause and effect ; in the same manner as in the following passage 
(B. A. 1,5, 3) i "Thua modified is the soul, the modiScntions of mind, 
speech and life, " for so far extend this all, both manifested and un- 
mnaifested, as name, form and work." 

" The self (soul) one," the combination of effect and cause, " ex- 
isting," in relation to the soul, the elements and the deities, " is the 
three," as defined, name, form and work. "This immortal (being)" 
to be mentioned, " is concealed by existence." The text itself ex- 
plains the meaning of the preceding sentence, vii. " Life is the im- 
mortal being," in its nature as cause, the internal support of work, 
being the same with the soul, immortal, indestructible. " Name and 
form are existence ;" they have the nature of effects and abide in the 
body i but life having the nature of cause and being the support of 
them, " is concealed," not manifested, by them, which are external, 
corporeal, liable to increase and decrease, and mortnl. The fourthf 
chapter ia commenced for the purpose to show, that the soul, the ob- 
ject of knowledge, must be comprehended. 

* To «nbdue hii mind, bU MDtei and hii ipeecb. 

t Ths raBrtb cbapter ot the Bribmiv*, the MCOad of the Upuuibad. 



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Second Ckmpter. fint BrOmMna, \i9 

SECOND CHAPTER. 

Pir$t Br&hmana. 

There was a great speaker, Gfu^a the proud son of BaUkfi. 
He said to Aj&tas'atru, the king of Kfisi, — « Let me explain to 
thee (the nature of) Brahma."* Aj&tas'atru Buidj — " For such a 
wordjt I will give thousand (of cows)." (Hearing) "Janaka, 
Janaka,"} peopleTerilynin(afterainanof8uch acharacter). !• 

Gfirgya uaA, — " I adore as Brahma the spirit who abides in 
the 8un."§ Ajfitaf^atni said, — " Do not boast, do not boast of 
him. Knowing that, excelling all beings he is their bead, their 
king, I adore that spirit. Whoever thus adores him, excels 
all beings and becomes their head, their king." 2. 

Gdrgya said, — " I adore as Brahma the spirit who abides in 
the moon."|| Aj&tas'atru said, — " Du not boast, do not boast 
of him. Knowing, that he is great, clothed in a white dressjlf 
Soma,* -(and) king, I adore that spirit. (For him) who thus 
adores him, is day by day produced and reproduced (the Soma) ; 
bis food does not decrease," 

G4rgya said, — " I adore as Brahma the spirit who abides in 
lightning."t Aj&tas'atru said, — " Do not boast, do not boast of 

* Id the fint olupUr the differance between knowledge ind ignorance hi'a been 
defined, ind ignorance generallj deicribed ; in the lecond knowledjfe, or the loienee 
tmting on Brihma, ii let forth. Thl* ii dona in the form of ■ DRmtiie, — in wluoli 
the Brihmav Qirgjt, repretenta the imperfect ideas, entertained on ihs nslnr« of 
Brahma, while king AjiUf'atmrepreaenti the perfect knawledge of Brahma — with ■ 
lie* of ahowia;, that th!a knowledge cannot be obtained bj mere arguing, <n conae- 
queacflot theanbtle nature of ita object, and that it reqairea both a ditcipie belleTing 
in the eiiatence of Brahma, and a teocbrr who baa a full knowledge of him. S'. 

t Even for tlie mere word, whether thou be able or not to explain Brahma. 
t " Janaka ia a liberal donor, Janaka la a aealoaa liearer." S'. 
{ The ipirit who abiding in the ana and ia tba cf e haa eatered the heart throagh 
theeje. S", 
II And in Ihe mind. S'. 
\ Becauw water la the body of life, in the form of tha moon. S', 

* km Soma, the maon-plant, in the aacrifice. S'. 

t Is the lightning, In the skin, and in th« heart. S*. 



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170 Brihad AramyakaUpanithad. 

him. Knowing, thitt lie is glorious, 1 adore; that Hpirit. Who* 
ever thuB udorea him, becomes glorious; glorious becomes 
hia offspring." 4. 

G&rgya said, — " I adore as Brahma the spirit who abides in 
the ether."* Ajfitae'atru said, — " Do not boast, do not boast of 
htm. Knowing, that he is full and iuimoveable, I adore that 
spirit. Whoever thus adores him, has plenty of offspring and 
cattle, and his uffopring is never removed from this world." 5. 

G^rgya said, — " I adore as Brahma the spirit who abides in 
t^e wiad."t Aj&tas'atru said,—" Do not boust, do not boast of 
him. Knowing, that he is ludra, whose strength is indomitable 
and whose hosts are unconquerable, I adore that spirit. Who- 
ever thus adores him, becomes a conqueror, is unconquerable 
by foes, and conqueror of his step- brothers." 

Girgya said, — " I adore as Brahma the spirit who abides in 
the fire.":t Ajatas'atru said,—" Do not boast, do not boast of 
him. Knowing, that he is a destroyer, I adore that spirit. 
Whoever thus adores him, becomes a destroyer, and his offspring 
becomes a destroyer." 7. 

G&i^ya said,—-" I adore as Brahma the spirit who abides in 
the waterB."§ Aj&taa'atru sud, — Do not boast, do not boast of 
him. Knowing, that he is the Bame,|| I adore that spirit. 
Whoever thus adores him, obtains him as the same, not as not 
the same. Ag^n from him is bom what is the same with 
him."! 7. 

Gftrgya s^d, — " I adore as Brahma the spirit who abides ia 
the looking-glass."* Aj&tas'atru said, — " Do not boast, do not 
boast of him. Knowing, that he is resplendent, I adore that 

* In the sther u •lament, and >li« in the etlisr of the hmrt S*. 
t In the wind, in tha Tiial lir of the tmdj. Hid in the heart. S'. 
J A.nd in the undsntanding of the hearc. S'. 

f In the watan, in the iemen and in Ihe heart, S'. 
II In the S'rati and f mriti. S'. 
f k ton lilie hiiDuir. 

* In the lookiiig.glus, in other reflfctin thin|*i and in the heart. S'. 



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Seeond Chapter. Fint Snfhnmna. 1 7 1 

Spirit. Whoever tlitis adores him, becomes respleudtint, and 
resplendent his oi^pring; he overconiea in splendour all those 
with whom he meets." 9. 

G&rgya said,—" I adore as Brahma the spirit who, when pro- 
ceeding, is followed hy noise."* Aj^tas'atru said, — " Do not 
boast, do not boast <if him. Knowing, that he is life, I adore 
that spirit. Whoever thus adores hiin, obtains the full age 
in this world ; life does not leave him before the (appointed) 
time." 10. 

Giirgya said, — " I adore as Brahma the spirit who abides in 
the quarters."t Ajfttaa'atru said, — " Do not boast, do not boast 
of him. Knowing, that he is double and inseparable,! I adore 
him. Whoever thus adores him, becomes double, § and hia 
followers never part from him." 1 1. 

Gfirgya said, — " I adore as Brahma the spirit who abides in 
the shadow || Aj&tas'atru s^d,~Do not boast, do not boast of 
him. Knowing, that he is death, I adore that spirit. Whoever 
thus adores him, obtains (his) full age in this world j death 
dues not approach him before the time." 12. 

Gargya said,—" I adore as Brahma the spirit who abides in 
the 8oul,"1I (in self.) Aj4taa'atru said, — " Do not boast, do not 
boast of him. Knowing, that he is possessed of siml,* I adore 
that spirit. Whoever thus adores him, becomes in this world 
possessed of soul, and also bis offspring." Then G4rgya was 
silent. 13. 

Aj^tas'atru said, — "Does (Brahma) so far extend?" (He 
answered), — "So far." — (AjStas'atru said), — "Brahma is not 

• Life. 

t Id the quu-ten, in the etr ind in the benrt. S'. ' 

t Liks the Aarini who are the tatelxTj deities of the qniTten. 
' f Bj the aumber of bit semntt. A. G. 

n The ipiiit, ■biding in tbe ihadawr eiteraally u darkneu and inteiniUr, in 
the heart u iguorince. 

S Theapirit, sbidingia the ion), in Pnyipiti, and in the intellect of th« heart. S'. 

* Ot mnch nndentuiding. 



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1^2 ISrikad Aranyaka Upaniihad. 

comprehended by (a knowledge) whicli ao far extends only."* 
G&rgya said, — " Let me approach thee as disciple." 14. 

Ajfttaa'atru said, — " It verily goes against the grain that a 
Br&hmaii should approach a Kshatriya for the purpose of learoing 
(the nature of) Bmbma from him. I will explain (him) to thee.'' 
(Thus saying) he took him by the bands and rose. They went 
to a man who slept. They called him by the name, " Mighty one, 
clad in white garments, Soma, king." He did not rise. Squeez- 
ing him with the hand, he awoke him. He then arose. 1.5. 

Aj^tas'atru said,—" Where was the spirit whose nature is 
like knowledgej at the time when he thus profoundly slept ? 
Whence did he come }" G&rgya did not know this. 

Aj&tas'Btru said, — " When the spirit whose nature is like know^ 
ledge, thus profoundly slept, then the ether,t in the midst of the 
heart drawing in, together with the knowledge of the senses,^ 
(their actual) knowledge,^ slept therein (in the ether). || Whes 
the spirit draws in that (knowledge of the senses), then he sleeps 
indeed. Then life is drawn in,^ speech is drawn in, the eye is 
drawn in, the ear is drawn in, (nnd mind is drawn in). I7> 

When he is in the state of dream, then become such (con- 
ditions as the following) his worlds, then he becomes like a 
great king, like a great Brahman, he proceeds as it were to 
higher and lower places. As a great king, assembling his fol- 
lowers, sends them about in his kingdom according to his 
pleasure, so that (spirit resembling knowledge, drawing in) the 
organs, sends them about in his body according to his plea- 
sure. 18. 

* Wbjr Chen ujrst thou hoaating, — I will Ceich thee the natore of Brilima ? 

t The loul in ita inde|jendeiit nitnre. S'. 

X The intellect of the heart in which Bnhma ia reflected. 

} The facnllT at the aenieg o( manifeating their rupectiiB objeoti ; that ii to »;, 
Id aleep, intellect witbdrawa ^ aeiuea from their objacta, and coaceqtrates them hi 
the heart, where intellect itaelf ia abaorbed in the nature of tb« K>al. 

H The (oul within ita own »elf. 

f Heine here, sGcording to S'ukan, tbe sente of imelling. 



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Second Chapter. Seeond Brdhtnana. 173 

Again when he profoundly BJeepa, he does not know of any 
thing. There are 72,000* nrteries called the good, which from 
the heart proceed every where to the body. Returning with 
them he sleeps in the body. As a youth, or a great king, or 
great Br^ma^, sleep, enjoying excessive blissj so does he (the 
spirit resembling knowledge) sleep. 

As the spider proceeds along with its web, ai little sparki 
proceed from fire, so proceed from that loul all organs, ail worlds^ 
all Uie gods, all beings. The nearest conception of him is this, 
that he is the truth of truth. The organs are the truth, he i« 
the truth of them."t 20. 

Second Brdhmana.X 

Whoever knows the young animal with its abode, the upper 

part of its abode,, ita pillar (and) its rope, destroys the sevea 

• Vld. Prai'DB UpinUilud. 3, 6. 

t Whit " tha truth of truth" mena; wilt be aipliinei] in the two next Brth- 
■n>n». S". 

t The eonnexioa between the former *n(l the pment Brthraana ii ibown by 
S'aulura, ■■ (ullowa. The topic of Brahme hu been iotrodnced b; tbe wordi, — "I 
will eiplain Brabni*," (p. 172) ind declared,— Tbe one Brihma U be fron whom 
the world it produced, of whom it cooiieu and loto wbom it ia ditiolrad. Of 
what nature aguo ii ibe world, whioh ii prodiioed anddiuolTadf It coniiMi 
ef the fiTB elemeDti. whioh contUt of miDe and form. Moreover it haa been 
*ud, tbkt name and form ara truth (aatja). Tha truth of tha truth, fooniiat. 
inf of the tie giemeiita) i> Brahnia. Why again are the element* trath ? Thia 
quettiou ia eniwered in the Brihma^, whoie aobject ia to ihow the nature of 
what haa form and what la without form. On accaant of their luiing form aod 
Dot hafing form, the elementa, contiitiog of eSect and canie(are truth, and thna) 
alio the orgaut (Priolih]. To deSne the oature (Sattna) of tbe elameuM, oon- 
aiating of caaie Bud tttaet, the two next Brihmava are coBuieuced. This 
Upaniahad ia to be explained, for Brahma ia detarmioad aa the truth of tha truth bf 
the determination of tha realitj (SattTa) of effect and canie. There (in the former 
Brihma9a)it haa beMiaaid.—" Tha argani are the truth; he i* the trath of them." 
Here by tbe connriian of tbe Brahma Upaniihad in thia roannar, — " Whieh are Ibe 
organa, of which nature their object*, and whieh the Upaniahada," he determine! 
the nature of the eanaei, tba aame, ■* well, garden*, &e. ae«n on ■ road, ara 
determined. 



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174 Brikad ArnHyaka Vpa»Uhad. 

inimical brother's aoiis.* The young animal is the central life.f 
Thist is its abode, this^ the upper part of its abode, lifejl is 
the pillar, food the rope.l 1. 

■ TheBeren (deities) who cause (its) indestructibility,* surround 
itf (the infant) worshipping, viz. Rudra, adores it with the 
red lines in the eye, Paijanya with the water in the eye, ^<litya 
with the sight, Agni with the black in the eye, Indra with the 
white, the earth adores it with the lower, and the heavens, 
with the upper eye-lash. The food of him is not destroyed 
who thus knows it. 2. 

This is said in the following memorial verse, — " There is a 
Soma-cup, whose mouth is below, and whose foot is above; 
therein is put glory of various kinds. On its margin there are 
seven Rishis, and speech is the eighth, as holding communi- 
cation with Brahma." The Soma-cup whose mouth is below 
and whose foot is above, is the head ; for it is like a cup with 
mouth below and foot above. " Therein is put glory of various 
hinds." With the various kinds put (therein),} it (the memo- 
rial verse) means the vital airs. ^ "On its margin there are 
seven Rishis. " With the Rishis it means the vital winds." 

* For the nni of a btolhar tatj be inimieit or friendlj. Hera Ibc >ttaclimeat 
to the objeeti of the leoui ii denoted bj the brother's loiw. The Kiuea are tbe 
lercn otiflcea by which objict* are parcEiied, tfae ittichment produced bj tbem 
■re tbe brother'! ions. S*. 

t Tbe tobtla bodj, dudlbg Id the midil of the bodj ; nbieet to it arv the 
organs ; it it a babe, because it is nuwitled, wbUe the leiisei are keen with regard to 
tiieii objects. S'. 

I Tbe bodj. S'. 

{ The head with its scTen orifices. S'. 

II Lifa, means, according to S'ankin, tbe strength produced bf food, according 
to oth«rs, respiration. 

1 Bj whiqh tbe jnnng animal ii bound to tbe pillar. 

* Thai I randered " Afchaiti" after S*. Tbe; canse tba indestmetibilit; of fooA. 
t The babe, when duelling in the apper part of tbe abode it rises to the oje. S^. 
% As lbs Soma-jnice in Che cap, S. 

{ Tbe Tttal alrt \tj wlucb tbe seooee are moied to the perfbrmaDoe of their 



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Steond Chapter. Third Brihnuina. 1 75 

" Speech is the eighth, as communicating with Brahma ;" for 
Hpeech as the eighth commmiicates vith Brahma.* 3. 

The«e (eara) are Goutania and Bharadv&ja, this (ear) is 
Gautama, the other Bharadv4ja. These (eyes) are Vis'vfimittra 
and Jamadagni ; this is Vis'v&mittra, the other Jamadagni. 
These (nostrils) are Vasistba and Kasyapa; this is Vasistha, this 
Kasyapa ; speech is Attri ; for by speech food is consumed ; 
for Attri is verily derived from the root Attih (to eat, con- 
sume) ; he is the consumer of all. All becomes the food of him 
who thus knows. 4. 

Third Brdhmana. 

There aretvo modesf of Brahma, J what has form, and what 
has no form,§ the one mortal, the other immortal, again finite 
the one, and the other iufinite,[| agun the one existing and the 
other beyond. 1. 

What has foTm,\ w what is different from the air and the 
ether ;* this is mortal, this is finite, this is visible. The essence 
of what has form, what is mortal, finite and visible, is the being 
that heats (the sun) ; for he is the essence of what exists. 2. 

Again what has no form is the air and the ether ; this is imr 
mortal, this is infinite, this is beyond. The essence of what baf 
no form, what is immortal, infinite and beyond, is the spirit who 
(abides) in this universe.t This refers to the divine relation. 3. 



* Bnhma ii tha whali of lonnds, and ipceob faag commnnintlaa wirh It, bf 
pronouncing it. ti. Q. 

f I nu mode beie in the MD*e of " accidental modifiBtlion of labBtBuce." 

X B»hm> tbe gupreme iobI, <rbo, in hi* absolute nature, i* witboaC thoM two 

{ Ac the time that their differencea are not eiolTed. ^leir diSerancei are atated 
afteririrdi. S'. 

II Sibitincha jacheha, eiplilned bj S' ithitam pariehchbinnam gatipdrTakam 
athasnn, jicbcha j£l!ci jadvja|>ja|>arichchhiiiuam, what it itaiianarf , limited, what 
after motion baa the tendeocj' to ataud, and what moTes, therefore nhat ii 
perrading, unlimited, 

^ What ia (armed of parte, ■ componnd. S'. 

* Nanel;, the other three element*, earth, water and light. 
\ Hiraif^agarhba. 



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17S Brikad Aranyaka Vpanuhnd. 

Nuw the relatiuii to the soul. Wbitt has form is different 
from the air and from the ether in the midst of the body.* 
This ie mortal, this i» fitiite> this existing. The essence of 
what has form, what ia mortal, finite and existing, is the eye ;t 
for this is the essence of what exists. 4. 

Now what has no form ia the air, and the ether in the midst 
of the body. This is immortal, this is infiiiite, this is beyond. 
The essence of what has no form, what is immortal, infinite and 
beyond, is the spirit (Puniiha) in the right eye ; for he is the 
essence of whttt is beyond. 5. 

The form of this spirit^ is, as cloth dyed by turmeric,^ as 
the smoke colour of sheep-wool, as the red colour of the In- 
dragopa insect, as the bright colour of the fire-Same, as the 
white colour of the lotus, as the lightning shines forth at one 
moment, (thus are the modifications of the- desifes of that 
spirit.) The glory of him who thus knows, shines forth at one 
moment. After this therefore the definition (of Brahma), — He is 
not this, he is not this, &c.|| Tliere is another name, different 
from that (definition), — " He is not t\n», he is not this," viz. 
the truth of truth. The organs ace the truth, he is the truth 
of them. 6. 

* That 1) to BIT, th« three element!, light, witet lad wrth, ■■-coiutitaentt of 
tbe b«d]r. independent ot ether and air. S'. 

t SecauM i>j the eye the whole body aaiumea aDbBtance, and becaaae the «jea 
were Drat produced, in accordance with the paaauge, *' Jtditji (the inn), becomiug 
•ye, •Dtered tha eyet." 8', 

X The aobtle apiiit, the apirit, who ia the oanse of manifeitation. 

{ Aa cloth, dyed by turmerio, lo fa the deaire of thatapiritin contact with 
■p«idal abjeett. 

II If it ia uked, how by Ihoae negstiona the " troth of trnth" la defined, tlie 
•nlwer U, — by the prohibition of any illegation which may be made with regard 
to the nature of Brahma, name, form, action, qimlity. Sic. maat be denied of 
Brabma t for theca ia no diatinction in Brahma; if he ia defined, tbia definition 
refera only to qoalitiea whicii are alleged of him ; but hi* owu natkire, can in no 
manner be determined, except by ataling, that eiery attribute ia denied of him. 



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Second Chapter. Fourth Brdhmana. ) 77 

Fourth Brdhmana.* 

"Maitr^yi," said Yajnavalkja,t "Behold, I am desirous of 
raisiug myself from the orderj (of house-holder] ; therefore, 
let me divide (my property) amongst thee and Katy&yaui 
there." 1. 

Maitr^yi said, — " If, O Venerable, this whole world with 
all its wealth were mine, could I become immortal thereby ?" 
Y^jnavalkya said, — " Like the life of the wealthy thy life might 
become ; by wealth, however, there is no hope of (obtaining) 
immortality." 2. 

Maitr^yi said, — -" Of what use would be wealth to me, if I 
did not become thereby immortal. Tell me, O Venerable, any 
(means of obtaining immortality) of which thou knowest," 3. 

Y^jnaralkya said, — " Behold, (thou wast) dear to us before, 
(and now) thou sayest what is dear. Come, sit down ; I will 
explain to thee (the means of obtaining immortality) ; endea- 
vour to comprehend niy explanation." 4. 

He said, — " Behold, not indeed for the husband's sake the 
husband is dear,§ but for the sake of the self, [[ is dear the hus- 
band. Behold, not indeed for the wife's sake the wife is dear, 
but for the sake of the self, is dear the wife. Behold, not for 
the sons' sake the sons are dear, but for the sake of the self are 
dear the sons. Behold, not for property's sake property is 
dear, but for the sake of the self is property dear. Behold, 
not for the Brahma's sake the Brahma is dear, but for the sake 
of the self is the Brahma dear. Behold, not for the Eshattra's 

■ It IB tb« object oF this Brahmina to >ho« that the «Ute of ■ SmanytUi, TJi. 
the retiring' from the world to the foreat tad ibe renunciation of all ceremoniei, i< 
inilii|ienwble for the Itnowleilge of Brihma. S'. The BBme converBalion between 
YfjnBialkji mi ita wife Miitr^jl ii, with slight miiHlions, repeated in the Blh 
Briihinai^a of the 4th chapter. 

+ A Riahi, YSjnaTilkya bj name. 9'. 

t To the higher atuge of a Sannj&ti. 

{ To the wife. 

II Ktmi, the lelf, the aonl ; for the wlf of the wife, for her own >oul. 



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)78 Brihad Aranyaka Upanithad. 

sake tlie Kehnttra is dear, but for the sake of the self the 
Kshnttra is dear. Behold, not for the vorlds' sake the worlds 
are dear, but for the sake of the selfare dear the worlds. Behold, 
not for the gods' sake the gods are dear, but for the sake of 
the self are dear the gods. Behold, not for the V^daa' sake 
the V^das are dear, but for the sake of the self are dear the 
V^das,* Behold, not for the elements' sake the elements are 
dear, bat for the sake of the self are dear the elements. Be- 
hold, not for the sake of the universe the universe is dear, but 
for the sake of the self is dear the universe. Behold, the 
self (6tmd] is verily to he seen, beard, minded (and) meditated 
upon. Behold, O Maitr^yi, by seeing, hearing, minding, 
knowing the self, all this (universe) is comprehended. 5. 

The Brahma should disown a peraon.t who considers the 
Brahma (cast) as something different firom (his) self (atmS) ; 
the Kshattra should disown a person who considers the 
Kshattra (cast) as Bomething different from (his) self; the 
worlds should disown a person vho considers the worlds as 
something different from (his) self; the gods should disown 
a person who considers the gods as something different from 
(their) self; the elements should disown a person who considers 
the elements as something different from (their) self; the 
universe should disown a person who considers the universe aa 
something different from (its) self. This (own) self is this 
Brahma, this Kshattra, these worlds, these gods, these elements, 
is this universe, — 6. 

As a person, when a drum (unseen by him) is beaten, is 
unable to perceive the sounds proceeding from it (as sounds 
of a drum), but on the perception of the drum the sound of a 
drum beaten ia perceived, — 7, 

Aa a person, when a shell (unseen by him) is blown, is un- 
able to perceive the souuds, proceeding from it {as sounds of a 

■ Tbe last sentence is omitted in tfae Stntcrit teit, pablislied by the Ai. Soc, 
t A peiiDD, belonging to the firilimivieal sute. 



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Second Chapter, Fourth Brihmaita. 179 

■bell) but OD the perception of the shell the soand of a abell 
bloira ia perceived,— 8. 

As R person, whea a late (unaaeu to him) ia played, ia un- 
able to perceive the lounds proceeding from it, but on the 
perception of the lute the sound of a lute played ia per- 
ceived,*— 9. 

Aa from fire, made of damp ivood, proceed amoke, aparka, 
&c.t of various kind, thus, behold, is the breathing of this 
great being the B>ig V£da, the Yajur Veda, the S&ma V^da, 
the Atharv&ngiraaa, the narratives (Itihisa,|) the doctrines on 
creation (Fur^a), the acience (Vidjfi), the Upanishads, the 
memorial verses (31okaa), the aphoriama (Siltras), the explana- 
tion of tenets (AnuTyfikh£n&ni,) the explanation of Mantras, 
(Vjikhy&a&ni,) all tbeie are his breathiog. 10. 

Aa the onlj site of all the iraters is the sea, thus ia the onlj 
■ite of every touch the skin, thus the only site of every taste 
the tongue, thns the only site of every smell the noae, thus 
the only site of every colour the eye, thus the only »te of 
tvarj sound the ear, thus the only site of every determination 
the mind, thus the only site of every knowledge the heart, 
thus the only site of every act the hands, thus the only site of 
every pleasure the organs of generation, thus the only site of 
every evacuation the anas, thus the only site of every motion 
the feet, thus the only site of every V^da speech. 1 1, 

■ S'tokara mpplic* tbe >baTe oompiriiont with, — lo is ths idaotitf of Bmhu 
with the indindiul loul onlf apprchsiidfld bj general ind ipecUl knowledge. 
f Dhiiua4h(uiu>ke),the fAnnl deuotM, aocardiagto S., imoke, ipirki, aihei, &a, 
t S. uiecti, that the Itihtia, &c. are the eight topica or the Br^ma^i, Til, 
llihiut, narrative, ai (or ioitance that at tfrcaif, and Parfiraiaaa ; Parana, doc- 
trioee on creatioii, aa for inilanM " tbi* waa before;*' Ttdyli the iclence of the 
god*, for iaatuee, ''he knowa i" Upaniihads, doctrinea aboaC adoration, (or 
inituioe, " the *Onl, therefore let it be adored ;" SlokH, Hantraa, Occurring ia the 
Br^hma^aii aa '' there follow theae Slokat ;" Siitraa, aeatences, which gicc the pith 
of a thing, a* " the ionl, therefore il'ihonld be adored ;" ADUTjikhjioini, eiplana- 
tioD of MaDtraa; Vjikbyinani, praise in boaor of a deitj, tu>. 



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ISO Brihad Ariotyaka VjpanUhad. 

Ab a piece of salt, when thrown into vater, is dissolved into 
mere water, and non« is capable of perceiving it, because, from 
whatever place a person might take (water), it would have the 
taste of salt (but be no piece of salt), thus, behold, this great 
being, which is infinite, independent and mere knowledge. 
Springing forth together with those elements,* (he)t is de- 
stroyed, when they are destroyed. After death, no conscience 
remains^ thus, O MaitrSyi, I hold." Thus said Yijnavalkya. 12. 

Maitreyi said, — " With regard to him (Brahma) thou hast 
bewildered me, O Venerable, by the saying,§ — After death no 
conscience remains." YSjnavalkya said, — " Behold, I verily do 
not create bewilderment, behold, this (Brahma) is sufficient for 
knowledge." 13. 

For where|| there is duality,*f as it were, there seea another,tt 
another thing, there smells another another thing, there hears 
another another thing, there speaks another of another thing, 
there minds another another thing, there knows another ano- 
ther thing; but bow does one to whom all has become mere 
Boul (&tm^), smell any thing, bow see any thing, how hear any 

* I giiG bere, in > aomewhat difTereot langasge, some of the imagei, which 
S'ankiri luea in eiplsnation of this puuge. As the Bjipeariince of the bud aod 
moon In niter ig a mare reflection, and noChiog real, or aa the ap pearance of red \a 
a white cryatal it a mete reflection from s red aubstance and nothing real ; — for OD 
remoiing the water, the tun and maoD only remain, not their reflectioaa, or on 
removing the red anbsCsnce, the wbitenesa of the crraUl oontionea unchanged, — 
thnt the elemente and the indiiidDal bouIb are reflEctioDs of the one aoul upon 
ignorance, and nothing real ; for on removing.tlie ignorance bf Icnoo ledge the aoul 
alone remaina, while those rEflectiona ceaae to eiiat. 

■f- He, the indiiidoa! loul, or aa S'aukara baa Jt,%hB diTition of a paiticolai 

t For him who baa the trne knowledge of the eternal aoul. 

i Becanae thia aeema contradictorj to the former itatement, Utat Brahma it 
the fnlnesa of knowledge. 

II In the Individual aoul, prodaced bj the aubatrate of igaorance u the totalitf 
of canaea and efi'ectB. S'. 

** Difference fiom the aupreme aool. 

ft An; indiiidoal aonl. 



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Second Chapter. Fifth Brikmana. 1SI 

tiking, how Bpeftk of any tMng, how mind any thiag, how know 
any thing ? How should he know him by whom he knows this 
all ; behold, bow should be know the knower >"*l4i. 

Fifth Brdkmatsa.f 
The earth is honeyj for all beinga, for the earth are all 

* The ■riumcnC which S'lnkara sdTUicet io lappart of thii doctrine is egBentiillf 
■a follovi, — Everj effect requiret a eauie ; ur, nithout cuiue there it no iffect ; thera- 
forc, irthera is ignnnnce, there !• the uaninptiou of effect, came aod reward ai Iba 
«Bect of ignorance; bat thi« auaiDptioa i> not made on a knowledge of Brahma; for 
itaJl iasool oi Brahma, there ii, beaide the goal, neither cauae, nor effect, do r reward. 
A knowledge of a cauie can take pUce, if there ia a difference between the came and 
tlw object ofknowledga, and tlieremij be an enquiry an the aabject of the knowledge 
(the knowing tool) and the object of thn aams, but nut of the ioul. If the latter be 
the cate, sncb a knowledge (the koowlodge of the knowing subject, the aoal) would 
be either prodaeed by tlie Wol itaelf, Or b; aomething elta. Not the firtt ; for tha 
mdI ia not an object of tha aool, not bj aomething alae ; for there ia nothing elie 
but the aoni, and there ia therefore no object of its knowledge. 

f S'ankara eiplalni the cocneiion between the preaent and the preceding 
Brihmapa, aa totlowa : — The MaitrejE Brfhmai^a baa been oompaaed for the pnr- 
pow to atate that that whioh ia independent of ceremoniea and the canae of iai> 
mortalitr, ia worthy of eipbnation. Tbia ia the knowledge of Brahma, pertaining, 
u haa been declared, to all the dntiei ofa Sannyiisi. Moreover, aince hj the know, 
ledge of the tonl the whole aniierae ia known, and the soul ia dearer to eierj one 
than CTerr thing eUe, " the aoal ahoald be beheld." " It ia to be heard, to be 
minded, to be pondered upon." Tlie different modeg of beholding the soul, hare been 
■tated before. To be beard ia the aoul, bf means of the teacher, to be pondered 
on by meana of diaquisition, and diiqaiiition baa been eiplained. The propoailion, 
" the aoul ia tbia all," ia prored by tbe argument, that tha one sonl ia the onlj cauae 
of the genetalitj, oF tbe production and of tbe diaaolution of the world, and aa thia 
may be doubtfal, the preaent Brahmu^a, ia compoaed to remoTe any doubt regard- 
ing it. Bocaue the whole world, earth, etc. ia ia tbe mntaal dependence of anp- 
port and anpported, it ia dependent upon one cauae of generality, prodnclioo and 
diaaolation. Or with other worda, after the propoaition (Pretijof] " aoul alone ia 
thia all," haa been proTad by the argument, that the aoul ia the ciuae of the creation, 
preaerTatiOD and diiaolution of the world, Che concluaion (Nigamina) of the propoa- 
ed meaning ia again made in tlie Madhubrilima^a, conformably to the definition of 
logiciana, that th« concluaion in a ayllogiam it tbe repetition of the propoaition, 
after the argument hat been stated. 

j: Vid. Ch&nd. Up., 3, 1 — G, whero a limiUr comparison in made. 



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182 Brihad Ara»yaka Upmiahad. 

beiitga honey *". Both the immortal, luroinoas spiritf (abiding) 
ia the earth, aud the immortal, Inminooe spirit, who exists in 
the body according to his relation to the soul (are honey for all 
beings and all beings are honey for them.) This]: is that 
soul, this§ is immortal, this is Brahma, this all. 1. 

The waters are honey for all beings; for the waters are nil 
beings honey. Both the immortal, luminous spirit (abiding) in 
the water, and the immortal, luminous spirit, abiding in the 
semen according to his relation to the soul {are honey for all 
beings and all beings are honey for them). Thia is that soul, 
this is immortal, this is Brahma, this all. 2. 

The fire is honey for all beings ; for the fire all beings 
are honey. Both the immortal, luminous spirit, (abiding) in 
the fire, and the immortal luminous spirit, abiding in speech 
according to his relation to the soul (are honey for all beings, 
and all beings are honey for them.) This is that soul, this is 
immortal, this ia Brahma, this all. 3. 

