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BRITANNICA 
BOOK OF THE YEAR 

1950 



" ' " 







BRITANNICA 
BOOK OF THE YEAR 



1950 



ENCYCLOP/EDFA BRITANNICA, LTD. 
102 DEAN STREET, SOHO SQUARE, LONDON, W.I 



PREFACE 

WITH this volume of the Britannica Book of the Yatriht story of the 
'40s is brought to its close. For the second decade in the lifetimes of 
many men and women the world, and Europe more than the other 
continents, is climbing back to peacetime economy after a holocaust. In this 
one respect the record for 1949 is almost an encouraging one. Many articles 
in the Book of the Year speak of industrial and business effort made and 
rewarded: indeed, if more and more production were the complete answer to 
20th century difficulties man, in spite of some shortage of food, would have 
little to fear. But other articles in the Book of the Year tell of the less successful 
struggle to promote peace. Ideologically the world is divided into factions, 
clear cut as never before, and as yet there is no sign that the two sides are 
approaching a new and lasting understanding. Fortunately it is not the job 
of the Book of the Year to prophesy. Its only endeavour is to record happenings 
and, as faithfully as possible, the statements of those whose opinions and 
actions shape contemporary history. 

The Britannica Book of the Year 1950 contains a number of new entries. 
Included among them are COUNCIL OF EUROPE, NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY 
and MACEDONIAN PROBLEM. This year attention is especially drawn to these, 
as it is to the presentation of the long statistical sections at the close of the 
articles on France, Germany, Great Britain, the United States and the 
U.S.S.R. All national articles end with statistical summaries but these, for 
their outstanding importance, are exceptionally full. 

To the other new titles it is impossible to draw particular attention, unless 
exception is made for the charmingly written entry on COUNTRY LIFE. But 
all the 752 titles have the same purpose, accurately to report and interestingly 
to describe the events of 1949: it is the earnest hope of their 492 British, 
American and European authors that they in fact do so. 

JOHN ARMITAGE 

London Editor. 



COPYRIGHT Bfj 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA, LTD, 
LONDON, 1950 



PRINTED AND BOUND BY 

KNIOHT & FORSTER* LID. 

LEEDS 



EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS 

WALTER YUST, Editor-in-chief of Encyclopaedia Britannica 
JOHN ARMiTAGE, London Editor 

(Initials and names of contributors to the Britannica Book of the Year with the 
principal articles written by them. The arrangement is alphabetical by initials.) 



A.A.P. Greece 

ALEXANDER ALEXANDROU PALLIS, B.A. Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary attached to the Greek Embassy; Director, Greek Office of 
Information, London. Author of Greece's Anatolian Venture 
and After ; etc. 

A.B.C. Baseball 

ALBERT B. CHANDLER. U.S. Baseball Commissioner. 

A.Blr. Scandinavian Literature 

ALAN LEIGH BLAIR. Translator and writer on Scandinavian 
literature. 

A.C.Ch. X-Ray and Radiology 

ARTHUR C. CHRISTIE, M D Chief, Department of Radiology, 
Doctors Hospital Medical Centre, Washington, D.C. 

A.Ck. English Literature (in part) 

ARTHUR CROOK. Literary critic, London. 

A.Da. Football (in part) 

ALLISON DANZIG. Member of sports staff, The New York Times, 
New York. Author of The Racquet Game\ etc. - 

A.D.Ls. Entomology 

ANTHONY DAVID LEES, M.A , Ph D. Senior Scientific Officer, 
Agricultural Research Council, Unit of Insect Physiology, Great 
Britain. 

A.Dr. Textile Industry (in part) 

ALFRED DAWBER, Mem Text. Inst. Editor of Textile Manufac- 
turer, Manchester. Compiler of Textile Manufacturer Year Book ; etc. 

Ae. Rackets; Tennis 

LORD ABERDARE. Chairman, National Association of Boys 
Clubs. Former rackets and tennis amateur champion of Britain, 
U.S. and Canada. Author of First Steps to Rackets (with E. B Noel). 

A.E.Sh. Chemotherapy 

AUSTIN E. SMITH. Editor, The Journal of the American Medical 
Association. Author of Techntc of Medication, etc. 

A.G.B. Dyesruffs (in part) 

ANSCO G. BRUINIER, Jr. Technical Advertising Manager, 
Dyestuflfs Division, Organic Chemicals Department, E I. du Pont de 
Nemours & Company, Inc., Wilmington, Delaware. 

A.G.L.I. Hospitals (in part); Nursing 

A. G. L. IVES, M.V.O., M.A. Secretary, King Edward's Hospital 
Fund for London. Author of British Hospitals. 

A G Ne Munitions of War (in part) 

'A'. G. NOBLE. Rear Admiral, U.S N. Chief of the Bureau of 
Ordnance, Department of the Navy, Washington, D.C. 

A.G.S. Insurance (in part) 

ANTONE G. SINGSEN. Assistant Director, Blue Cross Com- 
mission, American Hospital Association. 

A H Ha Venereal Diseases (in part) 

'ARTHUR HERBERT HARKNESS. M.R.C.S L.R.C.P. Director 

Endell Street Clinic, St Peter's and St. Paul's Hospitals, Institute of 
Urology, London University. 
A H Ld Forestry (in part) 

'ARTHUR HENRY LLOYD, O.B.E., M c.. T.D., M.A. Lecturer 

in Forestry, University of Oxford. Author of Engineering for forest 
Rangers. 

A.H.Md. Betting and Gambling (in part) ; Contract Bridge (in part) 

ALBERT H. MOREHEAD. Bridge Editor, The New York Times 
Author of The Modern Hoyle; editor, The Official Rules of Card 
Games. 



A.J.Ar. Industrial Health (in part) 

ARTHUR JOSEPH AMOR, M.D., M.Sc., D.I.I I. Principal Medical 
Officer Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd. Author of An X-Ray 
Ada oj Silicosis; The Chemical Aspects of Sihcosis. 

A. J.Hy. Advertising (in part) 

ARTHUR JAMES HEIGH WAY. Editor, World's Press News. 
London. 

A.J.Li. Spirits (in part) 

ALFRED J. LIEBMANN. President, Schenley Research Institute, 

New York. 

A.J.Mac. Anglican Communion; Church of England, etc. 

ALAN JOHN MACDONALD, D.D., F.S.A. Rural Dean of the 
City of London and Rector of St. Dunstan's-m-the-West. Author 
of Lanfranc, His Life, Work and Destiny. Hildebrand; etc. 

A.J.P. Rifle Shooting 

ARTHUR JOHN PALMER. Secretary, National Small-bore Rifle 
Association and Editor, The Rifleman, Richmond, Surrey. 

A.Kk. Printing (in part) 

ALBERT KIRK. Technical Secretary, British Federation of Master 
Printers. 

A.L.HI. Dance (in part) 

ARNOLD LIONEL HASKELL, M.A. Director/Principal, Sadler's 
Wells School, London ; Vice President and Chairman of the Education 
Committee of the Royal Academy of Dancing; Joint Director of 
the Teachers' Training Course, and Chairman of the Ballet Benevo- 
lent Fund. Author of Balletomania; Diaghileff; etc. 

A.L.S. ^ Wines (in part) 

ANDRfi-LOUIS SIMON. President, Wine and Food Society, 
London. Author of yintagewise; A Wine Primer; A Dictionary of 
Gastronomy; etc. 



Stocks and Shares (in pan) 

Chief Market Editor, Financial Times, 



A.L.W.S. 

A. L. W. SHILLADY. 
London. 

A.M.Ds. Local Government (in part) 

AUDREY M. DAVIES. Librarian, Institute of Public Administra- 
tion, New York, N.Y. 

A.Mjd. Islam 

ABDUL MAJID, M.A. Iman of the Mosque, Wokmg. Editor, 
Islamic Review, Wokmg, Surrey. 

A.Mu. Dance (In part) 

ARTHUR MURRAY. President, National Institute of Social 
Dancing. Author of How to Become a Good Dancer; Modern Dancing; 
etc. 



International Monetary Fund 

Deputy Managing Director, International 



AJSf.O. 

A. N. OVERBY. 
Monetary Fund. 

A.Nr. Painting (in pan) 

ALFRED NEU MEYER. Director, Print Room, Public Library, 

San Francisco, California. Professor of Art History, Mills College, 
Oakland, California. 

A.Pe. Congregational Churches 

ALBERT PEEL, M.A., Litt.D. Late Editor, Congregational Monthly 
and Transactions of the Congregational Historical Society, London. 
Author of The Congregational Two Hundred; Inevitable Congrega- 
tionalism; etc. 



A.JA 



Social Security 



A.J. ALTMEYER. Commissioner, Federal Security Agency, 
Social Security Administration, Washington, D.C. 



Chambers of Commerce (in part) 
ARTHUR RICHARD KNOWLES, O.B.E., F.C.I.S. Secretary- 
General, The Association of British Chambers of Commerce, London. 



Vlll 



CONTRIBUTORS 



A.S.A. Telegraphy (in part) 

SIR ARTHUR STANLEY ANGWIN, K.B.E., D.S O., M C., 

T.D., M.I.C.E., M.I.E.E., B.Sc. (Eng.). Chairman, Cable and 
Wireless, Ltd., London. 

A.Sdn. Shops and Department Stores 

ARTHUR SELDON, B.Com. Consulting Editor, Store, Magazine 

of Merchandising, London. 
A.Stn. Exchange Control and Exchange Rates 

ALEXANDER STEVENSON Senior Economist, International 

Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Author of The Common 

Interest in International Economic Organization 
A.T.C1. New Zealand, Dominion of 

ARTHUR TREVOR CAMPBELL, M.A. Public Relations Officer, 

New Zealand Government, London. 
A.T.Me. Historical Research 

ALEXANDER TAYLOR MILNE, M A., F.R.Hist S Secretary 

and Librarian, Institute of Historical Research, University of London. 

Compiler of Writings on British History (in progress). 
A.Ws. Fashion and Dress (in part) 

AUDREY WITHERS, B.A. Editor, Vogue, London. 
B.Dr. Art Sales (in part} 

BERNARD DENVIR, B.A. Art critic, Tribune and Daily Herald, 

London, Joint Editor, Art News and Review. Author of Drawings 

of William Hogarth; etc. 
B.Fy. Machinery and Machine Tools (in part) 

BURNHAM FINNEY. Editor, American Machinist, New York, 

N.Y. 
B.H.P. Geology (in part) 

BEN H. PARKER. President, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, 

Colorado. 
B.J.W. Dentistry 

BRYAN JARDINE WOOD, F.D.S.R.C S. Editor, British Dental 

Journal, London. 
B.L. Timber (in part) 

BRYAN LATHAM. Past President, Timber Trade Federation of 

the United Kingdom; Member of Timber Advisory Committee to 

Board of Trade, London. 
B.L.B. Immigration and Emigration (in part) 

BERTHA LILIAN BRACEY, O.B E., B A. Women's Affairs 

Officer for Schleswig-Holstem, Control Commission for Germany 

(British Element). 
B.PI. Girl Guides (in part) 

OLAVE ST. CLAIR, LADY BADEN POWELL, G.B.E. World 

Chief Guide. Author of Opening Doorways. 
B.R.P. Thailand (Siam); etc. 

BERTIE REGINALD PEARN, M.A, F.R Hist S. Formerly 

Professor of History, University of Rangoon. Author of History of 

Rangoon. 

Br.S. Crime (in part) ; Police (in part) 

BRUCE SMITH. Secretary, Institute of Public Administration, 
New York. Author of Police Systems in the U.S.; Rural Crime 
Control. 

B.Sk. Gliding (in part) 

BEN SHUPACK, B.S , M A. Director, Soaring Society of America. 

B.W.C. Swimming (in part) 

BERTRAM WILLIAM CUMMINS. Hon. Publicity Secretary and 
Past President, Amateur Swimming Association. Founder and Hon. 
Editor, Swimming Times, Croydon, Surrey. 

C.A.Bn. Plastics Industry (in part) 

CHARLES A. BRESKIN. Publisher, Modern Plastics, New York, 

N.Y. 

C.A.Br. Australian Literature 

CLIFFORD AMANDUS BURMESTER, B.A Librarian, Office 
of the High Commissioner of Australia in London. Liaison Officer 
of the Commonwealth National Library, Canberra, Australia. 

C.A.J. French Union; etc. 

CHARLES-ANDRf: JULIEN. Professor of the history of coloniza- 
tion at the Sorbonne, Pans Author of Histoire de V 'Afnque du Nord; 
Htstotre de ^expansion et de la colonisation fran$aises (vol. 1, 1948). 

C.A.Mo. Meat (in part) 

CECIL ALFRED MORRISON. Advertising Manager and Assistant 
Editor, Meat Traders' Journal, London. 

C.A.Sd. Leather (in part); Shoe Industry (in part) 

CALVIN ADAMS SHEPARD. Editor, Shoe and Leather News, 
London. 

C.A.T. Spices 

C. A THAYER. Former President and Former Director, American 
Spice Trade Association. 

C.B.E. Archery 

CHARLES BERTRAM EDWARDS. Secretary, Grand National 
Archery Society and of the Royal Toxophilite Society, Great Britain. 

C.Bt. Golf (in part) 

CHARLES BARTLETT. Golf Editor, Chicago Tribune, Chicago, 
Illinois. Secretary, Golf Writers' Association of America. 

C.Bu. Sculpture (in part) 

CARLYLE BURROWS, B.A. Art Editor, New York Herald 
Tribune, New York, N.Y. 



C.C.N.V. Physiology 

CHARLES CYRIL NORROY VASS, M Sc., Ph.D., M B , Ch.B. 
Reader in Physiology in the University of London at St. Thomas's 
Hospital Medical School, London. Part author of Synopsis of 
Physiology (4th ed.). 

C.C.Ws. Consumer Credit (in part) 

CHARLES COWLEY WORTERS, F.I.C.S. Secretary, The Hire 
Purchase Trade Association and of the International Association for 
Protection and Promotion of Trade, Ltd., London; Member of 
Council of the Institute of Credit Management, London. 

C.Cy. Canadian Literature 

CHARLES CLAY. Director, Canadian Research and Editorial 
Institute, Ottawa, Ontario. Author of Young Voyageur; Muskrat 
Man; etc. 

C.D.Hu. Chemistry 

CHARLES D. HURD, Sc D., Ph.D. Morrison Professor of 
Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. 

C.E.A..T. Newfoundland and Labrador 

CHARLES E. A. JEFFERY, M.B El. Editor, Evening Telegram, 
St John's, Newfoundland; Correspondent, The Times, London. 

C.E.L.-Q. Lutherans 

CARL E. LUND-QUIST, B.D. Assistant Executive Director, 
National Lutheran Council. Editor, National Lutheran. 

C.E.R. Forestry (in part) 

CHARLES EDGAR RANDALL, A.B., M A. Information Special- 
ist, Division of Information and Education, Forest Service, U.S. 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D C. Author of Our 
Forests; etc. 

C.K.R.S. Railways (In part} 

CHARLES ELY ROSE SHERRINGTON, M.A. Secretary, Railway 
Research Service, British Railways. Author of Economics of Rail 
Transport in Great Britain; etc. 

C.F.Dn. Clothing Industry (in part); Iron and Steel (in part); etc. 

CYRIL FRANK DUNN. Industrial Correspondent, Observer, 
London. 

C.F.Sz. National Income (in part); Wealth and Income, Distribution, of 
CHARLES F. SCHWARTZ, B.A., MA, Ph.D. Chief, Income 
Section, National Income Division, Office of Business Economics, 
U.S Dept. of Commerce, Washington, D C. 

C.G.Fe. Chambers of Commerce (in part) 

CECIL GEORGE FREKE, C.t E , M.A., B.Sc Director, British 
National Committee, International Chamber of Commerce. 

C.G.My. Poultry 

CLARENCE GEORGE MAY. Editor, Poultry World. Author of 
Natural Hatching and Rearing; Bantams for Eggs. 

C.H.Bd. Leprosy 

C. H. BINFORD, M.D. Medical Director, U.S. Public Health 

Service, Chief of Pathology Service, U.S Marine Hospital, Balti- 
more, Maryland. 

C.H.Br. Roads (in part) 

SIR CHARLES HERBERT BRESSEY, C.B , C.B E., D.Sc. 

Chartered Surveyor and Town planner; Principal Technical Officer, 
British Ministry of Transport, 1928-35. 

C.H.Bu. Machinery and Machine Tools (in part) 

CHARLES HENRY BURDER, M B.E , B.A. Acting Editor, 
Machinery, London 

Ch.F. Cambridge University 

CHARLES FOX, M.A. Sometime Director of Training in the 
University of Cambridge. Author of Educational Psychology; etc. 

Ch.Fl. Motor Racing (in part) 

CHARLES FOTHERGILL Motoring Correspondent, News 

Chronicle, London. Author of The Story of Grand Prix Motor 
Racing. 

C.H.G.T. Banking (In part); Bank of England; etc. 

C. GORDON TETHFR. Deputy City Editor, Financial Times. 
London. 

C.Ho. Arabia; etc. 

HUGH CHRISTOPHER HOLME, B A. Chief Assistant, Third 
Programme, British Broadcasting Corporation, London 

C.L.B. Psychology (in part) 

SIR CYRIL LODOWIC BURT, M.A., D.Sc., D.Litt., LL.D. 
Fellow, Jesus College, Oxford. Professor of Psychology, University 
of London. Author of The Factors of the Mind; etc. 

C.L.Bt. Rowing (In part) 

C. LEVERICH BRETT, B.A. Editor, National Association of 
Amateur Oarsmen Rowing News. 

C.L.deB. Fencing (in part) 

CHARLES-LOUIS de BEAUMONT, M.A. Membre d^Honneur 
de la Federation Internationale d'Escrimc. Hon. Secretary, Amateur 
Fencing Association, London. Author of Modern British Fencing. 

C.L.V.M. Architecture (in part) 

CARROLL L. V MEEKS, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Architec- 
ture and of the History of Art, Yale University, New Haven, Con- 
necticut. President, Society of Architectural Historians. 

C.McG. Cuba; Haiti; etc. 

CONSTANTINE EDWARD McGUIRE. Economic Adviser. 
Author of Italy's International Economic Position; etc. 



CONTRIBUTORS 



IX 



C.M.Ky. Gynaecology and Obstetrics 

C. MEAVE KENNY, M.D., F.R C.O G. University Reader in 
Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Postgraduate Medical School, Univer- 
sity of London. 

C.Mn. Shipbuilding (in part); etc. 

CUTHBERT MAUGHAN. Shipping Correspondent, The Times, 
London. Author of Commodity Market Terms; Our Mercantile 
Marine; etc. 

C.M.Pn. Industrial Health (in part) 

CARL M. PETERSON, M.D. Secretary, Council on Industrial 
Health, American Medical Association. 

C.M.R. Girl Guides (in part) 

CONSTANCE M. RITTENHOUSE (Mrs. Paul Rittenhouse) 
National Director, Girl Scouts of the United States of America. 

C.M.WI. Liberia. 

CHARLES MORROW WILSON. Economist, Caribbean Affairs, 
West African AfTdirs. Director, American Foundation for Tropical 
Medicine. Director, Libcrian institute. Author of Oil Across the 
World, Liberia; etc. 

C.R.A. Marriage and Divorce 

CLIFFORD R. ADAMS, MA, Ph D Professor of Psychology 
in Charge of Marriage Counselling for the School of Education, 
Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pennsylvania Regional 
Consultant, American Institute of Family Relations Author of 
Looking Ahead to Marriage. 

C.T.D. Air Forces of the World dn part) 

CALVIN T DURGIN Vice Admiral, U S N Deputy Chief of 
Naval Operations (Air), Department of the Navy, Washington, D C 

C.W.S. Motor Transport (in part) 

CARL W. STOCKS, B S. Edi'or Emeritus, Bus Transportation, 
New York 

D.A.C. Women's Activities 

DOROTHY A. CANNLLL. Writer and Editor, London 

D.A.G.R. Building and Construction Industry (in part) 

DONAL D A G. REID, B Sc (bng ), A.M I C L , AMI Struct L 
Principal, London County Council Bnxton School of Building 

D.A.Sn. Berlin; Germany (in part); etc. 

DERRICK ADOLPHUS SINGTON, BA Press Control Officer, 
Control Commission for Germany. Author of Behen Uncovered; 
etc. 

D.B.S. Bridges (in part) 

DAVID BARNARD STEINMAN, A.M, CE, Sc D , Ph.D , 
F R S A Civil Engineer Author of A Practical Treatise on Suspension 
Bridges, The Builder? of the Bridge. 

D.C.II.J. Libraries (in part) 

DhNIS CLIFFORD HENRIK JONES, FLA. Librarian, Library 
Association, London. 

D.D.C. Children's Books (in part) 

DORIS DAVIES CHILCOT, F L.A Principal Assistant in Charge 
of Work with Young People, Islington Public Libraries, London 

D.Dz Atomic Energy (in part) 

DAVID DIETZ. Science Editor, Scripps-Howard Ncwspapeis 
Lecturer in General Science, Western Reserve University, Cleveland, 
Ohio. Author of Atomic Energy in the Coming Era, etc. 

D.F.K. Israel; etc. 

DAVID FRANCIS KESSLER, B A. Managing Dnector, Jewish 
Chronicle, London. 

D.F.Ky. Angling 

DONOVAN FRANK KELLEY. 

D.G.B. Sugar (in part) 

DAVID GRAHAM BURNS, B A. Member of the stafT, Common- 
wealth Economic Committee, London. 

D.G.Wo. Textile Industry (in part) 

'DOUGLAS G. WOOLF. Former Editor in Chief, Textile World, 
Textile Consultant and Publisher, East Pasadena Herald, Pasadena, 
California. 

D.Hn. Newspapers and Maga/ines (in part) 

'DE'REK HUDSON, M A. Literary Editor, Spectator Author of 
Thomas Barnes of "The Times"; British Journalists and News- 
papers', etc. 

njC Spirits (in part) 

'DENYS IRVINE COOMBER, B.SC, AR.I.C, PhD senior 

Scientific Officer, Government Chemists' Department, London. 
j) j ft Wages and Hours (in part) 

*DONALD J HART, M A. Associate Professor of Economics, 

Carroll College, Waukesha, Wisconsin 

D Me Scotland 

'SIR DAVID MILNE, K.C.B., M A. Permanent Undcr-Secretary of 

State for Scotland. 

j) M f Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats (in part) 

'DONALD MARK TAILBY, B.A Economic Assistant, Common- 
wealth Economic Committee, London. 
n N * Societies, Learned and Professional 

DAVID NICOLL LOWE, O B E., M.A , B Sc. Secretary, British 

Association for the Advancement of Science. 
n Vn London 

LADY DOROTHY NICHOLSON, M.A, M B.E. Author of 

The Londoner; etc. 



D.R.G. Football (in part) 

DAVID ROBERT GENT. Rugbv Correspondent, Sunday Times, 
London 

D.R.Gi. France 

DARSIE RUTHERFORD GILLIE Legion of Honour. Paris 
Correspondent, Ma^thester Guardian 

D.St. Advertising (in part) 

DANIEL STARCH. O*n-ultant in Business Research. Former 
Lecturer and Professor at Harvard University and the University 
of Wisconsin Author of Principles of Advertising, etc. 

D V. Oxford University 

DOUGLAS VEALE, C.B E , M A. Registrar of Oxford University 
and Fellow of Corpu^ Christi (_ ollege 

D.W.H. Socialist Movement 

DENIS WINSION HEALFY, MBE, MA. Secretary, Inter- 
national Department oi the British Labour Party. 

D.W.K.- J Bread and Bakery Products; Flour (in part) 

DOUGLAS WILLIAM KLNT-JONES, Ph.D, B Sc , F.R.I.C. 

Analytical and Consulting Chemist. Author of The Practice and 
Science oj Breadtrtaking, Modern Cereal Chemistry. 

E.A.Gs. Children's Books (in part) 

I LI7ABETH A. GROVFS, B A. Assistant Professor, School of 
Librananshif), University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. 

E \.P Spanish Literature 

LDGAR ALLISON PEERS, M.A, Hon LL D. Professor of 
Spanish, University n f Liverpool. Author of Studies of the Spanish 
Af>'s//o, A History of the Romantic Movement in Spain. 

E.C Sd. Aviation, Civil (in part); Gliding (in part) 

EDWIN COLSTON SHEPHERD, B A , B Litt. Secretary General, 
Air League of the British Empire, Air Correspondent, Sunday Times. 
Author of The R A.F. To-day, Great Flights 

E.Cul. Contract Bridge (in part) 

ELY CULBERTSON. Editor, The Bridge World, New York. 
Author of Contract Bridge Complete, Culbertson's Hoyle; etc. 

E.E.Bs. Civil Service 

SIR EDWARD ETTINGDENE BRIDGES, G.C B., G C.V.O , 
M C , Hon LL D , Hon D.Litt., Hon D.C.L. Permanent Secretary 
to H M Treasury, London. 

E.E.R. United States of America, The (in part) 

EDGAR EUGENE ROBINSON, A M , LL.D. Byrne Professor 
of American History and Director of the Institute of American 
History, Stanford University, Stanford, California. 

E.F.Hk. Yachting (in part) 

EDWARD FOWLESHAYLOCK. Editor, Yachting World, London. 

E.G. An. Shoe Industry (in part) 

ESTELLE G ANDERSON (Mrs. Arthur D. Anderson) Associate 
Editor, Boot and Shoe Recorder, New York, N.Y. 

E.G.Cs. Ice Skating (in part) 

ERIC GEORGE COGGINS. Secretary, National Skating Associa- 
tion of Great Britain 

E.II.Co. Gold (in part) 

EDWARD H COLLINS, B Litt. Member, Editorial Board, The 
New York Times, New York, N.Y. Author of Inflation and Your 
Money. 

E.Hd. Calcutta; Ceylon 

EDWIN HAWARD. Editor, / P B. Bulletin; Secretary, India, 
Pakistan and Burma Association Author of A Picture of India; 
Europeans in the Indian Legislature; etc 

E.Hin. Zoology 

EDWARD HINDLE, M A , Sc D , Ph.D., F.R.S. Scientific Director, 
Zoological Society of London. Author of Flies and Disease; Blood- 
sucking Hies, etc. 

E.H.Kg. National Trust 

HOWARD HERBERT KEELING, M.C., M.A. Member of 

Parliament, Chairman, Publicity Committee, National Trust, 
England and Wales 

E.H.Kr. Mineralogy 

EDWARD HENRY KRAUS. Dean Emeritus of the College of 
Literature, Science and the Arts and Professor Emeritus of Crystallo- 
graphy and Mineralogy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 
Michigan. 

E.I.F. Horticulture (in part) 

E. I. FARRINGTON. Former Secretary, Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society; Editor, Horticulture, Boston, Massachusetts. 
Author of The Gardener's Almanac, etc. 

E.I.P. Salvation Army (in part) 

ERNEST I. PUG MIRE. National Commander of the Salvation 
Army in the United States. 

E.I.U. Vital Statistics 

ECONOMIST INTELLIGENCE UNIT, Economist Newspaper 
Ltd , London. 

E.J.C. Canning Industry (in part) 

EDWIN J CAMERON. Director, Research Laboratories, National 
Canners Association, U.S.A. 

,E.J.L. Denmark; Norway; etc. 

ETHEL JOHN L1NDGREN, M.A., Ph.D. Lecturer, Department of 
Anthropology, University of Cambridge. Editor of The Study of 
Society; Methods and Problems. 



CONTRIBUTORS 



E.Kn. Contract Bridge (in part) 

EWART KEMPSON Cards Editor, Star, London. Author of 
Bridge Quiz. 

E.L.S. Arnlies of the World 

FDWIN I. SIBERT. Brigadier General, USA. Commanding 
General of the United States Army Forces in the Antilles 

E.M.C. Fertilizers (in part) 

EDWARD MORTIMER CROWTHER, D Sc . F R I C. Head of 
Chemistry Depaitment, Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpen- 
den, Hertfordshire 

K.M.E. Airports and Flying Fields (in part) 

EMERY M ELLINGSON. Manager, Air Transport Association 
of America, Los Angeles, California. 

E.Mgh. Class (in part) 

EDWARD MEIGH, M B L , M Sc , P. I LA , F.S G f Directoi, 
Glass Technical Services, Ltd , London. 

E.N.T. Paints and Varnishes 

ERIC 1MESHAN TIRATSOO, PhD., DIC, B Sc , A.R.S M , 
F.G S , F R G.S , M Inst.Pet. Editor, Paint Manufacture, Petroleum, 
Atomics, Chemical Industries, London Author of Petroleum Geology. 

E.O.G. Cocoa; Coffee 

EDGAR OTTO GOTHSCH, B Sc (Fcon ). Member of the staff, 
Commonwealth Economic Committee, London 

E.P.Jo. Diabetes 

E. P JOSLIN, M D., Sc.D Professor Emeritus of Clinical Medicine, 
Harvard University Medical School, MedicaJ Director, George F. 
Baker Clinic, New England Deaconess Hospital, Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. 

E.R.Bk. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 

EUGENE R. BLACK. President, International Bank for Recon- 
struction and Development. 

E.S.Br. Lawn lennis (in part) 

EDWIN S BAKER, A,B. Executive Secretary, United States 
Lawn 'lennis Association. 

E.Se. Book Publishing (/// part); Literary Pri/es (in part) 

EDMOND S. SEGRAVE Editor, Bookseller, London. 

E.S.J. Juvenile Employment (in part) 

ELIZABETH S. JOHNSON. Chief, Division ol Child Labour and 
Youth Fmployment, Bureau of Labour Standards, U S. Department 
of Labour, Washington, D C. 

E.T.B. Mathematics 

ERIC TEMPLE BELL Professor of Mathematics, California 
Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California. Author of Men of 
Mathematics, The Development of Mathematics; etc. 

E.W.G. Electrical Industries (/// pan); etc. 

EDWARD WILLIAM GOLDING, M Sc.Tech , M LE E., 
M.A I E E Head of Rural Electrification and Wind-power Depart- 
ment, Electrical Research Association, London. Author of Electrical 
Measurements and Measuring Instruments', etc. 

E.Wi. Italy; etc. 

ELIZABETH WISKEMANN, M A , M.Litt Writer on Foreign 

Affairs. Author of Czechs and Germans, Undeclared War; Italy , 
The Rome-Berlin AMS> 

E.Ws. Psychosomatic Medicine 

EDWARD WEISS, M D Professor of Clinical Medicine, Temple 
University Medical School, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Co-author 
of Psychosomatic Medicine. 

E.W.We. Tourist Industry 

ERNLST WALTER WIMBLE, C.B E. Member of British Tourist 
and Holidays Board; Member of The Hotels Executive (British 
Transport Commission); Chairman of Editorial Board, Go, inter- 
national travel monthly. 

F.A.Sw. Art Exhibitions (in part) etc. 

FREDERICK A. SWEET, M.A. Associate Curator of Painting 
and Sculpture, The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. 

F.B.C. Music (in part) 

FRANK B. COOKSON. Chairman of the Theory Department and 
Assistant Professor of Theory and Composition, School of Music, 
Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois; Managing Editor, 
Educational Mime Magazine. 

F.C.II. Rotary International 

FREDERICK C HICKSON, F.C.I S General Secretary, Rotary 
International in Great Britain and Ireland. 

F.C.W. Cancer 

FRANCIS CARTER WOOD, M.D. Emeritus Director, Cancer 
Research, Columbia University, New York. Consulting Pathologist, 
St. Luke's. Hospital, New York. Author of Clinical Diagnosis, etc. 

F.E.Lk. Gems 

FRANCIS ERNEST LEAK, F.G A. Manager, John Bennett, 
Jeweller; Senior Partner of West of England Gemmological Labora- 
tory, Bristol. 

F.Ce. Exploration and Discovery; Geography 

FRANK GEORGE, M A. Assistant Editor, Royal Geographical 
Society, London. 

F.HI. Woo! (in part) 

FRANK HEPPENSTALL, A.C.A. Secretary, British Wool 
Federation 



F.J.K. Electrical Industries (in part); etc. 

FRANCIS J. KOVALCIK. Assistant Editor, Electrical World. 

F.J.Os. Town and Country Planning (in part) 

F J OSBORN. Chairman of Executive, Town and Country 
Planning Association, Great Britain. Author of Green-Belt Cities; etc. 

F.J.Se. Food Research (in part) 

FREDRICK J STARE, M D. Professor of Nutrition and Chair- 
man of the Department of Nutrition, School of Medicine, Harvard 
University, Boston, Massachusetts. 

F.L.C. Salvation Anrty (in part) 

FREDERICK L COUTTS. Assistant Literary Secretary, Salvation 
Army International Hcadquaiters, London. Author of'lhe Timeless 
Prophets; etc 

F.M.V.T. Geology (in part) 

FRANCIS M. VAN TUYL Professor and Head ol the Department 
of Geology, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado. 

F.N.I I. Nuts 

FRANK NORMAN HOWES, D Sc. Principal Scientific Officer, 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Surrey. Author of Nuts, their Produc- 
tion and Everyday Uses; etc. 

F.P.L.L. Pneuoionia 

FRANK PATRICK LEE LANDER, O B E., M D., F R C.P. 

Consultant Physician, Putney Hospital, London; Assistant Physician, 
Brompton Hospital and Royal Free Hospital, London. 

F.S.B. Literary Research 

FREDERICK SAMUEL BOAS, MA, lion LL D , Hon.D.Lit, 
F R S L A Vice-President, Royal Society of Liteiature and English 
Association; President, Elizabethan Literary Society. Author of 
Shakespeare and his Predecessors; Christopher Marlowe' A Study; 
University Drama in the Tudor Age 

F.S.R. Marine Biology 

FREDERICK STRATTEN RUSSELL, F.R S. Secretary, Marine 
Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Director of the 
Plymouth Laboratory, Devonshire. 

F.St. Anthropology (in part) 

FELICIA STALLMAN, M A Assistant Secretary, Royal Anthro- 
pological Institute, London, Assistant Secretary, Folk Lore Society, 
London. 

F.Ts. Friends, Religious Society of (in part) 

FREDERICK B. TOLLES, A M., Ph.D. Librarian, Friends 
Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania. 

F.V.W. Soap, Perfumery and Cosinetics (in part) 

FREDERICK VICTOR WELLS, F.C.S , F R H S. Editor of 
Soap, Perfumery and Cosmetics, London, Chairman, Society of 
Cosmetic Chemists (UK Section) 

F.W.Rr. Meteorology (in part) 

F. W. REICHELDERFLR, AB, D Sc. Chief, Weather Bureau, 
U S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. 

F.W.Ta. Cotton (in pirt) 

FREDERICK WILLIAM TATTERSALL, FRSS, F R F! S. 

Cotton Trade Expert and Statistician. 

F.W.W-S. Interior Decoration 

FRANCIS WILLIAM WFNTWORTH - SHIELDS, N.R.D. 

Designer; Visiting Instructor at the Twickenham School of Art, 
Middlesex. 

G.A.Ro. Mineral and Metal Production and Prices; etc, 

GAR A. ROUSH. Former Fditor, Mineral Indus-try, U S A. Author 

of Strategic Mineral Supplies. 
G.A.Si. United Church of Canada 

GORDON A. S1SCO, D D Secretary, The United Church of 

Canada 

G.B.En. Alimentary System 

GFORGE B. EUSTERMAN, M D Senior Consultant in Medicine 
(Retired), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, Emeritus Professor 
of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, University of Minnesota Graduate 
School, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

G.D.H.C. Co-operative Movement (in part); etc. 

GEORGE DOUGLAS HOWARD COLE, M.A. Chichele Professor 
of Social and Political Theory, Oxford University Author of The 
Intelligent Man's Guide to the Post-war World; etc. 

G.D.H.L. Airports (in part); etc. 

GEORGE DAVID HOUGH LINTON. Former Press Officer, 

Ministry of Civil Aviation, London Airport. 

Gc.Bu. Hospitals (in part) 

GEORGE BUGBEE. Executive Director, American Hospital 
Association 

G.E.L. Ear, Nose and Throat, Diseases of (in part) 

GEORGE E. LIEBERMAN, M D. Associate in Otolaryngoiogy, 
University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Medicine, Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania. 

G.F.R.D, Oceanography 

GEORGE EDWARD RAVEN DEACON, D Sc., F.R.S. Deputy 
Chief Scientific Officer, Royal Naval Scientific Service, Great 
Britain. 

G.Hb. Canals and Inland Waterways (in part); etc. 

* GENE HOLCOMB. Deputy Chief, Technical Information Division, 
Office of the Chief of Engineers, Department of the Army, Washing- 
ton, D.C 



CONTRIBUTORS 



XI 



G.H.Ba. Lacrosse 

GEORGE HENRY BARK, Hon. Secretary, English Lacrosse 
Union. 

G.H.Be. Genetics 

GEOFFREY HERBERT BEALL, MBE, PhD Lecturer in 
Genetics, University of Edinburgh 

G.-H.D. Belgium; etc. 

GEORGES-HENRI DUMONT. Editor, Vtai (weekly), Brussels. 
Author of Leopold III, Roi des lielges, etc 

G.II.II. International Court of Justice 

GREEN H HACKWORTH, B A., LL B , Hon LL D. Judge, 
International Court of Justice, The Hague, Netherlands. Author 
of Digest of International Law, 8 vols. 

G.H.lVf .F. Canning Industry (in part) 

GEORGE HFNRY MORRIS FARLEY, B Sc. Editor, C anmng 
Industry and Tin-Printer and Box Maker, London. 

G.Hs. Hemp; Jute 

GORDON HUGHES Managing Director, British-Continental 
Trade Press, Ltd , Editor, Jute and Canvas Reveiw, London Author 
of Jute Marked and Pru.e\, etc. 

G.H.S. Public Opinion Surveys (in part) 

GEORGE IIORSLEY SMITH. Associate Prolessor of Psychology, 
Newark Colleges of Rutgers Umveisity, Newark, New Jersey. 
Research Associate, Office of Public Opinion Research. 

G.I.B. Bolivia; Ecuador (in pun); etc. 

GEORGE I. BLANKSTLN, A M. Instructor in Political Science, 
Northwestern University, Evanstown, Illinois. 

G.I.Q. Archeology (in part) 

GEORGE I QUIMBY, Jr Curator of Fxhibits, Department ot 
Anthropology, Chicago Natural llistoiy Museum, Chicago, Illmoi-. 
Co-author, Indians Before Columhu\ , etc. 

G..I.N. Iheatre (in part) 

GEORGE JhAN NATHAN Ciitic Author .if 1 he Critic and 

the Drama, I n< v< lopu'dia of the Iheatre, etc. 
G.J.Wk. Spcedwav Racing 

GEOFi REY JOHNSON WOODCOCK Secretary, Speedway 

Riders' Association, Great Britain. 
G.L.Bs. television (in part) 

GEORGE LISLh BhERS, Sc.D Assistant Directoi of Engineering, 

RCA Victor Division, Radio Corporation of America, Canulen, 

New Jersey. 
G.L.W. Refugees 

GEORGE L WARREN, A B Adviser on Refugees and Displaced 

Persons, Depaitment of State, Washington, D.C 
G.M.C. Ear, Nose and Throat, Diseases of (/// part) 

GEORGE MORRISON COATFS, M D Professor ot Otorhin 

ology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Penns}lvania, 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
G.McA. Housing (/// part) 

GILBERT McALLlSTFR, M A Member ot Parliament Author 

of Town and Country Plan/tin? (\vith 1 lizabeth Glen McAllister), 

Homes, lo\\n\ and Countryside. 

G M Hy. Newspapers and Magazines (in part) 

'GRANT M HYDF, A M Professor of Journalism, School ol 
Journalism, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. 

G.Mit. Shanghai 

GEORGE EDWARD MITCH FLL, O B E. Vice-Chairman and 
Secretary, China Association, London 

G^p. Buenos Aires; Rio de Janeiro 

GEORGE PLNDLL, M A Managing Director, Pendle and Rivett, 
Ltd Commentator in General Overseas Service, and Latin American 
Service, British Broadcasting Corporation Author of Much Sky; 
Impre^ions of South America. 

G.P.O. Post Orhce (in part); Telephone (in part) 

By courtesy of the postmaster general, London 

G R Mn Southern Rhodesia 

'GEORGE ROY NLVILL MORRISON journalist. Author of 

Farming in ra\t Af/i<a; Kenya Car oh. 

Q D j^|. Fives (in part) 

GEOFFREY ROLAND RIMMER Chairman, Executive Com- 
mittee of the Rugby Fives Association. 

Q Dutch Literature 

GARMT STUIVELING, Doctor of Arts. Literary Adviser and 
Critic to the Socialist Broadcasting Company ' V A R A. , Nether- 
lands. Author of Ecu Eeuw Nederland^e Leiteren, Rekernchar. 

Russian Literature 

"GLFB PETROVICH STRUVE, BA Professor of Russian, 

University of California, Berkeley, California. Author of 25 Year* 

of Soviet Russian Literature. 
r T , Botany 

GEORGE TAYLOR, D Sc , F R.S.E , F.L.S. Deputy Keeper of 

Botany, British Museum (Natural History). 
r w Motor Cycling 

GRAHAM WILLIAM WALKER. Editor, Motor Cycling, London. 
G wt , Tobacco 

"GORDON WEST. Editor of Tobacco, London. 



G.St. 



H.A.E.S. Badminton (in part) 

HERBERT AUGUST EDWARD SCHEELF Secretary, Bad- 
minton Association of England, Hon. Secretary, International 
Badminton Federation; Editor, 7 he Badminton Gazette. 

H.A.Rn. Cold, Coirirdon 

HOBART A. REIM \NN, M D Professor of Medicine, Jefferson 
Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsvlvima. 

H.B.Cs. Anthropology (in part) 

HENRY B COLLINS, Ji Senior Ethnologist, Bureau of American 
Ethnology, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D C. 

H Bd. Ftour (in part) 

HARVIF BARNARD, BS Research Chemist, Clinton Industries, 
Inc , Clinton, Iowa 

H B.S. Heart and Heart Diseases 

HOWARD BURNHAM SPRAGUE, M.D Associate Physician, 
Massachusetts 'jcneral Hospital. President-Elect, American Heart 
Association. 

H.Btr. Council of Europe 

SIR HAROLD BERESFORD BUTLER, M.A , Hon LL.D. 

P> rector of International Labour Ollicc, Geneva, 1932-38; Warden 
ol NuffieM College, Oxford, 1939-43 Author ol The Lost Peace; 
Peace or Power. 



Judiciary, U.S. 

Deputy Clerk, United States Supreme 



H.B.Wy. 

HM<01 D U WILLEY 
Couu Washington, D C 

H.C.Ce Hotels, Restaurants and Inns (in part) 

HFNRY CHARLES CLARKE Formerly Secretary of the Hotels 
and Restaurants Association of Great Britain Author of Hotels 
and Restaurants at a Career. 

H.C.D. Education (in part); etc. 

HAROLD COLLETT DENT, Hon F E I S , B A. Editor, The 
'J ime\ Educational Supplement, London. Author of A New Order in 
English Education, Pdiuatton in Transition, Secondary Education 
for All 

H.C.Ln. Betting and Gambling (in part) 

HERBERT CARL LAWTON, B Sc , PhD. Private Consultant; 
Chairman, Education and Action for Leisure, London. Author of 
Everyman s Leisure 

He.Br. Banking (in part) 

HENRY BRUT RE Chairman of the Board, Bowery Savings 

Bank, New York, N Y 

H.I Hi. Epidemics 

HERMAN L HILLFBOE, B S , M D. Commissioner of Health, 
New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York. 

H.Fx. Dermatology 

HOWARD I OX, M D. Professor Emeritus of Dermatology and 
Syphilology, College of Medicine, New York University, New York. 
Author of bkin Di\ea\es in Infancy and Childhood', etc. 

H.G M. Fisheries; Wild Life Conservation (in part); etc. 

HENRY GASCOYEN MAURICE, C.B , B.A. Secretary, Society 
for the Pieservation of the Fauna of the Empire, London. Author 
of Sometimes an Angler; etc. 

H.G.Rn. India; Pakistan 

HUGH GFORC.E RAWLINSON, C.I.E., M.A., F.R.A S., 

F R Hist S Indian Educational Service (retd.). Author of India: 
4 Short Cultural History; etc. 

1 1 .G.S. Shipbuilding (in part) 

H GERRISH SMITH. President, Shipbuilders Council of America. 

H.I I.Be. Soil Conservation (in part) 

HUGH H BENNETT, LED., D.Sc. Chief, Soil Conservation 
Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D C. 

H.J.A. Narcotics (in part) 

H. J. ANSLINGER Commissioner of Narcotics, Treasury Depart- 
ment, Washington, D C. U.S. Representative on the United Nations 
Commission on Narcotic Drugs. Author of The Physician and the 
Federal Narcotic Law. 

1 1. J.K Anthropology (in part) 

HERBERT JOHN r-LEURE, M A., D.Sc., Sc.D., F.R.S. Ex- 
President, Royal Anthropological Institute, London. Emeritus 
Professor, Manchester University. Co-author of The Corridors of 
lime; etc. 

H.Js. Town and Country Planning (in part) 

HARLEAN JAMFS, A B. Executive Secretary, American Planning 
and Civic Association. 

H.J.S. Suez Canal 

HUGH JOSEPH SCHON FIELD. Author of The Suez Canal, etc. 

ti.Ko. Communist Movement 

HANS KOHN Professor of History, The City College of New York. 
Author of The Idea of Nationalism; The Twentieth Century. 

H.L. Golf (in part) 

HENRY CARPENTER LONGHURST, B.A. Author of Golf; etc. 

H.L.B. Fives (in part) 

HEDLEY LE BAS, B.A. Hon. Secretary, Eton Fives Association. 

*H.M.H. American Literature 

HARRISON M. HAYFORD, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of English, 
Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. 



Xll 



CONTRIBUTORS 



H.Mm. Crime (in part) 

HERMANN MANNHEIM, Dr.J. Reader in Criminology in the 
University of London. Author of Social Aspect? of Crime in England 
between the Wars, Criminal Justice and Social Reconstruction; etc. 

H.M.P. Building and Construction Industry (in part); etc. 

HENRY M. PROPPER. Housing Consultant; Lecturer, Division 
of Graduate Studies, Brooklyn College. Former Executive Vice- 
President, National Committee on Housing. 

H.M.Wr. Infantile Paralysis 

H M. WEAVFR, MD, M Sc , Ph.D. Director of Research, 
National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, New York, N Y. 

H.Pk. Psychology (in part) 

HELEN PEAK, Ph.D. Professor of Psychology, Connecticut 
College, New London, Connecticut Author of Observations on the 
Characteristics and Distribution of German Nazis 

H.R.V. Psychiatry 

HENRY R. VIETS, M.D. Lecturer on Neurology, Harvard 
Medical School; Neurologist, Massachusetts General Hospital, 
Boston Librarian, Boston Medical Library, Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. 

H.S.A. Cricket 

HARRY SURTEES ALTHAM, D.S O , M.C., M.A. Master at 
Winchester College, Hampshire. Chairman of the Inquiry Com- 
mittee, M C C., London Author of A history of Cricket. 

H.S.D. Egypt; etc. 

HERBERT STANLEY DEIGHTON, M.A., B Litt. Fellow of 

Pembroke College, Oxford, Former Visiting Professor, Fuad 

Al-Awal University, Cairo 
H.Su. Accidents (in part) 

HELEN ISABEL SUTHERLAND, M.Inst.T A , F.C T S , 

F Comm A. Secretary, The Royal Society for the Prevention of 

Accidents, London. 
H.S.Vg. Air Forces of the World (in part) 

HOYT S. VANDENBERG. Chief of Staff, United States Air 

Force. 
H.S.-W. Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia; etc. 

GEORGE HUGH NICHOLAS SETON-WATSON, M.A. Fellow 

and Prelector m Politics, University College, Oxford. Author of 

Eastern Europe Between the Wars 1918-1941; etc 

H.T. Soap, Perfumery and Cosmetics (in part) 

HENRY TETLOW, Henry Tetlow Company, Washington, D C 

H.W.Dg. Prisoners of War; Red Cross 

HENRY W. DUNNING. Executive Secretary, League of Red 

Cross Societies, Geneva, Switzerland. 
H.W.Dt. Public Opinion Surveys (in part) 

HENRY WILLIAM DURANT, B Sc (Econ ), PhD. Director, 

British Institute of Public Opinion and Social Surveys, Ltd. (The 

Gallup Poll). Author of The Problem of Leisure. 
H.W.Ilk. Child Welfare (in part) 

HOWARD WILLIAM HOPKIRK, A.B. Senior Consultant, 

Child Welfare League of America, Inc., New York, N.Y. 
H.W.Pe. Friends, The Religious Society of (in part) 

HUBERT WILLIAM PEET. Editor, The Friend, London. 
H.W.Rn. Tunnels (in part) 

HAROLD W. RICHARDSON, B S.(C.E.). Editor, Construction 

Methods and Equipment. 
H.Z. Wild Life Conservation (/// part) 

HOWARD ZAHNISER. Executive Secretary, Wilderness Society. 

Editor, Living Wilderness. 
I.D.duP. South African Literature (in part) 

IZAK DAVID DU PLESSIS, M.A , B.Ed , Ph D. Lecturer in 

Dutch and Afrikaans Literature, University of Capetown, South 

Africa. Author of The Cape Malays; Tales from the Malay Quarter. 
I.Gg. Post Office (in part) 

ISAAC GREGG Former Director of Press Relations, Office of 

the Postmaster General, Washington, D.C. 
I.L.BI. Linen and Flax; etc. 

IRENE L. BLUNT. Secretary, The National Federation of Textiles, 

Inc , New York, N.Y. 
I.M.S. United States Territories and Possessions (in part) 

INGRAM M. STAINBACK. Governor of Hawaii. 
I.R.M.M. Architecture (in part) 

IAN ROBERT MORE McCALLUM, A R I B.A , A A.dipl. 

Assistant Editor, The Architectural Review Editor of Physical 

Planning. The Groundwork of a New Technique. 
I.W.RI. Words and Meanings, New (in part) 

I. WILLIS RUSSELL. Chairman of the Research Committee on 

New Words of the American Dialect Society which prepared the 

article. The Committee consists of: Henry Alexander, O. B. Emerson, 

Atcheson L. Hench, Albert H. Marckwardt, Mamie J. Meredith, 

Peter Tamony, and Harold Wentworth. 
J.A.G. Furniture Industry (in part) 

JEROME ARTHUR GARY. Editor, Furniture Age, Chicago, 

Illinois. Author of The Romance of Period Furniture, etc. 
J.A.Hu. British Empire (in part); etc. 

JOHN ANTHONY HUTTON, B.A. Formerly research assistant, 

Institute of Colonial Studies, Oxford 
J.A.Mi. Electric Transport (in part) 

JOHN ANDERSON MILLER, Ph B. General Electric Co.,' 

Schcnectady, New York. Author of Fares Please, Men and Volts 

at War\ etc. 



J.A.MI. Patents (in part) 

JOHN A. MARZALL. Commissioner, United States Patent Office, 
U S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. 

J.A.My. Tuberculosis 

J. A MYERS, M D. Professor of Medicine and Preventive Medicine 
and Public Health, University of Minnesota Medical School, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

J.A.Rs. Greyhound Racing 

JOSEPH ALEXANDER RICHARDS. Editor, Greyhound Owner 
and Breeder, London. 

J.A.S.R. Coal (in part) 

JOHN ANTHONY SYDNEY RITSON, D.S.O., O.B E , M.C., 
T D., B Sc., M.I.M.E. Professor of Mining, Royal School of 
Mines, London. 

J.Bk. Book Collecting and Book Sales (in part) 

JACOB BLANCK. Editor, Bibliography of American Literature. 
Author of Peter Parley to Penrod, etc. 

J.C.As. Ex-Servicemen's Organizations (in part) 

JOHN CHRISTOPHER ANDREWS. Press Officer, British Legion, 
London 

J.C.G. Polo (in part) 

JACK ROSE COMPTON GANNON, C B E., M.V.O. Writer 
on Polo 

J.C.G.J. Wales 

J. C. GRIFFITH JONES. Journalist and Broadcaster; Welsh 
Correspondent, Observer, London. 

J.Chn. Archaeology (in part) 

JOHN CHARLTON, M.A., F S A Inspectorate of Ancient Monu- 
ments, England; Excavator of Roman and Mediaeval sites. 

J.C.P.P. Osteopathy 

JOCELYN CAMPBELL PATRICK PROBY, MA, B.Litt , DO. 
Chairman, General Council and Register of Osteopaths, Ltd , 
London. Author of Eswy on Osteopathy; The Relation of Micro- 
Organisms to Disease; etc. 

J.Cr. Book Collecting and Book Sales (in part) 

JOHN WAYNFLETE CARTER, M A Managing Director, 
Charles Scnbner's Sons, Ltd , Publishers, London: Sandars Reader 
in Bibliography, Cambridge University, 1947. Author of Taste and 
Technique in Book-Collecting. 

J.Cw. Music (in part) 

JOHN CULSHAW. Author, lecturer and broadcaster on music. 
Author of Sergei Radimaninov; The Concerto. 

J.E.Ce. Tea 

JOYCE EVELYN CUTMORE. Economic Assistant, Common- 
wealth Economic Committee, London. 

J.E.N. Livestock (in part) 

JAMES EDWARD NICHOLS, M.Sc., Ph.D., F R S E. Professor 
of Agriculture (Animal Husbandry), University College of Wales, 
Aberystwyth. Author of Livestock Improvement. 

J.E.Sr. Philippines, Republic of the 

JOSEPH E SPENCER. Associate Professor of Geography, 
University of California, Los Angeles, California. 

J.F.A. Ice Hockey (in part) 

JOHN FRANCIS AHEARNE, F C 1 S. Secretary to the British 

Ice Hockey Association. 
J.F.B. Squash Rackets 

JOHN FORBES BURNET, M.A. Fellow of Magdalene College, 

Cambridge. 
J.G.I f. Mental Diseases 

JOHN GERARD HAMILTON, M.D , B.S , M R C S , L.R.C.P , 

D P.M Consultant Psychiatrist, Bethlem Royal Hospital and 

The Maudsley Hospital, London. 
J.H.Jn. Finland 

JOHN HAMPDEN JACKSON, M A. Staff Tutor, Cambridge 

University Board of Extra Mural Studies. Author of Finland; 

The Between-War World; etc 
J.H.I.. Unitarian Church (in part) 

JOHN HOWLAND LATHROP. Minister, the First Unitarian 

Congregational Society m Brooklyn, New York, Member, Board 

of Directors, American Unitarian Association. 
J.H.Ps. London University 

J. HOOD PHILLIPS. M.A. Secretary to the Senate, University 

of London, 
j.Kd. Floods and Flood Control (in part); etc. 

JULIUS KENNARD. B.Sc. (Eng.), M.I C E , M I.W.E., M.Cons E. 

Chartered civil engineer; Partner of Edward Sandeman, Kennard 

and partners, Westminster, London. 
J.K.I,. Banking (in part); Federal Reserve System 

JOHN K. LANGUM. Vice-president, Federal Reserve Bank of 

Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. 
j.Kr. Czech Literature; German Literature 

JOSEPH KALMER. Correspondent of Austrian and German 

papers. Author of European Poetry 1900- J 925; The Life and Death 

oj John II us , etc. 
JKR Agriculture (in part); etc. 

JOHN KERR ROSE, A.M , Ph D , J.D. Geographer, Legislative 

Reference Service, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 



J.Ky. 

JOHN KIELTY. Secretary, General Assembly 
Free Christian Churches, London. 



Unitarian Church (in part) 
Assembly Unitarian and 



CONTRIBUTORS 



Xlll 



Roman Catholic Church (in part) ; etc. 
JOHN LaFARGE, S\J. Associate Editor, America, National 
Catholic Weekly, New York, N.Y. 

J.L.Be. Patents (in part) 

JOHN LUCIAN BLAKE, M.Sc , Barrister-at-Law. Controller- 
General, Patent Office, London. 

J.L.-Ee. United States Territories and Possessions (in part) 

JUAN LABADIE-EURITE, M.S.(Agnc ) Chief, Division of 
Statistics, Bureau of the Budget, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 

J.Lwh. Judaism 

JOSEPH LEFTWICH Author of Ynroel; What Will Happen to 
the Jews; The Tragedy of Anti-Semitism , etc. 

J.M.Br. Juvenile Delinquency 

JOSEPHINE MACAIJSTER BREW, M.A., LL.D Education 
Adviser, National Association of Girls' Clubs and Mixed Clubs. 
Author of Injormal Education, In the Set vice of Youth; etc 

J.McA. Argentine (in part); Cnile; etc. 

JOHN McADAMS Former Instructor of Latin American History 
and Government, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, Puerto 
Rico. 

J.M.We. Words and Meanings, New (/// part) 

JAMES McLEOD WYLLIE, M A. Lexicographer to the Clarendon 

Press, Oxford Editor, Oxford Latin Dictionary. 
J.Of. Lawn Tennis (in part} 

JOHN SHELDON OLLIFF. Lawn Tennis Correspondent. Daily 

Telegraph, London. Author of Olhjj on Tennis; I he Romance of 

Wimbledon , etc. 
Jo.Ms. National Health Service; National Insurance 

JOHN MOSS, C B E , Barnster-at-Law. Author of Health ami 

Welfare Services Handbook 
J.P.D. Boxing (in pan) 

JAMLS P. DAWSON Writer on Baseball and Boxing, Jhe v <- 

York Time^ New York, N Y 
J.P.V.Z. Aviation, Civil (in pan) 

J. PARKER VAN /ANDT, US, PhD President, Aviation 

Research Institute, Washington, D C Author of Geography of 

World An 'transport, World 4\ianon Annual, Civil Aviation and 

Peace, etc. 
J.R.Ay. Nationalization 

JOHN RAYNHR APPLEBY, M A Leader Writer, Financial 

limes, London 
J.R.Ra. Agriculture (in part) 

JOHN ROSS RAEBURN, B Sc (Agnc ), M S , Ph D. Reader in 

Agricultural Fconomics, University of London 
J.R.W. Food Research (in part) 

JAMLS ROBERT WILSON, M.D. Secretary, Council on Foods 

and Nutiition, American Medical Association. 
J.R.W.A. Gas 

JOHN RUSSELL WILLIS ALEXANDER, M.A , LL B , F C I S , 

Barnstcr-at-Law Formerly General Manager, British Gas Council. 

J.S.L. Anaesthesiology 

JOHN S LUNDY, M.D. Professor of Anjcsthesiology, University 
of Minnesota Graduate School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Head, 
Section on An.csthesiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 

J.Sto. Electronics (in part) 

JAMES STOKLEY, B.S (Fd.). MS. Publicity Rcpresentatne, 
General Electric Research Laboratory, Schenectady, New York. 
Author of Science Remakes Our World; Electrons in Attion. 

J.T.As. Drawing and Engraving (in part) 

JOHN TAYLOR ARMS President Emeritus, Society of American 
Etchers President, National Academy of Design Author of Hand- 
book oj Print making and Print Makers, etc 

J.T.By. Netherlands 

JAMFS THOMAS BROCKWAY English writer and poet. 

J.T.R. Spanish-American Literature 

JOHN T. REI D Public Affairs Officer, American Embassy, Caracas, 
Venezuela. Author of Modern Spam and Liberalism, An Outline 
History of Spanish American Literature 

J.W.Fr. Bowls 

JOHN WILLIAM FISHER, M.R C S., D.P.H , D P.M Bowls 
correspondent. Western Morning News, Plymouth, Devon. Author 
of A New Way to Better Bowls; etc 

J W Ge Electric Transport (in part) 

JOHN WATK1N GRIEVE, B Sc , AM I.F.E. Assistant (Electric 
Traction), London Midland Region, British Railways 

J.W.Mw. Congress U.S. ; etc. 

JOSEPH W MARLOW, A.B., LL B. Lawyer; Editor and Research 
Analyst, Military Intelligence Service, U S War Department, 
1944-46. 

j YVr Jerusalem; etc. 

*JACK WINOCOUR, BA. Associate Editor, Contact Books. 

Bn Libraries (in part) 

*KARL BROWN A B., LL B Associate Bibliographer and Acting 
Editor of Publications, New York Public Library, New York, N.Y. 
Editor, Library Journal, New York, N.Y. 

K Bs Theology 

'KATHLEEN MARY BLISS, M.A , D.D. Editor, Christian News 

Letter. London, 1945-49. 
K K H Dairy Fanning (in part); etc. 

'KENNETH EDWARD HUNT, MA., Dipi.Agnc. University 

Demonstrator, Oxford. 



K.Srrt. Elections; Peasant Movement; Poland; etc. 

KAZIMIERZ MACIEJ SMOGORZEWSKi Foreign Corres- 
pondent, Founder and Editor, Free Europe, London. Author of 
The United States and Great Britain, Poland's Access to the Sea; etc. 

K.W. Petroleum 

KENNETH WILLIAMS, B A London Correspondent, Al Ahram. 
Author of Britain and the Mediterranean, Jbn Sa'ud. 

L.A.L. Insurance (in part) 

LEROY A LINCOLN President, Metropolitan Life Insurance 
Company, New York, N Y 

I A.Wi. Telephone (in part) 

VEROY A WILSON President, American Telephone and Tele- 
graph Company, Neu, York, N Y. 

I .Bp. Canada, Dominion of 

LFSLIh BISHOP Author and Lecturer, formerly London Corres- 
pondent, Winnipeg Free Press, Winnipeg, Canada 

L.de B.H. Swimming (in part) 

LOUIS de BRFDA HANDLEY Honorary Coach, Women's 
Swimming Association ot New York. Author of Swimming for 
Women, etc 

I .h Ms. Dycstuflfs (in part) 

1 AURi N( f LDMUND MORRIS. Editor, Dyer, London. 

L I .C Methodist Church (in part) 

LLSL1L FREDERIC CHURCH, B A , Ph D , F R Hist S. Editor- 
m-rinct to the Methodist Church in Great Britain and Ireland. 
Author ot fhe Early Methodist People, fhe Knight of the Burning 
Heart A Lije of Jof-n Wesley; etc. 

L.Gu. Local Government (in part) 

I UTHhR GULICK, A M , Ph D , Litt D President, Institute of 
Public Administration, New York Author of An Adventure in 
Denwtraty, Education for Ameiican Life, Municipal Finance. 

L.H.L. Chicago 

LEWIS HARPER LEECH. Editorial Writer, Chicago Daily News, 
Chicago, Illinois Author of The Paradox of Plenty; etc. 

L.Hmn. South African Literature (in part) 

LOUIS HERRMAN, MA., PhD. Examiner in English for the 

Joint Matriculation Board of South Africa. Author of In the Sealed 

Cave A Stientifi< Fantasy. 

L.J.D.K. Classical Studies 

LEOPOLD JOHN DIXON RICHARDSON, M.A, Professor of 
Greek, University College, Cardiff; Hon. Secretary, Classical 

Association 
L.L. Furniture Industry (in part) 

LESLIE LEWIS. Editor, Furnishing World and British Furnishing, 

London 
L.M.Gh. United Nations 

LFLAND M GOODRICH Professor of Political Science, Brown 

LJniversity, Providence, Rhode Island Co-author of Charter of the 

United Nations Commentary and Documents. 
L.Mrc. Dance (in port) 

LILLIAN MOORE. Concert dancer; Choreographer for NBC 

Opera Television Series, American correspondent, Dancing Times, 

London Author of Artists of the Dance. 
L.M.W. United States Territories and Possessions (in part) 

LEW M WILLIAMS. Secretary of Alaska. 
L.N. Gymnastics 

LEO NORRISS Schoolmaster, Hertfordshire County Council. 
L.N.McA. Mexico 

LYLE NELSON McALISTER. Engaged in research under the 

office of Education, Federal Security Agency, U.S A. 
L.O.P. Cinema (in part) 

LOU ELL A O. PARSONS. Motion Picture Editor, International 

News Service Author of The Cay Illiterate, How to Write in the 

Movies. 
L.R.L. Railways (in part) 

LENOX R. LOHR. President, Museum of Science and Industry, 

Chicago, Illinois. President, The Chicago Railroad Fair, Chicago, 

Illinois. 
L.V.D. Field Sports 

LEONARD VINCENT DODDS. Editor, Field, London. 
L.Wd. Boxing (in part) 

LAINSON WOOD. Boxing Correspondent and Assistant Sports 

Editor, Daily Telegraph, London. 

L.W.F. Prisons (in part) 

LIONEL WRAY FOX, C.B., M C. Chairman, Prison Commission 
for England and Wales. Author of The Modern English Prison. 

L.Wo. Trade Unions (in part) 

LEO WOLMAN, Ph.D , LL.D. Professor of Economics, Columbia 
University, New York, N.Y. Author of Ebb and Flow in Trade 
Unionism, etc. 

M.Ab. Investments Abroad (in part) 

MILTON ABELSON. Economic Analyst, Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, 
D.C 

Ma.Br. Istanbul; Turkey 

MALCOLM BURR, D.Sc., A.R.S.M , F R Ent.Soc. Author of 
In Bolshevik Siberia; etc. 

' M.A.Me. Athletics (in part); Horse Racing (in part) 

MICHAEL AUSTIN MELFORD, B.A. Athletic Correspondent, 
Observer, London; Editor, Thoroughbred, London. 



XIV 



CONTRIBUTORS 



M.An. Child Welfare (in part) 

MARJORY, LADY ALLEN OF HURTWOOD, F Inst Land- 
scape Architects. President, Nursery School Association of Great 
Britain; President, World Organization for Rarly Childhood 
Education; Member of Advisory Council on Child Care (Home 
Office, London). Author of Whose Children. 

M.Blf. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (in part} 

MAX BELOFF. B Litt., M A. Reader in the Comparative Study 
of Institutions, Oxford University. Author of The Foreign Policy 
of Soviet Russia, 1929-1941 

M.C.G. Arts Council 

MARY CECILIA GLASGOW, C.B fc , B A Secretary-General, 
Arts Council of Great Britain. 

M.C.Rt. Seismology 

MARY COLLINS R \BBITT, A B. Geophysiast, U S Geological 
Survey, Washington, D C. Editor, Geophysical Abstracts. 

M.D.Cn. Plastics Industry (in part) 

MAURICE DELOISNE CURWEN, B Sc., A R.I C. hditoi. 
Plastics, London. Author of Plastics in Industry, etc 

M.Dk. Christian Democratic Movement; etc. 

JOHN MICHAEL DERRICK Assistant Editor, Tablet, London; 
Editor, Catholic Almanac. Author of Eastern Catholu s under Soviet 
Rule\ etc 

M.Dn. Law and Legislation (in part) 

MITCHELL DAWSON, Ph B , J.D. Lawyer, writer, Former 
editor, Chicago Bar Record, Chicago, Illinois. 

M.E.H. Biochemistry 

MARTIN E. HANKE, SB, PhD. Associate Professor of Bio- 
chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois Co-author of 
Practical Method's in Biochemistry. 

M.F.de C. United States Territories and Possessions (in part) 

MORRIS F dc CASTRO. Acting Governor of the Virgin Islands. 

M.Fe. Trust Territories 

MAURICE FANSHAWE, BA Writer. Author of Permanent 
Court of International Justice, What the League has Done, etc 

M.Fi. Medicine (in pan) 

MORRIS FISHBEIN, M D Editor, Excerpta Medina; Contributing 
Editor, Post-graduate Medicine, Editor of medical articles, Bntanmca 
Book of the Year. 

M.Fr. Bacteriology 

MARTIN FROBISHER, Jr., SB, Sc D. Chief, Bacteriology 
Branch, Communicable Disease Centre. U S. Public Health Service, 
Atlanta, Georgia Author of Fundamentals of Bacteriology, etc 

M.H.Mn. Art Exhibitions (in part); Painting (in part); etc. 

MICHAEL HUMFREY MIDDLETON Art Editor, Picture 
Post; Art Critic, Spectator, London. 

M.H.Sm. Air Forces of the World (in part) 

MAURICE H. SMITH Librarian, Institute of the Aeronautical 
Sciences, New York, N Y, 

M.Jol. French Literature; Theatre (in part) 

MARIA JOLAS (Mrs. Eugene Jolas), Pans, France. 

M.L.M. Colombia: Costa Rica; etc. 

MAX L. MOORHEAD. Assistant Professor of History, University 
of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma. 

M.M1. Betting and Gambling (in part) 

MICHAEL MacDOUGALL, Author of Gamblers Don't Gamble; 
MacDougall on Dice and Cards, Danger in the Cards; Mat Dougall 
on Pinochle. 

M.Si. Printing (in part) 

MacD SINCLAIR. Editor, Printing Equipment Engineer, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

N.B.D. National Parks and Monuments (in part) 

NEWTON B DRURY, B L., LL.B. Director, National Park 
Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D C 

N.C.B. Timber (/// part) 

NELSON C BROWN, A B , M F. Professor in charge of Forest 
Utilization, New York State College of Forestry, Syracuse University, 
Syracuse, New York. 

N.K.W. Plague 

NEWTON E. WAYSON, A B , M D Former Medical Officer in 
charge, Plague Investigations, U.S Public Health Set vice, San 
Francisco, California 

N.F.S. Munitions of War (in part) 

NATHANIEL F. S1LSBCE. Colonel, United States Air Force 
Reserve, Contributing Editor, Aviation Operations. Co-author of 
Jet Propulsion Progress 

N.Mgh. British Empire (in part) 

NICHOLAS SETON MANSERGH, O B E , B Litt , M A , D Phil. 
Abe Bailey Research Professor of British Commonwealth Relations, 
Royal Institute of International Affairs, London Author of 'Ihe 
Commonwealth and the Nations, Britain and Ireland 

O.M.G. China 

OWEN MORTIMER GREEN, BA Far Eastern Specialist on 
staff, Observer Author of China's Struggle with the Dictators; 
The Foreigner in China, etc. 

O.P.P. Motor Industry (in part) 

OSCAR PAUL PEARSON, B A Manager, Statistical Department. 
Automobile Manufacturers' Association, Detroit, Michigan 

O.S.T. World Council of Churches. 

OLIVER STRATFORD TOMKINS, M.A. Associate General 
Secretary, World Council of Churches Author of rhe Wholeness of 
the Church 



O.T.J. Geology (In part) 

OWEN THOMAS JONES, M.A., D Sc ," F R.S , F.G.S. Fmeritus 
Professor (of Geology), formerly Woodwardian Professor, Cam- 
bridge University 

P.B.F. Shipping, Merchant Marine (in part) 

PHILIP B. FLEMING. Chairman, United States Maritime Com- 
mission, Washington, D.C 

P.B.M. Atomic Knergy On part) 

PHILIP BURTON MOON, M Sc , M A , Ph D , F R S. Professor 
ol Physics, University of Birmingham 

P.Br. Billiards and Snooker (in part) 

PETER BRANDWEIN Sports Writer, The New York Times 
Editor of the Sports Section of the Information Please Almanac. 

P.Eg. Budget, National (in part); etc. 

PAUL EINZIG, DSc(Po). and Econ ) Political Correspondent, 
Financial Times, London Author of Pumitne Money, rhe Iheory 
of Forward L\<hange, etc. 

P.E.M. Council of Foreign Ministers 

PHILIP L MOSELY. Professor of International Relations, Russian 
Institute of Columbia University, New York, N Y 

P.H.M-B. Tropical Diseases 

PHILIP HhNRY MANSON-BAHR, C.M G , DSO, M D., 
FRC.P, D.T.M. & H. Consulting Physician, Hospital for 
Tropical Diseases, London. Author of Life and Work of Sir Patruk 
Manson, D\\enteric Disorders, editor of Manson's Tropical Diseases, 
7th- l.Uh cd , etc 

P.J.A.C. Liberal Movement 

PETFR J A CALVOCORESSL Survey Department, "Royal 
Institute of International Affairs, London. Author of Nuremberg 

P.M.Se. Botanical Gardens (in part); etc. 

PATRICK MILLINGTON SYNGE, MA, FLS, F.R G S. 
Editor to the Royal Horticultural Society Author of Mountains 
oj the Moon, Plants with Personality, etc. 

P.Ss. Insurance (in part) 

PERCY STFBBINGS Insurance fcditor; Correspondent to Financial 
//wo. Banket s' Magazine, Investors Chronicle, London, etc 

P.Ta. Lrrtplojrnent (/// part); etc. 

PHILIP TAFT, B A , Ph D Professor of Economics, Brown 
University, Providence, Rhode Island Author of Economic* and 
Problems of Labor, etc. 

P.W.H. Photography (in pan) 

PERCY WOOTTON HARRIS, Hon F R P S , M R 1 C Former 
President, Royal Photogiaphic Society, London Editor of Miniature 
Camera Magazine, London 

Q.W. International Law; War Crimes 

QUINCY WRIGHT, AM, PhD, LL D Professor of Inter- 
national law. University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois Author ol 
A Study oj War, etc 

R.A.B. Ex-Servicemen's Organizations (/// part) 

RICHARD A BROWN Executive Secretary, Veterans' Organiza- 
tions Information Service, New York, N Y 

R.A.Bn. Advertising (in part) 

ROGtR A BARTON. Editor, Advertising Agencv Magazine and 
Advertising Handbook, New York, NY. Lecturer in Adveihsmg, 
Columbia University, New York, N Y. 

Ra.L. Endocrinology (/// part) 

RACHMIEL LEVINE, M D Director of Metabolic and Endocrine 
Research, Michael Reese Hospital, Professorial Lecturer, Depart- 
ment of Physiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 
Author of Carbohydrate Metabolism (with Dr S Soskin) 

H.Ba. Consumer Credit (/// part) 

ROBERT BARTELS. Associate Professor of Marketing, The 
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio Co-author (with F N. 
Beckman) Credits and Collections in 'Iheory and Practice. 

R.B.B. Leather (in part) 

RALPH B BRYAN. Technical Consultant, Mottershead Associates, 
Chicago, Illinois. Editor-in-chief, J.ncydopcrdia of the Shoe and 
Leather Industry. 

R.Cch. English Literature (in part) 

RICHARD CHURCH. Director of English Festival of Spoken 
Poetry; Examiner in Poetics to London University. Author of 
Collected Poems, 20th Century Psalter, etc 

R.C.-W. Philosophy 

RUPERT CRAWSHAY-WILL1AMS, B A Writer on Philosophy 
and the Psychology of Language and Reasoning. Author of The 
Comforts of Unreason, A Study of the Motive? behind Irrational 
Thought. 

H.D.B. Rowing (in part) 

RICHARD DESBOROUGH BURNELL, BA Rowing Corres- 
pondent, The Times, London Editor, British Rowing Almanack. 

R.d'E. Brazil 

RAUL d'FXA, MA, PhD. Public Affairs Officer, American 
Consulate, Recife (Pernambuco), Brazil Co-author of Outline 
History of Latin America. 

R.F..BS. Literary Prizes (in part 

RUTH ELLEN BAINS, B A Assistant to the Book Editor, R. R 
Bowker Co , New York, N.Y. 

R.E.E.H. Baptist Church 

REUBEN E E. HARKNESS, M A , B.D , Ph.D President, The 
American Baptist Historical Society; Professor of History of Christi- 
anity, Crozer Seminary, Chester, Pennsylvania. 



CONTRIBUTORS 



xv 



R.F.Anl. Rrifkh Cminril 

SIR RONALD FORBES ADAM, Bt , G.C.B , DSO, OBE 
Chairman and Director-General of the British Council. 

R.G.D.A. Prices (in Dart} 

ROY GEORGE DOUGLAS ALLEN, O.B E , M.A.. D Sc (Econ ). 
Professor of Statistics, University of London Author of Mathe- 
matical Analysis for Economists, Statistics for Economists; etc 

R.C.L. Inventors, Awards to 

RHYS, GERRAN LLOYD, M A , B Sc , Barnstcr-at-Law Prac- 
tising Barrister (Patent Bar); Secretary of Royal Commission on 
Awards to Inventors, Great Britain. 

R.H.FrR. Arthritis 

RICHARD HAROLD FREYBERG, M D. Associate Professor of 
Clinical Medicine, Cornell University Medical College, Director of 
the Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital for Special Surgery, 
New York, N Y. Assistant Attending Physician, New York Hospital, 
N Y Director of Arthritis Clinics, New York Hospital and Hospital 
for Special Surgery. 

R.H.Ri. Grain Crops (in part): Wheat (in part) 

RICHARD HOOK RICHENS, M.A Assistant Director of the 
Commonwealth Bureau of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Cambridge 
Author of I he New Genetui in the Soviet Union (with P S 
Hudson) 

R.H.S1. Jet Propulsion and Gas Turbines '/// part) 

REGINALD HERBERT SCHI OPEL, F R Ae S Deputy Directoi 
of Engine Research and Development, Ministry of Supply, London. 

R.Is. Anamia 

RAPHAEL ISAACS, M.A., M D Attending Physician in Ha,ma- 
tology, Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago, Illinois Co-author of 
Diseases of the Blood. 

R.J.My. Fashion and Dress (in p irt) 

RONALD JOSEPH MURRAY Features Editor, Men's It' ar, 
London. 

R.Kn. Ireland, Republic of; etc. 

EDMUND RAWLE VALPY KNOX, B A. Member of editorial 
starl, Melhfont Press, Irish Correspondent, Spectator, London. 

R.L.Fo. Accidents (in part) 

R. L FORNEY General Secretary, National Safety Council, 
Chicago, Illinois 

R.L.Hs. Hockey 

RICHARD LYNTON HOLLANDS Hockey Correspondent, 
Sundav limes and Evening Standard, L ondon 

RIn. Boy Scouts (in part} 

LORD ROWAI I AN, MC, T I) , LED Chief Scout of the 
British Commonwealth and Empire 

R.L.S-R. Electronics (in part); etc. 

REGINALD LESLIE SMITH-ROSE. PhD, D Sc , M1EF, 

F I R E Director ot Radio Research, Department of Scientific 

and Industrial Research, London 
R.Man. Cinema (in part) 

ROGER MANVELL, B.A , Ph D. Director, British Film Academy. 

Editor, Experiment in the Film, Penguin Film Review, etc Author 

of Film , etc. 
R.M.Gc. Soil Conservation (in part) 

ROBERT MAC LAG AN GORR1F, D Sc , F R S F. Conservator, 

Rawalpindi Forest Circle, Rawalpindi, Pakistan Author of Use 

and Misuse oj Land, etc 
R M MacD Burma, Union of 

SIR RAIBEART MACINTYRL MACDOUGALL, KCMG, 

C I E , MA Counsellor to the Governor of Burma, 1941-47 
R.N.I I. Billiards and Snooker (;/; part) 

RICHARD N HOLT. Editor, Billiard Player, London. 
R.P.S. Balance of Pa>ments; etc. 

ROBERT PHILIPPE SCHWARZ Author of Brction Hoods, 

E'Autnche de 1918 a 1925. etc 
R.Pst. Moscow 

RALPH POSTON, BA Secretary, Meetings Department, Royal 

Institute of International Affairs, London 
R R W F Fruit (in part); Market Gardening; etc. 

'ROGER ROLAND WESTWILL TOLLEY, BSC, BCom 

Depaitmental Demonstrator, Umvcrsit} of Oxford. 
R S T Munitions of War (in part) 

'ROBERT S THOMAS, A M Military Historian, Historical 

Division, Special Start, War Department, Washington, D C Authoi 

of The Storv of the 30th Division, A F F. 

R lu Political Parties, U.S. 

'RAY TUCKER, B A Writer of Syndicated Column, " The National 

Whirligig " Author of 7 he Mirrors of 1932, etc. 
R U Skiing (In part) 

M'ISS R U CROXFON. Secretary, Ski Club of Great Britain 
K V tt R Navies of the World 

'RAYMOND VICTOR BERNARD BLACKMAN, A. M.I N A., 

A I Mar F- Editor, Jane's Fighting Ships. Author of Modern 
World Hook of Ship v. 
R VV B New Zealand Literature ; etc. 

'ROBERT WILLIAM BURCHFIELD, M A. Rhodes scholar m 

residence at Magdalen College, Oxford 

R W Cr Broadcasting (in part) 

'RUFUS WILLIAM CRATER. Associated Editor, Broadcasting 
Magazine, Washington, D C. 



R.W. J.K. Young Men's Christian Association (in part) 

REGINALD WILLIAM JAMES KEf-BLE, B.A. Secretary, 
Young Men's Chnstia . Associ *ion, London. 

R.Wr. Young Women's ChrKlian Association (in part) 

RUTH CHRISTABEL WALDE^. National General Secretary, 
Young Women's Christian Association of Great Britain 

S.A.L. Prisons (in part) 

SAM A LEW1SOHN Totmer President, American Prison 
Association 

SF.Ws. Albania 

SF.WARD El IOT WATROUS Programme Organizer, British 
Broadcasting Corporauon, London 

S.F M. Museums (in part) 

SYDNEY FRANK MARK1IAM, M A , B I itt. Former Piesident, 
Museums Association, London Hon Associate Director, Inter- 
nitional Coun- il of Museums Author of Museums of the British 
I mpirr' etc 

S.Ifr. European Recovery Programme; etc. 

SFBASIMN HAFFNER, Dr jur. Diplomatic Correspondent, 
Obst' r \cr, \ ondon 

S.J.M . Jet Propulsion an*l Gas Turbines (m part) 

SIDNI ^ JAMIS 1DGAR MOYES, B Sc (Fng ) A Principal 
S;iem lie Otlicer in the National Gas Turbine Establishment of the 
Mnistn of Supply, Great Britain 

S.L.Bn. Country Life 

SAM.bL I EVY BENSUSAN. Authoi of The Heart of the Wild; 
Laiir--(lav Rural England, Woodland Friends, etc. 

S.L L. Furs (in part) 

SAMUEL LFWIS LAZARUS Editor. Fur Weeklv News, London 

S.I, I A. Wool (in part) 

STANFORD L LUCE Secretary, Wool Associates of the New 
York Cotton Exchange, Inc , Boston, Massachusetts 

S.L.S. Clothing Industry (in part) 

STAN LI Y L SIMONS, Ph B , LL D Editor, The Clothing Trade 
Journal Dnector, Garment Technical Institute. 

S.McC. Korea 

SHANNON McCUNE, MA, PhD Associate Professor and 
Head of Department of Geography, Colgate University, Hamilton, 
New York. 

S.McC.L. International Labour Organization 

SAMUEL McCUNE I INDSAY Professor Emeritus of Soc.al 
Legislation, Columbia University, New York, N Y Author of 
Railway labor in the US , Emergency Housing Legislation, etc. 

S.Nr. Formosa (in part) 

STANLEY NEHMER Chief Industrial Resources Section, North- 
cast Asia Economic Branch, Division of Research for Far East, 
Department of State, Washington, D C , Lecturer in Economics, 
American University, Washington, I) C. 

S.P.J. Air Forces of the World (m part)\ etc, 

S PAUL JOHNSTON Director, Institute of the Aeronautical 
Sciences. New York, N.Y 

S.R.S. Glass (in part) 

SAMUEL RAY SCHOLFS Head of Department of Glass Tech- 
nology, New York. Slate College of Ceramics, Alfred, New York. 

S.Sd. Export-Import Bank of Washington 

SIDNEY SHFRWOOD, A B. Secretary, Export-Import Bank of 
Washington, Washington, D C , 

S.S.I f. Stocks and Shares (in part) 

SOLOMON S HUEBNFR, Sc D , PhD President, American 
College of Life Underwriters, Professor of Insurance and Com- 
merce, Wharton School of Finance and Commerce, University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

S.So. Endocrinology (in part) 

SAMUEL SOSK1N, M D , Ph D. Dean, Michael Reese Hospital 
Postgraduate School; Professorial lecturer, Department of Physi- 
ology, I he University ot Chicago, Chicago, Illinois Author of 
Carbohydrate Metabolism (with Dr R Levme) Editor, Progrew 
in Clinical Endocrinology 

S.Sp. Music (in part) 

SIGMUND SPAETH, AM, PhD Lecturer and Broadcaster. 
Author of The Art oj Enjoying Music , A History of Popular Music 
in America, etc 

S.St.C.McN. Antarctica 

STEPHEN ST. CLAIR McNFILF Participated in suivcy in 
Graham land, Antarctica, Geographical Student, Cambridge 
University 

S.Tf. Broadcasting (/// part) 

SOL TAISHOFF President, Editor and Publisher ol Broadcasting 
Publications, Inc , Washington, D C. 

T.Bar. Wealth and Income, Distribution of (in part) 

TIBOR BARNA, B Sc (Econ ), Ph D Fellow of Nutheld College. 
Oxford. Author of Redistribution of Income through Public finance 
T.C. Church of Scotland 

THOMAS CALDWELL, M.A., B.D , Ph D , D D Principal 
Clerk of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland Editor, 
The Church of Scotland Year-Book. 

T.C.BI. International Trade 

THOMAS C BLAISDEI L, Jr. Assistant Secretary for Foreign 
and Domestic Commerce, U S. Department of Commerce, Washmg- 
ton, D.C 

T.E.U. Political Parties, British 

T. E. UTLEY, M.A. Editorial Staff, The Times, London. 



XVI 



CONTRIBUTORS 



T.G.W. Aliens (in part) 

TERENCE GERARD WEILER, B.A. Principal, Aliens Depart- 
ment, Home Office, London. 

T.H.McD. Roads (in part) 

THOMAS H. MacDONALD. Commissioner, Bureau of Public 
Roads, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. 
T.H.O. Physics 

THOMAS H. OSGOOD Director, Division of Mathematical and 
Physical Sciences, Michigan State College, East Lansing, Michigan. 
Editor, American Journal of Physics Co-author of An Outline of 
Atomic Phv\ics. 

T.J.B. Venereal Diseases (in part) 

THEODORE J BAUER, M D. Chief, Division of Venereal 
Disease, U.S. Public Health Service, Washington, D.C. 
T.T.S. Nervous System 

THEODORE THADDEUS STONE, M D . M.S , Ph D Professor 
in Nervous and Mental Diseases, Northwestern University Medical 
School, Chicago, Illinois; Chief and Attending Neuro-Psychiatnst, 
Wesley Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois. 
T. V.H. Badminton (in part) ; Horse Racing (in part) ; etc. 

THOMAS V. HANEY. Member of I he New York Times staff. 
V.B.B. Business Review (in part) 

VIVA BELLE BOOTHE. Director, Bureau of Business Research, 
College of Commerce and Administration, The Ohio State Uni- 
versity, Columbus, Ohio. Author of Earnings in Ohio Industries, etc. 
V.S.S. Paper and Pulp Industry (in part) 

VINCENT STANLEY SMITH. Advertising Consultant to Paper 
Manufacturers. 
W.A. Police (in part) 

WILLIAM AR MIT AGE. Journalist and lecturer on criminology 
W.A.D. Theatre (in part) 

WILLIAM AUBREY DARLINGTON, M.A. Drama Editor 
and Chief Drama Critic, Daily Telegraph, London Drama Corres- 
pondent, The New York Times. Author of The Actor and his 
Audience; etc. 

W.A.Dw. Fencing (in part) 

WARREN A. DOW. Secretary, Amateur Fencers League of 
America. 

W.A.F. Canals and Inland Waterways (in part)-, etc. 

WILLIAM AMBROSE FLERE, A.M.Inst.T River Division, 
Port of London Authority. 

W.B.Mi. Aliens (in part); etc. 

WATSON B. MILLER. Commissioner, Immigration and Naturaliza- 
tion Service, U.S Department of Justice, Washington, D C. 
W.Bn. Afghanistan; Bhutan; etc. 

SIR WILLIAM PELL BARTON, K C LE , C S I hornier Resident 
at Hyderabad, India. Author of India's North- West Frontier', 
India's Fateful Hour; etc. 

W.B.Pu. Presbyterian Church 

WILLIAM BARROW PUGH, D.D , LL.D., Litt.D. States Clerk, 
The Presbyterian Church in the United States of America 
W.C.An. Portugal; Spain; etc. 

WILLIAM CHRISTOPHER ATKINSON, M.A. Stevenson 
Professor of Spanish, University of Glasgow. Author of Spain, a 
Brief History; etc. 

W.Cn. Polo (in part) 

WILLIAM CREAN. United States Polo Association, New 
York, N.Y. 

W.D.K. Christian Science 

WILLIAM D K1LPATRICK. Manager, Committees on Publica- 
tion, The First Church of Christ, Scientist, Boston, Massachusetts. 
W.D.Mn. Photography (in part) 

WILLARD D. MORGAN Editor, The Encyclopedia of Photo- 
graphy. Author of Synchroflash Photography, etc. 
W.E.J. Local Government (in part) 

WILLIAM ERIC JACKSON, LL.B , Bamster-at-Law. Assistant 
Clerk, London County Council Author of Local Government in 
England and Wales; The Structure of Local Government. 
W.E.S. Palaeontology 

WILLIAM ELGIN SWINTON, Ph.D., F.R.S E. t F.L.S. Principal 
Scientific Officer, Department of Geology, British Museum (Natural 
History). Author ot The Dinosaurs; 'I he Corridor of Life', etc. 
W.F.Br. Urology 

WILLIAM F. BRAASCH, BS, M D. Professor Emeritus of 
Urology, University of Minnesota Graduate School, Mayo Foun- 
dation, Rochester, Minnesota. 

W.Fr. Australia, Commonwealth of; etc. 

WOLFGANG FR1EDMANN, LL M Professor of Public Law 
at the University of Melbourne, Australia. Author of The Allied 
Military Government of Germany, Legal Theory. 
W.Ft. Paraguay 

WESLEY FROST, A.M., LL.D. Former Professor of International 
Relations, the American Institute for Foreign Trade, Phoenix, 
Arizona. Retired career diplomat; former Ambassador to Paraguay. 
W.G.P. Netherlands Overseas Territories (in part) 

W1BO G. PEEKEMA, D L. Legal Adviser, Standard-Vacuum 
Petroleum Company. 

W.H.Ctr. Austria; etc. 

WILLIAM HORSFALL CARTER, M.A. Head of Western 

European Section, Research Department, Foreign Ortice, Londorf. 

W.H.McC. Astronomy 

WILLIAM HUNTER McCREA, M.A., Ph.D., B Sc , F.R S.E. 



Professor of Mathematics, University of London (Royal Holloway 
College). Author of Relativity Physics; Physics of the Sun and 
Stars; etc. 

W.II.Oe. Surgery 

WILLIAM HENEAGE OGILVIE, K.B.E., M A., M D., Hon.LL.D 
(Witwatersrand, S Africa), Hon. F.A.C.S., Hon. F.R.C.S.C., Hon 
F.R ACS, Hon M.S (Fouad I, Cairo). Surgeon to Guy's Hospital 
and the Royal Masonic Hospital, London; late Vice-President. 
Royal College of Surgeons, London; Editor, Practitioner. Author 
of Recent Advances in Surgery, Forward Surgery in Modern War, 
Surgery Orthodox and Heterodox, etc. 

VV.H.R. Beekeeping 

WILLIAM HFNRY RICHARDSON. Fellow of the Royal Entomo- 
logical Association, former Chairman, British Beekeepers* Associa- 
tion. 

W.H.Tr. Motor-boat Racing; etc. 

WILLIAM H TAYLOR. Associate Editor, Yachting. Co-author, 
Yachting in North America. 
W.J.Bt. Furs (in part) 

W. J BRETT, BS. Editor, Fur Reporter, New York, N.Y. 
W.J C. Railways (in part) 

WILLIAM J CUNNINGHAM. James J Hill Professor Emeritus 
of Transportation, Graduate School of Business Administration, 
Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts. 

W.J.C1. Co-operative Movement (in part) 

WALLACE J. CAMPBELL. Director, Washington Office, The 
Co-operative League of the U.S A. 

W..T.P. Table Tennis 

WILLIAM JOHN POPE. Honorary General Secretary of the English 
Table Tennis Association. 

W.K.F. Pharmacy 

WILLIAM KENNETH FITCH, M P S. Editor, Pharmaceutical 
Journal, Publications Manager of the Pharmaceutical Society of 
Great Britain Author of Gas Warfare 

W.L.A. Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United Kingdom of 

WILLIAM L1NTON ANDREWS Editor, Yorkshire Post, Leeds; 
Chairman, Joint Editorial Committee of the Newspaper Society and 
Guild of British Newspaper Editors. Author of Yorkshire Folk, etc. 
W.L.Be. Eye, Diseases of the 

WILLIAM L. BENEDICT, M.D. The Mayo Clinic, Rochester, 
Minnesota. Professor of Ophthalmology, University of Minnesota 
Graduate School, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota. 
W.McM. Chemurgy 

WHEELER McMILLEN, LL.D. Editor in Chief, Farm Journal 
and Pathfinder, U.S A. Author of New Riches from the Soil, etc. 
W.Mr. Organization of American States 

WILLIAM MANGER, Ph.D. Assistant Secretary-General, Or- 
ganization of American States. 

W.O.L.S. Juvenile Employment (in part) 

WILLIAM OWEN LESTER SMITH, M.A. Professor of Sociology 
and of Education, University of London. Author of Education in 
Great Britain; etc. 

W.P.K. Medicine (in part) 

WALTER P. KENNEDY, F R.F P S (G.), L.R.C.P.E., L.R.C.S.E., 
BSc, Ph.D, F.RI.C, FRSE. Pharmacologist, Ministry of 
Health, London. 

W.P.Ma. Telegraphy (in part) 

WALTER P. MARSHALL. President, Western Union Telegraph 
Company, New York, N.Y. 

W.R.Gn. South Africa, The Union of; etc. 

WILLIAM RAMSAY GORDON, O B.E., MI I A, M Inst F. 
Editor, Public Works of South Africa and Municipal Affairs, Cape- 
town 

W.R.W. Veterinary Medicine 

WALTER REGINALD WOOLDRIDGE, Ph.D., M.Sc., M.R C.V.S. 
Scientific Director, Animal Health Trust. Author of War Gases and 
Foodstuffs. 

W.T.Ws. Law and Legislation (in part); etc. 

WILLIAM THOMAS WELLS, B.A. Barnster-at-Law; Member of 
Parliament Member of the Lord Chancellor's Committee on the 
Practice and Procedure of the Supreme Court. Author of How 
English Law Works. 

W.V.W. Cinema (in part) 

WALLACE V. WOLFE. Fellow S.M.P E., A S C. President, 
Motion Picture Research Council, Inc., Hollywood, California. 
W.V.Wt. Prices (in part) 

WI LLI A M V WILMOT, Jr. Instructor, Department of Economics, 
University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. 

W.Wb. Polish Literature 

WIKTOR WEINTRAUB, M.A., Ph.D. Literary critic and His- 
torian. Author of Jan Kochanowskl; etc. 

W.W.Bn. Education (in part) 

WILLIAM W. BRICK MAN. Department of History and Philosophy 
of Education, New York University, New York, N.Y.; former 
Editor of Education Abstracts. Author of Guide to Research in 
Educational History. 

W.W.L. Japan 

WILLIAM W. LOCKWOOD, M.A. Assistant Director, Woodrow 
Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton 
University, Princeton, New Jersey. 
X. 

ANONYMOUS 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1949 



JANUARY 

1 : Great Britain. The British Nationality 
act, 1948, came into operation. 

Austria. The British occupation 
authorities handed over control of the 
frontier with Italy to the Austnans. 

Kashmir. A cease-fire, ordered by the 
governments of India and Pakistan, came 
into effect at midnight Dec. 31 -Jan. 1. 

2: Indonesia. General Spoor, commander 
of the Netherlands forces, declared that 
action in Java had ended on Dec. 31. 

4: South Africa. Dr. Mears, secretary for 
native affairs, announced that the govern- 
ment intended to abolish the Natives* 
Representative council. 

O.E.E.C. The interim report of the 
Organization for European Economic 
Co-operation was published in Pans. 

5: Germany. Otto Grotewohl, joint chair- 
man of the Socialist Unity party, announ- 
ced that the Communist party of Western 
Germany had decided to separate from 
the Socialist Unity party. 

Indonesia. General Spoor ordered a 
cease-fire in Sumatra. 

United States. President Truman, 
speaking to congiess called for action to 
combat inflation. 

Cricket. The third test match between 
England and South Africa at Capetown 
ended in a draw. 

6: Great Britain. The prime ministers of 
the United Kingdom and Northern 
Ireland met in London. It was re-affirmed 
that "no change shall be made in the 
status of Northern Ireland without 
Northern Ireland's free agreement.** 

India. The plebiscite arrangements for 
Kashmir, proposed by the United 
Nations, were accepted by the Indian 
and Pakistani governments and pub- 
lished in Kashmir. 

Iraq. The government resigned. 
Nun Pasha as-Said, president of the 
Senate, formed a new cabinet. 

Scandinavia. It was announced that 
ministers of Sweden, Norway and 
Denmark had met at Kailstad, where 
defence matters were discussed. 
7: United States. President Truman 
announced that he had accepted the 
resignation of George Marshall, secretary 
of state, because of ill-health, and that 
Dean Acheson would succeed him. 

8: Great Britain. It was announced in 
London that five R.A F. planes had been 
shot down near the Egyptian-Palestinian 
border. The government protested to 
Israel. 

China. The foreign minister requested 
Britain, France, the United States and 
the Soviet Union to mediate in the civil 
war. 

Transjordan. Requested under the 
terms of the Anglo-Transjordaman treaty, 
British troops were sent to Aqaba, as a 
defence precaution. 

9: Israel. Moshe Shertok refused to 
accept the British protest as it was 
addressed to " the Jewish authorities in 
Tel Aviv'* and not to the provisional 
government. The provisional govern- 
ment protested to Britain at the landing 
of troops at Aqaba. 

E B Y 2 



10: China. General Chen Cheng, governor 
of Formosa, declared that the island 
would be used as a stronghold against 
Communism. 

Egypt. The Wafd party announced 
that it was prepared to enter a national 
coalition government under a neutial 
prime minister. 

Israel. 'I he cabinet decided to chc rge 
Britain before the Security council with 
contravening the resolution forbidding 
the introduction of fighting personnel 
into Israel and the Arab states. 
1 1 : Argentina. The draft o r a new constitu- 
tion was published. It contained a 
provision by which the president or vice- 
president could serve twr consecutive 
terms of office. 

Italy. A two-hour strike was held by 
50,000 workers in 'he Milan area to call 
attention to industrial difficulties in 
northern Italy. 

12: France. T rir Council of Ministers 
agreed on the immediate reduction in 
the prices of ccitain basic commodities. 

13: Pakistan-India. A conference between 
the two dominions at Karachi ended 
with agreement on several matters con- 
cerning evacuee property. 

United Nations. Dr. Bunche, acting 
mediator for Palestine, held separate 
meetings in Rhodes with the Israeli and 
Egyptian delegations for peace talks 

14: Great Britain. At the conclusion of 
discussions in London between Ernest 
Bevin and Robert Schuman it was 
announced that views had been exchanged 
on current international problems. 

China. Mao Tse-tung broadcast the 
terms on which he would insist for peace 
with the Nationalists. 

Poland-Great Britain. A five-year 
trade and finance agreement was signed 
in Warsaw, pro\idmg for an exchange of 
goods worth 130 million. 

Rumania. A law was passed introducing 
the death penalty for offences against the 
state 

South Africa. Serious riots broke out 
between Indians and Africans in Durban. 

Turkey. 'I he government led by Hasan 
Saka resigned 

Western Union. The defence ministers 
of the five member countries met in 
Brussels. 

15: China. The Communist armies cap- 
tured Tientsin. 

Greece. T. Sophouhs, prime minister, 
resigned after attempts to broaden the 
coalition government had failed. 

Turkey. Scmsettm Gunultay was asked 
to form a government. 

16: Greece. King Paul summoned the 
leaders of the ten political parties and 
told them that if they faled to form a 
government within 24 hours he would 
find another solution. The leaders asked 
the King to choose a prime minister. 

Israel-Lebanon. Representatives met 
near the frontier for preliminary armis- 
tice negotiations. 

South Africa. Racial riots ended in 
Durban. 

17: Germany: Western /kines. The three 
military governors announced the setting 
up of a Military Security board. 

1 



International Court of Justice. The 

court icsumed hearings on Britain's 
claim against Albania. 

18: Great Britain. Sir Basil Brooke, prime 
mimstei of Northern Ireland, was 
received in London by Mr. Attlee. 

The government recognized the repub- 
lic of Korea. 

Antarctic. It was announced that the 
British, Argentine and Chilean govern- 
ments had decided not to send warships 
south of latitude 60 during the 1948-49 
antarctic season. 

Austria. The government announced 
that Hungary had denounced the Austro- 
Hungarian agi cement of 1926 on local 
frontier traffic. 

Greece. King Paul asked M. Sophouhs 
to form a government. 

19: Great Britain. The government declined 
the Chinese government's invitation to 
assist in mediation m China. 

Greece. M. Sophouhs formed a govern- 
ment of 10 Liberals, 12 Populists and 
6 other members. 

W.F.T.U. The British, Dutch and 
United States delegates withdrew from 
the federation during a meeting in Paris. 

20: India. A conference on Indonesia sum- 
moned by Pandit Nehru, opened in 
Delhi. 19 countries were represented. 
United States. Harry S. Truman was 
inaugurated as president. In his inaugural 
speech he re-affirmed his nation's belief 
in the rights of man and its determination 
to work for peace. 

21: China. General Chiang Kai-shek 
retired from the presidency and General 
Li Tsung-jen became acting president. 

France. The government published 
details of the issue of a 5% loan to 
raise 100,000 million francs for recon- 
struction. 

United Nations. The U.S.A., China, 
Norway and Cuba submitted a resolution 
to the Security council to settle the 
Indonesian problem. 

22: China. Peking surrendered to the 
Communists. 

Rumania. A government decree 
abolished the police and replaced it by 
a militia. 

23: India. The conference in Delhi on 
Indonesia ended, having adopted three 
resolutions, the first of which was for- 
warded to the Security council. 

Japan. Elections were held for the 
House of Representatives. The Demo- 
cratic-Liberal party obtained 264 seats 
out of a total of 466. 

24: France. The government granted de 
facto recognition to Israel. 

Scandinavia. Ministers of Sweden, 
Denmaik and Noiway concluded a three- 
day meeting n Copenhagen, on economic 
and defence matters. 

25: Great Britain. The report of the 
Lynskey tribunal was issued. 

Eastern Europe. The formation of a 
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance 
between the U S.S.R., Bulgaria, Czecho- 
slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Rumania 
was announced 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1949 



Israel. The first parliamentary elections 
were held. Mapai (Labour party) 
emerged as the largest party with 46 
seats out of 120. 

26: Great Britain. Mr. Bevin defended his 
Palestine policy in the House of Com- 
mons. The House supported him by 
283 votes to 193. 

Australia. The Nationality Citizenship 
act came into operation. 

China. The government announced 
that its offices would be moved from 
Nanking to Canton by Feb. 5. 

Rumania-Poland. A treaty of military 
assistance and friendship was signed in 
Bucharest. 

United States. An international wheat 
conference opened in Washington. Fifty- 
five countries were represented. 

27: Argentina. Miguel Miranda, chairman 
of the National Economic council, 
resigned and was succeeded by Ramon 
Cereijo. 

Eire. The leaders of the mam political 
parties met in Dublin to consider means 
of assisting anti-partition candidates in 
the Northern Ireland general election. 

Greece. Terms were published in 
Belgrade under which the ** free govern- 
ment " would be prepared to co-operate 
with the government in Athens. 

Turkey. Athmagoras I was enthroned 
as Oecumenical Patriarch. 

Western Union. The foreign ministers 
of the Brussels treaty powers met in 
London. 

28: Czechoslovakia. General H. Pika, 
former deputy chief of the general staff, 
was sentenced to death for espionage. 
United Nations. Dr. van Royen (Nether- 
lands) opposed the four-power resolution 
on Indonesia before the Security council. 
It was subsequently adopted. 

29: Israel. De facto recognition was 
granted by Great Britain, Belgium, the 
Netherlands, Luxembourg, Norway and 
New Zealand. Israel had now been 
recognized by 33 states. 

Norway. A note was received from the 
Soviet Union requesting information on 
Norway's attitude to the North Atlantic 
treaty. 

United Nations. The commission for 
Indonesia held its first meeting in 
Batavia. 

30: Germany: Western Zones. The Centre 
party rejected a proposal from the 
Christian Democrat party that the two 
parties should amalgamate. 

Paraguay. President Juan Natalicio 
Gonzalez was deposed in a revolution led 
by Dr. Felipe Molas Lopez. General 
Raimundo Rolon was elected provisional 
president. 

Scandinavia. Talks in Oslo on a common 
defence pact failed to reach agreement. 

Soviet Union. Marshal Stalin's replies 
to questions put by a U.S. press agency 
were published. Stalin stated he had no 
objection to a meeting with President 
Truman to consider a " pact of peace.*' 

United Nations. Invitations were sent 
to Iraq, the Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, 
Syria, Transjordan and the Yemen to 
attend the Rhodes peace talks. 

31 : United States. De jure recognition was 
granted to Israel and to Transjordan. 

Uruguay. Ownership of British rail- 
ways was transferred to the government. 



FEBRUARY 

1 : Burma. Thakin Nu stated that the 
goveinmcnt was prepared to grant a 
separate state to the Karens but would 
not permit its secession. 

Germany: British Zone. Max Reimann, 
the Communist leader, was sentenced to 
three months' imprisonment for making a 
subversive speech. 

Hungary. An Independence fiont was 
foimed, consisting of the Workeis', 
Smallholders' and National Peasant 
parlies and other organizations. M. 
Rakosi was elected president. 

2. Pakistan. The East Bengal govern- 
ment closed the Pakistan-Burma frontier 
to prevent Communist infiltration among 
refugees from Arakan. 

3: Canada. Louis St. I^aurent said in a 
broadcast that the British North America 
act should be amended to allow changes 
in it to be made without reference to the 
Imperial parliament. 

Council of Europe. The permanent 
commission of Western Union in London 
began drafting the constitution. 

4: Eire. The government decided to 
nationalize the public transport system. 

Germany: Western Zones. The British 
and United States military governors 
announced further intensification of the 
counter-blockade of the Soviet zone. 

Greece. It was announced that 
General Markos, leader of the Greek 
Communists, had been relieved of his 
post. 

Iran. The Shah was shot at and slightly 
injured. 

5: Cyprus. The resignation of Lord 
Winstcr, governor of Cypius from 1947, 
was announced. 

E.C.A. The administration withdrew 
charges that Britain, Belgium and the 
Netherlands had resold E.R.P. shipments 
of aluminium and lead to the United 
States at a profit. 

Germany. E. Reuter, lord mayor of 
Berlin, arrived in London for conver- 
sations with British ministers. 

Iran. The government dissolved the 
Tudeh party. 

Soviet Union. The government offered 
Norway a non-aggression pact, which 
was not accepted. 

7: Canada. Louis St. Laurent intioduced 
a resolution in parliament approving the 
union with Newfoundland. 

North Atlantic Treaty. H. Lange, 
foreign minister of Norway, arrived in 
Washington to seek information on the 
proposed treaty. 

8: Hungary. Cardinal Mmdszenthy and 
six otheis accused with him were found 
guilty of treason at a trial in Budapest. 

United Nations. The Security council 
began discussions on disarmament. 

9. Austria. The deputies of the British, 
U.S , Soviet and French foreign ministers 
met in London to resume discussions on 
an Austrian peace treaty. 

10: Great Britain-Egypt. Agreement was 
announced for a hydro-electric and 
iingation scheme for the head waters 
of the Nile. 

Bulgaria. Fifteen protestant pastors 
were to be tried on charges of espionage. 

Germany: Western Zones. Ihe main 
committee of thr parliamentary council 
decided to accept Berlin as the 12th land 
in the West German state. 



India. Nathuram Vinayak Godse, the 
assassin, and Narayan Apte were found 
guilty of the murder of Mahatma Gandhi 
in Jan. 1948 and were sentenced to death. 

Northern Ireland. A geneial election 
was held for the House of Commons. 
The Unionist party obtained a majority 
of 22 over all other parties. 

11: Austria. The allied council refused to 
authorize the Austrian Democratic union 
as a political party. 

Malaya. The Penang council, by 15 
votes to 10, rejected a proposal to secede 
from the federation of Malaya. 
Portugal. Geneial Norton de Mattos 
withdrew as a presidential candidate. 

12: Great Britain. Earl Baldwin of Bewd- 
ley, governor of the Leeward Islands, 
arrived in London for consultations 

Egypt. Sheikh Hassan el-Banna, leader 
of the Moslem Brotherhood, was assas- 
sinated in Cairo. 

Germany: Western Zones. The sen- 
tence on Max Reimann was suspended 
in order that he might continue to serve 
on the pailiamcntary council at Bonn. 

Japan. Shigeru Yoshida was elected 
prime minister. 

13: Czechoslovakia. General KutelwaSr, 
who organized the rising in Pi ague in 
May 1945, was arrested with 14 others 
on charges of espionage. 

France. Andre Mane, minister of 
justice, resigned on grounds of ill-health 
and was replaced by R. Lccouit. 

Portugal. Voting took place in the 
presidential election. Marshal Oi>car 
Carmona was re-elected by 941,863 votes 
against 4,789 to General de Mattos. 

14: Australia. A conference of federal and 
state ministers agiccd on plans for a 
A170 million Snowy nver hydro- 
electric project. 

Burma. Pailiament passed the Demo- 
cratic Local Self-Government bill which 
replaced the old system of village 
administration by one providing for 
elected councils. 

Israel. The Knesset (parliament) met 
for the first time. 

United Nations. The U.S A. charged 
the Soviet Union bclore the Economic 
and Social council with employing forced 
labour on a large scale. 

15: China. General Li Tsung-jen, acting 
president, repeated his determination to 
negotiate a peace with the Communists. 

Denmark. The last German refugees 
left the country 

Eire. John Costello, prime minister, 
speaking to the Fine Gael party, said 
that ** the end of partition was envisaged 
in our time " 

O.E.E.C. A nine-power ministerial 
committee met in Paris under Paul-Henri 
Spaak of Belgium. 

16: Africa. Representatives of Southern 
and Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland 
met at Victoria falls to discuss federation. 

Israel. The Knesset elected Dr. Chaim 
Weizmann as first president of Israel. 

Japan. Shigeru Yoshida's third cabinet 
was installed in office. 

Malaya. The Penang secession com- 
mittee decided to by-pass the Federal 
Council and to take their case direct to 
the colonial secretary in London. 

World Health Organization. The 
Soviet Union, Ukraine and Byelorussia 
announced their withdrawal. 

Cricket. The fourth test match between 
England and South Africa at Johannes- 
burg ended in a draw. 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1949 



17: O.E.E.C. The council decided to set 
up an eight-power ministerial committee. 
United Nations. The Security council 
referred the application of South Korea 
to the membership committee. The 
application by North Korea was rejected 
by 8 votes to 2. 

18: Germany: Western Zones. The 
millionth ton of supplies was flown to 
Berlin. Ernest Bcvm congratulated all 
concerned in the air-lift. 

19: India. Police started a drive against 
Communists. By Feb. 25, 3,932 Com- 
munists were arrested in Hyderabad. 

Pakistan. The world Moslem con Terence 
opened in Karachi. 

20: Burma. I he regional autonomy 
enquiry commission recommended the 
setting up of a Karen state within the 
union. 

South Africa. Further clashes occurred 
between Indians and Africans in Durban. 

Roman Catholic Church. The Pope 
denounced the life sentence passed on 
Cardinal Mmds/enthy. 

21 Costa Rica-Nicaragua. The ambassa- 
dors of the two states in Washington 
signed a pact of friendship. 

22: France. M. r \ horez, the Communist 
leader, made a hypothetical statement on 
the attitude ot the French people to an 
anti-Soviet war, which was subsequently 
discussed by the National Assembly. 

21 Burma. Rebels advancing on Mandalay 
occupied Mymgyan and Maymyo. 

Eire. Scan MaeBiidc, minister for 
external affaiis, stated that Eire would 
not join the Noith Atlantic treaty because 
of the paitition of Ireland. 

Finland. A vote of no confidence in 
the government was defeated by 2 votes. 

Germany. Representatives of Britain, 
France, United States and the Benelux 
countries met in Pans to discuss frontier 
claims of Belgium, Luxembourg and the 
Nethei lands. 

Indo-China. It was announced that 
agreement had been reached between the 
French government and the ex-Emperor 
of Annam, Bao Dai. 

Siani. \ state of emergency was 
declared throughout the country 

United Nations. The commission for 
conventional armaments agreed by 9 
votes to 2 to undertake a census of 
national military establishments. 

24: Israel-Egypt. An armistice agreement 
was signed at Rhodes. 

Siam. It was announced that a plot 
had been discovered to assassinate the 
prime minister and overthrow the govern- 
ment 

Rockets. In a test at White Sands, New 
Mexico, a two-stage rocket i cached an 
altitude of 250 mi. 

25: Burma. The government announced 
the recapture of Mymgyan and Maymyo. 
Israel-Transjordan. Armistice negotia- 
tions began at Rhodes. 

26: Great Britain. Sir Stafford Cnpps 
issued a statement denying suggestions 
made in New York by Christopher 
May hew, under secretary for foreign 
affairs, that British recovery was com- 
plete. 

Netherlands. The government announ- 
ced that it would seek to transfer its 
sovereignty over Indonesia to a federal 
government considerably before July l f 



Paraguay. General Raimundo Rolon 
was deposed by a " civil and military 
movement." He was succeeded by 
Dr. Felipe Molas Lopez 

Siam. A revolt broke out in Bangkok 
Various public buildings were taken over 
and fighting occurred. 

27: Egypt. In government changes announ- 
ced Ahmed Mohammed Khasi.aba Pasha 
returned to the cabinet as foreign 
minister 

San Marino. A general election resulted 
in the Socialist-Communist coalition 
being returned to power. 

28: Europe. A four-day meeting in Bi ussels 
of the International Council of the Euro- 
pean Movement ended after speeches bad 
been made by Wins' DP Chuichill and 
Paul-Henri Spaak 

India. Inform l talks un Burma were 
held in Delhi between Bandit Nehru, 
Dr. H. V. Lvatt (A istralu), Malcolm 
MacDonald and Arthur B'MtomJey (U.K.) 
and W. H de Silva (Ceylon) 

Siam. The revolt ended. A commission 
was appointed to investigate the causes. 

MARCH 

I . Soviet Union. Prices of food, clothing 
and other goods were reduced. 

United States. The House of Repre- 
sentatives passed the Judd bill, thus 
lifting the ban denying Asiatics the right 
to immigrate to the United States. 

Yugoslavia-Czechoslovakia. A trade 
agreement was signed in Belgiade. 
2: Germany: Western Zones. The 
military governors suggested amend- 
ments to the draft consitution of West 
Germany. 

India. Mrs. Sarojim Naidu, governor 
of the United Provinces, died in Lucknow. 

Soviet Union. 'I he government sent a 
note to Sweden alleging a series of 
persecutions of Soviet citizens from 
Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania. 

3: United States. James Forrestal, 
secretary of dclence, icsigned and was 
succeeded by Louis Johnson. 

4: Burma. The government rejected the 
offer of mediation made after the Delhi 
conference of Feb. 28. 

Germany. Clement Attlce arrived in 
Berlin to inspect the air lift. 

Siam. Three former cabinet ministers 
arrested and charged with plotting 
against the government were shot while 
attempting to escape. 

Soviet Union. A. Y. Vyshmsky 
succeeded V. M Molotov as minister 
for foreign affairs A. I. Mikoyan, 
minister for foreign trade, was replaced 
by M. N. Menshikov. 

United Nations. The Secuiity council, 
by 9 votes to 1, approved the application 
for membership ot Israel. Britain 
abstained and Egypt voted against. 

5: Hungary. M. Rakosi, deputy prime 
minister, announced a purge of the 
National front. 

Soviet Union. A. Gromyko succeeded 
A. Y. Vyshmsky as first deputy foreign 
minister. 

6: Chile. Parliamentary elections were 
held. The government coalition of 
Radicals, Liberals and Conservatives 
secured majorities in both chambers. 

Finland. The prime minister, M. Fager- 
holm, re-affirmed Finnish loyalty to the 
Fmo-Soviet pact. 

Atomic Energy. Tne British ministry 
of supply announced the production of 
plutomum at Harwell, Berkshire. 



7: Council of Europe. Invitations to join 
the proposed council were sent to 
Denmark, Eire, Italy, Norway and 
Sweden. 

Greece. A rebel broadcast announced 
thiit the council of the Macedonian 
National Liberation front had decided 
to increase its propaganda for an 
independent Macedonia. 

Sue/ Canal. An agreement between 
the board and the government of Fgypt 
was signed in Cairo. 

8: Bulgaria. Four of the protestant 
pastors on tiial in Sofia were sentenced 
to life imprisonment. Nine others were 
sentenced to terms of from 5 to 15 years. 

Burma. The government announced 
that elections planned for March 28 had 
been postponed. 

China. Di Sun Fo, prime minister, 
resigned. 

France. An agreement on the future 
status of Vietnam was formerly con- 
cluded in Pans between President Vincent 
Aunol and Bao Dai. 

Israel. The first government of Israel 
was formed David Ben-Gunon remained 
prime minister. 

9: Cricket. England won the fifth and 
last test match between England and 
South Africa at Port Elizabeth. 

10: Soviet Union. The 1949 budget was 
presented to the Supreme Soviet. Expen- 
diture included 79,000 million roubles 
for defence 

United Nations. Members of the 
commission for Indonesia visited Repub- 
lican leaders on Bangka island. 

1 1 : Israel-Transjordan. A cease-fire agree- 
ment was signed at Rhodes. 

Italy. Alcide DC Gasperi told the 
Chamber of the Deputies that the council 
of ministers had unanimously agreed to 
the North Atlantic treaty. 

12: Great Britain. A successful operation 
for lumbar sympathectomy was per- 
formed on King George. 

The War Office announced that the de- 
tachment at Aqaba was being reinforced. 

Burma. Karen forces occupied Manda- 
lay. 

China. By 209 votes to 30 the legis- 
lative Yuan appioved the appointment 
of General Ho Ying-chin as prime 
minister in succession to Dr. Sun Fo. 

13: Argentina. The Constituent Assembly 
approved the new constitution giving 
additional powers to the president. 

Benelux. A conference of ministers of 
Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxem- 
bourg at The Hague ended with agree- 
ment for the provisional economic 
union to operate from July 1, 1949. 

North Atlantic Treaty. B. Benediktsson, 
foreign minister of Iceland, arrived in the 
United States to seek information on the 
proposed treaty. 

14: Burma. The government offered an 
amnesty to all insurgents and also agreed 
to offer the Karens a separate state 
within the union. 

Soviet Union. Further government 
changes were announced. N. A. Vozne- 
sensky, head of the planning commission, 
was replaced by M. Z. Saburov. 

United States. John L. Lewis called 
out on strike 425,000 coal-miners in 
protest against the appointment of James 
Boyd as director of mines 
15: Great Britain. The economic survey 
for 1949 was published, fhe first main 
objective laid down was increased exports 
to the dollar countries. 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1949 



The rationing of clothes and textiles 
was abolished. 

America. The committee on dependent 
territories of the Organization of Ameri- 
can States met in Havana, Cuba. 

16: Argentina. Piesident Per6n took the 
oath of allegiance to the new constitu- 
tion. 

Austria. The government granted 
de facto recognition to Israel the 46th 
state to give recognition. 

France. The Council of Ministers 
approved the terms of the North Atlantic 
treaty. 

North Atlantic Treaty. The eight 
negotiating nations invited Denmark, 
Iceland, Italy and Portugal to join the 
treaty. 

South Africa. N. C. Havenga, finance 
minister, presented his budget to the 
House of Assembly and denied that the 
country was heading for bankruptcy. 

17: Burma. The government's offer of an 
amnesty directed towards the Karens in 
Insein expired without a reply. 

18: Italy. The Chamber of Deputies 
concluded a seven-day debate on the 
North Atlantic treaty. 342 votes were 
cast in favour, 170 against. 

20: Germany: Western Zones. The three 
military governors announced that the 
west mark would be the only legal tender 
in western Berlin. 

21 : Syria. The government informed the 
acting mediator of its willingness to 
negotiate with Israel. 

