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d its 

Famous Associations 





J. W. Arrowsmith, II Quay Street 






PREFACE. 5?H^5^ 

• N connection with a city whose foundation dates 
before the Conquest, there must of necessity be 
many and famous personal associations which 
have gathered round its centuries of growth and 

Impelled by a love of his native city, it has been 
the task — a fascinating one — of the writer to gather 
together, from every available source, biographical material, 
which he has organised under definite headings, and 
which he trusts will have a real and living interest for 
his fellow-citizens, if not for that wider audience, the 
general public. 

If those of his critics who scan the following pages 
will be good enough to bear in mind the enormous field 
these researches cover, they will perhaps pardon any 
omissions in these biographical cameos, many of which 
are omitted by intention. Kings and queens and others 
who have had merely an accidental or purely historical 
association have been ignored ; the ordinary histories 
will supply their omission. By consulting, too, the best 
authorities, the writer has endeavoured to be accurate 
as well as interesting. 

In conclusion, the author desires most gratefully to 
acknowledge his indebtedness to that biographical treasury, 
The Dictionary of National Biography ; the encyclopaedic 
Annals of Bristol's Froissart, John Latimer; the incite- 
ment, as well as material, derived from the works of 
the late John Taylor ; and lastly to the generous and 
unfailing encouragement — without which this work would 
never have been written — of the proprietors of The 
Western Daily Press, Messrs. Walter and W. Nichol Reid. 

Stanley Huttox. 
May, 1907. 










Maritime Associations ..... i 
Literary Associations. 


II. CHATTERTOX • • • • • 53 







HISTORIANS ..... 175 

VIII. Bristol's connection with fiction 184 
Art Associations. 

PART I. distinguished ARTISTS . . . 20I 

ii. miscellaneous .... 227 

Musical Associations ..... 235 

Dramatic Associations ..... 243 
Scientific Associations. 

PART I. miscellaneous .... 269 

ii. medical and surgical . . . 2g2 

Military Associations ..... 303 

Political Associations ..... 321 

Assvriologists and Travellers . . . 336 
Religious Associations. 

PART I. distinguished CHURCHMEN . . 347 

II. distinguished nonconformists . 362 

Philanthropic and Social .... 385 



(From an Old Frinf) 




AND ST. Stephen's church .... 


(After a Water Colour by Nicholas Pocock, 1787.) 

STEAMSHIP built) ..... 


A VIEW OF THE HOTWELL, civca 1 735 . 



HENRY BURGUM . From an Old Engraving) 


HANNAH MORE (After Painting by H. W. Pickersgili,, A.R.A.) 


ROBERT SOUTKEY (After Drawing by Robert Hancock) 




JOSEPH COTTLE (After Portrait by Branwhite 

WM. WORDSWORTH (From a Drawing by Hancock, T789) 






WILLIAM BARRETT, F.S.A. ( I 733— I 789) 

REV. SAMUEL SEYER, M.A, (1757 1831) 

GEORGE PRYCE, F.S.A. (1799 1868) 

J. F. NICHOLLS, F.S.A. (1818 — 1883) 

JOHN TAYLOR (1829 1893) . 

JOHN LATIMER (1824 — 1904) . 






facing 5 
») \) 













W. J. MULLER (After Painting by Nathan Branwhitk) 


(After the Painting by himscli) 

E. II. HAII.V, R.A. ...... 



DAVID GARRICK (After the Painting by S\r ]ostiVfi Revhovds) 

SARAH SIDDONS (After the Painting by Sir Thomas Lawrence) 









HON. F. H. F. BERKELEY .... 





GEORGE FOX ....... 

WM. PENN ....... 


saints' CHURCH 

Colston's almshouses, st. michael's hill 
george muller ...... 








The tlianks of the Publisher are due to the Bristol Museum 
AND Art Gallery Committee for permission to reproduce 
various sketches and engravings in their possession ; to 
the Proprietors of Tlie Illustrated London h^ews, to Messrs. 
Macmillan & Co. Ltd., to Messrs. Smith, Elder & Co., 
and to Messrs. Chapman & Hall Ltd., for certain of the 
portraits appearing in the book; and to the Churchwardens 
OK St. Mary Redcliff Church for courteously allowing him to 
photograph the register containing the marriage certificates of 
S. T. Coleridge and Robert Southey. 

aritime and Commercial 

' The good ships freighted in the South 
Come up to us from Avonmouth, 
Come steaming past famed Clevedon's shore, 
Haunt of the deathless ones of yore. 
From lands where Empire's sturdy root 
Is set, they bring us corn and fruit; 
They take, to children of our blood, 
The cheery word of brotherhood. 

■ O fare ye by the sounding docks, 
Or claniber high as Clifton's rocks, 
Where salt winds from the channel blow, 
And make your English pulses glow ; 
The accent of those far-off lands, 
Where uncouth force and law clasp hands 
To circumscribe unfetter'd space. 
Shall thrill you with the pride of race. 

' The good ships freighted from the South 
Come up to us at Avonmouth ; 
Come up with the rejoicing tide 
That makes the Severn still more wide : 
And with their spice and cattle bring 
A fair, unpurchasable thing — 
The breath and glamour of the sea 
That made us great, that keeps us free." 

* Slightly altered from the original. 



Bristol's commerce in the earliest times— William Canynges : 
Magnitude of Jiis transactions ; monopoly of Danish 
trade — Voyage of the Cabofs : Discovery of America; 
credit due to John Cabot ; erection of Cabot Tower — 
Expedition sent by Robert TJiornc in search of North- 
West Passage — Trade of Nicholas Thome ivith the West 
Indies — Dangers attending commercial enterprises — 
Voyage of Martin Pring — Sir Ferdinando Gorges : 
Colonisation schemes; oivncr of "'Great House^'' — 
Voyage of Captain James in search of North-W^est 
Passage : Daring character of the expedition — BristoVs 
manufacturers and wealth — Dudley North — John Gary — 
St. James's Fair and its importance in the seventeenth 
century — Bristol privateering enterprises: The '^ Angel 
Gabriel" — Discovery of Alexander Selkirk by Captain 
Woodes Rogers: Great financial success of tJiis expedi- 
tion ; Selkirk's adventures form basis of Defoe's 
^'Robinson Crusoe" — Bristol's merchandise and com- 
merce : Defoe's observations thereon — Great Western 
Raihcay — Building of "Great Western" steamship: 
First voyage across Atlantic a triumphant sticcess — 
Launch and first voyage of the " Great Britain " 
— fBristoVs lost opportunity — Conrad Finzel — Samuel 

T is by no adventitious aid that Bristol has become 

: . what she is to-day, for her trreatness was founded 

on commerce ; she exists by commerce, and on 

commerce alone must her future depend as one of the 

foremost maritime ports of the empire. 


Defoe has rightly said : " Seeing that trade is the fund 
of weahh and power, we cannot wonder that we see the 
wisest princes and states anxious and concerned for the 
increase of the commerce and trade of their subjects and 
of the growth o{ the coinitrx ." 

In no cit\- of I'2ngland were these wise words more 
fullv realised than in the ancient city of Bristol. One 
of the earliest references, if not the earliest, to Bristol's 
status as a port is that of William of Malmesbury, who 
lived in the first half of the twelfth century. When writing 
of the Vale of Gloucester, he says: "In this same valley 
is a i'e>y celchyatcd toivn, by name Bristowe, in which is a 
port, a resort of ships coming from Ireland, Norway, and 
other countries beyond sea ; lest a region so fortunate in 
native riches should be destitute of the commerce of 
foreign wealth." 

At the time of Edward III. so extensive and important 
was its commerce that it directed the whole foreign trade 
and the import of foreign merchandise, and even then did 
business on a very considerable scale, for in 1375 Bristol 
ships laden with salt were captured and burnt in the 
channel, and the losses were set down at no less than 
£^7>759^ ^ huge sum of money in those days. Fifty 
years later Bristol's trading vessels were known in every 
sea from Syria to Iceland. 

One of the earliest tributes to the maritime importance 
of Bristol was paid by Henry I\'. about 1400 in a 
charter which says : " Considering the many notable 
services which very many merchants and burgesses of our 
town of Bristol have done for us and our famous pro- 
genitors with their ships and vo}-ages at their own great 
charges and expense, we have granted that the said town 
shall be for ever free from the jurisdiction of f^ir Admiraltv." 

(From an old Print.) 


Mrs. J. R. Green, in Town Life in the Fifteenth Century, 
has truly remarked: "There were none who surpassed 
the merchants of Bristol — men who had made their town 
the chief depot for the wine trade of Southern France, a 
staple for leather, lead, tin, and the great mart for fish of 
the channel and for the salt trade of Brittany, whose 
cloth and leather were carried to Denmark to be 
exchanged for stock-fish, and to France and Spain for 
wine ; who as early as 1420 made their way by compass 
to Iceland, and whose vessels were the first to enter the 

Great indeed were Bristol's merchant princes in those 
early days of her history. The case of Robert Sturmy, 
Mayor of Bristol in 1453-4, is but one typical of the 
time. This great merchant had one of his ships plundered 
by the Genoese, who had bitterly resented his intrusion 
on their trading territory, and laid his complaint before 
the king, who forthwith had all the Genoese merchants 
then in London thrown into prison until they should give 
bonds for the -£"6,000 at which Sturmy had estimated his 
losses. Sturmy dwelt at this period in Spycer's Hall on 
the Welsh Back. Here flourished in the fifteenth century 
the greatest of all Bristol's merchant princes, William 
Canynges, son and grandson of eminent merchants of our 
city, and the benefactor of Redcliff Church. At this 
period he had in his hands the chief trade with Northern 
Europe. Not only were his factors established in the 
Baltic ports, but his transactions with Iceland and with 
Finland were on so great a scale that when in 1450 all 
English trade with those countries was forbidden, in 
virtue of a treaty with the King of Denmark, Canynges 
was specially exempted for his services to the Danes, 
and had therefore for some time the monopoly of 


their tradL-. Moreover, the ships he owned were the 
largest hitherto known in England. During the eight 
years prior to 1460 he. employed on an average 
eight hundred seamen to navigate his fleet of ten 

How the greatest of Bristol's merchant princes rebuilt 
Redcliff Church, erected the great house in Redcliff 
Street, the chapel of which still exists; was Ave times 
Mayor of Bristol and twice represented it in Parliament ; 
and finally in his old age retired to the college of 
Westbury-on-Trym, became its Dean, and there died, are 
events in his life familiar to all who dip into our local 

The great importance of the clothing trade of Bristol,, 
still one of its staple industries, is illustrated by the fact 
that as early as 1292 the St. James's Fair was famous 
throughout the kingdom as a cloth mart. For in that 
year the Archbishop of Canterbury in his rules governing 
his household particularly mentions that " robes were to 
be bought at St. James's tide," viz. at St. James's Fair. 
It was early in the following century that the family of 
Blanket, whose name has been erroneously made famous 
as the inventors of that article of domestic comfort, first 
settled here. The name blanket is really a term of French 
derivation, meaning white cloth, and Becket is said to have 
been dressed in a "curtil of w^hit blankit " one hundred 
and fifty years before the Blanket family appeared in 

Their advent, however, with their fellow Flemish 
weavers, gave a powerful impetus to the trade, not only 
of Bristol, but all England. This development became 
so rapid that ere long English merchants were competing 
successfully in foreign markets, and amongst those who 


competed none were more active and adventurous than 
men of Bristol. 

The centur\- of Canynges, to whom we have just 
alhided, marks the greatest and most glorious achieve- 
ment of our civic annals. The closing years of that 
fifteenth century greeted the arrival in our city of John 
Cabot, peer of the great Columbus himself, for was it 
not this world-famous navigator who " called in a new 
world to redress the balance of the old " ? Here he 
resided with his family, and, encouraged by the merchants 
of our city, he applied for and obtained, on March 5th, 
1496, a patent from King Henry VII. empowering him 
and his three sons — Lewis, Sebastian, and Sanctus — to 
set sail and discover and possess the new isles beyond 
the seas. Accordingly, in the May of the following 
year (1497), they embarked in the little ship the Matthew, 
probably less than a hundred tons burden, equipped by 
Bristol merchants and manned by eighteen seamen, 
nearly all Bristolians, on that memorable voyage that 
had such momentous and far-reaching consequences to 
the English race. In the early summer they made their 
historic landing on the coast of Newfoundland. The actual 
spot, though conjectured, is still an unsolved geographical 
riddle. This great event preceded Columbus's discovery 
of South America by at least a year. 

It is curious to speculate what might have happened 
had the possession of the southern continent fallen to 
England instead of Spain. It was not the fault of 
Bristol men that England was anticipated by her 
southern rival. 

Undoubtedly the part played by the Cabots, equipped 
and sent forth by Bristol merchants, has rightly become 
one of our national glories. All competent authorities 


arc now aj,'rocd that the voyage of the Cabots marks 
<;nc' of the greatest epochs of English history, and that 
John Cabot, father of Sebastian, was the real founder 
of liritish maritime supremacy. Lindsay, in his great 
work on the History of Merchant Shipping, says: "To the 
discoveries and wise policy of Cabot England was far 
more indcbteil than to the so-called celebrated ' Naviga- 
tion Laws' of Oliver Cromwell."' Campbell, too, in his 
Lives of the Admirals, refers to Cabot as "the author of 
our maritime strength, who had opened the way to those 
improvements which have rendered us so great, so 
eminent, so flourishing a people." 

It was not unfitting that on the four hundredth 
anniversary of that glorious achievement Bristol's citizens 
built the noble Cabot Tower on Brandon's green and 
lofty hill, from whose summit the silver bar of Severn 
can easily be seen on a clear da}'. The magnificent view 
obtained of Bristol and its lovely surroundings from the 
tower is a sight to linger long in the memory. It was 
built at a cost of ^^3,300, and the ceremonies of laying 
the foundation stone and the opening were performed 
by the late Marquess of Dufferin. 

That Bristol was in the van of early colonisation is 
proved by the fact that seventeen years before the voyage 
of Cabot, viz. in 1480, two ships of eighty tons burden, 
belonging to John Jay, merchant of Bristol, who had filled 
the office of sheriff, and whose monument is in the church 
of St. Mary Redcliff, set sail to the west of Ireland to find 
the Islands of Brazil. A disinterested testimony to the 
spirit of adventure on the part of Bristol is that of Pedro 
de Ayala, a member of the Spanish Embassy, who in 
writing to the Spanish authorities in 1498 said: "The 
people of Bristol have for the last seven years every year 


sent out two, three, and four light ships in search of the 
Island of Brazil and the seven cities." 

In regard to the Cabot voyage of 1497, Lorenzo 
Pasqualigo, writing on October nth to his brother^ 
says : — 

"The Venetian, our countryman, who went with a ship 
from Bristol (the Matthew) in quest of new islands, is 
returned, and says that seven hundred leagues hence he 
discovered land, the territory of the Great Cham. He 
coasted for three hundred leagues and landed, saw no 
human being, but he has brought hither to the king 
certain snares which had been set to catch game, and a 
needle for making nets ; he also found some felled trees, 
wherefore he supposed there were inhabitants, and returned 
to his ship in alarm. 

" He was three months on the voyage, and on his 
return he saw two islands to the starboard but would not 
land, time being precious, as he was short of provisions. 
He says that the tides are slack and do not flow as they 
do here. The King of England is much pleased with this 

" The king has promised that in the spring our 
countryman shall have ten ships, armed to his order, and 
at his request has conceded him all the prisoners, except 
such as are confined for high treason, to man the fleet. 
The king has also given him money wherewith to amuse 
himself till then, and he is now at Bristol with his wife, 
who is also a Venetian, and with his son. His name is 
Zucan Cabot, and he is styled the 'Great Admiral.' Vast 
honour is paid him, he dresses in silk, and these English 
run after him like mad people, so that he can enlist as 
many of them as he pleases, and a number of our own 
rogues besides." 


Considerinf:; how world-faiiKHis Bristol was as a port 
of maritime adventure, it is not at all improbable that 
Columbus came here, and that the two jjreat captains of 
their age met. Cunningham, in his Growth of English 
Industry, definitely states that Columbus came to Bristol 
and stayed some time. 

Sebastian, the famous son of John Cabot, was l)orn 
some say in Venice and others in Bristol. There is con- 
siderable confliction of evidence on the point, because he 
seems to have hed unblushingly when it suited his 
purpose. For instance, he has stated first that he was 
born at Venice, and again later, when an old man, he 
distinctlv told his friend, Richard Eden, that "he was 
borne in Brystowe, and that at iiii yeare ould he was 
carried with his father to Venice, and so returned agayne 
into England with his father after certayne years, whereby 
he was thought to have been born in Venice." 

There is little doubt that through the mendacity of 
Sebastian the honour rightly belonging to his father, 
John Cabot, has for centuries been withheld. Hence- 
forth all the eulogies applied to Sebastian by successive 
writers on maritime history must be transferred to the 
real discoverer, his father, John Cabot. Undoubtedly 
modern research into the history of the Cabots, especially 
the great work of Mr. Harrisse, have all been destructive 
of the fame hitherto awarded him, and to-day he is 
dethroned in favour of his father as the " greatest navi- 
gator and cosmographer that ever lived." 

Fired by the example of the Cabots, we find Robert 
Thome, an eminent Bristol merchant, urging on 
Henry VIII. the desirability of making an attempt to 
find the north-west passage of the Moluccas. Said he : 
*' With a small number of ships there might be discovered 


divers new lands and kingdoms in the which without 
doubt your Grace shall win perpetual glory and your 
subjects infinite profit. To which places there is left 
one way to discover, which is into the north." 

This representation to the king was promptly acted 
upon, but unfortunately with barren results, for on May 
20th, 1527, he sent — Hakluyt tells us — "two fair ships well 
manned and victualled, having in them divers cunning 
iiien, to seek strange regions." These ships, the Ma}y of 
Guildford and the Samson, set sail from Bristol on 
June loth, and proceeded due north as Thorne had 
directed; but on July ist a violent storm arose, which 
Wrecked the Samson with the loss of all her crew. The 
s?ister ship sailed a little farther, but not speedily finding 
the wealth of Cathay, the captain lost heart on finding 
many great islands of ice and returned. 

Thus ended the first and only voyage of discovery 
in the reign of Henry VIII. Thorne thereupon turned 
his attention to commerce in other directions, and 
amassed great wealth, which he as freely spent in doing 
good. He was a merchant of great repute engaged in 
cloth and soap manufacture. That he was "a man of 
distinction in our city is proved by his being mayor in 
1515, and his being appointed by the Crown with others 
to hold in commission the office of Admiral of England in 
Bristol. In 1523 he represented Bristol in Parliament, 
and, dying soon after, left two sons. Robert Thorne 
and his brother Nicholas were jointly the founders of 
the Bristol Grammar School. Hakluyt alludes to 
Nicholas as "a principal merchant of Bristol." 

Nicholas Thorne, as early as the year 1526, was 
sending commodities to the West Indies, thus antici- 
pating by nearly three centuries the great trade P)ristol 


ultimatch' did with those islands. He formed one of 
a deputation to Henry N'lII. in Auf;ust, 15 J5, when 
the king and his consort, Anne Boleyn, were staying^ at 
Thornbury Castle, the seat of the ill-fated Buckingham, 
to present them with costly gifts. 

In regard to the benevolence of Robert Thorne, 
(juaint old Fuller remarks : " I see it matters not, what 
the name be, so the nature be good. I confess thorns 
came in by man's curse, and our Saviour sayeth, ' Do- 
men gather grapes of thorns?' But this our Thorn (God 
send us many coppices of them) was a blessing to our 
Nation and wine and oil may be said to freely flow from 
him." And again he says : " I have observed some at the 
church door cast in a sixpence with such ostentation that 
it rebounded from the bottom and rang against both sides 
of the basin, so that the same piece of silver was alms 
and the giver's trumpet, whilst others have dropped 
down five shillings, without noise. Our Thorn was of 
the second sort, doing his charity effectually, but w^ith 

Ever seeking new outlets for her trade, in the year 
1552 three Bristol ships, freighted with cargoes of linen 
and woollen cloth, amber, and jet, sailed from Kingroad 
for Morocco. Though they incurred the anger of the 
Portuguese and w^ere attacked by the Spaniards they 
returned safely. This voyage was the first instance 
of trade between Bristol and the African continent ; in 
subsequent years Bristol's connection with the West 
Coast of Africa formed a large portion of her com- 

Many were the risks and dangers incurred by merchants 
who sought a wider market for their merchandise, as, 
for instance, in the case of Andrew Barker, a Bristol 


merchant, who in 1576 traded with the Canaries by 
taking out cloth and bringing back wine. Hearing that 
his goods had been seized by the Inquisition at Tenerilfe 
to the value of £i,yoo, and his factor there imprisoned, 
he, with the help of friends, fitted out two barques, 
the Ragged Staff and the Bear, and set sail with a view 
to reprisals. 

Reaching Trinidad, they proceeded along the northern 
coast of South America, doing all the damage they could 
to the Spanish ships they encountered. Their efforts 
were crowned with success, for the}' captured a frigate 
containing gold and silver to the value of ;^500 and 
other spoil. Unfortunately the crews subsequently 
mutinied, and Barker and those who sided with him 
were defeated after fighting two duels ; they were 
then forcibly landed on an island, where they were set 
upon by Spaniards and killed. 

We find, too, that in the year 1577 that fine old 
sea-dog, Martin Frobisher, came with his ship into 
Kingroad after a vain attempt to discover the North- 
West Passage. 

In the beginning of the following century we learn 
from that justly-celebrated work, Purchas's Pilgrims, 
the following account of the early colonial enterprise of 
Bristol: "A voyage set out from the city of Bristol, at 
the charge of the chiefest inhabitants, with a small ship 
and barque for the discovery of the north part of Virginia, 
under the command of Martin Pring." 

This gallant Bristol seaman, then only 23 years of 
age, states that the voyage was undertaken through the 
" reasonable inducement of Richard Hakluyt, prebendary 
of the cathedral," " the chief furtherers " of the under- 
taking being those public-spirited merchants of the city„ 


Aldermen Aldworth and Whitson, and altogether /"ijOoo 
was adventured on the enterprise. The vessels, from a 
modern maritime point of view, were absurdly small, and 
ill-htted to battle with the storms of the Atlantic. The 
Spcccht'ell was but fifty tons burden, with a crew of thirty- 
tive men, whilst her companion, the Discoverer, was only 
twenty tons. 

Pring, however, fearlessly set sail on March 20th, 1603, 
-and reached the coast of North Virginia, the New England 
of later days, early in June. He remained there nearly 
two months, lying for some time in the harbour, to which 
he gave the name of Whitson, but which was afterwards 
to become memorable as " Plymouth," at which the 
Pilgrim Fathers landed seventeen years later. Having 
closely surveyed the coast, discovered several rivers and 
harlxiurs, and loaded his ships with sassafras, then a 
valuable medicinal plant, he set sail for England, and 
reached Bristol on October 2nd, when he reported the 
land to be " full of God's good blessings." 

Associated, too, with our city was " the Father of 
English Colonisation in North America," Sir Ferdinando 
•Gorges, who came of an honourable family long connected 
with Wraxall, near Bristol, and was moved through 
nformation supplied him by one of the early explorers to 
form a company for the colonisation of America. Through 
his efforts a Virginia Company was established in 
1606, and was granted a charter by Charles I. "This 
document," says Bancroft, the American historian, "was 
the first colonial charter under which the English were 
planted in America." By the influence of Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges and Lord Chief Justice Popham, who had at 
an earlier period represented Bristol in Parliament, a 
subscription was opened at the Council House, Bristol, 


for " the plantation and inhabiting of Virginia," the 
contributions to extend over five years. 

Among those who responded to the invitation were 
the mayor, John Guy, and Robert Aldworth. A vessel 
was forthwith equipped and sent out from Bristol, sailing 
in September or October, 1606, Hannam being appointed 
commander and Martin Pring master. Little is recorded, 
however, of its adventures save a brief note by Gorges 
containing the important statement that Pring had re- 
turned with " the most exact discovery of that coast that 
ever came into my hands." A similar expedition had at 
the same time started from Plymouth. 

Though the voyages of Pring were apparently barren 
of practical results, yet they bore fruit in keeping the 
spirit of colonising alive in our city, for in the early part 
of i6og permission was sought from the Privy Council to 
found a plantation in Newfoundland, the petitioners being 
composed of London and Bristol merchants, among whom 
were Humphrey Hooke, Thomas Aldworth, and Philip 
and John Guy ; their official title being the " Company 
of Adventurers and Planters of London and Bristol for 
the colony or plantation of Newfoundland." John Guy, 
who was a merchant of great repute, was appointed the 
first governor of the company. 

Early in May, Guy, with his brother Philip and William 
Colston, with a number of emigrants of both sexes, to 
say nothing of cattle, poultry, etc., were embarked in 
three ships that had been equipped for the purpose 
en route for the new colony. They arrived in New- 
foundland in twenty-three days, and erected dwellings, 
store -houses, wharves and a fort, whilst Guy built 
himself a mansion called Sea Poorest House. Returning 
to Bristol in 161 1, he, in the following year, took out 


another party of emi^jrants. By his will in February, 
1626, he left his share of the settlement to his sons, 
then under age. 

Unfortunately, the experiment in colonisation was not 
successful, for there appears no record of the colony's 
existence after the year 1628. In spite of this, however, 
Newfoundland proved an excellent outlet for Bristol's 
trade, for in December, 1667, the merchants and ship- 
owners of our city petitioned the Privy Council, praying 
for the better protection of Newfoundland against the 
French and Dutch cruisers, who threatened to destroy 
their trade, in the course of which they asserted that the 
Customs duties paid at Bristol on wine, oil, and fruit 
brought in from Spain, Portugal, and Italy, in exchange 
for the fish they carried to those countries, amounted to 
^40,000 yearly. 

Sir Ferdinando Gorges, who seems to have been 
an enthusiastic pioneer of colonisation, applied to 
James I. in 1620 and obtained a patent for a new 
company styled "The Council for New England," to 
which the king made the extraordinary grant of the 
whole of North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
lying between the fortieth and forty-eighth degrees of 
latitude. Gorges endeavoured to induce the Mayor 
of Bristol and other merchants to join in the enter- 
prise, but they refused to have anything to do with a 
scheme they regarded as impracticable and altogether 
unworkable, and the Merchant Venturers' Society, writing 
to the Members of Parliament for the city, said that 
they "in no wise liked" Gorges' scheme. As far as Bristol 
was concerned, therefore, it became a dead letter. This 
famous man ultimately married in 1627 the widow of 
Sir Hugh Smyth of Ashton, and became in right of her 


jointure the owner of the "Great House" on Saint 
Augustine's Back, which house early in the following 
century became Colston's School. 

The final allusion to this extraordinary pioneer of the 
" expansion of England " occurs in a charter granted 
to him in 1639, when he was 70 years of age, by 
which Charles I. conceded to him and his heirs the 
entire province of Maine, New England, minus certain 
reservations to the Crown. 

Notwithstanding that our Bristol merchants refused 
to join in the above scheme of Gorges, their indomitable 
spirit of adventuring was unquenched, and broke out 
in a fresh place in the year 1631, when a bold attempt 
was once more made to find the elusive North-West 
Passage. Charles I.,' who was interesting himself in 
the matter, equipped a royal ship for that purpose, 
hearing of which our Bristol merchants asked to be 
allowed to take part by themselves, fitting out a ship 
to be under the command of Captain Thomas James, 
a Bristol mariner of tried skill. This request was 
graciously acceded to, and James waited on His Majesty 
to pay his respects. 

The chief Bristol merchants who took part were 
Humphrey Hooke, Andrew Charlton, Miles Jackson and 
Thomas Cole. The little ship equipped for this expedition 
was named, in honour of the Qiieen, Henrietta Maria, and 
was of eighty tons burden. " The number thought 
conuenient to mannage such a buisnesse was twentie 
two, whereof nineteene were choice able men, two yonkers 
and my unworthy selfe their Commander all which the 
Bristowe merchants did most Judicously and bountifully 
accomodate, and had in readinesse the first of May, 1631." 

Sailing from Bristol on May 3rd, they steered their 


course by way of Greenland to Hudson's Strait, the 
weather throughout the voyage being extremely bad, and 
at length entered a ba\- which, in honour of their leader, 
was named James's Bay. Some weeks later they reached 
a place they called Charlton, after one of the above- 
mentioned merchants, and there the state of the weather 
compelled them to remain. Owing to their being unable 
to get nearer than three miles to the shore, they deemed 
it advisable to sink the ship to prevent damage to her 
bv "bumping," the crew taking refuge on land. Here 
they wintered and had an awful time of cold and priva- 
tion, hut in the following May they dug out their ship 
and got her once more afloat and sailed for England, 
arriving after a tempestuous voyage on October 22nd, 
1632. By this time the vessel was in so unseaworthy 
a condition that it was considered a miracle that she 
arrived home. 

The intrepid conduct of Captain James became the 
theme of general admiration throughout the country, and 
on his presenting himself at Whitehall with a chart of 
his voyage, the king gave him a warm welcome and 
conversed with him respecting his voyage for a couple of 
hours, being so interested that he desired James on leaving 
his presence to attend again to give him further details. 

The nobility of the Court, taking the cue from their 
ro5'al master, paid him the most flattering attentions, and 
James became the lion of the season. His reputation as 
a skilful and scientific mariner was still further enhanced 
by his spirited account of his arctic adventures, published 
in 1633. His portrait in that work, in the corner of the 
map of Hudson's and Baftin's Bay, has been in such 
demand by the disciples of Granger — the founder of 
grangerising — that several guineas have been given for it. 


and many copies of that rare volume have been mutilated 
for the sake of its possession. 

Among the staple manufactures for which Bristol has. 
for centuries been famous is that of soap, alluding to 
which old Fuller exclaims: "As to gray sope I behold 
Bristol as the staple place thereof, where alone it was 
anciently made. . . . Yea it is not above an hundred and 
fifty years " (viz. the beginning of the sixteenth century) 
"since the first sope was boyled in London. Before which 
time the land was generally supplied with Castile from 
Spain, and graj' sope from Bristol." 

In 163 1, however, its manufacture in Bristol received 
a severe blow, for in December of that year a patent was 
granted by the Crown to a number of courtiers and 
Londoners, conferring on them the sole right of manu- 
facturing soap from home materials. A royal charter also 
empowered them to destroy the plant and buildings of 
persons invading their privilege. This practically ruined 
the local industry. 

A striking evidence of Bristol's wealth and status in 
the seventeenth century is afforded by the fact that a sum 
of ;^2,ooo for the equipment of a royal ship with two- 
hundred and sixty men to man her was provided by 
Bristol, whilst Liverpool's contribution on the same 
occasion was but a beggarly ;^I5. 

It has been stated that the founder of the great tin- 
plate industry, Andrew Yarranton, set up his works in 
Bristol. He is one of England's forgotten benefactors, 
who lived in the seventeenth century, having in disguise 
discovered its secrets of manufacture from the Germans 
and brought them to England. In the same century, 
too, the famous founder of the Bank of England — 
William Patcrson — lived for some time in Bristol with 


a relative of his mother's, from whom he is said to have 
derived a legacy. 

A complaint by Bristol merchants to the Privy 
C'cMincil in the year 1667 illustrates the extent of the 
tobacco trade, for the applicants stated that during the 
late war with the Dutch the enemy had captured six 
of their ships laden with 3,300 hogsheads of tobacco in 
1665-6, while in 1667 nine ships with 6,000 hogsheads 
had been taken and burnt. In November, 1670, vSir 
John Knight stated in the House of Commons that of the 
6,000 tons of shipping possessed by Bristol one half was 
employed in the importation of tobacco. Great therefore 
as Bristol's tobacco trade is to-day, the above proves it to 
be no modern industry. 

A famous personality of this period connected with 
Bristol was Dudley North, one of the greatest financiers 
and economists of his time. Just before the king nominated 
him Sheriff of London, he had fallen in love with Lady 
Gunning, a widow very beautiful and rich, the daughter 
of Sir Robert Cann, a morose and irascible merchant of 
Bristol in the latter end of the seventeenth century-. The 
match was very nearly falling through, for when the 
consent of the old knight was asked, he required that 
North should purchase and secure to the lady an estate 
worth jr3, 000 or ;^4,ooo per annum. North replied that 
he could not spare so much capital from his business, but 
that he would make a settlement of £20,000. To that 
offer he received the laconic reply : " Sir, — My answer to 
your letter is an answer to your second. Your humble 
servant, R.C." The rejoinder was equally brief: "Sir, — 
I perceive you like neither me nor my business. Your 
humble servant, D.N." 

North thereupon addressed himself to the beautiful 


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widow, and with such success that she coaxed her father, 
who at last grudgingly consented to their marriage, North 
previously settling his property upon her ; the deed of 
settlement, however, she generously destroyed ere the 
ceremony took place. Ultimately her father became 
reconciled and proud of his son-in-law, and when the 
latter came to Bristol, would say to him, " Come, son, 
let us go out and shine," viz. promenade the streets 
attended by a retinue of servants in rich liveries. 

So able a man was North, that even Macaulay, much 
as he disliked the Norths, could not withhold his tribute 
of admiration, for he pronounces him " one of the 
ablest men of his time." North's tract on currency 
anticipated the views of Locke and Adam Smith, and 
he was one of the earliest economists to advocate Free 

His brother, Roger North, Recorder of Bristol, alludes 
to the trading enterprise of Bristol at this period, for he 
observes, " Petty local shopkeepers, selling candles and 
the like, would venture a bale of stockings or piece of 
stuff in a cargo bound for Nevis or Virginia." 

Another striking individuality belonging to the end 
of this same century deserves mention — John Gary, a 
merchant of our city, the author of a remarkable Essay on 
the State of England, in Relation to its Trade, its Poor, and 
iti Taxes, one of the earliest specimens of printing from 
a Bristol press, published by William Bonny in 1695. 
The work is now extremely rare. 

John Gary was the son of Thomas Gar}-, Vicar of 
St. Philip and Jacob, and a man of great intelligence, his 
views expressed in his famous essay being far in advance 
of those of his age. He strongly advocated the encourage- 
ment of domestic manufactures by freeing raw materials 


from Customs duties, and deprecated the granting of 
monopolies, and even urged tlie free admission of produce 
from Ireland, a polic}' utterly opposed to the narrow- 
view of the landed interest. 

John Locke was so delighted with the author's ideas 
on trade that he said they were "the best I ever read on 
the subject." 

Cary held sound \iews on the Poor Law question, and 
it was due entirely to his initiative set forth in his 
broadside — "Proposals for the better maintaining and 
imploying of the Poor of the cit}' of Bristol, humbly 
offered to the consideration of the Mayor" — that Bristol 
had the honour of being the first in the kingdom to 
establish the " Poor Law Union." 

Earlier we have alluded to the importance of St. 
James's Fair as a mart for cloth, and in the seventeenth 
century its fame, though centuries had elapsed, was still 
as great as ever, so that ships bound thereto were the. 
object of special attention by Turkish corsairs. As 
many as eleven sail of these flying English colours were 
on one occasion reported to be on the sea waiting to 
seize passengers bound for Bristol. The Mayor of 
Penzance (July 4th, 1636) gave notice of this to the 
Secretary of State, complaining that His Majesty's fleet 
had not been seen off Cornwall for fourteen days, and 
that the Turkish corsairs intended to be about the 
Lizard Point and Land's End against St. James's 

St. James's Fair has long since fallen from its ancient 
importance as the market-place of Europe ; within com- 
paratively recent years it became the rendezvous of 
acrobats and others of a like nature who used their 
skill for the amusement of the public. Since the property 


has fallen into the civic possession it has been made into 
one of the many open spaces of our city, and no shows 
or exhibitions are now permitted to be held there. 
Among those who in the eighteenth century performed 
at St. James's Fair was one Maddox, who excited great 
admiration by his skill as an acrobat upon the wire. 

The late C. J. Harford tells the following curious 
anecdote of the subsequent history of Maddox : — 

"In the year 1786," he says, "I was in Moscow, and 
met in a large company there a Mr, Maddox, who, having 
six horses to his carriage, I knew must have the rank of 
a brigadier-general. Being introduced as coming from 
Bristol he seemed much delighted. ' Pray, sir,' said he, 
' can you inform me is St. James's Fair still kept up ? 
And is old Seward the trumpeter alive?' Much 
surprised at this question, I assured him that St. James's 
Fair would take place the next Friday (as it was the 
last week in August this took place), and I had seen 
old Seward trumpeting before the sheriffs the March 
preceding. 'And now, Mr. Maddox, allow me to inquire 
how you could know anything about St.'s Fair, 
or be interested about old Seward ? ' 

" ' Sir,' replied Mr. Maddox, ' I am exceedingly pleased 
at what you tell me. Many a time have I acted Punch, 
and played on the salt box in the gallery, at the corner 
of Silver Street, I think you call it ; and Seward is my 
uncle, he brought me up from a child.' ' By your name, 
Mr. Maddox,' I replied, ' I suppose you are some relation 
of the famous Tom Maddox, the rope dancer, who with 
all his family and troupe, except one infant that floated 
ashore in a cradle, were lost about 1757 in a packet off 
Holyhead ? ' ' Mr. Harford, I am that child, m}' Uncle 
Seward bred me up, and here you hnd me director 


of the opera or theatre, and keephi^ a Vauxhall at 
Moscow.' I frequently dined with this extraordinary 
character, who always spoke with pleasure of St. James's 

At this fair, too, niigiit have been seen at one 
time Behoni, afterwards the celebrated explorer of 
Egypt, who was accustomed at St. James's Fair 
and other similar resorts to exhibit those herculean feats 
which his great physical strength enabled him to do. 

Before passing on to the eighteenth century, a brief 
allusion must be made to the remarkable activity of 
privateering carried on by Bristol merchants \\'ith very 
lucrative results to those concerned. 

In the years 1626-27-28 no less than sixty Bristol 
privateers, many of which were the property of the 
well-known Merchant Venturers' Society, were fitted out 
and empowered by Government letters of marque to 
harass and capture French and Spanish merchantmen. 
The tonnage of these little vessels ranged from thirty 
to three hundred tons. Among those who engaged in 
this lucrative and successful adventuring were William 
Colston, father of the great philanthropist, Giles Elbridge, 
and Humphrey Hooke, who of all those that took part 
reaped the greatest financial harvest, for one of his 
ships, the Ea<flc, brought home prizes in 1630 to 
the value of £"40,000. By means of this success 
and other windfalls, Hooke, who came to Bristol as 
a boy from Chichester, became extremely wealthy, and 
was enabled to purchase great estates in the locality, 
including that of Kingsweston. The success of these 
expeditions may be gauged from the fact that the 
Duke of Buckingham, who as Lord of the Admiralty 
claimed a tenth part of their prizes, received ;£'20,ooo 




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as his share of the spoil. This wealth was not, however, 
obtained without great boldness and daring, and many 
a stirring fight occurred in its gain. 

One of these fights, showing the intrepid character 
of our Bristol seamen, is immortalised in the ballad 
entitled, The Honour of Bristol, which is not unworthy 
to rank with the best of our maritime ballads, and which 
Latimer justly observes is "as heartstirring as 'Chevy 
Chase.' " It tells how about the year 1625, when 
we were at war with Spain, the Angel Gabriel of 
Bristol, sailed by her captain the famous Nethaway 
with forty fighting men, put to flight three Spanish 
ships of war, with the alleged loss to them of five 
hundred men. The following verses are a type of 
the whole ballad : — 

" The lusty ship of Bristol 

Sailed out adventurously 
Against the foes of England 

Their strength with them to try : 
Well victuall'd, rigged and mann'd, 

And good provision still, 
Which made them cry — To sea 

With the Angel Gabriel! 

"The captain, famous Netheway, 

So was he called by name ; 
The master's name John Mines, 

A man of noted fame ; 
The gunner, Thomas Watson, 

A man of perfect skill. 
With other vahant hearts 

In the Angel Gabriel.'" 

The terrible nature of the fight when they encountered 
the Spaniards is indicated in the following verse : — 

" With that their three ships boarded us 

Again with might and main. 
But still our noble Englishmen 

Cried out — A fig for Spain ! 
Though seven times they hoarded us 

At last we showed our skill, 
And made them feel the force 

Of our Angel Gabriel." 


The ballad concludes with — 

" At Bristol we were landed, 
And let ns praise God still, 
That thus hath blessed our men 
And the Angel Gabriel." 

The closing years of the seventeenth century were 
made notorious in our annals by the commencement of 
the disgraceful traffic in negro slaves to the West Indies 
from Africa. Its lucrativeness to those concerned may be 
judged from the fact that Bristol had sixty vessels engaged 
in it. Liverpool, too, was equally interested, and it has 
been estimated that in the first nine years there were 
shipped from Africa by these two ports no less than 
160,950 negroes to the English plantations. 

Passing on to the eighteenth century, we find the spirit 
of privateering in no way abated, and one of the many 
expeditions has become a classic. In the year 1708 
Captain Woodes Rogers was placed in command of two 
vessels equipped by some of Bristol's leading merchants — 
the Duke and the Duchess, both less than three hundred 
and fifty tons, having for their pilot no less a person 
than the intrepid and famous voyager William Dampier, 
a native of Somerset. In such little vessels, which 
would be deemed mere cockle-shells in these days of 
leviathans of the deep, they sailed from 'Bristol on 
August 2nd, 1708. Their crews were a mixed collection 
of humanity, ^ amongst them being " tinkers, tailors, 
peddlars, and fiddlers," etc., a portion of whom ran away 
at Cork. In spite of this, however, 333 were left to 
man the ships. At first they met with little luck in the 
way of prizes, for nothing was captured save a small 
Spanish barque in June, 1709. Sighting soon after the 
Island of Juan Fernandez they were astonished at the 
sight of a fire, as it was generally supposed that 


the island was uninhabited. However, on landing they 
discovered it had been lit by Alexander Selkirk, a Scotch- 
man well known to Dampier, who had been living there 
alone for nearly four years and a half. His adventures 
formed the basis of Defoe's immortal romance — Robinson 
Crusoe. Finding that he was an excellent seaman, 
Captain Rogers gave him a post as mate, which he filled 
with entire success. After this interesting event their 
quest for prizes proved more successful, for they secured 
six vessels, and emboldened by this they attacked the 
city of Guayaquil and with complete success, for after 
burning and plundering the town they wound up by 
extorting the handsome ransom of 30,000 "pieces of 
eight." Soon after they also attacked and took possession 
of four more vessels, some of which were ransomed, and 
one converted into a sister privateer and named the 

In the course of fitting out this latter vessel there were 
found in her hold " five hundred bales of Pope's Bulls " (in- 
dulgences), " sixteen reams in each bale," which totals out to 
nearly four millions of those documents, which the Spanish 
colonists were in the habit of purchasing, at dear rates, 
from the Catholic clergy. With utter disregard of their 
sacred purpose, Rogers cynically observed that he found 
them useful for burning the pitch off the ships' bottoms 
when they were careened, the rest being thrown overboard. 
After this they cruised about in search of other prizes 
with varying success, in the course of which they fought 
and captured a Spanish vessel of twenty guns, Rogers 
being severely wounded, but losing none of his crew. The 
captured vessel was placed under the command of Dr. 
Dover (of Dover Powders fame), Selkirk being appointed 
master. Finally, the ships returned by way of Good 


Hope, under the convoy of some Dutch men-of-war, 
and arrived in Holland in July, 1711, and on October 
14th the three privateers anchored in the Thames, their 
booty being estimated at the enormous sum of ^f 170,000, 
On Rogers's return he wrote an able and most interesting 
account of his Voyaf^e round the World, published in 
1712, containing some details of the singular career of 
Alexander Selkirk. The latter received ;^8oo as his 
share of the plunder of this memorable expedition. 

Rogers's residence when at Bristol was in his own 
house, No. ig Queen Square, which he had built. This 
residence formed one of three taken down to be replaced 
by the present Dock Offices. 

In the year 1717 we find him employed by the Govern- 
ment by being placed in command of an expedition sent 
out to the Bahama Islands for the purpose of destroying 
a nest of pirates who made them their haunt, whence they 
committed great ravages on the passing vessels. In this 
object he was entirely successful, and two hundred of the 
pirates were forced to surrender. Later, in 1728, he was 
appointed governor of those islands, and occupied that 
post till his death in 1732. Selkirk resided in Bristol for 
a considerable time, and in 1713 he was living in St. 
Stephen's parish. 

Fascinating as this privateering chapter of Bristol 
history is, we must close with the following. Two remark- 
able captures were brought into Kingroad on September 
8th, 1745, by the Prince Frederick and the Duke of London, 
being treasure ships which these two vessels had fought 
and captured off the American coast and towed across 
the Atlantic. Their cargoes consisted of 1,093 chests 
of silver bullion, weighing 2,644,922 oz., besides a 
quantity of gold and silver plate and other valuables. 


Their arrival created enormous excitement, which was 
intensified by the fact that the treasure was conveyed to 
London in twenty-tw^o wagons, each guarded by armed 
sailors on horseback. This event naturally kindled anew 
the passion for privateering. 

A very gallant fight took place in 1760 between a 
Bristol privateer named the Constantine and a French 
privateer called the Victoire. Taken somewhat unawares, 
as he had believed the French vessel to be an English man- 
of-war, Captain Forsyth of the Bristol ship and his men 
"" behaved themselves like English lions, and twice cleared 
the bowsprit, forecastle and head, though six to one against 
us"; even though the French rushed her quarter-deck 
and came in at the cabin windows. So severe was the 
fight that the captain of the French ship was killed and 
a great number of his men — the blood running out of 
the scuppers ; and the foe sheered off and escaped, 
though his vessel left a blood-dyed track behind him. 
''Blessed be the Almighty," said Captain Forsyth, "I had 
but two wounded, who came to their quarters as soon 
as they were dressed by the surgeon." This was a 
victory won against great odds, for the Bristol vessel 
had only eighteen four-pounders and forty-six men, whilst 
the Frenchman had twenty six-pounders and two hundred 
and fifty men. 

In regard to its commerce, wine, which from earlies;t 
times was one of Bristol's justly celebrated industries, 
still enjoyed an unrivalled reputation, for a writer dealing 
with the social life of the period states that the most 
eminent London merchants " brought wine by road from 

Bristol in the eighteenth century was also doing 
an enormous trade in sugar with the West Indies, as 

3 A 


a document shows, dated October 24th, 1724, fixing the 
tares to be allowed purchasers of sugar landed at this 
port. To this were appended the signatures of no fewer 
than ninty-nine firms who approved of the arrangement. 
There were at this period twenty refineries in our city. 

Defoe, in his Tour Through Great Britain, observes : 
"The merchants of this city" (Bristol) "have not only 
the greatest trade, but they trade with a more entire inde- 
pendency upon London than any other town in Britain. 
Whatsoever expeditions they make to any part of the 
world, they are able to bring the full returns back to 
their own port, and to dispose of them there, which is not 
the case in any other port in England. But the Bristol 
merchants, as they have a very great trade abroad, so 
they have always buyers at home for their returns, and 
such buyers that no cargo is too big for them. To this 

purpose the shopkeepers in B , who in general were 

wholesale men, have so great an inland trade among all 
the western counties that they maintain carriers, just as 
the London tradesmen do. Add to this that sails by sea, 
as by the navigation of two great rivers, the Severn and 
the Wye, they have the whole trade of South Wales as it 
were to themselves, and the greater part of North Wales,^ 
and as to their trade with Ireland it has prodigiously 
increased since the Revolution." 

He noted, too, that there were no less than fifteen 
glass houses, which are more than are in London, and in 
passing says that " vast numbers of bottles are now used 
for sending the water of St. Vincent's Rock " (Hotwell 
water) "not only all over England, but all over the world." 
"They say above three thousand sail of ships belong to 
Bristol." Further words are needless to emphasise the 
vast extent of Bristol's commerce at this period. 


Early in the same century was introduced a new 
industry, not only to Bristol but England also, viz. the 
casting of ironware — pots, etc., for cooking purposes — by 
Abraham Darby, a Quaker, who with friends had set 
up works at Baptist Mills as brass and iron founders. 
Until this time these pots were imported from abroad. 
Darby, who had in vain endeavoured to perfect their 
manufacture here, at length went over to Holland, and 
after a searching inquiry found that the whole secret 
of their making consisted in casting them in fine dry 
sand. Returning to Bristol, he brought with him some 
skilful Dutch workmen, and successfully inaugurated their 

Darby, however, proved too go-ahead and enterprising 
for his partners ; he therefore severed his connection 
and removed to Coalbrookdale, Shropshire, where he 
started for himself and laid the foundation of the great 
foundry which attained a European reputation. The 
famous Bristol philanthropist, Richard Reynolds, born 
in Corn Street, who married Darby's granddaughter, 
succeeded to the management on the death of Darby. 

It was during Reynolds' supervision that the art of 
puddling iron was discovered by two of his workmen, 
for which a patent was obtained ; it produced enormous 
profits to the firm. 

Coming down to the nineteenth century, the three 
great events which mark this period of Bristol's history 
are, first, the birth of the Great Western Railway ; 
secondly, the building of the pioneer steamship the Great 
Western; and, thirdly, the building of the great docks at 
Avonmouth, now nearly finished, to enable Bristol to 
deal with the great and increasing volume of trade that 
is continually flowing to our ancient city from America, 


Like other colossal concerns, the largest railway in 
the British Isles had a modest beginning ; tradition says 
that the Great Western Railway Company was projected 
in a small office on Temple Backs. Be that as it may, 
its birth took place in the year 1833. In support of it 
some of the shrewdest of Bristol's leading citizens em- 
barked fortunes in the undertaking. For instance, 
among local contributions were the following : Robert 
Bright, /"25,900 ; Peter Maze, 3^23,000 ; George Jones, 
3^20,000; C. B. Fripp, ^^15,500; T. R. Guppy, £"14,900; 
W. S. Jacques, ^^12,000 ; John Harford, y^ii,goo, etc. 

After a parliamentary campaign costing nearly 
£100,000, the line was sanctioned by the legislature 
in August 1835, and in 1838 the first section, between 
London to Maidenhead, was opened. The line between 
Bristol to Bath was first used for public traffic on 
August 31st, 1840, and in the following year the through 
line to London was established. The leading engineer 
engaged on its construction was the world - famous 
Isambard Kingdom Brunei, whose name and work is 
imperishably associated with Bristol, for did he not 
design the Clifton Suspension Bridge and the Great 
Western steamship, the first real pioneer of Atlantic Ocean 
steam traffic, which sailed from Bristol ? 

The immediate effect of the Great Western line was 
to displace that most picturesque form of road locomotion, 
the stage coach, of which over fifty were running to and 
from our city. What the Great Western has grown 
to in 1906 is best evidenced by its latest figures, which 
prove it to be ahead of all the railway systems of the 
British Isles in the magnitude of its operations. 

Next in importance to the world-famous achievement 
of the Cabots must rank the building of the first steam- 


ship expressly designed for the Atlantic trade to cross 
without rccoaling. This honour unquestionably belongs 
to Bristol. The famous Brunei designed this pioneer 
steamship, and she was called the Great Western, built 
by WilHam Patterson of Wapping, of 1,340 tons, and 
costing her owners ^63,000. Much expedition was 
shown in her building, and on July 19th, 1837, ^he was 

It was but two brief years before that the celebrated 
Dr. Lardner, in the course of a lecture at Liverpool, rashly 
assumed the role of a prophet by predicting : "As to the 
project, however, which was announced in the newspapers, 
of making the voyage directly from New York to Liverpool, 
it was, he had no hesitation in saying, perfectly chimerical, 
and they might as well talk of making a voyage from New 
York to the moon." The result triumphantly confuted the 
learned doctor. 

On April 8th, 1838, the Great Western sailed from 
Bristol, seven passengers alone risking their lives in her, 
so many experts doubting whether she would ever reach 
New York. However, fifteen days later she steamed into 
that port. Her best day's run was 243 knots, and her 
average 208, and her gross consumption of coal during 
the voyage was only 655 tons, instead of the 1,480 that 
the scientific calculators had fixed as the minimum. 

The great problem was indeed solved, and on her 
return voyage on May 7th, so unbounded was the enthu- 
siasm over the event that no less than 100,000 spectators 
assembled at New York to see her start on the homeward 
voyage, her passengers numbering sixty-six, and carrying 
mails to the extent of 20,000 letters. The run home was 
accomplished in the unprecedented time of twelve days, 
fourteen hours. Thus a ship built in Bristol demonstrated 


beyond doubt that the bridging of the Atlantic by steam 
was an accompHshed fact. 

Alas ! after such a magnificent beginning the fruits 
which should have naturally been Bristol's, in securing 
practically the monopoly of transatlantic traffic, were 
wrested from her by the canny Scotchman Cunard, 
founder of the noble line that bears his name, who, 
with the assistance of his friends at Liverpool, seizing 
Bristol's neglected opportunity, created a line by 
building four" sister ships of the Great Western type, 
and by their means secured the mails, with the result 
that the tide of Atlantic traffic has flowed from Liver- 
pool ever since. Thus the golden opportunity w^as lost, 
and over a year was allowed to elapse before any 
attempt was made to build another vessel. When at 
length Bristol recommenced, it was to build a huge ship 
of quite a different type, and so entirely novel that it was 
aptly described as a " museum of inventions "; in a word, 
a vessel without precedent in the art of shipbuilding. 
There were man}^ obstacles in the way of her construc- 
tion, it being with the utmost difficulty that her engines 
of 1,500 indicated horse-power could be built, as no 
engineering firm could be found willing to supply them, 
and also there was not a forge hammer in the British 
Isles powerful enough to forge her paddle-shaft. Applica- 
tion to Nasmyth, the famous inventor, for advice, set him 
thinking, with the remarkable result that within an hour 
he had worked out the whole details of his wonderful 
steam hammer, which is so beautifully constructed that it 
is capable of forging the sheet anchor of an ironclad, and 
so delicately adjusted that it will crack a nut wathout 
bruising the kernel. However, it was not required for 
the special purpose that inspired its invention, because 


in the course of the construction of the Great Britain 
Brunei adopted the newly -discovered principle of the 
screw, with entirely satisfactory results, and gave the 
lead for ocean-going steamers that has ever since been 

Built by William Patterson, the builder of her pre- 
decessor, the Great Western, she was at length, after great 
difficulties, launched in 1843, Prince Albert coming down 
specially from Windsor to perform that duty. Her 
success as a steamship was simply perfect, and although 
through the culpable negligence of her captain she ran 
aground on her first trip in Dundrum Bay, Ireland, and 
there remained all the winter, yet so superbly was she 
constructed that on being refloated she was found to have 
sustained no real injury, and indeed ran for twenty-one 
years afterwards between England and Australia. In 
1882 she was converted into a sailing-ship, and was then 
as sound and strong as when she left the hands of her 

It is with cities as with men, one city's failure is another 
city's opportunity. Even that terrible disaster might have 
been largely retrieved had Bristol been fully alive to her 
magnificent geographical position, and built at once docks 
at the mouth of the Avon, as she is now doing after fruitless 
years of endless discussion and schemes for better dock 

Notwithstanding, however, Bristol's failure in the past 
to take occasion by the hand, so magnificent is her road- 
stead, her nearness to America, and the volume of her 
ever-increasing trade, that it is not beyond the bounds 
of possibility she may yet take the place she has 
so long vacated, and be once more, as Burke proudly 
intimated in 1774, " the second city of the kingdom." 


Among men associated with the maritime and com- 
mercial interests of our city in the nineteenth century the 
names of Conrad Finzel and Samuel Plimsoll are easily 
first. Finzel, the great sugar refiner, came from Germany 
to England, and learning the business of refining in 
London, obtained an engagement with a Bristol house 
as principal refiner, and ultimately set up here for himself. 
So successful was he that he built the colossal refinery 
that formerly stood on the site of the present electric 
power station of the tramways. Owing to his improve- 
ments and inventions in sugar refining he built up the 
largest business of its kind in the kingdom, employing 
over five hundred persons and requiring a small fleet of 
vessels to keep it in full work. Some idea of the magni- 
tude of its business operations may be judged by the 
Bristol Times of September 28th, 1872, stating that "last 
week sales b}' Messrs. Finzel and Sons reached 1,800 tons, 
the value of which would probably be ;^70,ooo." The 
founder of this great concern was as generous as he was 
successful, and it is said on good authority that he gave 
to the support of the orphan houses on Ashley Down, 
founded by his fellow-countryman George Miiller, from 
5^5,000 to ;£'io,ooo a year. Many years after his death, 
owing primarily to the Sugar Bounty system and, 
secondl}', to bad management, this colossal business 
declined and ultimately ceased to exist. 

Few of the older generation of Bristolians can have 
forgotten the name of Samuel Plimsoll, " the sailor's 
friend," whose fame was great in his lifetime. He was 
the son of a Bristolian, and on leaving school became 
a solicitor's clerk. Later he managed a brewer}', and 
in 185 1 was connected with the Great Exhibition as 
honorary secretary. In the year 1853 he established 


himself in London as a coal merchant, and eventually he 
entered Parliament in the Radical interest for Derby in 
1868, and at once threw himself into the question of 
maritime shipping. He commenced his campaign in 1870 
by proposing a resolution condemning the unnecessary 
loss of life and property at sea by sending out "coffin 
ships," and insisting on a compulsory " load-line." After 
strenuous and sustained agitation he nearly succeeded 
in getting a Bill passed in 1874, the majority against 
being only three. In the year following he so vehemently 
attacked the ship-owning interest in the Commons that 
he caused a scene, for which he apologised. This so 
excited public opinion on the measure he advocated that 
in deference to it a measure was hurried through the 
House, known to-day as the Merchant Shipping Act of 
1876. In 1880, having accomplished what he had so 
long fought for, Plimsoll resigned his seat to the late Sir 
William Harcourt, and never again entered the House. 
His interest in the British sailor, however, remained as 
keen as ever, and he expended large sums of money and 
a large portion of his time in promoting further reforms, 
and seeing that the existing legislation was fully carried 
into effect. In i8go he was made President of the 
Sailors' and Firemen's Union. He wrote many articles 
in the Nineteenth Century and published many pamphlets 
on the cause he had so much at heart. Countless genera- 
tions of those " that go down to the sea in ships, that do 
business in great waters" will have occasion to revere 
with gratitude the name of Samuel Plimsoll, the " sailor's 
friend." He died in i8g8. 

Literary Associations- 



William Langland — John Lydgate : Earliest mention of 
Bristol in literature — William Wyrcestre — Robert Ricart 
— William Norton — John Fowler — Sir John Stradling 
— Visit of John Evelyn in search of Bristol diamonds — 
Visit of Samuel Pepys : Record of it in his Diary — 
Thomas Norton — Connection of Addison with Bristol — 
David Hume — Visit of Alexander Pope ; His description 
of the Hotwells — Thomas Cadell — Richard Savage — 
Charles Wesley — Rev. William Mason. 

MONG the few great cities of England imperishably 
associated with hterature Bristol justly claims a 
foremost place. Many and famous are those who 
have trod her ancient streets and been dwellers in her 
midst from the age of Chaucer to our own. 

The first recorded association is with the famous 
author of Piers Plowman — William Langland, who whilst 
residing here wrote his poem of Richard the Redeless. 

Probably the first early writer to enshrine Bristol in a 
literary work was John Lydgate, a poet who flourished 
at the close of the fourteenth and the beginning of the 
fifteenth century — one of the immediate successors of 
the father of English poetry, Chaucer. This work was 
The Child of Bristow, and has been deemed of sufficient 
importance to be included in the well-known Camden 
Society's publications. 



In Bristol was born on St. James's Back (now Silver 
Street), in the year 141 5, the celebrated itinerant, William 
Wyrcestre (whose family name was Botoncr). No student 
who has studied his writings can fail to be impressed with 
the loving care with which he paced Bristol's streets and 
churches and recorded so minutely their dimensions. By 
his descriptions we are enabled to picture Bristol as it 
appeared in the fifteenth century. He was also a man 
of science, who practised medicine and cultivated his 
garden of herbs, as well as a man of letters who at 
forty-three "hath goon to scole to a Lumbard, called 
Karoll Giles, to lern and to be red in Poetre or els in 
Frensh ; for he hath byn with the same Karoll every dav 
ii times or iii, and hath bought divers boks of hym, for the 
which (as I suppose) he hath put himself in daunger" {i.e. 
in debt) "to the same Karoll. . . . And he said that he 
wold be as glad and as fejm of a gode boke of Frensh or 
of Poetre (as some would be) to purchase a fair manior." 

Who does not recall on reading this that famous 
scholar of Chaucer's — " The Gierke of Oxenford " ? 

" For him was lever have at his beddes head 
Twenty bokes clothed in blak and red 
Of Aristotil and his philosophie 
Than robes riche, or fiddle or psaltery." 

Wyrcestre was at one period of his life in the service 
of the prototype of Shakespeare's immortal character, Sir 
John Falstaff. In the declining years of his life he estab- 
lished himself in a house and garden which were his own 
property, near St. Philip's Ghurchyard gate. At this time 
he appears to have been lending his books to some of the 
civic worthies, for he mentions : " I rode to Westbury 
Gollege and spoke to John Gryffiths, a merchant of 

iFio])i RrcAKT's CiilendiDW 


Bristol, dwelling there ; likewise I rode as far as Shire- 
hampton, and spoke to Thomas Young about recovering 
two books of mine, one a great book of ethics, and another 
called 'The Myrrour of Dames,' covered with red leather, 
and I breakfasted with him. He gave me a cheerful 
countenance for the love his father bore me, and his wife 
welcomed me." One of the works of this old-world 
scholar was printed by Caxton in 1481, and is now in the 
British Museum. 

Here too was living Wyrcestre's friend and contem- 
porar}^, Robert Ricart, Town Clerk of Bristol, whose fame 
rests upon his having compiled the remarkable book known 
as the Mayor's Kalendar, an extremely interesting work 
recording the ancient usages and customs of our cit}'. 
This work also finds a place amongst the Camden 
Society's publications. 

That learning was well represented in our city is 
shown by the fact that Grocyn, the famous scholar and 
friend of the still more famous Erasmus and Sir Thomas 
More, was brought up and educated here. Bristol at 
this early period appears on good authority to have been 
a centre of intellectual life, and its society adorned by 
men of wide knowledge and culture. Grocyn, it will be 
remembered, was the first to teach Greek at Oxford. 

Passing on to the sixteenth century, we find that the 
celebrated printer and publisher, William Norton, was 
born here in 1527. He was one of the original freemen 
of the Stationers' Company named in the charter granted 
by Mary and Philip in 1555. He became master of the 
company in the years 1580, 1586, and 1593. Among 
other books he published were two editions of Horace, 
1574 and 1585, and an edition of the Bishop's Bible 
in 1575- 


John Fowler, a famous Catholic scholar, was also 
born here in 1537. Wood, of A thence Oxoniensis fame, 
says of him " that he was well skilled in the Greek and 
Latin tongues, a tolerable poet and author, and a 
theologist not to be contemned. So learned he was 
also in criticisms, and other polite learning that he might 
have passed for another Robert or Henry Stephens." 
Owing to Elizabeth's accession he retired to Louvain, 
where he published several works. 

One of the most celebrated men of his age. Sir John 
Stradling, was born at St. George in the year 1563. 
He was educated under one of the canons of Bristol 
Cathedral, and his attainments were such that when 
at Oxford he was considered "a miracle for his forward- 
ness in learning and of parts." He represented 
St. Germans, Cornwall, in Parliament. So great was 
his reputation for learning, that Camden eagerly culti- 
vated his friendship, and quotes him in his celebrated 
Britannia (ed. 1607, p. 498). Stradling was the author 
of several w^orks, and his poems enjoyed the patronage 
of James I. and Charles I. 

In the following century we find that the celebrated 
diarist, John Evelyn, came here on a brief visit in June, 
1654. He was struck with the city, and compared it 
to London " in its manner of building," but thought little 
of the castle, being of " no great concernment." He was 
much interested in the way sugar was refined, for 
he says : " I first saw the manner of refining sugar, and 
casting it into loaves, where we had a collation of eggs 
fried in the sugar furnace, together wuth excellent Spanish 
wine ; but what was most stupendous to me was the 
rock of St. Vincent, the precipice whereof is equal to 
anything of that nature I have seen in the most con- 


fragous cataracts of the Alps. Here we went searching 
for Bristol diamonds and to the Hotwells at its foot. 
There is also on the side of this horrid Alp a very 
remarkable seat " (probably the Giant's Cave). 

A more interesting visit was paid to Bristol fourteen 
years later, when Pepys, the quaint diarist, accompanied 
by his wife and maid, hired a coach at Bath to spare his 
own horses, and came over on June 13th, 1668, where 
they were set down at the " Horse Shoe," and there being 
"trimmed by a very handsome fellow, 2/-; walked with my 
wife and people through the city, which is in every respect 
another London, that one can hardly know it stands in 
the country. No carts, it standing generally on vaults, 
only dog-carts." From the "Horse Shoe" he went to 
the "Sun" "and there Deb." (his maid) "going to see her 
Uncle Butts, and leaving my wife with the mistress of the 
house, I to see the Key, which is a large and noble place ; 
and to see the new ship building by Bally" (Baylie). " It 
will be a fine ship, and walked back to the Sun, where 
I find Deb. come back, and with her, her uncle, a sober 
merchant, very good company, and so like one of our 
sober wealthy London merchants, as pleased me mightily. 
Here we dined, and much good talk with me, 7/6. Then 
walked with Butts and my wife and company round the 
Key, and he showed me the Custom House, and made me 
understand many things of the place, and led me through 
Marsh Street where our girl " (Deb.) " was born. But Lord ! 
the joy that was- among the old poor people of the place, 
to see Mrs. Willefs daughter, it seems her mother being a 
brave woman and mightily beloved ! And so brought us 
back by surprise to his house, where a substantial good 
house, and well furnished ; and did give us good enter- 
tainment of strawberries, a whole venison pasty, and 


plenty of brave wine, and above all Bristol Milk : where 
comes in another poor woman, who, hearing that Deb. 
was here, did come running hither, and with her eyes so 
full of tears, and her heart so full of joy, that she could 
not speak when she came in, that it made me weep too : 
I protest that I was not able to speak to her, which I 
would have done, to have diverted her tears. Butts' wife 
a good woman, and so sober and substantial as I was 
never more pleased anywhere. So thence took leave, and 
he with us through the City. He showed us the place 
where the merchants meet here, and a fine cross yet 
standing like Cheapside " (it stood at the junction of the 
four principal streets. Wine Street, Corn Street, etc.) 
"And so to the Horse Shoe . . . And by moonshine to 
Bath again, about ten o'clock." 

John Locke, the famous philosopher, was evidently 
well acquainted with Bristol, for, writing to a friend 
abroad who was about to visit England, he says : " At 
Bristol see the Hotwells, St. George's Cave [sic] where 
the Bristol Diamonds are found. Ratcliffe Church, and at 
Kingswood, the Coalpits. Taste there Milford oysters, 
Marrow Puddings, Cockale, Metheglin, White and Red 
Muggets, Elvers, Sherry Sack (which with sugar is called 
'Bristol Milk')." 

Here too was born in i6gg the founder of Messrs. 
Longmans, the publishers, Thomas Norton. His ancestors 
were successful Bristol soapmakers. At the age of seven- 
teen he was apprenticed to Osborne, bookseller of Lom- 
bard Street, London, whose daughter he ultimately wooed 
and married. At the close of his apprenticeship he bought 
the business of John Taylor, the original publisher of 
Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, and subsequently his father-in-law 
joined him. Longman was one of the half-dozen book- 


sellers who commissioned Johnson to write his famous 
Dictionary. It was the son of his nephew, who 
succeeded to the business, and purchased about 1800 
the business of Joseph Cottle, which included The 
Lyrical Ballads. Longman ultimately presented Cottle 
with the copyright of those remarkable poems, and he 
in turn presented it to Wordsworth, 

Connected by ties of blood and friendship Addison, the 
prince of English essayists, was especially linked to our 
city. His mother was the sister of Dr. Goulston, Bishop of 
Bristol ; and according to Seyer, whilst on a visit here he 
offered to promote the interests of two youths, sons of a 
near relation named Addison, a merchant in the city. In 
a summer-house, it is said, on the St. Anne's estate, 
New Brislington, he wrote some of his famous Spectator 
papers. Be that as it may, we find that he was taking the 
Hotwell waters in 1718, and writing to his friend Swift, he 
says: "The greatest pleasure I have met with for months 
is the conversation of my old friend Dr. Smalridge, who is 
to me the most candid and agreeable of bishops." 

The celebrated historian and philospher, David Hume, 
was in the year 1734 for a short time a clerk in the 
employ of Michael Miller, a merchant residing at 16 
Queen Square (the house is still standing). The employ- 
ment, however, proved uncongenial, and his stay speedily 
terminated, due for one reason to the fact that he had 
presumed to correct his employer's English. " I tell 
you what, Mr. Hume," said the irate and successful 
merchant, " I have made ^20,000 by my English, and I 
won't have it mended." 

A few years later in November 1739 the famous poet, 
Alexander Pope, paid a visit to the Hotwells. To his 
friend and correspondent, Martha Blount, he gives a 


graphic description of Bristol. The first thing that 
struck him on entering the city from Bath was the 
view of " twenty odd pyramids smoking over the 
town " (the glasshouses). " Then you come first 
to the old walls " (Temple Gate), " and over a 
bridge built on both sides like London Bridge, and as 
much crowded, with a strange mixture of seamen, 
women, children, loaded horses, asses, and sledges with 
goods, dragging along all together without posts to 
separate them. From thence you come to a key along 
the old wall, with houses on both sides, and in the middle 
of the street, as far as you can see, hundreds of ships, 
their masts as thick as they can stand by one another, 
which is the oddest and most surprising sight imaginable. 
This street is fuller of them than the Thames from London 
Bridge to Deptford." There being no docks, on the 
receding of the tide the ships were grounded on the mud, 
and the appearance then was of "a long street full of ships 
in the middle, with houses on each side, looks like a 
dream." Pope then proceeds to describe the Hotwells : 
" Passing still along by the river, you come to a rocky 
way on one side, overlooking green hills on the other ; 
on that rocky way rise several white houses, and over 
them red rocks, and as you go further more rocks above 
rocks mixed with green bushes and of different coloured 
stone. This at a mile's end terminates in the house of the 
Well. . . . When you have seen the hills, which seem 
to shut in upon you, and to stop any further way, you go 
into the house (p — p-room) and look out at the back door. 
A vast rock of an hundred feet of red, white, green, blue, 
and yellowish marble, all blotched and variegated, strikes 
you quite in the face, and turning on the left there opens 
the river at a vast depth below, winding in and out, and 


accompanied on both sides with a continued range of 
rocks up into the clouds of a hundred colours, one behind 
another. . . . Upon the top of those high rocks there runs 
a large down of fine turf for about three miles. It looks 
too frightful to approach the brink, and look down upon 
the river. . . . There is a little village upon this down 
called Clifton, where are very pretty lodging houses, and 
steep cliffs and very green valleys. ... I am told that 
one may ride ten miles further on an even turf, on a ridge 
that on one side views the river Severn." Reverting once 
more to Bristol, he remarks: "The streets are as crowded 
as London ; but the best image I can give you of it is, 'tis 
as if Wapping and Southwark were ten times as big, or 
all their people ran into London." Curious to say, in a 
city famous for its splendid churches, he found " nothing 
fine in it but the square" [Queen Square], "which is larger 
than Grosvenor Square, and well builded . . . and the 
key, which is full of ships, and goes half way round the 
square. The College Green is pretty, and (like the square) 
is set with trees, with a very fine old cross of Gothic 
curious work in the middle, but spoiled with the folly of 
new gilding it, that takes away all the venerable antiquity." 
At a later period, in 1743, he again paid Bristol a visit. 

One of the greatest of eighteenth-century publishers, 
Thomas Cadell, was born in Wine Street in 1742. He 
served his apprenticeship to the famous bookseller and 
publisher, Andrew Millar, of the Strand ; and so able did 
he prove himself that in the course of time Millar took 
him into partnership. Following Millar's example, he 
treated authors generously, and fully maintained the 
reputation of the house. Among great writers whose 
works he published were Gibbon and Blackstone. Having 
amassed a fortune, he retired in 1793, and became succcs- 



sively Sheriff of London and Master of the Stationers' 
Compan)'. His portrait hangs in the court-room of that 

In the churchyard of St. Peter's Church, a few feet 
from the entrance to the south porch, Hes buried, at the 
expense of his humane and kindly gaoler, Abel Dagge of 
Newgate, the remains of Richard Savage, the poet, whose 
■name will be for ever linked with his great friend Dr. 
Johnson, by whom his Life was written. (Within the last 
few years an inscribed stone to his memory has been 
inserted in the south wall of the church.) Mr. Latimer 
has well said that Johnson has secured for Savage un- 
deserved rank in English literature. The sordid and 
wretched details of his life afford complete evidence 
that he was worthless, shiftless, and ungrateful, and 
disgusted every one of his friends by his insolent 
importunities for money. In spite of the fact that 
he was honoured by special marks of favour by the 
leading merchants of Bristol, and invited to their 
houses and public feasts, that he was treated with 
every kindness and regard on his coming here in 1739, 
and that on his second visit £^0 were collected for him, 
he continued to make further demands. All the kindness 
showered upon him was recklessly abused, and finding 
his insulting demands for help, which were made as 
though they were legitimately his due, unsuccessful, he 
revenged himself by writing during his imprisonment 
a satire that is best described by the adjective his name 
expresses. The following lines are a type of the 
whole : — 

" In a dark bottom sunk, O Bristol now 
With native malice lift thy low'ring brow ! . . . 
Boast swarming vessels, whose plebeian state 
Owns not to merchants but mechanics freight. 


