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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 




This l " TMTE on the last date stamped below 

I 



SOUTHERN BRANCH, 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, 

" LIBRARY, 

LOS ANX^LLS, CALIF. 



BRITISH BASIDIOMYCETAE 



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

C. F. CLAY, MANAGER 
LONDON : FETTEK LANE, E.G. 4 







LONDON : H. K. LEWIS AND CO., LTD., 

136, Gower Street, W.0. 1 
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28, Essex Street, Strand, W.C. 2 
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TOKYO : MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA 



ALL EIGHTS RESERVED 



British Basidiomycetae 

A HANDBOOK TO THE LARGER 
BRITISH FUNGI 



BY 



CARLETON REA, B.C.L., M.A. 

Hon. Member of the British Mycological Society and the 

Cryptogamic Society of Scotland, Membre titulaire 

de la Socie'te' Mycologique de France, etc. 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF 
THE BRITISH MYCOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



CAMBRIDGE 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 
1922 

49791 



Published August 1, 1922 




At 



AFTER thirty years of study of our British Basidiomycetae I 

have ventured to write this text-book at the request of many 

I mycological friends. The well-known classification of Fries is 

now insufficient for modern requirements and must be altered to 
embody the results obtained from a more detailed anatomical 
and microscopical examination of these plants. The present work 
is based chiefly on the excellent system set forth by N. Patouillard 

v in his Essai taxonomique sur les families et les genres des Hymeno- 

- 7 mycetes, published in 1900. Since this date several alterations 
and additions to this scheme have been made, due to the in- 
vestigations of the eminent mycologists J. Bresadola, E. A. Burt, 

. 5 H. Bourdot and A. Galzin, F. von Hoehnel and V. Litschauer, and 

- Rene Maire. My very best thanks are due to Mr J. Ramsbottom 
^ for his invaluable technical advice and assistance in the prepara- 
tion of the manuscript and for kindly correcting the proof-sheets 
of this work, and to Miss E. M. Wakefield for valuable information 

\ respecting the Thelephoraceae. I am also very greatly indebted 
. I to Messrs A. D. Cotton, C. H. Grinling, A. A. Pearson and J. 

^ Ramsbottom for obtaining the large subsidy for the publication 
of this work, to the generous contributors to the same, and to 
The Royal Society for a grant-in-aid of 10. 

CARLETON REA. 
Wth June, 1922. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

PREFACE v 

INTRODUCTION ix 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS . . . . xii 

KEY TO THE DIVISIONS AND GENERA OF 

BRITISH BASIDIOMYCETAE ... 1 

TEXT 21 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 746 

INDEX . 755 



IX 



INTRODUCTION 

FUNGI are non-chlorophyllous cryptogams reproduced by spores. 
In the larger fungi these spores are borne either to the exterior 
of a cell called the basidium or are contained within a sac-like 
cell called the ascus. Fungi with basidia constitute the 
BASIDIOMYCETAE, whilst those with asci are known as the 
ASCOMYCETAE. The present work deals only with the former 
group. 

The Basidiomycetae were, until quite recently, divided into 
two main groups, HYMENOMYCETAE and GASTEROMYCETAE : in 
the former the spores are freely exposed to the air at maturity, 
whilst in the latter they remain inclosed within the body of the 
fungus. The spores on germination either give rise to threads or 
hyphae (collectively known as the mycelium or spawn) or they 
produce secondary spores termed sporidiola which on germina- 
tion develop the mycelium. This mycelium constitutes the 
vegetative portion of the fungus and consists of septate hyphae, 
in some cases with lateral outgrowths known as clamp connections 
which arise near the septa and connect two adjacent cells. The 
mycelium is either filamentous or forms cord-like strands. At 
their extremities the hyphae give rise to other hyphae which 
terminate in basidia, sterile paraphyses which act as spacing 
elements and in some cases other sterile cells termed cystidia. 
These elements together constitute the hymenium and generally 
form a homogeneous layer but in some of the Gasteromycetae the 
basidia are irregularly distributed as in Scleroderma. The tissue 
between the hymenial layers is known as the trama. The basidium 
may consist either of a continuous cell, or be longitudinally 
divided, or transversely septate. It is usually surmounted at the 
apex by short stalks, the sterigmata, which bear the spores; some- 
times these are lateral or arise from the division of the transversely 
septate basidia: sometimes the spores are borne directly on the 
hyphae. In some genera long vesicular hyphae are present which 
traverse the tissue in various directions and these are often filled 
with a granular coloured or colourless latex. The vegetative 
hyphae constitute the main portion of the sporophore except in 



x INTRODUCTION 

the small effused forms. The hymenium may be spread over 
radiating gills or plates as in the mushroom, line the interior of 
tubes or pores as in Polyporus, cover teeth-like projections as in 
Hydnum, be immersed in a gelatinous mass as in Tremella, or be 
borne on variously shaped structures known as receptacles as in 
the Phalloids. 

The sporophore is of different shapes, e.g. globose as in puff- 
balls, sessile with outstretched flaps as in Stereum, erect, clavate, 
coralloid or dendroid as in Clavaria, or differentiated into dis- 
tinct stem, pileus or cap and hymenium-bearing surface as in the 
mushroom. When young the sporophore is often completely 
surrounded by a universal veil or membrane termed the volva 
which is ruptured by the growth of the stem and in many species 
portions or traces of this remain permanently at the base of the 
stem. A second membrane or partial veil consisting of either 
interwoven or arachnoid threads often protects the hymenial 
surface before it is mature and extends from the stem to the 
margin of the pileus : it either disappears completely or remains 
as a ring on the stem, or in appendiculate fragments at the 
margin of the pileus. The wall surrounding the Gasteromycetae 
is termed the peridium and consists of one, two, or more layers, 
the exoperidium to the exterior and the endoperidium to the 
interior. The peridium sometimes incloses separate hymenium- 
bearing bodies, the peridiola, which are either free, attached by 
a cord (funiculus) or form a compound structure. The contents 
of the peridium are collectively known as the gleba ; in addition 
to spores there are often certain threads, the capillitium, which 
arise either directly from the base, from the walls of the peridium 
or are attached to a denser central portion, the columdla. 

In some cases the external walls of the hyphae deliquesce 
and this gives a jelly-like consistency to the whole fungus as in 
Tremella, whilst in other cases the deliquescence is confined to 
certain areas and constitutes a valuable diagnostic feature. In 
the genus Coprinus the edge of the gill gradually undergoes a 
process of autodigestion which ensures the economical dispersion 
of the spores. The tramal plates of many Gasteromycetae finally 
dissolve and disappear. All fungi since they have no chlorophyll 
and are thus unable to form carbohydrates are either saprophytes 
obtaining their nourishment from dead organic matter or are 



INTRODUCTION xi 

parasites dependent on a living host. Sometimes the mycelium 
forms a somewhat dense stratum (stroma) on which the receptacle 
is seated or immersed; at other times it forms hard compact 
masses known as sclerotia which often lie dormant for a con- 
siderable length of time. 

In more recent classifications the BASIDIOMYCETAE are 
primarily divided into two main divisions, the HOMOBASIDIAE 
and the HETEROBASIDIAE. In the former, the basidium is an 
undivided cell usually clavate in shape: the spores on germina- 
tion give rise to a mycelium which reproduces the sporophore. 
In the latter, the basidia are either transversely, longitudinally, 
or vertically septate, or sometimes continuous, but the spores on 
germination give rise to sporidiola which germinate in their turn 
to form the mycelium which reproduces the fruit body. 

The HOMOBASIDIAE are divided into two main subdivisions 
based upon their parasitic or saprophytic habit. The parasitic 
forms constitute the subdivision EXOBASIDIINEAE, the sapro- 
phytic forms the subdivision EU-HOMOBASIDIINEAE. The latter 
are divided into the three orders Gasteromycetales, Agaricales and 
Aphyllophorales. 

The Gasteromycetales include the species having the hymenium 
still surrounded at maturity by a peridium: the Agaricales have 
the hymenium originally protected by a volva or a ring but at 
maturity fully exposed, whilst the Aphyllophorales have the 
hymenium exposed from the first. 

The HETEROBASIDIAE are divided into four orders according 
to the nature of the basidium, viz. Auriculariales, Tremellales, 
Tulasnellales and Calocerales. In the Auriculariales the basidia 
are transversely septate; in the Tremellales the basidia are 
longitudinally, cruciately divided; the Tulasnellales have simple 
basidia but the sterigmata are at first of such a wide diameter 
that they were formerly considered to be spores, whilst the 
Calocerales have cylindrical basidia terminated by two pointed, 
usually long, sterigmata. All these orders are in general sapro- 
phytic and have the hymenium fully exposed from the first but 
the Auriculariales include the three parasitic suborders Puc- 
ciniineae, Coleosporiineae and Ustilagineae which are not dealt 
with in the present work and one suborder the Ecchynineae 
which has the hymenium inclosed within a peridium at maturity. 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 

cm., centimetre. 

mm., millimetre. 

/x, one-thousandth part of a millimetre. 

P., Pileus. 

Pe., Peridium. 

B., Receptacle. 

st., stem. 

v.v., Living specimens seen by the author. 



KEY TO THE DIVISIONS AND GENERA 
OF BRITISH BASIDIOMYCETAE 

BASIDIOMYCETAE. 

L ^ "I HOMOBASIDIAE. 

II. Basidia longitudinally divided, trans- } 

versely septate, or simple; spores pro-!- HETEBOBASIDIAE. 
ducing sporidiola on germination J 

HOMOBASIDIAE. 

* EU-HOMOB ASIDIINE AE. 
Saprophytes. 

L GASTEROMYCETALES. 



2. Hymenium at first covered by a volva, \ 
or a ring, becoming fully exposed at 

maturity, usually inferior, and spread V AGARICALES. 
over the surface of gills, fleshy pores, ! 
or a smooth surface ) 

3. Hymenium exposed from the first, 'i 

APHYLLOPHORALES. 

or a smooth surface 

**EXOBASIDIINEAE. 

Parasites. 

4. Hymenium effused, rarely consisting) 

of basidia only. Parasitic on leaves, j- EXOBASLDIALES. 
etc. (especially Ericaceae) ) 



HETEROBASIDIAE. 

CyHn l 



KEY TO GASTEROMYCETALES 



2. Basidia longitudinally cruciatelyl 
divided, subglobose J 

3. Basidia simple, subglobose, with 
2-4 very thick stout sterigmata. 
Spores producing sporidiola on 
germination 

4. Basidia simple, cylindrical, with j 
two long pointed sterigmata. 

Spores always becoming septate [ CALOCERALES. 
on germination, and producing 
sporidiola J 

HOMOBASIDIAE. 

* EU-HOMOBASIDIINEAE. 

GASTEROMYCETALES. 

I. Superficial. Peridium globose, with\ 
a middle gelatinous layer, at length 
ruptured, and exposing the gleba I PHALLINEAE. 
on a variously shaped receptacle, 
volvate at the base 

1. Receptacle trellised, or irregu-1 

larly branched above; gleba in-r CLATHRACEAE. 
ternal, or between the branches J 

2. Receptacle hollow, cylindrical, orl p 
fusiform; gleba external } J 

II. Subterranean, rarely superficial.^ 

Peridium globose, simple, inde-[ TT Y MFNnr ASTRTNFAF 

hiscent; hymenium lining the cell-[ 

like cavities of the gleba ) 

1. Tramal plates arising from radial,) TT 

basal, sterile hyphae } HYSTERANGIACEAE. 

e l HYMENOGASTRACEAE. 



LYC OPERDINEAE. 



LYCOPERDACEAE. 



III. Superficial. Peridium globose, or 
variously shaped, of two or more 
layers, dehiscing by an apical 
aperture, or by the gradual falling 
away of the upper pendial walls; 
hymenium lining the cell-like 
cavities of the gleba. Capillitium 
and sometimes a columella present 
Same characters as the suborder 



KEY TO GASTEROMYCETALES 

IV. Superficial, or growing on wood or; 
dung. Peridium campanulate, orj 
cup-shaped, of one to three layers, I 
inclosing lenticular peridiola, some- \ NIDULARIINEAE. 
times attached by a funiculus, 
and with or without a fugacious 1 
epiphragm 
Same characters as the suborder NIDULARIACEAE. 



PLECTOBASIDIINEAE. 
(SCLERODERMINEAE.) 



V. Subterranean, or superficial. Peri- 
dium globose, or variously shaped, 
of one or more layers, sometimes 
prolonged into a stem-like base. 
Basidia irregularly scattered, some- 
times intermixed with sterile veins 

A. Gleba pulverulent when mature. 

(a) Gleba traversed by sterile veins. 

Capillitium rudimentary. Peridiuml ScLERODERMATACEAE . 
simple, rarely double J 

Capillitium well developed. Peri-1 CALOSTOMATACEAE . 
dmm highly differentiated J 

(b) Gleba without sterile veins. 

Peridium of two layers produced) TuLOSTOMATACEAB . 

below into a stem-like base 

Peridium of one layer, sessile,! 

seated on a ring-like mass of my-h GLISCHRODERMATACEAE. 

celium J 

B. Gleba slimy when mature SPHAEROBOLACEAE. 

CLATHRACEAE. 

Receptacle sessile, forming a hollow, globose lattice Clathrus. 
Receptacle stipitate, terminating in free arms, or) ^ ysurus 
branches J 

Receptacle stipitate, crowned by a disc from which) 
the arms radiate J 

PHALLACEAE. 

Gleba campanulate, adnate throughout to the re-'j Cynophallus. 
ceptacle / (Mutinus.) 

Gleba campanulate, reticulate, free, attached by the] 
apex to the receptacle J 

12 



4: KEY TO GASTEROMYCETALES 

HYSTERANGIACEAE. 

Peridium globose, separable. Gleba cartilaginous, or] 
mucilaginous, cavities at first empty / yste 

HYMENOGASTRACEAE. 

A. Peridium without external mycelial strands. 
Spores elliptical to fusiform, with a prominent) 
papilla; sterile base well developed J 
Spore globose, or broadly elliptical, echinulate, 
or verrucose. 

Tramal plates splitting, sterile base well de-) 
veloped } 

Tramal plates not splitting, no sterile base Hydnangium. 

B. Peridium with external mycelial strands; glebal ,->, . 
cavities at first hollow, spores elliptical, smooth J 

LYCOPERD ACE AE . 

A. Exoperidium consisting of a pseudo-parenchy- 
matous layer. 

1. Capillitium threads attached to the peridium,1 

or the columella, not consisting of a distinct stem \ Lycoperdon. 
and branches 

2. Capillitium threads free, consisting of a distinct 
stem and pointed branches. 

Sterile base present Bovistella. 

Sterile base absent Bovista. 

B. Exoperidium consisting of a pseudo-parenchy- 
matous layer, and a fibrous layer, splitting open 
in a star-like manner. 

Endoperidium with many stems, and dehiscing! 
by many mouths / 

Endoperidium with a single stem, or sessile, } t 
and dehiscing by a single mouth J 

NlDULARIACEAE. 

Peridium subglobose, of one layer, without an epi-j 

phragm. Peridiola without a funiculus J 

Peridium cup-shaped, of two layers, with an epi-l 

phragm. Peridiola attached by a papilla to thej- Crucibulum. 

funiculus 

1 Cf. Astraeus. 






KEY TO GASTEROMYCETALES 5 

Peridium campanulate, or cylindrical, of three"! 

layers, with an epiphragm. Peridiola umbilicately \ Cyathus. 

attached to the funiculus 

SCLERODERMATACE AE . 

Subterranean. Peridium soft, fleshy, with branched"! 

mycelial strands springing from every part of the!- Melanogaster. 

exterior, not sharply separated from the gleba 

Superficial. Peridium leathery, or corky, of one or"! 

two layers, sharply separated from the pulverulent - Scleroderma. 

gleba J 

Superficial. Peridium membranaceous, distinctly"! . ,., 

separated from the gleba, which at maturity consists / ,p. * US ' 

CALOSTOMATACEAE. 

Endoperidium inserted at the base of the exoperi-j , 
dium, the latter splitting open in a star-like manner/ 

TULOSTOMATACEAE. 

A. Capillitium smooth. 

Endoperidium dehiscing by an apical aperture Tulostoma. 
Endoperidium dehiscing by the gradual falling) ^ , . 
away of the peridial walls from the base upwards/ 

B. Capillitium with ring-like, or spiral markings Battarrea. 

GrLISCHRODERMATACEAE. 

Same characters as the family Glischroderma. 

SPHAEROBOLACEAE. 
Same characters as the family Sphaerobolus. 

AGARICALES. 

I. Hymenium inseparable from the j AGA R ICINEAE . 
pileus, spread over the surface of gillsj 

II. Hymenium inseparable from the 



pileus, spread over the surface of 



CANTH AKELLINEAE. 



narrow, obtuse gills, or folds, or 
quite smooth 

III. Hymenium soft, separable from the! 

pileus, lining the inside of pores, orj- BOLETINEAE. 
pore-like gills 



KEY TO AGARICALES 

AGAEICINEAE. 

Same characters as the suborder AGARICACEAE. 

AGAKICACEAE. 

I. Receptacle fleshy, trama not vesiculose, nor 
traversed by lacticiferous vessels, not mem- 
branaceous, not rapidly putrescent, nor tough 
and woody. 

A. Pileus distinct, and easily separable from the 



* Without a ring, or a volva. 

Spores white Schulz&ria. 

Spores pink Pluteus. 

Spores green Glaucospora. 

Spores ochraceous Pluteolus. 

Spores purple, or fuscous Pilosace. 
**With a ring on the stem. 

Spores white, ring rarely fugacious, always] ,- . 

manifest in the adult stage J 
Spores white, ring very fugacious, not manifest") 

in the adult stage / 

Spores pink Annularia. 

Spores purple, or fuscous Psaliota. 

Spores black, or blackish fuscous Anellaria. 
***With a volva at the base of the stem. 

Spores white Amanitopsis. 

Spores pink Volvaria. 

(Locellina. 