Transjordan, The government requested 
military aid from Britain to defend its 
southern frontier from Isiaeli attack. 

United Nations. Admiral Chester 
Nimitz, U.S. navy, was appointed as 
Kashmir plebiscite administrator. 

22: Canada. The budget introduced by 
D. C. Abbott provided for a revenue of 
$2,768 million. He announced substan- 
tial tax cuts. 

Czechoslovakia. Captain P. Wildash 
of the British embassy was arrested and 
charged with plotting against the state. 
He was later released and ordered to 
leave the country. 

Hungary. Two U.S. assistant military 
attach6s were ordered to leave Hungary 
on charges of spying. 

23: Israel-Lebanon. An armistice agree- 
ment was signed. 

Leeward Islands. The governor, Earl 
Baldwin of Bewdley, returned to the 
islands after consultations in London. 

International Wheat Council A four- 
year agreement was signed by delegates 
from 37 countries. 

24: China. The government decided to 
communicate with the Communists ex- 
pressing the hope that they would 
promptly appoint delegates for peace 
negotiations, and suggest a time and place 
for the talks. 

Denmark. The Folketing voted in 
favour of joining the North Atlantic 
treaty by 1 19 votes to 23. 

Siam. The State Council announced 
the ratification of a new constitution. 

Soviet Union. Marshal A. M. Vasi- 
levsky was appointed minister of the 
armed forces in succession to Marshal 
N. A. Bulganin. 

26: France-Italy. A treaty was signed in 
Paris providing for the establishment of 
a customs union within one year and full 
economic union within six years. 



Germany. The Benelux countries, 
France, Great Britain and the United 
States announced agreement on minor 
frontier changes in western Germany. 

Rowing. In the university boat race 
Cambridge beat Oxford by i length. 

27: China. The Communists named April 1 
for peace talks to be held in Peking. 

O.E.E.C. The council of the O.E.E.C. 
in Pans approved the plan of action for 
European recovery in 1949-50. 

28: Canada. It was announced that Sir 
Albert Walsh would be the lieutenant 
governor of Newfoundland after the 
union with Canada. 

Council of Europe. Representatives of 
10 countries met in London to prepare a 
draft constitution for the council. 

Israel. P'ans were announced for the 
transfer of five Israeli ministries from 
Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. 

South Africa. The parliament approved 
an interim customs union with Southern 
Rhodesia. 

United States A three-day " Cultural 
and Scientific Conference for World 
Peace " ended in New York. 

29: Canada. The House of Commons 
approved the terms of the North Atlantic 
treaty by 149 votes to 2. 

Norway. The Storting approved 
Norway's accession to the North Atlantic 
treaty. 

Soviet Union. General V. I. Chuykov 
was appointed to succeed Marshal V. 
D. Sokolovsky as commander of the 
Soviet forces in Germany. 

30: Iceland. The Althing voted by 37 
votes to 10m favour of joining the North 
Atlantic treaty. 

India. The United State of Rajasthan 
was inaugurated at Jaipur. 

Portugal. After consultations with the 
Spanish government it was announced 
that Portugal had decided to join the 
North Atlantic treaty. 

Syria. The government was overthrown 
in a bloodless coup d'etat. Colonel 
Husni ez-Zaim proclaimed himself acting 
president 

31: Egypt - Great Britain. A financial 
agreement for 1949 was signed in Cairo. 

APRIL 

1 : Belgium. The cabinet approved the 
transfer of about 10 sq. mi. of German 
territory to Belgium. 

Canada. Celebrations were held to 
mark the entry of Newfoundland into 
the confederation of Canada. 

E.R.P. It was announced that during 
the first year of E.R.P. grants totalled 
$4,953 million and loans $898 million. 

North Atlantic Treaty. A Soviet note 
of protest against the treaty, alleging that 
it was aggressive, was received by seven 
of the twelve participating nations. 

2: Burma. Socialist cabinet ministers 
resigned. 

India. The states of Travancore and 
Cochin decided to unite. 

3 : Bulgaria-Hungary-Rumania. The three 
governments received notes from the 
British and U.S. governments alleging 
violations of the peace treaty terms. 

Burma. Government forces recaptured 
the greater part of Mandalay. 

India-Pakistan. An inter-dominion 
conference opened in Delhi to settle 
certain outstanoing differences. 

Israel-Trans Jordan. An armistice agree- 
ment was signed in Rhodes. 



4: Bulgaria. It was announced that 
Traicho Kostov had been relieved of his 
post as vice premier and had been arrested. 

France. V. Kravchenko, author of 
7 Chose Freedom, won his libel action 
against the Communist periodical Les 
Lettres Francoises \ in Paris. 

North Atlantic Treaty. Representatives 
of Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, 
Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, 
Norway, Portugal, United Kingdom and 
United States signed the treaty in 
Washington. 

United States. Congress authorized 
further aid to China. 

5: Afghanistan. The prime minister 
established himself at Jalalabad in order 
to arouse support for the government's 
policy concerning the tribal territories 
of Pakistan. 

Burma. Government changes were 
announced. Ne Win was appointed 
deputy prime minister. 

United Nations. The general assembly, 
adjourned from Dec. 1948 in Pans, met 
at Flushing Meadow, New York. 

United States. A request was received 
from the Brussels treaty powers for 
assistance in carrying out their common 
defence programme. 

6: Great Britain. Sir Stafford Cnpps 
introduced his budget. Little alteration 
was proposed in the scale of taxation; 
the total expenditure for 1949-50 was 
estimated at 3,308,368,000, leaving a 
surplus of revenue of 469,382,000, 

7: Great Britain. Elections for the London 
County council ended in Labour and 
Conservatives each having 64 seats, and 
the Liberals 1 seat. 

United States. Notes requesting 
assistance for their defence programmes 
were received from Norway, Denmark 
and Italy. 

8: Bulgaria-Czechoslovakia. It was 
announced that a trade agreement had 
been signed. 

Germany: Western Zones. An agree- 
ment on Germany was signed in Washing- 
ton by the foreign ministers of France, 
Great Britain and the United States. 

Norway. The cabinet declared north 
Norway a special defence area under 
the command of Admiral Tore Horve. 

United States. The Senate authorized 
extension of the European Recovery 
programme by 70 votes to 7. 

Western Union. The defence ministers 
of the Brussels treaty powers concluded 
a two-day meeting at The Hague and 
approved a plan for the defence of 
western Europe. 

9: Great Britain. In county council 
elections in England and Wales the 
Conservatives gained 360 seats and lost 
19, while the Labour party gained 83 and 
lost 338. 

International Court of Justice. The 
court, by 11 votes to 5, declared that 
Albania was responsible for the mining 
of two British destroyers in the Corfu 
channel on Oct. 22, 1946. 

10: Germany: Western Zones. The occu- 
pation statute, to come into force on the 
establishment of the federal republic, 
was published. 

11: Great Britain. Over 7,000 London 
dockers came out on strike against the 
dismissal of 33 men described as re- 
dundant. 

International Trade. A tariff negotiation 
conference opened at Annecy, France. 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1949 



South Africa. The bill giving South- 
West Africa representation in the Union 
parliament was passed by the House of 
Assembly. 

12: Great Britain. The Labour party 
published its programme for the next 
general election under the title Labour 
Believes in Britain. 

The government replied to a Soviet 
note on the North Atlantic treaty and 
rejected the suggestion that the pact was 
contrary to the United Nations charter. 

Burma. Thakm Nu, prime minister, 
arrived in Delhi to confer with Pandit 
Nehru. 

Greece. Following the King's refusal 
to dismiss a minister suspected of illegal 
currency dealings, the prime minister, 
T. Sophoulis, resigned. 

United States. The House of Repre- 
sentatives voted by 354 votes to 48 to 
extend the European Recovery pro- 
gramme. 

13: Germany: Western Zones. Two agree- 
ments between France, Great Britain 
and the United States on dismantling 
were published. 

Indonesia. Representatives of II 
countries met in Delhi to rrview the 
situation in Indonesia. 

Israel-Syria. It was announced that a 
cease-fire agreement had been signed. 

Italy-Yugoslavia. Two agreements, 
for fishing rights and for the transfer 
of nine Italian naval vessels, were signed. 

O.E.E.C. A two-day meeting of the 
council ended in Pans. Paul-Henri 
Spaak was re-elected president. 

14* Greece. A new government was sworn 
in. T. Sophoulis remained prime minister. 

Indonesia. Discussions between Dutch 
and Indonesian republicans opened in 
Batavia. 

United Nations. The general assembly 
approved by 43 votes to 6 a resolution 
calling for moderation in the use of the 
veto. 

15: Great Britain. The London dockers 
voted to return to work. 

Germany. Widespread criticism was 
made of the Allied agreements on dis- 
mantling. 

Japan. The government decided to 
form an advisory council to study popu- 
lation problems. 

16: Hungary-Czechoslovakia. A treaty of 
friendship, co-operation and mutual 
assistance was signed in Budapest. 

Paraguay. Dr. Felipe Molds Lopez, 
the only candidate, was elected president. 

Syria. Colonel Husni ez-Zaim formed 
a government, he himself becoming 
prime minister, minister of defence and 
of the interior. 

17: Bulgaria. V. Kolarov was appointed 
to act for the prime minister G. Dimitrov 
during his absence in the Soviet Union 
owing to illness. 

Italy. Alcide De Gasperi, prime 
minister, outlined plans for land reform. 

Rumania. Ana Pauker and V. Luca 
were appointed vice premiers. 

South Africa. The government issued 
a report on the riots in Durban in Janu- 
ary. The report stated that 142 persons 
had been killed and 1,087 injured. 

18: Ireland. The republic of Ireland was 
formally inaugurated. 

19: Soviet Union. A joint decree of the 
government and of the Communist party 
announced plans for increasing agricul- 
tural produce by one-half by 1951. 



United States. President Truman 
signed authorization to extend the Euro- 
pean Recovery programme for a further 
15 months. 

20: China. Peace negotiations between 
Nationalists and Communists broke down. 

H.M S. " Amethyst " was fired on by 
Communist artillery and driven aground 
in the Yantse 15 mi. east of Chmkiang. 

France. A Communist - sponsored 
" World Congress ot Partisans of Peace " 
opened in Pans. 

Japan. The 1949 *?0 budget, involving 
an expenditure of 704,667 million yen, 
was passed by the Diet 

21 : Commonwealth Conference. A con- 
ference of the dominion prime ministers 
opened in London. 

Egypt. King Farouk lecuved Colonel 
Husni ez-Zaim, acting president of Syria 

Red Cross Conference. F'fty-six 
countries were represented at the opening 
of a conference in Geneva to consider 
four international com .nt ions for the 
protection of victims of \\ar 

22: Iran. It was announced that 20 Icadeis 
of the Tudeh party had been tried by 
court martial and imprisoned. 

United Nations The ad hoc political 
committee adopted by 34 votes to 6 a 
Bolivian resolution condemning the Hun- 
garian and Bulgarian governments for 
the trials of religious leaders. 

Medicine. At the Mayo clinic, 
Rochester, Minnesota, it was disclosed 
that a hormone, Compound E, might 
eventually prove to be an agent of con- 
trol in ihcumatism, although not of 
immediate practical significance. 

23 : Cochin-China. The territorial assembly 
voted for the inclusion of Cochin-China 
within Vietnam. 

Egypt. The government decided to 
recognize the new Syrian admmistiation. 

Germany-Netherlands. The boundary 
between the two countries was adjusted 
in favour of the Netherlands. 

24: China. Nanking, the capital, was 
captured by Communist forces. 

Indo-China. Bao Dai, ex-empcror of 
Annam, left France to return to Indo- 
Chma. 

25: Belgium. King Leopold had a meeting 
in Berne with the Regent and M. Spaak, 
prime minister. 

Germany: Western Zones. The text of a 
draft agreement by the parliamentary 
council at Bonn on the West German 
constitution was transmitted to the 
British, French and American military 
governors. 

United Nations. The general assembly, 
by 39 votes to 6, with 11 abstentions, 
called on the Soviet government to allow 
Russian women to join their foreign 
husbands. 

Shipping. The Royal Mail turbine 
liner '* Magdalena " ran aground off the 
Brazilian coast, homeward bound on her 
maiden voyage. She broke in two next 
day while being towed to Rio de Janeiro. 

26: Germany. It was announced that 
conversations had been held between 
Y. A. Malik, U.S.S.R., and P. C. Jessup, 
U.S.A., at Lake Success on the lifting 
of the Berlin blockade. 

27: Belgium. M. Spaak reported to the 
cabinet on his talks with King Leopold. 
The Socialist trade unions issued a warn- 
ing that a general strike would be called 
if the King returned against the will of 
parliament. 



France. The franc was devalued from 
1,061 to the pound sterling to 1,096. 

Syria. The government of Colonel 
Husni ez-Zaim was recognized by Great 
Britain and the United States. 

7^- Commonwealth. At the end of the 
conference in London a declaration was 
published whereby the Commonwealth 
governments accepted India's full mem- 
bership within the Commonwealth as a 
republic. 

Ireland. Pandit Nehru, prime minister 
of India, was received on the floor of the 
Da 1 1 

Uganda. The governor proscribed the 
Bataka party and the African Farmers' 
union following disturbances in Kam- 
pala. The province of Buganda was 
declared a distuibed area. 

29: Ireland. D. S. Senanayake, prime 
minister of Ceylon, visited Dublin. 

Uganda. The situation in Kampala 
was reported to be quieter. Police made 
over 200 arrests. 

30: Austria. O. Helmer, minister of the 
interior, announced the government 
would allow unrestricted formation of 
new political parties. 

Germany. A three-day dispute in 
Berlin caused by the Soviet authorities' 
attempt to control canal traffic ended 
with a Soviet promise not to interfere 
with craft of the western powers moving 
in the British sector. 

United Nations. The general assembly, 
by 34 votes to 6, called on Hungary and 
Bulgaria to answer the British and United 
States charge of violation of the human 
rights clause in the peace treaties. 

Football. Wolverhampton Wanderers 
beat Leicester City by 3 goals to 1 in the 
Football association cup final at Wemb- 
ley, London. 



MAY 

1 : Argentina. President Per6n re-affirmed 
the government's policy to nationalize 
all public services including transport. 

Bolivia. General elections were held. 
Fighting broke out in which five people 
were reported killed. 

Egypt. The government decided to 
ask parliament to retain martial law for 
a further year. 

India. Baroda state was formally 
merged with Bombay province. 

Soviet Union. At the May day parade 
in Moscow Marshal A. M. Vasilevsky, 
minister of the armed forces, read out an 
order of the day warning the people that 
the North Atlantic treaty was a threat to 
peace. 

2: Bolivia. The government declared a 
state of siege. 

Ireland. Liaquat Ah Khan, prime 
minister of Pakistan, arrived in Dublin. 

Italy. The resumption of diplomatic 
relations with Albania was announced. 

3: Great Britain. The government's Ire- 
land bill was published. It recognized 
the change of status of southern Ireland, 
but declared it not to be a foreign 
country. The bill also affirmed that no 
part of Northern Ireland should cease 
to be part of the United Kingdom without 
the consent of the parliament of Northern 
Ireland. 

Greece. Parliament passed a vote of 
confidence m the government by 224 
votes to 47. 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1949 



Soviet Union. The government 
announced a state loan of 20,000 million 
roubles, redeemable in 20 years, for 
economic development. 

Transjordan. King Abdullah accepted 
the resignation of his cabinet. 

4: Belgium. The Chamber of Deputies 
ratified the North Atlantic treaty by 139 
votes to 22. 

Council of Europe. Ministers of Nor- 
way, Sweden, Denmark, Italy, Ireland 
and the Brussels treaty powers reached 
full agreement on the statute of the 
Council of Europe at a meeting in 
London. 

Germany. P. C. Jessup (U.S.), Y. A. 
Malik (U.S.S.R.), J. Chauvel (France) 
and Sir Alexander Cadogan met in New 
York. Agreement was reached on the 
lifting of the Berlin blockade. 

Ireland. Patrick McGilligan, minister 
of finance, presented his budget to the 
Dail. He proposed a reduction of (x/. 
in the standard rate of income tax. 

5: Great Britain. It was announced that 
the government had decided to drop the 
charges of war crimes against Field 
Marshal von Rundstedt and General 
Strauss. 

Council of Europe. The statute of the 
Council of Europe was signed in London 
by representatives of Belgium, Denmark, 
France, Great Britain, Ireland, Italy, 
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway and 
Sweden. 

7: Indonesia. The preliminary conference 
at Batavia agreed that the Republican 
government should return to Djokjakarta, 
guerrilla warfare cease and a round table 
conference be held at The Hague. 

Transjordan. The cabinet was reshuffled. 
Tawfiq Pasha Abulhuda remained prime 
minister. 

8: Germany: Western Zones. The basic 
law of the West German state was passed 
by 53 votes to 12 in the parliamentary 
council at Bonn. 

Italy. Count Sforza returned to Rome 
after reaching agreement with Ernest 
Bcvin on a new plan for the former 
Italian colonies. The ministers proposed 
that Tripolitania would return to Italian 
trusteeship in 1951. 

9: Monaco. Prince Louis II died. He was 
succeeded by Prince Rainier. 

10: Council of Foreign Ministers. The 

deputies who had been discussing the 
draft Austrian peace treaty for three 
months adjourned. 

Germany: Western Zones. The 
parliamentary council decided that Bonn 
should be the capital of Western 
Germany. 

Ireland. The Dail unanimously passed 
a resolution protesting at the action of 
the British government in introducing 
its bill upholding the status of Northern 
Ireland. 

1 1 : Austria. Parliament unanimously 

passed a resolution appealing to the 

four powers to conclude a peace treaty. 

Council of Europe. The preparatory 

commission held its first meeting in Paris. 

United Nations. The general assembly 

admitted Israel as the 59th member state 

by 37 votes to 12. 

12: Great Britain. The House of Commons 
approved the North Atlantic treaty by 
333 votes to 6. 

Germany. At one minute after mid- 
night the blockade of Berlin was lifted. 



The western military governors 
approved the constitution for a federal 
republic of Western Germany. 

13: Great Britain-Israel. It was announced 
that the status of the representatives in 
Tel Aviv and London would be raised to 
ministers. 

14: Germany. A charter for the western 
sector of Berlin, on the lines of the 
occupation statute for Western Germany, 
was agreed to by France, Great Britain 
and the U.S.A. 

Libya. A state of emergency was pro- 
claimed in Tripoli after demonstrations 
and stnkes against the Bevm-Sforza 
agreement. 

Paraguay. Dr. Felipe Molas L6pez 
was insta'led as president. 

United Nations. The general assembly 
approved a proposal inviting South 
Africa, India and Pakistan to discuss the 
treatment of Indians in the Union at a 
round-table conference. 

The convention on news transmission 
and rights of correction was adopted by 
33 votes to 6. 

15: Germany: Soviet Zone. Elections on a 
single-list system began for the third 
People's Congress. 

Hungary. Elections were held for the 
National Assembly. 95% of the votes 
cast were for the People's Independence 
front. 

16: China. Communist troops entered 
Hankow. 

United Nations. The general assembly 
failed to give a two-thirds majority to a 
proposal calling for the resumption of 
diplomatic missions in Spain. 

17: Germany: Soviet Zone. Results were 
published for elections to the People's 
Congress. 66 1 % of the votes cast were 
in favour of the single list of candidates, 
33-9% against. 

India. The Constituent Assembly 
approved the agreement on India reached 
at the Commonwealth conference. 

Israel-Syria. Armistice talks were 
suspended until further proposals would 
be made by the acting mediator. 

18: Great Britain. Five parliamentary 
private secretaries were dismissed because 
they voted against the Ireland bill. 

K. Zilhacus and L. J. Solley were 
expelled from the Labour party. 

International Bank. It was announced 
that the executive directors had accepted 
the resignation of John McCloy (appointed 
U.S. high commissioner in Germany) 
and had appointed Eugene Black to 
succeed him. 

Italy. About 400,000 farm labourers 
in the Po valley came out on strike for 
better working conditions. 

Spain. General Franco accused Britain 
of failing to keep her promises and quoted 
Mr. Churchill as having promised that 
Britain would help Spain to become a 
strong power in the Mediterranean and 
support her territorial claims in north 
Africa. 

United Nations. The general assembly 
failed to give a two-thirds majority to a 
Bevm-Sforza plan for the Italian colonies. 

19: Great Britain. The discovery was 
announced of a new coalfield near Lich- 
field, Staffordslure, which was expected 
to yield 400 million tons of coal. 

Belgium. Parliament was dissolved and 
elections were ordered for June 26. 



Finland. President J. K. Paasikivi 
pardoned ex-president Risto Ryti who 
had been sentenced to ten years* im- 
prisonment by the war guilt tribunal. 

Germany. The western authorities in 
Berlin protested to the Soviet military 
governor against restrictions on traffic 
from western Germany. 

20: Austria. Dr. Karl Gruber, foreign 
minister, in a speech to the People's 
party congress, called for an early end 
to the four-power occupation of Austria. 

China. The Legislative Yuan asked 
the cabinet to seek United Nations' 
mediation in the civil war. 

France. The government granted de 
jure recognition to Israel. 

Germany: Western Zones. The first 
meeting of the international authority 
for the Ruhr was held in London. 

Greece. Archbishop Damaskmos died 
in Athens. 

It was announced that discussions had 
taken place in New York between A. 
Gromyko (U.S.S.R.), Hector McNeil 
(U.K.) and D. Rusk (U.S.A.) on pro- 
posals for a settlement in Greece put 
forward by Gromyko. 

21 : Germany. Railway workers in the 
western sectors of Berlin went on strike 
in an attempt to enforce the Soviet- 
controlled Reichsbahn authorities to pay 
them in western marks. 

India. The All-India Congress com- 
mittee approved India's continued mem- 
bership of the Commonwealth. 

22: Burma. Insein, ten miles north of 
Rangoon, was occupied by government 
troops. 

Colombia. A new government was 
formed with Colonel Regulo Gaitan as 
prime minister. 

Cyprus. Municipal elections were held. 
About 60% of the electorate voted for 
the Nationalists and 40% for the Com- 
munist party. 

France. The National Assembly passed, 
by 351 votes to 209, a bill empowering 
Cochm-China to join the Indo-Chinese 
states of Tonkin and Annam. 

23 : Council of Foreign Ministers. The sixth 
session of the council opened in Paris. 
Present were Ernest Bcvin (U.K.), 
R. Schuman (France), A. Vyshinsky 
(U.S.S.R.) and Dean Acheson (U.S.A.). 

Hungary. The minister of education, 
Gyula Ortutay, announced the national- 
ization of all theatres. 

South Africa. The government 
announced stringent new restrictions on 
imports from the sterling area and from 
the United States. 

Western Germany. The West German 
constitution was signed at Bonn by the 
members of the parliamentary council. 
The constitution was formally promul- 
gated and the republic came into existence 
at midnight. 

25: China. Communist forces entered 
Shanghai. Occupation was completed 
two days later. 

26: India. The Constituent Assembly 
decided to abolish the reservation of 
seats in the legislatures for minorities 
except for the scheduled castes and Sikh 
backward classes. 

Railways. An electric tram set up a 
new speed record by travelling from Paris 
to Bordeaux in 4hr. 26 mm. 

27: Canada. Provincial elections were held 
in Newfoundland. The Liberal party 
obtained a majority of seats in the 
Legislature. 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1949 



Germany. The Soviet authorities 
stopped further rail traffic from Western 
Germany to Berlin. 

28: Bolivia. Rioting broke out in the tin 
mines of the Patino company. 

29: Greece. It was announced that from 
June 1946-March 1949, 37,934 officers 
and men of the government forces had 
been killed or wounded. 

Syria. The existing political parties 
were dissolved. 

Western Germany. Max Reimann was 
re-imprisoned after being released from 
Feb. 12 to serve on the parliamentary 
council at Bonn. 

30: Australia. It was announced that 
radio-active minerals with a high uranium 
content had been discovered in central 
Australia. 

China. The Nationalist government 
resigned. 

Council of Foreign Ministers. A. 
Vyshmsky rejected a western powers* 
proposal for a united Germany under a 
democratic German government subject 
to limited four-power control. 

31: Great Britain - Argentina: It was 

announced in Buenos Aires that agree- 
ment in principle had been reached on 
a new trade pact. 

Bolivia. The government proclaimed a 
state of siege and outlawed the national 
revolutionary movement, the Communist 
party and the Workers' Revolutionary 
party. 

Luxembourg. The Chamber of Depu- 
ties ratified the North Atlantic treaty by 
46 votes to 5. 



JUNE 

1 : Great Britain. General Sir Brian 
Robertson was appointed British high 
commissioner in Germany. 

It was announced that Britain had sent 
notes to the Rumanian, Bulgarian and 
Hungarian governments informing them 
that enforcement action would be taken 
in consequence of violation of the human 
rights clauses m the peace treaties. 

Cyrcnaica. The British administrator 
in Cyrenaica announced at Benghazi that 
Britain was granting Cyrenaica indepen- 
dence in internal affairs under Emir 
Idns el-Sen ussi. The Emir issued a 
proclamation of independence. 

India. The administration of Bhopal 
state was taken over by the government 
of India. 

2: Transjordan. It was announced that the 
name of the country had been changed to 
the Hashimite Kingdom of the Jordan. 

3 : China. The Legislative Yuan approved 
the appointment of Marshal Yen Hsi- 
shan as prime minister in succession to 
Ho Ying-chin. 

4: O.E.E.C. A two-day meeting of the 
eight-power consultative group ended in 
Paris. Agreement was reached on plans 
for " liberalizing " intra-Europcan trade. 
Horse Racing. The Derby was won by 
Mrs. M. Glemster's Nimbus, ridden by 
E. C. Elliott. 

5; Great Britain. Railwaymen in north- 
east England staged a one-day strike for 
the fourth Sunday in succession in 
protest against lodging turns. 

Colombia. General elections were 
held. The Liberals emerged as the 
largest party. 



Denmark. The centenary of the 
constitution was celebrated. A delegation 
from the British parliament was present 
in Copenhagen. 

6: Great Britain. The annual conference 

of the Labour party opened in Blackpool. 

Australia. The High Court declared 

that petrol rationing by the federal 

government was illegal. 

7: Great Britain. Troops were used in a 
dock strike at Bristol. 2,000 dockets 
came out in Liverpool. 

Gennany. The western commanders 
of Berlin decided to reduce the executive 
functions of the Kommandatura. Its 18 
committees were reduced to seven. 

India. The government took over the 
administration of Sikkim af the request 
of the Maharajah. 

North Atlantic Treaty. Sir Oliver 
Franks, British ambassador in Washing- 
ton, handed Britain's ratification of the 
treaty to the U S. State Oepai tment. 

8 . International labour Organization. The 

32nd conference of the organization 
opened in Geneva. Sir Guildhaume 
Myrddm-Rvans (Great Britain) was 
elected president. 

Siam. The embassy in London 
announced that the name of the 
country would be Thailand, and of the 
people and nationality, Thai. 

Syria. The government signed two 
agi cements with the Anglo-Iranian Oil 
company, the first for the passage of a 
pipe line through Syrian territory and 
the second for the construction of a 
refinery at Tartus. 

9: Canada. Provincial elections were held 
in Nova Scotia. The Liberal government 
was returned to power. 

10: Hungary. A new cabinet was formed. 
Istvan Dobi remained prime minister. 
L. Rajk, former foreign minister, was 
dropped from the government. 

Northern Ireland. An election was held 
for 12 members of the Senate. Nine 
Unionists and three Anti-Partitionists 
were elected. 

1 1 : Great Britain. George Isaacs, minister 
of labour, broadcast an appeal to the 
strikers to return to work. 

Albania. Koci Xoxe, former vice- 
premier, was shot after being sentenced 
to death for collaboration with Marshal 
Tito. 

United States. President Truman, in a 
speech at Little Rock, Arkansas, declared 
that a lasting world peace must have 
three essential conditions: first, the 
United States must be strong and pros- 
perous; second, other nations devoted 
to peace and freedom must also be strong 
and prosperous; and third, there must 
be an international structure capable of 
maintaining peace. 

12: Great Britain. Dockers at Liverpool 
voted to return to work. Railwaymen 
again staged a Sunday strike in north- 
east England. 

Trieste. Elections were held for a new 
local administration. The Christian 
Democrats received the largest number 
of votes, with the pro-Cominform Com- 
munists second. 

13: Great Britain. Railwaymen in London 
voted to " work to rule ** if their wage 
increases were not settled bv July 4. 



Soviet Union. The government rejected 
the British and United States requests 
for a three-power meeting to discuss 
alleged treaty violations by Bulgaria, 
Hungary and Rumania. 

Western Germany. Belgian troops 
occupied the Fischer-Tropsch works in 
the Ruhr after a dismantling squad had 
been refused access. 

14: Great Britain. Dockers at Bristol 
voted to return to work. 

Burma. The Karen National Defence 
organization announced the formation 
of a Karen cabinet with Saw Ba U Gyi 
as prime minister. 

Italy. It was announced that vast 
deposits of petroleum had been discovered 
in the Po valley. 

Cricket. The first test match between 
England and New Zealand at Headingley, 
Leeds, ended in a draw. 

15: Canada. Piovincial elections were held 
in British Columbia. The Liberal- 
Conservative coalition remained in power. 
Hungary. It was announced that 
L. Raik and T Szonyi had been expelled 
from the Communist party as ** spies and 
Trotskyist agents of foreign and 
imperialist powers/' 

United Nations. The Atomic Energy 
commission decided to abandon its 
sittings until the five permanent members 
of the Security council and Canada had 
found a basis for agreement. 

17: Bulgaria. It was announced that 
Traicho Kostov, former deputy prime 
minister, would be excluded from the 
national assembly because of his " anti- 
Dimitrov and anti-Stalin activities.** 

18: Czechoslovakia. Archbishop Joseph 
Bcran seated that he would never con- 
clude an agreement with the state which 
would infringe the rights of the Church. 

Mexico A new parity of 8 65 pesos 
to the U.S. dollar was announced. 

Western Union. The consultative 
council of the treaty powers ended a 
two-day meeting in Luxembourg. 

19: China. Mao Tse-tung addressed the 
preparatory committee of the political 
consultative conference, which, he said, 
would announce the formation of a 
people's republic and elect a coalition 
government. 

Czechoslovakia. Youths demonstrated 
in Prague cathedral while Archbishop 
Beran was preaching. A pastoral letter 
signed by the archbishop was read from 
the pulpits throughout the country. It 
declared that all clergy joining the 
government-sponsored Catholic Action 
committee would be excommunicated. 

Hungary. It was learned that the 
government had repudiated the 1947 
trade agreement with Yugoslavia. 

India. Chandernagore, a French 
possession in India, voted by 7,473 votes 
to 114 to merge with India. 

20: Great Britain. The Royal Commission 
on Population, set up in March 1944, 
presented its report. 

It was announced that the government 
had decided to raise the embargo on the 
supply of arms to Jordan and Iraq. 

Council of Foreign Ministers. A com- 
munique issued after the final meeting 
of the council announced details of 
agreements reached concerning Germany 
and Austria. 



8 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1949 



Dominican Republic. President Tru- 
jillo stated that a rising had been 
attempted in Puerto Plata 

Western Germany. The charter of the 
Allied High Commission for Germany 
was signed by Dean Acheson, Ernest 
Bevin and Robert Schuman in Paris. 

21 : Great Britain. It was announced that 
the four M.Ps. expelled from the Labour 
party had formed a Labour Independent 
group with D. N. Pritt as chairman. 

Australia. Joseph Chifley, federal 
prime minister, asked the state premiers 
to take over petrol rationing. 

Western Germany. The Berlin city 
assembly passed a resolution calling for 
the inclusion of Berlin as the 12th Land 
in the West German state. 

Shipping. " Prinses Astrid," a cross- 
channel steamer, struck a mine off 
Dunkirk and sank after 90min. Five 
of the crew were killed. 



23 : Italy. The general strike of hired farm 
labourers in the Po valley ended. Land- 
owners and the two confederations of 
labour reached agreement. 

Netherlands. The rationing of butter, 
fats, margarine and edible oils ended. 

O.E.E.C. Sir Stafford Cnpps, M. 
Spaak (Belgium), M. Petsche (France), 
A. Harnman (U.S.) and M. Marjoltn 
(O.E.E.C) held talks in Brussels on 
convertibility of drawing rights under the 
intra-European payments scheme. 

Western Germany. The Bizonal Econo- 
mic council called on the western powers 
to stop dismantling of factories in Ger- 
many. 

24: Greece. T. Sophoulis, prime minister, 
died. Konstantinos Tsaldans was asked 
to form a government. 

Pakistan-India. A one-year trade agree- 
ment was signed in Karachi. 

Uruguay. The cabinet resigned after 
the Chamber of Deputies had passed a 
vote of censure on the finance minister, 
Ledo Arroya Torres. 

25: China. The Nationalist government 
imposed a blockade of ports and terri- 
torial waters from Foochow to Man- 
churia. 

Egypt. Mixed tribunals which had 
been in existence for 67 years were ended. 

Ireland-Sweden. A trade agreement the 
the first between the two countries was 
signed in Dublin. 

Syria. Colonel Husni cz-Zaim was 
elected president at an election in which 
he was the only candidate. 

26: Belgium. The second postwar general 
election was held. The Social Christian 
party gained 13 seats in the Chamber of 
Deputies but just failed to secure a 
majority. 

Korea. Kim Koo, a former president 
of the provisional government, was 
assassinated in Seoul. 

Syria. Muhsin Barazi formed a 
government. 

Trade Union International. Representa- 
tives of 38 national trade union centres 
concluded a two-day meeting in Geneva. 
It was decided to set up a new trade 
union international. 

27: Great Britain. 2,500 London dockers 
went on strike in sympathy with Canadian 
seamen who were on strike. 



Argentina-Great Britain. A new trade 
treaty was signed in Buenos Aires. 

Australia. 23,000 miners stopped work 
in a nation-wide strike for higher wages 
and improved conditions 

Canada. In a general election for the 
House of Commons the Liberal party 
under Louis St. Laurent was returned 
with an increased majority. 

Czechoslovakia. The Ministry of 
Education issued a decree stating that 
all Roman Catholic circulars and com- 
munications must first be submitted to 
the state authorities. 

28: Great Britain. A delegate meeting of 
the National Union of Railwaymen 
decided to reject a wage offer from the 
Railway executive and called for a 
go-slow campaign from July 3. 

Belgium. Paul van Zeeland, Social 
Christian, agreed to form a government. 

Germany. Most of the Berlin railway 
workers on strike returned to work. 

United States. Robert F. Wagner 
resigned as a senator for New York. 
Governor Thomas E. Dewey appointed 
John Foster Dulles to succeed him. 

Cricket. The second test match 
between England and New Zealand at 
Lord's, London, ended in a draw. 

29: Great Britain. The Royal Commission 
on the Press, set up in 1947, published its 
report. It recommended that the press 
should establish a General Council of the 
Press. 

Australia. The House of Representa- 
tives passed the Coal Strike bill which 
forbade the trade unions to use their 
funds to assist or encourage the coal 
strike. 

Greece. K. Tsaldaris failed to form a 
government. A. Diomidis was asked to 
try. 

Korea. The last United States troops 
left Korea. 

30: Great Britain. More than 7,250 
dockers were on strike. 

China The British representative in 
Canton informed the government of 
Britain's inability to recognize the closure 
of territorial waters. 

Greece. A new government led by 
A. Diomidis was sworn in. 

O.E.E.C. A two-day council meeting 
ended in Paris. Agreement was reached 
on the outlines of a new intra-European 
payments scheme. 



JULY 

1: Great Britain. The National Union 
of Railwaymen called off its go-slow 
campaign. 

Council of Foreign Ministers. The 
deputies of the foreign ministers 
re-assembled in London to resume 
discussions on the Austrian peace treaty. 

France The high court of justice, set 
up in 1944 to try ministers and senior 
officials on charges of collaboration, 
finished its last case. 

India. Travancore and Cochin were 
merged into one state. 

Bulgaria. Gheorghi Dimitrpv, prime 
minister, died in a sanatorium near 
Moscow. 

Lawn Tennis. The championships at 
Wimbledon ended, F. R. Schroeder 
(U.S.) having \^on the men's singles. 
Miss Louise Brough (U.S.) won the 
women's singles for the second successive 
year. 



3: Afghanistan. The president of the 
Afghan parliament declared that Afghan- 
istan did not recognize the Durand line 
as the frontier with Pakistan. 

4 : Great Britain. Eighty-eight ships were 
idle at the London docks; 8,336 men 
were on strike. 

United Nations. The ninth session of 
the Economic and Social council opened 
in Geneva. 

5: Finland. The markka was devalued 
by 18 1%. 

Germany. The four deputy military 
governors agreed to set up a committee 
to consider questions of trade, finance 
and communications between Western 
Germany and the Soviet zone. 

6: Great Britain. Sir Stafford Cripps told 
the House of Commons that in the three 
months to June 30 gold reserves had 
fallen from 471 million to 406 million. 

Australia. The High Court upheld the 
validity of the Coal Strike act. 

Belgium. Following the failure of 
Paul van Zeeland to form a government, 
Frans van Cauwelaert, Social Christian, 
agreed to try. 

7: Great Britain. Troops began to handle 
food aj the London docks. Over 8,000 
men were on strike. 

Ireland. The government was defeated 
on the estimates for the Department of 
Posts and Telegraphs. 

Western Union. Four-day naval exer- 
cises ended. Admiral Sir Rhoderick 
McGrigor, U.K., was in command of 
vessels of Great Britain, France, the 
Netherlands and Belgium 

8: Great Britain. Discussion on Britain's 
dollar situation opened in London 
between Sir Stafford Cripps, John Snyder 
(U.S.) and D. Abbott (Canada). 

International Refugee Organization. 
Tohn D. Kingsley, United States, was 
appointed director general. 

U.N.E.S.C.O. It was announced that 
Monaco had become the 48th member. 

United States. The trial for perjury 
of Alger Hiss ended when the jury failed 
to reach a unanimous decision. 

9: France. The National Assembly ratified 
the statute of the Council of Europe by 
423 votes to 182. 

Hungary. Cardinal Mindszenthy's 
appeal against his life sentence was 
dismissed. 

Golf. Bobby Locke, South Africa, 
beat H. Bradshaw by 12 strokes to wui 
the British open golf championship. 

10: W.F.T.U. A second congress of the 
federation ended in Milan. Seats were 
left vacant on the executive committee 
for Great Britain, United States, Canada 
and Australia. 

Yugoslavia. In a speech at Pola, 
Marshal Tito stated that the first half 
of Yugoslavia's five-year industrialization 
plan had been completely fulfilled. He 
also announced the closing of the frontier 
with Greece. 

1 1 : Great Britain. A state of emergency 
was declared because of the continuance 
of the London dock strike. 

Philippines. President Quinno and 
General Chiang Kai-shek concluded talks 
in Baguio on a proposed Pacific treaty 
similar to the North Atlantic treaty. 

Western Germany. The British and 
U.S. sectors of Berlin were opened to 
tourists. 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1949 



12: Great Britain. The government 
appointed a five-man emergency committee 
for the docks. 

Egypt. The frontier with Cyrenaica was 
closed owing to the reluctance of the 
British military administration to sur- 
render three ex-members of the Moslem 
Brotherhood. 

13: Great Britain A conference of 
Commonwealth finance ministers opened 
in London to consider the problem of the 
balance of payments between the sterling 
and dollar areas 

Ireland. The Dail unanimously ratified 
the statute of the Council of Europe. 

Italy. The Chamber of Deputies 
passed, by 271 votes to 8, a bill author- 
izing approval of the statute of the 
Council of Europe. 

Roman Catholic Church. The Congre- 
gation of the Holy Office issued a decree 
laying down the penalty of excommuni- 
cation for Roman Catholics who 
professed, defended or propagated Com- 
munist doctrine. 

14: China. Extensive flooding of the 
Yangtse and Yellow livers caused 20,000 
casualties and rendered two million 
people homeless. 

World Council of Churches. A confer- 
ence of the central committee of the 
council ended at Chichester, Sussex. 

15: Czechoslovakia. A bill giving the 
state control over the churches was 
published in Prague. 

Western Union. The defence ministers 
of the Brussels treaty powers met in 
Luxembourg. United States and Cana- 
dian observers were present. 

16: Rifle Shooting. Captain E. Brookes 
won the King's Prize at Bislcy, Surrey, 
with 278 points. 

18: Commonwealth. The conference of 
Commonwealth finance ministers ended 
with agreement on short-term and long- 
term financial policies. 

Australia. Miners in Western Austialia 
returned to work. 

Guatemala. Colonel Francisco Arana, 
chief of the armed forces of Guatemala, 
was assassinated and a revolt was started. 

United Nations. The Palestine com- 
mission resumed negotiations in Laus- 
anne. 

19: Great Britain. The Dock Labour board 
ordered all dockers to return to work. 
The government later repudiated the 
the statement. 

Sir Stafford Cripps, chancellor of the 
exchequer, left for Switzerland to undergo 
treatment for a digestive complaint. 

John George Haigh was sentenced to 
death at Lewes, Sussex, for murder. 
He admitted murdering nine persons. 

Ceylon. The ban on the entry of Dutch 
ships and planes was lifted after being 
in force from Dec. 1948. 

France. President Vincent Auriol and 
the King of Laos signed an agreement by 
which Laos would become a sovereign 
independent state within the French 
union. 

Guatemala. A state of grave emergency 
was declared because of a revolt. 

United States. Prohibition ended in 
Kansas after being in operation from 
1880. 



20: Bulgaria. Vasil Kolarov was elected 
prime minister by the National Assembly. 

Guatemala. The revolt was reported to 
have failed. 

Israel-Syria. After negotiations lasting 
105 days an aimistice agreement was 
signed. 

Soviet Union. The government sent a 
note to Italy protesting at Italy's 
adherence to the North Atlantic treaty. 

21 Great Britain. In a foreign affairs 
debate in the House of Commons, 
Ernest Bevm blan.ed the policy of 
unconditional surrender for difficulties 
of remodelling Geimanv 

Ldbom retained its seat in a by- 
clection at West Leeds. 

Lord Ammon, chairman of the Dock 
labour board, icsigned his post as chief 
government whip in the House of Lords. 

Italy. The Chamber of Deputies 
approved the North Atlantic treaty by 
323 to 160 after a vote the previous day 
had been declared void 

United States. The Senate ratified the 
North Atlantic treaty by 82 votes to 13. 

22* Great Britain. The Foreign Office 
issued copies ot the Corrective Labour 
codex of the R.S.F.S R. (Russia proper). 
Canada. The Canadian Seamen's 
union decided to call off the London dock 
stnke. 

War Crimes. Otto Abet?, wartime 
Geiman ambassador to France, was 
sentenced to 20 years' hard labour by a 
French military court. 

23: Great Britain. The Conservative party 
published its statement of policy and its 
election programme under the title The 
Right Road Jor Britain. 

Belgium. Gaston Eyskens, Social 
Christian, was asked to form a govern- 
ment. 

India. Pandit Nehru told his provincial 
premiers that India should be self- 
sufficient in food by the end of 1951 and 
urged them to put the food drive on a 
war footing. 

Cricket. J. Robertson, playing for 
Middlesex against Worcester, scored 
331 not out --the highest score in England 
since 1938. 

25: Great Britain. Dockers in the London 
docks returned to work. During the 
strike troops handled 107,643 tons of 
cargo. 

Egypt. The prime minister, Ibrahim 
Abdelhadi Pasha, resigned. King 

Farouk asked Hussein Sirry Pasha to 
form a government. 

Germany. The Soviet authorities 
re-opened the crossing points on the 
Soviet zone- West German frontier. 

United States President Truman 
signed the North Atlantic treaty. Later 
he sent a message to congress requesting 
early consideration of a plan for military 
aid. 

26 : Great Britain. The House of Commons, 
by 245 votes to 185, approved the 
government's handling of the London 
dock strike. 

Australia The Privy Council in Lon- 
don dismissed the Australian govern- 
ment's appeal against a High Court 
decision invalidating ttoe Banking act. 

Ecuador. An attempted revolution 
led by Colonel Carlos Manchero, presi- 
dent for two weeks in 1947, was smashed. 



Cricket. The third test match between 
England and New Zealand at Old 
Trafford, Manchester, ended in a draw. 



27: Great Britain. The House of Lords, 
hv 4:> votes to 27, agreed to a proposal 
that legislation should be introduced 
enabling peeresses to sit in the House. 

The Labour party expelled Lester 
Hutchmson, M.P., from the party. 

Australia. A state of emergency was 
declared in Victoria following strike 
threats of tug ciews and seamen 

North Atlantic Treaty. The National 
Assemblies of Portugal and France 
ratified the treaty. 

Aviation. The de Havilland Cornet, the 
first British jet airliner, flew for the 
first time. 



28* Germany. The Berlin city assembly 
passed a bill providing that anyone found 
guilty of trying to abduct persons from 
the western sectors would be liable to 
imprisonment. 

Israel. The government informed the 
Conciliation commission that it was 
willing to take back 100,000 Arab 
refugees. 



29: Germany. The British and United 
States military governments announced 
that the air-lift to Berlin would be 
reduced as from Aug. 1. 



30: Great Britain. Parliament rose for 
the summer recess, havng sat on a 
Saturday for the first time since 1939. 

China. H.M.S. "Amethyst," detained 
in the Yangtse from April 20, slipped 
her moorings and sailed to the open sea. 

Italy. The Senate ratified the North 
Atlantic treaty by 175 votes to 81 

31: Great Britain. H.M. the King 
approved the immediate award of the 
D.S.O. to Commander J. S. Kerans of 

H.M S. " Amethyst " 



AUGUST 

1 : Great Britain. Notes were sent to the 
governments of Bulgaria, Hungary and 
Rumania on the question of violation of 
the peace treaties. 

Belgium. A Socialist party delegation 
conferred with King Leopold in Switzer- 
land. 

North Atlantic Treaty. The United 
States chiefs of staff conferred in Frank- 
furt with military representatives of 
Luxembourg and Italy. 

Rumania. The first collective farms 
were established. 

United Nations The Commission for 
Conventional Armaments approved a 
French proposal by eight votes to three 
for census and verification of armed 
forces of member states. 



2: Australia. Troops began to cut open- 
cast coal in New South Wales. 

Belgium. Delegations from the Chris- 
tian Social and Liberal parties left 
Brussels to visit King Leopold. 

North Atlantic Treaty. The United 
States chiefs of staff arrived in London 
for discussions with military leaders of 
Great Britain, Denmark and Norway. 



10 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1949 



Pakistan. Sir Francis Mudie, governor 
of West Punjab, handed over to Sardar 
Abdurrab Nishtar. 

3: Indonesia. The Dutch and the Indo- 
nesian Republicans ordered a cease-fire 
from noon. 

Netherlands. The Upper House 
approved the North Atlantic treaty by 
29 votes to 2; and thus the treaty had 
been approved by the legislatures of all 
the countries that had signed the treaty. 

New Zealand. A national referendum 
resulted in 535,031 votes in favour of 
peacetime conscription and 134,451 
against. 

4: Italy- Yugoslavia. A one-year trade 
agreement was signed in Rome. 

Korea. It was reported that 4,000 
troops from northern Korea had crossed 
the border into southern Korea. 

North Atlantic Treaty. The United 
States chiefs of staff arrived in Pans for 
discussions with representatives of France, 
Belgium, Netherlands and Portugal and 
with Field Marshal Viscount Mont- 
gomery of Alamein. 

5: Great Britain. The government 
announced that it was referring the 
dispute with Norway over fishing rights 
to the International Court of Justice. 

Belgium. A statement from King 
Leopold was issued in which he declared 
that the political parties and not himself 
were responsible for finding a basis for 
agreement on his possible return. 

Ecuador. A severe earthquake occurred 
in the province of Ambato. More than 
4,000 persons were killed. 

Hungary. The Council of Ministers 
approved a new draft constitution 
modelled on the Soviet Union constitu- 
tion of 1936. 

United States The State Department 
published a white paper on U.S. relations 
with China in the period 1944-49. 

The Senate passed the Foreign Aid 
bill by 63 votes to 7. 

6: Bulgaria. Vladimir Poptomov was 
appointed foreign minister in succession 
to Vasil Kolarov, appointed prime 
minister on July 20. 

7: Iran. Martial law, which had been 
iniposed after the attempt on the Shah's 
life in February, was lifted. 

Aviation. An endurance record for 
let-powered aircraft was set up by a 
Gloster Meteor, piloted by Patrick 
Hornidge, who remained airborne for 
12 hr. 3 mm. 

8: Council of Europe. The committee of 
ministers met in Strasbourg. It decided 
to admit to membership Greece, Iceland 
and Turkey and also approved the 
council's budget for the first year of 
Fr.140 million. 

India-Bhutan. A treaty of perpetual 
peace and friendship was signed in 
Darjeelmg. 

Norway. Fresh, condensed and dried 
milk, cream and cheese were de-rationed. 

Philippines. President Quinno arrived 
in Washington on an official visit. 

9: Great Britain. The Board of Trade 
announced that an agreement had been 
signed for the supply of 100,000 standards 
of softwood from the Soviet Union. 



United States. The joint chiefs of 
staff returned to Washington after conver- 
sations in Europe with military leaders 
of the North Atlantic treaty powers. 

10: Belgium. A coalition cabinet of 
Christian Socials and Liberals was 
formed with Gaston Eyskens as prime 
minister. 

Council of Europe. The consultative 
assembly opened in Strasbouig under 
the presidency of E. Hernot of France. 
101 delegates were present from the 
participating countries. 

Western Germany. Genet al Joseph 
Koenig left Germany after being military 
governor of the French zone from 1945. 

1 1 : Argentina. Dr. Juan A. Bramuglia 
resigned as foreign minister and was 
replaced by Dr. Hip6hto Jesus Paz. 

Council of Europe. Paul-Henri Spaak 
was elected first permanent president of 
the assembly. 

United Nations. The Security council 
decided by nine votes to none to lift the 
embargo on the supply of arms to middle 
east countries 

United States. The president signed the 
National Security bill under which the 
national military establishment became 
the Department of Defence. General 
Omar Bradley was nominated first 
chairman of the joint chiefs of staff. 



12: Red Cross Conference. The con- 
ference in Geneva ended after approving 
four conventions on the care of wounded 
and sick soldiers and sailors, treatment 
of prisoners of war, and the protection 
of civilians. 

Soviet Union. The government announ- 
ced that it regarded Marshal Tito's 
government no longer as a friend and 
ally but as an enemy and opponent of 
the Soviet Union. 

Archery. Mrs. Barbara Waterhousc 
(Great Britain) won the women's woild 
archery championship in all categories in 
Paris Hans Deutgen Sweden, became 
men's champion. 



13: Council of Europe. The committee of 
ministers approved the assembly's agenda. 

14: Australia. Troops were withdrawn 
from the open-cast coal woi kings. 

Syria. Husm cz-Zaim, president, 
and Muhsm Barazi, prime minister, 
were arrested by a group of army officers 
headed by Colonel Sami Hmnawi, tried 
by a militaiy tribunal and shot. 

Western Germany. Elections were 
held in the western zones for the Bunde- 
stag of the West German federal parlia- 
ment. The final result gave the Christian 
Democrats 139 seats and the Social 
Dcmociats 131. 78 5% of the electorate 
voted. 



15 : Australia. The miners returned to work. 

France. Winston Churchill was made 
an honorary citizen of Strasbourg 

Malta. Dom Mintoff, deputy prime 
minister, resigned in London after 
differences with Paul Boffa, prime 
minister, over the conduct of talks with 
the British goveunmcnt. 

Syria. Colonel Sami Hmnawi handed 
over control to a government headed by 
Hashem Bey Atassi. 



16: Malta. E. Ellul, commissioner general 
in London, resigned. 

O.E.E.C. Paul van Zeeland was 
elected president in succession to M. 
Spaak. 

Cricket. The last test match between 
England and New Zealand, at the Oval, 
London, ended in a draw. 

Exploration. Otis Barton, an American 
explorer, descended 4,500 ft. in his 
14 benthoscope " in the Pacific ocean off 
California. 

17: Belgium. The House of Representatives 
passed a motion of confidence in the 
government of Gaston Eyskens by 125 
votes to 64. 

China. The nationalists admitted the 
loss of Foochow. 

18: Chile. Emergency powers were granted 
to the government owing to serious 
rioting in Santiago. 

Finland. Police opened fire in attempts 
to prevent disturbances between strikers 
and workers. Communist-controlled 
unions called strikes in many industries 

Jordan. King Abdullah of Jordan 
arrived in London as a guest of the 
British government. 

Soviet Union. A further note was sent 
to the government of Yugoslavia The 
note stated that the Soviet Union might 
have to resort to more effective measures 
to protect Soviet citizens in Yugoslavia. 

United States. The House of Repre- 
sentatives voted to cut by half the 
290,242,500 arms programme. 

Golf. R. Burton won a professional 
tournament at Brighton, Sussex, with an 
aggregate of 266 for 72 holes the lowest 
in a major tournament in Britain. 

Shipping. Stanley and Colin Smith of 
Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, landed at 
Dartmouth, Devon, after crossing the 
Atlantic in a 20-ft. yacht in 43 days. 

20: Peru. The government broke off 
diplomatic relations with Cuba. 

Golf. The United States retained the 
Walker cup by ten matches to two at 
Winged Foot, New York. 

21* Great Britain. Seven depots in the 
northeastern region of British lailways 
were affected by a resumption of Sunday 
strikes against lodging turns 

France. Forest fires in the Landes, 
south of Bordeaux, caused more than 
70 deaths. About 1 1 2,000 ac. of forest 
land was devastated. 

Western Germany. The Christian 
Democrat and Christian Socialist parties 
decided not to invite the Socialists to 
join a coalition government. 

22 : Great Britain. Sixty-eight pits were idle 
owing to a strike by colliery winding 
enginemen in Yorkshire and Lancashire. 

23: Netherlands. Round-table talks on 
Indonesia opened at The Hague. 

War Crimes. The trial of Field Marshal 
von Manstem opened in Hamburg. 

Yugoslavia. The government in a note 
repudiating the charge of the Soviet 
Union's note of Aug. 18, offered to hand 
over to the Soviet government all Soviet 
citizens detained in Yugoslavia and to 
grant facilities for Soviet citizens to leave 
the country if they wished to do so. 

Disasters. An ammunition ship blew 
up in Takao harbour, Formosa, causing 
500 casualties. 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1949 



11 



24: Finland. The trade union federation 
expelled four unions and ordered the 
timber woikers' union to call off its 
strikes. 

North Atlantic Treaty 1 he rat ifications 
of treaty by Denmark, Trance Italy and 
Portugal were piesented in Washington. 
As all the signatories to the treaty had 
then ratified it, it came into force. 

Swimming. Philip Mickman, an 18- 
year-old Yorkshire schoolboy, swam 
across the English channel in 23 hr. 
48 rnin., and was the youngest person 
ever to do so. 



25: France. The Landes forest fires were 
considered as ended. 83 bodies were 
recovered. 



26: Albania. A committee for free Albania 
was formed in Pans. 

Argentina. The Chamber of Deputies, 
by 96 votes to 28, approved the trade 
agreement with Great Britain. 

China. Communist forces entered 
Lanchow. 



27: Bolivia. A military revolt broke out 
in four cities. The icbels were led by 
dismissed army officers and members of 
the Bolivian National Revolutionary 
movement. 

Eastern Europe. The Council for 
Mutual Economic Aid concluded a 
meeting in Sofia " Current questions 
were discussed and the necessary decisions 
taken." 



28: Burma. The Kaien rebels occupied 
Lashio. 

China. The Communist tadio in 
Peking announced that a Manchunan 
people's government had been cieated 
in Mukden. 

Scandinavia. The ministers for social 
affaits of Denmark, Not way, Sweden, 
Iceland and Finland concluded a thiec- 
day meeting in Oslo They signed a 
convention providing for national old-age 
pensions to be payable in any one of the 
five countries after five years' residence. 

29: Cricket. Yorkshire beat Glamorgan, 
and having obtained 192 points in the 
county cricket championship, shared the 
championship with Middlesex. 

30: Burma. The Sawbwa of Nawngpalang 
state was assassinated by Karen rebels 
at Nawngpalang. 

Greece. '1 he aimy captured the heights 
of Stcno, Goho and Karnenik in the 
Grammos mountains, closing the last 
escape mutes into Albania. 



31: Great Britain. The 111th annual 
meeting of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science opened in New- 
castle under the piesidency of Sir John 
Russell. 

Bolivia. Government forces re-entered 
Cochabama, the rebels' mam stronghold. 

O.E.E.C. The council unanimously 
accepted the revised figures tor the 
allocation of aid for 1949-50. Britain's 
allocation was increased to $962 million 
from $840 million. 

Western Germany. Workers at Ober- 
hausen carried out a planned operation 
against the dismantling of the Ruhr 
Chemie works. 



SEPTEMBER 

1 : Council of Foreign Ministers. The 

time limit for the deputies' talks on the 
Austrian peace treaty expired with nine 
articles still outstanding. 

Hungary. The rationing of bread was 
ended. 

South Africa. An African was shot 
dead in Johannesburg when Africans 
noted after the raising of tram fares to 
native areas. 

2' Aden. Royal Air Force planes " took 
action " against a fort near Naad M irgad 
near the Aden-Yemen boidei 

China. A fire in Chungking caused the 
loss of more than 1,000 lives 

France. Ministers o the Sanr govern- 
ment, headed bv Johannes Hoffmann, 
were received m Paris b> Robcri 
Schuman. 

3* Japan. Malcolm MacDonald, British 
high commissioner in ^/jutheast Asia, 
arrived in Tokyo 

Swimming. Hcrnand Du Moulin, of 
Liege, succeeded in crossing the English 
Channel after swimming for 22 hr. 

4: China. The governor of Yunnan, 
General I u Han, declared the indepen- 
dence of the province 

India Pandit Nehru, speaking at 
Allahabad, said he was surprised at the 
intervention of President Truman and 
Clement Attlee in the Kashmir dispute. 

Aviation. The Bristol Biabazon flew 
for the fiist time and remained airborne 
for 27 mm. 

5' Canada Sir Leonard Cecil Outerbndge 
succeeded Sir Albert Joseph Walsh as 
lieutenant governor of Newfoundland. 

Jordan. King Abdullah of Jordan 
arrived at Corunna and was met by 
General Franco 

Western Germany. Dismantling of 
the Ruhr Chemie plant began; 500 
British troops were on the premises. 

6: United Kingdom. The T U C approved 
the withdrawal from the World Federa- 
tion of Tiadc Unions by 6,258.000 votes 
to 1,017,000. 

Finland. Seven tiade unions were 
expelled bv the trade union federation. 

Thailand The engagement of King 
Phunrphon Adundet to Sinkit Kitiya- 
kara, daughter of the Thai ambassador 
in London, was announced. 

United Nations. A confeicncc on the 
conservation and utilization of the 
woild's natural resources ended at Lake 
Success. 

7- Great Britain. The first annual report 
of the British Transport commission was 
published. In 1948 theie was a net 
deficit of 4,732,824. 

Frnest Bevm and Sir Stafford Cnpps 
arrived in Washington for financial 
talks with the United States and Canadian 
governments 

Australia. Joseph Chifley, in presenting 
his budget to the House of Representa- 
tives, announced that Australia would 
make a further gift of AIO million to 
Britain. 

Western Germany, The federal parlia- 
ment met for the first time in Bonn. 
K. Arnold, prime minister of North 
Rhine- Westphalia, was elected speaker 
of the Bundesrat. A. E. Kohler was 
elected speaker of the Bundestag. 



Swimming. A relay team of six 
Egyptians swam the Channel from Eng- 
land to France, in 11 hr. 11 mm. 



8: Canada. The fourth unofficial Com- 
monwealth Relations conference opened 
at Bmwm Inn, Ontario. 

China. Si n ing was captured by the 
Communists. 

Council of Europe. By 65 votes to 1 
the assembly adopted a proposed con- 
vention for the collective guarantee of 
human nghts. 

United States. The Export-Import 
bank announced that it was making 
grants to Yugoslavia and to Israel. 



9: Bechuanaland. Seretse Khama, chief 
designate of Bamangwato, failed in a 
court action to prevent his uncle, Chief 
Tshekedi, taking into exile catt'e and * 
property inherited from a former ruler. 
Council of Europe. The first session of 
the assembly ended. 



10: Hungary* The indictment against 
Laszlo Rajk, former minister of the 
interior, was published. He was charged 
with conspiring, with Yugoslav help, to 
overthrow the Hungarian government. 

Japan. It was officially announced 
that the atomic bomb which fell on 
Nagasaki in Aug. 1945 caused 73,844 
deaths. 

Paraguay. Dr. Molas Lopez, president 
from Feb. 1949, resigned after the 
government party withdrew its support. 
Dr. Fedenco Chavez, foreign minister, 
was appointed interim president. 



1 1 : Ceylon. It was announced that Lord 
Caithness would be the first commander 
in chief of the Ceylon army. 

Switzerland. A national referendum 
was held. 281,961 persons voted against 
"a return to direct democracy." 272,359 
persons voted in favour. 

Yemen. It was announced that the 
government intended to place before the 
Security council a complaint that British 
planes had bombed Yemen territory. 



12: Israel. A man pointed a gun at David 
Ben-Gunon, prime minister, in the 
gallery of the Knesset, but was prevented 
from firing it. 

United States. The three-power talks 
on the dollar situation ended. A com- 
mumqu6 issued after the conference 
announced that agreement had been 
reached on a ten-point programme. 

Western Germany. Dr. Theodor Heuss 
was elected pres-dent of the West German 
federal republic. He received 416 votes 
against 312 cast for Dr Kurt Schumacher. 



13: United Nations. The Soviet Union 
exercised the veto seven times to prevent 
the admission to membership of Austria, 
Ceylon, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Jordan 
and Portugal. 

International Bank. The annual 
meetings of the bank and the monetary 
fund opened in Washington. 



14: India. The Constituent Assembly 
decided that the official language of 
India should be English to be displaced 
by Hindu in Devanagn script within 
15 years. 



12 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1949 



Scandinavia. The foreign ministers 
ended a two-day meeting in Copenhagen 
and issued an official announcement 
emphasizing their concord on a number 
of points on the agenda of the U.N. 
general assembly. 

t5: Burma. Government troops 

re-occupied Madeya. 

U.N.ESC.O. Israel and Pakistan 
joined the organization. 

Western Germany. Konrad Adenauer 
was elected chancellor by the Bundestag. 

16: Argentina. The Chamber of Deputies 
passed by 72 votes to 22 a bill withdrawing 
gold backing from the peso. 

Hungary. The trial of Laszlo Rajk and 
seven others opened in Budapest. 

17: North Atlantic Treaty. The first 
meeting of the council was held in 
Washington. The council established a 
defence committee consisting of defence 
ministers of member countries. 

Shipping. The Great Lakes steamer 
" Noromc ** was destroyed by fire in 
Toronto docks. More than 200 persons 
lost their lives. 

Golf. United States retained the Ryder 
Cup by beating Great Britain by 7 matches 
to 5 at Ganton, Yorkshire. 

18: Cyrenaica. The Emir enacted a 
constitution for Cyrenaica. 

Exchange Rates. Sir Stafford Cnpps 
announced in a broadcast that the 
British government had decided to 
devalue the pound by 30%. The govern- 
ments of Australia, Ceylon, Denmark, 
Egypt* India, Ireland, Israel, New 
Zealand, Norway and South Africa 
announced similar action. 

Swimming. The English Channel was 
swum three times. Hassan Abderrehim 
(Egypt) swam from England to France 
in 15 hr. 46 mm. Mane Hassan Hamad 
(Egypt } swam from France to England 
in 15 hr. 22 min. and Zannos Zirganos 
(Greece) in 18 hr. 30 mm. 

19: China. Genera* Yang Chieh, former 
ambassador to Moscow, was assassinated. 

Exchange Rates The governments of 
Burma, Canada, Finland, Iceland, France 
and Sweden followed the action of the 
British government by devaluing their 
currencies. 

Malta. At the end of a seven-day 
debate the Legislative Assembly passed 
a vote of confidence in Dr. Paul Botfa 
by 24 votes to 7. 

U.N.E.S.C.O. The 4th session of the 
general conference opened in Pans. 
E. Ronald Walker of Australia was 
elected president. 

20: Ceylon. The House of Representatives 
passed a bill to sever the link between the 
Ceylon rupee and the Indian rupee. 

China. General Tung Chi-wu, governor 
of Suiyuan province was reported to 
have gone over to the Communists 

Exchange Rates. Greece and the 
Netherlands decided to devalue their 
currencies. Austria, Brazil, Iran, Japan, 
Pakistan and Poland decided not to 
devalue. 

Germany. Dr. Adenauer announced 
the composition of his cabinet. Nine 
Christian Democrats were included. 

Syria. Britain, France, Belgium, Iran 
and the United States granted recognition 
to the new government. 



United Nations. The fourth general 
assembly opened at Flushing Meadow, 
New York. General Carlos Romulo, 
Philippines, was elected president by 
53 votes to 5. Lester Pearson, Canada, 
was elected chairman of the political 
committee. 

21: China. Mao Tse-tung announced the 
establishment in Peking of a people's 
republic of China. 

Exchange Rates. The governments of 
Belgium, Iraq, Luxembourg and Portugal 
devalued their currencies. The West 
German government submitted plans for 
devaluation to the allied financial advisers. 

Western Germany. The military govern- 
ment of Western Germany ended and the 
allied high commission took over. 

22: Exchange Rates. The Jordanian pound 
was devalued in line with sterling. 

United States. The Senate approved by 
55 votes to 24 the military assistance 
programme for the North Atlantic 
treaty signatories and other countries. 
The bill authorized an expenditure of 
$1,314,010,000. 

23: Atomic Energy. The governments of 
Britain, Canada and the United States 
announced that an atomic explosion had 
occurred in the Soviet Union. 

Council of Foreign Ministers. The 
deputies of the foreign ministers resumed 
discussions in New York on the Austrian 
treaty. 

Japan. Most of the restrictions on 
friendly relations between the U.S 
occupation forces and Japanese citizens 
were lifted 

24: Hungary. Laszl6 Rajk was found 
guilty and sentenced to death. Two other 
defendants were also sentenced to death 

26: Great Britain. The government 
announced its intention of discontinuing 
the bulk purchase of tin. 

India. The Madras government 
declared the Communist party of India 
unlawful in the province. 

United Nations. Ernest Bevin, British 
foreign secretary, in a speech before the 
general assembly, called on the Soviet 
Union to join in an effective system of 
international control of atomic energy. 

27: Great Britain. Both houses of parlia- 
ment re-assembled to debate the govern- 
ment's policy of devaluation. Sir 
Stafford Cnpps moved a motion of 
confidence in the government's policy. 

China. It was announced that Peking 
was to be the capital of Communist 
China. 

Soviet Union. The government sent a 
note to the Yugoslav government in 
which it denounced its treaty of friend- 
ship and mutual assistance with Yugo- 
slavia which had been signed in 1945. 

28: Great Britain. The opposition in the 
House of Lords carried, by 93 votes to 
24, an amendment criticizing the govern- 
ment's financial policy. 

Great Britain-Czechoslovakia. Three 
trade and financial agreements were 
signed. 

United States. The Mutual Defence 
Assistance act was passed by congress. 

29: Great Britain* The conservative 
amendment of no confidence was defeated 
by 350 votes to 212, and the government's 
original motion carried by 342 votes to 5. 



The Earl of Harewood, son of Princess 
Royal and nephew of the King, was 
married m London to Marion Stein. 

The Board of Trade announced the 
lifting of import licences for many goods 
from soft currency countries. 

International Bank. The bank granted 
a loan of $10 million to India for the 
purchase of agricultural machinery. 

United States. The foreign economic 
assistance programme was approved by 
the Senate. 

Western Germany. A new exchange 
rate of 23 8 U.S. cents to the mark was 
announced by the government. 

30: China. Mao Tse-tung was elected 
chairman of the central people's govern- 
ment of the people's republic of China. 

Western Germany. The Bundestag at 
Bonn called foi a halt in the dismantling 
of works in Western Germany and set 
up a committee to consider the site of 
the capital of Western Germany. It also 
resolved that Berlin should be treated 
as the twelfth Land 

Yugoslavia. The governments of 
Poland and Hungary denounced their 
treaties of friendship with Yugoslavia. 



OCTOBER 

1 : Soviet Union. The government pro- 
tested to Britain, France and the United 
States against the formation of the 
West German state. 

Western Germany. The last U.S. 
aircraft Hying in the air lift landed in 
Berlin. 

Yugoslavia. The governments of 
Bulgaria and Rumania denounced their 
treaties of friendship with Yugoslavia. 

2: Austria. Food rationing in restaurants 
ended. 

Soviet Union. The government granted 
recognition to the Chinese people's 
republic and broke off relations with the 
nationalist government. 

Uruguay. The Senate approved a bill 
for the purchase of the British-owned 
Montevideo waterworks. 

3: Bulgaria. The government denounced 
its 1947 frontier convention with Yugo- 
slavia. 

China. The people's republic was 
recognized by Rumania and Bulgaria. 

Shipping. The findings of the inquiry 
into the loss of the ** Magdalena," 
which was wrecked near Rio de Janeiro 
in April were announced. Captain D. R. 
Lee was guilty of '* grave dereliction of 
duty " and his certificate was suspended 
for two years. 

4: Great Britain. Sir Stafford Cripps, 
speaking m London, announced that in 
the third quarter of 1949 Britain's gold 
reserves had dropped from 406 million 
on June 30 to 351 million on Sept. 30. 

China. The people's republic was 
recognized by Czechoslovakia, Hungary 
and Poland. 

Israel. The cabinet decided to unite 
the cities of Jaffa and Tel Aviv under 
the name of Jaffa-Tel Aviv. 

Paraguay. The government declared a 
state of siege as a result of subversive 
activities aimed at the setting-up of a 
terrorist regime. 

Yugoslavia. The government of 
Czechoslovakia denounced its treaty of 
friendship with Yugoslavia. 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1949 



13 



5: Benelux. A draft agreement to bring 
the provisional economic union into 
force from Oct. 1 was initialled at The 
Hague. 

China. The people's republic was 
recognized by Yugoslavia. 

Eastern Germany. The executive 
committee of the people's council in 
the Soviet zone decided that the council 
should declare itself a ** provisional 
house of the people " as a first step to 
setting up a government. 

France. Henri Queuille offered his 
resignation to President Aunot after 
disagreement in the cabinet on measures 
affecting wages and prices. 

North Atlantic Treaty. The first 
meeting of the defence committee was 
held in Washington. 

6: Great Britain. Aneurin Sevan, minister 
of health, reviewed the first year's working 
of the national health service. He des- 
cribed the results as remarkably good. 

France. President Aunol accepted the 
resignation of Henri Queuille. 

Western Germany. The last British 
plane to carry supplies in the Berlin air 
lift arr.ved in Berlin. 

7: Eastern Germany. The people's 
council meeting in Berlin proclaimed 
the Democratic People's republic and 
constituted itself into the provisional 
lower house of the republic. Johannes 
Dieckmann, Liberal Democrat, was 
elected speaker The Socialist Unity 
party nominated Otto Grotewohl as 
prime minister. 

8: France. Jules Moch, Socialist, was 
asked by the president to try to form a 
government. 

Malaya. The foundation ceremony of 
the University oi Malaya was held in 
Singapoic 

Western Union. The cultural committee 
of the Brussels treaty powers, which 
ended a thice-day meeting in Brussels, 
adopted a proposal for a cultural identity 
card. 

9: Austria. General elections were held. 
The People's party obtained 44 2 % of 
the votes. 

China. The people's republic was 
recognized by Mongolia. 

Malta. Dr. P. Boffa leader of the 
Labour party, was censured by 244 votes 
to 141 at a conference of the party. 

10: Eastern Germany. General V. Chuykov, 
Soviet governor, announced that the 
Soviet administration would hand over 
its duties to the provisional government. 
Norway. Elections were held for the 
Storting. The Labour party increased 
its majority over all other parties, winning 
85 seats out of 150. 

11: Eastern Germany. W-lhelm Pieck was 

elected president of the people's republic. 

India. Pandit Nehru, prime minister 

of India, arrived in Washington on an 

official visit. 

12: Eastern Germany. Otto Grotewohl 
announced his cabinet. The Socia'ist 
Unity party he'd seven portfolios in 
addition to* the premiership. 

13: Great Britain. The prime minister 
announced that he did not intend to 
advise the King to dissolve parliament 
in 1949. 

China. The nationalist government left 
Canton for Chungking. 



Malta. Dr. Boffa and Dr. A. Colombo, 
minister of finance, resigned from the 
Labour party. 

14: Great Britain. The 70th annual 
conference of the Nat'onal Union of 
Conservative and Unionist Associations 
ended in London. 

Egypt. The mixed courts and consular 
courts closed down, their jurisdiction 
being transfer! cd to Egyptian courts. 

France. Jules Moch, Socialist, was 
elected prime minister with one vote 
over the constitutional majority of 310. 

South Africa. General Smuts was 
relieved ot his post as commander in 
chief of the Union defence forces. 

United States Eleven leaden of the 
Communist party were found guilty of 
conspiring to advocate the overthrow 
of the United States government by force. 

15. China. Communist advance troops 
entered Canton. 

Hungary. Las/16 Rajk, Tiber Szonyi 
and Andras Szalai were, hanged in 
Budapest. 

India. The government took ove r the 
administration of Manipur. 

16: Benelux. A conference in Luxembourg 
of ministers of Belgium, Netherlands and 
Luxembourg ended. 

Eastern Germany. Diplomatic relations 
were established with the Soviet Union. 

17: Australia. W. J. McKell, governor 
general, inaugurated the Snowy river 
hydro-electric and irrigation scheme in 
a cciemony at Adammaby. 

L. Sharkey, general secretary of the 
Communist party, was sentenced to three 
years' imprisonment for sedition. 

France. Jules Moch resigned as prime 
minister, having failed to form a govern- 
ment. 

International Bank. Loans to Finland 
and Yugoslavia were approved. 

South Africa An African regional 
scientific conference opened m Johannes- 
burg. 

18. Great Britain. Both houses of parlia- 
ment re-assembled. 

United Nations. A. Vyshmsky, Soviet 
foreign minister, held a press conference 
in New York, in which he said he could 
not regard an election of Yugoslavia to 
the Secunty council in succession of the 
Ukraine as either lawful or just. 

Gcneial Carlos Romulo, president of 
the assembly, announced that the efforts 
of the Balkans conciliation committee 
had ended in deadlock. 

19. Eastern Germany. The government 
was recognized by the governments of 
Bulgaria, Hungary and Poland. 

Guatemala. It was announced that 
4,000 people had lost their lives in recent 
floods. Damage to property was esti- 
mated at S50 million. 

United States. Both houses of congress 
adjourned until Jan. 1950. 

20: Australia. The House of Representa- 
tives passed a bill authorising a gift to 
Britain of A10 million. 

Denmark. The Folketing passed a vote 
of confidence in the government's eco- 
nomic programme by 64 votes to 35, 
with 39 abstentions. 

France. Rene May&r, Radical, was 
elected prime minister by the National 
Assembly by 341 votes to 183. 



United Nations. Yugoslavia was 
elected to the Security council in place 
of the Ukraine. The Soviet Union 
announced that it did not consider 
Yugoslavia a representative of eastern 
Europe. Ecuador and India replaced 
Argentina and Canada. 

21: Germany. Dr. Adenauer, in a speech 
to parliament, said that the West German 
government was the only one entitled to 
speak for the German people. 

United Nations. The general assembly 
voted by 48 votes to 6 to continue the 
Korean commission. 

22: Spain. General Franco arrived in 
Lisbon on a state visit. 

23: India. Pandit Nehru arrived in Ottawa 
on a short visit. 

France. Rend Mayer informed the 
president of his inability to form a 
government. Georges Bidault, M.R.P., 
was asked to try. 

Iceland. The Conservative party 
remained the largest party in the parlia- 
ment in a general election. 

24: Great Britain. Clement Attlee announ- 
ced in the House of Commons measures 
to curtail the risk of inflation resulting 
from devaluation. About 140 million 
was to be saved from capital expenditure. 
Housing, educational building and gov- 
ernment expenditure on agriculture were 
to be reduced. 

Bolivia. Mamerto Urriolagoitia was 
sworn in as president in succession to 
Enrique Hertzog who had resigned 
because of ill-health. 

United Nations. President Truman 
laid the cornerstone of the United 
Nations secretariat building in New 
York. 

United States. A conference of U.S. 
ambassadors and ministers to nine 
European countries opened in London. 

25 : Great Britain-France. A supplementary 
agreement on social security was signed 
in London. 

Germany. The East German govern- 
ment was recognized by the Chinese 
Communist government. 

Czechoslovakia. Alexei Cepicka, minis- 
ter of justice, was named head of the new 
state office to control Church affairs. 

Iran. It became known that the 
Shah had instructed that the country 
should be known in future as Persia and 
not as Iran. 

Aviation. A British de Havilland 
Comet, the world's first jet air-liner, flew 
from London to Castel Benito, Tripoli, 
and back in 6 hr. 38 mm. flying time. 

26: Germany. Bishop Aloisius Munch 
was appointed Papal Nuncio to the 
Western German government. 

Gold Coast. The report of the Com- 
mittee on Constitutional Reform was 
published. It recommended almost 
complete home rule for the colony. 

27: Great Britain. A two-day debate on 
the government's economy measures 
ended. A Conservative amendment was 
defeated by 353 to 222 and the govern- 
ment's action approved by 337 to 5. 
Belgium. The Senate approved, by 
109 votes to 65, a bill for a referendum 
on the return of King Leopold. 



14 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1949 



Canada. The House of Commons 
passed, by 139 votes to 38, a resolution 
under which the King would be petitioned 
to invite the British parliament to allow 
Canada to amend its own constitution. 

Guatemala. The government suspended 
constitutional guarantees for 30 days, 
giving as its reason the emergency created 
by disastrous floods. 

28: France. Georges Bidault, M.R P., 
was elected prime minister by 367 votes 
to 183. He immediately announced the 
formation of his cabinet. 

United States. President Truman 
signed the $1,314 million Military Aid 
bill. 

Aviation. An Air France Constellation 
crashed in the A/ores. Among the 48 
persons killed were Marcel Cerdan, 
boxer, and Gmette Neveu, violinist. 

29: International Refugee Organization. It 

was agreed to pay the government of 
Israel $2,500,000 for the care of aged, 
sick and disabled Jewish refugees. 

30: Arab League. 'I he council of the 
league at a meeting in Cairo decided to 
set up a committee to diaft a security 
pact between the member states. 

3 1 : Great Britain. The House of Commons, 
by 333 votes to 196, passed for the third 
time the Parliament bill which reduced 
the power of veto of the House of Loids. 

It was announced that British troops 
would be withdrawn from Greece. 

Italy. The right-wing Socialist party 
decided to resign from the coalition 
government. 

O.E.E.C. The council met in Pans. 
Western Germany was represented for 
the first time by a German. Paul Hoff- 
mann, E.C.A. administrator, called on 
the member nations to prepare a pro- 
gramme to bring about the economic 
integration of western Europe. 

NOVEMBER 

1 : Czechoslovakia. The new church law 
became operative. 

2: Jamaica. The government announced 
that it had decided to withdraw its press 
bill, which would have imposed severe 
penalties on the disclosure of government 
information. 

Netherlands. Dutch, Indonesian and 
United Nations delegates signed a resolu- 
tion agreeing to a draft constitution for a 
United States of Indonesia at the round 
table conference at The Hague. 

O.E.E.C. The council passed a resolu- 
tion recommending various measures to 
free European trade. 

Singapore. A conference of British 
representatives in the far east opened in 
Singapore. 

3: Great Britain. The government was 
defeated in the House of Lords by 116 
votes to 29 on a Conservative amendment 
criticizing the government's economic 
policy. 

Council of Europe. The committee of 
ministeis met in Pans to discuss the 
recommendations of the consultative 
assembly. It decided not to make any 
change in the status of the assembly. 

Egypt. The coalition government 
resigned. Hussein Sirry Pasha, the out- 
going prime minister, formed a non- 
party government. 

Netherlands. Rationing restrictions 
were removed on textiles, meat, cheese 
and rice. 



Western Germany. By 200 votes to 
176, the Bundestag decided to retain 
Bonn as the federal capital. 

4: China. The British government warned 
the Chinese Nationalist government of 
the consequences incurred if the Chinese 
carried out an order to bomb foreign 
ships m territorial waters bound for 
Communist ports. 

Council of Europe. The committee of 
ministers decided in favour of admitting 
Western Germany and the Saar as 
associate members. The committee 
requested the opinion of the assembly's 
standing committee. 

Persia. Abdol Hossem Hajir, former 
prime minister, was shot in Tehian. He 
died from his wounds on Nov. 5. 

5 : Council of Europe. The committee of 
ministers ended Us meeting. 

Hungary. The frontier agreement with 
Yugoslavia was cancelled. 

6: Syria. Lieutenant Colonel W. F. 
Stirling, Damascus conespondent of 
The Time?, was shot at and seriously 
wounded. 

7. Austria. Leopold Figl formed a new 
government, The Ministries of Food, 
Power and Economic Planning were 
abolished. 

Egypt. King Faiouk signed a decree 
dissolving parliament. 

Iraq. Nun Pasha as-Said, prime 
minister from Jan. 1949, offered his 
resignation to the Regent. 

Pakistan. The Smd cabinet resigned. 
The outgoing premier, Yuscf Abdullah 
Haroon, foimed a new government. 

Soviet Union. Moscow radio announced 
that Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky 
had been placed at the disposal of the 
Polish government. He replaced Marshal 
Michal Zymierski as Polish minister for 
defence. 

Western Union. The seventh session of 
the consultative council of the Brussels 
treaty powers was held in Pans. Con- 
ventions for social security and medical 
assistance were signed. 

8: France. A treaty was signed with 
Cambodia giving her autonomy within 
the French union. 

Norway. The British trawler ** Wei- 
beck " was arrested by a Norwegian 
corvette and taken to Hammerfest. The 
trawler was alleged to have been fishing 
in Norwegian waters. 

Philippines, fclpidio Quuino was re- 
elected president with 1,711,448 votes, 
400,000 more than Jose Lauicl. More 
than 20 persons were killed and many 
injured. 

United States. Herbert H. Lehman, 
Democrat, defeated John Foster Dulles, 
Republican, in an election in New York 
for the Senate. 

9: Council of Europe. The standing com- 
mittee of the assembly ended a thiee-day 
meeting in Pans. It approved in principle 
the admission of the Saar and Western 
Germany. 

Eastern Germany. The Volkskammer 
approved an amnesty to many classes of 
prisoners, specially exempting political 
prisoners. 

10: Czechoslovakia. All religious publi- 
cations and educational, financial and 
charitable activities of the churches were 
placed under the control of the Ministry 
of Church Affairs. 



United Nations. In a speech before the 
special political committee A. Y. Vyshin- 
sky, stated that the Soviet Union was 
using atomic energy for constructive 
purposes. 

1 1 : Australia. Talks ended in Canberra 
between Australia, Great Britain and 
New Zealand. Among subjects discussed 
was a peace treaty for Japan and a meet- 
ing of commonwealth foreign ministers. 

Colombia. The government relaxed 
slightly a state of siege which had been 
imposed following disturbances. 

France. A conference in Pans of the 
foreign ministers of Great Britain, France 
and the United States ended. Agreement 
was reached on measures for the pro- 
gressive integration of the German people 
into the European community. 

United States. President Truman 
accepted the resignation of the secretary 
of the interior, Julius A. Krug, and 
appointed Oscar L. Chapman to succeed 
him. 

12: West Indies. A conference of governors 
of the West Indian colonies, piesidcdover 
by the Eai 1 of List owel, ended in Barbados. 
Yugoslavia. The government denounced 
its treaty of friendship and collaboration 
with Albania the last Communist 
country to maintain its ticaty with 
Yugoslavia. 

13: Danube. Representatives of Bulgaria, 
C/echoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, the 
U.S S R. and Yugoslavia met at Galatz 
for the first meeting of the Danube 
commission. 

Portugal. All 120 seats in the National 
Assembly were rilled by candidates of 
the national union paity in a general 
election. 

14: United States. More than 425,000 
steel workers returned to work after a 
six-week strike. 

15: Great Britain. The government pub- 
lished amended dates for the operation of 
the Iron and Steel bill It postponed the 
vesting day of the industry until after the 
last possible date for a general election. 

Australia. Petrol rationing was re- 
imposed throughout the Commonwealth. 

Danube. Notes declaring that they 
would not recognize the Danube con- 
vention were delivered by Great Britain, 
France and the United States to the 
signatories of the convention. 

India. Nathuram Godse and Narayan 
Apte, who in Jan. 1948 murdered 
Mahatma Gandhi, were hanged at 
Ambala. 

Western Germany. The three high 
commissioners received Dr. Adenauer 
and informed him of the decisions of the 
foreign ministers' conference in Pans. 

16: Great Britain. Officers and ratings of 
H.M. ships " Amethyst," " London," 
" Black Swan " and " Consort " marched 
through London and were received at the 
Guildhall. 

United Nations. The general assembly 
agreed unanimously to launch a pro- 
gramme of technical aid to backward 
areas. 

17: Czechoslovakia. Jaromir Dolansky, 
minister of planning, stated that 97% 
of the country's industry was nationalized. 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1949 



15 



18: Nigeria. Disturbances occurred in the 
Enugu area, where 1,500 miners were on 
strike. 18 men were killed by police fire. 
United Nations. The general assembly, 
by 50 votes to 6, decided to continue in 
being the Balkans commission. 

19: Great Britain. A. J. Wakcfield and 
J. N. Rosa were dismissed from the board 
of the Overseas Food corporation. 

20: Great Britain. Princess Eli/abeth flew 
to Malta. 

France. At the Radical party confer- 
ence at Toulouse, Fdouard Herriot was 
re-elected chairman by 759 votes to 381 
for Edouard Daladier. 

Panama. President Daniel Chanis 
resigned aftei unsuccessfully trying to 
force the resignations of three police 
chiefs He was succeeded by Roberto F. 
Chian, the vice president. 

21: Great Britain. It was announced that 
President and Mme. Vincent Aunol 
would pay a state visit to I ondon in 
March 1950. 

The House of Commons debated the 
report on the East Afiican groundnuts 
scheme. An opposition amendment 
calling for an inquny was defeated by 
161 votes to 315. 

United Nations. The general assembly 
decided that Libya should be an indepen- 
dent nation by 1952 and that Italian 
Somaliland should be placed under 
Italian trusteeship for 10 years 

22: United Nations. By 42 votes to 5, the 
geneial assembly asked the permanent 
members ol the Security council to 
refrain from using the veto on the 
admission of new members. 

Panama. Di. D. Chanis tore up his 
resignation and was re-instated as presi- 
dent. 

Western Germany. The three high 
commissioners met Dr. Adenauer and 
reached agreement on the implementation 
of decisions made in Pans by the foreign 
ministers. 

23: Great Britain. The report was pub- 
lished of the Ministry of Civil Aviation's 
investigation into the ciash of a K.L.M. 
plane at Prestwick, Oct. 1948. Coires- 
pondence was also published between 
T. P. McDonald, who presided over the 
inquiry, and the minister of civil aviation, 
Lord Pakcnham, who felt unable to 
accept certain implications in the report. 

United Nations. The general assembly, 
by 49 votes to 5, called upon the perman- 
ent members of the Atomic Energy com- 
mission to continue discussions on the 
international control of atomic energy. 

United States-Uruguay. A treaty of 
friendship, economic development and 
commerce was signed in Montevideo. 

Western Union. The defence com- 
mittee met in London. 

24: Great Britain. The House of I ords 
accepted the government's amendments 
for the vesting date of the Iron and Steel 
industry. The bill was passed and received 
the Royal Assent. 

India. The Nizam of Hyderabad issued 
a firman announcing the accession of 
Hyderabad to India. 

Panama. The supreme court ruled 
that Dr. Chanis was constitutional 
president. Dr. Arnulfo Anas, a former 
president, was nevertheless installed by 
the police chiefs. 



25: France. A 24-hr, general strike called 
by the C.G.T. and Force Ouvnere was 
held throughout the countiy. 

Pakistan. The first International 
Islamic industrial and commercial exhi- 
bition and the International Islamic 
Economic conference opened in Kaiachi. 

Panama. The electoral grand jury 
announced that Dr. Anas had won the 
1948 presidential election. He announced 
the members of his cabinet. 

26 France. The National Assembly ap- 
proved Robert Schuman's German policy 
by 327 votes to 249 in the caily hours of 
the morning. 

India. I he Constituent Assembly 
adopted the new constitution Sardar 
Patel, deputy prime minister, announced 
that the mtegiation of the Stales was 
complete. 

Nigeria. 'I he governor declared a state 
of emcigency following disorders at Aba 
and at Port Harcouit and ktbour troubles 
at the Rnijgu collieiy. 

Panama. Piesident Chanis and two 
other former presidents tied to the 
Canal /one 

27' Colombia. Because of a boycott by the 
Liberals, there was only one candidate, 
the C onservative Laureano Gomez, in a 
presidential election. He received more 
than 965,000 votes 

Nigeria. 1 he governor set up a com- 
mission of inquny to investigate the dis- 
orders in the country. 

28: Great Britain. The minister of trans- 
port announced that the Transport com- 
mission was expecting a deficit of 20 
million in 1949 and had asked for in- 
creases in freight and other charges. 

A three-day confcience of the British 
Communist party ended at Liverpool. 

Trade Unions. An inter national trade 
union conference opened in London. 
Paul Finet, Belgium, was elected chair- 
man and Vincent Tcwson, Great Britain, 
secretary. 

29: Great Britain. The House of Lords 
i ejected the Parliament bill for the third 
time. 

Cominform. It was announced that the 
first full meeting of the Cominform since 
June 1948 had been held in Hungary. 
Three resolutions were published on the 
defence of peace, on the Yugoslav 
Communist party and on unity in the 
working class movement. 

F.A.O. The conference decided by 
30 votes to 28 that the permanent hcad- 
quaitcis should be in Rome 

International Trade. Ceylon, India and 
South Africa signed the Annecy protocol. 

North Atlantic Treaty. The military 
committee met in Pans. 

30: China. Chungking was occupied by 
Communist forces. 

New Zealand. The Labour govern- 
ment was defeated in a general election. 
The Nationa 1 party led by S. G. Holland 
obtained 46 seats, the Labour party 34. 



DECEMBER 

1 : China. A trade union conference of 
Asian and Australasian countries ended 
in Peking. 

India. The World Pacifist's conference 
opened at Shantmiketan , 83 pacifists 
were present from 35 countries. 



North Atlantic Treaty. The defence 
committee met in Pans and agreed on an 
integrated self-defence plan designed for 
"adequate military strength accompanied 
by economy of resources and manpower.*' 

United Nations. A British-United States 
resolution entitled ** The Essentials of 
Peace " was passed by 53 votes to 5 by 
the general assembly. A Soviet proposal 
was defeated. 

Yugoslavia. The trial opened in 
Sarajevo of 1 1 Soviet citizens on charges of 
espionage. 

2 United Nations. Despite objections 
by Cireat Bntain, Belgium and France, 
the general assembly approved by large 
majorities ten icsolutions providing for 
continuing United Nations' investigation 
and review of conditions in all colonies. 
Western Germany. Dr. Kuit Schu- 
macher returned to his seat in the 
Bundestag after agreement had been 
reached with Dr. Konrad Adenauer. He 
had been suspended on Nov. 25. 

3: Sarawak. Duncan Stewart, governor 
of Sarawak, was stabbed and wounded 
by a young Malay at Sibu and was flown 
to Singapore for medical treatment next 
day. 

4: France. Petrol and dicscl oil were 
taken off the ration. 

5: China. General Li Tsung-jen, acting 
Nationalist president, left Hong Kong 
by air for the United States. 

Pakistan. The International Islamic 
Economic conference decided to create 
a permanent organization with head- 
quarters at Karachi. Ghulam Moham- 
med, Pakistan, was elected president. 

Atomic Energy. The cyclotron at 
Harwell, Berkshire, operated successfully 
on its (irst trial. 

6: United Nations. The general assembly 
decided by 40 votes to 7 to ask the 
International Court of Justice to rule 
on the legal status of the former mandated 
territory of South-West Africa. 

7: Great Britain. Representatives of the 
crews and staffs of the Berlin airlift were 
inspected at Buckingham palace by the 
King. 

Bulgaria. The trial of Traicho Kostov, 
former deputy prime minister, and 10 
other communists opened in Sofia. Kos- 
tov pleaded not guilty to charges of 
espionage and treason. 

Trade Unions. The International 
Confederation of Free Trade Unions 
(LC KT.U.) was founded in London. 
J. H. Oldenbroek, Netherlands, was 
elected general secretary with head- 
quarters in Brussels. 

United Nations. The special political 
committee of the general assembly agreed 
by 35 votes to 13, with 11 abstentions, 
on a complete international regime for 
Jerusalem. 

8: Great Britain. The Labour party 
retained its seat in a by-election at south 
Bradford with a reduced majority. 

Sir Gerald Kelly was elected president 
of the Royal Academy in succession to 
Sir Alfred Munnmgs. 

Nigeria. The state of emergency 
proclaimed on Nov. 26 was ended. 

Red Cross. Representatives of 29 
countries signed four conventions at 
Geneva. 



16 



DIARY OF EVENTS, 1949 



United Nations. The general assembly, 
by 45 votes to 5, affirmed the right of 
the Chinese to be free from foreign 
domination and urged all nations to 
refrain from seeking spheres of influence 
in China. 

9: Netherlands. At 2a.m. the Second 
Chamber passed the bill for the ratifica- 
tion of the Indonesian agreements by 
71 votes to 29. 

United Nations. The general assembly 
voted in favour of the internationaliza- 
tion of Jerusalem and the Holy Places. 

Yugoslavia. The 10 defendants in the 
spy trial at Sarajevo were found guilty. 
Sentences were passed varying from 4 to 
20 years* imprisonment. 

10: Australia. The Labour government 
was defeated in the general election. 
A coalition of the Liberal party, led by 
R. G. Menzies, and the Country party 
obtained 74 seats, the Labour party 47. 

China. General Lu Han, governor of 
Yunnan, announced his support of the 
Communist government. 

Sarawak. Duncan Stewart, governor 
of Sarawak, who was stabbed at Sibu 
on Dec. 3, died in hospital at Singapore. 

Sierra Leone. Sir John Lucie-Smith, 
chief justice, was shot at and wounded 
while asleep in his house at Freetown. 

United Nations. The fourth general 
assembly ended. Adrian Pelt was elected 
U.N. commissioner in Libya. 

11: Great Britain, John Strachey, minister 
of food, left by air on an unexpected 
visit to groundnut areas in Tanganyika. 
12: Great Britain. Manual workers at 
three London electric power stations 
went on strike. Servicemen were called 
in to keep the stations going. 

Canada. The British Columbian 
Legislative Assembly elected Mrs. Nancy 
Hodges as its speaker. She became the 
first woman speaker in the Common- 
wealth. 

South Africa. Dr. D. F. Malan, prime 
minister, and N. C. Havenga, leader of 
the Afrikaner party, announced that they 
would not introduce Apartheid legislation 
during the coming session of Parliament. 
1 3 : Eritrea. A curfew was imposed in 
Asmara after disturbances. All Italian 
and Entrean newspapers were suspended. 

Israel. David Ben-Gurion, prime 
minister, announced that the Knesset 
would move to Jerusalem on Dec. 26. 

New Zealand. The National govern- 
ment led by S. G. Holland was sworn in 
by the governor general. 

Syria. Hashem Atassi, prime minister, 
submitted the resignation of his govern- 
ment to the president of the assembly. 

14: Bulgaria. Traicho Rostov was found 
guilty and sentenced to death in a trial 
at Sofia. Six others were sentenced to 
life imprisonment and five others 
received sentences of 8 to 15 years. 

Council of Foreign Ministers. At their 
243rd meeting the deputies of the foreign 
ministers discussing a peace treaty for 
Austria adjourned until Jan. 9, 1950. 

United Nations. The Soviet Union 
twice used the veto in the Security council 
on motions welcoming the report of the 
Netherlands-Indonesian agreement 
reached at The Hague. 

15: International Court of Justice. By 12 

votes to 2 (Soviet Union and Albania) 
the court awarded damages to Great 
Britain of 843,947 against Albania for 
the mining of two British destroyers in 
the Corfu channel on Oct. 22, 1946. 



Switzerland. The Federal Assembly 
elected Max Petitpierre as president of 
the confederation for 1950. 

16: Great Britain. Parliament was pro- 
rogued at the end of a session lasting 
nearly 14 months. 

Bulgaria. Traicho Kostov was executed. 

China. Mao Tse-tung, chairman of 
the central people's government of the 
Chinese People's republic, arrived in 
Moscow. 

Indonesia. Dr. A. Sukarno was unani- 
mously elected first president of the 
United States of Indonesia. 

South Africa. The Voortrekker monu- 
ment was inaugurated at Pretoria. 

17: Burma. The government announced its 
recognition of the Communist govern- 
ment in China. 

Sweden. Talks in Stockholm on closer 
economic collaboration between Great 
Britain, Denmark, Norway and Sweden 
were ended. 

Radio. Great Britain's second tele- 
vision transmitter, at Sutton Coldfield, 
was brought into service. It was the most 
powerful television station in the world. 

18: Bulgaria. A general election was held 
for the National Assembly; 97 66% 
of the electorate voted for the single 
list of candidates. 

Iraq. Martial law, imposed in May 
1948, was rescinded by royal decree. 

19: Australia. The government of R. G. 
Menzies was sworn in at Canberra. 

Greece. The railway service between 
Athens and Salonika was opened for 
the first time for nine years. 

Syria. The third military coup iV&tat 
within nine months occurred. General 
Sami Hmnawi was arrested. 

United States. It was announced in 
Washington that Canada, Great Britain 
and the United States had signed an 
agreement providing for collaboration in 
military standardization of the three 
armed forces. 

War Crimes. Field Marshal von 
Manstein was found guilty of nine war 
crimes and was sentenced at Hamburg 
to 18 years' imprisonment. 

20: Jamaica. The Labour party, led by 
W. A. Bustamante, obtained 17 seats 
out of 32 in the House of Representatives. 
The People's National party, led by N. 
Manley, obtained 13 seats. 

21: Netherlands. The First Chamber 
approved by 34 votes to 15 the bill 
concerning the transfer of sovereignty 
in Indonesia. 

Soviet Union. Marshal Joseph Stalin 
celebrated his seventieth birthday. Large 
scale celebrations were held throughout 
the Soviet Union and in all the Com- 
munist countries. 

Western Union. Representatives of 
the Western Union powers signed in 
London a multilateral agreement laying 
down the status of the armed forces of 
any one member state when stationed 
in the territory of any of the five states. 

22: Malaya. Sir Henry Gurney, high 
commissioner, announced the govern- 
ment's intention to mobilize early in 
1950, on a voluntary basis and for about 
a month, all civilian resources in the 
federation to c8-operate with the forces 
during an intensified operation against 
the bandits. 



23: Great Britain. It was announced that 
Britain had broken off trade negotiations 
with Hungary because the Hungarian 
government would not permit a Bntjsh 
representative in Budapest to see a British 
subject who had been arrested. 

Poland. A military court at Wroclaw 
found four French nationals and two 
Poles guilty of spying and imposed 
sentences of up to nine years. 

Uruguay-Great Britain. A five-year 
meat agreement was signed in Monte- 
video. 

24: France. The National Assembly gave 
a vote of confidence to the Bidault 
govei nment by 303 votes to 297. 

Palestine. For the first time for two 
years pilgrims walked along the road 
from Jerusalem to Bethlehem. 

Roman Catholic Church. Pope Pius 
XII opened the holy door of St. Peter's 
at the beginning of the 25th Holy Year. 

25: Great Britain. The King broadcast 
to the peoples of the Commonwealth. 

26: Great Britain- Yugoslavia. A new five- 
year trade agreement was announced. 

Dominican Republic. Congress granted 
President R. L. Trujillo power to declare 
war against any Caribbean nation that 
knowingly harboured persons plotting 
against the Dominican government. 

Israel. The Knesset met in Jerusalem, 
having moved from Jaffa-Tel Aviv. 

27: Great Britain. Ernest Bevin left 
London on the first stage of his journey 
to Ceylon for a conference of Common- 
wealth foreign ministers. 

China. Communist forces captured 
Chengtu. 

Indonesia. Queen Juliana signed the 
charter of the transfer of sovereignty to 
the Republic of the United States of 
Indonesia in The Hague, thus bunging 
into being the Netherlands-Indonesian 
union. Ceremonies were also held in 
Batavia (renamed Jakarta). 

Syria. The parliament refused to 
accept the resignation of the president- 
elect Hashem Atassi submitted on Dec. 
26 after the prime minister, Nazim el 
Kodsi, had resigned. 

Physics. Albert Einstein announced 
a new theory the generalized theory 
of gravitation the result of 33 years' 
work. 

28: Hungary. All industrial undertakings 

employing ten or more people were 

nationalized by a government decree. 

Syria. Khaled Azam formed a cabinet. 

30: France. The government received two 
votes of confidence during the assembly's 
discussion on the budget. 

India. The government granted recog- 
nition to the Communist government of 
China. 

Tibet. It became known that it was 
proposed to re-organize the cabinet and 
to send diplomatic representatives to 
Great Britain, China, India, Nepal and 
the United States. 

Vietnam. At a ceremony at Saigon, 
Bao Dai and Leon Pignon signed a 
series of conventions implementing the 
agreement of March 1949. 

31: Indonesia. The United States of 
Indonesia had been recognized by 18 
countries. 



BOOK OF THE YEAR 



ABDULILAH IBN ALI, Regent of Iraq (b. Ta'if), 
Hejaz, 1914), son of Sharif AH ibn Hussein who for a short 
time was king of Hejaz after the abdication in 1925 of his 
father King Hussein, Sharif of Mecca and head of the Hashi- 
mite family. King AH also abdicated when driven out by the 
victorious Ibn Saud in Dec. 1925. He went to live in 
Baghdad, where he died in 1934. Prince Abdulilah was edu- 
cated at Victoria college, Alexandria. On the death of his 
cousin King Ghazi I in a motor accident, he was appointed 
Regent of Iraq on April 4, 1939, until in 1953 his nephew 
King Faysal 11 should attain his majority (at the age of 18). 
On the outbreak of World War II he sent a telegram to 
King George VI assuring him of the " unshakable attachment 
of the government and people of Iraq to the letter and spirit 
of the treaty of alliance with Great Britain.*' After the Rashid 
Ali coup d'etat in April 1941, he had to flee the country; but 
returned to Baghdad with the British liberating force on June 
1, 1941. He paid official visits to Great Britain (Nov. 1943), 
to the U.S. (April 1945) and to Turkey (Aug. 1945). In Arab 
politics he had supported the British alliance which had often 
been attacked by the Iraqi opposition; nevertheless he was 
forced by the pressure of public opinion to repudiate the 
treaty of alliance at Portsmouth on Jan. 15, 1948. Prince 
Abdulilah married in 1948 Faiza al-Tarabulsi, 22 year-old 
daughter of a retired Egyptian chief of police. He visited 
Great Britain with the Princess in July 1949 and was enter- 
tained by the King and Queen at Balmoral. (C. Ho.) 

ABDULLAH IBN HUSSEIN, King of Jordan 
(b. Mecca, 1882), second son of King Hussein of Hejaz, was 
crowned on May 25, 1946. Of his marriage in 1904 to Emire 
Musbah, daughter of Emir Nazir ibn Ali/ there were five 
children, including Emir Talal, the crown prince (b. Mecca, 
1911). (For his early life see Britannica Book of the Year 1949). 

On Aug. 7, 1949, at the conclusion of a 12 days' visit by 
King Abdullah to Iran, it was announced that the two 
countries had signed an agreement providing for collaboration 
in international problems. On Aug. 18 the king arrived in 
Great Britain on a 17 days' visit; on Aug. 23 he dined with 
Ernest Bevin and on Aug. 27 was entertained at luncheon by 
King George VI and Queen Elizabeth at Balmoral castle. 
When in London he declared to the correspondent of the 
Cairo newspaper El Misri that the creation of Greater Syria, 
uniting Syria, Iraq, Jordan and Arab Palestine under a 
Hashimite king, was an obvious necessity. On Sept. 5 he 
visited Spain for ten days. 

ABYSSINIA: see ETHIOPIA. 

ACCIDENTS. Road Safety. The principal road safety 
activity during 1949 was the organization of a national 
Pedestrian Crossing week from April 3-9, the aim being to 
focus the attention of all classes of road users on proper 
observance and use of crossings. Local authorities were 
asked by the Ministry of Transport to co-operate (Circular 
626); 1,100 of them did so. They were urged to equip fully 
all pedestrian crossing places in time for the week and each 

B.B.Y. 3 17 




King Abdullah with Air Marshal Sir Basil Embry watching R.A.F. 
jet fighters at Odiham, Hampshire, Aug. 1949. 

locality developed its own ideas. A new type of crossing, a 
" zebra " crossing, was tried in about a thousand places and 
a comparison of the use of these with crossings marked only 
by studs was made. Many novel publicity methods were used 
and the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents 
produced special propaganda material and suggested pro- 
grammes for local efforts. In London, a Safe Conduct 
exhibition was held at Charing Cross underground station, 
opened on the first day by the minister of transport. Draft 
regulations on the use of road crossings based on the recom- 
mendations of the Committee on Road Safety were prepared 
by the minister of transport for laying before the house. 

The National Safety congress was held in London from 
Oct. 4-7 and was attended by a thousand local authority 
delegates and a conference of road safety organizers from all 
over the country was also held in Harrogate, Yorkshire, 
during May. 

The British section of the International Union of Local 
Authorities discussed road safety at its conference held at 
Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, in February. At a subse- 
quent international conference in Geneva, Switzerland, in 
September, the union discussed a report on safety measures 
in Different countries submitted by Sir Howard Roberts, 
clerk to the London County Council and chairman of the 
Ro.S.P.A's management committee. 



18 



ACCIDENTS 



TABLE I. ACCIDENTAL DEATHS AND INJURIES IN THE HOME, ENGLAND 
AND WALES 



Falls and Crushing 

Drowning 

Burns, Scalds and Conflagrations 

Suffocation . 

Others 

Total . 



1946 

3,779 

1,029 

915 

872 

1,288 

7,883 



1947 
4,001 
1,149 
904 
1,054 
1,482 
8,590 



TABLE 11 ACCIDENTAL 


DEATHS AND INJURIES 


IN GREAT 


BRITAIN 




Killed 








1946 


1947 


1948 


Railways . 


466 


447 


367 


Roads 


5,062 


4,881 


4,513 


Coal Mines 


543 


618 


467 


Factories . 


826 


839 


861 




Injured 








1946 


1947 


1948 


Railways . 


. 31,712 


30,113 


29,701 


Roads 


. 157,484 


161,318 


148,884 


Coal Mines 


. 167,210 


162,544 


* 


Factories . 


. 222,933 


202,397 


200,225 



Unavailable. 

The total number of drivers entered in the Society's 
National Safe Driving competition was 200,000 and 138,596 
awards were made during 1949. The War Office and the Air 
Ministry entered drivers. 

Industrial Accident Prevention. A National Industrial 
Safety conference held in Scarborough, Yorkshire, in May 
was attended by 450 industrial delegates. Speakers included 
Sir Geoffrey King, deputy secretary of the Ministry of National 
Insurance, on the Industrial Injuries act. Regional industrial 
safety conferences were held in many provincial towns. A 
second Chemical Works Safety conference was held at 
Scarborough, Yorkshire, in October and a conference of 
London member firms was addressed by the minister of 
labour. Firms in Sheffield, Rotherham, Barnsley, Doncaster 
and Chesterfield, covering about 200,000 workers, co- 
operated in a Good Housekeeping week to draw attention to 
accidents due to untidiness in works. 

The chief inspector of factories report for 1947 was pub- 
lished early in 1949. It showed that over 83% of all injuries 
reported were due to causes other than machinery. Another 
report likely to have considerable effect on safety work was 
published; viz., Health, Welfare and Safety in the Non- 
Industrial Employment. A report by a Committee of Enquiry. 
The report of the Factory department's electrical branch on 
Electrical Accidents and their Causes 1947 \ was also 
published. 

The Ro.S.P.A. produced a new film Your Dog and Mine 
showing how dogs can be trained in road sense and another 
film Calling all Motor-cyclists was made in co-operation with 
the metropolitan police and editors of motor cycling papers. 
Static exhibitions, mobile cinemas and touring exhibitions 
visited many districts. The Ministry of Education published 
a pamphlet Safety Precautions in Schools explaining ways in 
which risks could be avoided in physical education, the 
laboratory, manual and handicraft work. During the year 
a joint committee of industrial and educational representa- 
tives was formed to discuss industrial safety training and 
guarding of machinery in technical schools. A leaflet on 
" Tubular Steel Scaffolding " was printed. Investigations by 
the society included tool handle breakages and the use of 
colour in industry. 

A fourth and fifth volume in the series " I.C.I. Fngineering 
Codes and Regulations (Safety Series)" were produced, 
entitled Construction and Maintenance (Civil Engineering) 
and Docks, Wharves and Quays respectively. 



Home Accident Prevention. During the year the registrar 
general's review for 1946 was issued and revealed that 
7,883 deaths occurred in the home and everyday pursuits, 
a slight decrease on previous years. The campaign against 
home accidents was intensified by a grant made to the 
Ro.S.P.A. by the Home Office for the provision of lectures, 
posters aad leaflets for this purpose. At the Ideal Home 
exhibition a stand named '* Hazard House " was taken by 
the Home Office Inter-departmental Committee on Home 
Accidents, and members of the Women's Voluntary services 
distributed the society's leaflets. (H. Su.) 

United States. Accidents caused 98,000 deaths in the U.S. 
in 1948. This total was exceeded only by deaths from heart 
disease, cancer and cerebral haemorrhage. Information avail- 
able up till Oct. 1949 indicated that the 1949 accidental death 
total would probably drop 5% below 1948. In addition to 
the deaths, accidents in 1948 also caused about 10 million 
injuries. 

Organized efforts to reduce accidents in the U.S. were led 
by the National Safety council and affiliated local safety 
councils throughout the nation. The National Safety council 
served as a place for group planning and execution by all 
who took part in the safety movement and it attempted to 
discover the facts of accident occurrence; to devise or assist 
in devising engineering, educational and enforcement meas- 
ures for prevention; to assist in determining engineering 
requirements for the safe design, construction and use of 
machines and equipment; to help to draw up model safety 
legislation ; to participate in planning and executing training 
and educational programmes ; to disseminate this information 
widely to interested groups and to the general public; and 
to encourage and assist the establishment and activity of 
community and state safety organizations. 

The President's Conference on Industrial Safety was held 
in March, when 1,500 representatives of management, 
labour, government and the public met in Washington, D.C., 
to consider committee reports and develop plans for the 
reduction of the industrial accident toll. 

It appeared, late in 1 949, that the year's toll of occupational 
accident fatalities might be reduced by as much as 6% from 
the 1948 toll of 16,500. 

As the year 1949 drew to a close, it appeared that the 
number of traffic accident deaths might drop 500 below the 
1948 figure of 32,000. This apparent reduction was in the 
face of an approximate 6% increase in motor vehicle travel. 
In June 1949 the President's Highway Safety conference met 
for the third time in Washington, with about 3,000 of the 
nation's traffic safety leaders in attendance. 

In 1949, 23 states had State Farm Safety committees, and 
11 states had a full-time farm safety specialist, working 
through many public and private agencies to spread informa- 
tion on the seriousness of the farm accident problem and on 
ways and means of meeting it. The president of the United 
States, for the sixth successive year, proclaimed a National 
Farm Safety week in July 1949, which focused attention on 
the problem of rural accidents. 

Among children of 1 to 14 years of age accidents were 
responsible for more deaths than the next six death causes 
combined. Even so, the accidental death rate among children 
under 14 had dropped about 40% in the last 40 years. School 
authorities showed increasing recognition during 1949 of the 
importance of safety education in the classroom, in shops 
and elsewhere in school life. A specialized feature of school 
safety work had been the driver training programmes institu- 
ted in many high schools throughout the nation. Studies had 
shown that students who had had this training were involved 
in fewer accidents than those who had not. 

The 1948 toll of deaths in home accidents was 35,000, 
which was greater than in any other type of accident. Reports 



ACHESON ADULT EDUCATION 



19 



covering 10 months of 1949 indicated that home fatalities 
would again lead the list, although a reduction of about 
6% on 1948 seemed probable. Local and state health depart- 
ments gave increased attention to accident prevention work, 
concentrating on home safety. Women's clubs and other 
organizations and agencies attracting the support and interest 
of homemakers showed an increasing tendency to include 
safety in the home as a regular programme activity. During 
1949 about 50 out of the several hundred local and state 
safety organizations throughout the country qualified for 
acceptance as chapters of the National Safety council. The 
37th National Safety congress was held in Chicago, Illinois, 
in Oct. 1949 with an attendance of approximately 10,000. 
In addition, about 30 Regional Safety conferences were held 
during the year. (R. L. Fo.) 

ACHESON, DEAN GOODERHAM, United 
States statesman (b. Middletown, Connecticut, April 11, 
1893), was the son of an Englishman who became bishop of 
Connecticut. On Jan. 7, 1949, President Harry S. Truman 
appointed him secretary of state to succeed George C. 
Marshall, who resigned. He was sworn in on Jan. 21. He 
immediately assumed responsibility for the negotiations with 
the ambassadors and ministers in Washington of Belgium, 
Canada, France, Great Britain, Luxembourg and the Nether- 
lands on a defence alliance for the north Atlantic. On April 4, 
he signed the North Atlantic treaty on behalf of the United 
States, and in September in Washington presided over the 
first meeting of the council of the treaty. In May and June 
he attended the Council of Foreign Ministers in Paris at 
which German and Austrian matters were discussed. He 
visited Paris again in November for talks with Ernest Bevin, 
Great Britain, and Robert Schuman, France. He later 
visited Western Germany and called upon Dr. Karl 
Adenauer, the federal chancellor, at Bonn. (See also 
Britannica Book of the Year 1949.} 

ADEN. British colony and protectorates on southern 
coast of Arabia. Colony area: 80 sq. mi.: Pop.: (1946 
census): 80,876. Protectorate area: c. 11 2,000 sq. mi. Pop. 
1947 est.) 650,000, almost entirely Moslem Arabs. Governor: 
Sir Reginald S. Champion. 

History. Kamaran island (22 sq. mi.) in the Red sea. 
administered by the government of India after capture from 
the Turks in 1915, was placed under the personal supervision 
of the governor of Aden. Rising costs necessitated the 
revision of the colony's development plan; the revised plan 
envisaged a total expenditure of 1,063,000 from the colony's 
surplus balances, 300,000 from Colonial Development and 
Welfare funds, and 660,000 to be raised by loan. A serious 
famine, which threatened the eastern protectorate in the 
spring, was in part relieved by supplies flown in by the Royal 
Air Force. 

Finance. Currency: the Indian rupee (Rs.l -l.v. 6</.). Colony's 
budget (1947-48): revenue Rs. 12,112,421; expenditure Rs. 9,880,631. 

(J. A. Hu.) 

ADENAUER, KONRAD, German statesman (b. 
Cologne, Jan. 5, 1876), the son of a Cologne official. Follow- 
ing a university education at Freiburg-in-Breisgau, Munich 
and Bonn, and three years as a lawyer, he was in 1906 elected 
town councillor in his native city, with which his name will 
always be coupled. Eleven years later he was elected Ober- 
burgermeister (lord mayor) of Cologne, an office which he 
held uninterruptedly for 16 years. During his period of 
office Cologne university was founded, the stadium was 
built and the Cologne fair initiated. For a short time in 1919, 
during the Allied occupation, Adenauer, apprehensive at the 
spread of Communism in Berlin, espoused the idea of separa- 
tion of the Rhineland from Prussia. He became a leading 




Konrad Adenauer who was appointed federal chancellor of the 
Western German Republic on Sept. 14, 1949. 

member of the Catholic Centre party and in the 1920s was 
often in the running for the office of German chancellor. 
From 1917 to 1933 he was a member of the Prussian Landtag 
and in 1928-33 was its speaker. In 1933 Hermann Goring, 
as prime minister of Prussia, dismissed Adenauer as politically 
unreliable. In June 1934 he was arrested and imprisoned for 
a short time in connection with the Rohm purge; and 
following the assassination attempt against Hitler on July 20, 
1944, he was sent to Brauweiler concentration camp but was 
later released. After the downfall of the Third Reich the 
American occupation authorities reinstated Adenauer as 
lord mayor of Cologne, but the British removed him in 
Oct. 1945 as "incompetent." In Feb. 1946 he was elected 
chairman of the Christian Democratic union in North 
Rhine-Westphalia, became the same year chairman of the 
C.D.U. for the British zone and on Sept. 1, 1948, was elected 
president of the parliamentary council drafting the West 
German constitution or basic law. On Sept. 15, 1949, after 
the elections to the Bundestag (Federal Diet) of the new 
West German republic had given the C.D.U. the largest 
number of seats, Adenauer was appointed chancellor. As a 
politician he is a constructive conservative, possessed of a 
supple, organizing mind, determination not without rigidity, 
and considerable tactical skill. (D. A. SN.) 

ADULT EDUCATION. In this article only non- 
vocational education is discussed. In June 1949 an inter- 
national conference on adult education convened by 
U.N.E.S.C.O. brought over 100 delegates representing 29 
countries and 32 international voluntary organizations to 
Elsinore in Denmark. The conference had a fivefold purpose : 
exchange of ideas and experiences; study of urgent needs 
and common problems; examination of new techniques and 
methods; aid to U.N.E.S.C.O. in planning its programme; 
and consideration of means to continued collaboration. 

U.N.E.S.C.O.'s second major contribution in the adult field 
w#s a seminar held at Mysore, India, in November and Dec- 
ember. Delegates from 18 countries, all Asian except 3, and 25 
observers from the Indian states and provinces, worked out 



20 



ADVERTISING 



a series of recommendations and basic principles regarding 
rural adult education in Asiatic countries. Four working 
groups pooled their ideas on promoting literacy, raising 
health standards, removing economic grievances and 
instilling the idea of citizenship and social cohesion into 
undeveloped communities. Their principal recommendations 
for immediate action were that more women should be 
invited to help in public work, cottage industries should be 
revived and established, local self-governing institutions 
should be set up in areas not yet enfranchised and suitable 
reading material should be prepared for Asian adults and 
distributed through new systems of rural libraries. 

A general statement of aims unanimously accepted 
declared that adult education should attempt to support and 
encourage movements working for the creation of a true 
culture by which the gaps between the so-called masses and 
the so-called cultured people might be filled; to foster the 
true spirit of democracy and of humanity, and to awaken 
and stimulate in young adults an awareness of life itself. 

Among principal topics discussed were the relationship 
between the state and voluntary bodies, the role of the 
university, adult education centres and leaders and the 
exchange of workers, material and information. The con- 
ference resolved, inter a/ia, that (i) U.N.h.S C O. should be 
invited to set up a representative consultative committee to 
advise its adult education division; (n) that U.N.E.S.C O. 
should be asked to give special attention to Germany; and 
(iii) tha r all countries should be urged to consider women's 
needs. Shortly after the conference LJ.N E S C O. set up an 
international advisory council on adult education. 

As part of its fundamental education programme 
U.N.E.S.C.O. chose as a discussion theme for 1949 ki Food 
and People." Handbooks, pamphlets, wall charts, picture 
books, film catalogues and guides were published in several 
languages for teachers and as background material. 

In England and Wales 19 residential short term colleges 
for adult education, all established since 1944, were in 
operation. These were maintained by universities, local educa- 
tion authorities, voluntary organizations (alone or in com- 
bination), independent trusts and private individuals. They 
offered, or provided accommodation for, courses on every 
conceivable topic. Most courses took place between Friday 
and Monday, but there were also many midweek (Monday 
to Friday) or longer courses (up to one month) chiefly for 
occupational groups and vacation schools. In Scotland New- 
battle abbey, formerly a long term residential adult education 
college, was re-opened after wartime requisition. 