Boast nought but pedlars' fleets ... 
Boast thy base Tolsey, and thy turnspit dogs, 
Thy halHers' horses, and thy human hogs, 
Upstarts and mushrooms, proud, relentless hearts. 
Thou blank of sciences, thou dearth of arts. 
Such foes as learning once was doomed to see, 
Huns, Goths, and Vandals, were but types of thee." 

Such were the lines he wrote on a city that had succoured 
and befriended him. 

The sympathetic biography by Dr. Johnson long pro- 
tected and induced pity for his memory, but recent 
researches have revealed his true character in all its 
greediness, dissipation and ferocity, and there is practically 
no question now that his own account of his noble 
birth and subsequent persecution by a heartless mother 
is one long tissue of lies from beginning to end, as 
great an imposition in its way as the notorious Tich- 
borne case. 

Connected most closely with our city in the eighteenth 
century was the world-famous hymn-writer and divine, 
Charles Wesley. F'or over twenty years he made Bristol 
his home, living at Charles Street, St. James's Barton. 
Several of his children lie buried in St. James's Church- 
yard. As a writer of hymns Charles Wesley stands pre- 
eminent. Even Dr. Watts did not hesitate to say that 
his " Wrestling Jacob " was worth all the verses he 
himself had written. Wesley was a most prolific com- 
poser, for he is reputed to have written some thousands 
of hymns, five hundred of which are still in common 

A pathetic literary and personal link with Mason the 
poet, and biographer of Gray of " Elegy " fame, is to be 
found in our cathedral, where on a marble slab on the 
north wall appears the following inscription to the memory 


of his wife, who died at the Hotwells, where she had 
gone to drink the waters, on March 27th, 1767 : — 

" Take Holy earth all that my soul holds dear, 

Take that best gift which Heav'n so lately gave ; 
To Bristol's fount I bore with trembling care 

Her faded form : she bowed to taste the wave 
And died. Does youth, does beauty, read the line ? 

Does sympathetic fear their breasts alarm ? 
Speak dead Maria ! breathe a strain divine ; 

Ev'n from the grave thou shalt have power to charm. 
Bid them be chaste, be innocent like thee, 

Bid them in duties' sphere as meekly move : 
And if so fair, from vanity as free ; 

As firm in friendship, and as fond in love. 
Tell them, tho 'tis an awful thing to die, 

('Twas ev'n to thee) yet, the dread path once trod. 
Heaven lifts its everlasting portals high 

And bids ' the pure in heart behold their God.' " 

The final lines (here printed in italics) of this famous 
epitaph were written by Gray, who was dissatisfied with 
his friend Mason's lame ending. 

CHAPTER II. {continued) 


Chatterton's place in literature — Johnson's criticism of him — 
His poetic genius — Influence on him of St. Mary Redcliff 
Church — His birth and early years — Sudden awakening 
of his mental powers — Early ambition — Pupil of Colston'' s 
School — Thirst for reading — Apprenticeship to Lambert 
— Publication of his first fabrication — Production of 
Rowley Poems — Imposture on Catcott, Bur gum and 
Barrett — Connection and correspondence with Walpole 
— Extracts from his poems — Chatterton's resentment and 
bitterness towards the world — His Will — Goes to London 
— Early hopes disappointed — Reduced to desperation — 
Suicide — Concluding observations. 

^MONG the supremely gifted poets of the Enghsh 
language whose tragic fate lends a keener interest 
to his all too brief and sordid life, " the sleepless 
soul that perished in his pride " must ever have immortal 
place. When we consider his poetic achievements during 
an existence that ended in its eighteenth year, we stand 
amazed both at the quantity and quality of his work. 
Well might the great arbiter* of eighteenth-century 
literature marvel at his powers, and exclaim on visiting 
Bristol in 1776 : " This is the most extraordinary young 
man that has encountered my knowledge ; it is wonder- 
ful how the whelp has written such things." 


Dr. Johnson. 
4 A 


Though scorned and neglected during his Hfe, Chat- 
terton has bequeathed a legacy of imperishable song, some 
of which might not be unworthy of Shakespeare's very 
self. If we look for the dominant characteristic that 
saturated the whole mental life of Chatterton, it is that in 
a very real and true sense he was a dreamer of dreams. 
There is a great deal of mental kinship between him and 
that other remarkable dreamer, William Blake ; both lived 
in a world of their own creation. 

There was, too, the other side of his wondrous 
personality, the " damned native, unconquerable pride," 
that intellectual arrogance which found a too favourable 
soil to thrive in amid the atmosphere of dull pedantry 
and excessive credulity of the dunderheads with whom his 
circumstances unhappily brought him in contact. Ever 
hankering after the fame that, alas ! eluded his ardent, 
longing soul, tied down to the deadening routine and 
monotony of a lawyer's office, is it any wonder that the 
allurement of London's intellectual vortex cast a spell over 
him by its irresistible fascination. 

One of his most discerning and sympathetic of critics* 
says truly : " We do not predict that, as the public get 
more and more acquainted with Chatterton through his 
finest works, they will gradual!}' get to think him a poet 
standing in the same rank with Byron and Shelle}% 
Wordsworth and Coleridge (all of whom he so strongly 
impressed), or even some other poets of less than 
Shakespearean rank ; but we are bold to affirm, — and this 
we believe will be the final verdict of the public, — that, in 
a large proportion of the Rowley Poems, there is a closer 
and more genuine love of and adherence to nature than is to 
be found in the works of the greatest poet among those 

■* H. Buxton Forman. 


who served Chatterton as models in his eighteenth century 
work. That Pope's exquisitely finished and often very 
powerful poems will always take in bulk a higher 
position than Chatterton's will cannot be doubted; but that 
Chatterton's affinities with nature were closer and more 
loving than Pope's, or those of anyone between the era of 
Pope and that commencing with Burns, we firmly believe ; 
while we discern in page after page of the Rowley Poems, 
and notably in the lyrical portions, fiery flashes of high 
poetic genius, more uplifted into that spiritual atmosphere 
that is above and beyond reach of all things sordid and 
mean, than any passages to be found in Pope or any other 
of those poets upon whose heels Chatterton followed, and 
some of whom outlived him. There is a genuine lyric fire, 
an energetic intensity, an absolute power of soaring, that 
go to make up the highest poetic faculty, whether manifested 
in short poems or in long ones." 

Chatterton, indeed, is fully entitled to divide with 
Burns and Cowper the honour of heralding in a nobler and 
truer era of English poetry. It was the erathat produced the 
epoch-making work of the Lyrical Ballads, which marked 
the breaking of the shackles of artificiality that had for so 
long fettered the liberty of poetry and of song ; a glorious 
reaction that introduced a galaxy of immortals, of whom 
Keats, Shelley, and Wordsworth were not the least. 

The pivot round which the life of Chatterton revolved 
was Redcliff Church. No Bristolian with a love for his 
native city should fail to visit that architectural dream, "the 
pride of Bristowe and the western londe," consecrated for 
all time to his memory. The whole of his best poetry is 
permeated with the mediaeval atmosphere emanating from 
that exquisite and stately home of prayer — a veritable 
poem in stone. Well might Elizabeth say, when visiting 


Bristol in 1574, that it was the fairest church in all her 

From the entrance gate the beautiful fabric stands 
before the eye in all the bold relief of Gothic grandeur of 
arch, tower, and turret, whilst over the last rises a circle 
of spire-like pinnacles. From its great upper windows 
arched spandrels of chiselled masonry link the lower to the 
upper portion of the building. Over the famous north porch 
stands the muniment room, where the coffers are still inexist- 
ance that held the deeds which fired that youthful brain 
of imagination, all compact with the idea of fabricating the 
Rowley Poems. Enter it and take your stand at the 
antique wrought-iron gates which fitly terminate the nave. 
On each side rise columns to support a roof which rivals 
in loveliness, loftiness, and lightness of design all other 
churches in England, and, it is generally believed, many 
out of it. The carving of the roof is full of elaborate 
detail ; but as it stretches over the head to the north porch, 
it seems a sheet in perspective of the richest embroidery. 
The clerestory windows admit a soft twilight, which falls 
on the groined arches sufficiently to bring out the light 
and shade of their masonry ; while concealing half their 
beauty, the twilight lends them the majesty and mystery 
of shadow. Opening to the eye of the delighted beholder 
is a bewildering wealth of beauty in the minute fluting, the 
foliated tracery, the bosses — of which there are nearly two 
thousand — ribs and capitals that enrich its glorious interior. 

Full and suggestive of a mighty past are its monumental 
efiigies. Below the window of the north transept the full- 
length figure of a mailed knight reclines. Mayhap he has 
listened to the voice of Peter the Hermit, or followed 
Godfrey of Bouillon to do battle for the Cross upon the 
plains of Palestine. Perhaps the most interesting effigy 



here, however, is that of its great benefactor and rebuilder, 
WilHam Canynges, the greatest of all England's merchant 
princes at that period. So great was his seaborne com- 
merce, that it might be said of him as with Shakespeare's 
Antonio that he had " argosies on every ocean." 

Beneath the shadow of this magnificent pile was born 
in the School-house, Pile Street, on November 20th, 
1752, Thomas Chatterton, the son of a schoolmaster and 
sub-chanter in Bristol -Cathedral, his posthumous birth 
occurring little more than three months after his father's 
death. His ill-starred life has been fitly epitomised in the 
following sentence : " From the first hour to his last, 
poverty was his lacquey and pride his patron." During his 
earliest years his singularity, which is oft-times, but not 
necessarily, the mark of genius, led him to seclude himself 
from his companions at school and at play. But the 
church of St. Mary Redcliff exerted over him a singular 
fascination. Indeed, he was never happier than w^hen 
within its walls or precincts. The one place above all 
others that drew him like a charm was the muniment 
room. Long before he became a scholar at Colston's 
School on St. Augustine's Back (Colston's Hall stands on 
its site), he had read and re-read the ancient MSS. which 
were stored in the chests of that room. Here with their 
assistance he wrote the famous Rowley Poems, which he 
passed off on a credulous world as the work of a fifteenth- 
century monk. For many years after his death a mighty 
controversy raged as to whether Rowley or Chatterton 
wrote them. 

At the age of five Chatterton was sent by his widowed 
mother to the Pile Street School under her husband's 
successor, but the latter could make nothing of him, and at 
length, his patience being exhausted by the boy's dullness. 


he sent him home as being too stupid to be taught. (Many- 
distinguished men were in early youth ajfflicted with this 
same dullness, Goldsmith and Sheridan for example.) 
His mother was much grieved at this circumstance, and 
tried in vain to teach him herself. Indeed, so wanting in 
intelligence did he seem, that she despaired of teaching 
him his letters, and at length began to think him an 
absolute fool, nor hesitated to tell him so. 

During his seventh year, however, she chanced to show 
him an old musical MS. in French with illuminated 
capitals. So fascinated was he that, to use her own words, 
he " fell in love " with it. From this MS. he acquired the 
alphabet, and was soon able to read from an old black- 
letter Testament. The torpidity of his mental powers now 
vanished, and henceforth his progress was as rapid as it 
had previously been slow. At seven, to his mother's surprise 
and joy, distinct improvement had taken place, and at 
eight he was so eager for books that he read nearly every 
moment of his waking hours, and devoured all the books 
which those with whom he was acquainted could lend him. 

His desire for fame had manifested itself at quite an 
early age, for ere he was five we are told he was master of 
his playmates and they his hired servants. On one occasion 
he gave a remarkable illustration of this trait of character. 
A friend of the family wishing to present him with a piece 
of china asked him what he desired should be painted 
upon it. He replied : " Paint me an angel with wings and 
a trumpet to trumpet my name over the world." 

On August 3rd, 1760, at the age of seven years and 
nine nrionths, Chatterton was admitted into Colston's 
School through the influence of the then vicar of Henbury, 
John Gardiner. Chatterton was proud of his election, 
" Here," said he exultantly, " I shall get all the learning I 


want." The dull monotony of the studies suited to those 
intended for commercial pursuits soon, however, proved 
distasteful, and he became wearied and disgusted. 

His thirst, however, for reading still continued, and 
after he had been at school for two years he began to hire 
books with the small amount of pocket money his widowed 
mother could afford him. At a later period, in his twelfth 
year, he compiled a catalogue of books he had read to the 
number of seventy. The assistant master of Colston's 
School at this period was one Thomas Phillips, who, having 
a taste for history and poetry, became by reason of kindred 
tastes Chatterton's closest friend. Chatterton remained 
at school for seven years, and on leaving in July, 1767, he 
was apprenticed as a scrivener to Mr. John Lambert, 
attorney, 37 Corn Street, opposite the Exchange. His 
apprenticeship Indentures with other rare MSS., including 
the unique and remarkable Will, are among the literary 
treasures of our civic Art Gallery. 

Lambert's office hours compelled Chatterton to be 
there from 8 a.m. until 8 p.m. all the year round. From 
the first the proud spirited boy was treated as a mere office 
drudge, and had to take his meals in the kitchen. Living 
with his master, one hour only was his own, from 8 till 
9 in the evening. He was known but once to exceed that 
brief period — upon the Christmas Eve, when he stayed 
away till 10. His most intimate friends were Thomas 
Palmer, an apprentice to a jeweller in the same house ; 
Thomas Cary, a pipe-maker, called his " second self; " and 
William Smith, sailor and actor. 

The work of the office was not heavy and did not 
employ more than two hours a day of his time ; during the 
rest of the time he devoted himself strenuously to self- 
improving studies and poetical composition. His researches 


at this period covered a wide range, embracing heraldry^ 
metaph3'sics, astronomy, music, antiquities, medicine, and 

It was during the second year of this apprenticeship 
that Chatterton pubHshed his first fabrication of the 
antique, relating to Bristol Bridge — an account of the 
mayor's first passing over the old bridge in 1248, which 
appeared in Felix Farley's Journal on October ist, 1768, 
and created quite a stir in the city. About this time, too, 
Chatterton made the acquaintance of George Catcott and 
Henry Burgum, who were partners in a pewtering business 
at No. 2 Bristol Bridge. 

Catcott, who was a fussy, self-important, and eccentric 
man, sadly lacking common sense, but possessed of extra- 
ordinary credulity, greedily swallowed all that Chatterton 
told him respecting the alleged Rowley Poems. His 
pompous and vain partner, Henry Burgum, was equally 
credulous ; to him, therefore, Chatterton imparted the 
information that among the Rowleian MSS. he had dis- 
covered at Redcliff Church was a document having the 
armorial bearings of the De Berghams, with proof of their 
descent from the time of the Conqueror. The native vanity 
of Burgum was aroused, and, highly pleased with the 
news, he rewarded his informant with the sum of five 
shillings. Later Chatterton supplied him from the same 
source with his pedigree down to the year 1685, and with 
a poem alleged to have been written by one of his ancestors, 
John de Bergham, in 1320. These were rewarded by another 

Encouraged by his successful imposture, and having 
in the meantime been introduced to Catcott's brother, 
the Rev. Alexander Catcott, vicar of Temple Church, and 
to William Barrett, then projecting his well-known 



(A/tcr tlic Furtrait by Edvvaud Bird, R.A.) 


History of Bristol, he began bringing the latter various 
documents bearing on that subject, which were eagerly 
received without the slightest attempt by the historian to 
test their genuineness. Their inclusion in his history 
have done much to discredit that work. 

Yearning too for that recognition of his undoubted 
poetic merits, and yielding to the prevalent idea of the 
age, that a patron was the surest aid to fame and fortune, 
Chatterton addressed himself to Horace Walpole, the 
Strawberry Hill dilettante, as the possible Maecenas of his 
muse. The latter had just published his well-known work, 
Anecdotes of Painting, and to him Chatterton sent the 
following letter, enclosing Rowley's "Ryse of Peyncteynge 
in Englande," and some verses about Richard I. : — 

" Bristol, March 25, Corn St. 

" Sir, — Being versed a little in antiquitys I have met 
with several curious manuscripts, among which the follow- 
ing may be of Service to you in any future edition of your 
truly entertaining Anecdotes of Painting. In correcting 
the mistakes (if any) in the Notes you will greatly 
oblige your most humble servant 

" Thomas Chatterton." 

These were most courteously acknowledged by M^alpole. 
Thus encouraged, Chatterton sent off another batch of 
MS., including the " Historic of Peyncters yn Englande," 
with the pointed intimation that their sender, though a 
lover of literature, was in humble circumstances. These 
latter, having been submitted to the poets Gray and 
Mason, were pronounced by them to be forgeries. Natur- 
ally irritated at being duped, Walpole wrote a letter that 


stung the proud and sensitive nature of Chatterton to the 
quick, and in so doing he neglected to enclose Chatterton's 

After repeated applications for them, Chatterton, on 
July 24th, wrote Walpole the following proudly reproachful 
letter : — 

"Sir, — I cannot reconcile your behaviour with the 
notions I once entertained of you. I think myself injured, 
Sir, and did you not know my circumstances, you would 
not dare to treat me thus. 

" I have sent twice for a copy of the manuscripts — no 
answer from you. An explanation or excuse for your 
silence would oblige 

"Thomas Chatterton." 

This note produced the immediate return of his 
MSS., and effectually prevented further correspondence 
between them. Bitter indeed was the disappointment of 
Chatterton's sanguine hopes, and lost for ever Walpole's 
opportunity of eternal honour. For the poems of 
Chatterton constrained even him to admit that he did 
not "believe there ever existed so masterly a genius"; 
and again, "As for Chatterton, he was a gigantic genius, 
and might have soared I know not whither." 

A pen portrait of Chatterton at this period describes 
him as being " well grown and manly, having a proud air 
and a stately bearing. When he so desired to be, he was 
extremely prepossessing, though usually he bore himself 
as one who knew his superiority. His eyes were gray 
and exceedingly brilliant, and were evidently his most 
remarkable feature." George Catcott describes the 
expression of his eyes as "a kind of hawk's e3-e," adding 


that " one could see his soul through it." Barrett, 
who of course knew him well, said " he never saw such 
eyes — fire rolling at the bottom of them." He acknow- 
ledged to Sir Herbert Croft that he had often differed 
with him for the express purpose of seeing how wonder- 
fully his eyes would strike fire, kindle and blaze up ! 

At this point it may not be out of place to state most 
emphatically, in spite of statements to the contrary even 
by such an authority as the writer of the article on 
Chatterton in the Dictionary of National Biography , that 
there is no authentic portrait of him in existence. This, 
though deeply to be regretted by all interested in his life, 
is not surprising when we take into consideration his 
humble circumstances. 

It was during his school-days that the creation of the 
famous Rowley Poems first had birth in his brain, for 
his friend Thistlethwaite, writing to Dean Milles (the 
champion of the Rowleian fiction, whose conduct Coleridge 
gibbeted in that immortal sentence : " An owl mangling 
a dead nightingale ") at a later period, says : " One day, 
during the summer of 1764, going down Host Street, 
I accidentally met Chatterton ; entering into conversation 
with him he informed me he was in possession of certain 
old MSS. which had been deposited in Redcliff Church 
and that he had lent some to Phillips. A day or two 
after this I saw Phillips and repeated to him the infor- 
mation I had received from C . Phillips produced a 

MS. on parchment or vellum, which I am confident was 
Elinoure and Juga, afterwards published in the Town 
and Country Magazine.'" 

Here it will not be inappropriate to submit illustrative 
specimens of these famous Rowley Poems. The martial 
swing of the magnificent fragment of a chorus on Liberty 


with which the Tragedy of Goddwyn ends has few equals of 
its kind in the language : — 

" When Freedom, drest in blood-stained vest, 
To every knight her war-song sung, 
Upon her head wild weeds were spread, 
A gory anlace by her hung. 
She danced on the heath, 
She heard the voice of death. 
Pale-eyed Affright, his heart of silver hue, 

In vain assailed her bosom to acale.^ 
She heard unflemed^ the shrieking voice of woe. 
And sadness in the owlet shake the dale. 
She shook her burled^ spear; 
On high she jeste* her shield ; 
Her foemen all appear 
And flie along the field. 
Power with his heafod straught^ into the skies. 

His spear a sunbeam and his shield a star; 
Alike twae brendyng gronfyres" rolls his eyes; 
Chafts with his iron feet and sounds to war. 
She sits upon a rock ; 
She bends before his spear ; 
She rises from the shock, 
Wielding her own in air. 
Hard as the thunder doth she drive it on. 
Wit skilly wimpled^ guides it to his crown ; 
His long sharp spear, his spreading shield is gone ; 
He falls, and falling, rolleth thousands down. 
War, gore-faced War, by Envy burl'd arist. 
His fiery helm ynodding to the air. 
Ten bloody arrows in his straining fist." 

None but a poet who anticipated Wordsworth in his 
love of nature could have written the lines in ^lla : — 

"The budding floweret blushes at the light, 

The meads are sprinkled with the yellow hue ; 
In daisied mantles is the mountain dight, 

The nesh young cowslip bendeth with the dew ; 
The trees enleafed, unto heaven straught, 
When gentle winds do blow, to whistling din are brought." 

^ Freeze. ' Undismayed. •'* Pointed. * Raised. ^ Head stretched. 
^ Flaming meteors. '' Covered. 


And surely the exquisite dirge from his masterpiece 
jElla is not unworthy of Shakespeare himself*. — 

" Oh sing unto my roundelay ; 
Oh drop the briny tear with me ; 
Dance no more on holiday ; 
Like a running river be. 

My love is dead, 

Gone to his death-bed 

All under the willow tree ! 

" Black his hair as the winter night, 
White his skin as the summer snow, 
Red his face as the morning light, 
Cold he lies in the grave below. 

My love is dead, 

Gone to his death-bed 

All under the willow tree ! 

" Sweet his tongue as the throstle's note. 
Quick in dance as thought can be. 
Deft his tabor, cudgel stout ; 
Oh, he lies by the willow tree. 

My love is dead. 

Gone to his death-bed 

All under the willow tree ! 

" Hark ! the raven flaps his wing 
In the briery dell below ; 
Hark ! the death-owl loud doth sing 
To the night-mares as they go. 

My love is dead. 

Gone to his death-bed 

All under the willow tree ! " 

These few excerpts from his Rowleian Poems will not 
have been given in vain if readers are induced to read in 
their entirety those wonderful creations of his genius, not 
forgetting his noble Balade of Charitie. 

Although his minor poems lack the lyrical imaginative 
intensity which characterises these, yet they too, in 
individual cases, reach a high level of excellence. Take 
for instance his Hymn for Christmas Day, written when 
he was only eleven years of age, commencing : — 


" Almighty Framer of the skies ! 
O let our pure devotion rise, 

Like incense in Thy sight ! 
Wrapt in impenetrable shade 
The texture of our souls were made, 

Till Thy command gave light." 

The Resignation is also instinct with all that is best 
in the highest flights of devotional poetry, as the opening 
stanzas will prove : — 

" O God, whose thunder shakes the sky, 
Whose eye this atom globe surveys. 
To Thee, my only rock, I fly, 

Thy mercy in Thy justice praise. 

" The mystic mazes of Thy will, 
The shadows of celestial light. 
Are past the power of human skill, — 
But what th' Eternal acts is right. 

" O teach me in the trying hour. 

When anguish swells the dewy tear. 
To still my sorrows, own Thy power. 
Thy goodness love, thy justice fear." 

In regard to the Rowley Poems, it has often been 
asserted that they are forgeries, which term implies 
the counterfeiting of work already in existence. But 
Chatterton did no such thing, he simply hid his own 
genius behind a fictitious personality. When we view 
all the circumstances of his brief and sordid life, and take 
into consideration the sterile age in which he lived, with 
its pseudo love of the antique, it is riot surprising that 
he masked the rich outpourings of his wondrous 
imagination in hoar antiquity, as the one and only 
way to obtain that recognition for which he longed. 
It is not without interest to note that an actual Thomas 
Rowley did exist in Bristol in the fifteenth century, 
in the person of a merchant of that name, who died 
January 23rd, 1478; his tomb is in St. John's Church. 


It seems well-nigh incredible that for so many years 
there raged a controversy as to whether Chatterton or 
Rowley wrote those remarkable poems, considering how 
flimsy was the antique dress in which they were disguised. 
Meanwhile, burning with resentment towards Walpole 
and with bitterness to the world in general, Chatterton 
used his power of satire as a weapon against all of his 
Bristol associates, with one solitary exception. Even the 
inoffensive Rev, Alexander Catcott did not escape the 
general castigation, for to him was addressed his " Epistle 
to the Rev. Alexander Catcott," written December 6th, 
1769, and the " Postscript to the Epistle " of the same 
month, which effectually ended their hitherto friendly 
relations. This was the more to be regretted as the 
vicar of Temple Church was the only one of all 
Chatterton's circle who truly gauged his remarkable 
powers ; for his credulous brother, in answer to a query 
of Dean Milles, president of the Antiquarian Society 
and previously alluded to, says : " The information you 
received concerning my late brother's sentiments was 
strictly true. I have frequently heard him say he " 
(Chatterton) " was capable of writing anything attributed 
to Rowley, and that he was upon the whole the most 
extraordinary genius he ever met with." The solitary 
exception that escaped Chatterton's satiric pen was 
Michael Clayfield, distiller of Castle Street, to whom he 
had been introduced in the closing months of 1769. To 
this worthy man he was indebted for the loan of maijy 
books, and from these acquired the scientific knowledge 
that enabled him to write his fine poem, The Copernican 
System, which appeared in the Town and Conntry 
Magazine, 1769, in which many of his contributions had 
appeared. In this magazine was inserted his Elegy 


on Thomas Phillips, the assistant master at Colston's 

Filled with desperation, brought about by uncongenial 
employment, the petty persecution of his master, who 
never failed to burn any of what he called Chatterton's 
"stuff" that came in his way, and sick with disappointed 
hopes, Chatterton wrote to Clayfield that he intended to 
put an end to his life. This letter in course of transit 
was seen by Lambert, who at once brought it to the 
notice of Barrett. The latter interviewed Chatterton, and 
so earnestly pointed out the folly and wickedness of such 
a course of conduct that Chatterton was moved to tears. 

Subsequently he wrote Barrett a most remarkable 
letter, the keynote of which was that pride, "damned 
native unconquerable," formed the chief part of his nature. 

Not long after Lambert found to his intense astonish- 
ment the unique " Last Will and Testament of Thomas 
Chatterton " conspicuously placed on the boy's desk, 
which commenced with the words : — 

" All this wrote between eleven and two o'clock on 
Saturday, in the utmost distress of mind, 14 April, 1770." 

This curious document deserves more than a passing 
mention. Among other things it apostrophises Catcott, 
the pewterer, thus : — 

"Thy friendship never could be dear to me, 
Since all I am is opposite to thee. 
If ever obligated to thy purse, 
Rowley discharges all — my first, chief curse ! 
For had I never known the antique lore, 
I ne'er had ventured from my peaceful shore 
To be the wreck of promises and hopes, 
A Bo)^ of Learning, and a Bard of Tropes ; 
But happ3' in my humble sphere had moved, 
Untroubled, unrespected, unbeloved." 


(/■'ivDij an idd Engriiviiit;.) 


After which follows : — 

" This is the last Will and Testament of nie, Thomas 
Chatterton, of the Gity of Bristol : being sound in Body, 
or it is the Fault of my last Surgeon. The Soundness of 
my Mind the Coroner and Jury are to be Judges of- 
desiring them to take notice, that the most perfect Masters 
of Human Nature in Bristol distinguish me b}^ the Title 
of the Mad Genius. Therefore if I do a mad action, it 
is conformable to every action of my life, which all 
savored of Insanity. 

"Item. If after my Death, which will happen to- 
morrow night before 8 o'clock, being the feast of the 
resurrection, the Goroners and Jurors bring it in Lunacy, 
I will and direct, that Paul Farr, Esqr. and Mr. J no. 
Flower, do at their joint Expence, Gause my Body to be 
interred in the Tomb of my Fathers, and raise the 
Monument over my Body to the Height of 4 foot 
5 Inches, placing the present Flat stone on the Top and 
adding six Tablets. . . ." 

Among the inscriptions he directed should be inscribed 
on them was the following on the fourth : — 

" To the Memory of Thomas Ghatterton. Reader, 
judge not ; if thou art a Christian, believe that he shall 
be judged by a Superior Power. To that Power only 
is he now answerable. . . ." 

"And I will and direct, that if the Goroners Inquest 
bring it in Felo de se, the sd. Monument shall be, notwith- 
standing, erected. And if the sd. Paul P^arr and Jno. 
Flower have Souls so Bristollish as to refuse this my 
Bequest, they will transmit a Gopy of my Will to the 
Society for supporting the Bill of Rights, whom I hereby 
empower to build the said Monument according to the 
aforesaid Directions. And if they, the said Paul P'^arr 
and Jno. P^'lower, should build the said Monum[ent], I will 


and direct that the Second Edition of my Kew Gardens 
shall be dedicated to them in the following Dedication : — 
To Paul Farr and John Flower Esqrs. this Book is most 
hiHiibly dedicated by the Author's Ghost. 

"Item. I give and bequeath all my Vigor and Fire 
of Youth to Mr. George Catcott, being sensible he is in 
most want of it. 

''Item. From the same charitable motive I give and 
bequeath unto the Revd. Mr. Camplin, Senr., all m}^ 
Humility. To Mr. Burgum all my Prosody and Grammar, 
likewise one Moiety of my Modesty ; the other moiety to 
any young Lady who can prove without blushing that she 
wants that valuable Commodity. To Bristol all my Spirit 
and Disinterestedness : parcells of Goods unknown on her 
Key since the days of Canynge and Rowley ! 'Tis true a 
Charitable Gentleman, one Mr. Colston, smuggled a 
Considerable quantity of it, but it being prov'd that he 
was a Papist the worshipful Society of Aldermen endeavor 
to throttle him with the Oath of Allegiance. I leave 
also my Religion to Dr. Cutts Barton, Dean of Bristol, 
hereby impowering the Sub-sacrist to strike him on the 
head when he goes to Sleep in Church. My Powers of 
Utterance I give to the Reverend Mr. Broughton hoping 
he will employ them to a better Purpose than reading 
Lectures on the immortality of the Soul. I leave the 
Revd. Mr. Catcott some little of My free thinking, 
that he may put on the Spectacles of reason, and see how 
vilely he is duped in believing the Scripture literally. 
I wish he and his Brother would know how far I am their 
real Enemy ; but I have an unlucky way of railing, and 
when the strong fit of Satyi;e is on me, Spare neither 
Friend nor Foe. This is my Excuse for what I have said 
of them elsewhere. I leave Mr. Clayfield the sincerest 
thanks my Gratitude can give ; and I will and direct that 
whatsoever any Person may think the Pleasure of reading 
my Works worth, they immediately pay their own valua- 
tion to him, since it is then become a lawful Debt to 
me, and to him as my Executor in this Case. 


" I leave my Moderation to the Politicians on both 
Sides the Question, I leave my Generosity to our 
present Right Worshipful Mayor, Thomas Harris 
Esqr. I give my Abstinence to the Company at the 
Sheriff's annual feast in General, more particularly to 
the Aldermen. 

" Item. I give and bequeath unto Mr. Mat. Mease a 
Mourning Ring with this Motto, ' Alas ! poor Chatterton ' 
Provided he pays for it himself. 

" Item. I leave the young Ladys all the Letters they 
have had from me, assuring them they need be under no 
Apprehensions from the Appearance of my Ghost, for I 
dye for none of them. 

"Item. I leave all my Debts, in the whole not five 
Pounds, to the Payment of the Charitable and generous 
Chamber of Bristol, on Penalty, if refused, to hinder every 
Member from ever eating a good Dinner, by appearing in 
the form of a Bailiff. If, in defiance of this terrible 
Spectre, they obstinately persist in refusing to discharge 
my Debts, let my two Creditors apply to the Supporters 
of the Bill of Rights. 

"Item. I leave my Mother and Sister to the Pro- 
tection of my Friends, if I have any. 

" Executed in the presence of Omniscience, this 14th 
day of April, 1770. 

" T. Chatterton." 

" Codicil. It is my pleasure that Mr. Cocking and 
Miss Farley print this my Will the first Saturday after 
my death. " X. C." 

Such are the contents of what must assuredly rank 
for all time as one of the most singular documents ever 
penned, and in view of its pathetic and tragic sequel it 
will ever have for the student of Chatterton's life a 
peculiar and fascinating interest. 



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After reading this, Lambert at once cancelled 
Chatterton's indentures. Among his few friends a 
subscription was raised which fell short of £^, and with 
this slender capital he started by coach a few days later 
to take the great world of London by storm. On 
reaching there, -in his first letter to his mother he gives 
a graphic description of his journey. His first lodgings 
were at Shoreditch, with a plasterer of the name of 
Walmsley. There he spent his first seven weeks, sharing 
his bed with his landlord's nephew. We are told by the 
latter that Chatterton scarcely slept whilst there, passing 
the hours of each night in the feverish haste of penning 
his thoughts red hot from his too fertile and active 

In the daytime he was going the round of the various 
journals seeking literary work and recognition, to one or 
two of which he had contributed when at Bristol. 
Flushed with new-born hopes and fresh from being 
emancipated from the galling and wearisome employ of 
Lambert the attorney, the future seemed to him rosy 

During the following four months he wrote for eleven 
of the various journals there. His industry and applica- 
tion at this period were simply astounding. So remarkable 
was his facility of composition, that his poem The 
Exhibition, which he wrote whilst in London, and which 
contains no less than 444 lines, was started on the ist of 
May and ended on the 3rd. Squibs, tales, songs, letters — 
in some of which to the Middlesex Journal he tried to 
rival Junius — flowed like water from his untiring pen. 
His bodily nourishment at this time, for he was very 
abstemious, was chiefly cakes and water. 

Among his correspondents was Lord Mayor Beckford, 


whom he interviewed. Just when he was exhilarated 
with high hopes of what Beckford might do for him in 
advancing his interests, all expectations were dashed to the 
ground by the Lord Mayor's death. It has been recorded 
that he was perfect!}' frantic on hearing the news. In a 
spirit of pure sardonic humour, as we. may believe, he 
made out the famous account that has injured his 
memory. It is as follows : — 

"Accepted by Bingley, set for and thrown out of the 
North Briton 21st of June, on account of the Lord 
Mayor's death : — 

Lost by his death on this essay ;^i n ^ 
Gained in Elegies... ... 220 

„ Essays ... ... 3 5 o 

Am glad he is dead by ... 3 13 o " 

This unfortunate and untimely piece of sardonic jesting 
has been a text for the utterance of many hard things with 
regard to Chatterton's callousness. 

It was about this time that he changed his lodgings and 
went to 39 Brook Street, Holborn ; there he lodged with 
a Mrs. Angel, a sacque maker, and had a room to himself. 
Here too, alas ! he began to lose hope. Was it any wonder, 
when we consider the princely payment he received, even 
when his work was accepted ? From the Town and Country 
Magazine, for sixteen songs, he received los. 6d ; for two 
hundred and fifty lines of The Consuliad contributed to 
the Freeholder's Magazine the like sum ; for the exquisite 
poem The Excelente Balade of Charitie — the last of the 
Rowley cycle — the doom of rejection. 

A momentary gleam of success came to him through 
his The Revenge : a Burletta, a musical trifle, w^hich was 
acted after his death. For this he received five guineas, 
on the strength of which he sent a box of presents to his 


family at Bristol. They consisted of a china tea service, 
French snuff box, fans for his mother and sister, and some 
herb tobacco for his grandmother, etc. 

This affords ample proof that though pride and ambi- 
tion were the governing forces of his fiery nature, yet 
when absolutely on the verge of starvation, and with 
a self-sacrifice little short of heroic, the first-fruits of success 
were willingly and gladly yielded to those near and dear to 

This success was but a transient gleam, to be followed 
by the still deeper blackness of agony and despair, as 
disappointment succeeded disappointment. 

The last letter he is knovvn to have written to anyone 
was to Catcott. In it he mentions, " I intend going abroad 
as a surgeon. Mr. Barrett has it in his power to assist me 
greatly by his giving me a physical character. I hope he 
will." He speaks of a proposal for building a new spire 
for St. Mary Redcliff, and concludes : " Heaven send you 
the comforts of Christianity ! I request them not, for I am 
no christian." 

Eating his heart out with the longing for recognition, 
starving day by day, too proud to beg and too honest to 
steal, how infinitely full of pathos is the picture that poor 
Chatterton presents to us in that period of the eighteenth 
century aptly described as "the valley of dry bones." 
Though he had won the affection of all who knew him, he 
was deaf to their invites to dine or sup. On one occasion 
only was hi« pride overborne, and he partook of a barrel of 
oysters, which he was observed to eat ravenously. Three 
days later Mrs. Angel, his landlady, feeling fully assured 
that the unhappy boy was literalK- starving, begged him on 
August 24th to take some dinner with her, but pride 
conquered his natural craving for food, and he assured her 


he was not hunf,ay. That very same night, driven to 
desperation, the pathetic tragedy was enacted. 

The cold, grey dawn of a London morning broke 
murkily in through the casement of his garret. Through 
it in the misty distance could dimly be discerned the 
dome of St. Paul's and the tops of the distant and 
surrounding houses. Within on the pallet lay the form 
of him whose eagle soul had bravely fought, but fought 
in vain, against the pitiless forces of circumstance in 
mighty modern Babjdon. His outstretched, but lifeless, 
hand hung limply down,. whilst on the floor beneath lay 
the phial that held the fatal draught of arsenic. Scattered 
o"er the room lay in countless fragments the remains of his 
latest compositions. The candle had expired in its socket, 
and he who perished in his pride after life's fitful fever 
now slept well. Yet due to him at his death from his 
publishers was a sum of over ten guineas. 

Not for him the Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey, 
but the interment of the common pauper. His remains 
were laid in the burial-ground of Shoe Lane Workhouse, 
which in after years became the site of Farringdon 
Market. It is related, such is the irony of fate, that shortly 
after his untimely end Dr. Fry, head of St. John's 
College, Oxford, proceeded to Bristol to investigate the 
particulars of the history of the Rowley Poems and to 
befriend and assist their creator if found worthy. 

Though scorned, neglected, and starved in his life. 
Time, that brings its revenges, has achieved for his 
works tributes of immortal praise. Malone declared him 
to be " the greatest genius England has produced since 
Shakespeare " ; Warton too looked upon him as a 
"prodigy of genius"; Southey, Wordsworth, Coleridge, 
Byron, Scott, Moore, and Campbell have been equally 


unanimous in their praise of his marvellous powers. 
To him Coleridge dedicated his Motwdy, Keats his 
maiden poem Endymion, whilst Rossetti, in addition 
to inditing to his honour one of his noblest sonnets, wrote 
of him as "the absolutely miraculous Chatterton," 
Mr. Theodore Watts-Dunton says: "It seems im- 
possible to refuse to Chatterton the place of the father 
of the new romantic school. As to the romantic spirit, 
it would be difficult to name anyone of his successors 
in whom the high temper of romance has shown so 
intense a life." And another living authority, Dr. 
Garnett, says : " All recognise in him the most extra- 
ordinary literary phenomenon that the world ever saw." 
We trust that the day is not far distant when Bristol 
will adequately recognise the memory ot the most 
illustrious of her sons. The present monument at the 
north-east corner of Redcliff Church, near the north 
porch, erected to his memory in 1840, is in no sense 
worthy of his imperishable genius. 

" O, Chatterton! that thou wert yet aUve ! 
Sure thou would'st spread the canvas to the gale, 
And love, with us, the tinkling team to drive 
O'er peaceful freedom's undivided dale; 
And we, at sober eve, would round thee throng, 
Hanging, enraptured, on thy stately song! 
And greet with smiles the young-eyed poesy 
All deftly mask'd as hoar antiquity." 


Note. — The ivvitcr of tJiis brief life of Chatterton desires 
gratefully to acknoivledi^e his indebtedness to the labours of the 
late William George, it'Iio did so much in Jiis lifetime to foster 
an interest in the nnfortiinate genius and his works. 

In 1881 the late John Taylor, historian of the city, 
discovered in the possession of a dealer in Bristol an 
imperfect copy of Clarke's ^'History of tJie Bible," 1730-40, 


which contamed valuable MS. entries relating to Chatterton'a 
family. This work Mr. George promptly purchased for ten 
guineas, and on his death in 1900, it was generously presented 
to the Bristol Museum by his family, and is now in the Art 

From the entries in that work we find that Chatterton's 
mother's name was Sarah Young, and that she married his 
father at Chipping Sodbury Church on April 25th, 1748; 
also that Chatterton had a brother whose name was Giles 
Malpas, born December 12th, 1750, but who died ere he was 
five months old. 

As Thomas Malpas (Master of the Wire Drawers' and 
Pin Workers'' Company) built at his own expense the house 
attached to the school, it shows Chatterton's father was not 
quite destitute of the feelings of gratitude when he linked 
the name of Malpas to that of his son. 

Through the munificence also of Sir George White and 
Alfred C. Pass, the unique collection of Chatterton MSS. 
in the possession of the City has been still further enriched 
by the acquisition of " Kew Gardens," the Bergham Pedigree, 
the Bergham Arms, " The Death of Sir Charles Bawdin " in 
98 verses, besides other MSS., to say nothing of that priceless 
gem, the actual pocket-book in Chatterton's possession at the 
time of his death, containing entries recording his financial 
transactions with the various journals to which he contributed, 
by which we find there was actually due to him the sum 
of £10 17s. 6d., a tithe of which would have averted his 
tragic fate. 

It is noteworthy that every vestige of his original MSS. 
tend year by year to rise in value. As an instance of this, on 
December 6th, 1905, twelve pages of the first draft of '' AiUa" 
fetched in a London auction room no less a sum than £255^ 
notwithstanding there was a doubt about its aidhenticity. 


[AjUi I'aiiiting by H. \V. Pickeksoill, A.K.A.) 

CHAPTER II. {continued). 


Hannah Move's birtJi — Early bent towards literature — Goes 
to London — Introduction to Dr. Johnson and other 
literary celebrities -• — Friendship with the Garricks — 
Production of " Percy " — Retires to Barley Wood, 
Wrington, after Garrick's death, and devotes herself to 
religious writings — Publication of "Cheap Repository 
Tracts" — Her connection with the Macaiilays — Visited 
by Freeman, Coleridge, Southey and others — Patroness 
of Ann Yearsley — Dies in Clifton. 

N February 2nd, 1745, Hannah More, philan- 
thropist, authoress, and dramatist, was born at 
Fishponds, then in the parish of Stapleton. The 
house, which is still standinj^'-, adjoins Fishponds church. 
None held a more distinguished place amongst women of 
that period, and certainly none have left a more noble, 
useful, and blameless record of a well-spent life. 

Her father, Jacob More, was a schoolmaster, and she 
was one of five sisters. Her association with Bristol is 
the association of a lifetime. Following their father's 
profession, her elder sisters and herself opened a school 
at No. 6 Trinity Street, College Green, in 1758, which 
was announced in the local journals as follows : " On 
Monday after Easter will be opened a School for Young 
Ladies by Mary More and Sisters, where will be carefully 



taught French, Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, and Needle- 
work. ... A Dancing Master will attend." 

The school from its start was highly successful; so 
much so, that when Park Street was laid out for building, 
one of the first houses erected there was built to the order 
of the Misses More, and they removed to it in 1762. One 
of their pupils was the unfortunate, beautiful, and gifted 
Mary Robinson, " Perdita," to whom allusion will be made 
more fully later on. 

The bent of Hannah's mind towards literature early 
showed itself, one of her first compositions, at the age of 
sixteen, being an ode on some lectures on eloquence, 
delivered in Bristol by the famous author of The School 
for Scandal, Richard Brinsley Sheridan. Later the art of 
the drama intensely interested her, and as a result she 
produced at seventeen a play for the pupils of the school 
to act, entitled The Search After Happiness. Miss Mitford, 
author of Our Village, in a delightful sketch, describes the 
getting up of this comedy at the school she attended at 

Hannah More's appearance at this time is described 
as being "pretty, with delicate, refined features, rather 
sharply cut, and beautiful, keen, dark eyes, which were 
enhanced in brilliancy by the whiteness of her powdered 
hair." Even at this early period her conversation is said 
to have been charming. It is also recorded that being ill, 
she so delighted her doctor with her conversation that he 
entirely forgot she was his patient, and after taking leave 
returned with, " And how are you, my poor child ? " 

United with solid knowledge, was a wit and vivacity 
of mind rare in women of that period. At the age of twenty- 
two the inevitable lover appeared in the shape of an elderly 
admirer of wealth and position, named Turner, whose 


cousins, to whom he was j^uardian, were pupils at the 
school. At their desire, Hannah and her sister Patty 
were invited to his seat at Belmont, Wraxall, near Bristol. 

Whilst on this visit Hannah wrote inscriptions for 
favourite spots in his grounds, which curiously enough he 
had painted on boards and affixed to trees. Greatly 
admiring her, he made proposals of marriage, which she 
accepted, though he was twenty years her senior; he 
proved, however, but a procrastinating lover, and finally,- 
indignant at his treatment, her famil}^ insisted on the 
match being broken off. Anxious to make some sort of 
reparation, through the intervention of a mutual friend he 
offered to settle a handsome annuity on her (/"200), which, 
after considerable hesitation, she accepted. This enabled 
her to free herself from the uncongenial work of the school 
and to devote herself to literature. Shortly after, armed 
with good introductions, she set out for London, in 
whose intellectual society she soon proved herself a bright 
]:>articular star. 

vSettled in lodgings, she witnessed Sheridan's Rivals, 
and quickly became acquainted with Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
Johnson, Burke, and the Garricks. Her introduction to 
that brilliant circle was largely due to a letter she wrote 
on Garrick's acting of " King Lear." They (the Garricks) 
were anxious to see its author, and having met her, a 
mutual liking began, which ripened into a lifelong 
friendship. At their house she met ]\lrs. Montagu, the 
queen of the blue stockings of the j^eriod. Among those 
with whom she came into contact was the famous Fanny 
Burney, and commenting on her, she said : "This Evelina 
is an extraordinary girl ; she is not more than twcnt}-, 
and of a very retired disposition."' 

When Hannah met Johnson at the Reynolds' he 


astonished her by coming forward with Reynolds's macaw 
on his arm and repeating the first verse of a morning hymn 
which she had written. Later, when taking tea, she was 
placed next to him, and they entirely monopolised the 
conversation. " They were both in high spirits, and you 
would have imagined we had been at some comedy had 
you heard the peals of laughter." On their visiting 
Johnson, Sally More relates how Hannah seated herself 
in his great armchair hoping to catch a little of his genius, 
at which, when he heard, he laughed heartily, and told 
her it was a chair on which he never sat. 

On her return at the close of the season to Bristol, 
she said to her sisters : "I have been so fed with 
flattering attentions that I think I will venture to 
try what is my real value by writing a slight poem 
and offering it to Caddell." Thereupon she wrote the 
ballad of Sir Eldred of the Bower, modelled on the 
style of those collected b}- Bishop Percy, and, accom- 
panied by her sister Sally, returned to London and 
submitted it to Caddell, who offered her more than 
she had dared to expect. Johnson admired it sufficiently 
to add a stanza of his own, and Miss Reynolds told her 
friends that " Sir Eldred was the theme in all polite 
circles, and that the beauteous Bertha had kindled a flame 
in the cold bosom of Johnson." Garrick was equally 
delighted, and read the ballad to select audiences, and on 
one occasion in the presence of Hannah More herself; 
such was the effect of his marvellous elocution that, as 
she describes in a letter to a friend, " I think I never was 
so ashamed in my life, but he read it so superlatively that 
I cried like a child." 

Years but cemented her friendship with the Garricks. 
It was to her that David Garrick' presented a casket made 


from Shakespeare's mulberry tree (now in the Art Gallery), 
and bearing this inscription on a silver plate : — 

" I kissed the shrine where Shakespeare's ashes lay, 
And bore this rehc of the Bard away." 

To her he also gave the shoe buckles he wore at his last 

appearance on the stage, of which Mrs. Barbauld wrote : — 

" Thy buckles, O Garrick, thy friend may now use, 
But no one shall venture to tread in thy shoes." 

Even the cold-hearted dilletante, Horace Walpole, was 
charmed with her, and in writing called her Saint 
Hannah. It was to her that Johnson made his famous 
remark respecting Milton's sonnets : " Milton, Madam, 
was a genius that could cut a colossus from a rock, but 
could not carve heads upon cherry stones." 

On the publication of her Sacred Dramas the work 
became so popular that it went through nineteen editions. 
A copy of this work she presented to the late W. E. 
Gladstone when as a youth he was taken by his mother 
to see her at Barley Wood, Wrington. One of her most 
successful works was Ccclebs m Search of a Wife, which was 
published in iSog, and ran through no less than twelve 
editions in as many months in England, whilst in America 
thirty editions appeared during its author's lifetime. 

Her Thoughts on the Importance of the Manners of the 
Great to General Society, though published anonymously, 
was a work that created a profound sensation. The 
following epigram respecting it was sent her: — 

" Of sense and religion in this little book 
All agree there 's a wonderful store. 
But while everywhere for an author they look 
I only am wishmg for More." 

Though she wrote a great deal of verse during her 
long life, probably her Carpet Turned will be most 


likely to live. The tangled web of human life, its good 

and evil, is finely epitomised in it : — 

" This world, which clouds thy soul with doubt, 
Is but a carpet inside out ; 
As when we view these threads and ends 
We know not what the whole intends. . ." 

Under the direct guidance and help of Garrick she 
brought out her greatest dramatic effort — her play of 
Percy — for which he wrote both the prologue and the 
epilogue. Its success was immediate and triumphant ; 
four thousand copies of it were sold in a fortnight, 
and, remarkable to say, in the lifetime of those dramatic 
giants who wrote The School for Scandal and She Stoops 
to Conquer, she was exalted by popular opinion to their 
level. Writing to her sisters, she says of the reception 
of Percy : " One tear is worth a thousand hands, and I 
have the satisfaction to see men shed them in abundance. 
... As I am a living Christian woman, I will only say 
as Garrick does, that I have had so much flattery that 
I might, if I would, choke myself in my own pap." 

Soon after its production, to her deep regret, Garrick 
died, on June 20th, 1779. This event profoundly 
affected the whole current of her life, for from this 
time forward she devoted her energies to writing 
religious and moral works, the monetary returns from 
which being spent on her varied schemes of social philan- 
thropy. At Barley Wood, Wrington, to which she 
retired, she laboured ceaselessly with her sisters for the 
uplifting of the benighted agricultural communities in the ' 
Mendip and Cheddar valleys in a way that commands 
the admiration and gratitude of posterity. To those 
interested in that remarkable social work of hers reference 
may be made to Roberts's Mendip Annals. 


To allay the intense excitement caused by the French 
Revolution she wrote a tract called Village Politics, which 
did much in England to counteract its pernicious effects. 
Many thousands of copies were sold, even the Govern- 
ment scattering them broadcast throughout the country, 
and many patriotic people went so far in practical approval 
as to print large editions at their own expense for distri- 
bution. Later she published a series entitled Cheap 
Repository Tracts. These attained an enormous circula- 
tion, running into millions. William Cobbett was so 
delighted with them that he used his influence to have 
them largely circulated in America. To them we owe the- 
foundation of the Religious Tract Society, so well known 

Well and truly has it been said : "By her writings 
and her own personal example she drew the S3'mpathy of 
England to the poverty and crime of the agricultural 
labourer, and she took no inconsiderable part in paving 
the way for the uncanonised saints of the eighteenth 
century — Wilberforce, Clarkson, and John Howard." 

It was during |her residence at Barley Wood that two 
great historians made her acquaintance — Macaulay and 
Freeman. It is not generally known that Selina Macaulay, 
the mother of the historian, was a Bristolian, being the 
daughter of a Bristol bookseller named Mills. She was the 
lifelong friend of the sisters More, and before her marriage 
to Zachary Macaulay, which event took place in Bristol 
on August 26th, 1799, assisted them in their school in 
Park Street, and on their retirement took over its 
management, which was advertised as follows in the 
Bristol Journal of January 2nd, 1790: — 

" Selina Mills, many years teacher at the Misses More's 
boarding school, begs leave to inform her friends and the 


public that she has taken the large and commodious house 
in Park Street, now occupied by the Misses More (who 
retire from business), where she and her sisters propose 
carrying on the boarding and day school for young ladies 
on exactly the same plan and with the same masters. The 
school will be opened on Monday, the 14th inst. The 
terms for boarding are reduced to twenty guineas. vS. Mills 
returns her sincere thanks to the Misses More's friends 
and her own for the great encouragement she has received 
from them." 

Her management of the school, however, did not last 
long, and even while she was its nominal head, her time 
was mostly spent up to the year 1795 between the house 
of the Misses More and Bath. From the time of her 
engagement to Zachary Macaulay she gave up the school 
to her sisters, and spent most of the intervening time 
until her marriage in i/gg with her future husband's 
sister, Mrs. Babington (whence was derived Macaulay's 
second Christian name), at Rothley Temple. 

A pen portrait of her at this period is as follows : 
" In Miss Selina Mills there is something so insinuating 
and soft that I do not wonder at the enconiums I have 
heard given to her. Her voice is extremel}' harmonious, 
and should you ever be low-spirited, I think it would have 
upon you the effect which David's harp had upon Saul. 
. . . She had a bonnet on the first night, but to-night 
was so good as to put on a cap, which gave me a good 
view of her face. I thought it more lovely than ever. I 
have never seen a more amiable, engaging behaviour than 
that of Miss Selina. There is so much sweetness in all 
her actions that the heart of a miser might be warmed 
to acts of generosity by the spark of goodness which he 
would catch from her charms." 


On Zachary Macaulay falling in love with her and 
desiring her hand, he had to encounter considerable 
opposition from her family, who were intent on making 
a better match for her. Hannah More, however, stood 
a staunch friend to them, and through her influence and 
advocacy their marriage eventually took place. 

Hannah More's friendship for the parents was shared 
from his earliest childhood by Lord Macaulay himself, for 
when she lived at Barley Wood he was a most welcome 
visitor, staying there for weeks together. His early literary 
efforts — hymns chiefly — were regarded as marvellous by 
his kind hostess. He became deeply attached to^ her, 
and that attachment lasted throughout his life. To her, 
indeed, was due the foundation of his librar}^ When he 
was six years old she wrote him as follows: "Though 
you are a little boy now, you will one day, if it please 
God, be a man ; but long before you are a man I hope 
\ou will be a scholar. I therefore wish }-ou to purchase 
such books as will be useful and agreeable to you then, 
and that you will employ this very small, sum in laying 
a tiny corner for your future librar}-." 

That his happ}- childhood's days spent in her company 
at Barley Wood were to bim an unforgettable memory 
is proved by the fact that when ordered to Clifton in 1852 
for the benefit of his health he took an early opportunity 
of revisiting the place so endearing in its associations. 
He took up his residence at 16 Caledonia Place, where a 
tablet to his memory was unveiled by Lord Avebury in 

In his diary he notes : " August 2rst. A fine day. At 
eleven the Harfords, of Blaise Castle, called in their 
barouche to take Margaret " [his sister] " and me to Barley 
Wood. Tlie valley of Wrington was as rich and lovely 


as ever. The Mendip ridge, the church tower, the islands 
in the distance " [referring to the Steep and Flat Holms] 
" were what they were forty }-ears ago and more. ..." 

That the Mendip country made an ineffaceable im- 
pression on his mind is proved by the lines in his famous 
ballad, The Spanish Arviada, where he says: — 

"The rugged miners poured to war from Mendip's sunless caves." 

Under date September I4tli he again describes a 
second visit. On reaching Barley Wood he says: "We 
saw Hannah More's room. ... I could point out the 
very spot where the Don Quixote, in four volumes, stood, 
and the ver}' place from which I took down at ten years 
of age the Lyrical Ballads. With what delight and horror 
I read the 'Ancient Mariner' ! " 

Two days after he is greatly pleased at a call from 
Bishop Monk (Bishop of Bristol), his old Trinity tutor. 
" I was really glad to see him and shake hands with him, 
for he was very kind to me when I was young, and I was 
ungrateful and impertinent to him.'" 

Whilst staying here in Clifton he was busy writing 
his famous History. On one of the Sundays during this 
visit he went to Christ Church, Clifton. " I got a place 
among the free seats, and heard not a bad sermon on the 
word ' Therefore.' The preacher disclaimed all intention 
of startling us by oddity, after the fashion of the seven- 
teenth century ; but I doubt whether he did not find in 
St. Paul's ' Therefore ' much more than St. Paul thought 
of. There was a collection for church building, and I 
slipped my sovereign into the plate the more willingly 
because the preacher asked for our money on sensible 
grounds and in a manly manner."' 

It was during his stay here that he walked over to 


Leigh Court to see the famous collection of pictures 
(now alas ! dispersed), and found that report had 
not done them justice; in connection with this visit he 
relates the following charming anecdote : " On the road 
between Leigh Court and the Ferry " [the Suspension 
Bridge was not then built], ''however, I saw a more delight- 
ful picture than any in the collection. In a deep, shady lane 
was a donkey-cart, driven by a lad ; and in it were four 
very pretty girls, from eleven to six, evidently sisters. 
They were quite mad with spirits at having so rare a 
treat as a ride, and they were laughing and singing in a 
way that almost made me cry with mere sense of the 
beautiful. They saw that I was pleased, and answered 
me very prettily when I made some inquiry about my 
route. I gave them all the silver that I had about me 
to buy dolls ; and they all four began carolling in perfect 
concert and in tones as joyous as a lark's. I should like 
to have a picture of the cart and the cargo. Gainsborough 
would have been the man." 

His letters written from Clifton bear witness to his 
keen pleasure in the place and its surroundings, for he 
speaks in them of its beauty, the delicious air, and the 
fine churches in the localit}-. 

Bristol's interest in his works derives particular point 
from the fact of his famous description of Bristol at the 
close of the seventeenth century and his allusion to our 
city in his soul-stirring ballad of The Spanish Armada, 
where he says : — 

" Right sharj) and (luick the bcHs all night rang out from Bristol 

And ere the day three hundred horse had met on Clifton Down." 

Four years after Hannah More's death, writing to a 
friend, he sa3's : " Her notice first called out my literary 


tastes. She was what Ninon was to Voltaire — begging 
her pardon for comparing her to a bad woman, and yours 
for comparing myself to a great man. She really was a 
second mother to me. I have a real affection for her 

Edward A. Freeman, the historian of the Xdiiium 
ConcpiLSt, loved to relate how his grandmother, who 
resided at Weston-super-Mare (then a mere village) and 
was a personal friend of Hannah More, took him to see 
her. Hannah More was delighted with the little yeliow- 
luiircd lad, who was full of questions and quaint remarks, 
and at parting gave him her blessing. 

Whilst she resided at Barley Wood, Joseph Cottle 
took down Coleridge and Southey to see her, and she 
was charmed with the former's conversation. Indeed, 
her abode became a shrine to which distinguished people 
made a pilgrimage from all parts of England, the Con- 
tinent, and America. In the latter there was hardly a 
city in which she had not a correspondent on matters of 
religion, morals, or literature. Ue Quincey has told us 
how he met the famous Mrs. Siddons at Barley Wood, 
and of her exhibiting there her marvellous declamatory 

To Hannah More was due the meteor-lik'^ fame of 
Ann Yearsley, the Bristol milkwoman, as a poetess. In 
the year 1784 Hannah More became interested in her 
through one of her poems being brought to her notice. 
She (Ann Yearsley) was at this time the mother of six 
children and 28 years of age. So precarious was their 
position when Hannah More discovered her that they 
were on the brink of starvation. Struck with the 
simplicity of her manners, ability, and good taste, 
Hannah More exerted herself tc so much purpose among 

'■^i -ITV 



her distinguished acquaintances, even to the labour of 
writing hundreds of letters on her behalf, that a collec- 
tion of Ann Yearsley's poems was published, with the 
eminently satisfactory result that £"500 was obtained 
with which to assist her. The money was forthwith 
invested in the Funds, but the deed of trust excluded the 
authoress from the control of the money. This arrange- 
ment was so distasteful to Ann Yearsley's wishes that she 
bitterly resented it, and so far forgot herself as to go to 
the unfortunate length of accusing her benefactress of 
appropriating the money to her own use. Disgusted at her 
ingratitude, Hannah More paid the money over to her, and 
her progress towards oblivion was as rapid as it appears to 
have been deserved. With the money she vainly sought 
to gain a comfortable living by setting up a circulating 
library at the Hotwells ; but the ban of an ingrate dogged 
her, and failing in that business she removed to Melksham, 
Wilts, where she died insane in 1806, and was buried in 
Clifton Churchyard. Southey, who seems to have gauged 
her talents, allowed her some feeling and capability, but 
adds : " Though gifted with voice, she had no strain of 
her own whereby to be remembered." Cottle, however, 
thought her an extraordinary woman. A letter of hers 
written to a clergyman in 1797 about her poems gives, 
however, little evidence of education beyond the 

The closing years of Hannah More's life were spent at 
4 Windsor Terrace, Clifton, to which she removed in 1828, 
owing to the ingratitude of her servants at Barley Wood. 
At her death, which occurred in 1833 at the great age 
of 88, she left a fortune of ;^30,ooo, of which Bristol 
derived a large share in benefactions, and a name for 
good deeds, which will only pass away with the city 



itself. Beneath the shadow of the most famous of the 
Somerset towers — Wrington, in the parish of which 
Barley Wood was situate — she lies with her four sisters 
in one grave. A chaste and beautiful tablet, designed by 
Bristol's famous sculptor, Edward Hodges Baily, affixed in 
the church, records her life's work and benefactions. 

Truly it might be said of her, the labourer dieth, but 
the work lives eternal. 

CHAPTER 11. (continued). 


Joseph Cottle — His introduction to Coleridge and Soiithey — 
Pantisocratism — Generosity of Cottle to Coleridge and 
SotUhey — Marriage of the two latter to the sisters Fricker 
— Production of " The Watchman " — Publication of 
Coleridge's first book of poems — Southcy settles at 
Westbiiry-on-Trym — Acquaintance formed by him with 
the Wedgwoods and Davy — Production of " The Annual 
Anthology " — Sojourn of Coleridge and the Wordsworths 
among the Quantocks — Sir Humphry Davy — The Beddoes 
— Mrs. Barbauld and Dr. Estlin — Coleridge receives an 
annuity from the Wedgwoods — Begins the habit of taking 
opium — Wordsworth and his sister in Bristol; Go with 
Coleridge to Germany — Lamb's connection with Bristol 
— De Quincey — Meeting of Southey and Landor, 
and formation of friendship between them — Southey's 

t'^^'^HE position of Joseph Cottle, bookseller, of Bristol, 
as the intimate friend of three of the greatest 
writers of English literature is probably without 
a parallel in its glorious annals. Such a peculiar com- 
bination of circumstances which brought about that 
friendship will, it is safe to assume, never happen again. 
Remarkable indeed is the fact that a bookseller in a 
provincial city had the honour of introducing to the world 



tlie tirst printed productions in volume form oi such 
modern classics as Coleridge, Wordsworth, Lamb and 

In spite of Cottle's detractors, who are lavish in their 
censure but nif^gardly in their praise, when we examine his 
life and his treatment of those famous men with whom he 
was in daily contact, in common justice we are forced to 
the conclusion that, take him for all in all, he was a truly 
kind and generous man, and worthy, despite his unfor- 
tunate habit of garbling, of their lifelong esteem and 

To the eccentric John Henderson, who was con- 
sidered by those who knew him best to be a prodig}' of 
learning, but who nevertheless left no mark on the 
intellectual progress of his age, Cottle's interest in books 
and reading was due. Before Cottle was twenty-one he 
had read more than a thousand of the best works of 
English literature. In the year 1791 he started business 
in Bristol as a bookseller, at the top corner of High 
Street, opposite the old Dutch House, not in the present 
shop, as is so often erroneously asserted, but in the one 
which was burnt down in December, 1819, and which 
stood on the site. 

His first introduction to that brilliant circle whose 
fame is linked with his name for all time took place at 
the close of the year 1794, when the young Quaker poet, 
Robert Lovell (who had married a Miss Fricker) revealed 
to him the great Pantisocratic scheme, the apostles of 
which were four in number, \'\z. S. T. Coleridge (with 
whom the idea first originated), Robert Southey, George 
Burnet, and Lovell himself, and desired Cottle's co- 

The scheme was briefly summarised as follows : — 


{Aflcr Druiviiiji by Roblut Hancock.) 


Twelve gentlemen of good education and liberal 
principles were to embark with twelve ladies in April next, 
fixing themselves in some delightful part of the new back 
settlements of America. The labour of each man, for two 
or three hours a day, it was imagined, would suffice to 
support the colony. The produce was to be common 
property. There was to be a good library, and the ample 
leisure was to be devoted to study, discussion, and the 
education of the children on a settled system. 

The women were to be employed in taking care of 
the infant children and in other suitable occupations, not 
neglecting the cultivation of their -minds. Among other 
matters not yet determined, was whether the marriage 
contract should be dissolved, if agreeable to one or both 
parties. Everyone was to enjoy his own religion and 
political opinions, provided they did not encroach on 
the rules previously made. They calculated that every 
gentleman providing £"125 would be sufficient to carry the 
scheme into execution. • 

This Utopian scheme was hatched at Oxford and 
matured in Bristol. 

It was at Oxford, to which Coleridge went on a visit 
to their mutual friend Allen, of Balliol, that Southey's 
acquaintance with him began. Writing from the 
University town to his friend, Grosvenor Bedford, on 
June I2th, 1794, Southey said : '' Allen is with us daily, 
and his friend from Cambridge, Coleridge, whose poems 
you will oblige me by subscribing to. . . . He is of most 
uncommon merit, — of the strongest genius, the clearest 
judgment, the best heart. My friend he already is, and 
must hereafter be yours." 

One of the recreations of these Pantisocrats in Bristol 
was the joint production of the drama The Fall of 

6 A 


Robespierre, two-thirds of which Southey wrote ; but 
it was with great difficulty that any publisher was 
prevailed upon to publish it. 

When later introduced by Lovell to Southey, Cottle 
was deeply impressed with the latter, and said : " Never 
will the impression be effaced, produced on me by this 
young man. Tall, dignified, possessing great suavity of 
manners ; an eye piercing, with a countenance full of 
genius, kindliness and intelligence, I gave him at once the 
right hand of fellowship, and to the moment of his decease, 
that cordiality was never withdrawn." Even his great 
antagonist Byron adrnitted that Southey was handsome. 
Robert Southey, who was born under the shadow of 
Christ Church, Bristol, spent his boyhood at No. 9 Wine 
Street — a tablet marks the house. 

Cottle was also struck with Coleridge's appearance 
when they were introduced: "I instantly descried his 
intellectual character; exhibiting as he did, an eye, 
a brow, and a forehead, indicative of commanding 

Both the poets submitted their productions to the 
worthy Cottle, who read and admired them and gave a 
practical proof of his admiration by offering them 
generous terms for the copyright of their respective 
poems. Coleridge, who in London had been offered six 
guineas for his poems, was surprised at the liberality of 
Cottle, who offered him thirty guineas ; and a like sum to 
Southey, and also promised the latter to give him fifty 
guineas for his projected Joan of Arc. As both were 
on the eve of their marriage to two of the sisters Flicker 
(Lovell being already married to a third), daughters of a 
sugar-mould maker of Westbury-on-Trym, but afterwards 
residing with their widowed mother at Redcliff Hill, 


the offer was doubly acceptable. To facilitate Coleridge's 
marriage, Cottle promised him a guinea and a half for 
every hundred lines he should write. Cottle essayed to 
be a poet himself — though his Alfred or The Fall of 
Cambria or the Malvern Hills are poor passports to fame — 
and this probably accounted in some degree for Cottle's 
partiality for the young poets. Amos Cottle also wrote 
verse, and both have been lashed by the whip of satire. 
Byron, it will be remembered, in his English Bards and 
Scotch Reviewers, said : — 

" Oh, Amos Cottle ! — Phoebus! what a name 
To fill the speaking trump of fame." 

Whilst Joseph figured in the lines ascribed to George 
Canning : — 

" Cottle, not he by Alfred made famous, 
But Joseph, of Bristol, the brother of Amos."* 

While preparing their poems for publication and 
vainly awaiting converts to their great Pantisocratic 
scheme, Coleridge and Southey took lodgings in College 
Street — a tablet on the house now commemorates the fact 
that Coleridge lived there — and gave themselves up to 
dreams of philosophy and poetry. Alas ! the realities of life 
soon disturbed them, for funds ran low, and the aid of Cottle 
was invoked, with the result that he lent them £^ to defray 
their lodging bill. Turning about for means of income, they 
resolved on giving courses of lectures — Southey on history 
and Coleridge on politics and morals. Coleridge delivered 
his first two at the Plume of Feathers Inn, Wine Street, 
and several at the Assembly Rooms, Prince Street. 
Southey's were given at the latter place, and both courses 

* The writer has mixed up the identities of the brothers Cottle in the 
latter couplet. 


were well attended, despite the unpopular opinions of the 
two orators. On a certain occasion some hostile critics 
attended one of Coleridge's political lectures and testified 
their disapproval of his sentiments by hissing. He at 
once, without the slightest hesitation, remarked : " I am 
not at all surprised, when the red-hot prejudices of 
aristocrats are suddenly plunged into the cold water 
of reason, that they should go off with a hiss!" The 
effect was electrical, and the lecturer was immensely 

On October 4th, 1795, Coleridge was married at 
St. Mary Redcliff Church, and he and his bride departed 
to spend their honeymoon at Clevedon (famous for its 
associations with the Hallams, Tennyson, Thackeray, and 
others). The newly-wedded pair had been there but a few 
days when the indispensable Cottle's help was desired 
to supply them with the following quaint assortment of 
household requisites: — "A riddle slice; a candle box; 
two ventilators ; two glasses for the wash-hand stand ; 
one tin dust-pan ; one small tin tea-kettle ; one pair of 
candlesticks ; one carpet brush ; one flour dredge ; three 
tin extinguishers; two mats; a pair of slippers; a cheese 
toaster ; two large tin spoons ; a Bible ; a keg of porter ; 
coffee ; raisins ; currants ; catsup ; nutmegs ; allspice ; 
cinnamon; rice; ginger; and mace" — to which the 
thoughtful Cottle added a piece of carpet. 

Robert Southey led Edith Fricker, to whom he had 
long been engaged, to the altar at the same church on 
November 14th, 1795. Before doing so, however, Cottle's 
generosity supplied the money for the w'edding-ring and 
licence, an act that Southey remembered to the day of 
his death, and nobly acknowledged when at the zenith 
of his fame in a letter to Cottle that deserves, for its 


manliness, a place by the side of Johnson's famous letter 
to the Earl of Chesterfield. 

Southey"s marriage was hastened by the fact that 
his uncle at Lisbon had come to England, and was 
desirous that the young poet should return to Portugal 
with him. Southey consented ; but before doing so he 
resolved to make Edith his wife, so that she could 
honourably accept whatever he could send for her 
support, the arrangement being that she should, in his 
absence, live with Cottle's sister and pass under her 
maiden name. So at the church door, after clasping 
hands with mingled feelings of sadness and joy, husband 
and wife parted. 

In the meantime Coleridge had found out the 
inconvenience of living away from the intellectual 
companionship of his friends at Bristol and the depri- 
vation of the books he was wont to browse upon at 
the Bristol Library in King Street. Consequently he 
and his wife returned to Bristol, and lived in rooms on 
Redcliff Hill. His regret at leaving Clevedon, natural to 
one of such keen poetic sensibility, is expressed in the 
following lines : — 

" Ah ! quiet dell ! clear cot, and mount sublime ! 
I was constrained to quit you. Was it right, 
While my unnumbered brethren toiled and bled, 
That I should dream away the entrusted hours 
On rose-leaf beds, pampering the coward heart 
With feelings all too delicate for use ? " 

Soon after his return, with the enthusiasm of 
inexperience, Coleridge induced his equally enthusiastic 
friends to embark on his memorable undertaking, the 
publication of the short-lived but famous magazine, 
The Watchman. 




At the Rummer Tavern, near All Saints' Church, one 
evening in December, 1795, it was definitely decided 
to bring out the magazine. Early in the following 
January Coleridge started off in quest of subscribers. 
The magic of his persuasive powers induced a thousand 
to give him their support. A vivid account of this tour 
will be found in his Biographia. 

It was after his return to Redcliff Hill, on 
February 22nd, 1796, that, in reply to a note from 
Cottle, he addressed to him the following remarkable 
letter: — 

" My dear Sir, — It is my duty and business to thank 
God for all his dispensations, and to believe them the 
best possible ; but, indeed, I think I should have been 
more thankful, if he had made me a journeyman shoe- 
maker, instead of an author by trade, I have left my 
friends ; I have left plenty ; I have left that ease which 
would have secured a literary immortality, and have enabled 
me to give the public works conceived in moments of 
inspiration, and polished with leisurely solicitude ; and alas ! 
for what have I left them? for — who deserted me in the 
hour of distress, and for a scheme of virtue impracticable 
and romantic ! 

" So I am forced to write for bread; write the flights 
of poetic enthusiasm, when every minute 1 am hearing a 
groan from my wife. Groans, and complaints, and sickness ! 
The present hour I am in a quickset hedge of embarrass- 
ment, and whichever way I turn a thorn runs into me ! 
The future is cloud and thick darkness ! Poverty, 
perhaps, and the thin faces of them that want bread 
looking up to me ! . . . Oh, wayward and desultory 
spirit of genius! Ill canst thou brook a taskmaster! The 


(A/lei- Viawini; hy 1'i-/ikk Vanhv ki.. ) 


tenderest touch from the hand of obhgation wounds thee 
like a scourge of scorpions. . . ." 