The wind is honey for all beings ; for the wind all beings 
are honey. Both the immortal, luminous spirit (abiding) in the 
wind, and the immortal, luminous spirit, who is life according 
to his relation to the soul (are honey for all beings, and all 
beings are honey for them.) This is that soul, this is immor- 
tal, this is Brahma, this all. 4. 

Aditya is honey for all beings ; for Aditya all beioga ore 
honey. Both, the immortal, luminous spirit, (abiding) in that 
Jiditya, and the immortal, luminous spirit, abiding in speech 
according to his relation to the aoul (are honey for all beings, 
* Ab tbe bee> collect hoDcj from etety kind oi flonen, wbicb (gain lerfcg u 
noarishmeDt for tbe bee>, to all tbe beings are noariahmant far tfaa ana earth, ara 
cbanged into its lerj subatancs, and again tbe eartb i« nouriihoient for all beings) 
it i% changed into all ; that ii to aay, Ihey are iniiluallj dependent ; tbore is no real 
difftrence between tbem ; tbey are tlie same, — Brabina. 
t Tbe Sanscril term ia Poruaba. 

X Tbia (a^am) tbia fonrfold diTiaion, lii. the eartb, all bcoDga, the ^lirit aUdini 
in the earth, aiid the apiriC abidiog in the bod;. S'. 

J Thia (idui) tbe knowledge, nbote obj«cl ii ttaa fourfold diiiiiou. S* 



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Second Chapter. Fifth Brdhmana. 183 

and all beings are honey for them.) Thia is that aonl, this is 
immortal, this is Brahma, this all. 5. 

The qnartera are honey for nil beings ; for the qnarters all 
beings are honey. Both, the immortal, luminous spirit (abid- 
ing) in the quarters, and the immortal, luminous spirit, abid- 
ing in the ear according to his relation to the soul, (are honey 
for a1] beings, and all beings are honey for them.) This is 
that soul, this is immortal, this is Brahma, this all. 6. 

The moon is honey for all beings ; for the moon all beings 
are honey. Both, the immortal, luminous spirit (abiding) in 
the moon, and the immortal, luminous spirit, abiding iu the 
mind according to his relation to the sonl (are honey for all 
beings, and all beings are honey for them.) This is that soul, 
this is immortal, this is Brahma, this all. 7. 

The lightning is honey for all beings ; for the lightning all 
beings are honey. Both, the immortal, luminous spirit (abid- 
ing) is lightning, and the immortal, luminous spirit, abiding 
in the light (skin) according to his relation to the soul (are 
honey for all beings, and all beings are honey for them.) 
This is that soul, this is immortal, this is Brahma, this all. 8, 

The thunder is honey for all beings ; for the thunder all 
beings are honey. Both, the immortal, luminous spirit, (abid- 
ing) in thunder, and the immortal, luminous spirit, abiding in 
sound and note according to his relation to the soul (are honey 
for all beings, and all the beings are honey for them.) This is 
that soul, this is immortal, this is Brahma, this all. 9. 

The ether is honey for all beings ; for the ether all beings 
are honey. Both, the immortal, luminous spirit, (abiding) in 
the ether, and the immortal luminous spirit, abiding as ether 
in the heart according to his relation to the soul (are honey 
for all beings and all beings are honey for them.) This is 
that soul, this is immortal, this is Brahma, this all. 10. ' 

Justice is honey for all beings; for justice all beings are 
honey. Both, the immortal, luminous spirit (abiding) in jus- 
tice, and the immortal luminous spirit, produced in justice ac- 



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184 Brihad Aranyaia tJpanukad. 

cording to his relation to the soul (are honey for all belngB, and 
aU beiag§ are honey for them.) This ig that soul, this is im- 
mortal, this is Brahma, this all. II. 

Truth is honey for all beings j for truth all beinp are 
honey. Both, the immortal, luminous spirit, (abiding) in 
truth, and the immortal, luminous spirit, produced in troth 
according to his relation to the soul (are houey for all being), 
and all beings are honey for them). This is that soul, this is 
immortal, this Brahma, this all. 13. 

Mankind is honey for all beings; for mankind all beings are 
hooey. Both, the immortal, laminous spirit, (abiding) Id 
mankind, and the immortal luminous spirit, produced in man- 
kind according to his relation to the Boot, (are honey for all 
beings, and all beings are honey for them.) This is that soul, 
this is immortal, this Brahma, this all. 13. 

The soul is honey for all beings ; for the soul all beings sie 
honey. Both, the immortal, laminous spirit (abiding) in the 
soul, and the immortal, luminous spirit who is that soul (are 
honey for all beings, and all beings are honey for them). Thii 
is that soul, this is immortal, this Brahma, this all. 14. 

This aoul is verily the lord of all beings, the king of all 
beings. As all spokes are fastened in the nave and the cir- 
cumference of the wheel,* thus also all beings, all gods, all 
worlds, all o^ans, all souls, are fastened in that soul. 16. 

This honey I)adhich,t the son of Atbarvana, explained to tbe 

* See * similar eompiriion, 2 Mupji 3) 6- 

t The Ule, slladed to in tbe teit. ia contained in the TaittarCja Br&hma^, ia 
the part which treati on Che Fragarrja lacrifice, and le giTen b; S'ankan, lu 
drift i)i,aa foUowi, — Dadbich, the aon of Athana^a, eipliined to the two &aTin>.tl» 
phjaiciana of the goda, tbe Madba Bribma^a. Wfaen Che; came to him for inaCrac- 
tioa, he told Cbem, Chat ladra had threatened hioi to out off hia head, if herepatad 
tbe Madhu Br^hmi^a to aoj bodf elie. The Aaiina promiied to aate tu> 
from the conaeqnence of Indra'g anger. They woald pUce his head aomenhcra 
elae, and meanwhile pat a horia'a head on hit bodjr ; irhea ladra ahonid cut off Uia 
head, tbej woald replace it hj hia awn. He consented, and explained Co them tbe 
Wadha Brihmav* bj mMiu of th« head of a hone which tiwf htd placed npM 



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Seemid Cftq>A!r. Sljfth SrOmana. 185 

two AsViin. Beholding their deed the Bisbi* said, — "Oy» 
men, I will mnnifeat your cmel deedf (Qadertaken) for your 
advantage, as Tanyataj: {manifests) raiu (from a cload). The 
hooey which Badhia', the son of Atharrana, explained to 
yoa through the head of the horse, {is this honey)." 16. 

This boaey explained Dadhin', the soa of Atharra^ td 
the two As'Tiaa. Beholding this deed, the Itiahi said, — " O 
AsVins, ye placed a horse-head on Dadhin', the son of Atbar- 
va^ia. To keep his promise, be explained to you, O Destroyers, 
the honey of Tras(ar (Xditya) and also the honey> which ia 
to be concealed."^ 17. 

This honey explained Dadhin', tiie son of Athaira^a, to 
the two Aa'vins. Beholding their deed, the Rishi said, — " (He) || 
created the bodies (purab) of bipeds (and then) the bodies 
of quadrupeds. At first, (purah) being « bird,^ he entered as 
Paru8bathebodies(pnrah). This Purushais called thus, because 
he sleeps in all bodies (Puris'aya)." From him nothing is con- 
cealed (within), from him nothing is concealed (witboat). 18. 

This honey expliuued Dadhin', the son of Atbarnt^a, to the 
two As'rins. Beholding this deed, the Rishi said, — " He became 
to every nature of every nature ; therefore to manifest the na- 
ture of him, ladra* appears of manifold nature by his 
Uiyaha ; for his hundred and ten senses are attached (to tbe 
body as honest to a car), it (the soul) is the senses ; it is ten, 
it is many thousands, nay infinite, it is Brahma who has not 

liii bodj instcKd of hii own, uid od Indr* cutting aS the hone-beid, thejr rettored 
b> hfan Ills «wn. TUi Ule, ujl S'lnhm, h to Ulnxtrata tbe Hipertority of tbe 
knowledge of Brahma ; for tbe knowledge, poamied by Indn i* difficult em foe 
tbe godi, to gdn, end wee gained but <ritli great trouble bjr tbe A•^<». 

* The H Ultra, 8'. 

t Tbe cutting off the bead of Dadhin'. t ^rjanja. 

{ Tbe honej of Tiaftar ii knowledge, referring t« rite ; the bone; to be cen< 
eealed, tbe knowledge of Brabma, S'. 

I Vid. Kttba U. 5 10, 

1 Param^i'nra. S'. That ii to ear, beh^ of inbtile body. * Piram^'nra. S'. 

t The word " Hari," meant in Santorit " Knwt" n well aa " hone," and denote* 
bere both of them. 

2 B 

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186 Srihad Arant/aJta Upanighad. 

a Before nor an After, nor a Beside, nor a Without ; this 
IB the Bon), Brahma, the perceiver of all.* Such U the 
doctnne. 

Sixth Brdhma^a. 

Next follova the school.t Fautim&shya succeeded Gaapa> 
vana, — Ganpavana, Paatimfishya, — Fautimashya, Oanpavaua, 
— Oaupavana, Kaus'ika, — Kaus'ika, KauB4iiiyi>i — Kau^iji"^'^ 
S'&ndilyiii — S'aa4ilya] Kaus'ika and Gautama, — Gnutama, 1. 

jLgnives'ya, — Xgniv^s'ya, SSn^ilya and ^aabhiml&ta, — .^a- 
bhiml&ta, Auabhiml^ta, — Anabhimlata, ^aabhimUta, — Xna- 
bhimlita, Gautamaj — Gautama, Saitava and PrEichinayogya, — 
Saitava and Friichinayogya, F&rfU'arya, — F&ras'arya, Bh&rad< 
viya, — Bhiradvfiya Bh^radvija and Gautama, — Gautama, 
Bbiradv&ja, — Bhiradvdja, Pfirfia'firya, — PrSrfis'arya, Vaijav^pS- 
yana, — VaijavSpfiyana, Kaua'ikfiyani, — Kaus'ik&yani, 2. 

Gbritakaus'ika, — Ghiitakaus'ika, PfirSa'aryiyana, — P&riis'ar- 
yfiyapa, FarSs'arya, — Pdr^a'arya, J^tnikaraya, — Jatukarnya, 
XauF^a^a and Yfiska, — Xsurfiyajja, Sraiva^i, — Sraivapi, An- 
pajandbani, — ^Aupajaudhani, Asuri, — Asuri, Bh&radvaja,— 
Bh&radv&ja, ^tr^ya, — ^treya, H&nti, — M^^t'i Gautama, — 
Gautama, Gautama, — Gautama, V&tBya, — V&tsya, S&rdilya, — 
S&^^ilya, Kaia'orya Kfipya, — Kais'oryaK&pya, E.umfirab&rita, — 
Kum&rah&rita, G61ava, — Gdlava, Vidarbhi Eauu4inya, — ^Vidar- 
bhi Kan^dinya, Vatsanap^t Bftbhrava, — Vatsanap&t B&bhrava, 
Path fihSaubbara, — Patb^bS aubhara, \y&ay a Angiraaa, — Ay £sy a 
Angiraaa, Abhuti Tvfis'tar, — Abbiiti Tvfis'tar, VisvarupaTv^tar, 

* Thia puuge mij alto ha truteUted, — Thu Brahma U withoat a Before, 
without aa AfCar, without a Beiide, withant a Wllhout.ii thli aonl (the indiiidnal 
Boul) ; Brtlima ii the enjojer of all. 

Ofi-'Thu ii Brahma, who ii withoat * Before, without an AAer, without a 
Beiide, without a Without, it ii thit loul (the iudifidual aonl), tt it Brahma, 
the BujoTer of all (the uniTerial loul). 

f Two mote liatt of teaohera are giTen iu thii Upaniihad, *ii. i, S, and 6, 9. 
S'ankin obHirea about the preaant litt, that it it the list of the Madhn lU^f^ nd 
^Teu for the pniae of the knowledge of BraLma. The tchool itaelf meant the 
ancoeulOTi of letchera for tbt four preceding chaplera of the Brfibnina, or the tiro 
firit chapter! of the B. S. V. 



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Second Ouster, SUiA Brdhmaiia. 187 

— Yigvarnpa Tv^tar, the Asrins, — tlie Asviaa, Badhin' Athar- 
vana, — Dadhiu' Atharva^, Atharra^a Daiva, — Atharvatta 
Daiva, Mrityu FrfidtiTasana, — Mrityu Fradhvasaiia, Frsdhya- 
saaa, — Fr^hvasanaj Ekarisbi, — Ekarishi, Viprachitti, — Yipra- 
ciiitti, Yyasfati, — Yyashti, Sanfira, — Sanfiru, Sao^taoa, — Saii&- 
tana, Sanaga, — Saaaga, Faram^hti, — Faram^ahti, Brahmfit', -— 
Brahmi is the Belf-existent ; salutatioa to Brahmi. 

* FminfeiUii Yin,\, Hid Brthmi, d«nok« [lir*;j«swblu. S'. 



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158 BrAaiArm»jfakaUjm»uhad. 

THIRD CHAPTER. 

fint Brdkauna.* 

JftDBka, the king of the Vid^hKs, performed the ' sacrifice, 
named BahadakBhin^.f There were assembled the Bridmans 
of the Eurus and the Fanchalaa. Jaaaka, the king of the Vid^- 
has, had a great desire to know, irho among those Brihmans 
knew best the V^das ; for this purpose he tied a thousand cows 
(ia a stable) ; the horns of each of them were surrouaded 
with ten F&dahs (of gold)4 1. 

He said to tfaem, — "O venerable Br&hmans, whoever amongst 
you is the best knower of Brahma, shall drive home those 
cows," The BrShma^s did not venture (to come forward). 
Then said Y^Ljoavalkya to his Brahma student, — " O gentle 
one,drive home those (cows)." " (As 70a command), O knower 
of the Sdma V£da,§" with these words (the disciple) drove them 
home. The Br&hma^s became angry (thinking), — How dare 
he call himself amongst us the beat knower of Brahma ? There 
was then As'vala, the Hotarjl of Jaiiaka, king of the Yid^as. 
He asked him, — " Art thou in very deed amongst us the beat 
knower of Brahma, O Yf^navalkya ?" He said, — " We bow to 

■ nil prcHut EJv4>, or the TiiruTPik^tt E£q^, treati the une nbjeet m ths 
Mtdhn K£v4i; bat it ii do rapaticion, for whila tha Utter eihibits the kDowledfe 
of Sr«bm4 In the farm of mere ennnoiRtiaii, tba former eatabliihai it bj Kr^meat. 
Hie QHTltiTe li giTea in prBtw of tbe knowledge of Bnhnu, ud alio to ahoir 
liberality aa a meani condiuri*a to that knoirledgs. &', 

f Balmdakihioa U dther s aacrifiee of thU name, which haa bean eipluned fa 
another S'ikha, or the Aa'Tamtdha aacrifiee, at in the latter great dooationg are 
leqaired. S'. 

{ A PUi ii according to S'lnkaia, eqoal to the 4th part of a Pala, or eqniJ to 
a SuTar^ of gold, which, aewrdiag to Wilaon, i* eqiul to about 1 76 graina Troy. 

i That Ii to tty, knower of the foor VJdai, aa tha Sima TMa wai to be itadied 
after the three other T^u, 

n The Ritiig, one vlu> know* the Hit; Vtda, oi he who arraD|e« tlie HcriAeea, 



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him who IB tbe best koower of Bnikma ; we are erea deairoas 
of getting the cows." Hence the Hotu Ai'rala audertook to 
ctuestion him. 2. 

He Bfud, — '* Y^JDavalk^a, all this is pervaded by death, all 
this is Bnhjeet to dekth. By what means overcoming the 
grasp of death is the sacrificer liberated }" (He replied) — , " By 
speech which is fire in the shape of the priest, called Hotar. 
The speech of the sacrifieer,* ia verily the Hotar. This speecht 
is this fire ; this (fire) is the Hotar, this (fire of the Hotar) is 
liberatioD,^ this (liberaticm) sbsolate liberation."^ 8. 

He said, — " Y&jnavalkya, all this ia pervaded by day and 
iiight,|| all this is subject to day and night. By what means, 
overcomiDg the grasp of day aad night, is the sacrificer liberat- 
ed?" (Hereplied,) — " By the eye, which is iCditya (the8na)in 
the shape of the priest called Adhvaryu. The eye of the sacri- 
ficer is verily the Adhvaryu. This eye is this Aditya, this 
(Aditya) is the Adhvaryu, this (Adhvaiyn) is liberation, this 
(liberation) absolute liberation." 4. 

He aaid, — " Yajnavalkya, all is pervaded by the light and 
dark halves <^ the lunar m<mth ;^ all this ia aubject to the light 
and dark halves of the lunar months. By what means, over- 
coTuiug the graap of the light and dark halves of the lunar 
month, is the sacrificer liberated ?" (Hereplied), — "By the 
vital breath, which ia the wind in the shape (rf the priest, eall- 

* With reference to the Hcriftee, S', 

■t* With refcreneB to the deitie*. S*. 

t Canie <rf RberKth m . S*. 

{ AbaoMe KlMiMiMi b hers tbo ginunf of tlie itsts of speech and oTthediit; of 
fin. S'. 

H ThD c«u> <f the ooBtiBaal duage of taeb rile* ■■ the Dan'a ud PaniMx^r 
h Ume ; for atthoagb time ia included in week, jet, iadtfieftJea t of the performracs 
of Mark, tiBerbcfmtiid attar work, tbe idea obaecTed. Is cbw^e tbe ciuhb of 
rites, for which reawn tha libeiatiou froB time mwt be tepintelj expluned. S'. 

H Although time, u contuiiiii( toaar daji, ia included in time, chiracteiiied bj 
dif and night, aod iltbougb tbe lua ii the Ruler of daj »nd night, jet this i* only 
the caie in general, but not with regard to daji and nights, where there ii an in- 
creaie or decreoie which are ruled by the moon, and in thii reapect a liberation 
fr«m time u repteaeuted hj lanar dajra, ii neceisary , S'. 



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190 Sr&ad Aram/aia UpanUhad. 

ed the TIHgatar. The vital breath of the sacrificer is verily 
the Udg&tar. This vital breath is this wind, this (riQd) is the 
Vdg&tar, this (Udgittar) is liberation^ this (liberation) absolute 
liberation." 5. 

He said, — " Y&jnavalkya, this atmosphere is without fonnda- 
tioD, aa it were ; by what approach'* does (man) approach thea 
the place of heaven?" (He replied), — " By the mind which is 
the moon in the shape of the priest, called the Brahma. The 
mind of the sacrificer is verily the Brahma; mind is this 
Brahma, this (moon) is the Brahma, this (Brahma) is liberation, 
this (liberation) absolute liberation." So far the absolute eman- 
cipation (from death). Next the means-f 6. 

He said, — " Yijnavalkya, by bow many EiksJ of the Rig V^da 
does this Hotar in this sacrifice to-day perform the praise ?" 
(He replied), — "By three." — "By what three?" "By those, 
to be recited before (the sacrifice,) by those to be recited for 
the sake of the sacrifice, and by those to be recited for the sake 
of praise." "What does he conquer by them?" "All that 
bears life."§ 7. 

He said, — " Yijnavalkya, how many oblations]| does this Adh^ 
vaiyu offer to-day in this sacrifice i" (He replied), — " Three." 
" Which are these three ?" " The oblations which flame up- 
wards; the oblations which make a great noise; the oblations 
which fall downwards."ir " What does he conquer by them ?" 
" By the oblations that flame upwards, he conquers the world 

* la 3-5, ths liberaUoa ot the luirificer from death hu beoa declared, bat Mt 
the mnni b; which bs effecU it. Then meuii are eiplaiued in the preuat 
■ectioD. S', 

f Mmiu an either all the appliinoea neceeurj for the performince of ucred 
ritea. or the knontedgti □( thoie meaiu. S, 

i A. Big doea not mean here a lingle Tcrie of the Rig Yeda, but it reCars to 
eertain kinds of Big-Yetaea, which maj include asj Dumber of Mantraa. 

i The thie« worldi, according to S, lince thej are the mpportera of lifb, and the 
three world* correapond with the three kiada of BJks. ~ 

II Oblations, fire afferings. 

H In the obiatioDa, flamiag apwards, butter i in thoae making ■ great aoiie, 
meat ; and in thote falling downvaida, milk or the Soma juice ii ofioed. 

GooqIc 



Tka^ Chapter. Mrit Br&mana. ISl 

of the gods ; for the world of the gods (d^ra) Bhiaes (dipytit€) as 
it were ; by the obUtioaB which make a great noise, he coa- 
quera the world of the forefathers ; for the world of the fore- 
fathers is very noisy,* aa it were ; by the oblations which fall 
downwaTdsjIie conquers the world of man ; for the world of man 
is down below, as it were." 8, 

He Baid, — " Y^navalkya, by how many deitiest does this 
Brahmfi, (seated on the chair) to the right, protect to-day this 
sacrifice?" (He replied] — , "Byone." " Which is the one ?" 
" The mind ;| the mind is infinite,^ infinite are the Yisv^devas ; 
be conquers thereby the world of the Infinite." 9. 

He said, — " Y&jnaTalkya, how many hymns of prMse,|| will 
the Udgitar sing to-day in this sacrifice ?" (He replied), — ' 
" Three." " Which are these three ?" " Those to be recited 
before (the sacrifice,) those to he recited for the sake of the 
sacrifice, and thirdly, those to be recited for the sake of praise." 
" Which are those (three) according to their relation to the 
Bonl ?" " The vital air that goes forwards (respiration) is those 
to be recited before,! the '''ital "ir that goes downwards those 
to be recited for the sake of the sacrifice,* the vital lur that 
equalises those to be recited for the sake of pwuse." " What 
does he conquer by them?" "By the Mantras to be recited 
before, he conquers the world of man, by those to he recited 
for the sake of the sacrifice, the world of the atmosphere, by 
those to be recited for the sake of praise, the world of the 
heavens." Hence the Hotar As'vala became silent. 10, 

* ThB naiM rnfen to the lamentatioiu of thoK who tre pnnUhed for tbcir eAmtt, 

t Thn plural inttwd of the tiagnUr Beeording to S'., li either nied to coniwct 
this queition with the former onea, or to deceJTe YiiJDaTsUija. 

t Foi by the mind is BiihiDS mediuted upon, 
. i Thii meiiiB, that the modificatians of the mbd are iafinlte. 

II Bikg either of the Rig or Stma Vfeda. 

% Both going upvardi. 

* A> the wind going downvarda camei a noise. 

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Briluii Arofjftika VpatUAai. 



Second Brdkmaga. 

Then asked* him Artabhiga,t from the family of Jaratk&ra, — 
" Yfijnayalkya," saidhej "how many fetters J are there, and how 
many anxiliarics to them ?" (He replied), — " Eight fetters and 
eight auxiliariea." " Which are the eight fetters and the eight 
auxiliaries?" I. 

The vital air that goes forwards^ is a fetter ; it is enhanced 
by the vital going downwards, |{ which is its auxiliary ; for by the 
vital air that goes downwards, smell is perceived. 2. 

Speech is a fetter ; it is enhanced by the word which is its 
auxiliary, for by speech words are pronounced. The tongue isa 
fetter ; it is enhanced by taste which ia its auxiliary ; for by the 
tongue various kinds of taste become manifest. 4. 

The eye is a fetter; it is enhanced by colour which is its 
auxiliary ; for by the eye colours are seen. 5. 

The ear is a fetter; it is enhanced by sound which is its 
auxiliary ; for by the ear sounds are heard. 6. 

The mind is a fetter ; it is enhanced by desire which is its 
auxiliary ; for by mind desires are formed. 7. 

The hands are a fetter ; it is enhanced by action which is its 
auxiliary; for by the hands actions are done. 8, 

The skin is a fetter ; it is enhanced by touch which is its 

* The abiolate liberation From death in the relation of the litter to time ind work, 
bu been eiplsined in the preceding Br&hniBi;is. What then ii the natnTC of death 
itcelF? Death il an attachiDcnt, produced from the nalDral ignoruice of nan, H 
to the miterial world and to the sonl. Death ia therefore a bond, and the 
Knsei »d tbeir objecti bj which d«ath ia chancteriaed, are called chains and tbur 
enhancera, and it ia the object of thii Br£hnii;a to ghow the liberation from death, 
aa charaeteriaed b; the aeaiaal cbaini and tbeir enbancEia, the fenaaBl objects. S*. 

t The aon of Rituhh^ga. 

{ The termaintheteit are "graba"and " ati-graha,"graha, b; which aonething 
iaieiied and atigraba, which aids in thsseiziue,b; whieb IheaeinrebecMiea stronger. 

i The Tital air that goea fornarda is here tha sense of amell, from its oonnexiun 
with the preient topic. S'. 

II The vital air tbat goes downward! it hen ttie aecsatlOD of imeU, S'. 



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ZJM C^ter. SUrd SrdhmaM. 193 

raxiUaiy ; for by the ikia the varioiu kinds of tOQch become 
knovQ. These are the eight fetten and the eight auxiliaries." 

Ue swd, — " Y&joaralkyR, all this is the food of death. Whioh 
then is the deity whose food is death (himself) ?" (He repli' 
ed),— " Fire verily is death ; the same is the food of the water ; 
(thereby) death again is conquered." 10. 

He said, — " Y&jiiBTalkya, when this spirit (Parusha) dies, do 
then the organs* ascend from him ?"t Y&jnavalkya said ; — 
" No, by no means, no, by no meaas ; thereit muted they are 
dissolved in him ;§ he becomes swollen, he becomes fall oi 
wind, when blown npon: the dead Bleep."|| II. 

He said, — "^Y&jnaralkya, when this spirit dies, then what 
does not leave him i" (He replied),—" The name. The nuoe 
indeed is infinite, Infinite are the YisT^^nu; he conquers 
thereby the world of the infinite." 13. 

He B«id, — " YfijnaTalkya,T — when the speech* of the spirit 
departed is dissolved into fire, the vital air into the wind, the 
eye into the sun, the mind into the moon, the ear into the quar< 
ters, the body into earth, the sonlt into the ether, the hairs of 
the body into annnal herbs, the hairs of the head into trees> 
blood and semen into the waters, where then does this spirit re- 
main ?"— (He replied),—" Take, O gentle dJrtabhAga, my band, 
(and let us go to a lonely place, there) we shall know (the 

♦ Tlie fctteri (boie mcDtioncd, u ipoecb, Md their sniilUriei »ra tbe InpTM- 
•iani of Kordi, eW^ 

f From bini •bo kfto'i Brthmi. 

X In him who know! Dnihmi. 

( In tha iapreme Bohma i they bccoma of Cha wine nitnrB with him. 

II Thai* IB DO Mtaat dMth i when tha bondi tte deitioytd. tha libartlaEl doat 
not proceed vrj where. 

f In 10 and 11, the itsta, «h!eh it obtained hj the Ubereted, hti been mam- 
tioned. What then doea baooma after death of him «h» it not Ubarated i The 
aniwec la giTvi in tba preaaat uction. 

* B7 ipeeok, the Tital aire, ele, aoeording to S*. tha tntsUrj dtltiet are here to 
be Diidtnttood, and not the organi, beeuua thej da aoC depart. 

t The sool (itnu) matni here the place of the loni, the elbtr of tha beirt. 
2 



:ecb>G00glc 



antver of) tluB qoestion ; thii oai (queBtion) cannot be (decided) 
in a crowded place." — Going there they deliberated. What 
they said there, waa work,* what they praised there, was work. 
By holy work verily a person hecomes holy, onholy by nn- 
holy." Hence ^tabh&ga from the family of Jaratkdra became 
•ilent. 18. 

Third Srdhmana.f 

Then uked him Bhajya, the son of Lahya, — " Y&jnar&Ikya," 
aud he, " wandering (once) in the country of the Madras for tha 
sake of ttndying the V^das, we came to the house of Fatanchala 
of the family of Eapi. His daughter was possessed by a Gan- 
dharTa-t We asked him, — • Who art thou }' He answered, — ' I 
am Sndhanvat, of the family of Angirasa,' When asking him 
about the boondaries of the world, we said to him, — ' Where are 
the Firikshitas 1 where are the Ffirikshitas ?' I (now) ask thee, 
O Y&jnavslkya, where are the F&rikshitas?" 1. 

He (Yfgnavalkya) said, — "Verily he (the Gandharra), said, — 
They (the F&riikhitas) went where the performers of the Asva- 
m&lha-sacrifice go." "Where then go the performers of the 
Asram^ha-sacrifico ?" " This world§ extends to thirty-two days 
(of the journey) of the car of the sun; the earth extends twice as 

* Voric u Uw URterUI ciuie of man »gva aiiuining b bodj, etc. 
t TUi Br&hoiiQa, Bcoording to S'., ii to abow, that th« ritu haia onlj 
woriaij dTecti, ud that abiolata liberatioa U thereb; impoisible. Tbi bigbeit 
MDODS all litai li ths performance of ths harse-iacrifioe, in its denbla farm, 
either u aa aotul taerifice, aocomiiRnied with knawledge, or a* a B}mboliaBl 
lacriGce bj mental repreMutalion. The cfiect reinlting from ths hone-gacriGoc ii, 
cither indliidnal, lii. ths obtaining of the natnre of Gra asd other dcitiei, or miinr. 
•at, ai icferring to the deitf of Iha nniterM, via. the obtaining of the natoie of Ui- 
TBQjagarbha, the firat-boni, thit is to atf, b; neither of thoK etFectaabjolnte libera. 
tioQ from the irorld, or idantitjr with Bnhmt it obtained. 

t A being of laperhomaTi power. By iijing, that he bat bii knowledge from 
■nob a bring, Bhujye meant to aaiert, that hit knowledge moat bo iDperior to that 
otTlqaBTalkya, u not derived from tneha lonroe. S'. 

% Thlt world it, according to S'. the tpaee, eaologed bj tbe monnteina of the 
riaing and the Httlng iim. 



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Third Ciu^Ur. HmrlA Srdhmana. 19S 

t»r everywhete ; the ocean exteada twice as Car as the earth 
everywhere. There* as far as the edge of a razor, or the wing 
of a fly (extends), bo far extends the ether in the midst. Indni,t 
in the shape of a fitlcon surrendered them (the P^irikshitas), to 
the wind ; the wind plaeing them upon himself:^ carried them 
there, where the performers of the As vam^dha- sacrifice abide. 
In this manner he (the Gandharra) praised the wind ; there- 
fore the wind is indeed the individuality, the wind the totality. 
Whoever thus knows, conquers the second death." Hence 
Bhujya, the son of Lahya, became silent. 2. 

Fourth Brdbmana. 
Then asked§ him XTshaata, the son of Chakra, — "Y^naval- 
kya," said he, "do explain to me that Brahma who is a witness 
and present,!! that soul, which is within every (being)." (He re- 
plied), — " It is thy soul which is within every (being)." "Which 
Boul is within every one,0 Y&jnavalkya ?" " That which breathes 

* There, iccording to S'.'i eipliDttion, meiu it the ipartar* of the two halm 
of tbe mand*ae egg. To thii and of the world Indj > road of the Icntth, abora 
deactibed, sod throngb the aperture, which U the ether, the performen of the honc- 
nerifice go, to be anited with the wind that annoaodi it. 
t Parem^a'Ten. S'. 
I Making them like himaelf. 

i The connexioa betweea the preaent qneation and the two preeedbig oaea U 
thus dated b; S'. It haa been declared that, aaiied by the fettera and their luii- 
liiriee. tii. the aeaaea and their objecta, which ais produced by Tlrtae and «iee, 
man roami about in the world, Bgiin and again shakmg off thois fettera, and again 
and again aaauming them. The higheat eleTation to be gained by Tirlne haa alao 
been explained, that ii to aay, the acquirement of the aame nalare with tlie tWO-fold 
nature of Hiragj agarbha, lii. with hia nature ai totality or with hia nature as 
aeparated within indiiidail exiateneea. The preaent qneation ii to enqaite, whether 
he who, aeized by the aenaea and their objecti, aiaumea one body after the other, 
eiiata or not, and if he eiitU, what ia hia nature, that ia to aay it abowa, bow to 
diatingniah the aonl from every other thing u the iadiapenaable meina of liberation ; 
for the nature of the aoul being comprehended, liberation enaoea from the aboia 
deacribed bondage. 

I! Witneaa and preaent, the first, according to S'. meana "notobttmetedbyanj 
thing," and the second " without attributes." 



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lOS SriktutAramfola'VJMmAad. 

by tbe bretttli, is thy wol* wimh « within erery (b«Bg) j that 
which deacends by the descendisg air, ia thy booI which ia withia 
every (being) ; that which goea everywhere by the air going every> 
where, in thy aoul which ia within every (being) ; that wliidi 
aacenda by the aaoending air, is the aoal whioh ia withia ewerj 
(bnng) ; thia thy aonl ia within every (b«Dg)." I. 

ITshaata, the aoD <rf' Chahra, aaid, — " Aa aome one may 
aay : This ia a cow, this is a horae, thus ia thia (Brahma) 
deacribed by thee.| Do (now) explain to me that Brahma 
who is a witness and preaent, that aonl whieh ia within ev^y 
(being)." "It ia thy aonl which ia within every (being)." 
"Which aonl ia within every (being), Y&jnavalkya ?" "Thou 
couldat^ not behold the beholder of the beholding ; thou couldst 
not bear the hearer of the hearing ; thou couldst not mind the 
minder of the minding ; thou couldst not know the knower of 
the knowing. Thia thy soul ia within every (being) ; every 
thing different from it, is transient." Hence Ushasta, the aon 
of Chakra, became silent. 2. 