In May the British Institute of Adult Education (founded 
1921) and the National Foundation for Adult Education 
(established 1946) were amalgamated to form the National 
Institute of Adult Education (England and Wales). The chief 
functions of the new body were to provide information, 
devise machinery for consultation and promote inquiry and 
research, on behalf of all bodies, statutory and voluntary, 
engaged in adult education 

In Canada, a Royal Commission on National Develop- 
ment in the Arts, Letters and Sciences was created under 
the presidency of Vincent Masscy, chancellor of Toronto 
university. It was given the widest possible terms of reference, 
including broadcasting and television and Canadian cultural 
relations with international bodies. 

In February a delegate conference representative of extra- 
mural study groups in the Gold Coast and British Togoland 
formed a People's Educational association comparable with 
the British Workers' Educational association. This was a 
direct result of the extra-mural study courses begun by 
Oxford university in 1947. ( 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. R. I und, cd , SiamJimnian Adult Lducanon (Copen- 
hagen, 1949) (H. C. D.) 



ADVERTISING. Great Britain. British advertising ex- 
perienced a boom year in 1949. There were several reasons 
for this, among them the introduction of the six-page daily 
newspaper in April with corresponding increases for Sunday 
publications, the 50% increase in the paper ration for maga- 
zines in July and the end on May 1 of the complete ban on 
all forms of electric signs and illuminated window displays 
which had been in operation since the beginning of World 
War II. Orders were also made during the year granting 
more paper for direct mail and poster advertising. Addition- 
ally, in Dec. 1948 the chancellor of the Exchequer, in nego- 
tiation with the Federation of British Industries, agreed to 
call off the Voluntary Limitation of Advertising plan, intro- 
duced in the previous March. Under this plan British firms 
which spent more than 2,500 a year on the advertising of 
rationed goods, luxury products and lines carrying heavy 
purchase tax gave voluntary assurance that they would cut 
down outlay on all forms of publicity by 1 5 %. From March 1, 
1949, advertisers were freed from this obligation, except to 
the extent that they promised the chancellor not to exert 
undue sales pressure in favour of products which were in 
shoit supply, thereby stimulating inflation. 

Advertisers were not lax in taking up the extra advertising 
space which became available to them. The Statistical 
Review of Press Advertising estimated that in the first three 
months of 1949 expenditure on advertising in the British 
press totalled 6,490,498, an increase of 22-37% over the 



I heard it from a Widower 



Who kept a pub in Wigan, 



Who heard it from a Reveller 



Who'd fallen off a wagon, 



Who got it from a Goblin 



(On a tiny pink toboggan), 



Who said it was in 



this week's 



ON SALE 
TODAY 6d. 



A tvpical newspaper advertisement of the humorous weekly ** Punch " 
(London)~~one of many similar advertisements by "Punch" in JV49. 




ADVERTISING 



21 



corresponding 1948 figure of 5,303,922. It was stated also 
that if the volume of press advertising recorded in the first 
quarter were to continue in like proportion throughout the 
year, the total would be about 26 million, only 10% below 
the figure for 1938. Later, in September, the Statistical 
Review showed that its earlier forecast looked like coming 
true. It commented on the rise in press advertising expendi- 
ture which had developed in April, May and June and calcu- 
lated that British publishers had, during the first nine months 
of 1949, shared between them a total of 21,729,488 in 
advertisement revenue. 

The British Transport commission, in publishing its first 
accounts in September, for the year 1948, showed that a net 
profit had been made of 2,207,610 from the sale of advertising 
positions on nationalized transport properties and vehicles. 
This indicated that advertising was the commission's biggest 
single money-maker among its non-carrying activities. 

The government gave details of its own expenditure on 
posters. For the 12 months ended Sept. 30, 1949, public 
poster advertising by or on behalf of government departments 
cost 530,698. Civil estimates published in March showed 
that, through the Central Office of Information, the govern- 
ment reckoned to spend, during the year ending March 31, 
1950, 867,000 on press advertising, 574,500 on poster 
advertising, 748,200 on films and 197,000 on exhibitions. 
All these figures were lower than in the previous 12 months. 

The Advertising association held a successful conference 
at Buxton, Derby, May 28-June 1. Subsequently it was 
decided to proceed with plans for a world advertising 
conference to be held in London in 1951 in connection 
with the Festival of Britain. 

A distinctive feature of the press advertisement columns 
and of the hoardings was their use in political or political- 
industrial interests. The Conservative party began in April 
a nation-wide poster campaign designed to build up support 
for itself at the next general election. A number of industries 
(steel, insurance, sugar, cement) faced with the prospect of 
nationalization used advertising to campaign against a change 
in their present system of ownership. 

During the year British advertising executives gave con- 
siderable attention to the problem of developing trade in the 
dollar markets. The peak effort of 1949 in this connection 
was the establishment in October of an Advertising Advisory 
committee to the Dollar Exports board. This committee, 
meeting in London, consisted of representatives of British 
advertising agencies with U.S. connections and U.S. adver- 
tising agencies with offices in Great Britain. The com- 
mittee's job was to give free advice to British exporters 
contemplating entering or expanding in the U.S. and Canadian 
markets. 

In June the Royal Commission on the Press issued its report. 
The commission gave much attention to the effect of adver- 
tising on the press and rejected the idea that advertisers 
influenced the conduct of newspapers. The commission 
declared: *' As long as newspapers arc sold to the public 
for less then they cost to produce, they will need a supplemen- 
tary source of income. Of the various possible -sources of 
income the sale of their space to advertisers seems to us to 
be one of the least harmful. The publication of advertise- 
ments should not be regarded, moreover, as a departure, 
under pressure of economic necessity, from the proper 
function of a newspaper. It is an essential part of the service 
which the newspaper renders to the community, valuable 
alike to commerce and industry and to the general public." 

Commonwealth. Conflict between owners of publicity 
media and advertisers on the one hand and governments 
on the other was marked in both Australia and India. 
In 1949 the Australian Federal government gave up its 
wartime controls on newspaper advertisement rates and a 




The fifth in a series of six posters issued by the firm of Whitbread 
and exhibited on the London Underground during 1949. 

plan by the New South Wales State government to 
reintroduce these for newspapers in its own territory aroused 
considerable opposition from press proprietors. 

In India some provincial governments contemplated 
schemes for the taxation of newspaper advertisements at 
various rates. Owners of newspapers in India pointed out 
that, with newspapers circulating across state frontiers, 
taxation imposed by different authorities on several different 
scales would be difficult to work and would lead to anomalies. 
It was agreed by the authorities that taxes on advertisements 
should be uniform and operated by the central government. 

In South Africa a survey carried out by South African 
Research services' (Pty.), Ltd., estimated that in June 1949 
some 229,000 were spent on press advertising of branded 
goods and services in 250 South African publications. The 
figure for May was 221,000; for April, 228,000. The 
January to March average was 209,000. 

At the International Chamber of Commerce 1 2th biennial 
congress, which took place in Quebec, Canada, in June, 
the I.C.C.'s committee on advertising approved the Inter- 
national Code of Standards of Advertising Practice and the 
reinstitution of the International Council on Advertising 
Practice of the I.C.C. 

Europe. Great Britain's Advertising association joined with 
Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, Finland, France, Norway, 
Sweden and Switzerland in establishing the International 
Union of Advertising at a meeting which took place in Zurich, 
Switzerland, on Sept. 24. The suggestion that the union 
should be formed was made by French advertising interests 
at a an international advertising conference in Paris in July 
1947. The object of the International union was to bring 
together the advertising associations representative of all 
the nat'pns. Paul O. Althaus, Switzerland, was elected 



22 



ADVERTISING 



president. Also in September the European Society for 
Opinion Surveys and Market Research adopted a code of 
standards governing market research practitioners and 
methods. British advertising, through the Market Research 
society, sent representatives to this meeting, as did France, 
Switzerland, Italy, Holland, Belgium, Sweden, Finland and 
Denmark. (A. J. HY.) 

United States. The rate of increase in advertising expendi- 
tures in 1 949 was not so great as in previous postwar years, 
standing at approximately 5%. The most important single 
gain was made by newspaper advertising. The $5,400 million 
spent in 1949 in all media was divided as shown in the Table. 



TABLE U.S. ADVERTISING EXPENDITURES* 
(Million dollars) 



1948 

$1,441-1 
596-9 
512-7 
574-5 
200-0 
132-1 
20-4 
924-4 

$4,402 1 



Newspapers 

Radio 

Magazines 

Direct mail 

Trade and business papers 

Outdoor 

Farm papers 

Miscellaneous 

Total 

* Estimate by Hans Zcisel, McCann-Erickson, Inc. 

Problems facing advertising in 1950, as stated by various 
leaders, included the following: how to encourage adequate 
use of advertising to sell the vast volume of goods and 
services the economy was capable of producing; how to 
achieve better integration of advertising with merchandising 
and sales programmes; how to improve measurements of 
advertising effectiveness; how to secure better public rela- 
tions through advertising; how to set advertising appropria- 
tions and to budget more scientifically. 

Two new products were introduced during the year, 
ammoniated dentifrices and anti-histamine cold remedies, 
that resulted in large space and competitive advertising. 
During the year the automobile manufacturers moved toward 
a buyer's market, with the result that their advertising 
increased and often featured price cuts. In Nov. 1949 the 
advertising of new passenger cars in newspapers, for instance, 
was 239% higher than in Nov. 1948. 

The year 1949 closed with fair optimism among advertisers. 
They had passed through the recession of the spring and early 
summer successfully, and felt that 1950 would be a good year. 
The Research Institute of America found in a poll of 30,000 
member firms that one-third planned to increase advertising 
appropriations in 1950, less than 7% to reduce them. The 




Gillette poster -one of a series in which the phrase " Good 
mornings begin with Gillette " was used. 



Association of National Advertisers' annual survey of its 
members did not indicate that there would be much increase 
in spending in 1950. 

Newspapers and Magazines. Newspaper lineage was 
approximately 2% higher in 1949 than in the year before. 
Media Records reported 2,094,103,004 lines for the first 11 
months of the year, a gain of 1 7 % over the first 1 1 months of 
1948. The rate of increase in December was faster, so that it 
was expected the year would end with a gain of about 2 % or 
more. There were continued rate increases, but it was felt 
that rates were reaching a plateau of some stability. 

National newspaper advertising (excluding local retail 
advertising) fared better, being 15-9% higher during the 
11 -months' period than for the like months of 1948. The 
largest gains were made by alcoholic beverages, up 29-8%; 
dentifrices, up 53-7%; new passenger cars, up 83-0%. 
Alcoholic beverages and new passenger cars together 
accounted for 22-8% of all national newspaper lineage 
during the first 1 1 months. Advertising of the anti-histamine 
cold remedies was reflected in a rise of 30 3 % for medical 
advertising in November. 

The Magazine Advertising bureau estimated that adver- 
tising expenditures in national magazines for the first six 
months of 1949 were at the annual rate of $450 million, 
compared with $463 million for the same period of 1948, 
a decrease of 2 8 %. 

Radio. The National Association of Broadcasters estimated 
that gross income of the radio industry was up 4-5% from 
1948, but that this gain was almost matched by a rise of 
about 4% in operating expenses. It predicted a gross income 
of $435,279,000 in 1949, as compared with $416,720,279 
in 1948. National network income at $129,300,000 was 
down by 3-3%; national spot business at $118,425,000 was 
up 13 -0%; local retail income at $180,025,000 was up 5 3%. 

The year in radio was marked by competition among the 
networks for major advertising accounts, a competition that 
resulted in several switches of popular programmes. The year 
was also noteworthy for the decline in popularity of the type 
of programme marked by contests in which large amounts of 
merchandise or cash were given as prizes. The Federal 
Communications commission announced in the year that it 
intended to ban such " giveaway " programmes but was 
temporarily restrained by a court order obtained by a producer 
of syndicated radio shows. 

Television. Television was the most exciting advertising 
medium during 1949, and data on its growth became inaccu- 
rate almost as soon as published. The number of television 
stations jumped during the year from 50 to nearly 100, the 
number of owners of sets from 1 million to about 3 5 million, 
the television audience from about 4 million to more than 
14 million, the number of television advertisers from 1,000 
to 2,000. It was estimated that approximately $20 million 
was invested in television time sales by advertisers during 
the year. As advertising increased, time costs approximately 
doubled, in New York going from an average of $1,000 an 
evening hour in January to $2,000 in December. 

Other Media. Advertising expenditures in outdoor adver- 
tising amounted to approximately $78 million, according to 
Outdoor Advertising Inc. This was approximately the same 
as for 1948. Advertising revenue of the 41 farm publications 
measured by Farm Publication Reports, Inc., for the first 
half of 1949 was $25,044,181, compared with $23,557,027 
for the same period of 1948. The volume of advertising in 
business papers in 1949 was estimated at $215 million, 
compared with $200 million in the previous year. 

The year saw an increase in the use of premiums in adver- 
tising and one estimate put their value at $1,000 million, or 
double the prewar peak. Coupons redeemable in merchandise 
reappeared on the package of one of the largest-selling 



AFGHANISTAN AGRICULTURE 



23 



brands of cigarettes. Door-to-door selling also increased, an 
indication of greater competition in selling. The amount of 
merchandise moved by this kind of selling was estimated at 
about $7,000 million. (D. ST. ; R. A. BN.) 

AFGHANISTAN. An independent kingdom in the 
centre of Asia bounded to the north by the U.S.S.R., to the 
west by Iran, to the south and southeast by Pakistan and to 
the east by China (Sinkiang). Area: c. 270,000 sq. mi. 
Pop. (1947 est.): 12 million. Races: Afghans or Pathans or 
Pashtuns 53%; Tajiks 36%; Uzbeks 6%; Hazarah 3%; 
others 2 %. Religion : Moslem (Afghans are Sunni, others 
mainly Shia). Languages: Pashtu, but Tajiks and Hazarah 
speak Persian. Chief towns (pop. 1946 est.): Kabul (cap., 
206,200); Kandahar (77,200); Herat (75,600); Mazar-i- 
Sharif (41,900). King, Mohammed Zahir Shah (q.v.)\ prime 
minister (from May 1946), Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan, the 
king's uncle. 

History. The cold war between Afghanistan and Pakistan 
continued during 1949. Political circles in Kabul and the 
Afghan government insisted that Pakistan should constitute 
the North West Frontier an independent Pathan republic 
or at least allow the Pathans of the tribal areas on the Pakistan 
side of the Durand line to opt for Kabul. The press and wire- 
less of Kabul continued to pour out abusive propaganda 
against Pakistan. The Pakistan government refrained from 
reprisals and trade between the two countries went on as 
before; in fact economic co-operation was offered. Railway 
rates concessions were however withdrawn. Propaganda had 
not undermined the loyalty of the Pathan tribesmen in the 
Pakistan hinterland. The stormy petrel of the Afghan 
frontier, the Fakir of Ipi, was compelled to migrate to 
Afghanistan where he received a friendly welcome. The 
British government categorically refused the Afghan request 
that it should intervene. 

The country was in the grip of an economic crisis. The 
Persian lamb trade, a vital element in Afghan finance, was 
languishing: Indian import duties paralysed the export of 




Mohammed Zahir Shah reviewing the guard in the courtyard of the 

Elysee palace, Paris, after visiting President Vincent Auriol on 

Oct. 13, 1949. 



fruit. Early in the year the United States refused the Afghan 
request for a loan of $600 million. A big American firm had 
for two or three years been carrying out important work on 
roads, bridges and irrigation dams. Work was later held up 
owing to the fading out of Afghan credit, but was to be 
resumed on the strength of a $21 million loan (repayable in 
15 years at 3^%) granted by the Export-Import bank on 
Nov. 24. King Mohammed Zahir paid a visit to France in 
the autumn of 1949. (W. BN.) 

Education. (1948 est.) Primary schools 400, secondary schools 25, 
higher schools (lyctes) 7, and a university at Kabul with four faculties: 
medicine (founded in 1932), political science and law (1939), science 
(1941) and arts (1944). 

Agriculture. Two food crops are raised each year one of wheat, 
barley or lentils, and the other of rice, millet or maize. Other important 
crops are cotton, tobacco and fruit. The fat-tailed sheep provide the 
main meat diet. 

Foreign Trade. Principal imports are: tea, coffee, cocoa, cigarettes, 
spices, oil, cement, minerals, machinery and other manufactured 
goods. Principal exports are: karakul skins, dried fruit, wool and 
carpets. 

Transport and Communications. There are eight main roads totalling 
2.265 mi. Licensed motor vehicles (Dec. 1948): cars 770, commercial 
vehicles 2,070. There are no railways. 

Finance. Monetary unit: afghanl with an exchange rate (Nov. 1949; 
in brackets Nov. 1948) of 47 (57-14) afghanis to the pound. 

AGRICULTURE. The year 1949 opened with the 
promise of continuation of large grain exports from North 
America and of accelerating progress towards increased 
livestock production in Europe. 

Cereals in the Northern Hemisphere. The European harvest 
of wheat and rye apart from the U.S.S.R. harvest was 
18 million metric tons (48%) greater in 1948 than in 1947. 
The harvest of coarse grains, barley, oats and maize, was 
7 million tons (16%) greater. In North and Central America 
the wheat and rye harvest of 1948 was almost as great as the 
1947 record harvest of 47 million metric tons, and the coarse 
grain harvest was 39 million metric tons (41 %) greater than 
the 1947 harvest. The United States and Canada were thus 
able to export during the cereal year ended June 1949 a total 
of 25- 1 million metric tons of grain or 3-8 million more than 
during 1947-48 and 17-3 million more than the yearly 
average during the late 1930s. 

Together with slightly increased supplies from Australia 
but reduced supplies from the Argentine and other countries, 
these North American supplies were sufficient to provide 
Europe with 17-7 million metric tons of imported bread 
grains during 1948-49. With greater home-produced supplies 
from the 1948 harvest, these raised Europe's total bread 
grain supplies during 1948-49 by 15-4 million metric tons 
to 72-0 million, which was almost as great a total supply as 
that consumed in prewar years. Europe's human population 
had increased 14% after the late 1930s but a smaller propor- 
tion of the wheat supply was fed to livestock in the form of 
milling by-products or low quality grain; and potato supplies 
and consumption were much larger. A significant develop- 
ment early in 1949 was that, in Germany, certain low quality 
cereals became difficult to sell as human rations owing to 
improved imports and home deliveries of grain. The im- 
provement of the bread grain position in the western world 
as a whole was indeed such that stocks of wheat in the four 
main exporting countries, the United States, Canada, 
Australia and Argentina were raised by 2-8 million metric 
tons to 17-4 million during the 12 months ended June 1949. 
Shipments of wheat and rye to deficit areas in South America, 
Asia, Africa and Oceania were increased by 2-0 million 
metric tons to 8-1 million as against only 3-0 million during 
the late 1930s. The greatly improved supplies of coarse 
gfains in North America were used largely for livestock 
feeding there; but stocks were raised by some 24 million 
metric tons to about 41 million and exports by 3-0 million 



24 



AGRICULTURE 



to 5-2 million. In the international market this increase of 
North American exports was largely offset by a decrease of 
Argentine exports by 1-8 million metric tons to 2-2 million; 
but it was possible to sustain total European imports of coarse 
grains at 6-7 million. The whole increase of some 7 million 
metric tons in Europe's own production of coarse grains was 
thus available to raise livestock production further. 

Livestock Production in Europe. Europe had good supplies 
of fodder and favourable grazing conditions during the autumn 
and early winter of 1948 and during the spring of 1949. 

Egg, pigmeat and milk production responded rapidly to 
these better supplies of feedingstufts. Estimates prepared by 
the Food and Agriculture organization (F.A.O.) of United 
Nations indicated that in Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden, 
Eire and Belgium, considered as a group, egg production was 
43% greater during 1949 than during 1948. Comparable 
percentage increases were 16% for the United Kingdom, 
5% for France and Italy and 24% for Czechoslovakia. Egg 
production during 1949 thus exceeded prewar production by 
some 8 % in the main prewar exporting countries and Belgium, 
but remained below prewar production by 2% in the United 
Kingdom, by 6% in France and Italy and by 29% in Czecho- 
slovakia. 

An expansion of pig production was also made possible. 
In Denmark the number of bred sows was increased by 
102,000 (74%) between July 1948 and July 1949, one of the 
most rapid increases ever recorded. In the United Kingdom 
the comparable increase was 21,000 head (10%). In Eire 
total pig numbers increased by 45 %, in Belgium by 41 %, in 
France by 13%, in Poland by 28% and in Czechoslovakia by 
some 23 %. These changes did not, however, restore produc- 
tion to the levels of the late 1930s. In Denmark, Sweden, 
Belgium and Switzerland these prewar levels came again 
within sight but in the United Kingdom, tire and the Nether- 
lands production was still at least some 30% lower during 
1949 than during the late 1930s. 

Increased supplies of feedingstuffs were also the main 
cause of the rapid increase in milk supplies. Sales of milk 
off farms in the United Kingdom were 14% and in Denmark 
17% greater during the first half of 1949 than during the 
first half of 1948. Butter production in Eire, Denmark, the 
Netherlands and Sweden was 22% greater. 

Improved production in Europe of eggs, pigmeat and 
dairy produce went largely to increase domestic food rations 
or to reduce reliance on imports from the western hemi- 
sphere but the countries most dependent on exports of such 
products continued closely to restrict domestic consumption. 
Thus Denmark and the Netherlands exported during the 
first half of 1949, as compared to the first half of 1948, 63% 
more eggs, 32% more butter and 158% more cheese. Their 
exports of bacon to the United Kingdom were up by 80%. 
There were also some significant exports from Poland and 
Yugoslavia. 

Of beef and veal, mutton and lamb, the shortage of inter- 
nationally traded supplies continued to be critical between 
January and June of 1949 but a slight improvement took 
place later and this, together with a temporary increase in 
the rate of slaughter in the United Kingdom due partly to 
a change in the seasonal variation of the official buying 
prices for fat cattle, caused a rapid building up of meat 
stocks. This necessitated release of substantial additional 
rationed supplies during October as there was insufficient 
cold storage accommodation. But the general underlying 
shortage of meat in the United Kingdom and Europe con- 
tinued. Estimates published by F.A.O. showed that the 
production of meat during 1948 was less than in prewar 
years by 3-2 million metric tons (36%) in western Eurof>e 
and by 1-3 million metric tons (41%) in eastern Europe. In 
the United Kingdom it was less by 0-34 million metric tons 



(34%) and imports into the United Kingdom were less by 
0-30 million (30%). In North America, on the other hand, 
production was greater by 3-2 million metric tons (36%), in 
South America by 0- 2 million (4%) and in Australia and New 
Zealand by 0-1 million (5%). Except in Australia and New 
Zealand these increases in supplies over prewar levels were 
mainly taken up by increased home consumption, exports 
being greater by only 100,000 metric tons from North 
America, by the same quantity from South America and by 
70,000 metric tons from Australia and New Zealand. 

Northern Hemisphere Harvests. In late summer of 1949 
conditions became less favourable. Drought reduced grain 
yields in some European countries and shortage of pasture 
was marked in Switzerland, France and Italy. France suffered 
a reduction of cattle numbers because of the impending 
shortage of winter fodder. She had to plan to import 1-5 
million metric tons of coarse grain during 1949-50, almost 
twice as much as during 1948-49. She also entered into 
special agreements for the purchase of butter and cheese 
from the Netherlands, Denmark and Switzerland. Even in 
England milk yields were substantially reduced. The seasonal 
decline was also accentuated in Canada. 

On the other hand, autumn-sown grain crops generally 
did well and the European harvest of bread grain was satis- 
factory despite a reduction of acreages in favour of spring- 
sown coarse grains or a return to grass. In the United King- 
dom total production of wheat was some 25 million metric 
tons less than in 1948. In France and Spain the reduction 
was proportionately greater, but in western continental 
European countries as a group the wheat and rye harvest 
was estimated to be 1 million metric tons greater than in 
1948. Western Germany was expected to have some 0*2 
million metric tons more bread grain and 0-45 million more 
coarse grains than from the 1948 harvest. 

In North America wheat and rye production was some 
5 million metric tons (1 1 %) less than in 1948 but still sufficient 
to sustain large gram exports without calling heavily on 
existing swollen stocks. 

Coarse gram crops in western Europe were, in most coun- 
tries, not very much smaller than m 1948. In the United 
Kingdom the total production was estimated as almost equal 
to that of 1948. In North America production was down by 
some 12 million metric tons (9%) from the record levels of 
1948, and Canadian production was down by some 15%,. 
But with laige stocks in the United States, total supplies of 
feed grain there were the largest ever in relation to the live- 
stock population to be fed. Maintenance or even increase 
of exports during 1949-50 became feasible. 

Supplies of roughage feedingstuffs were unusually low in 
France and other European countries affected by the summer 
drought, and also in Canada. An unusually mild October 
made good only a small part of this shortage. In the United 

TABLE j. PRODUCTION OF BREAD GRAINS AND COARSE GRAINS 

(million metric Ions) 
1934-39 1946-47 1947-48 1948-49 



Wheat and rye 










Europe 


61-4 


46 3 


36 8 


54 3 


North America 


28 2 


43-7 


47-9 


47 6 


South America 


8-5 


7 8 


9-2 


7 2 


Asia 


41-3 


40 8 


39-5 


44*3 


Africa . 


3-8 


3-9 


3-2 


3-7 


Oceania 


4-4 


3 3 


6 1 


5 3 


Total (a) 


147-6 


145-8 


142-7 


162-4 


Barley, oats and maize 










Europe 


54-9 


38-3 


43-4 


50-2 


North America 


81-2 


122-8 


95-2 


134-6 


South America 


17-0 


15-4 


16 1 


14 9 


Asia 


33-0 


31-4 


32 7 


34 6 


Africa . 


8-9 


8-7 


9-5 


9-0 


Oceania 


8 


0-8 


1-5 


1-3 


Total (a) 


195-8 


217-4 


198-4 


244-6 



(a) Excluding U.S.S.R. 

SOURCE. F.A.O. Report of Committee on World Commodity Problems. 



AGRICULTURE 



25 



Kingdom fodder roots and green fodder crops were unsatis- 
factory, being affected, like potatoes, sugar beet and vege- 
tables, by the long drought. 

Agricultural Production Programmes. All European 
governments continued to be concerned with agricultural 
plans and these were kept under general review by the 
Organization for European Economic Co-operation, by the 
Economic Co-operative administration of the United States 
and by other bodies. Increased bread grain production and 
increased production of coarse grains and other animal 
feedingstufts to permit greater milk, meat and fat production 
continued to be the main objectives. The underlying purpose 
in each country was to improve the national diet and to 
minimize dollar expenditure for imports. 

Plans were upset by weather conditions during the period 
June to Sept. 1949 but basic progress continued to be made in 
providing the fertilizers, machinery and motive power needed 
for greater production. Imports of agricultural tractors into 
continental Europe had numbered 54,000 during 1948 as 
against only 14,000 during 1937 and, in addition, increasing 
numbers were available from continental factories themselves. 
Supplies of agricultural machinery were also greater. The 
number of farm horses in Europe was estimated to have 
increased by 300,000 (2%) but was still 16% below the 
prewar number. One of the most satisfactory improvements 
was in the supply of nitrogen fertilizers. 

In several countries considerable public attention was 
drawn to the difficulties of inducing farmers to carry out the 
centrally devised plans. In the United Kingdom a shortage 



Total 



11-3 


1-3 


0-3 


1-9 


14-8 


13-7 


39 


0-4 


3-0 


21-0 


19-8 


40 


0-8 


2-3 


26-9 


17-7 


5-8 


0-9 


2-2 


26-6 


11-3 


0-2 


0-1 





11-6 


5-0 


1-8 


0-5 


0-6 


7-9 


6-7 


1-4 


0-2 


0-4 


8-7 


6-7 


1-6 


0-3 


1-0 


9-6 



TABLE II. DESTINATIONS OF WORLD GRAIN EXPORTS 
(million metric tons) 

Europe Asia Africa Other 
Bread grains: 
1934-38 
1946-47 
1947-48 
1948-49 
Coarse grains: 
1934-38 
1946-47 
1947-48 
1 948 -49 

SOURCE: F f A.O. Report of Committee on World Commodity Problems. 

of workers, especially skilled workers, and of houses for 
them actually led to a reduction of acreages of intensive 
crops in some areas. 

Planning of another kind was re-introduced in the United 
States. Controls of wheat acreages for harvest in 1950 were 
imposed for the first time since 1943 and these might result 
in a reduction of the sown area by some 10 million ac. At 
the same time congress voted overwhelmingly against subsi- 
dies to maintain farm incomes at their high average level 
since 1940. Lack of grain storage space threatened to make 
some of the existing price supports difficult to continue. 
The basic long term objectives of United States agricultural 
policy were discussed during the latter part of 1949. 

Argentine policies continued to influence European agri- 
culture mainly through their effects on cereal, linseed and 
meat exports to Europe. The government called in June for 
:m increase of 3-7 million ac. in the area sown to wheat, a 




In Kent a super combine is seen working during the 1949 harvest- an unusually good one after one oj the sunniest % driest summers on record. 



26 



AGRICULTURE 



NUMBER OF AGRICULTURAL TRACTORS 
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 



U K 

USSR 

DCNMARK 

FRANCE 

GREECE 

ITALY 

NORWAY 

POLAND 

SWEDEN 

SWITZ" 

USA 



.461 


I 


7] 




AC 
OF 


3RU 
P 
AR 


f\ 

:UL 

ER 
AB 


UN 
JU 

1,0 

LE 


BEf 
RAL 
00 
L 


* C 

. T 
AC 
^ND 


)F 
RA 

;RE 
ir 


CTC 

s 

j C 


)RS 
>4S 


i 




3 






_^ 

I7| 


' 




i r^ 






i 


6 I 




1 




















69| 



NUMBER 



BER OF AGRICULTURAL TRAC" 



tO II 
ACTORS 



slight increase in that sown to coarse grains and maintenance 
of the linseed acreage. The fixed prices paid to farmers for 
fat cattle were raised some 37 %. This plan, however, would still 
leave Argentine production far below prewar levels. The 
effects of industrialization and inflation accompanied by 
control of farmers* returns, had reduced the number of agri- 
cultural workers by some 400,000 (20%) after 1937, and the 
area sown to cereals and linseed by some 14 million ac. (30%). 
Even during the later part of 1949, the prices paid to farmers 
continued to be at a much lower level than prices charged to 
foreign buyers of farm produce. Large quantities of maize 
did not find export buyers at the prices sought and had to 
be sold as insect damaged at very low prices to Argentine 
livestock producers. 

Jn Australia and New Zealand emphasis on expansion of 
production continued and some encouragement was obtained 
from higher prices for dairy products and meat sold to the 
United Kingdom. For New Zealand the bulk contract 
prices were raised by 7- 5 % and the Dairy Products Marketing 
commission raised butter fat prices to farmers by slightly 
over 5%. The butter fat in dairy products delivered from 
New Zealand factories during the year ended July 1949 was 
461 million lb., 10% more than during 1947-48 and only 1% 
below the record output of 1940-41. 

Lamb production for export was also satisfactory but there 
were significant reductions in beef and pigmeat outputs. In 
Australia total meat production was higher but exports were 
slightly reduced because home consumption of beef rose by 
9%. The sowing of wheat was hindered by dry spells, par- 
ticularly in western Australia. 

South African plans were wholly upset by the droughts 
which seriously reduced the working capacity of draught 
cattle and caused heavy slaughterings. 

In India a major event of 1949 was the government's 
announcement in April that except in case of widespread 
failure of crops or for purposes of building up a central 
reserve no food grams would be imported after 1951. A 
central development board was given responsibility for 
securing an additional 3-6 million metric tons of grain from 
Indian lands through irrigation and reclamation schemes, 
clearance of scrub, subsidies for water supplies, manures and 
seeds and in other ways. An increase in the use of nitrogen 
fertilizers by more than three million metric tons was contem- 
plated and some compulsion imposed on municipalities to 
make full use of their sewage and refuse. 

Fears of Surpluses. These Indian plans for self-sufficiency 
in grains and the continuing drive in the United Kingdom 
and other western European countries for greater production 
and reduced imports from the dollar areas aggravated feafs 
of food surpluses in the western hemisphere and until about 
mid-summer these were further aggravated in the United 



States by declining business activity and diminishing domestic 
demands. The council of the F.A.O. appointed a committee 
of experts in June to examine what seemed to be the familiar 
prewar problem of surpluses in some countries and starvation 
in others and this committee reported promptly that the 
causes of surpluses lay mainly in shortages of western hemi- 
sphere currencies. They proposed an international commodity 
clearing house with a capital of United States $5,000 million. 
This would be used, for instance, to buy United States wheat 
for India, the fund being repaid by India in rupees which 
would be held by the clearing house until they became con- 
vertible into United States dollars. Until there was funda- 
mentally better balance in world trade it was foreseen, 
however, that this initial capital might comparatively soon 
be held in currencies still inconvertible into dollars. 

The danger of surpluses, that is, of supplies forcing prices 
down below levels considered reasonably remunerative by 
producers, was expected particularly for sugar, cotton, 
certain fats and oils and, in some years, bread and feed 
grains. Some serious surpluses, especially of rubber and jute, 
were feared even in non-dollar areas. 

General Price Changes. The mam fears of farmers were 
that the general level of effective demands for their produce 
would decline. In some European countries a slackening of 
inflation of foodstuff prices was evident, especially during 
the early part of 1949. In the Netherlands, for example, 
where close attention was paid to changes in costs of farm 
production prices of livestock produce were reduced as a 
result of greater supplies of feeding stuffs and improvement 
of livestock yields, but generally farm incomes were well 
sustained. 

In the United Kingdom agricultural prices were raised by 
an average of 7 % following the February price review. This 
rise was due to withdrawal of part of the subsidy on feeding- 
stuffs, to increase of agricultural wages by some 4% and, 
not least, to the desire to expand agricultural production 
further in accordance with the programme first announced 
in Aug. 1947. Agricultural prices were, indeed, raised to 
the highest level ever recorded. After devaluation of the 
pound sterling these prices were not far out of line with price 
levels in the United States and Canada but they continued 
high as compared to the prices paid for the principal foodstuffs 
from Australia, New Zealand and nearly all European 
countries. Subsidies were continued in the United Kingdom 
on purchased fertilizers and on labour and machinery ser- 
vices administered by the County Agricultural Executive 
committees, but it was announced in July that half the 
fertilizer subsidy would be withdrawn in July 1950 and the 
remainder in July 1951. Complete withdrawal of the remain- 
der of the feedmgstuffs subsidy in April 1950 was announced 
in October. A reduction of subsidized machinery and labour 
services was also contemplated. 

Trade Agreements. Freer multilateral trade continued to 
be the ultimate objective of the United Kingdom government 
and others receiving financial aid from the United States; 
and controls of trade were relaxed for some fruit and vege- 
tables and minor agricultural products. Competition from 
Belgian, Dutch and other continental countries was much 

TABLE 1H. MILK PRODUCTION 

(thousand metric tons) 

1937 1947 1948 1948(a) 1949 (a) 

United Kingdom (b) 5,439 6,800 7,582 2,307 2,639 

Australia . . 5,058 5,060 5,475 1,890 1,972 

New Zealand (c) .. 4,508(d) 4,151 4,370 

Canada . . 6,859 7,818 7,551 1,850 1,900 

United States . 46,200 54,000 52,400 16,100 16,700 

Denmark . . 5,290 4,104 4,068 1,156 1,352 

Netherlands (b) . 2,886 3,674 816 1,163 

Sweden (b) . 2,847 3,423 3,361 1,031 1,088 
(a) Jan June. (b) Deliveries of milk from farms, 

(c) Year ending June 30. (d) Average for July 1934 June 1938 period. 
SOURCE F A.O. Monthly Bulletin, Sept. 1949. 



AGRICULTURE 



',& iWi'l 1 ;! ^V,i f , r- ; >^ ,';'! ft ' y-..' i-^;^ 1 ',' ''; i"l 'V '"'. ', ' >'"; i : ; !. "''. <", V 'f^Kj 



rought in Great Britain in 1949 caused many farmers to improvise water supplies. Here in Lincolnshire a tractor has been connected 

to a pump to provide sufficient water for a small herd of cattle. 



feared by British growers; a conference of the International 
Federation of Agricultural Producers was called to discuss 
control of trade in horticultural produce but no agreed 
proposals were reached. Increasing supplies of eggs from 
Eire and the continent caused anxiety to British farmers and 
this was aggravated by the fact that the official price paid 
for eggs was not raised in April by as much as would cover 
increases of feedingstuffs and other costs. Farmers did not, 
however, object to the comprehensive bilateral trade agree- 
ment reached between the United Kingdom and the Argentine 
because meat continued to be in such obviously short supply 
and because many farmers were anxious to secure more 
coarse grains for animal feeding. A new six year agreement 
between the United Kingdom and Denmark for butter was 
negotiated in June 1949 by which the price for the year 
Oct. 1949-Sept. 1950 was 15% lower than the price during 
Oct. 1948-Sept. 1949; yearly reductions or increases of 
1\ % could also be negotiated each autumn during the course 
of the agreement. 

An international wheat agreement was negotiated during 
the early months of 1949 and ratified by the four main 
exporting countries and by a sufficient number of importing 
countries before August. 

Some Tropical and Sub-tropical Developments. World 
production of rice continued to increase but serious setbacks 
were suffered in Burma. Many villages were burnt in Bur- 
mese-Karen warfare. The administrative machinery for 
granting loans to rice cultivators was largely disrupted and 
the planted rice area declined further by some 20% to 
8 million ac. as compared to 12-7 million ac. prewar. 

Cane sugar production in 1948-49 was raised by a further 
3% to a total of 18% greater than that of the late 1930s. 
Beet sugar production was also greater than in prewar years by 
3 %. The free market for sugar exports continued to be much 
restricted as a result of dollar shortages and it was feared that 
serious surpluses would be evident before long in some 
exporting countries. 

Fats and oils continued in short supply on international 
markets. During 1948 world production had been only some 
7% less than in prewar years but exports had been less by 
30% since the producing countries had been consuming more. 



TABLE IV. PRODUCTION OF BASIC FOOD AND FEEDINOSTUFFS 
(Countries of the Organization for European Economic Co-operation) 

(million metric tons) 





1935-38 


1947-48 


1948-49 


1952-53 




(average) 






(plans) 


Bread grains . 


. 34-2 


20-8 


31-8 


39-1 


Coarse grains 


. 29-6 


24-6 


28-1 


34-4 


Total consumption 










of coarse grains 


. 41-9 


29-0 


36-7 


42-9 


Milk . 


. 74-7 


57-1 


63-4 


83-3 


Meat and bacon 


8-8 


5-9 


6-3 


9-3 


Fats and oils . 


2-7 


2-1 


2-2 


3-2 



SOURCE: Report of the O.E.E.C. to the Economic Co-operation Administra- 
tion of the United States, vol. 1., July 1949-June 1950 plans. 



During 1949 there was no substantial general improvement in 
this position. Some further progress was made by the 
United Kingdom's Overseas Food corporation in estab- 
lishing new farming areas in Tanganyika but the 1949 crop 
was ruined by drought and costs were exceptionally high. 
Better progress was made in speeding transport of stocks of 
groundnuts from long established farming areas in northern 
Nigeria. 

Agricultural Research and Technical Developments. Research 
on many fronts continued in almost all countries and there 
was a growing faith in the ability of science eventually to 
overcome the danger to mankind from malnutrition and 
starvation. This was memorably expressed by Sir John 
Russell fy.v.) in his presidential address in Sept. 1949 to the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science. 

Amongst the more noteworthy lines of research were 
those in plant physiology, making use of radio-active tracer 
elements, and those concerned with organic weed-killers and 
pesticides of many kinds. A considerable advance was made 
towards control of trypanosomes in tropical cattle. Remark- 
able increases of crop yields were secured in trials of phos- 
phate fertilizers in pill form on some Nigerian soils. 

Notable progress was made in the designing of harvesting 
machinery and of labour saving arrangements for dairy farms 
in the United Kingdom. Despite exceptional weather con- 
ditions some sound progress was also made in the United 
Kingdom in devising economical methods of grass con- 
servation. (J. R. RA.) 



28 



AGRICULTURE 



TABLE V. IMPORTS OF AGRICULTURAL TRACTORS AND MACHINERY 



North South 

Europe America America Oceania 
(thousands) 



Africa 



Asia 
(a) 



13 8 


15-1 


6-3 12 4 2-5 


9 


26-5 


28 4 


92 5-7 94 


2 


35-8 


42-2 


19 5 10 14-7 


4 4 


56-7 


66 


28 7 179 35 3 


7 




(value 


in million U S dollars) 




32-1 


21-8 


25 8 39 12 9 


15 5 


72 4 


74-3 


39 3 9-4 32 I 


9 6 


109 8 


129 3 


93 1 24 1 63 9 


22 1 


150 4 


204 8 


113 31 6 118 


32 8 



Tractors 

1937 

1946 

1947 

1948 
Machinery 

1937 

1946 

1947 

1948 

(a) Including Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia and Eritrea , excluding USSR 
SOURCE Monthly Bulletin of the Food and Agriculture Orgam/ation 

United States. The U.S. enjoyed a good agricultural year 
with no crop scare; crop productivity maintained a very high 
level compared with that prior to World War IF, though 
it was below the record level of 1948. New records of produc- 
tion were only achieved in rice, dry beans, and pears in 1949, 
and uniformly large production gave an overall result which 
was only 6% less than the previous year. Livestock numbers, 
particularly pigs and poultry, increased. 

In spite of a slow decline in prices, the volume of agricultural 
marketings was such as to provide a gross income to fanners 
of about $32,000 million, compared with $35,300 million in 
1948. However, because of higher costs of production, the 
realized net income, which had been declining since 1947, m 
1949 was estimated at only $14,000 million compared with 
$16,700 million in 1948. Agricultural assets at the beginning 
of the year were estimated at $130,000 million compared 
with $122,278 million a year earlier. But farm land values 
which constituted a large portion of the assets declined 5% 
or 6% during the year, hence total assets were also lower by 
the end of the year. 

Crop Production. The aggregate volume of all 1949 crops 
in the U.S. declined from the record volume of 154 () of 
the 1935-39 level in 1948 to 148"; m 1949. Food grains 
declined substantially to 165% of the 1947 and 1948 
levels. Cotton was 9 points higher than in 1948. Total 
harvested acreage for the 52 principal crops amounted to 
356,041,000, compared with 352,297,000 in 1948 and a ten- 
year average of 340,709,000. This acreage was larger than 
in any other year since the peak period of 1930-33. Losses 
from weather damage or insect destruction of planted crops 
amounted to nearly 13 3 million ac., more than in any 
other year since 1943. Yields per acre were above average 
for most crops, and the composite yield stood at 142 / of 
the 1923-33 average, exceeded only by the 151 % of 1948. 

The eight major grain crops in 1949 produced a total 
tonnage of 163 million, the second largest on record 
1948 provided a record of 180 5 million tons. Food grains 
constituted 37 million tons of that total. The feed grain 
total of 126 million tons represented the second largest on 
record, but a decline from 138 million tons the previous year; 
included were a large corn crop (in spite of some drought 
and the cornborer), the second largest grain sorghum crop, 
an above average oat crop, and a below average barley 
crop. 

The oilseed crop of 1949 amounted to 15-3 million tons, 
near the 1948 record and 41% above average. Soybeans 
approximated the 1948 record cottonseed was about 9% in 
excess of 1948 and 40% above average; flaxseed and peanuts 
were below the 1948 record crops, but flaxseed was neverthe- 
less 45% above average, and peanuts a good average crop. 

Corn was planted exceptionally early under very favourable 
conditions on a slightly larger acreage than in 1948. Although 
the crop progressed to an early harvest, some dry weather 
plus exceptional damage by the cornborer reduced the yield 
to an average yield of 38-9 bu. per ac. against 42-8 bu. 
in 1948. 



The 1949 wheat crop, though the fourth largest on record, 
was a disappointment. A record acreage was sown and 
survived the early stages nicely, only to be rather severely 
damaged just prior to harvest in the Southern and Central 
Plains by excessive rain and fungus diseases. Nevertheless, 
the total supply situation was such that acreage allocations 
were set for the 1950 crop at about 15% less than in 1949. 
Domestic consumption of the large crop would not be much 
more than 700 million bu. Exports, which in 1948-49 reached 
the unprecedented level of 503 million bu., were expected 
to be less than 400 million bu. Thus the carryover at the 
end of the crop year, July 1, 1950, would be 350 million bu. 
The preliminary survey of the winter wheat crop for 1950 
suggested that sown acreage had been reduced as requested 
but that the crop was in excellent condition and might produce 
nearly as much as in 1949. 

The cotton crop of 16,034,000 bales was the largest since 
1937 and the sixth largest on record. The Brazilian crop was 
expected to be smaller than in 1948. 

A crop of 401,962,000 bu. of white or Irish potatoes was 
produced, compared with 454,654,000 bu. in 1948, even 
though the harvested acreage was the smallest since 1878 
and less than the official target. Nevertheless, an estimated 
$50 million to $60 million support programme was under 
way with prices being supported at 60% of parity against 
90% in 1948. The average yield of 21 1 4 bu. per ac. was not 
much below the record 215-5 bu. of 1948, and far above the 
145 5 bu. ten-year average. Maine had a record yield of 
450 bu. per ac 

Livestock Production The amount of livestock increased 
in 1949. The reasons differed for each type of animal, but 
the record abundance of feedstuffs was lecogm/cd as a 
principal factor. The expansion in livestock and its products 
during 1949 was sufficient to counterbalance the moderate 
decline m overall crop production, giving a total agricultural 
production volume for 1949 equal to the record 1948 
production. 

All cattle at the beginning of the year totalled 78,945,000 
head, compared with 78,126,000 head a year eailier, but 
approximately 10 million head more than before World 
War M Of that total, 24,450,000 head were milch cows, as 
against 25,039,000 a year before The slaughter of about the 
same number of cattle for beef at slightly heavier weights 
than in 1948 provided an estimated 10,880 million Ib of 
beef and veal, compared with 10,600 million Ib. in 1948. 
A new record for prize fat steers was set up when the grand 
champion at the Chicago International was auctioned for 
$11 SOpcrlb 

There were 57,139,000 head of pigs on U S. farms at the 
beginning of the year, an increase from 55,028,000 head in 
1948. The major spring pig crop was 59,039,000 head, well 
above the 51,266,000 head of a year earlier, and the autumn 
pig crop was estimated at 37,262,000 head, compared with 
33,921,000 head a year before. During 1949 10,650 million Ib. 
of pork was produced as against 10,246 million Ib. in the 
previous year. At the end of the year it was estimated that 
pork production in 1950 might approximate 11,500 million 
Ib , a result of the increased autumn pig crop of 1949 plus 
an estimated increase to 62 5 million head in the spring crop 

TABLE VI -CONSUMPTION OF NtrRocrNous FFKIILIZFRS 
(thousand metric tons) 

Con- 

July-Junc United tmental World 
Years Kingdom Lurope USA. Canada Oceania total 

(a) (b) (b) 

1946-47 . 173 1,035 711 26 11 2,400 

1947-48 217 1,243 806 25 14 2,920 

1948-49 230 1,389 866 30 13 3,291 

(a) Including dependent territories (b) Excluding U S S.R 

SOURCE Monthly Bulletin of the Food and Agriculture Organi/ation. 



AGRICULTURE 



29 



Cropi 

Pood grains 

Feed grams and hay 

Cotton 

Tobacco 

Vegetables 

Fruits and nuts 

Sugar crops 

Total Crops 
Livestock. 

Meat animals 

Poultry and eggs 

Dairy products 
Total Livestock 
Grand total . 



TABLE VII INDFX NUMBERS OF nit VOIUMF OF U S AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION THROUGH Two WAR PERIODS* 

(193 5-39 =-100) 
1915 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1946 1947 1948 



1949 



147 
126 
86 
80 
35 
73 
73 
95 

92 

78 
70 
81 
86 



126 

149 

100 

104 

51 

76 

98 

102 

99 
78 
72 
85 
92 



95 

128 

122 

95 

74 

74 

73 

99 

107 
93 
85 
96 
97 



* r-stimatcs by the US Department of Agriculture, 1949 is prov 



onul 



of 1950. In great contrast with the record high price of 
$31 85 per cwt on the Chicago market in Aug. 1948, average 
pig prices in 1949 remained below $20 per cwt. and in Decem- 
ber declined to the lowest price for the year at $14-80 per 
cwt. 

Sheep on U.S. farms at the beginning of the year, 31,963,000 
head, were the smallest recorded number, having declined 
from 34,827,000 head the previous year and more than 
50 million head prewar Consequently, the 1949 lamb crop 
was a very small one of 18,906,000 head and provided only 
600 million Ib. of lamb and mutton in 1949, as against 753 
million Ib the previous year. 

The 24,450,000 milch cows on U.S. farms at the beginning 
of 1949 represented a decline from the 25,039,000 head in 
1948, but it was estimated that the end of 1949 would show 
an increase A result of the very heavy feeding of the smaller 
number of cows from the abundant harvests of 1948 and the 
fine pastures of 1949 was that milk production per cow 
reached record levels, and total production for the year was 
about 118,000 million Ib , 2" more than in 1948, with still 
larger production expected in 1950. Prices of most dairy 
products declined in 1949, sharply at wholesale, very modera- 
tely at retail, and the government continued to accumulate 
butter and dry milk powder in large amounts in its price 
subsidy operations. 

There was a large poultry population during 1949, hens 
on farms at the beginning of the year numbering 448,838,000, 
compared with 461,550,000 head a year before. Chickens 
raised in 1949, excluding commercial broilers, were 749 
million head, as compared with 637 million head the previous 
year. Broiler production continued at a high level. 

The steady decrease in the number of horses continued- 
there were 5,921,000 head on farms in 1949 as against 
6,589,000 head in 1948. Mules were 2,353,000 head, as 
against 2,541,000 head the previous year. 

Food Stock v and E\poits. Food stocks continued to 
increase in 1949 in the major exporting countnes. hxports 
reached very high levels during the early part of the year but 
appeared to slacken in the latter part. On July 1, gram stocks 
in the four principal exporting countries were at 72 8 million 
short tons, 35% larger than the aveiage for five previous 
years. Of that total about 52 million tons were in the U S., 
Argentina held 15% of the total, Canada 9% and Australia 
4%. 

Food exports by the U.S. in 1948-49, mostly to countries 
working with the Economic Co-operation administration or to 
occupied areas, amounted to about 49,521 million Ib. Wheat 
made up more than three-fifths of the total; other grains 
accounted for about one-fifth. 

Farm Prices. Farm prices continued to decline in 1949. 
In December, the index of prices received for all farm products 
stood at 236 (1909-14 = 100), as compared with 268 a year 
earlier. Even the maintenance of that level was largely due 



109 

83 

105 

113 

91 

89 

85 

96 

100 
106 
94 
99 
98 



81 


110 


155 


164 


197 


190 


165 


91 


114 


144 


172 


131 


206 


182 


81 


95 


68 


66 


93 


117 


126 


89 


101 


137 


160 


145 


136 


137 


92 


110 


142 


158 


141 


144 


144 


95 


110 


113 


133 


129 


127 


135 


89 


104 


94 


103 


110 


89 


99 


89 


107 


122 


135 


136 


154 


148 



90 
92 
f-8 
93 
91 



118 
109 
105 
112 
110 



147 
170 
119 
141 
134 



145 
153 
120 
137 
136 



145 
157 
117 
H7 
136 



130 
153 
114 
130 
139 



133 
163 
117 
133 
139 



to government subsidy programmes; although some prices 
were below subsidized prices, the official programme appeared 
to have much weight in preventing some farm prices from 
falling. 

harm Income. Late in the year it was estimated that the 
total gross farm income for 1949 would be about $32,000 
million, about 10% less than in 1948. This gross income 
included not only cash income from marketings, but govern- 
ment payments, value of home consumption, rental value of 
dwellings and the expenses of agricultural production. Total 
farm production expenses amounted to about $18,000 million, 
only 3% less than the $18,600 million of the previous year. 
Reali/ed net income was estimated at $14,000 million, 
compared with $16,700 million in 1948. Cash receipts from 
marketings in 1949 were estimated at about $27,700 million 
or 9% below receipts in 1948. Although both crops and 
livestock were marketed in a slightly larger volume than in 
1948, total crop receipts were estimated at $12,500 million, 
that is, a 7% decrease from the 1948 level, and livestock and 
its products at $15,200 million, down 11% from 1948. 
Nevertheless, the income, credit and debt structure of U.S. 
agriculture continued to appear favourable. 

Fatm Land Values. Farm real estate in the U.S. declined 
in value by about 6% in the year ending Nov. 1949, as 
compared with peak values a year earlier. The decline was 
irregular, amounting to 10% to 14% in some mountain and 
western states, whereas a few midwestern states recorded an 
increase. The amount of funds available for farm mortgage 
financing decreased as farm prices declined. 

Farm Population. According to a preliminary estimate at 
the beginning of 1949, the farming population of 27,776,000 
constituted about 19% of the U.S. total of nearly 150 million; 
the agricultural group increased compared with 1948, when 
it was 27,440,000 persons. 

Farm Labour At the end of 1949 7,150,000 persons were 
employed on farms, almost the same number as a year 
before, but below the peak employment for the busier part 
of the agricultural year when slightly more than 12 million 
persons were employed, of whom more than three-quarters 
were family workers. Not only was the number of persons 
employed in agriculture in 1949 about 3% less than during 
the previous year but farm labour was slightly less c? pensive 
in 1949 than in recent years. 

Farm Maclunerv. The farm machinery supply situation 
impioved in relation to demand, although prices were the 
highest on record. The mechanization of U.S. agriculture 
continued at an unparalleled rate. The number of tractors 
on farms at the beginning of the year was 3 5 million, 281 % 
of the prewar level and 350,000 more than a year earlier, 
although the cost of using tractor power was higher than in 
any previous year. Used machinery declined in price. 
Exports of farm machinery were higher in early 1949 than 
before. 



30 



AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURE 




A modern tractor-driven spray which was demonstrated in 1 949 for 
use against tree pests. 

Commodity Credit Corporation. This very important 
financing organization of the Department of Agriculture 
carried on three major programmes during the year 1948-49: 
price support, supply and foreign purchase. During the year 
it received additional legislative authority to expand its grain 
storage activities and did so, particularly with reference to 
corn, contracting for more than 250 million bu. of new storage 
space, most of which was used for storing corn taken over by 
the government under subsidy operations for the 1948 crop. 

Under farm subsidizing operations, the Commodity Credit 
corporation at the end of October had $3,148,577,435 (of its 
authorized $4,750 million borrowing authority) invested in 
farm commodities. It held at that time an inventory of 
$1,692,478,677 worth taken over under price support and 
was additionally committed under loan and purchase agree- 
ments to the possible extent of $1,456,098,758. 

Commodity Trading. Activity in commodity markets 
declined in 1948-49, particularly with regard to wheat and 
cotton. The Commodity Exchange authority continued to 
request legislation to extend its supervision to future trading 
in 11 commodities not already covered, for authority to fix 
minimum margin requirements on speculative transactions 
and the registration of commodity trading advisory services. 

Agricultural Legislation. The Brannan Proposal (by 
Charles Brannan, secretary of agriculture) of April 1949 did 
not become law but it was the most discussed farm legislative 
proposal of the year. The major farm organizations and 
agricultural leaders, in and out of office, disagreed as to its 
merits. It was a price subsidy plan based on an income 
objective. A farm income standard was to be set as a minimum 
goal under which farm purchasing power would be main- 
tained at least at the same level as the average for the first 
10 of the most recent 12 years. For 1950 this would require 
an income of $26,200 million, about 1 5 % less than the $3 1 ,000 
million of 1948. This minimum was to be used only as the 
starting point for computing commodity price subsidies. 

Definite price subsidies were to be assured on corn, cotton, 
wheat, tobacco, milk, eggs, chickens and the meat-producing 
animals. They accounted for about 70% of cash farm 
receipts. Other commodities were to be supported within 
the limits of available funds. 

Two major methods of support were to be used. On 
storable commodities, loan and purchase agreements were to 
be continued. On perishable commodities the entire produc- 



tion was to go to the consumer through the usual market 
channels. However, if the average price received for a given 
commodity proved to be lower than the official subsidized 
price level, the producer was to receive a compensatory 
production payment for the difference. 

The Agricultural act of 1949 maintained rigid price subsi- 
dies at 90% of parity on the six basic crops, corn, cotton, 
wheat, rice, tobacco and peanuts. After 1950 there was 
provision for " flexible " or lower minimum subsidies, 
depending on the size of the total supply of the crop in relation 
to the normal supply. The 1949 act included mandatory 
price subsidies for wool, tung nuts, honey, intermediate and 
late Irish potatoes, milk, butterfat and the products of milk 
and butterfat. The level of subsidization was to vary with the 
different commodities and the secretary had the power to 
set the specific level. 

Other agricultural legislation of 1949 resulted in the ratifi- 
cation of the International Wheat agreement, the amendment 
of the Charter of the Commodity Credit Corporation and 
provisions for rural housing, (See also BEEKEEPING; CHEM- 
URGY; COCOA; COFFEE; DAIRY FARMING; FERTILIZERS; 
FOOD SUPPLY OF THE WORLD; FORAGE CROPS; FRUIT; 
GRAIN CROPS; HOPS; LIVESTOCK; NUTS; POULTRY; 
ROOT CROPS; SOIL CONSERVATION; SPICES; SUGAR; TEA; 
VEGETABLES; WHEAT; WOOL.) (J. K. R.) 

AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURE. British supremacy in 
the manufacture of aircraft powered by jet propulsion was 
established during 1949. Further, much was done to improve 
the standard of military aircraft and the high quality of both 
these and of British civilian aircraft led to world-wide export 
orders, exceeding a record of 33 million in value. 

The giant 130-ton Bristol Brabazon I, the world's largest 
air-liner, flew for the first time in 1949, as did many other 
new aircraft including the Armstrong-Whitworth Apollo, 
the Handley Page Hermes V, the new version of the Vickers- 
Armstrong Viscount and the Cierva Air Horse helicopter. 

The aircraft industry made many additions to Britain's 
air strength, notably the first British jet bomber, the English 
Electric Canberra which had the speed of a fighter; the first 
British jet night-fighter, the de Havilland 113; and two new 
fighters thought to be capable of sonic speed, the Hawker 
1052 and the Supermarine 510. 

The world's first four-jet air-liner, the de Havilland Comet, 
flew for the first time on July 27, 1949. Shortly afterwards 
it flew at 80% of the speed of sound, and on Oct. 25 it flew to 
Castel Benito, Tripoli, and back at an average speed of 
450 m.p.h. The whole journey took the same time as a single 
trip on a scheduled air service. 

The de Havilland Goblin and the Bristol Theseus were 
two aero engines which successfully underwent remarkable 
endurance tests in 1949, establishing their serviceability and 
smooth operation. Reports of the Bristol Proteus, however, 
were not so good and some delay was forecast in the perfec- 
tion of this type of engine, which was to power the 140-ton 
Saunders-Roe Princess class 10-engined flying boat and the 
8-engined Bristol Brabazon II. It was eventually scheduled 
for delivery in April 1951. 

Details were given in 1949 of a revolutionary method of 
aircraft construction which was to be used in the Fairey 17 
anti-submarine machine by the Fairey Aviation company. 
This process involved a reversal of the usual practice in that 
the outside skin of the aircraft was accurately shaped in 
" envelope " jigs before any of the inside structure was fitted. 
This system, a patented one, had taken four years to develop. 
It was claimed that it eliminated even minor errors of con- 
struction, made complete interchangeability of parts possible 
from the prototype aircraft onwards and enabled emergency 
large-scale production to be begun speedily. 



AIR FORCES OF THE WORLD 



31 



United States. The replacement programme undertaken 
by the air lines immediately after the war approached com- 
pletion and the deliveries of civil transports had fallen from 
433 in 1946 to approximately 160 in 1949. In spite of these 
negative factors, however, the aircraft manufacturing 
industry showed a steady recovery from the 1946 low level 
because of the increasing demand for new military aircraft. 
Employment in the primary aircraft industry which had 
dropped to a low of 180,000 in 1947 had risen to approxi- 
mately 218,000 by the middle of 1949. 

The unstable state of world affairs led congress to appro- 
priate very large sums of money for research and develop- 
ment and for new types of aircraft. During 1949 this resulted 
in substantial production orders for machines to replace 
World War II types in air force and navy squadrons. 

Certain technological advances of the past few years were 
having a profound effect upon aircraft manufacturing during 
1949. During the war the emphasis had been almost entirely 
on production. Intensive reseaich and development during 
the immediate postwar years had resulted in drastic design 
changes which were being reflected in manufacturing pro- 
cesses and production. The armed services were in 1949 
replacing their obsolete equipment with new aircraft of 
tremendously improved performance. 

The most radical change in aircraft manufacturing was 
due to the introduction of jet-type power plants. This 
necessitated a complete redesign and retooling in air-frame 
and aircraft engine manufacturing plants. 

The availability of jet and rocket power plants and the 
greatly increased aerodynamic knowledge due to intensive 
postwar research greatly extended the speed possibilities for 
aircraft. Already the so-called " sonic barrier " (approxi- 
mately 760 m.p.h. at sea level) had been exceeded by piloted 
aircraft. Such speeds, however, impose demands upon 
human pilots that are physically impossible to meet. More 
and more effort, therefore, had been focused on the design 
and manufacture of pilotless aircraft or guided missiles. 
During 1949 many manufacturers found that they were 
giving more attention to the design of guided missiles than to 
conventional aeroplane types. 

Aircraft manufacturing was also made more difficult by 
the increasing size and complexity of modern aeroplanes. 
In 1939 the average bomber weighed in the neighbourhood 
of 20,000 Ib. (empty), a fighter 5,000 lb., a trainer 2,000 Ib. 
and a transport about 12,000 lb. By the end of World War II 
50,000 -lb. bombers and transports and 10,000-lb fighters 
were in service. During 1949 at least one bomber of about 
150,000 lb. (empty) was in production. Jet fighters of about 
12,000 lb. were being built and the average four-engine 
transport in air line service weighed about 50,000 lb empty. 

The net result of the increase in aeroplane size and com- 
plexity was greatly to increase the unit cost of aircraft. 
Where in 1939 a twin-engine, 23-passenger transport cost 
about $150,000, a four-engine 50-60 passenger air liner of 
1949 cost in the neighbourhood of SI, 000,000. The navy 
estimated that, on the average, each jet-powered aircraft 
procured during the 1949-50 fiscal year would cost $829,000. 
The air force figure was $900,000. Mass production would, 
of course, materially reduce these figures. 

During 1949 the aircraft industry did about $1,700 million 
worth of business, the largest share of which came from 
military buying through government agencies. Output 
included approximately 2,500 military aircraft, 3,400 private 
type planes and 160 civil transports of all types. For reasons 
of security military aircraft production was computed in 
terms of air-frame weight rather than the number of planes. 
On this basis the production for the year would reach 
approximately 28 million lb. of air-frame weight as compared 
with approximately 25 million in 1948. 



The basic aircraft industry at the end of 1949 consisted of 
34 manufacturers of complete aircraft, with 39 plants, and 13 
manufacturers of aircraft engines, operating 14 plants. The 
balance of the industry consisted of a large number of 
propeller and accessory companies backed up by suppliers 
of parts and materials as well as subcontractors and manu- 
facturers of sub-assemblies. The latter categories were of 
increasing importance. In the production of the Boeing B-47 
bomber for example, 48 % of the total cost went to hundreds 
of subcontractors, and in the manufacture of the General 
Electric J-47 turbo-jet engine it was estimated that 280 
subcontracting companies participated. 

The 3,40(f output of private planes was a great disappoint- 
ment to those who before the end of the war predicted a 
probable production of 50,000-60,000 a year by 1950. The 
market failed to develop because the private aeroplane 
was not developed to the point of real usefulness at low cost. 
At the end of 1949 there was nothing in sight that would 
change this situation and greatly increase the demand. 

The demand for commercial transport aircraft had been 
dropping off steadily as the civil air lines in the U.S. com- 
pleted their modernization programmes. At the end of 1949 
there were approximately 1,100 transport aircraft in service 
on U.S. domestic and overseas air lines, which appeared to 
be about the number that the traffic could bear in the 
immediate future. Some replacements would be required 
during the next few years, but it was probable that the 
demands for the next year or two would fall below the 
1949 level. 

A number of U.S. jet transport designs were being planned. 
Several years must elapse, however, before interest would be 
reflected in actual orders for jet transports. Few U.S. air 
lines could afford to replace existing equipment with jet- 
powered equipment much before 1955. 

In addition to the conventional aircraft types mentioned 
above, helicopters were a factor in 1949 U.S. aircraft produc- 
tion. A number of new companies had come into the field 
but over-all production statistics were incomplete. It was 
estimated, however, that about 200 helicopters were pro- 
duced in the United States during 1949. Most of them 
went to the military services for special uses (air-sea rescue 
work, etc.) but a few went into commercial use for the 
carriage of mail and small items in isolated districts. (See 
also JET PROPULSION AND GAS TURBINES.) (S. P. J.) 

AIR FORCES OF THE WORLD. The outstanding 
development of the year was the formal ratification through 
the North Atlantic treaty (tf.v ) of the policy through which 
Great Britain was already furnishing jet fighters and engines 
to nations of the Western Union and their democratic 
neighbouis, under the Treaty of Brussels of 1948. Nations 
who signed the Atlantic treaty, or were in sympathy with its 
purposes, had alieady began to equip their air forces with 
British Vampire and Meteor fighters. British jet engines 
were also available to them. France purchased British 
fighters and was beginning to manufacture British jet engines 
under licence. Belgium purchased Meteors and Meteor 
trainers, and the Rolls-Royce Derwent turbo-jets for these 
were being built at Liege under licence. About 20 Meteors 
were purchased by the Netherlands where the Meteor 
trainer was also in use. Netherlands naval aviation was 
using the British Hawker Sea Fury, and the Faiiey Firefly 
among its piston-engined aircraft. Switzerland purchased 
75 Vampires and was licensed to build 100 more, with 
Goblin engines to be sent from Great Britain. Both Norway 
and Sweden purchased Vampires; and Sweden was manufac- 
turing the de Havilland and Goblin turbo-jet under licence. 
Italy ordered 50 Vampires in 1949, to be delivered by 
March 1950. 



32 



AIR FORCES OF THE WORLD 



The formalizing of the Western Union defence plan included 
the establishment of a central supply and resources board 
under the Western Union defence committee. The excellence 
and availability of British jet fighters and jet engines, together 
with the fact that they were already being purchased, made 
their use in western Europe natural. At the same time the 
western hemisphere would tend to use U.S. equipment. 

The U S. was responsible under the North Atlantic treaty 
for long range strategic bombing requirements, on the basis 
of existing equipment. British Lancasters and Lincolns, and 
the coastal-defence Shackletons, were limited in range, though 
Britain's position in this respect would be improved by the 
acquisition of American B-29s. The existing plan called for 
short range attack bombing and fighter defence by Britain, 
France and the other allied nations. This was being pursued 
at the end of 1949 to such an extent that the allied nations 
were receiving fighters from Britain while R.A.F. reserves 
and overseas units were still using a great deal of wartime 
reciprocating engine-powered equipment. 

Great Britain. The first British jet-propelled bomber, the 
English Electric A I Canberra, was first flown in May 1949. 
It was powered by two Rolls-Royce Avon turbo-jets mounted 
in nacelles in the wings. The conventional Avro Shackleton, 
powered by four Rolls-Royce Griffons with counter-rotating 
propellers, continued to be the only British bomber developed 
since the war in the 100,000 Ib. class. The Avro 707, a 
Delta-wing research fighter powered by one Rolls-Royce 
Derwent, was said to be part of a research programme 
leading toward a Delta-wing bomber using twin turbo-jets 
contained in the wing. Handley Page was reported to be 
working on a jet bomber of unconventional design, and the 
de Havilland company on a jet bomber which might be 
based upon its successful civil turbo-jet transport, the Comet. 

The Vickers Supermanne 510 was one of the experimental 
fighter types to appear during the year. It was estimated to 
have flown at about 660 m p.h. at Farnborough, in September, 
and to handle well at high altitudes. A Rolls-Royce None 
turbo-jet was the power plant. The experimental Hawker 
P. 1052 was also powered by a Rolls-Royce Nene. The 
manufacturers claimed an unusually long range for it. The 
de Havilland Venom F.B.I, first flown on Sept. 2, was 
powered by a de Havilland Ghost turbo-jet. Its manoeuvra- 
bility at altitude, climb and speed were favourably reported 
and the Venom was known to be an all-round improvement 
on the Vampire. The Royal Navy's Westland Wy vern torpedo 
fighter appeared at Farnborough as the first front line military 
aircraft to be powered by a turbo-prop. 

While Vampires and Meteors were the standard fighters 
of the R A F., the de Havilland Hornet and Mosquito, the 
Hawker Tempest, the Supermanne Spitfire and the Bristol 
Brigand continued among the piston-engmed aircraft in 
service for various duties as long-range fighters, night 
fighters, fighter bombers and light bombers. 

In addition to the jet-propelled de Havilland Sea Vampire 
and Supermanne Attacker, the navy continued with the 
de Havilland Sea Hornet, Hawker Sea Fury, Supermanne 
Seafire, Blackburn Firebrand and Faircy Barracuda and 
Firefly for carrier-based fighting, night fighting, fighter- 
reconnaissance and bomber aircraft duties. Two new R A F. 
anti-submarine aircraft were announced late in 1949, the 
Blackburn Y.A 5 and the Fairey 17. 

British gas-turbine development continued intensively 
during 1949, with definite trends towards increased use of 
axial-flow designs and higher power in both turbo-jets and 
turbo-props, and renewed interest in after-burning as a 
source of additional power. The first British rocket motor 
made its appearance in 1949, the de Havilland Sprite, giving 
a thrust of 5,000 Ib. for 9 sec. The Sprite was intended for 
use in the assisted take-off of such aircraft as the de Havilland 



Comet. Among the new turbo-jets were the Rolls-Royce 
Avon, the Rolls-Royce Tay turbo-jet, the Armstrong Sid- 
deley Double Mamba (consisting of two Mamba 3s driving 
a single shaft) and the Napier Double Naiad which was 
reported under development. Both the Mamba and the 
Naiad were axial-flow turbo-props. The Bristol Proteus turbo- 
prop, which was expected to be flown in 1950, was to power 
the Bristol Brabazon II and the Saunders-Roe Princess, the 
giant transports. The Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire, latest 
of the turbo-jets, was reported to be a development of the 
Metropohtan-Vickers Beryl. 

The R.A.F. was using or had ordered principally the 
Handley Page Hastings (75,000 Ib.) as a heavy transport, 
the Bristol 170 (40,000 Ib.) and the lighter Percwal Prince 
and Vickers Valetta during 1949. The civil jet-transport 
programme proceeded intensively and the possibilities of jet 
transports in military use and in bomber development were 
mentioned by observers. The 130-ton Brabazon 1 was first 
flown in September; and construction on the Brabazon II 
and the giant Saunders-Roe Princess flying boat was proceed- 
ing. These would be powered by the Bristol Proteus tui bo- 
prop. The first flights of the de Havilland Comet, powered 
by four Ghost turbo-jets, were successful; and this plane 
was expected by British and several U.S. observers to have 
an excellent future Among the turbo-prop civil aircraft to 
fly first in 1949 were the Handley Page Hermes, heaviest 
turbo-prop transport at 84,000 Ib., and the Handley Page 
Miles Marathon, at 18,000 Ib. Both the Vickers Viscount 
and the Armstrong-Whitworth Apollo underwent consider- 
able flight testing in 1949 

The Westland-Sikorsky S-51 was the only helicopter 
reported in quantity production for military purposes, a 
number having been ordered by the Royal Navy. 

The Commonwealth. Reflecting the stiong research and 
development programme on military an craft and gas turbines 
in Great Britain, Canada and Australia were working on 
independent designs which might affect the future equipment 
of their air forces. 

In Canada, the Avro Orcnda turbo-jet completed more 
than 750 hr. of ground tests, and was being test flown in a 
North American F-86A fighter. The CF-100 (formerly the 
XC-100) was expected to make Us first flight early in 1950. 
The outstanding transport development in Canada was the 
Avro C-102, powered by four Rolls-Royce Derwcnt turbo- 
jets. This aircraft was flown at 500 rn.p.h. above 30,000 ft. 

In Australia, a twin-jet all weather fighter was reported 
under development, probably to be powered by Rolls-Royce 
Tay turbo-jets. Commonwealth Aircraft corporation was 
licensed in September to produce the Canberra, bomber and 
the Hawker P. 1040 lighter. The Rolls-Royce Nene was being 
manufactured under license in Australia; and the de Havilland 
company in Austialia was manufacturing the Vampire, 
the standard fighter of the R.A.A.F. (M. H. SM.; S. P. J.j 

United States. Operation " Vittles," until the lifting of the 
rail blockade of Berlin on May 12 by the Russians, was a 
major U S. air force activity during 1949. The Berlin air lift 
had begun operations on June 26, 1948, by flying, in a 24-hr, 
period, 80 tons of food and other needed supplies into Berlin. 
The planes during the first days of the project were two- 
engined C-47s. The amount of supplies flown by air was 
greatly increased by the addition of four-engined C-54 
transports and by May 12, 1949, a total of 195,998 flights had 
been made by U.S. and British transports, carrying 1,589,567 
cargo and passenger tons. With the announcement of the 
lifting of the rail and road blockade, the combined air lift 
was gradually inactivated as part of a plan to reduce the scope 
of operations This phasing out continued until Sept. 30, 
the closing day of the Berlin air lift. During its 15 months of 
operation, U.S. planes had massed a total of 591,347 flying 



AIR FORCES OF THE WORLD 



33 




The Vickers- Armstrongs Supermarine 510 a single seater fighter 
powered by a Nene turbo-jet. 

hours and U.S. air lift planes, including navy transports, 
carried 1,783,826 tons of food, coal and other supplies into 
Berlin. British planes on the air lift had flown 538,416 tons 
to Berlin in addition to the U.S. tonnage. 

Production of the Consolidated B-36 long-range bomber 
continued during 1949 and it was announced that a second 
U.S.A. F. operational group was equipped with the B-36 by 
June 30. Four J-47 jet engines were installed on a B-36D, 
giving more than 20,000 additional pounds of thrust to the 
21,000 h.p. supplied by the six Wasp-Majors engines with 
which the pusher-type bomber is equipped. Jet engines were 
being added to all existing B-36s. 

The nonstop around-the-world flight of an air force B-50 
bomber, the " Lucky Lady II," Feb. 26 to March 2, 1949, 
demonstrated progress in increasing the range of aircraft by 
in-flight refuelling and fuel conservation by cruise control 
techniques. The B-50 left Carswell air force base, Fort Worth, 
Texas, Feb. 26, headed east and landed at the take-off point 
after being aloft 94 hr. 1 min. B-29 tanker planes refuelled 
the " Lucky Lady II " by a flexible-hose, gravity-feed system 
at four points along its global route of more than 23,000 mi. 

In October, the air force revealed a new flying boom in- 
flight refuelling method which eliminates some of the diffi- 
culties encountered in the gravity-feed system. In using this 
new technique developed for the air force by the Boeing 
Airplane company, two planes fly in formation and a con- 
trolled, telescoping boom carried beneath the tanker plane, 
is flown into position by the tanker plane and inserted into a 
socket in the nose of the receiver plane. The fuel is transferred 
under pressure. 

The Boeing B-47 Stratojet, a high-speed medium bomber 
powered by six jet engines, established a record flight for 




The English Electric Canberra /, Britain's first jet bomber, powered 
by two Rolls-Royce Avon axial flow gas turbines. 



bombers by flying from Moses Lake, Washington, to Andrews 
field, Camp Springs, Maryland, on Feb. 8, 1949, in 3 hr. 46 min. 
The 125,000 Ib. bomber, accepted by the air force late in 
1948, utilized a new type of landing gear with wheels mounted 
in tandem or bicycle fashion. 

Four new jet fighter planes were among the new aircraft 
to be test flown during the year. One of these, the XF-92A, 
formerly designated the Model 7002 research plane, was a 
radically designed fighter using the Delta wing for the first 
time. Experimentation and evaluation of the aerodynamic 
characteristics of the Delta wing, which has a sweepback of 
60, had previously been conducted in wind tunnel tests. 

The Republic XF-91 interceptor, and the Lockheed XF-90 
penetration fighter, made initial flights at Muroc air force 
base, California. Flight evaluation of the XF-94, a radar- 
equipped advanced design of the Lockheed TF-80, was also 
made. 

Two trainer aircraft were test flown in September. The 
North American T-28, single-engined, low-wing monoplane, 
was designed to replace the T-6 Texan, which was used 
widely in training pilots during World War II. The T-28 
included several improvements over its predecessor. The 
T-29, modification of the Convair Model 240 transport, was 
designed to train student navigators. This flying classroom 
had 14 stations, each equipped with a Loran scope, radio com- 
pass, altimeter, air-speed indicator, drift meter and map table. 

Other new aircraft included the XC-123, a twin-engined 
assault transport, and an experimental bomber, the Martin 
XB-S1. Powered by three turbo-jet engines, the XB-51 was 
the first postwar aeroplane specifically designed for the 
destruction of surface targets in co-operation with ground 
forces. The XB-52, which was under development, was a 
jet long range heavy bomber. 

The total number of officers, and airmen on duty in the 
U.S.A.F. reached 419,919 as at Aug. 31, 1949. This total 
represented full time military personnel, regulars and reserves, 
on active duty. 

As at July 1949 there were 9,400 U.S.A.F. planes in active 
status including postwar types. Included in this total were 
combat and utility aircraft. Combat aircraft included bom- 
bers, fighters, reconnaissance, combat amphibian and search 
and rescue planes performing the mission for which they were 
designed. Utility aircraft included transport, trainer and 
communications aircraft and former combat aircraft. 

A new distinctive blue uniform, identical for officers and 
airmen except for insignia of rank, was approved by the air 
force at the beginning of the year. All airmen were to be 
equipped with new uniforms by Sept. 1, 1950. 

The headquarters of four numbered air forces (the 1st, 10th, 
14th and 15th) and several tactical units in the United States 
were re-located and six tactical groups were scheduled to be 
inactivated in accordance with a programme of economies 
announced in August by the Department of Defence. Under 
this plan, nine bases were declared surplus to the needs of 
the U.S.A.F.; and disposal, under the provisions of public 
law 152, 81st congress, was initiated. The group structure of 
the air force was reduced from 54 to 48. In Oct. 1949, the 
congress passed legislation authorizing a group structure 
of 58. (H. S. Vo.) 

U.S. Navy. Reduction of the aeronautic organization of 
the U.S. navy to the level permitted by the budget for fiscal 
1950 began early in 1949. By July, the number of operating 
and support aircraft was lowered to 10,500, aviation officers 
to 12,205 and enlisted rates to 63,490. By the same month, 
3 battle, 5 attack, 3 light and 3 escort carriers and 14 aircraft 
tenders were operating with the fleet; active aviation shore 
stations numbered 60; overseas bases, 13. Several Pacific 
bases were closed and some Atlantic bases used in World 
War II were re-activated. 



34 



AIR FORCES OF THE WORLD 



Flight training was concentrated at Pensacola, Florida, and 
Corpus Christi, Texas, and technical training at Memphis, 
Tennessee. The F8F fighter, AD attack plane and P2V patrol 
plane were introduced in flight courses and jet fighters were 
introduced in operational training. The organized reserve 
was expanded to 7,800 officers and 21,500 men. Training 
was conducted on a year-round basis and 15 air groups 
completed two-week cruises aboard carriers. 

On March 4, the ** Caroline Mars,'* one of four large 
seaplanes operating with fleet logistic support wings, Pacific, 
broke a record by carrying 263 passengers in addition to her 
crew of 6, from San Diego to Alameda, California. The same 
month, a P2V-3C patrol plane with a 10,000 Ib. bomb load, 
took off from the carrier " Coral Sea " in the Atlantic, flew 
across the United States to drop its bomb load, and returned 
nonstop to Patuxent River, Maryland, after a flight of more 
than 4,000 mi. 

In support of the Berlin air lift U.S. navy squadrons VR-6 
and 8 participated in the air lift from Nov. 1948 to June 1949. 
VR-8 not only carried the most tons in any month, but with 
VR-6 a close second, led all air force and navy squadrons in 
the efficient use of aircraft over the entire period. 

The former seaplane tender " Norton Sound," placed in 
operation early in the year as a test ship, aided in solving many 
launching and directing problems in the field of guided 
missiles. Wind tunnel facilities and equipment were improved. 
Research in turbo-jet engines increased performance. The 
jet fighters F2H Banshee, F9F Panther, and F6U Pirate, and 
conventional attack planes AD-3 Skyraider and AM-1 
Mauler, which was capable of carrying a heavier bomb load 
than any known single engine plane, were operating with the 
fleet. Helicopters had replaced single-engined seaplanes on 
battleships and cruisers. Work was begun on the moderniza- 
tion of three carriers and installation of more powerful deck 
gear for the operation of larger aircraft. (C. T. D.) 

U.S.S.R. The main sources of information regarding 
aeronautical progress in the U.S.S.R. were reports of obser- 
vers of Soviet aircraft on the traditional May day and Aviation 
day displays, the latter of which was in July 1949. No close- 
up inspection of aircraft was allowed. Visitors had to be 
content with what they could see as the machines flew over- 
head. Because of the variety of types that had been observed 
on such occasions there was no question but that the Russians 
were exploiting their knowledge of jet aircraft and jet engines 
to the limit. In this they were unquestionably aided by large 
numbers of Germans who had been picked up in the Soviet 



zone of Germany and had been at work for the Soviet govern- 
ment during the past five years. 

It was known that the Russians had been heavily occupied 
with the development of the guided-missiles projects based on 
German wartime research. This lent weight to speculation 
that development of liquid fuel rocket engines on a consider- 
able scale was under way, both for piloted aircraft and for 
guided missiles. The Russians claimed to have flown an 
experimental jet-powered aeroplane at speeds greater than 
the speed of sound. There was, however, no proof of this 
accomplishment. 

In the bomber categories, only two new types were 
definitely identified, the Ilyushin four-jet bomber and the 
Tupolev twin-jet attack bomber. They appeared to be in the 
medium bomber category. The best guess was that the range of 
the Ilyushin four-jet bomber was approximately 1,500 mi. 
with a bomb load of about 5,000 Ib. It was thought that the 
Tupolev twin-jet bomber might be capable of carrying a 5,000 
Ib. bomb load somewhat less than 1,000 mi., and that it had a 
speed of at least 445 m.p.h. 

In the jet-fighter category the work of only three designers 
had been definitely identified, Lavochkin, Mikoyan and 
Gurevich (MIG), and Yakovlev. Lavochkin had a long 
background of design of successful single-seat fighters of 
conventional types. As early as 1947, an LAV-9 fitted with 
auxiliary jet and rocket power plants was reported in the 
Aviation day display. Newer LAV jet designs had also been 
seen but details were entirely lacking. The MIG-9 twin-jet 
fighter by Mikoyan was a single-seat monoplane of conven- 
tional configuration. The engines were believed to be German 
axial-flow type turbines developing a thrust of approximately 
3,500 Ib. each. Its estimated speed was of the order of 600 
m.p.h. Two Yakovlev jet fighters were described. The YAK 
-15 was apparently based on an earlier design (the YAK-3) in 
which the conventional reciprocating engine had been replaced 
by a Jumo-004H axial-flow turbo-jet engine mounted 
underneath the fuselage. Other dimensions and weights were 
lacking. The maximum speed was probably in the 500 m.p.h. 
range. The YAK- 17 was a later development resembling 
in general the Republic F-84 Thunderjet of the U.S. air force. 
The probability was that this machine was in the 600-650 
m.p.h. class. It appeared to be the best of the 1949 U.S.S.R. 
fighter designs. 

Reports continued of production of a Tupolev modification 
of the B-29 bomber. A transport modification, the TU-70, 
was also reported. This was a four-engined type designed for 




The jet engine of a Republic F-84 Thunderjet being removed at Falmouth, Massachusetts. The Thunderjet is capable of reaching a speed of 
600 m.p.h. and was one of the three jet fighters for which the United States A.A.F. had placed extensive orders. 



AIRPORTS 



35 



72 passengers and a crew of 4 or 5. Ilyushin also appeared 
to be in production on cargo and transport types. 

The total number of aircraft in the Soviet military and civil 
air fleets was entirely unknown as was the 1949 rate of aircraft 
production. There was undoubtedly a very considerable 
aviation activity within the borders of the U.S.S.R. Designers 
appeared to be competent and they seemed to have access 
to up-to-date information from Soviet research laboratories 
and from those outside the U.S.S.R. The chances were good 
that a large well manned air fleet was in being, backed up 
by an industry of considerable capacity, but British and U.S. 
sources were in agreement that, at the close of 1949, the 
Western Union powers had a marked edge in technological 
development. 

Europe. France. The French air force in 1949 was still 
equipped largely with surplus aircraft of World War II, 
except for a few British de Havilland Vampire jet fighters. 
Modernizing was discussed and reported upon, but action 
was slow. Purchases abroad were expected to provide most 
new types, such as jet fighters; but in the autumn there was 
another political crisis with changes in the defence ministry 
and a new plan was reported late in the year which would 
involve a considerable overhauling of the nationalized 
aircraft industry. 

The outstanding French jet aircraft of 1949 was the Leduc 
O.10 ram-jet, which made its first powered flight on April 21. 
This plane had left the ground only on the back of a Languedoc 
161 air liner, but it might be fitted with rockets for take-off 
power. The Leduc ram-jet engine propelled it at more than 
450 m.p.h. at half power on its first powered flight. The 
Dessauit MD 450 Ouragan fighter, powered by a Rolls- 
Royce Nene turbo-jet built by Hispano Suiza in France under 
licence, appeared to be the choice under the new plan as the 
standard French intercepter fighter. The S.N.C.A. (Societe 
Nationale de Constructions Aeronautiques) du Sud-Ouest 
S.O. 6020 Nene-powered fighter would probably be built 
to the number of several hundred as all-weather fighters 
under the new plan. Experimental jets of the S.N.C.A. 
du Nord were the Nord 1600 and the Nord 2200. The latter 
was designed as a carrier-borne fighter. The Breguet 960, 
under construction, was another naval fighter-bomber, with 
a Nene turbo-jet in the rear and a Mamba turbo-prop in 
the nose. 

The jet engines used in military aircraft in France were 
British, either imported or manufactured under licence. 
French development of the gas turbine began in 1946. The 
S.N.E.C.M.A. (Societe Nationale d'Etude et de Construction 
de Moteurs deviation) ATAR 101 B turbo-jet, at 5,000 Ib. 
thrust, and the TB 1000 turbo-prop of the same company, 
at 1,220 shaft h.p., were in bench test stages. The Compagnie 
Electro-Mecanique TGAR 1008 turbo-jet, at 4,850 Ib. thrust, 
and its TGA-1 bis turbo-prop, at 2,410 shaft h.p., were in 
the prototype testing stage. The Rateau SRA-101 turbo-jet, 
made by the S.N.E.C.M.A. company, developed 8,820 Ib. 
thrust. New piston-engine development in France was almost 
at a standstill at the end of 1949 and the engine industry was 
considered to be in a stage of transition to emphasize gas 
turbines. 

Italy. The Italian air force, by peace treaty provisions, was 
limited to 200 defensive fighter and reconnaissance aircraft 
and 150 trainers and transports. Front line aircraft in 1949 
were surplus Supermarine Spitfires from Britain and Mustangs 
and Lockheed Lightnings from the U.S. The aircraft and 
engine industries in Italy made slow progress in recovering 
from war damage and were producing only a few light 
transports, light aircraft and military trainers at the end of 
1949. Among Italian transports, the Breda-Zappa ta B.Z. 308 
transport for 55 to 80 passengers, powered by four Bristol 
Centaurus engines, was still undergoing its flight tests in 




A new parachute manufactured in England and demonstrated in 
Nov. 1949, which opened automatically at a pre-set height. 

1949. This was the most advanced transport being built in 
Italy. The Argentine government ordered 10. of these late 
in 1949. 

The engine manufacturers were making light engines 
principally, but Alfa Romeo and Isotta-Fraschini continued 
to develop engines for transports and trainers. Isotta's two 
new engines, the 8-cylinder air-cooled Cypselus at 400 h.p. 
and the 18-cylinder liquid-cooled Gypagus at about 1,600 h.p. 
the latter with its latest Delta at 800 h.p., indicated the state 
of Italian engine development at the end of 1949. Alfa 
Romeo was producing excellent engines in the medium and 
light class but little activity in jet propulsion was in evidence. 

The industry was in so weak a state that both the Caproni 
and Cant companies were reported to have been closed down ; 
but a new development late in the year placed the Fiat, 
Macchi, Ambrosini and Alfa Romeo companies in a new 
position. These firms formed a company to sign contracts 
with the British de Havilland company to manufacture 
Vampire fighters and Goblin turbo-jet engines. An order 
for 50 Vampires by the Italian government, to be delivered by 
March 1950, would furnish the air force with jet fighters until 
the Italian jet-building programme should get under way. 
(See also AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURE; AIRPORTS; AVIATION, 
CIVIL; JET PROPULSION AND GAS TURBINES; MUNITIONS OF 
WAR.) (M. H. SM.; S. P. J.) 

AIRPORTS. The International Civil Aviation organiza- 
tion (I.C.A.O.) in 1947 issued recommendations for standard 
and recommended practices as to airport size and capacity. 
These standards, although not binding on the member nations 
of I.C.A.O., proved a useful guide to those authorities 
planning new airports or extensions to existing ones. 

Great Britain. By 1949, only one airport in Great Britain, 
London airport, fell into the first category (A.I); i.e., it had a 
main runway not less than 8,400 ft. in length, and could 
bear a single wheel load of at least 100,000 Ib. at 1201b. 
per sq. in. 

The concreting of the six-runway layout at London airport 



36 



AIRPORTS 




The 2,750 yd. runway at Ft I ton ^ near Bristol \ which was specially constructed for the Bristol Brabazon. 



was almost completed; but only one triangle was service- 
able and much additional work to the lighting, drainage and 
radio aids remained to be carried out before further runways 
could be used. Development of the central terminal area was 
begun and four further temporary hangars were completed 
during the year. 

The air traffic control problem became more acute, particu- 
larly in the London area, where London and Northolt, both 
handling heavy density traffic, proved to be too close under 
instrument flying conditions. Additional points of entry 
and exit for the Metropolitan Control zone were provided, 
an inner zone was created and the holding area for airliners 
waiting to land at Northolt was moved to near Bovingdon, 
Hertfordshire. It was announced that all civil airlines now 
operating from Northolt would be re-based at London 
airport by the end of 1954. 

Another development in the London area was the taking 
over of responsibility at Stansted, Essex, by the Ministry of 
Civil Aviation, which intended to develop it as a main 
diversion and charter flying base. Other British airports 
showed little change, except that at Manchester (Ringway) 
one runway was extended by over 1 ,000 ft. and a new terminal 
building opened; the stressing of the main runway at Prest- 
wick, the Scottish transatlantic airport, for airliners of 
Stratocruiser weight was completed; and Glasgow (Renfrew) 
had its runways re-surfaced. Although not a civil airport, 
Bristol (Filton) was the scene of the Brabazon's first flight, 
and the special runway and the assembly hall (largest struc- 
ture of its kind in the world) also received B.O.A.C.'s fleets 
of Constellations and Stratocruisers for maintenance. 

Belgium. At Brussels (Melsbroek) work was concentrated 
on building four double hangars to occupy 4,800 sq. yd. A 
start was made on developing Antwerp (Deurne) as an inter- 
national air freight centre. 



Finland. It was announced that the airport for Helsinki, 
Malmi, was to be replaced by a new one at Seutula, to be 
ready for the Olympic Games in 1952. 

France. The airport construction work vote was cut by 
Fr. 85 million, but the planned development of Paris (Orly) 
for intercontinental traffic was continued. The basic layout 
was to be similar to that of London airport; but two of the 
three runways in use by the end of 1949 were parallel. 

Germany. The Anglo-U.S. airlift of 1948-49 reached such 
proportions that the three receiving airports in Berlin dealt 
with the heaviest density of aircraft movements in the history 
of aviation. At the British-controlled base, Gatow, landings 
reached a peak of one every 90 sees. (900 per day) three 
times the maximum traffic at New York (La Guardia), 
formerly the busiest in the world. The original steel-mesh 
runway was extended by 1,500ft. of concrete, and, parallel 
to this, a new 6,000 ft. concrete runway was constructed. 
The airports from which Berlin was supplied all benefited 
materially from the airlift: Hamburg (Fuhlsbuttel) had a 
new 6,000 ft. permanent runway in use, and Frankfurt 
(Rhein-Main) a second runway of 8,200 ft. under construction. 

Italy. The airports of Rome (Ciampino) and Naples 
(Capodichino) were being improved with funds provided 
under the European Recovery programme Ciampino 
had an imposing passenger-handling building in use but an 
entirely new site for a Rome intercontinental airport was 
selected at Fogere, on the Tyrrhenian coast. 

Netherlands. The fine steel-and-glass terminal building at 
Amsterdam (Schiphol) came into partial service in May 1949 
with the transfer of all passenger arrivals and departures 
and with the opening of the two-floor restaurant above. 
The new control tower was completed but technical equipment 
was awaited. Concreting work wa$ completed on the new 
north-south runway. 



AIR RACES AND RECORDS ALBANIA 



37 



Norway. An aviation commission, in June 1949 recom- 
mended new airports at Herdla, Gosse and Bodo, the 
improvement of Oslo (Fornebu) and Stavanger (Sola) and the 
retention of the existing seaplane bases. Gardenmoen, a 
major military base 56 km. from Oslo, was scheduled to 
take the long-haul commercial traffic. 

Portugal. A seaplane dock, 460 m. in length, was partially 
constructed at Cabo Ruivo (four mi, upstream from Lisbon); 
and Portela, the land airport, had a new administrative 
block under construction. 

Sweden. The Stockholm (Halmsjon) project for an inter- 
continental land airport achieved limited development in 
1949. By June, some Kr.10 million had been expended, 
mainly on blasting operations. 

Switzerland. Geneva (Cointrin) would remain unique 
among Europe's major airports in retaining a single broad 
6,500ft. runway. A new passenger handling block with 
a single long frontage and a hangar to house up to 10 four- 
engined aircraft were opened in May 1949. Zurich (Kloten), 
an entirely new postwar enterprise, had three runways all 
in use by the same date; and the permanent terminal buildings 
were due for completion in 1950. (G. D. H. L.) 

United States. The 1949 Civil Aeronautics administration 
(C.A.A.) revision of the annual three-year forecast of con- 
structions and improvements contemplated under the Federal 
Airport plan called for the building or improvement of 
4,977 airports at a cost of $> 1,1 15,300,000 of which 
$510,600,000 would be federal funds and $604,700,000 state 
and local contributions. Under this programme for 1949-53, 
2,794 new airports would be constructed and 2,183 improved. 
By the end of 1949 congress had appropriated $117,500,000 
toward the total of $500 million it authorized in 1947. The 
projected programme included plans for a second large air- 
port in the Washington area to relieve congestion at the 
Washington National airport. 

The Aircraft committee of the Munitions board approved 
the C.A.A. sponsored slope-line system of approach lighting 
for airport runways in use by the army, navy, air force and 
commercial operators. Immediate installation of high- 
intensity approach lights utilizing the slope-line system was 
planned for the Washington National airport, Washington, 
D.C , and the Los Angeles International airport, Los Angeles, 
California. (See also AVIATION, CIVIL.) (E. M. E.) 

AIR RACES AND RECORDS. The year 1949 
was important in British air racing history when the Royal 
Aero club promoted the first national air races. These were 
held at Birmingham (Elmdon) from July 30 Aug. 1, and 
incorporated the more important events in the racing calendar 
formerly held at Lympne and elsewhere. All eight events 
were held over a 20-mi. quadrilateral course, which, with 
the poor weather conditions, made high-speed flying a con- 
siderable test of skill. J. N. Somers in a Miles Gemini won 
the King's cup and N.F. Duke in a Hawker P. 1040 won the 
Kemsley challenge trophy with an average speed of 508 
m.p.h. The Siddeley challenge trophy for British flying clubs 
was won by F. Dunkerley (Lancashire Aero club) and the 
challenge cup of the Society of British Aircraft Constructors 
for jet aircraft was won by T. S. Wade, at 510 m.p.h. average, 
in a Hawker P. 1040. 

The national air races of the U.S.A. were held at Cleveland 
in September. Four events were cross-country, and five round 
a closed circuit. All jet aircraft raced in classes, only one 
type being involved in each race. The Thompson trophy (jet 
division) was won by Captain B. Cunningham with an 
average speed of 586 m.p.h. His fastest lap was at 635-4 
m.p.h. C. Cleland, in a F2G Corsair, won the R division of 
the trophy race with an average of 397 m.p.h. 

There were few new official major air records. The absolute 



speed record set up by Major R. Johnson (U.S.A.) in a 
North American F-86 in Sept. 1948 was confirmed at 
670-981 m.p.h. The U.S.A. recaptured the class records for 
helicopters (speed, 100-km. circuit, and altitude) with the 
Sikorsky S-52. A significant flight, though outside the official 
categories, was the round-world non-stop flight by a United 
States air force B-50 bomber. This involved air-to-air 
re-fuelling, whereas for the endurance effort of R. Woodhouse 
and W. Jongeward, who flew over Yuma, Arizona, for 
46 days 20 hr. in a small single-engined Aeronca, the aid of a 
fast moving car was invoked f William P. Odom flew a 
Beech Bonanza non-stop farther (4,957 mi., Honolulu to 
Peterboro, New Jersey) than any other light aeroplane in 
history. 

Certain international point-to-point records are recognized 
by the Federation Aeronautiquc Internationale. Five British 
flights in 1949 were accepted as best performances: London- 
Rome, in 2 hr. 31 mm. (359 m.p.h.), and to Karachi in 
15 hr. 20 min. (256 m.p.h.), by N. F. Duke, with Hawker 
Fury; London-Paris, in 20 min. 37 sec. (618 m p.h.), by 
T. S. Wade, with Hawker P. 1052; London-Malta, in 3 hr. 
20 mm. (388 m.p.h.), by W. R. MacWhirter and three other 
Royal Navy officers, with Sea Furies; Gibraltar-London, in 
2 hr. 30 mm. (436 m.p.h.), by A. C. P. Carver, with D.H. 
Hornet. (G. D. H. L ) 

ALBANIA. A people's republic in the western part of the 
Balkan peninsula bounded by Yugoslavia to the north and 
east and by Greece to the south, with an Adriatic coastline 
of 200 mi. Area : 10,629 sq. mi. ; only one-tenth of the total 
area is arable land (mainly the Adriatic littoral and the 
Korce plain), about three-tenths being pastures and the rest 
forest, swamps and mountainous waste. Pop.: (1939 census) 
1,063,000; (mid-1948 cst.) 1,1 75,000. Chief towns (1946 est.): 
Tirana (cap., 35,000); Scutari or Shkoder (30,000); Koritsa 
or Korce (27,000), hlbasan (15,000). Language: besides the 
literary Albanian, there are two spoken dialects, the Gheg 
north of the river Shkumbi and the Task in the south. Reli- 
gions (1946 est ): Moslem 800,000; Greek Orthodox 220,000; 
Roman Catholic 1 10,000. Chairman of the presidium of the 
People's Assembly, Dr. Omer Nishani; prime minister, 
General Enver Hoxha (^.v.). 

History. Owing to her strategic position Albania played an 
important role in Soviet policy which attempted to retain 
influence in the western Balkans. Despite a series of crises 
the Communist government continued its submissive attitude 
to Soviet direction, often at the expense of national interests. 
In June the hostile propaganda campaign against Marshal 
Tito reached its peak when, after a widespread purge of 
so-called Tito sympathizers, five members of the government 
were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment and the 
former deputy prime minister and minister of the interior, 
Koci Xoxe (see OBIVUARILS) was executed. Koci Xoxe had 
declared in favour of maintaining relations with Yugoslavia. 
Yugoslavia denounced her treaty of friendship and mutual 
aid with Albania in November. 

Completely isolated and deprived of normal trade with her 
Balkan neighbours, Albania's economy became dependent 
on the Soviet Union. Albania was admitted to the Council 
for Mutual Economic Assistance on Feb. 22. From March 21 
to April 10 Hoxha visited Moscow where negotiations 
resulted in an agreement with the U.S.S.R. to provide 
capital equipment for industrial development as well as large 
quantities of consumer goods. The five-year plan based on 
Yugoslav support, abandoned in 1948, was translated into a 
two-year plan on the Soviet model. Albania, however, was 
not granted membership of the Cominform and remained the 
only satellite country without a treaty of mutual aid with the 
Soviet Union. 



38 



ALEMAN, MIGUEL ALIENS 



It became clear in July that the Soviet Union was more 
interested in supplying Albania in order to maintain the Greek 
rebel movement and increase the tempo of the nerve-war against 
Marshal Tito than to prevent the Albanian population from 
starving. As the Greek rebellion drew to its close, so the 
number of ships bringing transport and food, but not capital 
equipment, from Soviet Black sea ports, rapidly diminished. 
The result was that the already poor economic situation be- 
came serious. There was famine in the south of the country 
and disease was rife in many towns. Large numbers of refu- 
gees crossed the frontier into Yugoslavia. Deserters to the 
Greek government forces reported dissension in the Albanian 
army. Responsibility for the internal disorder was pinned on 
to the minister of industry, Gogo Nushi. He was arrested 
on the grounds of sabotage in October. 

Although there was a marked decline of Soviet interest in 
Albania in the last half of the year, a large Soviet military 
mission was maintained in Tirana and Soviet technicians 
continued work on the harbour defences at Vlore (Valona) 
and Durres (Dura/zo.) 

In the report of the United Nations Special Commission 
in the Balkans, Albania was indicted as the principal source 
of material assistance to Greek Communists. This report, 
submitted to the general assembly, provided irrefutable 
evidence to show that the Albanian armed forces had actively 
assisted the Greek rebels Some 6,000 of them were given 
refuge in Albania when the civil war ended. All attempts by 
the United Nations to secure an understanding between 
Greece and Albania failed. 

There was little opportunity for Albania to come into 
contact with the west This, however, did not prevent the 
press and radio from bitterly attacking the western nations 
on such subjects as the North Atlantic treaty and Allied 
policy towards Germany 

The Free Albania committee, formed in Pans during 
August, was singled out for special abuse. This committee 
composed of the anti-Communist wartime resistance leaders 
in exile pledged itself to " guide and encourage the Albanian 
people in their resistance to Communist tyranny " The 
Committee visited London and Washington during September. 

(S. H. Ws.) 

Education and Cultural Life. (1949) elementary schools 1,909, 
pupils 162,000, higher elementary (145) and secondary (20) schools 
with a total of 19,000 pupils A teachers' college was opened at Tirana 
in 1946 In Aug. 1949 it was announced that there were 12 newspapers 
and 14 other periodical publications with a total circulation of 83,000 

Agriculture. Mam crops (in '000 metric tons, 1947) maize 140, 
wheat 54, tobacco (1945) 1 45, olives (prewar average) 17. Livestock 
(in '000 head, 1946 est ) sheep 1,548, cattle 345, horses 50, asses 40, 
mules 10; goats 854; pigs 35. First 20 collective farms were orgam/ed 
during 1949 

Industry. Petroleum is the mam natural resource, no production 
figures were published after 1939 when Albania produced 229,278 
metric tons of crude petroleum Extraction of coal, copper ore and 
chromium ore started after World War II There was also a cement 
factory in Shkoder and a brewery in Korce In June 1949 a two-year 
plan of development was adopted by the National Assembly Out of a 
total expenditure of 2,050 million leks, 628 million were earmarked 
for an industrialization programme 

Foreign Trade. Main imports food products, textiles and metals 
Mam exports crude oil, skins, animals and animal products. 

Transport and Communications. Roads (1949) 2,842 km Licensed 
motor vehicles (Dec 1948) cars 500, commercial vehicles 1,240 Rail- 
ways (1949)- 100 km Shipping (1949) number of merchant vessels 6 
(including two sea-going ships purchased in 1949 from Poland) 

Finance. Monetary unit is the lek which until June 1948 was at par 
with the Yugoslav dinar. In July 1949 a state loan of 250 million leks 
the first loan in Albanian history was launched On Oct 1 all the 
banknotes of 1947 issue were withdrawn and replaced by new ones, 
but no information was published as to the amount of the currency 
circulation 

ALEMAN, MIGUEL, Mexican statesman (b. Sayula, 
Veracruz Sept. 29, 1903), was minister of the interior (1940- 
46). In a presidential election on July 7, 1946 in which 



there were four candidates he received 1,800,829 votes and 
was inaugurated as president on Dec. 2, 1946 for a six year 
term of office. On April 29, 1947, he arrived in Washington 
on an official visit thus repaying a visit by President Harry S. 
Truman to Mexico in March 1947. In 1949 his Partido 
Revolucionano Institucional obtained 143 seats in the 
Chamber of Deputies out of 147 in a general election held 
on July 3. His government devalued the peso on June 17 
and, in his state of the nation address on Sept. 1, Aleman 
told the chamber of deputies that this action had saved 
Mexico from a crisis in foreign trade and from inflation. 
He pledged continued controls over prices and supplies of 
consumer goods and disclosed that the Bank of America 
had granted a $3 million loan for a highway across the 
isthmus of Tehuantepec. (See also Bntannica Book of the 
Year 1949). 

ALGERIA: see FRENCH UNION. 

ALIENS. The number of aliens registered in Great 
Britain at Oct. 1, 1949, was 429,342 (males 273,323; females 
156,019). The figure at Jan. 1 was 410,600. The principal 
nationalities represented and the numbers of each compared 
with those in brackets at approximately the same date in 

1948 were: Austrian, 1 1,034 (1 1,254); Belgian, 6,467 (8,241); 
Chinese, 9,367 (9,309); Czechoslovakia!!, 7,207 (6,837); 
Danish, 5,145 (4,753); Dutch, 9,158 (9,456); Estonian, 
5,816 (6,025); French, 14,087 (13,019); German, 44,249 
(42,252); Hungarian, 5,536 (5,155); Italian, 18,667 (17,680); 
Latvian, 13,855 (13,723); Lithuanian, 7,165 (7,355); Nor- 
wegian, 5,868 (5,585); Polish, 150,378 (136,336), Russian, 
40,785 (36,254); Swiss, 13,107 (12,063); USA, 16,656 
(14,967). The figures included 13,000 aliens to whom no 
nationality could be attributed. 

Among aliens not required to register and therefore not 
included in these figures were members of the diplomatic and 
consular services of foreign governments, certain officials of 
international organizations, members of allied forces on 
duty, British protected persons and short-term visitors who 
spent less than two months in the United Kingdom. As a 
result of the Burma Independence act, 1947, citizens of 
Burma became liable to register as aliens in March 1949. 

The flow of foreign passenger traffic through United 
Kingdom ports continued to be heavy and in July 1949 
101,768 aliens entered the United Kingdom and 84,076 
departed; similar figures in July 1948 were 111,553 and 
74,149. As a result of agreements concluded in and before 

1949 nationals of the following countries were absolved from 
obtaining visas for travel to the United Kingdom: Belgium, 
Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, 
Monaco, the Netherlands, Norway, San Marino, Sweden, 
Switzerland and the United States 

The settlement of Poles for whom the British government 
assumed responsibility proceeded in 1949 and by Sept. 30 
the Polish Resettlement corps had been wound up. By then, 
out of the 174,000 Polish servicemen brought to the United 
Kingdom after mid- 1945, 61,500 had been repatriated and 
17,000 assisted to emigrate. Of the remainder 1,000 had died, 
94,500 had been settled in civilian life in Great Britain and 
31,000 persons dependent on them had been brought from 
abroad to join them. 

By Oct. 1, 1949, some 76,000 aliens, mostly of Polish or 
Baltic origin, who had been temporarily accommodated in 
displaced persons' camps on the continent, had been admitted 
for employment in Great Britain with a view to settlement. 
With them came some 3,500 dependents. The number of 
aliens admitted after the end of World War II under com- 
passionate schemes introduced to allow relatives in Great 
Britain to offer homes to aliens in isolated and distressed 



ALIMENTARY SYSTEM 



39 



circumstances abroad or the victims of political persecution 
rose to about 7,000. In addition some 1,000 aliens who had 
married British wives were allowed to remain in Great 
Britain with them in 1949. The repatriation of members of 
the German forces was completed by Dec. 31, 1948. Approxi- 
mately 8,500 prisoners of Ukranian origin were allowed to 
remain at their own request. Fifteen thousand German 
prisoners volunteered to stay and work in the agricultural 
industry as civilians and were allowed to bring over their 
wives and children to join them. 

Between Jan. 1 and Oct. 1, 1949, 5,610 new applications 
for naturalization were lodged, compared with a yearly 
average of 1,708 before World War II. Certificates granted 
during the same period numbered 7,731, an annual rate of 
naturalization of approximately 10,300 as against 15,500 in 
1948. Among the other effects of the British Nationality act, 
1948, which came into operation on Jan. 1, 1949, was that 
British women who had lost their British nationality by 
marriage before that date regained it, the statutory qualifi- 
cation for British protected persons seeking naturalization 
was reduced and such persons were exempted from the pro- 
visions of the Aliens Restriction acts; and foieign women 
ceased to acquire British nationality automatically on 
marriage to a British subject but became eligible to secure 
it by applying for registration as citizens of the United 
Kingdom and colonies. (T. G. W ) 

United States. By using the true figures for immigration 
and naturalization and estimating alien mortality for the 
period of registration, it was possible to arrive at the approxi- 
mate alien population. On such a basis it was estimated that 
there were approximately 3 million resident aliens in the 
continental United States in June 30, 1946 This estimate 
did not take into account visitors, that is, non-immigrants, 
and imported workers. 

The number of non-citizens naturalized during the year 
which ended on June 30, 1949, was 66,594. This was the 
lowest number in 37 years Included m this number were 
35,131 naturalized persons who were married to United 
States citizens and 2,456 persons who had served in the 
armed forces of the United States. Throughout the year 
2,271 naturalization petitions were denied. 

During 1948-49, 8,575 persons lost their United States 
nationality: 4,515 by voting in a foreign political election 
or plcbescite, 1 ,459 by entering or serving in the armed forces 
of a foreign state, 754 through naturalization in a foreign 
state, 694 naturalized citizens through prolonged residence 
in a foreign state and 1,153 for other reasons. Petitions for 
naturalizations were filed by 71,044 persons, an increase of 
4-1% from the fiscal year 1948, when 68,265 petitions were filed. 
Alien Enemies. At the beginning of the 1949 fiscal year 
there were 174 Germans and 27 Japanese still under orders 
of removal issued by the attorney general, pursuant to the 
presidential proclamation of July 14, 1945. Of the Germans, 
75 departed or were removed from the United States during 
the fiscal year as the result of the supreme court decision in 
the case of Kurt G. W. Litdecke v. W. Frank Watkini handed 
down on June 21, 1948, upholding the right of the govern- 
ment to remove or deport under the Alien Enemy act of 
1798 interned alien enemies deemed by the attorney general 
to be dangerous because they had adhered to an enemy 
government or to the principles thereof; 58 were released 
outright; 3 were released by court order; and 6 were paroled 
pending further administrative determination of their cases. 
In view of the decision handed down by the supreme court 
in the case of Klapprott v. United States, execution of removal 
orders was deferred in the 29 denaturahzation cases remaining 
for further administrative consideration. Only 3 Germans 
were still detained at Ellis Island at the close of the fiscal year. 

(W. B. Mi.) 



NON-CITIZENS NATURALIZFD IN THE U.S. DURING YEAR ENDED 

JUNE 30, 1949, BY COUNTRIES OF FORMER ALLEGIANCE 
Persons naturalized 
Spouses and 

children 

Country of of U S. 

former allegiance Total citizens Military Civilian 

Austria . 1,194 554 31 23 

British Commonwealth 13,284 8.928 353 163 

Canada . . 5,347 3,467 202 87 

China . 927 233 257 97 

Czechoslovakia 1,284 661 32 12 

France 1,658 1,222 23 30 

Germany . 5,777 2,986 95 83 

Greece . 1,638 820 97 30 

Hungary 1,036 528 16 9 

Ireland 1,370 789 17 6 

Italy 8,301 4,774 188 156 

Mexico 2,227 1,045 205 20 

Philippines 3,478 178 310 2,745 

Poland 4,371 2,035 99 40 

Sweden 1,044 491 12 30 

USSR 2,752 1,430 40 21 

Yugoslavia 809 382 30 17 

Other countries 10,097 5,056 449 424 



All countries 



66,594 



35,579 



2,456 



3,993 



ALIMENTARY SYSTEM. (Esophagus. Increasing 
interest was manifested during 1949 in oesophagitis, an 
inflammation of the gullet which gives rise to heartburn, 
pain and difficulty in swallowing. The oesophagus has not 
the resistance to acid that the stomach and duodenum have, 
but there is a mechanism at the upper opening of the stomach 
which normally prevents acid from reaching it. Failure of 
this mechanism will allow acid to reach the (esophagus, and 
in time this inevitably leads to inflammation and ulceration. 
According to P. R. Allison, the four stages of oesophagitis 
are inflammation, inflammation with acute ulcer, inflamma- 
tion with chronic ulcer and healed fibrous stricture. In the 
presence of a diaphragmatic hernia such inflammation causes 
shortening of the oesophagus as well as stricture. 

Cancer of the oesophagus had formerly been considered an 
incurable disease. Since the successful resection of the upper 
portion of the stomach, with restoration of continuity, by 
W. E. Adams and D. B Phemister in 1938 the scope of 
operations for oesophageal cancer had been extended so that 
the entire oesophagus could be removed and direct continuity 
satisfactorily re-established. The overall surgical mortality 
in 1949 was between 10 and 20%. 

Stomach ami Duodenum. Stewart Wolf and H. G. Wolff in 
1948 had summarized the results of their extensive investiga- 
tions concerning emotional disturbances and their bearing on 
gastric disorders. In general the patterns of disturbance were 
characterized either by over-functioning or under-functioning 
of the stomach. The former was found to be associated 
frequently with symptoms characteristic of peptic ulcer, that 
is, heartburn and gnawing pain in the pit of the stomach, 
especially when it was empty. The latter condition was 
usually relieved by taking food, milk or alkalis. Gastric hypo- 
activity, on the other hand, was found to be accompanied by 
sensations of fullness and nausea. 

Investigations showed that the average volume of nocturnal 
gastric secretion and the average output of hydrochloric 
acid are highest in patients with duodenal ulcer. There is no 
significant difference in the average volume secreted by 
patients with benign gastric ulcer and by normal people. In 
fact, the concentration and output of hydrochloric acid is 
actually somewhat lower in patients with gastric ulcer. These 
observations have a definite bearing on treatment. The 
decline in mortality after massive haemorrhage from the 
stomach or duodenum was attributed largely to liberal 
transfusions of blood and early feeding which control shock, 
tissue anoxia that is often irreversible and eventually fatal, 
dehydration, excessive accumulation of urea in the blood and 



40 



AMBASSADORS AND ENVOYS 



acute malnutrition. As a result patients were much more 
able to withstand further haemorrhages. 

An article by T. L. Althausen published in 1949 on the 
prevention of recurrences of peptic ulcer after medical treat- 
ment was characteristic of numerous contributions on this 
important phase of treatment of ulcers, which had been 
insufficiently stressed in the past. Factors which would cause 
reactivation or recurrence were emotional tension, physical 
fatigue, respiratory infection, alcohol, tobacco, condiments, 
beverages containing caffeine, stimulating or coarse foods and 
hurried, improper mastication. Emphasis was placed upon 
the institution of a protective regimen during periods of stress 
or former seasonal worsening of the disease. Continued 
co-operation with respect to diet, medication and hygiene 
was usually achieved only by fully acquainting the patient 
with the nature of the disease and the reasons for the treat- 
ment. Favourable results continued to be reported by 
proponents of vagotomy (cutting of both vagus nerves) in 
the treatment of chronic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum. 
Many U.S. surgeons felt that vagotomy, as an exclusive 
primary procedure, should be abandoned. For example, it 
was done only three times at the Mayo clinic at Rochester, 
Minnesota, during 1949 in primary operations on 429 
patients with duodenal ulcers. Subtotal gastric resection still 
remained the method of choice for duodenal ulcer. Vagotomy 
was recommended especially for patients who previously had 
undergone operations such as pyloroplasty, gastro-enter- 
ostomy or gastric resection, and who later had recurrent 
ulceration, particularly anastomotic ulcers. For patients con- 
sidered to have a good chance of post-operative recovery, 
many surgeons preferred to excise or resect the recurrent 
ulcer at the time vagotomy was performed. 

Liver and Gall Bladder. The advantage and safety of needle 
biopsy of the liver, in competent hands was increasingly 
apparent. Combined biopsy and tests of hepatic function 
were most illuminating even though the results from the 



respective investigations did not always parallel each other. 
Such combined procedure, plus thorough clinical study, 
represented distinct progress in the diagnosis and treatment 
of hepatobiliary disease. M. W. Comfort, H. K. Gray and 
J. M. Wilson reported observations on 112 patients who had 
asymptomatic gallstones found incidentally during the course 
of abdominal operations. Follow-up data on these patients 
for 10 to 20 years revealed that indigestion supervened in 
30, biliary colic in 21 and both jaundice and colic in 5. The 
remainder, exactly half the total, continued to be asymptom- 
atic. The authors concluded that surgical treatment for silent 
gallstones may be classified as optional. Surgery should not 
be postponed, however, especially after colic occurs. 

Intestines. The investigations of Almy and his associates 
confirmed the important role of emotional stress in the 
alteration of colonic function, similar in kind and degree to 
those alterations seen in patients with irritable colon. In a 
review of 726 consecutive cases of diverticulosis of the colon, 
F. H. Goodwin and E. N. Collins noted the following 
features: the cause of the condition was unknown; the site 
of the diverticula in most instances was the pelvic colon; 
three-quarters of the patients were 50 years of age or older; 
two-thirds were overweight; and symptoms, signs and mode 
of treatment were similar to those of irritable colon. Other 
observers estimated that inflammation would develop in 
10 to 20% of cases of diverticulosis. Medical treatment was 
indicated for the majority of the patients during an attack 
of the inflammatory condition as well as before operation. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. T. L Althausen, " Prevention of Recurrences in 
Peptic Ulcer," Ann. Int. Med , 30 544-559, Philadelphia, March 1949; 
M W. Comfort, H, K. Gray and J. M. Wilson, "The Silent Gall- 
stone; a 10 to 20 Year Follow-up Study of 112 Cases," Ann. Surg , 
128 931-937, Philadelphia, Nov. 1948, b H. Goodwin and h N. 
Collins, " Diverticulosis of the Colon; Review of 726 Consecutive 
Cases," Cleveland Clin. Quart, 15 194-201, Cleveland, Ohio, Oct. 
1948; Stewart Wolf and H. G. Woltt, " Life Situations, Emotions and 
Gastric Function a Summary," Am. Pract , 3.1-14, Philadelphia, 
Sept. 1948 (G. B. EN.) 



AMBASSADORS AND ENVOYS. 

Britain, Dec. 31, 1949. 

To Great Britain 

*Sardar Faiz Mohammed Zekria Khan 
*Ricardo de Labougle .... 

Heinnch Schmid ..... 

*Vicomte Obert de Thieusies 
*Napoleon Solares Anas 
*J J Momz dc Aragao 
|Boyan Athanassov ...... 

*U Ohn . 

*Manuel Bianchi. ..... 