Spores ochraceous \(Acetabularia.) 

, (Clarkeinda. 

Spores purple, or fuscous {(Chitonia.) 

****With a ring on the stem, and a volva at the 
base of the stem. 
Spores white Amanita. 

B. Pileus confluent and homogeneous with the 
fleshy stem. 

*With a membranaceous ring on the stem. 
Spores white ArmiUaria. 



KEY TO AGARICALES 7 

Spores ferruginous, rough; general veil per-1 . 
sistent / 

Spores ochraceous, or ferruginous, generally) <: piw 
smooth; general veil none, or fugacious j L " 

Spores purple, or fuscous Stropharia. 

**With an arachnoid or filamentous general veil. 

1. Veil forming an arachnoid, fugacious ring on) ~ . 
the stem. Spores ochraceous, or ferruginous / 

2. Veil concrete with the epidermis of the pileus. 

Spores ochraceous, or ferruginous, elliptical,"^ ,. , 
smooth J 

Spores ochraceous, or ferruginous, irregular,) . 

-,-, ^ r Astrosvorina. 

angular, ecmnulate, or verrucose 

***Gills sinuate. 

Spores white Tricholoma. 

Spores pink Entoloma. 

Spores ochraceous, or ferruginous Hebeloma. 

Spores purple, or fuscous Hypholoma. 

****Gills decurrent, or adnato-decurrent by a tooth. 

Spores white; hymenium not waxy, nor) nr , 

pulverulent j l 

Spores white; hymenium pulverulent Laccaria. 

Spores white; hymenium waxy Hygrophorus. 

Spores pink Clitopilus. 

Spores ochraceous, or ferruginous Flammula. 

Spores greenish fuscous, or blackish; gills mu-| rih'd'us 
cilaginous / 

C. Pileus confluent with, but heterogeneous from, 
the cartilaginous stem. 

*Grills adnate, or sinuato-adnate. 

fMargin of pileus at first incurved, or exceeding 
the gills. 

Spores white CollyUa. 

Spores pink Leptonia. 

Spores ochraceous, or ferrugineus Naucoria. 

Spores purple, or fuscous Psilocybe 

Spores black, or blackish Panaeolus. 



KEY TO AGARICALES 



ff Margin of pileus straight, at first adpressed 

to the stem. 

Spores white 

Spores pink 

Spores ochraceous, or ferruginous 

Spores purple, or fuscous 

Spores black, or blackish 
**Gills decurrent. 

Spores white 

Spores pink 

Spores ochraceous, or ferruginous 

D . Pileus confluent with the excentric, or lateral 
stem, dimidiate, sessile, or resupinate. 
Spores white, gill edge entire 
Spores white, gill edge longitudinally split 
Spores pink 
Spores ochraceous. 

II. Receptacle fleshy, trama vesiculose and 
traversed by lacticiferous vessels. Spores 
white, or yellow. 

Latex watery, uncoloured 

Latex milk-white, or coloured, rarely like) 

serum ) 

III. Receptacle membranaceous, or fleshy mem- 
branaceous, fragile, rapidly putrescent, or 
shrivelling up. 

Spores ochraceous, or ferruginous 

Spores black, or blackish fuscous. Gills) 

auto-digested from below upwards / 

IV. Receptacle membranaceous, tough, reviving 
with moisture, not putrescent. 

Spores white. 

*Pileus with a thin, unspecialized cellular) 
pellicle > 

**Pileus with a thick, cellular pellicle. 

Cells of the pellicle upright, echinulate, or) Androsaceus. 
verrucose J (Marasmius p.p.) 

Cells of the pellicle decumbent, very long,) n // 
fibrillose I P 



Mycena. 

Nolanea. 

Galera. 

Psathyra. 

Psathyrdla. 

OmpMia. 

Ectilia. 

Tubaria. 



Pleurotus. 
Schizophyllum. 
Claudopus. 
Crepidotus. 



Russula. 
T 
Latanus ' 



Bolbitius. 
Coprinus. 



KEY TO AGARICALES 9 

V. Eeceptacle coriaceous, fleshy coriaceous, or 
woody. Spores white. 

Pileus fleshy coriaceous, gills somewhat soft Panus. 
Pileus membranaceous coriaceous, gills j 
coriaceous, branched, obtuse J ero us ' 

Pileus coriaceous, or woody, pliant; gills] T ,. 
firm, often toothed 

CANTHARELLINEAE. 

Same characters as the suborder CANTHARELLACEAE. 

CANTHARELLACEAE. 
*Spores white. 

Receptacle fleshy, stipitate; gills simple.) N Ug 

Parasitic on other Agarics 

Receptacle fleshy, stipitate; gills forked Cantharellus. 

Receptacle fleshy, membranaceous, funnel-] 

shaped or umbilicate. Hymenium veined, [ Craterellus. 

or smooth 

Receptacle membranaceous, spathulate, or) j)ictyolus 

cup-shaped, pendant. Hymenium veined, [- (C J tharettusp ^) 

or smooth ) v 

**Spores ochraceous. 

Receptacle fleshy coriaceous, stipitate. \ 
Hymenium fold-like J 

BOLETINEAE. 

Same characters as the suborder BOLETACEAE. 

BOLETACEAE. 

1. Hymenium spread over gills, which anasto-"! 

mose by veins, and form irregular pores, | .,, 
especially at the apex of the stem. Spores f 
white, ochraceous, or ferruginous J 

2. Hymenium lining the inside of fleshy tubes. 

(Gyroporus. 
Spores white, or pale yellowish {(Boletus p.p.) 

. , (Tylopilus. 

S P reS P mk [(Boletus p.p.) 



10 



KEY TO APHYLLOPHORALES 



Spores purple 



((Boletus p.p.) 



Spores blackish, or fuscous. Pileus) . ,. 7 
vn Q ^ TTrUk ;w,^o+ Q oUc, f Strobilomyccs . 



Boletinus. 



covered with imbricate scales 
Spores ochraceous, ferruginous, or oliva- 
ceous. 

Tubes short, alveolar, decurrent 
Tubes very short, gyroso-plicate 
Tubes long Boletus. 

APHYLLOPHORALES. 

I. Receptacle pileate, stipitate, sessile, orl PO ROHYDNINEAE. 
resupinate; hymenium inferior J 

II. Receptacle erect, dendroid, coralloid,1 

simple, or branched, never pileate; hy-V CLAVARIINEAE. 
menium more or less amphigenous 

I. POROHYDNINEAE. 

1. Hymenium lining tubes coherent 
throughout their length, forming a 
layer distinct from the substance of 



the pileus, sometimes becoming torn 



POLYPORACEAE. 



into teeth, or gill-like plates, and sepa- 
rated by dissepiments sterile on the 
edge 

2. Hymenium lining tubes, or covering"! 
gills, or teeth, homogeneous with the' 
substance of the pileus, not forming a 
distinct layer, sterile on the edge 

3. Hymenium spread over veins, anasto-1 

mosing pores, or quite smooth; edge of j- MERULIACEAE. 
veins or pores fertile 

4. Hymenium inferior, lining free and! FlgTULINACEAE . 
separate tubes J 

5. Hymenium spread over the surface of 
spines, granules, warts, or other pro- 



tuberances, or quite smooth, inter- 
vening spaces fertile. Receptacle fleshy, 
coriaceous, waxy, crustaceous, or floe- 
cose, rarely none 



HYDNACEAE. 



KEY TO APHYLLOPHORALES 11 



Hymenium spread over a smooth, rugose, 
or ribbed surface, either resting upon an in- 
termediate layer of hyphae running longitu- 
dinally between it and the mycelium, or 
seated directly upon the mycelium 



THELEPHORACEAE. 



7. Hymenium covering the whole of the in-") 

terior of cup-shaped, urceolate, or cylindrical j- CYPHELLACEAE. 
receptacles, smooth, or veined J 



POLYPORACEAE. 

Eeceptacle stipitate, or sessile, fleshy, cheesy,! 
or coriaceous. Tubes homogeneous, or hetero- 1 
geneous, dissepiments entire, or toothed. Spores | 
white, or coloured J 



Eeceptacle stipitate, fleshy. Tubes becoming"] 
torn into teeth, or gill-like plates 
mosing at the base. Spores white 



Sistotrema. 



Receptacle sessile, hard, woody, or corky. Pileus\ 
often concentrically zoned, covered with a hard [ 
crust, or villose. Tubes homogeneous, or hetero- V Fomes. 
geneous, often stratose. Spores white, or 
coloured 

Receptacle stipitate, or sessile, corky. Pileus") 
covered with a rigid, laccate, shining crust. I ^ , 
Tubes often stratose. Spores coloured, oval,] ' 
truncate at the base 

Receptacle resupinate, membranaceous, soft,\ 
coriaceous, or corky. Tubes often inserted! p . 
directly on the mycelium, round, or angular, j 
Spores white, or coloured 



POLYSTICTACEAE. 

Receptacle sessile, thin, coriaceous, or mem-1 
branaceous. Tubes homogeneous, developing j- Polystictus. 
from the centre outwards. Spores white 

Receptacle sessile, or resupinate, membrana-"! 
ceous, or coriaceous. Tubes alveolar, becoming j- Irpex. 
torn, or toothed. Spores white 



12 



KEY TO APHYLLOPHORALES 



Trametes. 



Receptacle sessile, corky, or coriaceous. Hyme-\ 
nium spread over gills, which anastomose at the! ^ . 
base, homogeneous with the substance of the pileus, \ 
and not forming a distinct layer. Spores white 

Receptacle sessile, corky. Tubes homogeneous withj 
the substance of the pileus, not forming a distinct 
layer, regular, round, or oblong. Spores white, 
rarely yellowish j 

Receptacle stipitate, or sessile, spongy, or corky.' 

Tubes homogeneous with the substance of the 

pileus, not forming a distinct layer, irregular, r Daedalea. 

sinuous, or labyrinthiform, often becoming torn, or 

toothed. Spores white. 



MERULIACEAE. 

Receptacle sessile, or resupinate, more or less gela-) 

tinous. Veins anastomosing to form irregular pores, j- Merulius. 

Spores white or coloured j 

Receptacle erect, or resupinate, waxy, firm. Veins) 7 
radial. Spores white J 



Veins gill-j Plicatura. 
) (Trogia.) 



Receptacle sessile, spongy coriaceous, 
like, crisped. Spores white 

Receptacle resupinate, waxy. Hymenium granular,! r . , 
or smooth. Spores coloured, smooth. No cystidia J L m P 

Like Coniophora, but with cystidia Coniophorella. 



FlSTULINACEAE. 

Same characters as the family 



Fistidina. 



HYDNACEAE. 

Receptacle none. Spines simple, cylindrical, acute, "j 

seated directly on the fugacious mycelium. Spores f Mticronetta. 

white 

Receptacle simple, or branched, stipitate, sessile, j 

or dimidiate, fleshy, coriaceous, or corky. Spines^ Hydnum. 

subulate. Spores white, or coloured 

Receptacle resupinate, or reflexed, membranaceous] ,, , , 
coriaceous. Spines subulate, apex hispid. Spores [ 7%*T* * n \ 
white, oval, or oblong. Cystidia present. m p - p '> 



KEY TO APHYLLOPHOEALES 13 

Receptacle resupinate, thin, waxy, inseparable.^ 
Tubercles or spines obtuse, often deformed, ir- 
regularly scattered, or confluent. Spores white, r Radulum. 
or coloured. Cystidia none, cystidioles (sterile 
basidia) sometimes present 

Eeceptacle resupinate, thin, waxy. Spines thin, 



subulate, generally entire, distinct, or connate 
at the base. Spores white. Cystidia none, cys- 
tidioles very thin, or absent 

Receptacle resupinate, thin, membranaceous, 
pelliculose, or crustaceous. Tubercles or spines 



Ada. 
(Hydnum p.p.) 



Grandinia. 



obtuse, or pointed, entire. Spores white, or 
coloured. Cystidia none 

Receptacle resupinate, thin, membranaceous, \ 
waxy, crustaceous or mealy. Spines conical,! ~, 
ciliate, or penicillate at the apex. Spores white, t 
Cystidia present J 

Receptacle resupinate, subgelatinous. Spines very) ., 
minute, sterile. Spores white J l '" ia " 

Like Odontia, but spores coloured, smooth Hydnopsis. 

Receptacle resupinate, soft, floccose. Spines soft, \ 

conical, villose, fimbriate at the apex. Flesh [ 

coloured. Spores coloured, verrucose, or echinu- 1 

late 

Receptacle pileate, stipitate, sessile, or resupinate, 

without a distinct pellicle, coriaceous. Hyme- 



nium smooth, granular, or faintly ribbed. Flesh 



coloured. Spores coloured, angular, echinulate, (Thelephorap.p.) 



or verrucose 



PJiylacteria. 



Receptacle resupinate, soft, floccose. Hymeniuml ~ ochnus 

granular, or smooth, floccose. Flesh coloured. > , J^ til \ 

Spores coloured, echinulate, or angular J 

Like Hypochnus, but spores violet, smooth Hypochnella. 

Receptacle resupinate, effused, flocculose-pulveru-'j 

lent, Hypochnus-like. Spores straw coloured, sub- v Jaapia. 

elliptical, hyaline-appendiculate J 

Receptacle resupinate, subgelatinous, then car-"| 

tilaginous. Hymenium smooth. Spores olive, V Aldrigea. 

elliptical, smooth J 

[Irregular abnormal growths the conidial forms) \ptijchoaaster 1 
of Porohydnineae] / L y y 



14 



KEY TO APHYLLOPHORALES 



THELEPHOKACEAE. 

1. Hymenium separated from the mycelium by an 
intermediate layer of hyphae. 

Receptacle erect, much branched, branches] 

flattened in a lamellar, or plate-like manner, > Sparassis. 

fleshy. Hymenium smooth. Spores white 

Receptacle simple, or branched, stipitate, ses-\ 

sile, effuso-reflexed, rarely resupinate, cori-l 

aceous. Hymenium smooth. Flesh pale. Spores i 

white. Cystidia hyaline J 

Like Stereum, but cystidia, or setae coloured.] 
Flesh coloured. Spores white, or coloured 

[Like Stereum, but hymenium smooth, granu-j 

lar, or faintly ribbed. Flesh coloured. Spores f [Phylacteria.] 

coloured, angular, echinulate, or verrucose] j 

Receptacle sessile, or produced behind into a-j 

stem-like base, coriaceous, or woody. Hy-l 

menium with fan-like folds, or radiating woody, [ 

branched ribs, or veins. Spores white J 

2. Hymenium seated directly on the mycelium. 
Receptacle resupinate, waxy, or floccose. Hy-\ 
menium smooth, with scattered protuberances 

caused by the breaking through of fasciculate, \- Epithek. 



Stereum 1 



Hymenochaete. 



Cladoderris. 



sterile, mycelial hyphae. Spores white. 
tidia 



Cys-l 
/ 



Receptacle saucer-shaped with a free margin, \ 

or resupinate and adnate, floccose, or crusta- 

ceous, becoming coriaceous. Hymenium 

smooth, pulverulent, with much granular, or Y Aleurodiscus. 

crystalline matter. Spores white, large ; basidia 

large, sterile basidia or paraphyses moniliform, 

or racemose 

Receptacle resupinate, waxy, crustaceous, or 

floccose. Hymenium waxy, smooth, or tuber- 

cular, continuous, often cracked. Spores white, L Corticium 2 . 

rarely faintly coloured, smooth. No cystidia; 

sterile basidia (cystidioles) sometimes emergent/ 

Like C&rtirium but the hyphae and hymenium] r> f - 

traversed by long, cystidia-like bodies, whose I . , 

walls are never thickened, nor incrusted withj L, U ^-j- \ 

crystalline deposits (gloeocystidia) 

1 Cf. Eichhriella. 2 Cf. Sebacina. 



KEY TO APHYLLOPHORALES 



15 



Eeceptacle incrusting, variously branched, \ 
lobed, or effused, fibrillosely floccose, soft. I Cristdla. 
Spores white, echinulate. Growing on fallen | (Thelephorap.p.) 
twigs, and mosses J 

[Receptacle resupinate, soft, floccose. Hy-^ 
menium granular, or smooth, floccose. Flesh I \Hypochnus. 
coloured. Spores coloured, echinulate, orj (Tomentdla.)] 
angular] / 

[Like Hypochnus, but spores violet, smooth] [Hypochnella.] 

[Receptacle resupinate, effused, flocculose-j 
pulverulent, Hypochnus-like. Spores straws [Jaapia.] 
coloured, subelliptical, hyaline-appendiculate] j 

[Receptacle resupinate, waxy. Hymenium] 

granular, or smooth. Spores coloured, smooth, f- [Coniophora.] 

No cystidia] 

Like Corticium, but with prominent, hyaline, 
or subhyaline cystidia in the hymenium or 
subhymenial tissues, which are generally L Peniophora. 
thick walled, or incrusted with crystalline de- 
posits. Spores white, rarely slightly coloured/ 

[Like Coniophora, but with cystidia] [Coniophorella.] 



CYPHELLACEAE. 

Receptacles sessile, scattered, crowded, or-. 

confluent, coriaceous-gelatinous. Hymenium Cytidia. 

smooth, becoming wrinkled, or veined. Spores f (Auriculariopsis.) 

white, or pale 

Receptacles stipitate, or sessile, scattered, or^i 

crowded, membranaceous, or waxy. Hyme- > Cyphella. 

nium smooth, or veined. Spores white J 

Receptacles sessile, seated on a superficial,^ 
felt-like, then floccose and fugacious myce-l , . 
Hum, gregarious, or fasciculate. Hymenium j 
smooth. Spores white 

Receptacles sessile, more or less crowded, dis-^j 

tinct, seated on, or immersed in an effused, I 

membranaceous, or floccose stroma. Spores j 

white 

Like Cyphella, but spores coloured, smooth,! 

or echinulate J 



16 KEY TO APHYLLOPHORALES, ETC. 

II. CLAVARIINEAE. 

Same characters as the suborder CLAVARIACEAE. 