Some such mood of bitterness as this must have 
inspired his Monody on Chatterion, of which the following 
are among the concluding lines : — 

" Poor Chatterton ! farewell ! of darkest hues 
This chaplet cast I on thy unshaped tomb ; 
But dare no longer on the sad theme muse, 
Lest kindred woes persuade a kindred doom ! " 

On March ist, 1796, The Watchman appeared ; but, alas ! 
its chief characteristic, from the waiting subscribers' 
point of view, was its deadly dulness (the unforgivable 
literary sin). It lingered on, offending numbers of its 
subscribers b}'^ its heretical opinions, until No. 10 
was reached, when its career came to a close, an 
event fully anticipated by Coleridge's shrewd and trusted 
friend, Thomas Poole, of Nether Stowey. 

The despondency induced by the non-success of The 
Watchman was greatly alleviated by the timely and 
delicate generosity of the worthy Poole, who sent 
Coleridge a sum of money, at the same time inviting 
him to recruit himself by spending a few days at Nether 
Stowey : this was accepted, and a restful fortnight 
spent there. 

On his return to Bristol early in April Coleridge's 
first book of poems was published under the title of 
" Poems on Various Subjects, by S. T. Coleridge, late of 
Jesus College, Cambridge, 1796." This volume derives 
additional interest from the fact that contained in it are 
four sonnets by Charles Lamb. The celebrated volume, 
now very rare, is contained in the Bristol Collection of 
the city libraries, having been presented by the author. 

In June of the same year Coleridge received an offer 


— which, had it been accepted, might have placed him 
in the proud position of independence for the rest 
of his Hfe — through the influence of the celebrated 
Dr. Beddoes, of Clifton. It was that of the assistant 
editorship of the Morning Chronicle. But fate decreed 
it otherwise. That infirmity of indecision, which was 
his leading moral characteristic through life, and marred 
the full flowering forth of his great and complex 
genius, prevented his taking occasion by the hand, 
and made him, too, the victim of ceaseless financial 

It was from Redcliff Hill in this same month of June 
that he wrote on the 22nd to his republican friend, 
John Thelwall : "I wish very much to See you. Have 
you given up the idea of spending a few weeks or month 
at Bristol ? . . . We have a large and every way 
excellent library, to which I could make you a temporary 
subscriber. . . . We have a hundred lovely scenes about 
Bristol which would make you exclaim, ' O admirable 
Nature!' and me, 'O gracious God!'" 

Later in the year the Coleridges removed to Oxford 
Street, Kingsdown, and whilst the poet was absent at 
Birmingham on a visit to Charles Lloyd, the son of a 
banker philanthropist of that city (whose acquaintance 
he had made on his Watchman tour), he received the 
pleasing intelligence of the birth of his first-born. 

This interesting event took place on September 19th, 
1796. Three sonnets proclaimed Coleridge's gladness to 
the world. The first of these ended with that exquisite 
*■ touch of nature that makes the whole world kin " : — 

" So for the Mother's sake the Child was dear, 
And dearer was the Mother for the Child." 


Fascinated by the converse of Coleridge, and with 
poetic instincts of his own, Lloyd greatly desired to sit at 
his feet and drink daily of the copious spring of poetry 
and wisdom. Consequently he begged Coleridge to 
allow him to "domesticate" with him as a paying 
guest. Coleridge yielded to his desire, and hastened 
back to Bristol accompanied by Lloyd. Writing to 
Poole at a later date, he alluded to Lloyd as follows : 
•'Charles Lloyd wins upon me hourly; his heart is 
uncommonly pure, his affection delicate, and his benevo- 
lence enlivened but not sicklied by sensibility. . . . His 
joy and gratitude to Heaven for the circumstance of his 
domestication with me I can scarcely describe to you ; 
and I believe that his fixed plans are of being always 
with me. ..." 

Shortly after this was written Coleridge, his family, 
and Lloyd were at Nether Stowey visiting Poole, and 
whilst there the poet conceived a passion for rural life 
which crystallised into a plan for living there, to be 
near Poole, in spite of the dissuasion of the latter, who 
pointed out the apparent folly of burying himself in an 
obscure village like Stowey, far from libraries and the 
society of his intellectual friends. 

The letter containing Poole's advice on this project 
moved Coleridge profoundly, and another remarkable 
letter was written in reply, exhibiting the bitter travail 
of his soul. 

During the summer of this year Southey had returned 
from his visit to his uncle in Portugal. After a vain 
attempt to study for the law in London, and visits to 
friends at Norwich and Christchurch, Southey once more 
returned to his beloved Bristol, and settled at Westbury, 
where he enjoyed "twelve happy months" in devoting 


himself to the passion of his life — htcrary composition. 
" I never before or since," he said, " produced so much 
poetry in the same space of time." At Westbury, too, 
he enjo3'ed the companionship of Davy, and the Southeys 
and Coleridgcs were welcome guests at Cote House, the 
residence of John Wedgwood, whose brothers, Josiah and 
Thomas, were frequent visitors there. Speaking of Davy, 
Southe}^ observed : " He is not twenty-one, nor has he 
applied to chemistry more than eighteen months, but he 
has advanced with such seven-leagued strides as to over- 
take everybody." It was whilst residing at Westbury 
that Southey projected The Annual Anthology for the year 
1799-1800 ; it contained poems by Coleridge, Lamb, 
Lloyd, Hucks, Dyer, the Cottles, Mrs. Robinson (Perdita),. 
and Mrs. Opie. 

This delightful time had but a brief duration, for the 
owner of the house in which the Southeys lived desired 
re-possession, and they had reluctantly to seek another 
home. Southey's health, too, being at this time (1799) 
impaired, he and his wife decided to go into Hampshire. 
Their stay there, however, was cut short, for Southey was 
taken ill with fever, and on recovering they once more 
turned their steps to Bristol. Total change was deemed 
necessary to re-establish entirely the poet's health, and his 
memory became haunted by the scent of the lemon groves 
of Portugal. Early, therefore, in April, 1800, he and 
his wife took ship to that country, and spent there a 
delightful time with his uncle, for in a week the poet was 
so fully restored to health that he was enabled to finish 
his poem Thalaba. On his return to England in 1801 
he found a letter awaiting him at Bristol from Coleridge, 
entreating him to come to Greta Hall, Keswick, and 
eulogising the beauty of the situation. The letter closed 


with the words : " I know no place in which you and 
Edith would find yourselves so well suited." 

The persuasive arguments of Coleridge prevailed, and 
the Southeys went to Keswick for a short stay. Thence 
they proceeded to Wales, but this visit was suddenl}- 
terminated by the offer of the post of private secretary to 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer for Ireland, attached to 
which was a salary of four hundred pounds per annum. 
Southey accepted the offer and posted off to Dublin, 
and thence went to London, where his mother, who 
joined them, breathed her last. This sad event, and 
the uncongenial nature of the work, induced Southey 
to resign the post, and he and his wife returned 
once more to Bristol. Here he laboured daily at his 
History of Portugal and the Ainadis of Gaul. Here too, 
in September, 1802, his first child was born. All too 
brief was her little life, and, saddened by the loss, the 
bereaved parents turned their steps yet again to the 
Coleridges at Greta Hall, Keswick, which proved to be 
thenceforth their future home. 

Reverting once more to Coleridge, his sojourn among 
the ferny and beautiful combes of the Quantocks is the 
most fascinatingly interesting period of his life. It was a 
singularly productive time, and the poems originating 
from that staj'' in the " Oberland of Somerset " were by 
him never surpassed. His masterpiece. The Ancitiit 
Mariner, was written there ; and there,* too, it will be 

* Avery interesting and much debated point, viz. wliere tliese two great 
poets first met, " as quite recently been cleared up by Professor Knight, 
who proves that it was in Bristol, at 7 Great George Street, then the 
residence of John Pinney, father of Charles Pinney, Mayor of Bristol at 
the time of the Riots in 183 1. It was the elder Pinney who lent Wordsworth 
the farmhouse at Racedown, Dorset. Professor Knight considers that the 
meeting of Coleridge and Wordsworth was one of the most i-emarkable 
conjunctions of genius in the literary history of England. 


remembered, he was joined by Wordsworth and his sister, 
who were drawn thither by the wonderful converse of 
Coleridge, which delighted and enchanted all with 
whom he came into contact. The spell of that delightful 
locality has been immortalised by both these poetic giants. 
Wordsworth, in his Prelude says, alluding to the rambles 
and communings over the Quantocks : — 

" Upon smooth Quantock's airy ridge we roved 
Unchecked, or loitered 'mid her sylvan combs, 
Thou in bewitching words, with happy heart, 
Didst chaunt the vision of that Ancient Man, 
The bright-eyed Mariner, and rueful woes 
Didst utter of the Lady Christabel. . . ." 

Whilst Coleridge, with his magical descriptive power, 
speaks of — 

" The many-steepled tract magnificent, 
Of hilly fields, and meadows and the sea, 
With some fair bark, perhaps, whose sails light up 
The slips of smooth clear blue betwixt two isles 
Of purple shadow." 

But the great work imperishably linked with the 
Quantocks, was the production of the famous volume, 
the Lyrical Ballads, a work that undoubtedly revolu- 
tionised the artificiality of English poetry, which had 
lapsed into the dull, mechanic exercise, and made it once 
more become transfigured with "the light that never was 
on sea or land." Hazlitt, De Quincey, Lamb, and Cottle 
visited the Coleridges there. Hazlitt has eloquently 
recorded his impressions of Nether Stowey and Alfoxden. 
Well indeed have the Quantocks been described as " The 
Cradle of the Lake Poets." 

It was whilst there that Coleridge wrote that singularly 
charming note to Cottle respecting Dorothy Wordsworth, 
which runs as follows : — 


" My dear Cottle, — W and his exquisite sister 

are with me. She is a woman indeed ! in mind I mean, 
and heart ; for her person is such, that if you expected to see 
a pretty woman, you would think her rather ordinary ; if 
you expected to see an ordinary woman, you would think her 
pretty ! but her manners are simple, ardent, impressive. 
In every motion her most innocent soul outbeams so 
brightly that who saw would say, ' Guilt was a thing 
impossible in her.' . . . — S. T. C." 

Dorothy Wordsworth, too, was impressed with Cole- 
ridge, for she wrote : " He is a wonderful man. His 
conversation teems with soul, mind and spirit." Speaking 
of his eye, she remarked : " It has more of the poet's eye 
in a wild frenzy rolling than I ever witnessed." 

Earlier we have alluded to Coleridge's habit of reading 
and borrowing books from the Bristol Library. The 
registers are still preserved which record the works taken 
out by Coleridge, Southey, Landor and Davy, as young 
men then on the threshold of their future fame. It is a 
record unique and absorbing in its interest to all literary 
students.* To the present City Librarian, Mr. E. R. 
Norris Mathews, the credit is due of having rescued these 
memorials from the garret to which they had been igno- 
miniously consigned. The peculiarly interesting feature 
of the entries is that in the majority of cases the books 
were signed for in the autograph of those famous men in 
the actual registers. 

The following pungent and characteristic letter was 
written from Nether Stowey concerning the detention by 
Coleridge of a work in quarto from the library : — 

* In the February number of Chamben' Journal for 1890 is an interest- 
ing account of the books they read. 


" Stowey, May, 1797. 

" Mr. Catcott, — I beg your acceptance of the enclosed 
letters. You must not think Hghtly of the present as they 
cost me, who am a very poor man, one shilling ajid three- 
tience. For the future all letters to me from the Library 
must be thus directed : 

" S. T. Coleridge, 
" Mr. Cottle's, bookseller, High Street, Bristol. 

With respect to the Brackers, altho' by accident they 
were registered on the 23rd of March, yet they were not 
removed from the Library for a fortnight after, and when I 
received your first letter on this subject I had had the two 
volumes just three weeks. Our learned and ingenious 
committee may read thro' two quartos, i.e. two thousand 
and four hundred pages of close printed Greek and Latin- in 
three weeks, for aught I know to the contrary. I pretend 
to no such intenseness of application or rapidity of genius. 
I must beg you to inform me by Mr. Cottle (what) length 
of time is allowed b}^ the rules and customs of our institu- 
tion for each book. Whether the contents as well as 
their size are consulted in apportioning the times, or 
whether, customarily, any time at all is apportioned except 
when the committee, in individual cases, chuse to deem 
it proper. 

" I subscribe to your Library, Mr. Catcott, not to read 
novels, or books of quick reading and easy digestion, but 
to get books which I cannot get elsewhere, books of massy 
knowledge, and as I have few books of my own, I read 
with a commonplace book, so that if I be not allowed 
a larger period of time for the perusal of such books, 
I must contrive to get rid of my subscription, which 




{Ajicy Portrait by Branwhite.) 


would be a thing perfectly useless, except as far as it 

gives me an opportunity of reading your little notes 

and letters. 

" Yours in Christian fellowship, 

" S. T. Coleridge. 
" Mr. G. Catcott, Sub. Libra": " 

Through the instrumentality of Poole, Coleridge 
was made acquainted with the Wedgwoods, who sub- 
sequently proved his generous friends. One of the 
first letters the poet wrote after reaching Stowey was 
the following : — 

" My dear Cottle, — We arrived safe. Our house 
is set to rights. We are all — wife, bratling and self, 
remarkably well. Mrs. Coleridge likes Stowey, and loves 
Thomas Poole and his mother, who love her. A com- 
munication has been made from our orchard into 
T. Poole's garden, and from there to Cruickshank's, a 
friend of mine, and a young married man, whose 
wife is very amiable, and she and Sara are already 
on the most cordial terms ; from all you will conclude 
we are happy. By-the-bye, what a delightful poem, 
is Southey's ' Musings on a Landscape of Gaspar 
Poussin.' I love it alm.ost better than his ' Hymn to 
the Penates.' . . ." 

Indeed, during Coleridge's stay there he was in 
constant correspondence with Cottle, and arranged for 
the publication of a second edition of his poems. The 
volume contains several contributions added by his 
friends Lamb and Lloyd. Some of the pieces in the 
first edition were discarded and new ones inserted. 


To use Coleridge's own words to Cottle, he intended 
to admit nothing to the new volume but the "choicest 

During the year 1797 Coleridge published in a Bristol 
journal a poem on the death of Burns. This effort 
resulted in a handsome local contribution towards the 
fund for the support of the Scottish poet's family. 

On October 2nd, 1798, Mr. Davy (afterwards the 
famous Sir Humphry) of whom mention has already 
been made came up from Cornwall to take charge of 
the Pneumatic Institute in Dowry Square, Bristol, 
started by the well-known Dr. Beddoes, with whom 
Coleridge and Southey were on terms of close friend- 
ship. The institute was opened in 1799. The physicians 
in attendance were Beddoes and Roget, the latter 
achieving distinction later in life by his celebrated and 
indispensable work to literary men, the Thesaurus of 
English Words and Phrases. 

Though the Dowry Square venture failed to achieve 
the object for which it was founded, it will ever be 
memorable for fostering the genius of the greatest 
chemist of his age. It was during his superintendence 
of the institute that Davy discovered the properties of 
nitrous oxide, to the exuberant delight of Southey. 
Dr. Beddoes, who won the esteem of all who came into 
contact with him, died in 1808. Among tributes to his 
worth, Davy said: "He had talents which would have 
raised him to the highest pinnacle of philosophical 
eminence if they had been applied with discretion." 

In their anxiety to be near Dr. Beddoes, the brothers 
Thomas and Josiah Wedgwood came to Bristol, the 
former settlmg down at Cornwallis House, Clifton, and the 
latter joining his brother John at Cote House, Westbury- 


on-Trym. Thomas Wedgwood generously contributed 
;£'i,ooo to assist in the estabhshment of the Pneumatic 
Institute. Apart from the fact that he was the son of 
Josiah Wedgwood, potter, of Etruria, Thomas Wedg- 
wood's connection with so many famous men, and the 
circumstance that he was the earhest discoverer of the 
art of photography, will keep his memory green. 

Dr. Beddoes's fame is somewhat overshadowed by 
the achievements of his eccentric but highly-gifted son 
the poet Thomas Lovell Beddoes. Though not a poet 
to be compared with Chatterton, yet no history of 
literature would be complete without the inclusion of 
the younger Beddoes's name and work. He was born 
at 3 Rodney Place, Clifton, on July 20th, 1803. As 
the poet of death, revealed in his Bride's Tragedy and 
Death's Jest-Book, morbidity of a unique kind is the 
keynote of his poetry. Yet scintillating from his verse 
are flashes of the fitful splendour of the northern lights, 
strangely beautiful and arresting and of great power. 

There is, too, in his poems lyrical faculty of a very 
high order. These characteristics account for the chorus 
of praise which greeted their arrival. In addition to all 
this, the younger Beddoes was a consummate literary 
craftsman. No less an authority than Mr. Edmund 
Gosse has said that some of his poems are " marvellously 
clever tours de force.'" Mr. George Saintsbury also adds 
his tribute when he says that these poems " contain 
passages of most exquisite fancy and music, such as 
since the seventeenth century none but Blake and 
Coleridge had given." Beddoes was one of the earliest 
to recognise the genius of Shelley. 

Thomas Lovell Beddoes bore a striking resemblance 
in appearance to Keats. Browning once said with 


reference to his poetry : " If I were Professor of Poetry, 
my first lecture at the University should be on ' Beddoes, 
a forgotten Oxford poet ' " ; while Mr, Swinburne has 
said, too, that '" he had a noble instinct for poetry." 

In the course of a visit to Dr. John Prior Estlin, 
Unitarian Minister and father of John Bishop Estlin, 
the great ophthalmic specialist of his day, in 1797 
Mrs. Barbauld, the famous writer of the poem Life, 
which has won her an immortal place in English 
literature, mentioned, with reference to the elder Beddoes, 
in writing to a friend : '* I have seen Dr. Beddoes. He 
is a very pleasant man. His favourite prescription to 
ladies is the inhaling of the breath of cows ; and he does 
not, like the German doctors, send the ladies to the 
cow-house. The cows are to be brought into the ladies' 
chamber, where they are to stand all night with their 
heads within the curtains." It was during this visit 
that Coleridge, who admired Mrs. Barbauld's writing, 
walked up from Nether Stowey for no other purpose 
than that of meeting her. Continuing, Mrs. Barbauld 
wrote : " We are here very comfortable with our friend, 
Mr. Estlin, who, like some other persons that I know, 
has the happy art of making his friends feel entirely at 
home with him." 

Dr. Estlin, who kept one of Bristol's famous schools 
on St. Michael's Hill, was for years a helpful and true 
friend to Coleridge. An extremely interesting collection 
of his (Coleridge's) letters to Dr. Estlin has quite recently 
been bequeathed to the city by the late Miss Estlin, 
daughter of the famous surgeon, John Bishop Estlin, 
and friend of the more famous Dr. James Martineau. 
These letters formed the series edited by Mr. Henry 
Bright, and were contributed to the privately - printed 


volume of the Philobiblon Society. With them, too, was 
bequeathed a lock of Coleridge's hair. 

At the close of 1797 Coleridge received an invitation 
to preach at Shrewsbury as a candidate for the pastorship 
of the local Unitarian Chapel. He was tempted to 
accept by reason of the salary of ;^i5o per annum 
attached to it. On the second Sunday of 1798, there- 
fore, he preached, " with much acceptance," to the 
congregation there. Among his listeners on that day 
was the famous and brilliant essayist, William Hazlitt, 
then but a youth. Living some ten miles from the 
chapel, he rose at daybreak to hear the new candidate 
preach, and his eloquent description of Coleridge is 
imperishable. Its opening lines are as follows : " When 
I got there the organ was playing the looth Psalm ; 
and w^hen it was done, Mr. Coleridge rose and gave out 
his text, ' And he went up into the mountain to pray. 
Himself, alone.'' As he gave out this text his voice ' rose 
like a steam of rich distilled perfumes ' ; and when he 
came to the last two words, which he pronounced loud, 
deep, and distinct, it seemed to me, who was then young, 
as if the sounds had echoed from the bottom of the 
human heart, and as if that prayer might have floated 
in solemn silence through the universe. ..." 

To that youthful listener Coleridge's oratory was 
indeed the " music of the spheres." 

Hazhtt proceeded to describe Coleridge's personal 
appearance: "His complexion was at that time clear, and 
even bright — 'As are the children of yon azure sheen.' 
His forehead was broad and high, light as if built of ivory, 
with large projecting eyebrows, and his eyes rolling beneath 
them, like a sea with darkened lustre. 'A certain tender 
bloom his face o'erspread,' a purple tinge as we see it in 



the pale thoughtful complexions of the Spanish portrait- 
painters Murillo and Velasquez. His mouth was gross, 
voluptuous, open, eloquent ; his chin good-humoured and 
round ; but his nose, the rudder of the face, the index of 
the will, was small, feeble, nothing — like what he has 
done. . . . His hair (now, alas! grey) was then black 
and glossy as the raven's, and fell in smooth masses over 
his forehead. . , ." 

It was with the knowledge of this visit to Shrewsbury 
that the brothers T. and J. Wedgwood made Coleridge 
the offer of an annuity of £"150 to enable him to devote 
his glorious gifts to the study of poetry and philosophy. 
This nobly generous offer the poet accepted and posted off 
to Cote House to thank his benefactors. His note to his 
friend Thelwall, written on the January 30th, 1798, telling 
him of his good fortune (the Wedgwood annuity) was 
written in Cottle's shop. 

About this time Coleridge was, at the invitation of the 
proprietor of the Morning Post, contributing to its columns 
at the munificent salary of a guinea a week. Among 
those contributions was the splendid Ode to France. 
During the year 1798, whilst Coleridge was still at Nether 
Stowey with Wordsworth, came the rupture with Lloyd 
and the former's recourse to opium consequent on the 
pain to his feelings which that event produced. The 
exhilaration of his mental powers from the drug enabled 
Coleridge to produce, during that historic retirement at 
the lonely farmhouse between Porlock and Lynton, 
his magical and unsurpassable poetic fragment Kubla 
Khan. Lloyd's unfortunate habit of tittle-tattle at this 
time caused for a brief period a rupture between Coleridge 
and Lamb, an event which inspired Lamb to write his 
beautiful and pathetic lines, The Old Familiar Faces. 


It is not without interest that Lloyd's novel, Edmund 
Oliver, the principal cause of the estrangement between 
Coleridge and himself, was published by Cottle in 
1798. In May, too, of this notable year of 1798 Cottle 
spent a week with Coleridge and the Wordsworths at 
Alfoxden, and arrangements were definitely made for the 
publication of the Lyrical Ballads. On Cottle's return to 
Bristol he carried with him the MS. of The Ancient 
Mariner, the price of the copyright of the epoch-making 
ballad being fixed at thirty guineas. The Lyrical Ballads 
being ready by midsummer, Wordsworth, accompanied 
by his sister, set out for Bristol to place them in the 
hands of Cottle, the travellers visiting on their devious way 
the Wye Valley, which inspired the justly-celebrated 
poem, Lines written above Tintern Abbey. Wordsworth 
himself has told the world how he wrote it : " No poem 
of mine was composed under circumstances more pleasant 
for me to remember than this. I began it on leaving 
Tintern, after crossing the Wye, and concluded it just as 
I was entering Bristol in the evening after a ramble of 
four or five days with my sister. Not a line of it was 
altered, and not any part of it written down till I reached 
Bristol." This poem was committed to paper in Cottle's 
parlour. Tennyson, who greatly admired Wordsworth's 
poetry, said : " I have a profound admiration for ' Tintern 
Abbey,'" and instanced in that poem the beautiful line — 

" Whose dwelling is the light of setting suns," 

as being of exceptional merit. In this parlour of Cottle's, 
too, Coleridge wrote part of his Religious Musings. 

In Bristol Wordsworth and his sister stayed for some 
weeks, from July to September, for Wordsworth was 
desirous of being near the printer whilst his Lyrical 


Ballads were passing through the press. It was during 
this visit that James Tobin, brother of the dramatist, to 
whom Cottle had shown the MS. of We are Seven, in 
the opening lines of which Wordsworth had "hitched" 
him in as "dear brother Jim," came and implored 
Wordsworth to leave it out. 

" You must cancel it," he said, " for if published it 
will make you everlastingly ridiculous." 

"Nay," was Wordsworth's calm reply; "that shall 
take its chance." 

Though the edition of the Lyrical Ballads consisted of 
only 500 copies, such was the severity of the reviews and 
so few the sales that the largest proportion of the volumes 
passed into the hands of a London bookseller named 
Arch. The edition has since become extremely rare and 

Coleridge joined the Wordsworths in Bristol, and 
arranged for their German tour. A few days afterwards 
the party was at Yarmouth en route for Germany. 

On the eve of their departure the Lyrical Ballads 
were published. Regarding this event, the travellers 
received in their absence the report from Mrs. Coleridge 
that " the Lyrical Ballads are not liked at all by any 
one." There were, however, two w4io differed greatly in 
opinion with the " any," for De Quincey said of them : 
"I found in these poems 'the ray of a new morning,' 
an absolute revelation of untrodden worlds teeming with 
power and beauty as yet unsuspected amongst men." This 
opinion was shared by Christopher North, of Blackii'ood. 
Needless to say, subsequent writers have confirmed the 
discernment and judgment of De Quincey and North. 

In July of 1799 the literary tourists returned to 
England — Coleridge to Stowey and the Wordsworths to 


(From a Drawing by Hancock, 1789.) 


friends at Sockburn. Whilst the former was at Stowey 
Southey, who had been visiting in Devon, came up with 
his wife, and spent two or three weeks with him there. 
After a brief visit to his old home at Ottery St. Mary, 
Coleridge joined Wordsworth, and together they went on 
to the Lakes. By Christmas Wordsworth had decided to 
settle at Grasmere, and had taken up his abode with his 
sister at the now famous " Dove Cottage." Thence in the 
early part of 1800 he was busy arranging with Biggs and 
Cottle to publish a second edition of the Lyrical Ballads 
in two volumes, with respect to which he wrote the 
following letter to Davy, at the Pneumatic Institution, 
Dowry Square, Bristol : — 

" Grasmere, near Ambleside, 

"Tuesday, 28th July (1800). 

" Dear Sir, — So I venture to address you though I 
have not the happiness of being personally known to 
you. You would greatly oblige me by looking over the 
enclosed poems and correcting anything you find amiss 
in the punctuation a business in which I am ashamed to 
say I am no adept. I was unwilling to print from the 
MSS. which Coleridge left in your hands, because as I 
had not looked them over I was afraid that some lines 
might be omitted or mistranscribed. I write to request 
that you would have the goodness to look over the proof 
sheets of the second volume before they are finally struck 
off. In future I mean to send the MSS. to Biggs and 
Cottle with a request that along with the proof sheets 
they may be sent to you. ... In order that no time may 
be lost I have sent off this letter which shall be followed 
by others every post-day, viz: three times a week till the 
whole is completed. You will be so good as to put the 

7 A 


enclosed poems into Mr. Bij:^f^s hands as soon as you 

have looked them over in order that the printing may 

be commenced immediately. The preface for the first 

vol: shall be sent in a few days. Remember me most 

affectionately to Tobin ['dear brother Jim' of 'We are 

Seven '] . I need not say how happy I should be to see 

you both in my little cabin. I remain with great respect 

and kind feelings 

" Yours sincerely 

" W. Wordsworth." 

Writing later to Biggs on September 15th, 1800, he 
says : — 

" Dear Sir, — It is my particular request that, if no 
part of the poem of Christabel is already printed off, 
the poems which I now send should be inserted before 
Christabel. This I wish to be done even if the press 
for Christabel be composed. I had no notion that the 
printing of Christabel would be begun till you received 
further intelligence from Mr. Coleridge or I should have 
sent these poems before. The preface shall certainly be 
sent off in four days at furthest. 

" I am, dear Sir 

"Your most obed*. serv'. 

" W. Wordsworth." 

At the time of sending the above letters Coleridge 
was constantly with the Wordsworths, and his assistance 
and advice were rendered to Wordsworth in every possible 
way in the preparation of this second edition of the 
Lyrical Ballads. Dorothy notes in her "Journal": 
" Sept. 14th, 1800 — Coleridge came in. Oct. 4th — 


Exceedingly delighted with second part of ' Christabel.' 
Oct. 5th — Coleridge read ' Christabel ' a second time ; we 
had increasing pleasure." His own poems in this second 
edition Coleridge most carefully revised, for no fewer 
than seventy-one alterations of the Ancient Mariner, 
were made, in addition to which several stanzas were 
omitted ; moreover, a new one was added, and it distinctly 
improved that wonderful poem. 

In a letter written on October gth, 1800, to Coleridge, 
Charles Lamb described a solemn call of condolence 
he had paid, accompanied by George Dyer, to Joseph 
Cottle on the death of his brother Amos : " For 
some time after our entrance, nobody spake till George 
modestly put in a question, whether ' Alfred ' was likely 
to sell. This was Lethe to Cottle, and his poor face, 
wet with tears, and his kind eye brightened up in a 
moment. Now I felt it was my cue to speak. I had 
to thank him for a present of a magnificent copy, and 
had promised to send him my remarks, — the least thing 
I could do ; so I ventured to suggest, that I perceived 
a considerable improvement he had made in his first 
book since the state in which he first read it to me. 
Joseph, who till now had sat with his knees cowering in 
by the fireplace, wheeled about, and, with great difficulty 
of body shifted the same round to the corner of a table 
where I was sitting, and first stationing one thigh over 
the other, v*'hich is his sedentary mood, and placidly 
fixing his benevolent face right against mine, waited my 
observations. ... I could not say an unkind thing of 
* Alfred.' ... At that moment I could perceive that 
Cottle had forgot his brother was so lately become a 
blessed spirit. In the language of mathematicians, the 
author was as 9, the brother as i." 


Not the least interesting link of our city with Lamb 
was J. M. Gutch, a Bristol journalist who achieved a 
great provincial reputation. His letters over the signa- 
ture of "Cosmos" earned for him the title of "The 
Bristol Junius." In the early years of the last century 
he was proprietor of Felix Farley's Journal. At Christ's 
Hospital Lamb and Coleridge were his school-fellows. 

Writing to Coleridge at the close of 1800, Lamb 
says : " Soon after I wrote to you last, an offer was 
made me by Gutch (you must remember him, at Christ's; 
you saw him, slightly, one day with Thomson at our house), 
to come and lodge with him, at his house in Southampton 
Buildings, Chancery Lane, This was a very comfortable 
offer to me, the rooms being at a reasonable rent, and 
including the use of an old servant, besides being 
infinitely preferable to ordinary lodgings in our case, as 
you must perceive. As Gutch knew all our story and 
the perpetual liability to a recurrence in my sister's 
disorder, probably to the end of her life, I certainly 
think the offer very generous and very friendly. I have 
got three rooms (including servant) under £"34 a 3-ear, 
Here I soon found myself at home ; and here, in six 
weeks after, Mary was well enough to join me. So we 
are once more settled. ..." 

For the next two or three years Coleridge lived in 
the vicinity of the Wordsworths, with occasional 
excursions to London and the West. During one of 
these to Stowey in 1803, on the forward journey he 
looked in on Wedgwood and Southe}' at Bristol, and 
spent a few days with the latter ; and after a prolonged 
sojourn in Malta he again revisited Bristol in 1807, where 
his wife and family had preceded him. From Bristol 
they all proceeded in June to Poole's house at Nether 


Stowey. It was during this visit that De Quincey, who 
had long paid intellectual homage to Coleridge, on 
arriving at the Hotwells, learned that Coleridge was at 
Poole's, and posted off to find him, bearing a letter 
of introduction from Cottle. The particulars of his 
search and meeting with Coleridge are graphically 
related by De Quincey, and will be found in his works. 
How profoundly he was impressed wath Coleridge's 
genius can be measured somewhat by the noble and 
delicate generosity which, through Cottle, he offered to 
the idol of his admiration on learning that he was in 
financial straits. This was no less than the anonymous 
gift of ;^50o, which Cottle prudently persuaded him to 
reduce to ;£'300. Coleridge's receipt for that amount 
was as follows : — 

"November 12th, 1807. — Received from Mr. Joseph 
Cottle, the sum of three hundred pounds, presented to me, 
through him, by an unknown friend. 

" S. T. Coleridge. 

The record of De Ouincey's brief sta}' in Bristol is 
contained in a letter to his sister, written on September 
15th of that year. In the course of this epistle he 
mentioned that Hartley Coleridge dined with him a few 
days before — "And I gained his special favour, I believe, 
by taking him — at the risk of our respective necks — 
through every dell and tangled path of Leigh Wood." 

Whilst in Bristol, to relieve the mind of Coleridge 
(who was due in London to deliver a course of lectures 
at the Royal Institution at Davy's earnest request), 
De Quincey kindly took upon himself the duty of 
accompanying Coleridge's family to the Lakes to pay 


a visit to Wordsworth and Southey — a visit that he 
(De Quincey) had also contemplated. 

This was not the only occasion on which De Quincey 
was in Bristol, for a few years later, in 1814, he came 
again to the city, on the occasion of his visit to Hannah 
More at W'rington. De Quincey's mother so greatly 
admired Hannah More that she removed to the neigh- 
bourhood of Barley Wood to be near her. In his Murder 
Considered as One of the Fine Arts De Quince}' has made 
classic the Ruscombe murders committed in Bristol in 

From 1S07 to 1813 Coleridge divided his time between 
the Lakes and London, and some of his most brilliant 
lectures were given to select audiences (which included 
Byron and Rogers) in the metropolis. But in October, 
1813, he once more returned Bristol-wards by the coach, 
having arranged to lecture at the " White Lion " (now 
the Grand Hotel, Broad Street). Whilst travelling down 
he discovered that a fellow-passenger was the sister of a 
particular friend, and was on her way to North Wales. 
Moved by one of his too frequent impulsive fits, nothing 
would do but that he must escort the lady to her destina- 
tion, with the result that he arrived at Bristol two or 
three days behind time. On this occasion he was the 
guest of an old friend, Josiah Wade, at 2 Queen Square. 

Coleridge's non-arrival necessarily postponed the first 
of his lectures, which was not delivered until October 
28th, when, after some difficulty, his attendance was 
secured and he was deposited on the platform just one 
hour (Cottle tells us) " after all the company had im- 
patiently awaited him." In spite of their inauspicious 
commencement, the lectures gave great satisfaction. The 
famous painter, C. R. Leslie, then an Academy student, 


and visiting some Bristol friends, heard three of them. 
He was much struck, and wrote that the discourses gave 
him "a much more distinct and satisfactory view of the 
nature and ends of poetry and of painting than I ever had 
before." It was during this, his last visit, that Coleridge's 
friends in Bristol began to notice something unusual and 
strange about his looks and deportment, due to the 
excessive use of opium, which was the bane of his 
existence. Incredible as it may seem, his consumption of 
that destructive drug was from " two quarts a week to a 
pint a day ! " 

Whilst in Bristol Southey wrote to Cottle, deprecating 
monetary assistance to Coleridge, which indicated too 
clearly the terrible hold the drug habit had gained over 
the latter. In the course of his letter Southey said : 
'' This too I ought to say, that all the medical men to 
whom Coleridge has made his confession, have uniformly 
ascribed the evil, not to bodily disease, but to indulgence. 
. . . He has sources of direct emolument open to him 
in the Courier and in the Eclectic Review. . . . His great 
object should be, to get out a play, and appropriate the 
whole produce to the support of his son Hartle}', at 
College. Three months' pleasurable exertion would affect 
this. Of such fit of industry I by no means despair; of 
anything more than fits, I am afraid I do." 

Coleridge was at this time so completely the victim to 
the habit of opium taking, which paralysed his marvellous 
intellectual power and enervated his body, that for months 
he was utterly incapable of mental exertion. His friend 
Wade, with whom he resided, endeavoured to wean him 
from the habit ; how successfully the following anecdote 
will show. Wade had engaged a deca}cd tradesman to 
attend Coleridge in his walks with a view to prevent his 


giving way to opium. But how easily did Coleridge 
circumvent this plan ! On one occasion as he and his 
attendant were passing along the Quay Coleridge noticed 
a druggist's shop (probably w^ell known to him). At the 
same moment, directing his companion's attention to a 
ship moored at some distance, he said, " I think that's an 
American." " Oh, no, I'm sure it's not," replied the man. 
" I think it is," replied Coleridge. " I wash you would step 
over and bring me particulars." The man did so. As soon 
as his back was turned Coleridge stepped into the shop, 
and had his portly bottle (which he always carried in his 
pocket) filled with opium. He quickly regained the spot 
where his attendant had left him. The man, having 
returned, began, " I told you, sir, it was not an American ; 
but I have learned all about her." "As I am mistaken, 
never mind the rest," said Coleridge, and walked on. 
His departure in September, 1814, on a visit to his 
friends the Morgans in Wilts, wath occasional letters of 
appeal to Cottle for pecuniary assistance, marked the 
close of this remarkable man's connection with Bristol. 

To return once more to Southey. In the year 1808, 
being on a visit to Bristol, he met the man of all others he 
most desired to meet, Walter Savage Landor. As Southey 
says in writing to a friend: "The onh' man living of 
whose praise I was ambitious, or whose censure would 
have humbled me. You will be curious to know who this 
can be. Savage Landor, the author of ' Gebir,' a poem 
which, unless you have heard me speak of it, you have 
probably never heard of at all. I never saw anyone more 
unlike myself in every prominent part of human character, 
nor any one who so cordially and instinctively agreed with 
me on so many of the most important subjects. I have 
often said before we met, that I would walk forty miles to 



see him, and having seen him, I would gladly walk four- 
score to see him again. He talked of Thalaba, and I 
told him of the series of mythological poems which I had 
planned, . . . and also told him for what reason they 
had been laid aside ; in plain English, that I could not 
afford to write them. Landor's reply was, 'Go on with 
them, and I will pay for printing them, as many as you 
will write, and as many copies as you please.' " (Surely 
an unparalleled princely act of generosity from one 
literary man to another). 

Is it to be wondered at that henceforth Southey took 
Landor to his heart of hearts ? That this feeling was 
reciprocated Landor has given ample proof. Each 
admired the inherent nobility of character in the other. 
Landor wrote of Southey: — 

" No firmer breast than thine hath Heaven 

To poet, sage, or hero given ; 
No heart more tender, none more just 

To that He largely placed in trust; 
Therefore shalt thou, whatever date 
Of years be thine, with soul elate 
Rise up before the Eternal throne. 
And hear, in God's own voice, ' Well done.' " 

In another poem on the death of Southey he says : — 

" ' I do not ask,' 
Said I, ' about your happiness : I see 
The same serenity as when we walk'd 
Along the downs of Clifton.' " 

Years but cemented their friendship. Writing of their 
first meeting, Landor in a poem to the Rev. Cuthbert 
Southey says : — 

" Twelve years had past, when upon Avon's cliff, 
Hard by his birthjjlace, first our hands were join'd ; 
After three more he visited my home. 
Along Llanthony's ruin'd aisles we walk'd. ..." 


Rejoicing at Southey's appointment to the Laureateship 
in 1813 he wrote : — 

" In happy hour doth he receive 
The laurel, meed of famous bards of yore, 
Which Dryden and diviner Spenser wore — 
In happy hour; and well may he rejoice, 
Whose earliest task must be 
To raise the exultant hymn for victory." 

In the year 1813 was published Southey's immortal 
Life of Nelson. It was Southey's congenial task to 
superintend the publishing of Landor's famous Imaginary 
Conversations, and it was in Landor's company that 
for the last time, in the year 1836, he revisited his 
beloved native city, its glorious Downs, and all the old 
familiar scenes of his boyhood. His early publisher, the 
worthy Cottle, gladly welcomed and entertained him. It 
was when at the flood-tide of his career, at the time 
when he was Poet Laureate and writing articles for The 
Quarterly at ;£"ioo each, and when he had been more 
than once offered and had refused the blue ribbon of 
English journalism, no less than the editorship of Tlic 
Times with a salary of /2,ooo a year, and when foreign 
societies were showering distinctions upon him — such was 
the time he chose, when it would have been but too 
human to forget, to write that memorable letter acknow- 
ledging his deep sense of indebtedness to Cottle, his early 
and lifelong friend, for ha\ing supplied him with the 
money to buy his wedding ring and licence. The letter 
runs as follows : " Do you suppose, Cottle, that I have 
forgotten those true and most essential acts of friendship 
which you showed me when I stood most in need of 
them ? Your house was my home when I had no other. 
The very money with which I bought my wedding-ring 


and paid my marriage-fees, was supplied by you. It was 
with your sisters I left Edith during my six months' 
absence, and for the six months after my return it was 
from you that I received, week by week, the little on which 
we lived, till I was enabled to live by other means. . . . 
You are in the habit of preserving your letters, and if you 
were not, I would entreat you to preserve this that it might 
be seen hereafter. Sure I am, that there never was a 
more generous, tender heart than yours, and }ou will 
believe me when I add, that there does not live that man 
upon earth whom I remember with more gratitude and 
more affection. My head throbs and my eyes burn with 
these recollections. Good-night ! my dear old friend and 
benefactor. . . ." Surely such a letter tells us more 
than volumes what manner of man Southey was. Apart 
from Scott, modern letters have given us few nobler men 
than the manly, loyal and tender-hearted Southey. Allan 
Cunningham said of him, " Southey is one of the very 
noblest and purest characters in the world." 

It may be that in some minds he suffers a total eclipse 
from the literary standpoint compared to his great con- 
temporary Coleridge, yet on the other hand Coleridge 
is as truly eclipsed by Southey ; for Coleridge, though 
a giant in intellect, had morally the backbone of 
a jelly-fish. To visit the house at Bedminster where his 
grandmother lived, the church which with his mother 
and her he attended fifty years before, his aunt's house 
in College Green, not forgetting in their pilgrimage the 
house where he was born in Wine Street, was an un- 
speakable delight to Southey. Nothing was overlooked 
that was endeared to his memory by happy bygone years. 
As he darted down an alley, or showed them a short cut 
or byway, he would tell his companions he had not trod 


them since his schooldays. " Ah ! " said Landor, turning 
to him as they stumbled over some workmen in passing 
College Green, " workmen some day may be busy on this 
very spot putting up your statue, but it will be twenty 
years hence." " Well," replied Southey, " if ever I have 
one I would wish it to be here." (This wish has yet to 
be fulfilled.) 

Landor, whose Imaginary Conversations is one of the 
choicest of English classics, predicted his own niche in 
the temple of fame in the following words : " I shall dine 
late, but the dining-room will be well lighted, the guests 
few and select." Dickens has presented the world with 
a picture of this erratic, choleric, but withal lovable and 
great personality, in his " Mr. Boythorn " in Bleak House. 

The nobility of Landor's friendship with Southey is 
evidenced in the last letter he wrote to him : " If any 
man living is ardent for 3'our welfare, I am; whose few and 
almost worthless merits your generous heart has always 
over-valued, and whose infinite and great faults it has 
been too ready to overlook. I will write to you often 
now that I learn I may do it inoffensively; well remember- 
ing that among the names you have exalted is Walter 
Landor." To the bust of Southey executed by his 
distinguished fellow-citizen, E. H. Baily, to commemorate 
his memory, and placed in Bristol Cathedral, Landor 
contributed the sum of ;^20. 

Few men have pursued the career of letters with such 
devotion as Southey, and fewer still have so generously 
recognised the talent of their contemporaries as he. 
The practical interest he took in Kirke White is well 
known, and his self-sacrificing efforts on behalf of 
Chatterton's sister, Mrs. Newton, in bringing out (by 
the aid of Cottle) an edition of Chatterton's works in 1803, 



which resulted in a clear profit of ;r300, also deserves 
honourable mention. Being of such a disposition, is it 
to be wondered at that the little Yorkshire governess, 
Charlotte Bronte, whose genius has placed her securely 
among the half-dozen of great English novelists, being 
in sore need of a word of encouragement at the outset 
of her career, dropped, full of hopes and fears, her packet 
of MS. into the little post office at Haworth, addressed 
to Robert Southey, asking him the favour of his judgment 
on it. For weeks she vainly waited for a reply. At 
length it came, and the reason of the delay was that 
he had been absent from home. It was a letter that 
raised no false hopes, but was full of temperate and kind 
criticism and admirable advice. Its recipient years 
afterwards acknowledged its justice. " Mr. Southey's 
letter," said Charlotte Bronte, " was kind and admirable, 
a little stringent, but it did me good." She wrote again : 
"I had not ventured to hope for such a reply; so con- 
siderate in its tone, so noble in its spirit." To which 
Southey replied, expressing the hope that she would 
visit him at the Lakes. " You would then think of me 
afterwards with the more goodwill, because you would 
perceive that there is neither severity nor moroseness in 
the state of mind to which years and observation have 
brought me. . . . And now, madam, God bless you. 
Farewell, and believe me to be your sincere friend, 
Robert Southey." 

Thus through Southey, Bristol is associated with the 
author of Jane Eyre, one of the supreme novels of the 
world. During his long and honourable career as a 
man of letters, few were those of distinction who were 
unknown to him. At the Lakes he met and visited the 
unfortunate Shelley. Carlyle too he knew, and won his 


esteem. Amongst his truest friends he numbered Sir 
Walter Scott, who rejected the offer of the Laureateship 
in Southey's favour. Truly, as John Addington Symonds 
remarked to Robert Louis Stevenson, there must have 
been something essentially good about Southey to have 
won the admiration of two such opposite personalities as 
Landor and Carlyle. 

Thackeray too, in his Four Georges, after referring to 
Sir Walter Scott, says: "I will take another man of 
letters, whose life I admire even more, — an English 
worthy, doing his duty for fifty noble years of labour, 
day by day storing up learning, day by day working for 
scant wages, most charitable out of his small means, 
bravely faithful to the calling which he had chosen, 
refusing to turn from his path, for popular praise or prince's 
favour : — I mean Robert Southey. ... I hope his life 
will not be forgotten, for it is sublime in its simplicity, 
its energy, its honour, its affection." 

Yet, in spite of his long and honourable servitude to 
letters, it is but a slender store, especially of verse, which 
will carry Southey down the stream of time as one of the 
immortals. Much as he might have otherwise desired, it 
is not by his Joaji of A re, his Madoc, or Thalaba 
that he will be remembered, but by his prose. His best 
passport to fame he won by his peerless biography of 
Nelson, which is, and will continue to be, an English 
classic — a work which his friend Sir Humphry Davy 
described as " an immortal monument raised by genius 
to valour." Speaking of his Life of Wcdcy, Coleridge 
said : " My favourite of my library, among many 
favourites, the book I can read for the twentieth time, 
when I can read nothing else at all." 

Professor Edward Dowden, one of our foremost 


critics, has said of Southey's prose: "He is never dull, 
he affects neither the trick of stateliness nor that of 
careless ease; he does not seek out curiosities of refine- 
ment, nor caress dehcate affectations. Because his style 
is natural it is inimitable, and the only way to write like 
Southey is to write well." 

Few probably of the present generation have read The 
Doctor, a book teeming with mirth, learning, and wisdom. 
"The wit and humour of The Doctor,'" says Edgar Allan 
Poe, "have seldom been equalled. We cannot think 
Southey wrote it." 

In addition to these works he has given the world 
a nursery classic, The Three Bears, which will charm 
countless children yet unborn. 

The lifelong friendship of Southey with Landor has 
already been adverted to. In those sad and pathetic 
closing years of his life, when the light of reason had 
fled, with almost his latest breath he was heard to repeat 
fondly to himself the name of " Landor, ay Landor." 

What Landor himself felt at the death of Southey is 
best epitomised in the following couplet : — 

" Southey, my friend of forty years, is gone, 
And, shattered by the fall, I stand alone." 

Cottle, the humble link with these world-famous men, 
retired from business a year or two after the publication 
of the Lyrical Ballads, and died eventually at his residence, 
Firfield House, Upper Knowle, Bristol, in the year 1853. 

CHAPTER 11. {continued). 



Sir Nathaniel Wraxall — Maria Edgeworth ; Description of 
her life in Clifton — Lady Hesketh — Mrs. Draper. 

WRITER who attained considerable celebrity in 
the closing years of the eighteenth century as 
the Greville of his day was Sir Nathaniel 
William Wraxall, the son of a Bristol merchant, born 
in 1751 on the south side of Queen Square. 

His Historical Memoirs of My Own Time from 1772 
to 1784 is steeped in the ver}^ atmosphere of that period. 
It created a storm of hostile criticism, and the first 
edition of it was sold out in a month. Among its critics 
have been Croker, Mackintosh, and Macaulay, who 
vigorously attacked the truth of its statements. The 
Edinburgh Review of the time contained the following 
caustic epigram, said to have been written by George 
Coleman : — 

" Men, measures, scenes, and facts all. 
Misquoting, misstating. 
Misplacing, misdating. 
Here 'lies' Sir Nathaniel Wraxall." 



Notwithstanding this powerful onslaught, Wraxall replied 
with considerable success to his critics' charges. Indeed, 
Sir George Osborn, for fifty years equerry to George III. 
and a disinterested onlooker, declared : " I pledge my name 
that I personally know nine parts out of ten of your 
anecdotes to be perfectly correct " ; whilst Sir Archibald 
Alison, the historian, writing in Blackwood, said nothing 
but truth could produce so portentous an alliance as that 
between the Quarterly and the Edinhiir^Ji. In brief, time 
has signally falsified the prediction of his critics that 
the work would be rapidly forgotten. In addition to 
this celebrated work he wrote others. He died at Dover 
in his 8ist year. 

Maria Edgeworth came to Clifton in the year 1793. 
She was charmed with the place, her residence being at 
Prince's Buildings. Writing to her uncle, she says : 
"We live just the same life that we used to do at 
Edgeworthstown. . . . All the Phantasmas I had 
conjured up to frighten myself, vanished after I had 
been here a week. . . . We live very near the Downs, 
where we have almost every day charming walks, 
and all the children go bounding about over hill and 
dale along with us. . . . My father has got a transfer 
of a ticket for the Bristol Library, which is an 
extremely fine one, and what makes it appear ten times 
finer is that it is very difficult for strangers to get into. 
From thence he can get almost any book for us when 
he pleases, except a few of the most scarce, which are, by 
the laws of the library, immovable. No ladies go to 
the librar}^ ; but Mr. Johnes, the librarian, is very civil, 
and my mother went to his rooms and saw the beautiful 
prints in Boy dell's Shakespeare." 

Again, in a letter written to her cousin on March 9th, 


1792, she writes : " We went the other day to see the 
collection of natural curiosities at a Mr. Broderip's (the 
Bristol naturalist), which entertained us very much. My 
father observed he had but very few butterflies, and he 
said : ' No, sir ; a circumstance which happened to me 
some time ago determined me never to collect any more 
butterflies. I caught a most beautiful butterfly, thought 
I had killed it, and ran a pin through its body to fasten 
it to a cork. A fortnight afterwards I happened to look 
in the box where I had left it, and saw it writhing in 
agony. Since that time I have never destroyed another.' 
Mrs. Yearsley, the milkwoman, whose poems I daresay 
my aunt has seen, lives near us at Clifton. We have 
never seen her, and probably never shall ; for my father 
is so indignant against her for her ingratitude to her 
benefactress, Miss Hannah More, that he thinks she 
deserves to be treated with neglect." 

Writing later to another correspondent, she says : 
" My uncle has just been with us for three weeks, and 
in that time filled five quires of paper with dried plants 
from the neighbouring rocks. He says there is at Clifton 
the richest harvest for botanists. How I wish you were 
here to reap it. There is a species of cistus which grows 
at St. Vincent's Rock which is not, I am told, to be found 
in any other part of England." Her association with 
Clifton was later rendered still more close from the 
interesting fact that her sister, Anna, became the wife of 
the famous Dr. Beddoes, the patron and friend of Sir 
Humphry Davy. In the year 1799 a return visit was 
made to Clifton by the Edgeworths. The life of this 
charming woman, who numbered Sir Walter Scott 
amongst her friends, has been added to the famous 
English Men of Letters Series. 


In the year 1799 was living at Clifton Cowper's 
charming friend, the beautiful Lady Hesketh, one of 
the most fascinating women of her time. Writing in 
September to a friend, she says : " I left Bath last 
Thursday, and came to this most charming place, Clifton 
Hill, where I design to pass some time, and which is 
just now in great beauty, the woods which crown these 
charming rocks being as green as in June, and the 
verdure of the whole country intense ! I think you 
would be greatly charmed and delighted could you see 
the sweet, sublime, yet peaceful views which I enjoy. 
Nature has been so profuse in her bounties in the dis- 
position of the ground and the happy combination of 
wood, water, rocks, etc., that it is always preferable to 
any other place." From Clifton she indited many charm- 
ing letters to Cowper, and her vivacity of disposition did 
much to enliven his habitual melancholy. " A thousand 
times," Cowper writes to her on October 12th, 1785, 
" have I recollected a thousand scenes in which our two 
selves have formed the whole of the drama with the 
greatest pleasure. ... I have laughed with you at the 
Arabian Nights, which afforded us, as you well know, a 
fund of merriment that deserves never to be forgot." 
She died in 1807, and was buried in Bristol Cathedral. 

Within this same edifice lies beneath a plain stone 
all that was mortal of her who inspired Sterne's Letters 
to Eliza — Mrs. Draper. She died at Clifton August 3rd, 
1778, aged 35. 

CHAPTER II. [coniinued). 


]uhn Kenyon and the Browniiii^s — Shelley — Lady Xairnc — 
Crahhc — Longfelloiv and Dickens — Mary Carpenter and 
Lady Byron — Tennyson — T. E. Brown — Sir Charles 
Elton and C. L Elton — Mrs. Thrale — John 
Sterling and Carlyle — Ruskin — The Symondses — 
Poem by J. A. Symonds the younger — Dean ChnrcJi — 
Walter Bagehot — F. D. Maurice — Rev. R. H. Barhain 
— Joseph Sortain and Thackeray — Henry Hallam—- 
Dr. James Martineau : his personality — Mary Mitford — 
Crabb Robinson — William Chatterton Dix — Sir John 
Bowring — The Sisters Winkworth — Francis Fry — 
Vincent Stuckey Lean — J . S. Harford — Judge O'Connor 
Morris — Alfred Ainger. 

'OT the least noted of the many hterary men and 
women who have hnked their names with Bristol 
and added lustre to its civic annals are those 
who forgathered here during the eventful years of the 
nineteenth century. 

One of the earliest of these was John Kenyon, whose 
name will go down to posterity, like Cottle's, by reason of 
his disinterested friendship with distinguished contem- 
poraries, rather than on account of his own claims to 
immortality. He was one of a gifted band of schoolboys 
who were at Seyer's School on St. Michael's Hill, known 



as " The Fort." Among his companions was Robert 
Browning's father. Kenyon was described by one who 
was with him there as "the richest and most generous boy 
amongst us." As the boy was so became the man, and his 
whole hfe through was associated with friendships of the 
most famous people of his day. From the various eulogies 
of those friends we clearly perceive the kind of man he 
was. Crabb Robinson, of Diary fame, who knew him 
well, said that he made "the happy happier," and that the 
pleasantest days of his life were connected with Kenyon. 
Landor was always at his best in Kenyon's company. 
Kenyon's cousin, Elizabeth Barrett, married Browning, 
and the devotion of the two poets to each other is 
told to a curious world in The Browning Letters. 
Kenyon was keenly interested on first meeting Browning 
to find that he was the son of his old schoolfellow at 
Seyer's. He and the elder Browning, when there, were 
passionately fond of the classics, and were fired with 
ambition to realise Homeric combats, and having obtained 
swords and shields, hacked away at each other right 
valiantly, spurring themselves to battle by insulting 
speeches culled from the original. Ken}on, after this 
meeting with Robert Browning, was ceaseless in shower- 
ing kindnesses on the son of his old schoolfellow. At his 
death, too, he bequeathed the Brownings a sum of ;^io,ooo, 
and to Southey nearly the like amount. 

In the years 1815 and 1816 Shelley was visiting Bristol; 
whilst in 1829 resided at Clifton the world-famous Scotch 
singer, Lady Nairne, the writer of The Land 0' the Leal, 
Caller Herrin\ The Lass 0' Gowrie, and scores of other 
well-known songs. It is thought that here she wrote 
her vigorous and touching ballad, Farewell to Edinburgh, 
and it was whilst at Clifton that she lost her fa\ourite 


146 Literary associations 

niece, Caroline Oliphant, who lies buried in Clifton 

To Clifton in 1831, a memorable year in Bristol's 
annals, came " nature's sternest painter, yet her best," 
the poet Crabbe, on a visit to his friends the Hoares. 
Writing from there he says : " I have to thank my 
friends for one of the most beautiful as well as 
comfortable rooms you could desire. I look from 
my window upon the x\von and its wooded and 
rocky bounds — the trees yet green. A vessel is sailing 
down, and here comes a steamer (Irish, I suppose). I 
have in view the end of the Cliff to the right, and on 
my left a wide and varied prospect over Bristol, as far 
as the eye can reach, and at present the novelty makes 
it very interesting. Clifton was always a favourite place 
with me. I have more strength and more spirits since 
my arrival at this place, and do not despair of giving a 
good account of my excursion on my return." 

It was during his stay here that the great Riots 
took place, writing of which he remarks : " Bristol, I 
suppose, never in the most turbulent times of old 
witnessed such outrage. Queen Square is but half 
standing, half is a smoking ruin." 

A not uninteresting link with Longfellow lies in the 
fact that at the close of his visit to England in 1842, 
when he stayed with Dickens, the latter accompanied 
him to Bristol, from which he embarked on the Great 
Western steamship. Apropos of Longfellow's departure, 
Dickens writes him : — 

" London, December 2gth, 1842. 

" My dear Longfellow, — I was but poorly received 
when I came home from Bristol that night, in consequence 



of my inability to report that I left you actually on board 
the Great Western, and that I had seen the chimney 
smoking. But I have got over this gradually, and I am 
again respected." 

When Southey and Cottle brought out in 1803 their 
edition of Chatterton's works for the benefit of his surviving 
sister Mrs. Newton, Longfellow, then a lad, was one of 
its first buyers, for he tells us that he acquired Chatter- 
ton's works with the very first earnings of his pen at 
a cost of fourteen dollars. Writing to his mother he 
expresses great pleasure at having secured them, and 
wishes he could send her copies of the poems. 

Through Mary Carpenter Bristol is linked with Lord 
Byron, for his wife was deeply interested in her social 
work, so much so that Lady Byron purchased the Red 
Lodge and transferred it to her to be used as a reforma- 
tory. Mary Carpenter grew much attached to Lady Byron, 
and was in a sense made her literary executor ; but having 
investigated the contents of the trunks committed to her 
care, full of all manner of documents, some of which were 
of a most compromising kind, poems and tradesmen's 
bills all jumbled together, she gave up the task in despair. 
Among the multifarious documents she discovered Byron's 
famous verses commencing — 

" Fare thee well ! and if for ever, 
Still for ever, fare thee well." 

which were written on the back of an unpaid butcher's 

Tennyson came to Clifton in the memorable year 
of the publication of his great poem In Memoriam, 
whilst on his honeymoon in the West. His brother 
Frederick was a frequent visitor here. Sydney Dobell 


also wintered in Clifton for many years at the close of 
his life. 

In the year 1875 the Rossetti family were evidently 
on a visit to Clifton, for writing to his mother on the 31st 
of August of that year Dante Gabriel says: "I got your 
dear letter from Clifton. ..." 

The Manx poet — T. E. Brown, author of Fo'c'sle Yarns 
— was long associated with our city, having been for over 
thirt}- years a master at Clifton College. There he was 
" wholly lovable and idolised by the boys." He died 
whilst on a visit to the school in the year 1897. The 
late W. E. Henley, the poet, wrote a fine sonnet to his 

A humbler singer in the person of Sir Charles Elton 
deserves mention. Born at Bristol, he was the only 
son of Sir Abraham Elton, of Clevedon Court. His 
Monody on the deplorable death of his two sons by 
drowning at Weston-super-Mare in 1819 evinces keen 
poetic sensibility. Landor could never read the touching 
couplet — 

" That night the little chamber where they lay 
Fast by our own, was silent and was still " — 

contained in it, without being moved to tears. • Mrs. 
Brookfield, whose fascinating volume of memories was 
published in the autumn of 1905, was Sir Charles Elton's 
youngest daughter, and was born at Clifton. She says : 
" I was one day bowling my hoop down the Royal (York) 
Crescent, when Mr. Landor appeared walking with his 
friend Southey. Southey was in an old-fashioned spencer, 
his hair tied behind in queue style with a black ribbon. 
I remember quite well the eagle eye and aquiline nose, and 
the excitement to me of meeting the author of Kchana in 


real life." Landor was a constant visitor at her father's 
house. Sir Charles Elton was an admirer of Charles 
Lamb, and his Epistle to Elia will be found in Lamb's 
Commonplace Book, published in 1904. 

Another member of this interesting family, born here 
in 1839 — Charles Isaac Elton — achieved distinction both 
in literature and law. In a long review of his posthumous 
work, William Shakespeare, his Family and Friends, the 
Times said : " It will probably rank along with the Diary 
of Master William Silence as one of the most original 
contributions made in recent years to the biography of 
Shakespeare." In regard to his knowledge of the law, 
he was considered the most erudite lawyer of his 
generation, and was indeed a mine of information on 
all subjects connected not only with the law but other 
matters as well. His mother was the sister of Sir 
Charles Elton, and his death occurred in 1900. 

In regard to prose writers, Bristol is associated with 
many distinguished men of letters, who have bequeathed 
no small share to England's noblest possession — her 
literature. For example, Bristol has an interesting 
personal link with the famous Doctor Johnson, for during 
the years 1820-1 Mrs. Piozzi (Thrale), to whom we are 
indebted for so many sidelights on the great doctor's 
character, lived at Clifton, chiefly at 36 Royal York 
Crescent. Writing from here, she says : " Dear Mrs. 
Willoughby will be glad to hear I am where I shall be 
on the sweet Downs." At the above address she died 
in the year 1821. 

In the Old Manor House, Clifton, resided in 1839 and 
1840 John Sterling, the early champion of Carlyle. In 
that first year of his stay at Clifton he contributed to 
Mill's Westminster Review his article on Carlyle. The 

8 A 


subject of it was moved intensely by the generous 
recognition of his work, and wrote as follows : — 

"What its effect on the public was I knew not, and 
know not ; but remember well, and may here be permitted 
to acknowledge, the deep silent joy, not of a weak or ignoble 
nature, which it gave to myself in my then mood and 
situation ; as it well might. The first generous human 
recognition, expressed with heroic emphasis, and clear 
conviction visible amid its fiery exaggeration, that one's 
poor battle in the world is not quite a mad and futile, that 
it is perhaps a worthy and manful one, which will come 
to something yet : this fact is a memorable one in every 
history; and for me Sterling, often enough the stiff 
gainsayer in our priwate communings, was the doer of 
this. The thought burnt in me like a lamp, for several 
days; lighting-up into a kind of heroic splendour the sad 
volcanic wrecks, abj-sses, and convulsions of said poor 
battle, and secretly I was ver}- grateful to my daring 
friend, and am still, and ought to be." A year or two 
after, in 1843, Carlyle spent a da}- or two in Clifton, 
and says in a letter to his wife : " The rocks of the 
Avon at Clifton excel all the things I have seen. Even 
I, the most determined anti - view hunter, find them 
worthy of a word." 

His friend Ruskin spent some weeks at Clifton with 
his parents, and writing in May, 1841, from A'cnice to a 
friend, he remarks: "I don't wonder at your admiring 
Clifton. It is certainly the finest piece of limestone 
scenery in the kingdom, except Cheddar, and Cheddar 
has no wood. Did you ever find out the Dingle running 
up through the cliffs on the south side of the river, 
opposite St. A'incent's? " [Nightingale \^alley.] "When 
the leaves are on, there are pieces of Ruysdael study of 


rock there, with the noble diff through the breaks of the 
fohage, quite intoxicating." 

To revert to Sterhng, we find him writing to his father 
from Portishead, whither he had gone from Chfton for an 
excursion, under date September, 1840: " Milnes" [Lord 
Houghton] "spent last Sunday with me at Clfton ; and 
was very amusing and cordial. It is impossible for those 
who know him well not to like him." Whilst residing 
in Clifton Sterling published his little book of poems, 
which unfortunately failed to interest the reading public. 
Among those with whom he became acquainted during his 
sta}- were Drs. S3'monds and Prichard. He alludes to the 
latter in writing to a friend as "the author of a well- 
known book on the Races of Mankind, to which it stands 
in the same relation among English books as the Racing 
Calendar does to those of Horsekind. He is a very intelli- 
gent, accomplished person." 

The allusion to Dr. Symonds naturally calls to mind the 
fact that his famous son, John Addington Symonds, has 
splendidly maintained the literary traditions of Bristol. His 
scholarly and brilliant works on the Italian Renaissance, to 
say nothing of his other productions, have earned for him 
the gratitude of all students of Italian history. He was 
born at 7 Berkeley Square on October 5th, 1840, the gifted 
son of a gifted father, and became a pupil under Kingslo3''s 
old master, the Re\-. William Knight, at Ikickingham 
\'illas, Pembroke Road. His memories of his birthplace 
are full of haunting tenderness; save Southey, no 
Bri'Stolian e\er evinced greater love for it than Symonds. 
There are exquisite descriptive touches in his Cliflon 
and a Lad's Love contained in In the Key of Blue which 
convince us of his love of Bristol. Many of his recorded 
memories of our city relate to the line old Georgian 


mansion, originally built in 1747 by Paul Fisher on 
Clifton Hill, to which the Symonds family removed from 
Berkeley Square, and the Downs over which he loved 
to roam. The former is best described in his own words : 
" It is a ponderous square mansion, built for perpetuity 
with walls three feet in thickness, faced with smooth Bath 
stone. But, passing to the southern side, one still enjoys 
the wonderful prospect which I have described. Time 
has done much to spoil the landscape. Mean dwellings 
have clustered round the base of Brandon Hill, and crept 
along the slopes of Clifton. The city has extended on 
the further side towards Bedminster. Factory chimneys 
with their filth and smoke have saddened the simple 
beauty of the town and dulled the brightness of its air. 
But the grand features of nature remain. The rolling 
line of hills from Lansdown over Bath, through Dundry 
with its solitary church tower to Ashton guarding the 
gorge of Avon, presents a free and noble space for 
cloud shadows, a splendid scene for the display of 
sunrise. The water from the Severn still daily floods 
the river-beds of Frome and Avon; and the ships still 
come to roost, like ocean birds beside the ancient 
churches." Lovingly he dwells on the details of his 
home at Clifton Hill: of the stables, where his father kept 
eight horses ; of the lead roof, which formed a capital 
playground, from the height of which the eye swept spaces 
of the starry heavens at night — by day town, tower, and 
hill, wood and field and river, lay bathed in light. 

When at Harrow School he speaks of the unpleasing 
nature of its landscape compared with the rocks, woods 
and downy turf of Clifton, which rendered his holidays 
at home doubly delightful by contrast. 

An ever-welcome guest at Symonds's home was 


the great Master of Balliol College, Benjamin Jowett, 
who had more than a passing interest in Clifton. His 
cousins resided here, and he was, moreover, one of 
the founders and benefactors of University College, 
contributing more than ;£"i,500 towards its funds, and 
up to the time of his death being a member of the 
Council. Writing to the late Albert Fry, another of its 
benefactors, on May i2th, 1893, he says: "There are 
few things in life that I look back upon with greater 
pleasure than the share which I was able to take in the 
foundation of University College, Bristol." 

Symonds among his many friends numbered Robert 
Louis Stevenson, and the latter after meeting him at Davos, 
writes as follows to a friend : " Beyond a splendid climate, 
it" [Davos] "has to my eyes but one advantage — the 
neighbourhood of J. A. Symonds — I daresay you know 
his work, but the man is far more interesting." 
Stevenson celebrated Symonds in the character of 
Opalstein in his Memories and PortraUs. 

A distinguished living writer and critic * nobly 
eulogises Symonds's work. He says : " I have always 
enjoyed the Sketches in Italy and Greece and the Sketches 
and Studies in Italy as delightful reminiscences of some 
of the loveliest scenes on earth. They record the 
thoughts of one who was at once scholar, historian, 
poet, and painter. The combination is very rare." 
Alluding to Symonds's pictures of Italian cities, he 
remarks : " The history is never sacrificed to the 
landscape, nor the landscape to the poetry, nor the 
scholarship to the sunlight, the air, and the scents of 
fiower or sounds of the waves and the torrents. All 
is there ; and in this way they surpass those pictures 

* Mr. P'rederick Harrison. 


of Italian scenes that we read in Ruskin, George Eliot, 
or Freeman. Freeman has not the poetry and colour 
of Symonds ; George Eliot has not his ease and grace, 
his fluidity of improvisation ; and Ruskin. with all his 
genius for form and colour, has no such immense and 
catholic grasp of history as a whole. ... It will, I think, 
be recognised by all that no English writer of our time 
has equalled Symonds in knowledge of the entire range of 
Italian literature. ... In all he has written on Italian Art 
he has shown ripe knowledge and consummate judgment." 
Symonds died at Rome on April 19th, 1893. 

The following poem, which has hitherto been published 
only in Thirteen at Dinner (the first Bristol Annual issued), 
is printed here in full in order that Bristolians may have an 
opportunity of becoming better acquainted with the 
vigorous work of a fellow-citizen. 


Who was Buried Alive in Florence. 

By John Addington Symonds. 

Five hundred years ago, in that fair town 

Of Tuscany where Giotto built his tower. 
A marble lily heavenward mid the crown 
Of hills ascendant ; where blue lilies flower 
On the grey city walls ; and Arno brown 
From Vallombrosa between laurel bower 
And olive garden seeks the Pisan shore ; 
And Florence is a joy for evermore; 

Two lovers dwelt. — Their legend strange yet true 
Grave in its issues, in its ending gay, 
I will in antique rhyme rehearse to you. 
Even as a poet one past summer day 
Told me the tale. But first I must renew 
The by-gone griefs which on that people lay, 
When plague was in their homes and mortal dread 
O'er the doomed city like a pall was spread. 


The Black Death with his dark Lethean rod 

Stalked through the streets, and maniac terror went 
Before him where unseen, unheard, he trod : 
Husband from wife, father from child was rent, 
And human kindness 'neath the curse of God 
Dried up like dew, leaving bewilderment 
And blank dismay and selfish fear of hell : — 
The sick were straightway buried where each fell. 

Now it so happened that the flower of grace 
Among the maids of Florence in that time 
Was young Ginevra, with an angel's face 
And soft voice musical as murmured rhyme; 
She was the scion of an ancient race, 
And blooming in her girlhood's golden prime. 
By words and deeds befitting noble blood 
Gave promise of a glorious womanhood. 

Among her many lovers there was one, 

Antonio, who with service leal and long 
Had wooed and waited till her heart he won : 
Her secret heart he held ; for love so strong. 
Lodged in a form fair as the rising sun, 
May win a maiden's homage without wrong : 
Yet from her sire, Bernardo, he in vain, 
Being poor but noble, sought her hand to gain. 

Bernardo to a youth of gentle birth, 

Francesco Agolanti, stout and proud, 
Rich, powerful, and withal of manly worth, 
His daughter's troth in open court had vowed. 
The match was equal, and their marriage mirth 
Scattered for some brief houi-s the brooding cloud 
That dwelt on Florence. But true love aloof, 
Love strong as Death, flew from that noisy roof. 

And so it chanced that just at eventide. 

When first Ginevra crossed her bridegroom's door, 
A pallor overspread her cheeks, and dyed 
Her fair white brows with hues of violet o'er; 
Then clasping both hands to her aching side, 
Upon the step she fell and moved no more : 
The marriage songs into shrill shrieks of dread 
Changed, as those merry-makers turned and fled. 


" Tlie plague ! the plague ! " they cried. Then, swift as doom, 
Came body-buriers down the street, a crew 
Black-stoled with torches in the gathering gloom, 
Who on their bier the swooning maiden threw, 
And bore her to her bride-bed in the tomb : 
Alone she went, for all those friends untrue. 
Yea and the husband sworn to shield and save. 
Had shrunk with nameless horror from her grave. 

Not so Antonio, not her lover leal ; 

For when he heard the din of marriage flutes 
Break into dismal shriek and funeral wail. 
Alone amid those mercenary mutes 
He walked, and watched the sexton's hand unseal, 
With brutal haste which the calm grave pollutes, 
The marble sepulchre wherein were laid 
Ginevra's forefathers among the dead. 

It was a monument 'twixt door and door 
Of Santa Reparata, lifted high 
Above the busy crowds who pace that floor 
Foot-polished, reared beneath the open sky; 
And here, as was their wont in days of yore, 
Each Almieri in his turn must lie. 
Awaiting sepulture within the grand 
Cathedral aisles of gloom Arnolfo planned. 

From the huge chest the lid they wrenched in haste, 
In haste consigned her to its marble maw. 
And hastily the covering stone replaced ; 
Then, as those wardens of the dead withdraw, 
Antonio for some little while embraced 
The frigid coffin which, by death's fell law. 
His dearest lady, so be dreamed, must hold. 
Slumbering for ever in eternal cold. 

There too he prayed : but when the pallid moon 

Peered o'er the house-roofs, lingering, loth to part, 
He left his dear love's body lapped in stone. 
Bearing her pure pale image in his heart 
Back to his cold fire-side, and wept alone : 
"Alas," he cries, "that prayers are dumb, and art 
All powerless to restore my lady's grace ! 
Would God that I were buried in her place !" 



Now she who slept, and was not dead at all, 
But only frozen in a death-like trance, 
What time the dews of night began to fall 
And the white moon npon her eyes to glance, 
Glintmg through chinks and crannies in the wall 
Ill-soldered where they laid her by mischance, 
Lifted her head, and in the twilight gloom 
Felt with frail fingers round about her tomb. 

As one who from a dream by slow degrees 

Grows into consciousness, and first is ware 

Of somewhat far away he cannot seize, 

And knows not where he lies, and doth not dare 

To stir the floods of fear that round him freeze. 

Then suddenly starts up to quick despair ; 

So in a moment like a scorching flame 

The truth of her mishap upon her came. 