F^h Brdkmana. 

Then asked him Kahola, the aon of Euahitaka, — " Yfijnaval- 
kya," aaid he, " do explain to me that Brahma, who ia a witneas 

* Tht lonl, wboH tMtare la knovhd^. S'. 

f To ihow BrahmK b; inch ligni ■■ reaplratioiii etc. !■ tba MUe, «■ if lone bodf 
who enfigsi to de6i]e ■ cow, eta. deSnea It nwnlf bj ilgna, ujiiig for ioituicB, 
the inlmil whieh goet tbare U ■ oow i thkt b to uj, thf de&nitioD it tn impropd' 

X TtjiMTalkra decUoH to gtre ■ deftnltioa of Bnhiu bi tbe wa;, u it is gim 
of ■ jar, etc. And h<i reiaon for deeHning it, ii that anch ■ deftaitioii is contn- 
dietorj to the nature of Brahma. For the nature of ^ahaaa conaiHti to the 
agency deKribed w beholding, etc. The eoul ii tbe iMboliler of tbe beholding. 
Tbe beholding, hearing, knowing, ete. It therefora twofuld, the common one and that 
to which it in realitj appliea. Tbe common hehaldiag, etc. ii a modification of tfas 
internal organ hj meant of ita connexion with the eje, etc. Tbia la ■□ effect, aid 
haa tliarafbra a commencement and an end ; bnt the beholding, etc. of the lool, the 
Wholdlng «t the bobolding, haa, b; it* own Batare, no Ixginaing a»d no ead. 



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OTtW Chapier. I^h Srdimana. 197 

mi prewnt, tint soul, which it ia within every (beiag)."* (He 
replied), — "It ii thy bodI, which is within every (being)." 
"Which ia (the iool), O YfijaavalkyR, that is within every 
(being) ?" " (It is the soul) which conquers hunger, thirst, grief, 
deloaion, old age, (and) death. When Br&hma^as know this ' 
Bouljt then elevating themselves from the desire of obtaining a 
ton,j: from the desire of wealth, and from the desire of gaining 
the worlds, they lead the life of wandering mendicants ; for the 
desire of a son, is also the desire for wealth ; the desire for 
wealthy is also the desire for the worlds; for both are evea 
desires. Therefore knovring wisdom let the Br^bma^a arm 
himself with strength. II Knowing wisdom and streDgthlJ the 

* Iq tb« firft (brM firtbmaqti tba bondage of tha lonl together with iti 
CBiue bai been decltred. Ia the fourtli the eiistence of the bo boand loul and its 
iDdependeuce on CTcrj othec thing liu been wt forth. Tbe fifth Brihmei^i a to 
■how the knowledge of the loul in connexion with the renunciation oF the world ai 
tbe cause of the liberation of the loal ttora bondage. In thii and tbe preceding 
BrihmavBs the qamUoo, " Eiplain to ne that Bribma, etc." i* tbe *ame, and it 
night therefore be juatlf aiked, whether the two queiUont refer to one and the 
tamo aonl, or to two, tbe aapieme aod the indiiidnal loula. The latter cue appear* 
the correct one on the fiiet glance ; for if it ia one and Che aime aoal, the aecoad 
qneitioa leeni nieleii; on a cloaer conalde ration, howCTer, tbii view muit be 
abandoned ) for one and the aime wbole of caniea and eSecti ij poueiaed of lonl 
mecelj bj one aonl. The diSerenoe between the preaent and the preceding qoei' 
tieu ii thia, that in the latter the loul ii deMribed, ai far ai it hai eiiaCence and 
la independent of the bodf, while in the fornier tbe partionlar knowledge, in eon' 
neiioD witb the rcaunciation of Che world, ia deacribed, bf which the liberation 
from that bondage takea plaee. S'. 

t Kdow the aoal, Chat la to aaj, their own ecal aa the aupremC Brahma. 

t The ttealre of being anited with a nih for the pnrpoae of obtainlog a ion, by 
whom thef were able to conqner tbe world. 3'. 

{ Wealth ii twofold, baman and dirine wealth. Human wealth inpplies tbe 
meana to perform ritei ; hj tbeie Hteai If unaccompanied with knowledge, tlie world 
of the forefathera ia gained. Diiine wealth la knowledge ; by ritei, connected 
therewith, the world of lbs goda ia gained, and tbe aame alio bj mere knowledge. 
From tbli knowledge alao an eleiation li neceaairj to obtain perfect liberation (tout 
the world ; for in reality that knowledge la IgDOrance. S'. 

I Wiadom, Faij^itjani, the knowledge of Brahma, itrecigtb, aacb aa reenlti from 
tbe knowledge of Brahma. 

t The thinker, Hani, ezplaincd bf S', uananat Monl, that ia « Tosi. 



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198 Brikad Ara^gaha Upanithad. 

thinker,* knowing the thinking and the not thinking of Brahma, 
vill become a (true) Brfihrnann." " By what (work) will the 
Br^ma^a lire ?" " Hewill remain such an one by any (work).t 
Any (state) different from this (state of a Brfihrnaa) is perisha- 
' ble," Then Kahola, the son of Kushitaka, became silent. 1. 

Sixth Brahma^. 
Then askedj him Gargi, the daughter of Vachakna, — " YSj- 
navalkya," said she, " all this (earth) is woven and rewoven on 
the waters ;§ upon what then are the waters woven and re- 
woven?" (He replied), — "On the wind,|| Gargi." "On what 
then is woven and rewoven the wind ?" " On the worlda of the 
atmosphere,^ G&rgi." " On what then are woven and rewoven 
the worlds of the atmosphere?" "On the worlds of the 
Gandharvas, O G&rgi," " On what then are woven and re- 
woven the worlds of the Gandharvas ?" " On the worlds of 
^ditya, Oirgi." " On what then are woven and rewoven 
the worlds of i^tya?" "On the worlds of the moon, O 
Gix^" " On what then are woven and rewoven the worlds 
of the moon?" " On the worlds of the stars, O G&rgi." "Oa 

* Not UuDking and thinkii^, thai I btve traatlated litenllj, different from S'.'c 
expluutioo, who eipUiii* " AmmDun," the knowlcdgs of toul ind the remoT' 
ing » belief of DOD-ioal, uid " Munun the altiniiite iflect from remoTiog e belief 
in tha non-aonl. 

t Tba HDM il, far him wlio hai scqaired tha trae kaovladfa of Brahma, eiar; 
nork il iadifferent ) be U iboie work. 

X Id the lut two Br&bmai^ it haa baen deolarad, that the aonl ia irithiu all ; 
the next three Brahmti^u are to give a mora ezsot defiaition of thia. A. G. 

{ This is the cue, becaiue the earth e<arj vhere from vithaut and wittia it 
l>eriraded bjr the water; otberwiie it would be acacterred erery where like ■ hand- 
ful of iiounded rice. Here appliet tbii argomeDt, all that ia an effect, that is finite 
■Dd grOHi il pecTidrd bf iomelhing, which ia a cioie, which ia infinite and aab- 
tiie ; and (hi* commencca from the fire elcmeata up to tha loal. S'. 

U Inilead of " on tba wind," the answer " on tbafira" ibould be hare eipected; 
but iBjB S'. the fire haa no eiiitence of ita own, independent of water and earth, 
and i> therefore not mentioned leparately. 

\ The worlda of the atmoiphere are composed of the live elemenCi. S'. 



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!PJard Ckvpter. Seeenti BrShmana. 199 

what then are the vorlda of the Btara woven and rewoven?" 
" On the worlds of the gods, O G&rgi." " On what then are 
woven and rewoven the worlds of the gods ?" " On the worlds 
of Indra, O Gfirgi." " On what then are woven and rewoven 
the worlds of Indra?" "On the worlds of Prajapati, O Girgi." 
" On what then are woven and rewoven the worlds of Praj^pati ?" 
" On the worlds of Brahma, O G4rgi." " On what then are 
woven and rewoven the worlds of Brahma." " G&rgi," said he, 
"do not ask an improper question,* in order that thy head may 
not drop down. Thou askest the deity which is not to be ques- 
tioned. Do not question, O O&rgi." Thence Giirgi, the daugh- 
ter of Vachaknu, became silent. 1. 

Seventh Brdhmat^a. 

Then asked himt Udd&laka, the son of Aruna, — " Ylijna- 
valkya," said he, " in the country of the Madras we abode in 
the house of Fatanchala of the family of Kapi for the sake of 
stndying the science of offering. His wife was possessed by a 
Gandharva. We asked him (the Qandharva), ' Who art thou ?' 
He said, ' Kabandha, the son of Atharvana.' He said to Pataa- 
chala, of the family of Kapi, and to (us) piiests, ' K&pya, 
knowest thou that Thread by which this world, and the other 
world and all beingsj: are hound together V Fatanchala, of the 
family of Kapi, said, — ' I do not know it, O Veaerable.' He 
said to Fatanchala, ofthefamily of Kapi, and to (us) priests §, — ■ 
' Knowest thou, O K&pya, that inner Kuler who within rules 
this world and the other world, and all beings ?' Fatan- 
chala, of the family of Kapi, said, ' I do not know (this), O 
Venerable.' He said to Fatanchala, of the family of Kapi, and 
to (us) priests, ' O Kfipya, whoever knows the Thread and the 

* Do not lak in imprapsr qaeillon, becioae it cauDOt be decided bir argumeot, 
but onlf by the SibtrB. S'. 
i* Patuiobala'f pnpili. 

X From Brabmi downward) to ininimale matter, S'. 
I Patanchak'i pnpili. 



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SOO SriJMAra^^a Upamthad. 

Inner Bnler, knova Brahma, knowa the worlds, knows the 
goda, knowa the Y^daSj knows the elementa,* knows the son], 
knows all/ (Then the GandharTa] aaid (all about the Thread 
and the Inner Baler) to them. Therefore do I know this. If 
thon, O Y&jnaTalkja, ignorant of the Thread and the Inner 
Baler, baat taken away the Brahma cowa,t thy head will 
certainly drop'down." " I know verily, Gantama, the Thread 
and the Inner Bnler." " Any one may say this, I know, I 
know; but tell the manner, in which thou kaoweat." 1. 

He aaid, — " The wind, O Gautama, is the Thread ; by the 
wind as by a thread are thia world, the other world, all beings 
bound together, O Gautama.. Therefore, O Gautama, it ig 
aaid of a dead man, that his membera are relaxed ; for by the 
wind, O Gautama, as by a thread, they are bound together." 
" Thia ia ao, O Yijaavalkya, (now) explain the Inner Raler."2. 

" He who dwelling in the earth is within the earth, whom 
the earth doea not know,} whose body ia the earth, who witlua 
roles the earth, is thy aoul, the Inner Ruler, immortal. 3. 

" He who dwelling in the waters is within the waters, whom 
the waters do not know, whose body are the waters, who within 
rules the waters, is thy soul, the Inner Buler, immortal, 4. 

" He who dwelling in the fire is within the fire, whom the 
fire does not know, whose body is the fire, who within rules 
the fire, ia thy aoul, the Inner Buler, immortal. 5. 

" He who dwelling in the atmosphere is within the atmos- 
phere, whom the atmosphere doea not know, whose body is the 
atmosphere, who within rules the atmosphere, is thy soul,, the 
Inner Buler, immortal. 6. 

" He who dwelling in the wind is within the wind, whom the 
wind does not know, whose body ia the wind, who within rules 
the wind, is thy aoul, the Inner Buler, immortal. 7. 

" He who dwelling in the hearens is within the heavene, whom 

* Or the bcinga. 

t The cowa deatioed (or tbe beat knower of Brihiut. 

X The deit; of the euth. 



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Third Chapter. Seventh BrMmma. 201 

the hearens do not know, vhoae body are the heiiTeas, who 
from within rules the heavens, is thy soul, the Inner Baler, 
immortal. 8. 

He who dwelling in the sun, is witbia the sun, whom the 
Bun does not know, whose body is the snn, who from witfata 
rales the sun, is thy soul, the iQoer Buler, immortal. 

He who dwelling in the qaartera, is within the quartan, 
whom the quarters do not know, whose body are the quarters, 
nho from within rules the quarters, is thy soul, the Inner 
Ruler, immortal. 10. 

He who dwelling in the moon and stars, ia within the moon 
and stars, whom the moon and stars do not know, whose 
body are the moon nnd stars, who from within rules the moon 
and stars, is thy soul, the Inner Buler, immortal. IL. 

He who dwelling in the ether, is within the ether, whom the 
ether does not know, whose body is the ether, who &om within 
rules the ether, is thy sool, the Inner Ruler, immortal. 12. 

He who dwelling iu the darkness, is within the darkness, 
whom the darkness does not know, whose body ii the dark- 
ness, who from within rules the darkness, is thy soul, the 
Inner Buler, immortal. 13. 

He who dwelling in the light, is within the light, whom the 
light does not know, whose body is the light, who from within 
rules the light, is thy soul, the Inner Buler, immortal. 

This is (his) relation to the goda. Next of (his) relation to 
the elements. 14. 

He who dwelling in all elements, is within the elements, 
whom the elements do not know, whose body are the elements, 
who from within rules the elements, ia thy soul, the Inner 
Ruler, immortal. This is (his) relation to the elements. Neit 
of (his) relation to the soul. 15. 

He who dwelling iu the vital air,* is within the vital air, 
whom the vital air does npt know, whose body is the vital ur, 



' Id Bmtll, Bcconi|iuiied bj tbc ur ol rcij>italioD. 6'. 
2 D 



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202 Srihad Aranyaka Upanithad. 

■who from within roles the vital air, is thy soul, the Inner 
Knler, immortal. 16, 

He nho dwelling in speech, ia within speech, whom speech 
does not know, whose body is speeeh, who from within rules 
speech, is thy sonl, the Inner Ruler, immortal. 17. 

He who dwelling in the eye, is within the eye, whom the eye 
does not know, whose body is the eye, who from within rules 
the eye, is thy soul, the loner Ruler, immortal. 18. 

He who dwelling in the ear, is within the ear, whom the 
ear does not know, whose body is the ear, who from within 
rules the ear, is thy sonl, the Inner Ruler, immortal. 19. 

He who dwelling in the mind, is within the mind, whom 
the mind does not know, whose body is the mind, who 
from within rules the mind, is thy soul, the Inner Ruter, 
immortal. SO. 

He who dwelling in the skin, is within the skin, whom the 
skin does not know, whose body is the skin, who from within 
rules the skin, is thy soul, the Inner Ruler, immortal. 21. 

He who dwelling in knowledge, is within knowledge, whom 
knowledge does not know, whose body is knowledge, who 
from within rules knowledge, is thy soul, the Inner Ruler, 
immortal. 22. 

He who dwelling in the seed,* is within the seed, whom the 
seed does not know, whose body is the seed, who from within 
rules the seed, is thy soul, the Inner Ruler, immortal. 
Unseen he sees, unheard he hears, uuminded he minds, un- 
known he knows. There is none that sees, but he, there 
is none that hears, but he, there is none that minds, but 
he, there is none that knows, but he.f He is thy soul, the 
Inner Ruler, immortal. Whatever is different from him, 
is perishable." Hence UddSlaka, the son of Aruna, became 
silent. 23. 

* In procrHtion. S'. 

t Vid. Br. ^.3, 4, 2, Prat'nB U. 419, Rcd Kalfa* U. fi, 12, Mn^d 3, 8, 
Taiit. 2, t, T>Ut. V. 1.3. 



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Third Chapter. Eighth ^rdhmana. 203 

Eighth Brdhmana. 

Then* the daughter ofVachaknu said, — " O venerable Brfih- 
mans, I wish to ask him (further) two questions. If he 
EQswerB them, then indeed none of you will erer defeat him 
in argument concerning Brahma." (They replied), — "Ask 
(him), OGargi." 1. 

She said, — " As the king of the K£s'i» or of the Vid^has, the 
offspring of heroes, when he has bound the string to the string- 
less bow, rises in sight with two foe-piercing arrows in his hand, 
so I will rise before thee with two questions. Do thou make 
answer to me." — "Ask, O G^rgi." 2. 

She said, — " What is above the heavens, O Yfijnavalkya, what 
is beneath the earth, what is between, and what ift these two, 
heavens and earth, and what is called the past, the present and 
the future, — upon what is all this woven and rewoveu?" 3. 

He Bind, — " What is above the heavens, O Girgi, what is 
beneath the earth, what is between, and is these two, heavens 
and earth, and what is called the past, the present, and the 
future, — all this ibwoven and rewoven on the ether." 4. 

She said, — " I bow to thee, O Y^jnavalkya, who hast explain- 
ed this (question) to me ; be prepared fur the other." " Ask, 
Gfirgi." 5. 

She E»ld, — " What is above the heavens, what is beneath the 
earth, what is between, and what is these two, heavens and 
earth, and what is called past, present, and future, — upon 
what is all this woven and rewoven ?"t 6. 

He said, — "What is above the heavens, O Gfirgi, what is 
beneath the earth, what is between, and what is these two, 
heavens and earth, and what is called past, present, and 
future — is woven and rewoven on the ether." " Upon what 
then is the ether woven and rewoven ?" 7. 

* Tbii BilibmB^H ii to sUow ihc preaent, Tulble Br«hma u inilepeDdent of any 
attcibateB. S'. 

t The lecund qncition, wfaich is [lie luue iritb the first, ii inteoded .tirmly Ca 
citiibliBb the truth declared before. S.' 
2 D 2 



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2M Brikai Araiuimka VpamMmd. 

He said, — " It is called hj the Brfihroans* the iudeatracti- 
ble one, O G&rgi. (This) is not of a grots body, it ia not 
mbtile, not long, not wide, not red,t not viscidjt not 
shadow, not darkness, not sir, not ether, not adfaenve,§ 
not taste, not smetl, not eye, not ear, not speech, not mind, 
not light, not life, not entraDce,l| not measure, not within, not 
without. It does not conanme any thing, nor does any one 
consume it.^ 8, 

"By the command of this indestmctible (being), O Gir^, 
sun and moon stay upheld in their places,** by the command 
of this indestructible (being), O G&rgi, hearena and earth stay 
upheld in their places ; by the command of this indestructible 
(being), O O&rgi, minutes, hours, days and nights, the half 
moutha, the months, the seasons, the years stay upheld in their 
places; by the eommand of this indestructible (being), O 
Gfii^, the eastern riversft flow from the snowy mountains (to 
the eastern quarter), the westem^^ to the western quarter, and 
the others to the quarters, (ordained for them). By the com- 
mand of this indestructible (being), O G^Fgi, men praise the 
girer, gods follow the sacrificer, (aod) fore-fathers the ob- 
lation. 9. 

"Whoever, ignorant of this indestmctible (being), O Gfirgi, 
in this world performs offerings, adores the gods (and) practises 
ansterities even many thousands of years, consumes at last the 
(firuit of his works). Whoever, ignorant of this indestructible 
(being), O GSrgi, departs from this world, becomes a miser^^ 
Kgiun ; whoever, knowing this indestmctible (being), O G&rgi, 
departs from this world, is a (true) Brihmau. 10. 

* The Brthm*;! ire here inch M know BnhiiiK. S*. 

t PrwiaU. <,9. Mii?^ I, S. 

J Liks fire. S'. ( Like w.ter. S', || Like Iso. S'. 

5 Not entrtDCe, to whom there ii no eotrmQCe, anspproichibie. 

■• A)l tbeie Degatliea are to ciUbtuh the eomictioD, tbtt Brahma hu do attrl- 
hmtei. Tide. Vij S. U. 8. Ka(h> U. 3, 19. Mo^^ 1, 6. 

tt K*tIiB U. 6, 2. Taitt. U. 2, S. ft Tke Gangt, etc. tt Tlie SindhB, ate. S'. 

\\ Store* np the efecti from varkt, lik« a miaer riches. 



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T^rd Cit^Ur. Jftnih Srdknuma. 20S 

" This indestructible (being), O GitPgi, although aoseen sees, 
uaheard hears, nnminded minds, unknown knows. There is 
none that sees, but he, there is none that bears, but he, 
there is none that minds but he, there is none that knows, 
bat he.* On this indestructible (being), O G&rgi, the ether is 
verily woven and rewoven." 11. 

She said, — " O venerable BrSbma^s, highly respect this 
(my word) and acquit yourself towards him (Y&jnavalkya) with 
salutation. None among you will ever become his conqueror in 
argument concerning Brahma." Hence the daughter of Vacha- 
knu became silent. 12. 

Nmth Brdhma^a. 

Then askedthim Vidagdha, the son of S'akala, — "How many 
gods are there, O Tfijnavalkya?" He (answered), — " This can 
be learnt from the Nivit ;^ as many (gods) as are mentioned in 
the Nivit of theVais'vadeva (Saatra), (so many are there), (viz.) 
three and three hundred, and three and three thousand 
(3,306)."§ He siud, — " Om ! How manygods are there,0 Yijna- 
Talkya ?" " Thirty-three." — He said, — " Om ! How many gods 
are there?" He said,— "Six," Hesaid, — "Om! Howmanygods 
are there, O Yijnavalkya ?" " Three." He said, — " Om ! How 
many gods are there, O Yijnavalkya ?" "Two." He said, — 

* Fru'DR. i, 8. H4. TiIaTlktn U. 1. 4—8. 

t Afler it tu> becD itated, thit tLe earth, tbe other elements, etc., b; their 
loccesBiTelj more and mare aabtita ofttnre ere, one to another, in the itate irhich 
has been called " wotea and rewoTen," Brahma b« been declared to be vitbla HI. 
(Br£hm. 4.6.) It faai been farther itated, that Brahma bu the attilbute of 
" Baler" in the dirialaiu of the tbread which peiTade the whole manifetted world, 
for >11 that ia manifeited reqairea, to be nnderatood, the Rnter ta iti canae. The 
|>reient Brihinii^i nDdertakei now to abow, how the namre of Brahma ai a wit- 
neM, and aapmenti eta beeomprehendsd b; the mazimam and minimmn nnmberi 
oF the godi. S'. 

} The title ofaaet ofMantrai, deRnias the namber of deitiei. S". 

i llila is no doabt the imonnt of the number of the. text, according to the ei- 
planation of S'ankin ; the number given in the Tikt 3.330, ia probabl; owing to 
the mia.apprebention ofs eopyiit who added " ttint'at" (36.) 



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206 Brihad AranyaJea Upantthad. 

" Ota I How many godi are tbera, O Y&joavalkjra i" " Adhy> 
ardha."* He said, — " Om I How qihdt gods are there, O Y&j- 
naTalkya f " " One." He said, — " Om I Which are these three 
and three hundred, and three and three tfaoaaand." 1. 

He wid, — " This is even for their el<"T J there are (in rea- 
lity) thirty-three gods." " Which are those thirty-three ?" 
"Eight Vasas, eleven Budras, twelve ^dityas. These are 
thirty-one ; besides Indra and Frsj&pati. These are thirty- 
three." 2. 

" Which are the Vasus !" " The fire, the earth, the wind, the 
atmosphere, the san, the heavens, the moon, and the stars. 
These are the Vasus, for upon them this all is founded ; this 
means Vasu, therefore they are called Vasus." 3. 

"Which are the Rudras?" "The ten organs (Pr^ah) in 
man, and the soul as the eleventh. When they leave this 
body after death, they weep. Therefore, because they weep 
(Rodayanti), they are called Budras." 4. 

" Which are the Adityas ?" " The twelve months of the 
year are the ^dityaa j for taking all thisf they pass. Because 
taking all this they pass [&dad&uli yanti), therefore they are 
called Adityas." 6. 

" Who is Indra, who is Frajipati ?" " The cloud is Indra, 
the sacrifice is Fraj&pati." " Which is the cloud ?" " The 
lightning." " Which is the sacrifice ?" " The animals." 6. 

" Which are the six ?" " The fire (Agni), the earth, the wind, 
the atmosphere, the suu and the heavens;]: for they are' six; 
for this all is six." 7. 

" Which are the three gods ?" " The three worlds,^ for within 

* Adbjardha, which Ii mare thin htlf, bilf of two woald ba oae ) to diiUngntsb 
it from the dciI, tbii term kppF&ri la hare been chosen ; see the eipluutioD, 

t All this, the ige of man and the fmit, deriied from worlcs. S*. 
t Id this number the maoD and the stars are omitted. 

i Earth and fire togetber are here coDsidered ai ooe (od, the almospberc Rod Ibe 
wind Bl the aecond, and tbeheaieol and iLilitys (the tun) M the third god. iC.fi. 



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lUrd Chapter. Jfinth BrdJtmana. 207 

them all those gods are (comprehended)." "Which are the two 
gods ?" " Pood and life." " Which is the Adhyardha ?" " He 
who purifies."* 8. 

" Here it is objected, — He who purifies, is one eveo ; how 
then is he Adhyardha }"-f " Because all obtains increase in 
him,:t therefore is he Adhyardha." " Which is the oue god }" 
*' Life ; this is called Brahma, this what is beyond."^ 9. 

" Whoever knows that spirit (Puruaha), whose abode is the 
earth, whose place (of sight) || is the fire, whose light is the 
mind, — as the highest locality of every soul, is in truth the one 
who knows." " I know indeed, O Yijnavalkya, that spirit, the 
highest locality of every soul, of whom thou speakest. He is 
the spirit who abides ia the body." " Say, O Sikalya, which 
is the deity of the same 7" He said, " Immortality." 10. 

" Whoever knows that spirit, whose abode is desire, whose 
place (of sight) is the heart,^ whose light is the miod, as the 
highest locality of every soul, is in truth one who knows." " I 
know indeed, O Yajaavalkya, that spirit, the highest locality 
of every soul, of whom thou speakest. He is the spirit, whose 
nature is desire." " Say, S&kalya, which ia the deity of the 
same?" He said, — "Women." 11. 

" Whoever knows that spirit whose abode are colours, whose- 
place (of sight) is the eye, whose light is the mind, as the 
highest locality of every soul, is in truth one who kaows." " I 
know indeed, O Ydjnavalkya, that spirit, the highest locality 
of the whole soul, of whom thou speakest. He is the spirit in 
the sun." " Say, O Sfikalya, which is the deity of the same ?" 
He said,—" Truth." 12. 

* The wind. f Th« objection icemi to be made from the lltanl mtaning 
of Adhjwdbk, wbicb U " halt." 

i Adbj&rdhnotadhi ridhim pripnott. 

i Tid. 2, 3, I. 

II Place (ofilgbt) lakah, lokajati ttneneti. S'. 

f The heart, JDtelleot. S'. 

"^ Adijui* yknt). 



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908 Srihad Aranyaka Upanithad. 

"Whoeverknowsthftt spirit, whose abode is the ether, whose 
place (of sight) is the ear, whose light is the mind, — as the 
locality of the whole soul, is iu truth ooe who knows." " I know, 
O Y^jnavalkya, the spirit, the locality of the whole soul, of 
whom thou speskest. He is the spirit who abides in the ear, 
to whom all hearing is subject." " Say, O S&kalya, which is 
the deity of the same?" He said, — "The quarters." 13. 

""Whoever knows the spirit, whose abode is darkness, whose 
place (of sight) is the heart, whose light is the mind, — as the 
highest locality of the whole soul, is in tmth one who knows." 
"I know indeed, O Yijnavalkya, the spirit, who is the highest 
locality of the whole soul, of whom thou speakest. He ia the 
spirit, whose nature is shadow." " Say, O S&kalya, which is 
the deity of the same?" He said, — "Death." 14. 

"Whoever knows the spirit, whose abode are the colours, 
whose place (of sight) is the eye, whose light the mind, — as the 
highest locality of the whole soul, is in truth one who knows." 
"I know, O Yajnavalkya, the spirit, who is the highest 1ocr> 
lity of the whole soul, of whom thou speakest. He is the spirit 
who abides in the looking-glass." " Say, S&k&lya, which 
is the deity of the same f " He said, — " The breath." 1 5, 

" Whoever knows the spirit, whose abode are the waters, 
whose place (of sight) is the heart, whose light the mind, as 
the locality of the whole soul, is in tmth one who knows." " I 
know, Y&jnavalkya, the spirit, who is the highest locality of 
the whole soul, of whom thou speakest. He is the spirit who 
abides in the waters." " Say, O S&kalya, which is the deity 
of the same ?" He said, — " Varuna." 16. 

" Whoever knows the spirit, whose abode is in the semen, 
whose place of sight is the heart, whose light is the mind, as the 
highest locality of the whole soul, is in truth one who knows." 
" I know indeed, O Yiijnavalkya, that spirit, as the highest 
locality of the whole soul, of whom thou speakest. He is the 
spirit who abides in the sun." " Tell, O SSkalya, which is the 
deity of the same ?" He said, — "Prajipati." 17. 



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Third ClKipter. SiMih BramoMa. 209 

Y&jnftTKlkya said, — " O S'&kalya, these Br&hmapB have made 
thee cinders." 18. 

S'fikalya said, — O Y^jnavalkya, (does thia tby boast), that 
thou hast defeated these Kara and Fanchala Brfihma^s ia ar- 
gument, (arise from a conceit that) thon knovest Brahma ?" 
" I know the quarters with their deities and their localities." 
" If thou dost know the quarters with their deities and 
localities — 19. 

Which deity art thou in the eastern quarter ?" " The sun ." 
"Where is tho sun located?" "In the eye." "Where has the 
eye its locality ?" " In colours ; for by the eye colours are 
seen." "Where is the locality of colours?" Hesaid, — "lathe 
heart ; for colours are produced by the heart ; the heart there< 
fore is the locality of colour." " Thus is it, Yfijoavalkya. 20. 

Which deity art thou in the southera quarter?" "The 
deity of Yama." "Where is the locality of Yama?" "In 
aacrifice." " Where is the locality of the sacrifice ?" " la the 
bestowal of gifts."* "Where is bestowiag of gifts?" "In 
&itb ; for if a man have faith, he gives gifts; faith therefore' 
is the locality of bestowal of gifts." " Where is the locality of 
faith ?" " In the heart," said he ; " for by the heart he knows 
faith ; the heart therefore is the locality of faith." " Thus is 
it, O Yfijnavalkya. 21. 

Which deity art thou in the western quarter?" " The 
deity of Varana." " Where is the locality of Varana ?" " In 
the waters." " Where is the locality of the waters ?" " In 
the semen ?" " Where is the locality of the semen ?" " In the 
heart; for it is said of a son, who resembles (his father), he is 
dropped from (his) heart, as it were, he is made of (his) heart, 
as it were ; the heart therefore is the locality of the semen." 
"Thus is it, O Ylijnavalkya. 22. 

Which deity art thou in the uortbem quarter?" "The 
deity of Soma." " Where is the locality of Soma ?" " In the 



* To tha officiatlDg priiiti, from whom the iicrificct purahiMC the utcriSee. S'. 
2 s 



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210 Sriiad Aram/aka Vpanitiad. 

initiatory rite."* "Where is the locality of the iaitiatory rite?'' 
" In truth ; for we say concerning a person, who has perform- 
ed the initiatory rite, — speak the truth ; the heart therefore is 
the locality of the initiatory rite." " Where is the locality of 
truth ?" " In the heart," said he ; " for by the heart man knows 
truth} the heart therefore is the locality of truth." "Thns 
is it, O YijnavBlkya. 23. 

Which deity art thou in the polar quarter ?"t "The deity 
ofAgni." "Where is the loci^ity of Agni?" "In speech.*' 
" Where is the locality of speech ?" " la the heart." " Where 
k the locality of the heart?" 24i. 

Y&jnavalkya said, — " O Ahallika,| if thon believest at any 
time that the heart is in any other place tbut in our (body), 
if the same ia in any other place than in our (body), then 
why do the d(^8 not eat it, or the birds not tear it ?" 23. 
: " Where art thou and where is self§ located ?" " In 
"thcTital air that goea forwards." Where is the location 
" of the vital air that goes forwards }" In the descending 
air." " Where is the location of the descending air ?" " In 
the circulating air." "Where is the location of the cir- 
culating air ?" " In the ascending air." " Where is the 
location of the ascending air ?" "In the equalising air. This 
soul, which is neither this, nor that, nor aught else, is in- 
tangible; for it is not to be laid hold of; it is not to be dissipated, 
for it cannot be dissipated ; it is without contact, for it doea not 
come into contact ; it is not limited ; it ia not subject to pain, 
nor to destruction. — There are eight abodes, eight places (of 
ught), eight deities, and eight Purushas. Whoever understands 
those Furushaa in their division,|| and again in their nnion,^ 
has overcome (the world). I ask thee about the Pumaha in 
the Upanishada. And thou explain not him to me, thy head will 

* A rit« preiioui tQ the «acriGc«. Tbii nuij be 4I10 rendered, " la Ui« ioitii- 
tOTj Mantra," tbe Mantra nbich the sacrifice rreceivei prcTioaa to the laerieca. 

f The quarter nhich li sboie those who dwell oa the mounteia Mem. S'. 

X Aballika, ahani lljate, a being who disappears iatbe daf time, ■ ghoat. S'. 

i Atma meani here the bodj. S'. 

g Id their eiglit-fold division. S'. 

^ Aa tbe; are anited la tbe heart S'. 

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Third Ohi^pter. Ninth Brdhmaga. 211 

fall off." S'&kalfit knew him not, so his head fell off. More- 
over robbers took away his bones, mistakiag them for soma 
thing else.* 26. 