II. CLAVARIACEAE. 



Receptacle erect, simple, or branched, 
branches cylindrical, smooth, or longitu- 
dinally striate, fleshy, or subcoriaceous, 



Clavaria. 



generally putrescent. Spores white, or ochra- 

ceous, smooth, or rough. Growing on the 

ground, or on wood 

Receptacle erect, simple, very rarely branched,^ 

cylindrically-clavate, with a long, thin stem, 

often springing from a sclerotium, fleshy, >- Typhula 

waxy, or tough. Spores white. Growing on 

fallen twigs and dead leaves 

Receptacle erect, simple, very rarely forked,N 

club shaped, with a short, thick, glabrous, or I p / 77 

villose stem, fleshy, or waxy. Spores white.] 

Growing on herbaceous plants J 

Receptacle filiform, simple, or branched, firm, j 

tough. Spores white. Growing on the ground, [ Pterula. 

or on wood j 

** EXOB ASIDIINE AE. 

EXOBASIDIALES. 
Same characters as the order EXOB ASIDI ACE AE. 

EXOB ASIDI ACE AE. 

Mycelium vegetating in the interior of the) 

li ving host, and giving rise, on the exterior, j- Exobasidium. 

to basidia j 

HETEROBASIDIAE. 

AURICULARIALES. 
1 Parasites, with, or without, probasidia PUCCINIINEAE 1 . 

COLEOSPORIINEAE 1 . 
USTILAGINEAE 1 . 
2. Saprophytes, without probasidia 

(a) Hymenium fully exposed from the first AURICULARIINEAE. 
(6) Hymenium inclosed within a peridium ECCHYNINEAE. 
1 Not dealt with in the present work. 



KEY TO ATJRICULARIALES 



17 



AURICULARIINEAE. 

Same characters as suborder 



AURICULABIACEAE. 



AURICUL ARI ACE AE . 

Receptacle effused, incrusting, membrana-\ 

ceous, soft, floccose. Hymenium smooth. 

Basidia more or less incurved, transversely ^ Helicobasidium. 

septate; sterigmata subulate, unilateral. 

Spores white 

Receptacle effused, or upright, thin, waxy, on 
gelatinous. Hymenium smooth. Basidia! , , 
cylindrical, straight, transversely septate.) 
Spores white J 

Receptacle dimidiate, cup-shaped, sessile, or 
substipitate, gelatinous coriaceous, then carti- 
laginous. Hymenium smooth, reticulate, or 
ribbed. Basidia cylindrical, transversely 
3-septate. Spores white, cylindrical, or sub- 
reniform 



Receptacle erect, filiform, or subclavate. Hy- 
menium smooth. Basidia cylindrical, trans- 
versely 3-septate. Spores white 



Eocronartium. 
(Clavaria p.p. 
= Helicobasidium 
sec. Patouillard.) 



Receptacle erect, globose, stipitate. Hyme-\ 
nium consisting of branched threads ter- 
minated by a basidium. Basidia short, pear- > Stilbum. 
shaped, transversely 1 -septate. Spores white, 
elliptical. Growing on dead wood / 



ECCHYNINEAE. 

Same characters as suborder 



ECCHYNACEAE. 



ECCHYNACEAE. 

Peridium globose, stipitate, or substipitate, 
thin, fugacious. Threads of gleba bearing the 
basidia on their lower portion, either in tufts, 
or scattered. Basidia transversely 3-septate, 
bearing the spores either sessile, or on very I 
short sterigmata. Spores brown ' 



Ecchyna. 



18 



KEY TO TREMELLALES 



TREMELLACEAE. 

Tremella. 

Phaeotremella. 
Guepinia. 



TREMELLALES. 

Same characters as the order 

TREMELLACEAE. 

Receptacle foliaceous, brain-like, or tubercu- 
lar, gelatinous, soft, fertile over the whole 
surface, very rarely papillose, sometimes with 
an irregular nucleus formed by mineral con- 
cretions. Spores white, globose or elliptical. 
Growing on dead wood, rarely on the ground 

Like Tremella, but spores coloured 
Receptacle erect, ear-shaped, or spathulate \ 
substipitate, or sessile, gelatinous, firm. Hy-| 
menium inferior, smooth, or indistinctly veined. \ 
Spores white. Growing on the ground, or on 
rotten wood 

Receptacle cupulate, discoid, foliaceous, or 
effused, marginate, pendant, sterile on upper 
surface, gelatinous, soft, pellucid. Hymenium! .-,. 
inferior, smooth, reticulately veined, or foli- 1 
aceous, often papillose. Spores white, allantoid. 
Growing on wood 

Receptacle dimidiate, substipitate, or sessile^ 

gelatinous. Hymenium with fertile spines or - Tremellodon. 

teeth. Spores white. Growing on wood 

Like Odontia, but with subgelatinous teeth, } 
and longitudinally septate basidia. Spores - 
white. Growing on dead wood 
Receptacle effused, incrusting, like Corticium,\ 
coriaceous, gelatinous, or waxy. Hymenium I 
smooth. Spores white. Growing on the ground, [ 
or on wood 

Like Sebacina, but hymenium possessing true) 
cystidia / 

Like Sebacina, but hymenium possessing) 
gloeocystidia filled with a coloured juice / 

Receptacle cup-shaped, or resupinate with the 
margin free, or reflexed, membranaceous, waxy, 
or coriaceous, soft. Hymenium smooth, rugu- 
lose, or tubercular. Spores white. Growing on 
dead branches 



Protodontia. 



Sebacina. 
(Thelephora and 
Corticium p.p.) 

Sebacina, subg. 
Heterochaetella. 
Sebacina, subg. 
Bourdotia. 



Eichleriella. 



KEY TO TULASNELLALES, CALOCERALES 



19 



TULASNELLACEAE. 



Tulasnella. 



CALOCERACEAE. 



TULASNELLALES. 

Same characters as the order 

TULASNELLACEAE. 

Receptacle effused, fleshy membranaceous, or 
gelatinous, then cartilaginous. Hymenium 
smooth, exposed from the first. Spores white, 
producing sporidiola on germination; sterig- 
mata very thick and stout. Growing on dead 
wood, and fallen pine needles 

CALOCEBALES. 

Same characters as the order 

CALOCERACEAE. 

Receptacle more or less tubercular, or cup->> 
shaped, entirely gelatinous. Hymenium I ^ 
smooth, or plicate. Spores white, simple,) a M ?/ 068 - 
septate, or muriform. Growing on dead wood] 
Receptacle cup-shaped, or lobed, stipitate, or\ 
substipitate, gelatinous, or cartilaginous ; stem | 
firm, indurated. Hymenium smooth. Spores Y Ditiola. 
white, elliptic-oblong, becoming 1-3-septate. 
Growing on dead wood / 

Receptacle erumpent, convex, then plane, \ 
sessile, gelatinous, or floccose. Hymenium 
smooth, becoming plicate. Spores yellowish, Y Femsjonia. 
oblong, becoming 8-10- , or more, septate. 
Growing on dead, rarely living, wood / 

Receptacle upright, cylindrical, apex globose,^ 
or elongate, stipitate, gelatinous, firm. Hy- 
menium smooth, or rugosely plicate, con- [- Dacryomitra. 
fined to the upper portion of the receptacle. 
Spores white. Growing on dead wood 
Receptacle upright, cylindrical, simple, on 
branched, gelatinous-coriaceous, cartilaginous! ^ , 
when dry. Hymenium smooth, amphigenous. j 
Spores white. Growing on wood / 



22 



CLATHRUS 21 

BASIDIOMYCETAE. 

Fungi reproduced by spores borne on basidia. 

HOMOBASIDIAE. 

Basidia simple; spores on germination giving rise to a myc'elium. 

*EU-HOMOBASIDIINEAE. 

Saprophytes. 
GASTEROMYCETALES. 

Hymenium inclosed at maturity within a peridium. 

PHALLINEAE. 

Peridium globose, consisting of three layers, the middle one gelatin- 
ous, at length ruptured, with the lower portion forming a volva at 
the base. Gleba at length mucilaginous, consisting of labyrinthiform 
cells, attached to the variously shaped receptacle, and finally borne 
upwards. 

CLATHRACEAE. 

Receptacle trellised, or dividing into arms, or branches at the apex, 
sessile, or stipitate. Gleba internal, or between the arms or branches. 

Clathrus (Micheli) Pers. 
(K\eWpov, lattice.) 

Peridium globose, becoming torn into irregular lobes at the apex. 
Receptacle forming an obovate, or globose, hollow lattice, covered 
on the inside with the mucilaginous gleba. Basidia bearing 4-8, 
sessile, or subsessile, smooth, colourless, cylindrical spores. Growing 
on the ground. 

1. C. ruber (Mich.) Pers. (= Clathrus cancellatus (Tourn.) Fr.) 
Rolland, Champ, t. 108, no. 245, as Clathrus cancellatus. 

Ruber, red. 

Volva 5-10 cm., white, globose, becoming torn into irregular lobes 
at the apex, attached at the base by a cord-like mycelium. Receptacle 
vermilion, or pinkish red, obovate, or globose, sessile, forming a 
hollow, pentagonal net-work, perforated in lattice-, or trellis-fashion, 
flattened on the outer surface, torn, and irregular on the inner side, 
and covered with olive brown mucus. Spores white, cylindrical, 
5-6 x 2/>i. Smell extremely foetid. Woods, plantations, gardens and 
stoves. Sept. Nov. Rare, (v.v.) 



22 LYSTJRUS. ASEROE 

Lysurus Fr. 
(\vrt9, loosing; ovpd, tail.) 

Peridium globose, becoming torn at the apex into irregular lobes. 
Receptacle stipitate, dividing at the apex into free arms, or lobes, 
distinct from the stem, bearing the mucilaginous gleba. Basidia 
with 4-6, sessile, or subsessile, cylindrical, or oblong, coloured spores. 
Growing on the ground. 

2. L. australiensis Cke. & Mass. (= Lysurus borealis (Burt) P. Henn. 1 ) 

Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. n, t. 3. 

Australiensis, belonging to Australia. 

Volva 4-5 cm., white, globose, becoming torn above into irregular 
lobes, attached to the soil around the base by numerous white, cord- 
like mycelial strands. Receptacle 6x2 cm., whitish, cylindrical, 
attenuated at the base, hollow, cellular, dividing at the apex into 
six arms. Arms deep reddish brown, mucilaginous on the inside, 
15-20 mm. long, 4-5 mm. wide at the base, attenuated at the apex, 
with a longitudinal groove down the centre and transversely ribbed, 
not cellular, differing in texture from the receptacle, erect, slightly 
incurved at the apex. Spores reddish brown, oblong elliptical, 
3 x 1-5 fj,. Pasture where refuse of sacks had been emptied out, and 
amongst stable refuse. Sept. Nov. Rare, (v.v.) 

Aseroe La Billard. 
(acrr/pos, disgusting.) 

Peridium globose, becoming torn at the apex into irregular lobes. 
Receptacle stipitate, crowned at the apex by a disc, from which the 
arms radiate; arms covered with the gleba. Growing on the ground. 

3. A. rubra La Billard. Engl. & Prantl. Nat. Pflanz. Fam. i**, t. 137, 

figs. A C. Rubra, red. 

Receptacle stipitate, red, or pale rose, sheathed by the volva at the 
base, pervious at the apex, which is expanded into a bright red disc, 
furnished at the margin with from five to eight bifid rays. Spores 
"hyaline, oblong, 6-10 x l'5-2ju." Petch. On soil brought from 
Australia. Rare. 

PHALLACEAE. 

Receptacle hollow, cylindrical, or fusiform, with, or without, a 
campanulate pileus at the apex. Gleba external. 

1 Recorded as a distinct British species by Wakefield in Kew Bulletin of 
Miscel. Inf. no. 7 (1918), 231. 



CYNOPHALLUS. PHALLUS 23 

Cynophallus (Fr.) Cda. 

(Mutinus Fr.) 

(KVCOV, dog; <j>a\\6s, penis.) 

Peridium oval, or oblong, becoming split at the apex into two or 
three lobes. Receptacle hollow, cylindrical, or fusiform. Pileus 
apical, adnate, covered on the outside with the mucilaginous gleba. 
Basidia with 4-6, sessile, oblong, or cylindrical, pale yellowish spores. 
Growing on the ground. 

4. C. caninus (Huds.) Fr. Sow. Engl. Fung. t. 330, as Phallus in- 

odorus. Caninus, pertaining to a dog. 

Volva 1-2 cm., white, or yellowish, oval, or oblong, splitting into 
two or three lobes at the apex, springing from a white, cord-like 
mycelium at the base. Receptacle 6-9 x 1 cm., white, or rosy, sub- 
fusiform, apex perforate or imperforate, hollow, cellular. Pileus red, 
2 cm. long, adnate to the apex of the receptacle, acutely digitaliform, 
covered at first with green mucus. Spores pale yellowish, oblong, 
3-5 x 2/*. Smell slight. Amongst dead leaves, and on old stumps, 
especially in mixed woods. June Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

5. C. bambusinus (Zoll.) Rea. Engl. & Prantl. Nat. Pflanz. Fam. i**, 

t. 142, figs. G I, as Mutinus bambusinus Zoll. 

Bambusinus, pertaining to bamboos. 

Receptacle 10-12 x 1 cm., bright red, or pinkish, the upper half 
sporiferous and tapering into an acute point, purplish red, covered at 
first with green mucus. Spores cylindrical, 4 x 1-5/n. Smell very 
foetid. Probably introduced with plants from Java. Rare. 

Phallus (Micheli) Pers. 

(<aAA.o5, penis.) 

Peridium globose, becoming torn into irregular lobes at the apex. 
Receptacle hollow, cylindrical, or fusiform. Pileus reticulated, apical, 
attached only by the apex, covered on the outside with the mucilaginous 
gleba. Basidia with 4-8, sessile, oblong, pale yellowish spores. Grow- 
ing on the ground. 

6. P. impudicus (Linn.) Pers. Grev. Scot. Crypt. Fl. figs. 213-214, 

as Phallus foetidus. Impudicus, shameless. 

Volva 3-5 cm., white, or yellowish, globose, then oval, splitting into 
irregular lobes at the apex, springing at the base from dense masses 
of white, cord-like mycelium. Receptacle white, cylindrical, attenu- 
ated at both ends, 10-30 x 1-3 cm., cellular, hollow, perforate at the 
apex. Pileus 3-5 cm. long, cylindrical, white, at first covered with 
green mucus, attached at the apex to the receptacle by a narrow disc, 



24 PHALLUS. HYSTERANGIUM 

reticulated externally. Spores pale yellowish, oblong, 3-5 x 2/u,. 
Smell strong, very foetid. Woods, plantations, and gardens, especi- 
ally under conifers. May Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

var. togatus (Kalchbr.) Cost. & Duf. Togatus, cloaked. 

Differs from the type in having a white, reticulately pierced, pendant 
veil, attached to the base of the pileus. Woods. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

var. iosmos (Berk.) Cke. Curt. Brit. Ent. x, t. 469. 

tov, violet; 007x77, scent. 

Differs from the type in its pale reddish grey colour, the strongly 
toothed borders of the reticulations on the conical pileus and the sweet 
smell of violets when fresh. Sandhills. Rare. 

7. P. imperialis Schulz. Kalchbr. Icon. t. 40, fig. 1. 

Imperialis, imperial. 

Volva 2-5-7 cm., pink on the outside, white inside, pear-shaped, 
splitting at the apex into several lobes, springing at the base from a 
pinkish, or pale blue, cord-like mycelium. Receptacle white, slightly 
pinkish at the extreme base, 10-25 x 2-3 cm., cylindrical, attenuated 
at both ends, hollow, cellular. Pileus 3-5 cm. long, white, at first 
covered with dark green mucus, campanulate, attached at the apex 
by a broad, circular disc which often becomes yellowish and crenate, 
reticulated on the outside. Spores hyaline, 3-4 x 1-5-2//,. Smell 
pleasant, like that of Glycyrrhiza (Liquorice). Micaceous sandy soil. 
Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

HYMENOGASTRINEAE. 

Peridium globose, consisting of one layer, indehiscent. Gleba 
formed of cells lined by the hymenium. Cystidia often present. 

H YSTER ANGI ACE AE . 

Gleba cells radially arranged on the sterile basal hyphae. Spores 
olivaceous, oblong, or oblong elliptical. Subterranean. 

Hysterangium Vitt. 

(va-repa, the womb; dyyeiov, a vessel.) 

Peridium globose, separating from the gleba at maturity. Gleba 
cartilaginous, or mucilaginous, cells at first empty. Basidia some- 
times bearing eight spores. Spores olivaceous, oblong, or oblong 
elliptical. Subterranean. 



HYSTERANGITJM. HYMENOGASTER 25 

8. H. nephriticum Berk. i>e<po9, the kidneys. 
Pe. 1-2-5 cm., white, globose, or globoso-depressed, springing from 

a much branched, white mycelium, tomentose, peridium rather thick, 
elastic. Gleba pinkish, then pale blue, or grey, and finally greenish, 
cells minute, radiating from the base, contracting into a very small 
space when dried. Spores greenish olivaceous in the mass, drab colour 
under the microscope, oblong elliptical, pointed at both ends, or blunt 
at the one end, 10-12 x 4/z. Smell at first like that of Helianthus 
tuberosus, then disagreeable. Gregarious, sometimes confluent. 
Buried in the ground. Woods. May Feb. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

9. H. Thwaitesii B. & Br. G. H. K. Thwaites. 

Pe. 2 cm., white, becoming rufous when touched, subglobose, or 
slightly irregular, slightly silky, peridium membranaceous. Gleba 
brownish olive. Spores pale olive, oblong, apiculate, 25-30 x 7-9/x. 
Buried in the ground. Woods. Aug. Oct. Rare. 

H YMENOG ASTRACE AE . 

Surface of peridium sometimes traversed by mycelial strands. 
Gleba cells arising from the peridium, sometimes empty at first, 
with, or without, a sterile base. Spores coloured, elliptical, fusiform, 
globose, smooth, or echinulate. Subterranean or superficial. 