*Cheng Tien-hsi 

*Dommgo Esguerra ...... 

tGuillermo Padilla Castro 

Roberto Gonzalez de Mendoza y de la Torre 

*Rudolf Bystricky 

*Count Eduard Reventlow ..... 

Julio Vega Batlle .... 

* Jorge Carrera-Andrade ..... 

*Abdel Fattah Amr Pasha 

Ato Abbcbe Retta 

Eero Aarne Wuon ...... 

*Rene Massigh . .... 

*Leon Victor Melas ...... 

Miguel Ydigoras Fuentes ..... 

Fr6denc Duvigncaud ...... 

Tiburcio Canas . . ... 

Elck Bolgar 

Stefan Thorvardsson . .... 

*Emir Zed ibn al-Hussein ..... 

**John Whclen Dulanty . ... 

Mordecai Eliash ...... 

*Duke Tommaso Gallarati Scotti .... 



The following is a list of ambassadors and envoys to and from Great 



Emir Abdul Majid Haidar 
Victor Khouri 



Country 
Afghanistan 
Argentina . 
Austria 
Belgium 
Bolivia 
Brazil 
Bulgaria 
Burma 
Chile 
China 

Colombia . 
Costa Rica 
Cuba 

Czechoslovakia 
Denmark . 
Dominican Republic 
Ecuador 
Egypt 
Ethiopia 
Finland 
France 
Germany . 
Greece 
Guatemala . 
Haiti . 
Honduras . 
Hungary . 
Iceland 
Iraq . 

Ireland, Republic of 
Israel 
Italy . 
Japan 
Jordan 
Korea 
Lebanon 



From Great Britain 
*Sir Alfred John Gardiner 
*Sir John Balfour 
Harold Anthony Caccia 
*Sir George Rendel 
*John Garnett Lomax 
*Sir Nevile Butler 
Paul Mason 

'Reginald James Bowker 
*Sir Cecil Bertrand Jcrram 
*Sir Ralph Stevenson 
"Gilbert MacKereth 
Bernard Ponsonby Sullivan 
* Adrian Holman 
*Pierson John Dixon 
*Sir Alec Randall 
Stanley Herbert Gudgeon 
*John Eric Maclean Carvell 
*Sir Ronald Campbell 
Daniel William Lascelles 
Oswald Arthur Scott 
"Sir Oliver Charles Harvey 
JSir Brian Robertson 
*Sir Clifford Norton 
Wilfred Hansford Gallienne 
David Jarvis Mill Irving 
Gerald Ernest Stockley (designate) 
Geoffrey Walhnger 
Charles William Baxter 
*Sir Henry Mack 
**Sir Gilbert Laithwaite 
Sir Alexander Helm 
*Sir Victor Mallet 
Sir Alvary Gascoigne 
Sir Alec Kirkbnde 
Vyvyan Holt 
Sir William Evelyn Houston-Boswall 



AMERICAN LITERATURE 



41 



To Great Britain 
Baron Robert Aernout de Lynden . 

Andr6 Clasen .... . 

*Fedenco Jimenez O'Farnll 

*Shanker Shumshcre Jung Bahadur Rana 
*Jonkheer E Michiels van Verduynen 

(vacant) 
*Per Prebcn Prebensen. ...... 

Bernandmo Gonzalez Ruiz . . 

Augusto Saldivar . . 

*Mohsen Rais 

*Ricardo Rivera Schreiber 

Josd E Romero 

*Jerzy Michalowski . . 

(vacant) 

Mihail Macavei .... 
Carlos Lciva 

*Sheikh Hafiz Wahba . . 
|| Duke of San Lucar la Mayor 
*Bo Gunnar R Hagglof 
Henry de Torrente ... . 
Edmond Homsy ... 
*Pnnce Nakkhatra Mangala Kitiyakara 
"Cevat Agikalin 
*Gheorghi N. Zarubm 
"Lewis W. Douglas 
*tnnque E Buero 
ff Archbishop William Godfrey 
*Manuel de Arocha ... 
*Obrad Cicmil . 

* Ambassador Unstarred, Minister t C harge d'affaires 
Representative ft Apostolic Delegate II Ambassador withdra 
d'affaires *!( Permanent U K representative to the United Na 

The following is a 
From Australia to 
Canada 
Ceylon . 
Great Britain 
India 

New Zealand 
Pakistan 
South Africa 
From Canada to 
Australia 
Great Britain 
India 

New Zealand 
Pakistan 
South Africa 
From Ceylon to 
Australia 
Great Britain 
India 

From Great Britain to 
Australia 
Canada 
Ceylon 



Country 

Liberia .... 

Liechtenstein 

Luxembourg 

Mexico 

Nepal 

Netherlands 

Nicaragua 

Norway 

Panama 

Paraguay 

Persia (Iran) 
, Peru 

Philippines, Republic of the 
, Poland 

Portugal 

Rumania 
. Salvador, El 
. Saudi Arabia 
. Spam 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Syria 

I hailand (Siam) 
. 'I urkey 

USSR 

USA 

Uruguay 

Vatican 

Venc/uela . 

Yugoslavia 

United Nations . 

** High Commissioner * High Commi 
wn in accordance with United Nations 
tions 



ssioncr to 
resolution. 



From Great Britain 
John Gilroy Baiilie 
tEnc Grant Cable 
Geoffrey Allchin . 
*Thomas Cecil Rapp 
*Sir George Falconer 
*Sir Phihp Nichols 
NOW Steward 
*Sir Laurence Collier 
John Dee Green way 
Ian Henderson 
*Sir John Le Rougetel 
*James Lcishman Dodds 
Lmton H Foulds 
*Sir Donald St. Clair Gainer 
*Sir Nigel Ronald 
Walter St Clair Howland Roberts 
Daniel Francis Horseman Bnckcll 
*Alan Charles Trott 
HDouglas Frederick Howard 
*Harold Lister Farquhar 
Patrick Stratford Scrivener 
Philip Mamwanng Broadmead 
*Sir Geoffrey Thompson 
*Sir Noel Charles 
*Sir David Kelly 
*Sir Oliver Franks 
*Douglas Frederick Howard 
J V T. W T. Perowne 
*Sir John Hall Magowan 
*Sir Charles Peake 
^|Sir Alexander Cadogan 
West German federal government Political 
, 1946. embassy at present headed by a charge 



list of high commissioners within the Commonwealth of Nations, Dec. 31, 1949. 



Francis Michael horde 

Charles William Frost 

(vacant) 

Herbert Roy Gollan 

Arthur Roden Culler 

John hgerton Oldham 

Alfred Stirling 

Leo-Richer Lafleche 

L. Dana Andrews 

Warwick Fielding Chipman 

Alfred Rive 

David Moffat Johnson 

Edward D'Arcy McGreer 

J. Aubrey Martensz 
Sir Oliver Goonetilleke 
C. Coomaroswamy 

Fdward John Williams 

Sir Alexander Clutlerbuck 

Sir Walter Crossficld Hankmson 



From Great Britain to 

India 

New Zealand 

Pakistan 

South Africa 

From India to 

Australia 

Canada 

Ceylon . 

Great Britain 

Pakistan 

From New Zealand to 

Australia 

Canada 

Great Britain 

From Pakistan to 

Canada 

Great Britain 

India 

From South Africa to 

Australia 

Canada 

Great Britain 



Sir Archibald Nye 
Charles Roy Price 
Sir Laurence Grafftey -Smith 
Sir Evelyn Baring 

Day a Singh Bcdi 

Santdas Khushiram Kirpalani 

V V. Gin 

V. K. Krishna Menon 

Si la Ram 

James Gillespic Barclay 

James Thorn 

William Joseph Jordan 

Mohammad All 

Habib Ibrahim Rahimtoola 

Mohammad Ismail 

Phihppus Rudolph Viljoen 
Alfred Adrian Roberts 
Leif fcgeland 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOUR: 

see TRADE UNIONS. 

AMERICAN LEGION: see EX-SFRVICEMEN'S ORGAN- 
IZATIONS. 

AMERICAN LITERATURE. General and Histori- 
cal. The phenomenon of the year 1949 in non-fiction books 
was the popularity of works on religious subjects. On the 
best-seller lists were Thomas Merton's The Waters of Siloe, 
a history of the Trappist Order, Fulton J. Sheen's Catholic 
Peace of Soul, and Fulton Oursler's Greatest Story Ever Told, a 
retelling of the gospel. Harry Emerson Fosdick retold the life of 
Jesus in The Man from Nazareth. Reinhold Niebuhr's study of 
the place of religion in civilization, Faith and History, was an 
important book. In contradistinction to these appeared two 
carefully documented studies of the growing power of the Cath- 
olic church in temporal affairs : Paul Blanshard's American 
Freedom and Catholic Power and Avro Manhattan's milder The 
Vatican in World Politics. Vannevar Bush's Modern Arms and 
Free Men asserted that the atom bomb does not make other 
weaponsobsoleteandproposedapoliticallyconservative/a/55e7- 
faire solution .Theodor Rosebury , in Peace or Pestilence, analysed 



the frightening facts of biological warfare and favoured a liberal 
political policy as the way to avoid the possible catastrophe. 

Samuel Eliot Monson added two more volumes to The 
History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, 
" Coral Sea, Midway and Submarine Actions " and " The 
Struggle for Guadalcanal." Oliver La Farge wrote a history 
of the Air Transport command in World War II, The Eagle 
in the Egg. Fletcher Pratt made a study of outstanding 
generals from Nathanael Greene to Omar Bradley, Eleven 
Generals. General H. H. Arnold's Global Mission combined 
his own life story with a history of the army air force, Many 
books dealt with world affairs and the U.S. role in them. 
Howard Smith's State of Europe was a description and inter- 
pretation of developments in European countries since 
World War II. Owen Lattimore, in his Situation in Asia, 
reported not only on China but also on India and Indo-China. 
Anna Louise Strong's Chinese Conquer China described her 
view of China's ways of solving its own problems. 

On the problem of race relations in the United States 
E. Franklin Frazier's The Negro in the United States was an 
authoritative factual survey of the Negro from slavery to the 



42 



AMERICAN LITERATURE 



F.E.P.C. Lillian Smith's Killers of the Dream tried to shock 
the reader into realization of the Negro's desperate situation. 
Ray Spriglc's In the Land of Jim Crow set forth his experiences 
in the South, where he passed as a Negro. Carey McWilliams, 
in North from Mexico, studied the mis-treatment of Mexican 
minorities in California. 

Margaret Mead, in Male and Female, recorded the battle 
of the sexes in a changing world. Clyde Kluckhohn's Mirror 
for Man discussed the relation of anthropology to modern 
life. H. A. Overstreet's The Mature Mind analysed how mass 
media of communication perpetuate immaturities and 
infantihsms. Catherine Mackenzie presented a synthesis 
of the work of experts in the field of child psychology in 
Parent and Child. Lincoln Barnett's The Universe and Dr. 
Eimtein explained the scientist to the layman. 

Other books which studied phases of the U S. scene or 
U.S. culture were Oliver Larkm's Art and Lije in America, 
an analysis of the inter-relation of American art and thought, 
and Roger Burlmgame's Backgrounds of Power, a history of 
mass production and its social effects. Isabel Leighton edited 
The Aspirin Age, 1 9 19- f 941, a volume of essays by Samuel 
Hopkins Adams and others on U.S. life between World Wars 
I and II. 

The most widely read memoirs of the year were Fleanor 
Roosevelt's This I Remember, a factual account by the presi- 
dent's wife. Grace Tully published F.D.R. My Boss, the 
story of the president as his secretary saw him. Edward 
Stettinius' Roosevelt and the Russians revealed the inner 
workings of the Yalta conference and the attempts of the 
United States to co-operate with the U.S S.R. 

Historical works included Ray Allen Billmgton's Westward 
Expansion, a definitive study, in the tradition of Frederick 
Jackson Turner, of the frontier in United States history. The 
two chief Lincoln books were Kenneth P. Williams' Lincoln 
Finds a General, a military history of the Civil War, and Carl 
Sandburg's Lincoln Collector, papers from the Barret Collec- 
tion with extended comment. 

Novels. Good novels appeared which, although chiefly 
concerned with character, exploited unusual settings or 
occupations. John Brooks's The Big Wheel showed how a 
big-time slick news-weekly gets written. Tom Lea's The 
Brave Bulls told the adventures of a Mexican matador. 
George Weller's The Crack in the Column gave a detailed and 
accurate explanation of the Greek resistance movement and 
civil war. One of the year's best novels was Nelson Algren's 
The Man With the Golden Arm, which dug deep into the 
materials and people of the Polish slums of Chicago Without 
Magnolias,byBuck\m Moon, projected realistically the Negro's 
position in the South. The Sure Thing , by Merle Miller, set 
forth the catastrophic effects of witch hunts on government 
employees. Albert Malt/, in The Journey of Simon McKeever, 
created a dignified and almost tragic character and also 
focused attention on the problems of the old age pensioner. 
William Gardner Smith's perceptive story of a Negro in the 
U.S. army of occupation in Germany, Last of the Conquerors, 
was a picture of how democracy sometimes fails to work. 
Haakon Chevalier's For Us The Living used a background 
of west coast fruit packer and labour disputes for his story of 
murder. Kay Boyle's novel of oblique characterization, His 
Human Majesty, used a ski troop training centre. 

Among novels concerned with character was one of the 
most distinguished first novels of the year, Paul Bowles's 
The Sheltering Sky. Although the North African setting was 
a vivid part of the book, it was his mature and sensitive 
portrayal of somewhat existentialist characters involved in a 
triangle situation which marked the book. Another novel 
which probed delicate human relations was Isabel Bolton's 
The Christmas Tree, a story which explored the sources of 
homosexuality. 



Sinclair Lewis' The God-Seeker, an American frontier novel, 
was dubiously received and was criticized as the work of a 
bored, reformed satirist. William Faulkner published Knight's 
Gambit, a group of short semi -detect we stories and a novella 
set in the familiar Faulkner South and involving characters 
from his Intruder in the Dust. James Branch Cabell published 
The Devil's Own Dear Son, an ironic tale of a man who set 
out to find his real father, the Devil. John Dos Passos com- 
pleted his New Deal trilogy with The Grand Design. Upton 
Sinclair brought Lanny Budd to friendly terms with President 
Truman and the world in general in O Shepherd, Speak\ 
Pearl Buck's Kmfolk was a novel of modern China; Jerome 
Weidman satirized the business world in The Price Is Right; 
and Mary Ellen Chase's novelette The Plum Tree was a neatly 
written story of insane old ladies in a nursing home. 

Among volumes of short stones Eudora Welty's The Golden 
Apples gave a connected picture of life in the Mississippi 
country. Truman Capote, in A Tree of Night, and Other Stories 
dissected a group of disturbed personalities. Shirley Jackson 
skilfully combined the macabre and the familiar, especially 
in the title story of The Lottery: or The Adventures of James 
Harris. 

Belles Lettrcs. The most conspicuous token of the con- 
tinued interest in Henry James was Leon Edel's edition of 
The Complete Plays. The enormous quantity of research 
upon Herman Melville that occupied scholars during the 
'40s began to appear. Two major critical works were Howard 
P. Vincent's The Ttving-Out oj Moby-Dick, a fascinating 
quest for the book's sources and an illuminating interpretation 
of its meaning; and Richard Chase's more subjective Herman 
Melville: A Critical Study, which undertook a complex 
interpretation and analysis of all his works A specialized 
study was made by Nathalia Wright in Melville* s Use of the 
Bible. The reissue of Melville's own writings continued. 
Henry A. Murray edited Pierre, the third volume in the 
scholarly new Complete Woiks. Jay Leyda's edition of 
The Complete Stories oj Herman Melville made available the 
neglected magazine pieces. The Confidence-Man was reprinted 
for the first time in the United States. 

There were a number of biographies of important U.S. 
writers, the most impressive of which was Ralph L. Rusk's de- 
finitive Life of Ralph Waldo >wrscw,which was an exhaustively 
factual rather than critical or intellectual study. Most favour- 
ably received by historians and literary scholars was Ernest 
Samuels' The Young Henry Adams, published at the close of 
1948, the first volume of a projected 2-volume biography. 
John A. Pollard wrote an excellent John Greenleaf Whittier, 
friend of Man. Three volumes were added to the fine 
American Men of Letters series: Mark Van Doren's Nathaniel 
Hawthorne, James Grossman's James Fenimore Cooper and 
Perry Miller's Johnathan Edwards. Robert H. Ehas wrote 
a good study of Theodore Dreiser and Dixon Wecter edited 
the Love Letters of Mark Twain. 

Donald Stauffer contributed to Shakespeare scholarship 
with his Shakespeare's World of Images and Francis Fergusson 
wrote an important analytic study of drama as the imitation 
of action, The Idea of a Theatre. There also appeared the 
first translation since 1908 of Miguel de Cervantes' Don 
Quixote, in idiomatic modern English, by Samuel Putnam. 

Poetry. Conrad Aiken's Skvltght One combined sensuous- 
ness and irony. The Selected Poems of William Carlos 
Williams and The Complete Poems of Robert Frost appeared. 
The most important anthology was The Poetry of the Negro 
1 746- 1949, edited by Arna Bontemps and Langston 
Hughes. 

Theodore Roethke's The Lost Son, and Other Poems, 
centring about greenhouse imagery, was well received by 
the critics. Ellis Foote wrote Layman's Fall; A Fantasy in 
the Joyous Mode y a long symbolic poem. Richard Eberhart's 



AN>EMIA AN/ESTHESIOLOGY 



43 



Burr Oaks, May Sarton's The Lion and the Roue, and Rolfc 
Humphries' The Wind of Time were other new volumes. 

The award of the Bollingen prize was made to Ezra Pound 
for his Pisan Cantos. This selection, the first under a grant 
by the Bollingen foundation to the Library of Congress to 
encourage U.S. poets, was made by the Committee of the 
Fellows in American Letters of the library (in spite of the 
fact that Pound had been accused of treason) on poetic 
grounds alone. Nevertheless a considerable controversy 
was raised and a congressional investigation was even pro- 
posed but subsequently the charges against the committee 
were withdrawn. (See also LITERARY PRIZES.) (H. M. H.) 

AN/EMIA. In 1949 vitamin B la came into general use 
in the treatment of pernicious anemia and certain other 
macrocytic anaemias Its value in the production of remissions 
was confirmed repeatedly, and its efficiency in checking the 
progress of neurologic and tongue symptoms was estab- 
lished. The mechanism of its action was still a problem, but 
some investigators felt that it was the same as the " extrinsic " 
factor of W. B Castle and was identical with the anti- 
permcious anaemia principle of liver It was postulated that 
the " intrinsic " factor did not react with the extrinsic factor, 
as was previously thought, but facilitated the absorption of 
the extrinsic factor. Vitamin B I2 was not readily absorbed 
when given by mouth unless given in large amounts, or 
accompanied by intrinsic factor (normal gastric juice) 

Folic acid continued to prove effective in the treatment of 
macrocytic anemias, but the effect was less pronounced than 
with liver derivatives In the hands of different investigators 
the reaction to the neurologic changes varied. While some 
noted improvement or the absence of aggravation of symp- 
toms, others found development or progression of the cord 
changes; these could be eliminated, however, with large 
amounts of liver extract Good results followed its uses in 
the macrocytic anaemia of pregnancy, even when liver extract 
proved inadequate. 

Sub-acute combined degeneration of the spinal cord in 
pernicious anaemia was found to be reversible if intensive 
liver or vitamin B^ therapy was instituted before the axis 
cylinders had been destroyed In some patients, glossitis 
responded to treatment with members of the vitamin B 
complex, not effective in improving the blood. 

Relapses in ability to produce new blood cells in pernicious 
anaemia followed the discontinuance of liver extract in from 
8 to 18 months, although some did not show ana?mid over a 
period of 26 to 29 months. Vitamin B 1<2 was found to be 
effective in the megaloblastic antenna of infancy. 

Increased attention was given to the iron deficiency anaemias 
and the mechanism of absorption of iron Radioactive iron 
was absorbed by the cells of the circulating blood in propor- 
tion to the number of reticulocytes. During infection or in 
the presence of an abscess (turpentine) there was a fall in 
plasma iron and a delay in the uptake of radio-iron by the 
red blood cells, although the deficiency was less marked in 
anaemic dogs on a diet with a low iron content. In recovery 
from anxmia of infection, there was a sharp increase in the 
iron binding capacity of the serum, although the low serum 
iron concentration associated with anaemia in acute and 
chronic infections was not the result of the low iron binding 
capacity of the serum. In iron deficiency anaemia there was a 
low percentage saturation of the iron-binding material of the 
serum. In dogs with anaemia of haemorrhage, haemoglobin 
regeneration was most definite after liver or beef muscle 
feeding, whereas total blood proteins regenerated well after 
liver, meat, casein and egg proteins. In anaemic rats haemo- 
globin regeneration followed the use of dietary proteins in 
the following order: first eggs, then meat, processed soya, 
casein, peanut, maize, wheat and gelatine. Of these, casein, 



soya and maize protein were more effective in haemoglobin 
regeneration. In diets with caloric deficiency, haemoglobin 
regeneration was favoured at the expense of weight recovery. 
Molybdenum-iron complex was found to be more effective 
in some patients with anaemia during pregnancy than other 
forms of iron. An iron-sucrose preparation was developed 
which was effective when given intravenously with only the 
minimum reactions. 

Vegetarian Indian soldiers in Iraq had significantly lower 
blood levels than meat-eating individuals, several showing 
nutritional macrocytic anaemia, even though they were on a 
3,000-calone diet with 80 gr. of vegetable protein. One 
hundred ant' twenty-seven cases of severe refractory, tropical 
macrocytic anaemia were found in Sepoys serving in Assam 
and eastern Bengal. The most effective therapeutic measures 
were adequate diet, control of infections and transfusions, 
but 38% died. 

Acute hae molytn anaemia appeared in approximately 2% of all 
births in otherwise healthy Rh-positive infants when there had 
been placental immunr/ation of the mother with the Rh antigen. 

Breaks in the foetal and maternal blood vessels in the 
placenta accounted for the contact of foetal and maternal 
blood in erythroblastosis fnetalis, allowing the agglutinative 
and haemolytic maternal antibodies to destroy the foetal cells 
and produce a haemolytic anaemia. Exchange transfusions 
in newborn babies with haemolytic anaemia reduced the mor- 
tality from 63 5% to 18 1 %. After the use of Rh hapten, 
20 of 27 babies with severe erythroblastosis recovered and 
remained well, 5 dying of other causes. A number of reports 
added to the data on Rh occurrence, types, variants and 
inheritance. 

Acute macrocytic anaemia developed in rats several weeks 
or months after the surgical formation of a blind loop in the 
small intestine. Nutritional macrocytic anaemia was produced 
in swine by feeding a purified diet containing a folic acid 
antagonist. In 45 patients with tropical macrocytic anaemia, 
improvement was noted in 39 after the use of refined liver 
extract. 

Severe hypoplastic anaemia was noted in seven patients who 
had prolonged administration of atabnne. Recovery was 
spontaneous and gradual, apparently not influenced by 
therapeutic measures. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. G. F. Taylor, P. N Chhuttani and S. Kumar, " The 
Meat Ration and Blood Levels Investigation of Indian Soldiers m 
Persia and Iraq, 1944," Brit Mcd /, 1 219-221, London, Feb 5, 
1949, B E Hall, f H Krusen and H. W Woltman. "Vitamin Bja 
and Co-ordination Hxcrcises for Combined Degeneration of Spinal 
Cord in Pernicious Anaemia," / Am. Mcd A\soc., 141. 257-260, 
Chicago, Sept 24, 1949, G h. Cartwnght and M. M. Wmtrobc, 
"Chemical, Clinical and Immunological Studies on the Products of 
Human Plasma Fractionation XXXIX The Anemia of Infection; 
Studies on the Iron-Binding Capacity of Serum," /. Chn. Investigation, 
28 86-98, Jan 1949. (R. Is.) 

AN/ESTHESIOLOGY. The introduction of deca- 
methomum bromide (C-10) under the trade name of Syncurme 
gave workers in anaesthesiology and in the field of shock 
therapy an agent with a curare-like effect but one which was 
easier to obtain and prepare for use. A safe and effective 
antidote, however, was not known. The action of this agent 
appeared to be less lasting than that of curare, the duration 
of a fully effective dose being from a third to a fourth of as 
many minutes as for curare. Decamethonium bromide 
produced less effect on the pharyngeal and respiratory muscles 
than curare and was less active than the latter in causing the 
release of any histamme-Iike substance. The optimal dose 
was 2 to 3 mg., injected at the rate of 1 mg. a minute. It appeared 
to act quickly, that is, in the matter of a minute or two, as 
compared to the five to ten minutes required for the action 
of curare. Satisfactory and safe relaxation was obtained with 
the use of this new drug. 



44 



ANDORRA 



The use of dolamin (benzyl alcohol 0-75%, ammonium 
sulphate 0-75%, sodium chloride 4-8% in an ampule with 
sufficient water to make 10 cc.) prevailed; the effect could 
never be predicted. In cases in which little of the material 
was to be used on only one or two nerves, variations in the 
solution were tried, such as omitting the benzyl alcohol and 
increasing the ammonium sulphate up to 1 5 % or in some 
cases up to 2 5 % of the solution. The checking of accurate 
placement of needles by roentgenograms continued and 
greater accuracy in technique was developed. It was made 
clear that paravertebral somatic injection of alcohol near the 
nerve roots could not be repeated for some weeks after the 
first injection without danger of a bizarre pattern of paralysis. 

R. E. Courtin described seven electroencephalographic 
levels of anaesthesia and suggested their use as practical 
measures of the depth of anaesthesia. Subsequently R. G. 
Bickford invented a device which automatically controllsd the 
depth of anaesthesia both in human beings and animals. The 
apparatus which injected the anaesthetic agent worked on the 
principle of activation by the electrical potentials emanating 
from the brain of the subject. (See also SURGERY.) (J. S. L.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. H. A. Haxton, " Chemical Sympathectomy," 
Brit. Med.J., 1: 1026-28, London, June 11, 1949; C. E. Burstein, 
Fundamental Considerations in Anesthesia* (New York, 1949). 



ANDORRA. A small autonomous state between 
France and Spain, bounded on the north by the departements 
of Ariege and Pyrenees Orientales, and on the south by the 
Spanish province of Lerida. Area: 191 sq. mi. Pop. (1945 
est.): 5,300. Language: Catalan. Religion: Roman 
Catholic. Capital: Andorra-la-Vieja (pop. c. 1,000). 
Co-princes: the president of the French republic and the 
bishop of Urgel, Spain, respectively represented in 1949 by 
Andre Bertrand and Jaime Sansa Nequi, their viguiers. An 
elected General Council of 24 members appoints one of its 
members as the syndic general des vallees (from 1946, 
Francisco Cayrat). 

The event of the year was an order given on March 8 by a 
Paris court to the Radiodiffusion Francaise to cease jamming 
the broadcasts of Radio Andorra. This order was confirmed 
by the Paris Court of Appeal on May 24. The jamming had 
started in April 1948 when the proprietors of Radio Andorra 
refused to sell their station to a French concern. 

The General Council suggested during the year the building 
of an airfield and the linking of Andorra to the international 
telephone trunk system; but from 1945 the strained relations 
between France and Spain had rendered any common decision 
by the two viguiers practically impossible. 




Dr. John Morgan, bishop of Llandaff from 1939, being enthroned as archbishop of Wa\es on Sept. 27, 1949, The ceremony was held in the 

nave of Llandaff cathedral which was damaged in World War 11. 



ANGLICAN COMMUNIONS-ANGLING 



45 



Andorra had 13 local policemen, but from 1944 a hundred 
French gardes mobiles were stationed on Andorran territory 
for the purpose of maintaining order. 

ANGLICAN COMMUNION. Early in 1949 most 
of the bishops of the overseas Churches of the Anglican com- 
munion were occupied after their return from England with 
the resumption of diocesan duties and with discussion on 
the work and findings of the Lambeth conference (1948), and 
in some cases of the Amsterdam World Council of Churches. 

The provincial synod of the Church in the West Indies 
accepted resolution 96 of the Lambeth conference, which 
allowed discretion to the diocesan bishops to grant or refuse 
permission to divorced persons to take part in the Holy 
Communion. The synod transferred this sanction to the 
archbishop of the province, who was granted the right to 
appoint two diocesan bishops to decide whether or not the 
case might be treated as a nullity case. In this event the 
bishop of the diocese concerned might admit the applicant 
to Communion. A new political order was being framed 
for the West Indies, and an appeal was made for a better 
educated clergy who might help to train leaders and meet 
the demand for higher education. Great progress was re- 
ported from the diocese of Trinidad after three years' work 
of Bishop Fabian Jackson. 

In the United States 1 1 bishops from Great Britain, Ireland 
and the West Indies (bishops of London, Oxford, Bath and 
Wells, Glasgow, Derry, Barbados, Bermudas, Honduras, 
Nassau, Puerto Rico and Trinidad) made an extensive tour 
of U.S. cities and addressed Eucharistic congresses of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church held in connection with the 
fourth centenary of the Book of Common Prayer. The bishop 
of London preached in New York, Dallas, Los Angeles, San 
Francisco and Seattle. President Truman received the bishops 
at the White House. 

The archbishop of York (^.v.) preached at Washington and 
addressed the general convention of the Episcopal Church at 
San Francisco. In the course of its proceedings the triennial 
general convention, sitting under the presiding bishop of 
Massachusetts (Dr. Henry Knox Sherrill) received a report 
from a special committee of the house of bishops appointed 
in 1946 to consider canon 18 (on marriage). That canon took 
away the right of the innocent party in a divorce suit to be 
married in church, unless the conditions of nullity existed at 
the time of the first marriage. This left the matter ambiguous 
and different interpretations of the canon had been given. 
However, the committee advised no change during the next 
three years. In the meantime a joint committee of bishops and 
laymen was to examine the whole question and report to the 
next triennial convention. The Convention recommended 
psychiatric tests for ordination candidates in order to ascertain 
their mental and nervous condition. Intinction was authorized 
at Holy Communion as an alternative method of administra- 
tion, but at the discretion of the diocesan bishop. From 1957 
all clergy would retire at the age of 72 from active work, 
although they might take occasional duty. The convention 
adopted the highest budget on record ($5-6 million). It agreed 
to support the Church of England at St. Augustine's college, 
Canterbury, for the higher training of post-ordination 
candidates from all over the Anglican Communion. The lower 
house of the Canadian Church proposed to sanction the re- 
marriage in church of the innocent party in a divorce suit. 

In South Africa the Anglicans joined representatives of 
other churches in a deputation to Dr. D. F. Malan, the prime 
minister, on Native rights. A hearing was not granted. Dr. 
Geoffrey Clayton, bishop of Johannesburg, succeed Dr. John 
Russell Darbyshire, who had died in England during the 
Lambeth conference in 1948, as archbishop of Capetown. 
New bishoprics for Basutoland and Matabeleland, to be 



carved out of Bloemfontein and Southern Rhodesia, respect- 
ively, were being planned. 

In South India 36,000 Anglicans at Nandyal (Telugu 
country) were standing out of the new united Church of South 
India, and were placed under the supervision of the metropoli- 
tan bishop of Calcutta. In spite of political disturbances in 
Burma the Anglican Church was holding firm. It was en- 
couraged by a visit of the metropolitan of Calcutta. The 
archbishop of New Zealand toured in Polynesia, especially in 
Fiji. The bishop of Singapore (J. L. Wilson) became dean of 
Manchester and canon H. W. Baines of Rugby replaced him 
at Singapore. The central committee of the World Council of 
Churches seUup at Amsterdam in 1948, held its first meeting 
at Chichester under the chairmanship of Dr. G. K. A. Bell, 
bishop of Chichester. In the autumn Dr. Bell left for a tour of 
the churches in Australia and New Zealand, and visited the 
Church of South India on the way home. The synod of the 
diocese of Sydney prohibited the use of eucharistic vestments. 

The general synod of the Church of Ireland considered new 
state prayers to meet the new conditions created by the 
separation of Ireland from the United Kingdom. Admission 
of women to diocesan synods and councils was approved. The 
fourth centenary of the Prayer Book was celebrated through- 
out the Church. The bishop of Llandaff (Dr. John Morgan) 
became archbishop of Wales. Proposals for the revision of the 
Welsh Prayer Book were considered by the synod. (See also 
CHURCH OF ENGLAND; MISSIONS, FOREIGN RELIGIOUS; 
THEOLOGY; WORLD COUNCIL OF CHURCHES.) (A. J. MAC.) 

ANGLING. Sea-anglers enjoyed a successful year. In 
the North sea the tunny-fishing was the best since 1933 and 
the total catch of 43 included a fish weighing 852 Ib. (a new 
British record). Other record fish caught during 1949 were 
a female tope of 73 Ib. 3 oz. from Hayling island, Hampshire, 
a flounder of 4 Ib. 13 oz. from Exmouth, Devon, and a plaice 
of 7 Ib. 6 oz. from Teignmouth, Devon, The festivals were 
well attended, Folkestone's (Kent) entry including several 
French anglers, while Brighton's (Sussex) figure of 850 was 




J. H. Lewis of Scarborough, Yorkshire, with a tunny fish weighing 
852 Ib. which he caught in Sept. 1949. 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



47 




The survey work of the British in the Falkland Islands 
dependencies continued from a chain of bases stretching from 
the South Orkney islands to south Graham land. In 1948, 
exploratory sledge journeys were made continuously from 
Hope bay in the north of Graham land and in 1949 from 
Marguerite bay on the west coast in lat. 68 S. In the 
north existing maps of the Trinity peninsula were corrected 
and the survey advanced down the west coast. But most of 
the year's scientific work and two lives were lost in a fire 
which destroyed the Hope bay base hut in Nov. 1948. From 
Marguerite bay two remarkable journeys were made down 
the King George VI sound of 80 days' duration and emperor 
penguins, of which little was known, were kept in captivity 
and studied. It was an unfortunate year as plans to carry 
the survey farther south by setting up new bases were thwarted 
by abnormal ice conditions of the last Antarctic summer. 
This prevented the survey vessel " John Biscoe " relieving 
the Hope bay party till February and from ever reaching 
Marguerite bay at all. She sailed in the autumn of 1949 for the 
following season and with two aircraft it was expected that 
it would be possible to rescue the marooned party. 

It was intended to use " weasel " (light, tracked carriers) 
and aircraft from a new base on Alexander I land and pene- 
trate far into the dependencies while a specially equipped 
motor vessel was to be used for hydrographic work; but 
both these projects had to wait for a more open season. 
Deception island had the busiest Antarctic port (Port Foster) 
and this had lately been recharted by Admiralty hydro- 
graphers. From here, meteorological reports were combined 
with information from other bases and reports from the big 
station at Port Stanley in the Falkland islands. This station 
had the latest * 4 radio-sonde " system of transmitting upper 
air conditions so that shipping over a wide area could now 
be provided with reliable weather forecasts which were 
essential in predicting ice movement. 

The South Africans on Marion island in lat. 45 S. carried 
out continuous meteorological observations and were in 
regular wireless contact with their counterparts in the 
Australian Antarctic expedition on Heard and Macquarie 
islands. This latter expedition was unable to set up a base in 
Feb. 1948 at Commonwealth bay on the mainland so they 
landed parties on the two islands which became permanent 
bases for meteorological observations and cosmic ray counts. 

The French expedition ship, " Commandant Charcot," 
was also prevented by ice from reaching Adelie land in March 
1949. It had a Stinson monoplane and an American 
44 weasel " on board and if ice forbade access to the continent, 



an alternative programme was arranged for the party to work 
on Kerguelen island. 

Argentines and Chileans set up bases on islands off Graham 
land and claimed territory in the Falkland islands depen- 
dencies sector. Also, the U.S.S.R. showed interest though, 
with the exception of whaling in the years 1947-49, there had 
been no Russian expeditions to the Antarctic since Fabian von 
Bellingshausen's great voyages of 1819-21. The whaling 
industry flourished and in the 1948-49 season Norwegian and 
British whalers in south polar waters reported good catches. 
(See also EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY.) (S. ST. C. Me. N.) 

ANTHROPOLOGY. The meeting of the International 
Congress of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences, to have 
been held in Budapest in 1949, did not take place and there 
were no important international gatherings in Europe 
that year. The International Congress of Americanists met in 
New York in September and was attended by delegates from 
Europe; an invitation to hold the next session in 1952 in 
Europe was accepted. The International Congress of Anthro- 
pological and Ethnological Sciences continued, through the 
committee appointed at its last session (Brussels, Aug. 1948), 
to consider its international status and organization, particu- 
larly the question of affiliation to the newly created Inter- 
national Union of Philosophical and Humanistic Studies, 
which would represent the social sciences and be the channel 
for all dealings with U.N.E.S.CO. 

During the year important contributions were made in the 
sphere of human palaeontology and results were made known 
of discoveries throwing light on the problem of the antiquity 
of man. Dr. Robert Broom, of South Africa, visited England 
and in addresses to learned societies described finds of ape- 
men remains in South Africa over a period of years. In his 
address to the Royal Anthropological institute he surveyed 
the history of the work done since 1925, when Professor R. A. 
Dart described the skull of a child (called a " missing-link " 
skull), to the present day, the latest finds being of a large ape- 
man with a jaw larger than that of man but with human 
teeth. 

Professor H. V. Vallois, director of the Institute of Human 
Palaeontology of Paris, gave some results of similar researches 
in France when he spoke to the Royal Anthropological 
institute on " les hommes fossiles de Fontechavade et le 
probleme de 1'origine de Fhomme." A. T. Marston re-opened 
the question of the Piltdown skull in an address to the 
Royal Anthropological institute in which he argued that 
the mandible was that of an ape of about 10 years old whereas 
the cranium was of modern type man (perhaps Wurmian) 
of about 40 years old. A fluorine test was called for. At the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science meeting 
of the year Dr. K. P. Oakley reported results of the fluorine 
age-test on various specimens; these results suggested that 
the Galley Hill skull belonged to a post-palaeolithic period, 
that the Piltdown skull and jaw fragments were all of much 
the same age as one another and not likely to be older than 
the prc-Wurm interglacial. The Swanscombe fragment, on 
the other hand, seemed to belong to the lower Palaeolithic, as 
its apparent association with a bifacial hand-axe had long 
suggested. Dr. Broom supported this thesis with reference 
to the Piltdown skull and claimed that scarcely any doubt 
could remain that both skull and jawbone belonged to the 
same individual, one of the big-brained type which evolved 
with homo sapiens. 

The collection of blood group data was included in the 
work of an expedition to east Africa, organized by the 
University of Oxford Exploration club. Professor F. E. 
Zeuner visited archaeological sites in India. 

In France, at Angles-sur-PAnglin in Vienne departemenl. 
Professor D. A. E. Garrod excavated an early Magdalenian 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



47 




The survey work of the British in the Falkland Islands 
dependencies continued from a chain of bases stretching from 
the South Orkney islands to south Graham land. In 1948, 
exploratory sledge journeys were made continuously from 
Hope bay in the north of Graham land and in 1949 from 
Marguerite bay on the west coast in lat 68 S In the 
north existing maps of the Trinity peninsula were corrected 
and the survey advanced down the west coast. But most of 
the year's scientific work and two lives were lost in a fire 
which destroyed the Hope bay base hut in Nov 1948. From 
Marguerite bay two remarkable journeys were made down 
the King George VI sound of 80 days' duration and emperor 
penguins, of which little was known, were kept in captivity 
and studied. It was an unfortunate year as plans to carry 
the survey farther south by setting up new bases were thwarted 
by abnormal ice conditions of the last Antarctic summer. 
This prevented the survey vessel " John Biscoe " relieving 
the Hope bay party till February and from ever reaching 
Marguerite bay at all She sailed in the autumn of 1 949 for the 
following season and with two aircraft it was expected that 
it would be possible to rescue the marooned party 

It was intended to use " weasel " (light, tracked carriers) 
and aircraft from a new base on Alexander I land and pene- 
trate far into the dependencies while a specially equipped 
motor vessel was to be used for hydrographic work; but 
both these projects had to wait for a more open season 
Deception island had the busiest Antarctic port (Port Foster) 
and this had lately been rccharted by Admiralty hydro- 
graphers. From here, meteorological reports were combined 
with information from other bases and reports from the big 
station at Port Stanley in the Falkland islands. This station 
had the latest " radio-sonde " system of transmitting upper 
air conditions so that shipping over a wide aiea could now 
be provided with reliable weather forecasts which were 
essential in predicting ice movement. 

The South Africans on Marion island in lat. 45 S carried 
out continuous meteorological observations and were in 
regular wireless contact with their counterparts in the 
Australian Antarctic expedition on Heard and Macquanc 
islands. This latter expedition was unable to set up a base in 
Feb. 1948 at Commonwealth bay on the mainland so they 
landed parties on the two islands which became permanent 
bases for meteorological observations and cosmic ray counts. 

The French expedition ship, " Commandant Charcot," 
was also prevented by ice from reaching Adelie land in March 
1949. It had a Stinson monoplane and an American 
"weasel" on board and if ice forbade access to the continent, 



an alternative programme was arranged for the party to work 
on Kerguelen island. 

Argentines and Chileans set up bases on islands off Graham 
land and claimed territory in the Falkland islands depen- 
dencies sector. Also, the U S S.R. showed interest though, 
with the exception of whaling in the years 1947-49, there had 
been no Russian expeditions to the Antarctic since Fabian von 
Bellingshausen's great voyages of 1819-21. The whaling 
industry flourished and in the 1948-49 season Norwegian and 
British whalers in south polar waters reported good catches. 
(See also EXPLORATION AND DisrovERY.) (S. ST. C. Me. N.) 

ANTHROPOLOGY. The meeting of the International 
Congress of Prehistoric and Protohistonc Sciences, to have 
been held in Budapest in 1949, did not take place and there 
were no important international gatherings in Europe 
that year. The International Congress of Americanists met in 
New York in September and was attended by delegates from 
Europe; an invitation to hold the next session in 1952 in 
Europe was accepted. The International Congress of Anthro- 
pological and Ethnological Sciences continued, through the 
committee appointed at its last session (Brussels, Aug. 1948), 
to consider its international status and organization, particu- 
larly the question of affiliation to the newly created Inter- 
national Union of Philosophical and Humanistic Studies, 
which would represent the social sciences and be the channel 
for all dealings with U.N E S.C.O. 

During the year important contributions were made in the 
sphere of human palaeontology and results were made known 
of discoveries throwing light on the problem of the antiquity 
of man. Dr. Robert Broom, of South Africa, visited England 
and in addresses to learned societies described finds of ape- 
men remains in South Africa over a period of years. In his 
address to the Royal Anthropological institute he surveyed 
the history of the work done since 1925, when Professor R. A. 
Dart described the skull of a child (called a " missing-link " 
skull), to the present day, the latest finds being of a large ape- 
man with a jaw larger than that of man but with human 
teeth. 

Professor H. V. Vallois, director of the Institute of Human 
Palaeontology of Pans, gave some results of similar researches 
in France when he spoke to the Royal Anthropological 
institute on " les homines fossiles de Fontechavade et le 
probleme de Torigine de 1'homme." A. T. Marston re-opened 
the question of the Piltdown skull in an address to the 
Royal Anthropological institute in which he argued that 
the mandible was that of an ape of about 10 years old whereas 
the cranium was of modern type man (perhaps Wiirmian) 
of about 40 years old A fluorine test was called for. At the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science meeting 
of the year Dr. K. P. Oakley reported results of the fluorine 
age-test on various specimens, these results suggested that 
the Galley Hill skull belonged to a post-paheohthic period, 
that the Piltdown skull and jaw fragments were all of much 
the same age as one another and not likely to be older than 
the pre-Wurm mtei glacial. The Swanscombe fragment, on 
the other hand, seemed to belong to the lower Palaeolithic, as 
its apparent association with a bifacial hand-axe had long 
suggested Dr. Broom supported this thesis with reference 
toYhe Piltdown skull and claimed that scarcely any doubt 
could remain that both skull and jawbone belonged to the 
same individual, one of the big-brained type which evolved 
with homo sapiens. 

The collection of blood group data was included in the 
work of an expedition to east Africa, organized by the 
University of Oxford Exploration club. Professor F. E. 
Zeuner visited archaeological sites in India. 

In France, at Anglcs-sur-1'Anglin in Vienne departement, 
Professor D. A. E. Garrod excavated an early Magdaleman 



48 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



rock shelter. The museum of Aix-en-Provence was enriched 
by finds at Entremont, the site of the capital of the Saluvii, 
long known as an important pre-Roman site. The excavations, 
started in 1943 for war purposes, resulted in finds of ** severed 
heads"; their interpretation remained uncertain but the 
representation of a hand over the skull in some specimens, 
would appear to imply a protective symbolism. Other pieces 
appeared to be related to the practice of collecting the heads 
of enemies; a bas relief showing a warrior on horseback was 
interpreted as riding to the region of the dead. 

An interesting and potentially important event took place 
when the Royal Anthropological institute launched an appeal 
for the establishment, as soon as possible, of a Museum of 
English Life and Traditions. The appeal resulted from the 
institute's appointment of a committee called the British 
Ethnography committee, charged with examining and recom- 
mending on means of promoting the study of the ethno- 
graphy of Great Britain A Museum of English Life and 
Traditions was the committee's first recommendation; a 
scheme was drawn up and published and the movement 
started; it was proposed to proceed first by trying to find 
storage for specimens, already rapidly disappearing, and then 
eventually to establish, in some large house with grounds, 
a museum with facilities for showing typical English village 
lay-outs. The plan was explained to the 1949 meeting of the 
British Association by the committee's deputy chairman, 
T. W. Bagshawe, who urged the need for quick action before 
too much was lost. Jt was also reported that the committee 
had nearly completed a collection of rules for classifying 
and indexing specimens and records. The museum scheme 
was fully described in Man, April 1949. 

The Colonial Month, organized by the British Colonial 
Office, was of interest to anthropologists as it brought about 
a small but important exhibition of the traditional art of 
the British colonies, held at the Royal Anthropological 
institute. The bronze heads of Ife and the Nigerian terra 
cotta heads were outstanding pieces in the exhibition, which 
contained many other specimens not before shown or pub- 
lished. Also as a contribution to the Colonial Month, the 
subject of anthropology and colonial affairs was discussed 
at a public meeting of the Royal Anthropological institute, 
when the principal speakers were Professor E. E. Evans- 
Pritchard (who succeeded Professor C. D. Forde as president 
of the institute) and Professor R. Firth. A chair of social 
anthropology was established at Manchester university and 
Dr. H. M. Gluckman appointed the first professor. The 
institute's annual Huxley Memorial medal was awarded to 
James Hornell, distinguished for his work on water transport; 
his death before the delivery of the Huxley Memorial lecture 
was deeply regretted. 

The British Association held its annual meeting at 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne under the presidency of Sir John 
Russell (q.v.). Outstanding among the many subjects dis- 
cussed was the relationship between food and population. 
The problem set was that of producing to meet the needs of a 
world population of 2,200 million increasing at the rate of 
20 million a year; the needs of such d mass could be met only 
by correlating the efforts of science in all branches; pro- 
duction must be increased but natural resources, already much 
impaired, must at the same time be restored; the balance of 
nature must be preserved and a symbiosis achieved between 
man and his environment. In the section for anthropology 
and archaeology, Miles C. Burkitt, the president, spoke of 
the value of archaeology in education. 

The anthropological structure of Poland was the subject 
of a report by Ireneusz Michalski in Acta Anthropologica 
Universitatis Lodzicnsis. This dealt with measurements of 
36,532 men collected through the Polish War Office and 
studied in relation to the types visualized by Professor Jan 



Czekanowski. The 16 maps in part two summarized some 
results. They showed that, though Nordic traits are generally 
distributed, they are specially characteristic near the 
lower Vistula, accompanied by darker elements described 
as Cromagnonoid (broadfaced and tall) and Mediterranean 
(medium to narrow face and short). On the other hand, 
elements described as Armenoid, Laponoid, Subnordic and 
Dinanc (broadheaded in all cases) are most characteristic 
of Upper Silesia, the Cracow area and the country north- 
eastwards towards Radom. 

An event of the year was the appearance of Dr. R. N. Sala- 
man's book on The History and Social Influence of the 
Potato (Cambridge, 1949). He traced the tuber back to an 
Andean home and gave many clues to the social anthropology 
of European peoples who acquired it, a deep difference 
arising from the imposition of almost complete dependence 
in some cases and the utilization of the potato with some 
freedom of choice and as an accessory in others. Dr. Sala- 
man summed up here a large part of the work of many years. 
Abbe Henri Breuil described in preliminary fashion a 
rock painting in Southern Rhodesia at Chikwandu. Its 
importance was due to the fact that the profile of the man was 
Semitic rather than African and the eye almost almond- 
shaped. Non- African figures were seen on a few rocks in 
Southern Rhodesia and this confirmation would, it was 
hoped, lead to an interpretation of what at first glance 
seemed like a link with Egypt of the centuries before Islam, 
in Social Structure (Oxford, 1949) a group of social anthrop- 
ologists under the editorship of Dr. M. Fortes paid tribute 
to the life-work of Professor A. R. Radcliffe-Brown. Kin- 
ship structure was exhaustively treated by Dr. C. Levi- 
Strauss in l.es Structures elementaires de la parent e (Paris, 
1949). African race problems were surveyed in Handbook of 
Race Relations in South Africa (edited by E. Hellman, Oxford, 
1949). The Rev. W. Schmidt produced another volume, 
the ninth, of his massive work, Der Ur sprung der Gottetidee 
(Freiburg, 1949); this part dealt with Asiatic pastoral nomads. 
Professor E. O. James issued several volumes in the series 
of world religions which he was editing. (H. J. F.; F. ST.) 

LJnited States. The steady growth of anthropology con- 
tinued during 1949. This was shown especially by the large 
number of important publications that appeared during the 
year, by the growth of anthropology departments in the 
universities and by the expansion of field studies and various 
international activities. In the United States there was a 
large increase in membership of the American Anthropological 
association. The impressive growth in size and influence of 
this organization was due in large part to the efforts of its 
first executive secretary, Ermim'e Voegelin. 

The 19th session of the International Congress of American- 
ists, held at the American Museum of Natural History in 
New York from Sept. 5 to 12, was attended by 395 anthropolo- 
gists from Europe and the western hemisphere. Over 200 
papers were presented and symposia were held on the subjects 
of early man in America, comparative studies in Peru, middle 
American and Andean relations, origin and relationships of 
the Eskimo, population in native America, language and 
culture, Afro-American studies, and modern Indian, mixed 
and Creole cultures. A special exhibit at the museum 
demonstrated striking parallels in art and material culture 
between America and the far east and raised anew the 
question of trans-Pacific influences in western America, 
something which most North American anthropologists had 
hitherto rejected. 

Anthropological problems and the need for research 
programmes for the Pacific area were among the subjects 
discussed at the 7th Pacific Science congress which convened 
in Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, in February 
and March 1949. 



ARABIA 



49 



The American Association of Physical Anthropologists 
began a new series, Studies in Physical Anthropology, under 
the editorship of W. W. Howells, the first number being a 
symposium, Early Man in the Far East, with papers on 
various aspects of Pleistocene geology, archaeology, palaeon- 
tology and somatology. 

Two volumes bearing the title Social Structure appeared 
in 1949. One was a collection of essays edited by Meyer 
Fortes and presented to Professor A. R. RadclirTe-Brown by 
1 1 of his pupils and colleagues. The other was a volume by 
G. P. Murdock. Basing his postulates on an analysis of 250 
societies in all parts of the world, Professor Murdock presented 
a new theory of the evolution of social organization and showed 
for the first time that human and social behaviour could be 
analysed and predicted with a precision comparable to that 
in the exact sciences. Another paper was Julian H. Steward's 
Cultural Causality and Law: a Trial Formulation of the 
Development of Early Civilizations. In this paper, published 
in the American Anthropologist, Steward showed that there 
had been parallel stages or eras, each with similar diagnostic 
features, in the development of early civilization in northern 
Peru, middle America, Mesopotamia, Egypt and China. 
Leslie A. White's series of papers on the evolution of culture, 
which had a profound influence on anthropological thinking 
in the past, were assembled in a volume The Science of 
Culture: a Study of Man and Civilization. 

Works which reasserted the importance of anthropology 
and the other social sciences in the understanding of present 
world problems included Clyde Kluckhohn's prize-winning 
book Mirror for Man: The Relation of Anthropology to 
Modern Life, and Alexander H. Leighton's Human Relations 
in a Changing World: Observations on the Use of the Social 
Sciences. Robert Endleman criticized the claims of anthro- 
pology as expressed by these and other authors in an essay 
The New Anthropology: The Science of Man in Messianic 
Dress, published in Commentary. 

An unusually large number of important descriptive works 
in ethnography were published in 1949. Among these were 
The Bella Coola Indians, by T. F. Mcll wraith; The Compara- 
tive Ethnology of South American Indians, vol. 5 of the 
Handbook of South American Indians, edited by Julian H. 
Steward; The Lapps, by Bjorn Collinder; Palauan Society, a 
Study of Contemporary Native Life in the Palau Islands, by 
Homer G. Barnett; Majuro, a Village in the Marshall 
Islands, by Alexander Spoehr; Culture and Ethos of Kaska 
Society, by John J. Honigmann; The Bantu of North 
Kavirondo, by Gunter Wagner; The Tenet ehara Indians of 
Brazil, by Charles Wagley and Eduardo Galvao. 

Other important publications of the year were History of 
the Primates: An Introduction to the Study of Fossil Man, 
by W. E. Le Gros Clark; External Morphology of the Primate 
Brain, by Cornelius J. Connolly; Tepexpan Man, by Hellmut 
de Terra, Janier Romero and T. D. Stewart; The Web of 
Kinship among the Tallensi, by Meyer Fortes; Social Class 
in America, by W. Lloyd Warner; Magic, a Sociological 
Study, by Hutton Webster; Male and Female, by 
Margaret Mead; General Anthropology and Primitive War, 
Its Practice and Concepts, by H. H. Turney-High; Law and 
Government of the Grand River Iroauois by John A. Noon; 
and The Social and Religious Life oj a Guatemalan Village, 
by Charles Wagley. 

There was a marked increase in field investigations during 
1949. F. Eggan, chairman of the Department of Anthro- 
pology, University of Chicago, began a survey of social 
organization and culture in the mountain provinces of 
Mindanao and Visayan islands in the Philippines. Another 
Philippine research project was that of Grace L. Wood, who 
undertook ethnological studies among the Negritos and other 
primitive groups on Negros Island. 

E.B.Y. 5 



W. C. Pei of the Cenozoic Research laboratory, Peking 
Union Medical college, resumed excavations at Chou Kou 
Tien in search for further remains of Peking Man. 

David G. Mandelbauni, professor of anthropology at the 
University of California, returned to southern India to resume 
his ethnological work with the Kota people in the Nilgiri 
area. Morris E. Opler also undertook research on village 
life in India. Alexander Spoehr began a year's programme of 
anthropological research for the Chicago Natural History 
museum on Saipan and the other Marianas Islands. His 
programme included a study of cultural change among the 
native Chamorros and archaeological excavations to determine 
how the islands were originally peopled. The Pacific Science 
board of the National Research council continued its Micro- 
nesian investigations, with I. Dyen studying linguistics on 
Yap, and Ann Meredith making a study of the socialization 
process in the Truk area. 

The Aleutian expedition of the Peabody museum of Harvard 
directed by William S. Laughlin, continued its archaeological, 
anthropological and linguistic investigations on Umnak and 
islands to the westward. Fredenca de Laguna began an 
ethnological and archaeological survey of the northern Tlingit 
country in southeastern Alaska as part of an integrated study 
of the origin and development of Tlingit culture. A notable 
accomplishment in the field of Arctic anthropology was the 
independent discovery of pre-Eskimo cultural remains by 
J. L. Giddings at Cape Denbigh on Norton sound, by Helge 
Larsen in the interior of Seward peninsula and by Ralph 
Solecki on the north slope of the Brooks range in the interior 
of northern Alaska. Information on the distribution and 
movements of pre-historic Eskimo population in the little 
known northern part of the Canadian Arctic archipelago was 
obtained by H. B. Collins' excavation of old village sites on 
Cornwallis Island. 

A new Department of Anthropology was established at 
Rutgers university, New Brunswick, New Jersey, with 
M. F. Ashley Montagu as chairman. Anthropology courses 
were offered for the first time at a number of other U.S. 
universities and colleges, including the Universities of 
Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Virginia, Louisville, and 
Florida State university. 

Two prominent anthropologists who died during the year 
were J. M. Cooper and L. Bloomficld. (H. B. Cs.) 

ANTIGUA: see LEEWARD ISLANDS. 

ARABIA. A peninsula of Asia of approximately 1,027,300 
sq. mi. with a total population estimated at 9,526,000. It 
consists politically of two independent Arab states, Saudi 
Ai abia and Yemen (q. v.) ; the independent sultanates of Oman 
and Masqat or Muscat; the autonomous sheikhdoms of 
Bahrein, Kuwait, Qatar, and the Trucial sheikhdoms; and 
Aden colony and protectorates (q.v.). Religion: overwhelm- 
ingly Moslem (Sunni). Language: Arabic. 

Saudi Arabia. Area: r. 597,000 sq mi. (excluding the Rub 
al-Khali desert covering approximately 193,000 sq. mi.); 
pop. (mid- 1947 est.): 6,000,000. Chief towns: Riyadh (cap., 
60,000); Mecca (150,000); Median (45,000); Jedda (40,000); 
Hufuf (31,500). Ruler, King Abdulaziz Ibn Abdurrahman 
Ibn Faisal Ibn Sa'ud; viceroy of Nejd and commander 
in chief, Emir Sa'ud, crown prince; viceroy of Hejaz and 
minister of foreign affairs, Emir Faisal. 

History. The United States and Saudi Arabia announced 
on Jan. 21 that they had agreed to raise the status of their 
respective missions to the rank of embassies. On presenting 
his letters of credence as ambassador to President Truman on 
March 4 Sheikh Asad al-Faqih revealed that the American 
community in Saudi Arabia numbered 5,000. This, he said, 
was a remarkable development which was accompanied by a 



50 



ARAB LEAGUE 



rapid growth of mutual interest and which had become of 
great importance not only to the general welfare of the two 
peoples but also to the peace and prosperity of Europe and 
the rest of the world. Although lie could not say that during 
his three years as minister in the U.S. the Arab cause had fared 
well, he was convinced that the American people would in 
due course realize its genuine aspects. The U.S. aircraft 
carrier " Tarawa " paid a good will visit to Jedda in January. 
The agreement with the U.S. regarding the use of Dahran 
air base was extended temporarily on March 15 pending 
final negotiations. 

The economic development of the country continued. Oil 
production during Jan. -July 1949 averaged over two million 
metric tons a month (not far short of that of Persia). On 
this the Saudi government received royalties at the rate of 
$50-60 million yearly. On March 4 it was announced that a 
U.S. company, the Pacific Western Oil corporation, had 
obtained an oil concession covering Saudi Arabia's undivided 
half interest in the Kuwait-Saudi neutral zone. A first year's 
minimum royalty of $1 million was paid over on Feb. 21. 

A large number of American and some British engineers 
and specialists, together with skilled men from Moslem 
countries, were employed on public works, including rail 
and port construction, roadmaking, an electricity installation 
in Mecca and a broadcasting transmitter at Jedda. 

The British Military mission, established in 1947, continued 
the training of Saudi officers and N.C.Os. Steps were taken, 
too, to buy from the U.S. some light naval craft for coastal 
patrol work; and the Egyptian government was asked to 
provide a naval mission to train officers and crews. Egypt 
was also asked in May to assist in forming a customs admini- 
stration and in August to lend some professors to act as 
educational inspectors. 

A trade treaty with Egypt, valid for one year, was signed 
in Cairo on May 31. It was on the basis of most favoured 
nation treatment and had annexed to it a payments agreement. 
It provided, too, for a permanent exhibition of Egyptian 
products at Jedda. 

Prince Mansur, ninth son of the King and minister of de- 
fence, visited Great Britain for the first time in September and 
was taken to see army and air force training establishments. 
In Arab League politics King Ibn Sa'ud generally supported 
Egypt. (C. Ho.) 

Hnancc. The monetary unit is the Saudi rival, nominally equal to 
Rs. 1 (Indian), which fluctuates strongly. The recognized standard is the 
George V gold sovereign. The chief sources of revenue are oil royalties 
(over 20 million yearly) and pilgrimage dues (1946 est. 1,600,000) 

Industry. Crude oil production (in '000 metric tons, 1948, 1949, 
six months in brackets) 19,260 (12,410) 

Foreign Trade. Main imports, food products and electrical goods. 
Mam exports: oil, gold concentrates, hides and skins. 

'transport and Communications. Licensed motor vehicles (Dec. 
1948). cars 3,990, commercial vehicles 5,000. Air transport (1947). 
hours flown 5,167, mi. flown 774,453, passengers flown 18,66^. 

Finance. Chief sources of revenue are the petroleum resources and 
the annual Moslem pilgrimage. 

Oman and Masqat. Area : c. 65,000 sq. mi. Pop. (mid- 1947 
est.): 830,000. Ruler, Sultan Said Jbn-Taimur. British 
political agent, R. Eldon Ellison. 

Bahrein. Area 213 sq. mi. Pop. (mid- 1947 est.): 125,000. 
Ruler, Sheikh Sir Sulman Ibn-Hamad al-Khalifah. British 
political agent, C. J. Pelly. 

Kuwait. Area: c. 9,000 sq. mi. Pop. (mid-1949 est.): 
120,000. Ruler, Sheikh Sir Ahmed Ibn-Jabir al-Subah. 
British political agent, Lieut. Colonel A. C. Galloway. 
Oil production was more than 6 million metric tons in the 
first six months of 1949, against 6-4 million tons in 12 
months of 1948. 

Qatar. Area: r. 4,000 sq. mi. Pop. (mid-1947 est.): 
25,000. Ruler, Sheikh Abdullah Ibn-Jasim al-Thani. 

Bernard Burrowes, head of the eastern department of the 



British Foreign Office, visited Oman, Bahrein, Kuwait and Qatar 
in May and was reported on his return to be drawing up plans 
for the social and economic development of the principalities. 

Trucial Sheikhdoms. Area : c. \ 6,000 (including the sheikhdoms 
of Shargah, Ras al Khaimah, Umm al Qawain, Ajman, Debai, 
Abu Dhabi and Kalba). Pop. (mid-1947 est.): 115,000. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. H R P Dickson, The Atab oj the Desert (London, 
1949). 

ARAB LEAGUE. The League of Arab States came 
into being on March 22, 1945, when its covenant was signed 
in Cairo by the representatives of Fgypt, Iraq, Lebanon, 
Saudi Arabia, Syria, Transjordan and Yemen. The council 
of the league, on which each member has one vote, has its 
seat in Cairo. The main object of the League was stated to 
be to co-ordinate the political action and safeguard the 
independence and sovereignty of the Arab states. Secretary 
general: Abdurrahman A//am Pasha. 

The Palestine conflict and the problem of the Arab tefugees 
continued to preoccupy the league in 1949. It was however 
much weakened by differences among its member states. 
Representatives of all member states except Jordan met in 
Cairo on Feb. 6 to discuss the invitation of Dr. R. J. Bunche 
(</.v.), United Nations mediator, to join Egypt in the armistice 
negotiation with Israel at Rhodes. The U.N. Conciliation 
commission was received in Cairo on Feb. 14 by the secretary 
general. In the upshot the armistice agreement was signed 
on Feb. 24 by Egypt alone; Jordan, Syria and Lebanon 
each negotiated separately, and Iraq and Saudi Arabia 
declared themselves ready to accept any agreement signed 
by the other Arab states. 

At the 10th session of the council, held in Cairo on March 
17-21, the members were represented by their diplomatic 
representatives in Egypt. The secretary general told the press 
that Iraq (</.v.) had not sent any apology or explanation for 
the non-attendance of its representative. No proceedings 
of importance were reported. 

The political committee on March 21 began discussions 
on Palestine and the Arab refugees with the U.N. Conciliation 
commission in Beirut. Discussions were closed on April 5, 
after the commission's suggestion to continue negotiations 
soon at a neutral place had been accepted by all the delegates 
except that of Iraq who said his government were disinclined 
to continue discussions before the refugee problem had been 
solved. The place subsequently chosen was Lausanne, where 
a conference, attended also by Israel, began on April 27 and 
continued with adjournments during the yeai, an Economic 
Survey group being appointed to study the question of the 
Arab refugees on the spot. 

Events in Syria (</.v.) much aggravated the differences 
among the member states. The secretary general, who had 
visited Husni ez-Zaim in Damascus on April 17, on May 8 
called for an urgent meeting of the council so that he might 
answer the charges made against him by the Iraqi foreign 
minister of having exceeded his jurisdiction. On May 23 a 
statement addressed by Azzam Pasha to the president of 
the Iraqi Chamber of Deputies was published. It said that 
he had taken no steps, taken part in no activities and ap- 
proved no measures other than those unanimously authorized 
by the League council. 

Despite persistent efforts in many quarters and particularly 
by the prime minister of Lebanon (q.v.) a further meeting 
of the political committee could not be arranged. One 
arranged for Aug. 20 at Alexandria was adjourned at Egypt's 
request owing to events in Syria. The council did however 
hold a meeting in Cairo on Oct. 17 where it was unanimously 
decided to support the Egyptian delegate to U.N. in his 
attitude on the future of Eritrea, The meeting ended on 
Oct. 30 with a decision to set up a committee to draft a 
security pact between the seven member states. (C. Ho.) 



ARAGON, LOUISARCHEOLOGY 



51 




A view of the council of the Arab League, meeting in the Egyptian Foreign Office, Cairo, in Oct. 1949. Delegates were present from Egypt, 

Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Yemen. 

ARAGON, LOUIS. French writer (b. 1897), served 
in the last year of World War 1. Two years later his first 
book of poems, Feu de joie, appeared and was followed by 
Le Libertinage (1924) and Le paysan de Paris (1926). He was 
among the advance guard of the Surrealist movement until, 
in 1930, he became a member of the Communist party and 
visited Russia. His change of political views found expression 
in such poems as Front Rouge (1931), for which he was 
prosecuted on a charge of having abused the French flag. 
He became secretary of the French section of the popular 
front, a member of the editorial staff of LHumanite, then 
managing editor of Ce Soir and later also joined the board 
of directors of Europe. A week before the outbreak of war 
in 1939 Ce Soir was temporarily suppressed. Aragon joined a 
tank division and later took part in the resistance movement. 
After the war he continued to engage in literary and journalistic 
activity and resumed the editorship of Ce Soir. In Sept. 1949 he 
was charged with having menaced public order and was dep- 
rived of his civil rights as the result of an article which had 
appeared in Ce Soil". On Oct. 26, however as the result of an 
appeal he was acquitted and the sentence was quashed. 

Aragon was awarded the Prix Renaudot in 1936 for his 
novel Les Beaux Quartiers, the second of a trilogy of which 
the other two were: Les Cloches de Bale (1934) and Les 
Voyageurs de rimperiale (1941). He afterwards published, 
among other works, two volumes of poetry, Le Creve-Coeur 
(1941) and Les yeux d'Elsa (1942), and a novel, Aurelien 
(1945). He married Elsa Triolet, a Russian writer to whom 
many of his works are dedicated. 

ARCH/EOLOGY. In 1949 the story of the discovery 
and the investigation of the Hebrew scrolls from the Dead 
sea cave probably attracted most attention. Among the 
more important events were the further examination of 
Karatepe, Turkey; the palaeolithic cave-finds in France; 
the Maglemosian site in Yorkshire; and the recognition of 
the south Algerian limes. 



Great Britain. Further exploration of the stone-axe factory 
site at Pike o' Stickle, Great Langdale, Westmorland, con- 
firmed that the finishing processes were carried out at a 
lower altitude. A small cave in the area proved disappointing. 
Products of this factory were apparently traded more widely 
in Britain than those of the better-known Craig Lwyd site 
in North Wales (Trans. Cumberland and Westmorland 
A. and A. Soc.,4S, 214, 1949). 

At Starr Carr, Seamer, six miles south of Scarborough, 
Dr. J. D. G. Clark excavated for the Prehistoric society a 
Maglemosian site of c. 8000-6000 B.C., discovered by J. W. 
Moore, and found strikingly abundant evidence for conditions 
of life in Mesolithic Britain, the peaty nature of the site 
having preserved large quantities of organic material. There 
were even structural remains in the form of rough birch-bark 
flooring held down by heavy stones. Bones were found of 
red and roe deer, elk and ox, as well as smaller animals and 
birds. Red deer antlers were used for making barbed points 
(" harpoons "), of which 60 were found; the cutting was done 
with burins knapped on the spot. Other implements or weapons 
were: scrapers, microUths and rough stone axes; an axe made 
from the base of an elk antler; scoops and chisels of red deer 
antler. There were also well preserved birch-bark rolls. The 
site proved to be closely linked with its counterparts across 
the North sea and comparable with them in importance. 

In the Scilly Islands B. H. St. J. O'Neil and his wife con- 
tinued their work and excavated a Bronze Age house at 
English Island Cairn. Roughly oval in plan, it had three 
occupation layers, from the middle one of which came 
potsherds assigned to c. 1000 B.C. At a nearby site, Par Beach, 
they examined a well built round house of native construction 
associated with the 4th-century Roman pottery. 

At Meare lake village, Somerset, H. St. George Gray 
examined three dwelling-mounds. Among numerous bronzes, 
which included ornamented cheek-pieces, was a spoon of 
Roman type probably imported from the continent towards 
the end of the Early Iron Age. 



52 



ARCHEOLOGY 



At Snettisham, Norfolk, late in 1948 three Iron Age hoards 
were found, with interesting affinities with the Rhineland. 
One consisted of fragments of at least three gold tores; the 
others were mainly of bronze and included 3 tores, 7 brace- 
lets, 11 rings and various fragments; the third hoard also 
contained 77 coins. 

In Roman studies the main event of the year was the cen- 
tenary pilgrimage along Hadrian's Wall, which provided an 
opportunity for re-stating the latest views on the main Roman 
frontier in Britain. It was shown that the Wall, with its 
milecastles, turrets and vallum, formed a single conception, 
carried out in A.D. 122-126. From Newcastle to the Irthing 
(45 mi ) it was designed 10 Roman feet thick with a clay or 
earth core. West of the Irthing, in view of the shortage of 
stone and especially of limestone for mortar, the Wall was 
of turf or clay. Before the stone wall was completed, however, 
its construction was modified: its western part was finished 
to a width of only 8 ft. with a mortar coie; it was extended 
eastwards to Wallsend and westwards for a further two mi ; 
finally the whole line was strengthened by the introduction 
of forts, each intended to hold 500 or 1,000 auxiliary troops. 
The change of military policy under Antoninus Pius led to 
the construction of a new frontier barrier between the rivers 
Forth and Clyde and consequently the virtual abandon- 
ment of Hadrian's Wall an event with which the well- 
known " crossings " of the vallum might be associated, if, 
as it was suggested, they represented a formal cancellation 
of that earthwork. Later in the century, however, the Wall 
was re-occupied and its west end reconstructed in stone. 
Views held on the later history of the frontier showed less 
modification since the 1930 pilgrimage, but the extent of the 
Diocletianic reconstruction received increasing attention. 
The pilgrimage was succeeded by a Congress of Frontier 
Studies, attended by scholars from many parts of the Roman 
empire and organized by Durham university. This was to 
become a quinquennial event. 

Near Carrawburgh fort a well preserved mithraum was 
partly excavated and three inscribed altars found. At Bew- 
castle, Cumberland, the regimental bath house was found to 
have been inside the fort; it also was well preserved and 
resembled the bath house at Chesters in plan. Dr. I. A. 
Richmond excavated the central portion of the fort at 
South Shields, Co. Durham, uncovering a large group 
of granaries associated with the Scottish campaigns of 
Severus. Other work on Roman military sites included the 
excavation at Malton, Yorks, of a building, possibly a 
mansio* with hypocaust and mosaic floor, south of the fort; 
a fort gateway with flanking guard-chambers at Neath, 
Glamorgan, where the earliest (Flavian) finds were associated 
by Dr. V. E. Nash- Williams with the conquest of the Silures 
by Julius Frontinus; and the remains of the legionary 
fortress at Chester. 

The study of Roman towns, especially in bombed areas, 
continued. In London the Roman and Mediaeval Excavation 
council located an early 2nd-century town wall with clay 
backing; it was superseded about the middle of the century 
or a little later by similar composite defences on an inner 
line; to this wall hollow bastions were added during the 
4th century. Bombed sites in Canterbury, excavated by 
S. Frere, produced evidence for the Roman street-plan; 
it is possible that the Ist-ccntury plan was modified when the 
town walls were built in the 2nd century. A large bath-building 
of semi-public character was uncovered. At Verulamium (St. 
Albans) the centre of the Roman city was examined and a 
large public building of massive construction found. 

Of other discoveries the most striking was that at Lulling- 
stone, near Farningham, Kent, where a wealthy villa produced 
a mosaic pavement depicting Bellerophon upon Pegasus and 
a Rape of Europa with a somewhat provincial couplet, 



both ascribed to about A.D. 300. Most remarkable were two 
busts of Pentelic marble probably of early 2nd-century date. 
Another villa, of corridor type, excavated at Whittington 
Court, Gloucestershire, retained its geometric mosaics and 
channelled hypocausts of 4th-century date. A pottery kiln 
excavated near Lincoln produced a complete range of " kiln 
furniture." 

Later sites examined included Petersfinger, near Salisbury, 
where a 6th-century Saxon cemetery was found to contain 
Frank ish elements; The Mounts, Pachesham, near Leather- 
head, Surrey, the site of successive manor houses abandoned 
towards the end of the Middle Ages; and, most important, 
the London Charterhouse of which the great church, with 
burial place of the founder, and the cloister had been traced 
by the London Excavation council. 

Europe. France. Professor D. A. E. Garrod reported an 
important find by Mile. G. Henri-Martin of fragments of 
two skulls in a cave at Fontechevade, near Montbron, 
Charente, with rough flint implements of Tayacian character. 
The larger skull was comparable to that from Swanscombe. 
Despite ccitain primitive features it stands in the same line 
of descent as Homo Sapiens and has indeed a high vertical 
forehead. Prof. Garrod pointed out that the contrast between 
the rough implements from Fontechcvade and the well 
made implements (mid-Acheulian) found with the Swans- 
combe man accorded ill with " the seductive theory that links 
certain well defined industrial complexes with certain human 
types." She also reported that her excavations (with Mile. S. 
Mathurin) of the prehistoric rock-shelter at Angles-sur- 
FAnglm, Vienne, produced a naturalistic representation of a 
Palaeolithic (Early Magdalenian) man, executed in stone in a 
technique combining sculpture, painting and engraving. 
Among several animal carvings that of a young ibex was 
noteworthy. 

At La Colombiere, on the banks of the Am, 45 mi. from 
Lyons, Dr. K. Bryan and Dr. H. L. Movius, of the Peabody 
museum, Harvard, examined the late Pleistocene terraces, 
which were found to belong to Wurm times, and a rock- 
shelter associated with them. In addition to a decorated 
bone object of Magdalenian date and upper Aurignacian 
tools, the main find was an engraved pebble bearing super- 
imposed animal outlines depicting horse, reindeer, ibex and 
woolly rhinoceros. 

Finds made during work in war-damaged towns included 
quantities of 6th-century B.C. Greek pottery at Marseilles, 
among which was a figure of Aphrodite; and a bronze vessel 
from Amiens, similar to the " Rudge cup " and to a fragmen- 
tary example from Spain. Like the ** Rudge cup " it is 
inscribed with the names of forts on Hadrian's Wall, with 
the additional name of Aesica (Great Chesters). 

Germany. Excavations in bombed areas took place at 
Trier and Cologne, producing details of the Roman city and 
of what was thought to be remains of a monastery of the 
St. Gall type and period respectively. 

Denmark. G. Hatt published a survey of ancient field 
systems in Denmark (Oldtidsagre, Copenhagen, 1949). 
They were mainly early Iron Age in date and were eventually 
superseded by the heavy plough and strip-field system. 
Comparative material, especially from Holland and England, 
was included in the survey. 

Italy. Alba Fucens, the stronghold of the Aequi, situated 
near Avezzano (Abruzzi) on the Via Valeria was partly 
excavated. Part of the city plan and of the Via Valeria were 
explored, the finds including inscriptions and terra-cottas. 
Greece. The American School of Classical Studies at 
Athens reported about its work in the Agora, in particular 
the excavation of a fountain house, which may be the Ennea- 
krounos, in the southwest corner of the market square and 
excavations in the valley west of the Areopagus, where a 



ARCHEOLOGY 



53 



rich cremation-burial of c. 900 B.C. and a group of Sth-century 
B.C. houses were found (Hesperia, 18, 1949). In the same 
volume S. S. Weinburg recorded small-scale work by the 
American school at Corinth, where the theatre, south stoa, 
and the Julian and south basilicas were tested. The two 
latter were found to be identical in plan. 

Middle East. Cyprus. Dr. Claude F. A. SchaefTer, director 
of the French Centre of Scientific Research, Paris, reported 
his discovery of the ancient city associated with the previously 
known Mycenaean cemetery at Enkomi, near Famagusta, 
and identified it, through the Tell Amarna letters, with Alasia, 
the ancient capital of the island, a centre of the copper and 
bronze industry. The earliest remains dated from the begin- 
ning of the second millenium B.C. Later came the Mycenaean 
city, covering the 15th- 13th centuries B.C., during which time 
the city was strongly fortified; and lastly a post- Mycenaean 
period of 13th- 12th centuries B.C. Subsequent work by the 
Cyprus Department of Antiquities under Dr. P. Dikaios 
produced, from what may have been a shrine in an 
impressive palace building, a remarkable bronze statue, two 
feet high, of a horned god, deposited in the 12th or llth 
century B.C. 

Turkey. Professor H. Th. Bossert, director of the Depart- 
ment of Near Eastern Studies, University of Istanbul, and 
his colleagues (Dr. Halet Cambel, Dr. Bahadir Alkim, 
Dr. Nihal Ongunsu, Dr. Franz Steinherr, Dr. Muhibbe 
Darga-Anstock and Ibrahim Siizen) reported about their 
further work at the two Hittite fortresses of Karatepe and 
Domuztepe, bordering the Cilician plain, on both sides of 
the river Ceyham (ancient Pyramos). At Karatepe the 
surrounding wall, which had square interval-towers, had 
north and south entrances with long gate-passages flanked 
by inscribed and sculptured slabs. The inscriptions are half 
in Old Phoenician and half in Hittite hieroglyphic script 
and, since they apparently record the same events, constitute 
a series of " Rosetta stones." They are dated c. 730 and their 
deciphering should fill a great gap in the history of the region. 
The slabs bearing figure subjects were apparently carved 
in situ; the figures, generally in profile, vary greatly in 
subject matter, including religious or mythological scenes 
and scenes from the life of the royal family or the people 
banqueting and hunting scenes, warriors and ships. Artisti- 
cally and iconographically Egypt, Mesopotamia, Anatolia 
and Syria had all been laid under contribution. (Belle ten, 
12, 529, Ankara, 1948; Palestine Explor. Qly., Jan.-April, 
1949; Orient, 1, no. 2, Leiden, Holland, 1945-49). 

Professor A. W. Persson reported discovering at Labranda, 
9 mi. north of Milas (ancient Mylassa) and about 85 mi. S.S.E. 
of Izmir (Smyrna), a peripteral temple of Zeus like that of 
Athena Pollias at Pirene. Epigraphic finds included building- 
inscriptions of Maussollos (d. 353 B.C.) and Idreius (d. 
344 B.C.) and clay tablets bearing partly a script of Carian 
character and partly one related to Old Phoenician and 
Minoan scripts. (Arsberettelse, Uppsala, Sweden, 1949). 

Palestine. Fuller details became available of the discovery 
and nature of the Hebrew scrolls, found in a cave on the shores 
of the Dead sea about 6 mi. south of Jericho, and the vexed 
question of the approximate date of their deposit was settled 
by an excavation carried out by G. L. Harding, chief curator 
of antiquities, Jordan, in collaboration with the Ecole 
Biblique et Archeologique of Jerusalem and the Palestine 
Archaeological museum. The scrolls, wrapped in linen 
squares, were stored in large, lidded jars of the late 2nd or 
early 1st century B.C. The jars, to judge by the fragments, 
were about 40 in number and could each have held five or 
six scrolls. Of the eight known to have been removed by 
the goatherd finders, four, now in the United States, com- 
prise Isaiah, a commentary on Habakkuk, a book of ritual 
(the Sectarian Document) and part of Enoch in Aramaic; 




A fragment of a scroll bearing the text of the book of Deuteronomy 
found in Palestine and thought to be 2,000 years old. 

the other four, now at the Hebrew university of Jerusalem, 
The War Between the Children of Light and the Children of 
Darkness (an unknown apocryphal book), part of Isaiah, 
a book of hymns and psalms and one not yet read. Harding's 
clearance of the cave produced many fragments which 
included portions of Genesis, Deuteronomy, Leviticus, Judges 
and Daniel. The lined documents are written mainly in post- 
Exilic script, but some, in Phoenician script, are probably 
earlier. It is possible that the presumed absence of many 
scrolls may be associated with the find of Hebrew scrolls 
in A.D. 217, recorded by the 3rd-century writer Origen. 

The end was reported (Palestine Explor. Qly. 9 Jan. -Apr., 
1949) of several years' work on the great Umayyad baths 
(c. A.D. 724-743) at Khirbet Mafjar, near Jericho. The main 
structure (135 ft. by 110 ft.) had a colonnaded hall 90 ft. 
square; the roof, supported by 16 piers, 6 ft. square with 
angle-shafts, probably rose by stages to a high dome over 
the central bay. Each wall had three semi-circular exedra y 
except the east wall, where the central bay contained the 
entrance; this led to an elaborate porch, a domed structure 
decorated with male and female statues. The central exedra 
of the west wall was more richly decorated than the others. 
The central three bays of the south side of the hall were 
occupied by a swimming-bath. The paving was well preserved 
and there were many architectural fragments. Doorways in 
the north wall led to a series of hot rooms and to a domed 
room, elaborately decorated with mosaic paving and carved 
plasterwork. 

Discoveries under the aegis of the government of Israel 
included a Samaritan synagogue of Hellenistic times near Tel 
Aviv; mosaic pavements in Jerusalem; prehistoric finds at 
Evron, between Acre and Naharia; and Hellenistic marbles 
from Oesarea, Nathania and Tivon. 

Persia. T. Burton Brown, research fellow of the British 
School of Archaeology in Iraq, reported on the British 
expedition to northwest Persia, which carried out trial excava- 
tions at Geoy Tepe, 4 mi. southeast of Rezaiyeh (Urmia). The 
earliest levels produced remains like the al Ubaid culture of 
Iraq (c. 3000 B.C.). Later levels showed instructive affinities 
with near eastern and especially Egean civilization, of the 
first three millenia B.C. and included a remarkable series of 
stone figures with unknown hieroglyphs. 

Iraq. Work continued on the pre-Hammurabic administra- 
tive centre at Tell Abu Harmal, near Baghdad. The plan of 
the interior was completed and further inscribed tablets found, 
some from early levels. At Tell Abu Shahrein (ancient Eridu) 
further excavation revealed a large public building of brick 



54 



ARCHAEOLOGY 



with fragments of Sumerian sculpture similar to that at the 
contemporary "A" palace at Kish. 

Africa. Egypt. In Alexandria recent excavations directed 
by Alan Rowe, curator of the Graeco-Roman museum in that 
city, located the temple of Serapis, now assignable to Ptolemy 
III (241-221 B.C.), near the column of Diocletian. It formed 
the north end of a colonnaded enclosure 560 ft. by 250 ft. 
wide, with accommodation on the west for temple officials 
and, to the south, a series of small rooms which were thought 
to have contained the Serapeum library. The temple was 
rebuilt early in the 2nd century B.C. and was destroyed by the 
Patriarch Theophilus in A.D. 391. East of the temple was a 
shrine of Harpocrates dedicated by Ptolemy IV (221-203 B.C.). 

At Thebes an avenue of monolithic sphinxes, with portrait 
heads of Nectanebis I and dedicated by him to Amon, was 
found under a Roman pavement. 

Sudan. The excavation of Amarah was continued and 
results pointed to peaceful evacuation of the city in late 
Ramassid times, probably for climatic or political reasons. 
A brick-built shrine outside the town was evidently the centre 
of a snake cult for it was surrounded by pots containing 
skeletons of snakes. 

Tripoli tonia. The examination of Sabratha, 45 mi. west of 
Tripoli, was continued by Dr. J. B. Ward-Perkins and 
Miss K. Kenyon. Sabratha owed its wealth to olive oil 
exports and the general trade of the north African hinterland. 
It was given colonial status in the 2nd century A.D., survived, 
though not undamaged, successive barbarian invasions and 
was reconstructed by Justinian. Some traces of the earlier 
Punic city were found but work was concentrated on the 
survey of the remains and the study of their history and 
development. Buildings examined included the basilica (later 
a Christian church) and forum; buildings associated with the 
latter were a curia, a capitolium and temples to Liber Pater 
and Serapis. The same workers planned and recorded the 
4th-century 4t hunting baths" (so-called from their scheme of 
decoration) at Leptis Magna. 

Algeria. An air survey produced the important information 
that substantial remains survived in southern Algeria of a 
Roman limes. Its complexity ranks it with, though after, 
Hadrian's Wall. (J. Baradez, " Vue aerienne de Torganisation 
romaine dans le Sud-Algerien," Fossatum Africae, Paris, 
1949). (J. CHN.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. War and Archteology in Britain (London, H.M.S.O., 
1949). 

Western Hemisphere. Although there were substantial 
gains in knowledge of the archaeology of the western hemi- 
sphere during 1949, the most outstanding event was a demon- 
stration of a system of absolute dating of certain kinds of 
archaeological remains by means of the radioactivity of the 
carbon isotope (C14). The new method, archaso-radio- 
chemistry, was developed by Dr. W. F. Libby and Dr. James 
Arnold of the University of Chicago. By measuring the 
radioactivity of the carbon isotope in wood, charcoal, shell, 
horn, ivory and vegetal remains found in ancient archaeo- 
logical sites, the age of the site could be determined with a 
remarkable degree of accuracy. An impressive number oi' 
sites in the western hemisphere were dated by the radiocarbon 
method and the results would probably be released in 1950. 

Arctic Area. Under the auspices of the Smithsonian 
institution and the National Museum of Canada Dr. Henry 
B. Collins assisted by J. P. Michea excavated a number of 
ancient Eskimo sites on Resolute bay, Cornwallis island in 
the hitherto archaeological ly unknown Canadian arctic 
archipelago. Ruins of four villages of from 6 to 14 well 
preserved houses of Thule culture type were excavated. Over 
1,000 characteristic Thule artifacts were excavated from the 
houses and middens. A number of fine examples of picto- 
graphic art were obtained, as well as a style of composite 



pottery and stone lamp previously unknown. The excavations 
revealed that bow head whales and drift wood were abundant 
at the time of the Thule occupancy although they have been 
absent from the region in modern times. 

A joint expedition of the Danish National museum and 
the University of Pennsylvania museum conducted archaeo- 
logical investigations on several sites on the Seaward 
peninsula in Alaska during the summer. The expedition was 
led by Dr. Helge Larsen assisted by Charles Lucier. A 
previously unknown phase of Ipiutak culture was found 
beneath a late Eskimo village midden at Cape Spencer. Iron 
knife blades and elaborate carvings of ivory were found in 
the Ipiutak levels. Two sites were excavated at the Deering 
airfield. One of these sites was western Thule, the other was 
Ipiutak with artifacts identical to those of the type site at 
Point Hope. In a limestone cave 30 mi. from Deering, 
stratified deposits revealed a sequence from what may have 
been pre-Eskimo culture to recent Eskimo culture in the 
uppermost levels. 

During the summer, with a grant from the Arctic Institute 
of North America, Dr. Louis Giddings of the University of 
Alaska continued his excavations at Nukleet and lyatayet 
on Cape Denbigh in Norton sound, Alaska. He was assisted 
by Mr. and Mrs. Wendell Oswalt. Excavations at Nukleet 
were carried through the permafrost to bedrock revealing 
several stages of Eskimo culture. The oldest level showed 
relations with Early Punuk or Birnirk cultures. Quantities 
of well preserved artifacts made of organic materials were 
found. 

At lyatayet the upper layers contained artifacts similar 
to those found at Nukleet. In the lower levels Ipiutak-like 
artifacts of flint were found. And underneath the site, sealed 
by a sterile layer of sandy clay was a thin, bottom deposit 
containing nearly a thousand chipped stone artifacts. Included 




Exploration at Lincoln, Nebraska, where dwellings 5,000 years old 
were discovered by E. Mott Davis. 



ARCHERY ARCHITECTURE 



55 



in the lithic complex were burins and lamellar knives of styles 
known from the Old World and additional types of artifacts 
known from Folsom or Yuma horizons in the western states. 
With the Folsom and Yuma-like materials was a fluted point 
and a broken blade of the type known as " oblique Yuma.*' 

As part of the Harvard university anthropological project 
in the Aleutian Islands during the summer, archaeological 
investigations were undertaken under the direction of Dr. 
William Laughlm. Excavations were made at sites on Clam 
lagoon, Adak; at Nikolski on Umnak; and at Nurder point 
on Attu. At least two periods of Aleut culture were recognized 
and Hrdhcka's idea that there were two morphological types 
involved in the peopling of the Aleutians was confirmed, 

Eastern North America. Under the direction of Raymond 
Baby assisted by Robert Goslm an Ohio State museum field 
party excavated two sites in Ohio during the summer. A large 
Adena mound in the Cowan Creek reservoir area contained 
18 burials, some in log tombs and one in an underground pit. 
Beneath the mound was a circular house pattern of paired 
post moulds; pottery, other artifacts and food refuse were 
about the house. In the Delaware dam area a communal 
burial in a glacial kame was excavated. Fragments of charred 
fabric and artifacts of stone, copper and shell were recovered. 

A field party led by Dr. William A. Ritchie worked in 
eastern New York under the joint sponsorship of the Rochester 
museum and the New Yoi k State museum. The party explored 
an early Mohawk site in the Schohane valley where Owasco- 
hke chipped stone artifacts were associated with Mohawk 
type pottery. In the same valley an early Owasco site was 
partly excavated; late period Owasco sites were not found. 
Another and larger early Owasco site was excavated at West 
St. Johnsville in the Mohawk valley The pottery exhibited 
the use of interrupted incising technique for applying decora- 
tion. This technique might foreshadow the incising technique 
of Iroquois potters. 

William S. Fowler of the Attleboro museum undertook 
investigations of two sites in New England. He assisted the 
Narragansctt Archaeological Society of New England in 
completing excavation of a stratified shell midden containing 
a pre-pottery, steatite bowl occupancy beneath a pottery- 
agriculture level. At the Nunkatuset site in the Taunton 
River basin in Massachusetts evidence of three cultural 
horizons was found: the earliest level marked by ulus, 
plummets, ground slate objects and grooveless stemmed gouges ; 
the middle level marked by steatite bowls; and the top level 
characterized by pottery 

Southwcstein United States. The University of Utah Field 
School of Archieology under the direction of Dr. Jesse D. 
Jennings made an aichxological survey of the upper Virgin 
river area in Washington county, Utah, and excavated the 
Jukebox and Danger cave sites near Wendover in Tocclc 
county. The caves contained ancient pre-ceramic cultures 
overlain by cultures with pottery. 

The Upper Gila expedition of the Peabody Museum of 
Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard university, under the 
direction of Dr. J O. Brew carried out archaeological survey 
and excavation of sites in west central New Mexico about 
40 mi. south and east of Zuni Pueblo. A Pueblo II and a 
large Pueblo III site were excavated. 

Pacific Coast. Under the direction of Douglas Osborne 
assisted by Joel Shiner seven sites in the McNary reservoir of 
Oregon were investigated for Washington State college and 
the Smithsonian River Basins survey. Buried middens or 
the bottom levels of deep middens produced artifacts of 
basalt and of a different style. 

A party directed by Clement Mughan undertook excava- 
tions in a shell mound at Drakes bay in search of Caucasian 
artifacts derived from a Spanish galleon wrecked there in 1 595. 

Under the direction of Dr. M. R. Harrington a Southwest 



museum field party carried out excavations in the Pinto Site 
at Little Lake, Inyo county, California. Two circular houses, 
the largest 12 ft. in diameter, were outlined by post holes. 
The site produced many Pinto points and some Lake Mohave 
and Silver Lake types, along with scrapers, gravers, crude 
metates and manos. 

Central America. In Mexico the many archaeological 
activities of the National Museum of Anthropology, the 
Institute of Anthropology and History and the Direction of 
Prehispanic Monuments continued. Among the numerous 
projects of these government institutions were investigations 
at Teotihupcan and Xochicalco at the middle archaic 
period site of Tlatilco and clearing and restoration of the 
Mayan site, Palenque. 

The Peabody museum, Harvard university, expedition to 
Costa Rica, directed by Dr. S. K. Lothrop, made a survey 
of the southern Pacific plains on lands of the United Fruit 
company Testing of stratified deposits revealed three periods 
of ceramic styles. The early style was reminiscent of Amazon 
valley pottery and the intermediate style might be ancestral 
to both classical Chiriqui and classical Cocl6. 

South America Financed by a grant from the Viking fund 
and a Cutting fellowship from Columbia university Mr. and 
Mrs Clifford Evans, Jr , undertook aichxological investiga- 
tions in the lower Amazon basin of Brazil during the first 
half of the year. Mounds on central Marajo island were 
excavated. Three mounds of the Monte Carmelo group along 
the Rio Anajas were investigated and 20 village mounds and 
one cemetery mound were excavated in the Igarape Os 
Camutms m the headwaters of the Rio Anajas. These 
investigations revealed six separate phases of occupation in 
the islands of Marajo, Mexiana, and Caviana and two 
additional phases in the Territory of Amapa. (G. I. Q.) 

ARCFIERY. At the 1949 international tournament, 
held in Pans in August, the ladies' championship was won by 
Barbara Waterhouse (Great Britain), with R. Windahl 
(Sweden) second, T. H. Fisher (Great Britain) third, and 
M. de Wharton Burr (Great Britain) fourth. The British 
ladies won the team events with Sweden second. The men's 
title was won, for the third time, by Hans Deutgen (Sweden) 
who beat Hadas (Czechoslovakia); E. Tang Holbek (Den- 
mark) was third. Teams Czechoslovakia first, Sweden 
second, Denmark third. 

In Great Britain the Grand National Archery society 
decided that their national championships should be shot in 
one direction only, instead of in two directions as was the 
custom for more than a century. This made possible, on 
equal terms, a Commonwealth mail match, which was shot, 
by teams of six, in July. Result: England 7,168 points, 
Canada 7,123. South Africa and New Zealand also com- 
peted. Individual top scores were: W. Frost (Canada) 
1,428, R. E. Hunter (S. Africa) 1,367, H. A. Hooker (British 
champion, Portsmouth) 1,299. 

The British ladies' national championship was won by 
B. Waterhousc (Birmingham). (C. B. E.) 

ARCHITECTURE. Two ambitious building schemes 
completed in London during 1949 were blocks of flats at 
Fmsbury and Holborn. The former, designed by the firm of 
Tecton, comprised three blocks, two of eight storeys con- 
taining 48 flats and one of five storeys containing 32 flats. 
The construction, of reinforced concrete, was based on the 
box-frame principle of continuous slabs and walls and 
utilized a new system of hydraulically jacked shuttering, 
never previously used in this country. The flats were the 
first in London to be provided with the Garchey system of 
refuse disposal. Each block was surrounded by a light 
coloured frame with tiled finish. Details of special interest 



56 



ARCHITECTURE 



in the design were the balcony balustrades, partly solid and 
partly open, the " sculptured " entrance canopy and the 
polychromatic pram store, as well as the general siting of the 
buildings. 

The Holborn scheme, designed by Robert Hening and 
Anthony Chitty, included five blocks of flats, one of ten 
storeys and the rest of five storeys, containing 162 flats in all. 
Construction was steel frame with hollow tile floors and 
reinforced concrete flank walls, staircases and cantilcvered 
balconies. Cavity walls were used as panel infillings, the 
first time this had been permitted for high buildings in 
London. On the flank walls pre-cast concrete slabs, surfaced 
with broken brick, were used as permanent shuttering, 

The site of the first health centre to be approved by the 
minister of health was officially opened in March. Designed 
for the Woodberry Down housing estate. Stoke Newington, 
by R. H. Matthew, architect to the London County council, 
the building would cost 187,000. Five units would be 
accommodated in the centre, consisting of medical and dental 
surgeries, school health, child welfare, ante-natal and 
remedial exercises and child guidance. 

Among the most notable schools were those built by the 
Hertfordshire County council. During 1949 seven primary 
schools were completed in the county, at Letchworth, Hitchin, 
Hemel Hempstead, Oxhey, Bushey, and two at Croxley 
Green. They were all designed in the county architect's 
department, under the direction of C. H. Aslin, and employed 
a standardized system of construction which was intended 
for use throughout the whole schools' programme of the 
department. The system was continually being improved in 
the light of experience gained during construction. Tt was 
based on a light steel frame, designed as a series of component 
parts capable of mass production and easy assembly. The 
stanchions could be developed in four directions, the longer 
ones being able to receive beams from the shorter ones on 
any of their four sides, thus allowing variation in ceiling 
heights and far greater flexibility in planning. Pre-cast 
concrete blocks and fibrous plaster covered the frame. 
The use of colour and the design and placing of windows 
were carefully considered from the point of view of the child. 

A secondary school at Stcvcnage, designed for the Hert- 
fordshire County council by F. R. S. Yorke, E. Rosenberg 
and C. Mardall, was officially opened in May. Planned to 
accommodate 450 children, it included community centres 
for adults and youths and an assembly hall with stage, to seat 
500 people, for the use both of the school and the general 
public. The construction was steel frame, with components 
welded into lattice members and galvanized, the framework 
being planned on a grid of 8 ft. 3 in Pre-cast concrete slab 
was used for constructional flooring and roofs, the roof 
slabs being covered with bituminous material on insulation 
boarding. 

Britain's first permanent prefabricated aluminium school 
was opened during March. With accommodation for 480 
pupils, it was built in approximately nine months, at a cost 
of Is. 1 U/. a cu. ft. The system of prefabricated construction 
was developed by Richard Sheppard and G. Robson, con- 
sulting architects to the housing division of the British 
Aeroplane company. The planning of the school was under 
the supervision of J. Nelson Meredith, city architect of 
Bristol. 

One of the largest building projects to be completed in 
Britain during 1 949 was a group of buildings for the Bristol 
Aeroplane company at Filton near Bristol. These buildings 
included an aircraft assembly hall, together with a canteen, 
boiler house, workshops, storage buildings and a two- 
storey block of offices and workshops for B.O.A.C., costing 
in all 3 million. The assembly hall consisted of three bays, 
equal in span (358 ft. between main supports) but with the 



centre bay 420 ft. deep and the two side bays each 270 ft. 
deep. The structural steel framework spanning the bays was 
in the form of two-pin arched latticed ribs tied at the haunches 
and set at 50 ft. centres. Those for the outermost bays were 
7 ft. wide and those for the centre bays 5 ft. wide. The roof 
was of steel decking covered with -J- in. insulating board and 
mineral-faced felt. All walls except the south were of 1 1 in. 
hollow brick up to 15 ft. Above, the external cladding was 
of asbestos cement sheets, insulated with fibre board. 

The eight acres of floor space were kept free of such things 
as buried pipes and heating panels, allowing the position of 
the jigs on which the aircraft were built up to be altered in 
accordance with changes in the production lay-out. The 
whole south side of the assembly hall was occupied by con- 
tinuous shding-folding doors, which were arranged in three 
pairs, opening cither to the sides of the centre. The overall 
opening was 1,045ft. long and 65ft. 9 in. high and the 
aluminium doors, powered by electric motors, could be 
opened up in two minutes. The gable ends of the roof of the 
assembly hall, faced with corrugated asbestos, were painted 
pink, the aluminium doors green and the door canopy and 
surround white. The ancillary buildings were mostly faced 
with a reddish brown brick, in contrast to the colours of the 
assembly hall but with certain wall panels of white-painted 
asbestos sheeting to act as visual links with it. 

The foundation stone of the London County council 
concert hall was laid on Oct. 12 by the prime minister, 
C. R. Attlee. The architects in charge were R. H. Matthew 
(architect to the council) and J. L. Martin, deputy architect. 
The site of the hall is on the south bank of the Thames 
between Hungerford bridge and Waterloo bridge. The 
building would consist of three mam elements, the concert 
hall, the reception foyer and the small hall, with ancillary 
accommodation forming an envelope round the conceit hall. 
Very careful attention was paid to sound transmission and 
acoustics. There would be total accommodation for 3,450 
people in the main hall and 750 people in the small hall. 
A large part of the building would be constructed in reinforced 
concrete, which would be faced externally with Portland 
stone The work would be carried out in two sections, 
five-sixths by May 1951 and the remainder, following the 
close of the Festival of Britain, at the end of the year. 

The plan of the 1951 exhibition to be held on the south 
bank of the Thames was released in Nov 1949. The various 
buildings were designed by a number of specially selected 
architects, and two of the exhibition structures were made 
the subject of competitions. The dominating buildings on 
the site would be the new L.C.C. concert hall (described 
above), and the saucer-shaped aluminium Dome of Dis- 
covery, 90ft. high and 365ft. in diameter. 

Commonwealth. The results of the competition for the 
new provincial administration headquarters office building 
at Pietcrmantzburg, Natal, were published. The winners 
were Corigall, Crick may and Partners, and the assessors, 
J. Fassler, D S. Haddon and A. V. Nunn The competition 
was restricted to the architects of Natal and the competitors 
were required to limit the total cost of the building, including 
professional fees, to 250,000. The accommodation required 
comprised four main departments: a secretariat, with five 
sub-departments; a motor traffic bureau; offices for the 
provincial accountant and for the auditor, as well as plant 
rooms, garaging, native quarters, etc. 

The Cranbrooke private hotel in Johannesburg, designed 
by H. le Roith and Partners, was among the most imagina- 
tively conceived buildings completed in South Africa during 
the year. Accommodation comprised a basement car park 
and boiler room, ground floor public rooms, kitchen and 
staff quarters, six bedroom floors with 135 furnished rooms, 
and native servants' quarters at roof level. Externally the 



ARCHITECTURE 



57 



MODERN FLATS IN BRITAIN 
AND SWEDEN 



a^ (O 

% **f (2) m 

IF 

rf /If 

(J) * 

%> 



lilt 

Hl> f 




58 



ARCHITECTURE 



reinforced concrete structure was faced with plum coloured 
bricks, offset with white rendered panels and balcony trim. 
On the two main facades of the building the recessed bedroom 
balconies, with their screen and parapet walls, were used to 
provide repetitive rhythms, on the one simple and insistent, 
on the other subtle and modulated. 

The results of the Anzac House competition were published. 
The winners were Walter Bunning and Charles Madden and 
the assessors, N. B. Freeman, L. A. Robb, Cobden Parkes, 
P. J. Gordon and J. E. Ancher. The winning design (for 
Sydney, Australia) was planned in two distinct parts, an 
auditorium with ancillary rooms and an office building, the 
two sections being independent with separate entrances. 
Auditorium accommodation was provided for 787 people. 
A memorial gallery would serve as an annexe to the foyer 
and as a ceremonial entrance on special occasions. In 
addition there would be a gymnasium, restaurant, creche, 
music rooms, board room and offices for ex-service organ- 
izations. The seventh to the twelfth floors would be rented 
office space, with a memorial garden on the roof. The pro- 
posed construction was a steel frame with reinforced concrete 
floors. 

Europe. In Sweden an 1 1 -storey block of flats was erected 
outside the town of Orebro, to the designs of Sven Backstrom 
and Leif Reinius. Built of reinforced concrete, the building 
was rendered in bright coloured cement. 

In Czechoslovakia two office buildings were completed in 
Prague. One, by B. Kozak, had a reinforced concrete frame 
with brick panel infilling, faced with light-brown stone. 
The other, also of reinforced concrete with brick infilling, 
was rendered on the outside. The latter, designed by F. Marek, 
was the first large building in Czechoslovakia to employ the 
patent Swedish pivoting side-hung double window. On Oct. 6 
at Maiseilles, France, a flag was unfurled, in the presence of 
the architect Le Coi busier, on the roof of the new block of 
flats outside the city, for which the structural framework had 
been completed. 

In Italy an office and flat building was erected in Milan to 
the designs of Luigi Figim and Gino Pollmi. Sited in the 
garden of an old house, there were two main blocks. One of 
seven and the other of 1 1 floors, with offices on the lower 
floors and flats above. On the top floors of both blocks were 
penthouses with garden terraces which included bathing 
pools. The higher block onto the street had an entrance way 
opening through to the garden (a typical arrangement in the 
old mansions of Milan which had been superseded, in later 
years, by the closed entrance hall). This gave access to the 
lower block, which was at the back of the site. The structure 
was a reinforced concrete frame, faced with rough travertine 
and artificial stone In the larger block the frame stood free 
of the walls of the building flush with the outside edges of 
the balconies. 

The seventh International Congress of Modern Architec- 
ture (C I A M., to use the better-known initials of the French 
translation) was held at Bergamo, Italy, from July 23-30. 
Six permanent commissions were set up and embarked on 
studies of the following subjects: town planning, inter- 
relation of the plastic arts, education for architecture and 
town planning, industrialization of building construction, 
legislative proceduie necessary to implement the Athens 
charter (a town-planning manifesto issued at the third con- 
gress in 1933) and the social programme of the C.I. A.M. 
The congress reflected fairly closely the currents of thought 
among architects of the modern movement, if such it could 
still be called. Though there was still close concern for the 
scientific and sociological responsibilities of contemporary 
architecture, there was evident at the congress an increasing 
concern for the more intangible aesthetic questions. 

(I. R. M. M.) 



United States. Residential. Early in 1949 there were signs 
that building costs might come down a little; but as the year 
wore on the decline proved to be very slight and there was 
instead a general acceptance of higher prices as the apparently 
normal level. As a result, the number of luxury buildings 
commissioned and sold increased, for the first time since the 
end of World War II. Houses of greater size and more 
lavishly equipped, costing roughly twice as much as similar 
ones before World War II, were being built. New flats on 
the Park avenues of the country were easily let at high prices, 
partly because none had been built for so long and higher 
rents were becoming accepted as the normal state of affairs. 
These units did not have a large number of rooms; the 
trend towards smaller residences reflected the gradual 
disappearance of domestic help. However, the rooms them- 
selves were often large and the units contained many features 
intended to compensate for fewer square feet, such as glass 
walls, terraces and balconies. 

In domestic architecture one-story, open-planned houses 
predominated. The " ranch house " was the name generally 
used for the looser, freer character of the more expensive 
of these buildings. It seemed as though public preference 
had in many instances swung from the Cape Cod cottage 
and colonial types of house to the ranch house without 
having stopped at the intermediate phase, the flat-roofed 
international style. Many of these ranch house units were 
deplorably lacking in restraint, in studied proportions and, 
as usual in this class of building, reproduced the cliches of 
the moment. This led to some alarm that the new mood 
was too relaxed and that the discipline of materials and 
design had been too suddenly jettisoned. 

Since 60% of building in 1949 was in the residential field, 
it was significant that the new federal legislation was enacted 
to finance more public housing, about 200,000 units having 
been approved by the Public Housing administration by the 
end of the year. Congress, on the other hand, had not taken 
positive action to extend federal aid to housing in the 
medium-price range. 

The two principal makers of prefabricated houses were 
searching for better ways in which to market their products. 
The small Gunnison house seemed to be founded on a sounder 
basis than the somewhat larger and more expensive Lustron 
house. The latter was not producing the expected volume 
of sales, its prices were higher than anticipated and it was 
losing money. There was, however, reason to think that 
Lustron would survive. It was inevitable that the first 
large-scale, factory-produced house would need time as 
well as capital to pioneer its way. 

Techniques ami Matcnah. Increasing labour costs, which 
were higher than ever before and the highest in the world, 
continued to force invention in techniques and materials. 
It should be noted, though, that in the United States the cost 
of building in 1949 as compared with 1939 had risen less 
than almost anywhere else in the world. British observers 
commented that the United States continued to lead the 
world in the use of building machinery, such as volume- 
mixers for concrete, thus offsetting some of the high costs 
of labour. Other steps in this ducction were the increasing 
use of larger wall panels, new and lighter sandwiches for walls, 
insulated precast-slabs and wider application of pre-stressing 
and of lightweight structural metal members. Radiant 
heating continued to be a favourite system with wider 
application to driveways, terraces and pavements and, 
although it was recognized that the distribution of heat in 
this system was easily blocked by furniture such as desks 
and drafting tables, the advantages were on its side. 

Aluminium was used as a substitute for conventional 
metals in the Alcoa building at Davenport, Iowa, in designs 
for a proposed Alcoa building in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 



AREAS AND POPULATIONS 



59 



and throughout an entire school in Bristol, England. It was 
suggested that the future of the material would develop more 
rapidly when its own characteristics were stressed. Stainless 
steel for exterior surfaces was used in several buildings and 
projected for others. Many experiments were made in the 
wider application of lightweight aggregates and lightweight 
combinations of natural and synthetic materials. 

Commercial. Perhaps as a by-product of greater costs 
and a consequence of a longer period of familiarity with the 
modern approach to building design, the onset of a period 
of maturity in the design of commercial and industrial 
buildings could be detected. An outstanding example was 
the office building of the United Nations nearing completion 
in New York city Its characteristics, such as reserving 
part of the space for walks and parking, thus eliminating 
need for interior courts and complicated back premises and 
providing better light and air, were shared by other projects 
both under construction and in the design stage. 

The highest distinction conferred by the American Institute 
of Architects, its gold medal, was awarded to the great 
U.S. architect, Frank Lloyd Wright. At the age of 80, he 
maintained his role as bete noire of conservatives; he sug- 
gested moving the capital of the United States to a more 
western point, and continued his output of original creative 
buildings, houses which could be partly built by the owner's 
own labour and a theatre which by its triple stage proposed 
to make use of the lessons of the cinema The influence of 
his ideas and of his buildings seemed to be growing as the 
austerity of the '30s and '40s was superseded by a warmer, 
sometimes excessively mannered mood (See also BUILDING 
AND CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY; HOUSING; INTERIOR DECORA- 
TION; TOWN AND COUNTRY Pi ANNING ) (C. L. V. M.) 

AREAS AND POPULATIONS OF THE 

COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD. The political entities 
of the woild arc listed here with their areas, populations 
and number of persons per squaie mile. The latest 
census or official estimates are given for each country Areas 
in sc] mi , including inland water areas, arc in accordance 
with the boundaries for the year of the population figure 
unless otherwise noted 



Name of Continent ami State 
WORLD TOTAL 

Al RR A 

Belgian colony and trusteeship 

+ British colonies, dependencies, pro- 
tectorates and trusteeships 

Fgypt 

Fthiopia 

French overseas departements, terntone: 
trusteeships and protectorates 

Liberia 

Portuguese colonies 

South West Africa 

Spanish colonies and protectorate 

Tangier, International Zone of 

Union of South Afuca 
ANTARCTICA 
ASIA (exclusive of U S S R ) 

Afghanistan 

Arabian desert 

Bhutan 

British colonies, dependencies etc. 

Burma 

Ceylon, Dominion of 

China (including Formosa, Kwantung, 
Manchuua and Tibet) 

French ten itones, etc 

India, Dominion of 

Iraq .... 

Japan 

Jordan, Hashimite Kingdom of . 

Korea . 



Area Population (per 

(in \q nn ) (in '000) <;q mi ) 

58,087,756 2,341,154 44 9* 

11,596,043 187,494 16 2 

925,094 14,748 



3,916,650 


68,647 





386,110 


19,528 


51 


3^0,000 


8,000 


22-9 


'4,258,070 


49,301 





43,000 


1 ,600 


37 2 


794,959 


11,502 


- - 


317,725 


369 


1 2 


134,763 


1,537 




232 


150 


646 6 


472,5*50 


12,112 


25 6 


6,000,000 


Uninhabited 


10,593,048 


1,242,986 


117 3 


270,000 


12,000 


44-4 


193,000 


Largely uninhabited 


18 000 


300 


16 7 


248 861 


9,993 





261,749 


17,000 


64 9 


25,332 


7,288 


291 6 


3,876,956 


463,493 


119-6 


272,552 


25,794 





1,243,886 


342,114 


275 


168,040 


4,794 


28 5 


146,690 


82,466 


562 2 


34.750 


400 


11 -5 


85,225 


29,239 


355 6 



Kuwait 

Lebanon 

Mongolian People's Republic 

Nepal 

Netherlands Indies (Indonesia and New 

Guinea) 

Oman and Masqat 
Pakistan, Dominion of 
Palestine (including Israel) 
Persia 

Philippines, Republic of the 
Portuguese colonies 
Qatar 

Saudi Arabia 
Syria 
Thailand 
1'rucial sheikdoms 
Turkey 
Yemen 

AUSTRALIA AND OCFANIA 
Australia 

Australian dependencies 
Bniish colonies, dependencies, etc 
French colonies 
New Zealand 

New Zealand dependencies 
United States possessions 

fpAJROFfc (exclusive of USSR) 
Albania 
Andorra 
Austria 
Belgium 

British colonies and dependencies 
Bulgaria 
Czechoslovakia 
Denmark (excluding Greenland, 

including Facroe Islands) 
I stoma 

Finland (including Aland Islands) 
France 

Germany (1937 area, 1939 population) 
Germany (1945 area, including the 

Saar, 1946 population) . 
Greece (including Dodecanese) 
Hungary 
Iceland 
Ireland 
Italy 
Latvia 

Liechtenstein 
Lithuania 
Luxembourg 
Monaco 
Netherlands 
Norway 

Norwegian tei i itory (Svalbard) 
Poland (pre-World War 11) 
Poland (1945 area) 

Portugal (inJ Azores and Madeira) 
Rumania 
San Marino 

Spain (including Canary Islands) 
Sweden 
Swit/crland 

Trieste, Free Ten itory of 
United Kingdom 
Vatican City 
Yugoslavia 

USSR (1939) 

USSR (1945 area, 1948 pop est ) 

NORTH AMFRICA 
British colonies and dependencies 
Canada 
Costa Rica 
Cuba 

Danish colony (Greenland) 
Dominican Republic 
Fl Salvador 

French teintory and departements 
Guatemala 
Haiti 

Honduras 

Mexico . . 

Netherlands Antilles 
Nicaragua 
Panama (excluding Canal Zone) . 



9,000 


120 


13-3 


3,475 


1,208 


348-1 


580,158 


850 


1-5 


54,000 


6,910 


128-0 


735,000 


76,360 


103-9 


65,000 


830 


12-8 


337,524 


73,321 


203-1 


10,159 


2,000 


196-9 


634,413 


17,000 


26-8 


115,600 


19,234 


166-4 


8,876 


1,496 





4,000 


25 


4 


597,000 


6,000 


10-1 


72,587 


3,750 


51-7 


198,272 


17,666 


89-1 


16,000 


115 


6-6 


296,184 


19,750 


66-7 


31,000 


1,600 


51-5 


3,304,620 


11,697 


3 5 


2,974,581 


7,581 


2-5 


183,557 


1,216 





24,670 


496 





9,199 


106 





103,416 


1,888 


18 3 


1,652 


94 





7545 


704 


__ 


1 ,908,096 


385,390 


202-0 


10,029 


1,175 


110 5 


174 


5 


28-7 


32,388 


6,953 


214 7 


11,783 


8,603 


730 7 


124 


330 





42,796 


7,100 


165 9 


49,330 


12,409 


251-6 


17,109 


4,220 


246-7 


18,357 


854 


46-5 


HO, 165 


3,958 


30-4 


212,737 


41,800 


195 7 


181,677 


69,317 


381 4 


138.069 


65,910 


477-6 


51,182 


7,960 


155 5 


35,893 


9,165 


255 3 


39,768 


139 


3-5 


26,601 


3,023 


116 2 


116,235 


46,110 


397 5 


25,395 


1,650 


65 


61 


13 


213-1 


25,173 


2,353 


93 5 


1,010 


292 


289-1 


6 


21 


_ 


12,868 


9,955 


773 6 


125,147 


3,181 


25-4 


24,295 


2 





150,052 


35,339 


235 6 


120,359 


21,781 


198 2 


35,4H 


8,402 


237-3 


91,671 


15,873 


173 2 


38 


12 


315 8 


194,945 


28,154 


144-3 


173,390 


6,925 


39 9 


15,944 


4,609 


289-0 


293 


345 


- 


93,667 


50,213 


536-1 


5 


1 




98,826 


15,752 


159 4 


8,173,557 


170,467 


20-9 


8,436,121 


193,000 


22 9 


9,387,294 


214,824 


22-9 


21,172 


2,690 


. 


3,841,144 


13,636 


3 5 


19,238 


837 


44 


44,217 


5,295 


119 8 


840,000 


21 





19,129 


2,277 


119-8 


13,176 


2,100 


159-4 


1,206 


601 




45,452 


3,717 


81 -8 


10,748 


3,500 


325-6 


59,160 


1,326 


22 4 


767,168 


24,447 


31-9 


403 


160 


397-0 


57,143 


1,173 


20-5 


28,575 


764 


26 7 



60 



ARGENTINA 



United States . 


3 022,387 


150,000 


49-6 


United States possessions . 


589,968 


2,310 




SOUTH AMERICA . 


6,862,534 


105,763 


15 4 


Argentina . 


1,079,965 


16,300 


15-1 


Bolivia ...... 


416,040 


3,922 


9-4 


Brazil 


3,286,170 


49,350 


15-0 


British colonies and dependencies 


97,161 


392 





Chile 


286,323 


5,709 


19-9 


Colombia . 


439,714 


10,777 


24-5 


Ecuador ...... 


104,510 


3.362 


32-2 


French dcpartement (French Guiana) . 


34,740 


35 


1-0 


Netherlands territory (Surinam) . 


54,291 


210 


3-9 


Paraguay . 


157,047 


1,270 


8-1 


Peru . . . 


482,258 


8,061 


16-7 


Uruguay . 


72,172 


2,330 


32-3 


Venezuela . 


352,143 


4,500 


12-8 



* In computing the world density the area of Antarctica is omitted. 
t Includes as military trustee areas Libya, Eritrea and Italian Somaliland. 
t Areas and populations of Baltic republics included in 1945 and 1948 
U.S.S.R. totals. 

ARGENTINA. The second largest South American 
republic, occupying the southeastern portion of the continent. 
Area (excluding the so-called " Zona Austral " which is 
supposed to comprise the *' Malvinas " (/.*>., Falklands) and 
other islands or territory in the antarctic): 1,079,965 sq. mi. 
other islands or territory in the Antarctica): 1,079,965 sq. mi. 
Pop.: (1947 census) 16,108,573; (mid-1948 est.) 16,300,000. 
The population is overwhelmingly European in origin (mostly 
Spanish and Italian, with Irish, German, Croat and Polish 
admixtures); in 1940 about 9% were of mixed blood, the 
dwindling Indian population was estimated at 262,600 and the 
total of foreign-born population was 2,355,900. The distribu- 
tion of the population is uneven: the federal capital and the 
four provinces of the littoral (La Plata, Corrientes, Parana and 
Santa Fe) cover only one-fifth of the total area but have two- 
thirds of the country's population; urban population is 
estimated at 75%. Chief towns (pop. 1947 est.): Buenos 



Aires (q.v.) (capital and leading port, 3,000,371); Avellaneda, 
a Buenos Aires suburb (279,572); Rosario (464,688); 
Cordoba (351,644); La Plata (271,738); Lanus (242,760); 
Santa F (168,011); Tucuman(152,508). Language: Spanish. 
Religion: mainly Roman Catholic; Jewish 350,000. President 
of the republic, General Juan Domingo Peron (q.v.). 