" Alive, alive, laid in the dreadful grave I 
Mary Madonna, have I then no hope ? 
Help me, thou blessed Virgin ! Hear and save ! " 
Then like a caged bird beating on the cope 
Of marble and that stubborn architrave, 
The narrow room she searched. Her weak hands grope 
Along the crevices where moonbeams rain ; 
And the lid stirs a little to her strain. 

The stone lid stirs; and bending all her might 
Into one utmost effort, bit by bit. 
Led by the kindly silver streaming light. 
With slow persistent urge she conquers it : 
Then, sheeted in her grave-clothes, to the bright 
Star-spangled heavens and sweet air infinite 
Emerges ; as on Resurrection morn 
The striving dead shall be from earth re-born. 

On her left hand with marbles overlaid 

Soars Giotto's tower, familiar, pure and fair ; 

And broad before her between light and shade 

Spreads the deserted silent city square. 

Lost for awhile 'twixt dread and joy she stayed, 

Nor dared to trust her soft feet to the bare 

Pavement, and breathed the night, and felt the wind 

Float in her hair and soothe her fevered mind. 


Then shivering 'neath the blast October blew 

From Mount Morello down the unpeopled street, 
Across her breast that long white sheet she drew, 
And toward her husband's home with noiseless feet 
And streaming hair, pale as a phantom, flew. 
In dread lest some night-wanderer she should meet, 
And stood before the door, and knocked, and cried : 
" Francesco, let me in ! " — By the hearth-side 

Francesco sat, nursing a numb dull woe. 

Reckoning the days that should have been so dear. 

" Who calls ? " he cried. But she : " Dost thou not know 

Thine own Ginevra ? " Through his veins ran fear : 

Crossing himself, he shuddered : " Prithee go 

Back to thy grave, poor ghost ! Have better cheer ! 

To-morrow for thy rest shall bells be rung, 

And masses o'er thy buried body sung! " 
In vain she wept ; in vain she beat the door ; 

Wailing: " And is it doomed that I must die, 
Twice die this night ? Help, husband, I implore ! " 
But he was dumb, nor answered to her cry. 
Then to her father's house, lashed by the frore 
Whip of the wind, beneath that wintry sky. 
Sickening with fear and stumbling in her shroud. 
She came and called her mother's name aloud : 

*' O mother, mother, open ! It is me 1 

Thine own Ginevra calls ! " But the old dame. 

Wrapped up in grief's insensibility. 

Watched the red embers leap into a flame 

Upon the hearth before her tremblingly. 

And crossed herself hearing her daughter's name. 

And cried : " Go hence in peace, soul pure and blest I 

Fair daughter, sweet and dear, go hence and rest!" 

And when Ginevra leaning on the sill 

Tapped with her linger at the window-pane. 
She only turned, and smit with deadly chill 
Called to the sheeted ghost : " Come not again ! 
Some shape art thou of unimagined ill ! 
My daughter rests among the dead, and fain 
Am I to sleep beside her." Then her head 
Sank on her breast, and nothing more she said. 


Repulsed, abandoned, outcast, left to roam 

With death and darkness through the frosty night, 
Driven from her husband's and her father's home, 
What shall Ginevra do in this sore plight ? 
Like a ship rudderless that rides the foam, 
And drifts before the storm's relentless might, 
She hurries through her kinsfolk, door by door, 
Taking the same cold comfort as before: 

" Go hence in peace, fair soul ! Sweet ghost, repose I 
Masses to-morrow for thy sake we say ! " 
At last unto Antonio, at the close 
Of this dread night, in the first glint of day, 
Fainting and dizzy with despair she goes. 
To prove if lover's love be cold as they. 
And knocks, and on the door-step falls full length. 
Face downward, at the end of all her strength. 

Antonio rose and to his window went : 

" Who knocks so late ? " The voice, as half-awake. 

Came feebly, for life's force was well-nigh spent : 

" It is Ginevra ! for Christ's mercy sake 

Help poor Ginevra !" — Like an arrow sent 

Straight at the aim unerring archers take, 

He hearing his dear lady seized a light, 

Nor stayed to fear lest he should meet a sprite ; 

But brake the doors, and down beside her knelt ; 
And gazing in her face beheld how frost 
Had turned her limbs to stone; then chafed and fel 
Her stiffening hands, fearing that life was lost 
Then hoped that warmth once more her veins might melt, 
And raised her in his arms, and shouting crossed 
The threshold of his house, and in a bed 
Laid her with coverlids and blankets spread ; 

And called his serving-maidens, by whose care, 
With kindly heat and such restoratives 
As women cunning in their art prepare, 
Death's ice was thawed. Once more Ginevra lives, 
And from her heart back to her forehead fair 
And finger-tips those startled fugitives. 
The vital spirits, tingling with a flush 
Like breaking dawn, in sweet confusion rush. 


Her faint eyes and her ears, yet half asleep, 

As in a dream, the kind warm room survey; 

She sees the flame upon the hearth-stone leap, 

And hears the whispering maids, while pale and grey 

Steals morning through the curtains folded deep 

Around a bed where yet she never lay ; 

And at the last " Where am I ? '' from her lips. 

Still as in murmurous dreams, soft-breathing slips. 

Antonio at that low and tremulous cry 

Knelt forward to the pillow where her head 

Moved in unrest, and put the curtains by. 

And said : " Dear love, take courage ! fear hath fled 

With the dark night of infelicity. 

I am at hand to shield thee from all dread. 

Ask and command. I wait on thy behest. 

Light of my life, fear not ! Sweet heart, have rest ! " 

And she, still timid, with a tender shame. 

Said : " My Antonio, take me ; I am thine. 
Think of mine honour and thine own fair fame." 
Then told him all her story, line by line 
And bade him seek the coffin whence she came. 
And fix the lid firm on that marble shrine, 
That men might think she still lay sleeping there 
Secluded in death's dream from light and air. 

When this was done, Antonio's mother brought 

Such meat as might her failing strength restore, 

And clothed her in fair silken raiment wrought 

With needlework from her own bridal store. 

And said : " My daughter, thou must now take thought 

Whether to seek thy plighted husband, or — " 

Speech failed her here; but soft Ginevra spake : 

" Not so : what love hath won, let true love take ! 

" I will not turn unto his home again 

Who sent me to the inhospitable tomb : 
Death endeth all, troth, fealty, joy and pain : 
I am Antonio's treasure-trove, with whom, 
If he be willing, I shall aye remain. 
Death hath released me from the dreadful doom 
Of life-long bondage to that man whose troth 
Was but lip-service and a lying oath." 


No sooner said than done. Their vows were spoken, 
Their bridal rings exchanged and kisses given, 
And faith confirmed by many a tender token, 
Love, strong as death, at odds with Death had striven : 
Death, self-defeating. Love's false bonds had broken : 
Love, loosed by Death, had found his heart's true heaven. — 
Thus, when their case was tried, the verdict carried : 
"Antonio and Ginevra duly married.'' 

In A\e early years of the nineteenth century Dean 
Church, of St. Pau 's, spent five years of his school 
life at Redland under Dr. Swete. Like Kingsley, he 
was here at the time of the Riots, which left an unfading 
impression on his young mind. Speaking of this period, 
Church says : " We were going to church one Sunday, 
when we heard shots fired in the direction of Bristol. 
... In the evening I went out of the schoolroom into 
the playground, and there was half the horizon lighted up 
with vast conflagrations. Of course the excitement was 
tremendous. To us boys it seemed as if an attack of 
the school was imminent. It was a question whether 
any of us had a pistol among his contraband treasures." 
One of Church's favourite recreations during his stay 
was to haunt the second-hand bookshops of the city. 
Had he chosen he might have been x\rchbishop of 
Canterbury, so highly was he esteemed by Gladstone. 

That powerful and original writer, Walter Bagehot, was 
early associated with our city. He was born at Langport, 
and was a member of the great Somerset Banking Com- 
pany of Stuckeys. In this country he was justly regarded 
as the foremost authority on banking and currency 
questions, and was a man to whom Chancellors of the 
Exchequer gladly turned for advice in times of financial 
stress. For many years he was editor of The Ecoiwuiist 
and joint editor of The National Review. Among his 


mail}- intellectual activities, he won himself a great 
literary reputation by his brilliant essays, biographical, 
etc. Here he went to school, his aunt being the wife 
of the famous Bristol surgeon, John Bishop Esthn, 
and he became a frequent visitor during his holidays 
at the home of her brother-in-law, the world-famous 
ethnologist, James Cowles Prichard, at Red Lodge, 
Park Row. Mr. Augustine Birrell, speaking of Bagehot's 
literary originality, says : " Bagehot crops up all over the 
country. His mind is lent out ; his thoughts toss on 
all waters ; his brew, mixed with a humbler element, 
may be tapped everywhere ; he has made a hundred 
small reputations. ... He wrote about Lombard Street 
like a lover, about the British Constitution like a polished 
Member of Parliament, about the gaiety of Sir John 
Fahtaff like a humorist. ... To know Walter Bagehot 
through his books is one of the good things of life." 

Another writer of distinction and great influence, who 
spent a good portion of his early years in Clifton and 
Frenchay, was Frederick Denison Maurice. Writing to a 
friend, he says : '' The woods and rocks at Clifton 
are connected with m}- earliest thoughts and associ- 
ations." At Clifton Church he was married on October 
7th, 1837, the officiating clergyman being none other 
than John Sterling. Writing on May 5th, 1849, to 
Miss Hare, of the well-known Hare family, who becaiijc 
his second wife, he remarks : " I have not one feeling 
which would interfere with your going to Clifton. On 
the contrary, I should like }OU to go there. It has a 
very sacred place in ni}- mind, connected with so many 
of my early associations as well as with so many after 
I became bound to Annie. No place is so pregnant 
with meaning to me, and seems to link the different 


parts of my history so strangely together. . . . The 
CHfton rocks gave me the first impressions I ever had 
of inland beauty, and Ashton and Leigh are charmed 
names in my infantine dreams, the first, no doubt, 
derived from strawberries and cream, which were always 
the object there in summer ; but one had to cross the 
Ferry to get to them, and the course of that muddy 
beautiful Avon comes before me every time I think of 
that time. If you should go to either the Crescent, 
to Prince's Buildings, to The Mall, or indeed to almost 
any place there, you will be in the midst of places that 
are more familiar to me than any part of London, so 
I shall be very glad — if you should go there." 

Few men ha\e been more highly esteemed by their 
contemporaries than Maurice. Kingsley sat at his feet, 
as at the feet of a master, and termed him " the most 
beautiful human soul he had known,", whilst Gladstone 
tells us that Arthur Hallam, the inspirer of In Memoriam, 
had the most unbounded admiration for him. Maurice 
and his friend Sterling were two of the earliest editors 
of The Athenceum. Though below the middle height, his 
(Maurice's) noble and expressive countenance gave dignity 
to his appearance. 

Tennyson has placed on record for all time his friend- 
ship for Maurice in the following lines : — 

•' Come, when no graver cares employ. 
Godfather, come and see your boy : 

Your presence will be sun in winter, 
Making the little one leap for joy. 

" Should all our churchmen foam in spite 
At you, so careful of the right, 

Yet one lay-hearth would give yiHi welcome 
(Take it and come) to the Isle of Wight. 

■Z- «ii « 


" Come, Maurice, come : the lawn as yet 
Is hoar with rime, or spongy-wet ; 

But when the wreath of March has blossomed 
Crocus, anemone, violet. 

" Or later pay one visit here, 
For those are few we hold as dear ; 

Nor pay but one, but come for many, 
Many and many a happy year." 

In the month of May, 1845, the author of the Ingoldsby 
Legends, Rev. R. H. Barham, was hving at g Dowry 
Square, in a vain effort to regain his shattered health. 
He gives a humorous sketch of his medical attendants 
during his stay. " If," says he, " in the multitude of 
counsellors there be wisdom, in that of apothecaries 
there is jaw, and with such a one as my adviser possesses, 
Samson might have laid waste all Mesopotamia, let alone 
Philistia. He has the art of saying nothing in a cascade 
of language comparable only to that ' almighty water 
privilege ' — Niagara." In the bulletin written whilst here 
Barham cleverly hits off his medical attendants — 

" Hark ! the doctors come again. 
Knock — and enter doctors twain — 
Dr. Keeler, Dr. Blane : — 

' Well, sir, how 

Go matters now ? 
Please put out your tongue again I ' 
Meanwhile t' other side the bed, 

Dr. Keeler 

Is a feeler 
Of my wrist, and shakes his head : — 
' Rather low, we are rather low ! ' 
* * * 

" ' Now, what sort of night, sir, eh ? 
Did you take the mixture, pray ? 
Iodine and anodyne. 
Ipecacuanha wine. 
And the draught and pills at nine ? ' 



Patient (loquitur). 
" ' Coughing, doctor, coughing, sneezing, 
Wheezing, teasing, most nnpleasing. 
Till at length I, bj' degrees, in- 
Duced " Tired nature's sweet restorer," 
Sleep, to cast her mantle o'er her 
Poor unfortunate adorer, 
And became at last a snorer.' " 

The last piece this genial humorist ever wrote — As 
I Lay a Thynkynge — was written at the Hotwells. 
Finding himself no better for his stay, he returned home, 
and on the 17th of June, 1845, he passed away. 

At No. 20 Lower Berkeley Place, Clifton, was born in 
1809 a forgotten Bristol celebrity, Joseph Sortain, a writer 
of considerable merit and a most eloquent preacher. 
He contributed many articles to The Edinburgh Review 
and The British Critic. On publishing a volume of his 
sermons he forwarded a copy to Thackeray, who was 
an admirer of his eloquence. The latter's acknowledg- 
ment shows how deeply the great satirist and novelist 

felt on religious matters : — 

" May 15th, 1850. 

" My dear Sir, — I shall value your book very much, 
not only as the work of the most accomplished orator 
I have ever heard in my life, but if you will let me so 
take it, as a token of good will and interest on your part 
in my own literary pursuits. I want, too, to say in my 
way, that love and truth are the greatest of Heaven's 
commandments and blessings to us ; that the best of us, 
the many especially who pride themselves on their virtue 
most, arc wretchedly weak, vain, and selfish, and to 
preach such a charity at least as a common sense of our 
shame and unworthiness might inspire to us poor people. 
I hope men of my profession do no harm who talk this 
doctrine out of doors to people in drawing-rooms and in 


the world. Your duty in church takes them a step higher, 
that awful step beyond Ethics, which leads you up to 
God's revealed truth. What a tremendous responsibility 
his is who has that mystery to explain ! What a boon 
the faith that makes it clear to him ! I am glad to have 
kind thoughts from you and to have this opportunity of 
offering you my sincere respect and regard. 

" Believe me, most truly yours, my dear sir, 

"W. M. Thackeray. 

" P.S. — Your book finds me at my desk writing, and 
I leave off to begin on a sermon." 

A not uninteresting link of the great novelist with our 
old city is that in 1850, on his way to Clevedon, he stayed 
at the "White Lion" (now the Grand Hotel), Broad Street, 
and at a later date he gave at the Victoria Rooms his 
lectures on the " Four Georges." 

One of the greatest writers connected with Bristol 

during the nineteenth century was Henry Hallam, the 

historian, who was born here, being the son of the Dean 

of Bristol. Few visit that literary Mecca of the West 

country — Clevedon — who have not read his touching 

epitaph in the old church on the hill to his son Arthur. 

Tennyson beautifully alludes to it in the following 

lines : — 

" When on my bed the moonhght falls, 
I know that in thy place of rest 
By that broad water of the west, 
There comes a glory on the walls : 

" Thy marble bright in dark appears, 
As slowly steals a silver flame 
Along the letters of thy name, 
And o'er the number of thy years." 

Hallam was a frequent visitor to Clifton in later life, 


That noble and inspiring personality Dr. James 
Martineau, one of the greatest ethical and philosophic 
writers of the century, was closely associated with Bristol. 
He was a scholar at the famous school of Lant Carpenter, 
at 2 Great George Street, and later returned for a brief 
period as its head. Both he and Sir John Bowring 
have placed on record their unqualified admiration of 
their beloved master and friend. Martineau's tribute is 
indeed a remarkable one, for it occupies no less than ten 
closely - printed pages in the Memoir of that excellent 
pastor of Lewin's Mead Chapel. 

A portion of Martineau's schooldays were spent at 
Norwich, and there he had for a school-fellow George 
Borrow, the celebrated author of The Bible in Spain. 
" Borrow on one occasion," Martineau told Frances 
Power Cobbe, " persuaded several of his companions to 
rob their fathers' tills, and then they set off to join 
some smugglers on the coast. But by degrees they 
one by one grew tired and hungry as they marched on, 
and were finally overtaken and brought back to the 
school, where fitting chastisement awaited them. George 
Borrow received his well - deserved punishment horsed 
on Martineau's back ! — a disagreeable fact that Borrow 
never forgot." 

Amid the strenuous and ceaseless war that Martineau 
made throughout his long life on the dogmas and shib- 
boleths of his time, in the dust and turmoil of polemic 
discourse, he fought and sought for truth, and that alone. 
All the resources of his splendid scholarship and his 
intimate acquaintance with the complexities of science 
were ever arrayed with matchless skill against Agnosti- 
cism and Materialism ; so much so, that he was accounted 
by their champions " the most dangerous opponent they 


had to reckon with." He himself has tersely summed 
up his long life, verging on a century, in a noble saying : 
" What I planned, I did ; what I desired to be, I was ; 
what was in me I taught." On his 83rd birthday he 
received an extraordinary tribute in the shape of an 
address expressive of reverence and affection, followed 
by a list of signatures which is probably unique. This 
address came, too, from the most opposite quarters in the 
literary, scientific, political, and religious world. Among 
those who signed it were Tennyson, Browning, Jowett, 
Max M tiller, Lowell, Seeley, Lecky, and others to the 
number of 650. 

That Martineau never forgot his early association with 
Bristol is evidenced in the following letter to the late 
Miss Estlin, written when he was 90, on May nth, 1895: — 

" Dear Miss Estlin, — No letter occasioned by my 
recent Birthday touches upon tenderer memories than 
yours, and from my inmost heart I thank you for so 
vividly recalling to memory a figure most dear while 
visible, and sacred ever since" [her father, John Bishop 
Estlin, the surgeon], "Three years only, out of my 
ninety, were spent in Bristol and in Great George Street 
— as pupil from 1819-1821, as responsible head from 
1827-1828 — but they contained a more fruitful experi- 
ence in its bearing on the course of future years than 
any similar section of my life. 

" They fell within the period of quickest susceptibility 
and most rapid growth, and all who ministered, either 
intentionally or by the mere presence of a winning and 
impressive personality, to the expanding life still look 
down upon me with unfaded colours and expression from 
the picture-gallery of my affection. . . . 


"The links, once so numerous, connecting me with 
Bristol have become sadly few, or nearly worn away 
Yet I do not complain of the loneliness of old age, 
which only calls on us to wait awhile and it will cease. 
Besides, it is the privilege of a life spent mainly in 
teaching to fall in love with a continuous series of young 
people, each entering on a life full of interesting possi- 
bilities and openings of noble hope, so there is no excuse 
for shutting oneself up in the past and trying to sleep 
through the stir of the ever-moving present. . . . 

"Accept my warmest thanks, and believe me to 

the end, 

"Yours affectionately, 

"James Martineau." 

One who knew him said : "In personal converse 
there was a gracious sweetness about his manner, and 
a lofty sincerity which entranced the listener, a s\Neetness 
that arose from conscious strength and wide sympathies. 
. . . Although his wonderful eyes are now closed in their 
last sleep and the quiet, penetrating voice hushed for ever, 
yet Dr. Martineau has left behind him imperishable legacies 
of thought which will enrich succeeding generations with 
their luminous suggestiveness and stimulating power. 
There are passages scattered throughout his works which 
for sheer beauty of diction and sublimity of thought 
will endure with the imperishable classics of English 

In Bristol also his famous sister, Harriet Martineau, 
spent a portion of her schooldays, and during her stay 
was charmed with the scenery of Bristol, and spoke in 
rapturous admiration of her walks in Leigh Woods and 
on the Downs. 



Here too in the early forties, stayed for a time Mary 
Mitford, the author of Our Village. She was greatly 
impressed with the city, and remarked : "What a glorious 
old city is Bristol ! Bath leaves few and faint impressions. 
Bristol, on the other hand, is warm, glowing, and 
picturesque." During her stay she visited Cottle, who 
was then living at Firlield House, Knowle. "Twice," 
she says, "I went to Redcliffe Church, twice over the 
Mayor's Chapel, the Cathedral, and the great iron ship 
Great Britain.'' At the beauty of Clifton she exclaimed, 
"It is lovely!" 

In 1841 Crabb Robinson was staying at Clifton with 
his nephew, who was in consumption, and under the 
care of John Bishop Estlin. 

Among those associated with Bristol in later days was 
Chatterton Dix (son of John Dix, the biographer of 
Chatterton), the well-known hymn-writer, whose reputation 
is not confined to this country, but whose " best-known 
hymns," as Julian says, "are in common use in America 
and other English-speaking countries." His well-known 
hymn. As with gladness men of old, was highly 
eulogised by Lord Selborne, no mean judge, and is 
included in his Book of Praise. The closing period of 
Dix's life was spent at Cheddar, where he died in i8g8, 
and in the churchyard of which he lies buried. 

Sir John Bowring, the great linguist, diplomatist, and 

poet, went to Lant Carpenter's school ; his famous 

hymn — 

"In the Cross of Christ I glory, 

Towering o'er the wrecks of Time" — 

will keep his name green when his other works are 
forgotten. In i860 he renewed his association with 
Bristol by marrying the daughter of Thomas Castle, of 


Clifton. He lies buried at Exeter, and the foregoing couplet 
is inscribed on his tomb. 

Mention must be made of Catherine and Susannah 
Winkworth, friends of the Gaskells, Bunsen, and 
Martinean, who resided at 31 Cornwallis Crescent for 
many years. Catherine's claim to fame rests upon her 
Lyra Gcruianica. Her translation of the German hymn 
in this work has given it great popularity. Apart from 
her literary labours, she threw herself heart and soul into 
the movement for the higher education of women, and 
became secretary of the local committee. She became 
a governor of the Red Maids' School, and a promoter 
of Clifton High School for Girls. She died suddenly 
abroad in 187S, and a monument has been erected to her 
memory in the cathedral. The esteem in which she was 
held was shown by the foundation of two scholarships at 
University College to perpetuate her memory. 

Her elder sister, Susannah, also possessed no ordinary 
literary ability ; she translated from the German the 
Life of Nebuhr, during which work she formed the 
acquaintance of Baron Bunsen, and translated for him 
some of his works, including his celebrated book God in 
History. Like her sister, she was deeply interested in the 
social life of her time, and worked personally among the 
poor of Bristol. She was one of the first in Bristol to 
grapple practically with the problem of housing the poor. 
Indeed, she rented several houses, put them in proper 
repair, and let them out to suitable tenants. The Jacob's 
Wells Industrial Dwellings were built on her initiative, 
and she managed them herself till her death. She 
succeeded her sister as a governor of the Red Maids' 
School, her death taking place in 1884 at 21 Victoria 
Square, Clifton, 


Closely connected with Bristol was Francis Fry, ot 
Tower House, Cotham Park, one of the famous Fry 
family, who have for nearly two centuries been identified 
with Bristol's commercial history. He was born at 
Westbury-on-Trym and educated at Fishponds. As an 
authority on editions of the I3iblc, he achieved a great 
bibliographical reputation, his collection of Bibles being 
remarkable, and his knowledge of the subject in all its 
bearings unrivalled. A choice selection of his Bibles were 
purchased by private subscription and presented to the 
Bible Society. He reproduced in facsimile the unique 
first translation of the New Testament by Tyndale, a 
work which is absolutely priceless, and proved beyond 
question that it came from Schoeffer's press. 

Coming to those who have but recently departed from 
amongst us, the name must not be omitted of Vincent 
Stuckey Lean, who will long be remembered for his 
generous encouragement of the cause of literature, no less 
than for his literary work itself. He was born in Clifton 
in 1820, and died at Clevedon in iSgg. The great work 
of his life, a large portion of which he spent in travel, was 
his wonderful collection of Proverbs and Folk-lore of "all 
nations^ parts of which were published in 1904, under 
the title of Leans Collectanea. His munificent bequest of 
;;f50,ooo to his native city rendered possible the erection 
of the new Central Library in Deanery Road. 

Not unknown to fame was J. S. Harford, born in 
Bristol in 1785, and son of the well-known banker, J. S. 
Harford, of Blaise Castle. He possessed great taste in 
the arts, and collected on the Continent a number of 
valuable pictures, which adorn the walls of that charming 
residence, which William Wilberforce pronounced to be 
the "sweetest residence of a private gentleman save one, 


to be found in England." Many works, chiefl}' bio- 
graphies, emanated from his cultured pen, amongst which 
was a life of Michael Angelo, with translations of his 
poems and letters. Harford was a liberal benefactor to 
the cause of religious education, and helped to found St. 
David's College, and contributed generously to the restora- 
tion of the cathedrals of Llandaff and Saint David's. 
Hannah More made him the hero of her Caiebs in Search 
of a Wife. 

The late Judge O'Connor Morris, the author of many 
works on military subjects, who died in 1904, was 
intimately connected with Clifton, his father having 
taken refuge there during the famous rising in 1798, 
when he lived in Prince's Buildings. In 1867 the judge 
resided for a considerable time in Clifton for the sake 
of his wife's health. Referring to this time, he sa3-s : 
" During these long months of care I saw a good deal 
of the high life of Clifton, and thoroughly explored 
Bristol and its picturesque scenes. . . . Clifton, which 
in my bo}hood was hardly more than a small suburb 
of Bristol perched above the Avon, had expanded into 
a fine populous town, its long lines of villas running out 
for miles, its churches shooting up their spires to heaven, 
its admirable college already taking a foremost place 
among our great Public Schools." He noted too 
that " rows of new warehouses and of busy marts and 
extending circles of modern dwellings had gathered round 
the skirts of the ancient city; and w^hile Bristol, with 
its magnificent churches, its land-locked river and forest 
of masts, and its hills cro\Mied with their world of 
houses, retained its mediaeval aspect, it was evidently 
increasing in size and population." Among the friends 
he made were William Budd, one of the great pioneers 


of the germ theory and sanitation, and " Francis 
Newman, the brother of the renowned John Henry, a 
man of remarkable parts and culture scarcely inferior 
in intellect to the great cardinal. To Budd's skill and 
care my wife perhaps owed her life. He was one of the 
kindest friends I have ever made. I greatly enjoyed his 
conversation — ^joyous, animated, and full of fun and 

Last, but not least, among these nineteenth-century 
associations comes that delightful and cultured personality, 
Alfred Ainger, Master of the Temple and for so many 
years canon of the cathedral, whose memory is still 
fresh to many Bristolians ; his death occurred on 
February 8th, 1904. He was the son of a London 
architect, and was born in 1S37. As the Master 
of the Temple, his silvery eloquence excited great 
admiration amongst Londoners. Few men have read 
so exquisitely as Ainger ; to hear him was a lesson 
in elocution of the finest kind. As a man of wide 
and deep culture, he appealed by his Life and Letters 
of Charles Lamb to a larger audience than his voice 
could reach. There was a good deal of mental kinship 
between him and Lamb, for he possessed humour in 
the highest degree informed with the kindest humanity. 
Early in his life he came under the influence of F. D. 
Maurice, whose close association with Bristol is related 
earlier in this section. His death was not only a local 
loss, but a national one ; few have been so good, and at 
the same time so learned as Alfred Ainger. 

CHAPTER II. {continued). 



William Combe: his extfavai(ance — Samuel Lucas — T. H. 
Cook — Philip Harwood — G. W. Thornhury — Whitwell 
Ehoin — J. B. Kington — Charles Pebody — jfohn Leech 
— William Barrett — Rev. Samuel Seycr — John Evans — 
— George Pryce — J. F. Nicholls and John Taylor — 
JoJm Latimer. 

OURNALISM is indebted to Bristol for man\' 
brilliant recruits to its ranks. One of the 
earliest to be associated with the city was 
the celebrated William Combe, author of The Tour 
of Dr. Syntax in Search of the Picturesque, a work 
which has recently been republished, with reproduc- 
tions of the original plates of Rowlandson in colour, 
forming the latest of many editions. Few writers have 
attained greater popularity by a single work. William 
Combe was born in Bristol in 1741, and educated at 
Eton and Oxford. Possessed both of personal attractions 
and fascinating manners, he was received in the best 
society, but his extravagant tastes and utter thriftlessness 
soon reduced him to poverty, and he became by turns 
waiter, cook, and soldier. Having been left a legacy, in 
1772 he visited the Hotwells, where he lived in princely 



style, having a chariot and retinue of servants at his com- 
mand, and being commonly known as " Count Combe." 
Here one of his first books was published, The Philosopher 
in Bristol — a work now rare. A comedy written b\' him, 
The Flattering Milliner, was played at the Bristol Theatre, 
King Street, on September nth, 1775. 

Afterwards, finding his resources exhausted, owing to his 
own folly. Combe seriously turned to literature to recoup 
himself, and produced a large number of works, all of 
which, however, were published anonymously. By his 
political writings he secured the friendship of Pitt, who 
ultimately obtained for him a pension of £200 a year. 
This he enjoyed until the death of his patron. Later 
he became connected with The Times, in reference to 
which Crabb Robinson says in i8og : " There is another 
person belonging to this period who is a character cartainl}- 
worth writing about. Indeed, I have known few to be 
compared with him. It was on my first acquaintance 
with Walter that I used to notice in his parlour a 
remarkably fine old gentleman. He was tail, with a 
stately figure and handsome face. He did not appear 
to work much with his pen, but was chiefly a consulting 
man." The same authority relates a funny anecdote in 
his Diary on Combe's powers of romancing in conversation. 
Being at a dinner in the company of Dr. Parr, he gave a 
very pleasant and interesting account of his building a 
well-known house on Keswick Lake. He went, however, 
so much into details that the patience of at least one 
member of the party was exhausted, and he cried out, 
"Why, what an impudent fellow you are! You have 
given a very true and capital account of the house, and 
I wonder how you learnt it ; but that house was built by 
Tny father. It was never out of the family, and it is in 


my own possession at this moment." Our author was 
not in the least abashed, but answered with great coohiess,. 
" I am obliged to you for doing justice to the fidelity of my 
description. I have no doubt it is your property, and I 
hope you will live long to enjoy it." Owing to his 
inveterate extravagance, however, Combe was compelled 
to live within the "rules" of King's Bench Prison for the 
last forty years of his life. He died in London on June 
igth, 1S23, in his 82nd year. 

Few journalists have wielded a more cultured, able, 
or incisive pen than Samuel Lucas, the son of Thomas 
Lucas, a Bristol merchant. Equipped with a University 
education, winning whilst at Oxford the Newdigate prize 
for English verse and the Chancellor's prize for the 
English essay, he opened his career by becoming a 
barrister, and won much popularity on the \\'estern 
Circuit. Having, however, a strong bent towards 
literature, he connected himself with the London press, 
and soon became a frequent contributor and reviewer 
for The Times. Many of his articles have been collected 
and published, notably Mornings of the Recess, a series 
of biographical and literary studies. Later on we shall 
see how he made famous Mrs. Henry Wood's novel, 
East Lynne. Lucas wrote for The Times the review of 
Lord Macaulay's famous History, which so pleased its 
author that he wrote in his diary, December 17th, 1853: 
" An article on my book in The Times in tone what I 
wished — that is to say, laudatory without any appearance 
of puffing." He also contributed many articles to the 
local press, which were subsequently published as 
Illustrations of the History of Bristol and its Neigh- 

Bristol was also the birthplace of T. H. Cook, who 


likewise became a barrister and a constant contribvitor to 
The Times. As its special correspondent he was sent 
to China on the outbreak of the war in 1856. His 
articles were afterwards republished in book form, and 
met with great success, a fifth edition being called for 
in 1861. He also wrote another successful series, which 
was similarly dealt with, entitled Conquest and Colo- 
nisation in North Africa. He was a facile writer, 
rarely correcting or retouching what he had written. 
Endowed with many gifts, he possessed tireless energy. 
After endeavouring unsuccessfully to get into Parliament, 
he was appointed Commissioner in one of the Govern- 
ment departments, in which position he proved an 
unqualified success. 

A journalist who achieved considerable distinction 
was Philip Harwood, who was born in Bristol in iSog. 
He first applied himself to the law% but retired from it 
in favour of the ministry. Ultimately he drifted into 
journalism, and became sub-editor of The Examiner ; 
later he received an appointment on the staff of The 
Spectator. After a brief stay he joined J. D. Cook as 
sub-editor of the Morning Chronicle. The paper, however, 
failing from the commercial side, he went to assist in 
conducting the newly-started Saturday Review, and upon 
the death of his chief he took his place as editor. He 
was a splendid type of journalist, and had the reputation 
of being one of the best of sub-editors. 

The writer of the standard biography of Turner, 
the great artist, G. W. Thornbury, was intimately 
associated with Bristol at the beginning of his journalistic 
career, for he was at the age of 17 contributing topo- 
graphical and antiquarian articles to Felix Farley's 
Bristol Journal. Here too he published a volume of 


poems. Proceeding to London about 1851, he joined the 
staff of The Athenceum, and filled the position of art 
critic with conspicuous ability. Subsequently he assisted 
Charles Dickens as a contributor to Household Words 
and All the Year Round, and became one of the most 
valued of his staff. His Life of Turner was written 
under the direct supervision of Ruskin, an ordeal which 
Thornbury said was "very much like working bareheaded 
under a tropical sun !" His share in Old and New London 
is still highly esteemed. He died in 1876 of overwork. 

One of the greatest journalistic forces of the nineteenth 
century — Whitwell Elwin — editor of The Quarterly, be- 
came acquainted with his future wife whilst staying with 
friends at Clifton. It was a case of love at first sight. 
He was much mortified, however, to learn that the object 
of his passion was already engaged, and on taking his 
leave of her he told her that he would have proposed 
if she had been free. With silent eloquence she gave an 
emphatic denial to the report of her engagement by kissing 
him. In spite of her mother's declaration, " It won't last,"' 
the attachment proved a lifelong one. In after years as 
man and wife they revisited Clifton once more. Elwin is 
said to have been descended from the celebrated Indian 
Princess Pocahontas. 

Among journalists connected with Bristol, the author 
of The Battle of Nibley Green, J. B. Kington, deserves 
mention. He was originally a local journalist. Later 
he started a newspaper for himself, and though the venture 
was unsuccessful, it brought him the valuable friendship 
of Lord Macaulay, to whom he dedicated the above work. 
Finally he became editor of the Weekly Chronicle, and 
was called to the Bar. 

One of the ablest editors of the many who have 


controlled the destinies of the Bristol Times and Mirror 
was Charles Pebod\', who afterwards attained distinction 
when holding a similar position on the Yorkshire Post, for 
at the time of his death he had placed that, paper in the 
front rank of pro\incial journals. 

No record of those connected with Bristol journalism 
would be complete without the inclusion of John Leech, 
the shrewd, observant and genial writer and part proprietor 
"of the Bristol Times and Mirror, whose chief legacy to 
posterity has been Tlic Church Goer, a series of gossipy 
papers on the churches in and around our ancient city, 
and his Brief Romances from Bristol History. 

To-day Bristol's connection with journalism is 
unbroken, for some of the most distinguished members 
of the profession now with us own this ancient city as 
their birthplace. 

There have been seven prominent local historians 
whose names may be here mentioned. 

The first of these, William Barrett, was born in Wilt- 
shire in 1733, and on arriving at manhood he settled in 
Bristol as a surgeon. He had not been here long before 
he conceived the project of writing the history of our city. 
Though most industrious in quest of materials, which 
took him thirty years to collect, he was credulous Lo a 
degree ; the consequence being that he fell an easy prey 
to Chatterton's MS. " finds " in the muniment room of 
Redcliff Church, and incorporated them in his History 
of Bristol without the slightest attempt to investigate 
their origin. This unfortunate act has discredited the 
entire work, and on its publication in 1789 it covered its 
author with ridicule, and it is said hastened his death, 
which occurred the same year. 

The Rev. Samuel Seyer, the next to essay the task 


1733 i-sg- 


»757— i«3i- 



of writing a History of Bristol, was encouraged by a 
substantial grant of money from the Corporation. A 
schoolmaster, and the son of a schoolmaster, he was 
born in Bristol in 1757, his father having been the 
head master of the Grammar School. Seyer's school, 
The Fort, St. Michael's Hill, was famous for the many 
distinguished men educated there, among whom were 
Robert Browning's father ; John Kenyon, cousin of 
Elizabeth Barrett Browning ; Johii Broderip, the 
naturalist ; John Eagles, " The Sketcher " ; and 
Andrew Crosse, the Somerset electrician. Se}'er was a 
stern disciplinarian, for Crosse relates: " I was caned, upon 
an average, three times a day for seven years." (School- 
boys of to-day have much to be thankful for.) Continuing, 
he says : " He " (Seyer) '• was an admirable classic, a good 
grammarian ; he had some nobility of feeling, was perfectly 
honest, but was a narrow-minded man, and without any 
sense of justice. I remember one day I was had up as 
usual to read Virgil ; I had nearly completed the fifth 
book, when I made a mistake in a w'ord. ' Let me 
look,' said Seyer, and, taking the volume from me, he 
found that the whole of the fifth book had been torn out. 
I had repeated it from memory. I then explained to him 
that, without any fault of my own, one of my school- 
fellows, in a fit of mischief, had torn it out some 
months since. My master's only reply was a good caning; 
and what was worse, whenever he was out of temper with 
me, he would call me up, and asking to look at my Virgil, 
repeat the caning every time." Seyer's History, however, 
though marred by a good deal of irrelevant matter, is 
beyond question one of the best of our local histories. 

A useful work, based largely on Seyer's, entitled 
A Chronological Outline of the History of Bristol, was 


compiled by John Evans, a native of the city, born, in 
1774, and editor of the Bristol Observer. He was killed 
by the falling of the Brunswick Theatre, London, 
February 28th, 1828. 

The next writer who devoted himself to the work 
was the city librarian, George Pryce, a man of consider- 
able ability and industry, though somewhat pugnacious. 
The chief fault of his History lies in his lack of historical 
perspective ; unnecessary details crowd his pages to the 
exclusion of other and more important matter. His best 
claim to our gratitude lies in the fact that through his 
unaided efforts was laid the foundation of the valuable 
collection of Bristol books and pamphlets the city now 

A much more comprehensive work was that of J. F. 
Nicholls and John Taylor, entitled Bristol : Past and 
Present, issued in 1881 in three volumes. It was divided 
into two parts, civil and ecclesiastical, Nicholls being 
responsible for the former and Taylor for the latter. 
Competent authorities have long since decided that 
Taylor's share is much the more accurate and valuable 
of the two. He is deservedly looked upon as the authority 
on Bristol's church history, in addition to which he was 
a fine antiquarian, a scholar, and a writer of considerable 
charm. Many of his articles enriched the columns of 
The Saturday Review. 

The last and greatest of all Bristol's historians was 
John Latimer, whose death occurred on January 4th, 
1904, and whose Annals of the seventeenth, eighteenth, 
and Hineteenth centuries are indeed the best monument 
to his memory. Though a Newcastle man by birth, 
he became a Bristolian in the noblest sense of the term, 
living in our midst for over forty years, twenty-five of 


1799 — 1 868. 


iSi8— 1883. 

(yhoU; rutir):< <£-• Quirl;J 


r/';»/(.., Ah>I LfU-is Ji: Son.) 


1824— 1904. 



which he spent in the editorial chair of the Bristol 
Mercury. All future writers on our history will be deeply 
indebted to him for the great harvest of accurate facts 
stored up in his Annals. Others have eclipsed him in 
their style, but none in their matter. With perfect truth 
■and justice can it be said of him that none have so well 
" drawn back the ever-thickening curtain of the past " "' 
that hides the events of Bristol's history. A tablet 
recording his association with our city has been placed 
in the cathedral. 

* The Rev. A. N. Blatchford at the graveside. 

CHAPTER II. (continued). 


Dejoe and "Robinson Crusoe'' — "Gulliver's Travels" — 
" Huniphry Clinker" — Fanny Biirney's "Evelina" — 
Sir Walter Scott — jfane Porter — Harriett Lee — Charles 
Kingsley : his recollections of the Riots — Frances Trollope 
— "The Journal of Llewellin Penrose'' — Bristol in 
"The Pickwick Papers" — "The Caxtons" — Bristol in 
"Treasure Island" — Description of Bristol in "Campion 
Court" — -"East Lynne" reviewed by Samuel Lucas — 
Amelia B. Edwards — A. T. Quiller-Couch — Description 
of the Downs in " The Strange Adventures of a 
House-boat" — "Hugh Conway" — Mrs. Emma Marshall 
— Miscellaneous. 

'O English city save London has been more closely 
identified with the art of fiction than Bristol. 
For nearly two hundred years — from Daniel 
Defoe to Israel Zangwill — its connection has been 
an unbroken one. Indeed, it is no exaggeration to say 
that fiction pales before the glowing record that adds 
lustre and fame to a cit}- whose founding dates before the 
Conquest. To name but one deed emblazoned high up 
on the scroll of fame, Cabot's discovery of the northern 
continent of America was an epic romance in itself. 

The justly-celebrated author of our boyhood's classic, 




Robinson Crusoe — a work that will be as endurinp^ as the 
English language itself, and of which Landor said, 
"Achilles and Homer will be forgotten before Crusoe and 
Defoe" — was a frequent visitor to Bristol, his favourite 
haunt being the " Star Inn," Cock and Bottle Lane, 
Castle Street. His biographer states that a friend of his, 
resident in Bristol, relates that one of his ancestors 
remembered Defoe, and sometimes saw him walking in 
the streets of Bristol accoutred in the fashion of the 
times with "a fine flowing wig, lace ruffles, and a sword 
by his side." The same authority adds that one Mark 
Watkins, who kept the " Red Lion " in Castle Street, 
which Defoe used also occasionally to visit, was wont to 
entertain his company in after times with an account of a 
singular personage who made his appearance in ]>rist()l 
clothed in goat-skins, in which dress he was in the habit 
of walking the streets, and went by the name of Alexander 
Selkirk, or Robinson Crusoe. It will be remembered 
that Alexander Selkirk was taken off the island of Juan 
I'^ernandez by Captain Woodes Rogers, of privateering 
fame, and brought home to Bristol. 

In that other equally famous classic of fiction, Gulliver s 
Travels, does not the hero start out on his memorable 
voyage to Lilliput from the port of Bristol ? 

Readers of Humphry Clinker, Smollett's very humorous 
novel, will no doubt recall to mind that some of the 
opening letters in it are written from the Hotwells, the 
fashionable and celebrated spa of the period. The heroine, 
Miss Lydia Melford, writing from there to a friend, says : 
" We set out for Bath to-morrow, and I am almost sorry 
for it ; as I begin to be in love with solitude, and this 
is a charming romantic place. The air is so pure ; the 
Downs so agreeable; the furze in full blossom; the ground 


enamelled with daisies, and primroses, and cowslips . . . 
the groves resound with the notes of the blackbird, thrush, 
and linnet, and all night long sweet Philomel pours forth 
her ravishingly delightful song." 

The recent republication of Fanny Burney's famous 
novel, Evelina, should remind Bristolians that full 
references to the Hotwells are therein given. Burke 
and Reynolds had a great opinion of this novel, and 
were so absorbed in its perusal that they sat up all night 
to finish it, whilst the great doctor got it nearly off by 
heart, and mimicked the characters with roars of laughter. 
One of Macaulay's famous essays is devoted to Fanny 
Burney. That essay is indeed a memora.ble tribute. 
Rogers, the banker poet, sitting with her just before her 
death, said to her, " Do you remember those lines of 
Mrs. Barbauld's Life which I once repeated to you?" 
" Remember them," she replied, "I repeat them to myself 
every night before I go to sleep." 

Sir Walter Scott in his novel, The Pirate, has 
immortalised our city in that passage where the captain 
of the Good Hope says to Mordaunt Mertoun : "My name 
is Clement Cleveland, captain, and part owner, as I said 
before — I am a Bristol man born — my father was well 
known on the Tollsell — old Clem Cleveland of the College 

Jane Porter, the gifted authoress of The Scottish Chiefs 
and TJiaddcus of Warsaiv, resided for many years in Bristol, 
and died at 29 Portland Square on May 24th, 1850. 
Indirectly, tradition sa}-s, the world owes to her the 
creation of the Wavcrley Novels, for Sir Walter Scott, 
being one day in the company of George IV., frankly 
admitted in the course of conversation that The Scottish 
Chiefs was the parent of that world-famous series. The 


late Sir Leslie Stephen said that he would rather have 
written the Waverley novels than have won the Battle 
of Waterloo or even Trafalgar. 

Harriett Lee's Canterbury Talcs were much in vogue at 
that period. Byron read them in his youth and was greatly 
influenced by them, and in his preface to Werner he acknow- 
ledged his indebtedness to their author. The famous 
William Godwin, whose daughter married the poet Shelley, 
was an unsuccessful suitor for her hand. A tablet to her 
memory and that of her sister is in Clifton Church. 

At Bristol the famous novelist and poet, Charles 
Kingsley, went to school. His master was the Rev. 
William Knight, Rector of St. Michael's, by whom 
he was described as " affectionate, gentle, and fond of 
quiet." At that period he was a passionate lover of 
nature, and nothing more quickly roused him to anger 
than to have the treasures he had collected in his walks 
over the Downs swept away as rubbish by the housemaid. 
Visiting Bristol in after life, he graphically related his 
experience of the Riots of 1831, which took place 
during his schooldays here. " I was a school-boy in 
Clifton up above. I had been hearing of political 
disturbances, even of riots, of which I understood 
nothing, and for which I cared nothing. But on one 
memorable Sunday afternoon I saw an object which 
was distinctly not political. It was an afternoon of 
sullen, autumn rain. The fog hung thick over the docks 
and lowlands. Glaring through the fog I saw a bright 
mass of flame, almost like a half-risen sun. That, I was 
told, was the gate of the new gaol on fire — that the 
prisoners had been set free. . . . The fog rolled slowly 
upward. Dark figures, even at that great distance, were 
flitting to and fro across what seemed the mouth of 


the }'it. Tlic llame increased — multiplied — at one point 
after another ; till, by ten o'clock that night, one seemed 
to be looking down upon Dante's Inferno, and to hear the 
multitudinous moan and wail of lost spirits surging to 
and fro amid that sea of tire. Right behind Brandon 
Hill — how can I ever forget it ? — rose the central mass of 
fire, till the little mound seemed converted into a 
volcano. . . . Higher and higher the fog was scorched 
and shrivelled upward by the fierce heat below, glowing 
through and through with reflected glare till it arched 
itself into one vast dome of red-hot iron, fit roof for all 
the madness down below — and beneath it, miles away, 
I could see the lovely tower of Dundry shining red — the 
symbol of the old faith, looking down in stately wonder 
and sorrow upon the fearful birth-throes of a new age." 

At Stapleton was born Frances Trollope, the famous 
mother of a famous son — Anthony Trollope. Her 
Widow Barnahy was a highly successful novel, and her 
racy descriptions of our Yankee cousins in her Domestic 
Manners of the Americans gave sore offence to the people 
of that great country. In 1S43 she resided at 7 Caledonia 
Place, Clifton, for a short time. The remarkable thing 
about her career is that she did not publish her first work 
until she was over fifty }ears of age. 

Numberless readers have been thrilled by the weird and 
wonderful tales of Edgar Allan Poe; but few Bristol readers 
are aware that the extraordinary story of the Gold Beetle — 
being an account of the discovery of pirates' concealed 
treasure by the deciphering of a mystically written 
manuscript — is taken in its leading incidents from the 
remarkable Journal of Llcicellin Penrose, a Seaman. The 
origin of this Journal is well worth relating. Towards the 
close of the eighteenth century Mr. Thomas Eagles, the 


father of John Eagles, "The Sketcher" of BlackicoocL was 
one day accosted in the street by a poor old man, whose 
bearing and speech betrayed the fact that he had seen 
better davs. He begged for a pass to St. Peter's Hospital, 
saying that his family were all dead, and that he had no 
wish to live, but onh' sought a shelter where he might die. 
Mr. Eagles, senior, took the trouble to inquire into the 
circumstances of the stranger, and finally procured for him 
a place in the Merchant Seamen's Almshouse, King Street, 
where he found himself in comparative comfort. His 
health improved, and, in fact, he lived on for some years. 
Mr. Eagles, who had been warmly interested in this lonely 
old man from the first, found on further acquaintance that 
he was a person of education and had had a very varied 
experience of life. He had lost his sons in the Battle 
of Bunker Hill, and all his family were dead and gone. 
Of his origin he never spoke, but he gave the impression 
that his birth had given him some claim to charity in the 
city of Bristol. John Eagles remembered him well, as his 
father asked him occasionally to dine, when he proved 
himself a well-bred man, and his talk about art, literature, 
and travel w^as most entertaining. When the mysterious old 
man died, he bequeathed all he possessed to his benefactor. 
The legacy seemed at first of little importance, con- 
sisting merely of a few books and two manuscripts. One 
was the Lives of the Painters, the other The Journal of 
Llewellin Penrose, a Seaman. When the latter came to be 
read aloud, as it was in the family circle, it was found to 
be most exciting, so exciting indeed that John Eagles, 
then a schoolboy, confessed that he managed to miss the 
coach that was to have taken him to school, that he might 
remain at home another evening to hear the end of these 
wonderful adventures. Mr. Eagles had the whole manu- 


script copied out, and induced his artist friends, Nicholas 
Pocock and Edward Bird, to ilhistrate it. Having sub- 
mitted it to John Murray, that pubHsher gave ;£'200 for it. 

Byron read it with the greatest interest, and said : 
" I never read so much of a book at one sitting in my life. 
He" [Penrose] "kept me up half the night, and made me 
dream of him the other half. It has all the air of truth, 
and is most entertaining and interesting in every point 
of view." 

On the site of Lloyds Bank, Corn Street, there 
formerly stood the Bush Inn, famed for its entertain- 
ment, and in the old coaching days one of the chief 
inns of the city. Here it was that Mr. Winkle, in 
Dickens's Pickwick Papers, took up his quarters in his 
lovelorn quest for the missing Arabella Allen, who was 
surmised to be hidden somewhere in Bristol or its 
neighbourhood. It will doubtless be recalled how Winkle 
walked forth to view the city, its quays, ships, cathedral, 
etc., and how, having lost his way, he stepped into 
" something between a shop and a private house," over 
the door of which a red lamp was suspended declaring 
the residence of a doctor, and how, on inquiring within, 
to his great astonishment he was suddenly embraced by 
his old friend Bob Sawyer, who had here set up as a 
doctor. Subsequently, on the arrival of Sam Weller 
and the immortal Pickwick, they sallied out to discover 
Winkle's lost love. It was during this quest that Sam 
Weller had his altercation with the surly groom on 
the Downs. "I'd knock your head off for half- a - 
crown," said he. " Couldn't afford to have it done on 
those terms," rejoined Sam. " It 'ud be vorth a life's 
board wages, at least, to you, and 'ud be cheap at that. 
Make my compliments in-doors. Tell 'em not to vait 


dinner for me, and say they needn't mind puttin' any by, 
for it vill be cold afore I come in." Muttering a fervent 
desire to damage somebody's head, the groom disappeared, 
wholly unheeding Sam's affectionate request " to leave 
him a lock of his hair, before he went." 

In Lord Lytton's The Caxtons, Mr. Caxton, in his 
discourse on the "hygienic chemistry of books," speaks 
of biography as being the medicine of life's distresses and 
sorrows, and advises his son to read the Life of Robert Hall 
(the famous Bristol preacher and orator), which he handed 
him. "After breakfast the next morning, I took my hat 
to go out, when my father, looking at me, and seeing by 
my countenance that I had not slept, said gently, ' My 
dear Pisistratus, you have not tried my medicine yet.' 
' What medicine, sir ? ' ' Robert Hall.' ' No, indeed, not 
yet,' said I, smiling.' ' Do so, my son, before you go 
out ; depend on it, you will enjoy your walk more.' 
I confess that it was with some reluctance I obeyed. 
I went back to my own room and sat resolutely down to 
ni}' task. Are there any of you, my readers, who have 
not read the Life of Robert Hall ? If so, in the words of 
the great Captain Cuttle, 'when found, make a note of it'. 
Never mind what your theological opinion is — Episco- 
palian, Presbyterian, Baptist, Paebaptist, Independent, 
Quaker, Unitarian, Philosopher, Free Thinker — send for 
Robert Hall ! . . . Whatever, then, thou art, orthodox or 
heterodox, send for the Life of Robert Hall. It is the life 
of a man that does good to manhood itself to contem- 
plate. . . ." 

In that thrilling masterpiece of fiction, Stevenson's 
Treasure Island, Bristol figures prominently, for was 
it not in Bristol, at the sign of the " Spy-Glass," 
the little tavern near the docks, with a large brass 


telescope hung over the door, that the hero became first 
acquainted with that matchless scoundrel, John Silver, 
whose favourite song, commencing " Fifteen men on the 
dead man's chest," haunts the reader's memory? From 
here, too, they set sail in the Hispaniol.i on their adven- 
turous quest of the "Treasure Island." 

Emma Jane Worboise, in her historic novel, Campion 
Court, speaks of Bristol as "a port of such renown that 
it could dispute the palm, for trade and commerce, even 
with London itself . . . and her merchants were men of 
dignity, and of almost measureless wealth." She gives a 
fine picture of the city in the following passage : " The 
sun lighted up the ancient streets, and sparkled on the 
Float . . . The cool shadows yet lay broad and deep 
across the College Green, and the cathedral tower, though 
of no very fair proportions, rose massively against the 
intense blue of the cloudless sky. Coming down the path 
under the walls of St. Augustine's Church, the knight 
remarked that the scene reminded him very much of 
Venice, for there was the broad water, and the tall ships, 
and the little boats floating idly at the foot of the ferry 
steps ; and over the water lay the mass of the ancient city, 
with its lofty spires and towers, and above all the magnifi- 
cent tower of the church dedicated to St. Stephen the 

The success of Mrs. Henry Wood's East Lynne was 
entirely due to a Bristolian. When that famous novel 
had been published over a year, and was not in any sense 
taking the fiction-reading public by storm, by a lucky 
chance it fell into the hands of Samuel Lucas, already 
referred to, who reviewed for The Times. It came 
about in this way. Meeting Tinsley, the publisher, one 
day, he said : " Well, Tinsley, which is the most popular 


novel at the present time ? " Tinsley replied that he 
thought East Lynnc was the most interesting he had 
met with. This casual opinion induced Lucas to obtain 
a copy, which he took home and read, and not only read, 
but what is more, wrote an extremely long review on it, 
extending to nearly two columns, for The Times, which 
appeared on January 25th, 1862. This review gave an 
extraordinary stimulus to the sale of the novel, and for 
weeks afterwards the printers were kept busy day and 
night to cope with the demand for copies. From that 
time its success was assured. 

The famous Egyptologist and novelist, Amelia B. 
Edwards, lived at The Larches, Westbury-on-Trym, for 
nearly thirty years. She wrote eight novels, several of 
which were very successful, her last and most popular one. 
Lord Brackenbury, passing through no fewer than fifteen 
editions. Her career, however, as a novelist came to an 
abrupt close when she paid her first visit to Egypt, which 
changed the whole course of her intellectual life. She 
conceived an intense enthusiasm for the study of Egypt- 
olog)^, and to her and the late Reginald Stewart Poole the 
world owes the founding of the Egypt Exploration Fund. 
She founded, too, the first chair of Egyptology in this 
country, and designated the well-known authority on 
Egypt, Professor Flinders Petrie, its first occupant. She 
died in 1892, and lies buried in Henbury Churchyard. 

Readers of Sir Walter Besant's fine historical novel, 
For Faith and Freedom, will remember that the arch- 
hypocrite, Peel, took the heroine, Alice Eykin, on their 
arrival in Bristol, to a house in Broad Street, near 
St. John's Arch, to lodge, preparatory to her being 
shipped — as, alas ! too many of the unfortunate victims of 
the Monmouth Rebellion were — to Barbadoes as a slave. 



There is, too, a great deal of local colouring in Clark 
Russell's Jack's Courtship, for in speaking of Redcliff 
Church, he sa}S : " It is an architectural dream, most 
lovely and most tender. Why are not all churches 
equally lovely? Ladies, St. Mary RedcUff is a church to 
get married in," 

A. T. Quiller-Couch (an Old Cliftonian), in one of 
his finest historical novels. The Splendid Spur, tells how 
his hero, John Marvel, escapes from Bristol Castle (being 
a king's man), and by the timely aid of the quaint and 
deaf skipper of the Godsend, gets beyond the reach of his 

In William Black's novel, llie Strange Adventures of 

a House-boat, occurs a graphic description of our Downs, 

which runs as follows: — "After luncheon we got a 

carriage and drove away out to the famous Downs of 

which Bristol is very naturally proud. It was a beautiful 

afternoon — a light westerly wind tempering the hot glare 

of the sun ; and there was everywhere a summer-like 

profusion of foliage and blossom — of red and white 

hawthorn, of purple lilac and golden laburnum — in the 

pretty gardens that front the long-ascending Whiteladies- 

Road. Arrived at the downs, we of course proceeded on 

foot, across the undulating pasture land bestarred with 

squat hawthorn-bushes, that were now all powdered over 

with pink-white or cream-white bloom. The view from 

these heights was magnificent : beyond the luxuriant 

woods in the neighbourhood of the Avon, which were 

all golden-green in the warm afternoon light, the wide 

landscape retreated fold upon fold and ridge upon ridge 

to the high horizon line, becoming bluer and bluer till 

lost in the pale southern sky. It was only here or there 

that some far hill or hamlet, some church spire, or 

" HUGH CONWAY." 195 

wood -crowned knoll, caught that golden glow, and shone 
faint and dim ; mere distance subdued all local colour ; 
and the successive landscape waves that rolled out to the 
horizon were but so many different shades of atmospheric 
azure, lightening or deepening according to the nature of 
the country. Of topographical knowledge we had none ; 
we only knew that this was a bit of England; and a very 
fair and pleasant sight it seemed to be. 

"And then, again, from these lofty heights, we made 
our way down the steep slopes that overhang the river, 
by pathways flecked with sunlight and shade, and through 
umbrageous woods that offered a welcome shelter on 
this hot afternoon. Truly Bristol is a fortunate city to 
have such picturesque and pleasant open spaces in her 
immediate neighbourhood ; and she has done wisely in 
not employing too much of the art of the landscape- 
gardener. There is sufficient of the wilderness about 
these hanging woods — though there are also smooth 
winding wa3's for those who object to scrambling and 
climbing. . . . 

" Then we climbed up again to the summit of Clifton 
Down . . . and found another spacious landscape all 
round us — the deep chasm of the river right beneath ; 
high in the air, but still far below us, the Suspension 
Bridge ; over to the west the beautiful woods of Leigh ; 
and beyond these the stretch of fertile country that lies 
between the Avon and the Severn." 

Chief among modern fiction writers who are connected 
with Bristol is " Hugh Conway," the famous author of 
Called Back. F. J. Fargus, to give his real name, was 
born at Bristol, December 26th, 1847. His first literary 
efforts were in the direction of plays and songs. At the 
age of seventeen he sent a burlesque which he had written 


to William Robertson (father of Mrs. Kendal), at the 
Bristol Theatre Royal. He was, however, more successful 
with his songs, and one of them, Some Day, was 
extremely popular. But it was when he turned his 
attention to fiction that he really made headway, and in 
the year 1883 he took the reading public by storm with 
his celebrated novel, Called Back, which was followed by 
Dark Days. From that time till his lamented death at 
Nice, on May 15th, 1885, he was in the front rank of 
popular novelists. 

To use a journahstic phrase, Called Back "caught on" 
in a wonderful way. It was altogether in a new style, 
brilliantly written, and was published at a moderate price, 
and it is no exaggeration to say that its publication 
sounded the death-knell of the three volume novel. 

It may not be inappropriate to introduce here the 
remarks which appeared in Truth with reference to this 
epoch-making novel : — " Who Arrowsmith is and who 
Hugh Conway is I do not know, nor had I ever heard 
of the Christmas Annual of the former, or of the latter 
as a writer of fiction ; but a week or two ago a friend 
of mine said to me : ' Buy Arrowsmith's Xmas Annual 
if you want to read one of the best stories that have 
appeared for many a year.' A few days ago I happened 
to be at the Waterloo Station waiting for a train. I 
remembered the advice, and asked the clerk at the book- 
stall for the Annual. He handed it to me, and remarked, 
' They say the story is very good, but this is only the third 
copy I have sold.' It was so foggy that I could not read 
it in the train, as I had intended, so I put the book in my 
pocket. About two that night it occurred to me that it 
was nearing the hour when decent, quiet people go to bed. 
I saw the Annual staring me in the face, and took it up. 


._A «-^ o^Qk. Co 




Well, not until 4.30 did I get to bed. By that time I had 
finished the story. Had I not I should have gone on 
reading. I agree with my friend — nay, I go further than 
him, and say that Wilkie Collins never penned a more 
enthralling story. ... I can only hope that Mr. Hugh 
Conway will soon be good enough to write another story 
— a better one of its kind than Called Back, however, 
neither he nor anyone else can write. I only ask that 
it should be one half as good." 

The novel was first published as the Christmas Afinual 
for 1883 in connection with the Bristol Library Series. 
Its success was phenomenal, nearly half a million copies 
having been sold ; it has also been translated into many 

"Hugh Conway's" death was deeply regretted by those 
who saw that, had he been spared, he would have 
produced far better work than that which secured his 
success. He lies' buried at Nice, and the late Lord 
Houghton wrote his epitaph, which described him as 
"A British writer of fiction of great renown and greater 
promise, who died prematurely." In Bristol cathedral is 
a memorial tablet to his memory. 

As a writer of pure and wholesome stories for the 
young, the name of Emma Marshall must not be 
forgotten. For many years she was resident in Clifton. 
Between 1861 and i8gg, the year of her death, she wrote 
over two hundred stories. The late Master of the Temple, 
Alfred Ainger, in advocating the memorial to her memory 
in the cathedral, spoke of " the high and pure qualit}^ of 
her literary work," and declared that her stories " have 
been a means of awakening and cultivating a taste for 
history and literature throughout the English-speaking 
world." Several of her works, viz. In Colston's Days, 

10 A 


The Totcer on the Cliff, and Bristol Diamonds, are distinctly 
local in their scenes and incidents. 

Among distinguished writers of our day connected 
with Bristol are Israel Zangwill, who was educated at 
Redcross Street School ; Robert Hichens, novelist and 
playwright, who lived for many years in Clifton, and was 
educated at its college ; and Charles Marriott, who was 
born here. Many too are the novels of living writers 
which have scenes and references to Bristol, Among 
these may be noted A. E. W. Mason's Courtship of Morricc 
Buckler, Cope Cornford's Buccaneers, Conan Doyle's Rodney 
Stone, and Dora Chesney's Rupert, By the Grace of God. 
Enough, however, has been said to show that Bristol in 
fiction, as in other directions, plays a very important 

Art Associations. 

Aftey Painting by Nathan Branwhite. 



W. J. Midler ; his great sketching powers; early death — Sir 
Thomas Laivrence — Edivard Hodges Baily — Turner's 
connection ivith Bristol — JoJin Simmons and Hogarth — 
Edward Bird — Paul Falconer Poole — Francis Dauby 
and his sons, T. and J. F. Danhy — James Baker Pyne 
— H. Brittan Willis — Nicholas Pocock and his son, 
Isaac Pocock — G. A. Fripp and A. D. Fripp — Samuel 
Jackson and S. P. Jackson — William Evans — John King 
— Samuel Collins — -Nathan and CJiarlesBranwhitc — John 
Skinner Prout — John Eagles, friend of the "Bristol 
School'' of Artists — Peter Vandyke — Robert Hancock, 
engraver ■ — • William Pether, mezzotint engraver — Sir 
Robert Ker Porter and his association with Bristol — 
William Blake and George Ctmiberland — Edward 
Blore — Joh)i Syer—C. W. Furse — E. W. Godwin; his 
friendship with James McNeill Whistler. 

^MONG associations which have justly made Bristol 
famous are those connected with Art. The pride 
of place among these must be given to W. J. 
Miiller, born in 1812, at 13 Hillsbridge Parade, near 
Bath Bridge, the son of a former curator of the civic 
museum. His first lessons in painting were derived 
from his fellow-townsman, James Baker Pyne, and at 



the age of fourteen a picture painted by him was accepted 
and hung at the Bristol Art Exhibition. 

It is somewhat remarkable that, at the very begin- 
ning of his career as an artist, he boldly struck out a 
new line for himself, and went direct to Nature and 
painting in the open air. At the age of twenty-one he 
began to exhibit at the Royal Academy. Miiller soon 
proved himself one of the most original and powerful 
of painters from Nature. He seized with instinctive 
ease the characteristics of a scene with wonderful fidelity 
and clearness. His selection and generalisation were 
nearly always masterly, his colour pure and strong, and 
he could probably suggest more with a few touches of 
his brush than any of his contemporaries. He was, too, 
one of the lirst English artists to visit and paint the 
gorgeous East, and his sketches in Egypt and Asia 
Minor are still as unequalled in force and brilliance of 
record and in the purity of their Eastern character as 
they are in sheer sketching strength. It is only necessary 
to view the fine collection in the Birmingham Art Gallery 
to be convinced of this. 

Apart from the East, which he loved so well, no 
scenery appealed to him more strongly than that which 
surrounded the place of his birth. The localities of 
Stapleton, Hambrook, Hanham, Whitchurch, and 
Pensford yielded a rich harvest of subjects for his 
gifted and untiring brush ; but his favourite haunt was 
Brislington Valley (Saint Anne's). His first sketch was 
made in the grounds of Blaise Castle at Henbury. 

One of Miiller's greatest admirers was his young 
contemporary, the afterwards famous David Cox, who 
thought him a man of extraordinary ability. Soon 
after Miiller's return from the East, Cox obtained an 

W. J. MULLER. 203 

introduction to him, and was privileged to see him 
at work in his studio. One of the pictures he painted 
in Cox's presence was the famous " Ammunition 
Wagon," which he completed — such was the rapidity 
of his execution — in two sittings. Miiller's dexterity in 
using the brush was nothing short of the marvellous. 
His " Chess Players " is an illustration of this rapidity 
of execution, for he only took two days to paint it. 
This celebrated work was originally sold by Miiller for 
-£■2^ ; in 1874 it fetched -£"4,052. Cox was profoundly 
impressed with Miiller's methods, and, basing his own 
on them, rapidly won for himself a position in the very 
front rank of artists. A proof of Cox's admiration for 
Miiller's work lies in the fact that he purchased several 
of his pictures for his own pleasure and study — 
surely the finest tribute of praise from one artist to 
another ! 

x\n amusing story of Miiller's sketching powers is 
the following: — On one occasion he was on a sketching 
tour in North Wales, and whilst at his inn got into 
conversation with a stranger, who was also an artist. 
Miiller, whose dress betokened anything but the pro- 
fessional artist, misled the stranger, who took him for 
an amateur painter — probably a small tradesman or clerk 
in some city establishment taking his holiday and doing 
a little sketching by way of amusement. However, tliey 
both went out sketching together. Finding some good 
cottage subjects in the neighbourhood, they selected 
one and started painting. The stranger artist sketched 
most carefully the subject upon the canvas, laid out 
his colours, and put in a few tints here and there 
just to feel his way, and after working for about an 
hour he thought he would have a peep and see how 


the "amateur" was getting on. He fully expected to 
see a mere daub, out of perspective and vile in colour 
and drawing. What was his astonishment on discover- 
ing that his companion had nearly finished his picture,. 
whilst his own was little more than commenced ! 
And such a picture ! so masterly in its colouring and 
handling, every detail being simply perfect, that he 
was speechless in contemplating it. At length he burst 
out, " Well, you have astonished me ! I did not think 
you could paint anything fit to be seen ! May I inquire 
your name ? " " Miiller," was the quiet reply. " Oh," 
replied the other with a groan of contrition, "why didn't 
you tell me that before ? I took you for a tailor ! " 

Ere, however, Muller's splendid talents had won him 
well-deserved recognition in the art world, he succumbed 
to a fatal disease contracted by exposure on his sketching 
tours in the East, which cut short his career in 1845 ^^ 
the early age of thirty-three. He died at his brother's 
house at the corner of Park Row and Park Street 
Avenue (corner nearest the Prince's Theatre). Well and 
truly has it been said, such were the evidences of his skill 
which he left behind him, that it was impossible to say 
to what heights he would not have soared had death 
spared him for a longer span of life. There could be 
little doubt, however, that he would have taken high 
rank as one of the greatest and noblest of landscape 
painters. Few men have laid their art on such a 
firm and sound basis ; and with long life, closer com- 
munings with Nature, his great brush power and fine 
sense of colour, his art would have broadened still further 
and his triumphs have been many. Certain it is that 
with the bare record of life ending at thirty-three, William 
James Muller must ever hold a foremost place amongst 


(After the Painting by himself.) 


the greatest of English painters. His works have 
risen enormously in the public estimation since his 

At No. 6 Redcross Street was born on May 4th, 1769, 
one of the most distinguished of the presidents of the 
Royal Academy, Sir Thomas Lawrence. His early 
education was derived from Mr. Jones, the predecessor 
of Samuel Seyer, on St. Michael's Hill. For a short 
time his father kept the " White Lion," Broad Street, 
better known to-day as the "Grand Hotel." The bent 
of his genius early showed itself, for when in his teens 
his proficiency was such as to leave all his competitors 
in the antique school far behind him. His personal 
attractions, too, were as remarkable as his talents, and 
to his admiring fellow-students he seemed to be endowed 
with the gifts of a young Titian. Strikingly handsome, 
with lovely chestnut locks flowing down his shoulders, 
his appearance was romantic in the extreme. From 
early }-outh to the close of his brilliant and successful 
career he was an indefatigable worker. He became 
the great rival of Sir Joshua Reynolds, who most 
generously showed him much kindness, and adjured 
him to " Study Nature ! Study Nature ! " 

Becoming by his courtly and fascinating manners 
the favourite painter of George HL, through whose 
influence he ultimately became President of the Royal 
Academy, his studio was inundated with the rank and 
beauty of the age, who literally clamoured for sittings.. 
Among those who sat to him were the illustrious Sarah 
Siddons, Lady Hamilton, the object of Nelson's attach- 
ment, and Cowper the poet. 

In the painting of the human eye Lawrence was 
considered unrivalled. A bust of this great artist from 


the chisel of his distinguished fellow -citizen, Baily, 
adorns the civic Art Gallery. 

Edward Hodges Baily, the sculptor, was the son of 
a ship -carver of this city, and to this fact must be 
attributed his early bent towards art. Soon after the age 
of sixteen he became a pupil of the famous Flaxman, 
under whom his progress was rapid. Ere he attained 
his twentieth year he had carried off a prize given by the 
Society of A.rts, and but little more than a year later he 
was awarded the first silver medal of the Royal Academy, 
and at twenty-three he secured the coveted gold medal 
and fifty guineas, which were then the "blue ribbon" 
of that Institution. At the very threshold of his career, 
when he was but twenty-four, he produced his famous 
and exquisite statue of " Eve at the Fountain,'' which 
is one of the city's most prized possessions, and which 
won for its creator the prize of one hundred guineas 
from the British Institution as the best specimen of 
British sculpture. The loveliness of this great work 
placed him at a bound in the front rank, and casts 
of it were at once in demand from the continental art 
schools. This work was purchased from the artist for 
-^^550 ; the marble alone cost the sculptor ;^400. 

In 182 1 he became Academician, and was the only 
sculptor who succeeded to that honour during the 
presidency of Sir Thomas Lawrence. The beautiful 
frieze over the portico of the Freemasons' Hall, at the 
bottom of Park Street (formerly the Bristol Institution), 
is from his chisel, and was presented as a token of 
affection to his native city. Though begrimed almost 
beyond recognition, close inspection will convince one 
that it bears the impress of a master hand. 

Among the various statues he executed during his 



E. II. JiAILY, K.A. 


career were those of Sir Robert Peel at Manchester 
and Earl Grey at Newcastle, whilst the commanding 
figure of Nelson that surmounts the column in Trafalgar 
Square, London, was also his work. He died in 1867. 

Turner, the greatest name in English landscape art, 
had more than a passing acquaintance with Bristol. 
In his early life he met in Devonshire, where he was 
sketching, Mr. Narraway, a fellmonger of Broadmead 
(his dwelling stood on the site of Nos. 50 — 53), who 
invited Turner to visit him. This the painter did, and 
his acquaintance with the Narraways ripened after his 
visit. A drawing of Cote House, Westbury, was done 
whilst here in the year 1791 or 1792, when Turner was 
about eighteen, in which he introduced the figures of 
Sir Henry Lippincott and others. This drawing was 
originally bought by Mrs. Herbert Thomas (sister of Mary 
Carpenter) from Miss Dart, niece of Mr. Narraway, for 
the sum of £20. It measures 16 in. by iifin. Another 
drawing he did at this time was " St. Mary Redciiff — 
the Chapel, south-west," a drawing of considerable 
power and beautiful in tone. This was originally in 
the possession of a Bristolian named Short. 

Miss Dart has stated that during his stay in Bristol 
he borrowed a pony and saddle from her uncle when 
he departed on a sketching tour in Wales. These, 
she says, were never returned, but collateral c\idence 
proves that Turner more than repaid with drawings and 
money any kindness that the Narraway family had shown 
him whilst here. For instance, on Miss Dart at Turner's 
death writing to his executors asking for time to pay a 
sum of ;£'35 she owed him, they found no note of the debt 
among his papers. It is, therefore, justly supposed that 
he had destroyed evidence of the debt. 