Hymenogaster (Vitt.) Tul. 
(vfirjv, a membrane; jacrrr^p, belly.) 

Gleba cells empty at first, sterile base well-developed. Basidia 
generally with two sterigmata. Spores coloured, elliptical to fusiform, 
with a prominent papilla. Subterranean, or superficial. 

10. H. Klotzscnii Tul. Tul. Fung. Hypog. 1. 10, fig. 12. J. F. Klotzsch. 
Pe. H-5 cm., dirty white, obovate, or subglobose, adpressedly 

tomentose, base fibrillose. Gleba pallid, becoming rufous ochre. 
Spores pale brown, minutely tuberculose, broadly elliptic, ends 
obtuse, 18-20 x 11-13/u,. Pot in greenhouse, and sandy soil. Dec. 
Bare. 

11. H. muticus Berk. Tul. Fung. Hypog. t. 10, fig. 7. 

Muticus, curtailed. 

Pe. 1-5-2-5 cm., white, then tinged with brown, globose, scarcely 
lobed, at length much cracked. Gleba pale yellow-brown, cells loose, 
small. Spores pale brown, obovate, oblong, very obtuse (figured by 
Massee as apiculate at both ends), 18-21 x 10-12/x. Smell slight. 
Under trees. Nov. Rare. 



26 HYMENOGASTER 

12. H. luteus Vitt. Vitt. Mon. Tub. t. 3, fig. 9. Luteus, yellow. 
Pe. 2-3 cm., white, then brownish, subglobose, soft, silky, peridium 

very thin. Gleba bright yellow, cells small, flexuose. Spores yellowish., 
oval, or elliptical, 24-28 x 10/x,. Smell pleasant, of "musk" Quel, 
of "strawberry" Vitt., sometimes "powerfully foetid" Berk. Woods. 
Sept. March. Not uncommon. 

13. H. decorus Tul. Tul. Fung. Hypog. t. 10, fig. 9. 

Decor us, graceful. 

Pe. 2-5-5 cm., dirty white, becoming yellowish in places, roundish. 
Gleba lilac brown, then blackish, sterile base almost obsolete. Spores 
ochraceous, then brown, rugulose, broadly elliptical, obtuse, or 
obtusely apiculate, 24-28 x 13-15 /A; basidia long, slender, some- 
times flexuose, monosporous rarely bisporous. Wood and tan pits. 
Oct. Nov. Eare. 

14. H. lycoperdineus Vitt. Vitt. Mon. Tub. t. 2, fig. 5. 

Lycoperdon, a puff-ball. 

Pe. 2-5 cm., white, then brownish, subglobose, somewhat deformed, 
plicate at the base, smooth, silky. Gleba whitish, then fuliginous, 
cells large, irregular. Spores "brownish yellow, oblong or elliptical, 
somewhat uneven, 19-23 x 9-1 1/u," Kabenh. Smell strong, of onion. 
Gregarious. In earth, and clay. Nov. Rare, (v.v.) 

15. H. vulgaris Tul. Tul. Fung. Hypog. t. 10, fig. 13. 

Vulgaris, common. 

Pe. 2-3 cm., whitish, becoming discoloured, subglobose, regular, or 
variously lobed, or sulcate, soft. Gleba dirty white, then dark brown, 
cells rather large, irregular, sterile base minute. Spores blackish 
brown, rugulose, oblong, or oblong-lanceolate, acute, attenuated at 
the base, 34-40 x 12-14/x. Gregarious, sometimes subcaespitose. 
Underground. July Oct. Rare. 

16. H. pallidus B. & Br. Pallidus, pale. 
Pe. 6-12 mm., white, then dirty tan colour, round, depressed, nearly 

smooth. Gleba white, then yellow and finally pale brown, sterile base 
obsolete. Spores brown, rather rough, lanceolate, acute, shortly 
pedicellate, 30-36 x 12-14/A. Underground, under firs. Oct. Rare. 

17. H. citrinus Vitt. Tul. Fung. Hypog. t. 1, fig. 1; t. 10, fig. 3. 

Citrinus, lemon yellow. 

Pe. 2-4 cm., lemon, or golden yellow, then rufous black, rotundato- 
gibbous, shining as if silky. Gleba lemon yellow, then brown, cells 
small, tramal plates yellow. Spores reddish brown, rugulose, lanceo- 
late, apiculate, 40 x 17-20/z. Smell cheesy. Underground. May 
Dec. Uncommon. 



HYMENOGASTER. OCTAVIANIA 27 

18. H. olivaceus Vitt. (= Hymenogaster populetorum Berk, sec 

Massee.) Olivaceus, olive colour. 

Pe. 24: cm., whitish, becoming rufescent when touched, angularly 
globose, silky. Gleba whitish, then buff, and finally rufous olive, cells 
fairly large. Spores brown, rarely slightly rugulose, broadly fusiform, 
mucronate, pedicellate, 25-30 x 13-14/i. Smell like that of Lactarius 
theiogalus. Underground in woods. May Nov. Common in the West 
of England. 

var. modestus B. & Br. Modestus, decent. 

Differs from the type in its somewhat cheesy smell and in the pale 

amber, narrowly fusiform, smooth spores, 25-26 x 8-10/x. Parks. Rare. 

19. H. tener Berk. (= Hymenogaster lilacinus Berk. sec. Massee.) 

Tul. Fung. Hypog. t. 1, fig. 4; t. 10, fig. 1. Tener, soft. 

Pe. 1-3 cm., white, at length dingy, globose, soft, silky, peridium 
thin. Gleba white, then tinged with pink and finally greyish umber; 
sterile base white, well developed. Spores ochraceous, verruculose, or 
rugulose, broadly elliptical, apex papillate, 30 x 14-16/4. Smell like 
that of Lactarius theiogalus. Underground in woods. Sept. Jan. 
Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

20. H. Thwaitesii B. & Br. Tul. Fung. Hypog. t. 10, fig. 11. 

G. H. K. Thwaites. 

Pe. 1-1-5 cm., dirty white, here and there stained, globose, firm. 
Gleba brown. Spores brown, rather rough, globose, apex minutely 
papillate, 11-13/4. Underground. Rare. 

21. H. griseus Vitt. Vitt. Mon. Tub. t. 3, fig. 15. Griseus, grey. 
Pe. 6-12 mm., pale brown, at first covered with whitish down, globose, 

or irregular. Gleba grey, becoming blackish, cells minute. Spores dark 
umber brown, irregularly tuberculose, fusiform, 28-32 x 20/4. Smell 
very pleasant, resembling that of Convallaria majalis. Amongst leaf 
soil. Woods. Rare. 

22. H. pusfflus B. & Br. Pusillus, very small. 
Pe. 3-4 mm., white, yellowish brown when dry, and then like Sclero- 

tium complanatum, obovate, or subdepressed, nearly smooth. Gleba 
dirty white, cells large, sterile base large. Spores pallid rubiginous, at 
length rough, broadly elliptic, apex papillate, 14-16 x 10/4; basidia 
with two long sterigmata. Smell very slight. Mossy ground. Oct. 
Rare. ^ 

Octaviania Vitt. 
(Dr Vincent Ottaviani.) 

Peridium globose, oblong, or irregular, soft, fibrous. Gleba cells 
arising from the peridium, empty at first, tramal plates splitting, 



28 OCTAVIANIA. HYDNANGItTM 

becoming mucilaginous, with a distinct sterile base. Spores coloured, 
globose, or broadly elliptical, echinulate, or verrucose. Subterranean, 
or superficial. 

23. 0. asterosperma Vitt. Boud. Icon. t. 191. 

aa-rrjp, a star; <nrep/j,a, seed. 

Pe. 1-3 cm., whitish, then greyish fuliginous, becoming greenish blue 
when rubbed, or exposed to the air, subglobose or irregular, covered 
with a tomentum that breaks up into floccose, flattened warts. Walls 
of the rounded cavities of the gleba white, becoming greenish blue when 
rubbed. Spores brownish purple in the mass, echinulate, globose, 
15 18/A. Smell pleasant. Branches and leaves underground, or 
partially exposed. Oct. Bare. 

24. 0. Stephensii (Berk.) Tul. Tul. Fung. Hypog. t. 21, fig. 6. 

H. 0. Stephens. 

Pe. 2-3 cm., rufous, irregular, oblong; base rugoso-plicate, cribrous, 
furnished with a branched, fibrous root. Gleba white, yielding when 
cut a white milky fluid, which becomes red when exposed to the air then 
yellowish, cells minute. Spores pale brown, echinulate, globose, 
11-14: p. Smell unpleasant, "like that of Lactarius theiogalus" Berk. 
Underground, or half buried. Aug. Dec. Rare. 

25. 0. compacta Tul. Tul. Fung. Hypog. t. 11, fig. 3. 

Compacta, dense. 

Pe. 6-20 mm., white, globose, or irregular, minutely cottony, fur- 
nished with a dense mass of white mycelium. Gleba pinkish, or 
yellowish, cells minute, globose, or irregularly oblong. Spores pale 
yellow, becoming brighter, very minutely verruculose, globose, 
5 6 JJL. Gregarious. Underground, or half buried. Oct. Nov. Rare. 

Hydnangium Wallr. 
(vSvov, truffle; dyyeiov, a vessel.) 

Peridium oblong, or roundish, not separable from the gleba. Gleba 
cells arising from the peridium, empty at first, tramal plates not 
splitting; sterile base absent. Basidia with 1^-sterigmata, cystidia 
present. Spores ochraceous, globose, or elliptic-oblong, echinulate. 
Subterranean, or superficial. 

26. H. carotaecolor B. & Br. Berk. Outl. Brit. Fung. t. 20, fig. 1. 

Car ota, carrot; color, colour. 

Pe. 1-5-3 cm., pale orange red, or carrot colour, staining paper lemon 
colour, oblong, or roundish, rootless, rugulose, slightly tomentose. 
Gleba orange, cells minute, irregular. Spores pale ochraceous, coarsely 



HYDNANGIUM. RHIZOPOGON 29 

echinulate, elliptic-oblong, 12-15 x 9-10/z, with a large central gutta. 
Often somewhat superficial. Woods and downs under trees. Aug. 
Jan. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

27. H. carneum Wallr. Boud. Icon. t. 192. Carneum, flesh colour. 
Pe. 1-5-3 cm., flesh colour, subglobose, or irregular, slightly tomen- 

tose, then smooth, and somewht marbled, attached at the base to the 
soil. Gleba concolorous, cells small, irregular. Spores yellowish in the 
mass, hyaline under the microscope, with long acute spines, globose, 
13-18/t. Subterranean, or somewhat superficial. About the roots of 
Eucalyptus. Oct. Dec. Rare. 

Rhizopogon Fr. 

(pia, root; Tr&xyo)!/, beard.) 

Peridium globose, or oblong, covered on the surface with mycelial 
strands. Gleba cells arising from the peridium, empty at first. Basidia 
bearing 2-8 sessile spores. Spores coloured, oblong elliptical. Sub- 
superficial. 

28. R. rubescens Tul. Tul. Fung. Hypog. t. 11, fig. 4; t. 2, fig. 1. 

Rubescens, becoming red. 

Pe. 2-6 cm., white, becoming reddish when exposed to the air, then 
yellow or olive, ovate, or globose, silky, covered with numerous strands 
of the mycelium which become reddish when touched. Gleba yellowish 
then brownish, cells small, irregular. Spores pale ochraceous, oblong 
elliptical, 7-8 x 3/u,, 1-3-guttulate ; basidia with 2-8-sterigmata. 
Smell somewhat acid, then unpleasant. Somewhat superficial. Sandy 
fir woods. Sept. Dec. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

29. R. luteolus Fr. Tul. Fung. Hypog. t. 1, fig. 5; t. 11, fig. 5. 

Luteolus, yellowish. 

Pe. 2-5 cm., whitish, becoming dirty yellow, then olive brown, globose, 
or oblong ovate, clothed with numerous free, or adnate, mycelial 
strands, peridium thick, subcoriaceous. Gleba olivaceous, tramal 
plates whitish, cells minute, rounded. Spores olivaceous, oblong 
elliptical, 6-7 x 3/z, 2-guttulate. Smell slight, then strong. Some- 
what superficial. Sandy fir woods. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

LYCOPERDINEAE. 

Peridium globose, or variously shaped, consisting of two or more 
layers ; dehiscing by an apical aperture, or by the gradual falling away 
of the upper peridial walls. Gleba consisting of cells lined by the 
hymenium, finally breaking down into a powdery mass, consisting of 
spores, and capillitium threads, attached to the endoperidial walls 
or springing from a central columella, or entirely free with, or without, 
a sterile base. Basidia bearing 4-8 sessile, or stipitate spores. Spores 



30 LYCOPERDON 

coloured, smooth, verrucose, or echinulate, globose, subglobose, or 
elliptical, sometimes with the sterigma remaining attached. Super- 
ficial. 

LYCOPERDACEAE. 

Same characters as the suborder. 

Lycoperdon (Tournef.) Pers. 
(XVKOS, a wolf; "jrepBo/j^ai, I break wind.) 

Peridium globose, or variously shaped; exoperidium pseudo- 
parenchymatous, fleshy, or membranaceous, spinulose, warted, 
granular, or smooth, fugacious; endoperidium membranaceous, or 
papyraceous, thin, dehiscing by an apical aperture, or by the gradual 
falling away of the upper portion. Gleba with, or without, a sterile 
base. Capillitium threads long, branched, not consisting of a distinct 
stem and branches, attached to the peridium or to a central columella. 
Spores coloured, echinulate, verrucose, or smooth, globose, or ellip- 
tical. Superficial. 
I. Peridium dehiscing by the upper portion gradually falling away in 

pieces. Capillitium very long, and much branched. Sterile base 

persistent. 

30. L. giganteum (Batsch) Pers. (= Lycoperdon Bovista (Linn.) Fr.) 

Boud. Icon. t. 188-189, as Lycoperdon Bovista Linn. 

7/ya9, giant. 

Pe. 15-16 cm., white, then yellowish, or olivaceous, globose, or de- 
pressed, oval, pumpkin-shaped, often more or less plicate at the base, 
sessile, attached by a cord-like mycelium; exoperidium at first sub- 
tomentose, then becoming smooth like a kid glove, fragile, ultimately 
splitting up and falling away in pieces from the endoperidium, which 
is also very thin, brittle and evanescent above. Gleba white, then 
yellowish and finally olivaceous, compact. Sterile base very thin, or 
almost absent. Spores olivaceous, or brownish, verrucose, globose, 
sometimes pedicellate, 4-5 /LI. Capillitium brown, very long, branched, 
septate, 3-5/u, in diam., persistent. Edible. Pastures, gardens and 
roadsides. May Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

31. L. caelatum (Bull.) Fr. (= Lycoperdon favosum (Rostk.) Bonord.) 

Berk. Outl. Brit. Fung. t. 20, fig. 7. Caelatum, engraved. 

Pe. 7-12 cm., white, then ochraceous, and finally tinged brownish, 
subglobose, oval or depressed, contracted below into a more or less 
stem-like base with thick mycelium; exoperidium floccose, covered 
with large, distant warts, and cracking into net-like areolae; warts 
evanescent above, and separating in patches from the endoperidium; 
endoperidium thick, fragile, thinner in the upper half and finally 
falling away in pieces, leaving only the cup-like sterile base with its 



LYCOPERDON 31 

diaphragm. Gleba white, then yellowish, and finally olivaceous, com- 
pact. Sterile base, thick, persistent, forming nearly half the peridium, 
separated from the fertile portion by a distinct, membranaceous dia- 
phragm. Spores dark olivaceous, globose, rarely very shortly pedi- 
cellate, 4 5/A. Capillitium yellowish, very long, flexuose, branched, 
brittle, 6-7 /z in diam. Edible. Woods, heaths and pastures. May 
Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

32. L. saccatum (Vahl.) Fr. Krombh. Icon. t. 30, figs. 11-12. 

<ra#/eo<?, a bag. 

Pe. 7-18 cm. high, 3-12 cm. wide, whitish, or greyish, becoming 
tinged brownish with age, clavate, or pestle-like, rounded above, 
obtuse, plicato-lacunose below and continued into a long stem-like 
base, 2-5-6 cm. wide, cylindrical, or subventricose, often scrobiculate, 
exoperidium consisting of small fugacious, spinulose warts, and 
granules which soon disappear from the upper portion the warts 
split at the base and coalesce in a fine point at the apex; endo- 
peridium concolorous, very thin, fragile, falling away in patches. 
Gleba white, then yellow, and finally olivaceous, compact. Sterile base 
reaching to the apex of the stem-like portion of the peridium, convex, 
cellular, firm. Spores olivaceous, verrucose, globose, 4-5fi. Capil- 
litium pale yellowish, very long, branched, 3-5/x. in diam. Edible. 
Woods, heaths and pastures. Aug. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

33. L. excipuliforme (Scop.) Pers. Fr. Sverig. Svamp. t. 73. 

Excipula, a vessel ; forma, shape. 

Pe. 5-13 cm. high, 411 cm. wide, greyish, becoming tinged with 
yellow or brown, globose, often compressed, plicate on the underside 
and continued into a short, or fairly long, stout, broad, stem-like 
base; exoperidium consisting of long, delicate, floccose spines, 
separate at their base but confluent at their apices, becoming smaller 
downwards, wearing away with age and weathering; endoperidium 
floccose, thick, firm, only gradually wearing away and disappearing 
in the upper portion. Gleba white, then yellowish, and finally brown- 
ish olivaceous. Sterile base whitish, becoming yellowish or greenish, 
cellular, concave, extending to the apex of the stem-like base of the 
peridium. Spores fuscous olivaceous, echinulate, globose, 3-5jU,. 
Capillitium olivaceous, becoming hyaline, flexuose, rarely branched, 
3-5/u, in diam. Edible. Woods and pastures. April Nov. Not 
uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. flavescens Quel. Flavescens, becoming yellowish. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size, its club-shaped peridium 
and its brighter yellow colour. Heaths and pastures. Sept. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 



32 LYCOPERDON 

II. Peridium deliiscing by an apical mouth, followed by the upper 
portion falling away in pieces. Sterile base persistent, separated 
from the gleba by a distinct diaphragm. 