Then he said,—" O venerable Brahmai^, let any one among 
you who wishes it, question me, or do you so all together. Or 
I will question any one among you who desires it ; or I will 
qaeation you altogether." The Br&hmAnas dared not. 27. 

He questioned them by these Slokas, — "As the tree it 
identical with the lord of the forestjf so is the Parusha identical 
with trnth. ' His hair is the leaves, his skin the external bark. 
From hia skin blood flows, as sap from the bark ; therefore if 
he be hart, blood proceeds' from him, as sap from a wounded 
tree. The parts of flesh are the layers^ (of wood) ; the inner 
bark, is firm like the tendons. The bones are the inner 
layers of wood ; the pith is made like the marrow. If a tree be 
cut down, it aprings up anew from the root. From what root 
rises mortal (man), if cut down by death ? Do uot say, from the 
semen, because this is produced from the living. The tree 
springs (also) from seed ; after it has died away, it is visibly 
produced (again from seed). If the tree be destroyed together 
with its root,§ it does not spring up afresh. If then mortal 
(man) be cut down by death, from what root shall he spring 
ap ? He who has (once) been born, cannot be born (any more). 
Who (then) produces him afterwards again ?"|| 

It is Brahma, who is knowledge and bliss, the highest aim 
of the giver of wealth*f (as he is) of that one who abideth (in 
Him) andknowetb him.* 5. 

* While big body vu being carried tor the performance of the funeral ritei bf 
bis diiciplee to bia honae, S'. 

f " Tanupad," lard of the forest, ii aoather name far " tree." 

J Thii evidentif refers to the outer wood; layer or albaranm. 

S Or with ite «eed. S'. 

jl Here ia tbc end of tbe narratife. The Br£hma?> could not aniwer the quei- 
tian of YfjDiralkjt with reference to the lut cauae of the world, and therebj the 
mperioritj of bis knowledge wai eatabliahed. In the next lentence Che aoiwer ia 
gi<en by the S'rnti itaelf. S*. 

f Of him who perfarma ceremoniei, of the lacrificer. S'. 

* Of him, irho no longer practiiing ritea knowi Brahma in hit Crae iMtnra. Sf, 

2 a 2 

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Brihad Armtgaka UpanMad, 



FOURTH CHAPTER. 
Firal Brdhmana. 

Janaka,* the king of the Vid^has, sat (oa hU throne). 
Then came Yttjnaralkya. He said, — " Why hast thou come* 
O Yfijnavalkya? Is it seeking cattle, or snbtile (questions) ?" 
" Even both, O king of kings," said he. 1. 

"Let us hear, what any has taught thee." "Jitvi, the 
son of S'ilina taught me, speech is Brahma." " As one having 
an excellent mother, father and teacher, the son of S'ilina 
taught, speech is Brahma — for of what nse is a person who 
cannot speak ? He, no doubt, taught thee his (Brahma's) 
place and site."! " He did not teach me that Brahma is only 
one-footed,| O king of kings." "Then, O Y&jnavalkya, do 

* The conneiloa of the tiro next Brihrnsoat with the preceding chapter u thai 
eipUiaed b; S'ankarH,— It ha* been iCated, that the sight Puruahag (Vid. 3, 9, 10 
— 17), >re lepu-ited from each other, and again united in tbe heart ; that thia agaia 
•eparatsa into fire according to the diTiiion of the qaarten (I. c. IB — 24) ; again, 
that they , the heart and the bodj, in their mutual depeadeece are one, in the 
Sutra or Che aoul of the irorid, Ssm£na bj name, whoae nature ia preseot in 
the five vital aira (e. 1. 26) ; and lasilf, that the Patusha of the Upaoiihad snr- 
passes the aoul of the world or the Sutra and ia lo be defined by negationa, and at 
the same time (poiilive!;) ai the preient Brahma, and the aubstaatial eauie of all in 
the words ■' Knowledge and bliai, etc," (e. I. 28.) In the neit two Brihrna^aa 
it will be eiplained, in what manner this Brahma ma; again be comprehended bf 
the deities of speech, etc. Xnanda Giri eipresaea the connexion briefl; thua, — Is 
the former chapter the nature of Brahms, aa eiiitence, knowledge and bliaa, haa 
been defined after the manner of a wrangling diipnte, in the present It ia explained 
in a formal argument, 

t According to S'. place (£jatana) means body, and site (Pratiih^a) the MD- 
tinnal existence in the past, preaent end future times, where hod; seema to denote 
the transient, and site the permanent nature of Brahma with regard to time. 

J Thie paaiBge is rather obicure and admit! of several explanations. The literal 
tianalation may be two-fold. First, " he did not tell me so. Thia Brahma it One- 
footed, O king of kinga." And the apparent meaning ia, Tliou haat determined 
Brahma by two attribates, as having place and site. But thia ia not correct j for. 



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IhUrth Chapter. Fint Srdhtnana. 213 

thbu give us the explanation." " Verily, apeecli* is the place, 
the etber, the site, the kuovledge 1 In thia viewf let one medi- 
tate on him (Brahma)." What knowledge,^ O Yftjaavalkya?" 
He said, — " Verily, speech, O king of kings. By speech, O king* 
of kings, a friend is made known ; (so are made known) tbeEig 
V£da,theYRJarV^&,tfaeS&ma V^ajtheAthsrvansandAngiraB 
the narratives, the doctrines of creation, the science^ the Upani- 
■hada, the memorial verses, the aphorisms, the explanation of 
tenets, the explanation of MantraB,^ the fruits of sacrifices, of 
offerings, of bestowiag food, of bestowing drink, this world and 
the other world and all beings. By speech, O king of kings, is 
Brahma known ; speech, O king of kings, is the supreme 
Brahma. Speech does not desert him who with this knowledge 
meditates on that (Brahma), all beings approach hira;|[ having 
become a god, verily be goes to the gods !" " I will give thee 
a thousand cows, big as elephants," said Janaka, the king of 
the Vid^has. Y^joavalkya said, — "My father admonished me 
— where one does not instruct, oneshould not take (gifts)." 2. 

beiDg single in all respecti, Brabma csn haia only one atlribnte. This eipliDition, 
hoveier. doea Dot agree with Ihe next paaaage, where speech, repreientliig Brahma, 
hM fonr atCribatca, Til. place, ether, lite, and knonledge ; unLeii the Uat sttribatB 
(knowledge) be coDiidered h Ihe trne one which definei the natare of Brahma. 
Or lecoDdly,— " He did not tell me, that thii (Brabma) is oaXj one -footed ,"—u 
thoa lappoBeat it to be, but rather foar-footed. S'aukari adopta neither of Iheta 
interpretatlong, but eiplaina the paiiage aa Tollowa, — " The other, (y^jnaialkfa) 
Hid, — •' He did not IttI me (lo)." The other (the king) aaid,—" If thia U the 
oaae, then ia Brahma one-fooled." " (The Idea ot) Brahma la without effect, if 
be be meditated npon u having onlj three feet, Ming (if Uttg*." " If so, then 
explain the matter to me according to thy knowledge, O Y^jnavalkja." S.'i ex- 
planation (greei ia aente, Blthou);h not in detail, with Ihe second Teraion, shore 

' Speech) tbe apeech of Brabma, represented by the deity of speech. S'. 

■f- By this knowledge, being the fourth foot of tbe Brahma of tbe Upaniabad. S'. 

t Thia queation means, ia it knontedge itself, or the cause of knowledge i Is it 
diitinguisbed from Brahma, aa hii place and foundation are, or ia it not distinguish* 
ed ftom him ? And the anawer implies, that it is not diatingniihed. S'. 
' g. Vid. p. 179, where Ihe abore terms bate been explained. 

U With offeringa and presenti. 



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SI4 Brihad Aranyaka TTpanithad. 

"Let as hear, what saother has taught thee." "Udaaka, 
the son of S'ulbasa, toid me, life is Brahma." " As one haviog 
an excellent mother father and teacher, the son of S'albaas 
taught, life is Brahma ; for of what use is a person who has no 
life? He, no doubt, taught thee his place and site." "He 
did not teach me that Brahma is only one-footed, king 
of kings," "Then, O Yijuaralkya, give us the explanation." 
" Life is even the place, the ether, the site, that which is dear 
to us! In this Tie w let one meditate on him." "What dear 
object, O YiijnaTalkyaJ'* He said, — " Verily life is the dear 
object, O king of king^. For love of life, O king of kings> 
one desires what is not desirable, seizes on what is net to be 
aeiaed ; for the desire of life, O king of kings, arises dread of 
being killed* wherever oue goes. Life, O king of kings, is the 
supreme Brahma. Him who that knowing meditates on that 
(Brahma), does life not desert, him all beings approach ; hav- 
ing become a god, he even goes to the gods !" " I will give 
thee a thousand cows, big as elephants," said Jauaka, the 
king of the Vid^haa. Yajnavalkya said, — "My father ad- 
iDonished me — where one does not instruct, one should not 
take (gifts)." 3. 

"Let us hear, what another has taught thee." "Barkku, 
the son of Vrishna, taught me, the eye is Brahma." " As 
oue having an excellent mother, father and teacher, the son 
of Vrishna taught, the eye is Brahma ; for of what use is 
oue who does not see? He, no doubt, taught thee bis 
place and site." " He did not teach me that Brahma is 
only one-footed, O king of kings." "Then, O Yfijnavalkya, 
give us the explanation." " Verily the eye is the place, the 
ether, the site, the truth 1 In this view let one meilitate on 
him." "Which truth, O Yajnavalkya ?" He said, — "The eye, 
O king of kings. When one who sees with the eye, is asked, 
D king of kingSj hast thou seen? (Should) he answer, I 
have seen, then that (which he has seen) is truth. The eye, 

* From roblNri, etc; ' 



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Ii>t0ii Okapter. Firtt SrdAmaia. 2Vy 

O king of kings, is the sopreme Brabtoa. The eye not deserts 
him who vith this knowledge meditates on that (Brahma) ; all' 
beings approach him;, having become a god, verily he goes 
to the gods." "I will give thee a thousand cows, big as 
elephantH," said Janaka, the king of the Videhas. Yijnavalkya 
said, — "My father admonished me-^where one does not in- 
struct, one should not take (gifts)." 4. 

" Let us hear, what another has taught thee." " Oarda- 
bhivipita, of the family of Bbaradv^ja, taught me, the ear is 
Brlibma."* " As one having an excellent mother] father and 
teacher, Bh&radv&ja taught, the ear is Brahma ; for of what 
use is he who does not bear ? He, no doubt, taught thee 
his place and site." "He did not teach me that Brahma is 
only one-footed, O king of kings." " Then, O Yajnavalkya, 
give us the explanation." " Verily the ear is the place, the 
ether, the site, the iufinite I In this view let one meditate on 
him." "What infinite, O Ydjnavalkya?" He said, — "Verily 
the quarters are infinite, O king of kings. Therefore, O king 
of kings, none comes to the end of any quarter whichsoever ; 
for the quarters are infinite. The quarters, king of kings, are 
the ear ; the ear, O king of kings, is the supreme Brahma. The 
ear not deserts him, who with this knowledge meditates on 
that (Brahma), all beings approach him ; having become a god, 
verily he goes to the gods." " I will give thee a thousand 
cows, big as elephants," said Janaka, the king of the Vid£has. 
Y&jnavalkya said, — "My father admonished me — where one 
does not instruct, one should not take (gifts)." 5. 

" Let us hear, what another has taught thee." " SatyakSma 
the eon of Jab&U, taught me, the mind is Brahma." " As ooe 
having an excellent mother, father and teacher, the son of 
Jab£& taught, the mind is Brahma; for of what use is he who 
has no mind ? He, no doubt, taught thee his place and site." 
" He did not teach me that Brahma is only one-footed, O king 

• And thai [he cje differ* from the oth«r taiuei, for initMice from tha eri- 
dence of woidi where daubt maj^ariia. 



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216 Brihad Arangaka Vpanishad. 

ofkings." "Then, O Y&jnaralkya, gire as the explanation." 
"The mind is the place, the ether, the site, happiness ! By this 
let one meditate on him." " Which bliss, O YfiJQaralkya ?" 
He said, — " Verily the mind, O king of kings. By the mind, 
O king of kings, one has a desire after a wife ; throngh her a 
son similar (to one-self) is born ; be (the son] is bliss. The 
mind, O king of kings, is the supreme Brahma. Mind not 
deserts him, who with this knowledge, meditates on that (Brah- 
ma), all beings approach him ; having become a god, verily he 
goes to the gods." " I will give thee a thousand cows, big 
as elephants," said Janaka, the king of the Vid^has. Y^na- 
valkya said, — " My father admonished me — where one does 
not instruct, one should not take (gifts). 6. 

" Let us hear, what another has taught thee." " Vidagdha, 
of the family of S'&kalya, taaght me, the heart is Brahma." 
"As one, having an excellent mother, father and teacher 
S'&kalya taught, the heart is Brahma ; for of what nse is he 
who has no heart. He, no doubt, taught thee his place and 
site." " He did not teach me that Brahma is (only) one- 
footed, O king of kings." " Then, O Yl^navalkya, give ua 
the explanation." "Verily the heart is the place, the ether, 
the site, the locality I" " Which locality, Yijnavalkya?" 
He said, — " The heart, O king of kings, is the place of all 
beings J the heart, O kiag of kings, is the site of all beings; 
in the heart, O king of kings, are all the beings sited. The 
heart, O king of kings, is the supreme Brahma. Heart not 
deserts him who with this knowledge meditates on that (Brah- 
ma), all beings approach him ; having become a god, verily 
he goes to the goda." "I will give thee a thousand cows, big 
as elephants," said Janaka, the king of the Videhas. Y&jua- 
valkya said, — " My father admonished me — where one does 
not instruct, one should not take (gifts)." 7. 



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limeth Okaptcr. Second SrdAmana. 217 

Second Brdhmana.* 

Janaka, the king of the Vid^hna, (risiog) from (bis) throne, 
approached (Y^Qavalkja) with humility sayiag, — " I bow tci 
thee, O YijnBvalkya, do thou instmct me." He said, — " As oae 
who is going to trarel a great distaDce, takes a chariot or a boat, - 
so art thou prepared ia mind (for the knowledge of Brahma) by 
those Upanishads ;t thns art thoa venerable, wealthy ; thus haat 
thou read the Vedas, and art instructed in the Upanishads.]: 
(I now ask thee), when liberated -from this (body), where art 
thon to go?" " I know not, Venerable, where I am to go." 
" Then I will tell thee, where thou art to go." " Say, O Vener- 
able." 1. 

lodha^ is verily the name of that Fnrasha who dwells in 
the right eye. Him whose true name is Indha, they call In- 
dra, by an- indirect name ; for the gods like indirect namesj 
and dialike to be named directiy.|| 2. 

Again, that which in the shape of a Pnrnsha dwells in the 
left eye, is his wife, the Virdf.^ The union of them* is.tli.^ 

* In UMiBteeedMit Brihaini hue been nantioMd lome mMlgi of meditation u 
coadncJTe Ivwirds the knowledge of Brihoie i die preBsot Bt&hmene It to Mt forth 
the itates of weUng.eto. u dib«oi uf ettainins the hnowledge of Bnihmi. A. O, 

f The term " Upeniihadi" nteuu here of eonne not the knowledge of Brabm*, 
bnt oertain mediCatiom with regird to Brahma irhleh haTB been ezplaJDcd in the 
aDtecedent Brihmiga. 

t Bnt though thoa art fnmiihed with all these appUanoai, yet than hut not at- 
tained the higheit abject oF man, nnleit than ha*e the knovledge of Brahma. S'. 

{ It ii intended to show the toartb (or gnprBme) Bnhma bj re-e*pitnlatlng wbM 
hit been eaid bEfare with reterencq ta Brahma ooniidered aa Vla'wa, (or the soul, 
eodowed with agroaa bod;), BiTaijaaa, (or the Mnl, endoired with a aubtle bodj) 
:«iid at Pfijiia (or Uh ioal endowed wiUi a caaial body). A. Q. 

II Tide a ttmUar paanga in the Allar. U. I, 3, 14. 

f Tma'waBani, altboogh one, ii, in the pretest tentenee and in Che preceding 
. leotion. represented, ai a eonpia. tIx. Indra and Indrfni, for the parpoae of medi- 
Utlng npon him. X. G. That V. it right, ta eTident from the term Virif, 
anothar name of Vait'wanara, which referatoboth Indrk and Indrint and poiott 
oat tba idea ateording to which thsj are lo be comprehended aa one, 

* Tba uAioD of Indra and Indrinl, whieb in the elate of waking I* called Vii'wa 
(Taia'waoan, Tlr£t), bear* in the tUte of dieun the nanu of TaijtH, A. C. , . 

2 1 



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"SIS Srikad Arafyaika TTpanukai. ' 

ether within the heart ;* again their food is the red lump within 
the heart ; again their place of xetreat ia the net-workf within 
the heart ; again the road to ;be trarelledl on, is the artery 
which rises upwards from the heart. Aa a hair a thousaad 
times divided thus do its (the body's) veins, called the good,§ 
become which are located within the heart. Proceeding by 
these (veins) that (food) proceeds. There ia, as it were, nourish- 
ment yet more subtile than that. From this corporeal soul (ia 
nourished the higher bou1}.{| 3. 

Its^ eastern quarter are the vital airs that go to the east, 
its southern quarter the vital airs that go to the sbuth, its 
western quarter the vital airs that go to the west,, its north- 
ern quarter the vital airs that go to the north, his ascend- 
ing qiukrter the ascending vital airs, his descending quarter 
the descending vital airs,-aU quarters all vital aira. This soul 

* The union of tben (u 'mjMa) Ukei plwa in tb« ether of tha hurt, lod tha 
beut ii hero the lamp at Beth on which the; labBiiL To andBrstiDil tbii,' it ii 
neeeisirj to know the different klodi of food for the different pirti of the b«df. 
Food ondergoei m donble modification bj tha proceii oF digeatioo, a grosi 
and a more lablile one. The prodnct of the former i* carried off bf eiere- 
tioa. The product of the latter ij igiio modified bj the digra^TC heat and 
DonTBrted into two juice*. The ana juice of mean inbtilit]), eoniiitijig of the fire 
eleidenti, nonriahee the groea hodj b; itg change into blood, &c. The other jaice 
U ler; inbtile, and conatitatea the red lamp which, after it luu altered the Ba« 
blood-veiaela of the heart, luppliea tlie loatenance «f the anbtUe body of ladra (at 
Taijiia}, when anited with lodriiil in the heart. S'. 

t It ia like a net'WOrk from the coantleaa nninber of apartnrea between the 
■nbtile blood-TCiaeU. S', 

t The road from the place of wikiog to the plaoe of dream. S', 

i Tid. Aitt. U. I, 3, II. 

II Or, there )* jet (• higher (onl) than the one mentioned, whose food (the food 
of the higbet aonl) ia mora nbtile. The corporeal aoul ia Via'wanara, andth* 
higher, TaijUi. 

1 Taijaia, whoM abode b in (lie heart, when lupported by anbtlta life, become! 
lifetPri^a), thatistoaay, the Pi4qa which la called Frtica (the lonl of- Imperfect 
knowledge, or the third atate of the indiiidnal lonl, coneapondiog to the third atale 
of the nniTera^l aoal, which !• called IVwara, tha Ruler). Thli refers to him who 
knows, and who from tha state of Yala'wsnara has gradosUr obtaliwd the stale of 
Taijaia ami nl life (Fraua). S'. . . 



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Iburfi Chapter. Third BrAhmana. 2IS 

which 18 neither tbia, nor aoght else, whichis intaDgible* — for 
it CRuaot be Uid hold of — , not to be dissipated— for it cannot 
be dissipated — , witfaont contact — for it cannot come into con- 
tact — , not limited, Hot subject to pain nor to destraction ; thia" 
fearlesBf (soul), O Janaka, is obtained by thee," thos said Yij- 
navalkya. Janaka, the king of the Viddhas, said, — " May that 
fearless (Brahina) become thy ovn, O Y^jtiavalkya, which thoa, 
O Venerable, hast taught ns. I bow to thee ; let this kingdom 
of the Vid^as and this myself be thine.^ '^• 

Third Brdhmana. 
. Yajna<ralkyB§ went to Janaka, the king of the Vid^haa. He 
bethoaght him, I will not say anght. (It happened that for- 
merly), when Janaka, the king of the Vid^lias, and Y^jnavalkya 

* ODBwbothnikiiowi, (ttalDi fradiullf the gBDsral loal. When ha hu identiAcd 
tba indiTidnil loal with the nniTsTMl lonl, he ohtiiru tha foartb Brehnut b; inch 
ae(*l)i>n> u be ii not thii, he ii not that. S'. VId. Br. X. 3, 9. 16. 

' "t" Fearleu, becaoae It U bejoad anj oiniB of fear, ai bitth, death, etc. S'. 

' X Tid. Chh. D'., 3, 12, 6. and Kafba Up. 1, 27-29. 

I In hia iatrodaction to the preMut Brihniiiia, ahowins iti eonneilon with ^e 
preceding aeetlon, 8.' recapltnlatea tha principal polnta of thi third chapter. Tha 
Tiaible and preaent Brahma ia alio the anpreme Brahma whaia natare il koow- 
ladje, which ia evident from aaeh pa*ia{e* aa, "Tbere la none that seea bat he," 
(3, 9, il). Tbia(Brahma), after he baa entered thibody.iadiridedaccwdii^ to the 
fDnctioae of apeech, etc. In tbe M»dhak£D^, In the part relatitig the coi»eriBtian 
of Ajftaaaltrai Bnbma it eoneened, bj the attribulea of domiaion and eajofnent 
of Ufe, et«. (2,4, 17). (aa lomalhint different from life, etc.). Again in the qaeationof 
Uabaata, repreaentins bin wider tbe attribotea of life, etc, (3, i), he ia' compre- 
hended in a general manner breach worda aa, "That which breathea by breath, etc.' 
(1. c,'), and in the full power of hia nature by the wordi, " He ia the beholder of the 
beholding." (It it it now aaked why he ihoald enter upon ■ worldly itate, which 
is not hia trie natare, the enawer ii), The worldly itate of him ii the attribute 
of the aapreme one (ignorauoe). At It ia an effect of ignorance, if a rope, ■ 
deaert place, a mother-of-pearl abell, the etiier, etc. be reapectlTely eon^dered ae a 
anake, at water, aiiTer, impure, etc., H thisia sneSect of igooranoa, and not their 
own natare (ao ia it an effect of Ignoranee, if a worldly itate be attributed to tbe 
■oul). {Biahma)who ia wltbont attribute and nnattainable by ward (or mind), 
tnnat be defined by negationa, aa ■' He is not thli, he la not that, etc., and IB' 
(■ffitmalinly) comprehended aa the visible preieat aonl (3, 5), perTading tUt ai thr 
2 r 2 



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£30 Briktid Xra*t/aia Vpanitiad^ 

had held' coavene togetfacr aboat tlie Sre-offering,* tfast 
YAjnftTiilkja had given him (permiuion to ask) a boon. The 
boon he chose was, to question (¥£jnaTalkya) according 
to his pleasure. He granted that boon to him. The king 
of kings first asked bim,t — " Y^jnavalkya, of what light ia 
this Porosha?"! He said,— "Of the light of the snn, O 

bdettrnetlble Brtfama (S, S), ■« (ha Inner Ruler (S, 7), ■■ tha Panuha of tb« 
ypiniahtda (3, I, 26), u ths BrabiDa vhoia natnre ia knowladge sad bliu (4, 1). 
Tliii Bnbmaia afain coooeiied nadartbc name of Iadhi(l, I) mi tfae aoal, nonriihed 
hj lubtHe food (Taii'wanara) ; (agaia) at tbe aoul of the lub^le bodj (lingitiiia, 
Tagaaa), nDorithed bj Tood, moce lubtile than ibat (of Taii'waninil. Greater than 
tbia (or both, Taia'tranira and Taijaia) ii tbe aonl at tlie wadd, bating the attri- 
bate of life. From thU again la diitingniifaed by knowled^ Iha aonl of the world, 
having tbe attribute of life, hj the worda, — ^' He ia not Ihia, be ia not thni, aa a' 
make, ete. (iidi*tla(:aiihedb]'kDDw]ed|g)riaBi a rope, ete. , and thualfaeTiaible and 
preieot Brahma (the (bartb) nho la within all, ia comprehended, (4, I). In tbe 
■amanianiwr baa JwmIu obtainad tbe fsarleM Bralima bj tbe aneeinel tnatrnction of 
Ti^telli^ aeosrding to the doctrine of the S'rati. There (1, 2), are the atatea 
of waking, dream, profound aleep and ofthg fourth mantioned for another parpoia 
[tor tbe pnipOH ofabowiag tbe gradual liberation of the aoul from the attachment to 
the world aa the effect of thoae kinds of meditation. &'. O.) tii. Indba (4, 2, 2), 
be, vhoae nomriihBieDt iaaobtile (4, 2, 3), alllire(4, 2, 4) and " He ii not this, he 
la not that," (e. 1.) In the present Bribmava (Brahma) ia to be comprehended bj 
means of the atatea of waking, dream, eto. through tbe operation of profound 
difeosaion, aa the fearleaai the eiistcnoe of the soul (is to be comprehended ] bf 
remoring anj donbt arialag from diapate. It* nature (ii to be comprelieoded) aa 
IndepeDdent, para, sfaBilar with light, ol omnipotent power, a* infinite blisa and as 
being without dualltj. For thia pirposs the present Bribms^a i) commenced. 
* And Yjjnavatkja wfa gratifled bj the king'a knowledge. 

. t (• •• On til* preieyt oeeaalon, the introdnctcrj epiiode of tbe boon and riglit 
to pat qoettiona being conelnded, 

. t Poruiba, the being, who oonaiita of the eamblDation of eaniea and eSecIa, and 
ha* faaad, handa, etc. Of what light, meani, b; what li^ht ai cause doea man die- 
•barge the buiineH of Ufa. S'. V. makea bere lome *erj good leSectiona ebout the 
■atore of thia l^ht, whether it ii eitemal or internal, aepsrsted or not separated 
from lb bodj 1 bnt they are rather S'.'s reflectiona than thoie of the Upanlshad, 
and we will thcNfore omit them. The piogreia from oua idea to another in the 
Upanishid ia Terj elear, «it. anj light nbich ia found in eitrrnal nature, ii 
Incapable of bung the aanaa of the intellectual funelioDS of man, for it ceaiei to 
•et at certain Ume* i tba light bj which man acts, ranst therefore be aomathing dis- 
tinct from fDj Ol them. 



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Rurih Okt^ter. Third Brdkmafa. S21 

kiDg of kings. By the light of the sna (man) aita dovo, 
walks about, performs his work and ratorna (home)." " It 
is eren so, O YaJQavalkya." 2. 

"Of what light, O Y&jnavalkya, is this Funuha, when the 
sua has set." " The moon is even his light. By the moon- 
light he nts down, walks aboat, performs his work and returns 
(home)." " It is even so, O Y&jnavalkya." 8. 

" Of what light, O Yfijnavalkya, is this Famsba, when the 
son has set and the moon has set." " The fire is even his 
light. By the fire-light he sits down, walks about, performs 
his work and returns (home)." " It is even so, O Y4jna< 
valkya." 4. 

" Of what light, O Yijnavalkya, is this Purusha, when the 
sua has set, the moon has set, and the iire is at rest V 
" Speech* is even his light. By the light of speech he sits 
down, walks about, performs his work and returns (home). 
Therefore, O king of kings, at a time,t when one can not 
distinguish his own hand, he reaorta there, whence speech pro- 
ceeds."J "It is even so, Ydjnavalkya." 5. 

" Of what light, O Y^jnavalkya, is this Purasba, when the 
Bun has set, the moon has set, fire is at rest, and speech is at 
rest?" "Soul§ (£tma) is even his light. By the light of the soul 
he sits down, walks about, performs his work and returns 
(home)." 6. 



* Speecli BMuu here loniul, the object of the leiM of hettlof . When thi* mum 
ii enllgbUned, refleetioa U produced in the miod. &j the uind effort to obtain 
eKtemil things ii maile ; lor b; the mind ods leei, one hein, S', 

f When it ii dark from cloud*, orwhenererj other light hu ceued to ibine. S". 

t Where Mand rieei, be it the neigbioE of hor«eg or tba bnjing of doakefe, 
■to. Speech Kiret here only *■ ui lUutntion end inclndei Ihe other aeoses, S'. 

i Different from the irhole of the cansei and effenta in the bodj and it* iitrti, 
ninifeiting the effeota and ciiuei, like the snn and other eztenud lighli, and not 
maDiteited b; taj thing elae. It ii light which ia within, and at the tame time 
independent of effects *Dd causea. It ia not peroeiTed bj the eje or an; other 
organ* like the inn, hot inferrsd Iron ita effecti. S'. 



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223 Sriiad Jrai^aka tFpanitkatt. 

■ "Which tool?"* "That soul vhieh among the organs 
has the oatare of knowledge, which abides in the heart, and 
is the Pnmsha who is light.t He,t being the same} (with 
the heart), migrates|| to both worlds.^ He, as it were, thinlts ; 

* Althoogh it hu been proTcd, tb&t the unl baa tn eiiitencc, indepoBdent (of 
tfae gioMt bodj), ■Dd«bida wllbia (the body) , jet, wcing tb&t (the niD, etc.) which 
uiiiti (Iha bod; in tbc opsnttioa of it* laDcdoni), ii of the ume kind (iriili the 
body), there mmf prooeed Che daliuuiD (tbtt Iha aoal vhieh ia light msf ilao be o( 
tbe aunc nature with the body , etc., there being no diSerenee between the iiinda at 
Maiitanee), and from the want of dialincttaa the qoeation maj iriae, ia the bodI one 
ef the orgaoa, or aome thing different from them .' Or in other word*, though it 
1) prond, that the lonl ii different fram (he body, yet all the organi partake of 
tbe Mtore ot knowledge, and aiaea no diatiaction ia apprebended between the tool 
and the organa, Che queitioD of the text ia neceaaaiy, " which aool." S'. 

t The whole aentence may be eiplaioed, according to S.', in ■ threefold manner. 

1. Tfae firat part eCnIaina the cjotation, "Which aooi?" and the Eeoond the 
•Dtwtr to it, "The Pnnuha who among the orgaiu baa the nataie o( koowledge 
and ia Iha tight of the heart." 

2. Ot "Which la Ike aonl among the organa that baa the natnreof knowledge?" 
Tbe toawer in thii caae ia, " The Paraaha wbo ia light alone, abiding in the Ikcart." 

3. Or " Which U Ihe lonl that among the organa hai the nature of knowledge 
ind'ia die Fnniaba, who ia light alone, abiding in the heart I" 

S'ahkara prefer! tbe firat aiplanatioa. " Hai tbe nature of knowledge" meana, 
according to bias, reaemblea knowledge or intellect (hnddhi), and " heart" the 
itellect which baa ita place in the oi^n of the heart. 

X He, the Furnaha. The Paraiha who ia light alone, who manlfciti ^1 and ii 
at manileaCed by any thing elae, cannot be comprehended in the atate of waking, 
nee none of the organa ia an object of perception, and aince from the confnaioa, 
riaing from the united action of ao many eanaca and effect* of tlie aenaea, the lonl 
I ita nature aa light alone cannot be shown. Tbe Upaniahad, therefore,' explains it 
by meana of the itate of dream. S'. 

{ Being tbe game, or aimilir. Tbii refera to tiie " heart," aa la clear frona the 
topic and from the TclaUona which the tool baa to tbe heart (or intellect). Aa 
light, manifeiling red, green, etc. coloara, becomea' itaelf red or green, ao the 
Puraaha, manifeating intellect, manifeata thereby the whole body, and by tUa 
intellect he becomea alao like every other thing. S'. 

II The canae ot h la migration la hii aiieilarity with intellect ;' on bia own aecoid 
auch a migration does not take place. He migrate* by leating hi* preaent body 
and entering annther and aaotber in eodlen ancoaaiion. S'. 
H Both world*, the future and the preaent world. 



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Iburfh Chapter. Third BrdJunana. 228 

he, as it were, moves;* for, having become dream,t he, quits 
tbis. world,^ (he qnits) the forms of death.§ 7. * 

This Purusha,|| vrben bom,^ vhen assuming a bod;, is ^lied 
to sins;* when rising upwards, when dying, he lays aside the 
ains.f ' 8, ' 

' There are even two places of this Purusha, this place, and 
the place of the next world; the place of dreaaijl which is 
between them, is the third. Abiding in this middle place, (man) 
seeB§ both places, this and the place of the other world; In 
proportion to the endeavour|| with which one is (striving to 
obtain) the place of the other world, does he accordingly see 
siulT or bliss. : When he sleeps; (when); putting on a rudiiheiit 



* He IS it were thinki, that ii to uj, in realiCjr he doei not think or reflect ( 
for reflection doea aot belong to hi) natnre, S'. (and ia the effect of hia being con- 
sidered under ihe attribute of intelleot). 

t Be iKcomei all that intellect become*, and intellect aaanming the *tate of 
dream, the Furnahi alio aaiumei it. S'. 

I Thia world,' cbaracterlied bj Che funotioni practlted durtof waking. S'. 
t Death meias, work, igooraiice, etc ; hla forma, came* and effect*. S'. 