That Turner was in Bristol in the closing years of 
the eighteenth century is still further proved by the fact 
that a drawing of his, " The Old Hotwell House in 
1791," is in the possession of the Fine Arts Academy, 
and that in 1793 he exhibited, at the Royal Academy 
a view on the River Avon entitled, " Rising Squall, 
Hotwells." He also sketched a view of the Avon ^from 
the Sea Walls, "View of Cook's Folly, looking up the 

A long - forgotten art worthy of Bristol, John 
Simmons, deserves honourable mention in the roll of 
Bristol artists. He was born in 1714, and acquired in 
his day a great local reputation as a signboard painter. 
Many famous artists, among others David Cox, have been 
signboard painters. When Hogarth was in Bristol putting 
up his celebrated pictures in Redcliff Church, which 
were purchased by the vestry for five hundred guineas, 
and afterwards presented to the Fine Arts Academy, 
tradition says that passing along Redcliff Street the 
sign of "The Angel" attracted his attention, and being 
informed that it was painted by Simmons, he said, 
"Then they need not have sent for me; that is the 
artist who should have executed the altar-piece in 
Redcliff Church." 

Hogarth became acquainted with Simmons, and 
when walking one day through the city with him stood 
some time looking at a signboard in one of the streets. 
On Simmons asking him why he noticed it, he replied, 
" I am sure you painted it, for there is no one else 
here that could." 

Apropos of this, Thackeray gives in his English 
Humourists a very amusing account of Hogarth's con- 
tempt for the great masters by putting into his mouth 


the following: "Historical painters be hanged! Here's 
the man that will paint against any of them for a 
hundred pounds. Correggio's ' Sigismunda ' ! Look at 
Bill Hogarth's * Sigismunda ' ; look atjmy altar-piece at 
St. Mary Redcliffe, Bristol; look at my 'Paul befoie 
Felix,' and see whether I 'm not as good as the best 
of them ! " 

In the year 1797, Edward Bird, who had migrated 
here from Birmingham, announced in the local press 
of June 24th that as historical and landscape painter 
he had opened an evening school for young gentlemen — 
the first of its kind to be opened in the city. This 
art school was opened in the last neighbourhood which 
an artist of to-day would dream of selecting for the 
purpose — Temple Back. Mr. Bird's terms were as 
modest as his surroundings were humble, his fee being 
for each pupil one guinea a quarter for three lessons 
per week from five to seven o'clock. To his honour, 
and with little encouragement from the city of his 
adoption, he rose by his talents to the coveted position 
of Royal Academician. 

His most celebrated painting, " Chevy Chase," was 
purchased by the Marquis of Stafford for three hundred 
guineas, the original sketch being acquired^ by Sir Walter 
Scott. The remarkable power shown in its composition 
is best evidenced by the eloquent fact that on seeing it 
Allan Cunningham was so profoundlyTimpressed that 
he burst into tears. This picture procured for Bird 
the honour of being appointed court painter to Princess 

In regard to another of his works. ^" The Death of 
Eli," it is related that owing to his procrastination in 
finishing it he narrowly esccfped being too late for the 


Exhibition. However, by means of great exertion he 
finished it, and ere it was dry packed and hurried it 
to the "Bush" coach office for transit to London; but 
the book-keeper being already full up with luggage, 
peremtorily refused so large a package. Matters looked 
desperate, but fortunately at this juncture Mr. Weeks, 
the popular host of the " Bush," arrived on the scene, 
and speedily changed the aspect of affairs by declaring, 
on hearing it was Bird's picture refused, " that he 
would have the whole coach unpacked but what it should 
go." Thanks therefore to him, the picture reached the 
exhibition in time. This work was awarded a premium 
of three hundred guineas by the British Institution. 

Bird died at King's Parade, Redland (lately demol- 
ished) in i8ig, and lies buried in Bristol Cathedral. So 
great was the respect in which he was held, that no 
fewer than two hundred of the leading citizens followed 
his remains. A subscription was afterwards raised for 
his family, Prince Leopold, to whom Bird had been 
appointed historical painter, sending ;^ioo. His last 
great work, "The Embarkation of Louis XVIIL," was 
purchased for ;r65o by the Earl of Bridgwater. John 
Eagles, well known in his day as " The Sketcher " of 
Blackivood, was one of his closest friends. 

At 43 College Street, was born, in 1807, Paul 
Falconer Poole, the son of a small tradesman. Though 
entirely self-taught, by sheer force of native ability he won 
an eminent place in the art world. Going to London 
early in his career, the first picture he exhibited at 
the Royal Academy was entitled "The Well," a scene 
at Naples. After passing through a period of privation, he 
left London and went back to the provinces, but returned 
again to London in 1836, and succeeded in getting 


his pictures hung at the Royal Academy. He is 
described about this time by Mr. Bell Scott, who, when 
speaking of a group of young artists, said : " The best 
is Poole, who is possessed of a strong individuality, 
a man of peculiar powers of mind, vivid perceptions, 
entering into everything with as much interest as into 
his own affairs." Poole's greatest work, " Solomon 
Eagle," the enthusiast of Ainsworth's romance, when 
hung, attracted immediate and general attention, and 
won the eulogistic praise of The AihencBtan and 
Blackwood, and also brought the artist a ^^300 prize 
from Liverpool. After becoming an Associate, his 
" Edward the Third and the Burghers of Calais," 
exhibited in Westminster Hall competition, also gained 
him a prize of ;^300, and made his position as an 
artist assured. One of Poole's most impressive pictures 
was that of "Job," and one of his most poetical "The 
Song of the Troubadour." The purchaser of the latter 
picture, a worthy Manchester merchant, was so pleased 
with his bargain, that of his own accord he changed 
the ;;{^6oo to six hundred guineas. Unhappily, in so 
doing he wounded the feelings of the artist, who refused 
to accept the addition to the price. Perhaps Poole's 
greatest success was his picture exhibited in i860, 
founded on Lytton's Last Days of Pompeii, entitled 
" Glaucus, lone, and Nydia." The following year he 
was elected to the coveted distinction of Royal Acade- 
mician. Those w^ho were privileged to know this poet- 
painter, described him as brilliant in conversation and 
well read, for he charmed all by his genial and courteous 
manners. He was exceedingly kind and generous to 
youngj artists. Turner he admired intensely and boldly 
declared he was the greatest artist of all time. Poole, 


like the object of his eulogistic praise, was a superb 
colourist, the dominant note of his work being a tawny 
gold. The position he attained in the world of art 
may be gauged from the fact that he occupies a place 
with W. J. Miiller in the gth edition of the Encyclo- 
pcedia Britannica. 

Closely associated with Bristol was the distinguished 
and original painter Francis Danby. Born in Ireland 
in 1793, the son of a small landed proprietor, he took 
lessons in that country, but in the year 1813, accom- 
panied by friends, migrated to England, reaching Bristol 
in so destitute a condition that he was obliged to sell 
two of his sketches for the ridiculous sum of 8s. 6d. to 
a stationer in College Green to relieve his immediate 
wants. However, in spite of this inauspicious begin- 
ning, he took up his abode in Bristol and met with 
a liberal patron in one of her citizens named Fry. 
In 1817 he contributed his first picture to the Royal 

Becoming conscious of his powers, he successfully ex- 
hibited three important pictures at the British Institution 
and Academy in 1820-1. One of these, "Disappointed 
Love," now in the Sheepshanks Collection at South 
Kensington, was considered a remarkable instance of the 
triumph of imaginative genius over technical defects. 
His magnificent painting, " Sunset at Sea after a 
Storm," received the great compliment of being pur- 
chased by Sir Thomas Lawrence, and his " Enchanted 
Island" was celebrated by " L.E.L." in verse. In 1825 
he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy. 
The path to the highest honours in his profession were 
now opened to him, but domestic difficulties, chiefl}' of 
his own making, intervened. Had it not been for this, 


it is no idle statement to say he would have ranked 
with the greatest exponents of his art. 

His works have been eulogised by Thackeray, who 
says : " We have scarcely ever seen a work by him in 
regarding which the spectator does not feel impressed 
by something of that solemn contemplation and reverent 
worship of Nature which seem to pervade the artist's 
mind and pencil. One may say of Mr. Danby that he 
paints morning and evening odes." Disraeli alludes in 
his novel Coningsby to the " magic pencil of Danby." 
The mind of a true poet inspired all that he did. 

His sons, Thomas and J. F. Danby, followed their 
father's profession, but the former alone attained 
eminence. He was born in Bristol in 1817, and early 
showed artistic promise. During a sojourn with his father 
on the Continent at the youthful age of thirteen, he was 
able to draw so well that he earned his living by copying 
pictures at the Louvre. Whilst so engaged, he became 
deeply impressed with the work of Claude. Later, he 
visited Switzerland, and in 1866, at the Dudley Gallery, 
his drawings attracted much attention, and were well 
hung. His landscapes, like his father's, are impressed 
with poetic feeling. He just missed, by one vote, being 
elected Associate of the Royal Academy, but the Water- 
Colour Society received him with open arms. His 
favourite sketching ground was Wales. " He was always 
trying," said The Times at his death, " to render his 
inner heart's feeling of a beautiful view rather than the 
local facts received on the retina." 

Among Bristol artists of eminence was James Baker 
Pyne, born in the city in 1800, and educated with the 
idea of following the law. Art, however, had stronger 
attractions for him, and though entirely self-taught, he 


soon gained a considerable reputation. In the year 
1835 he went to London and exhibited at the Royal 
Academy. Afterwards he contributed chiefly to the 
Society of British Artists. He emulated the later style 
of Turner, was a good colourist, showed marked 
proficiency in technique, and was in every way a 
meritorious artist. 

Contemporary with him at the beginning of the last 
century was H. Brittan Willis. This distinguished 
artist was born in Bristol in 1810, his father being a 
painter of considerable local reputation. By the aid of 
his father's instruction, combined with unremitting study 
of Nature, Willis achieved great success as an animal 
and landscape painter. Although very prolific, all his 
paintings are characterised by much careful work, :ire 
attractive in the highest degree, and were often hung 
at the Royal Academy and other well-known exhibitions. 
His sketching haunts were chiefly Scotland and Wales. 
In 1862 he was elected a member of the Old Water- 
Colour Society, and became a constant contributor to 
its exhibitions. One of his finest pictures, " Highland 
Cattle," painted in 1866, was honoured by being bought 
by Queen Victoria. His " Ben Cruachan Cattle coming 
South " was exhibited at the Paris Exhibition of 1867. 

The eminent depicter of some of England's greatest 
naval battles, Nicholas Pocock, had his birth in Bristol. 
He was the eldest son of a merchant ; early in life he 
took to the sea, and afterwards was for some time in the 
employ of the famous Bristol potter, Richard Champion. 
In 1767 he left Bristol as commander of one of 
Champion's shi43s. The Lloyd, for South Carolina. 
Later he commanded The Minerva, belonging to the 
same owner. His bent, however, towards art showed 


itself even whilst on his voyages, for his journals were 
charmingly illustrated by sketches in Indian ink. In 
the year 1780 Pocock sent his first attempt in oils, a 
seascape, to the Royal Academy. It arrived too late 
for exhibition, but Sir Joshua Reynolds was so struck 
with its merits as to write him an encouraging letter 
of advice. In 1782 he was more successful, apd 
exhibited at the Royal Academy "A View of Redcliff 
Church from the Sea Banks," Henceforward he became 
a constant exhibitor. In 1789 he removed to London, 
where he rapidly rose to eminence as a painter of naval 
engagements. He was one of the original founders of 
the Old Water-Colour Society, and refused its presidency. 
Whilst living in Bristol he resided in Prince Street. 
Several of his works are among the art treasures at 
Hampton Court and Greenwich Hospital. A fine canvas 
of his is in the Merchant Venturers' Hall, King Street, 
Bristol, " Earl Rodney's Victory over De Grasse in the 
West Indies." This picture was engraved in 1784, and 
the Merchant Venturers subscribed ten guineas towards 
the expense. He died in 1821. 

Isaac Pocock, his son, born in Bristol in 1782, 
inherited much of his father's skill, and about 1798 
became a pupil of the famous George Romney, after 
whose death he studied under Sir William Beechey. 
He absorbed to some extent the style of both. Between 
the years 1800 and 1805 he constantly exhibited at the 
Royal Academy, and in 1807 his " Murder of St. 
Thomas a Becket " was awarded the prize of /^loo 
given by the British Institution. His death took place 
in 1835. 

One of the most distinguished members of the Old 
Water-Colour Society, and one of its founders, G. A. 


Fripp, was born in Bristol, and received his art educa- 
tion here. His work is representative of a type of 
landscape art refining in itself and essentially English 
in its character. He was the contemporary in Bristol 
of Miiller and Pyne. With the former he had the great 
privilege of spending some months on a sketching tour 
in Italy. In the year 1838 he was exhibiting at the 
Royal Academy, and in 1841 he was elected an Associate 
of the Society of Painters in Water-Colours, on the 
strength of some drawings he had sent up. His s-uccess 
was now assured as a water-colourist, though he painted 
too in oils, some of which were exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in the years 1843 to 1848, notably " The Pass 
of Splugen, Switzerland," and " Mont Blanc from near 
Cornayeur, Val d'Aosta." This last was a very large 
picture, and was bought by a leading citizen of Liverpool, 
who presented it to the city. The picture evoked high 
praise from the great Turner, also from David Cox, who 
in writing to a friend says : " G. Fripp has some very 
carefully-finished landscapes, which are very good, and 
are liked." Having in the course of his sketching tours 
devoted much time to the mountain and moorland scenery 
of Scotland, he was naturally gratified when in i860 
Queen Victoria " commanded " him to visit Balmoral for 
the purpose of sketching the royal residence and the 
neighbourhood. His work was characterised by refined 
delicacy and tenderness in his sky effects, by truth of 
colouring and by balance of composition. His son, 
Charles E. Fripp, is the distinguished war artist for the 

A. D. Fripp, his younger brother, was also born in 
Bristol, in 1822, and was indebted for his art instruction 
to W. J. Miiller. He soon became successful and 


removed to London, where he was elected Associate of 
the Old Water- Colour Society. Among his intimate 
acquaintances were Lord Leighton, Sir E. J. Poynter, 
and other leading artists of distinction. In 1853 he 
exhibited his " Pompeii, or the City of the Dead." 
This picture had the honour of being exhibited at the 
Manchester Jubilee Exhibition of 1887. Having spent 
many years in Italy, he painted several subjects dealing 
with that sunny land. So esteemed was he by the 
Old Water - Colour Society that its members elected 
him their secretary, a post he filled with credit to 
himself and advantage to the Society. 

Not unknown to fame was Samuel Jackson, an artist 
of considerable merit. He was the son of a Bristol 
merchant, and was born in 1794. Disliking the 
routine of a merchant's office, he abandoned business 
and devoted himself to landscape art, and became a 
pupil of Francis Danby. His success was such that 
in 1823 he was elected Associate of the Society of 
Painters in Water-Colours, and for many years con- 
tributed to its exhibitions. Wales, Devon, Somerset, 
and the locality of Bristol and Clifton, were his chief 
sketching haunts. Late in life he visited Switzerland, 
and his pictures of its scenery are counted amongst his 
most successful works. He died in 1869. 

His son, S. P. Jackson, who died so recently as the 
beginning of 1904, followed with distinction in his 
father's footsteps. He was born in 1830, studying figure 
drawing at the life school of the Bristol Academy. His 
first exhibited work in London was painted when he 
was twenty. It was a large picture, four feet long, 
entitled "An Indiaman ashore on the Welsh coast," and 
was hung on the Line at the British Institute in 1850. 



He followed up this with other successes, many of his 
works being hung at the Royal Academy. For many 
years he was a member of the Old Water-Colour Society. 
Within the confines of the British Isles he found ample 
subjects for his brush. His drawings are remarkable 
for clean handling and sober harmonies of colour, in 
which the moist vapours of our west country are sug- 
gested by the use of well-blended greys, which secured 
the approval of such a master as Copley Fielding. In 
his treatment of landscape he showed the power of 
poetic insight and feeling of a rare order. His was 
not the work to appeal to the multitude, but the 
solemn beauty of his Cornish twilight coast scenes 
were most impressive. He was one of the youngest 
artists ever elected Associate of the Old Water-Colour 

Among Bristol painters of his period William Evans, 
popularly known as " Evans of Bristol," well deserves a 
place. He was the son of John Evans, author of the 
Chronological Outline of the History of Bristol. Evans's 
rendering of the scenery of North Wales stamped him 
as a painter of no ordinary kind and secured him fame. 
So enthusiastic was he in the study of Nature that, in 
order to watch the snow effects on the mountains, he 
lived at a wretched hovel of a farm near Bettws-y-Coed, 
and the room in which he slept, we are told, was full 
of holes swarming with rats, which ran over his bed 
during the night. 

An artist who attained considerable local fame was 
John King, born at Dartmouth in 1788. He first 
exhibited at the British Institution in 1814, and at the 
Royal Academy in 1817. His paintings were chiefly 
historical subjects and portraits. He painted many 


pictures in Bristol, notably " The Incredulity of St. 
Thomas " for St. Thomas's Church in 1828, and 
"The Dead Christ Surrounded by His Disciples" for 
the church of St. Mark's (the Lord Mayor's Chapel). 
He excelled in portraiture, and executed many portraits 
of the leading citizens of Bristol. His death occurred 
in 1847. 

In Bristol also was born in 1750 the celebrated 
miniature painter, Samuel Collins. Originally intended 
for the law, the bent of his inclination was to art. 
Proceeding to Bath, he soon acquired a large practice, 
and attained a great reputation as one of the most 
perfect miniature painters of the time. He painted 
both on enamel and ivory. Some of his portraits were 
exhibited at the special exhibition of portrait miniatures 
held in 1865. He died in 1780. 

Another miniature painter of repute, Thomas 
Redmond, born at Brecon in 1745, was originally 
apprenticed to a house - painter in Bristol. After a 
course of study in London, he also settled in Bath, 
where he met with considerable success. He exhibited 
many portraits at the London exhibitions. 

Among celebrated miniature painters connected with 
Bristol the name of Nathan Bran white must not be 
ignored. Though born in Suffolk, he early settled down 
in this city, at No. i College Green, and met with 
considerable success. He exhibited many miniatures 
at the Royal Academy between 1802 and 1825. He 
was also a very good stipple engraver. 

His son, Charles Branwhite, was born in Bristol 
in 1 8 17. He too became an artist, and devoted himself 
first to sculpture, and when about twenty secured silver 
medals from the Society of Arts for figures in bas-relief. 


Finally he turned to oil painting. Between the years 
1845 and 1859 he contributed numerous works to the 
great exhibitions and also to provincial galleries. For 
thirty years he was a constant contributor to the Old 
Water-Colour Society. His characteristic paintings were 
winter scenes with sunset effects. He rarely painted out 
of the British Isles; North Devon, Somerset, the Thames, 
and Wales kept him supplied with subjects for his brush. 
He died in 1880. Branwhite was a friend of Miiller, and 
with him he spent much time sketching in Leigh Woods. 
As a sculptor he executed busts of Robert Hall, Dr. 
Symonds, and other Bristol worthies. 

Contemporary with Branwhite, John Skinner Prout, 
nephew of the great Samuel, the subject of Ruskin's 
eloquent praise, must not be passed over. Born at 
Plymouth in 1806, he early migrated to Bristol, and 
became one of that famous coterie, or school, who have 
left no ignoble name in the annals of British art, 
viz. W. J. Miiller, Samuel Jackson, J. B. Pyne, H. B. 
Willis, the Fripps, and Evans. A local work of Front's, 
Picturesque Antiquiiies of Bristol, published in 1835, was 
republished as late as 1893. He died in London in 

A famous contemporary and friend of the above 
" Bristol School " of artists was John Eagles. He was 
born in the parish of St. Augustine's in 1783, and was 
educated at Seyer's school. He early devoted himself to 
art, as he wished to become a landscape painter; but his 
gift lay rather in art criticism than in its production. 
William Miiller thought highly of his critical powers, 
and valued his friendship. Besides Eagles's numerous 
contributions on art to Blackwood, he wrote a number of 
essays full of shrewd, genial humour, amusing anecdote 


and apt quotation. He also wrote verse, including Felix 
Farley's Rhymes, published in 1826. He was happily 
described by Sydney Smith, to whom he was at one 
time curate, as a "happy mixture of Dean Swift and 
Parson Adams." His quickness of repartee was pro- 

Among artists who have settled in Bristol was Peter 
Vandyke, an alleged relation of the great Vandyke. He 
came to England at the invitation of Sir Joshua Reynolds 
from Holland in 1729 to assist in painting draperies and 
similar work. Removing soon afterwards to Bristol, he 
set up as a portrait painter, and whilst there painted for 
Joseph Cottle the well-known portraits of S. T. Coleridge 
and Robert Southey, now in the National Portrait 

In Bristol lived during the latter part of his life Robert 
Hancock, the celebrated engraver, who was at one time 
part proprietor of the Worcester Porcelain Works. It 
was during his residence here that he drew portraits 
in crayon of Lamb, Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Southey. 
These too are in the National Portrait Gallery. Born 
in 1730, he lived till he was eighty-seven. The famous 
Valentine Green, whose engravings have fetched such 
remarkable prices within the last few years, was his 

His great contemporary, William Pether, one of the 
most eminent mezzotint engravers of his time, lived 
in Bristol for many years. Some of his engravings, 
after the English, Dutch, and Italian masters, especially 
Rembrandt, whose strong effects he rendered with 
admirable taste, are considered masterpieces of engraved 
art. For instance, his plates of "The Jewish Bride," 
"Officer of State," "Lord of the Vineyard," "The 



Hermit," and "The Alchymist." are magnificent speci- 
mens of mezzotinting. One of his engravings fetched 
ninety-five guineas in 1903. Whilst living in Bristol 
Pether engraved the portraits of Colston and Seyer. He 
died in 1821 in Montagu Street, and is buried in Horfield 
Churchyard. Not only was he a great engraver, but 
he was a man of considerable taste and culture. Being 
one day in company with the then City Librarian, he 
mentioned that whilst present one evening at a London 
tavern, a gentleman amongst the company drew forth 
from his pocket a manuscript and requested permission 
to read it. This was granted. The reader was none 
other than Oliver Goldsmith, and the poem he read 
was The Traveller. Happy hstener ! 

In dealing with artists connected with Bristol, place 
must be given to that remarkable man Sir Robert Ker 
Porter, brother of Jane Porter, the author of Scottish 
Chiefs. Born in 1777, he early became interested in 
art, and in 1790 his mother took him to Sir Benjamin 
West, who was so much struck by the vigour and 
spirit of some of his sketches that he procured his 
admission as an academy student at Somerset House. 
His progress was rapid, and in 1792 he received a 
silver palette from the Society of Arts for a historical 
drawing, "The Witch of Endor." In the following 
year he was commissioned to paint an altar-piece for 
Shoreditch Church, and in 1794 he painted " Christ 
Allaying the Storm " for the Roman Catholic Chapel 
at Portsea, and in 1798 "St. John Preaching" for St. 
John's College, Cambridge. His artistic precocity ^^■as 
fully recognised by the fraternity of young artists with 
whom he mixed at this period, and Bob Porter was 
noted for his skill in wielding: the " Big Brush." In 


the year 1800 he astonished the pubhc b\' his " Storm- 
ing of Seringapatam," a huge panoramic picture 120 
feet long which, on the statement of his sister Jane 
Porter, he painted in six weeks. Among others of a 
similar character were his "Agincourt," "Battle of 
Alexandria," the " Siege of x\cre," and the " Death of 
Sir Ralph Abercrombie," all of which were executed 
about this period. Between 1792 and 1S32 he exhibited 
thirty-eight pictures. In 1804 he secured the appoint- 
ment of historical painter to the Czar of Russia. There 
he executed some vast historical paintings, and during 
his residence in the capital w^on the affections of a 
Russian princess. The difficulties this created induced 
him to leave Russia, and he subsequently accompanied 
Sir John Moore (the hero of Wolfe's famous lines) to 
Spain, where he was present throughout the campaign. 
In 181 1 he revisited Russia and triumphantly married 
his Russian princess. 

He soon returned to England, and was knighted by 
the Prince Regent. Shortly after he proceeded through 
the Caucasus, and ultimately to the site of the ancient 
Persepolis, where he made valuable drawings, and 
transcribed a number of the cuneiform inscriptions. 
After visiting many other places, he published the 
results in his Travels in Georgia, Persia, Armenia and 
Ancient Babylonia, a work full of interest. Whilst at 
Teheran he had an interview with the Shall, whose 
portrait he j)aintfd, ;ind who conferred upon him the 
order of the " Lion and the Sun." Returning once 
more to England, he was appointed British Consul in 
Venezuela. In 1841 he was again in England, and 
came to Bristol on a visit to his brother, Dr. W. O. 
Porter, at 29 Portland Square. In the following year 


he died suddenly in Russia as he was returning in his 
drosky from a visit to the Czar. He was a man of 
wonderful versatihty, and has justly been described as 
^' distinguished alike in arts, in diplomacy, in war and 
in literature." He was, too, exceedingly popular with 
people in every condition of life, and also the idol of 
his own fireside. 

Bristol has also an interesting link with that great 
original, imaginative artist and poet, William Blake, in 
the person of George Cumberland. This excellent man 
was a personal friend of Blake's, and was the means 
of rendering a great service to him by introducing him 
in 1813 to John Linnell, who became a valued and 
helpful friend to Blake. Cumberland was one of the 
few who appreciated Blake's work. x\mong things the 
artist did for him was a card-plate. In Cumberland's 
work. Thoughts on Outline, Sculpture, and the System that 
guided Ancient Artists in composing their Figures and 
Groups, there are several plates engraved by Blake. 

One of Cumberland's numerous friends in Bristol 
was John Eagles, who loved to roam with him in 
Leigh Woods. Cumberland took a deep interest in 
our city, and delighted to support every good w-ork ; 
he was a frequent correspondent to the local press 
of his day. His death occurred at the great age 
of ninety-five. 

The famous architect and artist, Edward Blore, in his 
youth did a good deal of sketching in Bristol, and some of 
the most beautiful illustrations to Seyer's i/^mom of Bristol 
were drawn and engraved by him, Blore is well known 
for his fine work on the Monumental Remains of Noble 
and Eminent Persons. He had a most distinguished 
career, being the designer of many public and private 


buildings, including works connected with Windsor 
Castle, Hampton Court and Buckingham Palace. He 
also became intimate with Sir W^alter Scott, and 
designed in his presence and carried out the building 
of Abbotsford. For many years he was architect of 
Westminster Abbey. His powers of sketching were 
simply remarkable. 

That fine artist, John Syer, was closely associated 
with Bristol during the whole of his life. Though 
there is a certain mannerism in his work, many of his 
canvases show a breadth of treatment and a mastery 
over landscape and sea effects that evidences close 
communion with Nature. His death took place in 

Among modern artists connected with Bristol was 
Charles Wellington Furse, who as a great and brilliant 
portrait painter soared like a meteor into fame in 
1903, and, alas ! vanished from human ken the following 
year at the early age of thirty-six. His wife was the 
daughter of the celebrated art writer and Bristolian, 
John Addington Symonds. 

That very clever and versatile artist, E. W. Godwin, 
must not be forgotten. He was born in Old Market 
Street in 1833, ^md his father being in business as a 
decorator, he earl)- in life developed a taste for archi- 
tectural and archaeological studies, so that before leaving 
school he had already mastered Bloxham's Gothic Archi- 
tecture. He received his training as architect in Bristol, 
and followed it here for many years. Ultimately he 
removed to London, where he did a great deal of work 
and enjoyed the friendship of the most eminent members 
of his profession, including Scott, Street, and Burgess. 
He was a good draughtsman, an antiquarian, a clear 


writer, a Shakespearian scholar, and an excellent lecturer. 
Towards the close of his life he devoted himself to 
designing theatrical costumes with considerable success. 
His death occurred in 1866. 

Through him Bristol is linked with one of the most 
remarkable artists of modern times — Whistler, In 1879 
Godwin designed for that world-famous impressionist the 
house in London celebrated as "The White House." 
There is in existence a water-colour (now at Boston, 
U.S.A.) bearing Whistler's signature, on the back of 
which is Godwin's endorsement : " From mv window. 
This was his" [Whistler's] "first attempt at water- 
colour. E. W. Godwin." A year after Godwin's death 
Whistler married his widow ; she proved in every 
way an artistic helpmate, and he valued her critical 
opinion of his art highly. When she came into his 
studio he would eagerly ask her opinion of the work 
he had in hand, and her suggestions were always 
followed. When she died in 1897 he regarded her loss 
as irreparable, and never regained his light-heartedness. 
She was an artist of no mean ability herself, and in 
his will he gave expression to his admiration of her 
art and his own devotion to her memory. Whistler's 
Gentle Art of Making Enemies proved that had he not 
been a great artist he might have been a great writer. 
Few men have wielded so caustic and witty a pen. 

CHAPTER III. {continued), 


Richard Champion and William Cookworthy, and their 
manufacture of Bristol porcelain — Henry Bone — Mimgo 
Ponton — Bristol Art Gallery — Leigh Court picture 
gallery — Kedclijf Church gates — Chimney-piece in 
Central Library — Mrs. Ellen Sharpies and the Fine 
Arts Academy. 

'OT the least of Bristol's Art Associations is its 
connection with the manufacture of china. For 
this it has acquired world-wide fame. According 
to the Bristol Intelligencer, the earliest date of its manu- 
facture was in the year 1750. This is corroborated in 
Doctor Pocock's Travels through England, published by 
the Camden Society ; Pocock being in Cornwall in 
that year, notes that he " visited the Lizard Point to 
see the Soapy rock. There are white patches of it, 
which is mostly valued for the manufacture of porcelaine, 
now carrying on at Bristol." 

In 1768 Richard Champion, whose name is im- 
perishably associated with Bristol china manur^cture, 
assisted by some of our leading merchants, and in 
partnership with the celebrated William Cookworthy, 
who had a porcelain factory at Plymouth, set up his 
works in Castle Green. Soon after Cookworthy, having 



relinquished the pottery at Plymouth, joined Champion,, 
and the firm then assumed the name of William Cook- 
worthy and Co. 

In the year 1773 they were advertising in the Bristol 
newspapers as follows : " Complete Tea-sets in the 
Dresden taste, highly ornamented, £'] ys. to ;/^i2 12s. 
and upwards." After a year or two the entire concern, 
on the retirement of Cookworthy, devolved on Champion, 
and then attained its highest artistic development and 
excellence. So admirable were the specimens of ceramic 
art he produced, that even the most skilful of connois- 
seurs were deceived by his wonderful imitations of real 
Dresden china. In the production of flowers and vases 
he displayed remarkable skill, for the}- were characterised 
by the utmost artistic delicacy and beauty. 

In the year 1775, however. Champion applied to 
Parliament for an extension of Cookworthy's patent, but 
largely through the unscrupulous opposition of his great 
rival, Wedgwood, who had powerful friends to aid him,, 
the Act, though obtained, was rendered practically value- 
less. Owing to this, notwithstanding, as he said, that his 
manufactor}^ was " the greatest ever known in England,'' 
and from lack of sufficient capital and the severe com- 
mercial depression which followed on the outbreak of the 
war with America, in which country he had hoped for 
a large market for his productions, he had ultimately 
to close his works in 1782. Wedgwood, to his disgrace, 
openly rejoiced in Champion's discomfiture. However, 
through the noble friendship of Burke, Champion 
obtained the office for a year or two of Deputy- Pay master 
of the Forces. Finally, in 1784, he emigrated to South 
Carolina, where he died on October 7th, 1791, at the 
comparatively early age of forty-eight. 





















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° CQ 
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-s <: 


Edmund Burke, in recognition of the hospitality and 
kindness extended to him during his election in 1774 
by his friend and supporter, Mr. Joseph Smith, com- 
missioned Champion to use his utmost skill in the 
production of a tea service for presentation to that 
gentleman. Some of the most exquisite examples of his 
art Champion made and presented to Mrs. Burke. The 
result was a triumph of ceramic art which for purity 
of material and splendour of ornamentation have never 
been surpassed. As late as 1876 a teapot of the Burke 
service fetched at public auction £21^ 5s., and Disraeli, 
when the guest of Mr. Callender at Manchester, 
drank out of a cup and saucer which cost their owner 
at the same sale £<)i, more than thrice the value of 
their weight in gold. A beautiful oval plaque, with the 
arms of Burke and Nugent, was bought by the late 
Mr. Francis Fry, of Cotham Tower House, for ninety- 
nine guineas. This exquisite example of Champion's 
art is now in the British Museum. 

Short as was the period in which Champion was 
engaged in the production of Bristol china, to so great 
a degree of perfection did he arrive in the specimens 
of ceramic art created, that, as Owen justly remarks 
in his Two Centuries of Ceramic Art in Bristol, they 
afford indisputable evidence that had the works been 
adequately supported, they might have successfully 
rivalled the famous royal factories of Sevres and 

Champion's claim to being the manufacturer of real 
china was strikingly sustained in the fire at the Alexandra 
Palace, London, in 1873, when several thousand speci- 
mens of English ceramics, made at the famous factories 
of Bow, Worcester, and Chelsea, were reduced to a. 


molten mass, but the Bristol china issued almost 
unscathed from the fiery ordeal. 

Connected with the Bristol china works was the 
celebrated Henry Bone, whose remarkable achievements 
in enamel painting have secured for him the proud 
appellation of " the Prince of Enamellers," for it is 
considered doubtful whether he has ever been surpassed 
in that important branch of pictorial art. He was born 
in Truro, and was apprenticed to William Cookworthy 
at Plymouth. In 1772 he removed with his master to 
Bristol, where he remained for six years, working from 
6 a.m. to 6 p.m., and at night studying drawing. On 
the closing of the works he went to London, and 
soon found constant employment in enamelling watches, 
fans, etc. In 1780 he exhibited his first picture at the 
Royal Academy, a portrait of his wife. Later, in 1789, 
he exhibited there the largest enamel painting ever 
executed, " A Muse of Cupid." Success followed on 
success, and in 1800 he was appointed enamel painter to 
the Prince of Wales, and later to George III.; he 
held the same position in the two subsequent reigns. 
In 181 1 he was elected Royal Academician, and he 
immediately produced the magnificent enamel, 18 in. by 
16 in., after Titian's "Bacchus and Ariadne": it created 
a sensation in the art world, and several thousand people 
came to his house to inspect it ; he sold it for 2,200 
guineas, which sum consisted partly of a cheque on 
Fauntleroy's Bank, which he cashed luckily the very 
day before that bank stopped payment. At his death 
he left a collection of enamels valued at /"io,ooo, 
which were dispersed at Christie's. So high is the 
quality of his works that they are in great demand 
by collectors. Chantrey carved a fine bust of Bone, 


who was a man of unaffected modesty and generosity. 
He died in 1834. 

Mungo Ponton, to whom the art of photography is 
for ever indebted, Hved for many years till his death 
at No. 4 The Paragon, Clifton. His fame rests upon 
the vital and important discovery "that the action 
of sunlight renders bichromate of potassium insoluble," 
which has had more to do with the production of 
permanent photographs than any other. It forms the 
basis of nearly all the photo mechanical processes now 
in use. 

Though Bristol as a city possesses but few great 
works of art, considering her wealth of art associations, 
the opening of the magnificent Art Gallery in the year 
1905, the noble gift of one of Bristol's wealthy and public- 
spirited sons — Lord Winterstoke — will undoubtedly stimu- 
late others to foster a greater love of art among her 
citizens, so that in the near future the Metropolis of the 
West may rival the splendid art collections of the Midland 
and Northern cities. The "few great works" already 
possessed by the city are chiefly housed with other rare 
civic treasures at the Council House. Among these is the 
magnificent portrait of the Earl of Pembroke by Vandyke. 
In the civic acounts dated 1627 is the following note : 
" Paid the picture-maker for drawing the Earl of Pem- 
broke, £'^ 13s. 4d." Tradition, no doubt with some real 
foundation of truth, avers that the family offered to 
purchase the portrait by giving as many sovereigns as 
would cover its surface. Whereupon the then City 
Chamberlain replied, on behalf of the Corporation, that 
if the family would stand the sovereigns edgeways they 
would be prepared to consider the offer — surely a 
remarkable illustration of the saying that Bristol sleeps 


with one eye open. There is also a portrait of Lord 
Clare, by Gainsborough ; the Duke of Portland, by Sir 
Thomas Lawrence; and Edmund Burke, by Sir Joshua 

'At one period, and that well within living memory,. 
Bristol was an art Mecca of European reputation. For 
at Leigh Court, the seat of the Miles family, was housed 
a truly magnificent collection of old masters, which would 
have graced the palace of an emperor. Dr. Waagen, in 
his A rt Treasures in Great Britain, eulogises this noble 
collection of Italian, Flemish, Spanish, and French 
masters. They were brought together by Mr. Richard 
Hart Davis, who represented Bristol in Parliament from 
1812 to 1830. This unrivalled private collection was 
sold at Christie's in July, 1884. One picture alone, a 
magnificent Claude — "The Sacrifice of Apollo'" — which 
the auctioneer declared they had never before had an 
opportunity of competing for in that room, was finally 
knocked down to Agnew for 5,800 guineas. Agnew him- 
self purchased ^^20,000 worth of pictures at the sale. 

In the famous Baptist College, the home of so many 
remarkable treasures — literary, numismatic, and otherwise 
— is the celebrated miniature of Oliver Cromwell, painted 
by Samuel Cooper, for which the Empress of Russia 
vainly offered its owner, Dr. Andrew Gifford, five hundred 

Lovers of art metal-work should not fail to inspect 
the magnificent wrought-iron gates in Redcliff Church. 
For these the authorities of South Kensington have 
offered the sum of £2,000. They were constructed by 
Edney in 1710, and cost the vestry one hundred guineas. 

Those interested in ancient sculpture of the East 
have the opportunity in the Municipal Art Gallery of 


inspecting three magnificent examples of Nineveh marbles, 
the gift of the great Assyriologist, Sir Henry Rawlinson, 
whose connection with our city, as related elsewhere, 
was a close one. These marbles were originally housed 
in the Fine Arts Academy, and were found in the ruins 
of the palace which Ashur-Nasir-Pal, King of Assyria, 
about B.C. 885, built at Calah, situated on the banks of 
the Tigris, about thirty miles south of Nineveh. They 
bear inscriptions relating the titles, genealogy, and con- 
quests of the king, detailing too the countries which he 
"swept bare like the Storm God." 

Admirers of beautiful wood-carving should not lose 
the opportunity of inspecting the exquisitely - carved 
-chimney-piece in the Central Library, said to have 
been presented by Alderman Michael Becher. The 
wealth of intertwining foliage, flowers — mark the roses 
— and the representation of a real woodcock, and 
pheasants, etc., form a combination in carved woodwork 
rarely to be met with, especially as the objects in some 
instances stand out six inches from the flat. 

Before closing this account of the Art Associations of 
our city, a few words of recognition are due to Mrs. Ellen 
Sharpies, the generous foundress of the Bristol Fine 
Arts Academy. She was born at Bath, and married 
there an artist named James Sharpies. With him, in the 
year 1794, she went to America, where they remained 
eight years, during which period Mr. Sharples's skill as a 
miniature painter was in great request. Amongst many 
distinguished Americans whose portraits he executed were 
Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and Hamilton. After 
coming to England for a brief period, they again returned 
to America, where Mr. Sharpies died in 1811. After his 
death the famil}- once more returned to England for 


good, and settled ultimately in Clifton, at 3 St. Vincent's 
Parade. Mrs. Sharpies had during her husband's lifetime 
taken lessons in portrait painting from him, and as her 
son and daughter followed their father's profession also, 
they all practised at the above residence. Here they 
resided from 1832 to 1849, the year of Mrs. Sharples's 
death. Prior, however, to this event Mrs. Sharpies gave 
a sum of ;£'2,ooo for the purpose of founding the present 
Fine Arts Academy. Her beneficence did not end there, 
for she bequeathed the interesting and valuable series 
of miniatures and pastels, which include the portraits of 
some of the most distinguished men of the time, viz. 
Sir Humphry Davy, Robert Southey, Doctor Beddoes — 
names imperishably associated with our city — and 
Darwin, Priestley, Herschel, etc. In addition to which 
the Academy benefited to the extent of ^£'3,465, making 
with the previous amount the handsome sum of ;^5,465. 

Musical Associations. 


William Child— The Wesley family — Rev. Thos. Broughton 
and his friendship with Handel — Robert Lucas Pearsall 
— Henry Phillips — W. L. Phillips — Thomas German 
Reed, founder of the "musical sketch" — Rene Harris — 
Paganini — Sir G. J. Elvey. 

NE of the earliest musicians to be associated 
with Bristol was Wilham Child, born in 1606. 
From earliest youth he devoted himself to 
the study of music, and in 1631 took the degree of 
Mus. Bac. at Oxford, soon after which he was appointed 
one of the organists at the Chapel Ro3^al. On the death 
of his colleague he became organist -in -chief. Whilst 
there his original compositions won him the patronage 
of King Charles I. At the Reetoration he was appointed 
composer to the king. Pepys relates that he called on 
Child when at Windsor. It was Child's fortune to live 
in five reigns, and at the Coronation of James II. he 
walked in the procession in his academical robes as father 
of the Chapel Royal. There is little doubt as to his being 
a fine musician, and his compositions are remarkable 
both for their simplicity and melody. Ridiculed as to 
the style of his works, he wrote in defence his celebrated 
Service in D, to prove that the simplicity of his music 
arose from design, and not from lack of ability. Child's 
compositions are still rendered in the city of his birth, 
uot.ihU' at the cathedral. 



The famous Wesley family are linked for all time 
with our city. Here John Wesley founded Methodism, 
assisted by his gifted brother Charles, the hymn-writer, 
who lived for many years in Charles Street, St. James's 
Barton. Two of the latter's sons were musicians of 
uncommon power. Samuel Wesley, the elder, was born 
in Bristol in 1766, and from his earliest childhood gave 
evidence of his remarkable gifts. His father placed on 
record that when he (Samuel) was between four and 
five years old he taught himself to read music by the 
oratorio of Samson. When he was six he composed the 
airs of his oratorio Ruth, and kept them treasured in his 
memory until he was eight, when he wrote them down. 
A distinguished friend of his father's once remarked to 
him, " Sir, you have an English Mozart in your house." 
In 1771, Charles Wesley having removed to London, his 
sons, Samuel and Charles, gave subscription concerts, which 
were attended by the nobility. In 1784 Samuel Wesley 
joined the Roman Catholic Church, to the amazement and 
grief both of his father and of his uncle, John Wesley; 
shortly after which he composed a Mass, which he dedicated 
to the Pope. Subsequently he separated from the Romish 
church, saying, " The crackers of the Vatican are no 
longer taken for the thunderbolts of Heaven : for excom- 
munication I care not three straws." The great work 
of Samuel Wesley's life is considered to be his vigorous 
championship of the works of Sebastian Bach, into 
which he entered with extraordinary enthusiasm. He 
frequently lectured at the Royal Institution and else- 
where, and in 181 1 he conducted the Birmingham 
Musical Festival, He was not only a distinguished 
musician, but a fine scholar also. He had, too, 
remarkable conversational powers, and was a man 


of keen and brilliant wit. As an organist, he was 
the foremost man of his age, and absolutely unrivalled 
as an extemporaneous performer on the king of 

His brother Charles, born in 1757, as a child was 
possessed of extraordinary precocity as a musician, 
and was justly regarded as a prodigy. Before he was 
three years of age he could play a tune on the harpsi- 
chord readily and in correct time. At the age of four 
he was taken to London, and made a marked impression 
on several of the leading musicians there by his skill. 
Unfortunately time did not justify the brilliant promise 
of his youth, and as a man he failed to rival his more 
gifted brother Samuel. 

Bristol is linked, too, with the mighty Handel in 
the person of the Rev. Thomas Broughton, who was 
Vicar of Bedminster in Chatterton's time, when St. Mary 
Redcliff and St. Thomas' and Abbot's Leigh churches 
were annexed to that living. Broughton was on terms 
of friendship with that great composer of the Messiah, 
and supplied him with the words for some of his 
compositions, including his drama of Hercules. A 
stained glass window in St. Mary Redcliff Church 
commemorates his friendship with Handel. 

At Clifton was born in 1795 the famous madrigal 
composer, Robert Lucas Pearsall, who was one of the 
original members of the Bristol Madrigal Society, and 
took the deepest interest in its welfare. It is considered 
that the attention he devoted to madrigal writing was 
largely due to the encouragement he received from that 
Society, to whom he presented some of his finest 
madrigals. His having been born at Clifton gives 
a distinct local significance to his fine madrigal. Oh, 


who will o'er the Downs so free ? Among the choicest 
specimens of his work are Great God of Love and Lay 
a Garland, both for eight voices; they are considered to 
be amongst the most melodious and pure specimens of 
eight-part writing ever penned by an EngHshman. He 
died abroad in 1856. 

The celebrated bass singer, Henry Phillips, was born 
in Bristol, and was the son of an actor. At the age 
of eight he was singing boy at Harrogate Theatre, and 
later was engaged to sing soprano parts at the 
Haymarket and Drury Lane Theatres. At the very 
outset of his career as a singer, when engaged to sing 
at Covent Garden in Arne's Artaxerxes, the newspapers 
of the time condemned him as a total failure. Not- 
withstanding this adverse verdict, by patient study his 
voice, though never powerful, attained great sweetness, 
and he soon soared into the front rank as the first of 
English bass singers. Two characteristics of his singing 
made him highly acceptable to the public — first, the 
correctness of his intonation, and, secondly, the use 
of appropriate declamation and dramatic fire. In this 
respect he is said to have resembled the great Braham 
more than any of his contemporaries. His style was 
simple, but perfectly natural, without any pomposity, 
combined with an ingenuous modesty that went straight 
to the hearts of his audience. He was thus in demand 
at all the great musical festivals. In Barnet's Mountain 
Sylph his rendering of the ballad, " Farewell to the 
Mountain," achieved success for the opera. In 1844 he 
visited America. As a tribute to his vocal powers, it 
may incidentally be mentioned that Mendelssohn com- 
posed a " Scena " for him, and he sang it at the 
Philharmonic Concert, March 15th, 1847. He was a 


fine exponent of the art of ballad singing. Like Sims 
Reeves, however, he unhappily outlived his reputation, 
his death occurring in 1876. 

Another singer of the same name, W. L. Phillips, 
was born in Bristol in 1816. At one time he was 
in the cathedral choir, and subsequently proceeded to 
London, where his beautiful voice attracted the attention 
of Miss Stephens, afterwards Countess of Essex. He 
was class-fellow with Sir William Sterndale Bennett at 
the Royal Academy of Music, and became professor of 
composition at that institution. He was also a composer 
of merit. 

The founder of the " musical sketch " form of enter- 
tainment was Thomas German Reed, son of Thomas 
Reed, musician. His mother was a Bristolian, daughter 
of Captain German. As early as eighteen years of age 
he appeared in public as a musical performer, soon after 
which he was engaged at the Haymarket Theatre, 
London, where his father was musical conductor. In 
the year 1832 he acted as deputy for his father as 
leader of the band at the Garrick Theatre. After 
studying harmony and counterpoint, he "adapted" new 
operas, and ultimately succeeded Cooke as chapel- 
master of the Royal Bavarian Chapel, and became 
the musical director of the Haymarket Theatre, where 
he greatly improved the music. In 1855 he commenced 
with his wife the form of entertainment which has made 
his name so well known in musical and dramatic 
circles, and which brought him a very wide reputation. 
Their first performance was entitled Miss P. Horton's 
Illustrative Gatherings. This was the beginning of a 
series of great successes. In 1868 they enhsted 
a very powerful recruit in the person of Corney 



Grain. Many will remember their Box and Cox, 
a most mirth-provoking entertainment. Reed's wife, 
whose maiden name was Horton, was an exceedingly 
capable actress, and materially added to the success of 
her husband's efforts. Her rendering of " Ophelia " in 
Hamlet in 1840 was especially marked out for praise 
by the Athcnccum. Her varied impersonations were 
considered admirable. Alfred Reed, the son of the 
foregoing, continued after his parents' retirement, in 
conjunction with the brilliant Corney Grain, the form 
of entertainment so successfully inaugurated by them. 
Curiously enough, he, his mother and Corney Grain all 
died in 1895 within a few days of each other. 

To Bristol retired Rene Harris, the great organ 
builder of the seventeenth century, and resided here till 
his death. His sons, who followed the same profession, 
built organs for St. Mary Redcliff, St. Thomas', and 
St. James' churches. 

From a musical point of view the year 1831 was 
memorable from the fact that the world-famous violinist 
Paganini gave a recital at the Royal Theatre. 

In recent years the late Sir G. J. Elvey was a 
frequent visitor to Bristol. In 1892 he attended the 
Orpheus Glee Society's concert, and was especially 
delighted with the exquisite rendering of his part-song. 
From Yonder Rustling- Mountain. He took the deepest 
interest, too, in the famous Madrigal Society, and for 
years regularly attended on " Ladies' Nights." 

Had the living come within the scope of these 
associations they would have added lustre to an already 
distinguished roll, one of the most glorious songstresses 
of modern times being included in the number. 

Dramatic Associations. 

(After the Painting; hy Sik Josmia Rkvnoi.ds.) 


BrhtoVs close connection with the stage — David Garrick ; 
his friendship with Hannah More — Sarah Siddons's 
appearances at Theatre Royal ; connection of her family 
with Sir Thomas Lawrence — Charles Macklin ; his 
performance of " Shylock" — John Gay and the 
"Beggar's Opera'' — William Powell; his great popu- 
larity in Bristol; death and burial — John Hippisley; the 
Jacob's Wells Theatre; his daughter Jane Hippisley — 
Miss Hallam — Mary Robinson, "Perdita" ; her associa- 
tion with the Prince Regent ; her beauty — Elizabetlt 
Canning, mother of George Canning — Elizabeth Inch- 
bald — John Quick and W. J. Dodd — Johi Tobin, 
blaywrighi — Sophia Lee — Isaac Pocock's success as 
a playwright — Richard Brinsley Sheridan's connection 
with Bristol — James Macready ; his farewell to Bristol; 
Tennyson's ode to him — Barry Sullivan — Walter Lacy 
— Amy Sedgwick — William Fosbrooke — Sir Henry 
Irving; the complimentary banquet to him at Bristol 
— Closing notes. 

)ROM Shakespeare's time, and earlier, down to the 
present day Bristol has been closely connected 
with the drama, and many of the brightest 
stars who have illumined the dramatic firmament, 
including the illustrious Sarah Siddons, have appeared 
in sock and buskin at one or other of Bristol's theatres. 
For generations Bristol, with her sister city of 
Bath, was the nursery of some of the greatest actors 
and actresses of modern times. Though it is to be 
regretted that we have no actual proof that Shakespeare 

12 A 



himself came to Bristol, yet there is presumptive evidence 
that he probably did so, seeing that his company visited 
the city in the year 1597, a fact vouched for by that 
eminent Shakespearean scholar the late Halliwell 

Again, no record exists of the great Garrick having 
appeared here professionally, yet there is ample evidence 
of his connection with the city. For instance, whilst 
the old theatre in King Street was in course of 
erection, in 1764, he surveyed the building, and was so 
pleased with its construction that he pronounced it to 
be "the most complete of its dimensions in Europe." 
Not only did he inspect and approve of the theatre, but, 
what is more, he wrote the prologue to the first play 
ever produced there, viz. The Conscious Lovers, with 
which it opened on May 30th, 1766. We quote the 
following lines from the prologue : — 

"'That all the world's a stage,' you can't deny 

And what 's our stage ? a shop — I '11 tell you why — 

You are the customers, the tradesmen we ; 

And well for us, you pay before you see ; 

We give no trust, a ready money trade ; 

Should you stop payment, we are bankrupts made. 

To feast your minds and soothe each worldly care, 

We '11 largely traffic in dramatic ware. 

Then swells our shop, a warehouse to your eyes. 

And we, from small retailers, merchants rise I 

" From Shakespeare's golden mines we '11 fetch the ore, 
And land his riches on this happy shore ! 
For we, theatric merchants, never quit 
This boundless store of universal wit. 
And we in vain shall richly laden come 
Unless deep water brings us safely home ; 
Unless your favour in full tides will flow, 
Ship, crew, and cargo, to the bottom go ! " 

Few lines with their commercial and maritime 
allusiveness could have been more appositely conceived 


for rendering to a Bristol audience. Elsewhere in this 
work allusion has been made to Garrick's close friend- 
ship with Hannah More, which is eloquently indicated 
in the following letter written to her respecting her 

play Percy : — 

" Hampton (London), 

"August 20th, circa 1776. 

"We sincerely hope and believe, dear Nine" (this 
being his favourite appellation in writing her in allusion 
to her personifying all the Muses), " that you were 
woefully disappointed at our not peeping in at you at 
Bristol — you would be a very hard - hearted creature if 
you were not — so say no more Madame Hannah upon 
that subject. We felt it as well as your ladyship and 
pathetic sisters. May I take the liberty to say that I 
don't think you w'ere in your most acute and best 
feeling when you wrote your third act " (referring to her 
play of Percy, for w'hich he WTote both the prologue 
and epilogue). "I am not at all satisfied with it; it is 
the weakest of the four, and raises much expectation 
from the circumstances, that a great deal more must 
be done to content your spectators and readers. I am 
rather vexed that nothing more is produced by that 
meeting which is the groundwork of the tragedy, and 
from which so much will be required, because such an 
alarm is given to the heart and mind. 

" I have been in so much company, and have so 
little time to study your matter, that I can say no more 
at present. I '11 at my return from Brighthelmstone " 
(Brighton) " pore upon it, and give my thoughts more 
fully upon the business. Till then rest you quiet, and 
be assured that I am your sincere friend, though at 
times, more bold than welcome. My wife sends her 


love with mine to you all. She has not yet seen 
your third and fourth, nor do I yet know whether she 
may be trusted with it. 

" I am, dear Nine, 

" Ever and sincerely yours, 

" D. Garrick. 

" You have not sent us what you reprinted about 
me in your Bristol paper." 

When this unequalled actor passed away, his friend 
Johnson said that his death " eclipsed the gaiety of 

In the closing years of the eighteenth century and 
the beginning of the nineteenth the illustrious Sarah 
Siddons was constantly acting here at the King Street 
Theatre. Her salary, it has been stated, was no more 
than £3 per week ! What would the stars of to-day 
say to such a salary. 

Sir Thomas Lawrence was intimately acquainted 
with her, and painted her portrait more than once. 
A remarkable love episode in his life is that he 
paid his attentions to Mrs. Siddons's two daughters in 
succession. First he was enamoured with the elder, 
but on his ardour cooling he calmly transferred his 
affection to the 5'ounger ; that too having waned, he 
then, to the painful embarrassment of all concerned, 
shamelessly again paid his court to the elder. How- 
ever, fate ruled that he should have neither. 

In spite of Lawrence's waywardness of affection, to 
use no stronger term, towards her daughters, Mrs. 
Siddons felt unabated friendship towards him, for on 
one occasion she said to her brother, Charles Kemble, 
"Charles, when I die I wish to be carried to the- grave 


(/)//(! Ilie I'mntiitg by Sir Thomas Lawrfnce.) 


by you and Lawrence." When Lawrence heard this 
he threw down his pencil, clasped his hands, and with 
eyes full of tears exclaimed, " Good God ! did she say 
that ? " 

In Mrs. Siddons's niece, Fanny Kemble, Lawrence 
took the deepest interest, never omitting one of her 
performances, and always on the following morning 
sending her a detailed criticism of her efforts, combined 
with enthusiastic admiration. 

The celebrated actor, Charles Macklin, who was at 

one time the intimate friend of Garrick, appeared in 

Bristol for the first time in 1717, and his connection with 

the Bristol stage continued for fifteen 5'ears. So finely 

did he act the part of " Shylock " in the zenith of his 

fame that it is related that Pope on one occasion was 

so struck with his impersonation of that character that 

he said — 

"This is the Jew 
That Shakespeare drew." 

In 1741 he first acted the great character of 
** Shylock," with which his name is imperishably 
associated. On the eventful evening the house was 
crowded from fioor to ceiling, the two front rows of 
the pit being filled by the most dreaded dramatic 
critics of the period. Unseen and calm, Macklin 
surveyed the critical audience, and with unshaken con- 
fidence remarked as he turned away, " Good ! I shall 
be tried to-night by special jury." 

That his confidence in his own powers was fully 
justified was proved as the play proceeded by the 
ejaculations of his critics. "Good!" "Very good!" 
etc., greeted his acting, until, as the play advanced 
in dramatic intensit}', he touched the hearts of his 


audience. In a word, those who came to censure 
remained to praise. And when in the final scene, 
calmly and confidently, but with indescribable malignity, 
he whetted his knife and demanded his pound of flesh, 
the irrepressible shudder that ran through his hearers 
told more eloquentl}- than any words that he held his 
audience by the heart-strings. 

Macklin was in early life a scout at Trinity College, 
Dublin. The custom at that time was for the servants 
to wait in the courts of the college in attendance on 
the class of students. To every shout of "Boy!" the 
scout first in turn replied, " What number ? " and on 
its being told him, went to the room indicated for 
orders. On one occasion when Macklin was acting in 
the Dublin theatre a number of unruly persons caused 
a disturbance, when Macklin promptly rebuked them for 
their behaviour. The audience applauded, but one of 
them, thinking to cover him with confusion by a refer- 
ence to his early humble condition, with contemptuous 
bitterness shouted out, " Boy ! " Poor Macklin for a 
moment lost his presence of mind, but recollecting 
himself, modestly stepped forward, and with manly 
dignity responded, " What number ? " The plaudits of 
the house avenged him on his brutal insulter. 

Macklin's features were the reverse of prepossessing, 
and on someone remarking to his brother actor, Quin, 
on the lines of Macklin's face, he was cut short with, 
"Lines of his face, sir? You mean cordage." As an 
actor not even Garrick surpassed him in his own special 
character, and ]Macready looked upon him as a model 
of excellence. jNIacklin was also a skilful play-writer, 
his Man of the World being considered one of the best 
plays of the eighteenth century. 


In the year 1728 the celebrated dramatist, John Gay, 
was in Bristol superintending the performance of his 
famous play. The Beggar's Opera. So popular was this 
play in Bristol, that it was performed here no less than 
fifty times. The character of " Polly Peachum," the 
heroine, has been the means of leading three of its 
impersonators to the peerage, i.e. Miss Fenton (Duchess 
of Bolton), Miss Stephens (Countess of Essex), and 
Miss Bolton (Lady Thurlow). 

A famous actor closely associated with Bristol at this 
period was WilHam Powell. Chatterton has immortalised 
him in his lines : — 

" What language, Powell ! can thy merits tell, 
By Nature formed in every path t' excel, 
To strike the feeling soul with magic skill. 
When every passion bends beneath thy will ? 

Though great thy praises for thy scenic art, 
We love thee for the virtues of thy heart." 

Powell was in the cast of the first play ever put on 
the boards of the old theatre. The Conscious Lovers. 
For three years he played there with great success, 
and became ultimately one of the finest actors of his 
time, due in the first place to his own extraordinary 
talents, and secondly to the generous assistance of 
Garrick, writing to whom he says : " You, sir, have 
put within my view the prospect of future happiness 
for me, my wife, and little infants, who are daily taught 
to bless your name as the best of friends." 

So popular did Powell become in Bristol, that he was 
the chief subject of conversation at the coffee houses 
and taverns; in fact, the rage. Anyone who had missed 
seeing Powell was considered wanting in taste. Crowds 
were turned away at his benefits. At Bristol he was 


seized with his fatal illness, and as evidencing the respect 
with which the citizens regarded him, the magistrates 
of the city ordered chains to be thrown across King 
Street whilst he was dying, to prevent carriages disturbing 
him. An affecting anecdote is told of this sad event. 
On the night of his decease his great friend, Holland, 
was playing the part of " Richard III.," and had repeated 
the line, "All of us all have cause to wail the dimming of 
our shining star!" when a gentleman suddenly entered 
the house and exclaimed, " Mr. Powell is dead ! " On 
hearing which Holland reeled to the wings as though 
shot, stammered, and came forward, and in a vain 
attempt to apologise, burst into uncontrollable tears. 

When on his death-bed, Mrs. Powell having tem- 
porarily left him, Hannah More, who sat by his. 
bedside, was alarmed by observing his cheek suddenly 
assume a lively colour. At the same instant he threw 
himself into the proper attitude and exclaimed, " Is 
this a dagger which I see before me ? " and expired. He 
was but thirty- three when he died, July 3rd, 1769, and 
so great were his dramatic powers that he was looked 
upon as the legitimate successor to Garrick. His 
interment took place in the cathedral, the Dean, 
Dr. Barton, performing the last sad rites in the presence 
of a large gathering of representative citizens. On 
a marble tablet there is inscribed an epitaph, written 
by George Colman to his memory. 

An eloquent testimony to the status of the old 
theatre (then known as the " New ") is afforded by 
the fact that Goldsmith's She Stoops to Conquer was 
performed there for the first time in Bristol on July 
igth, 1773, barely four months after its first appearance 
at Covent Garden. 


The famous comedian, John Hippisley, was extremely 
well known in Bristol, where in 1729 at Jacob's Wells 
he biiilt a theatre, in which some of the greatest 
actors and actresses of the period appeared. It opened 
with the play, Love for Love, June 23rd, 1729. In 
the year 1736 he occupied a dwelling adjoining the 
theatre, and ultimately died there in 1748. Though 
he acted many parts on the stage, his finest was that 
of '■ Peachum " in the Beggar's Opera, which he 
originated, acting it for sixty -three successive nights. 
Like J. L. Toole, his very appearance created roars of 
laughter. This was somewhat due to a burn on his 
face which he received in youth. He himself admitted 
that his " ugly face w^as a farce." When he told the 
famous Quin that he thought of bringing up his son to 
the stage, Quin replied, "If that is the case, it's high time 
to burn him." Hippisley's " Corbaccio " in Volpone was 
considered a superb picture of covetousness and deafness. 

A correspondent writing to Felix Farley's Journal, 
August 1 2th, 1768, says: "I remember him a young 
man, and can tell many a pleasing anecdote respecting 
him ; let it suffice, however, at present, that he was 
a most cheerful companion, that he was wont to set 
the table in a roar." 

In addition to being a fine comedian, he wrote a 
farce, called A Journey to Bristol, which was often given 
here. At his death the following lines were contained 
in an epitaph written on him : — 

" Here lies John Hip'sley dead in truth 
Who oft' 171 jest dy'd in his youth ; 
If acting well a soul will save 
His sure a place in Heaven shall have : 
And yet to speak the truth I ween 
As great a scrub as e'er was seen." 


His daughter, Jane Hippisley, who subsequently 
became Mrs. Green, was a pupil of Garrick, and 
attained a distinguished place among the actresses of 
the eighteenth century. Among her many successful 
impersonations were " Anne Page," " Ophelia," and 
"Perdita." She was the great rival of Mrs. Olive, and 
was the original " Mrs. Malaprop." Her death took 
place at her residence adjoining the Jacob's Wells 
Theatre, in 1791, and she was interred at Clifton. A 
monument to her memory is in Clifton Church. 

Among those acting at this theatre in 1749 were the 
celebrated Thomas King and Mrs. Pritchard. William 
Whitehead, the Poet Laureate of the period, being at 
that time on a visit to Bristol, attended some of the 
performances and was highly pleased. 

Miss Hallam, niece of William Hallam, manager 
of the theatre in Goodman's Fields, London, who 
afterwards achieved fame as " Mrs. Mattocks," and 
became the favourite actress at Covent Garden, made 
her debut at this theatre. It is said that George IIL 
and his Consort delighted so much in her acting, that 
they settled on her an annuity of ;^200 on her retirement 
from the stage in 1808, after a professional life of nearly 
sixty years. 

In Bristol was born, on November 27th, 1758, at the 
Minster House (long since demolished), the unfortunate 
and gifted Mary Robinson, termed by her admirers 
the " English Sappho." Her father was a local 
merchant named Darby, who ruined himself in a few 
years by misguided speculation. She was educated 
at the school kept by the sisters More. Possessed of 
great personal attractions, and having been abandoned 
by the scoundrel who had married her in her sixteenth 


year, she adopted the stage as a profession, and soon 
became one of the most favourite actresses of her time. 

Whilst playing the part of " Perdita " in 1780, her 
fatal gift of beauty captivated the too susceptible heart 
of the "first gentleman of Europe" — " Florizel," then 
in his eighteenth year. Yielding at last to his per- 
sistent siege, she was forthwith provided with a 
splendid establishment by her royal lover. But brief 
was her reign over that inconstant heart, for in August, 
1781, George III. employed an agent to obtain the 
compromising love-letters his son had written her, 
which he obtained for ^5,000. Later he discovered 
that the Prince had given her a bond for -£"20,000 
on her consenting to quit the stage and become his 
mistress. This she surrendered to Mr. Fox for an 
annuity of ;£^5oo. 

Having married later one Colonel Tarleton, she lost 
the use of her limbs through travelling one winter's night 
to rescue him from a debtor's prison. Finally, in 1788 
she applied herself to literature, and wrote and published 
about twenty novels and books of poems. Among 
those who were the admirers of this beautiful woman 
were Coleridge, Dr. Walcot, and Sir R. Ker Porter. 

Writing May 21st, 1800, from Nether Stowey to 
William Godwin, Coleridge asks: "Have you seen 
Mrs. Robinson lately? How is she? Remember me 
in the kindest and most respectful phrases to her. I 
wish I knew the particulars of her complaint, for Davy" 
(Sir Humphry) "has discovered a perfectly new acid, by 
which he has restored the use of their limbs to persons 
who had lost them for years in cases of supposed 
rheumatism. At all events, Davy says it can do no 
harm in Mrs. Robinson's case, and if she will try it 


he will make . up a little parcel and write her a letter 
of instructions." Her death occurred a few months 
after, on December 26th, 1800. "Rainy day" Smith 
counts as one of the seven great events of his life of 
which he was most proud, the incident of his receiving 
a kiss as a boy from the beautiful " Perdita." 

Contemporary with her was Elizabeth Canning, the 
mother of the famous Prime Minister, George Canning. 
Her husband, having married her against his father's 
wishes, was cut off with a pittance of £150 a year. 
In less than two years he left her a widow, having 
died on his son's birthday. She was very beautiful and 
possessed of friends who had the ear of royalty, and 
Garrick was induced to give her leading parts. These 
by nature and ability he soon found she was incapable 
of sustaining, in consequence of which she had to take 
secondary parts, which she acted chiefly in the 
provinces. At Bristol, in 1775, her beauty attracted 
the attentions of an actor of repute named Reddish, 
who was then manager of the old theatre, and she 
finally accepted him. Four years later he became 
insane, and at length, in 1785, died in York lunatic 

Through the kindheartedness of Moody, a fellow 
actor, who was keenly interested in her son George, 
and who instinctively foresaw signs of his future brilliant 
career, appeals were made to the boy's uncle, Stratford 
Canning. After some hesitation the latter agreed to 
adopt him, but on the condition that his intercourse 
with his mother's family was to be of a limited nature. 
By his uncle he was successively sent to Winchester 
and Eton, where he rapidly attained distinction in his 
studies, more especially for his skill in Latin and 

( I'lwt'i, W. A. M.hi^.Ul 



(From Wallace CoUcctum,) 


English verse, and the vivacity and generosity of his 

Be it said to his honour that in spite of his 
adoption by his uncle, and the different sphere of life 
in which he moved, he never forgot his mother. 
Whether at Eton, or later in life as Foreign Minister, 
and even when he attained the rank of Premier, 
nothing ever prevented his weekly letter to her, 
in which he poured out all the ardent hopes and 
aspirations of his life. No false pride prevented him 
visiting her, for when time and opportunity afforded he 
eagerly did so. When, too, on his retirement from the 
office of Secretary of State he became entitled to a 
pension, he at once gladly had it settled on her. 

At the King Street theatre, on September 4th, 1772, 
appeared for the first time Elizabeth Inchbald, who had 
not then reached her nineteenth year, in the character 
of " Cordelia." A playbill of the period states that it 
was her first appearance on any stage. She subse- 
quently acquired a lasting reputation and a handsome 
competence by her dramas and novels. 

Among great actors of the eighteenth century appear- 
ing at this theatre, John Quick and W. J. Dodd were 
ever welcome. No comedian of his time excelled Quick, 
who played here many times. He was the favourite 
actor of George III., who continually insisted on his 
appearance, and is said more than once to have 
addressed him personally. So droll was he, that he 
must have been " born to relax the muscles and set 
mankind a tittering." He had a close personal association 
with Bristol in the fact that he was married here to the 
daughter of a clergyman named Parker. Dodd, considered 
the finest coxcomb ever seen on the stage, and the 


original " Sir Benjamin Backbite " in The School for 
Scandal, acted for several years at the Theatre Royal, 
and was at one time manager. As a genteel fop 
he has never been beaten. Lamb gave him high praise 
and said, " In expressing slowness of apprehension this 
actor surpassed all others. You could see the first 
dawn of an idea steal slowly over his countenance." 

At the same theatre a play b}^ Richard Savage, 
whose close connection with Bristol is dealt with on 
page 50, was performed on June 26th, 1777. 

A Londoner, writing in 1792 of the Theatre Royal, 
remarked that "it was no uncommon thing to see one 
hundred carriages at the doors of the house," so great 
was its reputation as a temple of Thespis. 

Among playwrights of distinction at this period associ- 
ated with Bristol was John Tobin, the author of the 
famous play, The Honeymoon. Here he resided in his 
youth, and went to the Grammar School under Dr. Lee. 
Though he wrote several plays, including the Faro Table 
and The Curfew, only one of them was acted on the 
stage till his Honeymoon was accepted. He was in 
Cornwall at the time recruiting his health, and when 
he heard the news of that play's acceptance he 
was almost delirious with joy. Just as the ball of 
fortune was at his feet consumption manifested itself, 
and he was ordered to the West Indies, but he had 
scarcely left the shores of England when he died — 
the first day out. The ship at once put back, and he 
was buried in the little churchyard of Cove, near Cork, 
the resting-place of the immortal author of The Burial 
of Sir John Moore. Tobin's Honeymoon proved a great 
success, and held the English stage for twenty years. 
Quite in accordance with precedent, his rejected plays 


were after this success greatly in request among stage 

At Clifton for many years lived Sophia Lee, born in 
175O5 with her more famous sister, Harriett Lee. She 
wrote an operatic play, entitled A Chapter of Accidents, 
which achieved great success, and held the stage for 
many years. It was produced at the Haymarket bv 
Colman the elder, and was translated into French and 
German. In 1785 she essayed novel writing, and 
published The Recess, or a Tale of Other Times, one of 
the earliest of English historical novels. From the 
profits derived from her play she set up a school in 
Bath, and ultimately retired to Clifton. She died in 
1824, and lies buried with her sister Harriett in Clifton 
Church (see page 187). 

Isaac Pocock, who first achieved success as a painter, 
was born in Bristol in 1782 ; but on succeeding to some 
property his attention was directed to the drama, in 
which he was successful, many of his plays running for 
weeks. His first piece was a musical farce in two acts, 
Yes or No, produced at the Haymarket in 1808, but 
it did not keep the boards long. His Hit or Miss was 
a great advance, running for thirty-three nights, whilst 
his Zembacca, first given at Covent Garden as a holiday 
piece, was equally successful. He was a prolific writer, 
and nearly all his plays enjoyed a large measure of public 
favour. Among his most successful efforts were his 
dramatic rendering of Scott's novels, notably Rob Roy, 
with Macready in the chief role, which proved exceedingly 
popular. He died in 1835. 

To the Hotwells at the close of the eighteenth century 
came the beautiful and accomplished wife of the great 
dramatist, orator, and wit, Richard Brinsley Sheridan. 


Falling into a rapid consumption, she was brought here 
in the vain hope that the Hotwell waters would restore 
her to health. Here she passed away in her husband's 
arms on June 28th, 1792, and lies interred in the 
cloisters of Wells Cathedral. There is a story told, 
which, it is to be hoped, is untrue, that whilst taking an 
airing on the Downs her carriage and horses were seized 
by her husband's creditors, this painful event materially 
hastening her end. 

Among the roll-call of great actors who have illu- 
mined the annals of dramatic art in the nineteenth 
century, the name of the famous Macready is imperishably 
associated with Bristol. His father became the lessee 
of the old theatre in the year iSig, and consequently 
he was often here, where crowded houses invariably 
awaited him. In Bristol he first made the acquaintance 
of Miss Atkins, who later became his wife, and here, 
too, he married his second wife at St. John's Church, 
Redland, on April 3rd, i860. 

His last professional appearance in Bristol took 
place on January i8th, 1850, when the play selected 
was Henry IV. The following extract from Macready' s 
Reminiscences will be of interest : — 

" As the curtain was falling I stepped forward ; the 
audience, unprepared, gave most fervent greeting. On 
silence I addressed them, quite overcome by recollections 
and my own feelings to good old Bristol. 

" ' Ladies and Gentlemen, I have not waited to-night 
for the summons with which you have usually honoured 
me. As this is the last time I shall ever appear on 
this stage before you, I would beg leave to offer a few 
parting words, and would wish them to be beyond 
question the spontaneous tribute of my respect. . . . 



For a long course of years — indeed, from the period of 
my early youth — I have been welcomed b\- you in my 
professional capacity with demonstrations of favour so 
fervent and so constant, that they have in some measure 
appeared in this nature to partake almost of a personal 
interest. Under the influence of such an impression, 
sentiments of deep and strong regard have taken firm 
root in m\' mind, and it is therefore little else than 
a natural impulse for me at such a moment to wish 
to leave with you the assurance that, as I have never 
been insensible to your kindness, so I never shall be 
forgetful of it. Let me, therefore, at once and for all, 
tender to you my warmest thanks joined with my 
regretful adieux, as in my profession of an actor I most 
gratefully and respectfully bid you a last farewell.' " 

In tendering these words to his Bristol friends 
Macready was quite overcome, and was unable to check 
the tears that silently rolled down his cheeks. " And 
so," said he, "farewell to my dear old Bristol audiences; 
most warmly and affectionately do I remember them." 