34. L. depression Bon. (= Lycoperdon hyemale (Pers.) Vitt. sec. 

Hollos, Lycoperdon pratense Pers. sec. Lloyd.) Trans. Brit. 

Myc. Soc. u, t. 9. Depressum, depressed. 

Pe. 2-5 cm., yellowish white, then greyish yellow, and finally brownish, 
obconic, at first rounded at both ends, then flattened on the top, often 
compressed at the sides, more or less contracted at the base and 
plicate ; exoperidium consisting of whitish spines united at the apex, 
intermixed with minute, simple spines and furfuraceous granules, all 
of which disappear with age and weathering; endoperidium con- 
colorous, thin above, dehiscing by a well-defined apical mouth which 
soon extends until the whole of the upper portion of the peridium 
disappears. Gleba white, then yellowish, and finally fuscous olivace- 
ous, separated from the sterile base by a distinct membranaceous dia- 
phragm. Sterile base with large cells, often forming one half of the 
peridium. Spores olivaceous, globose, 4/i. Capillitium colourless, 
branched, flexuose, rough, 4 6/x, in diam. Heaths, pastures and hill- 
sides. Aug. March. Common, (v.v.) 

35. L. candidum Pers. (= Lycoperdon papillatum (Schaeff.) Hollos.) 

Lloyd, The Genus Lycop. in Eur. t. 51, as Lycoperdon cruciatum. 

Candidum, shining white. 

Pe. 2-5 cm., white, then yellowish, and finally pale darkish brown, 
globose, or usually depressed, often plicate beneath and continued 
into a stem-like base attached to the white cord-like mycelium; exo- 
peridium consisting of white, blunt cruciate spines which adhere to- 
gether and peel off in patches', endoperidium yellowish, then pale 
darkish brown, minutely furfuraceous, thin. Gleba olive, then dark 
brown, with a distinct diaphragm separating it from the sterile base. 
Sterile base with large cells, about a quarter to a third of the peridium, 
rarely very small. Spores dark brown, globose, often pedicellate, 
3-5-4/Lt. Capillitium coloured, sparingly branched, 5-7 p, in diam. 
Pastures and heaths. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

III. Peridium dehiscing by an apical mouth. Sterile base not 
separated from the gleba by a diaphragm. 
A. Spores strongly echinulate or verrucose. 

36. L. echinatum Pers. Holland, Champ, t. 110, no. 251. 

e'^tz/09, a hedgehog. 

Pe. 2-6 cm., white, then ochraceous and finally brown, obovate, or 
subglobose, often compressed, sometimes rather attenuated at the 
base, attached by a long, white, cord-like mycelium; exoperidium 



LYCOPERDON 33 

consisting of long, conical warts, separate at the base and often 
coalescent at their apices, white, then ochraceous, and finally brown- 
ish, surrounded at the base of the warts by a ring of minute, mealy 
warts ; the warts on the upper portion of the peridium disappear with 
age and weathering and then the pale brown inner peridium presents 
a net-like appearance from the persistent rings of darker brown, mealy 
warts. Mouth simple, apical, torn. Gleba olivaceous, then violet, or 
brownish purple, compact. Sterile base about one-third of the 
peridium, sometimes very small, cellular. Spores purple umber, 
echinulate, globose, 4-6/A. Capillitium purplish, much branched, 
branches pointed, 3-4JU, in diam. Woods and plantations, especially 
beech. March Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

37. L. Hoylei Berk. Hoyle. 

Pe. 3-4 cm., brownish, subglobose, ovate, or subpyriform; exo- 
peridium consisting of long, pyramidal warts, separate at the base, 
coalescent at the apices, ochraceous at first, then brownish, at the 
base of the larger warts surrounded by a ring of minute, dark brown 
warts, that give a net-like appearance to the paler inner peridium 
when the larger warts fall away. Mouth small, irregularly torn. Gleba 
olivaceous, then purplish, compact. Sterile base, bright olive, compact. 
Spores purple, verrucose, globose, 5/i. Capillitium yellowish, sparingly 
branched, flexuose, uneven, 4-5 /z in diam. Amongst leaves in woods. 
Oct. Dec. Rare, (v.v.) 

38. L. atropurpureum Vitt. Vitt. Mon. Lye. t. 2, fig. 6. 

Ater, black; purpureum, purple. 

Pe. 2-5-6 cm., greyish, or brownish, yellowish towards the base, sub- 
globose, or pyriform, sessile, or attenuated into a stem-like base, 
often plicate below, thin, soft, flexible; exoperidium consisting of 
long, thin, brownish spines, often coalescent at their apices, becoming 
shorter towards the base, brittle, falling away and exposing the 
smooth, somewhat shining, light brown, or purplish endoperidium. 
Mouth small, irregular. Gleba olivaceous, then brownish and finally 
dark purple. Sterile base cellular, shallow, rarely reaching a third of 
the peridium. Spores dark purple, strongly verrucose, globose, 
sometimes pedicellate, 5-7 /A. Columella globose. Capillitium 
branched, 4-6jii in diam. Oak woods and heaths. Sept. Nov. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

39. L. mnbrinum Pers. Pers. Icon. Pictae, t. 18, fig. 3. 

Umbrinum, umber colour. 

Pe. 2-5-5 cm., umber, obovate, or pear-shaped ; exoperidium densely 
covered with long, brown, slender spines, that are generally con- 
nivent by twos at their acute apices, simple at the base and -arising 

3 



34 LYCOPERDON 

from the pale brown endoperidium, somewhat brittle and deciduous. 
Mouth small, round, or toothed, apical. Gleba dark umber in the 
centre, paler towards the periphery and more lax. Sterile base oliva- 
ceous, about one-third of the peridium. Spores reddish brown, 
verrucose, globose, 4/z. Capillitium pale yellowish, branched, flexuose, 
uneven, forming a small pseudo-columella. Woods and heaths. July 
Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

40. L. velatum Vitt. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. n, t. 3. Velatum, veiled. 
Pe. 3-6 cm., snow white, then flesh colour, and finally greyish, or 

yellowish, subglobose, or pyriform, often slightly umbonate, attached 
by a white cord-like mycelium at the base; exoperidium white, then 
slightly yellowish, tomentose, breaking up into evanescent, star-shaped 
rosettes and often forming a ring-like zone at the apex of the sterile 
basal stratum, finally disappearing almost completely ; endoperidium 
concolorous, furfuraceous, minutely spinulose. Mouth small, apical, 
irregular. Gleba white, then fulvous, and finally ash colour, or 
purplish. Sterile base whitish, cellular, reaching to the apex of the 
stem-like portion of the peridium. Spores yellow, obtusely verrucose, 
globose, 4-5/i. Capillitium yellow, with darker walls, 3-4/u, in diam. 
Woods and heaths. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

B. Spores smooth or only minutely verrucose, or punctate. 
*Sterile base with large cells. 

41. L. perlatum Pers. (= Lycoperdon gemmatum Auct. pi.) Holland, 
Champ, t. 109, no. 247, as Lycoperdon gemmatum. 

Perlatum, very wide-spread. 

Pe. 2-5-5 cm., snow white, then yellowish, and finally brownish, especi- 
ally above, turbinate, or subglobose with an elongated, cylindrical 
stem-like base, rarely subglobose, or depressed and nearly sessile, 
always umbonate, generally plicate and lacunose below, and attached, 
often in pairs, to a white, cord-like mycelium; exoperidium consist- 
ing of acute, or obtuse spines, each surrounded by a ring of smaller, 
obtuse warts, which give a net-like appearance to the endoperidium 
when the large spines are rubbed off or fall away. Mouth small, at 
the apex of the umbo. Gleba white, then greenish yellow, and finally 
olivaceous. Sterile base convex, cellular, reaching to the apex of the 
stem-like base. Spores olivaceous, smooth, or minutely punctate, 
globose, 4/x. Columella prominent, elliptical, loose. Capillitium 
olivaceous, simple, sparingly branched, 3-6/x in diam. Woods and 
pastures. July Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

var. lacunosum (Bull.). Bull. Hist. Champ. Fr. t. 52. 

Lacunosum, full of hollows. 

Differs from the type in the lacunose, scrobiculate, depressed pits on 
the stem-like base of the peridium. Heaths. Oct. Uncommon. 



LYCOPERDON 35 

42. L. molle Pers. Molle, soft. 

Pe. 1-3 cm., white, then yellowish, or tan colour, turbinate, or globose, 
depressed above, and abruptly attenuated into a short, thick, stem- 
like base, and attached by a white, fibrous mycelium; exoperidium 
consisting of fugacious, furfuraceous spines and granules; endo- 
peridium olive brown, thin, papyraceous, collapsing, shining. Mouth 
small, irregular. G-leba greenish yellow, then brownish olivaceous. 
Sterile base paler, cellular, one-third of the peridium. Spores 
ochraceous olive, very minutely warted, globose, often shortly pedi- 
cellate, 3-4/i. Capillitium yellow, branched, 4-6/u, in diam. Woods, 
especially oak. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

43. L. nigrescens Pers. Lloyd, The Genus Lycop. in Eur. t. 123. 

Nigrescens, becoming black. 

Pe. 3-5 cm. high and wide, brown, subglobose, depressed above, 
attenuated downwards into a stem-like base; exoperidium con- 
sisting of long, stiff, brown spines, connivent at their apices and 
surrounded by a circle of minute, brown warts, or granules, which, 
when the larger spines fall away, give a net-like appearance to 
the endoperidium ; endoperidium paler, thin, smooth. Gleba olive 
umber, somewhat lax. Sterile base of large cells, filling the stem- 
like portion of the peridium. Spores olivaceous umber, globose, 
very minutely verrucose, with caducous pedicels 4-5 p. Capillitium 
olivaceous, rarely branched, 4 6/^t in diam. Woods. Sept. Nov. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

44. L. pyriforme (Schaeff.) Pers. Grev. Scot. Crypt. Fl. t. 304. 

Pyrus, pear;/orma, shape. 

Pe. 2-5-10 cm. high, 1-3 cm. wide, white, grey, or brownish, pyri- 
form, or subglobose, subumbonate, attached at the base by long, 
white, cord-like mycelial strands, thin, flaccid; exoperidium con- 
sisting of minute, fugacious, pointed spines and granules; endo- 
peridium concolorous, smooth. Mouth small, apical, torn. Gleba 
white, then greenish yellow, and finally brownish. Sterile base white, 
becoming discoloured, of rather small cells, forming the stem-like 
portion of the peridium. Spores olivaceous, globose, 4//,. Columella 
distinct, subglobose. Capillitium olivaceous, branched, long, 4-5 //, in 
diam. Generally caespitose. Stumps, logs and buried debris of wood. 
May Feb. Common, (v.v,) 

var. serotinum (Bon.) Hollos. Lloyd, The Genus Lycop. in Eur. t. 50, 
figs. 1-2, as Lycoperdon serotinum. Serotinum, late. 

Differs from the type in the peridium becoming broken up into 
areolae. Stumps and logs. Oct. Dec. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

32 



36 LYCOPERDON 

var. excipuliforme Desmaz. Lloyd, The Genus Lycop. in Eur. t. 49, as 

Lycoperdon Desmazieres. Excipula, a vessel ; forma, shape. 

Differs from the type in the peridium being contracted abruptly into 

a long, slender stem. Stumps and logs. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon. 

(v.v.) 

var. tessellatum Pers. Lloyd, The Lycop. Unit. St. t. 50, figs. 3-6. 

Tessellatum, checkered. 

Differs from the type in the reddish brown exoperidium becoming 
broken up into indurated areolae. Stumps. Oct. Nov. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

45. L. spadiceum Pers. (= Lycoperdon Cookei Massee sec. Hollos.) 

Lloyd, The Genus Lycop. in Eur. t. 54. 

Spadiceum, date brown. 

Pe. 1-2 cm., bluish grey, soon yellowish, and finally light brown, 
obovate and flattened below, or globose, abruptly contracted into a 
stem-like base, and somewhat pear-shaped, whitish, becoming yellowish 
towards the base ; exoperidium consisting of minute, nodular, granular 
or subfurfuraceous spines; endoperidium concolorous, thin, often 
covered with lime granules. Mouth apical, small, irregular. Gleba 
olive, then brown. Sterile base whitish, then yellowish, and finally 
umber brown, fairly large celled, convex, reaching to a third of the 
peridium. Spores yellow, then olivaceous, globose, sometimes pedi- 
cellate, 4/A. Capillitium yellowish, simple, rarely branched, 4-6/i in 
diam. Gregarious. Sandy soil on heaths and lawns. Sept. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

**Sterile base with minute cells. 

46. L. polymorphum Vitt. (= Lycoperdon furfuraceum (Schaeff.) 

Sacc.) Lloyd, The Genus Lycop. in Eur. t. 34 and 52. 

7ToA.u9, many; popfyr], shape. 

Pe. -5-3 cm., white, then dirty yellow, or greyish brown, and finally 
yellowish brown, somewhat reddish at the base when quite mature, round, 
often depressed, sometimes pear-shaped, or attenuated into a stem- 
like short base, thin, membranaceous ; exoperidium consisting of 
minute, fugacious, furfuraceous spines and granules; endoperidium 
thin, smooth and shining. Mouth apical, small, becoming torn. Gleba 
yellowish, then olivaceous brown. Sterile base, very compact, con- 
sisting of cells only perceptible under a lens, concolorous, reaching 
to the apex of the stem-like base of the peridium. Spores yellowish, 
very minutely warted, globose, sometimes with a wart-like basal 
apiculus the remains of the sterigma, 3-4/1,. Capillitium yellowish, 
or yellowish brown, branched, 4-6 /u, in diam. Sandy pastures and 
heaths. Aug. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 



LYCOPERDON. BOVISTELLA 37 

var. cepaeforme (Bull.) Lloyd. Morgan, N. Amer. Fung, in Journ. 
Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist, xiv, t. 2, fig. 9. 

Cepa, onion', forma, shape. 

Differs from the type in its constant subglobose shape, and in the 
very scanty sterile base. Sandy soil on heaths. Sept. Oct. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 

***Sterile base absent. 

47. L. pusillum (Batsch) Pers. Lloyd, The Genus Lycop. in Eur. 

t. 53, figs. 9-11. Pusillum, very small. 

Pe. 9-20 mm., white, then yellowish, globose, attenuated at the base 
into a tapering root ending in the white mycelial strands, membra- 
naceous, flaccid; exoperidium consisting of minute, adpressed, 
fugacious, mealy squamules; endoperidium smooth, shining, thin. 
Mouth apical, small, irregular. Gleba white, then yellowish, or 
greenish yellow, and finally brownish olivaceous. Sterile base absent. 
Spores olivaceous ochre, very minutely warted, globose, sometimes 
pedicellate, 3-5-4 /A. Capillitium yellow, much branched, tapering at 
the ends, S-5-4//, in diam. Sandy soil on heaths. Sept. Nov. Not 
uncommon, (v.v.) 

Bovistella Morgan. 

(Diminutive of Bovista, a puff-ball.) 

Peridium subglobose; exoperidium thick, or thin, floccose, or 
smooth, fugacious; endoperidium membranaceous, thin, dehiscing 
by an apical aperture. Gleba with a well-developed sterile base. Capil- 
litium threads free, consisting of a thick stem, and dichotomous, pointed 
branches. Spores coloured, globose, or oval, smooth, pedicellate. 
Superficial. 

48. B. paludosa (Lev.) Lloyd. (= Bovista paludosa Lev.) Trans. Brit. 

Myc. Soc. in, t. 8. Paludosa, of marshes. 

Pe. 3 cm. high and wide, pale yellow, tinged with reddish brown, 
subglobose, plicate below and abruptly attenuated into a well-de- 
veloped stem-like base; exoperidium pale ochraceous (like a coat of 
whitewash), gradually disappearing, very thin; endoperidium con- 
color ous, becoming somewhat brownish with age, thin, flexible. Mouth 
apical, minute. Gleba dark olive. Sterile base well developed, reaching 
to the apex of the stem-like portion of the peridium. Spores olive, 
globose, 4-5ju,, with long, hyaline, slender pedicels 9-10/A long. 
Capillitium yellowish, thick walls deeper coloured, consisting of 
separate, branched threads tapering to a point; branches 3-4 /A in 
diam., main stem 9-12ju, in diam. Moors. Aug. Rare, (v.v.) 



49791 



38 BOVISTELLA. BOVISTA 

49. B. ammophila (Lev.) Lloyd. (= Bovista ammophila Lev.) Lloyd, 

Myc. Writings, n, t. 87, figs. 5-6 1 . a/i/i09, sand; (1X09, loving. 

Pe. 3 cm., whitish, then pallid, broadly obovate, plicate below and 
attenuated into a long, slender, taproot-like base, thin, brittle, rigid, 
hard; exoperidium whitish broken up into tomentose warts; endo- 
peridium pallid, thin. Mouth small, apical, irregularly torn. Gleba 
dark brown. Sterile base of large cells, very firm, rigid, about one- 
third of the peridium. Spores olive in the mass, pale under the micro- 
scope, oval, 4-5/Lt with slender, tapering pedicels. Capillitium olive, 
thick walled, consisting of separate, short, branched threads. Sandy 
places. Sept. Rare. 

Bovista (Dill.) Morgan. 
(Bofist, a puff-ball.) 

Peridium subglobose; exoperidium fleshy, smooth, fugacious, 
sometimes persistent at the base; endoperidium membranaceous, 
becoming papyraceous, thin, soft, dehiscing by an apical aperture, 
or opening irregularly. Gleba without a sterile base. Capillitium 
threads free, consisting of a thick stem, and dichotomous, long pointed 
branches. Spores coloured, globose, oval, or elliptical, smooth, pedi- 
cellate. Superficial. 