History. During 1949 there was a trend in Argentina 
toward a more authoritarian central government, denial of 
civil liberties and economic self-sufficiency. 

Early in the year, at the Inter-American Economic confer- 
ence held in Buenos Aires, there was some disagreement with 
the United States. The expected flow of dollars to be 
obtained through sales to European countries benefiting from 
the Marshall plan and the Economic Co-operation adminis- 
tration programme failed to materialize. The requirements 
of the five-year industrialization and development plan 
launched by Peron in 1946, requiring ever-increasing 
quantities of steel and machinery, and a reduction in foreign 
trade, as a result of high Argentine prices and large crops 
elsewhere, created additional economic difficulties. 

Miguel Miranda, head of the National Economic council, 
who controlled the Institute for the Promotion of Trade 
(I. A. P. I. or Institute Argentine de Promocion del Inter- 
cambio), continued to advocate a nationalistic economic 
policy of high prices, nationalization of foreign-held assets 
and self-sufficiency. His theories were mildly opposed by 
Orlando Maroglio, president of the Central bank, who 
advocated economic liberalization. This dispute prompted 
Peron to remove Maroglio and on Jan. 19 appoint Alfonso 
Gomez Morales as minister of finance and head of the Central 
bank. He also removed Miranda and appointed Roberto 
Antonio Ares as minister of national economy. For a few 
days Miranda's status seemed uncertain and he was reported 




Eva Peron (right) wife of the president of Argentina, with the $paiu\ii tun( -o \.wdor and Mrs de Areiliza, on board the Spanish training ship 

"Juan Sebastian Elcano " when it visited Buenos Aires in Oct. 1949. 



ARMIES OF THE WORLD 



61 



to continue as financial adviser to the president. But on 
Jan. 26 his resignation was announced and he went to 
Montevideo, Uruguay. The reorganization of the National 
Economic council seemed to indicate a desire to correct 
mismanagement and inflation. Postage, telephone rates and 
taxes were increased, especially in Buenos Aires province. 

These measures, however, did not bring about prompt 
relief. A report issued by the Institute of International 
finance of New York university, The Economic Situation 
in Argentina, claimed that Argentine inability to use stcilmg 
and other non-convertible currency arising from its trade 
with Europe to cover its large deficit with the United States 
was responsible for most of its economic difficulties. The 
purchase of foreign-owned enterprises, nationalization of 
internal air lines, railways, telephones and merchant fleet, 
the reduction of the dollar debt and conversion to a govern- 
ment-controlled economy, were contributory factors to the 
economic crisis. The report added, however, that Argentine 
economy was basically sound. 

Economic relations between Argentina and Great Britain 
were rather strained at the beginning of the year. Under the 
" Andes " agreement of Feb. 12, 1948, Argentina undertook 
to deliver to Great Britain 400,000 tons of meat in the year 
ending F 7 eb. 1949. However, during the last four months of 
1948 shipments fell short and when the year ended 108,000 
tons of the carcase meat remained unshipped with the result 
that from March 21 the British weekly meat ration was 
reduced from Is to \Qd. worth. The Argentine government 
did not exert themselves to carry out the contract because 
of the alleged " low price " paid by Britain and because by 
keeping Britain in short supply it had strengthened its bar- 
gaining position in the negotiation of a new agreement. 

The negotiations, which opened on Feb. 22, were conducted 
by Sir John Balfour, the British ambassador, and Scnor Ares, 
the new minister of national economy. On June 21 a new 
five-year Anglo- Argentine trade agreement was signed, 
providing for exchanges totalling about 125 million each 
way in the first year and envisaging at least the same level 
in subsequent years. Sir Stafford Cripps stated in the House 
of Commons on July 5 that the average price of beef, mutton 
and lamb purchased under the new agreement was 28 1% 
above the price paid under the " Andes " agreement. 

Basically, the new treaty was a barter arrangement whereby 
Argentina would receive machinery and manufactured goods 
and Great Britain would receive wheat, meat and linseed 
oil. The treaty constituted an attempt by Peron to overcome 
the dollar shortage. In the midst of the negotiations, the 
United States granted $28 million of E.C.A. funds to purchase 
Mexican and U.S. meat to be sent to Britain. This was 
regarded by Peromstas as unfair interference in their internal 
affairs. The United States, on the other hand, considered 
the treaty as a denial of multilateral trade principles. 

The constitutional convention, made up of 109 Peronistas, 
48 Radicals and one Labour member, met in Buenos Aires 
early in the year. The outstanding provisions of the new 
charter were: (1) it allowed the re-election of the president; 
(2) it incorporated Peron's rights of workers whereby they 
were granted increased wages and seniority rights and Eva 
Peron's rights of old age; (3) deputies and senators were to 
be elected together with the president every six years; (4) it 
incorporated article 40 which granted the government power 
to nationalize enterprises where mutual sale agreements 
were not reached; (5) foreigners could become citizens after 
residing in Argentina two years; after five years' residence 
they would have to become citizens unless they expressed a 
desire to the contrary. The constitution was approved on 
March 11, after the opposition had walked out charging 
steam roller tactics by the Peronistas, by a vote of 101 to nil. 

Juan A. Bramuglia, minister of foreign affairs, who had 



acquired international renown for his work in the United 
Nations assembly, was removed on Aug. 11. It was reported 
he differed with Jeronimo Remonno, ambassador to Washing- 
ton, over Argentine policy toward the United States. Bramug- 
lia was reported to approve international co-operation 
and was regarded as the outstanding member of the cabinet 
and possible presidential candidate. Hipolito Jesus Paz, 
a 33-year-old law professor, succeeded Bramuglia. 

In July the Peronistas held a convention, which urged 
Peron to run for re-election in 1952. Colonel Domingo R. 
Mercante, governor of Buenos Aires province and chairman 
of the Constitutional Convention, was mentioned for vice- 
president. The Peronistas also launched a purge of their 
party, and Waldino Suarez, governor of Santa Fe, and 
Pablo Diana, director general of immigration, were expelled 
from office Augustin Rodriguez Araya, who had charged 
the government with graft, and Atilio Cattaneo were 
expelled from the Chamber of Deputies and fled to Montevideo. 
To deny Cattaneo's charge that he had enriched himself in 
office, Peron, flanked by his cabinet, called a press conference 
where he produced an affidavit listing the property he owned 
before he took office. Later La Prensa and La Nation 
also repeated this charge, openly testing a law recently enacted 
that provided up to three years' imprisonment for anyone 
who " insulted " a public official. 

Congress also passed a law providing that new political 
parties must wait three years while a federal court passed 
on their applications; parties already organized could be 
dissolved if their ideological principles endangered social peace; 
and coalitions of existing parties were banned. (J. McA.; X.) 

Education. Schools elementary (1943) 14,565, pupils 2,016,310, 
teachers 79,081, secondary (1946) 1,145, pupils 221,409, teachers 
28,360, universities (1943) 8, students 62,870 

Agriculture. Mam crops ('000 metric tons, 1948) wheat 4,700; 
barley 650, oats 640, rye 229, maize 5,000, potatoes 840; 
linseed 500, cotton ginned 92, nee 120 Livestock ('000 head): 
cattle (June 1947) 41,268, sheep (July 1948) 54,800, pigs 
(June 1948) 3,500, horses (June 1947) 7,238, asses and mules 
(June 1947) 501. Meat production ('000 metric tons, 1947): total 
1,105-1, beef 867 3, mutton 190 9, pork 46 9 Wool production 
(on a greasy basis, 1948-49): 209,000 metric tons. 

Industry. Persons employed in manufacturing industries (1947) 
812,000 Fuel and power (1947) coal ('000 metric tons) 32 9, elec- 
tricity ('000 million kwh ) 3,346, crude oil ('000 metric tons) 3,113. 
Timber ('000 metric tons, 1947) 338. Manufactured goods ('000 
metric tons, 1947). cotton yarn 65 9; rayon yarn 4 6; cement 1,364. 

Foreign Trade. (Million pesos) Imports (1947) 5,354; (1948, six 
months) 3,030 Exports (1947) 5,328, (1948, six months) 3,152. 
No trade figures had been published since June 1948. but the minister 
of finance gave the net adverse balance of international payments as 
1,866 million pesos in 1948 as compared with 1,028 million pesos in 
1947. Mam destinations of exports (1947). United Kingdom 26%, 
United States 10%, Italy 10%. Main sources of imports. United 
States 48%, United Kingdom 9%, Brazil 7% 

Transport and Communications. Roads suitable for motor vehicles 
(1947)- 18,000 mi Licensed motor vehicles (Dec. 1948): cars 346,000 
commercial vehicles 195,000. Railways: (1948) 26,568 mi.; passenger 
traffic (1947) 5,580 million passenger-mi.; freight traffic (1947) 9,370 
million ton-mi. Air transport (1947) mi. flown 9,380,000, passengers 
flown 224,000, freight carried 2,540 metric tons, mail carried 16,644 
tons. Telephones (per '000 inhabitants, 1947): 38. Wireless licences 
(per '000 inhabitants, 1946): 77. 

Finance and Banking. (Million pesos) Budget (1949 est ) revenue 
3,860, expenditure 4,569; (1950 est.) revenue 4,870, expenditure 5,835. 
Budget of autonomous agencies (1950) balanced at 5,022 million pesos. 
National debt (Dec. 1948; in brackets Dec 1947) 12,940 (11,538). 
Currency circulation (July 1949; in brackets July 1948): 7,018 (5,201). 
Gold reserve (May 1949; m brackets May 1948) U S.S142 (214). 
Monetary unit is the peso. Before sterling devaluation on Sept. 18, 
1949, the free market rate was 4 8 pesos to the $ or 19 37 pesos to the . 
On Oct. 3, 1949, the Argentine Central bank announced a new free 
rate of 9 pesos to the $ or 25 20 pesos to the . 

ARMIES OF THE WORLD. The outstanding 
development during 1949 in the armies of the world was an 
increased standardization of arms into two basic types: 
Soviet and American. Regional agreements for military 



62 



ARMIES OF THE WORLD 



The Swedish army held large-scale manoeuvres in Sept. 1949. Photograph shows troops going into action after landing on the coast near 

Nynashamn, south of Stockholm. 



assistance, the groundwork for which was laid in 1948, were 
generally established in 1949. The two most important allian- 
ces were the North Atlantic treaty (^.v.) and the Soviet bloc. 

The year saw the North Atlantic alliance nations begin the 
formation of integrated programmes. Included in the 
over-all alliance were 12 nations: Belgium, Canada, Den- 
mark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, 
Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United 
States. At a meeting of the defence committee of the alliance, 
composed of the defence ministers of the 12 member nations, 
agreement was reached on the over-all strategy, an armament 
production programme and the co-ordination of planning 
among the five regional groups. The five regional groups 
were set up as follows: North America, north Atlantic, 
northern Europe, western Europe and Mediterranean. 

Certain important developments also took place in the 
Soviet bloc of powers. Most important was the defection 
of Yugoslavia, whose army could no longer be assumed to 
be part of the Soviet alliance. As far as the remaining powers 
in the U.S.S.R. orbit were concerned Poland, Czecho- 
slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Rumania the outstanding 
feature of 1949 was an increased sovietization. Indicative 
of the extent to which the U.S.S.R. would carry sovietization 
of the armies of its satellites was the situation in Poland, 
where Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky, one of the out- 
standing Soviet commanders in World War II, was appointed 
head of the Polish armed forces. 

The intensive rearmament, particularly of the western 
powers, which began in 1948, continued apace in 1949. 
However, economy measures in Britain, France and the 
United States indicated that the extent of the rearmament 
was to be definitely limited. The passage of the Military Aid 
programme by the U.S. congress assured the Atlantic treaty 
nations of certain assistance in modernizing their armies. 
Another outstanding development of 1949 saw the almost 
complete destruction of the Nationalist Chinese armies by 
the Communists. 

The principal change in disposition of the armies of the 
world in 1949 was the beginning of the evacuation of Indo- 
nesia by the Netherlands. The return to the Netherlands of 
more than 100,000 troops from the Indies was one factor 
enabling the Netherlands to build up the ground forces 
required under the Western Union treaty. There was little 
change of disposition of the occupation forces in Europe, 
although continued replacement and relief of troops by the 



Soviet Union in eastern Europe gave rise to many reports 
and rumours of withdrawal. It would be safe to assume, 
however, that the Russians would not withdraw their 
occupation forces until replacement in the form of a reliable 
eastern German army should take place. 

Postwar grouping complete, the three major powers were 
able to engage in training exercises involving up to the 
equivalent of a corps. France, as a result of heavy troop 
commitments in Indo-China, was hampered in effecting 
large-scale training exercises, except in its occupation zone 
of Germany. 

While extensive research and development of new types of 
equipment continued, most equipment remained that which 
was in use at the end of World War II. Economy measures 
restricted re-equipping by the western powers, although it 
appeared that under the Military Aid programme certain 
new types of equipment, particularly late model tanks, would 
be made available. 

United States. The year might well be marked by historians 
of the U.S. army as the peak of its postwar appropriations. 
With funds for the fiscal year 1949-50 lower than those for 
the previous year, the army began to curtail certain of its 
activities in 1949. Economy measures taken included closing 
of numerous army posts and concentrating cadres on fewer, 
large posts, reducing of the number of reserve officers on 
active duty and calling up of fewer men in the draft. Previous 
authorization to expand the army to more than 900,000 men 
was rescinded, and at the end of 1949 strength was at 
670,000. 

To the regular army strength should be added the national 
guard as reserve strength. After a year of intensive training, 
national guard units were in a far better position to bolster 
the regular force in the event of emergency. Army units 
of the national guard reached a strength of approximately 
350,000 officers and men. Although this could not be considered 
as entirely effective combat strength, the national guard units 
had a large number of combat veterans. 

Disposition of U.S. units remained approximately the 
same as in 1948 with the exception that the llth Airborne 
division returned from Japan to Camp Campbell, Kentucky. 
Approximate strength of U.S. forces in 1949 was as follows: 

Far cast . . . 127,000 Europe . . . 97,000 

Hawaii . . . 7,000 Caribbean. . . 14,000 

Alaska . . . 13,000 United States . . 411,000 

Exercises were conducted on all scales during the year by 



ARMIES OF THE WORLD 



63 



both regular and reserve units. Most of the reserve and 
national guard units conducted some form of divisional 
exercises during the year. All of the regular army divisions 
engaged in extensive unit re-training. The chief exercises 
conducted by the United States army during the year 
included: operation "Snowdrop" held in the U.S. zone of 
Germany in January, involving 16,000 men and designed to 
test the troops in winter warfare; the Vieques manoeuvres 
held in the Caribbean in February an operation held 
with the navy and naval aviation in which the 2nd Marine 
division and the 65th Infantry participated; exercise ** Har- 
vest " conducted in Germany in September, involving about 
112,000 troops, in which the 18th Infantry was transported 
approximately 300 mi. by air. Manoeuvres held at Fort 
Benning, Georgia, stressed the two-bladed attack infantry- 
artillery-tank teams advancing in conjunction with airborne 
assaults. In these exercises, units of the llth and 82nd 
Airborne divisions were preceded into the drop zone by 
so-called " pathfinder teams " which guided the principal 
attack formation of transports and gliders to the target by 
radio beams. 

There was continued development of new airborne equip- 
ment. In 1949 a new technique was successfully developed 
for dropping completely assembled 105 mm. howitzers. 
The 376th Air-borne Artillery battalion successfully dropped 
a battery of four howitzers with ammunition and 150 men 
during the exercises at Fort Benning. 

Great Britain. The defence budget for the British army was 
cut by approximately 20% for the year 1948-49. The ground 
forces received 44% of a defence outlay of 692-6 million, 
or funds amounting to 305 million. British army strength 
in 1949 dropped to 400,000 men, of whom more than 175,000 
were overseas. Difficulty was experienced in keeping the 
army up to strength through voluntary enlistments and there 
was considerable discussion in parliament about extending 
the period of conscription from 12 to 18 months. 

At the beginning of the year defence critics pointed out 
that not a single organized division was in the United King- 
dom. British army strength was spread throughout the world 
during 1949 with two divisions in Germany, one division 
and three scattered brigades in the middle east and the 
equivalent of almost two divisions throughout the far east. 

Principal troop movements in 1949 saw the reinforcement 
of Hong Kong, bringing the strength of the garrison 
to approximately 25,000. Units sent there in 1949 included 
advance elements of the 40th Infantry division including 
the 28th Infantry brigade, the 3rd Royal Tank regiment 
plus the 3rd Royal Marine commando brigade. Troop 
commitments in Malaya remained heavy. At the end of the 
year elements of the Scots Guards and the Gurkha Rifles 
were withdrawn from the jungle for refitting and re-training. 
With the end of hostilities in Greece that particular drain on 
British manpower was ended and the 3,000 troops were 
withdrawn. 

In addition to the defence exercises conducted in Hong 
Kong and the actual experience of combatting insurgents 
in Malaya, British training was concentrated in the army 
of the Rhine. Exercises in Germany stressed co-ordination 
of air, artillery, infantry and tanks. British officers also set 
about training an army of 3,000 in Ceylon. When trained 
the Ceylonese would take over the coastal and anti-aircraft 
defence duties. 

U.S.S.R. Expenditures for the Soviet armed forces 
totalled 19% of the budget in 1949, compared with 17% in 
1948. The Soviet Union continued to maintain approximately 
2,500,000 men on active duty organized into 175 to 200 
divisions. Inasmuch as Soviet divisional strength is 8,000 
men, the U.S.S.R. had 1,600,000 first-line combat troops 
available for immediate action. Of the active divisions, 50 



were armoured units, giving the Soviet army a powerful 
striking force. In addition to the active units the Soviet 
Union could mobilize sufficient reserves to field another 100 
divisions within 60 to 90 days. Ultimate Soviet army strength 
could equal 500 combat divisions. 

To Soviet army strength should be added that of the 
satellite armies consisting of about 40 to 60 divisions. Also, 
there were continued indications during the year that the 
long-heralded east German army was nearer to becoming a 
reality. Latest reports stated that a Volksarmee of 60,000 
men was to be completely organized by March 1950. The 
army was to [be composed of six motorized divisions equipped 
with tanks and artillery. The similarity of this force to the 
100,000-man army of Germany under the treaty of Versailles 
was striking. Each man was to be qualified as a weapons 
instructor, thus immediately indentifying the army as a 
training cadre. The force was ultimately to consist of 360,000 
men, with conscription of all men 18 to 30 reportedly sched- 
uled to begin early in 1950. 

The principal changes during 1949 in the disposition of 
the Soviet army units occurred as a result of the " cold war " 
between the U.S.S.R. and Yugoslavia. Three new Soviet 
divisions moved into Rumania and Hungary in August, 
giving the Soviet army between seven and nine divisions in 
these two countries. About half of the Soviet forces in these 
two countries was composed of tank units. In addition 
there was a combat division in the Soviet zone of Austria 
and another in Bulgaria. Although far from sufficient in 
strength to mount an attack, Soviet divisional moves kept 
the Yugoslav army constantly on the alert. 

Soviet training showed an increasing reversion to the 
pomp, ceremony and caste of the Tsarist army. The Soviet 
army, for example, had three grades of marshal, adapted a 
modified version of the ** goose step " for parade purposes 
and encouraged postwar units to identify themselves with 
famous wartime units. The development of a hereditary 
officer corps was taking place. Professional army personnel 




The^British army during 1949 introduced a new combat suit (right). 

On left is shown the new short greatcoat to be worn over the 

combat suit. 



64 



ARMIES OF THE WORLD 



were provided with better quarters, could obtain better 
food and had their own commissariats. Separate messes 
were established for both officers and non-commissioned 
officers. Training started at an early age, cadet schools 
beginning at the age of 8. The distinction between officers 
and other ranks was more sharply emphasized, with iron 
discipline becoming the rule rather than the exception. 
Important Soviet training exercises were held in Germany. 
Among the largest were the autumn manoeuvres at Ohrdruf 
in which all of the garrisons of the Soviet zone including 
the German people's police participated Spring manoeuvres 
were held in Brandenburg 

Marshal Alexandr M. Vasilevsky replaced Nikolai A. 
Bulganin as minister of the armed forces. For the first time 
since 1940 before the German invasion, the Soviet army 
was under the control of a professional soldier. Next to 
Gheorghy K. Zhukov, Marshal Vasilevsky was considered 
one of the Soviet army's most gifted strategists. 

France. The French budget of national defence amounted 
in 1949 to Fr. 350,000 million. This represented 28% of the 
total ordinary budget, compared with an expenditure of 30% 
in 1948 The maximum authorized strength of the army 
in 1949 was 493,000, although actual strength was closer to 
470,000. One of the principal problems of the French army 
was to maintain the strength of the fighting formations 
with the short term of service. A bill to broaden conscription 
was presented to parliament but was not passed. 

France was still heavily committed in Indo-China in 1949. 
The French forces, however, were unable to make sub- 
stantial progress and were able to hold only the mam cities 
and principal lines of communication. At the end of the 
year the French forces were patrolling the Indo-China- 
Chinese frontier to keep watch on the flow of the defeated 
troops of Chiang Kai-shek seeking refuge in Indo-China. 

Over-all disposition of the French army in 1949 was: 
150,000 troops in France; 60,000 in Germany and Austria; 
91,000 in north Africa; 69,000 in other colonies; and 
100,000 to 120,000 in [ndo-Chma. 

Training of the new French army was still restricted to 
exercises of divisional size and less as a result of overseas 
commitments. Recruits were called for one year, and most 
training concentrated on fundamentals. After the com- 
pletion of 1 year's service, 16 years had to be served in the 
first reserve, followed by 8 years in the second reserve. 

Professional army schools, having been re-organized and 
re-staffed to eliminate all traces of the army of 1940, began 
turning out regular officers and non-commissioned officers 
of high calibre. The cole de Sous-Officiers at Strasbourg 
had an enrolment of 2,500 students, while the Military 
academy at Coetquidan had an enrolment of 1,200 future 
officers. Requirements for successful completion of both 
courses were rigorous and there was careful screening of all 
candidates. From Coetquidan the successor to Saint-Cyr 
officers advanced to specialized training for their particular 
branch of the service at the cjles d'Application. 

Under Rene Pleven, minister of national defence, General 
Georges Rever was replaced as chief of staff by Major 
General Clement Blanc. Blanc was formerly chief of staff to 
General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (q.v.) at Fontainebleau 
in the high command of the Western Union. 

China. During 1949 the Nationalist forces were virtually 
destroyed by the Communists. Perhaps the outstanding 
factor in the Communist victory was not so much the ability 
of their own forces, but the complete disorganization of 
Nationalist armies. Defection and disorder contributed 
heavily to Chiang's defeat. The so-called people's army 
was in possession of the bulk of the U.S. equipment given to 
China under lend-lease and sold after the war as surplus. 
To this should be added all of the Japanese arms left in 



China in 1945 and a certain amount of Soviet equipment 
picked up in Manchuria. The most important question 
concerning the Chinese armed forces was whether Mao 
could hold together the army of more than 2 million men 
that had been assembled. Organized into a disciplined 
army, Mao's force could become the most powerful military 
instrument to emerge in Asia in modern time, with a potential 
strength exceeding 5 million. 

Europe. Albania. Soviet officers were attempting in 
Albania to develop a force capable, at least, of guerrilla 
activity. Alarmed by defection of Yugoslavia from the 
Soviet orbit, the Soviet army appeared to be developing 
Albania as a shuttle base for a two-pronged attack on Tito, 
if necessary. 

Czechoslovakia. Although the information could not be 
confirmed, there was some indication that the progress of 
sovietization of the Czech army was well advanced. Soviet 
General Chitmov was reported to be taking over the com- 
mand of the Czech army. 

Denmark. The Danish defence budget for 1949 was 10% 
larger than that of 1948. After discussion between the 
Danish high command and Great Britain, the decision was 
reached to leave the Danish brigade in Germany for another 
two years. August manoeuvres were held by the Jutland 
division. 

Finland. Manoeuvres were held near Sappola with 
approximately 14,500 men participating, the largest held since 
World War 11. Finnish army strength was being maintained 
by conscription for a nine-month period. 

Greece. The heavy fighting ended in Greece in autumn 
1949 The Communist rebels announced their with- 
drawal and survivors of the guerrilla army were reported in 
Bulgaria and Albania. Fewer than 2,500 rebels were believed 
left in Greece, with no bands larger than 200. The Greek 
army announced its intention of keeping units in the Grammos 
and Vitsi mountains throughout the winter of 1949-50 to 
prevent any new infiltration. At the end of the fighting 
there were 210,000 men in the army besides 50,000 gendarmes. 
Of these 68,000 were to be demobilized, although a new class 
of 18,000 conscripts would be called up. 

Hungary. There were definite indications that the new 
Hungarian army Soviet model was nearing treaty strength 
of 70,000 men in 1949. Intensive military activity throughout 
the country characterized 1949. This included, in addition 
to the rebuilding of the army, the enlargement and expansion 
of certain key military airfields and the building of guided 
missile sites. 

Italy. The strength of Italian forces was approximately 
170,000 in 1949 organized into five divisions with three 
infantry regiments each and three divisions with two regi- 
ments each, one Alpine brigade and one armoured brigade. 
Plans called for bringing up the over-all strength of the 
Italian army from 8 to 12 divisions. The Giulia Alpine 
brigade of 5,000 men organized around one infantry regiment 
would be reinforced by two more Alpine brigades of com- 
parable organization. Two new armoured brigades would be 
formed, modelled on the existing Ariete brigade. Both spring 
and autumn manoeuvres were held in 1949, the former 
involving the use of armour. 

Netherlands. Out of a military budget of approximately 
50 million in 1949, the Netherlands allocated 9-5 million 
for its contribution to the Western Union. Repatriation 
of the troops from the Netherlands Indies relieved certain 
of the problems in meeting Western Union commitments. 
During the early part of 1949 the only troops in the Nether- 
lands were two battalions of combat troops as well as about 
25,000 men in training. However, by the end of 1949 the bulk 
of the " Seventh of December " division was repatriated, 
and the 2nd division and Guards units were en route. The 



ARMIES OF THE WORLD 



65 



bulk of the 85,000 troops in Indonesia were expected to be 
returned to the Netherlands or to be demobilized during 
1950. 

Norway. Regular army strength totalled 30,000 men in 
1949, but a Home guard of 95,000 was being trained to 
support the regular force. Norwegian units held training 
manoeuvres in conjunction with Swedish army units. 

Poland. Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky became minister 
of national defence of Poland. Together with the granting of 
dual citizenship on a large scale to high ranking Soviet 
officers, so that they could serve in the Polish army, this 
assured the virtual integration of this force with that of the 
Soviet army. A majority of the high-ranking officers were 
Soviet. AH equipment, tactical and strategic direction of the 
Polish army thereafter came from the U.S.S.R. The combat 
strength of the army in 1949 consisted of 16 divisions. (See 
POLAND). 

Rumania. Poorly trained and indifferently equipped with 
cast-off Soviet equipment, the Rumanian army had approxi- 
mately five effective combat divisions. 

Sweden. Maintaining its forces at a high state of efficiency, 
Sweden organized a number of armoured brigades. 

Yugoslavia. The budget for defence for the year totalled 
16% of the national expenditures. This represented an 
increase of 12% over the previous year. The Yugoslav army 
was the strongest force in the Balkans, with 30 infantry 
and 2 armoured divisions. In addition 4 security divisions 
were used as border patrols, although armed only with light 
weapons. Training in Yugoslavia required 2 years compulsory 
military service. The largest manoeuvres since World War II 
were held in September, indicating to Moscow that Yugo- 
slavia was not yielding to any further threat of force. 

Commonwealth. Australia. The regular Australian army 
was composed of 16,000, with a reserve strength of approxi- 
mately the same, and a cadet corps of 24,000. There was 
legislation to increase the regular army by 3,000 and the 
number of reserves by 26,000. Another bill was introduced 
to make the Australian regular army a permanent part of 
the defences. Officers were exchanged with other Common- 
wealth countries, and several were sent to Great Britain to 
study the latest developments in land-air warfare. 

Canada. An intensification in the training of reserves 
was put into effect in 1 949. Closer integration of the Canadian 
and U.S. armies was achieved with the use of the same com- 
munications systems, tactics and command channels. There 
was continued interchange of officers, and standardization 
of weapons was effected as far as possible. 

India. The Indian army concentrated its efforts on 
the development of a sound system of military education 
and the creation of an adequate body of reserves. Construc- 
tion began on the National War academy at Khadakvasla, 
near Poona. On completion in 1953, the Armed Forces 
academy at Dehra Dun would be transferred to the new 
location, where officers for all three services, army, navy 
and air, would be trained. The new National War 
academy, which was modelled on Sandhurst in England 
and the U.S. Military academy at West Point, would 
admit 500 cadets every year to take the four-year 
course. An intensive drive was conducted to recruit about 
75,000 students for the National Cadet corps. At the end of 
the year slightly under 60,000 had enrolled. In addition a 
Territorial army of 130,000 was being organized to act as 
reserve for the regular Indian army. The Territorial army 
was to be similar in all respects to the regular force, 
except that its units would not be required to serve outside 
India in peacetime. 

New Zealand. Conscription was adopted by referendum 
vote. Training would start at the age of 18, and approxi- 
mately 2,800 men would be called up each year. In addition 

B.B.Y. 6 




Lieutenant General D. Dejpradiyudh, chief of the Thailand general 
staff during a visit to the School of Infantry, Wartninster, Nov. 1949. 

Territorial forces were being organized, including about 
2,000 volunteer and non-commissioned officers. 

Pakistan. With tension continuing between Pakistan and 
India, no cuts were made in the strength of the Pakistan 
army. The Quetta Staff college was expanded to handle the 
additional functions of the army. 

Far East. Burma. British officers assisted the Burmese 
in the establishment of their own armed forces. The problem 
was complicated by a revolt of the Karens and sporadic 
insurrection throughout the country. 

Indonesia. With the withdrawal of the Netherlands forces 
from Indonesia, a major problem in maintaining order 
remained for the Indonesian Republican army. This army, 
which was largely Japanese trained and armed, could 
mobilize 420,000 men; but it was disorganized and politically 
divided. General Sudirman had the problem of organizing 
a fighting force out of at least 20 different principal righting 
units ranging in political belief from the extreme left to the 
fanatic Moslem right. 

Korea. There was an outbreak of fighting in 1949 as the 
North Korean forces probed southward to test the strength 
of the southern forces. The 65,000 well equipped and trained 
men of the South Korean army were apparently too much 
for the Soviet-controlled forces of the north, which broke 
off action after a short time. 

Philippines. With equipment promised by the U.S., the 
Philippines planned to increase the strength of the constabu- 
lary from 12,000 to 20,000, and the army from 17,000 to 
25,000. The U.S. military mission continued to recommend 
the consolidation of the constabulary units with those of 
the army. 

Thailand. Active steps were taken to organize the equivalent 
of five full-strength divisions. Strength in 1949 amounted to 
40,000 police and 30,000 army troops. Five fully armed 
battalions guarded the Malayan border. Compulsory service 
of two years was required, and reserves were called up for 
three months' intensive training in anti-guerrilla tactics. 

Middle East. An uneasy truce prevailed in the middle east. 
On the one hand, there were continuous but unsuccessful 
efforts on the part of the Arab league nations to agree on a 
plan for common defence. Political differences, the principal 



66 



ART EXHIBITIONS 



factor in the Arab defeat of 1948, continued to keep the 
Arabs weak. On the other hand, Israel passed a compulsory 
service law and began the establishment of a regular army 
in which all men weie required to serve. Provision was made 
for service in the reserves. (See also MUNITIONS OF WAR.) 

(E. L. S.) 

ART EXHIBITIONS. Cultural agreements were con- 
cluded between a number of nations during 1949; and as 
restrictions were dropped the interchange of exhibitions 
became progressively easier than at any time after 1939. 
The year 1949 was, indeed, referred to as London's anmis 
tnirabilis^ on account of the great accumulation of master- 
pieces assembled there throughout the summer and autumn 
After their long continental tour the art treasures from 
Vienna arrived at the Tate gallery in May paintings, 
tapestries, armour (of which an additional exhibition was 
held at the Tower of London), jewellery, gold and silver ware, 
ivories, cameos and crystals combined to form a sumptuous 
and dazzling display. They were narrowly preceded by 121 
paintings from the Alte Pinakothek in Munich, which were 
simultaneously on view at the National gallery. Disappoint- 
ment was felt at certain lacuna in these exhibitions in 
particular, perhaps, at the absence of most of the great 
paintings by Pieter Brueghel the elder for which Vienna is 
famed but remarkable concentrations of work by certain 
masters resulted. Together with those m the National 
gallery's own collection, there were, for example, more than 
50 important Rubens on view in London. Velasquez was 
seen to advantage in both exhibitions; Titian and Tintoretto 
more especially at the Tate. Attendances at these two rich 
displays together totalled well over 500,000. 

In the autumn a depleted version of the collection of work 
by Gerard David and his followers, which had been seen 
earlier in the year at Bruges, was shown by the Arts Council 
at Messrs. Wildenstem's gallery. In December the winter 
exhibition at Burlington house devoted to " Landscape in 
French Art " was opened, composed mainly of oils but 
including also drawings, engravings and tapestries. The 
exhibits, ranging in date from the 15th to the 19th century, 
were drawn in about equal proportions from France and Great 
Britain and included many little-known works from private 
and provincial collections. From Germany came Watteau's 
44 Embarkation for Cythera." The exhibition was chiefly 
notable, however, for the display of landscapes by Claude 
and Nicholas Poussin, the finest perhaps that has ever been 
assembled. 

At its own headquarters gallery the Arts Council showed 
a fifth collection of work from overseas an exhibition of 
German graphic art of the last 50 years, which was initiated 
by the Institute of Contemporary Arts. This gave London 
its most comprehensive view of German expressionism since 
before 1939. All these importations served to draw attention 
once again to the postwar pressure on exhibiting space in 
London, and the decision to re-open the New Burlington 
galleries under the direction of the Arts Council as a centre 
for temporary exhibitions was greeted in November with 
satisfaction. 

The year saw no major changes in any of the national 
collections. At the British museum the Elgin Marbles were 
returned from their wartime fastnesses and the museum 
received Campbell Dodgson's gift of more than 5,000 prints 
and drawings. Three important works a Titian, a possible 
Giorgione and Leonardo da Vinci's " Virgin of the Rocks " - 
were newly cleaned at the National gallery. The Tate gallery 
showed an exhibition of work by Richard Wilson (organized 
the previous year in Birmingham) and a memorial exhibition 
of paintings by James Pryde (seen earlier in Scotland). The 
unevenness of the latter it was only the third large showing 



of his work ever to be arranged suggested that Pryde's 
most lasting claim to fame was his collaboration with 
William Nicholson at the end of the last century as one of 
the poster-designing 4 * Beggarstaflf Brothers." The Victoria 
and Albert museum organized two admirable exhibitions of 
applied art. The first consisted of half a century of 
London Transport posters those daring and stimu- 
lating designs which would always be associated with 
the name of Frank Pick. The second comprised the first 
international exhibition of the art of the book jacket, with 
examples culled from 19 countries. Reference may perhaps 
here be made to another exhibition of drawings for 
reproduction, that of historical and contemporary humorous 
art organized by the Royal Society of Arts. 

In February Walter Hutchinson opened his so-called 
National Gallery of British Sports and Pastimes at the fine 
18th century mansion in London that used to be known as 
Derby house. The collection, which was extensive, was seen 
to contain many works of curious interest and not a few 
more particularly the examples of George Stubbs's work 
and Constable's " Stratford Mill "of real artistic worth. 

The Sunday Pictorial's second annual show of children's 
drawings and paintings, at the Royal Institute galleries, was 
selected in 1949 from nearly 47,000 entries submitted from 
all parts of the country. The Society for Education in Art 
held in 1949 its third 4k Pictures for Schools" exhibition, 
at the Whitechapel Art gallery Here too, very fittingly, 
was seen the memorial exhibition of work by Mark Gertler 
in the spring. Often derivative and certainly uneven, Gertler's 
talent was felt by some to have been too lightly dismissed 
in the past. 

Early in 1949 the ancient dispute between the Tate gallery 
and the Royal Academy over the purchasing machinery of the 
Chantrey bequest was brought into the open once again 
when the entire Chantiey collection to date was exhibited 
at Burlington house. This was a fascinating tcminder of the 
tastes of an era when British painting was at a low ebb and 
was visited, probably in a nostalgic frame of mind, by nearly 
100,000 people It did, however, add weight to the con- 
tention that too great bias had been shown towards the 
academic purchase; and later it was announced that the 
Tate gallery (which received the purchases) had been given 
equal representation on the selection committee with the 
Royal Academy (which made the purchases). In the autumn 
Burlington house showed Leslie Wright's ambitious collection 
of 18th and 19th century watercolours, a project which gave 
considerable pleasure. 

Between these two exhibitions the Royal Academy held 
its usual summer show. This was remarkable, apart from 
the presidential broadcast from the pre-cxhibition dinner, 
chiefly for the inclusion of a gallery devoted to more " mod- 
ern " work in which John Minton's large decorative landscape 
held a dominating position. The academic idiom was seen 
at its most incisive in the works of Pietro Annigoni, two 
portraits by whom later attracted attention at the Royal 
Society of Portrait Painters. By far the most enterprising of 
the other exhibiting societies was the Royal Society of British 
Artists, which gave hospitality to a lively show by London 
art students, to recent work by Giorgio dc Chinco and, in 
the winter, to the most exciting collection of contemporary 
sculpture since Battersea Park in 1948. 

In the provinces some collections, like the Ashmolean at 
Oxford, completed schemes of postwar re-arrangement. 
In Glasgow, a selection from the rich Burrell collection, which 
was presented to the city in 1944, was seen publicly for the 
first time. Municipal galleries showed varying degrees of 
initiative, some contenting themselves with accepting Arts 
Council travelling exhibitions (which included, during 1949, 
shows devoted to Joshua Reynolds, Indian miniatures, 



ART EXHIBITIONS 




" Nymph and Shepherd " by Titian, from the exhibition of art treasures from Vienna which was held at the Tate Gallery, London, 

during 1949. 

women artists from the Netherlands, pictures from the logical society including some entirely realistic and hitherto 

Wellington gift, Sickert, Gainsborough, Gordon Craig and unknown heads from Ife, Nigeria. 

old master drawings from Chatsworth; York, on the other British masters were seen overseas in Lisbon, Madrid, 

hand, organized a centenary exhibition of William Etty Hamburg and Oslo; contemporary painting in Paris, 

and Wakefield, the town nearest to his birthplace, sponsored Germany, Holland, Luxembourg, the U.S.A. and throughout 

an impressive retrospective exhibition of work by Henry Australia; work by Paul Nash toured Canada; drawings 

Moore which later, with some additions, toured Europe and prints went to Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Austria, 



under the auspices of the British Council. 



France, Germany, Indonesia; sculpture was included in the 



Among the more memorable offerings of the commercial international open-air exhibition at Sonsbeek in Holland, 

galleries in London were exhibitions by Michael Ay rton, Francis and the important Henry Moore exhibition already referred 

Bacon, Edward Bawden, Edward Burra, Prunella Clough, to was seen in Brussels and Paris, where it aroused the 

Robert Colquhoun, John Craxton, Ivon Hitchens, Frances greatest interest. 

Hodgkins, Wy ndham Lewis, Robert MacBryde, John Minton, From the many displays in Europe arranged during 1949 

Victor Pasmore and F. E. McWilliam. Perhaps the mention may be made of the 200 paintings of " Rembrandt 

most noticeable thing about the dealers' galleries, however, and his time," at Schaff hausen ; of the opening to the public 

was the range of foreign work shown as a result of the easing of the Thyssen collection at Lugano; of the belated centenary 

of import restrictions. Apart from those already mentioned, exhibition of Paul Gauguin in Paris; and the assembly in 

Eugene Berman, Massimo Campigli, Edouard Goerg, Hans Venice of over 100 painting and drawings by Giovanni 

Hartung, Charles Howard, Jean Lurcat, Pablo Picasso and Bellini from all over western Europe and America. As an 

Pavel Tchelitchew were among those seen. Many other augury for the future, note should perhaps be taken of the 

younger French painters were shown, and pictures by first travelling exhibition of fine reproductions organized 

German, Turkish, and Indian artists. There was a display of and circulated by U.N.E.S.C.O. (M. H. MM.) 

Polish folk art, and at least three exhibitions of the traditional United States. The State University of Iowa, Iowa city, 

art of British colonies were arranged in connection with devoted its fifth annual summer show entirely to sculpture. 

" Colonial Month," that organized by the Royal Anthropo- Sculpture also had a prominent showing during the summer 



68 



ARTHRITIS 



at the Third Fairmount Park Sculpture International in the 
rotunda and in the garden court of the Philadelphia museum. 
The object of the exhibition was to be a basis of selection for 
sculptors to create the remaining historical groups of the 
Ellen Phillips Samuel memorial in Fairmount park. Foreign 
artists represented numbered 32, compared with 216 from 
the United States. The Philadelphia museum also exhibited 
the Henry P. Mcllhenny collection, containing the finest 
pictures of the 19th century and contemporary period. 
Among these were Jacques Louis David's " Pius VII and 
Cardinal Caprara"; Ingres' "Countess of Tournon"; Renoir's 
"Mile. Legrande"; Cezanne's " Mme. Cezanne"; and 
Picasso's " Pitcher and Bowl of Fruit." 

The Museum of Modern Art in New York had a full- 
scale retrospective one-man show of Georges Braque (in 
collaboration with the Cleveland museum) covering work 
from 1904 to 1947. It also held a survey of 20th century 
Italian art. Beginning with early experiments in sustained 
motion by the Futurists, Boccioni and Balla, the exhibition 
then showed an impressive group of early works by De 
Chirico and came down to the present with emphasis on the 
sculpture of Manni and various abstract painters. San 
Francisco's California Palace of the Legion of Honour 
celebrated its 25th anniversary with an exhibition of 32 
paintings and 24 drawings of the French 18th century lent 
by the Louvre and several French provincial museums 
Seven Watteau's, including " Le Faux Pas " lent by the 
Louvre, and Chardin's famous ** Le Jeune Homme au 
Violon," also from the Louvre, were exhibited. 

The Italian government made two good-will gestures of 
gratitude in return for the help given by the United States 
in the restoration of Italian monuments. Michelangelo's 
4< David " (from the Bargello in Florence) was lent to the 
National gallery and Donatello's San Lodovico (1423), 
which had been cleaned to reveal the full splendour of the 
original gilt bronze, was sent from the church of Sante Croce 
in Florence to the Metropolitan museum, the Art Institute 
of Chicago and a few other American museums. 

American art of the earlier periods was prominent in the 
year's exhibition calendar. Washington's Corcoran gallery 
under the title " De Gustibus " showed 100 years of American 
taste from Thomas Cole to the present. In the meantime 
the Wadsworth atheneum in Hartford, Connecticut, in 
collaboration with the Whitney Museum of American Art, 
New York, arranged a large exhibition of the woik of 
Thomas Cole (1801-48) 

The Art Institute of Chicago put on a comprehensive 
showing of American paintings, silver and blown-up architec- 
tural photographs under the title " From Colony to Nation " 
covering the period 1650-1815. 

Leonardo da Vinci and his contemporaries were shown in 
an exhibition at the Los Angeles County museum A feature 
was the " Madonna of the Pomegranate," thought to be 
his earliest painting, and nine of his drawings. Of great 
interest were the reconstructions of several of Leonardo's 
designs for mechanical contrivances, including a flying 
machine. 

The Louise and Walter Arensberg collection of 20th- 
century art was permitted to leave their home in Hollywood, 
California, for the first time and was featured at the Art 
Institute of Chicago. More than 200 paintings, water colours 
and pieces of sculpture made up the group which marked 
the foundation of the art of this century. Sculpture by 
Brancusi, early paintings by Braque, Picasso and Marcel 
Duchamp (including all four versions of the ** Nude Des- 
cending a Staircase") and works by Joan Miro, Paul Klee 
and Salvador Dali were notable in the collection. 

The Metropolitan museum opened the autumn season with 
a great exhibition of the work of Vincent Van Gogh (organized 



in co-operation with the Art Institute of Chicago), consisting 
of 97 oils and 67 drawings lent for the most part from two 
Dutch sources, the K roller- Muller museum in Otterlo, 
Netherlands, and the collection of the artist's nephew and 
namesake, Vincent Van Gogh. The value of the collection 
was reputed to be $3 million. 

Art treasures from the Vienna collections was another 
great European exhibition which crossed the Atlantic; it 
opened at the National gallery in Washington, D.C., in 
November. (See also ART SALFS; ARTS COUNCIL; DRAW- 
ING AND ENGRAVING; PAINTING; SCULPTURE.) (F. A. Sw.) 

ARTHRITIS. During 1949 all advances in the field of 
rheumatic diseases were overshadowed by the contributions 
of P. S. Hench, E. C. Kendall, C. H. Slocumb and H. F. 
Policy who demonstrated the effects on rheumatoid arthritis 
of 17-hydroxy-l 1-dehydrocorticosterone (Kendall's Com- 
pound E, later renamed " Cortisone "). 

While investigating the mechanism whereby remissions of 
rheumatoid arthritis occur during pregnancy and certain 
diseases complicated by jaundice, Hench and his co-workers 
found it probable that the factor responsible for the relief of 
arthritis might be a hormone liberated by one of the endocrine 
glands other than the sex glands. Trials of various hormones 
available prior to 1948 had failed, Kendall had isolated 
various fractions of the secretion of the adrenal cortex, one 
of which was called Compound E. The quantity of isolated 
material was inadequate to allow studies of the effect of this 
adrenal cortical fraction on arthritis For many years, 
Kendall and his associates and biochemists in other labora- 
tories had been collaborating to synthesize this compound. 
Finally in 1948 enought of this material was produced 
(starting from one of the acids in ox bile) to allow a study of 
its effects on patients to be made. During the winter of 
1948-49 at the Mayo clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, the 
effects of Compound E were carefully observed in several 
patients with rheumatoid arthritis. All the patients made 
remarkable improvements. Stiffness quickly lessened, move- 
ment of the joints increased, pain, swelling and ienderness 
of the inflamed joints were reduced or disappeared in a 
period of only a few weeks, and there was a gratifying 
improvement in the general health of the patient. Report of 
these investigations was made in the spring of 1949. Through- 
out the remainder of the year Compound E was made 
available to other investigators, all of whom confirmed the 
reports of Hench and his collaborators. 

Cortisone was given by injection daily to accomplish 
remission or near-remission of the disease. When it was 
discontinued, after a short period of administration, the 
arthritis usually relapsed, although some patients maintained 
a portion of the improvement. In some persons receiving 
the drug for longer periods, various undesirable side effects 
were noted all of which disappeared after administration 
of the hormone were discontinued. 

A fraction of the hormone complex produced by the 
pituitary gland stimulated the adrenal glands to liberate an 
increased amount of cortical hormones including Cortisone. 
This pituitary secretion, known as " adrcnocorticotropic 
hormone " (ACTH) was isolated in a potent and purified 
form suitable for injection into humans, and when 
administered to patients with rheumatoid arthritis effects 
were observed similar to those resulting from Cortisone. 

The effects of Cortisone and ACTH were studied in other 
rheumatic disorders and connective tissue diseases. Some 
improvement was observed in rheumatic fever, gout, diffuse 
lupus erythematosus, neurodermatomyositis and other col- 
lagen diseases. 

The extreme difficulty of isolating ACTH and the tedious 
and difficult task of synthesizing Cortisone and the limited 



ART SALES 



69 



supply of ox-bile acid severely restricted the production of 
these hormones. Consequently these substances were 
important in 1949, chiefly as research tools in the study of 
rheumatic diseases. The whole problem of connective tissue 
and rheumatic diseases took on a new aspect. The mystery 
surrounding rheumatism could now be clarified so that an 
amelioration of these painful diseases might be effected. 
Much research however lay ahead: research to improve the 
methods of manufacture so that larger supplies of these 
hormones could be produced at a lower cost; the definition 
of the scope and limitations of effects of the hormones in 
different diseases; methods of administration to produce 
the greatest benefit and the minimum, or the absence, of 
undesired effects; the elucidation of the mechanism of 
effect of these hormones which in time should reveal the 
nature and possibly the cause of the diseases; the study of 
the effects of steroids chemically similar to Cortisone; 'and 
the influence of all effective steroids on the entire endocrine 
glandular system and metabolic functions. (See also 
CHEMISTRY.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY P. S Hench, E C Kendall, C H Slocumb and 
H F. Policy, The Effect of a Hormone of the Adrenal Cortex (17- 
HydroKy-11-DehydroLOttnosterone Compound h) and of Pituitary 
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone on Rheumatoid Arthritic Preliminary 
Report, Proc. Staff Meet, Mayo Clinic, 24.181-197, April 13, 1949; 
G W. Thorn, T. B. Bayles. B F Massell, P. H Forsham, S R. Hill, Jr , 
S. Smith 111 and J E Warren, " Medical Progress- Studies on the 
Relation of Pituitary-Adrenal Function to Rheumatic Disease," New 
England Journal of Medicine, Oct 6, 1949. (R. H. FRO.) 

ART SALES. Prices tended to remain high during 
1949 as a counterbalance to currency fluctuations and in 
Great Britain a proposed Rembrandt exhibition was unable 
to be held because devaluation of sterling made the insurance 
costs prohibitive. 

There were two moments of high drama during the year. 
The first occurred at Sotheby's on Feb. 16 when a Rubens 
** Suicide of Dido " came up for sale. Its owner offered it to 
Reading Art Gallery but the authorities refused the gift 
and it was afterwards auctioned at Henley-on-Thamcs, 
Oxfordshire, for 50s. At Sotheby's it was bought for 3,200. 
The second happened at Christies' in June when the Graham 
Robertson collection of Works by William Blake came up 
for sale. Graham Robertson had bought the famous " Ghost 
of a Flea,'* now in the Tate gallery, for 12 and had also 
acquired the collection of Thomas Butts, one of Blake's 
patrons. He had made many gifts to public galleries and it 
was expected that he would have made certain bequests in 
his will. This did not, however, seem to be the case, and the 
items were auctioned in the usual way. The National Gallery 
of Scotland bid 7,400 guineas for i4 Job Confessing His 
Presumption "; the Tate gallery 8,600 guineas for three line 
examples of William Blake; and the British museum 6,000 
guineas for " Jacob's Ladder " and tk The Sacrifice of 
Jephthah's Daughters." The Fitzwilliam museum became the 
owner of " The Ascension " for 7,000 guineas. The sale 
realized 61,600. At its conclusion it was announced that, 
according to the terms of the will, works acquired by public 
galleries would be presented to them through the National 
Art Collections' fund, representing a bequest of 41,181. 

Public art galleries were fortunate in 1949. The Fitzwilliam 
acquired Constable's " Hampstead Heath " (from the Eck- 
stein collection) for 13,000; the Barber institute at Birming- 
ham bought The Butleigh Salt (17th century, silver gilt) 
for 4,400 and a sheet of Rembrandt drawings in pen and 
bistre for 4,410. At the same sale a Rowlandson drawing, 
" The Accusation," went for 25 55. On the other hand, 
at Sotheby's in July, a Constable of " The Marine Pier at 
Brighton " was withdrawn at 13,500. The most interesting 
of several acquisitions made by W. V. Hutchinson for the 
National Gallery of British Sports and Pastimes was a 



series of eight Henry Alkens of " The Grand Leicestershire 
Steeplechase, 1829," for which he paid 1,995. 

The most impressive series of sales, which had begun in 
1948, was of vanous works of art acquired by the late Sir 
Bernard Pckstem Apart from the Constable, which went to 
the Fitzwilliam, the most noteworthy examples of painting 
from the collection were Morland's ** Children Birdnesting " 
and ** Juvenile Navigators," for which W. V. Hutchinson 
gave 110,200 and a Fantin Latour flower-piece which sold 
for 4,200, as against 819 in 1933. The only notable deprecia- 
tion was a Gainsborough, " Woodland Scene," which went 
for 1,800 a-; against 3,150 in 1937. 

Amongst other sections of the Eckstein collection 1,050 
was given for a Persian manuscript of the longest poem in 
the world (120,000 lines): " The Book of Kings "; an caster 
egg in rock crystal made by Faberge and set with rose dia- 
monds brought l,700; a panel of Beauvais tapestry, after 
a Boucher design, sold for 2,400 and a Tompion travelling 
clock (9^ in. high) in its original case sold for 2,300. 

Contemporary artists commanded a fair market throughout 
the year. A Raoul Dufy " View of Langres " sold at 350; 
and 680 was given for two Richard Sickert views of Dieppe 
and 370 for two Augustus John portraits of his sons, 
Edwin and Caspar. A painting by Winston Churchill 
realized 1,312 10s. at Christies' in aid of the Y.W.C.A. 

Provincial sales were vigorous, although their contents 
were not up to the standard of the London sale-rooms. 
One interesting event was the sale in July of a work by Rubens 
and Snyders for 2,900 at Kimbolton castle. (B. DR.) 

Sotheby sold the H. A. C. Gregory collection of Constable 
paintings and drawings at 28,467, top item of which was 
an oil, the ** Marine Parade" at 13,500. This was shown 
in the Masterpieces of English Painting at the Art Institute 
of Chicago in 1946. 

Christie's held several important sales during the season 
including 139 lots of antique gold and silver sold for the 
earl of Strathmore at a total of 15,704. The rarest item was 
a Charles H gold porringer (1675) which sold for 4,200. 
Christie's auctioned the collection of Mrs. Arthur James in 
which a notable Guardi, " Entrance into the Grand Canal," 
went for 10,290. 

United States. Kende galleries announced a 1948-49 
season totalling more than $1 million, their largest single 
sale having been to the Cortlandt F. F. Bishop library 
which brought $325,900; an Aesop in maioli binding went 
for $24,000; a Paris Tasso (1771) with 68 original Gravelot 
drawings went for $23,500; and a Mohere (1734) for $20,250. 

In the Oscar Bondy sale Dosso Dossi's " The Combat 
between Roland and Rodomonte " went at $12,000 and 
Giovanni di Paolo's " Adoration of the Magi " for $11,000. 

Parke-Bernet galleries of New York city, the leading art 
auction house of the country, reported that their season 
amounted to $5,618,628-50, which was a $400,000 increase 
over the previous year. The highest price paid for a single 
item was $54,000 for Lincoln's " Gettysburg Address " 
and the largest individual sale was comprised mostly of 
early Christian and Byzantine art from the estate of Joseph 
Brummcr and totalled $739,510. The top item in this sale 
was a pair of Burgundian Gothic tapestries at $42,000. 
A Saxon 12th-century champleve plaque brought $11,000. 

Leading prices at sales of paintings were $25,000 for 
Degas' " L'Ecole de Ballet "; $12,000 for Winslow Homer's 
water colour "The Voice from the Cliffs"; $10,500 for 
Renoir's " Young Bather "; $7,000 for Frederic Remington's 
" Among the Led Horses "; and $6,500 for Grant Wood's 
" Birthplace of Herbert Hoover." 

The sale of the Joseph H. Seaman prints brought $90,067. 
Of these, Rembrandt's " Christ Healing the Sick," went for 
$7,500, "The Young Haaring " for $3,200, " Ephraim 



70 



COUNCIL- ASTRONOMY 



Bonus " for $3,000, and " Clement de Jonghe " for $2,600. 
Many books came up at auction including a first edition 
of Dante's Divine Comedy at $9,000 and a Caxton edition 
(1478) of Chaucer's Canterbury Talcs at $4,000 (Sec also 
ART EXHIBITIONS.) (F A. Sw.) 

ARTS COUNCIL. For the Arts Council the year 
1949 was one of consolidation rather than expansion. The 
council's grant-m-aid from the exchequer for the financial 
year 1949-50 was the same as in 1948-49, viz., 575,000 
Assistance was again given on much the same scale as in 
previous years to theatre, opera and ballet companies, to 
orchestras and to arts clubs, arts centres and chamber music 
clubs throughout Great Butain The largest grant was to 
the Covent Garden Opera trust, for building up a national 
opera and ballet at Covent Garden on a scale and of a stan- 
dard worthy of the country's achievements in other fields. 
The smallest grants were those to individual arts clubs for 
purchase of equipment or as guarantees against loss on 
concerts and other events. 

Apart from the continuation and consolidation of the 
programme already laid down, the Arts Council was con- 
cerned in 1949 with encouraging two special developments. 
The first of these was the new interest in artistic enterprise 
made possible for municipalities under the Local Govern- 
ment act, 1948. The council was naturally anxious to co- 
operate with local authorities in the development of plans 
to implement these powers and the local authorities, on their 
side, presented many new and varied schemes for the 
council's consideration, assistance and advice. Fxamples of 
the kind of co-operation made possible with the joint 
assistance of the municipality and the Arts Council were the 
arts centres established at Dudley in Worcestershire and 
Leek in Derbyshire; the Civic theatre founded at Chester- 
field; the Playhouse at Nottingham; and the theatre company 
installed at the Grand theatre, Swansea. In all these instances 
the council sought to show how an independent venture, 
receiving the support of the citizens, might be encouraged by 
the assistance of public funds, both from the rates through 
the local authority and from the exchequer through the 
Arts Council. The second particular interest of the Arts 
Council in 1949 was in preparations for the Festival of 
Britain, 1951. When the festival was first announced in the 
House of Commons in Dec. 1947, the council was charged 
by the chancellor of the exchequer with the responsibility 
of organizing the Festival of the Arts as part of the national 
celebrations. The year saw the successful progress of a number 
of local festivals in which the council collaborated with 
local authorities, the supreme example of this being the 
International Festival of Music and Drama at Edinburgh. 

It was the continuing policy of the Arts Council to assist 
independent ventures with grants, loans and guarantees 
against loss, rather than itself to organize and present enter- 
tainment. The council did, however, sponsor certain directly 
provided concerts and theatrical tours, and it was also the 
agency for several art exhibitions in London and the 
provinces. The loan of the pictures from the Alte Pinakothek 
at Munich and of the art treasures from Vienna, arranged 
by the council, made the summer of 1949 a period of special 
interest to Londoners. On Nov. 9 the council re-opened the 
newly decorated and lighted New Burlington galleries in 
London with an exhibition of modern British art. (See also 
ART EXHIBITIONS.) (M. C. G.) 

ARUBA: see NETHERLANDS OVERSEAS TERRITORIES. 
ASCENSION ISLAND: see SAINT HELENA. 

ASSASSINATIONS. Assassinations, actual or attemp- 
ted, during 1949 included the following: 



Feb. 4. Tehran, Persia. The Shah was shot at and slightly 
wounded by a member of the Tudeh party, Fakhr Rai, 
who after the attempt was attacked by the crowd and died 
the following day. 

Feb. 12. Cairo, Egypt. Sheikh Hassan el-Banna, leader 
of the Moslem brotherhood, was shot and fatally wounded. 

April 28 Lu/on, Philippines. Mme. Manuel Quezon, 
widow of president Quezon who died on Aug 1, 1944, and 
nine persons with her were ambushed and killed by bandits 
while driving through hill countiy in Neuva Ejica. 

May 25. Detroit, United States. Victor Reuther, educa- 
tional director of the United Automobile Workers' union, 
was shot in the face and neck and severely wounded at his 
home. His brother Walter was similarly attacked on April 20, 
1948. 

June 26. Seoul, Korea. Kirn Koo, a politician and oppon- 
ent of President Syngman Rhee, was assassinated by an 
army lieutenant, An Du Hi, who was sentenced to death 
by a military court on Aug. 6 

July 6. Tokyo, Japan. Mr Shimoyama, president of the 
National Railway association, was found dead, believed to 
have been murdered, on the railway track near Tokyo 

July 18. Guatemala City, Guatemala. Colonel Francisco 
Arana, chief of the armed forces, was assassinated; and a 
revolt against the government was started but failed. 

Aug. 30. Nawnpalang, Burma. The Sawbwa of Nawng- 
palang state, Sao Tin Hla, was murdered by Karen icbels 
in front of his palace and Sao Tun Scin, Sawbwa of Pwchla, 
was wounded. 

Sept. 19. Hong Kong. Gencial Yang Chich, former 
Chinese ambassador to Moscow, was shot and killed by 
gunmen, believed to have been Kuommtang agents. 

Nov. 3. Quito, Ecuador An attempt was made on the 
life of President Gala Plaza Lasso when an explosion 
destroyed a bridge shortly after his car had passed over it. 

Nov. 4. Tehran, Persia. Abdol Hossein Hajir, prime 
minister from June to Nov. 1948, was shot and severely 
wounded by Hossein Imami. Hossein Hajir died on Nov. 5; 
his assailant was sentenced to death by a military court the 
same day and executed on Nov. 9. 

Nov. 6 Damascus, Syria. Lieutenant Colonel Walter 
Francis Stirling, Damascus correspondent of The Times, 
London, was shot at and severely wounded by three men 
dressed as tribesmen. 

Dec. 3. Sibu, Sarawak. Duncan George Stewart, governor 
and commander in chief of Sarawak, was stabbed by a 
young Malay during the governor's first visit to Sibu. 
He was seriously wounded and flown to Singapore for medical 
treatment. He died on Dec. 10, and was buried the following 
day in Singapore with full military honours. 

Dec. 10. Freetown, Sierra Leone. Sir John Lucie-Smith, 
chief justice of Sierra Leone, was shot at and wounded while 
asleep in his house at 3 a.m. 

ASSOCIATION FOOTBALL: see FOOTBALL, 

ASTRONOMY. Observatories. The year 1949 opened 
with an event of high significance for the progress of astro- 
nomy: the making of the first photographs with the 200 in. 
Hale telescope on Mount Palomar, California, U.S.A. 
From January to April about 60 exposures were made under 
the direction of Dr. Edwin B. Hubble, who stated that they 
confirmed the most optimistic predictions of the designers. 
Some plates recorded galaxies at an estimated distance of 
about a 1,000 million light-years. For these tests the figure 
of the great mirror had intentionally been left a shade too 
high near the edge; afterwards it was dismantled for final 
re-touching. The Hale telescope has for an essential com- 
panion-instrument the 48 in. Schmidt camera. Whereas the 



ASTRONOMY 



71 




The spiral nebula Messier 81, a stellar system in the Great Bear. This photograph was taken on Feb. 18, 1949, with the 200 in. Hale telescope 

of the Mount Wilson and Palomar observatories, California. 



Schmidt will reveal almost all objects " readily seen " 
with the 200 in. instrument it can show on a single plate 
a region of the sky some hundreds of times greater than the 
area covered by one plate taken with the latter. In July the 
Schmidt was put to work on the National Geographic Society 
Palomar Observatory Sky Atlas, which would take about 
four years to complete and would comprise about 2,000 
plates, covering about three-fourths of the entire sky, photo- 
graphed once in blue light and once in red. It would record 
some 10 million galaxies and some 500 million stars of our 
own Galaxy. Besides serving as an atlas proper, it would 
serve other important purposes. It would provide the most 
extensive survey yet made of the distribution of galaxies. 
Again, for instance, in future when a nova appears there 
will be a good chance of identifying the star concerned in 
the Atlas and thus seeing what sort it was before its outburst, 
a feature about which existing evidence is meagre. 

Perhaps the most important purpose of the Atlas, however, 
is to locate objects for detailed study with the 200 in. 
Thus, one of the most significant classes of object for cosmo- 
logical investigation is that of remote clusters of galaxies. 
The few that have been discovered by chance indicate that 
there must be a large number: the 48 in. Schmidt is 
incomparably the best existing intrument for finding them, 
as is the 200 in. for studying them when found. 

The Solar department was the first observing department 
of the Royal Greenwich observatory to start work at Hurst- 
monceux, Sussex, whither the whole observatory will be 
transferred during the next few years. The Nautical Almanac 
office and some other non-observing departments were in 
operation at Hurstmonceux by the end of the year. The 
trustees of the McGregor fund in Michigan presented a 
98 in. " Pyrex " glass disk for use in the Isaac Newton 
telescope. 



Interstellar matter. This has been one of the most fruitful 
fields of astronomical research in current years. The existence 
of interstellar matter, in addition to what is immediately 
evident in the form of bright and dark nebulae, has long 
been known. In the part of the Galaxy near the Sun, it is 
estimated to comprise about as much material as that of the 
stars themselves in the same region. Various processes of 
inference lead to the conclusion that it consists predominantly 
of hydrogen gas. For the rest, apart from an undetermined 
amount of helium, it contains under 1 % by mass of other 
elements in the gaseous state and about an equal mass of 
solid particles. There is no evidence of any considerable 
variation of composition from one part of space to another. 

Interstellar gas absorbs certain frequencies of the stellar 
radiation traversing it, thus producing " interstellar lines " 
in the stellar spectra. Observable interstellar lines are all 
due to certain of the " other elements " mentioned (conditions 
in interstellar space being such that the hydrogen and helium 
present cannot in general produce absorption lines in acces- 
sible frequencies) and, as recently identified by A. McKellar 
and A. E. Douglas, the molecular combinations CN and 
CH. In 1936, S. C. Beals discovered that interstellar lines 
are sometimes multiple in structure, indicating their pro- 
duction in such cases by several interstellar clouds with 
different sightline velocities. 

In 1949, W. S. Adams gave an account of work at Mount 
Wilson, nr. Pasadena, California, which forms the greatest 
single observational contribution yet made to the study of 
details of the distribution and motion of interstellar gas. 
The work is mainly a skilful exploitation of Beals's dis- 
covery, employing the utmost refinement of spectroscopic 
technique. Adams used about 300 selected stars in whose 
spectra the interstellar lines are not confused by lines proper 
to the stars themselves, and whose brightness and relative 



72 



ATHENS 



spacing renders them suitable to yield the desired information. 
Some conclusions indicated or confirmed by Adams were: 
(i) The molecules mentioned are prevalent in interstellar gas 
and have effectively the same spatial distribution as the more 
familiar atoms in the gas. (ii) The interstellar gas is largely 
concentrated into clouds whose thickness averages something 
of the order of 20 parsecs. The clouds themselves tend to 
concentrate towards the galactic plane in whose vicinity they 
are estimated to occupy about 15% of interstellar space, 
(iii) The clouds have individual random velocities averaging 
about 20 km. /sec., the larger clouds having in general the 
smaller speeds, (iv) Apart from certain particular systems, 
there is no special association between individual clouds and 
individual stars. 

Turning to the solid particles in interstellar matter, H. C. 
van de Hulst published from Utrecht, Holland, an extensive 
theoretical investigation. Various general considerations 
show the particles to be about 10~ 5 cm. in diameter. He 
studied the physical chemistry of the condensation of such 
particles in a gas under interstellar conditions and concluded 
that they have indeed originated by condensation. Therefore 
he favoured the term " smoke " for this constituent of inter- 
stellar matter, rather than " dust " which implies an origin 
in the disintegration of larger bodies. He concluded also that 
the smoke might be described as consisting of ** ice with 
impurities." He investigated the optical properties of the 
particles and showed that they provide a good explanation 
of interstellar extinction of stellar radiation as regards both 
total amount and dependence on wavelength. His value for 
the mean density of the smoke in the neighbourhood of the 
Sun is 1-4x10-26 g/cc. 

W. A. Hiltner announced the remarkable discovery that 
light from some distant stars is polarized (to the extent of 
about 10%). His observations showed that the effect is not 
associated with particular stars but must be introduced in the 
passage of the radiation through interstellar space. Scattering 
by the smoke particles is the only known agency that might 
operate in this way. As Hiltner pointed out, this would 
require the particles to be non-spherical and oriented in 
some preferential directions. The effect might thus provide 
an unexpected means for investigating physical conditions 
in interstellar space. 

Sun. The luminosity of the Sun, measured on the scale of 
stellar magnitudes, is a quantity whose accurate determina- 
tion is of great importance but also of great practical 
difficulty. R. van der R. Woolley and S. C. B. Gascoigne 
published a new determination from a comparison of the Sun 
and Sirius by photographic spectrophotometry using devices 
developed at Mount Stromlo Commonwealth observatory 
at Canberra, Australia. The comparison was made at 
four wavelengths. The authors cited also preliminary results 
of photoelectric spectrophotometry performed at Mount 
Stromlo which showed that the previously accepted magni- 
tude of Sinus was somewhat too high. Allowing for this, 
they obtained about -26 9 for the Sun's apparent photovisual 
magnitude in good agreement with earlier determinations. 

E. Durand, J. J. Oberley and R. Tousey published an 
analysis of the first rocket ultraviolet solar spectra, which 
resulted from the work of the U.S. Naval Research laboratory 
at Washington. The spectra were obtained at heights of 35 
to 75 km. They covered the hitherto unobserved wavelength- 
interval from 2,900 to 2,200 angstroms, and this is found 
to be more complex than the familiar part of the spectrum. 
Certain lines or line-multiplets of neutral and ionized iron and 
magnesium, of neutral silicon and of ionized magnesium 
feature prominently. A pair of strong lines due to ionized 
magnesium reproduces characteristics familiar in the H and 
K lines of ionized calcium in the visible spectrum. The back- 
ground intensity was estimated to be well below the black- 



body intensity for 6,000 degrees. The results will repay 
much further study; meanwhile they appear generally to 
confirm the predictions of solar physicists. 

One of the three ** crucial tests " of Einstein's relativity 
theory is that the lines in the solar spectrum should show a 
red-shift in wavelength of about two parts in a million with 
respect to the corresponding lines in laboratory spectra. 
M. G. Adam published her new " absolute" measurements 
of solar wavelengths using the high dispersion of better than 
one angstrom per mm. rendered possible by an interfero- 
metric method. After all known corrections had been 
applied, she found almost no shift in wavelength except in the 
light from the outermost 10% of the radius of the solar disk, 
the shift reaching about the Einstein value near the edge 
of the disk. She refuted the earlier explanation of such a 
result, depending upon postulated radial currents in the 
solar atmosphere. Consequently, it was still undecided 
whether the Einstein effect does exist and is masked for most 
of the disk by some other unknown effect or whether it does 
not exist and some unknown effect produces a shift only near 
the solar limb. 

Solar system. Following the discovery of a fifth satellite 
of Uranus in 1948, a second satellite of Neptune was dis- 
covered in 1949, also with the 82 in. reflector of the McDonald 
observatory, Mount Locke, Texas. The newly found satel- 
lite has an orbital radius more than 20 times that of the 
previously known satellite Triton, and a period of about 
two years; its estimated diameter is only about 200 mi. 

An interesting relation between the solar system and the 
interstellar '* smoke " mentioned above was suggested by a 
new theory of the origin of comets given by R. A. Lyttleton. 
According to this, if the sun traverses an interstellar cloud, 
the smoke particles moving in its gravitational field tended 
to collide with each other in its wake and so to form a smoke 
trail there. Examining the further gravitational effects which 
ensues, Lyttleton concluded that this trail would give rise 
to comets having characteristics as regards number, masses 
and orbits in agreement with actuality. (W. H. McC ) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY Donald H Menzel, Our Sun (Philadelphia-Toronto, 
1949), G J Whitrow, Hie Structure of the Universe (London, 1949), 
Sir Harold Spencer Jones, " Some developments in astronomical 
instruments " (British Association, Section A, Presidential Address), 
Advancement of Science^ vol 6, no 23 (London, 1949). 

ATHENS, capital of Greece and cast of Rome and south 
of Vienna the largest city of Europe. Area: 17 sq. mi. 
Pop.: (1938 est.) 392,731; (1949 est.) 700,000. Lord mayor, 
General loannis Pitsikas. 

What might be called Greater Athens fills a triangle of 
which one side is based on the Saronic gulf from Pcrama 
to Vouhagmcni with the opposite vertex at Ekah. This 
Greater Athens covers approximately 70 sq. mi. and con- 
tained in 1949 some 1-5 million inhabitants one-fifth of 
the population of Greece. In fact, however, what appears 
to be agglomeration is divided into 39 townships and rural 
districts of which Athens proper and the port of Piraeus are 
the largest. 

After the liberation the city was governed by a lord mayor 
and a municipal council appointed by the government. 
In May, 1949, women were represented on the council by 
the appointment of Mmes. E. Pantelaki and A. Manzolinou. 
The cost of repair work to public utilities in existence before 
1940 was estimated at 410,000. As the population had 
nearly doubled between 1938 and 1949, essential new public 
services were estimated to cost over 10 million. Substantial 
progress was made at the Piraeus with the extensive recon- 
struction begun in 1948. 

On Nov. 20 the departure from the city of the 1 st battalion 
East Surrey regiment was marked by a ceremonial parade 
at which the salute was taken by King Paul, Queen Frederika 



ATHINAGORAS I ATHLETICS 



73 




View of Athens as it appeared from the Acropolis in 1949. The 
high ground in the centre is Lycabettus. 

Marshal A. Papagos, commander in chief of the Greek army, 
and Sir Clifford Norton, the British ambassador. 

The circulation of seven morning and four evening news- 
papers of all political shades totalled approximately 270,000, 
three-fifths of the sales being in the Greater Athens area. 

ATHINAGORAS I. (Aristoklis M. Spyrou), arch- 
bishop of Istanbul (New Rome) and 268th oecumenical 
patriarch of the Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Eastern 
Church (b. Vassilikon, Epirus [then part of the Ottoman 
empire], March 25, 1886), was the son of a doctor. He was 
educated at the Greek high school and the Holy Trinity 
theological school on the island of Heybeli, near Istanbul. 
Ordained deacon in 1910, with the name of Athinagoras, he 
became a priest two years later and in 1919 was designated 
archdeacon and first secretary to the archbishop of Athens. 
From 1 922-30 he was bishop of Corfu. Inducted as archbishop 
of the Greek Orthodox Church in North and South America 
in New York on Feb. 24, 1931, he established there a theo- 
logical seminary. In Feb. 1938 he became a U.S. citizen. 
On Nov. 1, 1948, he was elected oecumenical patriarch by 
the Holy S^nod of the Orthodox Church in Istanbul and, 
renouncing American citizenship, succeeded the Patriarch 
Maximos V on his resignation on Oct. 18, 1948. Enthroned 
on Jan. 27, 1949, Athinagoras stressed the necessity for 
friendship between Turkey and the United States and called 
on communicants of all faiths, " to unite for peace which 
has not yet been established." In February he paid an 
official visit to President Ismet Inonii. On June 22 Myron 
Taylor, personal representative of President Harry S. Truman 
at the holy see of Rome, met Athinagoras when in Istanbul. 

ATHLETICS. The year following the Olympic Games 
saw no trace of anti-climax in European athletics. Early in 
the season a small American team visited Great Britain and 
this was followed in July by a larger team which toured 
Scandinavia and western Europe. In many cases improve- 
ments were made upon performances achieved during the 
Olympic season and, although it was evident that the United 
States could still field a team capable of taking on the rest 
of the world, in many events hitherto their own preserve 
they were being challenged by Europeans. The Scandinavian 
superiority over the rest of Europe was less pronounced 
than in former years; in August Great Britain easily beat 
France in London, and a month later France beat Sweden 
by 93 points to 91; the teams were not at full strength, 
however, and Great Britain was able to call on Empire 
athletes, who would not represent her, for example, in the 
Olympic Games. 



The main event of the season in Scandinavia was the match 
against the United States in which Scandinavia were beaten 
by 238^ points to 224J. In this contest the winning perfor- 
mance in six of the 23 events beat that achieved in the 1948 
Olympic Games. J. Fuchs, U.S.A., broke the world record 
for the weight with a putt of 58 ft. 4| in. and F. E. Gordien, 
U.S.A., the discus record with a throw of 186 ft. 10| in. 

Sweden remained the best of the Scandinavian countries 
and in a match in September beat the rest of Scandinavia 
by 232 points to 196, a larger margin than in the same event 
in 1947. A. Ahman, winner of the Olympic hop, step and 
jump won Niis event and also the high jump. In G. Leander- 
sson Sweden had the greatest marathon runner of the day. 
Amongst the milers, O. Aberg now led L. Strand, S. Land- 
qvist, G. Bergkvist and the Olympic champion H. Eriksson. 
Finnish athletics showed a steady improvement and Czecho- 
slovakia was defeated by 104 points to 97. The great distance 
runner V. Heino, at 36 years of age, achieved a remarkable 
return to form and was the only man in the world capable 
of extending the Czech, E. Zatopek. On Sept. 1 Heino 
recaptured the world record for the 10,000 m. which he 
covered in 29 min. 27-2 sec. However, on Oct. 22, the record 
fell again to Zatopek with a time of 29 min. 21 2 sec. Iceland 
produced perhaps the greatest athlete in her history in 
O. Ciaussen, the leading Scandinavian decathlon expert. 

A small team from Hungary travelled to London to com- 
pete in the A.A.A. championships. I. N6meth won the 
hammer and F. Klics the discus. 

There was considerable evidence of a rebirth of athletics 
in Germany, although she played no part in international 
competition. The sprinters, long jumpers and hammer 
throwers were thought to be among the best in Europe, and 
there were some remarkable women athletes. 

French athletics suffered from the retirement of the great 
middle distance runner M. Hansenne, but the loss was made 
less acute by the improvement of the twins Jean and Jacques 
Vernier. I. Heinrich set up a new French decathlon record 
with 7,165 points. France won the international cross country 
championship at Belfast in March, supplying the individual 
winner, A. Mimoun. 

In Great Britain and Ireland the improvement in the 
general standard was more marked than elsewhere. A team 
from Oxford and Cambridge visited the United States in 
June and, although beaten by Princeton and Cornell, gained 
a clear victory over Harvard and Yale. Great Britain beat 
France by 82 points to 65 at the beginning of August, and a 
week later London defeated Gothenburg in the first match 
between the two cities by 83 points to 57. The outstanding 
performances of the season were in the high jump, in which 
both R. C. Pavitt and P. Wells cleared 6 ft. 6 in., breaking an 
English native record that had stood since 1921. G. W. 
Nankeville was probably the best of a group of six or seven 
milers, all capable of 4 min. 14 sec. or better. A. S. Wint 
was still outstanding in the middle distances, but E. McD. 
Bailey had lost much of his fire as a sprinter and had to give 
way to a Jamaican L. Laing. J. T. Holden remained one of 
the best marathon runners. D. O. Finlay (</.v.), at the age 
of 40, won the 120 yd. A.A.A. hurdles championship for 
the eighth time. 

Oxford beat Cambridge in the university sports in March 
by 72 points to 54. R. G. Bannister of Oxford broke the 
mile record for the meeting which had stood since 1905 and 
P. R. LI. Morgan, also of Oxford, the three mile record set 
up in 1914. The Kinnaird trophy was won by Polytechnic 
harriers, the Achilles club, holders from 1935, fielding a 
team weakened by the absence of many members representing 
Oxford and Cambridge in the United States. (M. A. ME.) 

United States. The National Amateur Athletic union's 
100 m. and 200 m. sprint titles were won by Andy Stanfield 



74 



ATOMIC ENERGY 




R. C. Pavitt, Polytechnic harriers, breaking the English native high jump record in the London-Gothenburg international match at (he 
City, London, in Aug. 1949. He cleared 6ft. 6 in. thus breaking Howard Baker's 28 year-old record by one inch. 



White 



of Seton Hall. Craig Dixon of the University of California 
at Los Angeles won both the 110m. high hurdles and 200 m. 
low hurdles events, defeating Harrison Dillard in the high 
event. In 1 948 Dillard set up a world record of 13-6 sec. 
for this event, but in 1949 both Dixon and Dillard could only 
achieve 13-8 sec. Malvin Whitfield, 1948 Olympic winner 
at 800 m., won the National Collegiate Athletic associa- 
tion's outdoor and the A.A.U. titles at this distance. His 
best time during the season was 1 min. 50-3 sec., 1-1 sec. 
slower than his Olympic record. The Wanamaker mile 
went to Don Gehrmann of Wisconsin who beat Willy 
Slykhuis of the Netherlands in 4 min. 9 5 sec. Gehrmann 
also won the A.A.U. 5,000 m. and 10,000 m. championships. 
The 1948 Olympic decathlon winner, Bon Mathias, retained 
his A.A.U. championship. Charley Moore of Cornell 
university established a new national record of 51-1 sec. 
for the 400 m. hurdles. The best high jump of the season was 
by Walters of Texas with 6 ft. 8& in. while Gay Bryan 
of Stanford university jumped 25 ft. 4 j in. in the long jump. 

Five Europeans, Gaston Reiff of Belgium, Slykhuis, 
Marcel Hansenne of France, and Eric Ahlden and Ingvar 
Bengtsson of Sweden, took part in the U.S. indoor season. 

Tuskegee institute retained the women's National A.A.U. 
outdoor championship. Mrs. Nancy Phillips of New York 
won both the high and long jump events in the National 
A.A.U. indoor games. 

ATOMIC ENERGY. On Sept. 23, 1949, it was 
announced officially in London and Washington that evidence 
of an atomic explosion in the U.S.S.R. had been obtained. 
A few days later, the Moscow press referred to these 
announcements and connected them with 4t blasting by the 
most modern methods." In October, A. Y. Vyshinsky 
confirmed the U.S.S.R.'s possession of atomic weapons 
and gave a reminder that V. M. Molotov had stated in 1947 
that the secret no longer existed. The tone of British com- 
ment on this development was sober. The news was not 
exactly a surprise, for it had been said many times by com- 



petent authorities that the basic principles of atomic weapons 
were no secret and that the technology could be mastered 
by any nation able to draw upon substantial scientific skill and 
large industrial resources. There were some queries both in 
parliament and outside about British progress, but generally 
there was more emphasis on the political than on the technical 
aspect of the situation. As regards the methods by which 
the western powers had obtained the information on which 
their announcement was based, it could only be learned that 
collaboration between observers in various countries was 
involved. It had long been recognized that the radioactive 
materials generated in an atomic explosion could be wind- 
borne to great distances and that methods of extreme sensi- 
tivity could be used to detect them; for example, an article 
in the Physical Review (vol. 76, pp. 375-380) gave strong 
evidence for the detection in Iowa of radioactivity from the 
1945 test explosion in New Mexico, 1,000 mi. away. 

There are three scientific methods of detecting an atomic 
explosion. The ground vibrations are revealed by seismo- 
graphs. The air vibrations can be recorded by the micro- 
barograph, an ultra-sensitive barometer which detects minute 
and sudden changes in atmospheric pressure. The radio- 
active cloud, which drifts with the wind, can be detected by 
Geiger counters and similar instruments. When the first 
Bikini bomb was set off, evidences of the radioactive cloud 
were recorded 10 days later by Geiger counters on the 
Pacific coast of the United States. 

British Technical Developments. At the Ministry of 
Supply's Atomic Energy Research establishment at Harwell, 
Berkshire, the second and more powerful uranium fission 
pile was brought into full operation early in 1949; from 
March onwards, it was in regular use for the production of 
radioactive substances for scientific and medical purposes. 
At about this time, it was announced that some plutonium 
had been extracted from the low-energy pile, which had then 
been in operation for more than a year. A large part of the 
new radiochemical laboratory was completed and taken into 
use during the year. This laboratory was of very advanced 



ATOMIC ENERGY 



75 



design and was fully equipped for chemical operations with 
substantial amounts of radioactive material. Extreme 
precautions were taken against the personal hazards involved 
in such work and against the spreading of radioactive con- 
tamination to other parts of the establishment. 

At Sellafield, Cumberland, constructional work for still 
larger piles went on; it was understood, though never 
officially announced, that three such piles were to be built 
and that they would be capable of producing substantial 
quantities of plutonium. According to reports in The Times 
of Dec. 5 and 6, the building for the first pile was complete, 
that for the second was going up but the programme for the 
third pile had been cancelled for financial reasons. 

A large frequency-modulated cyclotron was given a 
successful first trial at Harwell in December. Cyclotrons 
are research tools and not generators of atomic energy, and 
are machines for setting atomic nuclei in motion with 
extremely high speeds. The field of a powerful electromagnet 
causes the nuclei, which are electrically charged, to pass 
repeatedly across the gap between two metal electrodes 
within a vacuum chamber; a high-frequency alternating 
voltage between these electrodes is so arranged that at each 
time the nuclei cross the gap they are given additional speed. 
If, for example, they cross the gap 2,000 times and at each 
crossing are speeded up by 50,000 volts between the electrodes, 
their final speed will correspond' to 100 million volts. 

So long as the speed attained is only a small fraction of 
the speed of light, the frequency of alternation of the voltage 
between the electrodes can be kept constant; but to reach 
the highest possible speeds the principle of frequency- 
modulation (changing the frequency of the alternating 
voltage as the group of nuclei gains speed) is necessary. 
The Harwell cyclotron was the first frequency-modulated 
cyclotron constructed in Britain; on its trial, it accelerated 
hydrogen nuclei to 160 million volts. Nuclei moving with 
such speeds (roughly half the speed of light) can cause a 
wide variety of changes when they collide with the nuclei 
of other atoms. 

Three smaller cyclotrons already existed in British univer- 
sities; and a still larger one was under construction at the 
University of Liverpool. 

Relations with Canada and the United States. A conference 
on the hazards associated with the operation of fission piles 
was held at the Harwell establishment in September; it was 
attended by U.S. and Canadian representatives and was 
an example of the co-operation, in certain aspects of atomic 
energy work, that had been maintained between the three 
countries since the end of World War II. This collaboration, 
including a system for controlling the release of information 
obtained jointly during World War II and arrangements 
concerning the supply of essential raw materials, was under 
review during the year; the agreement on the supply of 
Canadian uranium to the U.S. was understood to expire 
at the end of 1949, but it was expected that arrangements 
would be made for future U.S. purchases of this material. 
Reports were current that the agreement on the exchange of 
scientific and technical information about atomic energy, 
which covered only limited portions of the subject, might 
be renewed in a wider form and might be linked with a 
concentration of large-scale developments on the North 
American continent. 

Sources of Uranium within the Commonwealth. Prepara- 
tions for the mining of uranium in Australia continued and 
it was expected that substantial yields would be obtained in 
1950. The possibility that South Africa might become an 
important source of uranium was brought to mind by the 
announcement of discussion in Johannesburg on uranium 
production, in which British and U.S. representatives took 
part. There was, however, no indication of how these 



deposits of uranium in the southern hemisphere might com- 
pare with the very rich ones in Canada. (P. B. M.) 

United Nations. All attempts during 1949 to resolve the 
fundamental differences of opinion between the majority 
of nations in the United Nations and the Soviet bloc on the 
international control of atomic energy failed. 

On Nov. 4, 1948, the United Nations general assembly, 
meeting in Paris adopted by a vote of 40 to 6 a four-fold 
resolution which (1) approved the plan of international 
control outlined in the three reports of the United Nations 
Atomic Energy commission, (2) expressed deep concern 
over the impasse in the commission, (3) requested the 
representatives of the five great powers and Canada to initiate 
private conversations in an effort to end the impasse and 
(4) called on the commission to resume its deliberations. 

The majority plan was based on the premise that a mere 
agreement outlawing the atomic bomb would be insufficient. 
The plan would create an international control agency which 
would have ownership or managerial control of the production 
of uranium, the manufacture of fissionable materials and all 
atomic activities potentially dangerous to world security. 
It would have the power to license, control and inspect all 
other atomic activities. The agency would be empowered to 
create an international inspection service, make aerial surveys, 
maintain guards and otherwise take precautions to prevent 
clandestine operations. It specified that the veto power 
vested in the Security council of the United Nations would 
not apply to the control agency. 

In accordance with the directive of the general assembly, 
the United Nations Atomic Energy commission resumed its 
meetings on Feb. 18, 1949. It became apparent almost 
immediately that the U.S.S.R. delegation had no intention 
of withdrawing from the position it had taken during the 
previous three years. On July 29 the commission voted to 
suspend its work indefinitely. The vote, following the 
characteristic pattern of previous years, was 9 to 2 with the 
U.S.S.R. and the Ukraine casting the negative votes. 

Six-Power Conversations. Following the adjournment of 
the United Nations Atomic Energy commission, the five 
great powers and Canada initiated the private conversations 
requested by the general assembly. These six powers, the 
U.S., U.S.S.R., Great Britain, France, China and Canada, 
were the permanent members of the Atomic Energy com- 
mission and were known as " the sponsoring powers." The 
first meeting was held behind closed doors at Lake Success, 
New York, on Aug. 9, 1949. 




The new atom landscape as seen by I II ing worth in the " Daily Mail " 

(London) after the announcement on Sept. 23, 1949, that an atomic 

explosion had occurred in the Soviet Union. 



76 



ATOMIC ENERGY 



On Oct. 26, after 1 1 secret meetings, the six powers made 
an interim report to the general assembly. It revealed that 
no progress had been made. At the same time all the powers 
with the exception of the U.S.S.R., issued a joint statement 
explaining their objections to the Soviet proposals. The 
statement summarized " three basic obstacles in the way of 
agreement." These were the proposals of the U.S.S.R. that 

(1) nations should continue to own explosive atomic materials, 

(2) nations continue to own, operate and manage facilities 
making or using dangerous quantities of such materials, 
and (3) a system of control be adopted depending on periodic 
inspection of facilities the existence of which the national 
government concerned has reported to the international 
agency, supplemented by special investigations on suspicion 
of treaty violation. The five powers believed that these 
proposals were insufficient to prevent the sudden or clan- 
destine diversion of atomic materials to purposes of war. 

The General Assembly. While the six-power secret talks 
were in progress, the debate over the control of atomic 
energy flared out again in the United Nations general 
assembly. In several addresses the Soviet foreign minister, 
A. Y. Vyshinsky, accused the U.S. and Great Britain of 
plotting an atomic war. Sharp exchanges took place between 
Vyshinsky and the representatives of the U.S., Great Britain 
and Canada. In a letter to the six powers, Carlos P. Romulo, 
president of the general assembly, suggested possible com- 
promise solutions, in order to break the deadlock. 

An address by Vyshinsky on Nov. 10 before the Special 
Political committee of the assembly was interpreted by most 
delegates as a final rejection of the majority plan. In the 
course of the address Vyshinsky said that the U.S.S.R. was 
utilizing atomic energy for its economic needs in its own 
economic interests. 

On Nov. 14 the Special Political committee by a vote of 
48 to 5 adopted a resolution introduced by France and Canada 
calling on the six sponsoring powers to continue their private 
talks in an attempt to solve the problem. The five negative 
votes were those of the Soviet bloc. 

Early in Dec. 1949 General A. G. L. McNaughton, Canada, 
chairman of the United Nations Atomic Energy commission, 
in keeping with this resolution asked General Carlos P. 
Romulo and Sir Benegal Rau to submit new proposals on 
the control of atomic energy. Replying on Dec. 16, Romulo 
suggested that the search for a permanent solution be sus- 
pended for a few months and an attempt made to arrive at 
a short-term interim agreement. 

United States. The U.S. stockpile was believed to contain 
more than 100 bombs although the true figure was one of 
the nation's most carefully guarded secrets. An immediate 
effect of the atomic explosion in the U.S.S.R. was to accelerate 
the U.S.'s programme. On Oct. 18 President Truman 
authorized the U.S. Atomic Energy commission to draw on 
its budgetary reserve for funds to begin a major expansion 
of its production programme. Soon after, congress rushed 
through legislation to relax the curb it had placed on the 
commission's spending powers in July 1949. Under the new 
legislation, the commission could start construction of 
unbudgeted facilities if it satisfied the director of the budget 
that they were necessary for national defence. 

New Eniwetok Tests. On Nov. 29, 1949, the U.S. Atomic 
Energy commission announced that a new series of tests cf 
atomic weapons would be held at Eniwetok atoll in the 
Marshall Islands in 1950. The assumption was that a new 
and yet more powerful bomb was ready for testing. The 
field operations were to be carried out by joint task force 3, 
representing the army, navy, air force and Atomic Energy 
commission. 

The Ultimate Weapon. Scientists believed that the ultimate 
weapon would be a rocket powered by atomic energy. 



capable of crossing an ocean or the arctic regions, and 
carrying an atomic bomb in its nose. However, they believed 
that before that day arrived, there would be rockets of the 
familiar V-2 type capable of delivering atomic bombs. 

Three-Power Conference. Considerable interest was aroused 
by a secret meeting called by President Truman at Blair 
house, Washington, D.C., on the evening of July 10, 1949. 
It was attended by the secretary of state, secretary of defence, 
the temporary chairman of the joint chiefs of staff, the 
chairman of the U.S. Atomic Energy commission and a 
group of congressmen representing the foreign affairs, 
military and atomic energy committees. It was later disclosed 
that the meeting had been called to discuss relations of the 
United States, Great Britain and Canada in the field of 
atomic energy. It was understood that the British govern- 
ment had requested secret data from the United States. The 
situation was clarified on July 28 when President Truman 
announced that the three nations would hold exploratory 
talks on the question of sharing atomic information and 
allotting supplies of uranium ores. The three-power confer- 
ences began in Washington on Sept. 20. The expressed purpose 
of the conference was to consider establishing a partnership 
for the joint utilization of materials, techniques and knowledge 
in the field of atomic energy. 

U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Chief emphasis was 
placed on the development and production of atomic weapons 
and of the fissionable materials required for their manufac- 
ture. Increasing attention was given to the design of new 
types of nuclear reactors. The research programmes in the 
physical, biological and medical sciences were expanded, 
and important additions were made to the commission's 
laboratories. 

The improved atomic bombs tested at Eniwetok in 1948 
were put into production during 1949. Component parts 
were produced on an industrial basis by manufacturing 
concerns with special government facilities. In collaboration 
with the U.S. geological survey, the commission continued 
the examination of virtually every rock formation in the 
country for uranium ores. Fissionable materials were 
produced in 1949 in greater quantities than ever before. 
Increased shipments of ore from Canada and the Belgian 
Congo were supplemented by domestic production. The 
chemical and metallurgical plants which converted ore into 
" feed materials " for the Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Hanford, 
Washington, plants, were put on a sound operating basis. 
Unit production costs were reduced 30% below the 1947 
level and intermediate stock piles were built up to adequate 
levels. 

Installation of new equipment and improvements in 
operating technique reduced the cost of producing uranium 
235 in the gaseous diffusion plant at Oak Ridge by 50%. In 
addition, the yield from a given amount of uranium was 
increased. Improvements in the operation of the Hanford 
plutonium plant increased by 40% the amount of plutonium 
produced per dollar of operating cost. A new uranium pile 
for the production of plutonium and a new plutonium metal 
fabrication plant began operations at Hanford in 1949. 
Construction work was started at Oak Ridge on a $67 million 
expansion of the plant for the production of uranium 235. 

The " Breeder " Reactor. On Nov. 28, 1949, L. R. Hafstad, 
director of the division of reactor development of the U.S. 
Atomic Energy commission disclosed that the final work was 
being done on the design of a " breeder " nuclear reactor, a 
uranium pile that would produce more fissionable fuel in the 
form of plutonium than it consumed in the form of uranium 
235. He described this reactor as the greatest peacetime 
development in the history of atomic energy and said that it 
was hoped to build the device during 1950 at the Nuclear 
Reactor Testing station near Arco, Idaho. 



ATTLEE 



77 



On Dec. 13 Hafstad revealed that his division was also 
working on another reactor of revolutionary design, a 
so-called homogeneous reactor. This device would employ 
nuclear fuel in a constantly circulating liquid form instead 
of a solid form. It was anticipated that this would eliminate 
the difficulty of removing the fission products, the nuclear 
44 ashes " which clogged up the reactor. 

Research on a type of reactor suitable for ship propulsion 
was being carried on by the Argonne National laboratory 
near Chicago, Illinois, and by the Westinghouse Electric 
corporation. 

An " intermediate power breeder reactor " which would 
generate power as well as breed some additional fuel was 
being designed at the Knolls Atomic Power laboratory near 
Schenectady, New York. A reactor for research purposes, 
nearing completion at the Brookhaven National laboratory, 
Long Island, New York, was expected to begin operation 
in 1950. 

Radioactive Isotopes. An average of 400 shipments per 
month of radioactive isotopes was made during 1949 from 
Oak Ridge to laboratories all over the United States and to 
22 foreign countries. The use of radioactive isotopes was 
constantly increasing. Physicians and biologists were using 
them as " tracers " to follow complicated biological processes 
in living organisms ; to investigate the formation of the 
blood and body secretions; to understand the physiological 
action of hormones, vitamins and drugs; to delineate the 
changes in such diseases as diabetes, heart disease and kidney 
disease; and to follow the growth and death of cancer cells. 
An important development was the experimental use of 
radioactive cobalt as a substitute for radium in the treatment 
of cancer. 

The division of biology and medicine of the commission 
was carrying on an extensive programme to investigate the 
effects of radioactivity on living organisms and to devise 
safeguards. 

New Atom-Smashers. Two particle accelerators or atom- 
smashers of gigantic proportions were under construction by 
the U.S. Atomic Energy commission. They would dwarf the 
184-in. cyclotron at Berkeley, California, which was, in 1949, 
the largest in the world. 

At Brookhaven scientists were building a proton synchro- 
tron which had been named the cosmotron. It would impart 
energies of 2,000 million to 3,000 million electron volts 
to subatomic particles. An even larger proton synchrotron, 
the bevatron, was 'being built at the Berkeley Radiation 
laboratory. It would develop 5,000 million to 7,000 million e.v. 

Smaller atom-smashing devices were completed or were 
nearing completion at the Brookhaven, Argonne, Oak Ridge 
and Los Alamos laboratories. In addition the commission 
was financing researches in the physical sciences in more 
than 50 university and industrial laboratories. 

Congressional Investigation. On May 22, 1949, Senator 
Bourke B. Hickenlooper, former chairman and ranking 
Republican member of the congressional joint committee on 
atomic energy, issued a statement charging David E. Lilien- 
thal, chairman of the U.S. Atomic Energy commission, with 
" incredible mismanagement " and demanding his resignation. 
Hearings were held before the congressional joint committee 
on atomic energy. The committee brought in a majority 
and a minority report in October, splitting on straight party 
lines. The majority report held that all of the charges had 
been satisfactorily answered and, moreover, that the commis- 
sion had done an exceptionally fine job of administering the 
atomic energy programme. The minority report virtually 
ignored the subject matter of the hearings and, taking a 
new tack, raised a new issue, charging the commission with 
hesitation and insufficient boldness in initiating a major 
development programme. On Nov. 23, 1949, Lilienthal 



tendered President Truman his resignation as chairman of the 
U.S. Atomic Energy commission, to take effect in Feb. 1950. 

U.S.S.R. It was impossible, of course, to say what point 
the U.S.S.R. had reached in its atomic programme. U.S. 
observers were inclined to discount the claim that the U.S.S.R. 
had had the bomb since 1947. It was known, however, that 
the U.S.S.R. had been operating the Czech, Austrian and 
Saxon pitchblende mines at a feverish rate. The U.S.S.R. 
was reported to possess uranium deposits in the Tashkent 
area in the central Asian region of the Soviet Union; in the 
Ossetia area, north of Tiflis; in Svanetia in northwestern 
Georgia; in the region between Samarkand and the Ferghan 
mountains; 1 in the Alai mountains in Turkestan; and in the 
Kara-Mazar mountains, north of Khodzhent. 

Reports circulating in western Europe stated that the 
U.S.S.R. had created a large underground factory for 
processing uranium on the Sanga river, a few miles north 
of Erivan, capital of the Armenian S.S.R. Information 
received by the U.S. state department indicated that the 
U.S.S.R. had deported more than 17,000 Greeks and other 
non-Russians from the Caucasus area since June 1949. It 
was believed that the U.S.S.R. 's atomic bomb explosion 
occurred in this area. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. United Nations Atomic Energy Commission Official 
Records, Fourth Year, Special Supplement No. 1 (Aug. 1949). U.S. 
Department of State Publication 3646, International Control of Atomic 
Energy and the Prohibition of Atomic Weapons (1949); U.S. Mission 
to the United Nations, International Control of Atomic Energy (1949); 
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Fifth Semiannual Report (Jan. 
1949) and Stxth Semiannual Report (July 1949); Report of the Investiga- 
tion into the United States Atomic Energy Commission (Oct. 1949). 
(See also INDUSTRIAL HEALTH; METALLURGY; MINERAL AND METAL 
PRODUCTION AND PRICES; PHYSICS; X-RAY AND RADIOLOGY.) 

(D. Dz.) 

ATTLEE, CLEMENT RICHARD, British states- 
man (b. London, Jan. 3, 1883), became prime minister in 
July 1945 when the Labour party achieved a majority in the 
House of Commons. (See Britannica Book of the Year, 1949.) 




Clement Attlee In the cockpit of a United States B-50 aircraft at 
Marham, Norfolk, during a visit to air bases in Oct. 1949. 



78 



AUCKLAND AUSTRALIA 



In April 1949 he presided over the second meeting within 
a year of the Commonwealth prime ministers; and in 
January he held talks with Sir Basil Brooke ty.v.), prime 
minister of Northern Ireland. In March he flew to Germany 
where he saw the Berlin air lift and had discussions with 
Western German political leaders. He attended the Labour 
party conference at Scarborough in June, at which the 
party's election programme Labour Believes in Britain was 
approved, and on Sept. 7 addressed the Trades Union congress 
at Bridlington, Yorkshire. In the autumn there was wide- 
spread feeling that he would dissolve parliament and call a 
general election, but on Oct. 13 he issued a statement 
declaring that he would not recommend the King to dissolve 
parliament in 1949. During the parliamentary recess he paid 
visits to the armed forces: in August he visited the Royal 
Navy and made a descent in a submarine; in October 
he visited the Royal Air Force and also the United States 
Air Force at Marham, Norfolk ; and later in the same month 
he watched infantry training and a training regiment of the 
Royal Engineers near Aldershot, Hampshire. During the 
absence of senior cabinet members during August and 
September Sir Stafford Cripps G/.v.), because of illness and 
later at Washington, Ernest Bevin O/.v.), on holiday, at 
Strasbourg and later in the United States, and Herbert 
Morrison, lord president of the council, at Strasbourg he 
undertook control of their departments. He again acted for 
the foreign secretary in December when Ernest Bevin was 
on leave. In April he received an honorary degree from the 
University of Wales, and on Oct. 12 he laid the foundation 
stone of the concert hall on the south bank of the Thames. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Clement Attlce, The Labour Party in Perspective 
(London, 1949); Vincent Brome, Clement Attlee (London, 1949). 

AUCKLAND, the largest city in New Zealand and a 
thriving seaport on the east coast of the North Island; 
capital of the province of its name. Pop., city and suburbs 
(Sept. 1948): 329,500, Mayor, J. A. C. Allum. 

Within the metropolitan area of approximately 70 sq. mi., 
in which there are 15 contiguous but independent municipal 
authorities each with their own officers (including mayor and 
borough councillors) and accounts, the total revenue (March 
31) was 6,890,246 and expenditure 6,666,798. The provi- 
sional total cargo handled in the Port of Auckland in the year 
ended Sept. 30, 1949, was little different from 1948 (2,635,219 
tons), in spite of the loss of over 72,000 man-hours when 
watersiders refused overtime work as a protest against a 
wage decision by the Waterfront Industry authority and in 
support of a nation-wide carpenters' strike. Of the man-hours 
lost throughout New Zealand 76% were lost in Auckland. 

Building controls curtailed the erection of other than 
private dwellings but some leeway in the severe housing 
shortage was made up. 

The establishment of the first annual Music Festival was 
of cultural importance; and performances were given by 
national and local groups and single performers. The Italian 
Grand Opera company visited the city and played several 
operas. There was an exhibition of early British watercolours 
arranged by the Empire Art Loan Exhibition society. The 
number of boats competing in the 99th yachting regatta in 
Waitemata harbour over 500 was a world record for a 
one-day regatta. 

Major bequests included 30,000 by Mr. Hallyburton 
Johnstone to an Auckland girls* home; and 59,000 by Mr. 
Goldwater for the foundation of a Jewish educational in- 
stitution. (R.W. B.) 

AURIOL, VINCENT, French statesman (b. Revel, 
Haute-Garonne, France, Aug. 27, 1884). On Jan. 16, 1947, 
he became the first president under the constitution of the 



Fourth Republic. (For his early career see Britannica Book 
of the Year 1949.} 

Speaking at Tours, on May 7, 1949, he said that France 
remained convinced that there would be no lasting peace and 
prosperity without an association of national sovereignties. 
On May 29, 1949, he arrived at Algiers on the first presidential 
visit since that of Gaston Doumergue in 1930 and during his 
stay visited Bone, Oran, Constantlne and Tlemcen. He said 
that those who thought Algeria could dispense with French 
sovereignty were madmen. 

AUSTRALIA, COMMONWEALTH OF. A self- 
governing member of the Commonwealth of Nations, 
situated in the southern hemisphere. Areas and populations 
of the six federated states, of the Northern territory and the 
Australian Capital territory are: 

Population 
(JuneW, 1947 
Capital 
Sydney 
Melbourne 
Brisbane 
Adelaide 
Perth 
Hobart 



States and 
Territories 
New South Wales 
Victoria 
Queensland 
South Australia 
Western Australia 
Tasmania 
Northern Territory 
Australia Capital 
Territory 



Area (sq. mi.) 


census) 


309,433 


2,985,464 


87,884 


2,055,252 


670,500 


1,106,269 


380,070 


646,216 


975,920 


502,731 


26,215 


257,117 


523,620 


10,866 



Canberra 



939 



16,905 



2,974,581 



7,580,820 



The total population figure excludes full blood aboriginals 
estimated at 47,000; half-castes numbered 24,881 in 1944. 
About four-fifths of the Australian continent is a hot, dry 
desert, virtually empty of population. Most Australian 
settlement is confined to three areas ; on the eastern and south- 
eastern coastal plains; on the eastern plateau; and on and 
near the southwestern coast. Territories under the adminis- 
tration of the Commonwealth but not included in it comprise 
Papua G/.v.), Norfolk Island, the trust territory of New 
Guinea, Nauru, the territory of Ashmore and Cartier islands, 
and the Australian Antarctic territory. 

Chief towns (pop., June 30, 1947): Sydney (<y.v.) (1,484,434); 
Melbourne (?.v.) (1,226,923); Brisbane (402,172); Adelaide 
(382,604); Perth (272,586); Newcastle (127,188); Hobart 
(76,567). Language: English. Religion: Christian (census 
1933: Anglican 2,565,118; Roman Catholic 1,161,455; 
Presbyterian 713,229; Methodist 684,022; other Christians 
603,914); Jewish 29,600. Ruler, King George VI; governor 
general, William John McKell; prime ministers in 1949, 
Joseph Benedict Chifley (q.v.) and, from Dec. 18, Robert 
Gordon Menzies (q.v.). 




The prime ministers of Australia during 1949. Joseph Benedict 

Chifley (left) from July 13, 1945, and Robert Gordon Menzies 

from Dec. 18, 1949. 



AUSTRALIA 



79 



History. The main event of the year was the general 
election held on Dec. 10. (Set' ELECTIONS.) 

Several decisions of the High Court given during the year 
had a profound effect on public life and on the relations 
between Commonwealth and the states. The High Court 
held that the Commonwealth no longer had the power to 
ration petrol. As a result, petrol was de-rationed; but as the 
Commonwealth largely depended on dollar area imports, a 
severe shortage developed. The petrol question displaced the 
Bank Nationalization act, 1947, as a major election issue. The 
Privy Council upheld the High Court in declaring vital sections 
of the Bank Nationalization act invalid. (See BANKING.) 

Following the failure of the referendum on price control, 
collaboration between the six states was reasonably success- 
ful, although the cost of living continued to rise. Price con- 
trols on a number of commodities were removed. 

Social service expenditure for 1948-49 at under 81 million 
remained below the estimate, mainly because of the pro- 
tracted struggle between the Commonwealth government 
and the British Medical association over the Pharmaceutical 
Benefits scheme. Under instructions from the B.M.A., the 
vast majority of doctors refused to issue free prescriptions 
on Government forms. The B.M.A. successfully challenged 
the act before the High Court, which by a majority held that 
the compulsion for doctors to use government prescriptions 
and forms was an unconstitutional " civil conscription." 
The wider National Health Service act, passed in 1948, was 
not implemented. 

The minister for external territories, E. J. Ward, was 
cleared of charges of corruption by a judge of the 
Supreme Court of South Australia functioning as royal 
commissioner. 

Communism. Politically, the increased tension between 
the Communist movement and the rest of the community 
was the outstanding development. The Victorian govern- 
ment appointed a royal commissioner to inquire into Com- 
munist activities in industry, education and other fields. 
A coal strike lasting from June 27 to Aug. 1 5 affected practi- 
cally all hard coal mines in the country and paralysed the 
industrial life of the country. It arose out of the decision by 
the Communist-dominated executive of the Miner's federation 
not to await the decision of the Coal Industry tribunal on a 
claim for long service leave. The strike was clearly political 
in character. The Commonwealth parliament reacted by 
passing an act prohibiting the payment or receipt of money 
for the continuance of the strike. The Commonwealth 
Arbitration court was given power to grant injunctions for 
the purpose of preventing breaches of the act. When leaders 
of the Miner's federation and other unions refused to dis- 
close the use of their funds, they were sent to prison for con- 
tempt of court; they were released after the collapse of the 
strike and after having apologized to the court. The Common- 
wealth also used troops to work open-cut mines. The strike 
collapsed completely without any new concession being 
obtained by the miners. The Coal Industry tribunal later 
awarded long service leave, subject to certain penalties for 
the disruption caused by the strike. The general secretary 
of the Communist party, Laurence Sharkey, was sentenced 
to three years' imprisonment the maximum term for a 
seditious utterance in regard to the attitude of Australian 
workers in the case of war between Australia and the U.S.S.R. 
Immigration. The flow of immigrants increased vastly 
during the year. With more liners and migrant ships coming 
into service, the numbers of both British and continental 
European migrants were rising steadily; 75,000 immigrants 
arrived in the first six months, and the 50,000th migrant 
from continental Europe, a Latvian girl, was officially 
welcomed on Aug. 12 by A. A. Caiwell, minister for immi- 
gration. 




Sir Donald Bradman (second from right) with the governor general 
of Australia, W. J. McKell after receiving the accolade of knight- 
hood, Melbourne, March 15, 1949. 

Non-British migrants were housed in reception camps, from 
which they went to employment, mainly in farming, forestry, 
nursing services and industry. After a minimum period of two 
years they were to be free to choose their own occupations. 

The government rigidly adhered to its exclusion of non- 
white immigrants, a policy for which the term " White 
Australia " was officially discarded. Much public and inter- 
national controversy was aroused by some actions of the 
minister for immigration, who deported or threatened to 
deport an Indonesian wife of an Australian, with a number 
of Australian-born children, a Chinese farmer established 
for 20 years in Queensland and forbade the temporary entry 
of a U.S. army sergeant of Philippine descent for a visit to 
his Australian wife. To the last-mentioned action, the 
Philippine government reacted by retaliatory measures. 

In 1948-49, 52,573 new houses were completed; but the 
coal strike affected building in the second half of the year. 

External Affairs. Dr. Evatt was a very active president of 
the third session of the general assembly of the United 
Nations. Australian representatives were active in supporting 
the recognition of the new state of Israel, and the sovereignty 
of the new republic of Indonesia. Australia sent an official 
observer to the Conference of Asian Nations convened by 
the Indian prime minister at New Delhi, which strongly 
condemned the Dutch police action in Indonesia. Australia 
also took a lead in demanding U.N. investigation of the trial 
of religious leaders in Hungary and Bulgaria. As one of 
the main wheat-exporting countries, Australia ratified the 
important International Wheat agreement between more 
than 40 countries which assured guaranteed minimum 
quantities of wheat from a small number of exporting 
countries to a large number of importing countries, at 
maximum and minimum prices fixed in the agreement. 
Australia continued to contribute generously to international 
relief organizations, in particular to the International Child- 
ren's Emergency fund. 

Commonwealth affairs were of outstanding importance 
during the year. In April, J. B. Chifley attended the conference 
of Commonwealth of Nations prime ministers in London, 
which resulted in a declaration that the republican status of 
India was compatible with continued membership of the 
Commonwealth. A few months later, J. J. Dedman, minister 
for post-war reconstruction, attended in London a conference 
concerning the financial crisis of Great Britain and the sterling 
area (see below). The Australian Nationality and Citizenship 



80 



AUSTRALIAN LITERATURE 



act, 1948, came into force on Jan. 26, 1949. It was the first 
to recognize officially Australian citizenship. 

Defence. Expenditure for defence services was 6 1 million 1 , 
slightly above estimates. Expenditure for total war and 
repatriation services at nearly 150 million was considerably 
above estimates. Corresponding estimates for 1949-50 were 
60 million and 121 million. A new aircraft carrier, 
H.M.A.S. ** Sydney," joined the fleet. The most important 
naval manoeuvres after World War II were held by the 
joint Australian and New Zealand navies in October. Further 
progress was made on the guided missiles project in South 
Australia. On the retirement of Lieut. General V. A. H. 
Sturdee, Lieut. General S. F. Rowell was appointed 
chief of the army staff. 

Finance and Economics. The Budget was balanced at 535 
million. National income rose by 12% to a new record of 
1,955 million, nearly 2-J- times the prewar figure. The in- 
come of primary producers still showed by far th greatest 
proportional increase, as the exceptional world demand for 
wool at very high prices continued through the year. Sub- 
stantial price rises accounted for an increase of the ** C " rate 
index of retail prices by nearly 9% between Sept. 1948 and 
Sept. 1949. 

Exports of merchandise and gold rose to 536 million as 
against imports of 415 million. Australia's international bal- 
ance of payments resulted in a surplus of 41 million, but the 
prime minister gave grave warning of the dangers to Australia's 
prosperity that would follow from a world depression and 
from the dollar crisis of the sterling area. To safeguard 
against a slump, Australia maintained a large sterling balance 
estimated at over 400 million in London. The government 
made another gift of 10 million to the United Kingdom. 
Australia followed the devaluation of the British pound, thus 
maintaining the ratio of 4 British to 5 Australian. Australia 
agreed to cut her dollar imports by 25% and in October 
obtained a loan of $20 million from the International Mone- 
tary fund. 

Of many industrial development plans, the official start of 
the Snowy River Power scheme, which would provide a 
large proportion of Australia's power and conserve water 
for irrigation in the Murray and Murrumbidgee valleys, 
was the most important. 

Despite substantial immigration, there was still labour and 
material shortage in almost every industry. About 30,000 
new immigrants were absorbed in national production. Full 
employment was maintained. The Commonwealth Court of 
Arbitration was, for the second part of the year, mainly 
engaged in taking evidence on a trade union claim for a basic 
minimum wage of 10. 

The Arts. The shortage of paper almost entirely disappeared 
but publication of Australian books continued to suffer from 
Board of Trade regulations made in connection with the U.S. 
loans. There was a steady stream of distinguished visiting 
artists from many countries, including the conductors 
Rafael Kubelik and Otto Klemperer, the Shakespeare 
Memorial Theatre company from Stratford-on-Avon, the 
pianists Wibold Malcuzynski and Aleksander Hellman, 
and the singers Joan Hammond, Elizabeth Schwarzkopf and 
Ninon Vallm. (W. FR.). 

Education. (1945) State schools 8,447, pupils 726,440, teachers 
31,061; private schools 1,817, pupils 249,024, teachers 11,799; technical 
schools 114, pupils 110,841, teachers 5,175; business colleges 109, 
pupils 23,270, teachers 659, universities (1947) 8, students 30,477, 
professors and lecturers 2,141. 

Agriculture. Main crops (in '000 metric tons, 1947-48; 1948-49 in 
brackets): wheat 5,985 (5,162); oats 738 (540); maize 159 (152); 
barley 472 (450); sugar cane (raw value) 613 (930); potatoes 501 (569). 
Livestock (in '000 head, March 1948) sheep 102,559, cattle 13,785; 
pigs 1,255; horses 1,1 65. Wool production (in '000 metric tons, greasy 
basis, 1947-48; 1948-49 in brackets) 460 (490). Food production (in 

* Throughout, the is the Australian pound (A). Exchange rate, 
A125 25^IOO. 



'000 metric tons, 1947-48; 1948-49 in brackets): butter 159-6 (163 -9); 
cheese 42-1 (44 0); meat 962-2 (987-1) of which beef 571-1 (584-7). 

Industry. (1948) Manufacturing establishments 37,375; persons 
employed 848,872. Fuel and power (1948; 1949, six months in brac- 
kets): coal (in '000 metric tons) 15,059 (7,114); lignite (in '000 metric 
tons) 6,792 (3,622); manufactured gas (in million cu. metres) last 
six months 1948 529 (560); electricity (in million kwh.) 8,741 (4,512). 
Raw materials (1948; 1949, six months, in brackets) gold (in '000 
fine o/.) 890, (448); pig-iron (in '000 metric tons) 1,155 (509); copper 
(in '000 metric tons) 13 (6); lead (in '000 metric tons) 196 (104); zinc 
(in '000 metric tons) 83 (41); tin (in '000 metric tons) 2(1); steel ingots 
and castings (in '000 metric tons) 1,236 (571). Employment in manu- 
facturing (index 1937=- 100, 1948; 1949, six months in brackets): 
158 (161). New capital investment in Australian manufacturing enter- 
prises totalled A144 million between Sept. 1945 and June 1948, of 
which A41 million was for new enterprises and A103 million for 
expansion of established businesses. Industries which were being 
expanded included textiles and clothing, newsprint, agricultural machin- 
ery and implements, glass, plastics, industrial chemicals and building 
materials. Cement production (in '000 metric tons, 1948; 1949, six 
months in brackets) 1,004 (527). Building bricks (in millions, 1948; 
1949, six months in brackets) 577 (296). 

Foreign Trade. Imports: (1948) A338 million; (1949, six months) 
A21 5 million Exports' (1948) A407 million; (1949, six months) 
A282 million Mam imports, machinery, vehicles, piece-goods, 
other textile manufactures and petroleum. Mam exports: wool, 
wheat flour, dairy products and meats. Mam sources of supply in 1948 
were: United Kingdom 39%, other British countries 22%, United 
States 20%. Mam destinations of exports in 1948 were* United King- 
dom 37%, other British countries 26%, United States 9% 

Transport and Communications. Roads (1945)- 500,000 mi. Licensed 
motor vehicles (Dec 1948)- cars 669,688, commercial vehicles 389,394. 
Government railways (1947-48)- 27,123 mi ; freight net ton-mi. 6,055 
million. Shipping (July 1948)' number of merchant vessels of 100 
tons and upwards 352, total tonnage 527,647 Air transport (1947): 
mi flown 33,963,000, passengers flown 1,035,695, cargo carried 18,711 
tons, air mail carried 1,101 tons. Telephones (May 1949) lines 730,292, 
subscribers 1,022,174. Wireless licenses (May 1949) 1,916,310 

Finance and Banking. Budget- (1948-49) revenue A535 million, 
expenditure A535 million; (1949-50 est ) revenue A*>32 million; 
expenditure A567 million National debt (Dec. 1948, in brackets 
Dec. 1947)- A2,829 (2,786) million. Currency circulation (Aug. 
1949; in brackets Aug 1948)- A210 (196) million Gold and foreign 
exchange (Aug 1949, in brackets Aug 1948) 1,231 (863) million 
US dollars. Bank deposits (Aug 1949, in brackets Aug. 1948): 
A678 (563) million Monetary unit is the Australian pound with an 
exchange rate of A1 25 to the pound. 

AUSTRALIAN LITERATURE. The Common- 
wealth Literary fund's fellowships for 1949 reflected current 
interest in the Australian historical background. Works 
commissioned by the fund included: a historical work on the 
pastoral industry by Judith Wright; a novel by John Morri- 
son, set mainly on the Melbourne waterfront; a novel of 
Australian life and progress and a poem of" epic proportions" 
telling of the discovery of the Great Southland, both by 
Rex Ingamells; and the completion by Eric Lowe of the 
fifth and sixth of his novels covering the story of land settle- 
ment from 1812-1938. Much of the work published during 
the year also went to history for its source. There was, for 
example, Frank dune's Wild Colonial Boys, Eleanor Dark's 
Storm of Time, and C. B. Chnstesen's Australian Heritage 
which, like A. A. Phillip's Australian Muster (1946) sought 
by literary selections to define the Australian way of life. 
Two biographies combined literary history with literary 
criticism. The one, Nettie Palmer's Fourteen Years, selections 
from a journal kept between 1925 and 1939, covered practi- 
cally everything of significance in Australian and New 
Zealand writing during those years. The other, Story Book 
Only, came from Hugh McRae, and gave a selection of all 
he considered worth preserving of his prose writings over 
some 50 years. Percival Serle's two-volume Dictionary of 
National Biography filled a long-neglected need, both of 
literary and general reference. 