A magnificent farewell banquet was given in London 
in his honour, organised by Charles Dickens and pre- 
sided over by the author of The Last Days of Pompeii, 
Lord Lytton, who had written for Macready his great 
plays, Richelieu and The Lady of Lyons. The guests 
numbered several hundred, including the representatives 
of literature, science, and art. Dickens, in proposing 
the toast of the evening, alluded to Macready as " his 
dear and valued friend." Tennyson, too, honoured the 
occasion by writing the following lines : — 

" Farewell, Macready, since to-iiif,'ht we part ; 
Fiill-lianded thunders often have confessed 
Thy power, well-used to move the public breast. 
We thank thee witli one voice, and from the lieart. 


Farewell, Macready, since this nij;ht we part, 

Go, take thine honours home; rank with the l^est, 
Garrick and statelier Kemble, and the rest 

Who made a nation purer through their art. 

Thine is it that our drama did not die. 
Nor flicker down to brainless pantomime, 
And those gilt gauds men-children swarm to see. 

Farewell, Macready; moral, grave, sublime; 

Our Shakespeare's bland and universal eye 

Dwells pleased, through twice a hundred years, on thee." 

That always welcome actor to Bristol playgoers, 
Barry Sullivan, was closely connected with our city 
in early life. As a boy he went to the Catholic School 
in Trenchard Street, which was presided over by one 
Martin Bayne, one of the nearly extinct t}-pes of school- 
masters who firmly believed in the scriptural injunction, 
" Spare the rod and spoil the child." Under him 
Sullivan made a diligent pupil, and years after freely 
admitted that he owed much of his success in his art 
to the stern discipline of his old master, at the same 
time paying a tribute to Bayne's accomplishments, 
amongst which was his splendid elocutionary power. 
Naturally gifted, Sullivan under such a master made 
rapid progress, and was soon held up as a model for 
elocution to the rest of the scholars. Among his 
schoolfellows was one named Harvey, whose firm friend 
he soon became, and to him Sullivan used to recite 
passages from Shakespeare in their rambles across the 
Downs. A lasting friendship resulted from that intimacy, 
and Sullivan never visited Bristol in after years without 
enjoying the hospitality of " Dear old Harvey." 

At the age of fourteen Sullivan was apprenticed to 
Daniel Burges, solicitor, whose office was in the Council 
House. It was during his employment there that he 
first conceived his ambition for histrionic honours ; for, 


visiting the Royal Theatre one evening, he saw the great 
Macready act, arid at once became "stage-struck." 
Forthwith he conceived a passionate admiration for 
Macready that soon reached the pitch of adoration. 
In conjunction with several of his fellow-clerks, Sullivan 
formed a dramatic club in Host Street. Their stage 
was of primitive modesty, twelve bottles holding as many 
candles doing duty as footlights. To those who, like 
the writer, witnessed his rendering of " Richard III." 
the memory is an unforgettable one. Crowded houses 
were the invariable rule on his appearances. 

An actor of conspicuous ability in light comedy was 
Walter Lacy, whose real name was Williams. He was 
born in Bristol in i8og, the son of a coachbuilder. 
In his twentieth year he appeared at Edinburgh in 
The Honeymoon, and his first appearance in London 
was at the Haymarket Theatre in the character of 
"Charles Surface." He was the original "Rouble" in 
Boucicault's Prima Donna, and he was extremely 
successful as " Renaud " in the Corsican Brothers. He 
ultimately became associated with the famous Kean in 
several plays. Among the many characters he appeared 
in were "Sir Brilliant Fashion," "Tony Lumpkin," 
''Bob Acres" and "Jeremy Diddler," On one occasion 
when acting in The Ojibbcway Indians, a party of the 
real tribe happened to be present, and suddenly became 
so excited at the realism of his scalping the " ring- 
tailed roarer of the backwoods," that, uttering a terrific 
war-whoop, they prepared to rush the stage, but on 
seeing that he took off his fellow-actor's wig only, they 
relaxed into peals of laughter. In the closing years of 
Lacy's life he became professor of elocution at the 
Royal Academy of Music. 


In the year 1830 that extremely capable actress, 
Amy Sedgwick, was born in Bristol. She created the 
character in many plays, among those she impersonated 
being " Mrs. Bloomby " in Wigan's Charming Woman, 
" Orelia " in Filmore's Winning Suit, and " Phoebe 
Topper" in One Good Turn Deserves Another, etc. She 
also excelled in dramatic recitals, being "commanded" 
more than once to appear before Queen Victoria. Her 
death occurred in 1897. 

That mirth-provoking comedian of the old school, 
William Fosbrooke, must not be passed over, if only 
from the fact that the name of "Old Fozzie " is a 
cherished recollection to Bristolians of a decade ago. 
From the year 1852 onwards he was a member of the 
famous stock company of James Henry Chute (father 
of the present James Macready Chute), both at the 
old theatre and later at the new theatre, Park Row, 
better known to-day as the Prince's. One of "Fozzie's" 
greatest successes was that of "James Dalton " in the 
Ticket of Leave Man. He also played with marked 
ability the part of "Justice Hare" in Mrs. Wood's East 
Lynne. This character he is said to have acted no fewer 
than 2,500 times. Surely a record ! Year after year in 
the eighties no pantomime here was considered complete 
without " Old Fozzie." He died in i8g8, and a monu- 
ment to his memory has been erected in Westbury-on- 
Trym Churchyard. 

An actor of considerable merit died in 1904 in the 
person of William Rignold, who with his brother was 
early associated with Bristol's school of actors, some of 
whom, as is w^ell known, have achieved world-wide fame. 

Whilst these Associations were passing through the 
press, the dominant personality of modern drama made 


his last appearance on the stage of Hfe — Sir Henry 
Irving, whose real name was Brodribb. Born in the 
little Somerset village of Keinton Mandeville, his 
earliest associations were connected with Bristol, where 
he lived with his parents at No. i Wellington Place, at 
the corner of Picton Street and Ashley Road. He him- 
self has told us that he well remembered being taken at 
five years of age to see the launch of the Great Britain 
by the Prince Consort. Here he went to school, after 
leaving which he was for a time junior clerk in the 
firm of Messrs. Budgett, the wholesale grocers of 
Nelson Street. From Bristol, too, he started on his 
great dramatic career. 

As late as June loth, 1904, a complimentary 
banquet was given him whilst paying Bristol a pro- 
fessional visit. The following graceful lines from the 
pen of the well-known song-writer, F. E. Weatherly, 
adorned the toast list : — 


Let other hands the laurel bring 

To crown thee on the stage ; 
Let other lips thy homage sing, 

First actor of our age ! 
We bring a flower that will outlast 

The summer and the snow, 
Rosemary— for Remembrance 

That will not let thee go ! 

In the course of his speech on that occasion, alluding 
to the part played by the drama in the national life, 
he said : " Without opening a book, or listening to 
music, or sitting at the play, or meditating at a 
picture gallery, you can lead a blameless, prosperous, 
and even energetic life. But it will be a very dry, 
narrow and barren life, cut off from some of the 



world's greatest treasures. It will be a life of 
defective growth on the imaginative side. I hold that 
the drama is an expression of our nature on that side 
which cannot be wisely neglected, and that it behoves 
all of you who have influence for the social welfare 
to keep the dramatic taste of the people as high as 
you can. . . . This is a memorable gathering for 
me — a gathering which adds another link to the chain 
of affectionate remembrances binding me to Bristol, 
your ancient and historic city ; and I want to thank 
you very simply, but very gratefully, for the proof of 
a regard which I have prized most highly for many 
a year." 

Irving's appearance was singularly striking, and it 
has been said that he was one of three men in 
England that people would turn round to look at 
in the street, the other two being Cardinal Manning 
and W. E. Gladstone. Be that as it may, his portrait 
by Whistler, which cost him £"100, fetched after his 
death no less a sum than 4,800 guineas. 

In closing these Dramatic Associations allusion must 
be made to the remarkable band of amateur actors 
who honoured Bristol with a visit in 1851. On 
November 12th of that year Charles Dickens (manager), 
assisted by Douglas Jerrold, John Forster, Mark Lemon, 
Wilkie Collins, Peter Cunningham, R. H. Home, Dudley 
Costello, and A. Egg, produced at the Victoria Rooms 
Not So Bad As We Seem and Mr. Nightingale's Diary. 
So great was the demand for seats that long before the 
eventful evening every seat was booked, and so earnest 
' were the appeals for another performance that two 
days later it was again given. 

Scientific Associations. 




Sii' Humphry Davy ; superintendent of Dr. Beddoes' 
Pneumatic Institute; experiments luith " laughifig gas'' ; 
his relations with Cottle, Coleridge, Southey and 
others ; appointment to Royal Institution — Southey's 
appreciation of Dr. Beddoes' character — Henry Kater ; 
his pendulum experiments — Augustus De Morgan — 
Andrew Crosse — Sir George Stokes — /. W. Brett — 
G. H. K. Thwaites ; his botanical research — C. T. 
Hudson — William Lonsdale — Robert Etheridge — 
William Sanders — John Samuel Milller, curator of 
Bristol Museum — W. J. Broderip — Mrs. Sarah Lee — 
Sir Joseph Banks — Alexander Catcott, friend of Chatter- 
ton — IF. B. Carpenter and P. P. Carpenter, sons of 
Lant Carpenter. 

HE greatest name in science associated with 
Bristol is that of Sir Humphry Davy, the 
chemist and natural philosopher, who gave the 
miner his safety lamp. His presence in Bristol was due 
to Dr. Beddoes, who had come from Oxford with ;i high 
reputation for his studies in chemistr}-, and st-tth d \u 
Clifton in the year 1793 with a view to estabhsliing his 
Pneumatic Institute. The method of treatment vigorously 
advocated by this original thinker was that of the inli;da- 
tion of the new gas, nitrous oxide, just discovered l)y the; 

^3 '^ 


famous Joseph Priestley. Among those whose sympathy 
and help he enlisted were Mr, Lambton, father of the 
first Earl of Durham, and Thomas Wedgwood (son of 
the great Wedgwood), who had removed to Clifton to 
place himself under Dr. Beddoes' care, and was living 
at Cornwallis House, to be in the same neighbourhood 
as his brother John, who was residing at Cote House, 
Westbury. These two generously contributed ;^i,ooo 
and ^1,500 respectively towards the undertaking. 

In the year 1798, Gregory Watt, the son of the 
famous James Watt of Birmingham, who had been 
wintering at Penzance, where he had lodged with Davy's 
mother, induced Beddoes by the favourable account he 
gave him of Davy to engage the latter as superin- 
tendent of the Pneumatic Institution, then on the eve 
of inauguration. Accordingly Davy came to Bristol in 
October of 1798 and joined Beddoes. His journey 
thither was rendered agreeable and memorable inasmuch 
that he " came into Exeter in a most joyful time, the 
celebration of Nelson's victory. The town was beautifully 
illuminated, and the inhabitants loyal and happy." 

He was domesticated with the Beddoes family at 
No. 3 Rodney Place, Clifton. Writing to his mother 
a few days after his arrival, on October nth, 1798, he 
says :— 

" I must now give you a more particular account of 
Clifton, the place of my residence, and of my new friends 
Dr. and Mrs. Beddoes and their family. 

" Clifton is situated on the top of a hill, commanding 
a view of Bristol and its neighbourhood, conveniently 
elevated above the dirt and noise of the city. Here are 
houses, rocks, woods, town and country in one small 


spot ; and beneath us the sweetly -flowing Avon, so 
celebrated by the poets. Indeed, there can hardly be a 
more beautiful spot ; it almost rivals Penzance and the 
beauties of Mount's Bay. 

" Our house is capacious and handsome ; my rooms 
are very large, nice, and convenient ; and, above all, I 
have an excellent laboratory. Now for the inhabitants, 
and, first. Dr. Beddoes, who, between you and me, is 
one of the most original men I ever saw — uncommonl}- 
short and fat, with little elegance of manners, and 
nothing characteristic externally of genius or science ; 
extremely silent, and in a few words, a very bad 
companion. His behaviour to me, however, has been 
particularly handsome. He has paid me the highest 
compliments on my discoveries, and has, in fact, become 
a convert to my theory, which I little expected. He 
has given up to me the whole of the business of the 
Pneumatic Hospital, and has sent to the editor of the 
Monthly Magazine a letter, to be published in November, 
in which I have the honour to be mentioned in the 
highest terms. Mrs. Beddoes" (Mana Edgeworth's sister) 
"is the reverse of Dr. Beddoes — extremely cheerful, gay 
and witty ; she is one of the most pleasing women I 
have ever met with. With a cultivated understanding 
and an excellent heart, she combines an uncommon 
simplicity of manners. We are already ver}- great 
friends. She has taken mc to sec all the fine sccncrx- 
about Clifton ; for the Doctor, from his or.cupations and 
his bulk, is unable to walk much. In the house are two 
sons and a daughter of Mr. Lambton, very line children, 
from five to thirteen years of age. ... I am now 
very much engaged in considering of the erection of the 
Pneumatic liospital. . . ." 


Through Beddoes, whose home was a centre of the 
intellectual and literary life of Clifton, Davy was brought 
closely into contact with Coleridge, Southey, and Tobin 
the dramatist, and other notable people of the time. 

Writing to his friend and patron, Mr. Davies Gilbert, 
on November 12th, 1798, Davy says : — 

" Dear Sir, — I have purposely delayed writing until 
I could communicate to you some intelligence of import- 
ance concerning the Pneumatic Institution. The speedy 
execution of the plan will, I think, interest you both as 
a subscriber and a friend to science and mankind. . . . 
We are negotiating for a house in Dowrie Square, the 
proximity of which to Bristol, and its general situation 
and advantages, render it very suitable to the purpose. . . . 
We shall try the gases in every possible way. . . . 

" I suppose you have not heard of the discovery of 
the native sulphate of strontian in England. I shall 
perhaps surprise you by stating that we have it in large 
quantities here. . . . We opened a fine vein of it about 
a fortnight ago at the Old Passage near the mouth of 
the Severn. . . . 

"We are printing in Bristol the first volume of the 
' West Country Collection,' which will, I suppose, be 
out in the beginning of January. 

"Mrs. Beddoes ... is as good, amiable, and elegant 
as when }'ou saw her. 

" Believe me, dear sir, with affection and respect, 

truly yours, 

" Humphry Davy." 

The Pneumatic Institute, to which Davy alludes 
was opened in March, 1799, at No. 6 (present 
numbering) Dowry Square, Hotwells, and in the course 


of the announcement of the event, which appeared in 
the Bristol Gazette and Public Advertiser of the 21st of 
that month, it stated, " It is intended, among other 
purposes, for treating diseases hitherto found incurable 
upon a new plan. . . . The application of persons in 
confirmed consumption is principally wished at present, 
and though the disease has heretofore been deemed hope- 
less, it is confidently expected that a considerable portion 
of such cases will be permanently cured." A sanguine 
hope that was doomed to be unrealised, and to-day — a 
hundred years later — the world is anxiously watching for 
the deliverer who shall rid it of this deadly disease. 

In regard to the application of nitrous oxide gas, the 
world has unfairly given all the credit to Davy ; but 
in justice to Dr. Beddoes it must be stated that vears 
before Davy joined him he had been experimenting with 
the pneumatic treatment, and it was solely at his instance 
that it was used. Truly has it been said that, " for- 
tunate in having voiced the views of Beddoes and his 
fellow-workers on the anaesthetic properties of nitrous 
oxide, Davy has received to-day the credit of having 
discovered them, and to the general public the name of 
Thomas Beddoes, the real discoverer, is practically 
unknown." It is indeed to the latter that the 
world owes the birth of modern anaesthetics. What, 
however, is to the credit of Davy is the daring with 
which he experimented at this period. 

Writing again to Davics Gilbert on April loth from 
Dowry Square, where he had fitted up a laborator\', he 
says : — 

" I made a discovery yesterday which proves how 
necessary it is to repeat experiments. The gaseous 


oxide of azote is perfectly respirable when pure. It 
is never deleterious but when it contains nitrous gas. 
I have found a mode of obtaining it pure, and 
I breathed to-day, in the presence of Dr. Beddoes 
and some others, sixteen quarts of it for near seven 
minutes. It appears to support life longer than even 
oxygen gas, and absolutely intoxicated me. . . . We 
have upwards of eighty out-patients in the Pneumatic 
Institution, and are going on wonderfully well." 

Dozens of people were induced to inhale the nitrous 
oxide (or "laughing gas"), among whom were Coleridge, 
Southey, Tobin, Joseph Priestley (son of the discoverer 
of it), and the Wedgwoods. Maria Edgeworth, who 
was at this time on a visit to Clifton, writes : — 

"A young man, a Mr. Davy, at Dr. Beddoes's, 
who has applied himself much to chemistry, has made 
some discoveries of importance, and enthusiastically 
expects wonders will be performed by the use of 
certain gases, which inebriate in the most delightful 
manner, having the oblivious effects of Lethe, and at 
the same time giving the rapturous sensations of the 
Nectar of the Gods!" 

Southey, too, writing to his brother, July 12th, 1799, 
says : — 

"Oh, Tom! Such gas has Davy discovered, the 
gaseous oxyde ! Oh, Tom ! I have had some ; it made 
me laugh and tingle in every toe and finger tip. Davy 
has actually invented a new pleasure, for which language' 
has no name. Oh, Tom ! I am going for more this 
evening ; it makes one strong and so happy ! so 
gloriously happy ! . . . Oh, excellent air bag ! Tom, 


I am sure the air in heaven must be this wonder- 
working air of dehght." 

An amusing anecdote is related by Coleridge, that as 
soon as the powers of nitrous oxide were discovered, 
Dr. Beddoes at once concluded that it must necessarily 
be a specific for paralysis. A patient was selected for 
trial, and the management of it entrusted to Davy. 
Previous to the demonstration of the gas, he inserted 
a pocket thermometer under the tongue of the patient, 
as he was accustomed to do on such occasions, to 
ascertain the degree of temperature with a view to 
future comparison. The paralytic man, wholly ignorant 
of the nature of the process to which he was sub- 
mitting, but deeply impressed, from the representations 
of Dr. Beddoes, with the certainty of its success, no 
sooner felt the thermometer between his teeth than he 
concluded that the talimian was in full operation, and 
in a burst of enthusiasm declared that he already 
experienced the effects of its benign influence through- 
out his whole body. The opportunity was too tempting 
to be lost. Davy cast an intelligent glance at Coleridge, 
and desired the patient to renew his visit on the follow- 
ing day, when the same ceremony was performed and 
repeated every d%.y for a fortnight. The patient gradually 
improved during that period, when he was dismissed as 
cured, no other application having been used than that 
of the thermometer. 

That Davy's work was attracting great attention in 
the scientific circles of his day is proved from the 
eulogistic letter of appreciation written to him from 
Priestley at the period, which opens willi the follow- 


" Sir, — I have read with admiration your excellent 
publications, and have received much instruction from 
them. It gives me peculiar satisfaction that, as I am 
far advanced in life, and cannot expect to do much 
more, I shall leave so able a fellow-labourer of my 
own country in the great fields of experimental 
philosophy. . . ." 

The companionship and friendship of Coleridge and 
Southey at this period were an intellectual stimulus 
to him, keeping his enthusiasm in pursuit of knowledge 
at a white heat. 

Cottle gives us, in his Reminiscences, a word picture 
of him : — 

"I was," says he, "much struck with the intel- 
lectual character of his face. His eye was piercing, and 
when not engaged in converse was remarkably intro- 
verted, amounting to absence, as though his mind had 
been pursuing some severe trains of thought, scarcely 
to be interrupted by external objects ; and from the 
first interview also, his ingenuousness impressed me as 
much as his mental superiority." 

After Coleridge left for the Lakes his attachment 

to Davy was unabated, and shows, too, that Davy was 

fully in touch with his and Wordsworth's literary 

work : — 

" Keswick, 

" July 25th, 1800. 

" My dear Davy, — Work hard, and if success do 
not dance up like the bubbles in the salt (with the 
spirit lamp under it)" — alluding to the decomposition of 
ammonium nitrate which he had seen Davy effect — 
" may the Devil and his dam take success. . . . 



" W. Wordsworth is such a lazy fellow, that I bemire 
myself by making promises for him : the moment I 
received your letter I wrote him. He will, I hope, 
wTite immediately to Biggs and Cottle. At all events, 
these poems must not as yet be delivered up to them, 
because that beautiful poem, " The Brothers," which I 
read to you in Paul Street " (Kingsdown), " I neglected 
to deliver to 3'ou, and that must begin the volume. . . . 
May God and all His sons love you as I do. 

" S. T. Coleridge. 

" Sara desires her kind remembrances. Hartley is a 
spirit that dances on an aspen leaf : the air that yonder 
sallow-faced and yawning tourist is breathing, is to my 
babe a perpetual nitrous oxide. . . ." 

Writing later in October of the same year, he says : — 

"'SIy dear Davy, — I was right glad, glad with a stagger 
of the heart, to see your writing again. Many a moment 
have I had all my France and England curiosity sus- 
pended and lost, looking in the advertisement front 
column of the "Morning Post Gazetteer" for Mr. Davy's 
Galvanic habitudes of charcoal — Upon my soul, I believe 
there is not a letter in those words round which a 
world of imagery does not circumvolve ; your room, 
the garden, the cold bath, the moonlight rocks. . . ." 

Later in the letter he refers to his and Words- 
worth's poetic works, in the course of which he says : — 

" I assure you I think very differently of " Christabel." 
I would rather have written " Ruth " and " Nature's 
Lady " than a million such poems." 

Surely another proof that an author is not always the 
best judge of his work. Wordsworth, his friend, was the 


last to belittle his own work, for in his eyes Peter Bell 
was equally as good as Lucy. 

" When you write — and do write soon — tell me how 
I can get your essay on the nitrous oxide. . . . 
" God bless you ! 

" Your most affectionate 

"S. T. Coleridge." 

Early in the following year (1801) Davy's brief but 
fruitful period of his connection with Bristol terminated, 
for he had received and accepted the appointment of 
Assistant- Lecturer at the Royal Institution. In the 
minute book there is the following resolution: "Resolved 
— That Mr. Humphry Davy be engaged in the service 
of the Royal Institution in the capacities of Assistant- 
Lecturer in Chemistry, Director of the Laboratory, 
and Assistant-Editor of the Journals of the Institu- 
tion. . . ." 

Davy accepted the post with the full approbation of 
Dr. Beddoes, who generously released him from, all 
engagements with the Pneumatic Institution ; and his 
after distinguished career fully bore out, as all the 
world knows, the promise with which it opened in our 

Alluding to this, Cottle on one occasion said to 
Coleridge : " During your stay in London you doubtless 
saw a great many of what are called ' the cleverest 
men.' How do you estimate Davy, in comparison with 
these ? " 

Coleridge's reply was strong but expressive : " Why, 
Davy could eat them all ! There is an energy, an elas- 
ticity in his mind, which enables him to seize on, and 
analyse, all questions, pushing them to their legitimate 


consequences. Every subject in Davy's mind has the 
principle of vitahty. Living thoughts spring up Hke 
the turf under his feet." 

The departure of Davy for a larger sphere of labour, 
if not the death-blow to the Pneumatic Institution, did 
not tend to prolong its existence, for ere many months 
had elapsed its doors were closed. Thus ended all the 
sanguine hopes that Dr. Beddoes had so ardently 
<:herished concerning its establishment. 

The character of this excellent man is best indicated 
in the following letter of Southey to his friend, John 

^' "August, 1799. 

" Of Beddoes you seem to entertain an erroneous 
opinion. Beddoes is an experimentalist in cases where 
the ordinary remedies are notoriously, and fatally, 
inefficacious. . . . The faculty dislike Beddoes, because 
he is more able, and more successful, and more celebrated, 
than themselves, and because he labours to reconcile 
the art of healing with common sense, instead of all the 
parade of mystery with which it is usually enveloped. 
Beddoes is a candid man, trusting more to facts than 
reasonings : I understand him when he talks to me, 
and, in case of illness, should rather trust myself to his 
experiments than be killed off secundum avion, and in 
the ordinary course of practice." 

At Beddoes's death, which occurred a few years after 
the closing of the Pneumatic Institution, he said, 
" From Beddoes I hoped for more good to the human 
race than any other individual," 

Alas ! as he bitterly wrote to Davy on his death-bed, 
it was his to "scatter abroad tiie avena fatua of know- 
ledge, from which neither branch nor blossom nor fruit 


has resulted." Nevertheless his name will always be 
honoured in the history of chemistry, for through him 
the Pneumatic Institution became the cradle of the 
genius of the first chemist of his age — Sir Humphry 

In Bristol was born in the year 1777 ^he distinguished, 
scientific investigator, Henry Kater, the son of Henry 
Kater, a sugar baker, of Tucker Street. He first entered 
a lawyer's office, but after his father's death he devoted 
himself to his favourite pursuit of mathematics. In 
1799 he joined the army by becoming ensign of the 
i2th Foot, which proceeded to India. When promoted 
to a lieutenancy he was employed in the survey of the 
country between the Malabar and Coromandel coasts. 
Returning home on account of ill-health, he was, on 
his recovery, after passing a distinguished examination 
at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, promoted to 
a company. Later he was ordered on recruiting service, 
and was for several years brigade-major at Ipswich. In 
1S14 he retired from the army on half-pay. In 1815 
he was elected F.R.S., and became for a long period 
treasurer of the Royal Society. Among honours 
conferred upon him was the Order of Saint Anne in 
recognition of his services with respect to the standard 
measures of the Russian Government. 

In connection with pendulum experiments, he became 
associated with the famous Arago and other scientists 
in the observation for determining the difference of 
longitude between the Observatories of Greenwich and 
Paris. Kater at this time was a member of all the 
leading scientific societies at home and abroad. He 
devised the important method of dividing the astro- 
nomical circles on the principle of the beam compass. 


and succeeded in measuring one ten-thousandth of an 
inch. For years he laboured upon an exact determination 
of a pendulum vibrating seconds, and at length solved 
the problem, by which means he was enabled to produce 
seconds of extraordinary delicacy. In 1820 he deli\ered 
the Bakerian Lecture on the best kind of steel for compass 
needles. His astronomical contributions to science were 
many and valuable, the most important of which was 
the invention of the floating collimator, for determining 
the line of collimation of a telescope attached to an 
astronomical circle in any position of the instrument. 
His death occurred in 1835. 

To the well-known school of Mr. Parsons, Redland, 
went, in the early years of the nineteenth century, 
the famous mathematician, Augustus De Morgan. He 
suffered from the infirmity of having lost one of his 
eyes, which made him the victim of a savage trick bv 
one of his schoolfellows. This particular boy would 
stealthily creep up to De Morgan's blind side, and 
holding a sharp -pointed penknife to his cheek would 
suddenly utter his name, when on turning round De 
Morgan would receive the point of the knife in his 
face. This brutal trick occurred more than once, and 
at length, complaining to a school chum, De Morgan 
expressed his determination to thrash his tormentor if 
he could only catch him. This was the difficulty, for 
owing to De Morgan's defective sight he was gone 
before his victim could la)^ hands on him. However, 
a plan was arranged. One day, therefore, De Morgan 
was seated at his desk with a book before him, when 
his cowardly tormentor stole in as usual, pointed his 
knife at his cheek, and said, " De Morgan!" but his 
intended victim failed to turn round, and before he 


could fly he was seized by De Morgan's friend, who 
held him whilst De Morgan gave him the thrashing 
he so richly deserved. Needless to say, he was ever 
after left in peace. Whilst at this school De Morgan 
attended St. Michael's Church with the rest of the 
scholars, and there until quite recent years the first and 
second proposition of Euclid pricked out by means of 
a shoe buckle with his initials on the oak wainscoting 
of the school pew could be seen. 

At Seyer's school, top of St. Michael's Hill, went 
Andrew Crosse, one of the earliest pioneers of elec- 
tricity, having for his schoolfellows John Kenyon and 
Browning's father. On his estate in Somerset he 
erected a mile and a quarter of insulated copper wire, 
and made valuable observations of the electrical pheno- 
mena exhibited, and earned from the ignorant peasantry 
of his neighbourhood the title of " Devil Crosse." In 
1837, whilst pursuing his investigations, he observed the 
appearance of insect life in metallic solutions previousl}' 
considered to be destructive of animal life, a discovery, 
curious to say, which occasioned much unreasoning 

At Bristol College was educated Sir George Stokes, 
"the last resident survivor of the golden age in 
Cambridge mathematics." He considered that he owed 
much to the teaching of Francis Newman, brother 
of the Cardinal, then mathematical master, a man 
of great charm as well as of unusual attainments. A 
tablet to Sir George Stokes' memory is in Westminster 

Few Bristolians are aware that in Bristol was born 
in 1805 J. W. Brett, who must justly be regarded with 
honour as the founder of submarine telegraphy, which 


has revolutionised the communications of the world. 
He was the son of a Bristol cabinet maker. The 
first cable linking England with France was due to 
him, and although he ne\-er lived to see it, he always 
expressed himself confident of the linking together by 
cable of England and America. Brett was a man filled 
with that happy union of enthusiasm and knowledge 
without which nothing great can be accomplished, com- 
bined with unshaken confidence in the ultimate triumph 
of his ideas. His death occurred in 1863, and he lies 
buried in Westbury-on-Trym Churchyard. 

In the domain of natural science, Bristol is repre- 
sented by names high up on the roll of fame in addition 
to Davy, for in Bristol, in the year 181 1, was born 
G. H. K. Thwaites, one of the most distinguished 
botanists and entomologists of the nineteenth century. 
From being originally an accountant, he devoted himself 
to the study of microscopical botany. In 1839, ^s 
local secretary of the Botanical Society of London, he 
became so well known as a biologist, that Dr. W. B. 
Carpenter engaged him to revise his work on General 
Physiology, then entering its second edition. Thwaites 
was a remarkably keen observer and skilful microscopist. 
His discoveries, owing to the lack of attention given 
to cryptograms in England, were so much unrecognised, 
that the credit of his pioneer work was given to later 
continental students in the same field of investigation. 
However, in 1845 J. F. C. Montague honoured him l)y 
dedicating to him the algal genus Thwaitesia. 

Thwaites did not confine his studies to flowerless 
plants, for he compiled a list of the flower plants 
within a ten-mile radius of Bristol. These he com- 
municated to Hewett Watson for his Topographical 


Botany. In 1846 he was lecturing on Botany in the 
Bristol Medical School. Finally the chance of his life 
came when in 1849 he secured the appointment of 
Superintendent of the Botanical Gardens of Ceylon. 
There he did most valuable work, contributing twenty- 
five new genera to Hooker's Journal of Botany. In 
1857 he was made Director, and in the year following 
he began printing his Eniimeratio Plantarimi Zeylania. 
In 1878 he was made a Companion of the Order of 
St. Michael and St. George. His death occurred in 

The distinguished authority on the " Rotifera," 
Charles Thomas Hudson, LL.D., F.R.S., was closely 
connected with our city. For five years he was head 
master of Bristol Grammar School (1855 — 1860), and for 
the twenty years succeeding he kept a large private 
school at Manilla Hall, Clifton. He was twice President 
of the Royal Microscopical Society. His death took 
place in 1903. 

William Lonsdale, a geologist of European reputa- 
tion, resided at Bristol in the closing period of his 
brilliant life. Starting his career by becoming a soldier, 
he served with marked distinction both in the Peninsular 
War and at Waterloo. Retiring from the army, he 
settled in Bath, and devoted himself to the study of 
geology with great success, for in 1829 he became 
Curator of the Bath Museum, and was elected F.G.S. 
Later he was elected to the onerous post of Curator to 
the London Geological Society, and during his term of 
office did much valuable work by his skilful condensa- 
tion of its Transactions. In 1846 he received both the 
Wollaston Fund and Medal for his research work on the 
corals. So important were some of his investigations, 


that he is entitled to a place beside Murchison and 
Sedgwick as co-originator of the theory of the inter- 
dependence of the Devonian system. He was the first 
to suggest the independent origin of the Old Red 
Sandstone. He lies buried in Arno's Vale Cemetery. 

Not the least of the distinguished geologists con- 
nected with Bristol is Robert Etheridge, F.R.S. l^orn 
at Ross in 1819, he came in early youth to our city, 
where his grandfather was harbour master. Owing to 
the latter's collection of natural objects formed on his 
various voyages Etheridge's interest was excited, and 
he soon began a collection of his own, using his 
mother's linen press for keeping his specimens. Whilst 
thus engaged he attended a course of lectures at the 
Bristol Institution, and w^as thus brought into contact 
with many men of culture and eminence. His talents 
soon attracted attention, and ultimately on the retire- 
ment of Samuel Stuchbury, Etheridge succeeded him 
as curator of the institution. His ability at this period 
may be gauged from the fact that for five years he 
was Lecturer on Vegetable Physiology and Botany at 
the Bristol Medical School. 

In the fifties, through the medium of the Cotteswold 
Field Club, he became acquainted with Sir Roderick 
Murchison, who had just succeeded l)c la Bcche as 
Director-General of the Geological Survey. This proved 
the turning - point of his life, for Murchison was so 
impressed with the knenvledge and cnerg\- (lispla}-ed by 
Etheridge, that he soon after obtained for liiin a post under 
Government as Assistant - Naturalist to ihe Geological 
Survey. In this position he came into close touch with 
the world-famous Huxley. Ultimat('l\- he was n])p()iiilc<| 
Palaeontologist at the JJritisli MuMnni in i'"^'',',. in inMitioii 


to which he aided Huxley by giving demonstrations in 
palaeontology before the students at the Royal School of 
Mines. Among honours that came to Etheridge during 
his long life were the Wollaston Donation Fund in 1871, 
and the Murchison Medal in 1880, and in the following 
year he was made President of the Geological Society. 
Beloved by all who knew him, he lived till his eighty- 
fifth year. 

That very able Bristol geologist, William Sanders, 
must not be ignored. He was born in 1799, and 
was by profession a corn merchant, but retired from 
business to devote himself to scientific pursuits, to so 
much purpose that he was successively elected F.G.S. 
and F.R.S. Although he wrote little, few were better 
acquainted with the geology of the Bristol district. The 
great work of his life identified with his name is his 
Geological Map of the Bristol Coalfield on a scale of 
four inches to the mile, which took him over twenty 
years to complete. It covers an area of 720 square 
miles. The civic museum is indebted to him for much 
of its early success and development, for he was for 
years its honorary curator. His death took place in 1875. 

A word, too, must be said of John Samuel Miiller, 
the father of the famous painter, W. J. Miiller. He 
was by birth a Prussian of scientific attainments, 
who settled here in the early years of the last 
century, married a Bristol lady, and became the first 
Curator of the Museum of the Bristol Institution. 
The remarkable collection of Encrinites in our civic 
museum, probably one of the best in the kingdom, was 
formed by him. Few museums out of London have a 
richer geological collection — note the inferior oolite of 
Dundry and the green sand from Blackdown, the latter 


considered extremely rich. Many eminent scientists have 
worked through it, including De la Beche, Sir Richard 
Owen, Thomas Huxley, and Louis Agassiz, who was 
specially delighted when he visited the museum. 

The celebrated Dr. Buckland, when attending the 
Bristol Meeting of the British Association in 1836, 
remarked that it was in this neighbourhood he had 
learned much of his geological alphabet. The rocks 
of our city were his geological school, " they stared 
}'ou in the face, wooed you, and said, ' Pray be a 
geologist,' " 

The well-known author of Zoological Recvcatiuns, 
W, J. Broderip, F.R,S., was born at Bristol, and \\ent 
to Seyer's school. His articles in Knighfs Cyclopcsdia 
are considered models of scientific exactness and popular 
attraction, and whilst they have instructed and delighted 
thousands of readers, have won, too, the appreciation of 
the most fastidious, who are slow to believe that the 
solid and amusing have no necessary antagonism. In 
conjunction with Sir Stamford Raffles, he helped to 
found the Zoological Society of London, Few men 
have more graphically described the habits of animals. 

Mrs. Sarah Lee, a popular writer on natural history 
subjects in her day, was close!}- connected with our 
city, for her first husband was the famous traveller, 
T. E, Bowdich, of Bristol. Accompanying him on his 
second visit to Africa, she became acquainted with the 
world-famous Cuvier, the naturalist, who received them 
with the greatest kindness at Paris. In the early days 
of her widowhood she revisited Paris, and saw much 
of Cuvier, who gave her many tokens of his regard. 
Ultimately she married Robert Lee, 

She was a prolific writer, and among her numerous 


works some \\ere really important, particularly her 
Freshtvater Fishes of Great Britain, illustrated by herself 
and published in 1828. The value of the illustrations 
was enhanced from the fact that the fishes represented 
in it were actually caught for the purpose, and Mrs. Lee 
painted them on the spot before death had tarnished 
their colours. The work is now very rare, and a copy 
in 1887 fetched £41. 

Among early pioneers of natural science was the 
famous Sir Joseph Banks, President of the Royal Society. 
In 1767 he paid Bristol a visit via Westbury, whose 
natural beauty particularly impressed him. Whilst here 
he visited St. Vincent's Rocks and searched for botanical 
specimens, and was charmed with the views of the river, 
" winding between steep rocks, sometimes wooded and 
sometimes bare, and most beautiful ; they would have 
well repaid our walk had we had less success in our 
botanical amusements." 

Among those he visited whilst here was the Rev. 
Alexander Catcott to see his collection of fossils — "spent 
two hours with him looking them over, but perfectly 
agreeable. His collection, though small, is certainly the 
most amusing, possibly the best, as it is also the most 
instructive, I have seen." 

Catcott was the son of A. S. Catcott, master of the 
Grammar School, and was born here in 1725. By his 
friendship with Chatterton, and as one of the fathers 
of geology, he is chiefly remembered to-day. He wrote 
a Treatise on the Deluge, a portion of which Lyell con- 
sidered "a very valuable contribution." 

A distinguished scientist associated with our city was 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter, physiologist and zoologist. He 
was the eldest son of Lant Carpenter and the brother 


of Mary Carpenter, Born in 1813, he was educated at 
his father's celebrated school, and there acquired the 
foundation of classical and scientific knowledge. 

Entering the Medical School, Bristol, for a short period, 
he passed to the London University College, finally 
entering the Medical School at Edinburgh. There he 
commenced those researches in physiology which* after- 
wards lifted him into well-won distinction. His papers 
at this early period show that he took a broad and 
catholic grasp of natural science. One of them attracted 
the attention of Johannes Miiller, the first physiologist 
of his time, who paid it the honour of inserting a trans- 
lation of it in his Archives for 1840. But it was the 
publication of his celebrated work, Principles of General 
and Comparative Physiology , the first English book which 
adequately dealt with the science of biology, that drew 
the attention of the scientific world to its author, 
W. B. Carpenter. 

For some time he lectured on medical jurisprudence 
and physiology at the Bristol Medical School. Removing 
to London in 1844, he obtained the Fiillerian Professor- 
ship of Physiology at the Royal Institution. This was 
followed by many other valuable appointments, including 
the Swiney Lectureship on Geolog)' at the British Museum, 
and Examiner in Physiology at the London University. 
Ultimately in 1856 he obtained the post of Registrar of 
that College, and threw himself heart and soul into the 
work of its development. Resigning in 1879, he iiad 
conferred on him the distinction of C.B. 

Among Carpenter's multifarious scientific labours was 
his work on the Foraminifera. Marine zoology too was 
a subject in which he was deepi\ interested, and in 
conjunction with Professor Wyville Tlioms(»ii lie stu(h(tl 



the crinoids near Belfast in 1868, and together they 
explored the fauna and other f)henomena of the sea- 
bottom between the North of Ireland and the Faroe 
Islands. This was followed up In- other explorations, 
and in the preparations for the Challenger expedition he 
took a very active part. As a microscopist, Carpenter 
takes 'high rank for his work. The Microscope and its 
Revelations has gone through many editions ; this is 
equally true of his other works, which have become 
standard authorities. In the course of his study of 
mental physiology, he invented the phrase "unconscious 
cerebration of the brain." The industry, research, and 
many-sidedness of this son of science were truly 

Among honours bestowed upon him were the Royal 
Medal of the Royal Society (1861), the Lyell Medal of 
the Geological Society (1883), the LL.D. of Edinburgh 
(1871), and last but not least the Presidency of the 
British Association in 1872. His death occurred in 
1885 as the result of an accident. 

In Bristol was born, in 1819, his youngest brother, 
Philip Pearsall Carpenter, who also received his education 
here, first at his father's school and after at Bristol 
College. He too attained distinction in natural science 
as a conchologist. Graduating 'in London University, 
he became a Presbyterian minister, and developed an 
interest in various schemes of philanthropy. Having 
learnt swimming, he taught numbers of poor lads the art. 
Carpenter was a clever man, but eccentric, for on one 
occasion, having had his home robbed, he published a 
handbill describing his candlesticks, silver spoons, etc., 
informing the thieves that he had forgiven them, and 
that if thev liked to call he would converse with them, 


and if they did not call they would have to meet him 
at the Day of Judgment. The work of his life, how- 
ever, came to him in a curious way, for walking one day 
in the year 1855 down a street in Liverpool, .Carpenter 
caught sight of some strange shells in a dealer's windo\\'. 
On inquiry, he found they were part of a vast collection 
made by a Belgian naturalist in California, who had died 
and left them unsorted and unnamed. Carpenter bought 
them up for £50. Their number may be gauged from 
the fact that they weighed fourteen tons. To examine, 
name, and classify this huge collection was from that 
time the work of Carpenter's life. Through them he 
was able to add 222 new species to the order of Mollusca. 
A report on them occupies 209 pages of the British 
Association Report for 1856. In 1865 Carpenter went 
with his famil)' to Canada and there lived for the 
remainder of his life, dying in 1877. 

CHAPTER VI. {continued). 


James Cowles Prichard—John Addington Symonds — William 
Budd : TyndalVs tribute to him — Richard Bright — 
Henry Southey—John Bishop Estlin— Thomas Turner— 
William Thornhill— William Herapath—John Nott— 
Thomas Dover — Richard Smith : his generous gifts to 
the city — W. T. Smith— James Greig Smith. 

NE of a brilliant and remarkable band of men 
who have shed lustre upon the medical annals 
of Bristol was James Cowles Prichard, born at 
Ross but connected nearly all his life with this city. 
Here he first pursued his medical studies under Dr. 
Pole. History and languages were his favourites, and in 
acquiring the latter he showed remarkable aptitude, for 
nothing delighted him more than to converse in their 
own language with the various foreigners who visited 
Bristol. On one occasion it is related he accosted a 
Greek sailor in Romaic, and the man was so overcome 
with delight that he caught the lad in his arms and 
kissed him. Leaving Bristol, he studied for some time 
at St. Thomas's Hospital, London, and thence proceeded 
to Edinburgh, where he spent some years in hard study, 
which terminated by a short course at Oxford. Returning 
again to Bristol, he married a daughter of John 



Prior Estlin, and became in 1812 physician to St. Peter's 
Hospital, and the experience he gained there had a 
remarkable influence on his study of pathology. The 
year following he published the first edition of his great 
^vork, Researches into the Physical History of Mankind. 
He was one of the founders of the Bristol Institution. 
In 1S45 the Government appointed him Commissioner 
in Lunacy. Intellectual honours now fell thick upon 
him, among others that of being elected F.R.S. Prior 
to his entry into that field of study which he made 
peculiarly his own, it had been almost entirelj^ neglected. 

In addition to the great work to which all his re- 
markable powers were applied, he published in iSiq a 
treatise on Egyptian Mythology, a remarkable part of 
which was his analysis of the remains of Egyptian 
chronology. Bunsen, in his great work on Egypt, 
eulogises Dr. Prichard as " one of the most acute and 
learned investigators of his time." For many years he 
lived at the Red Lodge, Park Row. 

In writing of Prichard, the name of his lifelong friend, 
Dr. John Addington Symonds, is inevitably suggested. 
Born at Oxford, and, judging by results, steeped in the 
underlying spirit of culture that pervades that great 
seat of learning, he was for forty years a great in- 
tellectual force in our city. At Edinburgh, where liis 
training was received, he was distinguished for his un- 
flinching devotion to the studies of his profession. A 
lover of literature and art, combined with soundness of 
judgment, logical precision, and great industry of re- 
search, made him not only a distinguished physician, 
but a man of large and liberal cuUnre. His urbanity 
of manner and his originalit\- as a thinker, allied to the 
beauty of his diction with whi( h he lulornrd the discus- 


sions that occurred both at his own hospitable table 
and those of his friends, made him a personal influence 
of great weight in the city of his adoption. For 
seventeen years he was physician to the General 
Hospital. As a writer he was not voluminous, but his 
essays contained in the Miscellanies edited by his gifted 
son evince much deep and original thinking. At the 
comparatively early age of sixty-two this distinguished 
man died, leaving behind him the memor}' of a singularly 
cultured and rare order of mind, allied to a geniality 
which had made him a universal favourite. 

One of the greatest men, however, not only in local 
but in national medical annals, was \\'iiliam Budd, 
who for many years was closely associated with Bristol. 
He came here in 1842, and subsequently was appointed 
physician to St. Peter's Hospital and the Infirmary. He 
attained European distinction by his life work, devoted to 
the study of typhoid fever. When Asiatic cholera broke 
out in Bristol in 1866, it was through acting on the 
measures advocated and carried out b}- Budd that its 
ravages were checked and stamped out. How successful 
those measures were is proved by the eloquent fact that 
in 1849 the same disease carried off nearly 450 victims, 
whilst in i8u6 only 29 succumbed. His studies of 
contagious diseases had convinced him that in certain 
forms prompt destruction of those affected was the only 
real remedy; consequenth', when the terrible rinderpest 
broke out in England in 1866, Budd strenuously advo- 
cated a pole-axe and a pit of quicklime as the only 
means of cure. So daring a method was at first ridiculed, 
but time was on the side of Budd, and eventually his 
advice was successfully adopted. 

Tyndall, the distinguished scientist, pays an eloquent 


tribute to him, where he sa)-s : '" Dr. lUidd I hold to 
have been a nian of the highest genius. There was no 
physician in England who, during his hfetime, showed 
anything like the penetration in the interpretation of 
zymotic disease. For a great number of years he 
conducted an uphill iight against the whole of his 
medical colleagues, the only s\nipathy which he could 
count upon during this depressing time being that of 
the venerable Sir Thomas Watson. Over and over again 
Sir Thomas Watson has spoken to me of William 
Budd's priceless contributions to medical literature. His 
doctrines are now everywhere victorious, each succeeding 
discovery furnishing an illustration of his marvellous 

As a great sanitarian, Budd took the deepest interest 
in the water supply of the city, deeming pure water 
one of the surest means of preserving the public health, 
and he considered Bristol's supply second to none in tlie 
kingdom. He was not only one of the foremost phj'sicians 
of his time, but an accomplished and cultured man, being 
an excellent draughtsman and photographer, and well 
versed in modern languages, which enabled him to 
keep abreast of continental as well as English medical 
literature. One who frequently dined at his table — Judge 
O'Connor Morris — regarded him as one of the kindest 
friends he had ever met, and greatly enjoyed his con- 
versation, which he describes as "joycuis, animated, and 
full of fun and intelligence." Having retired to C"le\-cd(tn 
owing to a breakdown from overwork, Ik^ diid (Ikic 
in 1880. 

Richard 1 'right, the \\f)rld - famous discoverer of 
Bright's disease, was born in I'lristol in i/^o, his 
father jjciiig a merchant and a mi-mber of the baniJiig 


company of Ames, Bright and Cave ; his eldest brother 
represented Bristol in three Parliaments. His early 
education he received under Doctors Estlin and 
Carpenter, both famous names in Bristol history. After 
studying at Edinburgh University, he accompanied 
Sir Henry Holland and Sir George Mackenzie in their 
journey through Iceland. Returning to England, he 
commenced clinical hospital work at Gu\''s Hospital, 
where he lived in the house of the resident physician 
for two years. Ultimately he was elected assistant- 
physician there, and rapidly gave proof of his remarkable 
powers of observation and his tireless skill in the 
investigation of disease, which led to his remarkable 
discovery relating to the kidneys which has immortalised 
his labours in the field of original research. It has 
been well said of him that there has been no English 
physician — perhaps it may be said none of any countr}' 
— since the time of the great Harvey, who has effected 
not only so great an advance in the knowledge of 
particular diseases, but also so great a revolution in 
medical habits of thought and methods of investigating 
morbid phenomena and tracing the etiology of disease, 
as Dr. Richard Bright. 

In a record of some of the distinguished physicians 
associated with our city the name of Henry H. Southey 
deserves mention. He was the younger brother of the 
poet, and was born in Bristol in 1783. After studying 
surgery under the uncle of Harriet Martineau, he entered 
the University of Edinburgh, where he acquired remark- 
able facility in speaking the Latin tongue, frequently 
conversing in it with his friends. He graduated M.D. 
in 1806, and later on settled in London, where he 
was appointed Licentiate of the College of Physicians ; 


in 1S12 he was elected Fellow, and finally in 1S25 he 
became an F.R.S. In 1815 he was made ph\sician of 
the Middlesex Hospital, and later he was hononred hv 
the appointment of physician to George I\'. and physician 
extraordinary to Queen Adelaide. In addition to this 
he was Gresham professor of medicine from 1834 to 1865, 
was the recipient of the D.C.L. in 1847, and delivered 
the Harveian oration for that year. His death occurred 
in 1865. 

Few surgeons of Bristol ha\e won for themselves 
a nobler reputation than John Bishop Estlin, born in 
1785, the son of Dr. John Prior Estlin, the celebrated 
schoolmaster of Bristol. Educated at his father's 
school, he began his professional studies at the Bristol 
Infirmary in 1804, and after studying both at Guy's 
Hospital and at Edinburgh, he settled in his native 
city. Early in his career he devoted himself chielly 
to ophthalmic surgery; in the year 1822 he established 
in Frogmore Street a dispensar}- for the treatment of 
diseases of the eye. For the long period of thirty-six 
years he managed that institution, und himself treated 
no fewer than 52,000 cases; of these he kept notes, 
and published many papers in the medical journals 
concerning them. So great was his reputation, that 
he was considered the foremost surgeon of his time 
on diseases of the eye. In 1817 he married W'ahc r 
Bagehot's aunt. He was one of the earliest to recognise 
Jenner's great discover}' of vaccination as the preventa- 
tive of small-pox. In fact, Estlin was ever in the van 
of thcjse who worked for tin; amelioration of ))hysical 
and social evils. A bust of this excellent man by lii-> 
distinguished fellow-citizen Baily is now in tlu' r)ristol 
Art Gallery. 


The celebrated surgeon Thomas Turner, born at 
Truro in 1793, served his apprenticeship to Nehemiah 
Duck, one of the surgeons to St. Peter's HospitaL 
The work ^^•ith which his name is chiefly identiiied 
was the founding in Manchester in 1825 of the tirst 
real Provincial Medical School, the result of which has 
amply demonstrated that the great provincial towns are 
as capable of affording a first-class medical education 
as London. Through him, too, the Royal School of 
Jvledicine, Manchester, was amalgamated with Owens 
College. A Turner medical prize commemorates his 
services to that institution. He died in 187 j. 

A surgeon of considerable distinction in his day, 
William Thornhill, born at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, was educated in Bristol, and became 
first surgeon to the Bristol Infirmary when opened in 
1737. His daughter Anne was the mother of Sir 
Nathaniel Wraxall. Thornhill was one of the earliest 
English surgeons to adopt and improve the operation 
of suprapubic lithotomy. His records show that he 
was more successful than any of his contemporaries. 
He was especially skilful in maternity cases. In 
appearance he was handsome and possessed of polished 
manners, and habitually wore an entire suit of black 
velvet, and carried an elegant steel-handled rapier. He 
died in 1755. 

The distinguished toxicologist, \\'il!iam Herapath, 
was also a native of Bristol, being the son of a maltster 
of St. Philip's. Succeeding to his father's business, he 
soon relinquished it, and devoted the whole of his time 
to the study of chemistry. Ultimately he became 
Professor of Chemistr}- and Toxicology to the Bristol 
Medical School. In the famous local Burdock poisoning 


case by arsenic he was examined by the prosecution, 
and acquired a great reputation by his analysis. As a 
consequence he was retained as an expert in manv 
other important criminal trials. He was one of the 
founders of the Chemical Society, London. His eldest 
son, ^^^illiam Bird Herapath, inherited his father's gifts, 
and became also a distinguished toxicologist and was 
made an F.R.S. 

A medical man of considerable cclebrit\- in his day 
was Dr. John Nott, who lived in Bristol and wrote a 
treatise on the Hotwell water. He was, too, a classical 
scholar, and is the author of many works, including the 
editing of Decker's Gul's Horn Book and Wither's Poems. 
His notes on the latter were castigated by Lamb, who 
annotated them in turn with such comments as: "Thou 

d fool ' " "Why not, Nott ? " "O eloquent in abuse! 

Niggard where thou should'st praise, most negative 

A still more famous doctor was Thomas Dover, born 
in the seventeenth century, whose powders ha\'c for 
generations been held in great repute. He was a ])ris- 
tolian, and, to his honour, was the first medical man 
to give gratuitous service to the poor of our city. The 
efficacy of his powders are vouched for by H. M. Stanley, 
the great African explorer. In his work, How I Found 
Livingstone, the intrepid explorer relates in his account 
of the great Makata Swamp, a terrible marsh of thirty 
miles in extent, through which he and his men plunged, 
how he was attacked by acute dysentery, but ultimately 
recovered through the judicious use of Doser's ])owikrs. 
Dr. Thomas Dover, it will be remembered, was .second 
in command with Captain Woodes Rogers in his 
memorable voyage round tiie world. 


A remarkable character, extremely well known in the 
first half of the nineteenth century, was Richard Smith, 
nephew of George Symes Catcott of Chatterton notoriety,, 
and for nearly half a century surgeon at the Bristol 
Infirmary. He was a great lover of literature and 
the drama, and to him the cit}- is indebted for some 
of the valuable Chatterton MSS. and the unique 
collection of Bristol play-bills. Among these latter 
(now in the Bristol Room of the Central Library) are 
original autograph letters of David Garrick and his wife,, 
written to Hannah More ; also the autograph of the 
illustrious Sarah Siddons, and the playbill of the first 
play ever acted on the boards of the old theatre, King 
Street, Jlic Conscious Lovers. He was also an indefatigable 
collector of gruesome relics. If there was a man hung 
in the city, Mr. Richard Smith would be always in 
attendance to secure if possible the bod}- of the unfortu- 
nate criminal for anatomical purposes. Among the Bristol 
books in the Central Library is one, presented by Smith, 
containing an actual piece of the gibbet and fragments of 
the irons of a murderer named Mahony, who was impli- 
cated in the tragic murder of Sir John D. Goodere and 
executed April 17th, 1741. And in the remarkable collection 
of relics which Mr. Richard Smith formed, and now 
in the museum of the Bristol Royal Infirmary, which 
he founded, is a book bound in the actual skin of a 
murderer named Horwood. The bookbinder's account 
for this runs as follows : — " Bristol, June, 1828. Richard 
Smith, Esq., Dr. to H. H. Essex. To binding, in the 
skin of John Horwood, a variety of papers, &c., relating 
to him, the same being lettered on each side of the book — 
'Cutis vera Johannis Horwood,' £1 10 o." In addition 
to his generous gift of Chatterton MSS. (S:c., to the city,. 


he ga\e nearl}- all the fine specimens of the excessively 
rare Brislington copper-lustre ware in the " Bristol Room" 
of the Art Gallery. Sir Henry Rawlinson, the world- 
famous Assyriologist, was Richard Smith's nephew. This 
eccentric and able surgeon died suddenh- in 1S43, 
deeply regretted, and was buried with Masonic honours 
in the north-east corner of Temple Churchyard. His 
portrait in oils has recently been presented to the Art 

In Bristol was born the well-known obstetrician, 
W. T. Smith, who \\a3 educated at the Bristol Medical 
School, where he became prosector. Later in life he 
was on the editorial staff of Tlic Lancet. His Manual 
of Obstetrics is the standard work on the subject, and 
he largely helped to found the London Obstetrical 

In 1897 the local profession sustained a great loss 
in the death of that original investigator, James Grcig 
Smith. The bent of his studies was devoted to the 
subject of abdominal surgery, ^^•hich won him a well- 
nigh European reputation. His published work on this 
subject is a standard one, and has passed through 
six editions. From 1876 till his lamented death, at 
the age of forty-three, he resided in Ih'istol. 

In closing this section, it would be invidious in a 
work dealing with the past to mention present-day names ; 
suffice it to say that the representatives of the healing 
art in Bristol well maintain its splendid local traditions. 

ilitary Associations. 


The bi'ofhen Lawrence : their early life in Clifton — Sir 
William Draper : cenotaph and obelisk erected by him — 
L.W. G. Vea—SirC. P. B. Walker— Philip Goldncy— 
Lady Sarah Lennox and Colonel Napier : death of the 
latter in Clifton — Sir Abraham Roberts and his son. Lord 
Roberts — Sir Samford Whittingham — Sir fohn Stuart — 
Visit of Duke of Wellington to Bristol — Richard Elton 
— Sir William Penn : his naval services under the 
CommoincealtJi — George Tohin — W. E. Metford. 

^^N the long bead-roll of famous heroes who have 
illumined the glorious annals of the English- 
speaking race, and who in particular lia\e won 
deathless fame in the history of our great Indian Empire, 
none have a nobler or more stainless record than the hero 
of Lucknow, Sir Henry Lawrence, and his equally great 
brother, Lord John Lawrence, who became \'iceroy of 
India. Tennyson has enshrined in his soul-stirring ballad, 
The Defence of Lucknow, the splendid heroism of Sir 
Henry, where he says : — 

'"Never surrender, I charge you, but every man 

die at his post ! ' 
Voice of the dead whom we loved, our Lawrence 

the best of the brave : 
Cold were his brows when we kissed him — we laid 

him that night in his grave." 

What nobler epitaj)h could \)v. gi\en liini than that wlm li 
he desired might be written on his tomb: — 

" Here lies Henry Lawrencf, wlio tried (o <lo his dii'y." 


It must not be forgotten, too, that these famous 
brothers were not only great soldiers, but great adminis- 
trators. The success of our arms in quelling the terrible 
Mutiny was largely due to the splendid administrative 
power exerted over the Punjab, a province in size as 
large as France, by Lord John Lawrence, which stemmed 
the blood-red tide of revolt, and earned for him the noble 
name of " Saviour of India." The mottoes they adopted 
were indicative of their character : " Be ready," of the 
hero of the Punjab : *' Never give in,"' that of Sir Henry 
of Lucknow. 

These illustrious men were the sons of Colonel 
Alexander Lawrence, and spent some of their earhest 
3-ears at No. 2 Bellevue, Clifton Hill (a tablet m.arks 
the house). Whilst living there they attended Cough's 
academy, in College Green, their dail}- walk to school 
being across Brandon Hill. During their school daj's 
here Henrj' quarrelled with the usual school bully, 
and challenged him to fight on Brandon Hill. Early 
one morning, therefore, John was awakened by his 
brother getting up, and on asking where he was 
going, the repl}' was: "To Brandon Hill, to fight 
Thomas" (the bully). Accordingly they both went, 
but Thomas was too chicken-hearted to appear, and 
had in consequence to eat humble pie in the school. 
The rigorous discipline of that school in College Green 
(common to all schools of the period), is a thing to 
mar\el at in the light of the kindlier and gentler 
methods of to-day. Lord John Lawrence in after life, 
on being asked if he had ever been flogged, " Yes," 
he replied grimly, "ever\- day of m\' school life except 
once, and then I was flogged tA\-ice." 

None understood better the native populations of 



India than the}-, and it was Lord John Lawrence who 
made possible the most successful experiment in the 
art of civilising turbulent millions which history presents, 
the control of the Punjab. Had the remarkable fore- 
cast of Sir Henry of Lucknow, written in 1843, relating 
to the Delhi catastrophe, been heeded, the unutterable 
horrors of the Mutiny might have been a\-erted. He 
lies buried in the land he loved and served so well, 
and his great brother, the Viceroy, is interred in 
Westminster Abbey. The latter's funeral sermon, by 
Dean Stanley, ended with the memorable words : 
•' Farewell, great pro-consul of our English Christian 
Empire ! " 

At Manilla Hall, long since demolished, which 
stood near Christ Church, Clifton, formerly lived a 
great soldier, born and educated here, who rendered 
signal service to his country b}- the capture of Manilla, 
the capital of the Philippines — Sir William Draper, one 
of Clive's fighting colonels. He was an officer in the 
East India Company's service, and whilst in ill-health 
visited the Philippines, and with the keen eye of a 
military man saw the importance of tlieir acquisition 
and their utter defencelessness against a possible enemy. 
Filled with the value of such a prize to England, he 
forthwith journeyed here and stated his views to the 
authorities. The time was propitious, for England was 
at that period on the \'erge of war w ith Sj^ain ; conse- 
quently his proposals were acceded to, and secret orders 
were given him to capture Manilla. After organising 
a suf^cient force for his ))urpose, and getting ihcm to 
the scene of action — a work of many months he at 
length appeared before Manilla. At the time a fierce 
monsoon was blowing, and the Spaniards congratu- 


luted themselves that the God of battles was fighting 
in fheir favour by threatening to overwhelm Draper's 
fleet. He, however, succeeded in landing his forces, and 
.after much fierce fighting forced the Spaniards to sur- 
render, the Union Jack was run up, and Spain had 
lost one of her choicest colonial possessions. In con- 
sideration that Draper would prevent his men looting 
the city, the Archbishop of Manilla arranged to pay 
four million dollars. Through the weakness of the 
home Government, however, the victory proved to be 
a barren one, and on his return his reward was little 
beyond receiving the thanks of Parliament for his 
services ; for at the Peace of Paris the four million 
dollars were not exacted) and, moreover, the islands 
were once more handed back to Spain, an impotent 
ending to so glorious a victory. It was no doubt in 
recognition of his gallantry that Bristol conferred on 
him three years later (1766) the freedom of the city. 

In honour of this great event of his life, Draper, 
when residing at Manilla Hall, \\hich he is thought to 
have built, raised a cenotaph in its grounds to those 
who took part in that achievement, at the same time 
raising an obelisk to his friend Pitt, Earl of Chatham. 
These remained there till the year 1880, when the 
property underwent several changes, and the memorials 
were in danger of being destroyed. Fortunately, however. 
Dr. John Beddoe, F.R.S., was enabled to arrest their 
destruction, and was, too, the means of their being 
re-erected near their original site, viz. on the Clifton 
Down, opposite Christ Church. 

Although Sir William Draper came under the lash 
of that master of invective, Junius, he must have bjen 
as admirable a man as lie was a distinguished soldier, 


L. W. G. YEA. 309 

or Pitt would never, in his speech on American taxation 
in January, 1766, have described him as " a gentleman 
whose noble and generous spirit would do credit to the 
proudest grandee of the country." He died at Bath 
in 1787. 

A splendid type of the British soldier was that dis- 
tinguished officer L. W. G. Yea. He was born in Park 
Row in 1808, was the eldest son of Sir Walter Yea, 
and received his education at Eton. He early showed 
the metal he was made of by pitting himself, when 
threatened, against a big boy of sixteen and winning b}- 
sheer pluck. In 1825 he was commissioned an ensign 
in the 37th Foot. Step by step he rose to the position 
of lieutenant -colonel, and in the year 1854 was in 
command of the Royal Fusiliers at the Crimea. At the 
Battle of Alma his regiment showed conspicuous daring, 
holding their own against more than double their 
number w^hen the rest of the brigade had fallen back, 
this result being due to the splendid leadership of Yea. 
At Inkerman, too, he was mentioned in the despatches, 
and was made brevet-colonel. During that terrible 
Crimean campaign his care of his men was all that 
could be desired. They were the first to have hospital 
huts, and when other regiments were in need of every 
comfort and almost of every necessity, he had foreseen 
and provided for the wants of his own. At the risk, 
too, of his life he never missed a turn of duty in the 

Later he had command of a brigade of the light 
division, and in the assault of the Redan on the i8th 
of June, 1855, he led the column directed against the 
left face. In leading a storming party, they had a 
quarter of a mile of open ground to cross under such 


a shower of grape as the oldest soldiers had never 
witnessed. Yea succeeded in getting across with the 
wreck of his party, but paid the price with his Hfe. 
Lord Raglan in his despatch said : " Colonel Yea was 
not only distinguished for his gallantry, but he exercised 
his control over the Royal Fusiliers in such a manner 
as to win the affection of the soldiers." It is said Yea 
bore a strong resemblance to the great Napoleon, and 
once went to a ball at Bath in that character. 

Another distinguished officer who took part in the 
Crimea was Sir Charles P. B. Walker, who was born 
at Redland, and was the eldest son of Charles Ludlow 
Walker, J. P. and D.L. Entering the army as ensign 
in the 33rd Foot in 1836, he became lieutenant in June, 
1839, and captain in December, 1846. After seeing 
service in various parts of the empire, he exchanged, in 
1849, into the 7th Dragoon Guards. He was present at 
the battles of Alma, Balaclava, and Inkerman, and was 
mentioned in despatches. He also took part in the naval 
attack on Sebastopol, when he acted as aide-de-camp to 
Lord George Paulet on board the Bellerophon. He was 
given the medal for naval services, as well as the Crimean 
medal with four clasps. Ultimately he was appointed 
assistant - quartermaster - general in Ireland, and on 
December 7th, 1858, was made lieutenant-colonel of the 
2nd Dragoon Guards. With that regiment he took part 
in the suppression of the Indian Mutiny, and was again 
mentioned in the despatches. After this he saw service 
in China, was present in several actions, and was once 
more mentioned in the despatches ; he received the 
medal with two clasps, and was made a C.B. After 
his retirement on half pay he filled among other offices 
that of military attache to the Embassy at Berlin, which 


he held for twelve years. He was also present at the 
scene of action in the Austro- Prussian War of 1866 and 
the Franco-German Wixr of 1870-1. Finally he was 
promoted major-general and lieutenant-general succes- 
sively, his last appointment being that of Inspector- 
General of Military Education. 

A gallant soldier connected with our city was Philip 
Goldney, son of Thomas Goldney, of Goldney House, 
Clifton. He was born in Bristol in 1802, and entering 
the army, went as a cadet to India in the service of the 
East India Company. He soon received a commission, 
and was promoted successively to lieutenant and brevet- 
captain. For some years he was engaged in subduing the 
predatory tribes, and in learning the native languages and 
Persian. He translated various parts of the Bible into 
the vernaculars. In 1844, as captain of the 4th Native 
Infantry, he was sent to Scinde, then just annexed. His 
regiment having mutinied, Goldney pluckily attacked 
one of the ringleaders and successfully reduced his men 
to obedienc-^ Later he took part in the expedition to 
the Truckee Hills. His mastery of Persian resulted 
in his being ordered to accompany the Ameer Ali 
Morad, whose fidelity was doubted by Napier. The 
expedition was entirely successful, and on returning to 
Scinde, the wild district of Baluchistan was placed under 
his control. His influence over the ferocious inhabitants 
of the district was indeed remarkable ; he organised a 
body of police, and employed the population by cutting 
canals, thereby greatly adding to the area under cultiva- 
tion. Promotion followed promotion, till at length he 
was appointed to a brigade, and iriade one of five 
commissioners trj gox'crn the (ountry i>l Oudh (Hi its 
annexation, being placed in ciiarge of I'ai/abaii. 


When the Mutiny broke out he was one of the first 
to apprehend its gravity and far-reaching significance. 
Faihng in his apphcation to Sir Henry Lawrence for a 
small number of European troops, he removed to another 
part of his division, which was (to use his own words) 
"a most important and most dangerous position." In 
spite, however, of all his exertions in fortifying and 
provisioning the place, the troops under him at length 
mutinied ; yet he was so much like4, that one of their 
leaders sent a strong force to protect him and conduct 
him to a place of safety. Owing to the condition that 
no one else was to accompany him, he refused the offer, 
and in trying to promote the escape of his companions 
he perished. 

To Clifton came for her husband's health, at the 
beginning of July, 1804, the beautiful and fascinating 
Lady Sarah Lennox, the mother of the illustrious 
Napiers, who was at one time the object of George Ill's 
affections. Dazzhng as the position as his consort 
would, have been, there is little doubt that she followed 
the wiser destiny by marrying the man of her heart, 
Colonel George Napier, a distinguished soldier, whose 
faultless figure and magnificent proportions — he stood 
6 ft. 2 in. in height — combined with a reputation for 
being one of the handsomest men in the British army 
brought about her heart's surrender. Here they stayed 
for some months, at 14 Prince's Buildings, in the vain 
hope that the air of Clifton would arrest the consumption 
which had fastened on Colonel Napier., Prior to this 
they had visited Clifton in 1792, coming over to Bristol 
from Dublin by ship. The enormous difference between 
now and then in regard to travelling is illustrated by 
the statement that "they arrived after eight days' sail." 


The later visit failed to arrest the fell disease, and on 
October 13th, 1804, Colonel Napier breathed his last at 
Clifton, and was buried in the "God's acre" of Redland 
Green Chapel, in the portico of which is a marble 
memorial tablet recording his services to his country. 
Adored by her dauntless sons, Lady Sarah survived 
him till 1826, when she died in London at the age 
of eighty-eight. Sir Joshua Reynolds has given to later 
generations the portrait of this beautiful and remarkable 

Closely associated, with Bristol is one of England's 
greatest generals, for in Clifton, at 25 Royal York 
Crescent, lived for many years Sir Abraham Roberts, 
father of Field- Marshal Lord Roberts, the hero of Kanda- 
har. Sir Abraham Roberts, like his famous son, won 
his spurs in India. He was born in 1784, and in 1804 
joined the East India Company's service, where he 
served with distinction under Lord Lake and others. In 
appreciation of his services, in 1828 the then Governor- 
General, Lord Amherst, presented him with a piece 
of plate. Serving with marked ability, he rose step 
by step to the position of brigadier-general in the first 
Afghan war. He foresaw the disasters of 1841-2, and 
had his advice been followed they might have been 
averted. He was in command from 1852 to 1854 in 
the Peshawar division, where his able abilities obtained 
recognition from the Indian Government. In the service 
of his country he spent over fifty )cars, and was the 
recipient of many orders and decorations, among others 
the K.C.B. and the G.C.B. being confeired ujjon him: 
He died at the above residence in 1873, and a tablet 
unveiled by his famous son marks the house. 

A great soldier connected with I'listol was Sir 



Samford Whittingham, born here in 1772, and educated 
with a \ icw to following the law. His inclination 
towards a military career proved too strong, however, 
and after his father's death in ;8oi he entered the 
army, and became an ensign in Januar}-, 1803 ; a month 
later he purchased a lieutenancy and was appointed to 
the 1st Life Guards. Earlier in life he had spent a short 
time in Spain, and had acquired a knowledge of the 
language. This accomj^jlishment brought about his intro- 
duction to Pitt, who realised the value of it and at once 
sent him off on a secret commission to the Peninsula. 
During his absence from England he was promoted captain 
of the 2oth Foot. So satisfactoril}- did he discharge his com- 
mission that on returning to England he was complimented 
by Pitt, and was transferred to the command of the 13th 
Light Dragoons. In 1806 he sailed from Portsmouth on 
foreign service as deputy-quartermaster-general of the 
forces under Brigadier-General Robert Craufurd, and 
subsequently became aide-de-camp to General White- 
locke, and took part in the disastrous attack on Buenos 
Ayres. At the court martial of Whitelocke he was called 
as witness as having been on the general's staff, and in 
a position of much delicacy he conducted himself with 

Shortly after he joined, by permission of the home 
authorities, a force of Spaniards under Castanos against 
the French. He took part with distinction in the 
victory of Baylen, and for his services was made a 
colonel in the Spanish army. Recovering from an attack 
of fever, he joined in iSog the Arm}- Corps of the 
Duke of Albuquerque in La Mancha, under whom he 
rendered such conspicuous service that he was made 
brigadier-general. So eminent, indeed, were his services, 


that iu August of that 3'ear lie was raised to the rank 
of major-general, and subsequently was given the entire 
command of the Spanish cavalry, which he reorganised 
on British lines. In 181 1, at the Battle of Barrosa, he 
kept in check the French corps of cavalry and infantry 
which attempted to turn the Barrosa heights on the 
seaward side. Two years later he was again promoted 
as inspector-general of both cavalry and infantry troops of 
his division. Whittingham was one of those forming the 
escort of King Ferdinand \'II. in his progress to Madrid 
in 1814, and was the recipient of a snuff-box from him. 

Wellingcon thought so highly of his services that 
he wrote from Madrid to the Duke of York : " He has 
served most zealously and gallanth' from the commence- 
ment of the war in the Peninsula, and I have ev^ery 
reason to be satisfied with his conduct in every situation 
in which he has been placed." In consequence of this 
eulogy, on Whittingham's return to England he was 
appointed aide-de-camp to the Prince Regent. Later, 
in May, 1815, he was made Companion of the Order 
of the Bath and was knighted. Returning once more 
to Spain, King Ferdinand bestowed upon him the Grand 
Cross of the Order of San Ferdinand©, and in 1819 
he was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Dominica. 
Subsequently he saw much service in India, and was 
made Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, 
and received the thanks of Parliament for his distin- 
guished services. Finally, after filling several posts of 
distinction with credit, he was given, in i8jg, the 
command of the Madras Army, but had hardly arrived 
there to take up his duties when he died suddenly in 
January, 1841. He was buried with military honours 
at Fort George. 