50. B. nigrescens Pers. Berk. Outl. Brit. Fung. t. 20, fig. 5. 

Nigrescens, becoming black. 

Pe. 2-5-6 cm., whitish, then pale dark brown, or umber brown, and 
finally blackish umber, globose; exoperidium whitish, papyraceous, 
soon breaking away; endoperidium concolorous, thin, tough, shining, 
smooth. Mouth apical, irregular, torn. Gleba white, then ochraceous, 
or olivaceous, and finally purple, soft, loose. Spores umber purple, 
globose, or slightly oval, 5-6/z, with long, hyaline pedicels. Capil- 
litium dark brown, thick walled, bent, branched, branches pointed 
at the ends, 12-18/x in diam. Pastures and heaths. Jan. Dec. 
Common, (v.v.) 

51. B. plombea Fr. (= Bovista ammophila Lev. ex Massee in Journ. 

of Bot. (1883), 133.) Berk. Outl. Brit. Fung. t. 20, fig. 6. 

Plumbea, lead colour. 

Pe. 1-3 cm., whitish, then lead colour, globose, or depressed ; exo- 
peridium white, thin, smooth, soon peeling off, sometimes leaving a 
persistent portion near the base; endoperidium lead colour, thin, 
tough, opaque. Mouth apical, round, oval, or irregular. Gleba white, 
then ochraceous, or olive, and finally purplish brown, soft, loose. 

1 Lloyd states, l.c. n, 262, that the British record rests on an erroneous 
determination. 






BOVISTA. MYRIOSTOMA 39 

Spores brown, subglobose, or oval, 6-7 x 5-6/i, with long, hyaline 
pedicels. Capillitium brown, thick walled, branched, branches pointed 
at the ends, 12-16/z in diam. Pastures and heaths. Jan. Dec. 
Common, (v.v.) 

52. B. olivacea Cke. & Massee. Olivacea, olive colour. 
Pe. 3-5 cm., white, or ochraceous, globose; exoperidium very thin, 

fugacious; endoperidium concolorous, thick, soft, becoming brittle 
and breaking away in patches upwards. Gleba citron, then olive, 
dense.' Spores pale yellow, globose, 5/z, sometimes pedicellate. 
Capillitium pale, thin, flaccid. Pastures. Sept. Rare. 

53. B. ovalispora Cke. & Massee. Ovalis, oval; a-Tropd, seed. 
Pe. 5-6 cm., whitish, or ochraceous, subglobose ; exoperidium break- 
ing away in patches above, subpersistent towards the base; endo- 
peridium dull lead colour, thin, flaccid, smooth. Mouth apical, 
irregular. Gleba umber. Spores brownish umber, with a narrow 
hyaline border, elliptical, 6 x 4 5/*, with long, stout, hyaline pedicels. 
Capillitium umber, thick walled, much and vaguely branched, taper- 
ing to long slender tips, 12-16/A in diam. Lawns. Rare. 

Myriostoma Desv. 

(livpios, countless; ar6/j,a, mouth.) 

Peridium subglobose; exoperidium consisting of two layers, a 
fibrous, or mycelial layer, and a pseudo-parenchymatous layer, thick, 
fleshy-coriaceous, splitting at maturity from the apex downwards into 
several star-like lobes which become refiexed; endoperidium membra- 
naceous, then papyraceous, thin, supported on several short stems, 
dehiscing by many apertures, or mouths. Capillitium threads simple, 
rarely branched, tapering at the end. Spores coloured, minutely 
verrucose, globose. Superficial. 

54. M. coliforme (Dicks.) Cda. (= Geastrum coliforme (Dicks.) Pers.) 

Dicks. PL Crypt. Brit. t. 3, fig. 4, as Lycoperdon coliforme. 

Colum, a strainer ; forma, shape. 

Exoperidium 7-10 cm., ochraceous, round, covered with large, 
angular dark brown scales, splitting into 4-7 sharp pointed lobes, 
divided almost up to the middle, reflexed, seldom inflexed; endo- 
peridia lead colour, or brownish, round, compressed, with a silvery 
sheen, minutely warted, supported on numerous, slender, angular, 
or cylindrical, sometimes branched pedicels, mouths numerous, cili- 
ated. Spores umber brown, verrucose, globose, 4-6/M. Columellas 
numerous, filamentous, branched, or unbranched. Capillitium pale 
brown, simple, flexuose, thick walled, pointed at the ends, rarely 
branched, 3-4jU in diam. Sandy soil. Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 



40 GEASTER 

Geaster (Micheli) Fr. 
(yfj, earth; da-rijp, star.) 

Peridium subglobose, rarely ovate acuminate; exoperidium con- 
sisting of two layers, a fibrous, or mycelial layer, and a pseudo- 
parenchymatous layer, thick, fleshy-coriaceous, at first closely in- 
vesting the endoperidium but distinct splitting at maturity from the 
apex downwards into several, star-like lobes, which often become re- 
flexed; endoperidium membranaceous, then papyraceous, thin, 
shortly stipitate, or sessile, dehiscing by a single aperture or mouth. 
Capillitium threads simple, long, slender, tapering at each end, 
attached to the peridium, or a central columella, the other end free. 
Basidia bearing 4-8 spores. Spores coloured, minutely verrucose, 
globose. Half buried at first, then superficial. 

I. Exoperidium not splitting up into two portions when expanded. 
*Peristome sulcate. 
f Endoperidium stipitate. 

55. G. Bryantii Berk. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. in, t. 18. 

Charles Bryant. 

Exoperidium 2-6 cm., snow white, then pale ochraceous, and brown- 
ish, globose, coriaceous, splitting up into 8-10 unequal, acute lobes, 
divided almost to the middle, expanded, then recurved, brownish 
inside, fleshy, then cracked, the collenchyma layer finally disappear- 
ing with the exception of a circular ring at the base of the stem; 
endoperidium -5-2 cm., snow white, then ochraceous, becoming blackish 
blue when weathered, mealy, then smooth, subglobose, or pear-shaped, 
compressed above, pedicellate, with a distinct, permanent groove round 
the apex of the stem. Peristome long, conical, deeply furrowed, stria te. 
Stem 5-10 x 2 mm., whitish, or brownish, cylindrical, or compressed, 
slightly enlarged at the apex. Spores fuscous, obtusely warted, 
globose, 4-5/A. Columella globose, broad at the base. Capillitium 
brownish, subfusiform, or subcylindrical, rarely slightly branched 
towards the ends, 4-6 //, in diam. Amongst leaves in woods and hedge- 
rows. Jan. Dec. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. minor Berk. Minor, smaller. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size. 

56. G. pectinatus (Pers.) Lloyd. (= Geaster Schmideli Vitt.) Lloyd, 

The Geastrae, figs. 19-22. Pectinatus, with teeth like a comb. 

Exoperidium 3-6 cm., white, then ochraceous, globose, splitting up 

into 5-10, subequal, acute lobes, divided up to about the middle, 

revolute, whitish, or ochraceous inside, fleshy, the flesh cracking and 



GEASTER 41 

falling away; endoperidium 1-2-5 cm., brown, or lead colour, sub- 
globose, mealy, attenuated into the stem and striate at the base. 
Peristome prominent, long, conical, deeply sulcate, apex fimbriate. 
Stem 6-8 x 2-3 mm., whitish, or concolorous, cylindrical. Spores 
blackish umber, verrucose, globose, 4-6/u,. Columella thick, half as 
high as the endoperidium. Capillitium brown, fusiform, simple, 47 p, 
in diam. Pine woods and under conifers. Rare. 

57. G. Berkeley! Massee. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. in, t. 18, as Geaster 

asper Lloyd. 

Rev. Miles Joseph Berkeley, the father of British mycology. 
Exoperidium 6-9 cm., ochraceous, then brownish, globose, splitting 
up into 7-9, unequal, acute lobes, divided to the middle, expanded, 
then slightly recurved, hard, firm, brown inside, becoming slightly 
cracked, even; endoperidium 2-3 cm., brown, becoming paler, broadly 
ovate, coarsely papillose, or granular, pedicellate. Peristome long, 
prominent, conical, sulcato-striate, surrounded by a smooth, depressed, 
silky zone. Stem 3-5 x 6-8 mm., pale, compressed. Spores umber, 
acutely warted, globose, 5-6 /A. Columella globose, short. Capillitium 
brown, cylindrical, 9-lOju, in diam. Under trees and amongst fir 
leaves. Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

ffEndoperidium sessile. 

58. G. umbilicatus Fr. (= Geaster striatus DC. ex W. G. Smith, 

Grevillea, n, t. 16, fig. 1, sec. Hollos, Geaster Smithii Lloyd.) 

Umbilicatus, having a navel. 

Exoperidium 2-4 cm., whitish, or tan colour, then brown, globose, 
splitting into 412, unequal lobes, divided almost to the middle, con- 
vex at the base and reflexed, the tips incurved when dry, the outer 
mycelial layer thin, usually adnate with adhering sand, the inner fleshy 
layer brownish, adnate, thin when dry; endoperidium 5-15 mm., 
whitish grey, opaque, roundish, or oval, sessile, appearing slightly 
pedicellate when dried. Peristome flattened (or when old conical), 
seated on a depressed area, regularly sulcato-striate. Spores blackish 
fuscous, slightly verrucose, apiculate, globose, 4-6/z. Capillitium 
4-6/x in diam. Sandy places and coniferous woods. Nov. Rare. 

**Peristome not sulcate. 
fEndoperidium stipitate. 

59. G. limbatus Fr. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. in, t. 18. 

Limbatus, fringed. 

Exoperidium 3-5-9 cm., blackish, or dark brown, globose, splitting 
into 7-10, unequal, acute lobes, divided nearly to the middle, ex- 
panded, or recurved, leathery, flexible, fibrillose, dark brown, or grey 



42 GEASTER 

inside, fleshy, smooth or cracked; endoperidium 1-3 cm., grey, some- 
times light or dark brown, globose, or subpyriform, compressed, some- 
times swollen at the base near the apex of the stem. Peristome 
depressed, conical, subacute, fimbriato-ciliate, often surrounded by 
a pale silky circle. Stem 3-5 x 4-10 mm., concolorous, or paler, com- 
pressed. Spores blackish purple, acutely warted, globose, 4 5ju. 
Columella almost wanting. Capillitium brownish, fusiform, 5-7 /JL in 
diam. Woods, hedgebanks, amongst firs and leaves. Sept. Nov. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

tfEndoperidium sessile. 

(a) Exoperidium strongly incurved when dry. 

60. G. mammosus Chev. Sow. Eng. Fung. t. 401, as Lycoperdon 

recolligens. Mammosus, full-breasted. 

Exoperidium 2-5-5 cm., ochraceous, variegated with white, or silvery 
white, globose, splitting into 7-10, acute, somewhat narrow lobes, 
divided nearly to the base, very hygroscopic, strongly inrolled when dry, 
often umbilicate at the base; chestnut brown inside, smooth; endo- 
peridium 815 mm., yellowish, or light brown, globose, sessile, smooth. 
Peristome conical, acute, fimbriato-ciliate, surrounded by a pale 
narrow silky circle. Spores dark brown, verrucose, globose, 3-6yu<. 
Columella dark brown with a purplish tinge, short, cylindrical, conical, 
broad at the base. Capillitium hyaline, simple, cylindrical, blunt at 
the ends, 4-6/i in diam. Sandy woods and fields. Feb. Dec. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 

G. hygrometricus Pers. = Astraeus hygrometricus (Pers.) Morgan. 
(b) Exoperidium not incurved when dry. 
a. Unexpanded plants globose. 

61. G. fimbriatus Fr. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. in, t. 19. 

Fimbriatus, fringed. 

Exoperidium 2-5-6 cm., yellowish, globose, splitting into 5-15, 
unequal, pointed lobes, divided to the middle or a little deeper, 
and strongly recurved below forming a convex cushion at the base 
of the sessile endoperidium, outer layer membranaceous, deep ochra- 
ceous inside, fleshy, soon cracked, and often peeling off; endoperidium 
1-2 cm., concolorous, globose, sessile, smooth. Mouth indeterminate, 
piloso-fimbriate. Spores blackish umber, minutely verrucose, globose, 
3-4/z. Columella obovate, slender. Capillitium yellowish brown, 
simple, cylindrical, 3-6/Lt. in diam. Coniferous and beech woods, and 
on heaths. May Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

62. G. saccatus Fr. Grevillea, 11, t. 20. craWo?, a bag. 
Exoperidium 2-5 cm., yellowish, globose, splitting into 6-9, thin, 

equal, acute lobes, divided to the middle, deeply saccate at the base, 



GEASTEB 43 

recurved, becoming incurved when dry, soft, flaccid, densely floccose 
outside, becoming smooth; inside fleshy layer thin, adnate; endo- 
peridium 1-1-5 cm., yellowish, globose, sessile, smooth. Mouth acute, 
silky, surrounded by a broad, depressed zone. Spores minutely verru- 
cose, globose, 3-4/A. Capillitium light brown, 45/i in diam. Sandy 
ground in hedgerows. Aug. Rare. 

/3. Unexpanded plants ovate acuminate. 

63. G. lageniformis Vitt. Grevillea, n, t. 14, fig. 1. 

\dyrjvos, a flagon ; forma, shape. 

Exoperidium 4-8 cm., yellowish, ovate acuminate, splitting into 
6-9, very long, pointed, nearly equal lobes, divided beyond the 
middle, usually saccate but also recurved, with whitish mycelial 
strands at the base, the mycelial layer closely adnate, often separating 
and splitting into parallel lines; ochraceous inside, becoming brown, 
fleshy layer soft, disappearing; endoperidium 1-2-5 cm., ochraceous, 
or brownish, subglobose, sessile, soft, membranaceous. Mouth piano- 
conic, silky, striate, surrounded by an orbicular silky zone. Spores 
yellowish brown, minutely verrucose, globose, 3-4/i. Columella 
small, clavate. Capillitium pale brownish, fusiform, simple, or slightly 
branched towards the ends, 6-8/z in diam. Sandy soil. Woods 
and hedgerows. April Nov. Rare, (v.v.) 

64. G. triplex Jungh. (= Geaster Michelianus W. G. Sm.) Lloyd, 

The Geastrae, figs. 47-49. Triplex, three-fold. 

Exoperidium 510 cm., brownish olivaceous, ovate-acuminate, split- 
ting into 4-7, subequal, broad, acute lobes, divided to the middle, 
often much cracked up into areolae on the outside', brownish inside, 
fleshy layer very thick, cracking and peeling off with the exception 
of a disc-like portion which forms a cup at the base of the endoperidium ; 
endoperidium 1-5-3-5 cm., pale brownish, subglobose, compressed, 
sessile, membranaceous. Mouth paler, broadly conical, fibrillose. 
Spores brown, verrucose, globose, 4-5/x,. Columella pale brown, 
clavate, long. Capillitium light brown, simple, fusiform, 6-7 //, in 
diam. Woods and pastures. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

tttEndoperidium sessile, or substipitate. 

65. G. rufescens Pers. Fr. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. in, t. 19. 

Rufescens, becoming reddish. 

Exoperidium 4-8 cm., yellowish, globose, splitting into 6-10, broad, 
acute lobes, divided to the middle or beyond, expanded, then re- 
curved, rigid, thick, firm; ochraceous inside, becoming rufescent, fleshy 
layer thick, soon cracking, and often peeling off; endoperidium 
1-5-3 cm., yellowish, or pale brownish, globose, or subovate, sessile 
or substipitate. Mouth fibrillose, indefinite, frequently torn. Spores 



44 GEASTER 

brownish olivaceous, echinulate, globose, 4//,. Columella brownish 
olivaceous, short, globose. Capillitium olivaceous, fusiform, simple, 
6-7 /it in diam. Woods and pastures. May Dec. Not uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

var. minor Pers. Minor, smaller. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size. Woods. Sept. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

II. Exoperidium splitting up into two portions, the lower 
portion forming a hollow sphere at the base. 

66. G. coronatus (Schaeff.) Lloyd. Lloyd, The Geastrae, figs. 58-61. 

Coronatus, crowned. 

Exoperidium 2-5-5 cm., yellowish, then brown, globose, splitting up 
into four rarely more, equal, pointed lobes, divided nearly to the 
middle, lobes attached by their apex nearly perpendicularly to the 
mycelial layer which remains in the ground and forms a hollow cup, 
brown inside, fleshy layer becoming cracked and finally peeling off; 
endoperidium 4-10 mm., bluish grey, sometimes whitish, or brownish, 
oval, oblong, or pear-shaped, with an apophysis above its attachment 
to the stem, apex pale yellow with a sharply defined zone bordering 
the base of the fibrous, projecting peristome, surface often rough with 
white crystals. Stem 2-3 x 2-6 mm., whitish, often compressed. 
Spores brown, verrucose, globose, 4-5 /x. Columella brown with a 
purplish tinge, slender, elliptical. Capillitium brown, cylindrical, 
5-7 [A in diam. Densely gregarious. Amongst coniferous needles. 
Sept. Oct. Locally common, (v.v.) 

67. G. fornicatus (Huds.) Fr. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. in, t. 17. 

Fornicatus, arched. 

Exoperidium 4-9 cm., yellowish, globose, both the outer and the inner 
layers splitting up into 4-5 lobes, the outer layer remaining sunk in 
the ground and forming a hollow cup, whilst the inner lobes, divided 
beyond the middle, stand perpendicularly (erect) on the end of the 
lobes attached to the tips of the outer layer, hard, leathery, thick, 
dark brown inside, the fleshy layer cracking and peeling off in places ; 
endoperidium 1-5-3-5 cm., rust colour, or dark brown, globose, de- 
pressed, or urn-shaped, with a ring-like apophysis above its attach- 
ment to the stem, somewhat downy. Peristome conical, then tubular, 
scarcely furrowed, ciliate. Stem 2-5 x 4-15 mm., whitish, cylindrical, 
often compressed. Spores purplish, echinulate. globose, 3-4jLt. Colu- 
mella brown tinged with purple, slender, clavate. Capillitium brown, 
fusiform, 10-1 2/u, in diam. Meadows, pastures, heaths and amongst 
firs. March Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



NIDTJLARIA 45 

NIDULARIINEAE. 