II 4a the Pumiha in thia bod;, when anuni lag the atateof dream, quite the form* 
of death, and remaini In hia own light, ao when born,. .. he i* allied to aina. S'. ' 

f When born, when aonmlng the atale of the aoul within a bod;. S'. 

* SiuB oieBB oauaea and effecta, depending upon rice and virtae. &'. 

f He lajt them aside, he becomea free from them. A> the Purnaha, abiding in 
one and Ihe aame body, in conaeqnence of hit aimiltritjp with intellect, b; asanniing 
^and laying Baide cluaaa and effectain the form of ain, eontiaunlly migratea from 
the itate of waking to that of dream and lice lersi, ao by aaauming and lading 
■side thoie eauaea and effecti, be coatinnally migratea Ihrough birth and death to 
thia and to the other world, no til heia finally liberated. It ia therefore eTideqt, 
that the aoul, whioh baa the nature of light, ii different from aina, aa daiiaea and 
effecta, becanae it ia joined to aud.aeparated from them. 

X Dream ia not a world, but only (he union of two.worlda, as the place hetireen 
two Tillages ia not a rlllag* itaelf. S'. 

{ How then ia it proTed, that there iaaaotber world, different from the plact of 
aoion, or dream ? The auawer ia, beoania .the Puruaha teea in dream bdth the 
preaent and anotbec world. 

II The endeavour being ooniidered ai the leed from whieh the treeof the body riaes. 

% Sin, the effect pf aln, nnbappinea*. He aeea Ihem in the shape of imprea^ 



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S24 JBrSad AroM^aia UfMiialuul. 

(ool]') of this world which connBtB of «U elements,* himwlf 
proBtntiDg (hift body), himself iBisiiig a bnildingf by force of 
his own splendoar snd manifestation, he sleeps —then becomes 
this Fomiha oDiningled light. 9. 

No cbariotBl are there,§ no horses, ncn roads; then he 
creates chariots, horses and roads. No pleasores are there, no 
joya, nor rejoicings ; then he creates pleasures, joys and rejoic- 
ings. No tanks are there, no lakes, nor rivers ; then be creates 
tanks, lakes and rivers ; for he is the agent. |[ 10. 

Here apply, these Slokas,^ " In dream, prostrating* the body, 
himself dreamless, he develops the modes of dreaming. After 
he has assumed the pure (form), the goldliket Pamsha, the 
one wanderer, proceeds| again to the place (of waking). 11. 

By (the power of) life§ preserving (from death) the inferior 
nest,|| and roaming outside^ of it, be, the immortal one, the gold^ 
like Foraslut, the one wanderer, proceeds where his desire 
leads Mm. ' 12. 

■iani, reoeiiecl tn ■ former world. What U tha proof of tlua ? BecaaMi be (eea in 
dream mtaj thiDgi, not to be pereeiied in tbli btrtb ; for dretm meus not a per- 
ceptlon of thiota leen before, which ii called remembranae. Therefore, baide 
the plicM of veking end dream, them eziiC thou two irorlds. S'. 

■ Which contiita of all dementi (iartiian), admiti of a doable ezplanatlaD. 
8aT*im a*iti, he preaerrei all, or nrriTia-aanaTin , which oontaini everj thing. 
And thii element la agsin the oaoae of creation, 

j- A dreamlike body. 

X What hag been laid before that the Funuba in dream fa life alone, te bwis 
upreaaed in another manner. A'. G. 

S There, in dream, where there are no objeoti of the leniea la in waking. S*. 

{I He ii the igent for the dream-land. S'. 

1 Slokia maaiia here Mantraa, (memarlil reriea). They applf hers, that li to 
(sf, to the view, that the Paroiha la light alone. 

* AbaihllRting the action. 

f Gold-like, he whoee nature ii tbe light of camcioameai. S'. 

X A> the cooieqaence of hii action, S*. 

J Ldfg in iCi diiiiion into the five Tilal airi. 

il Nest, the bodf, 
S Althaogh h e Pariiaha. while yet in the hod;, m«i dreamt, yet he ia eon- 
lidered to bf ostride, became be bti ab oonneiion with tt. S'. 



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J^urth Chapter. Third Brihmana. 220 

la hU draRm paBsiagfrom high to low,^ he, the god, displays 
manUbld forma, either playing with women, or laughing, or 
beholding fearful sights. 18. 

His pleasure-groasdat are visible ; but he is visible to none ; 
they say, none comprehends the Pervader. Qiffionlt to be 
cored is the body, when the Pumsba attains not that (door of 
the BeDges}4 (Some) say indeed, (his place of Dream) is 
(the same as) bis place of waking ; for he sees in sleep the 
same (forms) which he does when awake. This is not so ; (for).- 
here the Purusha becomes a self-shining light." " I will give 
thee, O Venerable, a thousand (cows). Speak next of libera- 
tion." 14. 

" Having^ in the state, where there is perfect bli8i,|| enjoyed 
blisB, wandered about, and seen what is holy and what ia 
sinful,^ he proceeds again in a reverse order to the place of hia 
birth, to Dream. He is not chained by what he sees* there 

* Btcommg, h Uaej leadi him, ■ gad or ■ biule crMtar«. S'. 

t FleMore groondi in the ibipe of ImpreHioni. S*. 

X I InuiBlatBd tlitu in locordiDco with S'.'i eiplaottion. Tha meBttiag a, — If 
the Fnnuha doei not retnm to the mkini state thrOQgh tbs iims door of the 
(CDiea throogh which he entered into the atate of dream, if be re^enteri ia an; 
other manner, then diaeaiei are produced, anch a* blindneii, deafoeaa, etc., which 
are difficnlt Co care, 

{ The pioposition at the commenceeient of thia Brikmana, that the aonl ia sdf- 
(hining light, hai been proTed by the text " There that aoal beeomea aelf-ahiDing 
light." Bnt witk regard to the leit " Being dream, he qaita thii world,'' the 
meaning ia doabtfal ; for it may be lald, he maj indeed q«it the forma of death, 
bat DOt for thii^eaaon death himaelf ; for it is erident, that, although aeparated 
from clfect and canaa, one may jH eiperiaoce in drsam, joj, terror, etc, there, 
tbre he doea sot in tniCb qnit death ; for death beiag wotii, hit effect), joj, terror, 
etc., are liuble. And it one of hia own nature be bound by death, liberatiiHi la 
not obtaiaed by him, *a he cannot be liberated from hia own oature. Therefore, 
we nuat oouelade, death cannot be one'a own nature, and liberation from him ia 
poaaible. To ihoii thia, la the object of YfjaaTalkra in hia auawer to the qneaticm 
of the Icing. S*. 

II Thit ia tu laj, in the atate of profbond aleep ; for there ni 



^ The eSecti of tbem. S'. 

* BecaoM, in dream, ha doe* not actaaltf do wbat it hoi; and eril, he la not 



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386 Srihad Aranyaka Upaniakad. 

(in dream*) ; for the Fumsba ia aatouclied-t- (thereby)." " -Thia 
is 10, Y&jnaTalkyaj I vill give thee, O Venerable, a thoosaDd 
(cows). Speak next of Kberation." 15. 

" Haviag ia that dream enjoyed blisa, wandered abont, and 
seen what is holy and sinful, he proceeds agaia ia the reverse 
order to the place of his birth, to the waking state. He ia 
not chained by what he sees there it for the Parusha is un< 
tonched}." " This is bo, O Yfynavalkya. Speak next of libera- 
tion." 16. 

" Having^ enjoyed bliss, wandered about and seen what is 
holy and sinful, daring his wakiag state, he proceeds again in 
the reverse order to the place of hia birth, to dream." 17. 

As a large fish|| glides between both banks,^ the right and 
the left one, so glides the Puruaha between both boundaries, the 
boundary of dream and the boundary of the waking state. 18, 

As an eagle* or a falcon, roaming in the sky, fatigued, folds 

ck^nid bf eithar ; for good or onl totiona snd. their coDHqnencai are not imput- 
ed to Iba iner« spectator of them. Therefore in dream he doea not only onrcoma 
the forma of death, but death himaelf. He doea not aot Id dream, and U there- 
for* different in nature from death irbo i« irork, and Iberefore ha ia free from 

* Aa ia evident from common expeiiencB ; for no one ia blamed or pniaed for, 
nhat he dori in dream, S.' 

t In dream.. 

X Untonohed, aa being without form. S.' 

{ But how can be be untouehed in the irakioB itate, aa he doea good and eiil 
aata and leei their conaequencea ? Thia ia not the c»e, aajs S', for if there ia 
■n Bgenti the notion of agenc; ia admiaaible.. It baa been ijfelared, that tba 
aoul la a aelf-ahining light, and that, manireated b; iti own light aa oauae and cETect, 
it ia an agent. Therefore if he be comprelunded nndar tlte.notian of an agent, 
attribntea are aialgned to the loni wbicb it haa not of ita own nature, and tbii ia 
done bj meana of intellect. In tliii piaiage the aonl ia, howerer, conaidered,aa 
it eiiitl in ita own nature, and not aa represented bj attribntea taken from ita 
connaiion nith aoma thing elie. S'. 

II That the Pumaha ia not toncbed bj lin, haa been abown in tbo three preceding 
tectioDa; thia ia here illuitrated bji a aimile.. S'. 

\ Witboat being aeiied bf the current of the atream. S'. 

* It bai been further proved before, that tiie aoul ia not in itself the eanae of Ae 
vorldl; attribntea, and. th«t, ita worldly atate la imputed to it through ignorance t 



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Ftmfth Chapter. Third Brdhmana. 227 

his viDgs and is drawn* to his nest, so proceeds that: Pariisha 
to the boundary,t where, asleep, he desires not any desire, nor 
sees any dream. 19. 

His^ vessels, which are called good, are of the fineness of a 
hair, a thousand-fold divided, and filled with white,§ blue, 
yellow, green and red juice. Therefore all the objects of 
terror, which a man sees when awake, are, through ignorance, 
fhncied by him, (in dream,] when any body seems to kill him, 
seems to subdue him, an elephant seems to put him to flight, 
(or when) he Mis into a pit; again|| when he seems to be 
conscious I am a god, I am king, I am even all this, he has 
attained his highest place. 120. 

this, howerer, bBi onl; besn deieribed septrRtol;, for the aonl in its three statea, 

and the identity of the ttm\ has not been shoiTD compTehenaiTelj \ to let thii fortb. 
is ^le object of the preieat section. S'. 

- * Of hit own iceord. 

' t To bii own self, free from every worldly attcibnts and from the dlitinetioiii «f 
agent, work or fruit. S'. 

' J Ii ia the nature of the Pnmahi to be free from worldly attrlbntea, which are 
tfae effect! of ignoraaca. Here Ihe qnesttoa arlies, whether Ignorance betonsl 
to hig own natnre, or ia only aooidental ^ If it be accidental, liberation from 
it ia possible. Farther, ia there bdj evidence of ignorance being accidental, and 
hi what manner it ignorance an attrlbote of the non-«onl ? T^e present section 
baa the object to show the natnre of ignorance. 

% Food, when digested, becomes bine, if there be an abundanee of thi tirj 
humour, yellow by an abundance of bile, white by an abundano» of phlegm, green 
by B deficiency of bile, and red by an equal mixture of all the humour*, and In thia 
manner, tbe vessels alio through which the hamoors flow, assume the aame colour 
according to the Sut'ruta. A'. G. In those very fine veasels, abides the subtile 
body conaisting of IT parts (the five organs of intelleot, the live organs of aotioD, 
tbe five vitai aira, intellect and mind). Dependent upon the aubtile body are all 
the impreasioua produced by tbe belief in the worldly attributes of a higher or tower 
Etate. S'. 

' II Again.. .1 give here in snbatance the train of Ssnicara's ideas on this snbjaet 
Ignorance being subdued and knowledge prevBillDg, what ia the object of knowledge 
and what its charsoter f The highest plaoe, the highest state of the loul, is, 
when it eiisti as the iodI of all, in its own inherent natnre. On the other hand, 
if tbe soul be considered at different from the soul of all, however liltle Uia 
difference may be, the state ot ignorance is the conseqnence. The reault of igno- 
raoce are the lower woilds down totbe rttte ot inanimate matter, where the na. 



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328 BriUd Armt^mU Vp a ma U i . 

Thia is his (true) nature, which is frae firom desire, sin* aud 
fear.t As in the embrace of a beloved wife (me is nnconscH- 
ons of aught, from witboot or within ; so, embraced by the all- 
knowingt *OivX, this Punuha is nneonscioiis of all, withont 
or within. This is his (tme) nature, when all desires are 
satisfied,^ where the (only) desire is for the sonl, where there 
is no desire, where there is no grief. 21. 
. Then II the father is bo father, the mother no mother, 
the worlds no worlds, the gods no gods, the Vedaa no Vedas. 
Then the tbiefX is no thief, the murderer of a Br^ma^* 

tore of Qw (OdI j( not comprcbCBiled. Bcrond tba workk wUA are the objecU of 
worldljr ictiaa, the itate of tbe nniTcml iobI, shicli ii all-pcrvadiiiK, uid whieti 
ii nithoat on OiJUr and tBttlumt am 0ml, ii hia bigheit atate. Therefore, igno- 
rance bnng anbdned, md knowledge hatins attaioed iCa perfectioD, tbeatateof Iha 
anWiHial aool, libBntioB osenia. In Ibe anie manner ignorance pmailing a>d 
knowledge biTing diaappe*r«l, the effect ia dcMribed i> tke paaaage, " When anj 
bodf atemi lo kill him." Tbe napective effecli then of koowledge ud igso- 
ianee are the itate of tbe nniTeraal aool aod that of the indiTidaal aoaL Fram 
pare knowledge the atate of the nnirerMt aoul proceedi, from ignoranca, a etate 
whicb ii not nniTOraal. Tbercfora the state of ignorance eonaiala in thia, that tlie 
■niiaraal etiating aonl la corweired nader tbe noUen of the ao«l which ii not uni- 
lenai, and that aoma thing, different froa tbe aonl, and which deca not uiat, 
ia anbititDted for tbe aonl. The nature of ignorance baa been explained together 
with it! effecta, and the effect of knowledge, the atate of the nniTeraal aonl, has beta 
ihown to be oppotite to ignorance. We tberefore mnat eoDclude. that ignoc- 
ance ia not an attribote of the aonl, and that liberation from it ia poasible^ 

* Sin meina here, both sin and lirtne. 

f ThODgh tbe (tate, where no fear exiala, hai been alreedj referred to at the 
doae of the lait Bribms^a (p. 219), yet it baa been there onl; enuDciated, while 
it ia bere established bjr ditcnaalon. S'. 

i All-knowing, Ptijna, the inprema sonl aecoiding to its own natnre. 

{ Knowledge, ita object, and the agent who Icnowa, not etisting, there can be 
no manifeitation of a apaelal knawiedge, as a deiire. S'. 

U Then, when the Ponuha has obtained the form, free from ignorance, from 
deaire and from work, of which state profoand sleep is the tjrpe. And this change 
takes place, becanae tlie notions of ■ father, mother, etc., npress a relation, estab< 
lished b; work, abiob relation of course ceisea when work baa ceaaed, S'. 

^ Thief means here, according Co S'., one who steals tbe gold of a Br&bman, aa 
Indicated bj ila connexion with Bbr^qsha. 

* Bbidijaba means literallf the murderer of an embrjo ; I have translated it in 
aowrdane* with S.'e and A'. G.'i MpUutioti. 



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Fokrfk Ohapttr. Tkved Brdhmaw. 229 

no mnrderer of a Br&hma^, the Chfin^&la* no Chfin^filR, the 
Paulkftsa no Paulkaia,t the religious mendicant (Srfinmna} no 
religions mendicant, the ascetic no ascetic; be is uncoaaected 
with anght that is holy, he is unconnected vitb sin ; for he is 
then beyond every grief of the heart.J 32. 

It is not trne, that, being thus, (in profound sleep,) seeing,^ 
he sees not ; he does see ; for there is no loss of sight to the 
see-er, since it is indestructible ;|j and there is no second,^ 
no other, separated from him which could see. 2S. 

It is not true, that, being thus, smelling, be smells not ; he 
does smell; for there is no loss of smell to the smeller, since 
it is indestructible; and there is no second, no other, se- 
parated from him which could smell. 24. 
. It is not true, that, being thus, tasting, he tastes not ; he 
does taste; for there is no loss of taste to the taster, since it is 
indestructible ; there is no second, no other, separated from 
him which could taste. S5. 

' It is not true, that, being thus, speaking, he speaks not ; he- 
does speak ; for there is no loss of speech to the speaker, since 
it is indestructible ; and there is no second, no other, separated 
&om him which could speak. 26. 

It is not true, that, being thus, hearing, he hears not ; he does 

' * Cbfipjili, tbe ion nf > Brihrna^ iiainaa bj a S'lldro. S'. 

f Piolkata, tlu ud of s Kiluttrifa waman by a S'lldra, 

i Tatellect, abiding in tbe heirt. 

{ Bat ii il no contradictioD, that the BOnl irboie natnre It perfect knowledge, 
iboold not know ? It ii not, from Che rnian oiiigned in the Uit. S'. 

n But here tlie following inference leemi to applr, leeiag Ii m action, h it ii 
psrfomied by the igenC who aeei, and every action ia transient. However, th£ 
inference is not applicable; becauee the leelng ia oaly seeing, and include* no agent. 
It il the nature of the lanl to manirest, and thii not through the iaterceaaion of an 
agent, aa tbere ia nothing elae bat the aonl. S'. 

\ It haa been declared, that what ia known in waking or in dream, ia a second, 
and does not (raally) exut, and that no difiereoce <a known in profound gieep. If 
this latter atale be the nature of the loul, from what proceeda the difference,, and if 
its nature is to kiKwr the difference, why doe* it not know thii difference (in pro- 
found sleep)? S*. 



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280 Srikad AroM^aka Upanuikad. 

hear ; for there is no loss of bearing to the hearer, since it is 
indestructible ; and there is no second, no other, separated 
from bint which could bear. 27. 

It is not true, that, being thus, minding, he minds not; be 
does mind ; for there is no loss of minding to the minder, since 
it is indestructible; and there is no second, no other, separat- 
ed from him that could mind. 28. 

It is not true, that, being thus, touching, he touches not ; 
be does touch; for there is no loss of touching to the toucher, 
since it is indestructible ; and there is no second, no otber^ 
separated from bim that could touch. 29. 

It is not true, that, being thus, knowing, he knows not ; be 
does know ; for there is no loss of knowing to the knover, since 
it is indestructible; and there is no second, no other, separated 
from bim that could know. 30. 

Wherever some other thing, as it were, exists, there let ano- 
ther see another thing, another smell another thing, another 
taste another thing, another speak another thing, another 
hear another thing, another mind another thing, another touch 
another thing, another know another thing. 31. 

Like water (purified), the one see-er without duality, is the 
Brahma world,* O king of kings;" thus YAjnavalkya instructed 
him. " This is bis highest aim, his highest wealth, bis highest 
world, his highest happiness. Of this happiness, all other 
beings enjoy only a part, 32. 

(The bliss of one)t who among men is perfect in limb, 
wealthy, a sovereign lord of others, and who has the fulness of all 
human enjoyments, is the highest bliss of men. Further a hun- 
dredfold the bliss of men is one bliss of the forefathers who 
have overcome the worlds.^ Further a hundredfold the bliss 

* The Brahma world, the highest wmrld. And thii ia the itate oT the aoal In 
profound tleep. S. 
t Vidi Taltt. Up., 2. B, which correBponda almoat Itterall; with thia whale 

~ t ThoH who bf inch ceremoniw aa the SrUdha have obtiined the world of 'the 



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jBbtHih Chapter. Hird Brihmana. 281 

of the forefathers who have overcome the vorlda, ia one bliis 
of the world of the Ctandharraa. Further a hundredfold the 
bliss of the world of the Gaudharras is one bliss of the ritual 
gods* who gain their divinity hy rites. Further a hundredfold 
the bliss of the ritual gods is one bliss of those who are gods 
by birth, and of him who knows the V^daa, and is free from 
sin And desire. Further a hundredfold the bliss of those who 
are gods by birth is one bliss of the world of Praj^patif and 
of him who knows the Y^du, and is free from sin and desire.]: 
Further a hundredfold the bliss of the world of Praj&pati, is 
one bliss of the world of Brahma§ and of him who knows the 
V^das and is free from sin and desire,|| Further the highest 
bliss^ is even the world of Brahma,* O king of kings ;" thos 
said Tfijnavalkya. (He said), — " I will give thee, O Venerable, 
a thousand cows. Spesk next of liberation." Then Yfijna- 
valkya was afraid, that the wary king should drive him from 
aU his last positions-t 33. 

" Having enjoyed bliss,]: wandered about and seen what is 

* Tb« ritual god* tre ■uch ■■ htte gained tkdi diTinit; bj (be pertornuace of 
Yedaic ritu, u tho Gre-offering, stc. S'. 

t Of Prsj&pati Id the bod;r of cha Tii&t. S'. 

t And nbo at tba lame tim« knout tbii, tlut it to tt^i wito bat nodltated on 
tbe lout in iti form «■ Tirif. S.' 

i Or UirB9p«aibba. S'. 

II And who hH alio moditaCcd Oa tho natnra of HiriDTagarbba. S', 

\ All the happinegt op to that of tbe world of Brabmi, compared with thit hap- 
pineia ii lika a drop of water, compared with the »«. And thit itate ii gained by 
him wlio oomprchendi himaelf aa the one idcDtioal Brabma. B'. 

* For the iiks of compariion, I gUe hare the icale of the degree! of happincia ia 
theTsitt. Up.,— MsD, Gandharvaa, Oivioe Gandbarrai, Forefathera, Ritoal Gadi, 
Godi by birth, Indri, Brihaapati, PrBJtpsCi and Brahma. 

t From the aolntioni of the queationa which he had gi*aa. He waa not 
afraid, becauae he waa deficient in knowledge, bnt he waa afraid that Ibe luog who 
bf the acuteneaa of his anderatanding alwaji obaeired aoma point not ;<t wbolij 
defined, ahould, under tbe pretence of YtijnaTalkTa'a promiae to aniwer anj qoeation 
of the king, allnre him to commnnicate to him atl hia knowledge. S'. 

I The antecedent expoaltion (Tia, of tbe waking itate, of draam, and profound. 
ileep) temt onljt a* an iUuaUMioa),(Df the.tonl in itt bondage and libaratiou). 



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383 Brihad Ara^gaia Vpanuhad. 

holy snd rioftil during his dream, he proceeds agHia in tho 
revene order to the place of his birth, the waking state. 34. 

Ai* a well laden cartf morei on noiiily, so the embodied 
soul, directed by the omniacieut Boul,t &t the time, when 
breathing its last. 85. 

When it gains its subtle Btate§, when it obtuns its subtle 
state by old age or disease, then, as the frait of the mangoe 
tree, or of the glomerate fig tree, or of the holy fig tree becomes 
free from its bond,|| becomes free this Furoslia from those 
members^ and proceeds again* in the reTeree orderf to its birth> 
place for (the obtaining of) a body. 86. 

As,t on the approach of the king, men of violent deeds,§ 
(and) SQch as are addicted to every crimej charioteers and 
governors of viU^es stand prepM^d with food and drink and 

The following uctioni nndertika to dMcribe libentlOD and bondags thenMlvu, 
bondige beiuf like the »nt« of droam and waking, and libaration like profonnd 
•leap. The praient taction (31) aeemi to be an epiaode to recapitulate what haa 
been aald before about the nature of dream, 

* Uenoe to the end of thii Brihmapa and the eopimeiieemeDt of Uie oeit the 
worldly itate of the goal ia deacribed. To explain the firat propMitloa that the 
aont proceed! from the bod;, of which it ia presently poaaeaaedi^to another body in 
the wme manaer aa tt proeeeda from dream to the state of waking, an illoitratlon 
b (iven. S'. 

t Directed by the driver, S'. 

t The laproDie ionl, which ia aelf-ihining light la ite own natnre. Sf. 

i At what lime doe* the lonl atliin thii atate, by what eanaa, in what manner, 
and ba what end ? The aniwer I* gjreo «a followt. The time ia, when man 
BBsnmei the enbtile body, the otnie of It la either old age or diseue, the manner ia 
illnitrated by a oamber of limileato ibow the Tariona wayi in whieh the event may 
tuppen, and the end ii the aainming of another body, 

II This Pnruiha who abides in the anhtila body. S'. 

f From the eye and the otlier membera of the body whidk he doe* aot preserre 
as before in profonnd sleep (tid. p. 224 (13).) by tbe tfeney of life. S'. 

* As before, when quitting one body and aasumiaf aootlier. S*. 
f In the order opposite to that of hii eutnnca into tbe body. S*. 

X Bnt how can tlis Pnrnsha boild anotlier body, himself hsTing no poirer, in 
absenoe of aay unatants ? The (ireaaot seotion giret the answer. S'. 

i Ugra either meana people of a pafticniar .tribe or meu of violent deeda. S . 



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Mwtk Chapter, JburiX Brdhmana. 233- 

palacea, (saying), he comes, he Approaches, so od (the approach 
of) the conscioas one* all beiugsf stand prepared, (saying), 
thia Brahma comes, this Brahma approaches. 37. 

As, when the king is desirous of coming, men of violent 
deeds, (and) such as are addicted to every crime, charioteers 
and governora of villages go to meet him, so at the time of 
death all the organst go to meet the soul, when breathing its' 
last. 38. 



Fourth Brdhmana. 
When the soul,* after having come to a state, where it has 
QO strength (as it were],t comes to a state of unconsciousness, 
as it were,:^ then the organs go to meet it. Having wholly, 
seized those organs which are throughout resplendent with 
]ight§, the Boul eaters the heart.)] When the Purusha dwel< 
ling in the eye,^ altogether retarns, then (the soulj is uncoii' 
scioua of colour. 1. 



■ Et^di fid, kc wbo knom tb« (rait derived horn work, the worldly loal. S'. . 

f All beings, inch m J^ditja, upon wtiom the eiistence of bod; depends, and 
who render auiituice to the orgme for the perfarmsace of their work. S'. 

t Speech lod the reaC B'. 

* It baa lieea declared, that the Pnrniba a liberated From hia bodiljr member ; 
at what time and in what manner this liberation takes place*, ia now more fully to 
be deseribod, S*. 

i t No itrength ; the waat of itrength of Che body ia here tranaferred to the aonl, 
■Ithoagh in reaUty it cannot be attributed to it. S'. 

i No coaacioiuQeit, no power o( refleclion, aa reflection also li the eCTeet of tho 
Mit of transrerrlns J for to the tool neither reflection nor ita abaence can be 
■icribed ; thii lenae la iodloited In the text by the terra " as it were " S'. 

§ They are reiplendent by their power of manifestation. S'. 

II The heart, th« ether of the heart. S'. 
. 1 The Purusha, dwelling in the eye, ia a part of A'ditya (the deity of tEie sun), 
who Iqi the benetit of the soul in ICa worldly functions remains in the eye ai long 
ai life lasts. After death he qoils hit «Sce, and ia reunited with A'ditya. ST 



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S84 SriM Arofi/aka VprnMad. 

He n one ;* be does not tee, u it ii tud. He ia one ; he 
6oea Dot smell, as it ia aud. He ia one; he does not taate, aa 
it is aaid. He ia one ; he does not apeak, aa it is said. He is 
one; he does not hear, as it is said. He is one; he does 
not mind, aa it ia said. He is one ; he does not touch, aa 
it is said. He is one ; he does not know, as it ia said. The 
entrance to the heart becomes Inminoua y\ through this, when 
thus illuminated, the soulf departs^ either from the eye, or 
fh>m the head, or from other parts of the body. When 
it departs, life departs after it ; when life departs, all the 
organs depart after it. It is endowed with knowledge ;|| 
endowed with knowledge it departs. Knowledgelf and 
work and the knowledge of (its) former (life) pervade it 
irholly. 2. 

As a leech when arrired at the top of a blade of grass, in order 
to gain another place of support, contracts itself; so the soul, in 
order to gain another place of support, contracts itself, after 
having thrown oflF this body and obtained (that state of) know- 
ledge.* 8. 

As a goldsmith, taking a piece of gold, forma another shape, 
which is more new and agreeable, so throwing off this body 
and obtaining (that state of) knowledge, the sonl forma a 
ahape, which ia more new and agreeable, either auited to the 

■ With all bla arfini t or tbe; braome one with tha inbtile wnil. 

f Bccomai InmiDou, u in dream, by tbe light of the loal. S'. 

J The «Oul, cbiricCeriied by linoirledgo, »nd placed in the inbtlle body. S'. 

t From the sya, in order to obtein the world of Xditf R, from tlia heid, to obtain 
tliat of Brahma, and lo with regard to the other parti of the body, icoording to. 
■lan'i (ood or evil ocllons. 8'. 

n Endowed nith knowlBdge, tii, with incli haawUdge a* It hai in dream, which 
ii B knowledge of iinpreationa referring to their reipectire objeeti. And thia 
hnowledge ii the effect of actions, not of the ooal. S'. 

\ Knowledge, whieh is enjoined, incb oa refera to the loal, whicb ia prohibited, 
■och u looking at * naked woman, whieh is not enjoined and not prohibited, 
knowledg* of indiSertnt objeetj. Tbe lama elasaiSaatioB appUei to work. K, G. 

* WUoh U foondad apoii in^nnioM m in • dnwa. 



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Hturth Chapter. Ifourth Sriimana. 235 

vorld of the forefathers, or of the OttndharTas, or of the goda, 
or of Fraj£pati, or of Brahma, or of the other beings, 4. 

This soul,* — which is Brahma,t which resembles knowledge,} 
miad] lire,§ eye,|| ear, earth,^ water, air, ether, light, not 
light,* desire, not desire,t wrath, not wrath, virtue, not VU' 
tue,t which resembles all, which is this, which is not this,— 
becomes as are its works,^ and conduct. He whose works 
are good becomes good; he whoae works are evil becomes evil. 
By holy works one becomes holy, by evil works, evil. Like- 
wise (others) Bay,[| this Furnsha has the nature of desire. At 
bis desire, so is his resolve, as his resolve, so is his work, at 
fais work, so is bis reward.^ 6. 

Here applies this memorial verse, — He who is attached* (to 
worldly objects), obtains by means of work the object to which 
his mind as the cause is attached. Having arrived at the last 
(effect) of the work which he here performs, he comes from 
this world again to this world in consequence of (his) work. 
Thus he who desires (wanders from world to world). But 
the organs of him who does not desire,t who has no desires, 

* The soni, vhicb proceedi from on« bodily lUte to utotber. S'. 
t Bribma in hii trae Dxtnre. 

} I&Celleet. | The Atb Tital fanetioni. 

II By tbe perceptiaa of eoloar, ind thua it reiemblei the other oipuil bj the 
percepUon of tbeir objecti. 
f B; the tuQining of ui eirtbly body. S'. 

* Light, by uaamiDg tbe body of s god, not light, by lunmiiig the body of ■ 
bnita, etc. S'. 

i* When dieoorering, that > deaire ii irrong. S'. 

} ThroDgh deaireand irrath, tte. men becamsa Ticioui onirtnoiu, no letion being 
pouible without prcTioat deiire ; by the perfbrmiDce of good or bed ectiDiiB he be- 
oomei ill, u the world la its menifeatil itate is the effect of Tirtac *ad lice. S'. 

§ Warka whidi are exprenly esjolned or prohibited, conduct which is not ex- 
preialy eajolned, or prohibited. 

II It la Irae, that lice and rirtue are the CaDKa of worldly eliitenee, prorided 
tkey are preceded by deaire, etc S', 

f Therefore ii deilre the root of the whole world. S*. 

* Hu a deiire to obtain any object. 

t For he who does not deaire, doet not act. S'. 



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28G Srihad Artm/aia UpOnishad. 

^ho is beyond desires, whose desires are satisfied, whose deairo 
is the. soul, do not depart (from the body).* Being even 
Brabm'ftt, he obtains Brahma.^ (*■ 

. Here api^ies this memorial verse, — " When all desires, 
dwelling, in the heart,§ have been quitted, then the mortal 
becomes immortal ;|| (then) he enjoys berelf Brahma." "As 
the slough of a snake aa (something) dead is abandoned on 
an ant-hill, so is this body (by the soul). Then this uncor- 
poi'eal, immortal life* is even Brahma, even light."t "1 wiH 
give thee, O Venerable, a thousand (cowb)," siud Janaka, the 
king of the Vid^has. 7. 

" Here apply these memorial verses, J — " The narrow,^ wide- 
exteiided,|j anclentl road is touched by me, fully obtained by 
me. On this (road) proceed* also the (other) sages who know- 
Brahma, to heaven,t to (their) place, when liberated from thia 
body. 8. 
. Here (is this dissent).} (Some) call it white, some blue; 



* There being no came for it. S'. 

t In thli world, sUhough jret lemBining in the bod;. S'.^ 
} After hie death. S'. 
S In Intellect. 

(I Tiio deiirei whioli refer le what ii not the loul, characteriied by igDorascc, 
■n death ; by leparation (ram death, immortalUj ennira. S'. 
f In this body. S'. 

* Life meiua here Brahma, the aapreme laul. 

t The aelf-abining light of the >ou1, by which the world i» muiifeated. 