Among novels of note published during the year were: 
Vance Palmer's Golconda, written about a silver-lead mine in 
Queensland; Lawson Glossop's Lucky Palmer, a tale of 
racing, betting and bad luck; Pathway to the Sun by E. V. 



AUSTRIA 



81 



Timms, a sequel to his Forever to Remain', Ruth Park's 
Poor Man's Orange, which carried forward the story of slum 
life in a Sydney suburb begun in Harp in the South; and 
Henry G. Lamond's White Ears the Outlaw, the story of a 
dingo. High Valley, the novel with which Charmian Clift 
and George Johnston won the Sydney Morning Herald 
prize for 1948, was also published during 1949. No entry for 
the Sydney Morning Herald novel competition for 1949 was 
thought to merit a first prize, the best, T. A. G. Hungerford's 
Sowers of the Wind, being awarded second prize. The Buln- 
Buln and the Brolga by Tom Collins; i.e., Joseph Furphy, 
was published separately for the first time during 1949. 

As usual, few short story collections appeared during the 
year. Outstanding, perhaps, were the annual volume of 
Coast to Coast and Henrietta Drake-Brockman's Sydney 
or the Bush. Australian Poetry 1948, selected by Judith 
Wright, included 48 poems, 20 of them by women authors. 
Publications by individual poets included Rosemary Dobson's 
In a Convex Mirror and the Selected Verse of Mary Gilmore. 

A general anthology of importance was the Jindyworobak 
Anthology, which included prose estimates, criticisms and 
tributes assembled in celebration of the tenth year of Jindy- 
worobak activity. The main bulk of criticisms came from 
such journals as Mean/in Papers, Southerly, the " Red Page " 
of the Bulletin and, until it ceased publication, from the 
Australian Observer. (C A. BR.) 

AUSTRIA. A republic in central Europe. Area: 32,388 
sq. mi. Pop.: (March 1938, est.) 6,754,000; (Oct. 1948, est.) 
6,953,000. Language: German 98%, other 2% (mainly 
Slovene in Carinthia). Religion (1939): Roman Catholic 
88-27%, Protestant 5-35%, Jewish 1-26% (0-2% in 1945), 
others 5-12%. Chief towns (pop., June 1948 est.): Vienna 
fy.v.) (cap., 1,730,613); Graz (226,229); Linz (184,336); 
Salzburg (106,919); Innsbruck (98,561); Klagenfurt (65,950). 
President of the republic, Dr. Karl Renner; chancellor 
(prime minister), Leopold Figl (q.v.); minister of foreign 
affairs, Dr. Karl Gruber (^.v.). The Austrian government 
had jurisdiction throughout Austria, with certain limitations 
regarding matters control over which was reserved to quadri- 
partite decision in the Allied Council for Austria. By Dec. 31, 
1949, members of the A.C.A. were: France, General de 
Corps d'Armee Emile-Marie Bethouart; United Kingdom, 
Lieutenant General Sir Alexander Galloway (succeeded from 
Jan. 1, 1950, by Major General T. J. W. Winterton); U.S., 
Lieutenant General Geoffrey Keyes; U.S.S.R. (from May 
1949), Lieutenant General V. P. Sviridov. 

History. A return to normal political life was the salient 
feature of 1949 in Austria. The growing self-confidence of 
the coalition government under Chancellor Figl, which 
continued in office (with some changes) after the general 
election on Oct. 9, meant that, in practice, less importance 
than hitherto attached to the continuing failure of the 
Council of Foreign Ministers to reach agreement on a peace 
treaty though government spokesmen did not miss any 
opportunity of raising their voices in protest against the 
servitude of the prolonged Allied occupation. 

There was, indeed, during the year, a mitigation of Allied 
control in certain minor respects. From Jan. 1 the United 
Kingdom handed over to the Austrian authorities full 
responsibility for the control of the Austro-Italian frontier; 
in February airfields in the United States zone were restored 
to the Austrian government for agricultural purposes; a 
relaxation of the control over goods traffic between the Soviet 
and the western zones was announced by the Soviet authori- 
ties to take effect from May 25; and at a meeting of the 
Allied council on July 19 notice was given of the relinquishing 
of certain controls over Austria's posts and telegraphs 
administration. Finally, the council, without yielding on the 



principle that Allied approval was necessary for any addition 
to the three recognized political parties People's party 
(Christian Social), Social Democrats and Communists in 
fact attempted no interference with the formation of new 
parties. The new electoral law, indeed, which was approved 
by the Allied council on June 24, specifically provided that 
any electoral group that could muster 100 supporters was 
entitled to put up candidates in the general election. 

The meetings of the foreign ministers' deputies were 
resumed (for the sixth time in three years) on Feb. 9 in London. 
The Soviet deputy at once brought up again the territorial 
demands and claims for reparations of Yugoslavia which 
provoked the Austrian government into a fresh assertion 
that Austria would not accept any treaty involving loss of 
territory or the creation of an autonomous zone for the 
Slovenes of Carinthia. The Yugoslav delegate, Dr. A. 
Bebler, was given a hearing, but his ** compromise " proposals 
were not acceptable to the three western powers. A similar 
deadlock developed over the reparations issue, the compen- 
sation to the U.S.S.R. for those German assets to which a 
claim had been relinquished and the question of compulsory 
repatriation of displaced persons, etc. When the talks were 
adjourned on April 8, to enable the governments to be con- 
sulted, the western deputies made a significant gesture in 
abandoning all reparations claims in their zones, subject to 
the Austrian government assuming an obligation to liquidate 
all Reich German ownership of the German assets in question. 

By the time the Council of Foreign Ministers itself met in 
Paris (May 23-June 20) the situation had been substantially 
eased by the abandonment by the Soviet government of 
support for Yugoslavia's territorial claims. The ministers 
agreed that, while no reparations should be exacted, Yugo- 
slavia should retain all Austrian property rights and interests 
within Yugoslavia; that the U.S.S.R. should receive from 
Austria (1) $150 million in freely convertible currency to be 
paid within a period of six years, (2) the assets of the Danube 
Shipping company in Bulgaria, Hungary and Rumania as 
well as eastern Austria, (3) concession rights to oil production 
areas equivalent to 60% of Austrian oil production, as also 
to 60% of all exploration areas in eastern Austria which 
come in the category of German assets, and that, in return, 
the U.S.S.R. should relinquish all property, interests or rights 
held as German assets or war booty, with the exception of 
the oil and shipping assets previously conceded. But the 
deputies were unable to compose their differences in the time 
allotted (by Sept. 1), and the negotiations were taken up 
again by the ministers in New York on Sept. 23. 

In internal politics the Social Democratic party made the 




One of ihc posters of the Ostcrrdchiwhc Vo!?-; \partei (People** 
party) used in the general election held on Oct. 9, 1949. 



82 



AVIATION, CIVIL 



running, with the Communists unable to make any real 
impression on the emphatically " western " orientation of the 
country. The party executive tabled a resolution, in May, 
calling for revision of the Allied Control agreement in order 
to secure greater freedom of action for parliament and 
government, total abolition of the censorship, the reduction 
of occupation forces to token level and the removal of zonal 
frontiers. Relations with the Austrian People's party became 
somewhat strained in the middle of the year owing to the 
latter's reputed electoral bargaining with certain prominent 
ex-Nazis, and on July 13 a bill for a further amnesty for 
certain groups of incriminated Nazis, which had been 
sponsored by the People's party, was defeated in parliament. 
But the makers of Socialist policy made it clear that they 
had no intention of breaking up the coalition before the 
general election; and, in the end, both the principal parties 
pledged themselves to its continuance, whatever the outcome 
of the polling. 

In the event the election produced little change in the 
balance of parties. The People's party won 77 seats, the 
Socialists 67, the Communists 5 and the Independents 16 
(see also ELECTIONS). This represented a loss of 8 seats by 
the People's party and 9 by the Socialists. The Communists 
gained one seat, chiefly on account of the defection of a 
left-wing Socialist leader, Erwm Scharf, who set up a Left 
bloc shortly before the elections. 

In February an occupation costs levy was imposed to 
defray the outstanding costs for 1948. On March 24 a Four 
Years' plan for Austrian agriculture was issued, to be 
operated within the framework of the European Recovery 
plan. (The outlay was estimated at Sen. 4,900 million, 
financed largely by the farmers themselves). On May 8 the 
government announced its programme of financial consolida- 
tion to replace the wage-price agreement of Sept. 1948. 
Trade agreements were made with Italy, Hungary (under 
U.S. auspices) and Germany. (W. H. CTR.) 

Education. (1948-49) fclementary schools 5,016, pupils 829,326 
teachers 25,601. Secondary schools (including commercial schools and 
training colleges) 695, pupils 73,949, teachers 10,301 Universities 4, 
and institutions of higher education 9, students 31,959 

Agriculture. Mam crops (in '000 metric tons, 1948; 1949 estimates 
in brackets), wheat 261 (294), barley 125, oats 225, rye 289 (325); 
potatoes 2,069. Livestock (in '000 head), cattle (May 1949) 2,125, 
sheep (Dec. 1948) 454; pigs (May 1949) 1,431, horses (Dec 1948) 
284, poultry (Dec. 1948)4,114 

Industry. Insured persons employed (Aug 1949) 1,978,000. Fuel 
and power (1948; 1949, six months, in brackets) coal (m '000 metric 
tons) 178 (94), lignite (in '000 metric tons) 3,336 (1,831), natural and 
manufactured gas (in million cu metres) 388 (215), electricity (in 
million kwh) 4,213 (1,952). Raw materials (in '000 metric tons 1948; 
1949, six months, in brackets) pig iron 613 (423); steel ingots and 
castings 648 (389). Manufactured goods (1948; 1949, six months, m 
brackets), cement (in '000 metric tons) 721 (465); leather shoes (in 
'000 pairs) 2,269. 

Foreign Trade. Imports (1948) Sen. 2,603 million, (1949, six months) 
Sen. 1,996 million. Exports (1948) Sch 1,984 million; (1949, six 
months) Sch 1,583 million. Main imports coal, cotton, wool and 
vegetables. Main exports iron and steel products, lumber and paper. 

Transport and Communications. Roads (1947). 53,000 mi Licensed 
motor vehicles (Dec 1948) cars 26,775, commercial vehicles 39,275 
Railways (1948) 3,758 mi ; passenger mi. 4,414 million; freight net 
ton-mi. 3,700 million Telephones (1949) subscribers 219,164. Wire- 
less licenses (1948) 892,058. 

Finance and Banking. Budget estimates (in million schillings): (1948) 
revenue 5,294, expenditure 5,891, (1949) revenue 6,090, expenditure 
7,531. Domestic debt (Dec. 1948, in brackets Dec. 1947) Sch 10,671 
(12,809) million Currency circulation (Sept 1949; in brackets Sept. 
1948): Sch 5,817 (5.132) million. Gold reserve (Sept. 1949, in brackets 
Sept. 1948). $4 9(4-8) million Bank deposits (Aug 1949, in brackets 
Aug. 1948) Sch 5,367 (4,917) million Monetary unit, schilling 
with an exchange rate (Dec. 1949, in brackets Dec. 1948) of Sch. 
40 32 (40-30) to the pound and Sch 14 40 (10- 14) to the U.S dollar. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. E H Buschbeck, Austria (London 1949). 

AVIATION, CIVIL. Relatively little expansion occur- 
red in European air transport during 1949. There were few 
new services and few new types of aircraft were put into 



service; but business on the air lines generally improved. 
The Dutch and the Belgian lines (K.L.M. and Sabena*) had a 
surplus on operations in 1948. Sabena appeared to have 
made a profit on the work of 1949. K.L.M. had its line to 
the east closed for two months and diverted for another five 
months by the closing of Pakistan to its aircraft, and, like 
the other major operators, showed a loss on the year. Yet 
almost without exception the European air lines were busier 
than they had been in 1948. As compared with 1948, passen- 
gers increased by 35% and aircraft movements were more 
than double. At London airport aircraft movements rose 
from 1,145 in Dec. 1948 to 2,423 in July 1949 and at Northolt, 
in the same months, the rise was from 1,319 to 4,565. These 
figures marked the peak of the holiday season but they also 
marked a big rise on the corresponding period of 1948. The 
general rise in the volume of traffic in 1949 seemed to have 
amounted to about 30%. 

Competition for the improved traffic remained as keen as 
ever and was no doubt responsible for the failure in the 
early part of the year of an Anglo-American attempt to 
introduce the full freedom of the air for the whole of Europe 
outside the Russian-controlled areas. The proposal, spon- 
sored by the United Kingdom and the United States, that 
the existing bilateral air agreements (giving reciprocal rights 
of operation) should be replaced by multilateral agreements 
(giving general freedom to operate commercial services) was 
rejected by a regional conference of the International Civil 
Aviation organization held at Geneva, Switzerland. 

Authority to operate international services had, therefore, 
still to be sought by individual negotiation and countries 
were still inclined to make their air agreements depend on the 
conclusion of satisfactory bargains. This was beginning to 
be modified by pooling arrangements on certain routes. The 
United Kingdom had a pooling agreement with France 
before World War 11 on the route between London and 
Paris. A similar arrangement was reported in 1949 between 
K.L.M., Scandinavian Airlines System t, the Czechoslovak 
line and one of the Italian companies on certain common 
routes. The precise terms of these agreements were not dis- 
closed but their effect was expected to restrict some forms of 
competition as well as lead to some measure of co-operation. 

Passenger fares, agreed by operators through their long- 
established International Air Transport association, remained 
steady at an average of l\d. a mile on European routes. 
Throughout the year there was some pressure towards 
lowering freight rates and towards introducing lower passen- 
ger rates on non-regular services. Indirect competition by 
British charter companies, which were forbidden to operate 
regular services, had been checked partially by allowing a 
number of them to become " associates " of British European 
Airways, operating particular services under agreements 
specifying frequencies and fares. With the return of aircraft 
from the Berlin air lift, there was a renewal of the movement 
towards cheaper fares. One charter company, operating 
Tudor II and Tudor V aircraft, offered them at rates which, 
if all seats were filled, would represent 2d. to 3d. a passenger- 
mile. As the overheads of air line companies are not supposed 
to exceed 33% of total costs, this seemed to argue that fares 
should not be as high as 7-JJ. a mile even if air line companies 
assumed that, on the average, they could not expect to fill 
more than 60% of their aircraft capacity. 

Great Britain. The two British corporations Overseas Air- 
ways and European Airways were engaged in re-organiza- 
tions designed to reduce overheads and to diminish 
the losses on their operations. In the middle of the year 
the smaller, third corporation, British South American 

* K L M = Komnkhjkc Luchtvaart Maatschappij (Royal Dutch Air Lines) ; 
SABENA -Societe Anonyme Beige d'Exploitationde la Navigation Aeriennc. 
t S A S comprises the Swedish A B.A (Aktiebolag Aero-transport), the D D.L^ 
(Del Danskc Luftfartselskab) and the D.N.L. (Det Norske Luftfartselskap). 



AVIATION, CIVIL 



83 




The British Overseas Airways Corporation flying boat ** London " at Tower Bridge, London, in May 1949. 

the pool of London and was named by the Lord Mayor on May 10. 



The flying boat landed in 



Airways, was amalgamated with B.O.A.C. This was a direct 
result of the ban put on passenger-carrying in Tudor I and 
Tudor IV aircraft after two had been inexplicably lost over 
the Atlantic. This left B.S.A.A. with an inadequate fleet and 
with no prospect of acquiring quickly other types of suitable 
aircraft. B.O.A.C. on the other hand had good aircraft 
prospects. Not only had it six Stratocruisers on order but 
it had succeeded in acquiring from Scandinavian Air Services 
the right to four more which were on order for that company. 
It had also taken over from the Irish company four additional 
Constellations; and it was expecting delivery of 22 Canadair 
Argonauts and 25 Hermes I Vs. In the event, the deliveries 
of the Hermes IVs and the Stratocruisers were much delayed 
and B.O.A.C. was somewhat handicapped both in handling 
its own business and in providing for the services which 
B.S.A.A. had intended to operate. 

British European Airways, equipped chiefly with Viking 
aircraft, had fully recovered from its early difficulties with 
this type and did good business during 1949. In the preceding 
financial year its losses were about 2,250,000. Improved 
traffic, combined with more economical management and 
maintenance, gave a much better outlook for the financial 

TABLE I. UNITED KINGDOM CIVIL AIR TRAFFIC 

All Internal External 

services services services 

1948 1949 1948 1949 1948 1949 
Aircraft mi. flown 

COOO) . . 44,206 44,121 5,461 5,934 38,745 38,187 

Pass, carried fOOO). 713 917 381 450 332 467 

Pass.-mi. ('000) .554,536 613,383 57,038 72,199 497,498 541,184 

Freight carried (tons) 8,108 14,162 1,113 1,757 6,995 12,405 

Freight ('000 ton-mi.) 15,520 18,081 197 329 15,323 17,752 

Mail carried (tons). 4,241 5,297 1,123 1,234 3,118 4,063 

Mail ('000 ton-mi.) 9,938 10,563 175 205 9,763 10,358 



year ending in March 1950. The signs were that the deficit 
would be reduced by about 1,000,000. B.O.A.C, which 
lost 5,250,000 in 1948-49, had not begun to feel the benefit 
of its new aircraft and was not expecting to show large 
additional savings on the year 1949-50. This corporation 
had already made notable economies in administration and 
reduced its deficit by nearly 2,000,000 in 1948-49. 

To fill capacity was the chief difficulty of air operators in 
a period of high fares and many competitors. Evidence of 
the competition was to be found in the fact that 17 inter- 
national air companies used London airport regularly during 
1949, although the daily passenger totals at that airport 
varied only between 600 and 1,000 and the daily freight loads 
between 20 and 25 tons. Standards of operation and the 
quality of the aircraft in use were becoming important 
factors in securing traffic asiwell as in economical running. 
During 1949 the first signs appeared of a probable British 
advantage on the air lines serving Europe. These arose from 
the successful application of the gas turbine to the needs of 
commercial air transport. 

In all other countries except Canada, the gas turbine at 
its present stage of development had been considered un- 
suitable for commercial operation, largely on account of its 
high rate of fuel consumption. In the face of that prejudice, 
British and Canadian constructors had proceeded with the 
preparation of air liners using gas turbines both as the motive 
power for driving airscrews and as the means of providing 
jet propulsion. The disadvantage in fuel consumption per 
h.p.-hr. or per Ib. thrust was admitted but a counter-argument 
based on cost per passenger-mile or on the probable return 
on capital invested was advanced by the aircraft manufac- 
turers. Proof that this argument must be taken seriously 



84 



AVIATION, CIVIL 



TABLE II. RFVFNUE STATISTICS FOR BRITISH AIR LINES (Financial years, April 1-March 31) 



B O.A.C. 

1947-4 

Operating revenue 
Operating expense 
Operating deficit 
Non-operating expense 

Total deficit 

Source Ministry of Civil Aviation. 

was contained in the interest shown by United States opera- 
tors when the first batch of gas turbine aircraft was exhibited 
during 1949. There were four liners of various sizes using 
gas turbines to turn their airscrews. These were the Vickers 
Viscount 40 to 53-seater, the Armstrong Whitworth Apollo 
26 to 41-seater, the Handley Page Hermes V 48 to 74-seater 
and the Miles Marathon 16 to 20-seater. One jet liner, the 
de Havilland Comet 36-seater appeared in England and one, 
the Avro Jetliner 36 to 40-seater, in Canada. The designer 
of the Viscount produced figures to show that it could be 
operated as cheaply per passenger-mile, up to a maximum 
practical range of 900 mi., as a comparable piston-engine liner. 
These figures had yet to be tested in conditions of regular 
service, but early experience with liners of this type suggested 
that an additional economic advantage might be derived 
from the smooth running and relative absence of vibration 
in the rotary engine which is responsible for a large part of 
the cost of airframe and instrument maintenance. This fact 
impressed air line operators, first because of its probable 
attractiveness to passengers and also because of other 
economic implications. They were likely to cruise at speeds 
between 270 and 330 m.p.h. but they did appear to offer 
new standards of passenger comfort. 

The one new liner which promised high speed was the 
Comet. A number of its long-range test flights were made 
at a speed of about 500 mi. per hr. To obtain this speed it 
flew at heights between 36,000 ft. and 40,000 ft. If operators 
should decide to fly it at a lower level, the cruising speed 
might be 450 m.p.h. or less. Its value on a highly compet- 
itive route like that between Europe and America was so 
obvious that the appearance of the first Comet caused a stir 
among operators and aircraft manufacturers alike in the 
United States. Sixteen Comets were ordered, 14 of them 
for use by British Overseas Airways. 

Some 40 Viscount turbo-prop liners were also ordered for 
use by the two corporations and these also were thought 
likely to go into service in 1953. Thus, although both cor- 
porations were still losing money on current operations, 
there was a good prospect of their leading the field in four 
years* time. Alongside this were indications that B.O.A.C. 
expected good results from the 140-ton flying-boats which 
were being built by Saunders-Roe. This type too would use 
gas turbines to turn its airscrews and was expected to cruise 
at 380 m.p.h. 

These signs of the re-entry of highly efficient British air- 
craft into the field which had been largely monopolized by 
United States aircraft led to some speculation during the 
year as to probable American reaction. Strong pressure was 
being applied during the latter part of 1949 to prevent the 
ordering of new British aircraft by United States lines at a 
time when they were extending their interests in Europe and 
on routes between Europe and the east. Pan-American 
Airways, which already had an interest in Turkey, obtained 
a 36% interest in the Lebanese-owned Middle East Airlines 
and in view of the proposed absorption of American Overseas 
Airways was likely to inherit exclusive operating rights in 
Saudi Arabia. (E. C. So.) 

Canada. Trans-Canada Airlines handled a record volume 
of traffic on its domestic and overseas routes in 1949, carrying 
more than 690,000 passengers, an increase of 23 % over 1948. 
Air cargo and air express were up 55 %, totalling over 3 6 



B.E.A. 



1947-48 


1948-49 


1947-48 


1948-49 


1947-48 


12,546,435 


15,155,017 


4,125,536 


5,434,271 


2,086,185 


19,049,601 


21,337,431 


7,409,818 


7,942,544 


2,478,274 


6,503,166 


6,182,414 


3,284,282 


2,508,273 


392,089 


586,273 


337,719* 


289,707 


254,812 


29,392 


7,091,439 


5,844,695 


3,593,989 


2,763,085 


421,481 




* Revenue 









BS.A A. 

1948-49 
2,562,203 
3,610,742 
1,048,539 
84,543 
1,133,082 



million ton-mi. Mail was almost double the 1948 total 
exceeding 3-9 million ton-mi. Financial results were not 
reported, but in 1948 T.C.A. showed a loss of about $3 
million, 60% of which was on its overseas services across 
the Atlantic and to the Caribbean and 40% on domestic 
operations. The route from Montreal to Bermuda and 
Trinidad was flown once a week with Canadair 4's. On 
Dec. 1, 1949, it was extended to Barbados. 

Canadian Pacific Air Lines, which at first had been refused 
permission to operate international services and then had 
been awarded the trans-Pacific route, had negotiations under 
way at the close of the year to extend its services beyond 
Australia to Auckland, New Zealand. Altogether, there were 
eight private carriers in Canada authorized to operate 
scheduled services, three of which were reported to have 
shown profits. In addition, there were about 150 private 
operators whose gross revenues exceeded $10,000 a year. 

Four Canadian aircraft manufacturing companies produced 
civil aircraft during 1949: the Canadian Car and Foundry 
Co. produced the Norseman; de Havilland, the Chipmunk 
and the Beaver; Candair Ltd., the "4"; and A. V. Roe 
Canada Ltd., the Avro C-102 jetliner. The last named was 
the first jet-powered civil transport to fly in the western 
hemisphere. 

TABLE III POSTWAR GROWIH OF AVIATION IN CANADA 

Aug. 31, 1946 Aug. 31. 1949 
Airports licensed . 134 376 



Pilot licences 



f private 

limited commercial 
commercial. . 
transport . . 

Air traffic controller licences . 

Air engineer licences . . 



828 

1,214 

108 

778 

93 

1,175 



2,324 

873 

78 

853 

136 

1,604 



United States. Scheduled air lines of the world, exclusive 
of the U.S.S.R., operated about 3,800 aircraft of all types 
at the end of 1949. Approximately three-fourths of all these 
transports were of U.S. manufacture. Aircraft produced 
in the United States carried about 90% of the world's 
scheduled air traffic. Principal U.S. air line transport types 
in production at the year-end were the four-engined 
Boeing Stratocruiser, the Lockheed Constellation, the 
Douglas DC-6 and the twin-engined Consolidated Vultee 
240 and Martin 2-0-2. 

Throughout the world the DC-3's and DC-4's, largely 
war surplus equipment, were still the main work horses of the 
air lines, but in the United States air carriers were fast 
changing over to the more efficient postwar types of equip- 
ment. American Airlines, for example, retired the last of its 
prewar planes from passenger service during the first half 
of the year and by December was operating with 50 DC-6's 
and 74 Convairs. 

Scheduled American air carriers operated 1,083 planes on 
both domestic and international services by the end of 1949 
and carried close to two-thirds of the world's air traffic. 
The year 1949 was the busiest the air lines of the United 
States had experienced to date. An estimated 16-5 million 
passengers were carried a total of 8,800 million passenger-mi., 
representing about a 12% increase over 1948. Scheduled 
U.S. domestic and international air lines employed 78,500 
persons in the autumn of 1949 and provided service to 705 



AVIATION, CIVIL 



85 



U.S. cities, as well as their overseas points of call. It was 
estimated that the domestic lines were carrying 43 % of the 
first class rail and air travel market in the U.S. in 1949 as 
against 39% in 1948 and only 13% in 1945. 

The year 1949 witnessed the introduction of air coach 
travel on a wide scale. Irregular carriers, operating under 
exemption permits from the Civil Aeronautics board, had 
proved that lower fares and less emphasis on the usual air 
travel luxuries would attract many new passengers to air 
travel; and one by one the major certificated air lines entered 
the coach field. Pan American World Airways' coach-type 
service between Puerto Rico and New York, inaugurated 
in the latter part of 1948, proved very popular during 1949 
and the record disclosed little diversion of first class passen- 
gers to the new coach service. Capital Airlines* initial coach 
service between New York and Chicago was an immediate 
success and by the last week of Dec. 1949 both American 
Airlines and T.W.A. (Transcontinental and Western Air) had 
begun low cost ($110) transcontinental coach service between 
New York and California. Many regarded the wide-spread 

TABLE IV. U.S. SCHEDULED AIR CARRIER OPFRATIONS 



Revenue passengers carried 

Domestic . 

International 
Revenue miles flown 

Domestic . 

International 
Revenue passenger-miles flown 

Domestic . 

International 
Total passenger-miles flown 

Domestic . 

International 
Ton-miles of express carried 

Domestic . 

International 
Ton-miles of freight carried 

Domestic . 

International 



1948 


7949 


(Actual) 


(C.A.A. 




Estimate) 


14,540,951 


16,500,000 


13,168,095 


15,000,000 


1,372,856 


1,500,000 


436,270,224 


459,691,000 


338,216,783 


352,384,000 


98,053,441 


107,307,000 


7,852,177,000 


8,800,000,000 


5,963,180,000 


6,700,000,000 


1,888,997,000 


2,100,000,000 


8,189,726,000 


9,218,000,000 


6,227,932,000 


7,012,000,000 


1,961,794,000 


2,206,000,000 


71,497,167 


80,233,000 


30,092,833 


26,469,000 


41,404,334 


53,764,000 


75,472,194 


106,095,000 


71,283,727 


97,724,000 


4,188,467 


8,371,000 



introduction of coach service during 1949 as a significant step 
toward ushering-in an era of mass air travel. (See Table IV). 
Substantial improvement in passenger and cargo traffic, 
increased mail pay and a reduction in unit operating costs 
through the installation of new postwar equipment and 
more efficient operations combined to produce the best 
revenue period since the war for U.S. carriers. Gross 
revenues increased about 13% over 1948, according to Air 
Transport association estimates, totalling $764 million in 
1949, as compared with $678-9 million in 1948. Gross 
operating expenses were estimated at $720 million as against 
$662-6 million in 1948, resulting in a major increase in net 
operating income to over $44 million for 1949 an impressive 
improvement for an industry which was operating at a heavy 
loss only three years before. Of the total 1949 revenues, 
passenger traffic contributed about 72%, mail 18%, freight, 
express, excess baggage and other services making up the 
remaining 10%. 

TABLE V.--U.S. AIR CARRIER OPERATING REVENUES AND INCOME. 

Revenues: 194$ 7949 

Domestic trunk airlines . $413,353,000 $460,000,000 

International airlines . . 249,234,000 283,000,000 

Feeder airlines . . . 16,292,000 21,000,000 



Total revenues 
Income: 

Domestic trunk airlines 
International airlines . 
Feeder airlines . 



$678,879,000 

$ 2,075,000 

13,947,000 

369,000 



$764,000,000 

$25,800,000 

20,000,000 

( ) 1,000,000 



Total income . . $16,391,000 $44,800,000 

While the 14 feeder airlines experienced substantial in- 
increases in all categories of traffic except mail during 1949, 
most of them were too new to be out of their initial develop- 
mental period. E. W. Wiggins Airways, for example, operating 
in New England, and Central Airlines in Texas and Oklahoma 
did not begin operations until Sept. 1949. Helicopter Air 
service, serving the Chicago area, began operations Aug. 20, 
1949. It was the second helicopter mail service to be started, 
following Los Angeles Airways which began in May 1947. 




The de Havilland Comet, the world's first jet airliner, which flew for the first time on July 27 1949. On Oct. 25 it flew from London to 
Castel Benito, Tripoli, and back in 8$ hrs. at an average speed of nearly 450 m.p.h. 



86 



BACTERIOLOGY 



The Civil Aeronautics board finally awarded five-year 
temporary all-cargo operating certificates in Aug. 1949 to 
Slick Airways, Flying Tigers and U.S. Airlines, culminating a 
three and a half years' battle for recognition on the part of 
these " irregulars " against determined opposition from the 
major certificated carriers. 

In spite of four serious accidents in the last half of the 
year, the U.S. scheduled airlines set a new safety record in 
1949, operating domestically and on routes around the globe 
at an over-all average rate of 1 -0 passenger fatality per 100 
million passenger-mi. On international routes U.S. carriers 
had a perfect safety record, flying 2,100 million passenger-mi, 
during the year. On domestic routes, the safety record was 
the same as in 1948, namely 1-3 fatalities per 100 million 
passenger-mi, but the airlines flew over 1,000 million more 
passenger-mi, than during the year before. 

There were an estimated 510,000 certificated pilots in the 
United States at year's end, as against 491,306 the preceding 
year. Of these, 9,678 were women pilots. Some 1 ,800 women 
were rated as air traffic control operators, about one-fifth 
of the total in that branch. The number of new student 
and private pilot certificates issued showed a sharp decrease. 
Partly due to a revision of its records, the Civil Aeronautics 
administration reported a decrease in the number of civil 
aircraft registered: 92,700 at trie end of the year. The 
number of airports in operation remained about 6,100. 

As a result of the growing use of landing and air navigation 
aids installed on the Federal airways by the C.A.A., the air- 
lines continued to increase the regularity of their scheduled 
operations without reducing safety standards. Instrument 
landing systems were in daily use at 87 points in the contin- 
ental U.S. and at 2 points in Alaska. Static-free very high 
frequency radio ranges were installed at 370 points by the 
end of the year. The Collier trophy was awarded to the 
Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics for its new 
air traffic control plan, which would not become effective, 
however, for several years. Under the Federal Aid Airport 
programme, the C.A.A. made grants totalling some $99 
million for improvements at 783 different airports. 

Meanwhile, the Civil Aeronautics board was wrestling 
with approximately 1,100 undecided proceedings which had 
piled up on its calendar, including new route applications, 
proposed mergers, interchange agreements, foreign permits, 
mail rate decisions and other matters affecting the economic 
future of the airline industry. 

South America. In Argentina one of the most imposing 
airports in the world, the Pistanni International airport 
located 15 mi. from Buenos Aires, was opened to traffic on 
Oct. 27, 1949. The four Argentine air lines, however, reported 
heavy losses ever since the government had taken them over 
a few years previously. F.A.M.A., the principal international 
air line which had been expected to begin operations between 
Buenos Aires and New York in 1949, was planning to do so 
during 1950. 

In Brazil, Panair do Brasil maintained four round trips a 
week to Europe, Africa and the middle east with Constel- 
lations. Together with Cruzeiro do Sul it operated seven 
round trips weekly to Uruguay, Argentina and Paraguay. 
Ifhese two carriers and Aerovias Brasil accounted for over 
three-fourths of Brazil's air line traffic. 

At La Paz, Bolivia, which boasts the highest airport in the 
world (altitude 13,398 ft.), Bran iff Airways operated DC-4's 
using jet-assisted take-off (Jato) and Panagra was planning 
to extend similar Jato DC-4 operations into other high- 
altitude airports along the Andean chain, notably at Cocha- 
bamba, Bolivia, and Arequipa, Peru. 

Pan American World Airways' Latin American division 
reported a record year for 1949, carrying 709,000 revenue 
passengers a total of 586 million passenger-mi., compared 



with 683,600 passengers and 548 million passenger-mi, in 
1948. Cargo totalled 16,650 tons m 1949, compared with 
14,620 tons the preceding year. The Latin American division 
completed four and a half years of accident-free operation 
on Dec. 31, 1949, during which about 2,500 million 
passenger-mi, were flown without injury to passengers or 
crew. (See also AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURE; AIRPORTS; 
AIR RACES AND RECORDS; JET PROPULSION AND GAS TUR- 
BINES ) (J. P. V. Z.) 

AVIATION, MILITARY: see AIR FORCES OF THE 
WORLD. 

AZORES, THE: see PORTUGAL. 

BACTERIOLOGY. The Society of American Bacteri- 
ologists held its 49th annual convention at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
in May 1949 with a full programme including 217 scientific 
papers. A significant step was taken by a committee of the 
society with a view to improving the professional status of all 
bacteriologists. 

A typical study in the field of bacterial physiology was 
presented by S. J. Ajl and C. H. Werkman of the Iowa 
Agricultural Experiment station who extended knowledge 
of the new concept that heterotrophic metabolism utilized 
CO^ in synthesis. A related paper by S. M. Martin and P. W. 
Wilson of the University of Wisconsin reported the utilization 
of CO., by Aspergilluf niger. 

Among the reports on agricultural bacteriology was a 
study of nitrogen fixing bacteria (Rhizobium) from Catagana 
arhorescens by K. F. Gregory and O. N. Allen of the University 
of Wisconsin. 

A representative research in the field of industrial micro- 
biology was reported by D. G. Reihard and J. C. Garey of 
the Pennsylvania State college, who studied the development 
of free amino acids in cheese during the curing period. 

A paper on medical bacteriology was that by N. B. Wil- 
liams and M. A. Judson of the University of Pennsylvania 
School of Dentistry, who found enterococci in apical abcesses 
of teeth and demonstrated S. /tfcaln, S. liquefaciens, and 
S. z\mogenes in the normal mouth of many persons. 

All the local branches of the Society of American Bacteri- 
ologists held meetings during the year and researches in all 
fields were described. One interesting study made at the 
U.S. Public Health Service, Communicable Disease centre, 
Atlanta, Georgia, dealt with the in vitro virulence test for 
C. diphtheria 1 . The test was made in a special culture medium 
and would eventually eliminate the necessity of using animals 
in this important laboratory procedure. At a meeting of the 
south western branch, held at Tuscaloosa, Alabama, a film 
showing a simple method for the prolonged preservation of 
bacteria by desiccation in vacua was shown for the first time. 
The film, with sound effects and spoken narrative, was to be 
made available on loan from the Communicable Disease 
centre, U.S.P.H.S., Atlanta, Georgia. Many valuable new 
films and other visual aids to education in bacteriology were 
also made available during the year by the Society of American 
Bacteriologists. 

A symposium on Brucellosis was held at Bethesda, Mary- 
land, in September and papers were read on every important 
aspect of the subject by a panel of experts. 

On Oct. 28 and 29 the New York Academy of Science 
sponsored a conference on the mechanism and evaluation 
of antiseptics. The first session was devoted to antibiotics, 
the second to surface-active anti-microbial agents and the 
third dealt with the use of miscellaneous chemicals, especially 
halogens, as antiseptics. The value of ethyl alcohol as a 
general disinfectant, long regarded as insignificant, was 
re-emphasized during this meeting. It appeared that 2% 
solutions of iodine in alcohol might be one of the most useful 
disinfectants for external application. 



BADMINTON BALANCE OF PAYMENTS 



87 



Much interest was also shown in new surface-active, 
synthetic disinfectant-detergents, a great many of which 
appeared on the market and in the trade during the year. 
Special interest centred around the quaternary ammonium 
compounds, especially in their mode of action and in inacti- 
vators for them, to be used in differentiating between their 
bacteriocidal action and their bactenostatic action. 

In November the American Type Culture collection pub- 
lished a new catalogue, the first since 1938. In the new 
edition 2,975 strains of organisms were listed, of which 
49% were bacteria, 28% higher fungi and 16% yeast. Also 
included were algae, protozoa and bacteriophages. Viruses 
and rickettsiae were to be handled separately and listed in a 
separate catalogue. (M. FR.) 

BADMINTON. The international Badminton cham- 
pionship was won by Malaya who defeated the United States 
6 3 at Glasgow and Denmark 8 1 at Preston, Lancashire, 
in the inter-zone ties. Ten countries competed and England, 
after victories over Scotland and France, lost to Denmark in 
the European zone final. In other international matches 
England beat Scotland 7 2 and Ireland 5 4, and lost to 
Sweden and Malaya. Scotland also lost to Ireland and 
U.S.A. The All-England championships were played at 
Harringay arena, London, when titles were won by David 
Freeman (U.S.A.); Miss Aase Jacobsen (Denmark); Ooi 
Teik Hock and Teoh Seng Khoon (Malaya); Mrs. H. S. 
Uber and Miss Q. M. Allen (England); and Clinton Stephens 
and Mrs. Stephens (U.S.A.). Cheshire won the inter-county 
championship, beating Surrey in the final. Thirty-three 
counties took part. 

Some 60 open tournaments were held in various parts of 
Great Britain. 1,900 clubs were affiliated to the Badminton 
association of England and 600 to the Scottish Badminton 
union. (H. A. E. S.) 

United States. Marten Mendez of San Diego, California, 
captured the men's singles honours m the 1 949 national badmin- 
ton championships at Chicago, Illmois,when he defeated Joseph 
Alston, also of San Diego, 158, 1215, 155, while 
Ethel Marshall, Buffalo, New York, won the women's 
laurels for the third successive season. Miss Marshall routed 
Marianna Gott of West Los Angeles, California, 11 2, 
11 8, in the title round. 

Wynn Rogers of Arcadia, California, teamed with Barney 
McCay of Alhambra, California, to win the men's doubles. 
Thelma Scovil and Janet Wright, both of San Francisco, 
California, again repeated their previous success in the 
women's doubles and Rogers triumphed in the mixed doubles 
with Mrs. Loma Smith of Arcadia. (T. V. H.) 

BAHAMAS. British colony consisting of an archipelago 
outside the Gulf of Mexico and off the coast of Florida. 
Area: 4,404 sq. mi. Pop. (1948 est.): c. 76,620. Capital: 
Nassau. Governor, Sir George Sandford. 

Rapid progress was made in the construction of Button's 
vacation village at West End, Grand Bahama. Announce- 
ment was made of negotiations with the United States for 
passage over the colony of rockets from Florida on the first 
500 mi. leg of a Caribbean guided missile range. A general 
election in the summer resulted in 13 new members being 
elected to the House of Assembly. After further re-cxamma- 
tion it was decided the sponge beds were not yet sufficiently 
restored to justify re-opening. 

Finance and Trade. The legal tender is British sterling currency, 
though U.S. currency is also generally accepted. Budget (1948): 
revenue 1,360,226; expenditure 1,317,621. Foreign trade (1948): 
imports 4,720,151; exports (visible) 551,920. Tomatoes, lumber 
and crawfish were the principal exports in 1948, but the economy of 
the colony is primarily dependent on the tourist industry. (J. A. Hu.) 

BAHREIN ISLANDS: see ARABIA; BRITISH EMPIRE. 



BAKERY PRODUCTS: see BREAD AND BAKERY 
PRODUCTS. 

BALANCE OF PAYMENTS. Events of 1949 
justified fears expressed in the previous year that Great 
Britain might not succeed in maintaining the improvement 
in her balance of payments achieved in 1948. During the 
second and third quarters of the year, much of the ground 
gained during 1948 was lost, nor could it be fully recovered 
in the last quarter. This setback was not immediately 
apparent; on the contrary, the total deficit, amounting to 10 
million for, the first half of the year (or 20 million at the 
annual rate) represented less than one-fifth of the 110 
million shortfall for 1948. But this seeming improvement 
concealed a renewed increase in the dollar deficit, its most 
important and at the same time least tractable component. 
This adverse development was largely due to a marked 
decline in business activity in the U.S. and in the dollar 
area in general. Thus, according to estimates of the U.S. 
Federal Reserve board, the volume of industrial production 
in the U.S. had, by Oct. 1949, contracted by more than 
one-fifth (22%) compared with its maximum of Oct.- Nov. 
1948. As a result, U.S. imports dropped appreciably and 
the dollar income of the exporting countries shrank 
correspondingly. The dollar shortage, manifest throughout 
the world after World War II, grew worse again, after some 
improvement in 1948. Most countries could only meet their 
commitments m that currency by further depleting such 
meagre gold and hard currency reserves as they could muster. 
In Great Britain's case, in particular, a heavy outflow of 
gold and dollars reduced these reserves to far below the safety 
level, generally set at 500 million Ultimately, in an attempt 
to stop the heavy drain, the pound was devalued (Sept. 18), 
a measure followed by the devaluation of many other 
currencies.* 

TABLE I. UNITED KINGDOM BALANCE OP PAYMENTS 1947 TO 1949. 

CURRENT ACCOUNT 

( million) 

Payments 1938 1947 1948 I949 t 

1. Imports (fob. prices) . . 835 1,541 1,768 955 

2. Government expenditure 

abroad .... 16 207 96 79 

3. Shipping .... 80 181 189 97 

4. Interest, profits and dividends 30 106 108 55 

5. Films (net) .... 7 14 10 3 

6. Travel . 40 80 77 34 



1,008 2,129 2,248 1,223 



533 


1,100 


1,555 


907 


100 


205 


246 


137 


205 


153 


174 


83 


28 


21 


33 


19 


72 


20 


130 


67 


938 


1,499 


2,138 


1,213 



7. Total payments 

Receipts 

8. Exports and re-exports (f o.b.) 

9. Shipping .... 

10. Interest, profits and dividends 

11. Travel .... 

12. Other (net) .... 

13. Total receipts . 

14. SURPLUS (+) or DEFICIT ( ) 

on current account . 
Of which : Visible trade 

Invisible 
t Provisional figures for first six months 

Current Account. At first sight, the figures for the first half 
of 1949 (released in October) hardly reflected the onset of a 
new crisis. Excepting the second half of 1948, when there 
had actually been a surplus of 45 million, the results were 
the best recorded since the end of World War II. Total 
receipts from abroad had risen by 13-4% over the period; 
total outward payments had increased by only 8 %. Exports 

* Great Britain's gold and dollar holdings were as follows. Dec. 31, 1948; 
457 million; June 30, 406; Sept 30, 351 (after a low of 330 on Sept. 18); 
by Dec. 31, 1949, they had improved to 416 All figures at pre-devaluation rates. 



70 630 110 10 
_302 441 213 48 
+232 189 +103 +38 



BALANCE OF PAYMENTS 



of merchandise had expanded by 16-6%, against only 
6-3% for imports. Altogether, exports had made a very 
satisfactory showing, although their rate of expansion had 
slowed down. But analysed by destinations, their dollar 
content had shrunk by some 26% compared with the 
second half of 1948. 

Invisible Trade. Income from invisible transactions had, on 
balance, contracted by 26% over the period. (See Table II.) 

Invisibles would have made a better showing but for the 
heavy increase in government payments abroad of which fully 
112 million were military expenditure.* Receipts from all 
commercial transactions combined improved appreciably 
(-f-17-5%). The gradual replacement of merchant tonnage 
lost during World War II showed in a further striking 
advance of shipping receipts (-f-42%). The expansion of 
earning assets more than outweighed the progressive drop in 
freight rates after 1948. The omnibus item " Other receipts," 
containing the overseas income of British oil and insurance 
companies, royalties, bankers' and merchants' commissions, 
etc., less payments made under these headings, rose only by 
a small amount after its remarkable expansion in 1948. Not 
unexpectedly, income from interest, profits and dividends 
dropped (by about 15%). Taking the 30 months from 
Jan. 1, 1946] to June 30, 1949, the progressive decline of Great 
Britain's " independent income " ' was unmistakable, reflec- 
ting further sales of foreign assets during the first postwar 
years, after the large-scale realizations of the war period. 



^Million DEFICIT 

TOO -600 -500 400 -30O -200 



UK CURRENT ACCOUNT 

DISTRIBUTION BY AREAS 



SURPLUS 
+100 +ZOO 




TOTAL SURPLUS* OR DEFICIT- 
on vltlblt 



on Invisible trod* 



J_ 



J_ 



_L 



J_ 



-TOO -600 -500 -400 -3OO -200 -IOO 



O.E.E.C. COUNTRIES 
1947 

1948 
19490ft ho If) 




+200 



On the debit side, the excess of British tourist expenditure 
abroad over expenditure of foreign tourists in Britain was 
appreciably reduced. The figures for the first half of the year 
did not, however, include the results of the mam tourist 
season. 

In the final outcome, the total deficit of the balance of 
payments on current account at the end of June 1949 
represented, at 10 million, less than 1 % of the balance sheet 
total. Had currencies been freely convertible in gold and 
dollars, there would thus have been no " balance of pay- 
ments problem " for Britain, for it would then have been 
possible to offset practically the whole of payments currently 
owed by Britain, a negligible balance excepted, by sums 
currently received from her debtors. But after 1939, such 
compensation had in actual fact been quite impossible. The 
final deficit was a mere book entry, the result of a purely 
nominal compensation between certain positive and negative 
items. (See Table III.) 

As the surplus of 155 million from countries outside the 

* 55 million of this represented, however, special payments to India and 
Pakistan, upon the termination of British rule. 



dollar area could not be used to settle the dollar deficit 
amounting to 135 million, the latter figure (not the 10 
million of the total deficit) measured the real size of the gap 
in the balance of payments. On an annual basis, the dollar 
deficit was still equivalent to 270 million, against 280 
million for 1948, and 230 million for the last six months of 
that year. Compared with that last figure, the best achieved 
after the end of World War II, it had, since the beginning 
of 1949, increased by over one-sixth ( + 17-3%). 

TABLE II. BALANCE OF INVISIBLE TRADE OP GREAT BRITAIN 
( million) 

1948 1949 

(First half, at 
Net balances of Income from (-f-) or expenditure on ( ) annual rate) 

Shipping +57 -f80 

Interest, profits and dividends . 4-66 -f56 

Films .... . 10 6 

Travel .... . 44 30 

Other receipts . . . . -f!30 +134 



Government expenditure abroad . 
Net balance .... 



+ 199 
96 

+ 103 



+234 
158 



Capital Account. The current account thus analysed does 
not, however, disclose the full story. It records only 
annually recurring expenditure and receipts (e.g., merchandise 
exports and freight receipts as a credit; expenditure on films 
and foreign travel as a debit). But there are numerous 
other payments and receipts, recurring and non-recurring, 
which constitute capital transactions and as such are 
recorded in a separate capital account. This record shows 
the movement of Great Britain's assets in, and liabilities to, 
foreign countries: loans granted or contracted; redemption 
of debts owing or owed; purchases of gold, etc. Many 
transactions arise out of commitments assumed by Great 
Britain or by foreign countries in past years, others represent 
new commitments. In Britain's case, these capital transactions 
are particularly important because of its role as banker to 
the whole sterling area. Finally, the debit balance of the 
current account appears as a balancing item on capital 
account inasmuch as it must be settled by a capital transaction 
(generally by shipping gold or by borrowing funds from 
abroad). Gold shipments (or dollar payments tantamount 
to gold shipments) arise in settlements with the dollar area, 
Belgium, Switzerland, Persia, etc. With the sterling area, 
a debit balance on capital account entails an increase in 
the sterling debt owed by Great Britain. But conversely, 
a credit balance, under present conditions, merely involves 
a write-off from the heavy sterling debt incurred by Britain 
since 1939. 

TABLE III. THE UNITED KINGDOM BALANCE OP PAYMENT* 
CURRENT ACCOUNT 

( million) 

Surplus Deficit 

From O.E.E.C. countries . 15 With the dollar area . 135 
From the sterling area . . 115 With " other countries " 30 
From " other western hemis- 
phere " . . . .25 
Balance (deficit) . . . 10 

165 ~165 

For the first half of 1949, the net gold and dollar deficit 
with the dollar area, on capital account, amounted to 239 
million (1948, full year, 423 million; last six months, 
169 million). Compared with the second half of 1948, the 
rate of the deficit had thus increased by 41 -4%. The adverse 
movement had gained in speed during the second quarter 
of 1949 when the outflow totalled 157 million, against 
82 million for the first quarter.* Payments made for United 
Kingdom account, at 153 million, ran at practically the 
same rate as for 1948, but those made on behalf of the rest 
of the sterling area more than trebled (43 million for six 

* 133 million during the third quarter 1949. 



BALANCE OF PAYMENTS 



89 



months, against 26 million for the full year 1948). The 
major part of these gold and dollar losses must be ascribed 
to increased imports of American goods by the other sterling 
area countries (India, and also South Africa, despite some 
reduction, as compared with 1948). In part, this development 
might have been due to defects in the exchange control. 
But too rapid a release of sterling balances, for political or 
military reasons, seemed to have been the decisive factor. 
Such funds were either converted into dollars or used to pay 
for goods purchased in Great Britain. (Such British exports 
were thus settled through the capital account by a mere book- 
keeping entry. Hence the expression "unrequited exports" 
used to designate these transactions. While these exports 
made an important contribution to employment in Great 
Britain and to the maintenance of British goodwill in the 
sterling area, they frequently absorbed resources which might 
have been used for the production of "dollar" exports.) 

Against this outflow of gold and exchange reserves had 
to be set the reduction, resulting from this release, in the 
United Kingdom's external indebtedness (125 million) and 
a net increase in its external capital assets both inside and 
outside the sterling area (104 million). The remaining debit 
balance of 10 million was equal to the deficit on current 
account (see above). As with the current account and for 
the same reasons, the gold and dollar deficit was decisive 
for an assessment of the real position on capital account. 

Sterling Balances. At the end of 1949, the future treatment of 
the sterling balances promised to become a major issue. 
For economic and political reasons alike, the creditors 
among which were such undeveloped countries as India, 
Pakistan, Egypt, Iraq, etc., but also a number of countries 
outside the sterling area could at best be expected to accept 
a very partial write-off of their claims, even though these 
might, in many cases, have arisen out of defence expenditure 
undertaken by the United Kingdom on their behalf during 
World War II. Yet, the acceleration of their drawings 
(130 million in 1947; 213 million in 1948; 125 million 
during the first half of 1949) placed an excessive burden on 
the United Kingdom's straitened resources. This problem 
became even more urgent with the approaching end of the 
European Recovery programme: indeed, E.R.P. aid had, 
during the first half of 1949, covered 69% of the total gold 
and dollar outflow (166 million out of 239 million). A 
long term funding agreement limiting both the conversion 
of sterling balances into dollars and the volume of unrequited 
exports would thus be of great help. 

Interim Measures. Pending the conclusion of such an 
agreement, and with the drop in dollar receipts from direct 
exports, only two means both short-term expedients were 
available to deal with the dollar deficit: a further reduction 
of imports from the dollar area ; and a devaluation of the 
pound in order to stimulate exports to the dollar area. The 
cut in imports was decided upon in July, after the onset of 
the mid-year crisis, and was to have produced a saving of 
$400 million (then 100 million) over a full year, but as 
previous cuts had already reduced these imports to the 
barest essentials, the possibility of further savings on that 
score appeared in fact doubtful, nor could they in any case 
be effective much before the middle of 1950. Thus, only 
devaluation remained to stop the dollar drain at short notice. 
It achieved this immediate purpose and 21 million worth 
of gold and dollars (at the old rate of exchange) returned to 
the Exchange Equalization account during the last fortnight 
of September and the reflux continued thereafter, if at a 
slower pace. But the long term advantages of devaluation 
were more doubtful : resources of manpower and productive 
equipment were fully employed; British economy showed 
distinct signs of inflation, and devaluation was an inflationary 
measure; finally, the receptivity of the American market for 



increased imports appeared very doubtful indeed. During 
the last weeks of 1949, it was not yet certain whether dollar 
receipts could be maintained at pre-devaluation level, let 
alone increased. (At the beginning of Jan. 1950, the chancellor 
of the exchequer announced that the total balance of pay- 
ments deficit for 1949 would " not be far from that of 1948 
in which there was an overall deficit of 110 million." But 
the amount of the dollar deficit for 1949 was not yet known. 
The rate at which it was running was higher at the end than 
at the beginning of 1949.) 



UK BALANCE OF PAYMENTS 



J OC*M oflmpor* 
over exports 



ovtrwoi 
D Other rwiptt D OtfWt 




tot poyment$ 
Net receipts 



The Balance of Payments Crisis as a World Problem. In a 
report issued in Jan. 1949 by the Organization for European 
Economic Co-operation, official admission had come for the 
first time that despite American aid and whatever their 
efforts, the O.E.E.C. countries, upon termination of the 
European Recovery programme (June 30, 1952, at the latest), 
would still show a dollar deficit of about $3,000 million. 
At the end of 1949, it was practically certain that Great 
Britain, singly or m conjunction with her O.E.E.C. partners, 
would be unable to equilibrate her dollar balance by that 
date without outside help. There was growing recognition 
that the dollar shortage had to be considered as a long term 
factor in the balance of payments position, resulting from 
important structural changes that had taken place in world 
economy after 1920. To the persistent deficits of Great 
Britain and most other countries corresponded as persistent 
a surplus in the U.S. balance of payments. Both were 
abnormal in volume and duration. In Europe at any rate, 
it was no longer doubted that the U.S., to redress this situation, 
would have to make radical changes in its tariff policy, in 
order to replace by an import surplus the long standing 
export surplus in its own balance of payments. 

Despite growing recognition of this necessity in the U.S. 
as evidenced by President Truman's and Dean Acheson's 
speeches in November the slowness of progress in this 
direction caused grave fears among European observers. 
Many also held that neither the recommended resumption of 
American private lending to foreign countries nor the 
development of backward areas point four in President 
Truman's inaugural address of Jan. 1949 would be an 
adequate substitute for a change in tariff policy, the factors 
of volume and time being decisive. At the end of 1949, 
Great Britain's and western Europe's prospects for 1952 and 
after appeared bleak indeed. With the approaching end of 
E.R.P. and failing a change in American economic policy, 
the balance of payments crisis might in the early 1950s 
cause a general economic crisis. (R. P. S.) 



90 



BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS BANKING 



BALLET: see DANCE. 

BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLE- 
MENTS. Founded in Basle, in 1930, this institution was 
established by the main European issue banks and commercial 
banks for the purpose, first, of handling the transfer of 
German reparations under the 1930 Hague agreement 
(Young Plan) and, secondly, of acting as banker to these 
issue banks. After 1945, its activity was mainly devoted to 
this second function. After 1947 it also acted as central 
clearing agent under multilateral monetary compensation 
schemes (extended in Oct. 1948 to all members of the Or- 
ganization for European Economic Co-operation). 

BANK FOR INFFRNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS 



A isets 

Gold in bar and corns 

Cash and sight funds 

Funds held in re-discountable bills and 

acceptances 
Miscellaneous assets 
Funds invested in Germany 



Liabilities 

Short-term and sight deposits (gold) 
Ditto (various currencies) 
Long-term deposits 
Miscellaneous provisions 
Reserves (legal and general) 
PaiJ-up capital 

Earmarked gold (not included above) 



(Million Swiss gold 
francs, pre-1936 value) 
March 31, March 31, 

1949 1948 

150-7 122-4 

39-2 42-9 



233-7 

1-6 

297-2 



98-2 
1 2 

291-2 

722-4 555 9 



21-6 
220-2 
228 9 
106-8 

19-9 
125-0 
722 4 
169 5 



17-7 

57-5 

228-9 

106-9 

19 9 

125 



During the financial year 1948-49, customers' deposits 
in gold and various currencies increased to almost four times 
the amount of the previous year thus enabling the bank to 
expand correspondingly its productive lendings and invest- 
ments. In 1948-49, also, the bank's turnover was two and a 
half times as large as in 1947-48 but the net profit, at Swiss 
(gold) Frs. 5,101,856 against 9,541,434, was appreciably 
lower. As had been the case since 1944-45, the last year for 
which a dividend was paid, the whole profit was placed to 
reserve. 

The bank's cautious dividend policy was accounted for 
by the fact that a large proportion of its assets continued to 
be invested in Germany in execution of the Hague agree- 
ments of 1930. In 1949 both the legal position and the real 
value of these assets remained undefined. The bank's liabili- 
ties to reparation creditors represented roughly 90% of its 
German assets and, to the extent of some 55%, were covered 
by its open reserves. 

At the opening of the financial year 1949-50, Maurice. 
Frere, governor of the National Bank of Belgium, continued 
as chairman of the bank with Sir Otto Niemeyer, a director 
of the Bank of England, as vice chairman. Roger Auboin 
(France) continued as general manager. The highly informa- 
tive Annual Report of the bank was again published under the 
supervision of Dr. Per Jacobsson, economic adviser to the 
bank. (R. p. S.) 

BANKING. Inflationary stresses, together with the meas- 
ures taken by the various governments to contain them, 
dominated the banking scene in Great Britain, the Common- 
wealth, Europe and the middle east in 1949. In most of 
these areas, internal financial conditions were more stable 
than in 1948, in large measure owing to the widespread 
realization that a more vigorous application of disinflationary 
proposals drawn up in earlier years was needed to combat the 
new difficulties that arose in the external payments field 



from the change in the world economic climate. The dis- 
location of international trade caused by the divergence of 
sterling and dollar prices in the period before the world 
currency re-alignment had little direct effect on banking affairs 
in most countries. After the currency re-alignment bankers in 
many of the countries that had devalued their currencies 
were called upon to tighten credit restrictions. This was in 
connection with official programmes to combat the in- 
flationary forces that were expected to be released by the 
exchange adjustment. Otherwise the alteration in currency 
exchange rates produced few important changes in the bank- 
ing situation in these areas before the year closed. 

Great Britain. The year opened in Great Britain with a 
decisive down-turn in the volume of bank money, explained 
partly by seasonal factors and partly by the pressures exerted 
by the government's money policy. The budget proposals 
introduced in April turned out to be less dis-mflationary in 
their effect than Sir Stafford Cripps, the chancellor of the 
exchequer, had intended and bank deposits showed a ten- 
dency during the summer and autumn months to climb at a 
pace that could not be wholly explained by seasonal con- 
siderations. The table giving the out-turn for 1949 up to 
October of the 11 London clearing banks (which together 
accounted for about 95% of all commercial banking re- 
sources in Britain) showed that at that time the total of bank 
deposits was virtually as high as a year before. 

ELEVEN LONDON CLLARING BANKS 
( million) 

Oct 1947 Oct. 1948 Oct 1949 

Deposits . . . 5,690 6,040 6,049 6 

" True " deposits . 5,510 5,855 5,867-9 

Cash . . 468 485 498 7 

Call money . 466 497 555-7 

Bill holdings . 825 802 1,162-1 

Treasury deposit receipts 1,147 1,313 7440 

Investments 1,500 1,475 1,516 8 

Advances . 1.176 1,355 1,465 5 

Acceptances, etc. . 238 243 260 8 

Examination of the banks' asset figures given in the table 
reveals that although total bank resources showed little net 
change in 1949, there were important changes in the way in 
which these resources were employed. In the first place, there 
was a considerable drop in the volume of bank lending to 
the public sector of the economy and an equally large ex- 
pansion in lending to the private sector. The fact that cash, 
call money, holdings of bills and treasury deposit receipts 
together snowed a substantial net decline during the year was 
due to a reduction in the volume of bank financing of the 
government's floating debt. The rise in bank loans reflected 
the provision of additional finance by the banks to industry 
and commerce. Further, as there was no reason to suppose 
that the government was a net seller of medium and longer- 
dated government securities during the year, the presumption 
was that the increase recorded in the bank's investments also 
indicated purchases from the general public and therefore 
an indirect method of extending additional finance to the 
private sector of the economy. 

An original intention of the Cripps disinflation policy was 
to repay the government debt held by the banks with the aid 
of a budget surplus and so place these institutions in a position 
to furnish without increasing total lendings, the additional 
monetary resources needed by industry to finance recon- 
struction and development. This intention appeared to have 
been largely realized in 1949 so far as the " switch " from 
official to private lending by the banks was concerned. 
But in the event the contraction in bank lending to the 
government was due more to an unexpected accumulation of 
sterling resources in the hands of the government depart- 
ments caused by the development of a substantial overall 
trade gap in the middle of the year than to an excess of 
government receipts over payments on budget account. 



BANKING 



91 



The second major change in the deployment of British 
bank resources in 1949 was the result of the official decision 
to reduce the amount of government borrowing on the 
treasury deposit receipts in favour of increased borrowing 
on treasury bills. This development was welcomed, the 
banking community in general having long argued that the 
T.D.R., introduced during World War II as a means of 
drawing finance in the required amounts from the banking 
system quickly and conveniently, was not suited to peace- 
time conditions. 

The increasing difficulties experienced by industry in 
raising capital on the new issue market kept the demand for 
bank finance on industrial account at a high level during the 
year. The banks continued to restrict lending in accordance 
with the directive given to them by the government earlier 
in the year. But despite the rise in rates of interest on govern- 
ment securities during the year, no general increase was 
made in rates of interest charged for bank loans. Small 
adjustments were made, however, in rates quoted for dis- 
counting commeicial bills, consequent upon the increased 
risks attaching to this type of paper after the change from 
sellers' to buyers' market conditions in world markets. 

During the year it was announced that two important 
Scottish banks, the Clydesdale bank and the North of 
Scotland bank, were to be merged from 1950. The spheres 
of influence of the two banks, both of which had been owned 
by the Midland bank for over 25 years, were complementary 
so that no great structural changes were involved. 

The Commonwealth. One of the most interesting develop- 
ments in banking affairs in the Commonwealth countries 
was the dismissal by the Privy Council of the United Kingdom 
of the appeals made by the Australian government and several 
state governments of Australia against an earlier ruling by 
the High Court of Australia that vital operative sections of 
the Australian government's act nationalizing the trading 
banks of that country were ultra vires. In the absence of a 
clear statement by the Australian government, however, it 
was impossible to say whether the threat of nationalization 
of the trading banks had in consequence been permanently 
or temporarily removed. The resources of the Australian 
banks continued to expand during the year, the deposits 
of the nine trading banks rising to A795-0 million in July 
as compared with A698 6 million a year before. The move- 
ment was due in part to the influx of capital from overseas 
and in part to inflationary pressures generated by the high 
level of export earnings and intense activity in the capital 
development field, the latter being itself to some extent the 
result of the inflow of overseas capital for investment pur- 
poses. Most of the additional resources were devoted by 
the banks to strengthening " special accounts " with the 
Commonwealth bank. Loans to private industry were, how- 
ever, increased by about A40 million during the year. 

In New Zealand the exchange revaluation of July 1948 
helped to restrain inflation previously caused by expanding 
export incomes and the steady rise in the prices of imported 
goods. But there was a further modest addition to the volume 
of bank resources in the year to mid- 1949. 

The money-goods gap caused by the high level of capital 
development and the government's efforts to stimulate 
exports to the United States produced a further expansion 
in the volume of bank activity in money terms in Canada 
during 1949. The active note circulation of the Bank of 
Canada in 1949 rose up to August by 2% to $1,085 million. 
Over the same period, the deposits of the chartered banks 
showed an increase of $582 million to $8,188 million. About 
one-half of these additional resources were utilized to expand 
the banks' holdings of government securities. Most of the 
balance was represented by increased loans to industry and 
commerce. 



The deterioration in South Africa's payments position in 
progress through the greater part of the year, and the steps 
taken by the government to deal with it, had sharp reper- 
cussions on the country's banking situation. At the beginning 
of 1949, the banks were asked, as a matter of public policy, 
to contract credit facilities for non-productive purposes 
generally and to restrict advances in the case of less essential 
or over-developed industries. After the devaluation of the 
South African pound in terms of the U.S. dollar, the govern- 
ment embarked on a positive policy of " dearer money." 
The bank rate was raised, causing the commercial banks to 
make corresponding adjustments in rates for deposits, loans 
and discounts. The drain on the cash resources of the banks 
caused mostly by payments on sterling account and by the 
deposit of commercial bank funds with the National Finance 
corporation, set up during the year to channel " idle funds " 
into desirable capital outlays, caused the authorities to adjust 
the minimum reserve which the South African commercial 
banks were required to maintain with the Reserve bank 
from 10 to 7% in the autumn. In the twelve months to July 
1949, these reserves dropped by SA106-6 million to SA44-9 
million. Over the same period, deposits declined from SA395 
million to SA310-9 million. 

A feature of the Indian banking year was the passing of 
new legislation to bring the commercial banks under closer 
official supervision, with the particular object of limiting 
the extent to which such banks could mismanage their affairs. 
Inflationary forces were at work during the greater part of 
the year, but owing to the relief provided by the inflow of 
unrequited imports from the United Kingdom the net ex- 
pansion in the volume of bank money was relatively moderate. 

In Pakistan, further important steps were taken to strength- 
en the banking structure in order to make it easier to carry 
out the government's new economic development programme. 

The Ceylon authorities pressed forward with plans for the 
establishment of a central bank. In this connection a proposal 
that the dominion should retain part of its net earning of 
dollars, instead of contributing them to the sterling area pool, 
for the purpose of starting a gold and dollar reserve was 
approved by the British authorities. 

The Middle East. The new Israeli government carried out 
a general overhaul of banking arrangements following the 
decision to make the Anglo- Palestine bank the central bank 
of the new state which had been taken towards the close of 
1948. In the neighbouring kingdom of the Jordan steps 
were taken to establish a state bank and to provide for the 
issue of a separate Jordanian currency. 

Europe. The outstanding development in banking affairs 
in France, Italy, Belgium and Western Germany in 1949 
was the partial relaxation of the credit restrictions that had 
been imposed in 1947 and 1948 to counter inflationary 
pressures. In all these countries interest rates were reduced 
and physical controls on lending modified with the deliberate 
object of encouraging increased lending by the banks to 
obtain capital outlays. In Belgium official steps to this end 
included a complete overhaul of the regulations governing 
the cover of liabilities maintained by the commercial banks, 
as well as a reduction in bank rate. In most of these countries 
the 4i cheaper money " policy led to an expansion in the 
advances and deposits of the trading banks. In Switzerland 
an important factor in the banking situation during 1949 was 
the renewed influx of gold from other countries. However, 
steps taken by the Swiss authorities to " neutralize " the gold 
inflow proved largely successful, the volume of bank money 
showing no substantial change. In the Netherlands and the 
Scandinavian countries, the tendency for the supply of savings 
to fall short of the demand for investment finance was the 
main concern of bankers. The demand for bank finance on 
official account was, however, generally much reduced when 



92 



BANKING 



compared with the preceding years so that it was possible 
to avoid further large increases in balance-sheet totals of an 
inflationary character. (C. H. G. T.) 

United States. In 1949, banking and monetary develop- 
ments followed a pattern first of moderate contraction of 
bank credit and then of renewed expansion. Contraction of 
bank credit occurred in the winter and spring, accompanying 
the downward movement in business. Later in the year, 
recovery in levels of economic activity brought about a 
resumption of bank credit expansion. 

A notable develoment in the field of banking which 
occurred during 1949 was a comprehensive congressional 
study and investigation into the effectiveness and co-ordina- 
tion of monetary, credit and fiscal policies. The Sub- 
committee on Monetary, Credit and Fiscal Policies of the 
Joint Committee on the Economic Report received state- 
ments on the issues involved from the heads of government 
agencies in the credit field and from a number of leading 
economists, bankers and businessmen. The publication of 
this collection of statements was followed by hearings 
before the sub-committee during November and December, 
and by the submission of a report by the sub-committee in 
Jan. 1950. Strong differences of opinion among government 
officials, bankers and economists appeared in the course of 
the congressional inquiry. In its report, the sub-committee 
recommended ** not only that an appropriate, vigorous, and 
co-ordinated monetary, credit and fiscal policy be employed 
to promote the purposes of the Employment act, but also 
that such policies constitute the government's primary and 
principal method of promoting those purposes." 

In 1949 total bank deposits, other than inter-bank and 
United States government, and currency outside banks rose 
by $1,000 million to reach a new record level of $170,100 
million at the end of 1949. The decline in currency outside 
banks, of about $1,100 million marked an acceleration in 
the decline of the preceding two years. Demand deposits 
adjusted rose $1,200 million during the year. The rise in 
total time deposits adjusted, amounting to $1,000 million 
represented a corresponding increase of time deposits at 
mutual savings banks with an increase of $100 million in 
time deposits at commercial banks being offset by a decline 
of about the same amount in postal savings deposits. 

During the year as a whole, total loans of all commercial 
banks increased by about $800 million. Holdings of govern- 
ment securities rose $4,700 million and holdings of other 
securities increased about $1,000 million. Total loans and 
investments rose by about $6,500 million during 1949. 
These developments were in sharp contrast to those of the 
previous year when a large increase in the total loans of all 
commercial banks was offset by a greater decline in holdings 
of government securities with total loans and investments 
showing a decline. 

At the end of the year, total loans of all commercial banks 
amounted to $43,300 million, exceeding all previous records. 
During 1946, 1947, 1948 and 1949, major changes had taken 
place in the composition of loans and investments of all 
commercial banks Total earning assets of all commercial 
banks showed some decline in the four years from $124,000 
million on Dec. 31, 1945, to $120,800 million at the end of 
1949. Total loans were up $17,200 million. In contrast, 
holdings of government securities declined by $23,300 million. 
Holdings of other securities rose to $3,000 million. 

On June 30, 1949, national banks, which numbered almost 
5,000, held $78,200 million of total deposits. State banks, 
which numbered rather more than 9,000 had total deposits 
of $59,300 million. 

Total consumer credit outstanding was $18,800 million 
at the end of Dec. 1 949, an increase of 1 5 % or $2,500 million 
during the year. Almost all of the total growth occurred in 



the instalment credit category, with non-instalment credit, 
including charge accounts, single payment loans and service 
credit, rising only slightly. Apparently in response to eased 
credit terms, which occurred after expiration of Regulation 
W on June 30, outstanding instalment sale credit (appliances, 
furniture, radio and television sets) was 21 % greater than 
at the end of 1948. Cash instalment loans increased 14% 
during 1949, evidence of the gradually weakening liquid 
asset position on the part of individual consumers. 

The gold stock showed little change during the year as a 
whole. An increase of almost $400 million in the gold stock 
in the first nine months of the year was followed by a decline 
of almost $300 million after the devaluation of the British 
pound and other currencies in September. Just before the 
devaluation of the pound sterling on Sept. 18 and the sub- 
sequent changes in other currency values, the gold stock 
reached a record of about $24,700 million. 

Corporate issues for new capital decreased in 1949 as 
compared with the preceding year, but nevertheless remained 
at a high level. New corporate security financing fell off 
sharply during the last six months of the year, however, in 
large part as a result of a moderate decrease in business 
capital expenditures and lessened working capital require- 
ments. The tendency for a growing reliance on internal 
sources of funds continued in 1949. Bond issues comprised 
the bulk of corporate issues for new capital purposes, although 
the volume of new stock issues somewhat exceeded the 
1948 total. Refunding issues were small in volume. State 
and local government issues for new capital reached a new 
record-breaking total, in spite of the reduced contributions 
of veterans' bonus bonds. (J. K. L.) 

Mutual Savings Banks. The mutual savings banks of the 
United States ended the year July 1, 1948-July 1, 1949, with 
assets totalling $21,1 12,142,047, deposits of $18,949,020,1 1 1, 
and a surplus of $2,062,634,259, equivalent to 10-9% of 
deposits. During the year which ended on July 1, 1949, the 
net increase in assets was $849, 1 84,942 or 4 2 % and the net 
increase in deposits was $738,588,044 or 4 1 %. These 
increases were less than those recorded during the previous 
year of $910,356,586 or 4-7%, and $793,955,422 or 4-6% 
respectively. There were 19,186,258 accounts on July 1, 
1949, a net gain of 432,579 during the year, whereas in the 
previous year there was a net gain of 566,661 accounts. 

The average rate of dividend paid by all mutual savings 
banks increased from 1-73% on July 1, 1948, to 1 -90% on 
July 1, 1949. On Dec. 31, 1949, there were 531 banks and 
1 98 branches in operation, a net decrease of one bank and 
an increase of 17 branches during 1949, two of which were 
the result of mergers. 

The annual growth of the savings banks had become 
relatively stabilized during the preceding three years at under 
$1,000 million. In the calendar year 1947 the net increase in 
deposits of mutual savings banks was $946,407,838; in 1948 
it was $64 1,345,892, and for the first half of 1949 $547,742,152. 
In this same period the private share capital in savings and 
loan associations grew at the rate of $1,200 million annually, 
and private life insurance reserves increased $3,500 million 
annually. In addition the savings departments of com- 
mercial banks, the post offices (by means of postal savings), 
the U.S. Treasury Department (by selling savings bonds) 
and open-end investment trusts actively competed for the 
savings of the small investor. Since the portion of national 
income available for current savings had declined sharply 
since the war it had become necessary for the savings banks 
to extend their efforts to get new business. More branches, 
longer hours and higher dividend payments were adopted 
by many banks, and legal investment provisions of various 
savings bank states were changed to enable the banks to 
broaden their investments and so to increase earnings. 



BANK OF ENGLAND-BAG DAI 



93 



On July 1, 1949, the combined assets of all mutual savings 
banks consisted of the following: U.S. government securities, 
55-22%; other securities, 11 -21%; mortgage loans, 28- 18%; 
cash and other assets, 5-39%. Mortgage loans amounted 
to $5,950 million, an increase of $816 million over the 
amount outstanding July 1, 1948. Since July 1, 1949, more 
than $146 million in loans were purchased from the Home 
Owners Loan corporation by savings banks in Massachusetts, 
New Jersey and New York in addition to loans made by 
the usual procedure. The combined portfolio of F.H.A. and 
Veterans Administration insured loans was $1,334 million, or 
23-9% of all mortgage loans on Jan. 1, 1949. (See also 
BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS; BANK OF ENGLAND; 
BANK OF FRANCE; BUSINESS REVIEW; EXPORT-IMPORT 
BANK OF WASHINGTON; FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM; INTER- 
NATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT; 
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND.) (HE. BR.) 

BANK OF ENGLAND. Developments m Great 
Britain's external affairs were the main concern of the Bank 
of England during 1949. The bank normally acts as adviser 
to the Treasury in currency matters and also undertakes main 
responsibility for the operation of the country's exchange 
control machinery. In consequence, in the period prior to 
the devaluation of sterling in September it was called upon to 
play a large part in devising and enforcing measures to check 
the growth of evasion of the sterling area exchange regulations 
stimulated by the increased profitability of overseas black 
market dealings m cut-price sterling. Such measures were 
designed m particular to prevent legitimate sterling area 
dollar earnings being tapped by third countries and largely 
took the form of a general tightemng-up of restrictions on 
transactions in sterling between the non-sterling countries. 
In the devaluation period, the bank's services were in demand 
m connection with the determination of the pound's new 
level and with preparations for the execution of the re-align- 
ment operation. Subsequently it was required to devote 
its energies to an examination of the opportunities created by 
devaluation for adjustments in British exchange control 
policies to assist the flow of international trade and payments. 

Movements in the note circulation were within narrower 
limits in 1949 than in the previous year, there being no evi- 
dence of large scale hoarding or dis-hoarding of bank notes 
by the public. In the first half of the year, the amount of 
currency in circulation showed a tendency to rise more 
rapidly than could be explained by seasonal factors, pres- 
umably owing to the existence of inflationary pressures in 
the country. The total value of notes was raised by 50 
million by temporarily increasing the fiduciary issue to 1,350 
million between July and September to meet the summer 
holiday demand for additional currency. 



hsue Department 
Notes m circulation . 
Fiduciary issue 
Banking Department 
Public deposits 
Treasury special account 
Bankers' deposits 
Other deposits 
Government securities 
Other securities 
Reserve 



BANK OF ENGLAND 

Oct. 29, 1947 Oct. 27, 1948 Oct. 26, 1949 

( million) ( million) ( million) 

. 1,361 1,231 1,259 

1,450 1,300 1,300 



14 

289 
98 

286 
37 
91 



13 

20 

307 

93 

322 
37 

72 



17 

63 

398 

107 

403 

27 

47 



The bank's annual report to Feb. 28, 1949, contained an 
analysis of the note circulation by denominations, as well as 
other statistical material relating to the bank's activities and 
a summary of external financial agreements concluded by the 
British authorities in the previous 12 months. (C. H. G. T.) 

BANK OF FRANCE. Although steps taken by the 
French government to contain inflationary stresses were 



relatively successful during 1949, the year witnessed a con- 
siderable increase in the note circulation of the Bank of 
France. The movement was to come extent explained by 
large scale dis-hoarding of gold and foreign currencies 
against franc notes by French nationals after the revival of 
confidence m the franc in the first half of the year. Efforts 
to induce the French public to invest such funds in govern- 
ment securities were largely unsuccessful. A second factor was 
the withdrawal in currency by the French government of the 
franc counterpart funds realized by the sale of Marshall aid 
supplies in France. Pending the periodic agreements with 
the Economic Co-operation administration, these resources 
were included in the current accounts and deposits of the 
bank. The government's ability to call upon counterpart 
funds to cover net deficits in respect of the nationalized 
industries, coupled with the increase in taxation and new 
efforts at economy, enabled it to cover its commitments 
without calling to any extent on the bank for financial aid 
during the year. 

In June the bank concluded an agreement with the French 
Foreign Exchange Stabilization fund whereby it undertook 
to provide finance for foreign exchange purchases by the fund. 
Previously, such resources had been furnished by the Ministry 
of Finance. A condition of the agreement was that periodic 
sales of foreign exchange should be made to the bank to 
limit such advances. 

The bank continued during the year to apply the " dear 
money " policy the government had adopted towards the 
end of 1948. But owing to the shortage of funds on the 
money market caused by the unwillingness of the French 
public to make savings available for investment, the bank 
was called upon to expand its discounts and advances by a 
considerable amount during the year. 

BANK OF FRANCE 

Sept. 25, 1947 Sept 30, 1948 Sept 29 1949 

(Frs. million) (Frs million) (Frs. million) 
Ax\ets 

Gold* .. 52,800 65,200 65,200 

Private discounts and advances 143,900 257,800 442,400 

Advances to state f 694,800 711,700 715,200 
Liabilities 

Notes 852,200 910,600 1,210,600 

Government deposits 800 800 200 

Other deposits . 70,300 191,300 138,800 

Including Frs 12,408 million affected as guarantee under the convention of 
Nov 17 1947 

t Including obligations of the state relating to the Bank of Belgium's gold 
deposit 

In January, Wilfrid Baumgartner succeeded Emmanuel 
Monick as governor of the bank. M. Baumgartner had been 
chairman and general manager of the Credit National. 

(C. H. G. T.) 

BAO DAI, former 13th emperor of Annam (b. Hue, Oct. 
22, 1913), succeeded to the throne at the age of 12 when his 
father, Emperor Khai Dinh, died on Nov. 6, 1925. Having 
completed his studies in France, he assumed power in Sept. 
1932 under the name of Bao Dai (" he who maintains 
greatness"). On March 20, 1934, he married Mariette- 
Jeanne N'Guyen Huu Thi Lan, a Roman Catholic from 
Cochin-China who had been brought up in a Pans convent; 
by her he had five children. Up to the proclamation of 
Annamese independence by Japan on March 11, 1945, his 
position was unaffected by the world situation. On June 30, 
1945, he renamed his state Vietnam which suggested an idea 
of re-unifying Tongking and Cochin-China with Annam. 
Shortly after the Japanese surrender he abdicated on Aug. 24, 
becoming citizen N'Guyen Vinh Thuy, adviser to Ho Chi 
Minh, leader of the Vietminh (Communist) party and 
president of a republic of Vietnam proclaimed at Hanoi 
on Sept. 2. In April 1946 Bao Dai was sent to Chungking 
as representative of the Vietnamese republic. When in Dec. 



94 



BAPTIST CHURCH BARBIROLL1 



1946 fighting between Vietnamese and the French began, 
he took refuge in Hong Kong. He expressed readiness to 
negotiate with France " an honourable and lasting peace," 
and to break with Vietminh. Difficult negotiations began in 
Dec. 1947 and culminated on June 5, 1948, in the protocol 
of the Bay of Along, by which France recognized the indepen- 
dence of Vietnam, and in the agreement of March 8, 1949, 
which determined the conditions. On April 28 Bao Dai 
returned to Vietnam where he was declared an outlaw by 
Ho Chi Minh. On July 1 he formed a government with 
himself at the head. A clever diplomat, Bao Dai took 
advantage of his failure with the Nationalists to make 
further demands on France which became pledged to a 
formula of increasingly uncertain success. On Dec. 30 in 
Saigon he signed a series of conventions implementing the 
March agreement. (C. A. J.) 

BAPTIST CHURCH. The Northern Baptist con- 
vention of the United States meeting in San Francisco, 
California, May 30 to June 3, 1949, registered 5,071 delegates. 
It was reported that of the $16,163,601 pledged to the World 
Mission crusade in 1947, 92-9% had been received. Tt was 
voted to allocate a larger amount of the budget than for- 
merly to foreign missions. Negotiations with the Disciples 
of Christ concerning the merger of the two bodies were to 
continue. A proposal to change the name, Northern Baptist 
convention, to American Baptist convention was approved. 
A general secretaryship was created by combining the corres- 
ponding secretaryship and the recording secretaryship, the 
incumbent to serve as the recognized spokesman for the 
convention. Mrs. Howard G. Colwell of Loveland, Colorado, 
was chosen president for the year 1949-50, the third woman 
to hold the office. The 1950 convention was scheduled to 
meet in Boston, Massachusetts, May 21 to 26, 1950. Dr. G. 
Pitt Beers, executive secretary of the American Baptist Home 
Mission society of the Northern convention assured the 
Church World service that the denomination would provide 
homes for 1 ,200 families of displaced persons. 

The Southern Baptist convention met in Oklahoma City, 
Oklahoma, May 18 to 22, 1949, registering 9,357 messengers. 
Total gifts for the year 1948-49 amounted to $156,605,521. 
The Foreign Mission board proposed a goal of 1,750 foreign 
missionaries and an annual budget of $10,000,000. The 
26,822 convention churches reported 312,246 baptisms, 
bringing the total membership to 6,491,981. The convention 
also operated 25 hospitals valued at $42,176,301. Its three 
theological seminaries, Southern, Southwestern and New 
Orleans, reported a total enrolment of 2,551 students. The 
convention formed a special organization through which 
individuals and churches might become sponsors for displaced 
persons. The 1950 convention was expected to take place 
May 7 to 12, in Chicago. 

A new Baptist church at Nagyvarsany, Hungary, was 
consecrated May 9, 1949, with 1,000 Baptists present. The 
World Congress of Baptist Youth, numbering 1,350 delegates 
from 23 countries, met Aug. 3 to 9, 1949, in Stockholm. 

During the first week of Sept. 1949, the Baptists of Wales 
celebrated the tercentennial of the founding of the first 
Baptist church in the principality. The Ontario and Quebec 
Baptist convention, Canada, celebrated its diamond jubilee, 
June 9 to 12, 1949. A memorial lectern to William Carey, the 
great Baptist missionary appointed by English Baptists to 
India in 1792, was dedicated in Westminster Abbey, Oct. 11, 
1949. Dr. S. Pearce Carey presented the lectern which was 
received and dedicated by the dean of the abbey. 

During 1949 plans were being consummated for a Common- 
wealth and Empire Baptist congress to be held in London, 
England, June 3 to 10, 1951. (See also CHURCH MEMBER- 
SHIP.) (R.E.E. H.) 



BARBADOS. British colony consisting of the most 
easterly of the Caribbean islands. Area: 166 sq. mi. Pop. 
(1948 est.): 199,012. Governor, A. W. L. Savage. 

History. Constitutional changes were proposed by the 
House of Assembly to the effect that it should have undivided 
authority in matters of finance, the life of the assembly should 
be extended from two to three years and a Parliament 
bill should be introduced to regulate relations between the 
assembly and the Legislative Council on the basis of those 
now existing between the British House of Commons and the 
House of Lords; and that if necessary the governor request 
the secretary of state for power to nominate sufficient 
additional councillors to secure the passage of the bill. 

A report on local government by Sir John Maude recom- 
mended that the 300-year-old system of 11 vestries and 32 
parochial boards should be abolished, and that the colony 
should be divided up into three areas for local government 
purposes: a northern district and a southern district (each 
with a council) and the town of Bridgetown, which should 
be granted municipal status with its local government 
entrusted to a city council. 

Finance and Trade. Currency: West Indian dollar ($4-80-l). 
Budget (1948-49): revenue 1,940,467; expenditure 2,051,626. 
Foreign trade (1948): imports 6,346,230; exports 3,048, 165. 
Principal exports: sugar and its by-products, molasses and rum. 

(J. A. Hu.) 

BARBIROLLI, SIR JOHN, British orchestra con- 
ductor (b. London, Dec. 2, 1899), was educated at the Royal 
Academy of Music, and made his first public appearance as a 
violoncellist at Queen's hall in 1911. He toured the British 
Isles and Europe as a member of the international string 
quartet, 1920-24. In 1925 he founded the Barbirolli chamber 
orchestra and in 1926 he joined the British National Opera 
company as conductor. In 1937 he succeeded Arturo Tos- 
canini as permanent conductor and music director of the 




Sir John Barbirolli, conductor of the Halle orchestra, 
knighted in June 1949. 



He was 



BARKLEY-BECH 



95 



New York philharmonic symphony orchestra. He refused 
to give up his British nationality and, not being permitted by 
the American Musicians' union to continue in his post, left 
the United States in 1942. In the following year he became 
conductor of the Halle orchestra of Manchester. At that 
time the Halle was near dissolution because of wartime 
difficulties and Barbirolli succeeded in restoring it to its 
prewar eminence. At the end of 1948 he was asked to succeed 
Sir Adrian Boult as conductor of the B.fi.C. symphony 
orchestra but declined, desiring to remain with the Halle. 
In return it was agreed that the Halle should be augmented 
to full concert strength, that the minimum wage for its 
musicians should be increased and that the orchestra should 
make one foreign tour each year. During 1949 Barbirolli 
conducted at the Belgian international music festival and 
at the Edinburgh festival, but in August was told by his 
doctors that he should restrict his activities for one year 
solely to the Halle. He was knighted in the birthday honours, 
June 1949. 

BARKLEY, ALBEN WILLIAM, United States 
politician (b. Graves county, Kentucky, Nov. 24, 1877), 
attended Marvin college, Clinton, Kentucky, Emory college, 
Oxford, Georgia, and the University of Virginia law school, 
Charlottesville. He was elected prosecuting attorney of 
McCracken county, Kentucky, in 1905, and was judge of 
McCracken county court, 1909-13. He was elected to the 
House of Representatives as a Democrat in 1913, and after 
14 years there was elected to the Senate. He was permanent 
chairman of the 1940 convention and at the 1944 convention 
delivered the speech nominating Franklin D. Roosevelt for 
a fourth term. During World War II he was Senate majority 
leader and, as such, shepherded numerous wartime and 
emergency acts through that body. In the 80th Congress 
(elected in Nov. 1946) he was minority leader in the Senate. 
At the Democratic national convention in Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, in 1948, he was nominated Democratic candi- 
date for the vice presidency and on Nov. 2 was elected with 
President Harry S. Truman, taking office on Jan. 20, 1949, 
as the nation's first vice president since April 12, 1945. 
On Jan. 19, 1949, President Truman signed a bill to increase 
certain salaries including those of the president and the vice 
president (who is also president of the Senate) and thus when 
Barkley took office the following day he started to draw the 
increased salary of $30,000 a year (as against $20,000 pre- 
viously). On Nov. 18, in St. Louis, Missouri, Barkley, 
who had been a widower from 1947, married Mrs. Carleton S. 
Hadley, a widow. 

BARLEY: see GRAIN CROPS. 

BASEBALL. On June 5, 1949, more than three years 
after they had been suspended for five years from professional 
baseball for jumping to the Mexican league, 18 former major 
league players were granted complete amnesty by Com- 
missioner A. B. Chandler and invited to return to their 
former clubs immediately. 

The top player deal of the year transferred pitcher Murry 
Dickson from the Cardinals to the Pirates for $125,000. 
In other manoeuvres, the Dodgers brought up pitcher Don 
Newcombe from their farm at Montreal, Quebec, on May 15, 
and the Negro righthander immediately became one of the 
aces of Manager Burt Shotton's staff. The Boston Red Sox 
also sought to strengthen their hill staff by trading pitcher 
Mickey Harris and outfielder Sam Mele to the Washington 
Senators for hurler Walter Masterson. 

After more than two months on the side lines because of an 
injured heel, Joe DiMaggio made his 1949 debut at Boston, 
Massachusetts, on June 28. In his first eame. the Yankee 



Clipper clouted a two-run homer to feature a 5 to 4 victory. 
The next day he poled two round-trippers, one with two team 
mates on the basepaths, to highlight a 9 to 7 victory, and the 
third day he rapped a three-run homer as New York scored 
a 6 to 3 win. 

Major League Races. In what were probably the most 
dramatic races in big league history, the New York Yankees 
and Brooklyn Dodgers captured the American and National 
league championships, respectively. Each pennant was 
decided on the closing day of the season with the Yankees 
defeating the Boston Red Sox, 5 to 3, to edge out Joe 
McCarthy's club by one game, and the Dodgers defeating 
the Phillies, 9 to 7, to protect their one-game margin over 
the St. Louis Cardinals, who beat the Chicago Cubs. 

Individual Performances. Ted Williams' bid to win the 
triple crown high-batting-average, runs-batted-in and home- 
run leadership was thwarted on the final day of the season 
when George Kell, Detroit third baseman, passed up the 
Boston outfielder, posting a mark of 3429 to Ted's 3427. 
Williams won home-run honours, however, with 43, and tied 
for runs-batted-in with his teammate Vern Stephens at 159. 

Jackie Robinson won the National league batting title with 
342, out-distancing Stan Musial, who finished second, by 
three points, and gained the most valuable laurels in the 
senior circuit. 

Ail-Star Game. The American league registered its 12th 
victory against only four losses in the midseason classic by 
defeating the senior circuit, 11 to 7, July 12. 

World Series. The Yankees chalked up their 12th world 
championship out of 16 post-season series in which they 
participated, by defeating the Dodgers, four games to one. 

(A. B. C.) 



BASUTOLAND: 

TECTORATES. 



see BRITISH SOUTH AFRICAN PRO 



BECH, JOSEPH, Luxembourg politician (b. Die- 
kirch, Luxembourg, Feb. 17, 1887), after qualifying as doctor 
of law in 1912 at the University of Paris, practised as a lawyer 
at Luxembourg. Entering politics, he was elected to the 




Joseph Been, Joreign minister o} Luxembourg, l his photo was taken 
at the Council of Europe in Strasbourg. Aug. 1949. 



96 



BEEKEEPING BELGIAN COLONIAL EMPIRE 



Chamber of Deputies in 1914 as a member of the Christian 
Social party, was minister of justice 1921-25 and prime 
minister and minister of foreign affairs, 1926-37. He served 
as foreign minister in the successive cabinets of Pierre 
Dupong (q.v.). From Aug. 1940 to April 1945 he represented 
his government in London. On Oct. 3, 1918, he married 
Georgette Delahaye, and had a son and daughter. On April 4, 
1949, at Washington, he signed the North Atlantic treaty on 
behalf of the grand duchy of Luxembourg. 

BECHUANALAND: see BRITISH SOUTH AFRICAN 
PROTECTORATES. 

BEEKEEPING. Beekeepers in Great Britain found the 
year 1949 a great improvement on 1948. In districts which had 
sufficient rain excellent yields of surplus honey resulted. 
In a few places quantity of produce was disappointing; in 
others the hot, dry weather resulted in a mixture of honey 
dew, sometimes spoiling the whole take. Reports from 
heather districts showed that both the quantity and quality 
of the yield were good, owing not so much to heavy sec- 
retion of nectar as to the almost unprecedented weather 
conditions for foraging. Light coloured varieties were scarce, 
as evidenced by the exhibits on the show benches, but the 
darker honeys generally displayed made up for this in density 
and flavour. In most areas there was satisfactory storing 
in brood chambers, and, with comparatively little feeding, 
apiarists packed down for the winter with confidence. 

Probably because of the exceptional heat and dryness the 
temper of bees was a matter for common complaint, but where 
adequate water supplies were available the bees were quite 
normal in this respect. As an offset, however, swarms were 
much fewer than in 1948, owing no doubt to fewer breaks 
in the possibilities of foraging. 

Rearing young queens to head colonies in 1950 presented 
less difficulty than usual. Climatic conditions from early 
spring to the end of September were ideal for mating flights. 
In spite of this an exceptional number of strong colonies run 
for honey were queenless when supers were removed, which 
suggested that bees were too busy collecting nectar to attend 
adequately to what should have been a matter of high 
priority. 

Bee diseases were still a menace owing to the carelessness 
of many owners. Acarine disease, for example, could be 
prevented either by using the Frow remedy in early spring 
or by giving a supply of wintergreen oil on packing down 
for winter; a small bottle of this oil stuffed with a cotton 
wick and placed on the floor-board between the frame ends 
and near the cluster was found to be an almost certain 
preventative. Foul brood (American and European) was not 
being treated as drastically as it should be; still the only 
known method of stamping out the disease was by burning 
and disinfecting. (See also ENTOMOLOGY.) (W. H. R.) 

BEER: see BREWING AND BEER. 

BELGIAN COLONIAL EMPIRE. The Belgian 
colonial empire consists of the colony of the Congo in 
central Africa and the adjacent trust territories of Ruanda 
and Urundi. The accompanying table gives material relative 
to all territories administered by Belgium. Total area: about 
925,094 sq. mi. Total population (1949 est.): about 
14,352,200. Chief towns (white population only, Dec. 1948 
est.): Leopoldville (c^p , 7,244); Elisabethville (6,240); 
Stanleyville (1,517); Costermanville (1,511). 

History. The prosperity enjoyed by Belgium's African 
colony after World War II in 1949 showed no signs of 
diminishing; the year was one of consolidation, though 
there was, to begin with, a fall in the prices of oil-bearing 



products and fibres, and later of mining products. " We are 
doubly affected by this situation," commented the governor 
general, Eugene Jungers, in a statement to the council of 
government held at Leopoldville July 18-25. " While we are 
getting less for our exports, we continue to pay inflated 
prices for imported producer and consumer goods." 

With a view to adapting the economy of the Belgian Congo 
to peacetime conditions and to consolidating results already 
achieved, a team of experts at Leopoldville under the chair- 
manship of the governor general, and another in Brussels 
under the chairmanship of Pierre Wigny, the minister for 
colonies, drew up a ten-year plan for economic and social 
development, allocating Fr. 25,000 million to public invest- 
ment. Published in June, the plan amply justified itself on 
various administrative, economic, social and political grounds, 
the most important being the need to co-ordinate efforts and 
to apportion in a co-ordinated programme the different 
projects to be undertaken. In the opinion of the minister 
for colonies, the ten-year plan was not of a restrictive nature. 
Each year the government would ask parliament to vote the 
necessary credits for the next twelve months and this, the 
minister pointed out, would afford the opportunity for 
checking the working of the plan and making any adjustments 
which might be required. 

Not only would the ten-year plan tend to improve the 
living standards of the Belgian Congo's ten million population, 
whose essential needs were not yet satisfied, but it would also 
create a domestic market hitherto lacking. To this end, the 
government was to pursue a policy of wage increases for 
Natives which could be secured by developing output, 
conservation of crops and improving distribution and 
transport. 

In the mining sector, since alluvial deposits were almost 
exhausted, new techniques were perfected for exploiting 
deep seams. In the agricultural domain, greater mechaniza- 
tion, curing processes and the construction of silos were 
foreshadowed. 

In all, the public authorities were to devote, for the welfare 
of the Native population, Fr. 1,500 million for the agricultural 
programme, Fr.2,000 million for housing, Fr. 1,000 million 
for drinking water, Fr. 2,000 million for education and 
Fr.2,000 million for technical instruction. 

Also envisaged in the ten-year plan was intensive develop- 
ment of public works, including improvement of the road, 
railway and airway systems, of navigable waterways and of 
telecommunications, modernization of sea and river ports, 
and the construction of wharves, hydro-electrical works, 
refrigerating plants, scientific laboratories, etc. 

Operation of the agricultural provisions of the ten-year 
plan began on July 15, 1949, with the passing of an order 
for organizing Native co-operatives. " If this programme 
succeeds," wrote Pierre Wigny, in his introduction to the 
Plan decennal pour le developpement economique et social du 
Congo Beige, " we may be satisfied that for millions of human 
beings life will be a little easier and a little happier." 

Ruanda and Urundi. The putting under trusteeship of the 
two territories, which since 1925 had been administered by 
Belgium, was approved by the Belgian parliament by the 
act of April 25, 1949. On April 11 the Mwamis (Native 
rulers) of both Ruanda and Urundi had been appointed, by 
decree of the regent, ex officio members of the vice-governor 
general's council. 

In order to encourage greater participation by the Natives 
in the government of their country, the administrative 
authorities examined the question of creating an elected 
council which would have a legislative function. 

With regard to the wage problem which had been raised 
at the fourth session of the United Nations general assembly, 
it may be recorded that in Ruanda-Urundi between 1938 



BELGIUM 



97 



BELGIAN COLONIAL EMPIRE 



Country Population Capital, 
and Area (Feb. 28, Status and 
(in sq. mi.) 1949 cst.) Governor 

BELGIAN Native 10,914.208 Lgopoldville; 
CONGO White 51,639* colony; governor 
904,974 (Including 36,510 general: Eugene 
Belgians) Jungers 


Principal Products Foreign Trade Road, Rail and 
(1948) (Francs '000) Waterways 
(Including Ruanda (Including Ruanda) Including Ruanda) 
and Urundi) and Urundi) and Urundi) 
Diamonds 11,250,000 carats 1948 Kbads(1947) 
Gold . . 10,103kg. Imports 8,383,140 100,524km. 
(in metric tons) (756,253 metric tons) 
Copper . . 157,397 Railways (1948): 
Tin (metal) . . 3,921 Exports 10,817,465 4,747km. 
Zinc (concentrates) 11?, 822 (854,305 metric tons) 
Manganese ore . 15,851 Waterways (1948): 
Uranium ore (1946) 6,200 1949 (six months) 25,412km. 
Palm Oil . . 110,387 Imports 5,147,930 (including 12,284 
Palm kernels . 83,375 (443,3 10 metric tons) km. for barges of 
Gum Copal .. 10,919 40 tons only) 
Cotton . . 51,224 Exports 5,470,838 


Budget 
(Francs '000) 

Belgian Congo 
(1948 actual) 
Revenue 3,703,894 
Exp. 3,557,795 
(1949 est.) 
Rev, 4,562,602 
Exp. 4,460,764 
Index number 
of the cost of living 
(July 1935-100) 
July 1949-260 


RUANDA 


(1948 esU Nianza (Ruanda) Coffee . . 30,545 (396,677 metric tons) Motor vehicles 


Ruanda-Urundi 


AND 


Native 3,386.362 Kitega (Urundi) 


Cacao . . . 2,220 


(1947): 


(1948 actual) 


URUNDI 


trust territory 


Rubber . . 5,072 


Cars . 5,389 


Revenue 200,458 


20,120 


administered 


Timber . . 78,099 


Lorries . 7,733 


Expenditure 230,464 




with Congo 


Quinine (7 % content) 1 ,500 


Tractors . 167 


(1949 est.) 








Motor cycles 1,282 


Revenue 232,062 








Bicycles . 69,382 


Expenditure 347,504 



* Including Ruanda and Urundi. 

and 1949 wages had risen in the proportion of one to four, 
much more than the increase in output. 

Steps were taken towards the opening at Kisantu (Belgian 
Congo) in 1953 of a university accessible to the inhabitants 
of the protected territories; moreover, from 1955 university 
training was to be made available at Astrida, in the heart of 
Ruanda-Urundi. 

Education. (1948) State schools: elementary 5, pupils 3,464; technical 
3, pupils 355; secondary 4, pupils 313. Subsidized schools: elementary 
8,001, pupils 406,652; technical 36, pupils 1,328; teachers training 
schools 39, pupil* 2,471 ; secondary 12, pupils 959. " Free " (Catholic) 
schools: elementary 19,072, pupils 513,049; secondary 58, pupils 
1,928. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Plan decenna! pour le devehppement economique et 
social du Congo Beige (Brussels, 1949); Annuaire Statistique de la 
Belgique et du Congo Beige (Brussels, 1949). (G.-H. D.) 

BELGIUM. A kingdom in western Europe bounded 
by France on the S.W., the Netherlands on the N. and Ger- 
many and Luxembourg on the E. Area: 11,782-5 sq. mi.* 
Pop. (Dec. 31, 1948, est.): 8,602,611. Languages (1930): 
Dutch 42-92%, French 37-56%, German 0-85%, Dutch 
and French 1 2 92 %, German and French 83 %. Religion : 
mainly Roman Catholic; Jewish 34,500. Chief towns (pop., 
Dec. 31, 1948, est.; first figure including suburbs, second 
figure commune only): Brussels (cap., 1,296,687; 185,112); 
Antwerp (chief port, 794,280; 266,636); Li6ge (573,176; 
156,664); Charleroi (445,229; 26,262); Ghent (442,792; 
166,797); Namur (215,069; 31,637); Bruges (200,850; 
52,984). Ruler, King Leopold III (?.v.), Prince Charles 
(q.v.) t regent; prime ministers in 1949, Paul-Henri Spaak 
(q.v.) and, from Aug. 11, Gaston Eyskens O/.v.). 

History. Increasing unemployment which already at the 
end of 1948 was giving cause for anxiety was the chief 
political and economic preoccupation at the beginning of 
1949. On March 12 the number of unemployed totalled 
261,000, against 122,000 in Sept. 1948. Production, however, 
continued at a high level and on the stock exchange prices 
showed no tendency to fall. Some proportion of the 
unemployment, therefore, apparently was attributable to a 
general regrouping of manpower necessitated by a return to 
normal industrial activity dominated by competition. Though 
they agreed on measures for dealing with the problem, the 
two parties in power the Social Christian party and the 
Belgian Labour (Socialist) party were unable to agree 
over the question of unemployment insurance payments. 

Including tome small German frontier areas north of Aachen annexed on 
April 15, 1949. The six-power agreement of March 26, 1949, authorized Belgium 
to take over an area of about 10) sq. mi. with a population of about 6,000 but it 
renounced its claim to three townships and incorporated only an area of 7| sq. 
mi. with a population of barely 500. 




The primate of Belgium, Cardinal Joseph van Roey, and the prime 
minister, Paul- Henri Spaak at a military fete in Brussels, July 1949. 

The Socialists insisted on new taxes; the finance minister, 
Gaston Eyskens (Social Christian), opposed this, considering 
that a policy of economy was the only possible course. The 
conflict remained latent for several weeks. 

The Royal Question. Meanwhile, in mid-April, a private 
visit to Belgium by Princess Josephine-Charlotte brought 
again to the fore another cause of contention between the 
two groups, namely, the royal question. No official reception 
had been arranged; but wherever she went the daughter of 
Leopold 111 was greeted by the public with enthusiasm. 

On April 25 the king and the regent met at Berne, Switzer- 
land, in the presence of Paul-Henri Spaak, the premier, 
and Henry Moreau de Melen, minister of justice, to discuss 
the political situation and the royal question. On May 3 
Leopold sent his brother a letter insisting on the need to find 
a way out of the impasse, by a popular vote or some other 
constitutional means. " The country," he wrote, ** must 
return to constitutionalism; the present abnormal situation 
cannot continue indefinitely." This was also the view of the 
Social Christian party. Since the party was still unable 
to persuade the Socialists to relinquish the idea of new 
taxation to pay for unemployment insurance, a crisis was 
inevitable; and on May 18 the regent signed a decree dis- 
solving the parliament. In uneventful conditions parliamen- 
tary and provincial elections took place on June 26, when 
for the first time women went to the polls. In the Chamber 



98 



BELGIUM 




Queen Elizabeth, mother of King Leopold and the regent. Prince 

Charles, with Princess Josephine-Charlotte, King Leopold's daughter, 

during the Princess's visit to Brussels in April 1949. 

of Deputies the Social Christian party out of 212 seats 
gained 105, the Liberals 29, the Socialists 66 and the Com- 
munist party 12. In the Senate the Social Christians secured 
an absolute majority with 92 seats. (See also ELECTIONS.) 

On June 28 Spaak presented the resignation of his cabinet 
to the regent. First to be charged with the task of forming 
a new cabinet was Paul van Zeeland (Social Christian), who 
suggested a vote by the two houses in joint session to end the 
regency, in accordance with the act of July 19, 1945; but 
neither the Socialists nor the Liberals were prepared to 
support him in this. On July 6 the regent next entrusted 
Frans van Cauwelwaert (Social Christian), speaker of the 
Chamber of Deputies, with a mission of inquiry. Though 
this lasted a fortnight, it produced no concrete result. Finally, 
on July 23, the regent called on Gaston Eyskens (Social 
Christian), finance minister in the outgoing cabinet. 

As the crisis threatened to continue, King Leopold on 
July 31 and Aug. 1 received a delegation from (he Socialist 
party and on Aug. 2 and 3 from the Liberal and Social 
Christian parties. At the close of these conversations the 
king sent a message affirming his determination to comply 
with the will of the nation. " It is my express purpose," he 
declared, " to interpret the result of a possible referendum 
only in terms of the higher interests of the country. If I 
were led to believe that in re-assuming my constitutional 
prerogatives I could not serve my country, I would abdicate 
in favour of my son, the crown prince." 

The political atmosphere having been thus clarified, the 
Liberal party agreed to take part in the government. Formed 
on Aug. 10, with nine Social Christians and eight Liberals, 
the Eyskens cabinet on Aug. 17 received a vote of confidence 
in the Chamber of Deputies by 125 votes to 64 with one 
abstention, and in the Senate on Aug. 18 by 99 votes to 51 



with one abstention. On Oct. 27, by 100 votes to 65, the 
Senate approved a bill introduced by Paul Struye (Social 
Christian) for a national referendum on King Leopold's 
return. In the Chamber of Deputies the bill was approved 
on Dec. 13 by a special committee. The vote was 12 to 8, 
with 1 1 Social Christians and one Liberal in favour and six 
Socialists and two Liberals against. 

Economic Situation. Far from worsening, the economic 
position of Belgium was strengthened during the first nine 
months of 1949. This was evident from a rise of about 10% 
in stock exchange quotations and especially from the balance 
of foreign trade. Imports for the first seven months amounted 
to Fr.46,900 million and exports to Fr.49,000 million, that 
is, there was a balance of Fr.2,100 million. Industrial pro- 
duction, however, was affected by the unfavourable economic 
conditions in Europe, as shown by the index of industrial 
production (1936-38- 100): from 123 in Jan. 1949 it rose to 
132 in March but it fell to 105 in July. The coal-mining and 
metallurgical industries were those chiefly affected. 

Tax revenues conformed with the estimates. Returns for 
the first seven months of the year were Fr. 28,400 million 
against an estimate of Fr.28,500 million. Compensation for 
this slight discrepancy was afforded by special taxes which 
exceeded the estimates, producing Fr. 2,700 million against 
an estimated Fr.2,400 million. 

The Belgian franc was monetarily sound when the devalua- 
tion of the pound sterling occurred, followed by the de- 
valuation of other western currencies. However, the Belgian 
government was obliged on Sept. 21 to bring it into line and 
raise the official exchange rate from Fr.43 -83 to Fr.50 to the 
dollar, but lower it from Fr.176-63 to Fr.140 to the pound. 
An early effect of devaluation was a decline in exports, these 
being in October only Fr.5,920 million, or Fr.300 million 
less than in September and Fr.240 million below the monthly 
average for 1948. 

Foreign Policy. The replacement of Paul-Henri Spaak by 
Paul van Zeeland in no way modified the broad lines of 
Belgian foreign policy which continued within the frame- 
work of the North Atlantic treaty and the Organization for 
European Economic Co-operation. Some check, however, 
to the realization of Benelux was given by the new minister 
of foreign affairs. At the conference of the three interested 
powers held at Luxembourg in October, van Zeeland refused 
to ratify several paragraphs which had been initialled at 
The Hague by delegates appointed by Spaak and which were 
concerned with the unlimited acceptance of Dutch florins 
by Belgium and the country's withdrawal of the gold clause. 
The negotiations ended, however, with the signature on Oct. 
15 of a protocol which, although not achieving the union 
contemplated, nevertheless extended the list of articles freed 
from licence and granted additional credits to Holland. 
Van Zeeland was consequently able to testify that one step 
forward had been accomplished. " Being realists," he added, 
" we took into account recent events, especially the 
devaluations which, of course, must have some effect. Benelux 
will serve the interests of the three countries: for others it 
has a symbolic significance." 

Education. (1947-48) Elementary: infant schools 4,175, pupils 
249.023; primary schools 8,697, pupils 788,514; adult schools 211. 
Teachers' colleges: elementary 120, students 9,443; secondary 39. 
students 1,055. Secondary education, state: lower grade (athenees) 121, 
pupils 52,153; higher grade (ecoles moyennes) 129, pupils 36,545; 
" free " (Catholic, 1945-46) 440, pupils 65,918. Technical schools 
(1947), pupils 226,290. Universities (1947-48) 4, institutions of higher 
education 16, students 17,933. 

Agriculture and Fisheries. Main crops (in '000 metric tons, 1948; 
1949 in brackets): wheat 344 (425); barley 172; oats 385; rye 184; 
potatoes 2, 133 ( 1 ,905). Production ('000 metric tons) : sugar (raw value) 
263; meat 220-8; milk 2,250; butter (1947) 25. Livestock (mid- 1949): 
cattle 1,876,876; sheep 155,173; pigs 1,074,228; horses 267.373; 
poultry 8,609,135. Fisheries: total catch (1948): weight 64,440 metric 
tens; value Fr.462 million. 



BENEDIKTSSON BERLIN 



99 



Industry. Industrial establishments (Jan. 1948) 248.128, persons 
employed 1,000,010. Fuel and power (1948; 1949, six months, in 
brackets), coal (in '000 metric tons) 26,678 9 (14,564 9), gas (in 
'000 cu.m ) 1,698,257 (880,524), electricity (in million kwh ) 7,903 
(4,100). Raw materials (in metric tons 1948; 1949, six months, in 
brackets): pig iron and ferro-alloys 3.948 (2,110); steel ingots and 
castings 3,912 (2,163), copper 132 (66), /me 154 (92), lead 66 (34), 
tin 12 3 (5 5), aluminium 2 Ml 1) Manufactured goods (in '000 
metric tons, 1948, 1949, six months, in brackets) cotton and rayon 
fabrics 62,659 (29,560), woollen fabrics 19,386, linen fabrics 5,014, 
rayon fabrics 5,166 

Foreign Trade. (Belgo-Luxembourg Economic Union; in million 
francs, '000 metric tons in brackets). Imports. (1948) Fr 72,931 
(24,324); (1949, six months) Fr 40,441 (13,917). Hxports (1948) 
Fr 61,767 (12,583); (1949, six month*) hr 41,930 (7,055) 

Transport and Communications. Roads (1948). 10,717km Licensed 
motor vehicles (1948). cars 179,230, lorries 125,739, motor cycles 
108,641 Railways (1948) 4,956 km ; passenger traffic (1948 monthly 
average), 599 million passenger-kilometres, goods traffic (1948 
monthly average), 513 million ton-km Shipping (Jan 1948) number 
of merchant vessels 78, total tonnage 248,298 Port of Antwerp (goods 
traffic in '000 metric tons, 1948, 1949, six months, :n brackets)' 
imports 15,857 (11,760), exports 10,912 (6,867) Telephones (1948) 
subscribers 420,929 Wireless licences (1946) 798,023 

Finance and Banking. (Million francs) Budget' (1949 est ) revenue 
69,472, expenditure 71,584 (at the end of 1949 the est deficit approached 
17,500), (1950 est) revenue 66,736, expenditure 83,884 National 
debt (March 31, 1947) 258,200. Currency circulation (Oct 21, 1948; 
in brackets Nov. 3, 1949) 81,555 (87,361). Gold reserve (Oct 21, 
1948; in brackets Nov 3,1949): 28,326(31,551) Savings and bank 
deposits (Dec. 1948; in brackets Aug. 1949) 65.900(69,800) Monetary 
unit. ttclgian franc with an exchange rate of Fr 140 to the pound 
(instead of Fr 176 63 before Sept 21, 1949) (G.-H. D.) 

BENEDIKTSSON, BJARNI, Icelandic statesman 
(b. Reykjavik, April 30, 1908). In 1930 he took his degree 
in law at the University of Reykjavik and later studied at 
the universities of Berlin and Copenhagen. During 1932-40 
he was professor of constitutional law at the University of 
Reykjavik. He had joined the Independence (Conservative) 
party and from 1 936 was a member of its executive committee. 
A councillor of Reykjavik from 1934, he was elected major 
in 1940 and twice again afterwards. In 1942 he was elected 
a member of the Icelandic Althing (parliament) and was 
re-elected in 1946, becoming chairman of the foreign relations 
committee of the Althing. On Feb. 4, 1947, he was appointed 
minister of foreign affairs in the coalition cabinet of Stefan 
J. Stefansson, a Social Democrat. On April 4, 1949, at 
Washington, he signed the North Atlantic treaty on behalf 
of Iceland. He said on this occasion : " We would all prefer 
to lose our lives rather than our freedom, either as individuals 
or nations." On Dec. 18, 1943, he married Sigridur 
Bjornsdottir and they have two children. 



BENELUX: see BELGIUM; NLIHFRLANDS; LUXEMBOURG. 

BEN-GURION, DAVID, Israeli statesman (b. 
Plonsk, Poland, Oct. 16, 1886), became prime minister and 
minister of defence when the State of Israel was proclaimed 
on May 14, 1948. (For his early career see Britannica Book 
of the Year 1949). 

After the adoption of the constitution and the formal 
election of Dr. Chaim Weizmann as president of the republic 
on Feb. 16, 1949, Ben-Gurion submitted the cabinet's resig- 
nation to the president, who charged him with the task of 
forming a new administration. On March 8 he announced 
the formation of a coalition cabinet and on March 10 
received in the Israeli parliament a vote of conlidencc by 
73 votes to 45. In his policy statement he declared that Israel 
would seek friendship with all peace-loving nations, par- 
ticularly the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. In a speech on Oct. 29 
he accused the Communists of causing labour unrest in Israel 
and of organizing anti-Zionist activities abroad. A struggle, 
he said, was being waged between the Socialist Zionists and 



the Communist Jews: there could be no compromise. Israel 
must be built as a Jewish state or act as a foreign agency. 

BEQUESTS: see DONATIONS AND BEQUESTS. 

BERIA, LAVRENTV PAVLOVICH, Soviet poli- 
tician of Georgian extraction (b. near Sukhum, Georgia, 
March 29, 1899). In 1919 he graduated from Baku Higher 
Technical college and from 1917 was a member of the 
Communist party. In 1921 he was appointed head of the 
Caucasian section of the Cheka (Extraordinary Commission 
for Repression of the Counter-revolution) and remained in 
this post for ten years, although in 1922 the Cheka was 
transformed into O.G.P.U. (United State Political depart- 
ment). In 1931 he became secretary general of the Georgian 
Communist party and in the following year secretary general 
of the Transcaucasian regional party commission; in this 
new post he continued his former function of purging the 
Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaijanian parties of nationalist 
deviation. In 1934 the 17th congress of the All-Union 
Communist party elected him to the central committee. 
On Dec. 8, 1938, he was appointed head of the N.K.V.D. 
(People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs), into which the 
O.G.P.U. had been transformed in 1934. On Jan. 31, 1941, 
when the commissariat was divided into two sections, the 
N.K.V.D. dealing with internal affairs and the N.K.G.B. 
with state security, Beria headed the former, remaining chief 
of the political police. From March 23, 1939, he was substi- 
tute member of the Politburo. On June 30, 1941, he became 
a member of the State Defence committee. For organizing 
munitions production during Worl^l War 11 he was awarded 
in 1944 the title of Hero of Socialist Labour and the Order 
of Lenin. In 1945 he received the rank of marshal of the 
Soviet Union. He ceased to be the formal head of internal 
security on March 15, 1946, but was appointed deputy 
chairman of the council of ministers and, four days later, 
was promoted full member of the Politburo. On his 50th 
birthday he received the Order of Lenin for the second time. In 
September it became known that for four years he had been 
in charge of the Soviet atomic research organization. 

BERLIN. Capital of the German Reich from 1871 to 1945, 
Berlin was still by 1949 the largest city of Germany. Area: 
343-6 sq. mi. Pop.: (May 17, 1939, census) 4,332,242, (Oct. 
29, 1946, census) 3,179,200 or 24 4% less. From June 6, 
1945, to June 24, 1948, Berlin was administered by an inter- 
Alhcd governing authority (in Russian, Kommandatura) 
consisting of the commandants of the four sectors of Berlin. 
After June 24, 1948, when the Soviet commandant proclaimed 
the dissolution of the Kommandatura, Berlin was in fact 
divided into two opposing administrations. The three western 
sectors (pop , mid-1949 est., r. 2,500,000) were under the 
authority of the following Allied commandants : Great Britain, 
Major General Geoffrey K. Bourne (who on Jan. 22, 
1949, succeeded Major General E. O. Herbert); United 
States, Major General Maxwell D. Taylor (who on Aug. 6 
succeeded Colonel Frank L. Howley); France, General 
Jean Ganeval. In the Soviet sector (pop., mid- 1949 est., 
900,000) the commandant was Major General Alexander G. 
Kotikov There were also two rival German city governments 
and two lord mayors: Professor Ernst Reuter, appointed 
on Dec. 7, 1948, Oberburgermcister by a city assembly 
elected by the population of the three western sectors; 
Fritz Ebert, appointed on Nov. 30, 1948, provisional Ober- 
bitrget master of the Soviet sector by a meeting summoned 
by the S.E.D. (Communist) party. 