At Clifton lived in the early years of the last century 
a most distinguished military officer, Sir John Stuart, 
Count of Maida. So remarkable and brilliant were his 
services in the wars with the French that the thanks 
of both Houses of Parliament were awarded him, com- 
bined with a pension of ;^i,ooo a year for life. He 
died in 1815, and lies interred in Bristol Cathedral. 

On July 27th, 1816, the Duke of Wellington paid a 
state visit to Bristol to receive the freedom of the city, 
and was entertained sumptuously at the Merchant's Hall. 
While passing through College Green a soldier pressed 
through the crowd, and at the door of the carriage begged 
permission to shake hands with Wellington, a privilege he 
claimed from having been his companion in arms. " A 
hard day you and me had of it, your honour, this day seven 
years ? " " Where was that, my lad ? " "At Talavera, 
your honour." "Ah! I had quite forgotten it was the 
27th of July," said his Grace. "And to what regiment 
did you belong?" asked the Duke. "To the 3rd," 
replied the soldier. " And why are you absent from 
it ?" "See what has happened to my arm, your honour." 
He had lost it at the battle. The Duke thereupon put his 
hand into his pocket and presented his humble comrade 
with a pound note. 

In Bristol was born a distinguished servant of the 
Commonwealth, Richard Elton. He attained to the 
rank of governor- general in the Commonwealth army, 
and was an authorit}' on military matters, writing a 
work entitled A Compleat Body of the Art of Military, 

In this same centur}-, in 1621, was born in Bristol the 
famous father of a still more famous son, the founder 
of Pennsyh-ania (see p. 381). This was none other than 
Admiral Sir William Penn, son of Giles Penn, a merchant 


and sea captain of Bristol trading to the Mediterranean. 
Penn early followed the profession of his father, and after 
a short period in the king's service he engaged with the 
Commonwealth, and was placed in command of a ship 
of twentv-eight guns. In 1651 in the Centurion he was 
sent on a cruising search to intercept and destroy Prince 
Rupert and his followers between the Azores and Cadiz. 
Reports having come to hand that Rupert's ships were 
lost and his fleet entirely broken up, he sailed once 
more for England, landing at Falmouth, and putting 
his foot on shore for the first time for twelve months. 

At the outbreak of our war with the Dutch, he was 
appointed vice-admiral under the great Blake in May, 
1652, and in 1653 he held the same post, being at 
the battle off Portland on February i8th of that year, 
and in command of the Blue Squadron he was enabled 
to render splendid assistance to Blake, and, indeed, 
turned the tide of victor}-. All through our engagements 
with the Dutch he conducted himself with intelligence 
and courage, and contributed no mean share to the 
victories of June and July, 1653. He was rewarded 
for his services by the gift of a gold chain of the value 
of ;{^ioo, together with the large medal, whilst on 
December 2nd of that year he was appointed one of 
the generals of the fleet to act with Blake. Later at 
the Restoration he got into the good graces of Charles 
II., and was knighted. Retiring a few years after, he 
died in 1670, and was buried in the church of St. Mary 
Redcliff, where portions of his armour and the tattered 
remains of his flags can still be seen. 

A gallant seaman connected with our cil}- in more 
recent times was George Tobin, brother of tiic (h-amatist, 
who entered the navy in 17S0. At one jxiiod of his 

15 A 


career he just missed being appointed third lieutenant 
of the Agamemnon, under Captain Nelson (afterwards the 
immortal hero of Trafalgar), owing to his being away 
from England at the time. Nelson through his wife 
was connected with the Tobins. Writing four years 
later, Nelson said : " The time is past for doing anything 
for him. Had he been with me, he would long since 
have been a captain, and I should have liked it, as being 
most exceedingly pleased with him." Subsequently 
Tobin was made captain of the Princess Charlotte, frigate, 
and in her off Tobago captured, after a gallant fight, 
the corvette Cyane. The final stage of his professional 
career terminated in his being appointed rear-admiral. 

In closing this chapter, it is not without interest to know 
that the joint inventor of the famous Lee-Metford rifle, 
William Ellis Metford, resided at Elm Lane, Redland, for 
over twenty years. Born at Taunton, he adopted the pro- 
fession of engineer, and took part in the construction of the 
old Bristol and Exeter line under the supervision of the 
world-famous Isambard Kingdom Brunei. In 1857-8 he 
obtained an important appointment in India on the 
East India Railway. Arriving at Monghyr, he found 
that the Mutiny had just broken out, and at once set 
to work and rendered splendid service in organising 
the defence of the town. His health through his 
strenuous exertions collapsed, and he returned to England. 
From early youth he had been interested in rifle shoot- 
ing, for his father had established a rifle range near his 
home at Taunton. Metford's studies of rifle mechanism 
extended over manj' years. An explosive bullet invented 
by him was adopted by the Government in 1863 ; he was 
the inventor of the shallow grooving and its increasing 
spiral twist, and the hardened cylindrical bullet. He pro- 


duced his first match rifle in 1865, and his first breech- 
loading rifle in 187 1 ; this became the principal weapon 
for long-range shooting at Wimbledon, and was the rifle 
with which for many years most of the long-range prizes 
were won. From 1877 onwards the record of the Metford 
rifle was a series of unbroken triumph. Conjointly with 
the American inventor, J. P. Lee, Metford subsequently 
produced the famous small arm, the Lee-Metford rifle, 
which for many years has been universally used in the 
British army. Metford died at Redland in 1899. 

Political Associations. 


Eduiund Burhc : letter to his sister; friendships in Bristol; 
quotations from sonic of his speeches — Sir John Cam 
Hobhonse (Lord Broughton) — Henry Hohhoiise — Sir 
Stephen Cave — F. H. F. Berkeley — Samuel Morley — 
Benjamin Disraeli s Connection with Bristol — Sir John 
Bowring — Sir Theophilus Shepstonc — Sir Samuel 
Morton Peto — Handel Cossham — Sir Samuel Romilly — 
Jean Paul Marat. 

MONG those political!}' associated with our city 

the great and noble personality of Edmund 

Burke is easily first. From 1774 to 1780 he 

represented Bristol in Parliament,* and it is a blot on 

our civic annals that we failed to be worthy of the 

honour of that imperishable association. His election 

for our city was obtained after an extremely hard-fought 

fight, as the following letter to his sister, Mrs. French, 

indicates : — 

" Bristol, 

November 2nd, 1774.^ 

My dear Sister, — ... I know it will give you both 
pleasure to hear that, after having been elected for 
Malton in Yorkshire, several respectable people of this 
City invited me to stand a Candidate here, and that 
-I am elected by a Majority of 251, after one of the 
longest and warmest contests that has been remembered. 

• For a detailed account of Burke's election for Bristol, see Mr. 
G. E. Weare's work. 

t The original letter is in the Bristol Art Gallery. 


The party that has lost the Election threatens a Petition * 
but I am satisfied they have no solid ground to proceed 
upon. The election has lasted a month. . . . This 
event has given us all great satisfaction, and will give, 
I trust, a great deal to you. This is the second City in 
the Kingdom ; and to be invited and chosen for it without 
any request of mine, at no expense to myself, but with 
much charge and trouble to many public - spirited 
Gentlemen, is an honour to which we ought not to be 
insensible. . . ." 

During the election Burke was the guest of Joseph 
Smith, at ig Queen Square (on the site of the present 
Docks Office), a leading merchant, and with Harford 
and Champion one of Burke's warmest friends and 
supporters. It was, it will be remembered, to Mrs. 
Smith that Burke presented the magnificent service of 
Bristol china executed by Champion, in recognition of 
their hospitality. Among those who entertained him 
during his stay were Thomas Farr, of Blaise Castle^ 
Henbur}', and Richard Champion, who also had a 
residence at which Burke occasionally slept in that village. 
The dining-room window, which commanded a charming 
view, was Burke's favourite seat, and in honour of his 
distinguished visitor Champion named it Burke's Window. 
At John Noble's house. Queen Square, he also spent some 
of his evenings, and to Hannah More's in Park Street 
he was a frequent visitor ; she was previously acquainted 
with him through the Reynolds's. In consequence of 
his many speeches Burke lost his voice through hoarse- 
ness, which induced Hannah More to send him a wreath 
of flowers, with the following couplet : — 

"Great Edmund's hoarse, they say, the reason's clear, 
Could Attic lungs respire Bceotian air ? " 



She rendered Burke valued assistance with her pen 
during the election by repelling attacks made upon 
him. \\'hen his election was secured, the sisters More 
sent him a cockade adorned with m}-rtle, bay, and laurel, 
enriched with silver tassels, which he wore on being 
" chaired." At the close of the election Burke was 
entertained at the famous Bush Inn by his supporters, 
and on November 12th, 1774, the freedom of the city 
was conferred upon him. 

The late Lord Acton said of Burke's Bristol election 
speeches that they were " an epoch in constitutional 
history. Burke there laid down for ever the law of 
the relations between members and constituencies." 
Speaking of Burke's intellectual greatness, the same 
authority states that "systems of scientific thought 
have been built up by famous scholars on the fragments 
that fell from his table," whilst a great American 
statesman has said, in reference to the Bristol election, 
that " Burke legislated from those hustings." The 
high-souled principles that animated the whole of his 
political life were never more clearly indicated than in 
his connection with our city. Writing to one of his 
prominent Bristol supporters, in the course of a letter 
defending his action in Parliament, he nobly said : 
" I do not desire to sit in Parliament for any other 
end than that of promoting the common happiness of 
all those who are in any degree subjected to our 
legislative authority' ; and all together in one common tie 
of civil interest and constitutional freedom, every 
denomination of men amongst us. . . ." 

In reviewing the circumstances that led to the 
severance of Burke's conm.ftion with Ihistol, we are 
forced to the conclusion that they are as honourable to 


him as they are dishonourable to Bristoh His was no 
time-serving spirit, as may be gathered from the following 
extract : " I did not obey your instructions. No, I con- 
formed to the instructions of truth and nature, and 
maintained your interests against your opinions with a 
constancy that became me. A representative worthy of 
you ought to be a person of stability. ... I know 
tiiat }-ou chose me, along with others, to be a pillar of the 
State, and not a weathercock on the top of the edifice, 
exalted for my levity and versatility, and of no use 
but to indicate the shiftings of every fashionable gale." 
With few exceptions, his constituents in Bristol took 
sordid, narrow and ignoble viev>s of the duties of their 
parliamentary representative, so that it is not to be 
wondered at that Burke, legislating not for a day but 
for all time, was soon at variance with them. 

Replying to one of the many trivial charges made 
against him, that of his infrequent visits to his con- 
stituency, he nobly wrote : " I live at an hundred miles 
distance from Bristol. ... A visit to Bristol is always 
a sort of canvass, else it would do more harm than 
good. . . . My canvass to you was not on the change, 
nor in the county meetings, nor in the clubs of this 
city. It was in the House of Commons ; it was at the 
Custom House ; it was at the council ; it was at the 
Treasury ; it was at the Admiralty. I canvassed you 
through your affairs, and not your persons." 

Perhaps more than anything else his championship 
of the American colonies, in which he was at one with 
the great Chatham himself, caused the rupture with 
Bristol, then sunk in the depths of commercialism. 
Well might he have been justified in using the bitter 
words attributed to him b}- one of his biographers on 


his rejection : " Do not talk to nie of a ^^erchant — a 
Merchant is the same in every part of the world — his 
gold his God, his invoice his country, his ledger his 
bible, his desk his altar, the Exchange his church, and 
he has faith in none but his banker." It was in his 
memorable farewell speech delivered at the old Guild- 
hall that he uttered the imperishable phrase, " \Miat 
shadows we are, and what shadows we pursue." 

A famous family long connected with our city is that 
of Hobhouse, one of the most distinguished of v\hom 
was Sir John Cam Hobhouse (Lord Broughton), author 
of the Historical Notes to Byron's Fourth Canto of Childe 
Harold, who was born at Redland in 1786. As a boy 
he attended Ur. Estlin's famous school at tlie top of 
St. Michael's Hill. He was afterwards educated at West- 
minster and Trinity College, Cambridge, when he became 
the close and intimate friend of Lord Byron, with whom 
he travelled a great deal on the Continent. In 1815 
he acted as best man at Byron's wedding, whilst in 
September, 1822, he met him for the last time at Pisa. 
Byron on parting touchingly said, " Hobhouse, you 
should never have come, or you should never go." On 
Byron's death he acted as one of his executors and pro\'(i'd 
his will, and it was on his advice that Byron's memoirs, 
which had been given to Tom Moore, were destroyed. 
Entering the House of Commons in 1820, Hobhouse threw 
himself into his parliamentary duties with great energy. 
Becoming Secretary for War in i8j2, he instituted valuable 
reforms, after which he became Secretary f<jr Ireland. In 
1835 he unsuccessfully contested Bristol, but afterwards 
sat for Nottingham and Harwich. He President of 
the Board of Control from 1835 to 1841, and again from 
18.16 to 1851. He was present at (hicen Victoria's first 


Council, and has left an interesting account of his first inter- 
view with Her Majesty. He was a good classical scholar, 
and is the author of many works. He died in June, 1869. 

Sir Benjamin Hobhouse, the father of Sir J. C. 
Hobhouse, was born in Bristol in 1757, the son of a 
merchant, and educated at the Grammar School. After 
studying at Oxford, he was called to the Bar in 1781. 
He unsuccessfully contested his native city in 1796, but 
was in 1797 returned for Bletchingley, Surrey. He 
subsequently sat for the boroughs of Grampound and 
Hirdon. In 1801 he took office under Addington as 
Secretary to the Board of Control, and in 1805 he became 
Chairman of the Committee of \\^ays and Means in the 
House of Commons. In addition to his political offices, 
he filled the presidential chair of the Bath and West and 
Southern Counties' Society from 1805 to 1817, a bust of 
him by Chantrey being executed for tne Society. He 
was created a baronet in 1812, and died in 1831. 

A distinguished member of this family was the Rt. 
Hon. Henry Hobhouse, a cousin of Sir J. C. Hobhouse, 
born at Clifton in 1776, who, after being successively at 
Eton and Oxford, was called to the Bar in 1801, and was 
appointed solicitor to H.M. Customs in 1806 and solicitor 
to the Treasury in 1812. In 1819 the responsible office 
of Permanent Under-Secretary of State for the Home 
Department was given him. Having been created P.C. 
and D.C.L., he retired, in 1827, on a pension of ;^iooo a 
year, but retained the office of Keeper of the State 
Papers, which had also been bestowed upon him, till his 
death. In connection with them, he did much valuable 
work by putting their arrangement on a permanent basis. 
He became Chairman of Somerset Quarter Sessions, and 
died at Hadspen House, Somerset, in 1854. 



An eminent member of a well-known Bristol 
family was Sir Stephen Cave, born in 1820 at Clifton, 
the son of Daniel Cave, and educated at Harrow and 
Oxford. In 1846 he was called to the Bar, and com- 
menced his career by going on the Western Circuit. 
Entering Parliament as a Conservative for Shoreham, 
he retained his seat till his death. Among offices he 
filled during his political career were those of Paymaster- 
General, Vice - President of the Board of Trade, and 
member of the Privy Council. In 1875 he was sent 
on a special mission to Egypt by Beaconsfield to report 
on the financial condition of that country. For his 
services, on his return he was made a G.C.B. Sir 
Stephen Cave was also a fellow of many learned societies, 
and was director of both the Bank of England and 
the London Dock Company. He died in 1880. 

Among those who have represented Bristol in Parlia- 
ment with some distinction the names of the Hon. F. H. F. 
Berkeley and Samuel Morley cannot be ignored. The former 
was the son of the fifth Earl of Berkeley, and represented 
Bristol for thirty-two years, being first elected in 1837. 
On entering the House he became a great champion 
of voting by Ballot, for which he strenuously fought 
during a period of twenty years, though only once in 
those long years did he secure a majority, viz. in 18O2, 
when the Ayes were eighty-three and the Noes were 
fifty. Notwithstanding, however, his lack of success, he 
took his failures with great cheerfulness, and his speeches 
were always enjoyed by the House, being full of wit and 
humour. He went to his grave in the firm belief that 
the Ballot was bound to come, and come it did, onl\- 
two years after his death, in 1872. 

Samuel Morley, the multi-millionaire, reprtsciitcd 


Bristol for many years in conjunction with Mr. Lewis 
Fry, from 1868 till 1885, when he retired. Being from 
youth deeply religious, he was enabled by his great 
wealth to take a ^■ery hel[)ful part in the religions, 
social, and philanthropic work of his time. He was a 
staunch follower of W. E. Gladstone, and was the means 
of reducing the price of the Daily News to a penny. A 
baronetcy was offered him, which he refused. It has 
been said that he gave away during his lifetime as much 
as £20,000 to £30,000 per annum to assist objects in 
which he was interested. At his death in 1886 nearly 
a hvmdred associations were represented at his funeral. 
A statue of him near Bristol Bridge, executed by 
the well-known sculptor, Mr. J. Havard Thomas, a 
Hristolian, commemorates his connection with our 

An extremely interesting association with the great 
Disraeli lies in the fact that the Viscountess of Beacons- 
held's first marriage took place at Clifton. It appears 
that whilst living there with her mother (who was the 
sister of Sir James Viney, and had married an army 
surgeon), Miss Evans, NNhen about nineteen, met at a ball 
Mr. Wvndham Lewis, of Green Meadow, near Cardiff, 
a man of wealth and position, and shortly afterwards 
married him. The Bristol Mirror of December 30th, 1815, 
records this her first marriage in the following terms : 
" Friday, at Clifton, Wyndham Lewis, Esq., of Green 
Meadow, near Cardiff, to Mar}' Anne, only daughter 
of the late John Evans, Esq., of Bramford Speke, 
Devon." On consulting the marriage register at Clifton 
Church it was found that the actual date of the marriage 
was December 22nd. How, after the death of her first 
husband in 1838 she married Disraeli, and was in every 


sense the best of \\i\-es, consoling him in defeat and 
cheering him on to victory, is well known to all who have 
studied the life of one who broke his birth's invidious 
bar, and from a la\\yer's office attained the supreme 
goal of his ambition — the Premiership. It was an 
imspeakable delight to him that its possession enabled 
him to confer upon her a patent of nobility. When 
she died, he said that his heart was buried in her tomb 
at Hughenden. The preface to one of his earliest 
novels is one of many proofs of his appreciation of her 
devotion : "I \\ould inscribe this work to one whose 
noble spirit and gentle nature ever prompt her to 
sympathise with the suffering ; to one whose sweet voice 
has often encouraged, and whose taste and judgment 
ha\e ever guided, its pages : the most severe of critics, 
but— a perfect Wife!" 

Linked in association with Bristol are two famous 
men who achieved distinction in watching the interests 
of England in the far-off outposts of empire — Sir John 
Bowring and Sir Theophilus Shepstone. The former, who 
has already received a short notice in an earlier portion of 
this book (p. 170), was born at Exeter, and was one of the 
most versatile men of the last century. He was educated at 
Lant Carpenter's school. Great George Street, and doubly 
linjced himself to our city when in i860 he married 
the daughter of Thomas Castle, of Clifton. Commercial 
pursuits occupied the first few years of his life, during 
which he laid the foundati(jn of his skill in accjuiring 
languages of which he later became so great a master. 
Subsequently he travelled a great deal and devotetl 
himself to literature, becoming joint editor of the 
Westminster Revicie. In 1830, after repeated imitations, 
he visited Sir Walter .Scott at Abbotsforcl, and he said. 


" Nothing could exceed the kindness with which he 
welcomed me. I found him writing the Waverley 
Novels." Bowring describes Scott's house as " a sort 
of baronial abode, the servants being numerous, the 
house splendid, and the rooms decorated with rich 
works of art and remains of antiquity, contributions 
from every part of the world." He says, " The variety 
of his conversation is stupendous, his dress that of a 
substantial farmer." Among literary works which Bowring 
published was his Specimens of Russian Poets, in recognition 
of which the Czar, Alexander I., presented him with a 
diamond ring. Becoming overwhelmed with financial 
disaster, he sought and obtained a Government appoint- 
ment. His first task was to examine and report on the 
public accounts of France. So satisfactorily was this 
duty performed that he was commissioned to inspect the 
accounts of the United Kingdom. His report brought 
about a complete change in the English Exchequer. 

Bowring was one of the earliest to be associated with 
Cobden in the repeal of the Corn Laws. In 1841 he 
was elected M.P. for Bolton. To him, in conjunction 
with the late Prince Consort, w-e owe the first, and 
unfortunately the only step, towards a decimal coinage — 
the issue of the florin. So valuable were his political 
exertions, that the electors of Blackburn, Kirkcaldy, and 
Kilmarnock respectively presented him with services of 
plate. Ultimately he was sent on diplomatic service to 
China, filling the post successively of Plenipotentiary to 
China and the united offices of Governor, Commander- 
in-Chief, and Vice - Admiral of Hong - Kong and its 
dependencies. As a diplomatist, he scored a great 
success in concluding a treaty of commerce with Siam, 
although there had already been many unsuccessful 


attempts both by America and England to do so. 
His attitude in 1856 involved him in hostilities with 
the Chinese Government, and votes of censure on his 
conduct were moved in both Houses of Parliament. 
Lord Palmerston, however, warmly defended him, and 
though in consequence there was an appeal to the 
countr}', the Government w^as again triumphantly re- 
turned, whilst the chief movers against Sir John Bowring 
lost their seats. So bitter was the feeling of the Chinese 
mandarins towards England during the hostilities of 1857, 
that they put a price on his head and nearly poisoned 
him and his family with arsenicated bread. After a 
tenure of office attended with great personal danger and 
difficulties, he resigned in 1859. 

Speaking of his old master, Bowring said : " I owe 
Dr. Carpenter a boundless debt. . . . How lovingly, 
how untiredly he laboured for the improvement of his 
pupils." He died at his birthplace in 1872. 

Sir Theophilus Shepstone, the eminent South African 
statesman, was born at Westbury-on-Trym in 1817, his 
father being the Rev. William Shepstone. Three years 
after his birth the whole family emigrated to the Cape, 
where Theophilus was educated. He early acquired great 
command of the native dialects, and became interpreter 
of the Kaffir languages at Capetown, serving too on the 
expedition against the Kaffirs on the Governor's stafi'. 
In 1839 he was appointed British resident among the 
'Tslambi, Congo, and Fingo tribes. By successive steps 
he rose to be Secretary ff)r Nati\'e Affairs, and a 
member of the lixecutive and Legislative Councils. 
In this position he proved himself a strong man, and 
deprecated the haste of those who desired to do away 
with native custonis. His policy on tlie whole was a 


successful one. In 1872 he was sent into Zululand to 
arrange for the peaceful succession of Cetewayo, and 
on behalf of the Enghsh Government crowned him as 
king, and obtained his fealty to Great Britain. At the 
conference on South African affairs held in London in 
1876, he represented Natal. It was he who in 1877, on 
April 1 8th, rode with a small staff into the Transvaal 
and annexed it to the British Crown, and was appointed 
its Administrator. Though he had retired from public 
service, he was induced in 1884 to replace Cetewayo 
in the administration of Zululand. Shepstone's power 
over the native populations was simply remarkable, and 
he used it with great wisdom. They called him their 
"Father," or from his prowess in hunting, " Somsteu." 
He was for years a close friend of Bishop Colenso. 
His death occurred in 1893. 

The great railway contractor, Sir Samuel Morton Peto, 
represented Bristol from 1865 to 1868. During his 
parliamentary career he did some extremely useful work. 
Among other things he was the means of getting the 
Act of 1850 bearing his name passed, which simplified 
the titles by which religious bodies could hold propert}'. 
He was a man, too, of great public spirit, generously 
guaranteeing £50,000 to start the great exhibition of 
185 1. During the Crimean War he suggested to Lord 
Palmerston the construction of a railwa}^ between Bala- 
clava and the entrenchments, a distance of thirty-nine 
miles. This his firm carried out at the bare cost of the 
scheme to the Government, and it proved of great service. 
In recognition, a baronetcy was conferred on him. In 1866, 
owing to financial panic, his firm suspended payment, 
though its assets exceeded its liabilities by a million 
pounds. This event brought about his resignation as 


Bristol's representative. Both Disraeli and Gladstone 
paid tributes to his character, the latter referring to him 
as " a man who has attained a high position in this 
countr\' by the exercise of rare talents, and who has 
adorned that position by his great virtues." 

A word, too, must be said respecting the exceedingly 
popular representative of East Bristol, the late Handel 
Cossham, a Radical of Radicals. He was a man of the 
people, being the son of a Thornbur}- carpenter, and 
was educated in an atmosphere of Liberalism and 
Nonconformity. His name of Handel was given him 
b}- reason of his father's intense appreciation of the 
author of the Messiah. Entering Yate Colliery in 1845 
as clerk, Handel worked his way up till at length he 
became the greatest colliery proprietor in the neigh- 
bourhood of Bristol. In 1882 he was chosen Mayor 
of Bath, the '' Oueen City of the West," an office he 
filled twice. After being defeated elsewhere as a 
parliamentar\- candidate, he put up for Bristol East in 
1885, and was triumpharutly returned wath a majority 
of 2,264. One of his maxims conceived early in life 
was, as he said, to do "all the good I can, to all the 
people I can, in every place I can, throughout life." It 
has been said that he was the original of the well-known 
novel, John Halifax, Gentleman. He died suddenly in the 
House of Commons on April 23rd, 1890, and was buried 
at Avondale Cemetery on the 28th in the presence of a 
vast concourse of people who assembled to pay him 
respect. The procession of mourners took nearly an 
hour to pass a given point. 

In closing this chapter alhisiou nuist be mailc to 
two other remarkable men who ;ire slightly' linked with 
Bristol. These, the exact opposite of each other, were 


Sir Samuel Romilly and Jean Paul Marat, one of the 
infamous human tigers of the French Revolution. 
Romilly, in 1812, unsuccessfully contested Bristol, his 
defeat being largely due to the unblushing corruption 
and the slave-holding interests of his rivals. His was a 
personality which, as we have been eloquently told by the 
Right Hon. Augustine Birrell, " stands out in the frieze 
of our parliamentary history like the figure of Apollo 
among the herd of satyrs and goats." 

In regard to Marat, in December, 1787, the local 
society for the relief of poor insolvent debtors secured 
the release from Newgate of a Frenchman calling himself 
F. C. M. G. Maratt Amiatt, who had practised in several 
English towns as a teacher and quack doctor, and had 
finally been imprisoned in Bristol for debt. After he had 
disappeared it was ascertained he was no less a person 
than Jean Paul Marat, whose bloodthirsty career was 
cut short a few years later by the knife of Charlotte 

Assyriologists & Travellers 



Sir Henry Rawlinson — Claudius James Rich — Henry Sii)in- 
burne — Sir Samuel Baker — T. E. Bowdich. 

lONNECTED with Bristol was the great Assyrio- 
logist, Sir Henry Rawhnson, whose mother's 
sister married the eccentric but famous surgeon, 
Richard Smith. He went to school under Dr. Pocock, 
during which period he lived with his aunt. This is not 
the place to dwell upon his cuneiform studies and 
discoveries, but their importance may be judged when 
it is said that his decipherment of the Persian 
cuneiform inscription at Behistun was only paralleled in 
importance by Young and Champollion's reading of the 
Rosetta Stone. 

Sir Henry was very fond of animals, and among 
those he tamed was a leopard called Fahad, which 
he ultimately brought to England and presented to the 
Zoological Gardens at Clifton. When in Bristol subse- 
quently on visits he would often go to the gardens for 
the especial purpose of seeing his old pet. Entering the 
den, he would call out "Fahad! Fahad!" and immedi- 
ately the faithful animal would recognise his old master 
and come forward in its cage with [irickcd cars and 
pleased countenance, and then roll on {\\r lloor ;iii(l 
push his head against the bars. Once when lie was 
patting and rubbing its head the keeper called out in 



great alarm, "Sir, sir, what are you doing? Take your 
hand out of the cage, the animal's very savage, and 
will bite you ! " " Do you think so ? " said Rawlinson. 
"No, I don't think he will bite Die. Will you, Fahad ? " 
And the beast answered with a loud purr. In 1850 
Rawlinson's mother was residing at Westbury-on-Trym. 

Another famous Orientalist connected with our city 
was Claudius James Rich, who was educated in Bristol, 
and early attracted the attention of Robert Hall, the 
famous divine, by his extraordinary linguistic attain- 
ments. The distinguished Babylonian authority, Sir 
Austen Layard, whose grandfather was dean of the 
cathedral, paid a generous tribute to Rich's researches 
W'hen he said : " The most accurate and careful descrip- 
tion of Babylon is that of Mr. Rich, to whom I shall 
have frequent occasion to refer, and whose valuable 
Memoirs on the site of the city were my text-book during 
my investigations at Babylon." The very first cuneiform 
inscriptions to reach Europe came through Rich. His 
collections, acquired by the British Museum authorities, 
consist of about nine hundred volumes of manuscripts 
in Arabic, Persian, and Turkish, and are highly 

In Mr. Rogers's recent work on Babylon and Assyria 
he pays a fine tribute to the value of Rich's work, in 
the course of which he says : " The impulse which 
Claudius James Rich gave to Babylonian and Assyrian 
study has never yet lost its effect. . . . None who had 
preceded him had excelled him in inspirational power 
. . . and none had equalled him in the collecting of 
definite information concerning the ruins of Babylon. 
His quickening and informing influence worked wonders 
in his immediate successors." 


The following anecdote is related of his early youth. 
When he was about fifteen years of age he was taking 
an evening walk on Kingsdown, Bristol, when he met 
a Turk, and being desirous of ascertaining whether his 
pronunciation of Arabic was sufficiently correct to be 
understood by a native, he addressed him in that 
language. The Turk, after expressing surprise at being 
so accosted, told him he was a merchant, but having 
been shipwrecked on the coast of Ireland, he was then 
in distress. It is needless to add that Mr. Rich con- 
tributed to his relief. Some years after, whilst on a 
voyage to Constantinople, a vessel was observed bearing 
towards that in which he was, and it was thought to 
be an Algerine corsair. Resistance was therefore deter- 
mined upon ; however, on her near approach, she proved 
to be a Turkish merchantman. Mr. Rich and some 
others having gone on board, one of the Turks, who was 
richly dressed, excited Mr. Rich's particular attention 
by looking steadfastly at him for some time. At length 
he accosted him, saying, "Sir, I know you." "And I," 
replied Rich, " have seen you before." It was none 
other than the very Turk he had accosted on Kingsdown, 

In Bristol was born in 1743 Henry Swinburne, 
the son of Sir John Swinburne. After studying in 
France and Italy, he devoted especial attention to 
literature and art. On the death of his eldest brother 
he became possessed of means and leisure to travel. 
Subsequently he went to Spain, and wrote his experi- 
ences there. Travels Through Spain, which was illustrated 
with accurate and excellent drawings taken on the spot 
and published in 1779. It was reprinted in two volumes 
in 1787. Swinburne was the first to make known in 

16 A 


England the arts and monuments of the ancient inhabi- 
tants of Spain. Gibbon has honoured the work by 
frequently citing it in his famous Decline and Fall of the 
Roman Empire. Later he and his family travelled in the 
two Sicilies for over a year. As Catholics and lovers of 
art, they were well received by the literati. The* result 
of his travels was embodied in two volumes. During 
Swinburne's life he made many distinguished friendships^ 
among others the King and Queen of Austria and the 
beautiful and hapless Marie Antoinette, through whom 
he obtained " a grant of all the uncultivated lands in 
the Island of St. \^incent," worth ^^30,000. This, 
however, he was glad subsequently to sell for a fourth of 
that sum. In 1796 he was sent on a political mission 
to France, and later, in 1801, he obtained a lucrative 
post in the newly-ceded settlement of Trinidad, and was 
also appointed commissioner to hand over the Danish 
West India Islands to a representative of Denmark. 
So well did he acquit himself of the duty that the 
British merchants made him a handsome gift, and the 
King of Denmark presented his widow with £2,000. 
He died at Trinidad of sunstroke in 1803. 

Sir Samuel Baker, the intrepid hunter, traveller, and 
discoverer of the Albert Nyanza, the source of the Nile, 
came of an old Bristol family, who had large possessions 
in the West Indies. His grandfather on the paternal 
side. Captain Valentine Baker, especially distinguished 
himself in 1782, for, having taken out Letters of 
Marque, he equipped the Cccsar, a sloop of eighteen 
guns, with which he engaged in a very gallant fight 
with a French frigate of thirty-two guns. After a 
severe engagement, the frigate struck to her plucky 
little antagonist. Unfortunately, owing to her boats 


having been shot away, the Ccesar was unable to take 
possession of her prize, which was thus enabled to 
escape. However, she was captured on the following 
day by an English frigate and taken to Portsmouth. 
To that port Baker had sailed after the engagement 
to be refitted, and it is said that when the French 
commander saw at close quarters the small size of 
the ship to which he had struck, he became so 
mortified that he committed suicide. The gallantry of 
Baker was recognised by the merchants of Bristol, who 
presented him with a silver vase bearing the inscription : 
" Presented to Captain Valentine Baker by the merchants 
and insurers of Bristol for gallantly defending the ship 
Ccesar against a French sloop of war greatly superior 
in force to his own ship, and beating her off, June 27th, 
1782." Sir Samuel Baker, whose home was at High- 
nam Court, Gloucestershire, when he married in 1843, 
drove to Clifton in a coach and four with his bride to 
spend the honeymoon. 

A native of Bristol was T. E. Bowdich, the celebrated 
African traveller, born in 179 1. His father was a 
merchant of Bristol, and he received a portion of his 
education at the Grammar School. After following his 
father's trade for a brief period he relinquished it 
through the influence of his uncle, Mr. Hope Smith, 
Governor-in-Chief of the settlements belonging to the 
African Company, who obtained for him a writership 
under it. In 1815 he was appointed by the Company to 
conduct a mission to Ashantee, but later, being considered 
too young, he was superseded in the command. Kowever, 
in the face of great danger and difficulty, the weakness of 
his chief compelled him, in order to save their lives, again 
to take the lead. r>\- his diplomatic skill and coolness 


in the face of danger, when the fate of all those com- 
prising the mission hung in the balance, he succeeded 
in a most difficult negotiation, viz. in arranging a treaty 
with the King of Ashantee, which promised peace to the 
British settlements on the Gold Coast. 

Bowdich was the first to penetrate into the interior 
of Africa. His valuable work on that mission, published 
in i8ig, considered the best after Bruce's, excited great 
interest, as recalling the Arabian Nights, of a land and 
people of warlike and barbaric splendour. Little of 
real reward, however, was his for the great and difficult 
services he had rendered the African Company. 
Returning to England, and feeling his deficiency in 
mathematics, physical science and natural history, he 
went to Paris to perfect himself in those studies, and 
his progress was so rapid that he soon after gained 
the Cambridge prize of ;£"i,ooo for a discovery which 
entirely depended on a knowledge of mathematics. 
The leading savants of France, including Humbolt and 
Cuvier, gave him a generous reception, and a public 
eloge was pronounced on him by the Institute. Whilst 
on the threshold of a great career, Bowdich died abroad 
of fever at the early age of thirty-three. 

Reli^ous Associations. 




Bishop Will/stall's good work in Bristol — Bristol and ]Vy cliff 
— William Tyndale and Hugh Latimer — Paul Bushe — 
Tobias Matthew — Richard Hakluyt— Bishop TJiomas — 
Richard Toivgood — Bishops Trelawncy and Lake, two 
of the famous "seven'' — Bishop Robinson — Bishop 
Smalridge — Thomas Seeker, Archbishop of Canterbury — 
Joseph Butler: his claims to remembrance — Rev. A. S. 
Catcott — Bishop War burton — Thomas Newton — Josiah 
Tucker — W. Lort Mansel — John Kaye — Bishop Ellicott 
— Archbishop Whnteley and Bishop Hinds — Henry Becke 
— Sydney Smith, Prebendary of Bristol — Samuel Lee — 
C. P. Eden — Dr. Pusey preaching in Bristol — Henry 
Moseley — Bishop Monk — Edicard G irdlestone — J oh n 
Pilkington N orris. 

*N looking down the dim corridors of time, the 
personahty of that saintly Wulfstan, Bishop of 
Worcester in the eleventh century, attracts atten- 
tion. The work which is imperishably associated with 
his name is that of putting down the detestable practice 
of kidnapping men and women and selling them 
as slaves to the Irish. I-'or months this good man 
laboured and ministered to put a stop to this in- 
human traffic, and at length with entire success, even 
though the Concpieror himself had failed. 



No city in our land did more to kindle that new era 
of religious enlightenment, that was, alas ! too often 
punctuated by the persecution of fire and faggot, than 
Bristol. Though no actual record of the " morning 
star " of the Reformation having personally visited Bristol 
can be found, yet, being prebend of Aust, it is highly 
probable that he did so. His (Wycliff' s) disciple and 
friend, John Purvey, however, came here and ministered 
after his beloved master's death in 1384. He found Bristol 
in entire sympathy with his work and aims, and it was 
no doubt here that he finished his great work, that ot 
rervdsing Wycliff's translation of the Bible — an epoch- 
making book. At the Bristol Baptist College there 
are two extremely interesting relics of Wycliff — a portion 
of his garment and a fragment of his pulpit. 

To Bristol came Tyndale, or Tindal, the immortal 
translator of the New Testament. Of local birth, he 
was at that time tutor to the children of Sir John 
Walsh, at Sodbury, Gloucestershire. His duties in 
that capacity were so light that they left him ample 
leisure to devote to preaching in the surrounding villages, 
and at Bristol to the crowds which assembled on College 
Green. Speaking to one who opposed his teaching in 
Gloucestershire, he uttered that memorable sentence : " If 
God spare my life, ere many years I will cause the boy 
that driveth the plough to know more of the Scriptures 
than thou dost." The copy of Tyndale's bible in the 
Bristol Baptist College is referred to further on. 

Among Reformation heroes, the name of honest Hugh 
Latimer must not be forgotten. In our ancient city his 
voice was often heard lifted against the sin of idolatry. 
In 1534 he preached in Lent at the Dominican Priory, 
Rosemary Street (now in the possession of the Society 



of Friends). He perished at the stake at Oxford, and 
at that terrible moment his dauntless soul rose high 
within him as he adjured his fellow-martyr in those 
deathless words : " Be of good comfort, Master Ridley ; 
we shall this day light such a candle, by God's grace, 
in England, as I trust shall never be put out." It is 
interesting to note that on that mournful occasion he 
was attired in a gown of Bristol frieze, the colour of 
which was probably red, as Bristol red was a noted local 
manufacture, rivalling that of Lincoln green. 

By the royal favour of Henry VIII., whose chaplain he 
had been, Paul Bushe became Bristol's first bishop. He 
was born in Somerset, of "honest and sufficient parents." 
He studied and took his degree at Oxford, and was one 
of the celebrated poets of that University. From having 
been originally a friar of the English Order of Austin 
Friars, he ultimately became provincial of that Order. 
Having married, on the accession of Mary in 1553, he 
incurred her displeasure, and was forced to resign the 
See and retire to Winterbourne, Gloucestershire, where 
he died. He was buried in Bristol cathedral. 

A distinguished prelate to be ever held in grateful 
remembrance by Bristolians is Tobias Matthew, Arch- 
bishop of York, who was born on old Bristol Bridge. To 
him and another local worthy, named Robert Redwood, 
we are indebted for the foundation of the first free 
library in this city, to which both of them gave a large 
number of books. Their autographs are still to be seen 
in many of the works at the Municipal Central Library. 

Few historic names are better known than that of 
Richard Hakluyt. This remarkable man, whose I'oyaf^ns 
have deservedly won him world-wide fame — a work which 
a great historic writer has justly termed "the prose epic 


of the English nation " — was appointed a prebendary in 
Bristol cathedral in 1586, and held it for thirty years. 
His stall in the cathedral was No. i, the same held by 
the late Canon Ainger. 

In Bristol was born in 1613 William Thomas, Bishop 
of St. David's and Worcester successively, the son of a 
Bristol linen draper. He was a staunch Protestant and 
a lovable and extremely good man, winning the affection 
of those with whom he came into close contact. So 
hospitable and benevolent was he, that " the poor of 
the neighbourhood " [of Worcester] " were daily fed at his 
door," and he was large-hearted enough to contribute 
liberally to the support of the Huguenots who had 
taken refuge in this country. He died in 1689. 

Allusion, too, must be made to one who lived and 
suffered here during the stirring and troublous times of 
the great Civil War, Richard Towgood. He was 
originally master of the Cathedral School, and was suc- 
cessively Vicar of All Saints' and St. Nicholas churches. 
He ultimately became chaplain to Charles I. In 1645 
he was sequestered from his living " for his great 
dissatisfaction to the Parliament." On several occasions 
he was imprisoned, under unusually severe conditions, 
and at length was ordered to be shot, but with great 
difficulty was reprieved. At the Restoration he returned 
to St. Nicholas, at the earnest request of his old 
parishioners there, and in 1667 King Charles II. made 
him Dean of Bristol. After an eventful life, he died in 
peace in the eighty-ninth year of his age, and lies buried 
in Bristol cathedral. 

Among famous ecclesiastical rulers of Bristol's See, 
Bishop Trelawney, one of the noble "seven," contemporary 
of good Bishop Ken of Wells, is not the least. Macaulay 


in his history quotes in reference to him the well-known 
and stirring lines — 

" And shall Trelawney die ? 
And shall Trelawney die ? 
Then thirty thousand Cornish boys 
Will know the reason why." 

Mr. John Latimer, however, than whom no better authority 
on Bristol's history exists, has given grave reason to 
doubt the application of the lines to the event in question ; 
rather does his evidence point to an event in the life of an 
earlier Trelawney. Bishop Trelawney's life is remarkable 
for two things — jfirst, the uncompromising vigour with 
which he resented any encroachment on his episcopal 
authority ; second!}-, his severity towards his daughter 
in forcing her into a distasteful and loveless marriage. In 
the register of St. Augustine's Church there is an entry 
(March 20th, 1687) of his daughter's baptism, performed 
by the good Bishop Ken of hymn-composing fame. 

Another of the famous "seven" was bishop here in the 
person of John Lake. His career is best epitomised by 
himself in saying that " he thanked God he never much 
knew what fear v.-as when he was once satisfied of the 
goodness of his cause." ■When piebend at ^'ork he 
faced the rabble of apprentices who invaded the sanctity 
of the cathedral on Shrove Tuesday, sa}ing Ik; "had 
faced death in the field of battle too often to dread 
martyrdom." This was j)erfcctl3' true, for he served 
fcjur years with Charles I. as a volunteer. He greatly 
pleased James IL during tlic Monmouth Rebellion by 
leaving London and hastening to Bristol to keep order 
there during that eventful time. As a reward he was 
appointed to Chichester. 

In 1710 John Robinson was a])i>ointi(i I'.isliop of 


Bristol. His fame rests on political and diplomatic 
grounds rather than theological. He rendered England 
good service when, mainly through his instrumentality, 
the Utrecht Treaty of 17 13 was brought about. By it 
France ceded to England Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, 
and Hudson's Bay. 

Smalridge, the esteemed friend of Addison, became 
bishop here in 1714, his appointment being extremely 
popular. When Addison took the Hot well waters in 
1 7 18 he stayed with Smalridge, and wTiting from Bristol 
to his friend Swift, under date October ist, 1718, says: 
"The greatest pleasure I have met with for some months 
is the conversation of my old friend Dr. Smalridge, who 
is to me the most candid and agreeable of all bishops. 
We have often talked of you." That he was highly 
esteemed by his contemporaries is very evident, for 
Steele, in The Tatler, spoke of him as " abounding in 
that sort of virtue and knowledge which makes religion 
beautiful." His sermons, too, were highly esteemed by 

The famous Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Seeker, 
became Bishop of Bristol in 1735. He was the lifelong 
friend of the great Butler, and never lost an opportunity 
to advance the interests of his friend. It was whilst they 
were schoolmates at Tewkesbury that Seeker conveyed 
to the post office at Gloucester the celebrated anonymous 
letter of Butler addressed to Doctor Samuel Clark, and 
which the latter writer appended to his Attributes. Seeker 
had the honour of crowning George III. The celebrated 
Duchess of Marlborough held him in such high esteem 
for his understanding and integrity that she made him 
one of her executors, and informed him that she had 
left him in her will ^^2,000. Thereupon he rebuked her 


for bequeathing her wealth to people who were not her 
relations, and especiall}- blamed her for leaving anything 
to himself. Although his freedom of speech anno}'ed 
her, and the subject was never again alluded to, he found 
at her death she was better than her word, for she lett 
him ;^2,50o. He was a man of princely benevolence, and 
was ever on the side of enlightenment and large-hearted 

If there is one who dwells, like some bright, par- 
ticular star, apart from the long line of bishops who, 
from Bushe downwards, have swayed the destinies of 
the See of Bristol, then must be given the name of the 
illustrious Joseph Butler, author of the greatest theological 
work of perhaps any age, the Analogy of Religion. He 
was Bishop of Bristol for the space of twelve years. 
Whilst here he spent large sums in improving the palace. 
This was the more to his credit, as the Bristol bishopric 
was the poorest in England in regard to its revenue. In 
1739 he had an interview with the famous John Wesley, 
then at the outset of his remarkable life and labours. 
Butler requested Wesley not to preach any more in his 
diocese, but with this the latter refused to comply. 

Whilst residing in Bristol, Butler had the singular habit 
ot walking for hours in the garden of the palace at 
night, and upon one occasion asked his chaplain, Josiah 
Tucker, afterwards Dean of Gloucester, why public 
bodies might not go mad as well as individuals, adding 
that nothing else could account for most of the trans- 
actions of history. So benevolent was he, that after 
his translation to Durham, being on one occasion applied 
to for a subscription, he asked his steward how much 
money there was in the house. " Five hundred pounds," 
was the reply, upon which the I>ishop bestowed the 


whole upon the appHcant, saying that it was a shame 
for a bishop to have so much. His health failing, he 
came to take the Hotwell waters in 1752, and from here 
he journeyed to Bath, where he died. His remains were 
interred in the cathedral, and a monument is erected there 
to his memory, on which is written an admirable epitaph 
by Southey. It may be recalled that W. E. Gladstone 
devoted the closing years of his life to editing a new 
edition of Butler's works ; also that when forwarding a 
liberal donation to the Bristol Bishopric Fund, which 
had his most cordial support, he especially mentioned 
in his letter to the archdeacon his desire "to render a 
tribute, however small, of g.ratitude, as well as admira- 
tion, to the illustrious memory of Bishop Butler, whose 
episcopal career was chiefly passed at Bristol." Butler 
will be for ever remembered as a patient seeker after truth 
and the deepest religious moralist of his time. 

The Rev. A. S. Catcott, the father of Alexander and 
George Symes Catcott, was for many years master of 
the Grammar School and Rector of St. Stephen's. He 
was considered a fine pulpit orator, and Wesley testifies 
to his piety. Dr. Thomas Fry, President of St. John's 
College, Oxford, and Richard Woodward, Bishop of 
Cloyne, were among his pupils. 

Bishop Warburton, the intimate friend of Pope, the 
author of the Divine Legation of Moses, was Dean of 
Bristol in 1757. His introduction through Pope to Ralph 
Allen, of Bath, was the turning-point in his career, for 
he ultimately married Allen's favourite niece. Soon after 
he was appointed he attended a levee at Court, writing 
of which to a friend he says: "A buffoon lord-in-waiting 
(you may guess whom I mean) was very busy marshalling 
the circle ; and he said to me without ceremony, ' Move 


forward ; you clog up the doorway.' I replied, ' Did 
nobody clog up the King's doorstep more than I there 
would be room for all honest men.' " 

For over twenty years Thomas Newton was Bishop 
of Bristol, and is chiefly remembered now by his Disser- 
tations on the Prophecies and his edition of Milton's 
Paradise Lost, which ran into many editions. Whilst 
bishop here he incurred the enmity of the unfortunate 
genius Chatterton, and was the recipient from him of 
one of the most scathing letters ever written (the 
original letter forms one of the many literary treasures 
at the Bristol Art Gallery). 

A clerical figure who wielded considerable influence 
in local affairs and was in every way a strong personality 
was Dean Josiah Tucker, who filled at one period the 
office of chaplain to Bishop Butler. Subsequently he 
became Rector of St. Stephen's, and in 1750 issued a 
remarkable Essay on Trade, the principles contained 
in it being far in advance of those of his time. He 
advocated the throwing open of English ports, the 
removal of numberless vexatious and oppressive re- 
strictions, and the sweeping away of monopolies, 
duties, etc., which impeded the trade and commerce 
of the country — in a word, he anticipated many of 
the ideas contained in Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations 
in a remarkable way. In 1758 he was made Dean of 
Gloucester, but retained his rectorship here. 

Bristol has been remarkable for having been con- 
nected with the great v/its of the church, for in 
addition to its association with Sydney Smith and 
Archbishop Whately, the witty bishop, W. Lort Manscl, 
was appointed here in 1808. His jests and epigrams 
gained him a great reputation, many of which are 


enshrined in Notes and Queries. Rogers the poet wished 
that someone would collect his epigrams, as being 
remarkably neat and clever. 

John Kaye was bishop in 1820. He was a fine 
scholar who won the rare distinction of Senior Wrangler 
and Senior Chancellor's Medallist of his year — a dis- 
tinction only twice won before. He subsequently became 
master of his college. When translated to Lincoln from 
Bristol he did splendid work ; more than two hundred 
parsonages were built or rendered habitable. As a writer, 
many of his works became widely read, notably his 
Ecclesiastical History of the Second and Third Centuries, 
which reached a fifth edition in 1845. He was a sound 
Churchman, and no prelate stood higher at his death 
in the esteem of the English Church. 

Not the least of the many ecclesiastical rulers of our 
city was Charles John Ellicott, who became in 1863 
Bishop of the united Sees of Gloucester and Bristol, and 
in that capacity was connected with our church life for 
the long period of thirty-four years. During his tenure of 
office he endeared himself to all classes of the community 
by the Christian graces of wisdom, charity, moderation, 
and simplicity of life. As a finished Biblical scholar he 
has left his mark on the religious history of his time in his 
Hulsean Lectures and his works on the New Testament, 
to which latter he was one of the principal Revisers. 
A permanent memorial to this good bishop's memory is 
the beautiful reredos in Bristol cathedral, erected by his 
many friends in affectionate recognition of his labours 
here. His death occurred in 1905 at the great age of 

In Bristol, too, went to school the famous Archbishop 
of Dublin, Richard Whately, and Bishop Hinds, the father 


of the former having been prebendary at the cathedral 
in 1793. 

Among Deans of Bristol, Henry Beeke holds an 
honoured place. He was chiefly remarkable for being 
an authorit}' on matters of finance. So wide was his 
reputation, that the then Chancellor of the Exxhequer 
was guided by his advice. It is even said that Pitt 
was indebted to him for the original suggestion of the 
Income Tax. His chief work, Observations on iJie 
Produce of the hicome Tax, etc., was eulogised by 
McCulloch as affording " the best example of the 
successful application of statistical reasoning to finance 
that had then appeared." An illustration of his care 
in money matters is related in the life of the famous 
Bristol artist, Miiller. Having to pay him £25 for 
a picture, he handed him the money in bank-notes, 
which Miiller modestly conveyed to his pocket without 
counting. Upon this the Dean said : " You are a very 
young man, Mr. William, and will, I trust, excuse an old 
friend like me remarking, that when you receive money 
it is always better to count it and see that it is right 
before writing a receipt for it." Acting on this advice, 
Miiller found to his surprise that the Dean had given 
him £^0 instead of £2^. Imagining the good Dean 
had made a mistake, he handed back one of the notes ; 
the Dean only smiled, and begged him to retain it, 
saying that it was intentional, and that the picture was 
well worth the increased sum. 

The witty and famous Sydney Smith was appointed 
prebendary here in 1828. A story is told that on his 
arrival he foimd that the verger, who had just ictircd fiom 
office, was in affluent circumstances, which occasioned liu' 
remark of the witty canon that he had " ncxer before so 


fully realised the truth of that passage in the Psalms, 
' I had rather be a doorkeeper in the house of my God 
than to dwell in the tents of wickedness.' " 

Writing, soon after his arrival, to Lady Holland, 
he says : " An extremely comfortable prebendal house ; 
seven stall stables and room for four carriages, so that I 
can hold all your cortege when you come ; looks to the 
south, and is perfectly snug and parsonic ; masts of 
West Indiamen seen from the windows." Again, writing 
to a friend, he says : "At Bristol, on the 5th of Novem- 
ber" (1828), "I gave the Mayor and Corporation (the 
most Protestant Mayor and Corporation in England) 
such a dose of toleration as shall last them for many 
a year." This sermon occasioned an immense sensa- 
tion, and the cathedral, which when he arrived to take 
up his duties used to be almost deserted, became, when- 
ever he preached, filled to suffocation. 

Truly Bristol cathedral is honoured by numbering 
among its prebendaries the witty canon of St. Paul's, 
who, it has well been said, " stands before the English 
world as a figure to be proud of, a man of whose 
private and public life we can never know too much 
of: charming at home and brilliant abroad, using his 
intellectual weapons with all his might in accordance 
with his conscience and without counting the 

This inestimable man, whose wdt was as harmless 
as summer lightning, Tom Moore epitomises in the 
following : — 

"Rare Sydney! thrice honour'd the stall where he sits, 
And be his every honour he deigneth to climb at ! 
Had England a hierarchy form'd of all wits, 

Whom, but Sydney, would England proclaim as its 
primate ? " 


Among distinguished canons of the cathedral, the 
profound hnguist. Samuel Lee, appointed in 183 1, 
cannot be passed over. His powers in that direction 
were devoted to Biblical publications, shown in his 
scholarly editions of the Old and New Testaments in 
S3'riac, of the Psalter and Gospels in Arabic and Coptic, 
of Genesis and the New Testament in Persian, and of 
the latter in Hindustani. His grammar of the Hebrew 
language went through many editions. His knowledge of 
languages was very extensive, and he is said to have 
been a master of no fewer than eighteen. 

A famous member of the Tractarians connected with 
Bristol was C. P. Eden, born at \\'hitehall, St. George, 
in 1807. He was a collateral descendant of the great 
William Waynflete, Chancellor of England, and founder 
of Magdalen College, Oxford. Eden's father was curate 
of St. George's Church, and was a man of considerable 
culture. After attending school in Bristol till the age of 
fourteen, Eden ultimately at eighteen entered Oxford. 
He was truh- fortunate, for he at once came under 
the influence of a group of remarkable scholars 
among whom were Keble, Newman, P'roude, Denison, 
Church, etc. Eden took full advantage of his good 
fortune, and won his way by becoming successi\-eh- 
Fellow and Dean of his college. His sterling worth 
impressed itself upon all with whom he came in contact. 
His contribution to the celebrated Tracts for the Times 
is No. 32. But it is as \\\\. and parisli jjricst that he 
will be best remembered ; in the latter capacit}' he is 
enshrined in Dean Burgon's Twelve Good Men as " The 
Earnest Parish Priest." It was largely through Eden 
that the justly-admired inscription to the great P>ishop 
Butler l)y Southcy was left unaltered. Dr. Sauiud Lee, 


canon in residence, having criticised (sic) it severely, 

would have altered it had it not been for Eden's 


Not the least interesting among these associations is 

that of the great Tractarian, Dr. Pusey, who preached in 

Bristol, both at St. James's and Clifton churches. Whilst 

in Clifton he stayed at 3 Royal York Crescent. At that 

time Julian's concerts were all the fashion, vdiich gave 

rise to the following epigram : — 

"The world of fashion dances through the night, 
And polka reigns the Queen of candle light; 
And then the world of fashion dons its pattens, 
And clatters through the mud to early matins. 
Julien and Pusey each the world amuses : 
The night is Julien's, and the morning Pusey's." 

At St. James's Church his sermon created a sensation 
by its obscurity, though the church was crowded to the 
doors, there being scarcely standing room. It was a 
time of bitter antagonism between the "High" and 
the " Low," and the walls of the city were placarded 
with " No Popery " and " No Puseyism." Pusey 
himself was warned that his life would be in danger, 
and a large body of police were requisitioned to guard 
him from molestation. Pusey's daughters went to school 
in Clifton, and one of them died there in 1845. 

The celebrated mathematician, Henry Moseley, was 
canon here in 1S53. It is on his formulas that the 
dynamical stabilities of all ships of war have since 
been calculated. 

Bishop Monk, who was Macaulay's old tutor, was 
connected episcopaliy with Bristol for nearly twenty 
years, but his best claim to distinction is that of 
having written one of the finest biographies in the 
language, Ths Life of Bentley. 


A canon of our cathedral who deserves mention is 
Edward Girdlestone, who was \'icar of Saint Nicholas 
with Saint Leonard's in 1855. His chief claims to 
remembrance are the public efforts he put forth on 
behalf of the agricultural labourer, which gained him 
the title of the "Agricultural Labourer's Friend." In 
their behalf he was truly indefatigable. He was the 
means of an extraordinary exodus from the West 
country of upwards of six hundred families from districts 
where work was scarce and poorly paid to the pros- 
perous North. He died on December 4th, 1884, and 
he deserves to be held in gratitude for his disinterested 
exertions for the betterment of a class who are entitled 
to more help and sympathy than they usually receive. 

In celebration of the completion of labourers' cottages 
on his estate at Sandringham, King Edward VII. (then 
Prince of Wales), being impressed with the value of the 
information given by the Canon as to the condition of the 
homes of the agricultural labourers before the Royal 
Commission on the Dwellings of the Poor, invited him 
to preach a sermon at Sandringham Church. This he did 
on November 16th, 1884, and this was the last service he 
ever conducted, for during the journey he contracted an 
illness to which he soon succumbed. 

The honoured name of Archdeacon John Pilkington 
Norris should not be omitted. He was one of the 
earliest to initiate steps for forming l^ristol into a 
separate Sec, and was one of the noblest donors towards 
the great work of the cathedral's restoration, giving to 
that object no less a sum then £"11,500. By the irony 
of fate, he died a few days after his ajipnintmcnt to 
the Deanery of Chichester. 


CHAPTER X. (continued). 


Vitality of Bristol's religious life — Benjamin Beddome — John 
Collett Ryland, his son John Ryland, and grandson 
Jonathan E. Ryland — Robert Hall : pastor at Broadmead 
Chapel; his great oratorical powers — John Foster — Joshua 
Marshman — William Knibh — T. S. Baynes — John 
Howard Hinton — Dr. Andrew Gifford : his bequest to 
Bristol Baptist College of Tyndale's Bible — Other valuable 
treasures in Baptist College — George Whitefield -.preaching 
in Bristol and at Kingswood ; founds Penn Street 
Tabernacle — John Wesley : comes to Bristol at the request 
of Whitefield; his marvellous powers; early labours 
in Bristol; open-air services; narrow escape; Southey's 
relations with him; American Ordinations; visit to 
Knowle prison; death in London — Charles Wesley's 
residence in Bristol — Dr. Adam Clarke — The Society 
of Friends — George Fox — William Penn — Robert 
Vaughan — " Little Parson Harris " — Urijah Recs 

)EW cities have touched the national hfe at so 
many and varied points as Bristol, whether it be 
in commerce, art, science, literature, or religion. 
In each and all the city has been in the van of human 
progress. This vitality of the religious life has been 
well shown on the Nonconformist side. Long before 
Methodism was cradled in our midst, the pioneers of 



the great Baptist community were rooted here, working 
nd suffering with a single eye to their Master's glory. 
Eternal honour to those vanguards of Nonconformity ! 
The following is a brief list of some of their distinguished 

The first of these, Benjamin Beddome, born in 1717, 
was trained in Bristol for the Baptist ministry. As a hymn- 
writer, his fame is universal. For fifty-five years he was 
the beloved pastor of Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucester- 
shire. He died in 1795, deeply regretted for his urbane 
character and charitable generosity to the poor. 

The next to be associated with the city was John 
Collett Ryland. He was the son of a Gloucestershire 
farmer, and was born in 1723, his mother being a col- 
lateral descendant of John Colet, the Dean of St. Paul's, 
and the friend of the famous Erasmus. He was baptised 
in 1741 by Benjamin Beddome. As he showed con- 
siderable intellectual promise, he was sent to the 
academy of Bernard Foskett, to prepare for the ministr}'. 
After being trained, he was appointed to the Baptist 
Church at Warwick. There he started a school in St. 
Mary's parsonage house, rented of the rector. Dr. Tate, 
who, being remonstrated with for harbouring a Dissenter, 
pertinently retorted that he had brought the man as near 
the church as he could, though he could not force him 
to enter it. Later, Ryland went to Northampton as 
pastor and schoolmaster. His school there became highly 
successful, and many of his pupils attained eminence, 
among these being Samuel Ikigster, the famous printer 
of Bibles. Ryland's chief claim to remembrance lies in 
the fact that he did more than any man of his time to 
promote polite learning amongst Dissenters. 

On July 2nd, 1784, at sunrise, he delivered the address 


over the grave of the great benefactor to Bristol Baptist 
College, Dr. Andrew Gifford. This oration, though pub- 
lished at the time, has since been twice reprinted. His 
preaching was able, original, and racy in the extreme. 
Robert Hall, who was his pupil, says : " In the power of 
memory, imagination, and expression I have never yet 
seen any man to be compared with him. I should despair 
of conveying to the mind of one who had never heard 
him an adequate idea of the majesty and force of his 
elocution." Outside his ministerial and scholastic work 
he had a passionate love of natural history. As illus- 
trating this, one autumn morning he called up the whole 
of the scholars to see the departure of the swallows that 
had clustered in surprising numbers on the roof of the 
school ere they migrated. Among his peculiarities was 
that of a voice so powerful in its tone that it has been 
compared to the roaring of the sea; He died in 1792. 

His son, John Ryland, born in 1753, became, too, one 
of the most distinguished of the Baptist ministry. At 
five years of age he was already acquainted with Hebrew, 
and at nine knew Greek, whilst at fifteen he was qualified 
to assist in his father's school. Ultimately, in December, 
1793, he became pastor at Broadmead Chapel, combining 
with this the onerous position of president of the Baptist 
College, Bristol. These positions he ably filled till the 
day of his death. He was, too, one of the founders of 
the Baptist Missionary Society, and acted as its secretary 
from 1815 till 1825. Ryland was a fine scholar, his 
reading being most extensive and various. He was also 
a profound Orientalist. By his great intellectual attain- 
ments and uprightness of character, he possessed great 
influence over his Baptist brethren. He was also 
popular as a hymn- writer, for in 1862 nearly one hundred 

i 'V - 






of his hymns were pubhshed. Juhan, the authority on 
hymnology, says there are several of his hymns in 
constant use to-day. His lamented death occurred in 
1825. The great Robert Hall succeeded him at Broad- 
mead, and preached his memorial sermon. 

Jonathan Edwards Ryland, son of the above, was 
born at Bristol, where he spent his earliest years, being 
educated at the Baptist College, over which his father 
presided. Later in life he became mathematical and 
classical tutor at Mill Hill College. Subsequently he 
again resided in Bristol, but linall}^ went to Northampton, 
where he spent the remainder of his life. He early 
devoted himself to literature, some of his earliest com- 
positions being inserted in The Visitor, published in Bristol 
in 1823. He wrote, too, for the Baptist Magazine, and 
edited for a year or two the Eclectic Review. Among 
his literary activities was a memoir of Dr. Kitto, of 
Cyclopcsdia of Biblical Literature fame. He also con- 
tributed many articles to the Encyclopedia Britaniiica 
and wrote numerous works, including the editing of 
John Foster's Life and Correspondence. Among his 
many friends here in Bristol was Professor F. W. 
Newman (brother of the famous Cardinal, and little 
inferior to him in intellectual ability), who was at that 
time a member of Broadmead Chapel, and one of the 
College Committee. 

With Bristol the name of Robert Hall, one of 
the most eloquent pulpit divines of modern times is 
imperishably associated. He was born near Leicester 
in 1764, and at fifteen years of age entered the Bristol 
Baptist College. After spending three years there, 
he went to Aberdeen to further his studies, where he 
was the fellow-student of Sir James Mackintosh. They 

17 A 


became the closest of friends, and were both passionately 
fond of the classics, being dubbed by their fellow-students 
Plato and Herodotus. Each admired the gifts and 
qualities of the other. Mackintosh said "he was 
fascinated by the brilliancy and acumen of Hall, and 
awestruck by the transparency of his conduct and the 
purity of his principles."' Whilst Hall was equally 
eulogistic in regard to Mackintosh : " His memory retains 
everything ; his mind is a spacious repository hung round 
with beautiful images, and when he desires one he has 
nothing to do but reach up his hand to a peg and take 
it down." 

On leaving Aberdeen, Hall became co-pastor at 
Broadmead Chapel, and also assisted as classical tutor at 
the Baptist College. Even in those early days the chapel 
was crowded to the doors to hear him. After spending 
five years here, he received and accepted an invitation 
to Cambridge. The scenery of Cambridge was his pet 
aversion, and he was fond of contrasting it with Bristol, 
to the former's disadvantage. " Were you ever at Bristol, 
sir ? " he once remarked. " There is scenery, sir — 
scenery worth looking upon, and worth thinking of!" 
Apropos of Cambridge, he said, " Outside the college 
precincts there is not a tree for a man to hang himself 
upon when he is weary of the barrenness of the place." 
A gentleman thereupon reminded him that there were 
some trees at Grandchester, whereupon he crushingly 
retorted, " Yes, sir ; I recollect — willows, I believe, sir ; 
Nature hanging out signals of distress ! " 

Hall's flights of oratory were at times remarkable. 
For instance, his sermon delivered at Bristol on the 
proposed invasion of this country by Napoleon was 
spoken of by Pitt, one of his greatest admirers, as 


being the " finest words spoken since the days of 
Demosthenes." /\nd on another occasion, Pitt alluded 
to a sermon preached October 19th, 1803, as " fully 
equal in genuine eloquence to any passage of the 
same length that can be selected from either ancient 
or modern orators." Foster said of him, "All he does 
and savs is instinct with power." Some have gone so 
far in their admiration as to say that Hall's splendid 
Apology for the Freedom of the P/ess and for General 
Liberty deserves to rank with the Areopagitica of Milton. 
In 1825 he succeeded Dr. Ryland at Broadmead Chapel, 
but his pastorate- was of short duration, for in 183 1 this 
greatly-gifted man died of an incurable internal disease, 
to the irreparable loss of his church and friends. 

Among Baptists of distinction few are more widely 
known than the famous essayist, John Foster. He 
was trained at Bristol Baptist College. After ministering 
in other parts of England, he returned to the neighbour- 
hood of Bristol, and at Downend he took charge of 
a small congregation, where he remained four years. 
In the year 1806 his essays were published, and were 
immediately crowned with success, so much so that 
their reception induced him to resign his pastorate. 
In the following year he became a contributor to the 
Eclectic Review, and soon became one of its chief 
writers, contributing to it nearly two hundred articles. 
In the year 1817 he again resumed the pastorate of 
his old congregation at Downend. There he wrote 
and published in 1820 his great essay on Popular 
Ignorance. The year after he removed to Stajilclon, 
and in 1822 he delivered a course of lectures at 
Broadmead Chapel, subsequent!}' published i-n two 
volumes. Oratory, however, was not his forte, as he 


himself was the first to admit ; consequently on the 
appointment of Robert Hall to Broadmead Chapel, Foster 
regarded his lecturing there to be " altogetlier super- 
fluous, and even bordering on impertinent." It was as 
a writer he shone. He possessed searching discernment 
of every kind in dealing with moral falsity and w^eakness, 
the dark and subtle windings of which he tracks with 
unerring and dogged sagacity, and exposes either with 
easy irony or with keen and scathing satire niodified 
by sorrowful contempt. Old and worn thoughts 
passing through the crucible of his mind acquired a 
brilliant lustre, as he put them in new and striking 
lights. He died in 1843, and lies buried in the chapel 
ground at Downend. 

That great missionary and Oriental scholar, Joshua 
Marshman, was originally a master at Broadmead School. 
Sent out by the Baptist Missionary Society to their 
establishment at Serampore, he studied with great 
success the Bengali, Sanscrit, and Chinese languages. 
Among his works he wrote a Chinese Grammar, 
translated and edited the works of Confucius, and was 
associated with his distinguished brother missionary, 
Carey, in the production of the Sanscrit Grammar and 
Bengali- English Dictionary. He became, too, the 
pioneer of journalism in the East, having, in conjunction 
with his son, established in 1818 the first newspaper 
ever printed in an Eastern language. In that year 
also he started the publication of The Friend of India. 
In addition to this, at the same period, he planned 
the Missionary College for the instruction of Asiatic 
Christians and other youth in Eastern literature and 
European science, which was built at a cost of 
£15,000. Among the devoted band of great missiojiaries 


to our Indian Empire few have worked more nobly 
than Joshua Marshman. 

Another distinguished Baptist missionary, \\'illiam 
Knibb, born in 1803, dwelt in Bristol for many years. 
He was baptised b}- Dr. Ryland, and admitted a member 
of Broadmead Chapel on March 7th, 1822. As a 
missionary he was highly successful in Jamaica. 
Returning to England just as the Reform Bill had 
passed, his first exclamation on hearing the news was, 
" Now I '11 have slavery down," and at once threw 
himself with intense energy into the work of the 
Abolitionists. On reaching Jamaica once more, he 
died at his post in 1845 of a malignant fever that 
carried him off in four days. He had laboured there 
for twenty-one years. 

At the Bristol Baptist College was trained for 
the ministry one of the greatest editors of modern 
times, T. S. Baynes, the editor of the Encydopccdia 
Britannica, ninth edition, and the son of a Baptist 
minister at Wellington, Somerset, his mother being a 
Bristolian. However, after leaving Bristol for further 
training at the University of xAberdeen, he abandoned 
his intention of entering the ministry, and devoted him- 
self to literature and other studies. To the Encyclopcedia 
Britannica he contributed the remarkable and masterly 
article on Shakespeare, considered by competent authori- 
ties matchless. Even the great Shakespearean scholar, 
Halliwell Phillips, sj)eaks of having "devoured Baynes's 
splendid essay." Higher praise than this would be 

Amongst celebrated Baptists, John Howard Hinton 
cannot be ignored. Born in 1791, he was trained at 
the Bristol P)ai)tist College. I'or many years he ably 


filled the post of secretary to the Baptist Union 
which owed in times of weakness its very existence to 
his strenuous exertions. He gained considerable repute 
as a writer, one of his best works being the History 
oj the United States. His many works evidence a wide 
and varied intellectual activity. On retiring from the 
ministry in 1868 he resided in Bristol for the remainder 
of his life; his death occurred on December 17th, 1873, 
and he was buried in Arno's \^ale Cemetery. His son, 
James Hinton, acquired great fame for his philosophical 
and surgical discoveries, and was a remarkable and 
original thinker. 

Had space allowed, some other local Baptist ^^'orthies 
might have been dealt with — Doctors Gotch and Culross, 
for example, both of whom filled with distinction the 
position of President of the Bristol Baptist College, 
Dr. Gotch, it will be remembered, was honoured by a 
place on the Revision Committee that dealt with the 
revised version of the Scriptures. 

Dr. Andrew Gifford, the son and grandson of a 
Bristol Baptist, by reason of his noble benefaction to 
the Bristol Baptist College, will be ever held in grateful 
remembrance. Some of its ^choicest treasures were 
bequeathed by him in 1784, including the unique and 
priceless octavo New Testament translated directl}- from 
the Greek by William Tyndale and published in 1525 
— -the only perfect copy known to exist in the whole 
world. Originally purchased for Lord Oxford, founder 
of the Harleian Library, by one of his collectors — John 
T^Iurrey — it was esteemed so valuable by his lordship that 
he forthwith settled on him an annuity of -£^20. Curious 
to say, on his lordship's library coming into the market 
at his death, through some extraordinary mistake of the 


auctioneer, it was disposed of to a bookseller named 
Osborne for a trii^ing sum, and he, equally ignorant, 
marked it at fifteen shillings, for which price the well- 
known bibliographer Ames bought it. At the sale of 
Ames' books it was bought by John White, who in May, 
1776, sold it for twenty guineas to Dr. Gifford. This trans- 
lation of the New Testament was finished in the reign of 
Henry VUL, and the whole impression, as is supposed 
(this copy excepted), was purchased by Tunstall, Bishop 
of London, and burnt at St. Paul's Cross. That it is the 
veritable first edition is sufficiently proved by T3'ndale's 
own address to the reader, in which he says : " Them that 
are learned Christenly, I beseche for as moche as I am 
sure ad my conscience beareth me recorde, that of a 
pure entent, singilly and faythfully I have interpreted itt " 
[the Gospel] " as farre forth as God gave me the gyfte of 
knowledge ad understondynge, so that the rudnes off 
the worke nowe at the first tyme offende them not : but 
that they consyder howe that I had no man to counterfet, 
nether was holpe with englysshe of eny that had inter- 
preted the same, or soche lyke thlge I the Scripture 
before tyme." 

Among other literary rarities in the Bristol Baptist 
College are the fine collection of early printed English 
Bibles, William Caxton's Mirroiir of the World, first edition 
of Milton's Paradise Lost, and last, but not least, the 
veritable Concordance used by the immortal dreamt-r of 
Bedford, bearing his autograph of ownership — " John 
Bunyan, his Book." 