J The following Sloka* ire intended to expUlo more fjrily the tiew, obulned in 
the Mantra Brihmana, that liberalion enaaei for kim wlioaa only object of deun b 
the 10 nl and who haa the knowledge of Brahma. S'. 

i Narrow from the difficulty in dieooTcring it, S'. 

[| Instead of Titat« (wide Eitended) another reading, mentioned by S'., ie rilira 
(whieh c»ni»s man to turn from the common road to Brahma}. 

^ Becauae it ia taught by the etefnal S'ruti. S'. 

■ Proceed to obtain liberation, the effect reaolting from the knowledge of Bnh- 
mi. S'. 

t Hearan meani here the inpreme Brabma. 

t Amont thoi« who are deairsui of liberation. S'. 



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Ibarth Chapter. ^Eourth Srdhmana. 237 

some yellow, or green, or red.* That Toa6 is fully penetrated 
by Brtihma. On this (road) proceeds he who knows Brahma; 
who has been a doer of good,t whose nature is like light. 9. 

Those who worship ignorance^ enter into gloomy darkness ;§ 
into still greater darkness those who are devoted to know- 
ledge.ll 10. • . 

To the so>named blissless^ worlds, covered with gloomy 
darkness, go all the people, when departing (from this world), 
who are ignorant, unintelligent.* 11. 

If one knowst the soul;!: so as to comprehend it as his own 
self, then for what desire or for whose wish should he suffer 
the ills of the body? 12. 

He whose soul, penetrated (and) illumined (by the supreme 
iBrahma), has entered this (body) which abounds with doubts 
«nd perpleiities, is the creator of the universe ; for he is the 
lord of all; he is the place of it; he is even the place.^ 13. 
- * Thej Coniider the road either to be thoie Teiaela, like the Snshumnii, which 
from the jaice thej contmia {yid. p. 227 and Cfah. U. 8, 6, 1) ere white, etc., ot 
to be the uroe with the paih that leadi to A'ditjK. Bat Bt*hmB ii diSerent ftoai 
■n; of thoM coloon, the road which lead* to him, bean no relation to the world ; 
tboie thersrore, who proceed b; an; particolsr raid, ai bjr tfae eje, the bead, or anj 
other pert of the body, gain the world of Brahma, etc., but not liberatioD which 
U onlj gained bf kaowledge of Brahma. S'. 

f Who hu bean • doer of good, tbui I traaalated in accordance witb S'.'a cor. 
reet remark, that he baa been ao id a former time, before be nttained perfect know- 
ledge, ai on ita attainment, everf desire hai ceaaed to eiiat. 

X Those who warghip any object different from the abject of knowledge, that ia 
to nj, all thoae who ace engaged in action. S'. 

§ Darknea* means anj place where the nature of the loul is nnknown. S'. 

II Knowledge, which hat reference to the objscti of ignorance, even the know- 
kdge of the three Vedaa si thej are intended for the perforai*DCe of work. S'. 
Vid. Vij. S. U. 9, (B. I. vol. 15, p. 73 note), where the same Sloka occura. 

5 Thia passage ia aimilar to that in V£j. S., 3, where instead of '■ bliislesl" the 
.term " godlesa" occara. 
I * Who are incapable of comprehending the sonl. S'. 

f To extol the knowledge of the aonl, the text declare*, that he who haa thia 
knowledge it eieinpt from bodil; lltt. A'. G. 

X The sapreme aoul »i hii own lelf. 

S Oaetonlofall. S'. 

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S8S Srihad Aran^aka Vpanithad. 

Being here* we know perhaps, (Brahmn) ; if we do not 
know him, if there be igBorance (of him), then great calamitjt 
(enaueB). Those who know him become immortal; again (all) 
others undergo even nnhappinesB. 14. 

When a person beholds (hia own) aoul as god, as the true 
Buler of what was and what is to be, then he does not wish 
to conceal (his self) from him.f IS- 

Adore him, ye gods, after whom§ the year by rolling 
days is completed, the light of lights, as the immortal 
life. 16. 

I, the wise, immortal, comprehend as the immortal Brahma 
the soul upon which the five (kinds of) beingsH and the ether^ 
are founded. 17. 

Those who know him as the life of life, the eye of the eye, 
the ear of the ear,* (and) the mind of the mind, have compre- 
hended the old, before existing Brahma. 18. 

By the mind is he to be seen ;t in him there is no varie- 
ty, Whoever sees variety in him, proceeds from death to 
death.:]: 19. 

In one manner (onty)§ is to be seen (the being) which can- 



* Thit ona who know* Bribmi ht« obtiioad the highnt object of Hfe, ii not 
onlf proTsd by tba S'rati, bat also bjr hia own eipericnee. A'. O. 

t CaUmitjr, by being mbject to cndleu traogniigrttiont from one body to tnotber. 
fi". Vid. s limilsr piBiigB in S.6at U. 2, G. 

{ From the Ruler ; for all perions <rho perceivs themielTei differaat from him 
with to conceal themMlTca from God. E'. 

i The Ruler, Yid. Kith. U. 6, 3 and Taitt. U. 3, 6. 
. II Vli. Uie Ouidharra), (he tore-fa then, the p>di,tbeAiDnt and the Eikihaihaa, 
or tba flva ouCea, Induding the NiiblUUi. S', 

f Tha ether apaa which eiery thing ia woven and rewoTen. 8'. Tid. p. 203, 

' For bf tbemseliei, without the light of Brahma, are all theae organa Inanimate 
like a tree or a clod of earth, S'. Vid. a similir paaMige in Kiaa. U. I, 2. Kafha 
V. 6, 1, and Taitt, U, a, B. 

t Kafha U. 1, 11. S'wet. 4, 17. 

t Tid. a elmitar pauage in Kafha U. 4, 10 and II. 

{ That ii to aa;, in an aniform manner, without anj ditUnotten. 



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jebmH Chapter. iBomih Briluaana. S39 

not be proved,* which is eternal, vithout ipot,f higher than 
the etber,^ unboTn,§ the great, eternal soul. 20. 

Enovingji bim let the wiie Br&hman form hia notion (after 
him) ; let him not meditate on many sounds;^ for words are 
embarrassing. !£]. 

This grest,'^ unborn soul is the same which abides as the 
intelligent (soul) in all living creatures, the same which 
abides as etberf in the heart ; in bim it sleeps ; it is the sub- 
doer of all, thej: B-nler of ell] the sovereign lord of all ; it 
does not become greater by good works, nor less by evil work. 
It is the Kuler of all, the sovereign lord of all beings,^ the 
Preserverll of all beings, the bridge,^ the Upholder of the 
worlds* BO that they fall not to ruin. In accordance with 
the word of the V^dasf the Br&hmans^ desire to comprehend 

* It caaDbt be pravsd, beeauM it li withoat difference, nniforiD ; for proof U 
onlj' poulble by metni of snothet thing, but Brihma li onn, and [hare ii nothing, 
beaide bim. Here appeui to be ■ contradiction, — it caanot be pioied, and yet it ia 
known, that ii to lay, it can be compreheaded by proof. Tliia objection, hon- 
•ler, hu here do fores, becanaa ths prohibition, refen to the relatiao between proof 
and object of proof ooneermng common things but hai no authority reapeoting tlie 
S'rnti. S. t Without Tirtne or Tice. S', 

X The ether (Igniaea the aumanifcital atate of the world, and " higher" either 
more lubtile or more penadiag. S'. 

S Unborn, by thii epithet all other modification* are eicinded, became erery 
thing mnit have firat an origin before it can haie any relation. S'. 

[I Knowing, according to the inalructlon of the teacher and the S'iatra. 

\ fiecauae plurality ia forbidden, and it is said ■' By Om" meditate on the loul. S'> 

* Bondage and libeniiioo, together with their caniea, hare been deicribed in the 
Mantrai, Br£hmiiaB>, and Slokai ; again, the nature of liberation bai been fully 
explained. The preaent aeclion hat the object to allow the relation wbioh tha 
whole Ted* beara to Ihe knowledge of the anpreme Brahn^ S'. 

-f- Ether, the abode of intellect and knowledge, or it may be, according to 8'., 
the ether, abidingin the internal organ at tbe time of profound aleep, that ia to lay, 
the tupreme loul without atlribulea, whoae nature ia knowledge, hii own nature. 
In thia hia own nature, or in the anpreme soul which ia called ether, he aleepa. 

% Of Brahma, Indra, eta. S'. { From Brahm& down to inanimate matter. S'. 

(I or the rule* of the casta and ordera, etc S'. V Vid. Chh. U. 8, i. 

* From the earth up to tiie Brahma world. S'. 
t That ia to lay, Mantrai and Brfhrnaaai. &'. 

t Tbe Br&hmana indicatca here the three llrtt ceata ) for there ta no di&renee 
between than with regard to koowladge, S'. 



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240 Srihad Aranyaha Vpanishad. 

him by sacrifice,* gift, ascetic vorkf and subduing of desires.^ 
One who knovs him tbtis, becomes a Muiii.§ Desiring him 
as (their) place, the wandering mendicants wander about. [| 
This is indeed (the cause of the state of wandering mendicant), 
that the ancient sages did not desire offspring^ (thinking hj 
themselres), — What shall we do by means of offspring. Those to 
whom, (like) us,+ the soulf ia the (supreme) place, lead the life 
of a religious mendicant, after they have abandoned the desire for 
a son, the desire for wealth and the desire for (heavenly) places ; 
for the desire for a son is the same as the desire for wealth ; the 
desire for wealth is the same as the desire for (heavenly) places ; 
for both are even desires. The soul,^ which is not this, nor 
that, nor ought else, is intangible ; for it cannot be laid hold of, 
it is not to be dissipated; for it cannot be dissipated ^ it 
is without contact, for it does not come into contact ; it is 
not limited ; it is not subject to pain nor to destruction ; 

* Sacrifice, or ceremoaiid woik ii general, althoagh not a dirsct meana of pro. 
docing tbe Icnooledge oF Bnbma, is neceasar; to puriff the mind ; when the mind 
IB so parified, kaonledge ia poasible, no obitade oppoaing it. S'. 

f Ascetic itork, *a the Cbindit^a^, saya S'., wLich ia a kind of Anting for tbe 
expiation of un. 

X Liteiallj, abstaining from food. The three first obligationa (sacrifice, gift 
and ascetic work) inclnde all tbe permanent worki, enjoined bjr the V^daa, and the 
last (fatting) an abatainiag from deaires. Bf thoie meuii, a desire to comprehend 
the aoul is produced. S*. 

f Muni, mananat muni, a Yogi, who, while jet aliTs, has obtained liberation. S'. 

II That it to BSf, thej haie abandoned all nork. S'. 

^ OETspring indioatea work and the knowledge of the Interior Brahma, aa tb« 
' cause of obtaining the t|Kes external worlda. S'. 

* Like SB "ho haTc the troe knowledge of the aonl. S". 
f In its own nature. 

' } If it be admitted, that tbe soul is the place, why ia there a meant 
required for obtaining it, and for what reason it the state oF wandering 
mendicant neceasarjr, since it is aaid, work should not be entered npon ? The 
answer is, the aonl, for whoae deaiie one eboald enter the state of wandering 
mendicant, haa no connexion yrith woika. Why? It evidently fallows from 
B«cb negations as, it cannot be eelied. Becanae tlia aonl thua compre- 
hended, lii, independent of work, cbum and effect, fret from eier; worldly 



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Ibartk Chaptar. Iburth SrOmoM. 24 1 

those* two do vetily not subdue him ; therefore (he does not 
say), — I have doae evil, or I have done good. He subdues 
them both ; neither good nor evil deeds agitate him. 22. 

The samet is said in the following B.ik, — The eternal 
greatness of the Br&hman is neither increased by work,t 
nor diminished.^ Let him even know the nature of that 
(greatness) ; knowing that (greatness), he is not stuaed by 
evil work.]] Therefore one who thus knows, who has subdued 
his senses,^ who is calm,* free from all desires, enduring, f and 
composed in mind,^ beholds the soul in the soul alone, be- 
holds the whole soul; sin does not subdue him ; he subdues 
sin ; sin does not consume him ; he consumes 8in.§ He is 
free from sin, free from doubt, be is pure, be is the (true) Brfih- 
man ; this is the (true) world of Brahma, O king of kings," 
thus spoke Yfijnavalkya. " I will give thee, O Venerable, the 
kingdom of the Vid^bas, and my own self, to become thy 
slave." 23. 



■ttribate, beyond cTeiy detire, not pouetied d( gionatn ind the Ilka attribntM, 
Dnboni, Biidecaring, imniortal, beyond (eir, like a Imop of rock'ialt, of one nniform 
DRtiue which ii knowledge, a aelf-ihioing light, one alone, without daaliCj, without 
beginning, withoat end, nst within, not withoot, becaase thii ii eitabliihed by the 
S'rati and bj diacsiaion, eipecially by the conTenation between Janaka and Y£jna- 
Talkja, theroFore, itii alio eitablialied, that no work ii entered into, it the loal 
be thna comprehended. S'. 

t The tame, which hai been bad Mid in the BribmaQa, ii alio declared in a 
Mantra. S'. 
t By good work. 
{ By OTil work. 
U Or exalted by good work. 
^ The external Beniea. S'. 

* Who hu overcome the deiirei of the iateraal organ. S'. 
t CapiblB of beacing <ach oppoiite agenta, aa hunger and tbini, beat and cold. 



X Haling fixed hit attention upon one point odIj. S'. 

i He contnniee (in by the fire of the knowledge of the loul. S'. 



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24^ Bfihad Aranyaka VpanUhad. 

This soul* is great, unborQ, the consumer of food,t the giTeir 
of wealth. Whoever thus kuows, obtains wealth. 24, 

This]: great, unborn, nndecajing, undying, iiamortal, fear- 
less soul is Brahma; Brahma is verily fearless ; he who thus 
kuows, becomes verily the fearless Brahma. 25. 

Ft/tn Brtihmana.^ 

Yfijnavalkya then had two wives, Maitriyi aud K&tyfiyani. 
Among them, Maitr^yl was food of discassing the nature of 
Brahma, K&tyayani wise in the duties of a house-wife. YSj- 
navalkya was desirous of attaining another order superior (to 
that of houae-holder). 1, 

"Maitr^yi," said Yijnavalkya, " Behold, I am desirous of 
quitting this order for that of a wandering mendicant ; there- 
fore, let me divide (my property) amongst thee and K£tty£- 
yani there." 2. 

Maitr^yi said, — " If, O Venerable, this whole vrorld with all 
its wealth were mine, could I become immortal thereby?" 
Yijnavalkya said, " By no means. Like the life of the 

* That ii fa uj, the gout »hoie nitnre bat been eipUinid ia the ooaTersatiaA 

between Janaka and T£jaaTalk;a. S'. 

t Abiding in all belnga, coainmiiig every food. 

t The meaning of the whole Aranyaka it eipresaed in the present Mction. S'. 

{ The preaent Bifhmana, with Ibe exception of the flrat aection and part of the 
fourteenth and fifteenth aectiona, ia a literal repetition of the fourth BrShmana in 
the lecond chapter. Tide pp. 177 — 181> S'ankaia'i explanation of this circutnatanea 
la ingenioas, although aomewhat strained. We give it here, in order that the reader 
may judge for himaelf. The natnre of Brabma has been determined in thoMadba- 
kin^a, the principal part of the S'aatra, and also in the Brahmaki^Jla, Again it baa 
been thoroogbly lifted bj diacuBiion in the Y^jnavalkjakiq^a, nhlch U the principal 
part aa to the method b; which that knowledge is acquired. And Ustlj, it has been 
declared after tall discmsion by means of the relation between disciple and teacher in 
the fourth chapter. The Msllr^j! Br^hmava aeriea therefore to Bhow the conclusion 
after the manner of the logicians, who define a conclusian to be " the repetition of the 
proposition, because the reason has been stated." (Njiya SiStrai, 1, 38.) The pnb 
position, here referred to, is that the knowledge of Brahma, when acoompanied with 
the TeDOnciatioD of tbe world, ia the means, b; which immortalitj is attMoed. 



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Mtirtk Chapter. Fi/lh Brdhtnana. 243 

wealthy thy life might become; by wealth, however, there is 
no hope of (obtaining) immortality." 8. 

Maitreyi said, — "Of what use would be wealth to me, if I 
did not become thereby immortal. Tell me, O Venerable, any 
(means of obtaining immortality) which thou kuowest." 4, 

Y^juavalkya said, — " Behold, (thou waat) dear to us before, 
(and now) sayeat thou what is dear. Come, sit down ; I will 
explain to thee (the menuB of obtaining immortality) ; eudea- 
Tour to comprehend my explanation." 5. 

He said, — " Behold, not indeed for the husband's sake the 
husband is dear (to the wife), but for the sake of the self, is 
dear the husband. Behold, not indeed for the wife's sake, 
the wife is dear (to the husband), but for the sake of the self, 
is dear the wife. Behold, not for the sons' sake, the sons are 
dear (to the parents), but for the sake of the self are dear the 
' sons. Behold, not for the property's sake, property is dear 
(to one), but for the sake of self is property dear. Behold, not 
iat the Brahma's sake, the Brahma is dear, but for the sake 
of self is dear the Brahma. Behold, not for the Eshattra's 
sake is the Kahattra dear, but for the sake of the self is dear 
the Eshattra. Behold, not for the worlds' sake, the worlds 
are dear, but for the sake of the self, are dear the worlds^ 
Behold; not for the gods' sake the gods are dear, but fur the 
sake of the self are dear the gods. Behold, not for the V^daa' 
sake are the V^das dear, but for the sake of the self are dear 
the Yedas. Behold, not for the elements' sake the elements 
are dear, but for the sake of the self are dear the elements. 
Behold, not for the sake of the unirerse, the universe is dear, 
but for the sake of the self is dear the universe. Behold, the 
self is verily to be seen, heard, minded (and) meditated upon. 
Behold, O Maitreyi, by seeing, hearing, minding, knowing the 
self, all this (universe) is comprehended. 6. 

"The Brahma should disown a person, who considers the 
Brahma (cast) as something different from (his) self; the 
Kshattra should disown a person, who considers the Kshattra 
2 I 2 

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24rl Brihad Aranyaka Upattiiiad. 

(cast) as sometliing differeii,t from (his) self; the world shoald 
disown a pereoD who considers the world as Bomethin; different 
from (his) self; the gods shoald disown a person, who considers 
the gods as something different from (his) self; the elements 
should disown a person, who considers the elements as some- 
thing different from (his) self; the nniverse should disown a 
person, who considers the universe as something different from 
(his) self. This (own) self is this Brahma, this Kshattra, these 
worlds, these gods, these elements, is this uniTerse. 7. 

"As a person, when a drum (unseen by him) is beaten, is 
nnable to perceive the sounds proceeding from it (as sounds of 
a dram), bnt on the perception of tbo drum, the sound of a 
drum beaten is perceired. 8. 

" Aa a person, when a shell (unseen by him) is blAwn,is nna- 
i)le to perceive the sounds proceeding from it (as sounds of a 
shell), but on the perception of the shell, the sound of a shell ' 
blown is perceived, 9. 

" As a person, when a flute (unseen to him) is played, is unable 
to perceive the sonnds proceeding from it, but on the percep- 
tion of the flute, the sound (rf a flute played is perceived. 10. 

"As from fire, made of damp wood, proceed smoke, sparks, 
etc. of various kind, thus, behold, the breathing of this great 
being is the Big Veda, the Tajur V^da, the S&ma Veda, the 
Atharva and Anglrasa, the narratives, the doctrines on creation, 
the science, the Upanishads, the memorial verses, the aphor- 
isms, the explanation of tenets, the explanation of mantras, — 
alt these are his breathing. 11. 

" As the only site of the waters is the sea, thus the only site 
of every tonch is the skin, thus the only site of every taste the 
tongue, thus the only site of every smell the nose, thus the 
only site of every colour the eye, thus the only site of every 
sound the ear, thus the only site of every determination the 
mind, thns the only site of every knowledge the heart, thus 
the only site of every act the hands, thus the only site of every 
pleasure the organ of generation, thus the only site of every 



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Ibwth Chapter. Fifih Br&hmana. 245 

evacaatioD the anas, thus the only site of every motion the 
feet, thui the only site of every V^da, speech. 12. 

" Ai a piece of salt, when thrown into water, is dissolved into 
mere water, and none is capable of perceiving it, because, from 
whatever place a person might take (water), it would have the 
taste of salt, (but be no piece of salt], thus, behold, this great 
being, which is infinite, independent and mere knowledge. 
Springing forth together with those elements, (the individual 
soul) is destroyed, when they are destroyed. Afler death, no 
conscience remains ; thus, O Maitr^yl, I hold." Thus said 
Yiijn»valkya. 18. 

Maitreyi said,—" With regard to the soul thou hast bewilder- 
ed me, O Venerable, (by the saying, — After death no conscience 
remains.) I do not comprehend that (soal)." Y&jnavalkya 
said,—" Behold, I verily do not create bewilderment ; behold 
this soul is indestructible ; its nature is withoat variance. 14. 

" For where there is, as it were, duality, there sees anothec 
another thing, there smells another another thing, there tastes 
another another thing, there speaks another another thing, 
there hears another another thing, there minds another an- 
other thing, there touches another another thing, tiiere 
knows another another thing ; but how does one, to whom all 
has become mere soul, see any thing, how smell any thing, 
how taste any thing, how speak any thing, how hear any 
thing, how mind any thing, how touch any thing, how know- 
any thing ? How should he know him by whom he knows 
this all ? This soul is not this, nor ought else ; it is unseiza- 
hle ; for it cannot ~ be seized ; it is not scattered ; for it 
cannot be scattered ; it is without contact ; for it comes not 
into contact ; it is withoat colour ; it is not subject to pain 
or destruction. How should one know the knower ? In this 
manner art thou instructed. So far, O beloved Maitreyi, ex- 
tends in truth immortality." Having said thus, Yfijnavalkya 
went to the forest. 16. 



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346 Brihad Aram/oka Upanithad. 

Sixth Br&Amaija, 

Next folloirfl the Bchool commencing from Fautimfishya.* 
Paatim&slij'a succeeded Oanpavana, — Gaapavana, Paiitim&shya, 
— Pantim&shya, Oaupavana, — (jaupavaaa, Kaus'ika, — Kaiia'i- 
ka, Kaun^inya, — Kauti4iiiya, S'&n4il7a, — S'&nc}ilya, Kaua'ika 
and Gautama, — Gautama, 1. 

.d^ivla'ya, — Xgaiv^s'ya,t Gfirgya, — Gfirgya, G&rgya, — Qir- 
gya, Qautama, — Gautama, Saitava, — Saitara Plir&a'aryfiya^a,— 
P^r^'aryHya^a, G&rgy&yai^a, — Oiirgyliya^a, Uddilok&yana, — 
Udddlokfiyaaa, Jfiv&l&yana, — J&r&l&yana, M&dhyandin&yaua, — 
Mfidhyandiafiyana, SaukarilyK^A, — Saukar&yaua, Egsh^yana, 
— Kfahfiyapa, Siyakiyana, — SHyakiyana, Kaua'ikSyani, — Kau- 
a'ik&yani, 2, 

Ghritakaua' ika, — Ghritakaus' ika, Fir&s'ary^yana, — Ffiriu'- 
sry&yapia, Far&'arya, — P&r^'arya, Jfitukar^ya, — J^tukarnya, 
Aaurfiya^a and Y&aka, — Xsar&yafia, SraiTa^i, — Sraiva^i, Aupa- 
jandhani, — Aupajandhani, Asnri, — ^suri, Bh&radvlija, — Bh&ra< 
dv&ja, ^tr£ya, — Atr^ya, M&i;iti, — Mtinfi, Gautama^— Gautama, 
Gautama, — Gautama, V&tsya, — Y&tiya, S'li94''yt>) — S'^4>J7b> 
Xaia'orya K&pya, — Kais'orya K&pya, Kumirah&nta,-~Kum&- 
rab&rita, G&laTa, — Gfilava, Yidarbhi Kaa^^i^fit* — ^Vidarbhl 
Kau94i'^ySi VatsauapUt V&bhrava, — Yatsaaap&t Vfibhrava, 
JPanth^h Saubbara, — Paathfih Saubhara, Ay&sya Angirasa, — 
Ayfisya Angirasa, Xbhilti Tv&shtar, — Abhuti Tvishtar, Vis- 
varupa Tv&abtar, — ^Visvanlpa Tvfishtar, the two As'rins, — the 
twoAs'Tma, Dadhyat Atharvnna, — Dadhyat Atharvana,Atharvfi 
Daiva, — AtbarvS Daiva, Mrityu Fr^dhvaaana, — Mrityu PrSdh- 
vasana, Fr&dhvasana, — Pr&dhvasana, Ekarishi, — Ekariahi, 
Yiprachitti, — ^Viprachitti, Vyashti, — Yyashtij San&ru, — Sa- 
nfira, San&tana, — Sanataua, Sanaga, — Suiaga, Param^ahthi, — 
Param^sbthi, Brahma,]: — Brahma is tlie self-existent ; saluta- 
tion to Brahma. 

* Two more liiti of tcBcheri are giTon in Ihii Upaniihtid, vii. 4, 6, and 6, S. 
t From Sgniiit'ju to Kaus'ikijani the naio«> of teacheri diffar from thoM given 
in 4, 6, 2. 

i Paramethlbi deoDlea Viri;, and Brahma, HiraqyagKTbha. S'. 



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lyth Chapter. Second Srdimtma. 217 

FIFTH CHAPTER. 

Firat Brdhmet^. 

iDfinite* is thatjt infinite ib this. From the infinite one 
proceeds the iofinite one. On taking the infinityit °^ ^^® i"^- 
nite one, there is left infinity. 

Oin is the ether,§ is Brahma. The etherjl exists of old, 
the ether is the soarce of the wind, thus s&id the soa of 
Kauravy&yam. That (Omkara) is the V^da. The Brfthmans. 
know (vidur) that by this (name) one knova (v6da) all that is 
to be kuowa (T^ditavya). 

Second Brdkmana. 

The three-fold oETspriog of Fraj^pati, gods, men and Asuraa 

followed at religioas students their father Pr&jipatl. The 

' In Iha pTBcediag foar chipteri tha knowkdgie of Brahmi In hii independent 
nttare hu been eipUinad i in tlie preient chapter the model of meditation on the 
■onl in iti Tarloni relationi are aet folth. Tiiete modes, not at Tarianca with the 
performanea of work, lead to a higher and higher atata of eilitenoe, and eSeot the 
gradual liberation of the ioul from tlie world. The firitof them ii the Omkara, aa 
tieing the moit eminent, after which follow the commands of raitraiat, liberalitf, 
knd compaaaion. S', 

t That (adah) retera to the imperceptible Brahma, wbo fi all-pervading and 
Independent of an; relation, thit (idam) to Brahma a« eoncelTtd under relationi.' 
" loGaite," purna ; the literal meaning of wbioh ia tall, and whioh S'. eiplaina bj 
not finite, all-penading. It ia infinite, (or full), ha continaeB, as pervaded bj the 
luptems aonl, not by the indiridnal aonl, since the tatter is miolied to relations, 
" The infioitei" — considered ai effect, " proceed* from the infinite,"— conildered 

} Taking the infinity, literally the Infinite one, and tha same ia, eomprebendine 
the one Identical nature of Brahma, bj the omisiion of all relatire attribute!. 
$ Accordiog to S'., Stahma ia the lubjeet, and Eha (the ether) the predicate of 

II The etber (khs) contains two meanings, as andent it repreaenta the snprene 
soul, and u the aonrce of the wind, it repreaenta tha inferior Brahma. He isue 
appliei to the sound Om, the repreMntatira of Kha. S'. 



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S18 Brihad Arattgaht Vpanithad. 

gods, having finished their time of learning, said (to Praj&pati), 
— "Tell us, O Yeaerable, (our duty)." He proclaimed to them 
the syllable Da. " Do yoa comprehend }" They answered, 
— " We do comprehend. Restrain your desires, hast thou said 
to us." He swd, — " Om ! you have fdlly comprehended." 

Then the men aaid to him, — "Tell na, O Venerable, {our 
duty)." He proclaimed to them the letter Da. "Do. yon 
comprehend ?" They answered, — " We do comprehend. Be 
liberal, hast thoa said to us." He said, — " Om t you have fully 
comprehended." Then the Asuras said to him, "Tellua, O 
Venerable, (our duty)." He proclaimed to them the letter 
Da. " Do you comprehend ?" They answered, — " We do 
comprehend. Be clement, bast thou said to ua." He aaid, — 
" Om ! you have fully comprehended." The same is repeated by 
a divine voice with the force of thunder, viz. the syllables Da, 
Da, Da, meaning, Bo restrained (ddmyaia), be liberal (datta), 
and be clement (tfayadhvam). Therefore let one leaia the 
triad of restraint, liberality and clemency. S. 



Third Brdhmana.* 

This Praj&patit is the heart (hridaya),} this Brahma,§ this 
all. " Hridaya" consists of three syllablea. The first syllable 
ia Hri. To him who thus knows, the senses and the reBt|| 
perform (abhiA»ranti), (their work). The second syllable 

' ReitraiDt, liberality and clemency are th« bigliest of all modei of idonitkn ; 
toi he, iibo*e piutoni are aabdued, who ia not deBirool of f-in, and who ii menu- 
fol, a in pOHCfsioD of all tbota modea. Id the preceding two Brfihrnavaa the b*- 
ditatioa on Brahma withoat attribotea baa been eiplained, tbe preaent riiowa An 
cleTsted pUcea, obtained bom meditating on Brahma aa endowed with tttaibotea. 

f The creator of all bringa. S'. 

X Tlie intellect, abiding in the heart. S'. 

§ Brahma, from bia growing (brihattwit) and trom hii bung the )oul of all. S'. 

II The reat, accordiog to S.'. maana tbe objeeta of the aeniM, aa aoonda, etc 



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lyth Ohapttr. lyth BrdhMtttia. S49 

is Da, The senses and the rest bestow (datfati) (power) on 
bint who thus knows. The third syllable is Ya. He who thas 
knows, proceeds, (eti) to heaven, (his) place. 



This* (Brahma) was even trnth-f Whoever knows that 
he, the great, the yeoerable, the firBt-born,{ is thet rue Brahma, 
conquers (his enemy), as (the true Brahma conquers the 
worlds), and destroys him (also) ; for Brahma is truth. 



^M Brdkmatfa.^ 

Waterll was at first this (world).^ Water created truth. 
Truth is Brahma,* Brahma (created) Praj{ipati,t Praj^patf 
the gods. The gods adore even tmth. The name of Satya 
(truth) consists of three syllables. The first syllable is 
"Sa" the second syllable " Ti," and the third syllable " Ya." 
The first and the last syllables (Sa and Ya) are tmth,} tfae 

* In the text the dflmoDitritiTe proaoDD "Ut" it three UmM repeated. Aceord- 
inc to S'. thd first refen to Brahma, deicribed by the Dams of the heart ia the pre. 
ceding Br&hmafa, the Hcond coaneoti it with " itat" which ii to enunciate aome 
other prtdlcite of Brahma, and the third " tal^' indioates the new predicate. 

t Tmth, Sacbcha tyachclia mdrtanch&mlirtaDcha aatyam Brahma pancb»bfalit&t- 
Dukam, lid. p. 17S. (2,3,1.) 

{ Bom before every other bein( which hal a worldly aiiatence. $'. 

{ Thia Bribma^a baa tbe object of eitolling the true Brabma. V. 

II Water iodicalei bare (ha unmanifeited atate of the world, before its creation, 
totether with tfae creator, therefore the aeeda of all eraatioa. 9', 

^ The world in ita manifeatation. S". 

• Tbe first born, Hiraoyajbarbba, or the Sutr&toia. S'. 
t Or tbe Vir&%. S". 

t Because theae two ayllablei occur neither In the word" mrltyn" (death), nor 
intbe word"iuiKt«," while the middle syllable " ta" i» found as welliii"mritjB" 
ai in " anrita." S'. 

2 K 



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2S0 Br^ad Araityaha UpanuiaJ. 

middle ia ialseliood (anrita) ; falsehood, is oq either side en- 
compused by truth ; there is, (therefore), a preponderance of 
truth. Falsehood does not hurt him who (thus) knows. 1. 

That truth* is ^ditya, the Pumsha, (dwelling) in that orb, 
and also the Purusha, (dwelling) in the right eye. They 
abide in each other. The former abides through his rays in 
the latter.t and the latter in the former through his senses. 
When he quits the body, he beholds that pure orb ;i the 
rays do not return to him. 2. 

Bhi! (the earth)^ is the head|| of the Purusha, dwelling in 
that orb, there being one head and also one syllable, — 
Bhuvah (the atmosphere) the arms,— there being two arms, 
and also two syllables, — Swah (the heavens) the foundation,^ — 
there being two fonndatious and also two syllables. His 
representative name is Ahar* (day) ; for whoever thus knows, 
destroys (banti) and relinquishes (jahati) sin. 3, 

Bhd is the head of the Furusha, dwelling in the right eye, — 
there being one head and also one syllable, — Bhuvah, the arms, 
— there being two arms and also two syllables. — Swah the 
foundation, — there being two foundations and also two syllables. 
His representative name is Aham ;t for who, ever thus knows, 
destroys and relinquishes sin. 4. 