History. After talks between the Soviet and U.S. repre- 
sentatives on the Security council of U.N. the Soviet govern- 
ment agreed on May 4 to re-open land traffic between the 
western zones and Berlin on condition that a four-power 



BERLIN 




The ceremony outside Spandau prison in Berlin when a French guard took over from British troops, Oct. 1949. In the prison were housed 
the seven nazi war criminals imprisoned by the International Military tribunal at Nuremberg on Oct. /, 1946. 



conference was held to discuss the problems of Germany and 
Austria as a whole. Thus the Soviet blockade aimed at 
wresting the western sectors of Berlin from the control of the 
three western powers was abandoned after being maintained 
for 10^ months. During the whole period the 2*5 million 
inhabitants of the western sectors had been supplied by the 
Anglo-American " air lift" which had flown 1,583,686 tons 
of supplies into Berlin by May 12, the date when the land 
blockade officially came to an end; 1,214,339 tons had been 
flown in by U.S. aircraft and 369,347 tons by British aircraft 
during this operation which was described by the British 
air minister as " the most outstanding transport operation in 
the history of aviation/* The air lift did not cease immediately 
the blockade was lifted, but was allowed to run down gradu- 
ally over a period of 4^ months. By the time it ceased 
altogether (on Sept. 30) 2,323,738 tons of food, coal, machinery 
and other commodities had been flown into Berlin over a 
period of 15 months. The record day of the air lift was April 
16, 1949, when 12,342 tons were flown into the city in 1,344 
flights. The cost of the operation up to May 12 was $170 
million. (See also AIR FORCES OF THE WORLD.) 

With the lifting of the blockade living conditions in western 
Berlin became once more relatively normal. The shops filled 
immediately with commodities of all sorts which flowed in 
chiefly from the western zones. Rationing of textiles and many 
other goods was abolished. Prices of vegetables dropped by 
as much as half. The supply of gas and electricity from the 
Soviet sector was resumed. And yet it soon became evident 
that western Berlin was faced despite the lifting of the block- 
ade with a major economic crisis: a crisis of her producing 
industries. 

This crisis had been latent in the condition of western 
Berlin since 1945 and aggravated by the currency reform and 
the blockade. West Berlin's industries suffered from a chronic 
lack of capital and of markets. The wholesale Soviet dis- 
mantling in 1945 had left the factories with a high proportion 
of damaged or out-of-date plant; the confiscation of Rm. 
5,000 million in the Berlin banks had practically deprived the 
industries of capital; stocks of raw materials were almost 
used up during the blockade in the effort to keep the factories 
producing; and the lower value of the eastern mark, after the 
currency reform in 1948, gave Soviet sector and Soviet zone 



industries a big competitive advantage. In addition the pre- 
carious conditions in Berlin, even after the lifting of the 
blockade, made west German buyers reluctant to enter into 
contracts with west Berlin firms. 

The result of this industrial crisis was twofold: the admini- 
stration of west Berlin, the Magistrat, was faced with virtual 
bankruptcy in the shape of a budget deficit of Dm. 80 million 
monthly. Unemployment rose from 40,000 at the beginning 
of the blockade (June 1948) to 100,000 in Oct. 1948 and 
250,000 in Oct. 1949. 

The western Allies and western Germany had sent much 
help to sustain western Berlin during and after the blockade, 
amounting by Oct., 1949 to Dm. 680 million fromG. A.R.I.O.A. 
(Government Appropriation and Releases in Aid of Occupied 
Areas) and Dm. 530 million from the west German states. 
Nevertheless it was clear that a catastrophic si*".?tof? would 
soon arise unless a great effort was made by the west German 
republic to put western Berlin industrially on its feet again. 
Leading west German politicians advocated the incorporation 
of west Berlin in the West German Federal republic as 
twelfth state; but this proposal already embodied in article 
23 of the West German constitution had been vetoed by the 
western Allied powers because it would have entailed widening 
the breach with the Soviet Union. 

On Oct. 21, 1949, Fritz Schaffer, the minister of finance of 
the newly formed West German republic, announced a pro- 
gramme of help for western Berlin: substantial credits and 
government contracts were promised including the payment 
of the budget deficit until the end of the financial year; 
private firms in the western zones, likely to place orders in 
Berlin, were to be encouraged by federal government guaran- 
tees; goods manufactured in Berlin and sold to western 
zones buyers were to be exempted from certain indirect 
taxes; the supposedly lost banking accounts, the so-called 
uralt Konten, were to be revalued at 5%; a common west 
Berlin and western zones banking system was to be intro- 
duced; and Berlin was to be an equal, if not favoured, 
partner with Western Germany in receiving Marshall aid. 
Details in implementation of these proposals were to be 
worked out in Frankfurt and Bonn. 

The so-called modus vivendi between east and west in Berlin, 
which had been agreed upon by the Council of Foreign 



BERMAN BERMUDA 



101 



Ministers (q.v.) in Paris in May and June, was complicated 
by a strike of the western sector railwaymen who wanted to 
receive their wages in westmarks (May 20). The Berlin 
railways were administered by the eastern sector authorities 
who paid the railwaymen in eastmarks which had only about 
one-sixth of the value of the western currency. The strike 
developed into a struggle between the Independent Trade 
Unions (U.G.O.) of the western sectors and the Communist- 
dominated Free German Trade Union federation (F.D.G.B.), 
in the course of which shooting and casualties occurred. 
After intervention by the three western commandants the 
strike was brought to an end on the understanding that the 
east sector railway authorities would pay 60% of the west 
sector railwaymen's wages in westmarks and the west Berlin 
Magistral would exchange the remaining 40% into eastmarks 
(June 26). 

During 1949 the Soviet sector of Berlin remained under the 
administration of the Communist controlled east sector 
Magistral. Its industries were geared up to the Soviet zone 
and enjoyed also a certain market in west Berlin at the 
expense of western sector industries. When the so-called 
German democratic republic was set up on Oct. 1 2 no attempt 
was made to incorporate into it the eastern sector of Berlin 
which like the western sectors remained outside the newly 
formed republics. (D. A. SN.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Berlin Air Lift: An Account of the British Contribu- 
tion, prepared by the Air Ministry and Central Office of Information 
(London, 1949). 

BERMAN, JAKOB, Polish politician (b. Warsaw, 
Dec. 24, 1901), of middle class family, studied law at the 
University of Warsaw, taking active part in leftist students' 
clubs, while working as night editor in the Warsaw offices of 



the Jewish Telegraphic agency. In his early thirties he studied 
in Moscow at a special training school for Communist 
organizers abroad. A member of the executive committee 
of the outlawed K.P.P. (Komunistyczna Partia Polski, or 
Communist Party of Poland), he was arrested in 1937 at 
Nowy Sa^cz and sentenced in Warsaw to imprisonment for 
conspiracy against the state. In the meantime, in April 1938, 
the Comintern had dissolved the K.P.P. under the pretext 
that it was ridden with agents of the Polish military intelli- 
gence and Trotskyist ** deviationists." Released from prison 
^at the outbreak of World War II, Berman went to Moscow 
'where he emerged as one of the organizers of the Union of 
Polish Patriots. He was also instrumental in creating in 
occupied Poland a new Communist (Workers') party. In the 
provisional government established at Lublin in July 1944 
he was acting minister for foreign affairs. In the government 
of " national unity " formed in Warsaw on June 28, 1945, he 
became under secretary of state in the prime minister's 
office. He was also a member of the Politburo of the Com- 
munist party called after Dec. 1948 the P.Z.P.R. (Polska 
Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, or Polish United Workers' 
party). 

BERMUDA. A British colony of some 300 small 
islands in the western Atlantic. Area: 21 scj. mi. Pop. 
(1947 est.): 35,560 including 13,026 white. Governor, 
Lieutenant General Sir Alexander Hood. 

The Defence (Local Forces) act, which introduced peace- 
time conscription for the first time in the colony's history, 
was passed by both houses of the legislature. Currency 
smuggling and a possible dollar " black market " aroused 
concern. Plans for an agricultural production and marketing 
scheme were introduced and approved. The return of the 




Lieutenant General Sir Alexander Hood inspecting the guard of honour at Hamilton, Bermuda, on Oct. 24, 1949, when he arn\ 
over as governor and commander in chief of the colony. In the background is the " Queen of Bermuda." 



102 



BETTING AND GAMBLING 



luxury liner " Queen of Bermuda " to its prewar role of 
tourist carrier provided a fillip to the tourist industry. 

Finance and Trade. Currency: based on sterling. Budget (1948): 
revenue 1,531,970; expenditure 1,531,762. Foreign trade (1948): 
imports 7,121,039; exports (visible) 955,406 Lilies form the only 
important domestic export and the economy of the colony is primarily 
dependent on the tourist industry, estimated to have been worth about 
4,254,780 in trade to the colony m 1948. (J. A. Hu.) 

BETTING AND GAMBLING. On Feb. 10, 1949, 
the prime minister announced the appointment of a Royal 
Commission on Betting, Lotteries and Gaming, under the 
chairmanship of H. U. Willink, K.C., and the first public 
meeting was held in July. 

Much of the groundwork had already been covered by the 
previous royal commission under Mr. Justice Rowlatt in 
1933, but gambling is not static: it is constantly changing 
with social and economic trends. The growth of commercial- 
ized gambling, particularly on football pools, since 1933 and 
the desire of chancellors of the exchequer to tap such a 
lucrative source of revenue had given a new interest to the 
problem of gambling. The commission had been given 
wide terms of reference: they would probably be content 
to discover how widespread gambling was, whether it was 
harming the welfare of the nation and how the chancellor 
might benefit from more comprehensive taxation. During 
the year evidence was given by the Home Office, the Ministry 
of Labour, the Post Office, the Board of Trade, the Board of 
Customs and Excise, the Jockey club, Tattersall's, the 
Racecourse Betting Control board, Tote Investors, the Grey- 
hound Racing association, the metropolitan commissioner of 
police, the Racecourse association, the chief metropolitan 
magistrate and the British Council of Churches. More 
evidence would be heard during 1950. 

The outstanding fact was that so little statistical information 
about gambling could be obtained or verified. No one could 
state with any degree of accuracy the number of bookmakers, 
what number of people they employed or how large was their 
turnover in money. The owners of the totalizators on race- 
courses and dog tracks were obliged by law to disclose their 
turnover, and it was possible to assess the amount spent on 
football pools. But nothing was known of the business 
carried on by the bookmakers. They operated in competition 
with the pools and the totalizators, off the course and on 
the course, legally and illegally, and they were not obliged 
to publish accounts. The figures for the three main spheres 
of betting were : 

1948 1949 

( million) 

Totalizator at racecourses . . . 26 25 8 

Totalizator at dog tracks . . . 99-5 94* 

Football pools 61* 64* 

*Board of Customs and Excise estimate 

Football pools showed an increase despite the drop in pool 
firms from 135 to 120, and the totalizator on racecourses 
showed a decrease despite the increased number of days of 
racing from 645 to 685. The totalizator on the dog tracks, 
though showing a slight decrease over the year, was com- 
paratively stable after the marked drop of some 36 million 
on the 1947 figures. The taxation imposed in the autumn 
budget of 1947 was the basic cause and diverted much of 
the money to the bookmakers. In addition the number of 
totalizators working on dog tracks had now dropped from 
138 to 126. In Aug. 1948 a graduated tax on bookmakers 
operating at dog tracks came into operation. In the two- 
thirds of the year (Aug. 1948-March 1949) a total of 1-7 
million was received from 138,000 bookmakers' licences. 
Their total turnover would not be less than 100 million 
for the year. 

An accurate figure of the amount passing through the 
hands of the bookmakers was not, of course, known. In 



addition to the amount estimated as their turnover on the 
dog tracks there was the estimated turnover from horse- 
racing and other forms of betting. A voluntary organization 
called Everyman's Leisure had been investigating this question 
for two years and they estimated a total of 300 million as 
the turnover of the bookmakers. It is important to remember 
that a large part of this turnover does go back to the public. 
What proportion stays with the bookmakers is impossible 
to say. A figure of between 1 5 % and 20% is usually deducted 
to cover expenses and to give a reasonable profit. The actual 
cost of the betting industry to the public is between 95-100 
million a year. 

In terms of labour the evidence given before the royal 
commission was of interest. The Ministry of Labour stated 
that 40,310 men and women were employed in the betting 
industry and were insured under the national health service. 
To this figure had to be added 5,000 employers and persons 
working on their own account. The football pools accounted 
for over 23,000. These figures did not include the large number 
of part time employees. Neither did they include persons 
employed in racing stables, training, transport to and from 
racecourses and dog tracks and breeding. Everyman's 
Leisure estimated that the total labour force, directly and 
indirectly connected with the betting industry, as not less 
than 180,000 men and women. (H. C. LN.) 

United States. Gambling in 1949 was marked by fads and 
crazes. Ten-cent chain letters, one-dollar ** pyramid clubs," 
$100,000 puzzle contests, $1,000 merchandise lotteries all 
caused brief sensations. The post office declared the chain- 
letter scheme illegal, and the pyramid clubs were an effort 
to circumvent government disapproval by using the telephone 
instead. Each participant paid $1 and was promised an 
income of $2,048 when he reached the head of the list. 
Collections were made at a party to be given by the person 
at the head of the list. The craze spread throughout the 
country. State gambling laws were invoked without success, 
but the pyramid clubs soon collapsed under their own weight. 
There were not enough people to go round; if only one 
pyramid club had remained intact, at the end of 24 days it 
would have had to involve 268 million persons. 

The merchandise lotteries were an effort to promote sales 
through puzzle contests based on those legitimately conducted, 
and approved by the post office, to secure contributions for 
charitable organizations. Prizes up to $25,000 were offered. 
The postal authorities stopped most of the disreputable 
" contest " lotteries through fraud actions that led to consent 
decrees. 

Among card games the principal craze was the game 
canasta; but though it was by far the most popular new game 
of the year it was not widely used for gambling. Gin rummy 
remained the game played for the biggest stakes. 

Betting on race-horses fell more than 10% from the 1948 
levels, so far as betting on the course was concerned. The 
20 states permitting totalizator betting recorded a turnover of 
$1,395,731,778, the sixth year in succession that the figure 
had exceeded $1,000 million. An expert estimate made 
toward the end of the year set the total amount bet on 
running races at $8,000 million, the majority of which was 
bet by 2 million regular gamblers, though there were six 
times as many occasional gamblers. The drop in totalizator 
action might have been due to the fact that there were only 
2,167 racing days in 1949 as against 2,457 in 1948. Totalizator 
betting on harness racing increased to $205,216,832 in 1949 
from $194,166,569 in 1948; this was legal in 12 states. 

Despite the efforts of the Thoroughbred Racing Protective 
bureau (T.R.P.B.), there was proof of interference at race 
courses. The practice of running " ringers " (fast horses 
entered under the names of relatively slow ones) was thought 
to have been eliminated by the practice of tattooing each 



BEVIN-BIERUT 



103 



horse, but a series of articles by M. MacDougall, a profes- 
sional gambling investigator, exposed the continuance of 
such cases and the T.R.P.B. prosecuted and obtained con- 
fessions in three such cases; insiders, however, had already 
made a fortune by betting on the substituted horses. Milt 
Sosin, a reporter for the Miami News, Florida, secured 
photographic evidence that a spectator at the Gulfstream 
track was signalling race results to confederates who then 
bet with bookmakers who had not yet received the results 
by telegraph; the spectator was not prosecuted but was 
merely barred from the track. 

The numbers racket, a form of lottery prevalent in large ' 
cities, flourished despite periodic clean-ups (as in Chicago in 
April and in New York in July), and despite widespread 
publicity that it was not honestly conducted. Slot machine 
gambling decreased. An investigation by a commission for 
Governor Earl Warren of California estimated a gross slot 
machine " take " of $4,000 million throughout the United 
States but other observers considered the figure high and 
thought that the actual loss of Americans to slot machines 
might run from one-tenth to one-quarter of that amount. 

(A. H. MD.; M. ML.) 

BEVIN, ERNEST, British statesman (b. Winsford, 
Somerset, March 9, 1881), became secretary of state for 
foreign affairs in the Labour government in July 1945, and 
in that capacity attended every important international 
conference after World War IF. (See also Britannica Book 
of the Year, 1949). 

During 1949 Ernest Bevin travelled twice to America: 
for the signing on April 4 of the North Atlantic treaty and 
for the first meeting of the council set up under the treaty 
which met in Washington on Sept. 17. After the signing in 
April he attended the adjourned United Nations general 
assembly at Lake Success, New York, and his visit in Septem- 
ber began with Anglo-American-Canadian financial dis- 
cussions in which he and Sir Stafford Cripps (^.v.) led the 
British delegation. He spoke in the general debate of the 
fourth general assembly on Sept. 26 and, while in America 
made a short visit to Canada. On May 5 he signed the statute 




Ernest aevin, wirn nector /VTC/VC//, mimsier oj siuit', at i/ie 
Nations general assembly, Flushing Meadow, New York, which 
opened on Sept. 20, 1949. 



of the Council of Europe and in August attended the meetings 
of its committee of ministers at Strasbourg. He visited 
Berlin in May where he congratulated those who had taken 
part in the air lift during the Berlin blockade which was raised 
on May 12 and was present at the Council of Foreign Ministers 
which met in Paris from May 23 to June 20. He also attended 
meetings of the consultative council of the Brussels treaty 
powers the meetings being held in each of the capitals of 
Great Britain, Belgium, France, Luxembourg and the 
Netherlands in turn and in November again visited Paris 
for the committee of ministers of the Council of Europe and 
for a two-day conference on international affairs with Robert 
Schuman (France) and Dean Acheson (United States). 
On Dec. 27, he left London for Colombo for a meeting of 
the Commonwealth foreign ministers. 

BHUTAN. A semi-independent state in the eastern 
Himalayas lying between Tibet and India. Area: c. 18,000 
sq. mi. Pop. (est.): 300,000. Language: a dialect of Tibetan. 
Religion: mainly Buddhist. Capital: Punakha. Ruler: 
Maharaja Jigme Wangchuk. 

History. The state of Bhutan acquired during 1949 some 
importance as a barrier against Chinese Communism. As a 
result of negotiations started at Delhi in April 1948 between 
K. P. S. Menon, secretary to the Indian ministry of external 
affairs, and Debzunpon S. T. Dorji, head of the Bhutanese 
delegation, the Indian government concluded a new treaty 
with Bhutan which confirmed the old relationship, India 
agreeing to increase the annual subsidy from two to five 
lakhs of rupees (37,500). The Bhutanese delegation had 
asked for eight lakhs. (W. BN.) 

Agriculture. Main crops: rice, musk, Indian corn and millet. Live- 
stock: elephants and ponies. 

Production. Wax, different kinds of cloth, chowries, guns and swords. 

Foreign Trade. Total trade with India (1948) estimated at over 
65,000. Monetary unit: rupee. 

BIDAULT, GEORGES, French statesman, (b. Mou- 
lins, Allier, France, Oct. 3, 1899), a leader of the M.R.P. 
(Mouvement RSpublicain Populaire, a French version of the 
Christian Democratic movement). He was minister of foreign 
affairs from Sept. 9, 1944, to July 19, 1948, and prime minister 
from June 19 to Nov. 28, 1946. (For his early career see 
Britannica Book of the Year 1949). 

On Oct. 28, 1949, he was invested by the National Assembly 
as prime minister by 367 votes to 183. Immediately after- 
wards he announced the formation of his coalition cabinet 
(the 6th of the Fourth Republic and the llth since the 
liberation), thus bringing to an end the longest cabinet crisis 
that post-war France had known (see also FRANCE). 

BIERUT, BOLESLAW, Polish politician (b. Rury 
Jezuickie, near Lublin, April 18, 1892), provisional president 
of the republic from June 1945, was elected president by the 
parliament or Sejm on Feb. 5, 1947. (For his early career see 
Britannica Book of the Year 1949). 

The merger congress in Warsaw on Dec. 15-22, 1948, 
elected him chairman of the new Polish United Workers' 
(Communist) party. On April 19, 1949, before the central 
committee of the party, he stressed that its main task in 
the struggle for peace was to fight resolutely against class 
enemies and foreign agents and the country must remain a 
faithful ally of the U.S.S.R. On Oct. 15, replying to a letter 
from Wilhelm Pieck and Ott6 Grotewohl informing him 
of their election as president and prime minister of the 
German Democratic republic, he expressed the satisfaction 
of the Polish people that this republic regarded the Oder- 
Neisse line as the " frontier of peace." On Oct. 28, 10th 
anniversary of the " plebiscite " in eastern Poland, he sent 
telegrams to N. S. Khrushchev and N. I. Gusarov, secretaries 



104 



BILLIARDS AND SNOOKER-BIOCHEMISTRY 



general of the Ukranian and Byelorussian Communist parties, 
congratulating them on the territorial unification of the 
Ukraine and Byelorussia respectively. 

BILLIARDS AND SNOOKER. The premier pro- 
fessional event of the 1948-49 season, the world's professional 
snooker championship was won, after a stern struggle lasting 
a fortnight, by Fred Davis, who beat Walter Donaldson by 
80 frames to 65. Each of these players had won the champion- 
ship once after Joe Davis* victory in 1946-47, when the latter 
player retired from championship play. The big tournament 
of the year, the Sunday Empire News 1,000 Snooker tourna- 
ment, was won by Joe Davis. The amateur billiards champion- 
ship was carried off, after 20 years of effort, by the popular 
Frank Edwards (Stourbridge), a player of exceptional artistry. 
He beat Joe Tregoning (Neath) in the final by 4,813 points to 
3,297. The snooker championship was won by Tom Gordon 
(London), who beat Sidney Kilbank (Leeds) after winning 
no less than ten previous matches. 

The professional snooker championship for 1949-50 would 
be played in the provinces, instead of London, to enable 
wider audiences to attend. Willie Smith, the great veteran 
billiards player and Sidney Smith, 1946-47 winner, were to 
return to the professional billiards championship, in which 
three younger players would compete. Entries to the amateur 
championships, billiards and snooker, had never been so 
high as in the past four years. (R. N. H.) 

United States. Willie Hoppe captured his fifth world 
three-cushion championship in 1949. The other major 
billiards title, the world pocket championship, was won by 
Jimmy Caras of Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, who scored 
four victories and lost twice. The United States pocket 
billiards title also went to Caras, with Crane second and 
Andrew Ponzi, of Philadelphia, third. In the amateur field, 
Edward Lee of the New York Athletic club retained his 
national three-cushion title. (P. BR.) 

BIOCHEMISTRY. Notable progress was reported in 
1949 in determining the intermediates in the chemical 
reactions by which the green plant under the influence of 
sunlight converts CO^ and H, 2 O into O 2 , sugar and other 
reduced carbon compounds. By growing plants in water 
which contained the O 18 isotope, bio-chemists showed that 
the primary conversion of energy brought about by light 
involves the photolysis of water with the production of O a . 
The subsequent reduction of CO. 2 takes place in the dark as 
well as in the light. 

In order to elucidate the path of carbon, growing algae 
were allowed to photosynthesize in the presence of radio- 
active C 14 O 2 for a limited time (5 sec. to 5 min.) and the 
reaction was stopped by dropping the plants into hot alcohol. 
The radioactive organic compounds which are progressively 
formed in increasing time intervals were identified by the 
newly developed methods of paper chromatography and 
radioautography. In these techniques substances are identified 
in terms of the distance which they migrate on a sheet of 
absorbent paper under the influence of a spreading solvent, 
and the positions of radioactive substances are determined 
by the darkened locations of an X-ray film subsequently 
placed in contact with the absorbent paper. 

The first compound into which the radioactive CO a is 
fixed was found to be 2-phosphoglycerate; after 5 sec. at 
room temperature, four more compounds were found, 
3-phosphoglycerate, malate, aspartate and phosphoyruvate. 
After 30 to 90 sec. there were many additional compounds 
of which 15 were identified including sucrose, the first free 
sugar, several amino acids, alanine, serine and glycine, 
glycolate and the phosphates of fructose and glucose. These 
compounds all contained 2, 3, 4 or 6 carbons in a chain. 



By selective degradation, the position of the radioactive 
carbons in several compounds was determined, and detailed 
mechanisms were worked out for the progressive entrance 
of CO 2 into increasing fractions of several molecules. Thus 
in sucrose, the radioactivity was found first in the middle 
carbons 3 and 4 of the hexose chain, later in carbons 2 and 5, 
and finally also in carbons 1 and 6. 

The first photosynthetic reaction was thought to be the 
condensation of CO 2 with some reactive 2-carbon phos- 
phorus-containing intermediate, probably vinyl-phosphate, 
to form 2-phosphoglyceric acid. After conversion to phospho- 
pyruvic acid, another molecule of CO a is added to form the 
4-carbon oxalacetic acid, from which other 4-carbon com- 
pounds are formed, malic, aspartic, succinic and fumaric 
acids. One of these was thought to be split to form two 2- 
carbon intermediates, from which the 2-carbon vinyl- 
phosphate was regenerated to start the cycle over again. 
The hexose chain is thought to be formed by a reversal of 
the well-defined glycolytic cycle, the condensation of two 
triose-phosphates to form fructose-diphosphate. 

Experiments were reported which showed that no more 
than four quanta (possibly only three) of red light, or a 
maximum of 4x44,000=176,000 calories of light energy, 
were required to produce one mole of oxygen gas equivalent 
to about 1 12,000 calories. This makes the efficiency of energy 
transformation at least 65 %. (For three quanta the efficiency 
would be 85%). This refutes a prevailing view based on 
numerous experiments, that at least ten quanta are required 
for each mole of O a , which would mean an efficiency of less 
than 25%, and confirms a claim originally made for the 
higher efficiency by Otto Warburg m 1923. The high 
efficiencies were realized by illuminating a Chlorclla suspen- 
sion with white light of such intensity that photosynthesis 
just balanced respiration, and no net oxygen was evolved. 
A measured amount of red light was admitted and the in- 
creased oxygen corresponding to this red light, was measured. 

Following the observation that the micro-organisms 
Tetrahymena geleii requires purines, and especially guanine, 
it was found that a modified purine, in which the NCN 
sequence of the 5-membered ring of guanine was replaced 
by NNN, was a powerful competitive inhibitor for guanine 
in the growth of this micro-organism. The name triazole 
was used to designate this type of compound and the guanine 
derivative was called guanazolo. The inhibition index was 
0-075, which meant that 13 to 14 molecules of guanine were 
required to overcome the inhibition of one molecule of 
guanazolo. Normal mammalian cells have the capacity to 
synthesize their own guanine requirement. It was thought 
that if tumour cells were deficient in this capacity, then the 
administration of guanazolo, which emphasizes a guanine 
deficiency, might have a selective action in inhibiting the 
growth of tumour tissue, without interfering with normal 
growth. Repeated administration of guanazolo to mice over 
a three-day period did not have toxic effect. When 0-5 mg. 
of guanazolo was injected subcutaneously twice daily into 
mice with adenocarcinoma, a definite inhibition of the tumour 
growth was observed. Tumour size was reduced from 1 1 ml. 
size in the controls which received injections of saline, to 
1 ml. size m the guanazolo treated animals, where it remained 
stationary for 20 days while the guanazolo was continued. 
The tumours resumed growth when injections ceased. Similar 
observations were made on spontaneous mammary cancer 
in mice, and in mouse lymphoid leuchaemia. In the latter 
condition, guanazolo caused a definite decrease in white 
blood cell count, in the percentage of lymphoblasts and in 
the number of palpable tumour masses, as compared with 
control untieated mice. Tumour cells probably have an 
altered guanine metabolism, rendering them unable or less 
able than normal cells to synthesize this purine. (M. E. H.) 



BIRLEY-BONN 



105 



BIOLOGY: see BACTERIOLOGY; BIOCHEMISTRY; BOTAN- 
ICAL GARDENS; BOTANY; ENDOCRINOLOGY; GENETICS; 
MARINE BIOLOGY; PALEONTOLOGY; PHYSIOLOGY; ZOOLOGY. 

BIRLEY, ROBERT, British educationalist (b. India, 
July 14, 1903), was educated at Rugby school and at Balliol 
college, Oxford, taking first class honours in history and 
winning the Gladstone memorial prize in 1924 with an essay 
on the English Jacobins. He became an assistant master at 
Eton college in 1926; when, in 1935, he was appointed head- 
master of Charterhouse school in succession to Frank 
Fletcher, he was one of the youngest men ever to occupy* 
such a post at a leading public school. He was a member of 
the Fleming committee on public schools and from 1947 to 
1949 was educational adviser to the Control Commission for 
Germany where he was responsible for co-ordinating and 
supervising the re-education work in the British zone and in 
the British sector of Berlin. On Dec. 18, 1948, it was 
announced that the provost and fellows of Eton college had 
appointed him headmaster on the retirement of C. A. Elliott. 
Robert Birley took up his duties at Eton in Sept. 1949. In 
March 1949 he was given an honorary degree of doctor of 
engineering by the Technical university of Berlin. On Oct. 23 
he broadcast the first of the Reith lectures for 1949. His 
subject for the four talks was " Britain in Europe: Reflections 
on the Development of a European Society." He was created 
a C.M.G. on Jan. 1, 1950. 

BIRTH STATISTICS: see VITAL STATISTICS. 
BISMARCK ISLANDS: tee TRUST TERRITORIES. 

BOLIVIA. A land-locked republic in central South 
America. Area: 416,040 sq. mi. Pop. (mid- 1948 est.): 
3,922,000; one-third of the population is concentrated in the 
province of La Paz covering one-eighth of the total area. 
The legal capital is Sucre (pop., 1946 est., 32,000); the actual 
seat of government is La Paz (pop., 1946 est., 301,000). 
Other chief towns (pop., 1946 est.): Cochabamba (80,000); 
Oruro (50,000); Potosi (40,000). Estimated racial distribu- 
tion: Indian 52%; mestizo 28%; white 13%; NegroO-2%; 
unspecified 6 8%. Language: Spanish, but the Indians 
speak Quechua and Aymara. Religion: predominantly 
Roman Catholic. President of the republic in 1949: Enrique 
Hertzog, until May 7; Mamerto Urriolagoitia, acting 
president May 7-Oct. 19, thereafter constitutional president. 

History. Political tension and violence, intimately linked 
with mounting labour unrest at the tin mines, characterized 
the Bolivian scene during 1949. The government was bitterly 
opposed by the leftist Partido de la Izquierda Revolucionana 
(P.I.R.) and the rightist Movimiento Nacionalista Revo- 
lucionano (M.N.R.), both organizations being engaged in 
rivalry for political leadership of the miners' unions. President 
Hertzog declared a state of siege on Feb. 20, when the 
government unearthed a revolutionary plot sponsored by the 
M.N.R. After the congressional election of May 1, which 
gave the administration's Republican Socialist Union party 
a majority of the seats in the national legislature, Hertzog 
pleading reasons of health, requested a leave of absence. He 
was replaced on May 7 by Acting President Urriolagoitia. 

Urriolagoitia decided in May to deport Senator Juan 
Lechin and 19 other M.N.R. leaders because of M.N.R. -led 
agitation among workers at the Catavi and Siglo Uiente tin 
mines. On May 28, unions at both mines staged a strike in 
protest against the deportation order. The stoppage was 
characterized by violent disorders at Catavi, where two U.S. 
mining engineers and about 50 Bolivian miners lost their 
lives. The government again proclaimed a state of siege on 
May 31, issued a general mobilization call and outlawed the 
opposition M.N.R. and P.I.R. parties and also the Communist 
party. The strike became general on June 1 , when an estimated 



8,000 organized factory and railroad workers walked out in 
sympathy with the miners, and grew until it involved some 
27,000 organized workers. At length, on June 8, representa- 
tives of the government and the unions agreed to terminate 
the stoppage, the settlement calling for a reduction in the 
military forces stationed at the tin mines and the repatriation 
of Lechin and other exiled M.N.R. leaders. 

An uneasy truce was broken on Aug. 27, when rebels led 
by the M.N.R. seized the cities of Cochabamba, Santa Cruz, 
Potosi, Oruro and Sucre. The revolt spread until the insur- 
gents could claim on Sept. 1 that they controlled 2,000 troops 
and the western third of the country, embracing approximately 
125,000 sq.mi. and a population of about 500,000. The bulk 
of the army remained loyal to the government, however, and 
by Sept. 3 loyalist forces had recaptured all major rebel 
strongholds except Sucre, Potosi and Santa Cruz. Sucre and 
Potosi fell to the loyalists on Sept. 4 and the insurgents 
abandoned Santa Cruz on Sept. 13. Acting President 
Urriolagoitia announced nine days later that the revolt had 
been crushed and that " the country has now returned to 
normality." Hertzog, his health broken, submitted his formal 
resignation from the presidency to congress on Oct. 19. (G.I.B.) 

Education. (1944 est ) Schools, elementary 1,740, pupils 144,060; 
secondary 55, pupils 17,500. Universities 5 

Agriculture. Mam crops ('000 metric tons, 1947-48). wheat 14; 
barley 60, maize 150; potatoes 402. Livestock ('000 head) cattle 
(1946) 3,039; sheep (1948) 4,289; horses (Jan. 1949) 442, asses and 
mules (1947) 403 

Industry. (1947) Manufacturing establishments 400; persons em- 
ployed 15,000. Fuel and power: electricity (million kwh., 1947) 145; 
crude oil (metric tons, 1948) 58,280 Raw materials (exports in metric 
tons 1948): copper 6,620; lead 25,620, zinc 21,090; tin 37,900. 

Foreign Trade. (1948) Imports U.S. $67 million. Exports $123 
million The principal export is tin accounting for 65 % of all exports 
in 1948 Mam destinations of exports (1947) United States 60%, 
United Kingdom 36% Mam sources imports (1947): United States 
49%, Argentina 20%, Peru 11% 

Transport and Communications. Roads (1947). 6,300 mi. Licensed 
motor vehicles (Dec. 1948): cars 3,845, commercial vehicles 7,845. 
Railways (1947)- 1,454 mi. Telephone instruments (1947): 7,700. 
Wireless licences (1944) 40,000. 

Finance and Banking. Budget (million bolivianos) (1948 est.) 
revenue 1,497, expenditure 1,497; (1949 est.) revenue 1,795, expenditure 
2,046. National domestic debt (Dec 1948, in brackets Dec. 1947) 
1,930 (1,347) million. Currency circulation (June 1949; in brackets 
June 1948). 2,148 (1,782). Gold reserve (June 1949; in brackets 
June 1948) U S. $22 8 (22-7). Bank deposits (June 1949; in brackets 
June 1948). 1,356(1,037). Monetary unit boliviano with a controlled 
selling exchange rate (Dec. 1949; in brackets Dec. 1948) of 118-8 
(171 -0) bolivianos to the pound. 

BONAIRE: see NETHERLANDS OVERSEAS TERRITORIES. 

BONN, a town on the left bank of the Rhine, 15 mi. south 
of Cologne, provisional capital of the German federal 
republic (Western Germany). Pop.: (May 17, 1939, census) 
101,391; (Dec. 1949 est.) 110,000. 

When the Parliamentary council assembled at Bonn on 
Sept. 1, 1948, to prepare a new German constitution, it was 
generally assumed that the provisional capital of Western 
Germany would be Frankfurt-on-Main, for long the place 
of election of the German emperors and seat of the first 
German parliament in 1848. But on May 23 the Western 
German republic was proclaimed at Bonn, and there also, 
on Sept. 7, was convened the newly elected parliament. On 
Sept. 30 the Bundestag decided, by 196 votes to 169 with 3 
abstentions, to refer to a commission of enquiry the question 
whether Bonn or Frankfurt should become the provisional 
capital of the German federal republic. Although the com- 
mission reported that the choice of Frankfurt, with its 
greater accommodation facilities both for government offices 
and private dwellings and its better communications, would 
result in economies estimated at DM.100 million, the Bunde- 
stag decided on Nov. 3, by 200 votes to 176 with 1 1 abstentions, 
to retain Bonn as the provisional capital. 



106 



BOOK COLLECTING AND BOOK SALES 



m. 



&, 




m'^> f yk:,^ ! 



Bundeshaus (parliament building) at Bonn. The building was specially extended in 1949 to house the Bundesrat and the Buiukstug of the 

West German federal government. 



The new sanatorium-like Bundeshaus, or house of parlia- 
ment, was formerly a modern teachers' college. It was com- 
pletely overhauled and a new office wing, an assembly hall 
and a restaurant were added. Dr. Theodor Heuss (^.v.), the 
president of the federal republic, was housed at Viktorshohe, 
near Godesberg, but for big official occasions he was to use 
the beautiful rococo Schloss Augustusburg, near Brlihl. The 
question of Bonn's communications had caused some 
anxiety but by November the new bridge spanning the 
800-yd. wide Rhine was finished and the new capital was 
connected with the Frankfurt-Cologne Autobahn by a broad 
new highway. Also an extra siding was built at Bonn on the 
Cologne-Mainz railway line to handle the increased traffic. 
As a third of Bonn's houses had been destroyed by air bombing 
the housing problem was acute and was being solved by repair- 
ing the old and building new dwellings. A well known Berlin 
architect, Max Taut, was in charge of a settlement for govern- 
ment officials on the Venusberg. Altogether, by Nov. 1, 
about DM. 15 -5 million had been spent by the government 
alone in building and other works in order to transform this 
quiet university city into a German Canberra. Dr. Hermann 
Wandersleb was the chief planner. 

On Nov. 27 a new municipal theatre, in place of the one 
destroyed in an air raid in 1944, was opened. Bonn had many 
new cinemas, Konditoreien (coffee houses) and restaurants 
with music but no night clubs were authorized. The head- 
quarters of the Allied High commission were on the 2,000 ft. 
Petersberg, in a former luxury hotel, on the right bank of the 
Rhine, a few miles to the southeast of Bonn. 

BOOK COLLECTING AND BOOK SALES. 

Most collectors do most of their buying from booksellers; and 
the activity of both fraternities is geared to some extent to the 
auction season which lasts from early October to early July 
in London and is somewhat shorter in New York. The most 
distinguished sale held anywhere during the 1948-49 season 
took place in Dec. 1948, but the results of the most significant 
event of 1949 the devaluation of most European currencies 
in terms of the dollar could hardly be estimated before the 
end of the 1949-50 season. 

The collection formed in Paris by Cortlandt Field Bishop 
was sold not in London or Paris or Geneva, but in New 
York. It was full of beautiful continental books (the 18th 



century predominating over the 17th and 16th) of a kind 
and quality not seen in such profusion since the Rahir sales 
of 1930 and 1931, and the incongruity of its place of dispersal 
was reflected in the fact that about 80% of the books were 
bought by continental dealers. Other notable American 
sales were provided by the libraries of Fritz Kreisler and 
Frank Capra; and the outstanding single object sold during 
the year (for $54,000) was the Bliss ms. of Lincoln's 
Gettysburg Address, the fifth and final draft, signed in full. 
London auction sales were steady in volume, more than 
steady in price level, but unspectacular. Further instalments 
of the Landau library appeared; a beginning was made on 
the enormous mass of Sir Leicester Harmsworth's Americana; 
George Bernard Shaw showed a shrewd appreciation of the 
value added to books from his shelves by notes and inscrip- 
tions from his own pen; and the 27th portion of the library 
of Sir Thomas Phillipps marked the end of the sixth decade 
since dispersal of that huge hoard began. The fact that the 
whole remainder of the Bibliotheca Phillippica had been 
bought some years ago by a London bookseller was publicly 
confirmed by his issue of a catalogue 6f some of the contents. 

The normal flow of rare books from the continent to Great 
Britain had been almost completely dammed from 1939 to 
1948, though an increasing traffic direct to America had been 
operating from 1946, mostly through emigre dealers in New 
York. During 1949 British booksellers and collectors found 
things a little easier; and some considerable holes were made 
in the zareba of exchange control regulations, import licences, 
etc., which isolated the country from the rest of Europe. 
Practical and concerted measures for enlarging these holes 
were among the agenda at the first plenary session of the 
International League of Antiquarian Booksellers held in 
London in September; and it was hoped that London's 
once pre-eminent position as an entrepot of the antiquarian 
book trade might be at least partially retrieved. 

Among British collectors the cyclic fashion for " press 
books " continued to ebb while the taste for bird and flower 
books, so strongly marked after World War H, seemed as 
vigorous as ever. Really fine 18th century first editions were 
scarce, 19th century scarcer, with fiction most difficult of all. 
The revival of general interest in calligraphy noticeably 
affected the prices asked for even mediocre writing books: 
those in good condition, because of their function, are 



BOOK PUBLISHING 



107 



naturally always scarce. The market in " modern firsts " 
was brisk but well spread and showed few symptoms of 
hysteria or speculation. (J. CR.) 

Europe. Austrian dealers reported that, whereas formerly 
it had been possible to secure rare books in exchange for 
black-market staples, such trading had disappeared as a 
result of 1948 monetary reforms. Favoured by the newly 
decreed freedom of trade, the antiquarian book business in 
Western Germany showed stability, although east-to-west 
trade remained difficult. Leipzig, traditional book centre of 
Germany, was considered lost by western Germans who set^ 
out to establish a new centre in the west. Switzerland, which 
had enjoyed an increase in business representing that portion 
formerly executed by German dealers, reported a falling off 
as the German trade was re-established. In general, European 
dealers discovered that as living conditions improved they 
were able to buy fewer rarities from private owners. 

United States. Sales of book collections in 1949 were fairly 
pedestrian. A notable exception was the auction in New York 
of the Fritz Kreisler collection of early printed books and 
manuscripts which realized $120,272. 

The highest auction price for a single piece was $54,000 
paid (Parke-Bernet galleries, Inc., New York, April 27) for 
the Bliss copy of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. Purchaser of 
the manuscript was Oscar B. Cintas of Havana, Cuba. Four 
other copies of the Address arc known: two in the Library of 
Congress, one in the Illinois State Historical library, one in 
Cornell university library. This last was presented to the 
library in June by Nicholas H. Noyes of Indianapolis, 
Indiana. 

It was announced that Mark Twain's private papers, 
including unpublished manuscripts, would be given to the 
University of California as a legacy by the author's only 
surviving issue, Mrs. Jacques Samossoud. Another important 
collection, the papers of James Boswell, gathered by Colonel 
Ralph H. Isham, was acquired by Yale university libraries 
as a partial gift and would serve as the basis for the definitive 
edition of Boswell's writings. The Olive Branch Petition, the 
appeal addressed to King George III by the American Colonies 
in an effort to resolve the differences that brought on the 
American Revolution, was presented to the New York 
Public library by Lucius Wilmerding. 

On March 31 a group met in New York and established 
the Antiquarian Booksellers* Association of America. 
Regional chapters were established or projected in Los 
Angeles, New York city, Philadelphia, Chicago and Boston. 

Devaluation of the pound seemed to have failed to increase 
trade between U.S. and British dealers. In the United States 
it was believed by many that since British prices were based 
on the dollar there could be small revisions in pricing. With 
devaluation, some British dealers revised prices upward. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Cambridge Bibliographical society. Transactions, 
first issue, Cambridge, England, 1949, Bibliographical society of the 
University of Virginia, Papers, vols I and II, Charlottesville, Virginia, 
1949, Brnest J. Haiter, Collecting first Editions of Franklin D. 
Roosevelt, Chicago, 1949 (J. BK.) 

BOOK PUBLISHING. In Great Britain 1949 was the 
year in which book publishing, which had assumed some 
strange patterns during the preceding ten years, was restored 
to its normal appearance. On March 6 the rationing of paper 
for books (which had been introduced nine years earlier, 
on March 3, 1940) came to an end. This long-awaited 
liberation from governmental control came too late to cause 
much jubilation. Already by that date paper rationing had 
ceased to be a real problem for the vast majority of publishers, 
all of whom were now more concerned with steadily mounting 
manufacturing costs at a time when any proportionate rise 
in selling price to meet those costs would be particularly 
unwelcome. Publishers had to base the selling price of a 



book on the number of copies they could reasonably hope to 
sell in relation to the costs of manufacture. During the years 
of book shortages every publisher knew that he would sell 
practically every copy of every title he could manufacture 
and he fixed his prices accordingly. The result was that 
during those years such increase in published price as occurred 
bore little relation to the increase in costs. By 1949, however, 
there was no shortage of books. Students and other specialist 
users of books might still find difficulty in securing a particular 
book; but the general reader's requirements were abundantly 
catered for. After having been unconsidered for nearly a 
decade the element of risk once again re-occupied its 
important place in publishers' calculations. Books that had 
failed to find a purchaser began to accumulate in the book- 
shops and the burning trade question throughout the year 
was this matter of " overstocks " 

Despite all this, the publishing business continued quarter 
by quarter to beat all previous records. The amount of trade 
done by publishers in 1948 reached the unprecedented figure 
of 33,241,431. (The prewar average annual total was 
approximately 10 million.) During the first six months of 
1949, publishers 1 total sales amounted to 15,849,367, an 
increase by over 400,000 on the turnover during the corres- 
ponding period of 1948. Since book trade business is 
invariably greater during the second half of the year than in 
the first, there was little doubt that the 1949 total would 
surpass the 1948 record. An analysis of publishers' output 
made by the book trade paper, the Bookseller, showed the 
average price of books published during the first six months 
of 1949 to be 10*. \\d. In the following six months the 
average price was 1 1 s. 4d. 

Total turnover figures do not by themselves reflect the 
prosperity of the book trade but must be considered in 
relation to the number of titles over which the business is 
spread. The table shows the turnover figures for the 12 years 
1937-48 in conjunction with the total number of titles 
(including reprints and new editions) recorded by the 
Bookseller for those years. 

BRITISH BOOK PUBLISHING TURNOVER FIGURES 
Year 

1937 

1938 

1939 

1940 

1941 

1942 . 

1943 

1944 

1945 

1946 . 

1947 

1948 . 

The production of books in Great Britain during 1949 
was 17,034 titles, of which 5,110 were reprints and new 
editions. The total was considerably greater than the output 
for recent years and was very little short of the figure for the 
record year 1937 (17,134 titles). The notable increase in the 
output of titles was watched with growing apprehension by 
the book trade, which painfully recalled that the worst of 
its misfortunes during the difficult 'thirties had been due to 
over-production of new titles. On the other hand, some 
postwar expansion of the book lists was inevitable and indeed 
desirable. Of the year's 5,000 reprints many were badly 
needed to replace the standard works which were casualties 
of the paper shortage; and of the 12,000 new books published 
during 1949 a substantial number were books arranged for 
in previous years, whose appearance had had to wait the 
easing of paper, printing and binding difficulties. 

The amount of export business done by British publishers 
in 1948 was 8,739,236, or 26-3% of the total. The largest 



Turnover 






Titles 








recorded 


10,507,204 






17,137 


10,706,018 






16,219 


10,321,658 






14,904 


9,953,196 






11,053 


13,986,700 






7,581 


16,735,900 






7.241 


19,290,800 






6,705 


20,500,516 






6,781 


21,979,554 






6,747 


26,961,622 






11,411 


30,203,763 






13,046 


33,241,431 






14,686 



108 



BOTANICAL GARDENS BOTANY 



overseas market for British publishers, Australia, was worth 
well over t million in 1949. Other overseas markets in 
order of importance were: South Africa, India, U.S.A., 
New Zealand, British Africa, Scandinavia, Ireland, Canada, 
middle east, Netherlands, central Europe, France, Malaya, 
South America, British West Indies, Belgium, Italy, Switzer- 
land, Asia, the Balkans, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Africa 
(non-British), central America and Iceland. 

Europe. Publishers in European countries as well as in 
Great Britain found themselves enjoying in 1949 a relief 
from the shortages of raw materials that had restricted their 
activities for so long and, in spite of a shortage of printing 
plant that still prevailed in a number of countries, were able 
to allow their own tastes and traditions in style rather than 
considerations of economy to govern their book production. 

During the year official reports from eastern Europe 
claimed that book production was flourishing under the 
new regime and that demand had never been higher. The 
most detailed account of the book trade in any of these 
countries was provided by the Czechoslovak Publishing act, 
passed in March 1949, which invested in the Ministry of 
Information and Public Culture full powers to plan and 
direct book publishing and bookselling to the exclusion of all 
independent production and distribution. 

Although there were now fewer obstacles to book pro- 
duction in Europe, those which impeded the free flow of 
books from country to country, such as tax barriers, import 
restrictions, etc., remained formidable. The removal of some 
of these barriers was one of the principal concerns of the 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural organiza- 
tion, and at the Cultural conference of the European move- 
ment, held at Lausanne in Dec. 1949, the conference 
unanimously declared its conviction that it was " vital to 
the well-being of Europe that all such restrictions should 
be swept away." (E. SE ) 

United States. Title production in 1949 was 10,892 (9,897 
in 1948), the highest total since 1941. The largest increase 
over the preceding year was in the category of sociology and 
economics, followed by books on science, business, biography 
and domestic economy. The decreases appeared in the fields 
of music, and domestic and military subjects. The number 
of fiction titles was 1,644 (1,643 in 1948), but there were 
fewer new titles and more new editions. 

Based on trade sales alone, the list of fictional best sellers 
for 1949 was headed by The Egyptian, a novel laid in ancient 
Egypt and translated from the Finnish of Mika Waltari. 
This was followed by Lloyd C. Douglas* The Big Fisherman, 
which moved from first place in 1948 to second place in 
1949; in third place came Sholem Asch's Mary. First on the 
list of non-fiction best sellers, rated by trade sales alone, 
was White Collar Zoo by Clare Barnes, Jr., a series of animal 
photographs humorously captioned to relate them to familiar 
office types and office situations; its immediate success 
brought a sequel in Home Sweet Zoo, which proved another 
best seller. 

Although non-fiction sales through the book stores were 
larger in 1949 than fiction sales, five of the ten non-fiction best 
sellers were not literary books: two were picture books and 
three were instruction on how to play canasta, a new and very 
popular card game. 

In 1949, as in 1948, books with a religious or biblical 
interest accounted for two of the fiction and four of the 
non-fiction best sellers. 

BORNEO: see BRITISH BORNEO; NETHERLANDS OVER- 
SEAS TERRITORIES. 

BOTANICAL GARDENS. The long summer drought 



of 1949 caused some losses in the larger gardens, particularly 
in the south of England. Many bulbs and shrubs, however, 
that benefit from a warm summer, gave an unusually fine 
display. 

At the Royal Botanic gardens, Kew, Dr. J. Hutchinson 
retired from the keepership of the museums after 44 years* ser- 
vice at Kew. He was succeeded by Dr. F. N. Howes. The direc- 
tor, Sir Edward J. Salisbury served as a vice president of the 
Royal Society as well as being its senior secretary. Work 
in the Herbarium returned to, or even exceeded, prewar 
quantity and quality and the Kew Bulletin, no. 1, 1949, 
reported that over 35,000 specimens were received during 
1948. Three further important papers on the "Classification 
of the Bananas " by E. E. Cheesman of the Imperial College 
of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad, were published in the 
Kew Bulletin, nos. 1, 2 and 3, 1949. Determinations of plants 
from collections by P. H. Davis in the Mediterranean and 
the near east as well as from the collections of Christopher 
Sandeman in South America and those of the Oxford univer- 
sity expedition in Sarawak were also given in the Kew Bulletin. 

In South Africa continued efforts were made for the 
preservation of the rarer members of the native flora and a 
large collection of these were grown in the National Botanic 
gardens at Kirstenbosch, Cape Province, from which many 
South African plants and seeds were sent out to other insti- 
tutions during the year. 

A number of notable plants flowered during 1949 in the 
Edinburgh Botanic garden and a further part of the revision 
of the Series of Rhododendron was prepared by the assistant 
keeper, Dr. J. Macqucen Cowan and H. H. Davidian and 
published in the Rhododendron Year Book, no. 3, 1949, of 
the Royal Horticultural society. This section dealt with the 
Campanulatum and Fulvum scries. 

At the Wisley gardens, belonging to the Royal Horticul- 
tural society, the blooming of late summer South African 
bulbous plants such as Amaryllis Belladonna and Nerine 
Bowdenii was unusually fine. A tetraploid form of the scarlet 
Salvia splendens was produced by the Cytological depart- 
ment at Wisley and showed more vigour and size than the 
diploid plant. This was shown for the first time during the 
year under the name Wisley Tetraploid. 

In Berlin, progress was made in the reconstruction of the 
botanical garden and museum at Dahlem under the director- 
ship of Dr. R. Pilger, and a report on the portion of the 
scientific collections that was saved was published in the 
Kew Bulletin, no. 2, 1949. (P. M. SE.) 

United States. A new arboretum was initiated by the 
park department of Spokane, Washington. A tract of nearly 
100 ac. was set aside for this purpose. Various organizations 
in Denver, Colorado, were working very hard to have an 
area of one of the city parks set aside for an arboretum. 
The tract under consideration included nearly 100 ac. of 
park land between the Museum of Natural History and the 
Zoological garden. 

No major changes occurred in the larger arboretums 
and botanical gardens of North America during the year, 
but the Lexington Botanic garden at Lexington, Massa- 
chusetts, was being discontinued owing to lack of operating 
funds. (See also HORTICULTURE.) 

BOTANY. During 1949 all branches of the science 
contributed to an imposing bulk of published research in 
which notable advances were reported in the study of anti- 
biotics, plant diseases and palaeobotany. (See PALEONTOLOGY .) 

The Botanical Society of the British Isles commenced 
publication of a new periodical Watsonia for contributions 
bearing on the taxonomy and distribution of British vascular 
plants and charophytes. The discovery of Myriophyllum 
verrucosum, an Australian aquatic, was reported from gravel 



BOTANY 



109 



pits in Bedfordshire and it was suggested that the plant was 
introduced with wool shoddy which is extensively used in 
the neighbourhood as manure. Equisetum ramosissimum, a 
native of the Mediterranean basin and southern Europe, was 
recorded from a locality in Lincolnshire. The society also 
published a report of a conference on British flowering plants 
and modern taxonomic methods, which contained observa- 
tions by experts on critical groups. 

The Linnean society and the Systematics association held 
a joint meeting in London to discuss cytology in relation to 
botanical and zoological taxonomy. W. B. Turrill defined f 
the aim of the taxonomists and reviewed the problems raised' 
by sterility, apomixes and polypody. F. C. Stern showed how 
the number and shape of chromosomes helped to distinguish 
critical species which otherwise were difficult to distinguish. 
He suggested that the genera Leucojum, predominantly 
western Mediterranean, and Galanthus, predominantly eastern 
Mediterranean, had diverged from a common ancestral type 
which had been driven south in glacial times. 

Professor Lily Newton delivered the presidential address 
to the Botany section at the British Association meeting at 
Newcastle-on-Tyne on 4t The utilization of the macroscopic 
marine algae through the ages." Seaweeds served as food in 
the east and as fodder and manure in the west from very 
early times and Professor Newton described in detail the 
many uses to which they had been put in various parts of 
the world and the latest work, particularly in Great Britain, 
to exploit commercially the marine algae around the shores 
of Britain. 

J. Allison and H. Godwin identified tubers of Arrhena- 
therum tuberosum and grains of a six-rowed barley in a sample 
of carbonized plant material from an Old Bronze Age site 
in Wiltshire. From a Middle Bronze Age site in the same 
county they recorded a sub-fossil seed of Veronica hederai- 
folta. 

P. W. Brian found that Gnseofulvin, a metabolic product 
of several species of Pemcillium, in concentrations of 0*1 
10-0 /Ltg./ml., had a profound influence in the morpho- 
genesis of many fungi. No effect was observed in the treat- 
ment of the comycetes, actinomycetes and bacteria but the 
product was found to be appreciably toxic to some angio- 
spermic seeds. 

E. J. H. Corner suggested in his Durian theory that it was 
possible, from a study of tropical fruits, to trace the gradual 
evolution of the modern tree form. He argued that the 
primitive angiosperm fruit must have been a red fleshly 
follicle with large, black red-arillate seeds suspended on 
persistent fumcles. The primitive angiosperm was a tropical 
cycad like mesophyte with large pinnate leaves and bearing 
a cluster of large anllate follicles. 

S. Dickinson, investigating the stimuli determining the 
direction of the growth of the germ tubes of rust and mildew 
spores, concluded that three tropisms were involved, positive 
hyderotropism and two types of growth response due to 
contact. He also studied the behaviour of germ tubes of 
certain nests and found that the formation of appressoria, 
of substomatal vesicles and of infection hyphae were induced 
by contact stimuli. He described how the mycelia of two 
rusts on removal of their host epidermis were unable to grow 
out of the infected host disease. 

D. Doxey studied the effect of isopropyl phenyl carbonate 
on mytosis in rye and onion and described the resulting 
mitotic irregularities. These included interference with 
centromere action and spindle suppression resulting in 
paired chromosomes and polypoid nuclei. The effects were 
compared with conditions found in certain types of tumour. 

On the controversial subject of per-glacial survival of 
certain components of the British flora H. Godwin showed 
that new evidence regarding the former wide range of species, 



which were now much restricted, presented the problem as 
one of explaining post-glacial movements and adjustments 
rather than of per-glacial survival. 

J. W. Heslop Harrison recorded Potamogeton epihydrus 
from the Outer Hebrides. This was a most interesting 
addition to the British flora as it is one of the few species 
which are predominantly north American in their distri- 
bution and which reach extreme western Europe. 

C. C. Harvey and K. M. Drew reported the first occurrence 
on the English coast of the red algal genus Falkcnbergia as 
an epiphyte on a piece of Floridian alga. 

Knud Jsssen published his studies in late Quaternary 
deposits and flora history of Ireland. From detailed examina- 
tion of the plant remains in post-glacial deposits in a number 
of widespread bogs and peat deposits, he had traced the 
changes in the flora to recent times, and listed the species 
found in the various zones. He considered that certain 
constituent elements in the present day Irish flora, including 
the Atlantic and Lusitanian species, might have survived the 
last glaciation. 

J. A. Macdonald investigated the heather rhizomorph 
fungus Marasmius androsaceus which grows where the heather 
is wet and attacks old plants more commonly than young 
ones. It was found that a burned area of moor was unaffected 
while the neighbouring unburned area was severely infected. 

P. S. Nutman studied nodule formation in red clover, and 
suggested that bacteria penetrated the root and produced 
nodules only within those zones of the root distinguished by 
the presence of growing root hairs and only at points of 
incipient meristomatic activity. 

T. R. Peace and J. S. L. Gilmour studied the effect of 
picking on the flowering of the bluebell Scilla non-scripta 
and found from independent observations in two separate 
localities that neither picking nor pulling had any deleterious 
effect on flower production over a period of years. 

M. E. D. Poore and V. C. Robertson gave an account of 
certain aspects of the vegetation of St. Kilda to show the 
changes subsequent to the evacuation of human inhabitants 
in 1932. 

J. E. Raven, after visiting the Isle of Rhum, indicated that 
several of the rare and interesting plants reported from the 
island in recent years had been introduced. 

K. R. Sporne, in a statistical analysis of floral and vegeta- 
tive characters of the families of Dicotyledons, suggested 
that there were significant correlations in an assessment of 
relative advancement. On this basis Dipsacese, Labiatae and 
Valerianacese were shown to be amongst the most advanced 
families, and Flacourtiaceae, Anonaceae, Magnoliaceae and 
Euphorbiacese to be amongst the most primitive. 

J. Walton described the ovuliferous fructification of 
Calathospermum scoticum and indicated its significance in the 
interpretation of carpel morphology. He also described 
Alcicornopteris Mallei from the Lower Carboniferous of 
Dumbartonshire and referred the species to the Pterido- 
sperma?. It was the first example known of a fairly complete 
microsporangiale fructification to be found in a petrified state. 
C. W. Ward law described experimental and anatomical 
investigations on leaf formation of phyllotaxis of Dryopteris 
aristata Druce and, on the data available, rejected the 
hypothesis of other workers. 

S. Williams recorded the occurrence of a completely 
saprophytic liverwort, probably Cryptothallus mirabilis, from 
Dumbartonshire, Scotland. It was found embedded up to 
three inches in black amorphous peat on the site of a felled 
wood. (See also HORTICULTURE.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. L. H. Bailey, Manual of Cultivated Plants most 
commonly grown in the continental United States and Canada (rev. ed., 
London, 1949); W. J. Dowson, Manual of Bacterial Plant Diseases 
(London, 1949); S. M. Marshall, L. Newton, A. P. Orr and others, 
A Study of certain British Seaweeds and their utilization in the preparation 



110 



BOWLS-BOXING 



of Agar (London, 1949); K. Mather, Diametrical Genetics: the study 
of continuous variations (London, 1949); R. N. Salaman, The History 
and Social Influence of the Potato (Cambridge, 1949); A. G. Tansley, 
Britain's Green Mantle; past, present and future (London, 1949); 
G. Viennot-Bourgin, Les Champignons parasites des plantes cultivees 
(Paris, 1949). (G. TLR.) 



BOWLS. In 1949, 2,026 clubs were affiliated to the 
English Bowling association. The national championships 
held at Paddington, London, from Aug. 15-23, attracted 
47,108 entries. A. Allen (Oxford city and county) won the 
singles by 21-8, A. Collins (West Ealing) being the runner-up. 
Darlington won the pairs, Worthing pavilion the triples, 
and Skef ko, Luton, the rinks. The International tournament, 
played at Preston park, Brighton, on July 6-8 for the News 
of the World trophy was won by England on points average, 
England, Scotland and Ireland each winning two games and 
losing one. The London and Southern Counties Bowling 
association's gold badge was won by N. Miller (Lyons), 
and the Lonsdale tournament by A. C. Thwaites (Century). 
The national Welsh B.A. singles was won by Evan Rees of 
Neath, the pairs by Briton Ferry Steel, and the rinks by 
Victoria park, Cardiff. The Irish B.A. singles was won by 
R. Miller (Bangor B.C.). 

In 1949, 351 clubs were affiliated to the English Women's 
Bowling association. Mrs. Chillman won the national 
championship singles, also the two-woods, Mrs. Winslow 
and Mrs. Homes, of Wiltshire, the pairs, Dorset the triples 
and Warwickshire, the rinks. (J. W. FR.) 

BOXING. A remarkable feature of boxing at the end of 
1949 was that Bruce Woodcock, the British heavyweight 
champion, despite a much chequered career and suspect 
nervous reflexes, was regarded by the authoritative New 
York State Athletic commission as one of three contenders 
for the world championship. The New York body 
declared the title vacant after the retirement of Joe Louis 
and refused to alter their attitude although the American 
National Boxing association, to which all other states are 



affiliated, accepted the Negro, Ezzard Charles, as Louis's 
successor by virtue of his victory over Louis's old opponent, 
Joe Walcott, in a fight Louis himself promoted. The 
N.Y.S.A.C. would only recognize Charles as champion if he 
beat the winner of the contest Woodcock v. Lee Savold, 
arranged for May 1950. It was postponed from Sept. 1949 
after Woodcock had been involved in a road accident. 
This accident produced a post-concussional condition and, 
adding to the damage inflicted on him in a fight with Joe 
Baksi in 1947 after which he suffered from optic nerve and 
visional trouble, gave him considerable anxiety. Woodcock 
only came back to the ring late in 1948. After knocking out 
the South African, Johnny Ralph, early in 1949, a conquest 
that did much to restore his confidence, he successfully 
defended his British title against Freddie Mills in June 1949. 
Mills, who was the world champion cruiserweight, had 
an inactive year in 1949. His only important fight was against 
Woodcock, to whom he conceded more than a stone in weight 
and much in height and reach. He was to defend his world 
title against Joey Maxim, American challenger, early in 1950. 
Among young heavyweights were Jack Gardner, Johnny 
Williams and Don Cockill. Dick Turpin, verging on 30, 
withstood the challenge for the British middleweight cham- 
pionship but seemed unable to make further headway. 
Meanwhile his fiery young brother, Randolph, now of age, 
fought his way towards the highest honours in the middle- 
weight class. The spectacular hard-hitting conquests of Pete 
Mead, the American, and Cyril Delannoite, the former 
European champion, put Randolph Turpin in line for a 
match with Dave Sands, of Australia, which the promoters 
tried to establish as a final eliminator for the world champion- 
ship held by Jake la Motta, who won it from Marcel Cerdan 
(see OBITUARIES). The British welterweight championship 
changed hands when Eddie Thomas defeated Henry Hall in 
an uneven fight. Billy Thompson who fought rather unevenly, 
remained the British lightweight champion but lost the 
European title and failed to regain the Empire title in 1949. 
His next British challenger might have been Tommy 
McGovern. It was a pity that the best of the Amateur 




Players taking part in the national championships of the English Bowling association which were held at Paddington, London, in Aug. 1949. 



BOYD-ORR-BOY SCOUTS 



111 




Lord Boyd-Orr (right) with President Vincent Auriol in the Efysee, 
Paris, during a short visit to France in Dec. 1949. 

Boxing champions, Algar Smith, who turned professional, 
could not be exempted from the age clause which forbids 
minors to fight more than a stipulated number of rounds. 
Smith was fully developed mentally and physically, a natural 
fighter and a tremendous puncher. He might have been 
ready to fight for the championship within a year. He was 
just 18 and the enforced three year wait might damp his 
ardour. Ronnie Clayton regained his best form towards the 
end of 1949 but was still below world standard. He fought 
the fight of his life in attempting to regain the European title 
from the Frenchman, Ray Famechon; it was a great fight but 
Famechon was too good for him. Britain's best prospect was, 
perhaps, Danny O'Sullivan, bantamweight champion-elect. 
Rowan, the holder, was well beaten by Vic Toweel in South 
Africa in an Empire title match. Rinty Monaghan retained 
the world flyweight championship in his native Belfast by 
virtue of a draw with Terry Allen. This world title, which in 
the past has well-nigh been the prerogative of British boxers, 
was challenged by Honor6 Pratesi (France), whom Monaghan 
was to meet. (L. WD.) 

United States. On March 1, 1949, Joe Louis, undefeated 
world heavyweight champion, in a formal announcement to 
the National Boxing association, gave up the title after the 
longest and busiest reign any champion the ring had ever 
known, irrespective of weight. For more than 12 years 
Louis was the boxing ring's ruler. He defended the title 
25 times. 

Ray Robinson, world welterweight champion, retained his 
title in a single defence against Kid Gavilan, a Cuban, in 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Ike Williams defended his light- 
weight championship against Enrique Bolanos, Mexico city, 
Mexico, in Los Angeles, California, and Freddie Dawson, 
Chicago Negro, in Philadelphia. Willie Pep regained his 
world featherweight title in a February encounter with 
Sandy Saddler, Harlem Negro, and defended the champion- 
ship against Eddie Compo at Water bury, Connecticut. 
Manuel Ortiz, El Centro, California, retained his world 
bantamweight title against Dado Marino, Hawaiian, in 
Honolulu, Hawaii. (J. P. D.) 



BOYD-ORR, JOHN BO YD ORR, 1st Baron, of 
Brechin Mearn, Angus, British scientist and authority on 
nutrition (b. Kilmaurs, Ayrshire, Sept. 23, 1880), became 
director of animal nutrition research at Aberdeen university 
in 1914 and in 1929 founded and directed the Imperial Bureau 
of Animal Nutrition. He was made rector of Glasgow 
university in 1945 and chancellor in 1946. On Oct. 27, 1945, 
he was unanimously elected director general of the Food and 
Agriculture organization of the United Nations for a two- 
year term ending Dec. 31, 1947. In 1949 he visited India at the 
invitation of the Indian government to advise on food prob- 
lems. His proposals which were accepted and implemented 
by the Indian government, were that the production and 
distribution of food should be organized on a war basis. 
In Oct. 1949 the Nobel committee of the Norwegian parlia- 
ment announced that he was to receive the Nobel peace 
prize for 1949. Following the usual practice the reasons for 
the award of the peace prize were not made public; but it 
was believed that it was given both for his work as director 
general of the Food and Agriculture organization and also 
as president of the world movement for a world federal 
government. A barony was conferred on him on Jan. 1, 
1949. (See Britannica Book of the Year 1949.) 

BOY SCOUTS. Scouting in Great Britain and the 
Commonwealth continued to make steady progress during 
1949. In Britain membership reached 473,216, the highest 
in the movement's history. An encouraging sign was an 
increase of 4,705 on the previous year in the number of 
adult leaders. 

A "Bob-a-Job" week held in April, when every member 
of the movement was asked to earn at least one shilling 
towards administration costs by doing odd jobs, was an 
enormous success both from the financial viewpoint and 
from the amount of goodwill that accrued to scouting. 

In its role of encouraging international friendship scouting 
was very active. At the beginning of the year a highly 
successful Pan-Pacific Jamboree was held in Australia. In 
August nearly three thousand Rover scouts (Aug. 1 7-25) from 
30 countries camped together at Skjak in the mountains of 
Norway at the Fourth World Rover moot. A record number 
of British scouts camped abroad as guests of foreign scouts 

' 




The new beret (left) which was introduced during 1949 as an alternative 
to the old hat for British Boy Scouts on informal occasions. 



112 



BRADLEY-BRAZIL 



and many scout visitors from other countries camped in 
Great Britain. 

The council of the Boy Scouts association gave their 
sanction to a few minor changes in the scout uniform. Scouts 
over 1 5 and scout leaders could now wear berets on informal 
occasions such as camps and hikes, but the familiar wide- 
brimmed hat introduced by Lord Baden-Powell continued 
to be worn on all formal occasions. (RLN.) 

United States. Boy Scout anniversary week was an out- 
standing event in 1949. Twelve scouts visited President 
Harry S. Truman and presented a " Report to the Nation " 
on scouting civic-service projects carried on during 1948. 
These scouts later presented a report to the United Nations 
at Lake Success, New York, on service to scouts abroad. 

In May it was announced that age levels in the three age 
groups of scouting were to be lowered by one year. Cub 
scouting would be for boys 8 to 10 years of age; boy scouting 
for boys 11 to 13; and exploring, which would combine all 
the features of the previous older scout programme, involving 
air, sea and land activities, would be for those of 14 years 
and older. 

Membership on Oct. 31, 1949, was 2,322,094 persons 
organized in 69,185 scouting units. There were 1,709,950 
boys and 612,144 leaders. 

BRADLEY, OMAR NELSON, U.S. general (b. 
Clark, Missouri, 1893), graduated from the U.S. Military 
academy at West Point in 1915 and became a major of 
infantry in World War I. He graduated from the Infantry 
school (1925), the Command and General Staff school 
(1929) and the Army War college (1934), taught at West 
Point until 1938 and then served in Washington on the 
general staff. During World War II he commanded the 
2nd corps in north Africa and Sicily and subsequently all 
U.S. ground troops for the invasion of northwestern Europe. 
As commander of the 12th U.S. army group, he commanded 
more than 1,300,000 combat troops the largest number 
of U.S. soldiers ever to serve under a single field commander. 
In 1945 he was promoted full general. From Aug. 1945 to 
Dec. 1947 he was administrator of veterans' affairs and on 
Feb. 7, 1948 he succeeded General of the Army Dwight D. 
Eisenhower as army chief of staff. On Aug. 16, 1949, he 
became first permanent chairman of the U.S. joint chiefs 
of staff. At the end of July and early August, Admiral 
Louis Denfield, Air Force General Hoyt S. Vandenberg and 
General Bradley visited Frankfurt, London and Paris to 
" discuss matters of mutual interest, including the proposed 
military organization under the North Atlantic treaty," to 
" acquaint themselves with current conditions in Europe,'* 
and to 4t gain first-hand information of the state of the U.S. 
forces in Europe." At the first session of the Defence com- 
mittee set up under the North Atlantic treaty in October 
Bradley was made chairman of the Military committee which 
would 44 commence planning under a broad concept for the 
integrated defence of the North Atlantic area." 

BRAZIL. The largest of the Latin American republics, 
the United States of Brazil has a common frontier with all 
South American countries except Ecuador and Chile. Area: 
3,286,170 sq. mi. (48-3% of the whole of South America). 
Population: (1940 census) 41,570,341; (mid-1949 est.) 
49,350,000 (see Table); about 13% was classified as urban 
and the remainder as rural; three-fourths of the population 
is concentrated in an area along the Atlantic coast, where the 
principal towns are located. The nationality of the population 
as shown by the 1940 census was : Brazilian born 39,822,487, 
naturalized 122,735, foreign 1,283,833, nationality unknown 
7,260. Among the foreign-born residents there were 
c. 354,300 Portuguese, 285,000 Italians, 147,900 Spaniards, 



141,600 Japanese, 71,000 Germans, 41,000 Poles and 245,000 
citizens of other countries. Among the Brazilian-born 
population, about half was of European stock; the remainder 
included 8,744,400 mulattoes (21%), 6,035,700 Negroes 
(14-6%), 5,500,000 Indians and mestizos (13%), and 250,000 
Asiatics. Language: Portuguese. Religion: predominantly 
Roman Catholic (94-4%), with over one million Protestants 
of various denominations and 110,800 Jews. Capital, 
coterminous with the federal district: Rio de Janeiro (q.v) 
(1949 est.) 2,091,160, Other chief towns (pop., 1940 census): 
Sao Paulo (1,253,943); Recife (327,753); Salvador or Baia 
(293,278); Porto Alegre (262,694) ; Belo Horizonte( 179,770); 
Belem( 166,662); Santos (159,648). President of the republic, 
General Eurico Caspar Dutra (q.v.). 

ARFA AND POPULATION AND TERRITORIES OF BRAZIL, 1949 

(Latest estimates available as published by the Institute Brasileiro de 

Geografia e Estatistica) 

Area Population 
State or territory (sq. mi.) (Jan. 1, 1949) Capital 

North 

Acre (terr.) .... 57,153 99,554 Rio Branco 

Amazonas . . . 595,474 502,151 Manaus 

Rio Branco (terr.) . . 97,438 14,273 Boa Vista 

Para . . 470,752 1,094,200 Belem 

Amapd (tcrr.) . 55,489 25,553 Macapa 

Guapore (terr.) . . 96,986 25,159 Porto Velho 

Northeast 

Maranhao . . . 133,674 1,464,132 Sao Luis 

Piaui 94,819 969,160 Teresma 

Ccara . ... 57,371 2,478,647 Fortaleza 

Rio Grande do Norte . . 20,236 910,386 Natal 

Paraiba . . 41,591 1,685,930 Jodo Pessoa 

Pernambuco . . . 38,315 3,185,284 Recife 

Alagoas . . 11,031 1,127,642 Maccio 

Fernando de Noronha (terr ) . 7 1,275 

East 

Sergipe .... 8,321 642,857 Aracaju 

Bahia .... 204,393 4,644,412 Salvador 

Minas Gerais 228,469 7,985,145 Belo Honzonte 

(Serra dos Aimores)* 79,413 - 

Esp'nto Santo . 17,688 889,154 Vit6na 

Rio de Janeiro (state) . 16,372 2,190,394 Niteroi 

Distnto Federal . . . 451 2,091,160 Rio de Janeiro 

South 

Sao Paulo . . . 95,459 8,522,209 Sao Paulo 

Parana . 82,741 1,465,444 Cuntiba 

Santa Catanna . . 31,118 1,396,769 Flormnopohs 

Rio Grande do Sul . . 110,150 3,936,245 P6rto Alegre 

Central- West 

Goias 225,266 979,606 Goiania 

Mato Grosso . 485,405 496,846 Cuiaba 

*Area in dispute between the states of Minas Gerais and Espirito Santo 

History. Since early 1948, when an inter-party agreement 
for co-operation with the legislative programme of President 
Dutra's administration was signed by leaders of the National 
Democratic union (U.D.N.), the Social Democratic party 
(P.S.D.) and the Republican party (P.R.), the country's 
political life had been conditioned by the bickering between 
party leaders over the selection of candidates for presidential 
elections. The Superior Electoral tribunal announced that 
these were to be held on Oct. 1, 1950. Dutra declared publicly 
that he would not seek re-election. Aware of the fact that 
none of the existing parties was strong enough to expect to 
win alone at the polls, the president endeavoured to bring 
about a united front of the three principal parties (U.D.N., 
P.S.D. and P.R.) backing a common presidential candidate. 
Leaders of the three parties found it impossible to agree on 
the same candidate. Numerous conferences, interviews, 
round-table and private talks took place in Rio de Janeiro 
and the various state capitals but to no avail. 

At the end of the year it was suggested that the leaders of 
the P.S.D. (Dutra's own party) should agree on a list of four 
candidates from the state of Minas Gerais whom the party 
would be willing to support. The U.D.N. would pick one 
of the four suggested candidates and the two parties would 
then agree to support the selected candidate at the polls. 



BRAZIL 



113 



This formula was rejected by U.D.N. leaders as well as by 
Vice-President Nereu Ramos, who was chairman of the 
P.S.D. and himself an avowed candidate to the presidency. 
Meanwhile, Ademar de Barros, the governor of the state of 
SSo Paulo, announced that he was not quite decided whether 
to be a candidate or not although his party, the Social 
Progressive, had set up a well organized campaign committee 
with allegedly ample funds to draw upon. It was persistently 
rumoured that the governor of SSo Paulo, if he chose to run, 
would have the backing of former dictator Getulio Vargas 
and the Brazilian Labour party (P.T.B.). At various places, 
including the federal capital, groups of students paraded the 
streets loudly proclaiming Brigadier Eduardo Gomes as 
the only possible candidate of the people. Whether Brigadier 
Gomes, the U.D.N.'s defeated candidate in 1945, again 
would consent to become a presidential candidate was not 
certain. As the year drew to a close, the political situation 
in the country, could be classified only as confused. 

Internationally, Brazil continued to pursue its traditional 
policy of friendship towards the United States, support for 
the United Nations and co-operation in the Pan-American 
movement through the Organization of the American States. 
In May 1949 President Dutra journeyed to the United States 
in response to an invitation of President Harry S. Truman. 
His 10-day stay was marked by numerous expressions of 
friendship between the two peoples. While in Washington 
President Dutra addressed a joint session of the U.S. congress. 

On March 10 it was announced that the Joint Brazil- 
United States Technical commission had completed its task 
and had submitted its report to the governments of Brazil 
and the United States. The report pointed out that the need 
for a broad development programme in Brazil was indicated 
by the low productivity and small income of the majority 
of its people and a serious lack of balance in its economic 
structure. The commission unanimously agreed that the 
economic development of the country should be accelerated 
by a carefully considered programme of government expendi- 
tures, by policies favouring a balanced development of the 
country's resources by private enterprise and by policies 
directed specifically toward controlling inflation and meeting 
the balance of payments problem. (R. d'E.) 

Education. Schools (1947): primary 58,502, teachers 112,412, 
pupils 4,336,437; most of these schools were to be found in the states 
of Si5o Paulo (10,013), Minas Gerais (8,489) and Rio Grande do Sul 
(8,127); secondary, approximately 1,500, pupils 300,000; vocational 
2,700, pupils 200,000; state universities 7 ; private (Catholic) universities 
3. Illiteracy (1947): approximately 57%. 

Agriculture. Main crops ('000 metric tons, 1948): coffee 945; cotton 
308; rice 2,150; maize 5,511; sugar 1,840; cocoa 96; tobacco 117. 
Livestock ('000 head): cattle (Dec. 1947) 45,000; sheep (Dec. 1947) 
18,000; horses (Dec. 1946) 6,770; pigs (Dec. 1947) 5,000. 

Industry. Persons employed (1941) 944,318. Fuel and power: coal 
(*000 metric tons, 1948) 2,015; consumption of gas in Rio de Janeiro 
and Sao Paulo ('000 cu.ft., 1948) 6,180,029; consumption of electrical 
energy in Rio de Janeiro and SSo Paulo (million kwh., 1948) 2,453; 
crude oil output (metric tons, 1948) 18,750. Raw materials (metric 
tons): rubber, export (1948) 5,150; manganese ore (1947) 451,430; 
chrome ore, export (1946) 174; pig-iron (1948) 521,700; steel ingots and 
castings (1948) 462,000; gold (fine troy oz., 1948) 130,000; diamonds 
(carats, 1947) 275,000. Manufactured goods: cotton textiles (1947) 
1,005 million sq. m.; cement (1948) 1,113,000 metric tons. 

Foreign Trade. (Million cruzeiros) Imports: (1948) 20,985, (1949, 
six months) 10,430; exports: (1948) 21,697, (1949, six months) 8,210. 
Main imports: transport and equipment, iron and steel manufactures 
and machinery. Main exports: coffee, cotton manufactures, cocoa, 
hides, skins and leather. Main sources of supply (1948): United 
States 52%; United Kingdom 10%; Argentina 7%. Main destinations 
of exports: United States 43%; Argentina9%; United Kingdom 9%. 

Transport and Communications. Roads (1949) 64,294 mi. Licensed 
motor vehicles (Dec. 1948): cars 162,776, commercial vehicles 155,585. 
Railways: (1947) 22,029 mi.; passenger-mi. (1948) 5,791 million; 

In May 1949 President Eurico Dutra of Brazil paid an official visit 

to the United States. This photo shows him (standing in first car] 

during a parade in Pennsylvania avenue , Washington* 






114 



BREAD AND BAKERY PRODUCTS BREWING 



freight net ton-mi. (1948) 4,569 million Shipping (July 1 948) merchant 
vessels of 100 tons and upwards 342, total tonnage 709,012. Air 
transport (1948) hours flown 244,000, mi flown 37,649,000; 
passengers flown 946,600, cargo earned 14,090,000 kg , air mail carried 
712,000 kg At the end of 1948 there were 8 foreign and 23 domestic 
airlines serving 157 places. Telephones (1948) subscribers 468,500 
Wireless licences (1941) 500,000. 

Finance and Banking. (Million cruzeiros) Budget (1949 est ) revenue 
18,229, expenditure 19,370, (1950 est) revenue 20,186, expenditure 
20,182 National debt (Dec 1946) paper 37,966, gold 1,124 Currency 
circulation (July 1949, in brackets, July 1948) 18,400 (17,040) Bank 
deposits (July 1949, in brackets, July 1948) 33,610 (27,460) Gold 
reserve (July 1949, m brackets, July 1948). U S. $317 (354) million. 
Monetary unit cruzeiro (Cr.S) with an official exchange rate of 
l-Cr$52 416 (before Sept. 18, 1949 1 -Cr $75-44). 

BREAD AND BAKERY PRODUCTS. During 
1949 there was no change in the extraction rate of flour in 
Great Britain and from 100 Ib. of wheat the miller had to 
provide 85 Ib. in the form of flour suitable for human use 
and thus to produce only 15 Ib of by-products available for 
the feeding of animals. This rather dark, long extraction 
flour could not be expected to produce the bold quality loaf 
which was made in prewar days; but it was claimed that the 
loaf, although not so liked by the public, was of good nutritive 
value a claim which few would deny. It was indeed to the 
credit of the British miller that from the restricted wheats 
at his disposal the sources of supply being only five (United 
States, Canada, Argentine, Australia and home grown wheat) 
as against 40 before 1939 he continued to make, at this high 
extraction, flour of as good baking quality as he had. 

There was no outstanding change affecting bread and 
confectionery although as regards the latter there was a 
tendency for supplies of sugar etc. to be rather more plentiful. 
Nevertheless supplies were still much below the prewar 
standard. Following the general trend, more and more 
bread was being produced in the large fully automatic 
bakeries and indeed this might have reached in 1949 a total 
approaching 70% of the whole. In such bakeries, the dough 
was made in electrically driven mixers, divided by machinery, 
moulded mechanically, given its final proof or fermentation 
in automatic provers and finally baked, untouched by hand 
throughout, in a continuous * 4 travelling " oven. In Great 
Britain bread wrapping was prohibited during the war but 
from Nov. 1 this was permitted once again. 

In the United States great interest was aroused by the use 
of " softeners " to counteract or delay the effect of staling 
and enquiries were proceeding to determine their desirability 
in all respects. In Great Britain and Australia much needed 
and far too long delayed research institutes dealing with 
bread manufacture were formed. (See also FLOUR.) 

(D. W. K-J.) 

BREWING AND BEER. The downward trend of 
beer consumption since 1946 was masked rather than 
arrested during 1949. Consumption in terms of bulk barrels 
during the first three months amounted to little more than 
70% of that during the corresponding months of 1946. The 
revenue from the beer duty, it was estimated, must have been 
on average about 1 million lower each month than it was 
in 1948. The time evidently was ripe, or over-ripe, for a 
reduction in the beer duty and in April the chancellor of the 
exchequer announced the first reduction since 1933 one 
of 21 5. a bulk barrel. The price to the public was to be 
lowered by \d. a pint, which meant that the brewing industry 
was called upon to bear a loss of 3s. a barrel. 

Almost immediately consumption went up to near the 
1948 level. May 1949 consumption was very little below that 
in 1948; so was the June consumption. In July, output was 
84,000 bulk barrels above that in July 1948. Much the same 
level was maintained until September. The chancellor's 
policy in reducing the duty by no more than a " penny off 



the pint " appeared to be justified. In the trade, however, 
there was no experienced brewer or licensed victualler who 
would have ventured an opinion as to how far the improve- 
ment had been caused by the reduction in price and how far 
by the phenomenally fine hot summer. This caution was 
justified by the October consumption; this was smaller, in 
relation to 1948 monthly output, than that of any other 
month since the reduction of the duty. Later experience 
bore out the impression that a more drastic reduction in the 
duty (which at 8c/. a pint was still four times as high as in 
1939 on beer of average strength at the respective times) 
would be necessary if the decline in consumption was to be 
permanently arrested. 

The Licensing act passed during 1949 gave the home 
secretary power to set up State Management areas in districts 
scheduled as new towns but, in response to popular feeling 
shorn of the more far-reaching clauses that would have 
made it possible to surround the new towns with wide belts 
of state-managed areas. Criticism of the so-called " tied 
house " system appeared at first to meet with some support. 
This criticism dwindled as the Brewers' society in a series of 
soberly-phrased statements pointed out that " tied " houses 
were generally let at very low, often nominal, rents and that 
tenants possessed such advantages as a business of their own, 
TABLL I. MONTHI Y CONSUMPTION OF BEER IN GREAT BRITAIN IN 



November 
December 
January 
February 
March 
April . 
May . 
June . 
July . 
August 
September 
October 



STANDARD BARRFIS 

1948-49 % of 1945-46 

,341,031 77 90 

,582,138 95 30 

,099,950 62 78 

,014,450 73 46 

,195.746 80 87 

,366,788 85 10 

,509,06! 80 96 

,443,043 81 53 

,639,044 87 68 

,561,259 79-85 

,425,097 82 27 

,254,880 68-87 



TABLE II MONTHLY PRODUCTION OF BFFR IN GREAT BRITAIN IN- 



BULK BARRELS 



November 
December 
January 
February 
March 
April . 
May . 
June . 
July . 
August 
September 
October 



1948-49 
2,139,908 
2,554,532 
1,743,438 
1,622,948 
1.921,373 
2,235,524 
2.461,316 
2,362,481 
2,721,173 
2,571,887 
2.331,666 
2,022,178 



% of 1945-46 

79 29 

98 08 

63 68 

75 35 

83 42 

87 47 

82 48 

83 64 
90-81 
81 96 

84 26 
70 07 



possession at 12 months notice, a high measure of security 
for widows, in return for an undertaking to sell the brewer's 
draught beers and wines and spirits supplied by him at 
current market prices. For practical purposes the public, 
through being offered national as well as local beers and 
different brews in neighbouring houses, had a wider choice 
than could otherwise be provided, at a price which represented 
only a small fraction of Id. a pint profit on beer for the 
brewer. 

At the end of 1948, the small reserve pool of barrelage was 
thought to be inadequate, with a consequent risk of shortage 
of beer in certain areas. The Ministry of Food therefore 
instructed that the figure of 82% of the year 1945-46 should 
cease to be the permitted standard barrelage of each brewery 
and that the new figure of 78% should run from Jan. 1, 
1949, the balance of 4% to be credited to the reserve pool. 
This solved the immediate problem but the recovery in con- 
sumption during the summer resulted in the pool again 
running dry at the end of August. The ministry agreed 
to the pool being overdrawn against the general security of 



BRIDGES 



115 



under-brewed balances by some breweries. In the trade the 
view was held that as there was no longer a shortage of 
barley, brewers should be freed from the government restric- 
tion limiting them to producing beers of 85% of the average 
strength of the beers they brewed in 1939. This would have 
enabled them to brew beer to their customers' tastes, since 
beer drinkers* tastes varied widely between one town and 
district and another. 

By a " gentleman's agreement " with the National Farmers 1 
union, the brewing industry paid not less than 10?. a quarter 
above the statutory minimum for all barley used for brewing, 
both for the 1949 and 1950 crops 

The provisional receipts from the beer duty during the 
financial year 1948-49 were 295 million and from the 
Liquor Licences duty, 5,049,000. Receipts for the year 
1949-50 from these two sources were estimated at 267 
million and 4,900,000 respectively (X.) 

United States. Beer and ale sales for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1949, totalled 85,809,068 bbl , the second highest 
fiscal year figure on record. Highest figure was 86,992,795 bbl. 
in 1948. Bottled and canned beer accounted for 70% of the 
1949 fiscal year sales total. 

Consumption of malt beverages had increased by about 
34 million bbl. since 1939. The entire increase was accounted 
for by packaged sales, made largely in food stores for home 
consumption, although a considerable volume of packaged 
as well as nearly all of the draught beer was sold through 
taverns. 

For the first eight months of 1949, all indications pointed 
to a record year for beer and ale sales. Withdrawals at that 
point totalled 58,411,593 bbl , topping by more than 500,000 
bbl. the previous record sales of 57,880,644 bbl. August 
registered the highest single month's sale of beer in the 
nation's history, with 8,901,000 bbl. 

A development of major interest to the industry during 
1949 was the introduction of courses in brewing sciences in 
several universities. These courses were similar to those 
offered for many years by the University of Birmingham in 
England. 

The U.S. bureau of the census of manufactures' figures 
for 1947, the latest available, showed that the industry in that 
year paid out $292 million in wages and salaries, as compared 
with $122,300,000 in 1939, and expended $620 million for 
materials, fuel, new plant and equipment, as compared with 
$182,300,000 in 1939. 

Federal excise and special taxes on malt beverages for the 
fiscal year 1949 totalled $690,797,422. Beer and ale were in 
1949 taxed at $8 a barrel. (See also HOPS ) 

BRIDGES. In connection with the hydro-electric schemes 
of the North of Scotland Hydro-Elect, ic board, three rein- 
forced concrete bridges were completed during 1949. In 
Perthshire, near Pitlochry, the Aldour bridge was built 
across the river Tummel to replace the old Clunie bridge 
which would be submerged by the Loch formed by the 
Pitlochry dam. Built in a style similar to the Waterloo 
bridge, London, it was a three span, low arch, reinforced 
concrete structure with an overall length of 301 ft. 6 in. 
The centre span was 94 ft. and the two anchor spans 77 ft. 
6 in. The bridge had an open railing parapet. 

In Dumbartonshire, a bridge was needed to carry the 
trunk road from Balloch to Crianlarich over the tailrace of 
the Loch Sloy power station. The bridge had two spans and 
was built of reinforced concrete. The parapet walls were of 
rubble masonry. In Ross-shire, the Grudie bridge power 
station of the Loch Fannich project also involved a new 
bridge to carry the main road from Garve to Gairloch. 
This bridge had one low arch in reinforced concrete and 
solid parapets in Tarradale stone. 



Belgium. A contract was placed in 1949 in Belgium for the 
world's first pre-stressed concrete bridge incorporating 
continuous spans, designed by Professor Gustave Magnel. 
Spanning the Meuse river at Sclayn, the bridge was to consist 
of two 206 ft. hollow girder spans continuous over a central 
pier. A lower bid, for a concrete bow-string arch, was 
rejected because it required three piers in the river. 

Work was progressing on the reconstruction of the railway 
bridge at Val-Benoit. Designed to carry a double-truck 
railway line, it had two approach spans of 82 ft. and a 
central structure of three continuous spans, each 178 ft. long. 
Construction also continued during the year on a road bridge 
of steel across the river Sambre at Marchienne-au-Pont. 

Brazil. The Galeao bridge in the harbour of Rio de 
Janeiro, a 15 span pre-stressed concrete girder bridge 1,215 ft. 
long, was opened to traffic in 1949 with only three of the 
final six highway lanes completed. 

Canada. In Vancouver, British Columbia, an $8 million, 
eight-lane bridge, 90 ft. wide, with 90 ft. clearance over the 
water, was planned in 1949 to replace the Granville street 
bridge. The latter, a low-level structure with swing span, 
caused traffic congestion when the bridge was opened in 
rush hours. 

Construction of a $13,500,000 low-level bridge, 3,000ft. 
long, over the Strait of Canso, which separates Cape Breton 
Island from the mainland of Nova Scotia, was authorized in 
1949 by the Canadian government. Difficult foundation 
problems were presented by strong tidal currents and the 
200 ft. depth of water. 

France. A new steel road bridge over the river Marne was 
completed at the end of Dec. 1948. The bridge was of the 
bow-stnn type, with a span of 259 ft. and a clear width of 
246 ft. The super-structure carried a roadway of 20 ft. 

Germany. The reinforced concrete arch bridge carrying 
the important Mittelland canal across the Weser valley near 
the town of Mindcn, destroyed by the retreating German 
army in 1945, was rebuilt in 1947-49 at a cost of $2 million. 

The reconstructed Autobahn bridge across the Lahn valley 
at Limburg, on the Frankfurt-Ruhr route, had spans of 207, 
3 1 1 and 207 ft. German military K-type trusses were used 
as the bridge was cantilevered across the river. 

Greece. The Brallo bridge, steel deck-truss type, on the 
Athens-Salonika line of the Greek State railroad, was 
completed in 1949 as one of the reconstruction projects 
carried out by the American Mission for Aid to Greece. 

Hungary. All of the bridges over the Danube at Budapest 
(five highway and two railway) were wrecked during World 
War II; six were blown up by the German troops and one 
(the uncompleted Arpad bridge) was damaged by artillery. 
Until 1946, when the Franz Joseph suspension bridge was 
reconstructed, the city was served only by a pontoon bridge, 
which replaced the famous Elizabeth suspension bridge, 
and by a temporary trestle bridge, which replaced the 
Margaret bridge. Plans were made to rebuild the famous 
Clark chain suspension bridge in 1949 and the Miklos 
Horthy bridge (now re-named the Boraros bridge) in 1950. 
In the meantime, as steel became available, the continuous 
steel girder Arpad bridge, with a longest span of 340 ft., was 
completed in 1 949. The deck area of this bridge was 90 ft. 
wide and 3,000 ft. long. 

India. Construction was begun in 1949 on a new bridge 
across the Mahanadi river, near Sambalpur. The bridge, 
estimated to cost $3 million, would form an important link 
on the national highway between Bombay and Calcutta. 

The foundation stone was laid of a new road bridge across 
the Godavari, near Rajahmundry. The bridge, which was 
estimated to cost Rs.20 million would have a roadway 
24 ft. wide. It would form an important link in the system of 
national highways from Madras to Calcutta. 



116 



BRIDGES 



Japan. A 1,600ft. reinforced concrete bridge over the 
Tama river, on the modern highway from Tokyo to Yoko- 
hama, was completed in 1949. It was under construction 
for two years at a cost of 130,000,000 yen ($400,000 U.S.). 

Northern Rhodesia. On Sept. 8, the Kafue bridge was 
opened by the governor, Sir Gilbert Rennie. The bridge was 
420 ft. long and spanned the river Kafue (a tributary of the 
Zambesi) about 30 mi. south of Lusaka. The Beit trustees 
had prepared plans for a bridge in 1939 but World War II 
prevented its construction. After World War II the Beit 
trustees purchased from the London County council one 
of the temporary bridges which had been erected over the 
Thames at London. This was dismantled and taken to 
Rhodesia and handed over to the Northern Rhodesian 
government. The new bridge was the first permanent road 
bridge crossing the lower reaches of the Kafue. 

Nyasaland. A new bridge at Chiromo, to replace the one 
destroyed by heavy floods in March 1948, neared completion 
at the end of the year. The Cleveland Bridge and Engineering 
company, of Darlington, started work on the bridge in 1948 
and it was planned for trains to pass over the bridge by Jan. 
1950 and for the bridge to be completed by June 1950. 

United States. Progress was recorded in 1949 in securing 
official authorization for the proposed Liberty bridge to 
span the Narrows at the entrance to New York harbour 
between Brooklyn and Staten Island with the unprecedented 
span length of 4,620 ft. and an underclearance height of 
237 ft., at an estimated cost of $78 million. Public hearing 
on the application of the Triborough Bridge authority of 
New York city was held on Jan. 12 before a board of top- 
ranking officers of the U.S. army, navy and air force; and 
official war department approval of the plans was signed 
by the U.S. secretary of defence on May 24. 

Official approval by the governor and the state superinten- 
dent of public works in 1949 paved the way for the con- 
struction of a new suspension bridge of 1,700ft. main span 
to be built by the New York State Bridge authority across 
the Hudson river between Kingston and Rhinecliff, estimated 
to cost $14 million. 



Construction progressed through 1949 on the new $13 
million Tacoma Narrows bridge, a four-lane suspension 
bridge replacing the two-lane structure completed on July 1, 
1940, which was destroyed by aerodynamic oscillations on 
Nov. 7, 1940. The bridge utilized the original piers, with a 
main span of 2,800 ft., the third longest in the world. Mis- 
fortune continued to attend this undertaking. On April 13, 
1949, an earthquake hurled a 23 ton saddle casting from the 
top of one of the completed towers to the bottom of Puget 
sound, sinking a work barge en route; and on June 8 a fire 
at the base of the west tower buckled one of the steel plates 
and damage was estimated at $300,000. 

Work was continued during 1949 on the substructure for 
the Delaware Memorial bridge (suspension type) over the 
Delaware river near Wilmington, Delaware, to connect 
Delaware's du Pont highway with New Jersey's planned 
new turnpike. With a main span of 2,150ft., the estimated 
cost was $40 million. The project was 3j mi. long. 

The California Toll bridge authority approved in 1949 
plans for a new bridge Over San Francisco bay to parallel the 
existing Transbay bridge about 300 ft. north of that structure. 

Contracts were let by the Maryland State Road commission 
in 1949 for the construction of the Chesapeake Bay bridge. 
The 1948 estimate of $36,370,000 for the structure was 
increased to $47 million. The crossing included a suspension 
bridge of 1,600ft. main span and a cantilever bridge of 
780 ft. main span. 

A significant event in 1949 was the casting and testing of 
the first precast concrete girder in the United States. This 
160ft. girder was for Philadelphia's new $700,000 Walnut 
Lane bridge, the first application in America of this new type 
of bridge construction. The available 400 tons of steel ingots, 
added to the 150 ton dead weight of the girder, proved 
insufficient to produce failure. The reinforcing wires, pre- 
stressed to 125,000 Ib. per sq. in. had an ultimate strength of 
242,000 Ib. per sq. in. and a yield strength of 213,000 Ib. per 
sq. in. (compared with 160,000 Ib. per sq. in. specified), and 
the concrete had a 28-day strength of 7,200 Ib. per sq. in. 
(compared with 5,400 Ib. per sq. in. specified). The bridge, 




Sir Gilbert Rennie, governor of Northern Rhodesia, opening the Kafue bridge, Sept. 8, 1949. During World War II it was used as an emer- 
gency bridge crossing the river Thames at London and was subsequently purchased on behalf of the Beit Trustees by Sir Alfred Beit (seated 
behind Sir Gilbert Rennie) and handed over to the Northern Rhodesian government). 



BRITISH BORNEO 



117 




The A/dour bridge across the Tummel, near Pitlochry, Perthshire. Built for the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric board in a style similar 
to Waterloo bridge, London, it was handed over to the Perthshire county council in Oct. 1949. 



scheduled for completion early in 1950 would have 13 pre- 
stressed concrete girders 160ft. long in the main span and 
7 girders 74 ft. long in each side span. 

The Lake Washington Floating bridge at Seattle, Washing- 
ton, completed in 1940 at a cost of $9,860,000, was made 
toll-free after nine years of collections. The removal of tolls 
increased traffic to a point where construction of a second 
bridge across the lake was being considered. 

A new $4 million high-level bridge over the Chesapeake 
and Delaware canal at Chesapeake City, Maryland, was 
completed in 1949 to replace a lift bridge which was destroyed 
in 1942 when a tanker crashed into the south pier. The new 
bridge was a steel tied-arch of 540 ft. span, identical in span 
and design with the bridge at St. Georges, Delaware, built 
in 1942 over the same canal following a similar accident in 
1939. 

Construction also progressed on the high-level Penrose 
Avenue bridge, crossing the Schuylkill river between Phila- 
delphia and Chester, Pennsylvania. The project was 12,378 ft. 
long, including approach viaduct spans on high concrete 
piers and a cantilever bridge of 680 ft. main span. 

The famous Pecos viaduct of the Southern Pacific railroad 
near Comstock, Texas, for many years the highest railroad 
bridge in the United States, was dismantled in 1949 after 
replacement by a new cantilever bridge in 1944. 

The high-level bridge, connecting Akron and Cuyahoga 
Falls, Ohio, arching 185 ft. above the Cuyahoga river, 
completed in 1949, was a decktype cantilever bridge, 900 ft. 
long, with a centre span of 480 ft. 

At East Fredericktown, Pennsylvania, a suspension bridge 
of 1,000ft. span was built over the Monongahela river in 
1949 to carry a belt conveyor for bringing coal across the 
river from mine to processing plant. 

In South Carolina, a three-span steel highway bridge 
(put out of service when the Santee dam was completed in 
1941) was moved 20 mi. downstream in 1949, from Lake 
Marion on the Santee river to a new crossing over the 
Santee-Cooper diversion channel. The three truss spans 
(150, 168, 150 ft.) were lifted from their original piers, towed 



downstream on a wooden barge and placed on newly 
constructed piers at the new site. 

During the cantilever erection of the new Bluestone river 
highway bridge near Hinton, West Virginia, a sudden 
collapse of 231 ft. of the 278 ft. centre span on March 31, 
1949, plunged five men to their death in the stream 150 ft. 
below and four others were injured. The cause of the collapse 
was not discovered. (See also ROADS.) (D. B. S.; X.) 



BRITISH BORNEO. British territories in Borneo 
consist of the colonies of North Borneo including the island 
of Labuan (area, 29,540 sq. mi.; pop. [1947 est.] 335,379); 
Sarawak (area, c. 50,000 sq. mi.; pop. [1947 census], 546,361) 
and the protected state of Brunei (area, 2,226 sq. mi.; pop. 
[1947 census] 40,670). Governors: North Borneo, Sir Ralph 
Hone; Sarawak (also high commissioner for Brunei), Duncan 
G. Stewart (assassinated in December). 

Proposals for the establishment of executive and legislative 
councils in North Borneo were approved and the necessary 
instruments to give them effect were in process of drafting 
and were expected to be ready before the end of the year. 
Under arbitration an award of 1 -4 million was fixed as the 
sum to be paid by the British crown to the British North 
Borneo company in respect of the transfer to the crown of 
the company's sovereign rights and assets in North Borneo 
under the terms of the agreement entered into in June 1946. 

The governor, D. G. Stewart, was stabbed on Dec. 3, at 
Sibu, by a member of the Malay Youth association which 
opposed the cession of Sarawak to the crown. He died at 
Singapore on Dec. 10. 

Finance and Trade. Currency: Straits dollar ($1 = 25. 4</.) 



Revenue (1948) 
Expenditure 
Imports 
Exports 


North Borneo 
$13,780,929 
$10,727,063 
c. $25,419,000 
c. $29,742,000 

* i f\ 4e\ __: 


Sarawak 
$14,055,045* 
$19,186,932* 
$98,769,885 
$171,250,887 


Brunei 
$6,586.299 
$3,740,254 
c. $35,000,305 
c. $49,000,000 



1949 estimates. 

Principal exports: North Borneo, rubber and timber; Sarawak, diesel 
oil, crude oil, rubber and sago flour; Brunei, crude oil. In assessing 



118 



BRITISH COUNCIL-BRITISH EAST AFRICA 



Sarawak's import and export figures note should be taken that all 
Brunei's crude oil (to the value of $47,140,683 in 1948) is pumped to 
the refinery at Min and later re-exported (J. A. Hu.) 

BRITISH COUNCIL. At the end of 1949 the British 
Council had representatives in 40 foreign countries, in 
Australia, New Zealand, India and Pakistan and in 18 
British colonies. During the year it opened offices in Fiji, 
Israel, Mauritius and Uganda. The council supplied material 
and services to the United States, Canada, South Africa and 
other countries in which it was not represented. In the 
United Kingdom it provided services for people from over- 
seas through 34 offices and centres. 

The total of the grants-in-aid voted by parliament for the 
council for the financial year 1949-50, after allowing for 
estimated receipts of 224,600, was 3,232,000, made up of 
2,551,000 for work in foreign countries and 681,000 for 
work in the Commonwealth. The total establishment of 
staff provided for was 3,471, but the total staff actually 
employed was about 3,000. 

On Jan. 1, 1950, the council took over from the Colonial 
Office responsibility for the welfare of British colonial students 
in the United Kingdom. The British government provided 
about 500,000 to finance this work and also an increase in 
welfare services for overseas students in London, for five years. 
In 1949 there were in operation cultural conventions, all 
entered into by the British government after World War II, 
with France, Brazil, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway 
and Czechoslovakia. The council, usually nominated by the 
British government as its principal agent in the matters under 
review, was represented on, and provided the secretariat for, 
the British sections of the mixed commissions set up. During 
the year five mixed commissions held meetings and the 
chairman of the council met the Brazilian commission when 
he made a tour of inspection of council establishments in 
Latin America. The council was also represented on the 
Cultural committee of the Brussels Treaty powers, which, 
during 1949, dealt with arrangements for promoting the free 
flow of cultural material and the free movement of persons 
between the five countries. The council and the British 
Treasury arranged a study course in connection with the 
Brussels treaty in Nov. 1949, when nine senior government 
officers from Belgium, France, Luxembourg and the Nether- 
lands came to London to study the structure and organization 
of the British executive and the relations between the central 
government and the local authorities in Great Britain. 

The annual report of the council for the year to March 31 
1949 recorded that in 73 overseas centres maintained or 
assisted by the council 44,803 students attended English and 
other courses, and 26,012 members enrolled for extra- 
curricular activities. In 22 countries 1,600 teachers of English 
attended summer schools arranged in co-operation with 
local educational organizations or universities. The overseas 
libraries had over 215,000 books and sales of the council's 
brochures totalled 140,664. The council awarded 242 post- 
graduate scholarships tenable in the United Kingdom to 
students from foreign and Commonwealth countries, 119 
extensions to scholarships previously awarded and 105 short- 
term bursaries to technicians and industrial and other workers. 
Through the council 12 countries offered 62 scholarships to 
British students The council arranged study programmes 
for 869 professional visitors to the United Kingdom, and, 
in co-operation with British universities and other bodies, 
short courses and summer schools for 1,700 other visitors 
from 57 countries. (R. F. AM.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Annual Report of the British Council (London, 1949). 

BRITISH EAST AFRICA. The term is used to 
cover Kenya (colony and protectorate; area, 224,960 sq. mi.); 
Uganda (protectorate; area, 93,981 sq. mi.); Tanganyika 



(under United Kingdom trusteeship; area, 362,688 sq. mi.); 
Zanzibar (protectorate; area, 1,020 sq. mi.); and the 
Somaliland (protectorate; area, c. 68,000 sq. mi.; pop. 
[1947 est.] c. 700,000). Populations (Feb. 25, 1948 census): 

European Indian Goan Arab Other AJncan Total 

Kenya 29,660 90,528 7,159 24,174 3,325 5,218,385 5,373,231 

Uganda 3,448 33,767 1,448 1,475 827 4,953,000* 4,993,965 

Tanganyika 10,648 44,248 2,006 11,074 2,184 7,004,000*7,074,160 

Zanzibar 308 15,812 43,528 3,390 202,834 265,872 
* Provisional figures 

In 1948 the East African High commission, consisting of 
the officers for the time being administering the governments 
of Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyika, with a central assembly 
(consisting of official and unofficial members with an un- 
official majority) and an executive organization was estab- 
lished to co-ordinate and control the technical services of 
the three territories. Governors: Kenya, Sir Philip Mitchell; 
Uganda, Sir John Hathorn Hall; Tanganyika, Sir Fdward 
Twining; Somaliland, Gerald Reece; Zanzibar, British 
resident, Sir Vincent Glenday. 

History. Constitutionally there were no changes in 1949 
but it was a year of great development in the sphere of local 
government. Kampala was raised to municipal status with a 
municipal council exercising considerable local autonomy, 
consisting of European, Asian and African members and 
presided over by a non-official (Asian) chairman. In Dar es 
Salaam a new municipal council was established with equal 
numbers of non-official European, African and Indian mem- 
bers. The raising by Nairobi of a 1 5 million loan on the 
open market on its own assets and responsibility opened a 
new stage in the development of colonial municipalities. 
In Uganda the African Local Government ordinance of 
January gave constitutional support to developments of 
recent years. In Kenya the text of a bill to provide for local 
government in Native areas and re-establishment of district 
councils was submitted to the country for criticism and later 
was laid before the Legislative Council. In Tanganyika the 
first provincial council (comprised of officials and unofficial 
members of the European, Asiatic and African communities) 
was formed in the Lake province and held its first meeting 
in June. 

Considerable progress was made towards easing the trans- 
port bottleneck. Some 350 mi. of railway were under con- 
struction in Tanganyika; in Kenya re-alignment between 
Nairobi and Nakuru reduced the distance and produced an 
easier gradient. At a conference in London in January on 
East African transport problems, attended by East African 
governors and by representatives of both the British govern- 
ment departments concerned and of the East African rail- 
ways, congestion at Dar es Salaam was the main subject of 
discussion; immediate steps decided on were the extension 
of the present quay by 500 ft., a large increase in the lighter 
fleet, an addition of three cranes and a steady increase in 
railway rolling stock. A technical committee of the East 
African railways reported later in the year that it estimated 
Dar cs Salaam could be developed into a major port with 
18 deep-water berths and that with certain limited improve- 
ments, cither in hand or suggested, it should by 1951-52 be 
able to handle nearly twice the total tonnage of 1948. It was 
announced that to carry out these and other improvements 
the East African Railways and Harbours administration 
were preparing to borrow 23 million in instalments. 

In May agreement with the Egyptian government was 
announced with regard to the building of a dam and hydro- 
electric power station at Owen falls, Uganda. The Egyptian 
government offered to pay 4 5 million towards the cost of 
the scheme (estimated to cost a total of 12 million). The 
contract for the construction of the dam was placed with an 
Anglo-Dutch firm and the work was expected to be completed 



BRITISH EMPIRE 



119 




The Commonwealth prime ministers at Buckingham palace on April 23, 1949. Left to right, D. S. Senanavakc (( ev/orn, L. 11. Pearson 
representing Louis St. Laurent, Canada), Liaquat All Khan (Pakistan), H.M. the King, C. R. Attlee, J. B. Chifley (Australia), D. F. Malan 

(South Africa), Peter Fraser (New Zealand) and Pandit Nehru (India). 



in four years. Meanwhile work forged ahead on certain 
preliminary installations the construction of a temporary 
electrical power plant (diesel-driven), railway sidings and 
camps for the labour force. 

The United Nation's Trusteeship committee mission, 
which visited Tanganyika in 1948, made a number of criti- 
cisms of the administration to which the British government 
published a vigorous reply. 

The much vaunted groundnuts scheme in Tanganyika 
produced more controversy than oil. A very frank report 
Overseas Food Corporation: Report and Accounts for J 948-49 
(H.C.252) showed that the original plan had been badly 
over-optimistic both as to costs and possible rate of progress. 
, Not the least disturbing feature of the report was the comment 
of the auditors. Nevertheless the scheme moved forward 
and brought with it many indirect benefits to the territory 
as a whole. 

Fairly general rioting broke out in Uganda on April 25 
and lasted 2-3 days with sporadic incidents occurring until 
May 4. The riots followed on an expression by the Kaboka 
of his inability to agree to certain demands put forward by a 
delegation representing the so-called Bataka party and the 
African Farmer's union. Five Africans were reported to have 
been shot and more than 1,300 people were arrested; 
numerous cases of arson, looting and theft of vehicles oc- 
curred. The governor brought into operation the Emergency 
Powers Order-in-Council 1939, and called in military assist- 
ance from Kenya. On May 4 he announced the appointment 
of a commissioner to inquire into and report upon the origin, 
cause, purposes and development of the disturbances and the 
steps taken to deal with them and to make recommendations. 

Principal exports: Kenya -sisal, coffee, radium carbonate, hides 
and skins, tea; Somaliland hides and skins; Tanganyika sisal 
(8,930,461 in 1948), cotton, diamonds, coffee; Uganda raw cotton 
(7,457,674 in 1948), coffee, cigarettes, sugar; Zanzibar cloves 
(1,000,404 in 1948), coconut oil. 

Finance and Trade. Currency throughout British East Africa is 
controlled by the East African Currency board in London; the standard 
coin is the shilling, divided into 100 cents; circulation (Dec. 31, 1948): 
notes 16,857,840, coinage 8,655,646. 



Revenue 

Kenya 8,956,500() 
Somaliland 525,495(/>) 
Tanganyika 6,965,058(c) 
Uganda 6,842,07 \(a) 
Zanzibar 901,208(c) 



Expenditure 
8,946,740(a) 

545,357(/>) 
6,381,964(c) 
6,348,304(a) 

937,673(c) 



Imports 1 948 Exports \ 948 
27,136.338(rf) 19,972,227 

22,608,564 16,923,394 
9,271,287(rf) 17,197,716 
2,699,717 2,116,858 



(a) 1949 estimates, (b) Actual, for the year ended June 30, 1948. (r) 1948 
actual, (d) "Retained" imports only. (J y^ Hu.) 

BRITISH EMPIRE. Under this heading are grouped 
two articles and a table. The articles deal with changes 
within the Commonwealth of Nations previously called 
British Commonwealth of Nations and the colonial empire. 
The table gives essential data on the United Kingdom, the 
dominions, the colonies, the protectorates and trust terri- 
tories as at Dec. 31, 1949 

Dominions. The early months of 1949 marked the climax 
of a momentous phase in the political and constitutional 
evolution of the Commonwealth of Nations. On March 31 
Newfoundland, a former self-governing dominion, became, 
at the wish of its own people, the tenth province of the 
Canadian confederation; on April 18 Eire formally declared 
herself to be a republic and seceded from the Common- 
wealth; and on April 27 the prime ministers of the dominions 
assembled in London resolved that India upon becoming a 
republic could remain a full and equal member of the 
Commonwealth. 

The union of Newfoundland with Canada and Eire's 
departure from the Commonwealth had been decided upon 
in 1948 but both required legislation by the United Kingdom 
parliament in the final stages. In respect of Eire, or the 
republic of Ireland as it was correctly styled after April 18, 
this legislation was not without a broad significance for 
Commonwealth relations. The Ireland act, introduced by 
the prime minister in the House of Commons on May 3 and 
enacted on June 2, recognized that as from April 18 the 
republic of Ireland had ceased " to be part of His Majesty's 
dominions " and as a result it gave statutory authority to 
assurances, already given by the prime minister, that " in no 

continued on page 121. 



120 



BRITISH EMPIRE 



Country 



EUROPE 

GREAT BRITAIN AND 
NORTHERN IRELAND 



Area Population a 
sq. mi. (ooo's 
(approx.) omitted) 



Capital 



94,204 50,213 London 



Status Rulers, Governors and Premiers 



kingdom . . George VI, King 

Pume minister of Great Britain, C. R. Attlee. 
Governor of Northern Ireland, Earl Granville 



CHANNEL ISLANDS 
ISLE OP MAN . 


75 
221 


92 


/St. Helier . 
\St. Peter Port 
Douglas . 


runic iimu>ici 01 rNUiuicrii iiciaiiu,air Dasii DIUUKV 

part of the United \Jersey: lieutenant governor, Sir A. E. Grasett 
Kingdom j Guernsey: lieutenant governor, Sir Philip Neame 
part of the United Lieutenant governor, Sir Geoffrey Bromet 


GIBRALTAR .... 


2 


23 


Gibraltar 


Kingdom 
colony 


Governor, Lt. Gen. Sir Kenneth Anderson 


MALTA .... 


122 


306* 


Valletta . 


self-governing 


Governor, Sir Gerald Creasy 










colony 


Prime minister, Dr. Paul BolTa 


ASIA 












ADEN AND PERIM . 
ADEN PROTECTORATE 


80 
112,000 


81' 
650' 


/Aden \ 


colony 
protectorate 


> Governor, Sir Reginald Champion 


BAHREIN ISLANDS . 


213 


125 


Manama 


protectorate 


Political agent, A. C. Galloway 


BRITISH BORNEO: 












NORTH BORNEO (with Labuan) 29,540 


335 


Sandakan 


colony 


Governor, Sir Ralph Hone 


BRUNEI .... 
SARAWAK .... 


2,226 
50,000 


41 d 
546* 


Brunei 
Kuchmg . 


protectorate 
colony 


High commissioner \ 
Governor / vacam 


CBYLON .... 


25,332 


6,879 


Colombo 


dominion . 


Governor general, Lord Soulbury 


CYPRUS .... 


3,572 


450/ 


Nicosia . 


colony 


Prime minister, Don Stephan Senanayake 
Governor, Sir Andrew Wright 


HONG KONO 


391 


1,857 


Victoria . 


colony 


Governor, Sir Alexander Grantham 


INDIA 


1,243,886 


342,114 


Delhi 


dominion . 


Governor general, Chakravarti Raiagopalachan 












Prime minister, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru 


MALAYA : 










Commissioner general tor S.E. Asia, Malcolm 












MacDonald 


FEDERATION OF MALAYA 


50,850 


4,867 d 


Kuala Lumpur. 


protectorate 


High commissioner, Sir Henry Gurney 


SINGAPORE 


217 


941 d 


Singapore 


colony 


Governor, Sir Franklin C Gimson 


PAKISTAN .... 


337,524 


73,321 


Karachi . 


dominion . 


Governor general, Khwaja Nazimuddm 


AFRICA 










Prime minister, Liaquat Ah Khan 


ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN . 967,500 
BRITISH SOUTH AFRICAN PROTECTORATES: 


7,547 


Khartoum 


condominium 


Governor general, Sir Robert Howe 


BASUTOLAND 


11,716 


560/ 


Maseru . 


protectorate 


^ 


BECHUANALAND 
SWAZILAND 


275,000 
6,704 


245 / 
187/ 


Mafeking 
Mbabane 


protectorate 
protectorate 


>High commissioner, Sir Evelyn Baring 


GAMBIA .... 
GOLD COAST (including BRITISH 


4,033 
91,843 


251 
4,118* 


Bathurst . 
Accra 


colony 
colony and protec- 


Governor, P. Wyn Harris 


TOGOLAND: 13,041 sq.mi ). 








torate (British 
Togoland : trust 


> Governor, Sir Charles Arden-CIarke 


KENYA .... 


224,960 


5,373* 


Nairobi . 


territory) 
colony and protec- 


Governor, Sir Philip Mitchell 










torate 




MAURITIUS (and Dependencies) 
NIGERIA (including BRITISH 


807 
372,674 


452- 
25,000 


Port Louis 
Lagos 


colony 
colony and protec- 


Governor, Sir Hilary Blood 


CAMEROONS: 31,150 sq. mi.) 








torate (British 
Cameroons: trust 


(Governor, Sir John Macpherson 


NORTHERN RHODESIA . 


284,745 


1,684* 


Lusaka . 


territory) 
protectorate 


Governor, Sir Gilbert McCall Rennie 


NYASALAND .... 
ST. HELENA, ASCENSION AND 


47,949 
95 


2,300* 
5/ 


Zamba . 
Jamestown 


protectorate 
colony 


Governor, Sir Geoffrey Colby 
Governor, Sir George Joy 


TRISTAN DA CUNHA 












SEYCHELLES .... 


156 


35* 


Victoria . 


colony 


Governor, Dr. P. S. Selwyn Clarke 


SIERRA LEONE 


27,925 


1,857* 


Freetown 


colony and protec- 


Governor, Sir George Beresford Stooke 










torate 




SOMALILAND PROTECTORATE . 


68,000 


700 


Berbera . 


protectorate 


Governor, Gerald Recce 


SOUTHERN RHODESIA 


150,333 


2,021 


Salisbury. 


self-governing 


Governor, Sir Noble Kennedy 


SOUTH WEST AFRICA . 


317,725 


321* 


Windhoek 


colony 
trust territory 


Prime minister, Sir Godfrey Huggins 
Administrator, Colonel P. 1. Hoogenhout 










(under S. Africa) 




TANGANYIKA 
UGANDA 
UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 


362,688 
93,981 
472,550 


7,074* 
4,994 * 
11,392" 


Dar-es-Salaam 
Entebbe . 
Pretoria (seat of 


trust territory 
protectorate 
dominion . 