Imperishably associated with our city arc the W(uld- 
famous revivalists, George Whitefield and the brothers 
Wesley — John and Charles. Close indeed is Whiteficld's 
association with Bristol, for his father was a wine 


merchant here and his mother was a Bristolian. Prior to 
George's birth they removed to Gloucester and kept the 
Bell Inn, where he was born. Twenty-two years after 
that event, in 1737, he came to Bristol to bid farewell to 
his relatives ere sailing for Georgia. His reputation as a 
preacher had preceded him, and several of the pulpits of 
our city's churches were placed at his disposal, among 
others St. John's, St. Philip and Jacob, the Mayor's Chapel, 
St. Stephen's, and St. Mary Redcliff. At the latter he 
" preached to such a congregation as his eyes had never 
yet seen." Speaking of his farewell sermon, he said : 
" But when I came to tell them it might be that they 
would see my face no more, high and low, young and 
old, burst into such a flood of tears as I have never seen 
before ; drops fell from their eyes like rain, or rather 
gushed out like water. Multitudes followed me home 

It was after his return from Georgia that he became 
the evangelist to the brutal and degraded collier popula- 
tion of Kingswood, and on one memorable Saturday in 
February, 1739, he repaired to a place called Hanham 
Mount, and addressed a small gathering of about a 
hundred impelled there by curiosity. On the following 
day he preached to crowded congregations in St. 
Werburgh's and St. Mary Redcliff. In the teeth of 
ecclesiastical hostility he again visited Kingswood a day 
or two afterwards, where he had two thousand eager 
listeners, and again two days later, when the audience 
was double that number. He had eloquent proof of the 
effect of his ministrations " by seeing the white gutters 
made by their tears which plentifully fell down their 
black cheeks as they came out of the coal-pits." At 
subsequent services so great were the numbers that came 



to hear him that it was not unusual for him to address 
twenty thousand. 

Like Wesley he was miserably persecuted — sometimes 
the butt of slanderous tongues, at others mobbed, ducked 
and stoned. Alluding to which Cowper declared : — 

" He loved the world that hated him ; the tear 
That dropped upon his Bible was sincere. 
Assailed by scandal and the tongue of strife, 
His only answer was a blameless life. . . ." 

It was due to Whitefield that the Wesleys commenced 
their immortal labours in Bristol, for when he left for 
America he appealed to them to continue the work. 

In the year 1753 Whitefield laid the foundation-stone 
of the Tabernacle in Penn Street, towards which his 
admirer, the celebrated Earl of Chesterfield, contributed 
twenty .guineas. Of this chapel Whitefield remarks: 
" It was not half large enough ; would the place contain 
them. I believe nearly as many would attend as in 
London." In that building ministered Rowland Hill 
and the father of the celebrated author of Political 
Justice, William Godwin, whose daughter married Shelley 
the poet. He (the elder Godwin) published a volume 
of sermons delivered there. 

On June 17th, 1703, was born at Epworth, Lincoln- 
shire, John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, and the 
most remarkable religious force of the eighteenth century. 

If one would know the life of the people of that 
period, few better authorities can be consulted than 
the Journal of this great itinerant preacher, in which 
is mirrored the "very age and body of the time, his 
form and pressure." If we study his labours both 
of mind and body we are forced to the conclusion 
that the power displayed was little short of tiie 


marvellous. For forty years, during each one of which 
he travelled thousands of miles, he preached in Great 
Britain the cause of Christ. An eminent living man 
of letters* has said truly: "No man lived nearer 
the centre than John Wesley, neither Clive, nor Pitt, 
nor Johnson. You can't cut him out of our national 
life. No single figure iniiuenced so many minds, no 
single voice touched so many hearts. No other man 
did such a life's work for England." 

Bristolians glory in the fact that the name and 
fame of Wesley is imperishably connected with this 
ancient city. In Bristol he founded the first of his 
chapels. In his Journal, under date May gth, 1739 
(the year of his first appearance in Bristol), he writes : 
" We took possession of a piece of ground, near St. 
James' churchyard, in the Horsefair, where . it was 
designed to build a room, large enough to contain both 
the societies of Nicholas and Baldwin Streets, and such 
of their acquaintance as might desire to be present with 
them, at such time as the Scripture was expounded : and 
on Saturday, 12th, the first stone was laid, with the ^•oice 
of prayer and thanksgiving." Thus humbly began one of 
the most powerful religious organisations the world has 
known, and whose existence to-day is a living and 
enduring monument to that great and strenuous religious 
personality. To this small chapel two rooms were 
ultimately added in which Wesley and his preachers 
could lodge, described by Wesley as "a little room, 
where I speak to the persons who come to me, and 
a garret, in which a bed is placed for me." Having 
been accused of extravagance in the furnishing of his 
room, he says : " How ? Why, with a piece of green 
* The Right Hon. Augustine Birrell. 


cloth nailed to the desk ; two sconces for eight 
candles each in the middle ; and — nay, I know no 
more. Now which of these can be spared I know 
not, neither would I desire for more adornment or 
less." Scattered through the four volumes of John 
Wesley's Journal are countless allusions and entries 
relating to Bristol. 

Wesley's first appearance in Bristol was on March 
=3ist, 1739, having been urged to come by Whitetield, 
who was leaving England for America. The absence 
of " decency and order " in Whitefield's ministrations 
struck Wesley very much on coming here, so that he 
had difficulty in reconciling himself to the " strange 
way of preaching in the fields." An illustration of 
that form of preaching was given him on the following 
day, when Whitefield held three open-air services and 
preached a farewell sermon in a private room, the way 
to which was so packed with people that to gain 
admittance he had to mount a ladder and climb over 
the roof of an adjoining house. 

Wesley's first service was held in Nicholas Street, 
and his first open-air service was held at the beginning 
of April, when he spoke from a slight eminence near 
the city to about three thousand people. Among 
various places he preached at during that first year 
was Baptist Mills, where he spoke to two thousand 
persons. About this time, being disturbed in his 
preaching by mob violence, the rioters, by order of 
the mayor, were arrested, and, being tried at Quarter 
Sessions, " they began to excuse themselves by saying 
many things about me. But the mayor cut them all 
short, saying, 'What Mr. Wesley is is nothing to you. 
I will keep the peace. 1 will liave no rioting in tills 


city."" Calling at the Newgate at this period, he 
was informed that several of the poor wretches desired 
to speak to him, but that an express order had just 
been received from Alderman Becher that they should 
not. " I cite Alderman Becher to answer for these 
souls at the judgment seat of Christ," was Wesley's 
solemn protest. 

Under date January 22nd, 1747, he relates an 
adventure that went very near terminating his career. 
"About half an hour after twelve I took horse for Wick, 
where I had appointed to preach at three. I was riding 
by the wall, through St. Nicholas Gate, (my horse having 
been brought to the house where I dined) just as a cart 
turned short from St. Nicholas Street, and came swiftly 
down the hill; there was just room to pass between 
the wheel of it and the wall, but that space was taken 
up by the carman. I called to him to go back, or 
I must ride over him ; but the man, as if deaf, walked 
straight forward. This obliged me to hold back my 
horse ; in the meantime the shaft of the cart came 
full against his shoulder, with such a shock as beat 
him to the ground. He shot me forward over his head, 
as an arrow out of a bow, where I lay, with my arms 
and legs, I know not how, stretched out in a line close 
to the wall ; the wheel ran by, close to my side, but only 
dirted my clothes ; I found no flutter of spirit, but 
the same composure as if I had been sitting in my 
study. When the cart was gone I rose ; abundance 
of people gathered round, till a gentleman desired me 
to step into his shop. After cleaning myself a little, 
I took horse again, and was at Wick by the appointed 

On one of his many visits to Bristol, in the year 


1758, he went to the cathedral to hear Handel's 
masterpiece, the Messiah, and remarks, " I doubt if 
that congregation was ever so serious at a sermon as 
they were during this performance." Wesley was well 
acquainted with Bristol churches, and had preached in 
several of them, and on two occasions conducted the 
marriage service at Temple and Bedminster parish 
churches. On Sunday, October 6th, 1782, he preached 
at the former church " between our own morning and 
evening service ; and now I found out how to speak 
here so as to be heard b}' everyone : direct your voice 
to the middle of the pillar fronting the pulpit." Referring 
to his having preached at old Clifton Church, he says : 
*' Seeing many of the rich at CHfton Church, my heart 
was much pained for them, and was earnestly desirous 
that some of them might ' enter into the kingdom of 
heaven.'" His presence there in May, 1739, was due to 
his supplying the place of the vicar, who was dying. 
The poet Southey relates a charming incident in regard 
to Wesley when he (Southey) was a child, which probably 
occurred at Southey's home in W'ine Street. He says : 
" On running downstairs before him with a beautiful 
little sister of my own, whose ringlets were floating over 
her shoulders, he" (Wesley) "overtook us on the landing, 
when he took my sister in his arms and kissed her. 
Placing her on her feet again, he then put his hand 
upon my head and blessed me, and," said Southey with 
his eyes full of tears and his voice treuibhug with 
emotion, "I feel as though I had the blessing of that 
good man upon me at this present moment." 

Wesley often stayed when in Bristol with J<-'hn 
Castelman, surgeon, of No. 6 Dighton Street, and here in 
1784, with the help of Dr. Coke and James Creightou, he 


ordained Richard Whatcoat and Thomas Vasey for 
service as presbyters in the newly-founded United States 
of America. By milHons of Methodists in America this 
momentous act is regarded as the estabhshment of their 
church. Charles Wesley was strongly opposed to his 
brother in this matter ; for he saw, what John failed to 
recognise, that this was an act of separation from the 
Established Church, — that ordinations for x\merica would 
soon be followed by ordinations at home. Events have 
proved him to be right, and the independent position of 
the Weslevan Methodist Church to-day is a direct con- 
sequence of the scene enacted a hundred and twenty- 
two years ago in that house in Dighton Street. 

So numerous and frequent were John Wesley's visits 
to Bristol, that every part of it was well known to him. 
He speaks of climbing up to Kingsdown to visit a 
sick man ; Bedminster, where he preached in " the 
Paddock"; the Lamb Inn, West Street, and Gloucester 
Lane ; Stokes Croft ; Hotwells, where he took the waters 
and lived in one of the houses in the Colonnade ; Clifton, 
where he visited the grounds of Goldney House to see 
the famous grotto ; and at Granby Hill is the Granby 
House still standing \\here, at her desire, he visited the 
widow of Governor Johnstone, formerly Governor of 
West Florida. Knowle, too, he knew, and St. Philip's 
Marsh. Of the former, he relates in his Journal 
October 15th, 1759 : " I walked up to Knowle, a mile 
from Bristol, to see the French prisoners. Above eleven 
hundred of them, we were informed, were confined in that 
little place, without anything to lie upon but a'^little dirty 
straw, or anything to cover them but a few foul thin rags, 
either by day or night, so that they died like rotten sheep. 
I was much affected, and preached in the evening on 


Exod. xxiii. g, ' Thon shalt not oppress a stranger ; for ye 
know the heart of a stranger, seeing ye were strangers in 
the land of Egypt,' Eighteen pounds were contributed 
immediatel}', which were made up four-and-twenty the 
next day. With this we bought hnen and woollen cloth, 
which were made up into waistcoats and breeches ; some 
dozen of stockings were added : all which were carefully 
distributed where there was the greatest want."' Speaking 
of his ministerial labours in Bristol, he says, under date 
August 4th, 1771 : " We had above six hundred and fifty 
communicants at Bristol. In the afternoon I preached in 
St. James's Barton, to a huge multitude, and all were still 
as night." Referring to his work at Kingswood, he says, 
on the occasion of a visit there in 1784 : " I preached at 
Kingswood under the shade of trees I had planted 
forty years before." On August 29th, 1790, in King 
Square, he preached in Bristol for the last time. This 
great and noble founder of the Wesleyan Church died 
in London in the 88th year of his age. Among his 
latest words spoken was the name of Bristol. His 
friends having prayed for him, he said : " There is no 
need of more ; when at Bristol my words were — 

'I the chief of sinners am, 
But Jesus died for me.' " 

Thus passed away one of the noblest Christian 
warriors the world has known, whose name and work 
will be imperishably associated with Bristol history. 

Charles Wesley, of hymn-writing fame, was from 
the first associated with the work of his great brother. 
Perhaps, taking quantity with quality into consideration, 
he was the greatest hymn-writer that ever lived. His 
well-known hymn " Jesu, Lover of my Soul " is said to 
have been inspired by the charming incident of a little 


bird seeking refuge in his bosom during a storm. Dr. 
James Martineau said "that after the Scriptures the 
Wesley Hymn-book appears to me the grandest instru- 
ment of popular religious culture that Christendom ever 

In 1749 he came and settled in Bristol at Charles 
Street, St. James's Barton. There he resided over 
twenty years. Many of his children were born there, 
some of whom died and are interred in St. James's 
Churchyard. John Wesley invariably lodged with him 
there on his numerous visits to Bristol, and King Square, 
near Charles Street (then known as the New Square), 
was a favourite preaching-place of his. 

One of the most distinguished of the Wesley converts 
was Dr. Adam Clarke, who came to Bristol from Birming- 
ham in 1782, reaching here one evening at 8 p.m., and 
lodging for the night at the Lamb Inn, West Street. In 
the morning he walked to the school at Kingswood, which 
Wesley had founded, and he has graphically related his 
unhappy reception and experience there — a school that had 
its counterpart in Dotheboys Hall of Dickens celebrity. 
Wesley was absent in Cornwall when Clarke arrived, but 
on his return the latter came into Broadmead to interview 
him. Wesley saw him in his study over the chapel 
(still existing) and received him with kindness, and 
forthwith appointed him as preacher to Bradford. As 
a preacher Adam Clarke proved remarkably popular, 
and rose to distinction in the Wesleyan body, for 
thrice he filled the Presidential Chair. Notwithstanding 
his ministerial labours, he was a most assiduous scholar, 
and was made LL.D. of Aberdeen University, besides 
being a fellow of several learned societies. His great 
won was his Bible Commentarv. 



For nearly three centuries the Society of f'riends have 
been associated with all that is best in the religious and 
social life of our city ; numerically small in size, but 
in influence very powerful even to-day. As the 
champions of religious and social freedom, they have ever 
been in the van of human progress. Their history is 
gemmed by world-famous names. In science they have 
produced that remarkable man Thomas Young, the dis- 
coverer of the undulatory theory of light ; on the social 
side Elizabeth Fry, Joseph Lancaster and Joseph Sturge ; 
and in politics John Bright ; to say nothing of George 
Fox, their founder, and William Penn, the great coloniser. 
These are names which would ennoble any religious 

George Fox first came to Bristol in 1656, and was 
ultimately married to that remarkable woman Margaret 
Fell, widow of Judge Fell, on October i8th, i66g, in 
Broadmead Chapel. No man at that period strove 
more to rise above the religious intolerance and fanaticism 
of his age into the pure regions of eternal truth. Fox 
has been eloquently described as being " a daring spirit, 
yet of matchless patience ; the courage which could brave 
violence, yet the gentleness which could disarm hostility 
and win prejudice by mild persuasion." 

In 1695 his great co-religionist, William Penn, the 
founder of Pennsylvania, was married on January 5th, 
1696, at the Friend's Meeting House, in the I*"rlar}', to 
Hannah Callowhill, a Bristolian. It was during his 
residence here in 1697 and 1698 that it is thought he 
planned the building of the streets adjoining the Meeting 
House, viz. Philadelphia, Penn, HoUistcr and rallowhill 
streets. The mother of Penn's wife was the daughter of 
Dennis Hollister, on whose ground those streets were 


built. Still in possession of the Friends in Bristol is 
the actual lease for a 3'ear of Pennsylvania, granted by 
William Penn and his son preparatory to the mortgage 
on which several Friends of Bristol and other places 
advanced them in 1708 the sum of ;^6,6oo. It w^as also 
during Penn's residence in Bristol that he secured James 
Logan as his secretary, who accompanied him to Phila- 
delphia and ultimately became its Chief Justice and 
Governor. Positive proof that he was in Bristol in 
1698 is afforded by the fact that his work, Defence of a 
Paper entituled " Gospel Truths," &c., is dated " Bristol 
the 23rd of the .7th month, i6g8." A copy of this 
rare work is in the Bristol collection of the city. 

In closing these biographical cameos of great Non- 
conformists a word or two must be said of three person- 
alities who have given distinction to the Congregational 
body, so ably and strongly represented in our city's 
religious life. The most famous of these was Robert 
Vaughan, D.D., who was born here in 1795 of poor 
parentage, and in early life worked as a carpenter. Over- 
coming the obstacles of his lowly birth by sheer force of 
ability, he ultimately became Professor of History in 
University College, London, and later Principal of the 
Lancashire Independent College. He founded and held 
for many years the position of Editor of the British 
Quarterly Review. So distinguished were his services 
to Nonconformity, that Mr. Samuel Morley presented 
him in 1866, on behalf of a large body of prominent 
Dissenters, with a cheque for ;£'3,ooo. Vaughan was 
a man of striking personality and great platform power, 
which created expectations rarely disappointed. He 
was the author of many works and articles, and was 
an authority on the life and works of W3'cliff. His 


soil, R. A. Vaiighan, was the distinguished author of 
that remarkable work Hours icitli the Mystics. 

A famous member of the Bristol Itinerant Society was 
" Little Parson Harris," whose preaching in the adjacent 
villages of Bristol was very acceptable, the chapels being 
mvariably crowded to hear him. He was called the Boy 
Preacher. In 1823 he entered the Independent College 
at Hoxton, and after completing his studies became the 
minister of the Congregational Church of Epsom, where 
he achieved a reputation both for the excellence of his 
matter and the eloquence of its delivery. He possessed, 
too, considerable literar}- gifts, and won in 1835 a hundred 
guineas for the best essay on covetousness, of which, 
when published the following year, more than a hundred 
thousand copies were sold. In 1837 he was appointed 
to the Theological Chair at Cheshunt College, and in 
1852 he filled the Presidential Chair of the Congregational 
Union. Into his theological teaching he infused a broad 
and tolerant spirit of humanity. His death occurred in 

Reference may also be made to one recently removed 
from his loved work in Bristol whose memory will ever be 
green and who was a fine type of all that i§ best in 
Nonconformity, viz. the Rev. Urijah Rees Thomas. As 
the first pastor of Redland Park Church, the greater 
portion of his life was spent chiefly in promoting religious 
and social good. ■ From 1874 he was a member of the old 
Bristol School Board, and served successively as Vice- 
Chairman and Chairman of that l)()dy, holding the latter 
office at his death. No greater or kindlier personality ever 
presided over its deliberations, and the deep interest he 
took in the child life of our city earned for him the title 
of " the children's friend." Hon<jurcd and respected l)y 


all religious denominations of our city he passed away 
in igoi to the deep regret of thousands who knew and 
appreciated his sterling worth. A memorial in the shape 
of a fountain and clock was erected in 1904 on the 
Blackboy Hill to commemorate his distinguished services 
to the city of his adoption. 

^^^1_, S^ic^i^^ 

Philantliropic and Social 


xr« irf 



Edward Colston : his various Bristol charities ; foundation of 
Colston School ; death and burial — Richard Reynolds — 
John Whitson — Jolin Carr — Thomas White — John 
Howard : Burke's estimate of him — Thomas Clarkson — 
Mary Carpenter ; eloquent tributes to her memory ; Jier 
association with Frances Power Cobbc — Rajah Ram- 
Mohun Roy — Sir Francis Freeling — John Loudon 
McAdam's residence in Bristol — George Miiller's great 

*N dealing with those who have justly and nobly 
made Bristol famous as a city of " splendid 
charities," it is not intended to survey the whole 
of these, but rather briefly to draw attention to those 
individuals whose princely gifts have for all time conse- 
crated their names and memories in the annals of our 

One of the best of Bristol's historians has said, 
" John Kyrle is not more ' the man of Ross ' than 
Edward Colston is ' the man of Bristol.' " Truly his 
name and works are an imperishable memory. He was 
born in Bristol November 2nd,* 1636, in Temple Street, 
and was the son of an eminent merchant named William 
Colston. Following in his father's footsteps, he became 

* His birthday being kept up on November 13th is due to the 
alteration made in the calendar. 



a merchant, his trading being chiefly with the West 
Indies. His crest, the dolphin, is attributed to the story 
told that one of his vessels springing a leak, a dolphin 
wedged itself in the hole and so saved the ship. 

A man of great wealth and princely munificence, he 
lived chiefly in London, and only occasionally visited 
Bristol, though for a short time he represented her in 
Parliament. He was never married, and to those curious 
on the subject his beautiful reply was : " Every widow 
is my wife and every orphan is my child." Among his 
many benefactions to his native city is the splendid alms- 
house with chapel attached on St. Michael's Hill, founded 
by him in i6gi for the "abiding-place" of twenty-four 
aged persons (twelve of each sex). Writing to the 
Merchant Venturers, in 1695, to whom was entrusted 
the management of it, he says : " The almshouse on 
St. Michael's Hill wants some men to fill it ; if you or 
anybody know of any persons that are fit to go into it, 
I would gladly have them put in. They should be such 
that have lived in some sort of decency ; but that a more 
especial regard should be had that none be admitted that 
are drunkards, nor of vicious life." This letter indicates 
the general prudent oversight with which all his bene- 
factions were administered. He also helped to found 
and endow the Merchants' Almshouse, King Street, in 
addition to his many other benefactions. 

The most popular institution, however, associated 
with his name is Colston School, long since removed 
to Stapleton, which formerly occupied the site of 
Colston Hall, and was founded by him and opened in 
July, 1 7 10, when a special service took place at the 
cathedral to mark the event. It provided accommoda- 
tion for a hundred boys, and cost its donor ^^ 40,000. 


Each boy was provided " with a suit of clothes, cap, 
tand, shirt, stockings, shoes, buckles and porringer." 
The costume they wore was identical with that \\-orn by the 
boys of Queen Elizabeth's Hospital to-day. A characteristic 
anecdote is told that a poor widow waited on Colston 
pleading that her only son might be admitted to the 
school. Her request being granted, in gratitude she 
declared she would pray that Heaven's blessings might 
descend on him, and that when her son grew up she 
-would teach him to thank his benefactor. "No!" was the 
mild reproof, "we do not thank the clouds for rain, nor 
the sun for light, but we thank God, who made both the 
clouds and the sun." Among the scholars who attended. 
that school was Bristol's greatest genius, Chatterton. 

Dying in 1721, in his eighty-fifth year, at his seat 
at Mortlake, Surrey, Colston's body was brought to Bristol 
by road in a hearse with six horses, attended by eight 
horsemen and three mourning coaches, with six horses 
to each, the funeral procession taking nearly ten days 
to reach Bristol. Here with great state he was interred 
at midnight in All Saints' Church. The bells of our 
city tolled for sixteen hours on the eventful day. An 
effigy to his pious and immortal memory was executed 
by the famous sculptor Rysbrach and placed in All 
Saints' Church. A beautiful custom still exists of 
placing a nosegay of flowers in the bosom of this 
effigy of Colston every Sunday, an eloquent token 
that "the ashes of the good and just smell sweet, 
and blossom in the dust." His recorded benefactions 
amount to over ^70,000, besides the many sums given 
in secret. A tardy tribute of gratitude to this noble 
and great benefactor to his native city was paid in 
1895, when a statue was erected to him in Colston 



Avenue. Of the philanthropic societies which have been 
founded in his memory, the three principal, the Dolphin,, 
the Anchor, and the Grateful, meet annually on November 
13th, when thousands of pounds are collected for 
charitable purposes, for which Colston in his lifetime 
did so much. 

Next to Colston must come the honoured but 
largely-forgotten name of the great Quaker philanthropist, 
Richard Reynolds. Born in Corn Street in 1735, the 
son of an iron merchant, he adopted his father's pro- 
fession, and upon his marriage with the daughter of Abram 
Darby, became partner in that famous firm, whose great 
iron works were situated in Coalbrookdale, Shropshire. 
Upon the death of his father-in-law Reynolds took over 
the entire control of the works, then the most important 
of their kind in England. By his business energy and 
sagacity he developed the works in every way, and 
amassed subsequently a great fortune. In the year 1804 
he settled in Bristol and devoted his wealth to deeds 
of unostentatious charity, giving away at least ,^10,000 
a }'ear. So extensive were his benefactions through- 
out his residence in Bristol, that he employed four 
almoners to distribute them to the poor and de- 
serving. During his lifetime he is estimated to have 
given away quite ^^200,000, exclusive of gifts not included 
in his private accounts. He died in 1816 at Cheltenham, 
and his remains were brought to Bristol for interment 
in the Friends burial-ground in Quakers' Friars, Rosemary 
Street. With the exception of Miiller's funeral, no more 
affecting ceremony was ever witnessed in our city. The 
great concourse who attended from feelings of gratitude, 
affection and respect represented all sections of the 


A memorable and princely merchant of Bristol was 
Alderman John Whitson, founder of the Red Maids' 
School. Migrating from his birthplace in the Forest 
of Dean, and after receiving some education here, he 
was apprenticed in 1570 to Nicholas Cutt, a wine 
merchant. On the authority of John Aubrey, the Wilts 
antiquary, we learn that Whitson was a handsome young" 
fellow, and after Cutt's death his widow took a fancy 
to him, and calling him into the wine cellar one 
day bade him broach the best butt in it for her. This 
was a prelude to their marriage, which soon afterwards 
took place. At her death he married the beautiful 
daughter of an alderman of London. By her he had 
a daughter, who inherited her mother's beauty, for she 
was accounted the " flower of Bristol." In all he was 
a much married man, for he wedded three wives, the 
last being the grandmother of John Aubrey. " He kept," 
says Aubrey, "a noble house and did entertain the peers 
and great persons that visited the city, and was charitable 
in breeding up poor scholars." The residence of Whitson 
was at the corner of Nicholas Street, now occupied b}- 
Stuckey"s Bank. In civic affairs he ever took a very 
prominent part, and was the most influential citizen of 
his day. He \\as our times elected one of the Members 
of Parliament for Bristol, and there by his unflinching 
courage in expressing his opinion on political questions 
affecting the interests of our city full}' justified the 
wisdom of his election. Owing to the unworthincss of 
his relatives, the bulk of his property was bequeathed 
for benevolent purposes to the city, chief of which was 
the foundation of the Red Maids' School for the main- 
tenance and training of forty girls, daughters of freemen, 
"to go and be apparelled in red cloth." 


A school of which any city might be proud, Queen 
Elizabeth's Hospital, was founded by John Carr, a 
wealthy soap boiler of our city, having works both 
here and in London. Dying in 1586, he left the major 
portion of his property to found a hospital on the 
pattern of Christ's Hospital, London. It has been 
humorously remarked that the boys there should have 
a good Hebrew foundation, seeing that the site of the 
school was a Jewish burial-ground. 

The generous founder of Zion College, London, 
Dr. Thomas White, was a native of Bristol, having been 
born in Temple parish. There, in 1613, he charitably 
endowed an hospital for the poor which still exists, 
the title of which is " The Ancient Brother, the Brethren 
and Sisters of the Temple Hospital." At his death he 
bequeathed further sums for mending the roads round 
Bristol and in giving marriage portions of ;^io each to 
four honest maidens, etc. Dr. Thomas White filled 
several lucrative offices in the Church, by which his 
wealth was acquired. He was an eminent preacher, 
and became prebendary of St. Paul's, canon of Christ 
Church, Oxford, and a canon of Windsor. 

In February, 1774, the dauntless John Hov^^ard, the 
great prison reformer, came to Bristol. The need of his 
labours in English prisons, to say nothing of those 
abroad, is proved by abundant contemporary testimony 
to the terrible insanitary condition of those human 
dunghills. At the Lent Assizes in Taunton in 1730 some 
prisoners who were brought thither from the notorious 
gaol of Ilchester infected the court, and Lord Chief 
Baron Pengelly, Sir James Sheppard, John Pigot, sheriff, 
and some hundreds besides died of gaol fever. 

The Newgate prison (formerly standing opposite 


the " Cat and Wheel," Narrow Wine Street), con- 
tained at the period of his visit thirty-eight felons 
and fifty-eight debtors, the rooms dirty, and the air 
offensive from open sewers. There was no bedding, 
insufficient water, and the only food two pennyworth of 
bread per head daily. Howard afterwards paid several 
visits, and in 1787 described Newgate as being "white 
without and foul within." On his labours Burke pro- 
nounced the following noble eulogy : " He visited all 
Europe, not to survey the sumptuousness of palaces, nor 
the stateliest of temples, not to make accurate measure- 
ments of the remains of ancient grandeur, nor to form a 
scale of the curiosities of modern art ; not to collect 
medals, nor to collect manuscripts ; but to dive into the 
depths of dungeons ; to plunge into the infection of 
hospitals, to survey the mansions of sorrow and pain ; to 
take the gauge and dimensions of misery, depression, and 
contempt : to remember the forgotten, to attend to the 
neglected, to visit the forsaken, and to compare and 
collate the distresses of all men in all countries." 

Howard's great fellow - labourer in the cause of 
suffering humanity, Thomas Clarkson, came to J-Jristol 
in June, 1787, and commenced his first labours. 
Riding into the city on horseback, he says: "Turning a 
corner \\ithin about a mile of the city, at about eight in 
the evening, I came within sight of it. The weather 
was rather hazy, which occasioned it to look of unusual 
dimensions. The bells of some of the churches were 
then ringing. The sound of them did not strike me till 
I turned the corner before mentioned, when it came 
upon me at once. It filled me almost direct!}- with a 
melancholy for which I could not account. I bc^gan 
now to tremble for the first time at the arduous task 


I had undertaken of attempting to subvert one of the 
branches of the commerce of the great place which was 
before me." It was from the landlord of the " Seven 
Stars," Temple, that Clarkson derived much valuable 
information and assistance in getting up evidence against 
the abominable traffic in human flesh. Three or four 
slave vessels were at that very time preparing for their 
voyages, and through this man he was enabled to visit 
the haunts of the seamen who manned those \-essels, 
and he revealed too the malpractices used in gathering 
their crews. 

One of the noblest women of the nineteenth century 
was Mary Carpenter, whose life and work are imperishably 
associated with our city. Born at Exeter, she was the 
eldest of Dr. Lant Carpenter's children. From her ten- 
derest years her father exercised a marked influence on 
her whole life ; w^hat that influence was has been eloquently 
placed on record by Dr. James I\Iartineau and Sir John 
Bowring, who were scholars at Dr. Carpenter's school in 
Great George Street. The opening of Mary Carpenter's 
work came in the year 1833, when the distinguished 
Indian reformer, the Rajah Ram-]\Iohun Roy, and Joseph 
Tuckerman, the Boston philanthropist, visited the 
Carpenters and induced in her a sympathy towards the 
condition of Indian women and the uncared-for gutter 
urchins who tend to feed the criminal classes of 
this country. Her life work is admirably epitomised 
in Dr. Martineau's inscription written on her monu- 
ment in Bristol Cathedral: "Sacred to the memory 
of Mary Carpenter foremost among the founders 
of Reformatory and Industrial Schools in this citv and 
realm. Neither the claims of private duty, nor the tastes 
of a cultured mind, could withdraw her compassionate 


eye from the uncared for children of the streets. Loving 
them while yet unlovely, she so formed them to the fair 
and good as to inspire others with her faith and hope, 
and thus led the way to a national system of moral 
rescue and preventive discipline. Taking also to heart 
the grevious lot of Oriental women, in the last decade of 
her life, she went four times to India, and awakened an 
active interest in their education and training for serious 
duties. No human ill escaped her pity, nor cast down her 
trust : with true self-sacrifice she followed in the train 
of Christ, to seek and to save that which was lost, and 
bring it home to the Father in heaven. Desiring to 
extend her work of piety and love, many ^^•ho honoured 
her have instituted in her name some homes for the 
homeless young, and now complete their tribute of 
affection by erecting this memorial." When she died on 
June 14th, 1877, she had seen nearly all accomplished 
for which she had so long nobly laboured. Ptinch bore 
■eloquent tribute to her memory in the following lines — 

" 'Twas she first drew our city waifs and strays 
Within the tending of the Christian fold, 
With looks of love for the averted gaze 

Of a world prompt to scourge and shrill to scoUl. 

" From seeds she sowed — in season mattered not, 
Or out ; for good all seasons are the same — 
Sprang new appliances, of love begot. 

Lost lives to save, and errant souls reclaim." 

A fellow-labourer here with this noble woman was 
the late Frances Power Cobbe, one of the advanced 
women who by her fearless advocacy, both by tongue 
and pen, did much in her lifetime to ameliorate the 
condition of her sex. She was the author of Inindrcds 
of articles and many works, including Danvinism in 


Morals, The Peak of Darien, Claims of Women, etc. She 
was intimate with all the intellectual men and women 
of her time, being on terms of friendship with Tennyson 
and Browning. The former on one occasion when she 
had lunched with him, said at parting: "Good-bye, Miss 
Cobbe ; fight the good fight. Go on ! fight the good 
fight." The Married Women's Property Act and the Act 
for the judicial separation of a wife from a brutal 
husband were largely brought about through her labours. 
Not less ardently did she strive for the abolition of 
vivisection. A chapter of her Autobiography is devoted 
to her Bristol association with the work of her noble 
friend, Mary Carpenter. 

The distinguished Indian reformer, Rajah Ram-Mohun 
Roy,'to whom allusion has been made, was much attached 
to the Carpenters, and when he came to England in 1833 
said that Lant Carpenter was the man he most desired to 
meet. Sad to relate, he died soon after his arrival in 
Bristol, and was buried first in the grounds of Miss Castle 
at Stapleton Grove ; later, however, his remains werey 
exhumed and re-interred in Arno's Vale Cemetery, the 
Oriental form and richness of his tomb there being always 
an object of attention and interest to visitors. On the 
fiftieth anniversary of his death, September 27th, 1883, 
the great Eastern scholar. Max Miiller, came to Bristol 
and delivered an address on his life and labours. 

From the purely social side the name of Sir Francis 
Freeling, the postal reformer, born on Redcliff Hill in 
1764, deserves remembrance. He commenced his career 
in the Bristol Post Office. When in 1785 the system of 
mail coaches was introduced, he was appointed to assist 
Palmer in carrying it out. Later he entered the London 
General Office, where step by step he rose to the highest 

Frank Hulincs, Pholu. 



position, that of secretary, A eulogy \vas passed on his 
administration by no less a person than the famous 
Duke of \\'ellington, who in the House of Lords said 
that " the Post Office under his management had been 
better administered than any Post Office in Europe, 
or any part of the world." He was made a baronet 
in 1828. A monument to his memory is in Redcliff 

Among the social benefactors of mankind John 
Loudon McAdam, from whom the term '* macadamised " 
is derived, has deservedly won a place in the world's 
gratitude. In the year 1805 he took up his residence 
in Bristol, and became a freeman of the city on paying 
a fine of thirty-eight guineas. After many practical 
experiments involving the travelling over 30,000 miles 
of roads in the United Kingdom, and at a cost to 
himself of several thousand pounds, he at length invented 
and perfected the system of road-making which bears 
his name. In 1815 he was appointed general surveyor 
of roads belonging to the Bristol Turnpike Trust, and 
under his system the Bristol roads became a pattern for 
the road authorities of the world. The need of his 
system was amply demonstrated in a letter which 
appeared in the Monthly Magazine for 1804: "The usual 
method of making or mending roads," said the writer, 
" consists in breaking stones out of the neighbouring 
quarries into masses not less than the common brick 
and spreading them over the line of the road. It may 
be conceived with what pain and difficulty a poor horse 
drags a carriage over such a track." To the honour of 
the House of Commons, they rightly regarded McAdam 
as a great benefactor to his countr)-, and made him a 
grant of ;;^io,ooo and the offer of a knighthood, the latter 


of which he decHned. He resided whilst in Bristol both 
in Park Street and Berkeley Square. 

In an age so sharply divided on spiritual matters as 
our own, when, too, rampant agnosticism and infidelity 
are ceaselessly warring against the truth of the inspiration 
of the Scriptures, it is refreshing to turn away from these 
elements of religious strife to the modern apostle of a 
living and childlike faith, whose peculiar counterpart 
seems now non-existent — the noble and inspiring life and 
work of George Miiller. This, one of the world's truest 
and grandest philanthropists, whose enduring monument 
is his great orphanages on Ashley Down, was the son of a 
Prussian exciseman, and was born in 1805. In 1829 he 
migrated to England, and in the year following he had 
become pastor of a small congregation at Teignmouth at 
the modest salary of ;^55 a year. During this same year 
he married the sister of a dentist in Exeter. It was 
towards the close of this same year that he adopted the 
great principle that henceforth ruled the actions of his 
long life of ninety-two years, viz. that of entire trust in 
God for all his temporal wants, as well as in spiritual 
things, the outcome of which was that he absolutely 
refused any salary ; nor would he permit pew rents, but a 
box for freewill offerings of his congregation was placed 
at the door of the chapel. 

Two years later he came to Bristol, in 1832, and from 
that time forward his life was spent here. Soon after 
arriving he started the marvellous work with which his 
name will be imperishably associated — the care of the 
orphans, modelled on the work of Francke, his countrv- 
man, at Halle. Beginning in Wilson Street, St. Paul's, 
with a few children, year by year the numbers grew, and 
finding further expansion there out of the question, he 


made the matter a subject of earnest prayer, and in faith 
sought Divine guidance, the outcome of which was that 
he secured land on Ashlev Down, and one after another 
those colossal homes have been erected to the number of 
five, at an outlay of no less than ;;rii5,ooo, not a penny 
of which was asked for. They house over two thousand 
children, who are fed, clothed, and educated at an expen- 
diture of something like ^26,000 a }'ear. Where the 
financial support comes from for the up-keep of this 
unique and world -famed institution is best revealed in 
Miiller's own Narrative of the Lord's Dealings with George 
Miiller. The remarkable manner in which the land was 
acquired on which two of those Homes stand is so charac- 
teristic of Miiller's belief in Divine guidance that it is worth 
relating :•■• " Mr. Miiller had been making inquiries respect- 
ing the purchase of land much nearer Bristol, tlie prices 
asked being not less than ;^iooo per acre, when he heard 
that the land upon which the Orphan Houses Nos. i 
and 2 stand was for sale, the price being ;^200 per acre. 
He therefore called at the house of the owner, and was 
informed that he was not at home, but that he could be 
seen at his place of business in the city. Mr. Muller went 
there, and was informed that he had left a few minutes 
before, and that he would find him at home. Most men 
would have gone off to the owner's house at once ; but 
Mr. Muller stopped and reflected, ' Peradventure the Lord, 
having allowed nie to miss the owner twice in so short a 
time, has a purpose that I should not sec him to-day : and 
lest I should be going before the Lord in the matter, I 
will wait till the morning.' Accordingly he waited and 
went the next morning, when he found the owner at home; 

* The following account is taken from Pierson's George Miiller oj 


and on being ushered into his sitting-room, he said : 'Ah, 
Mr. Miiller, I know what you have come to see me about. 
You want to buy my land at Ashley Down. I had a 
dream last night, and I saw you come in to purchase the 
land, for which I have been asking ;;^200 per acre ; but 
the Lord told me not to charge you more than ;£'i20 per 
acre, and therefore if 3'ou are willing to buy at that price 
the matter is settled.' And within ten minutes the 
contract was signed. ' Thus,' Mr. Miiller pointed out, ' by 
being careful to foil ozc the Lord, instesid oi going before His 
leading, I was permitted to purchase the land for ^80 per 
acre less than I should have paid if I had gone to the 
owner the evening before.' " 

In 1838 the Biography of George Whitefield inspired 
him with the evangelising spirit, and after he had 
passed his seventieth birthday he went forth on a world- 
wide mission preaching the gospel. During his long 
stewardship this great and good man dispensed gifts he 
had received to the enormous amount of ;£■!, 500,000, and 
during his lifetime, too, he distributed nearly 300,000 
copies of the Scriptures. So modest was he, that it was 
with the greatest difficulty and after repeated refusals that 
he allowed his portrait to be taken, when he was nearly 
eighty. The governing principle of his whole life was in 
his own words " the exemplifying how much may be 
accomplished by prayer and faith." He died on March 
loth, i8g8, and was buried in Arno's Vale Cemetery. 
The day of his funeral was a memorable one in our city. 
No sovereign of earth ever went to his rest amid such a 
profound demonstration of love and esteem as attended 
that of the great Christian philanthropist, George Miiller. 


Acton, Lord, Tribute to Edmund Burke' 

Actors, Remarkable amateur, in Bristol, 

Addison, Joseph, 47, 352 
African Trade, Beginning of, 12 
Ainger, Alfred, 174, 197 
Albert, Prince, 35 

Aldworth, Alderman Thomas, 14, 15 
Aldworth, Robert, 15 
Alison, Sir Archibald, 141 
American Methodist Church founded, 378 
Anecdotes — 

Robert Sturmy and the Genoese, 5 
Sir Robert Cann and Dudley North, 

C. J. Harford and Maddox (acrobat), 

Chatterton and his desire for fame, 58 
Macaulay and the donkey cart, 95 
Coleridge and the opium habit, 132 
James Maitineau and George 

Borrow, 167 
W. J. Miiller and the stranger artist, 

Hogarth and Simmons, 208 
Bird's Picture, " Tiie Death of Eli," 

Petlier and Oliver Goldsmith, 222 
The City Chambei lain and Vandyke's 

" Ean of Pembroke," 231 
Chailes Macklin at Dublin Theatre, 

Incidents connected with William 

Powell's death, 252 
John llippisley and James (Juin, 253 
Macieady's last appearance in 

Bristol, 260 
Sir Henry Rawlinson and the 

leopard, 339 
Claudius James Rich and the Turk, 

Bishop Warburton and the King's 

levte, 354 
Dean Heeke and W. J. Miiller, 357 
Rev. Sydney Smith and the verger, 

Rev. Robert Hall and Cambridge, 366 
Tyndall's New Testament, 370 
Whiiefield and the Kiiigswood 

colliers, 3-2 
Mayor of Bristol and John Wesley, 

John Wesley and Southey, 377 
Charle- Wesley's "Jesu, lover of.niy 

soul," 379 
" Angel Gabriel " (ship), 25 
Angel. Mrs., ami f;liatterlon, 80, Hi 
Arrowsinith, J. W., 196, 197 
Art Gallery, Biistol, 231 
Artists, " Hrisiol School " of, 220 
Athcnittim, The, i6j 
Aubiey, John, 391 
Ayala, Pedro de, 8 

Bagehot, Waller, 161 
Bahama Islanii'^, 28 
Bdily, li. H., 1)^, 136, 2o(), 207 
Baker, Sir Samuel, 342 

Bancroft, George, 14 

Banks, Sir Joseph, 288 

Baptist College, Bristol, Literary and 

Artistic Treasures in, 232, 371 
Baplist Mills, Brass Works at, 31 
Barbauld, Mrs. (quoted), 89, 120 
Barham, Rev. R. H. (" Ingoldsby "), 1O4, 

Barker, .Andrew, 12, 13 
Barrett, William, 60, 63, 81, iSo 
Bayne, Martin, 262 
Baynes, T. S., 369 
Beaconslield, Viscountess, 330, 331 
" Bear " (ship), 13 
Becher, .\ldernian Michael, 233 
Beckford, Lord Mayor, 80 
Beddoe, Dr. John, 30S 
Beddoes, Dr. Tnomas, no, iiS, 119, 142, 

2G9, 270, 273-275,278, 279 
Beddoes, Thomas Lovell, 119, 120 
Beddome, Rev. Benjamin, 363 
Beeke, Henry (Dean), 357 
Belzoni, G. H.. 24 
Berkeley, Hon. V. H. F., 329 
Besant, Sir Walter, 193 
Biggs, N., 126 
Bird, Kdward, 209, 210 
Birrell, Right Hon. Augustine, 162, 336, 374 
Black, William, 194, 195 
Blake, William, 54, 224 
Blanket family, 6 
Blatchford, Rev. A. N., 183 
Blore Kdward, 224, 223 
Bone, Henry, 230 
Borrow, George, 167 
Bowdich, T. E., 287, 343 
Bowring, Sir John, 167, 170, 331—333 
Branwhite, Charles, 219, 220 
Branwhite, Nathan, 219 
Brett, J. W, 282, 283 
Brislington, New, 47 

Bright, Dr. Richaid, 295,296 
Bright, Henry, 120 
Centre of intellectual life, 43 
Foundation of her greatness, 3 
Afayor of and John Wesley, 375 
Reformation in, 348 
" Second city in the kingdom," 35 
Wealth and Status of in seventeenth 
cenmry, 19 

Bristol China, 227 — 230 

Bristol Diamonds, 45, 46 

Bristol Milk, 40 

Bristol Museum, 285— 287 

Bristol Red, 349 

Broderip, W. J., 142, 181, 287 

BroMie, Charlotte, 137 

Biooklicld, .Mrs., 148, 149 

Broughton, Loid, 327 

Broughlon, Rev. Thomas, 239 

Brown, T. E., 148 

]{i owning, Robert, 119, 145, 168 

Brunei, I. K., 32, 33, 35 

Buckingham, Duke of, 24 

Buckland, Dr., 287 

Bndd, Dr. William, 173, 294, 295 

Bunyan, John, liis Concordance, 371 

Bnignin, llt-nry, Co 

Bnike, Kdniund, 87,228, 229 323— J27.393 




Burnet, George, loo 

Burney, Fanny, 87, 186 

Burns, Robert, Poem on his death by 

Coleridge, 118 
Bush Inn, igo, 210, 325 
Bushe, Paul (Bishop), 349 
Butler, Joseph (Bishop), 353, 354 
Byron, Lady, 147 
Byron, Lord, 103, 147, 190, 327 

Cabots, The, 7—10 

Cabot Tower, 8 

Cadell, Thomas, 49 

Called Back, 196, 197 

Callender, W. R., 29 

Camden Society, The, 41, 43 

Campbell, Dr. John (quoted), 8 

Campion Court, 192 

Canary Islands, Risks of trading with 

the, 13 
Cann, Sir Robert, 20, 21 
Canning, Elizabeth, 256, 257 
Canning, George, 103, 256, 257 
Canynges, William, 5, 6, 57 
Carlyle, Thomas, 137, 149, 150 
Carpenter, Dr. Lant, 167, 333 
Carpenter, Mary, 147, 394, 395 
Carpenter, P. P., 290 
Carpenter, W. B., 283, 288—290 
Carr, John, 392 
Cary, John, 21, 22 
Castle, Thomas, 170 
Catcott, Rev. A. S., 60, 67, 70, 288, 354 
Catcott, G., 116, 117 
Catcott, G. S., 60, 62, 68, 70 
Cathedral, Bristol, 51, 143, 170 
Cave, Sir Stephen, 329 
Caxton, William, 43,371 
Caxtons, The, 191 

Champion, Richard, 214, 227 — 230, 324 
Charles I. and Colonisation Schemes 

14, 17 
Charlton, Andrew, 17 

Chatterton, Monody on, by Coleridge, 109 
Chatterton, Thomas, 53—84, 251, 300, 355 
Chaucer, Geoffrey (quoted), 42 
Chesney, Dora, 198 
Chesterfield, Earl of, 373 
Child of Bristoici, The, 41 
Child, William, 237 
China, Bristol, 227 — 230 
Church, Dean, 161 
City School, 392 
Clarke, Dr. Adam, 380 
Clarkson, Thomas, 393, 394 
Clayfield, Michael, 67, 68 
Clifton, Celebrities connected with — 

Banks, Sir Joseph, 288 

Barham, Rev. R. H. (" Ingoldsby "), 
164, 165 

Beddoes, Tliomasand T. L., 118, 119 

Black, William, 194, 195 

Bowring, Sir John, 170 

Brown, T. E., 14S 

Burney, Fanny, 186 

Carlyle, Thomas, I49,'I50 

Combe, William, 175 

Crabbe, George, 146 

Davy, Sir Humphry, 118 

De Qiiincey, Thomas, 129 

Dobell, Sydney, 147, 148 

Draper, Mrs. (Sterne's " Eliza"), 143 

Draper, Sir William, 307 — 309 

Edgeworth, Maria, 141, 142 

Elton, C. I., 149 

Elton, Sir Charles, 148 

Elwin, Whitwell, 179 

Goldney, Philip, 311, 312 

Green, Mrs., 254 

Hallani, Henry, 166 

Hesketh, Lady, 143 

Hichens, Robert, 198 

Jowett, Benjamin, 153 

Kingsley, Charles, 187 

Landor, W. S., 133 

Lawrence, Lord John and Sir Henry, 
305 et seq. 

Lean, Vincent Stuckey, 172 

Lee, Harriett and Sophia, 187, 259 

Macaulay, Lord. 93 

Marshall, Mrs. Emma, 197 

Martineau, Harriett, 169 

Maurice, Rev. F. D., 162, 163 

Mitford, Miss Mary, 170 

More, Hannah, 97 

Morris, Judge O'Connor, 173 

Nairne, Lady, 145 

Pearsall, R. L., 239 

Pope, Alexander, 48, 49 

Robinson, Crabb, 170 

Roget, Peter, 118 

Rossetti family, 148 

Ruskin, John, 150 

Sharpies family, 233, 234 

Sortain, Rev. Joseph, 165 

Sterling, John, 149 

Symonds, Dr. and J. A., 151, 152, 293 

Tennyson, Lord Alfred, 147 

Thrale, Mrs. (Piozzi), 149 

Wedgwood, Thomas, 118 

Winkvvorth, Catherine and Susannah, 

Yearsley, Ann, 97 
Cloth Mart, Bristol, 6 
Coalfield, Bristol, Sanders' Map of, 286 
Cobbe, Frances Power, 167 395, 396 
Cole, Thomas, 17 
Coleman, George, 140 
Coleridge, Hartley, no, 129 
Coleridge, Mrs., 124 

Coleridge, S. T., 63, 83, 96, 100—106, 
108 — 118, 120 — 132, 135, 138, 221, 235, 
256, 272, 274—279 
College Street, Lodgings of Coleridge 

and Southey in, 103 
Collins, Samuel, 219 
Colston, Edward, 222, 387 — 390 
Colston, William, 15, 24 
Columbus, 10 
Combe, William, 175 — 177 
Commerce, Bristol, 3 et seq. 
Conscious Lovers, The, 246, 251 
" Constaniine " (shipj, 29 
Consort, The Prince, 35 
Conway, Hugh (F. J. Fargus), 195 — 197 
Cook,T. H., 177, 178 
Cookworthy, William, 227, 228, 230 
Cooper, Samuel, 232 
Cornford, Cope, 198 
Cossham, Handel, 335 
Cote House, Westbury-on-Trym, 112,207 
Cottle, Amos, 103, 127 
Cottle, Joseph, 47, 96, 99, 100, 102 — 104, 

107, 108, 114 — 117, 122, 123, 125, I27j, 

129—132. 134 — 136, 139, 170, 2;6, 278 
"Council for New England, The," :6 
Cowper, William, 143, 205, 373 
Cox, David, 202. 216 
Crabbe, Rev. George, 146 
Cromwell, Oliver, Miniature of, 232 
Crosse, Andrew, 181, 282 
Cross, High, 46 
Cumberland, George, 224 
Cunard, Sir Samuel, 34 
Cunningham, Allan, 135, 209 
Cunningham, Dr. W. (quoted) 10 



Dagge, Abel, 50 

Dampier, William, 26 

Danby, Francis, 212, 213, 217 

Danby, J. F., 213 

Danby, Thos., 213 

Darby, Abraham, 31 

Darby, Mary, 254 — 256 

Dart, Miss, 207 

Davy, Sir Humphry, 112, 118, 125, 126, 

13S, 255, 269 — 280 
Defoe, Daniel, 4, 27, 30, 184, 185 
De Morgan. Augustus, 281, 282 
Denmark, King of, 5 
De Quincey, 96, 114, 124, 129, 130 
Dickens, Charles, 146, 190, 261, 266 
" Discoverer " (ship), 14 
Disraeli, Benjamin, 213, 229, 330 
Dix, W. Chatterton, 170 
Dobell. Sydney, 147, 148 
Dodd. \V. J., 257 
Dover, Dr. Thomas, 2;, 299 
Dowden, Prof. E., 139 
Downs, Clifton, Description of, by W, 

Black, 194, 195 
Doyle, Sir Conan, 198 
Draper, Mrs., 143 
Draper, Sir William, 307 — 309 
Duflerin, Nfarquis of, 8 
"Duke of London " (ship), 28 
" Duke " and " Duchess '' (ships), 26 — 28 
Dyer, George, 127 

"Eagle" (ship), 24 

Eagles, Rev. John, 181, 210, 220, 221, 224 

Eagles, Thomas, 188, 189 

East Lvnne, 192, 193 

Eden, Rev. C. P., 359 

Edgeworth, Anna, 142, 271, 272 

Edgeworth, Maria, 141, 274 

Edward III., Bristol in time of, 4 

Edwards, Amelia B , 193 

Elbridge, Giles, 24 

EUicott, Charles John (Bishop), 356 

Elton, C. I., 149 

Elton, Richard, 316 

Elton, Sir Charles, 148 

Elvey, Sir G. J., 242 

Elwin, Whitwell, 179 

Estlin, Dr. John Prior, 120, 293, 297 

Estlin, John Bishop, 120, 162, 170, 297 

Estlin, Miss, 120, 168, 169 

Etheridge, Robert, 285, 286 

Evans, John, 182 

Evans, William, 218 

Evelina, 186 

Evelyn, John, 44 

Fair, St. James's, 6, 22, 23 

Fall 0/ Robespierre, The, loi, 102 

Falstafl, Sir John, 42 

FarguR, F. J. (Hugh Conway), 195—197 

Farr, Thomas, 324 

Fine Arts Academy, 233, 234 

Finzel, Conrad, 36 

FlaxiTian, John, 206 

Flemish W cavers, 6 

For Faith or Ficeilom, 193 

Forman, II. Buxton, 54, 55 

Forsytli, Capt., 29 

Fosbrooke, William, 264 

Foster, Rev. John, 367 

Fowler, Jolin, 44 

Fox, George, 381 

Freeliiig, Sir Francis, 396, 397 

Freeman, E A., 96 

Freemasons' Hall, 206 

pricker, The Sisters, 102, 104 

" Friend of India" founded, 368 

Friends, Society of, 381, 382 

Fripp, A. D., 216, 217 

Fripp, C. E., 216 

Fripp, G. A., 215, 216 

Frobisher, Martin, 13 

Fry, Albert, 153 

Fry, Dr., 82 

Fry, Francis, 172, 229 

Fuller, Thomas, 12, 19 

Furse, C. W., 225 

Gainsborough, Thomas, 232 

Gardiner, John, 58 

Garrick, David, 8; — 90, 246 — 248, 251 

Gay, John, 251 

George, William, 83 

Gifford, Dr. .Andrew, 232, 364, 370 

Gilbert, Davies, 272, 273 

Giitvra De^li Ahitten, Story 0/ (poem),. 

by J. A. Symcnds, 154 — 161 
Girdlestone, Rev. Edward, 361 
Gladstone, W. E,, 89, 163, 335 
Godwin, E. W., 225, 226 
Godwin, William, 187, 255, 373 
Goldney, Philip, 311, 312 
Goldsmith, Oliver, 222 
Gorges, Sir Ferdiiiando, 14 — 17 
Gosse, Ednmnd, 119 
Gotch, Dr., 370 
Grain, Corney, 241, 242 
Grammar School, Bristol, 11 
Granger, Rev. James, 18 
Gray, Thomas, 51 

" Great Britain " (steamship), 35, 170, 265 
"Great House," Redclifi Street, 6 
"Great House," St. Augustine's Back, 17 
"Great Western" (steamship), 31 — 33, 14& 
Great \\ esiern Railway, Birth of, 31, 32 
Green, Mrs. J. R., (quoted) 5 
Grocyn, William, 43 
Gryffitlis, John, 42 
Guayaquil, 27 
Gulliver's Travels, 185 
Gutch, J. M., 128 
Guy, John, 15 
Guy, Philip, 15 

Hakluyt, Richard, 11, 13, 349, 350 

Hall, Rev. Robert, 191,340, 364, 365 — 367 

Hallam, Arthur, 166 

Hallam, Henry, 166 

Hallam, Miss, 254 

Hancock, Robert, 221 

Handel, G. F., 239 

" Harris, Little Parson,'' 383 

Harris, Rene, 242 

Harrison, Frederick, 153 

Harrisse, Henry, 10 

Hare, Miss, 162 

Haiford, C. J., 23 

Harford, J. S., 172 

Harwood, Philip, 178 

Hazlitt, William, 114, 121, 122 

Henderson, John, 100 

Henley, W. K., 148 

" Hem ictta Maria " (ship), 17 

Henry IV., 4 

Henry \'\l., 7 

Henry VIII., lOj 11, 12 

Herapatli, William, 298, 299 

Herapath, W. B., 299 

Hesketh, I.ady, 143 

Hichens, Robert, 198 

High Cross, 46 

Minds, Samuel (Bishop), 336 

Hintoii, Jolm Howard, 369 



Hippisley, Jane, 254 

Hippisley. John, 253 

Hobhouse family, 327, 328 

Hogarth, William, 208, 209 

Holland, Charles, 252 

Holland, Lady, 35S 

" Honour of Bristol, The " (ballad), 25 

Hooke, Humphrey, 15, 17, 24 

Horton's Illuitrative Gatheytngs, Miss P., 

Hotwells, Described by Pope, 48, 49 
Hotwell Water, Export of, 30 
Houghton, Lord, 151, 197 
Howard, John, 392 
Hudson, Dr. Charles Thomas, 284 
Hume. David, 47 
Humphry Clinker, 185, 186 

Inchbald, E'izabeth, 257 

" Ingoldsby " (Rev. R. H. Barham), 164, 

Ironware, First cast in Bristol, 31 
Irving, Sir Henry, 264 — 266 

Jack's Courtship, 194 

Jackson, Miles, 17 

Jackson, Samuel, 217 

Jackson, S. P., 217, 218 

James I., 16 

James, Capt. Thomas, 17, 18 

Jay, John, H 

Johnson, Dr., 47, 51, 53, 87—89, 149, 248 

Journal of Llewellyn Penrose, Seaman, 

Jowett, Benjamin, 153, 168 
Juan Fernandez, Island of, 26, 185 

Kater, Henry, 280, 281 

Kaye, John (tjishop), 356 

Kemble, Fanny, 249 

Kenyon, John, 144, 145 181, 282 

King, John, 218, 219 

King, Thomas, 254 

Kingsley, Charles, 163, 1S7 

Kingsvveston, 24 

Kington, J. B., 179 

Knibb, William, 369 

Knight, Profe^isor, 113 (note) 

Knight, Rev. W., 151, 187 

Knight, Sir John, 20 

Knowle, John Wesley at, 378, 379 

Lacy, Walter, 265 

Lake, John (Bishop), 351 

Lamb, Charles, 109, 114, 122, 127, 128,149, 

174, 221, 258, 299 
Lamb, Mary, 121 
Lambert, John, 59, 68, 79 
Landor, Walter Savage, 132 — 134, 136, 139, 

145. 148, UQ, 185 
Langland, William, 41 
Lardner, Dr., 33 
Latimer, Hugh, 348, 349 
Latimer, John, 25, 50, 182, 183, 351 
Lawrence, Lord John and Sir Henry, 

Lawrence, Sir Thos., 205, 206, 212, 232, 

248, 249 
Layard, Sir Austen, 340 
Lean, Vincent Stuckey, 172 
Lee, Harriett, 187, 259 
Lee, Mrs. Sarah, 287,288 
Lee, Rev. Samuel, 359, 360 
Lee, Sophia, 239 

Leech, Joseph, 180 

Lee-.Metford Rifle, 318, 319 

Leigh Court pictures, 232 

Lennox, Lady Sarah, 312, 313 
I Leslie, C. R., 130 
i Lewis, Wyndham, 330 
I Library, Centjal, 109, 172, 233 

Library, King Street, 105, 115, 116, 141 

Life of Nelson, by Soutliey, 134 

Lindsay's History of Merchant Shipping 
(quoted), 8 

Lloyd, Charles, iid, hi, 122, 123 

Locke, John, 22, 46 

Lo^an, James Chief Justice, 382 

LoEiijfellow, H. W., 146, 147 

Lonsdale, William, 284, 285 

Lord .Mayoi 's Chapel, 170 

Lovell, Robert, 100 

Lucas, Samuel, 177, 192, 193 

Lydgate, John, 41 

L\rical Ballads, ^7, 94, 114, 123, 124 

Lytton, Lord, 191, 261 

Macaulay, Lord, 21, 91 — 96, 177, 179 

Macaulay, Selina, 91, 92 

Macaulay, Zacchary, 92 

Mackintosh, Sir James, 365, 36G 

Macklin, Charles, 249, 250 

Macready, W. C, 260, 261 

Maddox, Mr., 23 

Madrigal Society, Bristol, 239 — 240 

Maine (New England), 17 

Malmesbury, William of, 4 

Malpas, Thomas, 84 

Manilla Hail, 307, 30S 

Mansel, W. Lort ( i.ishop), 35"; 

Marat, Jean Paul, 336 

Marlborough, Duchess of, 352 

Marriott, Charles, 198 

Marshall, Emma, 197 

Marshman, Dr. Joshua, 368 

Martineau, Dr. James, 120, 167 — 169, 394 

Martineau, Harriett, 169 

" Mary of Guildford" (ship), 11 

Mason, A. E. W., 198 

Mason, William, 51 

Mathews, E. R. Norris, 115 

" Matthew" (ship), 7 

Matthew, Tobias (.Archbishop), 349 

Maurice, Rev. F. D., 162 — 164, 174 

May, John, 279 

Mayor's Kalemiar, 43 

McAdam, John Loudon, 3^7 

Merchant Venturers' Society, 16, 24 

Metford, William Ellis, 318, 319 

Millar, Andrew, 49 

Miller, Michael, 47 

Milles, Dean, 63, 67 

Mills, Selina, 91 — 93 

Milton, John, Parailise Lost, 371 

Mitford, Mary, 86, 170 

Monk, J. H. (Bishop), 94, 360 

Montagu, Mis., 87 

Moore, Thomss, 358 

More, Hannah, 85 — 98, 130, 173, 247, 248, 

252, 324, 325 
Morgans, Friends of Coleridge, 132 
Moriey, Samuel, 330, 382 
Monnuti Chronicle, no 
Morocco, Trade with, 12 
Morris, Judge O'Connor, 173, 174, 295 
Moseley, Rev. Henry, 360 
Mtiller, George, 36, 398, 399, 400 
Miiller, J. S., 286 

Miiller, W. J., 201—205, 216, 220, 357 
Murchison, Sir Roderick, 285 
Museum, Bristol, 285 — 287 
Myrrour of Dames, The, 43 



Nairne, Lady, 145 

Napier, Col. George, 312, 313 

Narraway, Mr., 207 

Nasmyth, James, 34 

Nelson. Lord, 207, 318 

New England, 13 — 18 

Newfoundland, 7, 15, 16 

Newgate, 376, 392 

Newman, Francis, 174 

New Testament, Tyndale's rare transla- 
tion, 34S, 370 

Newton, Mrs. (sister of Chatterton), 136 

Newton, Thomas (Bishop), 355 

Xicholis Gate, St., Wesley's adventure 
at, 376 

Nicholls, J. F., 182 

Nineveh Marbles in Art Gallery, 233 

Noble, John, 324 

Norris,John Pilkington(.\rchdeacon), 361 

North, Christopher, 124 

North, Dudley, 20, 21 

North, Roger, 21 

North-West Passage, 10, 11, 13, 17 

Norton, Tliomas, 4G 

Norton, William, 43 

Nott, Dr. John, 299 

Osborn, Sir George, 141 

Paganini, 242 

Pantisocratic scheme, too, loi 

Pasqualigo, Lorenzo, 9 

Pass, A. C, 84 

Paterson, William, 19 

Patterson, William, 33, 35 

Pearsall, Robert Lucas, 239, 240 

Pebody, Charles, 180 

Pembroke, Earl of, Picture of, 231 

Penn, Admiral Sir William, 316, 317 

Penn, William, 381, 382 

Penrose. Llcn'cltyn, Journal of , 188—190 

Pepys, Samuel, 45, 46, 237 

" Perdita," 86, 2';4— 256 

Pether, William, 221, 222 

Peto, Sir S. M., 334 

Phillips, Henrv, 240, 241 

Philli|)s. J. O. ilalliwell, 246, 369 

Phillijis, Thos., 59, 63 

Phillips, W. L., 241 
Pickhick Papers, The, 190, 191 
Piers Plo-LL'man, 41 

Pinney, John, 113 

Piozzi, Mrs., 149 

Pirate, The, 186 

Pitt, William (Earl of Chatham), 308, 309 

Pitt, William (Jr.), 176, 314, 367 

PlinisoU, Samuel, 36 

Pneumatic Institute, 118, 269 — 280 

Pocock, Isaac, 215, 259 

Pocock. Nicholas, 214, 215 

Poe, Edgar Allan, 139, 188 

Ponton, Mungo, 231 

Poole, Paul Falconer, 2jo, 211 

Poole, Thomas, 109, iii, 117 

Poor Law Union, IJristol, 22 

Pope, Alexander, 47—49 

Pophain, Lord Chief Justice, 14 

Porter, Dr. W. O., 223 

Porter, Jane, 186 

Porter, Sir Robert Ker, 222—224 

Powell, William, 251, 252 

Prichard, Dr. James Cowlcs, 151, 162, 
292, 293 

Priestley, Joseph, 274, 275 

" Prince Frederick " (sliip), 28 

Pring, Martin, 13—15 

Pritchard, Mrs., 254 

Privateering, 24 — 29 

Prout, J. S., 220 

Pryce, George, 182 

Punch's lines on Mary Carpenter, 395 

Purchas's Pilgrims, quoted, 13 

Purvey, John, 348 

Pusey, Dr. E. B., 360 

Pyne, J. B., 201, 213, 214 

Quakers, 381, 382 

Quantocks, The, 113 

Queen Elizabeth's Hospital (City School), 

Quick, John, 257 
Quiller-Couch, A. T., 194 
Quin, James, 250, 253 

" Ragged Staff " (ship), 13 
Railway, Great Western, 31, 32 
Ram-Mohun Roy, Rajah, 396, 398 
Rawlinson, Sir Henry, 233, 301, 339, 340 
Redcliff Church, 6, 8, 56, 104, 170, 194 
Red Lodge, Purchased by Lady Byron, 

Red Maids School, Founder of, 391 
Redmond, Thomas, 219 
Redwood, Robert, 349 
Reed, Alfred, 242 
Reed, Mrs. German, 241, 242 
Reed, Thomas German, 241 
Reynolds, Richard, 31, 390 
Reynolds, Sir Joshua, 87, 205, 21;, 22if 

232, 313 
Ricart, Robert, 43 
Rich, Claudius James, 340, 341 
Richard the KedcUss. 41 
Rignold, William, 264 
Riots, Bristol, 146, 161, 187, 188 
Roberts, Lord, 313 
Roberts, Sir Abraham, 313 
Robinson, Crabb, 145, 170, 176 
Robinson Crusoe, 27, 46, 185 
Robinson, John (Bishop), 351 
Robinson, Mary, 86, 254—256 
Rodney Stone, lyS 
Rogers, Capt. Woodes, 26—28, 185 
Roget, Dr. Peter, 118 
Romilly, Sir Samuel, 336 
Rossetti, Danle Gabriel, 148 
Rowley Poems, 63—67 
Rummer Tavern, 108 
Ruskin, John, 150, 151 
Russell, Clark, 194 
Ryland, John, 364 
Ryland, Jonathan Edwards, 365 
Ryland, Rev. John Collett, 363, 364 

St. James's I'air, G, 22, 23 

St. Peter s Church, 50 

Saintsbury, George, 119 

" Samson " (ship), 11 

Sanders, William, 286 

Savage, Richarti, 50, 238 

Scott, Hell, 211 

Scott, Sir Waiter, 138, 186, 209, 225, 331 

Sea lights, 25, 29 

" Sea Forest House," 15 

Seeker, Thomas (Archbishop), 352 

Sedgwick, Amy, 264 

Selkirk, Alexander, 27, iHi 

Seyer, Kev. Samuel, 144, 180, iHi, 222 

Shakespeare, William, 245 

Sharpies, Mrs. F:llen. 233, 231 

Shelley, P. B., 137. M5 

Shepstone, Sir Thcophilup, 313 

Sheridan, R. I!., 259, 260 



She Stoops to Conquer, 252 

Shirelianipton, 43 

Shoe Lane Workhouse, 82 

Siddons, Sarah, 96, 205, 245, 248, 249 

Simmons, John, 208 

Slave Trade, 26 

Smalridne, George (Bishop), 46, 352 

Smith, James Greig, 301 

Smith, Joseph, 229, 324 

Smith, Rev. Sydney, 221, 357, 358 

Smith, Richard, 300 

Smith, VV. T., 301 

Soap Manufacture in Bristol, 19 

Sortain, Rev. Joseph, 165, 166 

Southey, Dr. H. H., 296, 297 

Southey,- Robert, 96, too— 105, 107, in— 
113, 115, :i7, n8, 125, 131— 139, 145, 147, 
148, 221, 272, 274, 276, 279, 354, 377 

Spanish Armada, The (quoted), 94, 95 

" Speedwell " (ship), 14 

Splendid Spur, The, 194 

Spycer's Hall, Welsh Back, 5 

Stanley, Dean, 307 

Stationers' Company, 43, 50 

Stephen, Sir Leslie, 187 

Sterling, John, 149 --151, 162 

Stevenson. R. L., 138, 153, igi, 192 

Stokes, Sir George, 282 

Stradling, Sir John, 44 

Stiaiii^e Adventures of a House-boat, 
Downs described in, 194, 195 

Stuart, Sir John (Count of Maida), 316 

Sturmy, Robert, 5 

Sugar Trade, 29, 44 

Sullivan, Barry, 262, 263 

Suspension Bridge, Clifton, 32 

Swete, Dr., 161 

Swinburne, A. C, 120 

Swinburne, Henry, 341 

Syer, John, 225 

Symonds, Dr. John Addington, 151, 293 

Symonds, John Addington, 138, 151 — 161 

Tarleton, Colonel, 255 

Taylor, John (historian), S3, 1S2 

Taylor, John (publisher), 46 

Tennyson, Alfred, Lord, 123, 147, 163, 

164, 166, 168, 261, 305, 396 
Tennyson, Frederick, 147 
Thackeray, W. M., 138, 165, 166, 208, 209, 

Thelwall, John, no 
Thistlethwaite, James, 63 
Thomas, J. Havard, 330 
Thomas, j\Irs. Herbert, 207 
Thomas, Rev. Urijah Rees, 383, 384 
Thomas, William (Bishop), 350 
Thornbury, G. VV., 178, 179 
Thorne, Nicholas, 11, I2 
Thorne, Robert, 10 — 12 
Thornhill, William, 298 
Thwaites, G. H. K., 2S3, 284 
Times, The, 134, 149, 176, 177, 178, 193 
Tintern: Lines -..critten rtiore, by Words- 
worth, 123 
Tobacco Trade, Bristol, 20 
Tobin, George, 317, 318 
Tobin, James, 124 
Tobin, John, 258, 272, 274 
Towgood, Richard, 350 
" Tracts for the Times," 359 
Treasure Island, igi, 192 
Treiawney, Jonathan (Bishop), 350 
Trollope, Frances, 1S8 
Tucker, Josiah (Dean), 355 
Tuckerman, Joseph, 391. 
Turner, J. M. VV., 207 

Turner, Thomas, 298 

Tyndale, William, 348, 370 

Tyndale, William (copy of his New 

Testament), 172, 370 
Tyndall, John, 294, 295 

University College, Bristol, 153, 171 
Utrecht, Treaty of, 352 

Vandyke, Peter, 221 
Vandyke, Sir Anthony, 231 
Vaughan, Dr. Robert, 382 
" Victoire " (ship), 29 
Virginia, 13—16 

Wade, Josiah, 130, 131 
Walker, Sir C. P. B., 310 
Walpole, Horace, 61, 62, 8g 
Warburton, William (Bishop), 354 
Watchman, The, Publication of, 103, 108, 

Watt, Gregory, 270 
Watts, Dr. Isaac, 51 
Watts-Dunton, Theodore, S3 
Waverley Novels, 187 
Weare, G. E. (note), 323 
Weatherly, F. E., 265 
Wedgwood, Josiah (The Potter), 228 
Wedgwood, The Brothers, 112, 118, iig, 

122, 270, 274 
Wellington, Duke of, 315, 316, 397 
Wesley, Charles, 51, 23S, 378, 379, 380 
Wesley, Charles (jun.), 238, 239 
Wesley, John, 238, 353, 373—379 
Wesley, Samuel, 238 
Westbury-on-Trym, in, 112, 193 
Westbury-on-Trym, College of, 6, 42 
Whately, Richard (Archbishop), 356 
"What shadows we are, and what 

shadows we pursue," origin of, 327 
Whistler, J. A. McNeill, 226, 266 
White, Dr. Thomas, 392 
White, Kirke, 136 
" White Lion" Inn, 166, 205 
White, Sir George, 84 
Whitelield, George, 371 — 373, 375 
Whitehead, William, 254 
Whitson, Alderman John, 14, 391 
Whittingham, Sir S^mford, 313—315 
Wilberforce, William, 172 
Willis, H. Brittan, 214 
Wine Trade, Bristol, 29 
Winkworth, Catherine, 171 
Winkvvorth, Susannah, 171 
Winterstoke, Lord, 231 
Wood, Anthony (quoted), 44 
Worboise, E. J., Iy2 
Wordsworth, Dorothy, 114, 115, 123, 124, 

Wordsworth, William, 114, 115, 122 — 126, 

221, 277 
Wraxall, Sir Nathaniel, 140, 141 
Wulfstan, Bishop, 347 
Wycliff, John, 348 
Wyrcestre (Botoner), William, 42 

Yarranton, Andrew, ig 

Yea, L. W. G., 309, 310 

Yearsley, Ann, 96, 97, 142 

Young, Sarah (mother of Chatterton), 84 

Young, Thomas, 43 

Zangwill, Israel, igS 

Zion College, London, Founder of, 392 




Dictionary of Bristol. 

Demy 8vo. 456 pp. 

Gilt Top. Price 5/- net. 


J. W. ARKOWSMITH, ii Quay SiKiiET.