* TliB leiitioD eibiblti the mediUtioD on the trao Brahnu in hit leTBra) locaU- 

t The tun iMUti mto bj thi minifeaUUon of objeeti, and mtn the ton b; 
peTception. S'. 

t The moon. S'. 

§ niii MctioD repliei to tbi qneition, which are the ucred DamM and the 
coTrnpondlpg parte of the bodj ot the Ponuha whote name it " Salya," in diat 
orb. S,' 

II The bead from Ita exeellenae. S'. 

^ DenotiD|"faot." 

* Ahar it bete deriTed from the loot " Hi" meaning dther to dettrojr, or to 
rellnquiih. 

t The derintion ot Aham ii lure tlie Mune m Ihat of Ahar, 



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Fifth Ohapter. Mghth Srahmana. 251 

Sixth Brdhmana. 

The Purusha, who resembles* mind, is the true light ;t (he 

abides) within the heart, (in size) like a grain of rice or barley.J 

He is the Ituler of al), the sorereiga lord of all ; he overrules 

whatever exists in this universe. 



Seventh Brdhmana. 

It is said, that " vidyat" (lightning) is Brahma, for vidjut 

is derived from vid&n$t, (tearing asunder^). Whosoever thus 

knows, that Brahma ia vidyut, tears asunder the sins of that 

(soul) ; for vidyut is even Brahma. 



Eighth Brdhmm^. 
Let one meditate on speech (under the semblance of) a 
milk-cow. Her four udders are the words Sw&hfi, Yashat, 
Hants and Swadh£.|| Two udders, the words Sw£h4 and 
Vashat, feed the gods, the word Hauta (feeds) men, and the 
word Swadh& the forefathers. Her bull is life, her young one 
the mind. 

Ninth Brdhmana. 
The fire whose name is Yaisw&nara is that fire in the midst 
of the body, by which all the food that is eaten is digested. 

* S'. eiplaim Che affix '' majrt" in " niaiuiincijk," aot bjr " SwtrlipK" (of Che 
ume nitars vitb tha nuDd), Imt b; " object of the mind," became comprehended 
either in or ij/ tbe mind. 

t Becaoie the miod manifeiti all, and ererjr thing ia an object of the mind. S'. 

t Tid. Kith* U. 3, 11, and S'w^tiU'waUrB U. 3, 13. 

( From tearing unnder tbe darkpeH i for b; deitrojiag the darlcneti of tbe 
cloada, lightning ii manifested, S'> 

II Gliee ii offered to tbe godt bj pronouncing " 8w£hi and Vaihit, rtce to men 
\tj aajing " Hnnta," and Swadhi to Uie forefatberi b; laying " Soadlii," 
2 K 3 



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852 SrHad jfranyata Vpanithad. 

From this (fire) arisea a noise vhich one heara oa closing ttis 
ears. When he* quits the body, he does not hear the noise. 



When the FurnshaJ proceeds from this world (to another), 
he comes to the air. The air opens there as wide for him 
as the apertnre of a chariot-wheel. By this (aperture) he 
ascends, (and) comes to the sun. The same opens there for 
him as wide as the aperture of a Lambara.^ By this he 
ascends, and comes to the moon. The same opens there for 
bim as wide as the aperture of a small dram. By this he 
ascends, and comes to the woTld,|| where there is no grief, 
where there is no snow ;^ there he dwells endless years.* 



Eleventh Briihmana. 

The greatest pain surely is that, which one endures from 
sickness. Whoever thus knows, gains the highest world. 
The greatest pain surely is (to think) that they carry one 
after death to the forest. Whoever thaa knows, gains the 
highest world. The greatest pain surely is (to think) that 
they lay the (body of the) deceased in the fire. Whoever thus 
knows, gains the highest world. 



* The iddlTidn*! who expeTinuwi piin or pleiiqn in the bodf. S.' 
i In thli BrfibmiTu. the frnitj, oonicqaent pp<Hi the abOTementioiied kloda of 
meditation, are stated. S'. 

i Xbt FuTothi whp hu tbe knowledge before deeeribed. S'. 

I A kind of mniicRl initmmBDt, probablje large dram. 

II To the world or Prajipea $'. 

^ Qrief dsootea mental pain, and ulow p«in, ariiing from tbe bod]>. S'. 
■ Manr Kalpaa of BrahnUi. 9'. 



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Mflh Chapter. Thirteenth Srihmana. 253 

7Ve(AA BrdkmajM. 

Some say, " Food is Brahma." This is not so ; food decays,* 
without (the sapport of] life. Others say, "Life is Brahma." 
This is not bo ; life dries up without (the support of) food. 
Those deitiest rerily, when becoming one, attain the highest 
state. { Thus (reflecting) F&trida said to his father, — " Can 
I do any good or evil to one who thus kuowe?"' He 
answered (checking him) with his hand, — " Do not (speak 
thus), O Fitrida ; for who, that is the unity of them, can 
ever obtain the highest state?" He§ said to him "Vi;" food 
is verily " Vi ;" for all these beings enter|[ food. (Again he 
said to him) " Bam •" life rerily is Bam ; for all these beings 
sport in life. Into him who thus knows, enter all beings ; iu 
him sport all beings. 



Thirteenth Brdhmana, 
The Uktha^ is verily life; therefore (let one meditate on) 
the Uktha ; for life causes this all to spring up, (utth^payati). 
From him who thns knows, springs up a sou who knows the 
XJktha, and is firm. Whoever thus knows, gains the same 
nature* and the same place with the Uktha. 1. 



* While Brahma It withoat decij, S'. 
t Food *Dd ure. 

. X ^* i^'" of Brahms. 
% The bther. 

II Are dependent upon food. 

S Ukth* u the prindpel Mantra in the rite, called MahibreU. The Uktha i* 
the principal rite, and life it kIbd finC among the other functiont. S'. 

• S.' eiplaina SSjuj^a bj idealitj of badj, oigaiu and conieioniaeii, Tid. p, 
S5. The Sijnjfa and Salokatf are two of the fire kinda of liberatioii which are 
tpecified in the S'ri- Bbigavat, 3, 29, *ii. Silokfa, S£rati, Simlpjra, 8£rlip)a and 
EkatwB. Tid. 8«bd* K. D. 



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264 Srihad Xrmyaka UpanuTiad. 

The Yajur ii rerily life ; therefore (let oae meditate on) the 
Yajur ; for in life are all these beings anited (yaiyaate). With 
him vho thus kaowa are all beings united for the sake of bis 
Buperiori^. Whoever thus knows, obtains the same nature 
end the same place with the Yajur. 2. 

The S^ma is verily life ; therefore (let one meditate on) the 
S&ma ; for in life meet all these beings together (Samyambi). 
For him who tbos knows meet all these beings together for 
the sake of his superiority. Whoever thus knows, ohtuna the 
same nature and the same place with the S&ma. 3. 

The Kshattra is verily life ; (therefore let one meditate on) 
the Kshattra; for life saves (tr&yate) this (body), when it is 
wounded (Kshanitoh) . Whoever thus knows, gains the 
Kshattra which is Attra,* and obtains the same nature and 
the same place with the Kshattra. 4. 



Fourteenth Brdhmana.'\ 

Bhilmi (earth), Antariksha (the atmosphere), Dyau (the 
heavens), are eight syllables ;% the first foot of the Gayatri 
consists of eight syllables ; this (foot) of the G£yatri is that 
(nature of the earth, of the atmosphere and of the heavens). 
Whover thus knows the (first) foot of the (Gfiyatri), conquers 
all that is in the three worlds. 1. 

The Ricbah, Yajungbi (and) S£m£ni are eight syllables; the 
second foot of tbe G&yatri consists of eight syllables ; this 



* Attn means, (ceordiog to S'. wh&t i* not preierTad bj uiotber (ni trfjste 
■nj^a k^DDchit, iti ittrtm). KghHttrt which ii Actra leems to dsnott one 
who ii not prsurTcd bj any body elie, that It to nj, who preaenei hlmuilf. 

t S'. givei tbe fotlawing introduction to the fonrleeiith Br£hmaQ&. The medi- 
tation upon Brahma, ai endowed with manir GctitioOl atttibata, inch U the heart, 
&o,, hai been eipbined ; the preteut Brihmaf* >■ to act forth the meditation upon 
hhn, M repreaented by the Gjijatrf, 

t See B aimilar pUy with letter* Cbh, U. I, S, G— 7. 



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l^KCkapter. Iburteenth Brdhmana. 255 

(foot) of the Q&yatri is that (tiatare of the three Yedas). 
Vi hoever thaa kaowB, conquers all that is conquerable by the 
knowledge of the three Vedas. 2, 

Fr&na (the vital air vrhich goes forirards), Ap&na (the vital 
air which descends,} (and) Vjiaa (the vital air which equa- 
liaea), these are eight gyllables ; the third foot of the 0£yatri 
consists of eight syllables ; this (foot) of the Giyatri is that 
(nature of the three vital airs). Whoever thus knows the third 
foot of the {QiyvXri), conquers all that has life. Again, the 
toriya (the fourth), the Dars'ata foot of the Q&yatri, is the 
Faro Raj&,* which sheds rays. What is (commonly called) 
Chatnrtha, (the fourth), is (the same as) the "turfya." It is, as 
it were, beheld (dadris'£) ; hence it is called the Dars'ata foot, 
(It is called) Faro Raj£, because it sheds rays upon all the dust- 
born creatures of the universe. Whoever thus knows that 
(foot of the Giyatri), is radiant with power and glory. 8, 

This Gfiyatrif is founded upon the fourth, the Dars'ata foot, 
the Paro BajS. This (fourth foot) is founded upon truth. The 
eye is verily truth ; for (that) the eye in truth, (is evident). 
Heuce,ifat present two have entereduponadispute, (one saying), 
— I have seen, (the other), — I have heard, then we believe him, 
who has said, I have seen. Truth is founded upon power ; 
life is verily power. Upon this life (tratb) is founded. There- 
fore it is said, power is stronger than truth.:^ In the same man- 
ner the Gayatri, is founded upon that which bears a relation to 
the soul ; for this (Giyatri) preserves (tattr^ the Gayas; the 
vital organs (Fr&nah) are the Gayas ; therefore, because it pre- 
serves the Gayas (gay&os tattr€), it is called Giyatri. The 



■ Para Raj&, Adit;* or the iqd, ^a repreKatative of Brthmli. 
t Thii Gijatri with ita thiee feet reprsientiag the world ia i 
u being endomed iritb farm, and ■■ being wilhoat form, 8'. 
t Tid. Chh. U. 7, 8. 



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266 BriJuid Arofgaka Vpaoithad. 

Santti which he* tenches, is this (G£;atri) ; it preserves tfae life 
of him to whom he has taught it. 4. 

Somef call this S&vitri Aaostup, (saying), — " Speech is Aaus- 
tap ; we repeat that speech is Aaustup." Let none do so, let 
him call the Q&y atri S&vitri. If one who thus knows, receive 
even many (gifts),]: yet he would not receive to much as is 
equal to one foot of the G^yatH. 5. 

If one receive the three worlds, full (of all their riches), he 
would obttdu (no more than is equal to) the first foot. Again 
if one receive as much as the science of the three V^as eX' 
tends, be would obtain (no more than what is equal to) the 
second foot. Again, if one receive as much as all that has 
life extends, be would obtain (no more than what is equal to) its 
third foot. Again, the fourth Dars'ata Faro Raj£ foot of the 
Gfiyatri is never by any one obtainable.^ Hence how could 
he receive (an eqtuvalent) which extends so far? 6. 

The praise of this G&yatri is given in the following Man- 
tra), — Thou art of one foot,[| of two feet, of three feet, and of 
four feet; for thou art not obtained. Salutation to thy fourth 
Darsita Faro Raj& foot. May this (enemy of thioe)^ not ac- 
complish this (work).* If (one who thus knows) bates any 
body (and makes agunst him this invocation), " this (man 
is my enemy) ; may bis wish not be accomplisbed," then the 



* Thflteadier. 

t Some followen at V^dt ichooli. 

X Many glfia, at the time of inTestitnr«, when the pupil begi for preienti. 

§ Obt>iii«b1a b; any irealch wbicb may be given. 

II Tbe firstfoot, repreieating the three worlds, theaecoad repreaeuting the know- 
ledge of the three Vedai, the third repieseatlng all liiin; creatarea. 

% Eaeiuj, lia- The lentence ia elliptical, bat the aboie aeuee Bppeara to be 
intended! "htch ia corrobotated bj tbs explanation gUen by the Upaoiahad 
ilaelt. 

■ By which he aeeka to hann thee. 



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Fifth Chapter. Iburlemfh Brdhmana. 257 

■wish of the latter will verily not he accomplished, if he make 
against him the iavocation, " I have obtaiued his wish." 7. 

Janaka, the king of the Videhas, thus addressed Butila, the 
Bon of As'watara, — " (If) thy saying that thou knoweat the 
G^yatri (be trua), then vhy hast thou beoome an elephant to 
carry (me) ?" 

He aaid,— " I did not know the mouth of the Q&yatrf, O 
king of kings." Its mouth is fire. Even much woQd, thrown 
into fire, is consumed by the same ; in the like mnnner, one 
vho thus knows, although committing many sins, conaomei 
them all, beoomes glean and pure, and is without decay and 
immortal. 14. 

Open, O Pilshan, the mouth of truth, concealed in the 
golden vessel,* to (me who have been) devoted to true piety, 
for the sake of beholding (the truth). O Pushau.t thou sole 
Bishi,:^ Yama, Surya, sou of PrajElpati, do withhold thy rays, 
diminish thy splendour, that I may behold thy most auspicious 
form. I, that Purusha, am immortal. (Let) my vital air (join) 
the wind; then (let) my body, when reduced to ashes, (join) 
the earth). Om ! Kratu, remember (my) acts! Remember^ 
O Kratu, remember my acts, remember ! Guide (me), O Agai, 
by the road of bliss to eujoyment ; O god, who knowest all dis- 
positions, deliver (me from) crooked sin. Let us offer thee 
our best salutation. § 

* S'uksr* thoteipUin* thi« paiuge, Ha wbo hai perfarnied both.satiaf knoo'- 
ledge and ritai, priya to tbs aun al (be time of bia deatb, boldiDg ■ galdan vaaaal In 
hi* hinda, Aa ■ valuabU thing is oonoealed in s Teasel, so Brabma, nho ia denoted 
aa trutb (vid' S , 4.), uid who abida* in ibe resplendent orb of the bud, ia coDcealad 
from him whoae mind ia not ooncentrated, 

f Poshaa from Pughsqlit beaaiue t|B uphold) the irorld. 

t Riahi from Dara'auft, the aale beholder, or from ri to go. Surja, ekaki 
cbarititi ; Yama, jagatah Banjam^nam tatkritam. S'. 

S The whole paiaaga it nearly ideatioal with V^jaaan^jFa 8. U, 15— IB. 



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Brihad Ai-atfi/aka Upanwhad. 



SIXTH CHAPTER. 
f^st Brahmat^a. 

Whoever* knows what is oldest and hestjt becomes the 
oldest and best among his own. Life is verily what is oldest 
and best. Whoever thus knows, becomes the oldest and best 
Amongst his own, and also amongst others, should he wish so. 1. 

Whoever knows the best foundation, { becomes best founded 
among his own. Speech is verily best founded. Whoever thus 
knows, becomes best founded amongst his own, and also 
amongst others, should he wish so, S. 

Whoever knows the best standing plaoe, is best placed; he 
stands firmly on what is even and uneven. The eye§ is verily 
a firm standing place; for by the eye he stands firmly on what 

* It hu been declared, thtt life is the G&jttrf. For what reuon asaht Is ths 
GafBtr! repreiented by life, Mud not by Bpeech or other /Qaotiani P The answer it, 
because life is the oldest and best, not so spercb, eto. The present chapter has tba 
object to determine, bow life has those attributes. Or the connexion of thii nith 
th« preceding; chapter may also tbns be stated, — The meditation upon life in prefer- 
ence to the other organs bss been declared, life being the Uktha, Ysjar, Sama, eto_ 
The meditation npon life which in the former chapter has been enunciated merely 
as to its prindpal qusli^iBB, is here continued, eltliough it is not meant to coDclude 
this meditation. This chapter, as is eiident even fram the name of " compilation'' 
which It bears bat rather the object to eoumerste the special frnlt, not mentioned 
before, which result from a meditation on life. S', This introduction of S'. 
ii thus prefaced by A, O,, — The Omkara, the triad of restraint, liberality and 
clemency, the meditaUon upon what Is Brahma and what is not Brahma, the fruit 
of ancb a meditation, the places gsined thereby, and the adoration of Aditja and 
the other deities, haie been set forth in the fifth chapter. The sixth chapter bag 
the object to explain eipecially the meditation on that which ii not Brahma 
together with the fmit, resulting from it, and also certaii) ceremonies, of which the 
SrfmaDtha is the first. 

t Vid. Chh&nd. U. 5, S, i. Br. A. U. 4, 1, 3. 

X Vasiilitba means either be«t fonnded, or best clothed, both of which is the 
fffect from ■ superior power of speech. S'. Vid. Ch. 5, 2 4. Br. K 4, 1, 2. 

f Br. A'. 4,1,4. 



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Sixth Chapter. Firtt Brihmana, 259 

is eren and aDercn. Whoerer tliaa knows, atanda firmly 
upon what is even and naeven. 8. 

Whoever knows what is treaaare, obtains whatever he de- 
sires. The ear* is treasure ; for in the ear all the V^das are 
treasured. Whoever thus knows, obtains whatever- he desires. 

Whoever knows the placeafrefage,t becomes aplaceof refuge 
amongst his own. Mind{ is verily the place of refuge. Whoever 
thus knows, becomes a place of refuge amongst his own. 5. 

Whoever knows Fraj&pati (the lord of creation), becooies 
rich in offspring and in cattle. The seed is the source of 
creation. Whoever thus knows, creates offspring, and be- 
comes rich in cattle. 6. 

The vital organs,^ disputing about their superiority, went 
to Brahma, II and spoke to him, — "Who amongst us is best 
founded." He said, — " He amongst you is best founded, by 
whose departure the body is thought to suffer most." 7. 

Speech departed. Returning after the absence of a year, 
it said, " How could jou live without me." They said, — 
" As dumb people who do no speak by speech, breathing 
by the vital breath, seeing by the eye, hearing by the ear, 
thinking by the mind, and begetting children, so have we 
lived." Then speech re-entered (the body). 

The eye departed. Returning after the absence of a year, 
it said, — "How could you live without me?" They said, — 
"As blind people, who do not see by the eye, (lire), .breathing 
by the vital breath, speaking by the organ of speech, hearing 
by the ear, thinking by the mind, and begetting children, so 
hare we lived." Then the eye re-entered (the body). 8. 

• Br. A'. 4, 1,6. 

t For the mind U the place, apon vhieh the organi and thsir objeetB, are de- 
pendent, the objecU of the aeasei being enjajed bj the loul Chrougli the mind, S'. 

t Tid. Br. A'. 4. 1,6. 

$ Speech iind the regt. S'. Vid. Chb. U. 5, 1, 5—19, Pns'a, U, 2, 2 — 1, nhere 
the diipute among the Drgane )■ aJeo deicribed. 

II Brahma meaat here PrBJ&pati, 
2 1 ^ 



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260 SrihaJ Arani/aka Vpanitiad. 

Tba ear doparted. Retoruing after the absHice of & year, 
it said, — "How could you live witiwut meP" They aaid,— 
" Aa deaf people, who do not hear by the ear, (live), breath- 
ing by the vital breath, Bpeaking by the organ of speech, 
seeing by the eye, thinking by the mind, and begetting children, 
so have we lived." Then the ear re-entered (the body). 9. 

The mind departed. RetarniDg after the absence of a year, 
it said, — " How could you live without me V " They said,— 
" As idiots who do not think by the mind, (live), breathing 
by the vital breath, speaking by the organ of speech, seeing 
by the eye, hearing by the ear, and begetting children, so hare 
we lived," Then the mind re-entered (the body). 10. 

The oi^an of generation departed. ReturaiDg after the 
absence of a year, it said, — " How could you live without me i" 
They said, — " As impotent people who do not beget children 
(live), breathing by the vital breath, speaking by the organ of 
speech, seeing by the eye, hearing by the ear, and thinking 
by the mind, so have we lived." Then the organ of generation 
re-entered (the body.) 13. 

Then, the vital breath being about to depart, aa a great, 
noble horse, born in the Sindhn country, raises its hoofa, so it 
shook those vital organs (from their places). They said, — " Do 
not depart, O Venerable. We can not live without thee." "If 
I am such, then offer sacrifice* to me." (They answered,) — -" Be 
it so." 13. 

Speech said, — " That I am founded, is, because thou art 
founded." The eye said, " That I am a standing place, ii, 
because thou art a standing place." The ear aaid,' — " That 
I am a treasure, is, because thou art a treasure." The mind 
said, *' That I am a place of refuge, is, because thou art a place 
of refuge." The organ of generation said, — " That I am a 
source of procreation, is, because thou art a source of procrea- 
tion." (Life said), — " If I am such, what then ia my food, what 
* Or u S*. eiplaiiu it "tribule." 



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SixlA Ckapier. Second SrAkmana. 261 

then is my foundation?" (They said), — "All this what- 
soever, horses, worms, small insects, locusts, and so on, is thy 
food J the waters are thy dwelling place."* He who thus 
knows, does not eat (any food) which is not to be enten,t 
nor does he take (any gift) which is not to be taken.} There- 
fore those acqaainted with the Vedaa who thus know, sip water 
when oommeucing to eat, and sip water (again) after they have 
eaten, thinking, that (thereby) they have clothed the naked 
(life). 

Stcottd Brdhmana. 
S'w^tak^tu,^ ifruneya,|| came to the assembly of the Pan- 
ch&las. He came to Pravihana, the son of Jibala, who was 

* Or thj gBrment, 

t He ia DoCguiltj of any finlt b; eating food wliicb is prohibited. 

J ThuBl rendered " anBiinstn" in accordance with Sankara'a eiplaiaatioii. It is the 
WIDE term which in the firatbalf of the aentenca i> Iranelated by "not to be eaten." 

$ AU that baa been omitted in the Airmer chaptera of this Upani^adi i> to be 
meDlioned in thii part, the " Khilakap^" At the end of the lerenth chapter ha 
nho hai been addicted dnring hia life to both, toknovrledge and to the perfoimaace 
of ritea, aaki on the approach of death for the road of Agni with the wordi " Agni, 
lead me on the good path." Bj the qualification of " g:ood" the eiiatBDce of many 
patha ie indicated, and the loada tkengelTea are patha towardi the aeqairemenC of 
the effecta, reanitiDi; from works. They aaecinctly ahow the whole result of woridlj 
endeavours, be they works flowing from mere natural knowledge or from acriptnral 
knowledge. Althougb, therefore, natural sin baa beeo explained in the words 
" threefold is the oSspring of Frai&pati," and also its effects In the words : " Ha 
baa net to perform Uiis work," and although the consequences of acriptartl know- 
ledge have been aet forth at the end of the topic on " the obtaining of the nature 
of the threefold food" and at the commencement of the knowledge of Brahma, aa 
implied in the Injunction to abitain from those conaequencea, yet it has merely been 
aud, that by work alone the world of the forefathers, and by knowledge and by 
work, accompanied with knowledge, the world of the godi ia gained, but by nhat 
means either <a to ba obtained has not been atated. To exhibit tbcm and to giva 
finally a anccinct liew of the whole meaning of the S'^stra, ia the abject of Che 
present Kliitakfnda. S'. — The preienC narralive, with the modiAc^tion of some 
words, la esientiaUy the same with Cbh. U. 9. 3— lU. 

II Arun^ya, the son of A^rugl, who ii the son of Aruqi. S'. 



:e(,b>G00glc 



263 Brihad Aranyaka XTpanUhad. 

nttended by his courtiers. Seeing him, he saluted him by the 
words,—" la it thou, O youth ?"* He answered, " Ah, yes, 
Ofriend."t Art thou instructed by thy father? "He said," 
"Om (lam)." 1. 

"Dost thou know, how the creatures vho depart tbia life, 
proceed on different roads ?" He said, — " I do not know." 
" Dost thou know, how they return to this world ?" He said, — 
" I do not know." " Dost thou know, how many, who have 
quitted again and agaia this world, no more return to it 7" He 
said, — " I do not know." " Dost thou know at which sacrifice 
the waters become the words of man, and rise to speak f" He 
said, — " I do not know." " Dost thou know the means of obtain- 
ing the road, which is called D^vay^aa, or the road, called 
Pitriyfina, (that is to say, dost thou know) by which work the 
road to the world of the gods or of the forefathers is obtained ? 
It is beard (also) the word of the Rishi,^ — I heard of two 
roads, the one§ of the forefathers j and the other of the gods 
(either of which must he proceeded on) by the mortals. " As 
distant as is the father from the mother, || (so distant is 
the one road from the other)." " I do not know anything 
of all this," said he. 2. 

Then he invited him to sit. Not heeding the proffered seat, 
the youth hastened away. He went to his father and said to 
him, " Hast thou not before declared us to be instructed (in 
all science)?" "What then, O youth of subtile mind?" 
'^ The man whose companions are kings, asked me five qnes- 



* The aJdreai of the king ii merelj Kamiirn, ot which tha liit lyllable to Plata 
(three timei the length of a abort vowel], to indicate coatempt, u;i S'. 

t S't>£tak£la returns the aalnlation of the king b; the Bimpte gyllablB ■ Bho' 
with Plnta. which sccoiding to S.', i« not a particle anited in addieiiing a king. 

I Of the Maatra. S'. 

} Leading to the world of the forefutheri. 

II Father and mother denote heaven and earth, the two halves of lb* mnndane 
egg. S'. 



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Sislh Copter. Second Brdhmana. 263 

tons, of which I did not know one," " Which are they ?" 
" These" and he mentioned them one after another. 3. 

He said, — "Thou must koow, O belo»ed one, that I told 
thee all which I know myself. Up then. Going there, let 
ns perform the service of a Brahma student (to the king)." 
"Do thou go, O Venerable." Gantama went, where Pra- 
b&hana, the soo of Jibala held hia residence. (The king) 
bringing a seat for him, had (also) water brought; then he 
made the oblation according to rite. He said to him, — " We 
grant thee a boon,* O respected Gantama." 4. 

He said, — (I accept) the boon which thou haat promised 
me. Explain to me the word which thou hast said before to 
the youth." 5. 

He said, — " That is a boon concerning gods ; name one coa- 
ceming men." 6. 

He said, — " Thou knowest well, I have enough of gold, of cows 
and horses, female slaves, dependants and garments. Do thou 
not withhold from us the gift which is great, permanent, and 
extends (to many generations). He said, — Verily according 
to rite thou desireat, O Gautama, (to obtain knowledge from 
me)." He said, — "I approach thee as pupil (according to 
the rite)."f With words others also approached of old| (their 
teachers). He resided there through the mere name of a 
respectful gift. 7. 

He said,— "Do not hold ns guilty, Gantama, as thy 
forefathers (held not guilty my forefathers). That this know- 
ledge in former times was not possessed by a Bribma^ja (thou 
knowest thyself). But I will explain it to thee; for whoever 
could refuse it to one who thus speaks? 8. 



* By whish il meint ■ gift of cows, hor»sB, eU. S'. 
t BDJomed by (be S&atri. S'. 

I Br&hmanM went to Kahatriyu. or Eahiitriyaa to Vaia'wa* foi acquiring know- 
ledge, only witb worda, and not with iireieati. 



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204 Srihad Arangaka Upanithad' 

Th&t world* ia the fire, O Gautama. The aun (Xditra) is 
its fuel; hia rays the tmokejt the day the flame ;% the quar- 
teri the coals ;^ the withia lying qnartersH the sparks. The 
gods^ offer faith to this fire. From this offering king Soma 
springs forth.* 9. 

Or Parjanya,t is fire, — O Gantama; the year J is its fuel; 

* The king antweri lint the roarth que*t[on, beeause, sajs S'., oa it* tolatioa 
•lio the othsr quMtiom arc falved. That woild, *ii. the heaieni. 

I" Aa Itkawiie riling from the fast. S'. 

X Being (liks through msniCeitatloD, S'. 

f Reiembling them bj iheii bringing to reit. S'. 

II Fijing off from the other quarter* like the aparka from fire. S'. 

f India, aad the reit. S'. 

* He is king of the forefatheri and of the Brfhma^. S*. 

t Paijanja, the Mcond loealltjr of the offaiiogi, ia the tnteUrj deltj of nln. S'. 

X The two ofieringa of the lire aaorifice, ila. the offeiinga in the morning and id 
the eiening, eiiit in thii world in a manifeBted form, aa do alio the Decesaar; ap- 
pliancea of the lacriflce, Tii. the iacrlficial fire, the wood, the coal*, the aparka of 
the fire, the tliinga wbiob ara offered ai milk, ghee, etc. When the; rise to the other 
world, to heaTCD or their aDmanifetted atat*, tbej esiat iccordiag to their aubtU« 
nature aa do elao those apptiaiuiet. Agiioi at the time of maoifeatatioa, or at th« 
creation of the world the ceremonial work ia changed bj aaanming the itate of the 
fire of the atmotphere, etc. The aame changea undergoes alio at preaent the 
work, called Hreaacrifice. In thli manner the whole world ia the effect of 
the invisible changes of the two offariogi of the fire-iicrifioe. Those sli necea- 
sary appliance) will be mentioned afterwarda for the aake of eitoUing the two 
offeringa ; but here, where the conaequencea, resolting froin the work of the aacri- 
licei are to be explained, the object ii to set forth the doctrine of the fi>e fires aa 
the came of obtaining the northern path for the enjajment of the fruit derived 
from apecial work. The organi of the bodj in their relation to the soul are here 
the offering prieats of the fira-aacrifice. Conaldered in their relation to the gods, 
tbej are Indra and the other goda who are the offering prieata for the fire of bea- 
ten, etc. Thej offer the fire-aacrifice tor the sake of the fruit, derived from it. 
When thej haieenjoyed the whole fruit, the; perform the aame aaorifice again. Ia 
thia manner the organa are called goda. In this oar present atate, alao, any offer, 
ing, as milk, etc., dependent on the rite of the fire-sacrifice, which has been throira 
in the aacrificial fire and conaumed by it, enteri in ita Imiaible, anbtile form, 
together wltb the lacrificer, this world, further in the form of smoke, the atmo- 
sphere, and from the atmosphere the heaiens. These are the subtile waters, the 
effect! of offering!, the parta of the fire-iacrific«, bearing the name of faith, which 



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Sixth Chapter. Secend SrdkmoMa. 265 

the clouds the smoke;* the lightning the flame ;t the thun- 
derbolt the coals ;{ the thunder claps the sparks. § The gods 
offer king Soma to this fire. From this offering rain springs 
forth. 10. 

This worId|| is -fire, O Gautama. The earth is its fuel;^ 
Bre the smoke;* night the flamejt the moon the coalajj: 
the stars the sparks. The gods offer rain to this fire. From 
this offering food springs forth. 11. 

Man is fire, Gautama. His open mouth is the fuel ;§ 
breath the smoke ;|| speech, the flame;^ the eye the coals; the 

>t the world of tbe moan create uiothcT bod; for the Mcrlficer, ind vhen entering 
the heaiena, are offered. Therefore the waters which are parti of the fire- 
sacrifice Bod tbe came thit the ucriGcer obtains another body ia the world of 
the moan, are called faitfa. The; besr the name of waters, became the greater part 
of their composition it wsler. The fire-ucriSce howCTer, is merel; s [ejireBentBtiTB 
of all the other Tedsic ritei, and what hai been said about the former, sppliea also 
to the latter. S'. 

* Thej are amoke, either fi'ani their being produced from smalie, or from their 
similar appearanee. S'. 

t Both having the power of manifestation. S'. 

i Both bdng alike eitlngniihable and hard. S', 

S Both fljing off and being alike frequent. S'. 

II This world, the pUee where linDg creatore* are born, and bare their enjoy 
moot. S'. • 

f For br the earth, fiirnished with'the meana of enjoyment for iannmerable liTing 
creatnrea, this world is nonriihed. S'. 

* It is fire, as riring from the earth in the same manner as smoke fram fire. S'. 
f Tbe night i> the flame, because u the flame hu it* origin from tbe connexion 

of fuel with fire, lo the night from the connexion with its fuel, lii. the earth, the 
darkness of the night being called the ahadaw of the earth, S'. To which A. G. 
adds ; for darkness ia tbe place of RdhB, and this ia tbe abadowof the earth. 

t The moon ia tbe coats, from aimilarit; of origin ; for as from the flame, 
coali are prodQced, ao the moon it produced in the night. Or because both are 
alike eitingniabable. S'. 

§ For through the mouth maa is lighted up, i. e. enlightened with regard to 
■peecb, study of tbe T^daa, etc. S'. 

n Both rising equally upwards. S'. 

Y From their like power of manifeatation. S', 
2 H 



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266 Brihad Aranyaia VpanuSad. 

ear the Bparks. The gods offer food in this fire, from thn 
offenDg seed spriogB forth. 13. 

Womaa is fire, O Gautama, her haunch the fuel; thehain 
on the body the smoke ;* the organ of generation the flame ;t 
cohabitation the coals ;t the fits of enjoyment the sparks. The 
gods offer seed in this fire. From this offering man springs 
forth.^ He lives as long as he lives.|| When he dies, IS. 