Peridium campanulate, cylindrical, or cup-shaped, consisting of 
one to three layers, inclosing several peridiola, and sometimes covered 
at the apex by a membranaceous epiphragm. Peridiola lenticular, 
attached, or not, to the peridium by a funiculus, consisting of two 
layers and lined on the inside with the basidia and paraphyses. 
Basidia bearing 2-4 stipitate, or sessile spores. Spores white, ellip- 
tical, oval, or subglobose, smooth. Growing on dead wood and twigs, 
more rarely on the ground. 

NlDULARIACEAE. 

Same characters as the suborder. 

Nidularia (Fr.) Tul. 
(Nidulus, a little nest.) 

Peridium subglobose, sessile, consisting of a single layer, without an 
epiphragm, dehiscing irregularly, or in a circumscissile manner, by 
the rupture of the upper portion. Peridiola lenticular, biconvex, or 
compressed, numerous, without a funiculus at maturity, and involved 
in mucus. Spores white, elliptical, or subglobose, smooth. Growing 
on the ground, wood, or leaves. 

68. N. pisiformis (Roth) Tul. Massee, Mon. Brit. Gastromyc. t. 37. 

Pisum, pea,; forma, shape. 

Pe. 4-10 mm., whitish, then cinnamon, or brownish, subglobose, 
seated on a broad base, sessile, minutely tomentose, dehiscing in a 
circumscissile manner. Peridiola brown, 2 mm, across, subrotund, 
biconvex, shining. Spores white, broadly elliptical, or subglobose, 
7-8 x 6-7 IJL. Cystidia "large, fusiform" Massee. Gregarious, or 
solitary. Dead branches. May Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 
var. Broomei Massee. C. E. Broome, the eminent mycologist. 

Differs from the type in the narrowly elliptical spores, with a thick 
hyaline epispore. Pine wood. Rare. 

69. N. Berkeleyii Massee. (= Nidularia pisiformis (Roth) Tul. sec. 

Lloyd.) Massee, Mon. Brit. Gastromyc. t. 38. 

Rev. Miles Joseph Berkeley, the father of British mycology. 
Pe. 5-7 mm. broad and high, bright cinnamon, subglobose, be- 
coming broadly open, thick, felt-like, hirto-tomentose ; bright cinna- 
mon inside, velvety. Peridiola bright brown, about 2 mm. in diam., 
numerous (40-50), circular, biconvex, smooth, shining, much wrinkled 
when dry, firmly agglutinated together by mucus. Spores colourless, 
then becoming pale brownish olive, elliptical, 9-10 x 5-6 /x. Solitary, 
or two or three together. On wood, twigs, etc. Sept. Rare. 



46 NIDULARIA. CRUCIBULUM. CYATHUS 

70. N. confluens Fr. (= Nidularia pisiformis (Roth) Tul. sec. Lloyd.) 

Conflueiu, crowded together. 

Pe. 4-11 mm., whitish, subglobose, compressed, villose, dehiscing 
irregularly, peridium thin. Peridiola deep chestnut colour, orbicular, 
compressed, 1-5-2 mm. across, shining. Spores white, elliptical, 
6-7 x 4-5/a. Crowded. On the ground, twigs and amongst leaves. 
Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

N. dentata With. = Sphaerobolus dentatus (With.) W. G. Sm. 

Crucibulum Tul. 

(Crucibulum, a crucible.) 

Peridium globose, then campanulate, or shortly cylindrical, sessile, 
consisting of two layers, and closed by a membranaceous epiphragm at 
the apex, which is finally ruptured. Peridiola lenticular, compressed, 
biconvex, numerous, attached by a papilla to the funiculus. Spores 
white, oblong-elliptical, smooth. Growing on wood, twigs, and dead 
herbaceous stems. 

71. C. vulgare Tul. Berk. Outl. Brit. Fung. t. 2, fig. 2. 

Vulgare, common. 

Pe. 5-8 mm. high, 6 mm. across, greyish, or dirty cinnamon, 
globose, then bell-shaped, or shortly cylindrical, at first closed by a 
fugacious epiphragm, then broadly open, minutely tomentose on the 
outside, soon becoming smooth, inside whitish, smooth, and shining. 
Peridiola pale, 1-5-2 mm. across, circular, biconvex, attached by a 
nipple-like tubercle to the funiculus. Spores white, oblong-elliptical, 
8-12 x 4-6 /A. Gregarious, or crowded. Wood, twigs and dead fern 
stems. Sept. March. Common, (v.v.) 

Cyathus Haller. 

(icvaQos, a cup.) 

Peridium cylindrical, then broadly campanulate, sessile, consisting 
of three layers, and closed at the apex by a membranaceous epiphragm 
which finally becomes ruptured and disappears. Peridiola lenticular, 
compressed, umbilicate, numerous, attached by a funiculus. Spores 
white, elliptical, smooth. Growing on wood, more rarely on the 
ground. 

72. C. striatus (Huds.) Pers. Holland, Champ, t. 109, no. 246. 

Striatus, furrowed. 

Pe. 10-15 mm. high, 8-10 mm. across, reddish brown, or ferruginous 
and strigosely hairy on the outside, obconic, or bell-shaped, truncate 
at the base, apex at first incurved, and the interior closed with a pale, 
fugacious epiphragm, then opening out and disclosing the lead coloured, 



CYATHUS 47 

shining, fluted inner surface of the peridium. Peridiola whitish, sub- 
circular, compressed, umbilicate, and attached to the funiculus, 2 mm. 
thick. Spores white, oblong elliptical, 18-22 x 10/z,. Fasciculate. On 
stumps, wood, twigs, and fir-cones. Jan. Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

73. C. olla (Batsch) Pers. (= Cyathus vernicosus (Bull.) DC.) Berk. 
Outl. Brit. Fung. t. 21, fig. 1, as Cyathus vernicosus. 

Olla, a pot. 

Pe. 10-15 mm. high, 8-15 mm. across, greyish, or ochraceous on the 
outside, and minutely silky, then smooth, broadly bell-shaped, mouth 
broadly open, undulate, tapering downwards to a narrow base, lead 
coloured, or brownish inside, smooth. Peridiola blackish, or greyish, 
shining, circular, biconvex, 3-4 mm. across, umbilicate, and attached 
to the white funiculus. Spores white, broadly elliptical, 10-14 x 8//,. 
On bare soil, rotten wood, sticks, and in flower-pots. Feb. Nov. 
Common, (v.v.) 

var. agrestis Pers. Agrestis, pertaining to the fields. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size, subhemispherical shape, and 
erect margin. Stubble fields. Aug. Sept. Common, (v.v.) 

PLECTOBASIDIINEAE. 
(SCLERODERMINEAE.) 

Peridium subglobose, obovate, clavate, or variously shaped, sessile, 
stipitate, or prolonged into a stem-like base, consisting of one or more 
layers, dehiscing by the gradual falling away of portions of the peridial 
walls, by the rupture of the exoperidium or endoperidium in an 
irregular, or circumscissile manner, or by a well-defined apical aper- 
ture. Gleba not divided up into cells, with, or without, a sterile 
base, and traversed, or not, by sterile veins, which rarely break up 
into peridiola, finally breaking down into a powdery mass, rarely 
becoming slimy. Basidia clavate to pear-shaped, bearing 2-12, pedi- 
cellate, or sessile, apical, or lateral spores, irregularly arranged, 
rarely tufted, and not forming a distinct hymenium, intermixed, or 
not, with capillitium threads. Spores white, or coloured, subglobose, 
or elliptical, echinulate, verrucose, reticulate, or smooth. Subter- 
ranean, or superficial. 

SCLERODERMATACEAE. 

Peridium subglobose, turbinate, or irregularly pear-shaped, sessile, 
or prolonged into a stem-like base, consisting of one or more layers, 
fleshy, leathery, or membranaceous, dehiscing in an irregular manner. 
Gleba traversed by sterile veins. Capillitium rudimentary. Spores 
coloured, globose, or elliptical, echinulate, verrucose, reticulate, or 
smooth. Subterranean, or superficial. 



48 MELANOGASTER. SCLERODERMA 

Melanogaster Cda. 

(/ieXa9, black; <ya<7Tr/p, belly.) 

Peridium subglobose, or elliptical, with branched mycelial strands 
springing from, every part of the surface, fleshy, firm, not sharply 
separated from the gleba. Basidia pear-shaped, or elliptical to club- 
shaped, bearing 3-4, apical, or sublateral, sessile spores. Spores 
coloured, elliptical, or obovate, smooth, or papillate. Subterranean, or 
half buried. 

74. M. variegatus (Vitt.) Tul. Tul. Fung. Hypog. t. 11, fig. 4, and 

t. 12, fig. 6. Variegatus, of different colours. 

Pe. 2-3 cm., ochraceous, or clear yellow, then reddish ferruginous, 
irregularly globose, adpressedly tomentose, and ornamented with the 
brown, fibrous, cord-like anastomosing mycelium. Gleba fuliginous, 
then black, tramal plates whitish, then bright orange. Spores brown, 
elliptic oblong, 10 x 5/z. Smell pleasant, aromatic. Amongst leaves, 
and twigs. June Nov. Uncommon. 

var. Broomeianus (Berk.) Tul. Sow. Eng. Fung. t. 426, as Tuber 
moschatum. C. E. Broome, the eminent mycologist. 

Differs from the type in the tramal plates never being bright yellow, 
or orange. In tufts of five or six, under beech, and Lombardy poplars. 
June Nov. Not uncommon. 

75. M. ambiguus (Vitt.) Tul. Tul. Fung. Hypog. t. 2, fig. 5, and t. 11, 

fig. 5. Ambiguus, changeable. 

Pe. 2-5-3-5 cm., pale olive, becoming brownish when exposed to the 
air, globose, or elliptical. Gleba jet black, tramal plates white, un- 
changeable, "becoming reddish" Berk. Spores brown, obovate, or 
elliptical, apex acute, or obtuse and papillate, 13-15 x 7-8/u. Smell 
very foetid. Under fir, deodar, beech, poplar, and oak. April Oct. 
Rare, (v.v.) 

var. intermedius Tul. Intermedius, lying between. 

Differs from the type in the obovate, obtuse, very rarely slightly 
papillate spores, and in the yellowish tramal plates becoming red when 
dried. Bare. 

Scleroderma Pers. 

((TKXrjpos, tough; Seppa, skin.) 

Peridium subglobose, obovate, or turbinate, sessile, or prolonged 
into a stem-like base, consisting of one, or two layers, firm, leathery 
or corky, warted, scaly, granular, or smooth, dehiscing irregularly, 
or by the exoperidium splitting at the apex in a star-like manner, 



SCLERODERMA 49 

sharply separated from the gleba. Gleba at length becoming pulverulent. 
Basidia pear-shaped, to clavate, bearing 2-5, shortly pedicellate spores. 
Capillitium rudimentary, the remains of the sterile veins. Spores 
coloured, globose, echinulate, verrucose, or reticulate. Superficial. 

*Spores reticulate. 

76. S. aurantium Pers. (= Sderoderma vulgare (Hornem.) Fr.) Berk. 

Outl. Brit. Fung. t. 15, fig. 4, as Sderoderma vulgare Fr. in text. 

Aurantium, golden. 

Pe. 5-15 cm., whitish, or yellowish, often becoming pink when cut, 
globose, subsessile, or substipitate, often depressed, verrucose, or 
broken up into minute, rigid scales; peridium thick, tough, often 
attached by a dense mass of cord-like mycelium at the base. Gleba 
greyish white, then blackish with a purple tinge, tramal plates white. 
Dehiscing by an irregular mouth. Spores blackish with a purple tinge, 
reticulate with small meshes, verrucose, globose, 8-12^. Smell often 
somewhat unpleasant. Woods, heaths, and under trees. July Jan. 
Common, (v.v.) 

var. laevigatum (Fuck.) W. G. Sm. Laevigatum, made smooth. 

Differs from the type in the even, smooth peridium. Woods and 
heaths. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. aurantiacum (Bull.) W. G. Sm. Aurantiacum, golden. 

Differs from the type in its brassy yellow colour. Woods. Sept. 
Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. spadiceum (Pers.) W. G. Sm. Spadiceum, date brown. 

Differs from the type in its smooth, date brown peridium. Beech 
woods. Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. cervinum (Pers.) W. G. Sm. Cervinum, fawn colour. 

Differs from the type in its small size, and granular surface. Coni- 
ferous woods. Uncommon. 

77. S. Bovista Fr. Hollos, Gasteromyc. Ung. t. 23, figs. 16-20. 

Bofist, puff-ball. 

Pe. 2-5 cm., yellowish, subsessile, obovate, often irregular, thin, 
pliant, smooth, or slightly scaly, sometimes breaking away in 
patches, rarely substipitate, springing from a dense mass of cord- 
like mycelium at the base. Gleba olive brown; tramal plates yellow, 
floccose, the flocci with clamp connections. Dehiscing by an irregular 
mouth. Spores olive brown, reticulate with large meshes, verrucose, 
surrounded by an irregular, transparent border, globose, 10-1 3 p. 
Sandy soil in woods, and on heaths. Sept. Nov. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 



50 SCLERODERMA. PISOLITHUS 

78. S. Geaster Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 186. Geaster, the genus Geaster. 
Pe. 5-15 cm., greyish ochraceous, or yellow, globose, or turbinate, 

sessile, minutely tomentose, granular, exoperidium very thick, splitting 
at the apex in a stellate manner into recurved subequal lobes. Gleba 
purple umber, floccose. Spores purple umber, reticulate, obtusely 
verrucose, globose, 12-15/t, 1-pluri-guttulate. Sandy soil. Aug. 
Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

**Spores echinulate. 

79. S. verrucosum (Vaill.) Pers. Grev. Scot. Crypt. Fl. t. 48. 

Verrucosum, warted. 

Pe. 2-5-8 cm. wide, 2-10 cm. high, ochraceous, or dingy In-own, sub- 
globose, continued below into a more or less elongated stem-like base, 
sometimes almost sessile, covered with minute, darker warts, rarely 
almost smooth; peridium thin above, fragile. Gleba umber brown, 
tramal plates whitish. Dehiscing by an irregular mouth. Spores dark 
brown, bluntly echinulate, globose, 10-14/z. Sandy soil in woods and 
on heaths. July Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

80. S. cepa (Vaill.) Pers. Hollos, Gasteromyc. Ung. t. 23, figs. 3-7. 

Cepa, onion. 

Pe. 1-5 cm., reddish brown, or bay, globose, or bulbous, compressed, 
sessile, or with a very short stem, smooth, or rough with very small 
warts on the upper part; peridium very thick when fresh, thinner and 
somewhat leathery and wrinkled when dry. Gleba white, becoming 
sooty black tinged with lilac, tramal plates whitish, then greyish tinged 
darker or lilac. Dehiscing by an irregular mouth. Spores blackish, 
acutely echinulate, globose, 9-10/j,. Woods. Aug. Oct. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

Pisolithus A. & S. 
(Polysaccum DC.) 

(TTtcro?, peas; \t0o5, stone.) 

Peridium irregularly globose, attenuated downwards into a stem- 
like base, thin, membranaceous, dehiscing by the falling away of 
the upper portion. Gleba forming round, or polygonal peridiola, 
that finally become free and separate from each other. Basidia pear- 
shaped, bearing 2-6, almost sessile spores. Spores coloured, globose, 
verrucose. Capillitium rudimentary. Half buried in the ground. 

81. P. arenarius A. & S. (= Polysaccum pisocarpium (Nees) Fr.) Sow. 

Eng. Fung. t. 425, as Lycoperdon capsuliferum. 

Arenarius, pertaining to sand. 

Pe. 2-5-8 cm., ochraceous, then olivaceous brown, irregularly globose, 
or pear-shaped, attenuated downwards into a stem-like base which is 



ASTRAETTS 51 

sunk in the ground, smooth, or rough; very fragile. Gleba consisting 
of many peridiola', peridiola sulphur yellow, then brown, irregularly 
angular. Spores reddish brown, warted, globose, 9-10/z. Sandy soil. 
May Oct. Eare. (v.v.) 

CALOSTOMATACEAE. 

Peridium globose, consisting of several layers. Gleba traversed by 
sterile veins. Basidia pear-shaped or clavate, bearing sessile, lateral 
spores. Capillitium well developed, springing from the inside of the 
endoperidium. Spores coloured, globose or elliptical, verrucose, or 
smooth. Superficial or half buried in the ground. 

Astraeus Morgan. 
(a<rrpov, a star.) 

Peridium globose ; exoperidium consisting of three layers, the outer 
composed of thin, irregularly interwoven hyphae, the middle layer of 
a corky consistency and the inner cartilaginous and collenchymatous, 
at first concrete with the endoperidium, then at maturity splitting 
at the apex in a star-like manner into several lobes and separating 
from the endoperidium; endoperidium thin, membranaceous or papy- 
raceous, sessile, dehiscing by an apical aperture. Capillitium well 
developed, springing from the inner surface of the endoperidium, 
threads long, much branched and interwoven. Basidia pear-shaped, 
bearing 4, sessile, lateral spores. Spores coloured, globose, minutely 
verrucose. Half buried in the ground. 

82. A. hygrometricus (Pers.) Morgan. (= Geastrum hygrometricum 
Pers.) Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. ra, t. 17. 

vypos, wet; (jterpov, a measure. 

Exoperidium 4r-8 cm., grey, or greyish brown outside, brownish in- 
side and becoming deeply cracked, globose, tough, leathery, carti- 
laginous, splitting up into 7-20, acute lobes, divided up almost to the 
base, strongly incurved and depressed over the apex of the endo- 
peridium when dry, reflexed and standing up on the apices of the 
lobes when moist; endoperidium 1-5-2-5 cm., grey, or brown, sessile, 
globose, depressed, smooth, or subreticulate, dehiscing by an irregular, 
small apical mouth. Spores brown, minutely verrucose, globose, 
8-11 jj,. Capillitium hyaline, thick walled, branched, 6-7 \L in diam. 
Woods, and under trees. Feb. Dec. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

TULOSTOMATACEAE. 