Governor, Sir Edward Twining 
Governor, Sir John Hathorn Hall 
Governor general, Major G. B. van Zyl 








government); 




Prime minister, Dr. Daniel F. Malan 








Capetown (seat 












of legislature) 






ZANZIBAR (and Pcmba) . 


1,020 


266* 


Zanzibar 


colony and protec- 


Resident, Sir Vincent Glenday 


AMERICA 








torate 




BAHAMAS .... 
BARBADOS .... 
BERMUDA .... 
BRITISH GUIANA . 
BRITISH HONDURAS 
CANADA .... 


4,404 
166 
21 
89,480 
8,867 
3,694,863 


77 
199 
36 
403 
59/ 
12,883 


Nassau . 
Bridgetown 
Hamilton 
Georgetown . 
Belize 
Ottawa . 


colony 
colony 
colony 
colony 
colony 
dominion . 


Governor, Sir George Sandford 
Governor, A. W. L. Savage 
Governor, Lt. Gen. Sir Alexander Hood 
Governor, Sir Charles Woolley 
Governor, Ronald H. Garvey 
Governor general, Viscount Alexander of Tunis 


FALKLAND ISLANDS 
JAMAICA (and Dependencies) . 
LEEWARD ISLANDS 
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO 
WINPWARP ISLANDS , , 


4,618 
4,670 
423 
1,980 
829 


2 
1,375 
109/ 
587 
252' 


Port Stanley . 
Kingston 
St. John . 
Port of Spain . 
St. George's . 


colony 
colony 
colony 
colony 
colony 


Prime minister, Louis St. Laurent 
Governor, Sir Miles Clifford 
Governor, Sir John Huggins 
Governor, Earl Baldwin of Bewdley 
Governor, S'r Hubert Ranee 
Governor, R. D. H. Arundell 



BRITISH EMPIRE 



121 



Area 


Population? 


Capital 


974,581 


7,581 < 


Canberra 


7,040 
93,000 


269 
675' 


Suva 
Port Moresby 


4,633 


48 


Vila 


8 


1 




103,935 


1,861 


Wellington 


13 


1 




12,085 


176 




90,540 


339 < 


Port Moresby 


1,133 


72 < 


Apia 



* 1947 est 

* 1947 census 



Country 
AUSTRALASIA 

COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA 2,974,581 

FIJI 

NEW GUINEA 

NEW HEBRIDES 

NAURU .... 

NEW ZEALAND 

(and Dependencies) 
NORFOLK ISLAND 

PACIFIC ISLANDS- (Solomon, 

Gilbert and fcllice, Tonga 

and Pitcairn Islands) 
PAPUA .... 

WFSTFRN SAMOA . 

1948 est. if not otherwise stated 
* 1948 census 

continued from page 119. 

event will Northern Ireland or any part thereof cease to be 
part of His Majesty's dominions and of the United Kingdom 
without the consent of the parliament of Northern Ireland." 
The act also provided that, although the republic was not 
part of His Majesty's dominions, it was not to be regarded 
as a foreign country nor were its citizens to be aliens for the 
purposes of any law in force in the United Kingdom or its 
colonial territories. The non-foreign status of the republic 
and its citizens in the United Kingdom was extended on a 
reciprocal basis by the separate legislation of other Common- 
wealth countries. The guarantee to Northern Ireland, 
embodied in the act, provoked a storm of criticism in Dublin. 

India's already proclaimed intention of adopting a repub- 
lican constitution meant that the form of her existing associa- 
tion with the Commonwealth would have to be changed. 
" In no way in our external, internal, political or economic 
policy," Pandit Nehru told the Constituent Assembly on 
March 8, " do we propose to adopt anything which involves 
the slightest degree of dependence on any other authority." 
But in terms of independent nations co-operating together as 
equals, free from binding commitments, India was prepared 
to consider future and friendly association with the Common- 
wealth. Internally and externally her government was much 
concerned with the advance of Communism in Asia. The 
attitude of the Communist party in India was described by 
its prime minister on Feb. 28 as one of open hostility 
" bordering on open revolt " and it was felt by many that in 
such circumstances a policy of isolation entailed many risks. 

The problem before the dominion prime ministers, who 
assembled in London on April 21, was whether India's 
desire to remain a member of the Commonwealth could be 
reconciled with her resolve to become a republic. The 
historic communique issued on April 27 announced that a 
satisfactory solution had been found during talks which had 
been conducted throughout in an atmosphere of goodwill 
and mutual understanding. India, about to become a 
soverign independent republic, declared her desire " to 
continue her full membership of the Commonwealth and her 
acceptance of the King as the symbol of the free association 
of its independent member nations and as such head of the 
Commonwealth," while the other countries of the Common- 
wealth, the basis of whose membership was specifically 
declared not to be thereby changed, recognized India's 
continuing membership on this basis. All, therefore, remained 
united as free and equal members of the Commonwealth of 
Nations, ** freely co-operating in the pursuit of peace, 
liberty and progress." 

The resolution of India's constitutional problems was 



Status 



Rulers, Governors and Premiers 



dominion 



Governor general, W. J. McKell 
Prime minister, Robert Gordon Menzies 
Governor, Sir Brian Freeston 
Administrator, Colonel J. K Murray 



colony 

trust territory 

(under Australia) 
Franco-British \Bntish High commissioner. Sir Brian Freeston 

condominium J French High commissioner, Pierre Cournane 



trust territory 
(under Australia) 
dominion . 

Australian depen- 
dency !> 

colonies and pro- 
tectorate 



Administrator, Robert Stanley Richards 

Goveinor general, Sir Bernard Freyberg 
Prime minister, Sidney George Holland 
Administrator, A Wilson 

High commissioner, Sir Brian Freeston 



wealth of Australia 

trust territory Administrator, G R Powles 

(under N Zealand) 



1946 est 
f 1946 census 



f 1945 census 
* 1941 esi. 



1940 est. 
1939 est. 



warmly welcomed by all parties in the United Kingdom and 
in most parts of the Commonwealth. After a two-day debate 
the London declaration was ratified by the Constituent 
Assembly in New Delhi with only one dissentient vote. 
Pandit Nehru, in an address to both houses of the Canadian 
parliament on Oct. 24 during his official visit to north 
America, spoke of it as " an outstanding example of the 
peaceful solution of difficult problems " to which the rest 
of the world might well pay heed. The reaction in Pakistan 
was, however, reserved. On April 28 its prime minister, 
Liaquat AH Khan, underlined the fact that his country had 
not yet drafted its constitution nor decided whether it should 
remain freely associated with the Commonwealth as a 
monarchy or a republic; or whether it should secede. Con- 
tinuing tension with India on the Kashmir dispute made it 
clear that although a most difficult constitutional question 
had been resolved unity of outlook on the Indian sub- 
continent had by no means been achieved. 

Dr. Daniel F. Malan, the Nationalist prime minister of 
South Africa, who attended the London conference, 
described it on May 1 1 as a milestone in the history of the 
Commonwealth. It had promoted unity and South Africa, 
even though she might decide to become a republic, was 
united in her desire to remain in the Commonwealth. The 
South African government took the view that after the prime 
ministers' meeting it was no longer constitutionally possible 
to talk of common status for citizens of Commonwealth 
countries and the South African Citizenship act, promulgated 
on Sept. 2, gave this view legal expression. The act provoked 
much controversy in the Union and some criticism outside, 
mainly because it extended for British subjects the qualifying 
period for South African citizenship from two years to five 
and then required specific application to be made. To a 
greater extent the racial policies of the Union government 
continued to arouse critical comment in other parts of the 
Commonwealth, especially in the Asian dominions. In 
November Dr. Malan announced that he proposed to ask 
the United Kingdom to transfer responsibility for the 
administration of Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Swaziland 
to the Union. 

During the year the Commonwealth governments co- 
operated closely in the economic field. From July 13-18 the 
first meeting ever held of Commonwealth finance ministers 
took place in London and reached complete agreement upon 
immediate measures to be recommended to governments for 
checking the continuing heavy drain upon the central reserves 
of gold and dollars. On Sept. 18 the United Kingdom 
chancellor of the exchequer announced the devaluation of 



122 



BRITISH EMPIRE 



the pound sterling in relation to the United States dollar. 
Similar measures were announced shortly afterwards by the 
other governments of the Commonwealth with the one 
exception of Pakistan which decided against alteration in the 
exchange rate of the rupee. 

In both west and east the countries of the Commonwealth 
were much concerned with the problem of security in 1949. 
In the west the North Atlantic treaty, signed at Washington 
on April 4, was of outstanding importance. Two Common- 
wealth countries, the United Kingdom and Canada, were 
signatories and elsewhere it was welcomed as reinforcing the 
defences of the peace-loving peoples of the world. The 
treaty, approved on March 28 by 149 votes to 2 in the 
Canadian House of Commons, marked a significant develop- 
ment in Canadian foreign policy for which its Liberal prime 
minister, Louis S. St. Laurent, whose party later in the year 
won a resounding electoral victory, was in no small measure 
responsible. In the eastern half of the Commonwealth, 
Communist victories in China underlined the need for 
adequate security measures there. New Zealand introduced 
compulsory military training in August and in November 
consultations were held in Canberra between representatives 
of the United Kingdom, Australian and New Zealand govern- 
ments to discuss matters relating to the peace treaty with 
Japan and the situation in eastern Asia. (N. MGH.) 

Colonies. It might be said that publicity was the foremost 
element in the British government's colonial policy in 1949. 
The outstanding event was the Colonial Month in London 
inaugurated by the King on June 21. Principal feature of 
the month was an exhibition, " Focus on the Colonies," 
which proved so popular that it was found necessary to keep 
it open till mid-September; it had been visited by over 
500,000 people before it closed. The British Broadcasting 
corporation and many London organizations and business 
firms with colonial connections featured the colonies in an 
effort to make the imperial metropolis more conscious of 
its colonial responsibilities. 

The Colonial Loans act, 1949, was enacted to enable the 
Treasury to guarantee certain loans by the International Bank 
for Reconstruction and Development to the governments of 




colonial territories up to a total of 50 million, subject to 
the purpose of the loan being approved by the secretary of 
state for the colonies, with the concurrence of the Treasury, 
as likely to promote the development of the resources of the 
colonial territory concerned. Under the terms of its charter 
the International Bank could guarantee or make loans only 
to members or political sub-divisions of members and, in 
the case of the latter, ** the member or the central bank or 
some comparable agency which is acceptable to the bank " 
had to guarantee the loan. The Overseas Resources Develop- 
ment act, 1949, enacted later in the year, provided similar 
borrowing facilities for the Overseas Food corporation and 
the Colonial Development corporation. 

The Colonial Development corporation published a report 
on the first year of its operation (to Dec. 31, 1948) showing 
the nature of the organization it had established and the 
extent and nature of its initial undertakings. These last 
proved to be nine in number, ranging from gold dredging in 
British Guiana to the production of manila hemp in British 
Borneo; and a further 57 projects were shown to be under 
active consideration, several of which were announced during 
the year as having been adopted. 

The report on progress under the Colonial Development 
and Welfare acts for the year ended March 31, 1949, listed a 
total of 257 development and welfare schemes and 123 
research schemes, costing 10,627,509 and 1,652,169 
respectively, which had been approved in the previous 
12 months, bringing the total sum now approved under 
the 1940 and 1945 acts as the United Kingdom's contribution 
to colonial progress to 63,171,574. The amount actually 
issued in these 12 months was 6,354,084. It had, however, 
been realized that shortages of materials and manpower in 
the immediate postwar years had slowed down the imple- 
mentation of the schemes; in order, therefore, to ensure the 
smooth operation of the plans now that supplies of men and 
materials were easier, the Colonial Development and Welfare 
act, 1949, was enacted to raise the total that might be spent 
in any one year from 17-5 million to 20 million, and to 
increase the maximum sum that might be spent on research 
in the same period from 1-5 million to 2-5 million. 

Changes made in the constitution 

and purposes of the Imperial insti- 
tute (founded in 1887 as a memorial 
of Queen Victoria's golden jubilee) 
resulted in its administration being 
transferred from the Board of Trade 
to the Colonial Office and the 
Ministry of Education. The Colonial 
Office accepted responsibility for its 
scientific and technical activities, 
which will in future be undertaken 
by a Colonial Plant and Animals 
Advisory bureau and by the Mineral 
Resources section of the Colonial 
survey. Later the secretary of state 
appointed an Advisory Committee 
on Colonial Geology and Mineral 
Resources to advise him on matters 
relating to the geological survey 
of the colonial empire. 

In June a conference of supplies 
officers from the colonies was held in 
London to discuss, first, the need for 



Ayo Shonekan from Lagos, Nigeria, 
handing a bouquet to the Queen at the 
opening of Colonial Month in July 1949. 
On the King's right is Arthur Creech 
Jones > Colonial secretary. 



BRITISH GUIANA-BRITISH HONDURAS 



123 









Beef carcases being haded onto a Dakota aircraft at Lethem, British Guiana, as part of an air lift from Rupununi to Georgetown. Started 

in 1948 over 200,000 Ib. of beef were carried in one year. 



colonies to have access to the supplies required for their 
general economic stability and welfare and for the execution 
of their development programmes and, secondly, the need to 
ensure not only that those supplies were obtained with as 
little expenditure of hard currency as possible but that they 
should make the maximum contribution towards the solution 
of the sterling area's dollar problem. 

The British government expressed keen interest in the call 
of the president of the United States to congress on Jan. 20 
for a bold new programme for making American techno- 
logical resources available for the development of under- 
developed areas. Ways and means of giving effect to that 
programme known as President Truman's " fourth point " 
had still to be worked out, but meanwhile use was made of 
the Economic Corporation administration's technical assis- 
tance programme by the despatch of two groups of American 
scientists to conduct medical and agricultural surveys of 
British colonial Africa and by American co-operation in a 
preliminary survey in connection with the possible con- 
struction of a railway link between Northern Rhodesia and 
East Africa. 

There was further evidence during the year of a desire for 
co-operation in the planned development of the continent on 
the part of all the authorities responsible for the administra- 
tion of African territories, whether dependent or self- 
governing. A number of conferences took place in all of 
which the British and British colonial governments partici- 
pated. (J. A. Hu.) 

BRITISH GUIANA. British colony on the northeast 
coast of the continent of South America. Area : 89,480 sq. mi. 
Pop. (1948 est.): 402,615. Governor, Sir Charles Woolley. 

History. The Legislative Council approved the colony's 
ten-year development plan, which called for an expenditure 
of $26 million. Remarkable progress was announced in a 
campaign to rid the colony of malaria and it was claimed that 
95% of the population was now free of its ravages. Jn July 
two United States experts arrived to study rice production 
methods and to advise the local government on its proposed 
programme for large scale expansion of the industry. Food 
subsidies were abolished in the spring when the only two 



remaining subsidies on flour and salted fish which had 
cost nearly $2 million in 1948, were withdrawn: but following 
devaluation in September it was found necessary to reintro- 
duce certain subsidies. The second goodwill meeting of the 
governors of the British, French and Dutch Guianas was held 
in Georgetown in February. U.S.A. A. F. handed over 
Atkinson Field Air base (one of its wartime Caribbean bases) 
to the local government, which agreed to purchase 300 
buildings and a large quantity of equipment for approxi- 
mately $1 million; certain buildings remained U.S. property, 
but on loan to the local government. The governor announced 
that the secretary of state had promised to appoint a com- 
mission on constitutional reform in 1950. 

Finance and Trade. Currency: West Indian dollar ($4-80=l). 
Budget (1948 provisional figures): revenue $20,601,599; expenditure 
$19,616,692. Foreign trade (1948): imports $48,181,000; exports 
$36,993,859. Principal exports: sugar, bauxite, rum, rice, diamonds 
and timber. (J. A. Hu.) 

BRITISH HONDURAS. British colony in central 
America. Area: 8,867 sq. mi. Pop. (1946 census): 59,220. 
Governor, R. H. Garvey. 

History. The claims of Guatemala to the territory continued 
to give rise to some uncertainty as to its future status; a 
resolution in the Legislative Council stressed the people's 
loyalty to the British connection but at the same time urged 
upon the British government the imperative necessity to 
take all proper steps to bring about the speedy determination 
of the claim made by the government of Guatemala. In a 
reply to this resolution the British government stated inter 
alia that, while remaining willing to submit the legal claim 
to the International Court of Justice for adjudication, " it 
remained inflexibly determined that, in the absence of a legal 
decision by the International Court that His Majesty has no 
legal claim to sovereignty over British Honduras, it will 
not countenance any change in the international status of 
the colony or any part of it." 

The Hawkesworth bridge, a new suspension bridge 480 ft. 
long with a centre span of 280ft., over the Lower Belize 
river was opened, thus completing the all-weather road from 
the capital to the Guatemalan frontier. In general, the 
achievements in the development programme were over- 



124 BRITISH S.A. PROTECTORATES-BRITISH WEST AFRICA 1 



shadowed by widespread unemployment due to the collapse 
of the mahogany and chicle industries. 

Finance and Trade. Currency dollar, linked in value to the U.S. 
dollar. Budget (1948): revenue $3,208,623; expenditure $3,394,916. 
Foreign trade (1948)* imports $8,075,460; exports $6,152,010. 
Principal exports: timber, chicle and grapefruit juice. (J. A. Hu.) 

BRITISH LEGION: see EX-SERVICEMEN'S ORGANIZA- 
TIONS. 

BRITISH PACIFIC ISLANDS: see PACIFIC ISLANDS, 
BRITISH. 

BRITISH SOUTH AFRICAN PROTECTOR- 
ATES. Under this heading are grouped the three British 
protectorates of Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Swaziland, 
of which certain essential statistics are given in the table. 
High Commissioner, Sir Evelyn Baring. 

History. The year reviewed was one of continued, progress 
with schemes financed under the Colonial Development and 
Welfare acts and, in Swaziland, of growing political activity 
of the Native authority. The economic future of Swaziland 
was also brightened by the announcement of an 100,000 ac. 
afforestation scheme to be started by the Colonial Develop- 
ment corporation. 

The territories attracted interest during 1949 owing to the 
incidence of ritual murder in Basutoland, a crime of which 
121 Basutos have been convicted during the past seven years, 
and the marriage between Seretse Khama, heir to the chief- 
tainship of the Bamangwato tribe in Bechuanaland with an 
English woman named Ruth Williams. This latter question, 
which was the subject of a special government enquiry, had 
repercussions in the Union of South Africa where, it was 
announced, the chief designate and his white wife had been 
declared ** prohibited immigrants." 

In October, Dr. D. F. Malan, the Union prime minister, 
said in a speech at Bloemfontein that he was only waiting 
for the appropriate moment to make representations to the 
British government for the incorporation of the protectorates 
into the Union of South Africa. 

Basutoland. Progress in the political sphere was marked 
by the increase to 24 of the number of the elected representa- 
tives in the Basutoland council. An endeavour was made to 
encourage an agricultural co-operative movement by the 
appointment of an official as registrar of co-operative societies. 
This step was expected to help a territory largely dependent 
upon pastoral and agricultural resources. 

Education was remarkably popular with the Basuto and 
75 % of children attended school. Expenditure on education 
was about one-fifth of revenue. Construction was started on 
the sixth government hospital. The number of patients 
attending all hospitals was double that of ten years ago. 
Welfare societies, with community halls, were formed in each 
district. During 1949 the first of these, with a library, was 
opened. 

Bechuanaland. Schemes for surface water conservation 
were approved. These aimed at constructing small stock 
dams and minor permanent works in existing waterways. 
Boring for water was also continued. A teacher training 
institute was planned to improve the standard of education 
in the villages. A secondary school, initiated by the Bamang- 



wato tribe, under Chief Tsekedi, was opened in its reserve. 

Swaziland. Under a Native land settlement scheme valuable 
work was done, not only in settling landless families, but also 
in proper methods of land utilization and animal husbandry. 
Over 500 families were settled during 1947-49 and settlement 
for another thousand was planned. By voluntary contribution 
the Swazi nation raised funds to purchase 73,900 ac. from 
European owners. 

A company, named Peak Timbers, Ltd., began commercial 
afforestation of an area of 57,000 ac. purchased by them in 
1946 in the Pigg's Peak district. Production at the Havelock 
asbestos mine reached 218,608 tons for the year ending 
March 1948. The campaign against Ngana (animal trypano- 
somiasis) met with considerable success through the help of 
bulldozers for bush clearing and through aerial spraying. 

(W. R. GN.) 

BRITISH WEST AFRICA. The term includes 
the four British colonial territories on the west coast of 
Africa, viz., Nigeria, colony and protectorate with which 
are administered the Cameroons under United Kingdom 
trusteeship; the Gold Coast, including the colony of that 
name, Ashanti, the Northern Territories and Togoland 
under United Kingdom trusteeship; Sierra Leone, colony 
and protectorate; and Gambia, likewise a colony and 
protectorate. Areas and populations were as follows: 

Population 
Area 

(in sq. mi ) 

Nigeria . . . 372,674 
Gold Coast . . 91,843 

Sierra Leone . . 27,925 

Gambia . . . 4,033 

* Estimates. 

Governors: Nigeria, Sir John Macpherson; Gold Coast, 
Sir Charles Arden-Clarke; Sierra Leone, Sir G. Beresford 
Stooke; Gambia, P. Wyn Harris. 

History. Public interest in West Africa in 1949 centred 
almost exclusively in the discussion of constitutional changes. 
In Nigeria in March the Legislative Council unanimously 
approved the proposals of a select committee of its members 
(set up on a suggestion made by the governor the previous 
year and including all the unofficial members) that the review 
of the present constitution should consist of conferences at 
three levels: the provincial, the regional and at the centre. 
Discussions began immediately and were continued through- 
out the year. Provincial conferences considered the views of 
village and divisional meetings and of representative organiza- 
tions; the views formulated at provincial conferences were 
then, in turn, considered at regional conferences, at which 
level conferences for Lagos and the colony were included. 
The views of these regional conferences were incorporated 
in a series of resolutions, published in October, and were 
then submitted to a drafting committee to prepare a state- 
ment for consideration by a general conference consisting 
of all unofficial members of the Legislative Council and 
representatives of the regional, Lagos and colony conferences. 
Meanwhile in September the governor announced that, 
pending a decision on constitutional changes, it had been 
agreed that African representation on the Executive Council 



1931 
Census 
20,702,756 
3,163,568 
1,768,480 
199,520 



1948 

Census 

25,000,000* 

4,118,450 

1,857,275 

251,000* 



BRITISH SOUTH AFRICAN PROTECTORATES 
Trade with Union 
of South Africa 

Areadnsq. mi.) Population Capital and Rhodesias Road and Rail 

(1946 census) (1947-48) (1947-48) 

BASUTOLAND 560,000 Maseru Imports, 1,807,246 Roads, 502 mi. 

c. 11 716 Exports, 1,336,269 Railway, none 

BECHUANALAND 245,000 Mafcking Imports, 1,176,037 Roads, 2,048 mi. 

c. 275,000 Exports. 753.788 Railway, 394 mi. 

SWAZILAND 187,000 Mbabane (In customs union Roads 1,104 mi. 

6,704 with South Africa) Railway, none 

Exports, 1,417,629 



Budget 
(1947-48) 

Revenue, 900,654 
Expenditure, 886,937 
Revenue, 483,029 
Expenditure. 475,502 
Revenue, 471,412 
Expenditure, 523,335 



Education 
(1947-48) 

Native pupils 87,038 

Europeans 96 

Native pupils 16,346 

Europeans 195 

Native pupils 11.012 

European 552 



BRITISH WEST INDIES 



125 



should immediately be resumed and strengthened and he had 
accordingly appointed four Nigerians. 

In the Gold Coast in January the governor set up an 
all-African committee of 39 members under the chairmanship 
of Mr. Justice J. H. Coussey to examine proposals for 




The Labadi Mantse arriving in his palanquin at a durbar at Accra 

on Feb. 5, 7949, when the Ga Mantse was presented to the governor, 

Sir Gerald Creasy. 

constitutional and political reform. Its report, unanimous 
on the majority of its principal recommendations, was 
published in October. After declaring that the whole institu- 
tion of chieftaincy was so closely bound up with the life of 
the communities that its disappearance would spell disaster, 
the committee recommended: (1) a complex system of local 
government, in part utilizing the existing Native authorities 
but superimposing a democratic framework by means of 
popular elections; (2) the establishment of four regional 
councils with wide powers; (3) that the Executive Council 
should be entirely remodelled as the chief instrument of 
policy, responsible to the proposed House of Assembly and 
not to the governor, and should consist of the governor as 
chairman, not more than three official members, and upwards 
of eight unofficial members (one to be styled " leader " and 
the others " ministers "); and it expressed a slight preference 
for a bi-cameral legislature. In a statement published 
simultaneously with the report the British government both 
welcomed and accepted its recommendations in general; 
but it favoured a unicameral legislature and stated its inability 
at this stage to accept the suggestion, in the form proposed, 
that the Executive Council should be collectively responsible 
to the Legislative Assembly and not to the governor. 

Meanwhile on opening the Gold Coast Legislative Council 
on Oct. 11 the governor announced that he had appointed 
E. C. Quist, an unofficial member, to be president for the 
remainder of the life of the council. 

In Sierra Leone the constitutional changes approved in 
1948 were not in fact proceeded with, a motion in the 
Legislative Council in Dec. 1948 having called for a further 
review of the proposals. In June the governor published 
new proposals recommending an Executive Council of four 
official and four unofficial members, the latter drawn from, 
and appointed by the governor after consultation with, the 
Legislative Council; the Executive Council to be responsible, 
as a body, for advising the governor on all major matters of 
policy and the four unofficial members each to take a special 
interest in a group of departments with a view to holding 
portfolios; the proposals also covered the development of 
local government, regarding which the governor stressed the 



need for a substantial measure of decentralization. It was 
suggested that a committee (presided over by an independent 
chairman and representative of the colony, the protectorate 
and the executive) should consider these new proposals. 

The report of three United Nations scientists who visited 
the Gold Coast in Nov.-Dec. 1948 was published in January 
and confirmed that swollen shoot threatened the very existence 
of the cocoa industry of the Gold Coast and that the cutting 
out of diseased trees was the only measure known for its 
control (see ENTOMOLOGY). In February the publication of 
new regulations for immigration procedure into the Gold 
Coast raised an outcry in Great Britain; and following 
protests in the British parliament and the local Legislative 
Council, they were withdrawn and re-drafted. 

It was announced in July that the Gold Coast government 
had placed a contract for certain improvements and exten- 
sions to Takoradi harbour at an expected cost of 2,250,000. 
Work continued on the construction of Freetown's deep-water 
quay. A panel of experts arrived in the Gold Coast in 
October to survey the industrial and transport potentialities 
of the Volta river. 

In Nigeria in August the unsatisfactory labour situation 
on the railways led to the appointment of a commission of 
enquiry, which was boycotted by the trade unions. In 
November a strike at the government colliery at Enugu gave 
rise to serious disturbances in which a number of Africans 
were killed. A commission of enquiry was again appointed, 
under the chairmanship of Sir William Fitzgerald, which 
began sitting in Enugu in mid-December. 

Finance and Trade. Currency: the pound at par with sterling. 

Gambia Gold Coast Nigeria Sierra Leone 

Revenue 866,900(a) ll,639,324(b) 27,940,94<Xc) 4,260,145(d) 

Expenditure l,014,097(a) 10,178,802(b) 27,230,290(c) 2,666,444(d) 
Imports 

(1948) c. 1,938,000 29,158,749 41,777,239 4,979,350 
Exports 

(1948) c. 1,706,000 31,615,712(e) 38,327,220(e) 4,164,566(0 

(a) 1948. (b) 1948-49. (c) 1949-50 est. (d) 1949 est. 

(e) The values of cocoa recorded in the export statistics are the f.o.b. cott 
prices to the Gold Coast and Nigerian Cocoa Marketing boards and thus 
exclude the profits realized by the boards on sale to overseas purchasers. In 
1948 these profits amounted in the Gold Coast alone to 20,013,017. 

(f) The value of the diamond exports (461,685 carats) was not quoted. 
Palm kernels and palm oil are quoted at f.o.b. cost prices. 

Principal exports: Gambia: groundnuts (1,628,002 in 1948); 
Gold Coast: cocoa, gold, manganese and timber; Nigeria: cocoa, 
groundnuts, palm oil and kernels, tin, and hides and skins; Sierra 
Leone: palm kernels, diamonds and iron ore. (J. A. Hu.) 

BRITISH WEST INDIES. Under this heading are 
treated matters of common concern to the British West 
Indian colonies which comprise Barbados, British Guiana, 
British Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Islands, Trinidad and 
Tobago and Windward Islands. Total area: 106,415 sq. mi. 
Total pop.: c. 2,970,600. (See also separate articles on the 
respective colonies.) 

Steady progress was made during the year with work to 
give effect to the Montego Bay (Sept. 1 947) recommendations 
on closer association. The Standing Closer Association 
committee under the chairmanship of Major General Sir 
Hubert Ranee, having held its first session in Barbados in 
Nov. 1948, held further meetings in Trinidad in March, in 
Barbados in June and in Jamaica in Oct. 1949. The meetings 
were held in private; but it was disclosed that the committee 
had reviewed the functions of a federal government, the con- 
stitution of a federal legislature, the composition of a federal 
executive and the financial basis of federation including 
relations between a federal government and the unit govern- 
ments and between these and the British government. It 
was understood that final proposals were agreed at the 
October meeting. Meanwhile commissions to examine the 
unification of the public services in the British Caribbean area 
and of a customs union for the West Indies commenced work 



126 



BRITTEN-BROADCASTING 



under the chairmanship of Sir Maurice Holmes and 
J. McLogan respectively. 

The Earl of Listowel, minister of state for colonial affairs, 
carried out a comprehensive two-month tour of the British 
West Indies during October and November and presided over 
an unofficial conference of the governors at Barbados from 
Nov. 7-12. 

Two sugar deputations, the first a four-man commission 
appointed by the British West Indies Sugar association and 
the second from Jamaica led by W. A. Bustamante, arrived 
in London in late summer to press for better terms for 
West Indian sugar. After talks the British government issued 
a statement saying that it recognized the vital importance of 
the prosperity "of the sugar industry to the West Indies and 
promising to call a conference in the autumn with all Common- 
wealth sugar producers to agree terms; later it was announced 
the conference would begin on Nov. 21. 

The University college of the West Indies was formally 
launched in January when it was announced that the King 
had granted a royal charter and that Princess Alice, Countess 
of Athlone, was appointed its first chancellor. 

Other events of common concern to the British West Indies 
were talks held in Barbados in February between the United 
Kingdom, Canadian and West Indian governments for a 
preliminary and informal exchange of views on future 
shipping services; the third full meeting, also at Barbados, of 
the West Indian Oils and Fats conference, called primarily to 
fix the price of copra for the coming season; and the 
establishment of a Federation of Primary Producers of the 
British Caribbean and British Guiana. (J. A. Hu.) 

BRITTEN, (EDWARD) BENJAMIN, British 
pianist, composer and conductor (b. Lowestoft, Nov. 22, 
1913), was educated at Gresham's school, Holt, and at the 
Royal College of Music, London. He was with the post 
office film unit from 1935 to 1937, when he wrote music 
for such documentary films as Night Mail and Coal Face. 
At the same time he composed music for plays by 
W. H. Auden and Christopher Isherwood and by J B. 
Priestley. In April 1939 he went to New York where he 
remained until 1942; many of his works were performed 
by American orchestras. In 1940 he collaborated with Auden 
in adapting his book Paul Bunyan for choral operetta. In 
Nov. 1941 he received the Elizabeth Sprague Coohdge award 
for " distinguished services to chamber music/' His first 
full-length opera was Peter Grimes (1944), followed by 
The Rape of Lucre tia (1946), Albert Herring (1947) and by a 
new version of The Beggar's Opera. Living at Aldeburgh, 
Suffolk, he helped to found the Aldeburgh Festival where in 
1949 he presented a children's opera, Let's Make an Opera, 
with Eric Crozier. In 1947 he was appointed musical director 
of the English Opera group and in Sept. 1949 conducted 
three performances of the group in Oslo, Norway. His 
44th composition " Spring Symphony " was first performed 
at the music festival at Amsterdam in 1949 and was played 
for the first time in the United States by the Boston symphony 
orchestra at Tanglewood on Aug. 13, 1949. He wrote a 
wedding anthem Amo Ergo Sum for the wedding of the 
Earl of Harewood and Miss Marion Stein on Sept. 29, 1949. 

BROADCASTING. Once again the international 
implications of the medium occupied the attention of radio 
organizations throughout 1949. In the first place, the 
working out of the medium wave allocations agreed upon 
at the Copenhagen conference in 1948 proved to be both 
onerous to those countries who readily accepted its decisions 
and controversial where its provisions led to results not fully 
seen by the negotiators on the spot. As late as December 
meetings were being held in Washington at which the fulfil- 



ment of the plan hung in the balance, and there was no 
guarantee that the deadline of March 1950 would, in fact, 
be observed. The even more complex subject of short waves 
was argued for months at Mexico City. Finally, in April 
1949, 51 delegations accepted a plan, the first world plan 
of short wave distribution ever to be agreed, which was 
based on what is known as " summer intermediate sun 
activity." The adaptation of the plan, which was passed to 
a technical committee, although bound to decrease the 
number of frequency hour availabilities, by introducing 
proportionate reductions from country to country, would 
not involve the disappearance of programmes already in 
being. Unfortunately, both the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. were 
included in the 18 delegations which remained negative. 
Meanwhile in Europe steps were taken towards the formation 
of a European broadcasting organization which should be 
fully representative of the democratic powers. In 1949 
two organizations existed, the Union Internationale de 
Radiodiffusion (U.I.R.) based in Switzerland and, during 
World War II, largely dominated by Germany; and the 
Organisation Internationale de Radiodiffusion (O.I.R.) 
based in Belgium and largely dominated by east European 
countries. From both of these organizations the B.B.C , 
largest and most powerful of the European radio bodies, 
stood aside. At Stresa, Italy, in the summer some progress 
was made towards ending the deadlock, the B.B.C being 
represented in unofficial discussions with members of the 
U.I.R. At Brussels, Belgium, in the autumn, some significant 
resignations from O.I.R took place. It was possible that 
1950 would see " western union " accomplished in this 
field. Already, on the cultural side, there was good progress 
to record with the award of the first Italia prize, a competition 
for an original work for radio to which 12 countries contri- 
buted, including Czechoslovakia, Finland and Monaco. An 
international jury made the first award to France, for a 
musical farce entitled Frederick the General, the second to 
Great Britain for a radio reconstruction of The old and true 
story of Rumpelstiltskin and the third to Monaco for Lost 
Song, a radio film. The Italia prize was created a foundation, 
and would be given, in alternate years, for musical and 
literary works. Further evidence of international co-operation 
came from the northern European states. In June, Danish, 
Finnish, Icelandic, Norwegian and Swedish representatives 
met in Stockholm, Sweden, and decided to embark on an 
ambitious series of relays, involving concerts, Nordic art, 
drama and literary chronicles. Continuous exchange of 
technical data was also agreed upon. The Swedish programmes 
for the autumn showed that Radiotjanst at least had been 
practically and fully influenced in its planning by the decisions 
of this conference. Finally, on the international theme, it 
should be recorded that the number of services to foreign 
countries and audiences overseas increased considerably in 
1949 (the majority of these being on short wave was likely 
to be affected by the Mexico City decisions); it was possible 
to listen, for instance, to Danish broadcasts to South Africa, 
Polish broadcasts to Yugoslavia, Italian broadcasts to 
Somaliland and Rumania, Norwegian broadcasts to seamen 
all over the world and even Albanian broadcasts to Britain. 
Great Britain. A considerable amount of time and energy 
was expended on activity which was the reverse of inter- 
national. As a result of intensive Russian jamming of B.B.C. 
broadcasts, the B.B.C. in collaboration with stations in the 
U.S. zone of Germany, retaliated by bringing an unparalleled 
transmitter strength to bear on the U.S.S.R. More construc- 
tively, perhaps, the B.B.C. increased its listeners to English by 
Radio courses not only in western Europe but also in some 
east European states. Over 1,000 Bulgarian listeners, for 
instance, wrote to London for texts of a progressive course 
of lessons. From eastern Germany, too, came a heavy mail 



BROADCASTING 



127 



as the result of a new programme intended to keep the popula- 
tion in touch with the outside world. Outside Europe, a 
new B.B.C. service was inaugurated in the autumn to Israel, 
in Hebrew, the first of its kind in the world. Within the 
Commonwealth, separate transmissions were begun for 
India and Pakistan in place of the previous combined 
Hindustani service. Arrangements between the governments 
of the United Kingdom and Ceylon allowed for the use 
during eight-and-a-half hours every day of Radio Ceylon 
(formerly Radio S.E.A.C.) for transmitting B.B.C. pro- 
grammes to the far east. Re-broadcasting on the other side 
of the world was not seriously affected by television, a record 
number of stations in the U.S.A. and Canada carrying B.B.C. 
material. At home, however, public interest in the spread 
of television to the midlands outshone other developments 
(sec TELEVISION). However, an even vaster public than 
in previous years became addicted to radio drama (in the 
" blind " medium, as it was now popularly known), and 
there were few listeners who did not genuinely mourn the 
death of Tommy Handley (see OBITUARIES), the chief comedian 
of ltma> a programme whose absurdities had enlivened the 
public throughout and after World War H. Various experi- 
ments were made in the talks and discussion programmes 
for home listeners, including the examination before the 
microphone, by a variety of witnesses, of such public figures 
as Sir Stafford Cripps, and the presentation before a studio 
audience of lectures previously delivered by a regius professor 
within the precincts of Cambridge. During the year, the 
studios in Edinburgh, Plymouth and Belfast celebrated their 
silver jubilee, A government committee under Lord Beveridge 
began its enquiries into the future of British broadcasting 
and television. 

Europe. German developments were the most spectacular. 
In the American and British zones it was decided that the 
only satisfactory coverage, after the Copenhagen plan came 
into operation, would be by frequency-modulation trans- 
mission on ultra-short waves. The industry was accordingly 
requested to produce receivers. If the plan went through, 
which seemed probable, Germany would be the first European 
country to introduce ultra-short wave broadcasting on a 
large scale. In the meantime, the Bavarian radio, with 
American permission, became commercial; and in Berlin 
the U.S.-controlled R.l.A.S. instituted a system unique in 
Europe, whereby telephone subscribers by dialling a certain 
number were connected to a non-stop news service, recorded 
on magnetic tape, and changed three times daily. The Italian 
and Austrian broadcasting organizations celebrated their 
25th anniversaries; whereas the latter signalized the occasion 
by arranging for better concerts (including those of the 
Vienna Philharmonic orchestra), than had ever hitherto 
been heard, the former, eager to attract more listeners, and 
especially those who paid licence fees, arranged lotteries, 
prize-winning tickets from which carried the numbers of 
licences already issued. Cars, bicycles, pleasure tours and 
watches were among the prizes, and the number of paid-up 
listeners was higher than ever before in the quarter century 
of R.A.I. On the other side of the " iron curtain,*' more 
and more attention was paid to education, which, whether 
for the young or for adults, was made the vehicle of much 
party propaganda. In Poland, however, and to a certain 
extent in Czechoslovakia, this increasing use of the radio 
for political propaganda did not prevent the emergence of 
programmes of good music. The French radio gave some 
time to the project of a radio university, while in Switzerland 
the chief developments were in discussions with listeners 
taking part and in plays specially written or adapted for 
the medium. 

Commonwealth. As in Great Britain, broadcasting in 
Australia and Canada came under enquiry during the year. 




Mrs. Lesley Piddington, who with her husband* Sydney^ gave a 

series of broadcasts in 1949 in which they demonstrated thought 

transference. She is seen here in the Tower of London while her 

husband was in a B.B.C. studio. 

A new control board in Australia, while approving the basic 
system, in which public service and commercial broad- 
casting services existed side by side, declared that many 
improvements were necessary to supply listeners with an 
adequate broadcasting service. The board intended to 
enforce standards governing the quality of programmes and 
advertising if necessary, and to reduce the amount of the 
latter. In Canada a Royal Commission on Arts, Letters 
and Sciences was still sitting at the end of the year. To it 
both private broadcasters and the Canadian Broadcasting 
commission had submitted evidence, the former asking for 
equal rights with the C.B.C., the latter declaring that 
judgment in broadcasting matters should be based solely 
on public interest and calling for a fully national radio system, 
owned and supported by the public. South Africa's earlier 
declared intention to pursue commercial broadcasting as a 
new policy was now understood to involve no separate 
organization. The S.A.B.C. would remain in charge of three 
programmes, of which the third would be commercial. 
India announced an eight-year plan for extending radio 
throughout India, serving ten times the former area and 
reaching 80,000 villages instead of the then 5,000. The 
government were to provide receiving sets and loudspeakers. 
In the colonies, interest in broadcasting was growing apace. 
It was understood that certain funds might shortly be made 
available for erecting new stations, especially in British West 
Africa and the West Indies. The B.B.C. was called into 
consultation by the Colonial Office and undertook service 
surveys for the government at home. The public service 
system, of which the B.B.C. was the outstanding example, was 
likely to be adopted in these areas, and the B.B.C. was 
expected to be called upon to play a large part in all colonial 
broadcasting plans. (X.) 

United States. According to figures compiled by O. H. 
Caldwell, editor of Tele-Tech magazine, the number of radio 
receiving sets in use in the U.S. in 1949 was 81 million com- 
pared with 74 million in 1948. 



128 



BROOKE 



A Federal Communication commission report, issued in 
Dec. 1949, reflecting 1948 conditions, showed A.M. (ampli- 
tude modulation) broadcast revenues of $406,995,414; 
broadcast expenses of $342,903,730, and broadcast income 
of $64,091,684 before payment of federal income taxes. 
Despite an 11-9% gain in revenues net income fell 10-73% 
below the 1947 level, owing to a 17-5% rise in operating 
costs. The figures were based on reports from seven A.M. 
networks and 1,797 other A.M. stations. 

Sales of advertising time, the financial backbone of broad- 
casting, totalled $416,720,279 during 1948. 

In August, the Federal Communications commission 
made final its proposal to ban, from Oct. 1, programmes 
which offered prizes of money, merchandise and services, 
by classifying them as lotteries. At the time, the four major 
networks were carrying 38 ** give-away " programmes which, 
according to the estimates by Broadcasting magazine, offered 
$185,000 worth of money and merchandise in prizes each 
week. Before the effective date, the F.C.C. suspended its 
rules pending court tests of their legality. By the end of the 
year, however, " give-away " programmes were already 
beginning to decline in popularity. " Mystery " features 
began to replace variety shows as the dominant type of 
commercial evening programme. 

The table below, prepared from information by C. E. 
Hooper, Inc., shows the general composition of commercial 
evening programmes broadcast on the four national net- 
works during the week of Nov. 1-7, 1949, compared with 
the same week of 1948. 

TABLE. GENERAL COMPOSITION OF NETWORK COMMERCIAL EVENING 
PROGRAMMES, Nov. 1-7, 1949 AND 1948. 

Percent of time 

on the air 

Type of Programme 
Mystery 

News and commentators 
Variety 

Situation comedy . 
Popular music 
Audience participation 
Plays . 
Concert music 
Radio columnists . 
Miscellaneous 

The inauguration of President Harry S. Truman for a 
second term and Alben W. Barkley as vice-president was 
taken by radio and television to more viewers and listeners 
than ever before. In addition to domestic coverage, the 
State Department's *' Voice of America," the B.B.C and 
Radiodiffusion Francaise relayed shortwave accounts over- 
seas. Vice president Barkley 's marriage to Mrs. Carleton S. 
Hadley on Nov. 18 was also widely followed by listeners. 

In April 1949, the board of directors of the National 
Association of Broadcasters approved a $75,000 loan to 
the Broadcast Measurement bureau, an audience measure- 
ment organization sponsored by the N.A.B., the American 
Association of Advertising Agencies and the Association of 
National Advertisers. The loan was to finance the completion 
of the bureau's second national audience survey, in progress 
in 1949. 

The Federal Communications commission handed down 
several policy-making decisions in 1949, one of which 
reversed the long-standing " Mayflower decision " forbidding 
radio station owners to " editorialize " on the air. Hence- 
forth, the F.C.C. said in a new decision issued on June 2, 
broadcasters might air their own views on controversial 
and other issues, provided they treated with " fairness " 
those who wished to present opposing viewpoints. 

In congress, the senate passed a bill introduced by Senator 
E. W. McFarland (Democrat, Arizona) to reorganize the 
F.C.C. 's staff and procedures. The house of representatives 
failed to act, but leaders said it might do so in 1950. 



1949 


1948 


16'0 


13-2 


15-7 


15-4 


12-6 


16-9 


12-6 


9-1 


11-8 


11-9 


11-8 


9-4 


9.9 


12-5 


2-3 


3-1 


1-9 


3-5 


5-4 


5-0 



The North American Regional Broadcasting agreement 
which had governed allocations among North American 
nations since 1941, expired on March 29, 1949. Conferences 
to negotiate a new agreement were commenced in Montreal 
in September under a schedule set up prior to N.A.R.B.A.'s 
expiration; in December they were adjourned, stalemated 
by the U.S. refusal to accept Cuban demands for rights on 
scores of channels previously within U.S. priority. The 
U.S. and Cuban delegations were scheduled to confer in 
Havana from Feb. 1, 1950 onwards, in an effort to smooth 
out their differences, and the full N.A.R.B.A. conference 
was then scheduled to resume in the U.S. on about April 1, 
1950. Nations involved were the Bahamas, Canada, Cuba, 
the Dominican republic, Haiti, Mexico and the U.S. (See 
also RADIO, SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENTS IN; TELEVISION.) 

(R.W. CR.; S.TF.) 

BROOKE, SIR BASIL STANLAKE, Northern 
Ireland statesman (b. Colebrooke, county Fermanagh, June 
9, 1888), became prime minister on May 1, 1943. (For his 
early career see Britannica Book of the Year 1949). 

The action of the government in Ireland in severing the last 
link with the Commonwealth caused Sir Basil Brooke to obtain 
assurances from the British government that the status of 
Northern Ireland would not be changed without the consent 
of its people. He visited London in Jan. 1949 and on his 
return to Belfast announced the dissolution of parliament. 
In the general election, held on Feb, 10, the Unionist party 
was again returned to power. During a visit to Britain in 
May he addressed the Empire Industries association and the 
British Empire league and visited the British Industries fair. 
In August he was appointed honorary air commodore of 
three squadrons of the R.A.A.F. In October he attended 
the annual meeting of the Ulster associations at Manchester 
and afterwards toured the West Riding of Yorkshire. He 
visited London in November for talks with British ministers 
and representatives of the E.C.A. 




Louise Brough seen here winning the 1949 women's singles champion- 
ship at Wimbledon against Mrs. Margaret duPont. 



BROUGH-BUDGET 



129 



BROUGH, ALTHEA LOUISE, U.S. lawn tennis 
player (b. Oklahoma city, Oklahoma, March 11, 1923), 
moved with her family in 1936 to Beverly Hills, California, 
where she began studying tennis under Dick Sleen. By 1941 
she had won the southern California junior championship. 
She began studying at the University of Southern California, 
Los Angeles, and in the national championship matches in 
1943, when she was a junior at the university, lost to Pauline 
Betz for the women's singles title. In 1946 she was beaten 
by Miss Betz in the All-England tennis championships 
singles at Wimbledon, but, paired with Margaret Osborne, 
defeated Miss Betz and Dons Hart to win the doubles title. 
In 1947 she took four important championships: the U.S. 
women's singles and the mixed doubles (with John Bromwich, 
Australia) at Forest Hills, New York; the Wimbledon 
mixed doubles (with Bromwich); and the national women's 
doubles (with Miss Osborne). In July 1948 she matched 
the feats of Alice Marble and Suzanne Lenglen by winning 
three Wimbledon titles: the singles, the women's double (with 
Mrs. Margaret Osborne duPont) and the mixed doubles 
with Bromwich. In Aug. 1948 she won the eastern women's 
singles championship for the third time, taking permanent 
possession of the Schweikhardt Challenge cup, and for 
the seventh time (with Mrs. duPont) won the women's 
national doubles. At Wimbledon in July 1949 she took the 
singles title by defeating Mrs. duPont ; was beaten in the 
final of the mixed doubles (again partnered by Bromwich) 
and with Mrs. duPont took the women's doubles. At Brook- 
line, Massachusetts, on Aug. 21, she and Mrs. duPont 
defeated Doris Hart and Shirley Fry in the U.S. doubles. 
She again won the mixed doubles at Forest Hills on Sept. 6. 

BROWN, DOUGLAS CLIFTON, British parlia- 
mentarian (b. London, Aug. 16, 1879), was educated at Eton 
and at Trinity college, Cambndge. He served in the Dragoon 
Guards in the South African War and in World War I. In 
1918 he was elected Conservative member of parliament for 
Hexham and except for the years 1923-24 continued to sit 
in the House of Commons. He became deputy chairman of 
ways and means in 1938 and in Jan 1943 succeeded Sir 
Dennis Herbert (later Lord Hemingford) as chairman of 
ways and means and deputy speaker. After the sudden death 
of Captain E. A. Fitzroy on March 3, 1943, Colonel Clifton 
Brown was unanimously elected speaker. Despite a Labour 
majority after the general election in July 1945 he was again 
elected speaker without opposition. In Jan. 1949 he accom- 
panied an all-party parliamentary delegation to Italy where 
he addressed Italian deputies and senators on British parlia- 
mentary practice. It was the first time a speaker of the 
House of Commons had visited another parliament. In 
June he visited Copenhagen to take part in the celebrations 
of the centenary of the Danish constitution. 

' BROZ (TITO), JOSIP, Yugoslav statesman and 
soldier (b. Kumrovec, Croatia, May 25, 1892), prime minister 
of the federal people's republic of Yugoslavia and commander 
in chief, as marshal, of its armed forces. (For his early career 
see Britannica Book of the Year 1949}. 

As the propaganda campaign of all Communist-controlled 
countries against Tito continued during 1949 to increase in 
violence, the Yugoslav leader was forced to make many 
public replies. On Jan. 21, addressing the congress of the 
Serbian Communist party in Belgrade, he complained 
against " the false propaganda directed against a Socialist 
country." On April 9, at the congress of the Yugoslav 
People's front in Belgrade, he called for resistance to the 
Cominform appeal for forcible removal of the existing leader- 
ship of Yugoslavia; he also announced that Yugoslavia 
would not hesitate to trade with the west on equal terms in 

B.B.Y.10 



order to obtain equipment vital for industrialization. At 
Pola, on July 10, he announced that Yugoslavia must gradu- 
ally close her frontier with Greece. In a speech to shop- 
workers at Belgrade on Sept. 12, he challenged the Soviet 
theory of the exclusive revolutionary role of the Soviet 
army, and maintained that progressive ideas could never be 
propagated by bayonets. Widening the ideological rift 
between Yugoslavia and the U.S.S.R., he said at Stolice, 
Serbia, on Sept. 27, that great powers must understand that 
they could not buy or sell the freedom of small nations. 
Addressing 600 Yugoslav generals and other officers at 
Belgrade on Oct. 2, Tito proclaimed that the army was 
prepared to defend Yugoslavia until the last breath and 
regardless whence the attack came. In an interview with a 
U S. Progressive party member, Tito asserted on Oct. 17 
that if war came to the soil of Yugoslavia " it would be no 
isolated situation but a world war." 

BRUNEI: see BRITISH BORNEO. 

BRUSSELS, TREATY OF: see WESTERN UNION. 

BUDGET, NATIONAL. The year 1949 witnessed 
considerable progress towards the consolidation of the 
budgetary situation in Europe. Until about 1947-48 postwar 
inflation was proceeding in most countries. There were 
large budgetary deficits and the purchasing power created 
through an excess of government spending over receipts 
sent up prices. Higher prices affected expenditure within 
a very short time, while there was usually a longer time-lag 
before revenue adapted itself to the higher price level. 
Consequently, budgetary deficits and price levels tended to 
stimulate each other's rise in a vicious spiral In order to 
arrest this process, a series of drastic monetary and financial re- 
forms were carried out on the continent during 1947 and 1948 
as a result of which it became possible to check inflation. Even 
if budgetary equilibrium was not reached in many countries, 
the size of the deficits was reduced to controllable dimensions. 
A number of countries even succeeded in balancing their 
budgets. Nevertheless, conditions remained inflationary, no 
longer on account of budgetary deficits but through rising 
wages and the inadequacy of supplies of consumer goods 
to meet demand. To correct the situation, a " disinflationary " 
budgetary policy was adopted in Great Britain and other 
countries, which aimed at mopping up excessive purchasing 
power through revenue surpluses. 

The basic principle of such disinflationary budgetary 
policy was that it was directed both against purchasing power 
created through excessive government spending and against 
demand for goods through rising personal earnings. It 
differed from a deflationary budgetary policy in that it did 
not aim at causing a fall of prices and wages. The difference 
was one of degree but, although disinflationary budgetary 
policy was compatible with a policy of full employment, a 
deflationary policy was not. 

During 1949 anti-inflationary efforts dominated budgetary 
trends in Europe. Non-stop inflation came to an end every- 
where, with the exception of Greece where the conditions 
created by the civil war made it impossible to deal adequately 
with budgetary and monetary problems. The reforms carried 
out in 1947 and 1948 in Germany, Italy, Rumania and Hun- 
gary resulted in progress towards budgetary equilibrium. 
Most countries sought to stabilize their budgets around 
their high postwar level: no substantial attempts were made 
towards budgetary deflation. The governments concluded 
that it was easier to maintain taxation at a high level than to 
carry out drastic cuts in expenditure. This attitude was in 
keeping with the change in the balance of power in domestic 
policies that took place in Europe after World War II in 
favour of socialism. Even in countries where socialists did 



130 



BUDGET 



not actually control the government, their influence was 
strong enough to enforce budgetary policies favouring a 
process of levelling down incomes and fortunes by means of 
high taxation rather than a reduction of expenditure through 
curtailing social service charges (which rose considerably 
everywhere after World War II) for the sake of granting 
taxation reliefs. Moreover any large cuts in expenditure 
would have caused unemployment, directly or indirectly. 
With the exception of Belgium and Italy, none of the European 
countries ventured on such an unpopular course because, 
apart from any other reasons, it was feared that the dis- 
content aroused by such a budgetary policy would allow 
Communists to strengthen their influence among industrial 
workers. 

Precautionary national defence expenditure in western 
Europe rose. Although the United States agreed in 1949 to 
provide assistance for countries of the North Atlantic treaty 
in the form of arms delivery free of charge, the countries 
concerned had to undertake to strengthen their defences. 
Fortunately this happened after most countries had generally 
succeeded in restoring their systems of production and clarify- 
ing their monetary and budgetary situation. Had it become 
necessary to embark on rearmament a year or two earlier 
it might easily have aggravated the budgetary problem and 
led to chaotic monetary and economic conditions. Even so, 
military requirements went a long way towards neutralizing 
disinflationary policies in some countries and materially 
increased the difficulty of achieving equilibrium. 

Expenditure on social services tended to rise in Great 
Britain, France and other countries where various postwar 
measures were beginning to produce their full effects by 1949. 
In particular the item of subsidies weighed heavily in the 
budgetary situation. In France they cost twice as much as 
other social service charges. Food subsidies adopted in 
Great Britain in 1940 as a temporary palliative had come in 
recent years to be regarded as an instrument of economic 
and social policy, aiming at reducing the cost of production 
by keeping down the cost of living. They were, too, intended 



to ensure that the poorest classes would be able to buy primary 
necessities at low prices. 

European postwar budgets thus departed considerably 
from the conception that budgetary policy must be a fiscal 
instrument with the sole aim of collecting necessary revenue 
for covering indispensable government expenditure. Apart 
from control by taxation, the new social principles that 
guided public expenditure also constituted powerful weapons 
in the armoury of economic policies. They resulted in the 
employment of an increased amount of public funds on social 
services and the devotion of a larger proportion of national 
resources than before World War II to capital expenditure. 

Reconstruction expenditure in former belligerent countries 
of Europe continued to absorb substantial amounts. Pro- 
gress was made everywhere, even in Germany, towards the 
rebuilding of houses and industrial plants destroyed during 
World War II. Nor was this the only form of capital expendi- 
ture calling for large resources. Most European countries 
were proceeding with ambitious schemes of public works, 
modernization of industry, improvement of transport systems 
and housing programmes. Although these capital expenditure 
items were segregated in most budgets from current expendi- 
ture, they remained none the less part of the budgetary 
burden. 

Although such capital expenditure chiefly aimed at a rapid 
increase in productivity, a considerable proportion could 
not produce higher output except indirectly or over a long 
period. Some of it, however, was directed towards im- 
provement of living conditions rather than to an increase of 
productivity, or pursued educational or cultural aims. In 
Great Britain the application of the Education act of 1944, 
which raised the school leaving age, necessitated substantial 
capital expenditure in 1949, in the form of an ambitious 
programme of school building. 

Public administration expenditure continued on a very high 
level in most European countries, owing to an increase in the 
number of government officials compared with prewar 
figures. The extent to which de-rationing and de-control 



million 



6000 



5000 



4000 



3000 



20OO 



1000 r 



d million 



6000 



5000 



4000 



REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE 
IN THE UNITED KINGDOM 



Interest and manage- 
ment of Nat Debt 



L .] Total Inland Revenue 
Customs and 
Excise etc. 



[Ill Other expenditure 
Surplus 



Non-tax Revenue 
Deficit 




h-3000 



-20OO 



-1000 



1913-14 1938-39 1944-45 1947-48 1948-49 1949-50 



DISTRIBUTION OF 

REVENUE 

AND EXPENDITURE 
IN THE U K 




Income tax 

Other Inland 
Revenue 

is ood 



Other Revenue 



(FOR 1949-50 BUDGET) 




Int. and manage- 
ment of Nat Debt 

Defence 



and Nat Insurance 
Education and 

Q ff^njtnn j. t-j. 

Di uuuCOS Tiny 



P"! Other expenditure 



BUDGET 



131 



NATIONAL BUDGBTS (000,000's omitted) 



AUSTRALIA* f(Austr. pound) 
DENMARK* (kroner) . 
FINLAND* (marrka) . 
FRANCE (franc) 
NETHERLANDS* (guilder) 
POLAND (zloty) 
PORTUGAL (escudo) . 
SOUTH AFRICA* (pound) 
SWEDRN* (kroner) . 
TURKEY (Turkish pound) 
U.SS.R. (rouble) . 
UNITED KINGDOM* (pound) 





1946 




1947 




1948 




1949f 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


391 


551 


431 


480 


464 


478 


510 


328 


1,291 


1,503 


1,900 


1,883 


1,712 


1.726 


1,772 


1,772 


104,348 


100.106 


62,558 


62,532 


72,494f 


72,445| 


98,5 H 


98,506 


463,000 


943,000 


625,000 


825,000 


924.000 


1,039,000 


1,250,000 


1,250,000 


3,142 


5,368 


2,599 


4,391 


5.842 


6,990 


4,004 


4,299 


35,868 


39,327 


228,400 


207,700 


325,444 


325,249 


612,058 


612,058 


4,683 


4,630 


5,747 


5,694 


5,551f 


5,549f 


5.667 


5,666 


125 


128 


138 


123 


143 


114 


143 


136 


3,528 


3,329 


3,606 


3,155 


4 175f 


4,195f 


5,015 


4,426 


895 


991 


1,021 


1,136 


1.116 


1,244 


1,252 


1.372 


322,700 


304,100 


394,200f 


374,1001 


428,400t 


368,8001 


446,000 


415.400 


3,284 


5,855 


3,341 


4,102 


3,845 


3,187 


4,007 


3,176 



* Fiscal years 1945-46. 1946-47, 1947-48 and 1948-49. t Estimates. 



made it possible to reduce their number was small. It was not 
until towards the end of 1949 that Great Britain embarked 
on an economy drive aimed mainly at reducing administrative 
expenditure and even this effort was modest. 

In 1949 government expenditure generally was more 
carefully scrutinized. In Great Britain, Sir Stafford Cripps 
fy.v.) as chancellor of the exchequer introduced a more 
austere policy than his predecessor had followed and 
declared that in future no supplementary estimates should 
be submitted by government departments unless they arose 
from changes of policy. Notwithstanding this principle, he 
later found it necessary to yield to demands for supplementary 
allocations of funds through the unexpected increase in the 
cost of the national health service and national defence. 
As a result, expenditure exceeded revenue by some 20 
million during the first two quarters of the fiscal 1949-50, 
compared with a large surplus of revenue during the 
corresponding period of the previous fiscal year. 

In continental countries where the budget deficit was large 
it was difficult to enforce rigid economies precisely because 
of the psychological effect of the large size of the deficit. 
For example: if the revenue was within 5% of that of the 
expenditure it would be comparatively easy to overcome 
resistance to a final effort to bridge the narrow gap, for the 
nearness of the goal would strengthen the government's 
determination to achieve a slight reduction of expenditure 
or a slight increase in revenue. If, however, the gap represen- 
ted 25% of the expenditure, then there was little inducement 
to face unpopularity for the sake of reducing it to 20%. 
Indeed there was a strong temptation to add to the deficit 
for the sake of incurring useful or popular additional expendi- 
ture. Nevertheless most continental governments made a 
praiseworthy effort to resist the temptation and to embark 
on the unpopular task of reducing expenditure although 
in some instances the goal of eliminating it remained remote. 
The amount of the public debt continued to increase in a 
number of countries, as a result of budgetary deficits, capital 
expenditure programmes or nationalization schemes with 
compensation. There was no possibility in any country of 
saving much expenditure on interest through conversion 
operations. In fact interest rates tended to increase. In 
countries where devaluation of the national currency was 
followed by an all-round upward adjustment of taxable 
capacity, the relative real burden of the public debt declined 
in spite of an increase in its nominal amount. It was for this 
reason that devaluation on the continent tended to facilitate 
the solution of budgetary problems, by reducing the 
proportion of revenue that had to be earmarked for the 
service of the public debt. Although as the immediate result 
of currency depreciations budgetary difficulties were aggra- 
vated through the more rapid increase of public expenditure, 
during a long spell of monetary stability, which followed 
depreciation, the increase of revenue was able to catch up 
and exceed the increase of expenditure. Hence in 1949 came 



the improvement of the budgetary situations in various 
European countries which had devalued their currencies 
during previous years. 

The budgetary problem remained one of the causes of 
political instability in France where the peculiar character 
of the balance of power between the political parties made it 
particularly difficult for any government to adopt unpopular 
cuts of expenditure or to increase revenue. The effort of 
the government of Georges Bidault to balance the budget 
for 1950 through the adoption of new taxes in Dec. 1949 
nearly caused a cabinet crisis. 

The " dollar crisis " that developed during the summer of 
1949 made it necessary for Great Britain and other countries 
suffering from a scarcity of dollars to make an additional 
effort to cut expenditure. Realization of the need for this 
constituted a departure from the postwar conception under 
which it was believed that, as a result of practically water- 
tight exchange control and other restrictions, a country was 
in a position to isolate its internal economy from inter- 
national influences. Under this conception it was considered 
possible to distribute purchasing power through high public 
expenditure without thereby causing a deterioration of the 
balance of payment through smaller exports and far larger 
imports. The experience of 1949 made many governments 
realize, however, the existence of the close connection between 
budgetary policy and trade balance. The postwar conception 
of " spending our way into prosperity " and letting the 
balance of payments take care of itself gave way to more 
prudent conceptions even though the extent to which the 
latter were actually put into operation varied from country 
to country. 

The devaluation of the pound and other currencies in Septem- 
ber was effected too late to produce any visible effects on 
the budgetary situation during the calendar year 1949. 
In Great Britain the government endeavoured to reduce to 
a minimum the effect on public expenditure. Indeed efforts 
were made to carry out cuts in spite of the natural rising 
trend of expenditure that, in the experience of France, Italy 
and other continental countries, accompanied devaluation. 

The moderate extent to which devaluation in Great Britain 
was followed by a rise in prices contrasted sharply with 
earlier continental experience. The difference was due to 
the fact that, although continental countries had been forced 
to devalue repeatedly by rising prices caused by their budget- 
ary deficits, the British budget was balanced at the time of 
the devaluation of sterling. Several continental countries 
were in a less favourable position in this respect. Neverthe- 
less, by 1949 their budgets were more under control than on 
the occasion of previous devaluations and such deficits as 
persisted were not of an extent to cause non-stop inflation. 
For this reason, even on the continent the devaluation of 
national currencies did not set into motion on this occasion 
a vicious spiral in which an uncontrolled rise in prices 
caused a widening of the budgetary deficit. 



132 



BUENOS AIRES-BUILDING 




Entitled " But this little piggy gets none " this cartoon by Illingworth 

was published in the " Daily Mail " (London) in Feb. 1949, at the 

time of the government's supplementary estimates. 

A favourable change in the budgetary sphere on the con- 
tinent during 1949 was the reduction of the formerly very 
wide discrepancies between budgetary estimates and actual 
results. During earlier postwar years many governments 
yielded to the temptation of producing unduly optimistic 
budgets; and the result was that, although on paper the 
deficit was eliminated or reduced, in reality expenditure 
exceeded estimates while revenue fell short of estimates. 
In 1949 the French government and other governments 
mustered up sufficient political courage to face realities in 
their budgetary estimates. 

Most countries of the Commonwealth succeeded in achiev- 
ing budgetary equilibrium in 1949; or at least their deficits 
were not of a nature to cause inflation. The new dominions, 
India, Pakistan and Ceylon, had to continue to contend with 
budgetary problems arising from the recent change in their poli- 
tical status and from the lack of trained civil servants. (P. Eo.) 

United States. The U.S. budget submitted to the congress 
by President Truman on Jan. 9, 1950, recommended expendi- 
tures of $42,439 million for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1951. This total was $858 million less than estimated 
expenditures for 1949-50. Revenues amounting to $37,306 
million were expected for 1950-51, $457 million less than in 
the previous year. Expenditures and revenues for the fiscal 
year 1951 as presented in the budget would result in a deficit 
of $5,133 million compared with an anticipated deficit of 
$5,534 million for fiscal 1950. 

Expenditures for national defence, international affairs 
and finance, veterans' services and benefits and interest on 
the public debt were estimated at a total of about $30,000 
million, or 71 % of the total budget. This represented a 
reduction of about $1,800 million from the estimated total 
outlay for these four categories in fiscal year 1950. 

The federal government's two largest sources of revenue 
income taxes on individuals and on corporations were 
expected under existing law to provide revenues of $28,704 
million in 1950-51, comprising three-fourths of the estimated 
total of all budget receipts. Individual income taxes were 
estimated at $18,246 million, as compared with $17,971 
million in the preceding year. 

The estimate of $13,545 million presented for outlays on 
national defence comprised one-third of all federal budget 
expenditures. This was about $400 million higher than 
national defence expenditures in 1949-50. The largest 
increase was for outlay on aircraft. 



Expenditure on international activities was placed at 
$4,711 million in the 1950-51 budget. This was about 
$1,300 million less than estimated expenditure in 1949-50. 
The reduction reflected chiefly the declining costs of the 
European Recovery, and other recovery and relief pro- 
grammes. The president noted that recovery and relief costs, 
which in 1950-51 estimates formed three-fourths of inter- 
national expenditures, would diminish rapidly, but that 
programmes for stimulating foreign economic development 
would assume increased importance and that expenditures 
for foreign military assistance would remain substantial for 
several years. The budget included, as proposed legislation, 
an initial outlay of $25 million for furnishing technical 
assistance to economically undeveloped areas (the Point 
Four programme). Expenditures under the Mutual Defence 
Assistance pact of 1949 for supplying arms to the North 
Atlantic treaty nations and for rendering military assistance 
to Greece, Turkey and certain other areas in the middle and 
far east were estimated to require $645 million in 1950-51. 

BUENOS AIRES. Capital of the republic of Argentina, 
the largest city in the southern hemisphere and of Latin 
America, and the largest Spanish-speaking city of the world. 
Area (federal district): 71 sq. mi.; pop.: (1914 census) 
1,576,597, (1947 census) 3,000,371. 

Beneath the appearance of extreme prosperity, the effects 
of inflation were increasingly felt. Workers demanded higher 
wages, which in most cases were granted in accordance with 
government policy. Among several mass manifestations of 
discontent, the most spectacular was the strike of printers 
which deprived Buenos Aires of newspapers for 17 days 
during February. The official ceiling prices for cooking oil, 
soap, milk and sugar were raised, and the government's 
subsidy of meat for the capital was cancelled. The continued 
freezing of rents encouraged landlords to demolish old pro- 
perties and construct new blocks of flats, whose rents were 
not subject to the same restrictions. The influx of workers 
from the agricultural districts into the capital did not dim- 
inish. The radio stations and nearly all the newspapers of 
Buenos Aires were by 1 949 under the control of Senora Eva 
Peron, wife of the president; but the wealthy, privately owned 
La Prensa remained independent in its opinions. The port 
of Buenos Aires welcomed the arrival of Argentina's new 
liner, the " Presidente Peron " (14,000 tons) constructed at 
Barrow-in-Furness. 

Although 1949 was a year of economic disturbance and 
political rumours, the Portehos (citizens of Buenos Aires) 
were aware that the natural wealth of their country was un- 
affected by the transient crisis, and were confident that the 
fertile hinterland of the republic could well sustain the capital's 
extravagances. (G. P.) 

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION IN- 
DUSTRY. The principal subjects under discussion during 
1949 in the building industry of Great Britain were the 
introduction of schemes of incentive payments and the 
continuation of the system of licences. 

Operatives' output which was considerably below the 
1939 level was one of the chief causes of the rising cost of 
building and it was suggested that it could only be raised 
by incentive payments. The wage arbitration of 1947 gave 
half the additional sixpence an hour that had been claimed 
but included provision for incentive schemes in order to 
allow the earning of wages above the basic rates. Employers 
were slow to operate such schemes on an extensive scale in 
spite of official encouragement from the National Federation 
of Building Trades Employers and the Ministry of Works, 
both of which published booklets giving guidance on their 
running. Some progress, however, was made in 1949 though 



BUILDING 



133 



there were many kinds of work which did not lend themselves 
to organization in this way. Trade union leaders complained 
that far too few men were being given the chance to supple- 
ment their wages and that basic wages must be raised if 
employers were not prepared to operate bonus schemes 
more widely. 

Official control of the licensing of work and of the supply of 
certain materials was continued throughout 1949 though 
there had been considerable relaxation of these controls in 
Nov. 1948. The changes did not affect housing work or the 
supply of steel or timber and builders complained that such 
hand-to-mouth procedures made it impossible to balance 
future programmes of work satisfactorily and thus increased 
operating costs. 

The volume of maintenance and repair work which needed 
to be undertaken in consequence of the neglect of property 
during World War II resulted in a considerable increase 
after the war in the number of very small firms, a category 
already over-large. This trend seemed to be arrested during 
1949 partly because of financial difficulties. On the other 
hand the size of certain larger units was increased by the 
amalgamation of firms. The working party set up by the 
Ministry of Works in 1948 to enquire into the operation of 
the building industry continued to take evidence from a 
wide variety of sources. A productivity team also visited 
the United States for six weeks during July and August to 
study building methods. Although representing a variety of 
interests the members of the team agreed that production 
per man-hour in the United States was half as great again 
as in Great Britain though opinions differed as to the extent 
to which this was due to higher wages, better diet, the spur 
of unemployment, or to there being no shortages to upset 
planning and cause frustration. 

Both the Ministry of Works and the Building Research 
station issued publications on the progress of research and 
on the development of constructional techniques which were 
well received in responsible quarters. But although there 
was appreciation of the quality and value of the work being 
done, distrust of experiments in new structural techniques 
was also widely expressed and a return to traditional methods 
of house building advocated. The fact, however, that this 
suggestion was frequently associated with the demand for 
the removal of restrictions on the speculative building of 
houses for sale caused the motives behind it to be questioned, 
the more so since it was admitted that the new techniques 
were essential if the school building programme was to be 
adequate. 

Owing to the shortage of steel and timber reinforced 
concrete construction was used a great deal for large buildings 
in place of structural steelwork and new British Standards 
and Codes of Practice permitted more economy in both 
techniques. An outstanding result of the steel shortage was 
the widespread interest in design and construction of pre- 
stressed concrete structures. During 1949 both bridges and 
buildings were completed using this method of construction 
and small section floor joists were being mass produced to 
take the place of timber. Hardwood was freed from control 
in April but supplies of softwood were further threatened 
by import cuts and devaluation. The Timber Development 
association suggested that it would be sound economy to 
export more steel and import more timber but there was no 
indication that official policy was influenced. 

Recruitment to the building industry caused some anxiety, 
the intake of apprentices to the skilled trades being less than 
that required to maintain its strength. Many reasons were 
advanced for the deficiency. Employers complained that 
there was insufficient licensing of work suitable for the 
training of apprentices and that the outlook was too un- 
stable for them to be able to bind themselves as parties to a 



five-year apprenticeship. On the other side it was stated 
that a building trade apprenticeship compared unfavourably 
both financially and socially with other occupations open to 
youths of 1 5 or 1 6 years of age. A leading employer empha- 
sized that adequate recruitment was essential to the future 
health of the industry and asked whether a five-year ap- 
prenticeship was necessary for all the building trades. There 
was, at the same time, a growing interest in schemes for 
training future executives and for attracting university men 
to the industry. 

After 1939 few outstanding buildings had been put up in 
London and*it was, therefore, something of an occasion when 
work commenced on the new concert hall on the south bank 
of the Thames in preparation for the Festival of Britain, 1951. 

(D. A. G. R.) 

United States. Total expenditures for new construction 
in the United States during 1949 reached a new record of 
$19,329 million which exceeded by more than $500 million 
the 1948 record of $18,775 million. Building of new homes 
passed the million mark for the first time in the nation's 
history. The physical volume of new construction in 1949 
was probably even greater than the $500 million increase in 
expenditure would indicate since unit costs were somewhat 
lower than in the previous year. 

That new building reached record levels in 1949 was due 
to a $1,000 million increase in public construction of all types 
by federal, state and local governments. Private construction 
amounted to $14,000 million which was $500 million lower 
than in the preceding year. The drop was more than offset 
by the increase in public building to $5,300 million which was 
25 % more than had been expended during the previous year. 
More than half of this increase resulted from expanded 
programmes of school and hospital construction. 

Although 1949 home building achieved a record in number 
of new units, total expenditure amounted to $7,000 million, 
approximately 3% below the 1948 figure. This fact was 
accounted for by somewhat lower construction costs, the 
building of a larger proportion of less expensive dwellings 
and work remaining to be completed at the end of the year 
on the large volume of home building which was started late. 
Expenditures for public housing (homes for families with 
small incomes, financed and subsidized by federal, state or 
local government agencies) more than doubled in the year 
although the volume of such construction was still relatively 
small. The large scale public housing programme authorized 
by the Housing act of 1 949 did not begin to make itself felt. 

Increased construction was also marked in the field of 
institutional buildings such as churches, privately supported 
hospitals, recreational buildings and private (including 
parochial) schools. Privately owned electric and gas com- 
panies also substantially increased their construction activities. 

Material costs had begun to drop in Nov. 1948 and con- 
tinued to ease downward through the first half of 1949. 
Actual price reductions for major components, except 
lumber, were modest. Lumber, which had shown the biggest 
postwar increase, was freely available at substantially lower 
prices. In the Bureau of Labour Statistics index of wholesale 
prices, lumber, which in Aug. 1948 reached a peak of 319-9 
(1926-100), had dropped to 277-4 by July 1949, but then 
moved up to 279-6 in September. 

Equally as important as price reductions for materials 
were the return of competitive bidding for construction 
contracts on a fixed price basis, an ample supply and ready 
flow of materials which made for more efficient and speedier 
construction and increased labour productivity with fewer 
premium payments above the union wage scale. 

In May 1949 construction contractors had 2,010,000 
employees at work which represented a gain of 75,000 over 
the preceding month but was still 42,000 under the figure for 



134 



BULGARIA 



May 1948. By December, however, employment was 
2,109,000 the highest level for that month in the 10 years 
for which Bureau of Labour Statistics records were available. 
Although building and construction ended 1949 on a far 
stronger note that it did the preceding year, forecasts for 1950 
were still on the cautious side. The joint estimate of the 
Department of Commerce and the Department of Labour's 
Bureau of Labour Statistics foresaw another year ahead in 
which $19,000 million would be spent on construction but 
with expenditure on private building $925 million less than 
in 1949 and a further increase in public construction to make 
up the difference. Private home building and most other 
types of private construction were expected to slacken. 
Employment, it was thought, would equal 1949 levels and 
there would be no substantial change in construction costs. 
(See also HOUSING.) (H. M. P.) 

BULGARIA. A people's republic in the eastern part 
of the Balkan peninsula, bounded on the north by Rumania, 
on the west by Yugoslavia, on the south by Greece and on 
the east by Turkey and the Black sea. Area (including 
southern Dobruja): 42,796 sq. mi. Pop. (Dec. 31, 1946, 
census): 7,022,206 of whom 1,662,255 were urban and the 
remainder rural. Languages (1947 est.): Bulgarian 88%, 
Turkish, 9-8%. Religions (1947 est.): Greek Orthodox 84 %, 
Moslem 11-5% (one-sixth of them being Pomaks, or Moslem 
Bulgars, the remainder being Turks) ; Roman Catholic 9 %; 
Gregorian Armenian 0-4%; Jewish 0-3%; Protestant 2 %. 
Chief towns (pop., 1947 est.): Sofia (cap., 434,888); Plovdiv 
(125,440); Varna (77,792); Russe (53,420). Chairman of 
the presidium of the National Assembly (Sobranye), Dr. 
Mincho Neychev; prime ministers in 1949, Gheorghi 
Dimitrov (see OBITUARIES) and (from July 20) Vasil Kolarov 



(</.v.); minister of foreign affairs (from Aug. 6), Vladimir 
Poptomov. 

History. There was no significant change in the political 
structure of Bulgaria, which had been politically sovietized 
already in 1948. In Feb. 1949 it was announced that two 
small parties belonging to the governmental Fatherland 
(Otechestven) front, Zveno and the Radicals, had decided to 
dissolve themselves and to merge into the front. Zveno was 
originally a moderate republican party, based on the middle 
class and appealing especially to army reserve officers, which 
had taken part in the 1944 revolution but had lost its most 
active members by purges in 1946-48. The Radical party, 
founded at the beginning of the century, was a weak middle- 
class party. With their disappearance, the Fatherland front 
consisted only of Communists and rump Agrarians, the 
latter having in fact no independent influence. But in prac- 
tice the front had been rigidly controlled by Communists 
ever since the summer of 1945. 

In July the leader of the Communist party, Gheorghi 
Dimitrov, died in the Soviet Union. Having lain in state in 
Moscow, his corpse was brought back to Sofia, where a 
state funeral was staged, closely modelled on that of Lenin. 
Like Lenin, Dimitrov's corpse was to be embalmed and placed 
on view in Sofia. As in the case of Lenin, Dimitrov's successor 
as party leader, his brother-in-law Vlko Chervenkov, made an 
oration over his body consisting of a series of " command- 
ments " and " oaths," exactly copied from the oration of 
Stalin over Lenin's body in 1924 and imitating even the 
litanical style of the ex-seminarist. 

The new prime minister was Vasil Kolarov, like Dimitrov 
a former secretary of the Comintern. Under him were five 
deputy prime ministers forming, as in the government of the 
U.S.S.R., an inner cabinet. The five men chosen were 




The body of Gheorghi Dimitrov, who died on July 2, 1949, at the temporary mausoleum in Sofia where he was buried on July 10. Above h 
Marshal Klirnenti Voroshilov (in uniform). The mausoleum was opened to the public on Dec. 10. 



BUNCHE 



135 



Chervenkov himself, Dobri Tarpeshev, Anton Yugov (all 
three Communists), Gheorghi Traikov (rump Agrarian) and 
Kimon Gheorghiev (former Zveno). Chervenkov, most of 
whose political life had been spent in exile in Moscow, was 
the most powerful man in the country. The new minister of 
foreign affairs, Vladimir Poptomov, was also a "Muscovite." 
Yugov and Tarpeshev on the other hand had spent their 
time either in prisons or in underground activity in Bulgaria. 

The biggest political event of 1949 in Bulgaria was the 
" unmasking " of Traicho Kostov (q.v.\ second secretary of 
the Communist party under Dimitrov. On March 26-27 a 
special session of the party's central committee decided to 
remove him from the Politburo. His crime was an " insincere 
attitude " to the Soviet Union, and " insincerity in self- 
criticism " after his error had been pointed out to him by 
his comrades. As one of the chief organizers of the Bulgarian 
economic plan, he had applied the existing rules about 
commercial and industrial secrets to Soviet citizens as to the 
citizens of other foreign states. By so doing he had proved 
guilty, in the words of Dimitrov, of " the shameful assump- 
tion " that the state interests of the Soviet Union could ever 
be contrary to those of Bulgaria. Kostov was later expelled 
from the party itself and in July his parliamentary immunity 
was cancelled and he was arrested. On Nov. 29 it was 
announced that he would be tried for conspiracy, espionage 
and high treason. The Yugoslav Communist leader Moshe 
Pijade grimly commented on this that Kostov had evidently 
required a great deal of " preparation " and rehearsal in the 
role he was to play at the trial. 

" Kostovism " proved a useful label for economic failures. 
In the Five- Year plan which began in 1949, Bulgaria was to 
convert 60% of agricultural output to collective ownership. 
In practice it seemed that party officials pressed too fast ahead 
with collectivization. In June a party statement denounced 
** left-wing sectarianism " in agriculture, and attributed the 
wrongful use of force against peasants to the influence of 
the disgraced Kostov. In October the ministers of finance 
and railways, Petko Kunin and Stefan Tonchev, were dis- 
missed. Throughout the year there were complaints of low 
productivity and swift changes of employment among the 
workers. 

A new Church law was introduced on Feb. 24. Under 
article 12 of this law, any minister or religious officer who 
" offends against public order or morality " or " works 
against the democratic institutions of the state " might be 
temporarily suspended or dismissed from his office by the 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In this case, the minister of 
foreign affairs would inform the leaders of the religious 
community concerned. If they did not take action against 
the guilty person, he would be '* suspended by administrative 
order." These phrases were of course capable of wide 
interpretation by the Bulgarian secret police and Communist 
party officials, whose views the minister of foreign affairs was 
certain to carry out. 

From Feb. 25 to March 6, 15 Bulgarian Protestant pastors 
were tried for espionage and subversive activities against the 
government in the interest of the " western imperialists." It 
was clear from the proceedings of the trial that the crime 
of these men was that they had had American or British friends, 
with whom they had spoken freely and critically of Bulgarian 
politics. Protestantism had few followers in Bulgaria, but 
as one of the communities which had long established 
connections with the Anglo-Saxon world, it was an inevitable 
target of official repression. (H. S.-W.) 

Education. (1947-48) Elementary schools 9,238, pupils 889,854, 
teachers 28,957; secondary schools 258, pupils 152,661, teachers 
5,229; technical schools 207, pupils 32,968, teachers 1,051 ; universities 
and colleges 9, students 49,800, professors and lecturers 1,283. 

Agriculture. Main crops (1948, in '000 metric tons) wheat 1,470; 
maize 890; barley 250; oats 105; tobacco 68. Livestock (in '000 head): 



cattle (July 1947) 1,711; sheep (Dec. 1947) 9,000; pigs (July 1947) 
1,028; horses (Dec. 1946) 549; poultry (Sept. 1947) 10,293. 

Industry. Fuel and power: lignite (1947, in '000 metric tons) 4,044; 
electricity (1948, in million kwh) 553. 

Foreign Trade. (1947, in million leva) Imports 21,420; exports 
24,530. Main imports: metal and metal products, machinery, textiles, 
rolling stock and vehicles. Main exports: tobacco, wines and attar. 

Transport and Communications. Roads (1945) 13,870 mi. Licensed 
motor vehicles (Dec. 1948): cars 4,350, commercial vehicles 4,230. 
Railways: (1946) 2,072 mi.; passengers carried (1946) 34 million; 
goods traffic (1948) 10 million tons. Telephones (1948) 54,300. 

Finance and Banking. (In million leva) (Budget 1949 est): revenue 
151,980 ; expenditure 151,980. National debt (June 1942) 33,708. 
Currency circulation (March 1947) 35,000. Monetary unit: lev (pi. leva) 
with an exchange rate (Dec. 1949; in brackets Dec. 1948) of 806 
(1,160) leva to the pound. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. G. C. Logio, " Bulgaria in Fetters," Contemporary 
Review, July 1949 ; M. Padev, M A Bulgarian Dictator," ibid, Oct. 1949. 

BUNCHE, RALPH JOHNSON, United Nations 
official (b. Detroit, Aug. 7, 1904), graduated from the Univer- 
sity of California, Los Angeles, California in 1927 and 
received a master's degree at Harvard university in 1928 and 
a Ph.D. in 1934. He taught political science at Howard 
university, Washington, D.C., becoming a full professor in 
1938. In the meantime, he travelled through French West 
Africa on a Rosenwald field fellowship, studying and com- 
paring the administrations of French Togoland, a mandated 
territory, and Dahomey, a colony. He was later awarded a 
post-doctoral fellowship from the Social Science Research 
council and studied at Northwestern university, Evanston, 
Illinois, and the London School of Economics in 1936 and 
1937 before returning to Africa for further studies of colonial 
policy. During World War II he served in the Office of 
Strategic Services, being the head of its Africa section, 1943- 
44, and in the Department of State from 1944. He joined the 
United Nations secretariat as director of the division of 
trusteeship in June 1946. In 1948 he was appointed to assist 
Count Folke Bernadotte of Sweden as mediator between the 
Arabs and Jews in Palestine and when Bernadotte was 
assassinated on Sept. 17, 1948, he became acting mediator and 
supervised the truce and armistic agreements. In May 1949 he 
rejected an offer for an appointment as U.S. assistant secretary 
of state for near east and African affairs. In August Bunche 
was relieved of his mission as acting mediator for Palestine to 
resume his post as director of the U.N. division of trusteeship. 




Dr. Ralph J. Bunche receiving the Spingarn medal from Mrs. 
Vijayalakshmi Pandit, Indian ambassador to the United States, on 
July 17, 1949, for his work as U.N. acting mediator in Palestine. 



136 



BURMA, UNION OF 



In July 1949 he was awarded the Spingarn medal, 
awarded annually by the National Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Coloured People, and in October received the 
degree of doctor of humane letters from the Jewish Theo- 
logical seminary. 

BURMA, UNION OF. An independent federal 
republic lying on the eastern side of the Bay of Bengal, 
between Pakistan and India on the northwest, Tibet on the 
north and China, Indo-China and Thailand (Siam) on the 
east. The republic comprises Burma proper, the Shan state, 
the Kachin state, the Chin special division and the Karen 
state 1 ) this last to include, as well as the hill Karens, the 
Karens of the plains, who had yet to resolve their internal 
differences. Area: 261,749 sq. mi.; pop. (1941 census): 
16,823,798. Racially, the peoples of Burma are Mongoloid. 
About 90% are Buddhist by religion, and about 70% use 
the Burmese language. The largest indigenous minorities 
were: the Karens who numbered 1,367,673 in 1931 (of whom 
218,790 were Christians), the Shans (1,057,406 in 1931) and 
the Chin-Kachin group (c. 750,000). The largest immigrant 
minorities were: the Indian population numbering 1,017,825 
in 1931, divided equally between Moslems and Hindus, and 
the Chinese who by 1941 were about 380,000. Chief towns: 
Rangoon, capital and main port (pop. 1941, 501,291); 
Mandalay (pop. 1941, 163,537); Moulmein (pop. 1931, 
65,506); Bassem (pop. 1941, c. 50,000) and Akyab (pop. 
1931, 38,094). President of the republic: Sao Shwe Thaik 
(q.v.); prime minister: Thakin Nu (^.v.); minister of foreign 
affairs: U Maung. 

History. The year 1949 opened disastrously for Burma. 
As 1948 drew to a close, all hope of early recovery dwindled 
away. Negotiations with the Karens broke down and Karen 
bands overran more and more areas, even to Insein, at the 
very gates of Rangoon. The " White Band " section of the 
People's Volunteer organization (P.Y.A. in Burmese) con- 
tinued to defy the government, despite the efforts of a peace 
mission under U Thwin; and Communist hostility remained 
as implacable as ever. Essential goods fell into short supply, 
and prices rose steeply. Timber, rubber and mineral pro- 
duction was interrupted, with great loss to the national in- 
come and the state revenue. The budget for 1948-49, intro- 
duced in Sept. 1948, was already falsified by Jan. 1949. 

The government, however, still had some degree of control. 
The administration, though damaged, was substantially 
intact; communications, though often cut, were generally 
open; in particular, the Rangoon- Mandalay railway ran 
regularly from mid-December. The 1948 rice crop was 
successfully garnered. 

At this stage, the government made a serious miscalculation. 
An attempt to disarm the Karens was resisted, and sent the 
3rd Karen Rifles at Prome into revolt. On Jan. 31 an attack 
launched on the Karens at Insein was repulsed, and settled 
down to a long siege, with much destruction of property. 
A rifle attack on the same day against the Karen settlement 
in west Rangoon caused much damage by fire, and some loss 
of life. The rift between the two communities was almost 
complete. 

The Karens now took the offensive. By April they con- 
trolled the railway area from north of Pegu to Mandalay 
and Maymyo, and westwards to Mymgyan on the Irrawaddy. 
South oi Rangoon, they held Thaton, dominated Mouimein 
and threatened Tavoy and Mergui. Karen and government 
control alternated in Bassem and some other delta areas, and 
Karens held the Twante canal. 

Other insurgent forces were in the field. White P.Y.A. 
held Dala (opposite Rangoon), Pegu, and some delta towns. 
Allied in an uneasy Democratic front with the Communists, 

1 The Karen state had not been set up by the end of 1949 The old Karenni 
states, however, were understood to have adhered to the union. 



they also controlled most of the riverine districts from Prome 
to just south of Magwe. They were strong enough to threaten 
Tavoy in the south. Communists held Pyapon and some other 
delta towns and had centres in many other areas. Arakan 
was almost completely out of control. 

In fact, the government's writ ran only in Rangoon, a few 
headquarter towns and in the backward areas comprising 
the Shan states and the northern districts, where control was 
at all times of the lightest. Communications were completely 
disrupted and the administration was thoroughly disorganized. 
Timber extraction ceased and reconstruction in the Yenangy- 
aung oilfield ended. This point marked the peak of the 
rebels* success. With the rains in the offing, their men began 
to melt away to their homes; and by June the government 
had re-occupied Meiktila, Mandalay, Maymyo, Yenangyaung 
and Kyaukse in upper Burma, and Moulmein, Thaton, 
Insein and Twante in lower Burma. Twante was important. 
Its recapture released large rice supplies and a total export 
for 1949 of 1,300,000 metric tons was in sight. 

Thus, by the middle of the rains, the government faction 
was still the strongest in the field, except in Arakan, the 
Toungoo-Karenni area and parts of the southern Shan states, 
where the Karens made an incursion and firmly held Taunggyi. 
The country, however, was exhausted, devastated and 
terrorized by rival gangs and was in no mood to hold elections 
or plant wide areas for next year's export market. The 
district administration, of fundamental importance in Burma, 
was broken in pieces, and the treasury was bankrupt. The 
outlook for 1949-50 was thus ominous. 

In the political field, 12 months had seen a great change. 
On Sept. 14, 1948, the cabinet was increased to 21 members, as 
a bid, doubtless, for wider support. This, however, was not 
forthcoming, and splinter groups and new parties began to 
form. The Anti-Fascist People's Freedom league began to 
disintegrate rapidly, and soon the Socialists were left as the 
dominant party. In the country, however, they were un- 
popular and Thakin Nu, as the one man who could steer 
a middle course, was indispensible to all parties as premier. 
Early in the new year he was able to force the resignation of 
the Socialist ministers; the cabinet was cut down to 12 and 
most of the seats were filled with non-Socialist supporters 
of government. The Socialists, however, still controlled the 
Assembly, and so could cause the government much em- 
barrassment. No election had been held after the declaration 
of independence, and existing conditions scarcely permitted 
the holding of one. 

These events and the Communist success in China turned 
the thoughts of Burma increasingly towards the west. India 
called an informal conference in February at Delhi of Pakis- 
tan, Ceylon, Australia and the United Kingdom to suggest 
mediation in Burma, but this was precipitate and mediation 
was rejected. Desultory discussions, however, between 
Burma and the Commonwealth continued but led to no- 
definite result. Discussions with the United States and the 
international monetary authorities were equally inconclusive. 

The rains damped down military operations and so re- 
vived discussions of ways to procure a settlement. After 
some consideration, the government in mid-September 
launched a " peace in one year " campaign. They rightly 
thought that civil war a on trance would cause irreparable 
damage and seemed ready to consider all means of reaching 
a peaceful settlement. In this, a major factor would be an 
agreement with the Karens. As the rains drew to a close, 
signs of increasing rebel activity gave point to the necessity 
for early action. The need for more regular troops, and the 
disarming of undisciplined units with no reliable allegiance, 
already obvious, became imperative. 

The widespread disorders further impaired the country's 
finances, already precarious. The first accounts figures for 



BUSINESS REVIEW 



137 



1948-49 showed a deficit of Rs. 74 million and even this 
figure was of doubtful validity. The budget for 1949-50 
envisaged a deficit of Rs. 17 million but this was based on an 
unrealistic revenue figure, and included transfers from the 
development fund, which were not revenue at all A new 
factor was the government's new economic policy. This 
divided industry into three groups: (a) national industries, 

(b) private enterprise industries to be nationalized later and 

(c) industries open to private enterprise without restriction. 
It was too early to say if this would attract much- needed 
foreign capital. As, however, there was no provision for 
paying for industries already nationalized, the outlook in 
this respect was not hopeful. (R. M. MACD.) 

Education (1945-46) Schools: state and recognized 2,781, pupils 
229,300; private 2,153, pupils 70,180. University (Rangoon, 1948) 
students 2,742. 

Agriculture. Main crops ('000 metric tons, 1948) rice 5,287, ground- 
nuts 142; cottonseed 14; sesame (1947) 43 6, cotton 3; tobacco 
(1945-46) 32-7. Livestock ('000 head, 1948)' cattle 5,207; sheep 21; 
pigs 402; oxen 5,207; buffaloes 721 , horses 12, hogs 394, goats 
172 Fisheries: total catch estimated at 500 000 tons annually 

Industry. (1947) Factories 473, persons employed 4b,480 Raw 
materials (metric tons, 1948): natural rubber (net exports) 9,204, 
timber, teak round log (target production 1948-49) 230,000, tm con- 
centrates 1,181; lead on smelter basis 7,568; zinc ore 5,586; silver 
(fine ounces) 450,000. 

Foreign Trade. Imports- (1948) Rs 797 million, (1949, six months) 
Rs.155 million; exports (1948)- Rs 593 million, (1949, six months) 
Rs 294 million. 

Transport and Communications. Roads (1949) 12,472 mi Licensed 
motor vehicles (Dec. 1948)- cars 10,706, commercial vehicles 19,399. 
Railways (Aug. 1948). 1,786 mi ; passenger-mi. (1946-47) 205 million, 
net ton freight-mi 298 million 

Finance and Banking. Budget (in '000 rupees)- (1947-48 est ) revenue 
674,190, expenditure 723,711; (1948-49 cst.) revenue 520,784,expendi- 
ture 621,698. External debt (Sept. 30, 1949). Rs 867 million Note 
issue (Dec. 1948) Rs. 400 million. Monetary unit rupee with an 
exchange rate of Rs.13 '37 to the pound 



BUSINESS REVIEW. During 1949 business con- 
ditions continued to be affected by the deferred effects of 
wartime abnormalities. Generally speaking, however, busi- 
ness activity was determined to an increasing extent by 
peacetime factors. This did not necessarily mean that 
conditions improved in the same proportion as wartime 
abnormalities gave way to influences of peacetime economy. 
For the latter, too, was far from normal. The two principal 
disturbing factors were the trade recession in the United 
States during the first half of the year and the devaluation 
of sterling and a number of other currencies in Sept. 1949. 
Although it was possible to regard both factors as originating 
indirectly from the aftermath of World War II, in reality 
they were due to disequihbna which form part of peacetime 
economy. 

The factors which dominated business conditions during 
previous postwar years were the scarcity of goods, a disability 
inherited from the war, and the inadequacy of the productive 
capacity of the European late-belligerent countries. During 
1949 both these factors continued to subside. Industries 
rebuilt their stocks of raw materials, except in goods imported 
from hard currency countries. Wholesale and retail merchants, 
whose stocks were nearly exhausted by the end of the war, had 
replenished their supplies. Indeed in many instances they 
came to carry rather more than they wanted to, owing to a 
fall in demand in many lines. The range of goods available 
to the consumer widened considerably during 1949. This was 
not an entirely healthy symptom, however, as it was the 
result of the partial failure of the attempt by various govern- 
ments to reserve for foreign markets the best of the national 
output. The impossibility of selling all such goods abroad 
compelled the governments concerned to release them for sale 
on the domestic markets and these " frustrated exports " 
added to the domestic consumers' freedom of choice. 



Industrial production continued to increase in Europe 
and also in the countries of the Commonwealth, with the 
exception of Canada where it declined during the first half 
of 1949 in sympathy with the trend in the United States. 
Among European countries, those which had been affected 
most by World War It showed the greatest recoveries. In 
particular the index of the industrial production of western 
Germany showed a gratifying progress towards prewar level. 
The manufacture output of Great Britain and most western 
European countries had long passed that mark and in 1949 
they showed further noteworthy gains. British dominions 
which during the war made considerable progress towards 
industrialization succeeded in consolidating their advance 
and even added to it. 

With the disappearance of the sellers' market in most kinds 
of consumers' goods, the possibility of difficulties through 
industrial overproduction was continually being considered 
by governments and business firms. The difficulty of exchang- 
ing the manufacture surpluses of western Europe for the 
food and raw material surpluses of eastern Europe became 
more evident as a result of the spectacular recovery of 
industrial production in Western Germany; but fears that a 
revival of German competition might lead to unemployment 
or a fall in wages in Great Britain and the industrial countries 
did not yet materialize. 

The setback in business in the United States affected 
Europe and the Commonwealth partly through a decline in 
American prices of raw materials and manufactures and 
partly through a decline in American imports. Since, notwith- 
standing the European Recovery programme, the dollar 
reserve of most countries remained uncomfortably low, this 
decline of dollar-earning exports of European manufactures 
and of Commonwealth raw materials considerably aggravated 
the situation. Moreover, as there was no decline in the prices 
of European industrial products, the cuts in American manu- 
facture prices threatened the markets for British and western 
European exports in Latin America and elsewhere. So far 
from trying to compete with lower American prices, the 
prices in most European countries continued to increase 
during the second half of 1948 and showed no material fall 
during the first three quarters of 1949. Even though the 
British government and other governments adopted dis- 
inflationary devices they were unable to arrest altogether the 
rise in wages and prices. In France the devaluation of the 
franc in 1948 produced its full effect on prices by the end of 
that year, and the reaction during the first half of 1949 was 
moderate. Even in Italy, which was the only European 
country to adopt deflation on orthodox lines, prices con- 
tinued to rise at the beginning of 1949, although subsequently 
they showed a marked decline accompanied by unemploy- 
ment on a fairly large scale. In Belgium, too, there was a 
fair amount of industrial unemployment. 

On the other hand, Great Britain and most other western 
European countries continued to pursue their policies of full 
employment and, as a result, the purchasing power of con- 
sumers was fully maintained. 

The devaluation of sterling and many other European and 
Commonwealth currencies towards the end of the third 
quarter of 1949 constituted an important landmark in the 
business history of the year and, indeed, of the postwar 
period. Anticipation of this step during the preceding months 
influenced business conditions to no slight extent. There was 
a decline in the demand for British and sterling area goods, 
in the hope of being able to buy them cheaper after devaluation. 
When on Sept. 1 8 sterling was devalued by 30 %, an example 
followed by the entire sterling area (with the exception of 
Pakistan) and by many other countries besides, the fear of 
large-scale deflation was removed. Previously there had been 
the possibility that the declining trend in the United States- 



138 



BUSINESS REVIEW 



might force Great Britain and other countries sooner or later 
to follow the American example. There was, indeed, a growing 
fear of a postwar slump during the second quarter of 1949. 
From the point of view of business activity the British 
decision to take the line of least resistance by devaluing instead 
of deflating was greeted with relief, all the more so since the 
rigidity of wages under full employment would have made 
deflation impossible beyond a certain point. Moreover, the 
substantial extent of the cut in the dollar value of the pound 
and other currencies provided the countries concerned with 
a fairly wide safety margin. They were placed in a position 
to allow their wages and prices to rise a little without thereby 
relapsing into the state of disequilibrium from which they 
had escaped through devaluation. This meant that they were 
able to meet the most insistent wages demands instead of 
provoking an epidemic of strikes by rigidly resisting them. 

During 1949 business activity in Great Britain, France, 
Italy, Australia and other countries was often disturbed by 
strikes over wages or working conditions. A large proportion 
of these disputes were believed to have been engineered by 
Communists for political purposes by stimulating and 
exploiting discontent among dock labourers, miners and other 
workers. The extent of these strikes was not such as to check 
progress towards industrial reconstruction. On balance, 
business conditions continued to improve, a fact which was 
largely due to the ability of western European countries to 
maintain their essential imports through the European 
Recovery programme. 

In eastern European countries the process of postwar 
consolidation continued. The currency reforms carried out in 
various eastern European countries during the previous two 
years consolidated monetary conditions and the non-stop 
inflation in Hungary and Rumania gave way to a period of 
comparative stability. The effect of the nationalization of 
most industries on the output in countries under the Soviet 
sphere of influence could not be judged clearly from the 
conflicting reports received. Most of their business activities 
were conducted by government organizations. 

In western Europe the setback in business profits recorded 
in 1948 continued in 1949, although in many lines the post- 
war boom continued unabated. There were signs of greater 
selectivity, owing to the disappearance of the virtual certainty 
that prevailed during earlier postwar years that it was 
possible to sell at a profit anything produced, regardless of 
cost or quality. With the increase of competition at home and 
abroad the industries concerned had to make an effort to 
cut down superfluous expenditure. The strong political and 
economic position occupied by labour, especially in Great 
Britain and France, made this process often very difficult, for 
dismissals for redundancy might be accompanied by strikes. 
In particular in the nationalized industries the closing down of 
uneconomical pits or works encountered strong resistance. 
Nevertheless it was impossible to avoid local and temporary 
unemployment in some industries such as shipbuilding; but 
many industries engaged in the production of heavy capital 
equipment continued to work to capacity and remained 
fully booked for years ahead. Demand for electric power 
stations and for new machine tools continued unabated both 
within the countries producing such equipment Great 
Britain, Belgium, western Germany, France, Italy and 
Sweden and elsewhere. 

Mechanization and modernization continued to make 
progress but were handicapped by lack of exchange to import 
the necessary equipment or by the need for exporting much 
of the equipment produced within the countries, in order to 
obtain the means to pay for essential imports. The increase 
in output was the result of mechanization rather than of an 
increased exertion on the part of the manpower employed. 
In Great Britain and other industrial countries the limited 



supply of electric power set a limit to further mechanization 
pending the construction of additional power stations. India 
and other agricultural countries made efforts to secure the 
capital equipment needed for their industrialization. 

During the first half of 1949 there was a reduction of 
government controls but the scarcity of dollars that developed 
during the summer made it sometimes necessary to arrest 
and even reverse this tendency. In Great Britain the policy 
of nationalization continued. Budgetary deficits and dis- 
inflationary policies were responsible for further minor 
increases in taxation. 

Dominions producing raw materials continued to enjoy 
prosperity owing to the demand for their products. The tem- 
porary setback in the prices of their staple exports through 
the business recession in the United States during the first 
half of the year became reversed as a result of the devaluation 
of the pound, which resulted in a sharp recovery in the prices 
of these raw materials. Disturbances in southeastern Asia 
handicapped economic activity, though order was largely 
restored in Malaya, Indonesia and French Indo-China. War 
fears in Europe were generally less acute than in 1948 and 
consequently this source of uncertainty was no longer such a 
strong handicap to business expansion on the continent. 

The increase of the general price levels in Europe following 
upon devaluation was moderate during the last quarter of 1 949. 
Nor was there any immediate sharp recovery in business 
activity comparable with that witnessed in many European 
countries after the depreciation of sterling and a number of 
continental currencies in 1931. On the other hand, since on 
this occasion most countries west of the " iron curtain " 
immediately followed Great Britain in devaluing their cur- 
rencies, there was no repetition of the experience of the 1930s 
when resistance to devaluation forced Germany, France, 
Italy and other countries into deflation which tended to 
aggravate their business depression. After the devaluation 
of 1949 there was an all-round moderate improvement of 
business conditions in western Europe, through the stimulus 
to exports to the dollar area and the removal of fears that 
Europe might have to follow the United States in the latter's 
business recession. The actual increase of production 
stimulated by the devaluation was moderated by the existence 
of full or near-full employment already in most western 
European countries. 

At the end of 1949 business conditions in Europe presented 
a totally different picture from that of a year earlier. The 
abnormal postwar buying of consumers' goods to replace 
those used up or destroyed during World War II, which was a 
prominent feature of the previous postwar years, came to 
an end. On the other hand, normal current purchases were 
running at a sufficiently high level to keep industry fully 
engaged. (P. Eo.) 

United States. In the United States 1949 was characterized 
by some downward adjustment from the record business 
activity and the near-capacity utilization of plants and 
facilities of 1948. The buyers' strike, chiefly by business men, 
which struck a whole series of industries in the last quarter 
of 1948 as prices dropped, spread during the first half of 
1949. Business buyers, fearful that prices would drop 
drastically, reduced orders and scrambled to get rid of 
inventories. This cautious policy was reflected in a sub- 
stantial drop in industrial production and employment and 
both reflected and contributed to the continued decline in 
wholesale and retail prices. By mid- 1949 production was 
down by 30 to 50% in some plants. Heavy unemployment 
appeared in mill towns of New England and the south, in 
shoe centres, and in areas where furniture and metal products 
were made. 

Reduction in spending by business firms and other pro- 
ducers resulted in lower sales and output of heavy equipment. 



BUSINESS REVIEW 



139 



Heavy industries in 1949, however, did almost twice the 
prewar volume of business. 

In response to the impact of deflationary forces and the 
general business uncertainty which prevailed during the 
first half of the year, the board of governors of the Federal 
Reserve system reduced reserve requirements of member 
banks twice during the first six months of the year first 
early in May and again at the end of June. 

On the whole, consumer demand through the first half of 
1949 continued high. The dollar volume of retail sales 
during the first quarter of the year was greater than in 1948 
and was only slightly below 1948 during the second quarter. 
Steady consumer buying ended the hesitant business buying 
by early autumn and industrial activity expanded in spite of 
the coal and steel strikes, although production of soft goods 
and even of metal products continued to rise. 

Personal Income and Expenditures. Total personal income 
in 1949 at $211,700 million was only 0-3 of 1 % below 1948; 
salaries and wages income at $134,900 million was 1-5% 
greater than in 1948. Thus, the 7*2% drop in manufacturing 
pay rolls was more than offset by increases in the distribution 
and service industries and in government payments. According 
to the estimates of the Department of Commerce, the 
increase in total non-agricultural income just offset the drop 
in agricultural income resulting from sharp declines in prices 
of farm products. Personal consumption expenditures at 
the annual rate of around $178,700 million during the first 
half of the year, were slightly greater than during the first 
half of 1948. During the the third quarter of the year they 
showed an annual rate of $178,500 million, only slightly 
below the same period in 1948. 

Employment. Total civilian employment for the first ten 
months of the year, as estimated by the Bureau of Labour 
Statistics, averaged 58-6 million out of a total estimated 
labour force of 63 5 million. Unemployment for this period 
averaged only 3-4 million, slightly above the normal 
frictional unemployment of about 3 million. The average 
employment of 58 6 million was only 1 1 % below 
employment during the same period of 1948. Manufacturing 
employment for the year 1949 was 8-5% below 1948 and 
manufacturing pay rolls were down 7-2%. 

Production. Industrial production, as measured by the 
Federal Reserve board index, dropped steadily from January 
to July, falling from 191 in January to 161 in July, a loss of 
15-7%. After July, the index rose fairly steadily to an 
estimated 174 for December, but total industrial production 
for 1949 was almost 9% (8-9%) below 1948. 

Steel production continued to expand through the first 
quarter of the year, dropped rapidly from April to July, 
rose substantially in August and September and dropped to 
the low point for the year in October when the steel strike 
closed many of the major plants. Total production for the 
year, however, was only 8-7% below 1948. 

Prices. Although price movements during the first half of 
the year varied greatly by commodity and by marker, the 
general movement was clearly downward. At retail, food 
prices moved higher during the second quarter but prices of 
apparel, house furnishings and domestic fuels moved steadily 
lower. Primary market prices weakened further during the 
second quarter. Prices of non-ferrous metals broke drastically 
in May and June. In less than 90 days zinc prices dropped 
47%; lead, 44%; and copper, 33 % from their peaks. Prices 
of scrap steel dropped from $3 1 50 a ton at the end of 
March to $19-50 at the end of June. Textile prices declined 
more than 3% during the second quarter. On June 30, the 
prices of 28 commodities traded on organized exchanges and 
spot markets averaged 31% below the level of June 1948 
and 37% below the wartime peak in 1947. 

For the year 1949, wholesale prices of commodities other 



than farm and food dropped 2-5% below 1948. Prices 
received by farmers in 1949 were on the average 12-2% 
lower than in 1948. Wholesale prices, in general, for the 
year were 6- 1 % below 1948. Retail food prices for the year 
were down 3-8% from 1948 and the cost of living, 1-2%. 

Agricultural Income. Prices of farm products in 1949, 
according to estimates of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
were down 12-2% from 1948. However, receipts from farm 
marketings were down only about 10% for the year, because 
of the disposal of a slightly larger volume of products. 

Construction. Construction activity in 1949, as measured 
by the value t of contracts awarded and reported by the 
F. W. Dodge corporation, was up 7-8% from 1948 with all 
types of construction contributing to the increase. Residential 
and public works and utilities contracts were each up slightly 
more than 12% from 1948. Non-residential contracts were 
up slightly less than I % reflecting the decline in the expansion 
of industrial and commercial building. 

During the first five months of the year the number of new 
houses (excluding farms) whose construction was begun 
each month was above that of the corresponding month in 1 947 
and in June, July and August was substantially greater than 
in the same months of 1948. The 98,000 houses that were 
begun showed an increase in August of 12% above Aug. 1948. 

Business Profits. Business profits, after deduction of taxes, 
dropped from the high level of 1948, but were still consider- 
ably higher than in any previous years except 1947 and 1948. 
Profits after tax deduction for the first quarter of the year 
were at an annual rate of $17,300 million, but had dropped 
to $14,700 million in the third quarter. Dividend payments, 
however, were substantially greater in each of the first three 
quarters of 1949 than in the corresponding quarters of 1948, 
reflecting a more liberal dividend policy on the part of business 
men as the need for re-investment funds for expansion 
tapered off. Undistributed profits were reduced about 50% 
as compared with 1948. Corporate tax liability dropped with 
the decline in profits, being at the annual rate of about 
$9,500 million. Corporate profits after deduction of taxes 
were 23-6% below 1948 according to reports of the Federal 
Reserve board. 

Banking. Of importance to domestic economy in 1949 
were the continued large deposits and currency held by 
individuals. In January, the amount of such deposits and 
currency amounted to $168,200 million, only $2,000 million 
below Jan. 1948. By August the amount had dropped to 
$166,900 million, $200 million more than in Aug. 1948. 
During the first seven months of the year, currency outside 
banks remained substantially unchanged at about $25,000 
million; adjusted demand deposits fluctuated between 
$81,000 million and $85,000 million; and time deposits 
between $57,600 million and $58,400 million. Loans of all 
banks on March 30, 1949 had risen to $48,220 million, an 
increase of $50 million from the amount outstanding on 
Dec. 31, 1948, and on Sept. 28 the amount stood at $48,050 
million. Commercial bank loans reached $42,370 million on 
March 30 and stood at $41,780 million on Sept. 28, according 
to reports of the board of governors of the Federal Reserve 
system. The use of bank credit by business continued to 
expand throughout 1949. 

Exports anJ Imports. Merchandise exports, including 
re-exports and civilian supplies for occupied areas, increased 
during April and May after a sharp fall in February, but 
dropped sharply in July and eased further in August. Imports 
during the first eight months of the year dropped continuously 
with the exception of a slight rise in March. For the year 
1949 exports were down 6 1 % from 1948 and imports 7 5 %. 

Labour Relations. During the first half of 1949 there were 
about 2,000 work stoppages due to labour-management 
disputes, a 10% increase over the Jan.-June 1948 period. 



140 



CABINET MEMBERS 



In terms of idleness, however, the estimated total for the 
first six months of 1949 was only about two-thirds as great 
as in the comparable periods of the two preceding years. 
Only 13 stoppages during this six-months period involved 
10,000 or more workers. The fourth round of wage increases 
tended to be smaller than in previous years. Negotiations 
during the year resulted in an increase of 1 4% in the weekly 
earning of production workers in spite of a drop of 2-2% 
in hours worked per week. (See also BANKING; EMPLOY- 
MENT; NATIONALIZATION; STOCKS AND SHARES; STRIKES 
AND LOCKOUTS; TAXATION.) (V. B. B.) 

CABINET MEMBERS. The following is a list of 
cabinet members of Great Britain and the dominions on 
Dec. 31, 1949. 

Great Britain 

Post 
Prime Minister and First Lord of the 

Treasury ..... 
Lord President of the Council 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 
Chancellor of the Exchequer . 
Minister of Defence 
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster 
Lord Privy Seal .... 
Lord Chancellor .... 
Secretary of State for the Home 

Department .... 
Secretary of State for the Colonies . 
Secretary of State for Commonwealth 

Relations 

Secretary of State for Scotland 
Minister of Labour and National 

Service ..... 
Minister of Health 
Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries 
Minister of Education . 
President of the Board of Trade 



Name 

'Clement Richard Attlee 

Herbert Stanley Morrison 
* Ernest Bevin 
*Sir Stafford Cnpps 

Albert Victor Alexander 

Hugh Dalton 

Viscount Addison 

Viscount Jowitt 

James Chuter Ede 
Arthur Creech Jones 

Philip John Noel-Baker 
Arthur Woodburn 

George Alfred Isaacs 
Aneurm Bevan 
Tom Williams 
George Tomhnson 
James Harold Wilson 



Australia 



Prime Minister .... 

Treasurer ... 

Minister for Defence and Postwar 
Reconstruction .... 

Minister for Labour and National 
Service and for Immigration 

Minister for Commerce and Agricul- 
ture ...... 

Minister for External Affairs and 
External Territories . 

Minister for Supply, Development, 
Works and Housing . 

Minister for the Interior 

Minister for Health 

Minister for Fuel and Shipping 

Minister for Trade and Customs 

Minister for Air and Civil Aviation . 

Postmaster General 

Minister for the Army and for the 
Navy .... 

Attorney General 

Vice President of the Executive 
Council 

Minister for Repatriation 

Minister for Social Services . 

Minister for Information and Trans- 
port ..... 



* Robert Gordon Menzies 
Arthur William. Fadden 

Eric John Harrison 
Harold Edward Holt 
John Me E wen 
Percy Claude Spender 

Richard Gardiner Casey 
Philip Albert Martin McBride 
Sir Earle Page 
George McLeay 
Neil O'Sulhvan 
Thomas Walter White 
Hubert Lawrence Anthony 

Josiah Francis 

John Armstrong Spicer 

Dame Enid Lyons 
Walter Jackson Cooper 
William Henry Spooner 



Oliver Howard Beale 



Canada 

Prime Minister and President of the 

Privy Council 

Minister of Trade and Commerce . 
Minister of Agriculture . 
Minister of Mines and Resources . 
Minister of Labour 
Minister of Public Works 
Postmaster General 
Minister of National Defence 
Solicitor General .... 
Minister of Transport . 



*Louis Stephen St. Laurent 
Clarence Decatur Howe 
James Garfield Gardiner 
Colin Gibson 
Humphrey Mitchell 
Alphonse Fournier 
Edouard Rinfret 
Brooke Claxton 
Hughes Lapointe 
Lionel Chevrier 



Post 

Minister of National Health and 
Welfare 

Minister of Finance 

Minister of National Revenue 

Minister without Portfolio 

Minister without Portfolio 

Minister of Veterans Affairs . 

Minister of Fisheries 

Secretary of State for External Affairs 

Minister of Justice and Attorney 
General . ... 

Minister of Reconstruction and Sup- 
ply ... . . 

Secretary of State and Minister for 
Newfoundland .... 

Ceylon 

Prime Minister and Minister of 
Defence and External Affairs 

Minister of Commerce and Trade . 

Minister of Health and Local Gov- 
ernment 

Minister without Portfolio 

Minister of Labour and Social Ser- 
vices 

Minister of Finance 

Minister of Transport and Works . 

Minister of Education . 

Minister of Industries, Industrial 
Research and Fisheries 

Minister of Justice 
Minister of Food and Co-operative 
Undertakings 

Minister of Agriculture and Lands . 

Minister of Posts and Telecommuni- 
cations 

Minister of Home Affairs and Rural 
Development .... 



Name 

Paul Joseph James Martin 
Douglas Charles Abbott 
James Joseph McCann 
Wishart McLea Robertson 
James Angus MacKinnon 
Milton Fowler Gregg 
Robert Wellington Mayhew 
"Lester Bowles Pearson 

Stuart Sinclair Garson 
Robert Henry Winters 
Gordon Bradley 



*Don Stephan Senanayake 
Henry Woodward Amarasuriya 

Solomon West Ridgeway Dias 

Bandaranaike 
Alexander Ekanayake Goone- 

sinha 

Tuan Brahanudecn Jayah 
Jumus Richard Jayewardcnc 
Sir John Kotelawala 
Edward Alexander Nugawela 

Ganapathipillai Gangesar 

Ponnambalam 
Lahta Abhaya Rajapaksc 

Ratnayake Mudiyanselegedera 

Abeyratne Ratnayake 
Dudley Shelton Senanayake 

Cathiravclu Sittampalam 

Edwin Aloysius Perera 
Wijeyeratne 



India 

Prime Minister and Minister of Ex- 
ternal Affairs .... 

Deputy Prime Minister, Minister for 
States, Home, Information and 
Broadcasting .... 

Minister for Education and Arts 

Minister for Finance 

Minister for Defence 

Minister for Labour 

Minister for Communications. 

Minister for Health 

Minister for Law .... 

Minister for Industry and Supply . 

Minister for Works, Mines and 
Power ..... 

Minister for Commerce . 

Minister for Railways and Transport 

Minister for Food and Agriculture . 



*Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru 



*Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel 
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad 
John Matthai 
Sardar Baldev Singh 
Jagjivan Ram 
Rafi Ahmed Kidwai 
Rajkuman Amrit Kaur 
Bhimrao Ramji Ambcdkar 
Syama Prasad Mookerjee 

Narhar Vishnoo Gadgil 
Kshitish Chandra Neogy 
N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar 
Jairamadas Daulatram 



New Zealand 
Prime Minister and Minister of 

Finance ..... 
Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of 

Agriculture and Marketing, Scien- 
tific and Industrial Research 
Minister of Labour, Employment, 

Mines and Immigration 
Attorney General and Minister of 

Justice 

Minister of Education . 
Minister of Internal Affairs 
Minister of Customs, Industries and 

Commerce, and Associate Minister 

of Finance 
Postmaster General 
Minister of Lands, Forests and Maori 

Affairs 
Minister of External Affairs, Island 

Territories, Broadcasting and 

Tourist and Health Resorts. 



*Sidney George Holland 



Keith Jacka Holyoake 
William Sullivan 

Thomas Clifton Webb 
Ronald Macmillan Algie 
Will