Then theyf take him* to the fire ; his fire becomes fire; his 
fuel, fuel ; his smoke, smoke ; his flame, flame ; his coals, coals > 
hii sparks, sparks. The gods offer man in this fire. From this 
offering, man in radiant splendour springs forth, ll. 

Thosef who have this knowledge,} and those who in the 

* Both riilDg eqaally npwirdi. S'. 
t From likeson of colour. S'. 

{ Both equRlIf citingniahing. 8'. 

f In thia maniMr the iratera, bcsriog the n*ine of hith, are gradnttlr offered in 
the Gres of biRTea, of Piiianja, of this world, of msD, and of wOoian, and baving 
Mtoned f radnallf a iroacar and groaMr ahape, the; are the cauae of the creation 
of man. And tberehir the fonrth quaation, vii. " Doat thoa know, at the offering 
of which aaoriHoe, the watera heooming the worda of man, riae to apeak ?" ia decid. 
ed, TJi. thef become ao, on tba performance of the fifth offering in the fire which ia 
woman, when the watera hecome aeed. S'. 

n Aa long aa the fruit of the Work continoea, which had been th« eanae of hu 
•laanming hia body. S'. 

f The Ritwiga or prieati, perfarmlng the laat rilea. S'. 

* The decevaed who in thia caae ii himaelf the offering. S". 

t The preaent aection replica to the firat qneation and to part of the fifth, vix. 
" Doat thoa know, in what way the creatnrea, departing thia life, proceed On differ- 
ent roadi ?" and '' Doat tbo'u know the meana of obtaining the road which ia called 
D^iajtna V 

i Thoae who thua know. Thia knowledge doea not refer to one of those firei 
only, bnt to the fire firea together, aa ia etideat from the Chh. U., where (a, 10, 10) 
the knowledge of the fire Area ia eipreaaly mentioned with reference to the stimQ 
topic. The knowledge concern! the oalure of those lires and not the compartaoiu, 
which are odIj made for the aaka of extolling the fire-Mcrifice. Bat who are 
Oioaa who thaa know J Not the bonsehoidera in general ; for thoae among them 
who hare not the knowledge of the Aie firea, are to gain the worlds of smoke &■ 
the fruit, etc. reauiting from aaerifice, gifta and amteritj, (16). Not those who 
baTB retired to the foreat, not religious mendicants; for they are mentioned ia 
lhepa«ageo( the tcit immediately following, ■■ those who in the forest," uid 



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&xih Chapter. Second Srahmana. 267 

forest* meditate with faith on truth,t obtain the flame,:^ ^i^in 
the flame the day ; from the day the light half of the mooa ; 
from the light hiilf of the moon the six months when the sun 
moves to the north ; from those months the world of the gods ; 
from the world of the gods the sun ; from the sun the world of 
the lightning. Those who have obtained the world of the light- 
ning, are removed by the Parnsba created by the mind§ to the 
Brahma worlds.]) In those Brahma worlds exalted they live 
infinite years. Forthem, thereis noreturn(to this world).^ 15. 

the knowledge of tbc Gn Hrei hu eoaneiion wi(h the work of the hovKbohlers, 
■nd aot with that of bermit) or religion* meadicinti. Nor lutlf the Brihnq&ohAHi, 
bec«iue tbdr entering apan the aorthem path ii proied bj the Smriti. Therefore 
the words " tboie irbo kaoir," refer to the boiue-haldm who haie ■ koowledge 
of the five firei. S', 

* ThoM who la the foreit, viz. thou who heve retired from the world to the 
(brcit (the TaiupnuthH,) uid alio the religioui mendicanta, (PltriTrijakRi.) 

t Who meditate on truth, that ii to taj on truth, that ii to aa; on Brahma in the 
form of HiraQragarbha, not tncb aa meditate with faith aimplj. Ag loug aa the 
bouaeholdera have not the knowledge of the &re firea, or of Brahma, ao long, after 
the fifth offering in the gradual order of thoae offeringa haa beeo pBrforraed, they 
are again born from the fire of woman, and oa thalr retam to thia world they 
perform again ceremoaial work. By meana of thit work they go again In the gradnal 
prooeaaiou from one world U another np to the world of the forefathers, and from 
there backwarda in the reverie order to thia world. Here, being again bom from 
the fire of woman, the aame circle i* to be ^eacribed like the continoal rotation 
of a water-wheel, S'. 

X Flame meana here the tnteiary deitj of the fire, and ao the terma " the day," 
" the light half of the moan," the tutelary deitlea of the day, etc. 

§ Bj Brahma. S'. 

II The Brabnia worlds, the plnral refers either to different regioni in the 
Brahma world, which ia only one, or to the difference of the rewards, derixed 
from different modsa of meditation. S'. 

V That ia to aaj, there Is no letnm for them during the present daratlon of the 
world, bnt they retam of coarw on • new creation, aa abaolute liberation from 
transmigration, ia onljr the effect from the knowledge of Brahma, while the know- 
ledge here in question is merely a knowledge of the five fires, or of Brahms In the 
form of Hiranyagarbha. Thia view ia clear from the whole doctriue of thia 
Upaniihad, and doea not require any farther proof; bnt S'. wastes much ingenuity 
to prove it from the farm of language of another puiage, wiiere the " not return" 
baa the addition "to thia world," 
2 u 2 



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268 Brihad jfranyata Upunithad. 

Again,* those who coDquer the worlds by Bftcrifice, gifts 
and austerity ,t obtain smoke ;j: from Bmoke night; from night 
the dark half of the moon ; from the dark half of the 'moon 
the six months when the sun, mores to the south ; from those 
months the world of the forefathers ; from the world of the 
forefathers the moon. Having obtained the moon, they be- 
come food. Aa (the offering priests) consume (again and 
again) king Soma, saying, do increase, and do decrease, so the 
gods consume them there.^ When that (fruit of their works) 
ceases, then they obtain the ether, from the ether the airj 
from the air run, from rain the earth. Having obtained the 
earth, they become food.|| Again they are offered in the fire 
of man; hence they are bom in the fire of womau. Proceed- 
ing from world to world, they return in this way again and 
again. Again, those who do not know those roads, become 
wormsj locusts and gnats.^ 16. 

Third Brdhmana. 
Whoever desires* to obtain greatness, (has to perform the 

* Thoie honwholderi, who h>Te not th« knoirledge of the fiie Brei. 

t S'. uji, that " gifts anil aniterit;" do not refer to ■nek a« are enjoined hj tlie 
TediB, SB the; vonld be incladed id " aaciifice." 

% The deities of smoke, etc. 

% Aa the oSering prieils eontnme again and agalq the Soms juice, so the per- 
formers of rites who are the sappartera of the gods bf sacrifices, etc., on their 
obtaining new llodieB in the Soma world, are tamed back again and again to this 
world (or the perforroapce of tronblesome work bj the gods, from whom tbej 
receive inch rewardi bb are in correBpondence with their woik. S'. And thereb; 
ia answered the seeond-lialf of the Aftb qnestlon. 

I! This is the leplf to the aecond question. 

% The answer to the third qneation. 

* The ultimate effect, derired from knowledge azid works, hsB been declared. 
Knowledge )■ independent o( an; other thing, but work depends both npon the 
wealth of gods and npon that of man. For the sake of work, therefore, wealth most 
be acqaired , and thii bj means nnaccompaoied with sin. For the acqairement of 
wealth the ceremonr, called Msotha, is ordained, in order that greatneas be ob- 
tained ; for wealth is the conieqaenoc of grMtoess. S'. 



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Sixth Chapter. 2ftW Srdkmana. 269 

folloviDf rite). At the time when the son moves to the north; 
on an anspicions daj of the light half of the moon, the twelfth 
day of his performing the vow named Upavasftd,* after he has 
gathered and mixed together all kinds of herbs and fruits in 
a shell-shaped vessel or in a spoon, either made of the wood of 
the conglomerate fig-tree ; after be has epriakled with water 
(the place of offering], placed the cow-dung, lightened the fire, 
spread (the kuaa grass), cleaned the covered ghee, and taken 
the mixture at the time of a male star, he performs the offenngit 
(saying), — " To all the gods of crooked mind who under tby 
control, O JfitaTeda,^ obstruct man's desire, do I offer a share 
[of the sacrifice). Satisfied, let them satisfy me with all de- 
sires. Sw&h& to the goddess of crooked mind who under the 
thought that abe is the upholder (of all) has taken refuge to 
thee ; to this deity who is the accomplisber of all, I offer a 
part of the ghee, SwfthS I 1. 

" Sw&h£ to the eldest, Swtib& to the best l"§ with these words 
offering to the fire, he drops the remainder (of the gbee) 
into the churning vessel. " Sw£h& to life, Sw^h£i to what is 
firmly founded !" with these words offering to the fire, be drops 
the remainder (of the gbee) into the churning Tesael. " Swfi- 
h& to speech, Sw&bft to the standing place !" with these words 
offering to the fire, he drops the remainder (of the ghee) into 
the churning vessel. "Sw&h& to the eye, Sw£th& to the trea- 
sure !" with these words offering to the fire, be drops the re- 
mainder of the ghee into the churning vessel. " Swih& to the 
ear, Swfihfi to the place of refuge !" with these words offering 
to the fire, he drops the remainder (of tbe ghee) into the 

<■ The TOir which ii eiUed TTpMiiIiBd it pirt ot the Yotiatoma riteg, ind consiiti 

in limiting the food far b period af tweWe da; i, taking ths firat daj aa much milk ai 
is contained in one udder of a cow, the second aa ia contained in two, the third in 
three, and the Tonrth in tanr, then on the fifth again taking three, and so down to 
one, when again one ii added on each incceuire da7. S'. 

t Then while offering ghee, he ipealca the following Maatrai. S'. 

t Fire. 

{ The eldeit and tiie beat is life. Compare this passage with S, I, 1—6. 



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270 J3rihad A!ranyaka UpaimhaS. 

cfauming vessel. " Swiih& to the mind, Swab^ to the Boarce of 
procreation !" vith these words offeriug to the fire, he drops 
the remamder (of the ghee) into the churning vessel. " Sw&fafi 
to the seed \" with these words offering in the fire, he drops 
the remtunder (of the ghee) into the churning vessel. 2. 

" Sv&hi to the fire !" with these words offering to the fire, 
he drops the remainder (of the ghee) into the churning vesset. 
" Sw&h& to Soms !" with these words offering to the fire, he 
drops the remainder (of the ghee) into the choming vessel. 
" Sw&hfi to the earth !" with these words offering to the fire, he 
drops the remainder (of the ghee) into the churning vessel. 
" Sw&h& to the atmosphere 1" with these words offering to the 
fire, he drops the remainder (of the ghee) into the churning 
vessel. " Swlh£ to the heavens 1" with these words offering to 
the fire, he drops the remainder (of the ghee) into the churning 
vessel. " 8w4h& to the earth, to the atmosphere and to the 
heavens I" with these words offering to the fire, he drops the 
remainder (of the ghee) into the churniog vessel. " Sw&hi to 
the Brahma !" with these words offering to the fire, he drops 
the remainder (of the ghee) into the churning vessel. " Sw&b£ 
to the Khattra," with these words offering to the fire, he 
drops the remainder (of the ghee) into the churning vessel. 
" Sw^h£ to the past I" with these words offering to the fire, 
he drops the remainder (of the ghee) into the churning vessel. 
"Sw&b£ to the future!" with these words offering to the fire, 
he drops the remainder (of the ghee) into the ehurning vessel. 
" Sw&hi to the universe !" with these words offering to the fire, 
he drops the remainder (of the ghee) into the churning vesseh 
" Swfih^ to all \" with these words offering to the fire, he drops 
the remainder (of the ghee) into the churning vessel. 8. 

Then he touches that (mixture saying), " Thou art move- 
able;* thou art resplendent, t thou art fall;:^ thou art ud- 

' Moreable, beciuie life is noiuble, ind Ihou art of tbe suae nature m Uffl. 
A'. G. 

t Became fira, the same ai thou, is eo. A'. G. 

X la thj natars ai Brnhma. A'. 0. 



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Siaih Chapter. Ihird Sfdhmana. 271 

shftketi ;* tfaoo art the one perrader of this (onirerse) ; thou 
art proclaimed ;t then art proclaimed again ;% thou art Bangi§ 
thoQ art SuDg again ;|| thou art aoaaded,^ thou art resound' 
ed ;* thou thinest Jn the cloud ;t tliou art pervading ; thou art 
powerfalj thou art food;j: thou art splendour,^ thou art de- 
struction ;|| thou art identity." 4. 

Then he rtuses that (mixture, saying), — "Thou tbiukest (of 
hU); we think of thy greatness; for he is kingj lord and sovereign, 
Iiet him, the king and lord, make me a sovereign." 5, 

Then he eats^ that (mixture, and with the words), — " Let us 
reject on the adorahle light of Savitar, (viz.) May the winds 
convey happiness ; may the rivers drop happiness ; may the 
herbs be of sweet juice to us. Sw&h& to the earth !" (let him 
take the first morsel). (With the words), — " (Let ns reflect on 
the adorable light of Savitar," (viz.) May the night, yea evea 
the morning-dawns (bring us) happioess, (may be fraught with) 
happiness the dust of the earth. May the heavens, our father, 
(bring us) happiness. Sw^hfi to the atmosphere 1" (let him 
take the second morsel). With the words, — " (Let us reflect on 

■ Id th; likoina of the Aj. A'. 6. 

t Bj the Praitotar it the commeDeement oC tbs iicrlfios. A'. G, 

t B<r th« ume in iti middle. A'. O. 

i Bjr the Udgitir at the commeDcement ot the McriGee. A'. G> 

II B; the lame in iti middle. A'. G. 

y; Bj the Adhwaryn. A'. G. 

* By the Agotdhrt. A'. G, 

t Accarding to A'. G.'i eiplenition ; LitenUy, in what i« moiet. 

% Food, rspreiented by Soma, all things to be enjoyed. A', G. 

{ SpUndoar ai repreaeated by fire, ia its nature as ooaanmer. A'. G. 

II Deitrojer, being the caase of deitnictian of atl thing! according Co their rela< 
tion to the sool and to the deitiei. A'. 6. 

f He ahall gradoally take three moraell. With the Grgt moriel he ihall mate 
tbe firat foot of the GiLyatK and the firat sacred word (BhuJ, with the aecond the 
aeoond foot and the aocond aacrednoid (Bhuvab), and with the third the third foot 
aad the third aaored word (Swar). After he haa mattered the three sacred irordB, 
he abould clean the Teaael, la which he has dropped the remainder of the ghee, and 
drink tbii in liienee. S'. 



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273 Srihad Aranyalea Upanuhad. 

the adorable light of Savitar) who quickens our understanding, 
(viz.) May Yanaspati (briag) ua happiness ; may the inn 
(bring) US happiness ; may his raya (bring) us happiness. 
Swfih& to the heavens I" (let him take the third morsel). 
And having repeated the whole S&vitri and all the benedic- 
tions,* he says at the close (of the rite), "May I become 
this all, Sw&h& to the earth, the atmosphere and the heavens !" 
Then having sipped (water) and cleaned his hands, he touches 
the fire with his thigh, his head turned towards the east. 
(Then) in the morning dawn he adores Aditya (with the 
Mantra), — " Thou art the one lotns of the quarters ; may 
I become the one lotus of men." As he (before) approached 
the fire, so he (again) approaches it with the thigh, and after 
being seated, he mutters the schooLf 6. 

Udd^taka A'runi having explained this (mixture) to his dis- 
ciple, Y&jaavalkya, of the Vfijasan^ya school, said, — " Whoever 
pours it on a dry trunk, (will see) its branches rise and its 
leaves spring forth. 7. 

Ytijnavalkya of the V&jasan^ya school, having explained this 
(mixture) to his disciple, Madhuka Paingya, said, — " Whoever 
pours it on a dry trunk, (will see) its branches rise and its 
leaves spring forth." 8. 

Madhuka Faingya having explained this (mixture) to his 
disciple, Chiila Bh&gavitti, said, — " Whoever pours it on a dry 
trunk, (will see) its branches rise and its leaves spring forth." 9. 

Chula BbSgavitti, having taught this (mixture) to his dis- 
ciple, Janaki Ayaathilna, said, — "Whoever pours it on a dry 
trunk, (will see) its branches rise and its leaves spring forth." 10. 

J^naki A'yastuiia having explained this (mixture) to his 
disciple, Satyakima Jdbitla, said, — " Whoever pours it on a dry 
trunk, (will see) its braiiches rise and its leaves spring forth." 11. 

SatyakSma J^bSla having explained this (mixture) to his 

• He eats tbe fourth morKl. A'. 6. 

of teacheri sud diuiples. 



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SislJf Chapter. Ibttrth Brdhmana. 273 

disciples, said, — "Whoever places it on a diy trnnk, (will see) 
its brauclies rise, and its leaves spring forth. Let none teach 
it to one who is not a son, or a disciple." IS. 

There should be four things made of the wood of the con- 
glomerate fig tree, the Sruva,* the C)iBinasa,t the sacrificial 
wood, and the two churning vessels ; there should be ten kinds 
of cultivated seeds, viz. rice, barley, sesamum seed, kidney 
beans, millet,^ panick seed, wheat, lentil, pulse and vetch. 
When they are ground down, and sprinkled with curdled milk, 
honey and ghee, he shall offer the clarified butter. 13. 

Fourth Brdhmaua.^ 

Terra est horum elementorum essentia, aqua terras, herb* 
aquae, flores herbarum, fruges florum, homo frugum, semen 
homiuis. 1. 

Frajdpatis respiciens, — Age, illi (homini) babitationem pa- 
rabo, — feminam creavit. Ea creata, Adha TJp&sana sic dic- 
tum ritum celebravit. Quam ob causam (homo etiam) Adha 
Up&ana ritum cuin conjuge celebret. Pene targido facto, 
Fraj&putis cum ilia coivit. 2. 

Ejus vulva est altare, corporis pili Kus'a sic dictum gra- 
men, cutis ignis, testiculi in medio igne coUocata duo Soma 
sacrificii vaaa. Quatenusejusmundus extensus est qui VAjapey a 
sacrificium facit, ealenua homiuis mundua extenaua est qui ejus 
(Adha Updsana ritna) gnarus cum coujnge coit. Is (quoque) 
conjugum bene factum aufert. Vernm qui ignarus Adha Up^ana 
ritum celebrat, ejus bene factum conjuges auferunt. 3. 

Hac cognitione prseditus Uddfilaka Arupis, hac cognitiooe 
prieditus N^ka Maudgalyus, hac cognitione preeditus Eum^ra- 
hiritus' declaraverunt, — Ex ea terrestri mundo multi mortales 

* k kind of ludle with nhich the ghee is taken, when offered to the 6re. 
f Another kind of l&dle, to be put in the nati:r used for tbe racKfice. 
X Ann, a lott of corn of rerj Binall geed, wUicb ii called Chlnt in Bengali. 
i I trBiOaliited the greater |iirt of Ihi* BribmBna into Letin U it would not bear 
tn EnsliibjeiidBriag. 

2 H 



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274 Srihad Arawyaka Upaniihad. 

discedunt, qaibus aoiaen modo est Br4hma9oram, qnoram sen- 
sus BUDt obtusi, et quornm bene fHCtum fructu caret, ii vide- 
licet, qui illius ritus iguari cam femiaa coeuot. Quodsi dor- 
mieotis sive Tigilantia (mariti) semeo, multum sit sire parvum, 
labitur, 4. 

Is semen tolleas ea hymni verba recitet, — Quod semen bodie 
in terram est lapsum, quod in berbas sive in aquam descendit, 
id semen meum recipio, Bursum me adeat robur, rursum me 
adeat splendor, rursum me adeat prosperitas. Bursum ignis 
numina ipsiua loco semen reddant, Ita locutus, digito auuu- 
lari ac pollice semen toUens inter mammas sen supercilia 
abstergat. 6. 

Deiu si (maritas) in aqua ipsins imaginem videt, ea hymni 
verbi recitet, — (Dei) mihi splendorem, robur, famam, opes et 
bene factum lai^iantur. — (Maritus] cum conjuge prsclara, 
Bordida veste indnta, ea de causa quod Testis sordida eat, coi' 
turns, ea bymni verba recitet, — Sit ilia inter mulieres fortu- 
nata. 6. 

Quodsi ilia ad mariti voluntatem non ee conformat, (donis) 
earn emat. Quod si ilia ad mariti roluntatem (iterum) non 
se conformat, baonlo sen manu earn percutiena eis hymni 
verbis devincat, — (Hoc) membro atque (hac) fama famam toam 
aufero. Hoc modo ilia fama privata erit. 7. 

Quodsi ilia ad mariti voluntatem se conformat, (is ea hymni 
verba recitet], — (Hoc) membro atque (hac) fama tibi famam 
attuli. Eo modo aterque fama pneditus erit, 8, 

Si quia coojugem eum amare cupit, pene in ea collocate, 
ore on affixo, et conjugis pndendo fricato, (is ea hymni verba 
muBset),— Ex omnibus membris ortum, corde natum tu sane 
eB membrorum essentia. Earn, sicut dorcadem sagitta veneno 
illinita feritam, mihi subjectam redde. 9. 

Qein si quis conjugem non prffignantem esse cupit, pene in 
ea coUocato, ore ori affixo, et Bpirita exhalato et inhalato, 
(is ea bymni verba musset), — Hoc membro semioeque semen 
tuum aufero. Eo modo conjux non etit prfegnaua. 10. 



)b, Google 



Sieth Ohapter. Iburth BrdhmoMa. 275 

Dein bi quis conjagem eaae prsegnantem cupit, peDe in ea 
collocato, ore ori sfflso et spinto inhalttto et exhalato (is ea 
byinni verba musset), — Hoc membro semine que Hemen affero. 
Sic ea erit preegnaiis. 11, 

Dein si conjugis est amasius quem maritaa edit, is vna noa 
coctnm in igne ponat, et S'sravarhi sic dictum gramen inverse 
ordine aternens et ejus calamos bntyro immeraoa inverse 
ordine in igne sacrificans, (ea h^mni verba dicat), — Heus tu 
in igne meo aacrificasti, eqnideoi spiritum tnum progredi- 
entem nee ne spiritum descendentem aufero. Hens tu in igne 
meo sacrificaBti : equidem liberos tnos ac pecora tua aufero. 
Heua tu in igne meo aacrificasti ; equidem fmctus, qnoa e 
ceremoniis et benefacto adeptus es, aufero. Hens tu in igne meo 
sacrilicagti ; equidem spem tuam ac expeotationes tnas aufero. 
la sane seusibus obtusis, et benefacti fructu orbatua ex Hoc 
mundo terrestri discedet, quem BHihmaiius, ea cognitione 
prseditna, exsecratur. Quare ne quia, ea cognitione prseditus, 
in Br&hmani, Vedorum acientia inatructi, foribns (mente 
quidem) delectari cupiat, miuimnm vero (re ipsa delectetur) ; 
etenim ea cognitione prseditua inimicaa exstat. 12. 

Dein si quia conjugem menatruas purgationes snbeuntem 
novit, triduum e poculo bibat ; nee sit ejus (mariti) vestia 
scissa; nee S'ddnis neque S'lldr^ earn tangat. Tribua noctibus 
elapsis, earn lavari et de paleis orjzse grana exnere jubeat. 13. 

Dein si quia albi colorts filium nasci cupit qui peritus sit uniua 
Vedorum atque vitam ad extremum aetatia hnmanae finem 
degat, lacte nna cum orjza et butyro purificato cocto, nterque 
edat (ea hymni verba dicens), — Utinam procreatione poUeutes 
siioua. 14. 

Dein si quis filinm coloria nigricantis e gi)vo nasci cupit qui 
peritus ait duorum Vedorum atque vitam ad extremum aetatis 
faamanse finem degat, lacte coagulate una cum oryza et butyro 
parificato cocto, nterque edat, (ea hymni verba dicens^, — TJti- 
nara procreatione pollentes simus, 15. 

Dein si quia filium nigro colore rubrisque oculis ornatum 



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376 Brihad Aratt^aka Vpanithad. 

Basci cupit qui peritUB ait trium Vedorum atque vitam ftd ex- 
tremum aetfttia humanse fiaem degat, oryza una cum butyro 
pttiificato cocto, uterque edat, (ea faymai verba diceas), — Uti- 
nam procreatione pollentes simus. 16. 

Dein si quia doctam filiam nasci cupit quae vitam ad extre- 
matn aetatis hnmause finem degat, Tila sic dictae plautie semiui* 
bus una cum butyro purificato coctis, uterque edat, (ea hymni 
verba diceus), — Utinam procreatione pollentes simua. 17. 

Deio si quis filium doctum et valde celebratum nasci cupit, 
qui concionea freqaentet, suavia verba loquatur, omnium Vedo- 
rum peritus sit et vitam ad extremum aetatis Uumanae finem 
degat, miaoris sive mnjorls aetatis tauri came una cum 
orysa et butyro purificato cocto, uterq^ue edat (ea hymui verba 
diceuii), — Utinam procreatione pollentes simus, 18. 

Dein is mane butyro puriticato Sth^lipdka sic dicta cere- 
monia consecrate, iterura iterumque oryzse partem (eis hymni 
verbis) offert, — Igni SwiM, Auuraati Sw^hfi, divino Savitri, 
verse pro cr eat ionis causae, Swah^! Otyza hoc raodo sacrifi- 
cata et vase sublato, ipse est posteaque coojugem edere jubet. 
Turn miinibus ablutis et vase nquario aqua repleto ter earn con- 
Bper<;it (ea liymui verba dicens), — Surge de ea, Viswa-vasu, 
aliamqne qufsere emiiiam juvenem et idoneam quse cum marito 
ineat ludos araatorios. 19. 

Dein earn amplectitur, (ea hymni verba dicens), — Ego &nm 
Amus, tu es S&, tu es Sii, ego sum Amus, ego S^m&, tu es 
terra. Age, operam demns et filii procreaiidi causa semen 
emittamus. 20. 

Bein ejus femora pulsat (ea hymni verba dicens), — Kecludi* 
minor, vos coelum et terra ! Ac pene in ea coUocato, ore ori 
affile a capite ad pedes ter ejus corpus £ricat, (ea hymni verba 
dicens), — Visbnus vulvam tuam paret (ad procreandum), 
Twaster membra tua exteudat, Prajapatis emittat aemeu, et 
creator foetum nutriat, Foetum recipe^ Siuiviili, foetum 
recipe, multam celebrata. Aswiaes dei, nidiorum sertis fuU 
geates^ foetum tuum nutriant. 21. 



)b, Google 



Sixth Ohapter. Fourth Brihmana. 277 

Aswines ligtia duo, quibus Bacrificamus foetum taum, pen^- 
tent ita ut decimo oascatur mense, Sicnti terra est igoe 
pnegaans, sicuti coelam est Indro prsegnans, eicati veutas 
est plagis prsegnans, similiter ego foetum tuum praebeo. %"&. 

£am partum euitentera aqua conapergit (ea hymni verba 
diceus), — Sicuti ventua lacurn ubique commovet, similiter 
foetus tnus una cntu tegamentis exeat. Haec tir pessulo et 
tegumeuto Indri causa est muaita. Hac via, Indre, exeaa. 
Fac etiam, ut exeant secuudinfe. 23. 

(When the child is born), let him light a fire, and placing it 
on his lap, and taking curdled milk, mixed with clarified butter 
in a goblet, he offers repeatedly of the curdled milk and clarified 
butter, (saying), — " May I, magnified (by this son) in this 
house support a thousand (men). When he has obtained 
offspring, let there be no loss of prosperity in offspring and iu 
cattle. Swaha I I offer with my mind to tfaee my vital airs. 
Sn&ha! May the wise Agni who fulfils all desires right for 
us any work which ought not to have been done, or any work 
which ought to have been done in this rite." 24. 

Then, putting (his mouth) near the child's right ear, he 
mutters three times, " Speech, speech !" Then, taking curdled 
milk, honey and clarified butter together with unmixed gold, 
he feeds it, (saying), — " I give thee the earth, I give thee the 
atmosphere, I give tliee the heavens. I give thee all, eartb, 
atmosphere and heavens." 25. 

Then he gives him the name " Y^da," which is his secret 

Then giving him to his mother, he makes him take the 
breast (saying), — " O Saraswati, enter for the suckling (of the 
child into this (breast of the mother) thy breast which is fruit>- 
ful, the support (of all creatures), the giver of jewels, the 
knower of wealth, aud the liberal donor, by which thou causeth 
to grow all that is desirable." 27. 

Then he addresses the child's- mother with this Mantra, — 
" Thou art worthy of praise, thou art like MaittrSvaruni. Thou 



)b, Google 



XTS Brihad Antnyaka Upanithad. 

who hMtbom to the strong ii strong (son), be strong, thoo who 
giveth us > strong (son) . Of him people may say, — " Thou indeed 
exeellest thy father, thoa indeed excellett thy grand-father," 
The son bom to a Brfihman who has this knowledge, obtains the 
highest goal by prosperity, &me and the glory of a Br&h> 
map. 28. 

Now the school. The son of Pantimish! snceeeded the son 
of Kfity&yani, — the son of K&ty&yani the son of Qotami, — the 
son of Gotami the son of Bh&radw&ji, — the son of Bhfiradw&ji 
the son of Pfir£s'ar{, — the son of P&r&s'ari the ton of Aupas- 
wasti, — the son of Aupaswasti the son of F^rfia'ari,— the son 
of Piris'ari the son of K&ty&yani, — the son of K.&tyliyani 
the son of Kausiki, — the son of Kaa^ki the son of Alambi 
and the son of Yaiyaghrapad!, — the son of Vaiynghrapadi the 
sou of Kfinwf and the son of K^pi, I . 

The son of K&pi the son of Atreyi, — the son of ^treyi the 
ton of Gautami, — the son of Oautaroi the son of Bh^radwaji, 
— the son of Bhiradw&ji the son of Pirfis'ari, — the son of 
Pirfis'ari the son of Vitsi, — tha son of Vitsi the son of 
P&ris'ari, — the son of Pirfis'ari the son of Virkkfiruni, — 
the son of Y&rkk&rupt the son of V&rkk&rum, — the son of 
y&rkkirani the son of Arttabli&gi, — the son of Arttabh&gi the 
ton of S'anngi, — the son of S'anngl the son of Sinkriti, — the 
son of Sfinkriti the son of Alamb&yani, — the son of iflamb^ 
yani the son of Alamhi, — the son of Alambi the son of 
Jayanti, — the son of J&ynnti the son of Mandiik&ysni, — the 
son of Mfin^uk&yani the son of Min^uki, — the son of Mi^- 
(}iiki the son of S'fi^ijili, — the son of S'^diii the son of 
K&thitari, — the son of Er&thitar! the son of Bh&luki, — the son 
of Bb&lubi the two sons of Krannchiki, — the two sons of 
Kraanchiki the son of Vaidribba^, — the son of Vaidribhati 
the son of Kira'ak^yi] — the son of K&rs'ak^yi the son of 
Prichinayogi, — the son of Prfwhiuayogi the son of S&ojivi,— 
the son of S&njivi the ton of Pria'ni, — the son of Prfa'ni 
Asurdyana, — Aaur&rana Asuri,-~Asuri 2. 

DD.:eab, Google 



Sixth Chapter. Fourth Brihmana. 279 

YfijnHvalkya, — YajnnTAlkyn Udd&lakn, — Uddilaka Aruna, 
— Aruiia UpascB'i, — Upaves'i Kus'ri, — Kus'ri Vijae'ravas, — 
Vfijaa'ravas Jihw&vat Vidhyoga, — Jihu&vat Vfidhyoga Asita 
V^hagana, — Asita V&rsbagana Harita Eas'yapa,^Harita 
Ka^yapa S'ilpa Kaa'yapa, — S'ilpa Kas'yapa Eas'yapa Naidh- 
ruvi, — Kaa'yapa Na'idhruvi Vak, Vak Ambhini, — Ambfaiai 
^ditya. These MantraB of the vhite Yajur, which are de- 
rived from Aditya, hare been declared by Y&jaavalkya of the 
Y&jaBan^ya school. 8, 

From (Prajipati) until the sou of Siinjivi is the same (sue- 
ceasiua of teachers).* The son of Sfinjivi succeeded Mftq- 
^ukiyani, — Min^ak&yani H&n<Javya, — Hfip4''^& Kautsa, — 
Eautsa M&bitthi, — Mahitthi Vimakaksh&yana, — Vlimaka- 
ksbliyapa S&n^ilff'i — Sfin^'lja Vfitsya, V&tsya Kus'ri, — Kus'ri 
Yajnavacbas Bfijastamb&yana, — ^Yajnav&chas R^jastambfiyaoa 
Tura Kfivash^ya, — Tusr K&vasheya Prajdpati, — Prajfipati 
Brahma. Brahma is the self-existent. Salutation to Brahma ! 4. 

* In all UiB Ti^um^jl icIidoU. 



)b, Google 



b, Google 



page 


line 


L.unnj!ii; 


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another that 


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another " that" 


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write 


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136 


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he before eats. 






ib. 


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The Mantra : 






ib. 


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penance 


read 


penance" 


137 


1 for 


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penance; "he 


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IS : The nature of a fa- 




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■a. 




141 


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142 


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decrease" 


144 


10 „ 


characterised 


„ 





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)b, Google 



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