Peridium subglobose, stipitate, or prolonged into a stem-like base, 
consisting of a thin, fugacious exoperidium, and a thin, membra- 
naceous endoperidium, which is raised upwards by the firm, fibrous 

42 



52 TULOSTOMA. QUELETIA 

basal portion. Gleba without cells. Basidia club-shaped, irregularly 
scattered on the hyphae, bearing the spores laterally at various 
levels. Capillitium well developed, attached to the endoperidium. 
Spores coloured, globose, verrucose. Subterranean, or half buried in 
the ground, then superficial. 

Tulostoma Pers. 
(TU'A,O<?, a knob; crro/ia, mouth.) 

Peridium depressed globose; exoperidium, thin, fugacious; endo- 
peridium membranaceous, thin, dehiscing by an apical aperture ; stem 
elongate, inserted into a socket at the base of the peridium. Capil- 
litium well developed, threads hyaline, very long, much branched, 
attached to the endoperidium, interwoven. Spores coloured, globose, 
verrucose. At first subterranean, then superficial. 

83. T. brumale Pers. (= Tulostoma mammosum (Mich.) Fr.) Sow. 

Eng. Fung. t. 406, as Lycoperdon pedunculatum. 

Brumale, pertaining to the winter. 

Pe. 5-10 mm., whitish, then yellowish, globose, or somewhat de- 
pressed; outer peridium friable, inner peridium smooth, thin, mem- 
branaceous, papyraceous; mouth small, slightly prominent, scarcely 
toothed, entire. Stem 2-5 cm. x 2-3 mm., reddish brown, equal, 
slightly attenuated upwards to the base of the peridium, and sur- 
rounded by a ball of mycelium at the base, smooth, or more or less 
fibrillose, concolorous inside, stuffed. Spores pinkish, acutely warted, 
globose, 4-5/i. Capillitium threads hyaline, branched, thick walled, 
nodose septate, 4 6/z in diam. Amongst sand, and on old walls. 
May Feb. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

Queletia Fr. 

(Dr Lucien Quelet, the eminent French mycologist.) 

Peridium subglobose, then prolonged into a stem-like basal portion; 
exoperidium thin, fugacious ; endoperidium firm, hard, breaking away 
from the stem-like base and dehiscing by the gradual falling away of 
the peridial walls from the base upwards. Capillitium sparse. Basidia 
with one to three, apical, or lateral, shortly pedicellate spores. 
Spores coloured, globose, verrucose. Subterranean, then superficial. 

84. Q. mirabilis Fr. Bull. Soc. Myc. Fr. 29, t. 28. 

Mirabilis, wonderful. 

Pe. 3-7 cm., whitish, subglobose, at first rounded above and slightly 
conical at the base, which subsequently developes in a stem-like 



BATTARBEA 53 

manner; exoperidium thin, brittle, breaking up into fugacious 
granules; endoperidium yellowish, becoming brownish, firm, hard, and 
finally breaking away from the stem-like base, dehiscing by the 
falling away of portions from the base upwards. Stem-like base 
4-15 x 1-5-5 cm., whitish, then concolorous, torn up into revolute, 
squarrose fibrils, and finally breaking away from the peridium at 
maturity and exposing the rusty brown gleba. Spores rusty brown, 
coarsely warted, globose, often shortly pedicellate, 6-8 /A; basidia 
1-3-spored. Capillitium almost colourless, rarely branched or sep- 
tate, 8-lOfj, in diam. Amongst rotten leaves, and spent tan. Sept. 
Eare. (v.v.) 

Battarrea Pers. 
(J. A. Battarra, author of Fungorum Agri Ariminensis Historia.) 

Peridium globose, exoperidium becoming irregularly torn at the 
apex, leaving a volva-like basal portion; stem elongated, hollow, be- 
coming torn into fibrous scales; endoperidium hemispherical, plane, 
or concave underneath, dehiscent by a circular fissure beneath the 
margin, the upper part coming off like a lid. Capillitium of simple, 
or branched threads, with spiral, or annular thickenings. Spores 
coloured, globose, verrucose. Subterranean, then superficial. 

85. B. phalloides (Dicks.) Pers. Sow. Eng. Fung. t. 390, as Lyco- 
perdon phalloides Dicks. <f)a\\ds, penis; elSo?, like. 

Volva 2-4 cm., white outside, parchment-like, pitted, filled when 
young with colourless mucus, globose, splitting above into four or 
five more or less pointed lobes, rust colour inside, fibrous, woody, 
often fringed. Stem 10-30 x -5-2 cm., rusty brown, attenuated at 
both ends, slightly ventricose in the middle, woody, firm, covered 
with long, twisted fibres, whitish inside, and stuffed with long, trans- 
parent threads. Inner peridium rusty brown, campanulate, some- 
what flattened, fibrous, splitting horizontally and filled with the 
yellowish brown Capillitium and spores. Spores rust colour, obtusely 
verrucose, globose, often with a hyaline apiculus, Q/JL. Capillitium 
threads pale rust colour, 63-80 x 8/1,, with spiral thickenings. Sandy 
places, and in hollow trees. Sept. Dec. Rare, (v.v.) 

GrLISCHRODERMATACEAE. 

Peridium globose, consisting of a single layer, seated on a ring-like 
of mycelium surrounding the sessile base, dehiscing by a weli- 
lefined apical aperture. Capillitium attached to the inner wall of 
peridium. Spores coloured, globose, minutely warted. Super- 
3ial. 



54 GLISCHRODEEMA. SPHAEROBOLUS 

Glischroderma (Fuck.) Rea. 
(7X10-^/309, clammy; Sep/j.a, skin.) 
With the same characters as the family. 

86. G. cinctum (Fuck.) Eea. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. iv, t. 2. 

Cinctum, girdled. 

Pe. 5-15 mm., pale grey, becoming darker with age, globose, slightly 
sticky, then scurfy, dehiscing by a well-defined apical pore which 
becomes larger, seated on a ring-like mass of white mycelium -5-2 mm. 
wide at the base. Spores pale pink, minutely warted, showing 4-5 
warts in a row across the hemisphere, globose, 4/z.. Capillitium 
hyaline, thick walled, septate, 5-10//, in diam., attached to the inner 
wall of the peridium. Charcoal heaps in woods. Sept. Oct. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 

SPHAEROBOLACEAE. 

Peridium subglobose, sessile ; exoperidium consisting of three layers, 
an outer gelatinous layer, a middle pseudo-parenchymatous layer, and 
an inner fibrous layer, splitting in a star-like manner into pointed 
lobes when mature. Gleba consisting of a peripheral layer of upright 
palisade cells and a central fertile portion, finally becoming slimy and 
ejecting the whole mass. Basidia pear-shaped bearing 5-8, sessile 
spores. Spores white, elhptical, or oblong elliptical, smooth. Growing 
on wood and leaves. 

Sphaerobolus (Tode) Pers. 

(o-(j>aipa, a ball ; ySdXo?, a throw.) 
With the same characters as the family. 

87. S. stellatus (Tode) Pers. Berk. Outl. Brit. Fung. t. 21, fig. 2. 

Stellatus, set with stars. 

Pe. 2 mm, high and broad, whitish, or pale yellow, globose, then oval, 
seated on an arachnoid mycelium, splitting above in a stellate manner 
into 6-8, acute teeth, tomentose, then smooth. Gleba at first whitish 
and transparent, then brown, broadly elliptical. Spores white, broadly 
elliptical, 10-11 x 5-6 ft. Crowded. On wood, twigs, sawdust, and 
leaves. Jan. Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

88. S. dentatus (With.) W. G. Sm. (= Sphaerobolus stellatus (Tode) 

Pers. sec. Lloyd.) Dentatus, toothed. 

Pe. 1-5 mm., pale livid buff, to vinous brownish, pale brown, or brown, 
springing from scanty brownish mycelium, finely pilose with erect 
hairs, opening above in a 4 7-stellate manner, the rays clad with long, 
white hairs, which at first converge over the opening, white, ivory, 
white-greysih, or faint olive ivory inside, ejecting a reddish brown gleba. 
Scattered. Dead elder. Aug. Rare. 



SCHTJLZERIA 55 

89. S. terrestris (A. & S. non Tode) W. G-. Sm. Brit. Basidiomyc. 

fig. 139. Terrestris, pertaining to the earth. 

Pe. -5-2 mm., saffron yellow, or sienna, at first hemispherical, 
urceolato-ventricose, seated on a dense tomentose subiculum of buff 
white, here and there brownish, mycelium. Gleba concolorous, solitary, 
spherical. Spores white, elliptic-oblong, 10-12 x 5-6/A. Crowded, in 
troops. Eotten wood, and running over leaves. March Nov. Rare. 
(v.v.) 
Thekbolus Tode = A genus of the Ascobolaceae. 

AGARICALES. 

Hymenium strictly defined from the first, covering the exterior of 
gills, or lining the interior of fleshy tubes, or pores, or spreading over 
a smooth surface; at first protected by the universal, or partial veil 
(the volva, or ring), then finally, at maturity, fully exposed. 

AGARICINEAE. 

Hymenium inseparable from the pileus and spread over the surface 
of gills radiating from a stem, or central point. Receptacle fleshy, 
membranaceous, or coriaceous, fragile, firm, or tough, putrescent, or 
not putrescent, reviving with moisture or not, and sometimes con- 
taining lacticiferous vessels; consisting of a pileus with, or without, 
a central or lateral stem, and sometimes with a volva or a ring, and 
broad gills acute at the margin. Growing on the ground, or on wood. 

AGARIC ACE AE. 
Same characters as the suborder. 

I. Receptacle fleshy, trama not vesiculose, nor traversed by lacti- 
ciferous vessels, not membranaceous, not rapidly putrescent, nor 
tough and woody. 

A. Pileus distinct, and easily separable from the fleshy stem. 
* Without a ring, or a volva. 
Spores white. 

Schulzeria Bres. 

(Stephan Schulzer.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular; margin at first incurved. Stem central. 
Gills free from the stem. Spores white, oval, or clavate, wall con- 
tinuous. Growing on the ground. 

90. S. lycoperdoides Cke. & Massee. 

Lycoperdon eISo9, resembling a Lycoperdon. 

P. 3-4 cm., tan coloured, beset with darker pyramidal warts re- 
sembling those of some species of Lycoperdon, and often splitting at the 



56 SCHULZEBIA. PLUTEUS 

base, convex, then expanded; margin appendiculate. St. 5 x 1 cm., 
whitish, equal, minutely fibrillose. Gills white, free, rather crowded. 
Flesh white, brownish under the cuticle. Spores white, oval, 5 x 4ju. 
Under cedars. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

91. S. Grangei Eyre. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. n, t. 5. 

Grange Park, Hants. 

P. 2-5-4 cm., dark green, cracking into fibrous scales on a white 
ground, fleshy, convex, flatly umbonate. St. 5-6 cm. x 5-7 mm., 
brownish, squamose, squamules tipped with the same colour as the p., 
equal, base attenuated. Gills yellowish, free, broader in front, 
minutely denticulate. Flesh white, reddish in the stem. Spores white, 
club-shaped, 11-13 x 3-5 JJL, multi-guttulate. Caespitose. On soil 
among beech leaves. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

S. Eyrei Massee = Glaucospora Eyrei (Massee) Rea. 

Spores pink. 
Pluteus Fr. 

(Pluteus, a movable pent-house.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular. Stem central. Gills free from the stem, 
rounded behind. Spores pink, rarely pale yellowish, globose, sub- 
globose, or elliptical, wall continuous. Cystidia on edge of gills pear- 
shaped, or inflated clavate ; on the sides of the gill fusiform, or bottle- 
shaped, and hooked at the apex. Growing on wood, more rarely on 
the ground. 

*Cuticle of the pileus separating into fibrils or flocci. 

92. P. cervinus (Schaeff.) Fr. Cervinus, pertaining to deer. 
P. 4-10 cm., fuliginous, becoming paler, and broken up into fibrils, 

or squamules, and often streaked, fleshy, somewhat fragile, campanu- 
late, then expanded, viscid. St. 7-10 cm. x 5-15 mm., white, covered 
with black fibrils, firm, equal, often bulbous at the base. Gills white, 
then flesh colour, free, rounded behind, crowded, ventricose, somewhat 
crenulated. Flesh white, soft. Spores pink, elliptical, 8-10 x 4-5/u,. 
Cystidia on gill edge pear-shaped, 25 x 22/x,, on gill surface fusiform, 
hooked at the apex, 55-75 x 15-18/4. On fallen trunks, stumps, 
sawdust heaps. Jan. Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

var. Bullii Berk. Cke. Illus. no. 304, t. 357. 

Dr H. G. Bull of Hereford, the originator of the Woolhope Club 

fungus forays. 

P. 10-16 cm., pallid, disc darker, convex, then expanded and 
gibbous. St. 8-16 x 2-3 cm., pale brown, darkest at the swollen base, 



PLUTEUS 57 

fibrillose. Gills white, then pink, free, rounded behind, very broad, 
crowded. Flesh white, thick. Spores elliptical, 7-8 x 5fi. Stumps 
and rotten wood. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. rigens Pers. Rigens, stiff. 

Differs from the type in the cinereous pileus, with black fibrils, or 
squamules, and the glabrous, somewhat shining stem. 

93. P. eximius Saund. & Sm. Cke. Illus. no. 303, t. 302. 

Eximius, distinguished. 

P. 6-20 cm., rufescent umber, when young darker, and tinged with 
carmine round the margin, campanulate, then convex and expanded, 
viscid pellicle separable. St. 10-14 x 4 cm., pallid, at length becoming 
blackish, nearly equal, sulcate upwards, fibrillose. Gills white, then pale 
rose, becoming rufous when bruised, very broad, crowded, free, but 
very close to the stem. Flesh yellowish, cartilaginous. Spores pink, 
spherical, but somewhat irregular, 7 x 5 /A. On sawdust. Nov. Rare. 

94. P. patricius Schulz. (= Pluteus cervinus (Schaeff.) Fr. sec. Quel.) 

Boud. Icon. t. 87. Patricius, noble. 

P. 6-15 cm., white, or greyish, disc covered with brown, hairy, 
pointed squamules, convex, then expanded, more or less silky; margin 
lobed, and often split. St. 5-15 x 1-3 cm., white, covered with small 
whitish squamules that become brownish at the base, equal. Gills 
white, then flesh colour, free, very broad. Flesh white, firm. Spores pink, 
elliptical, 5-8 x 3-5/A. On dead logs, stumps. June Sept. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 

95. P. petasatus (Fr.) Karst. Cke. Illus. no. 305, t. 303. 

Trerao-o?, a travelling hat with a broad brim. 
P. 8-15 cm., whitish cinereous, at length somewhat date brown, 
disc fleshy, campanulate, then expanded, umbonate, viscid pellicle 
separable, at length striate to the middle, margin membranaceous. 
St. 10-20 x 1-1-5 cm., pallid, at length becoming tawny, rigid, fibril - 
losely-striate, attenuated upwards from the silky base. Gills white, 
then reddish, at length tawny at the edge, very broad, very crowded, 
drying up. Flesh white, soft. Spores pink, " broadly oval, 7-5-9 x 4-5- 
5/A. Cystidia fusoid-bottle-shaped, 11-14/t broad, with a few hooks " 
Lange. On heaps of straw and dung, sawdust. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

96. P. sororiata Karst. Soror, a sister. 

P. 3-6 cm., yellow, somewhat fleshy, campanulate, then expanded, 
floccosely-squamulose; margin somewhat striate, often repand. St. 
6x1 cm., pallid, becoming yellowish, squamulose at the enlarged base. 
Gills flesh colour, margin at first yellow, rounded behind, free, crowded, 



58 PLUTEUS 

oblong. Spores hyaline, or becoming very pale yellowish, broadly 
elliptical, 7-8 x 6/4. On burnt and rotten wood, and rotting branches. 
b. Oct. Uncommon. 



97. P. umbrosus (Pers.) Fr. (= Entoloma nigrocinnamomeum Schulz. 

sec. Quel.) Boud. Icon. t. 88. Umbrosus, shady. 

P. 6-10 cm., umber, campanulate, then expanded, subumbonate, 
more or less rugulose, covered with adpressed fibrils, then squamulose; 
margin more or less lobed, ciliato-fimbriate. St. 5-10 x -5-3 cm., pale, 
covered with villose, brown squamules, base white, floccose. Gills white, 
then rosy,fuliginous-fimbriate at the margin, free, broad. Flesh white. 
Spores pink, elliptical, 6-7 x 4-5 //.. "Cystidia on edge fusoid bladder- 
shaped, 15-25 /A broad, content yellowish-brown" Lange. Smell of 
radish, taste slightly bitter. On stumps and fallen logs. Aug. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

98. P. ephebeus Fr. (=Pluteus villosus (Bull.) Quel.) 

, arrived at man's estate. 



P. 5-7 cm., violaceous bistre, fleshy, convex, then plane, at first 
villose, finally floccose. St. 3-4 cm. x 5-8 mm., white, base swollen, 
violaceous bistre, rigid, striate. Gills white, then rosy, free, very ventri- 
cose, margin unequal. Flesh white, brownish under the cuticle. Spores 
pink, globose, Qlfji, with a large central gutta. On rotten wood, and 
trunks. Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

99. P. argenteo-griseus Rea. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. v, t. 4. 

Argenteus, silvery; griseus, grey. 

P. 3-5-4-5 cm. wide, 2-5 cm. high, snow white, then becoming smoky 
grey, campanulate, obtusely umbonate, fioccosely-silky, atomate ; mar- 
gin splitting, exceeding the gills. St. 6-7 cm. x 5-6 mm., concolorous, 
curved, striate, base bulbous. Gills white, then pink, 11-12 mm. broad, 
free, ventricose, crowded. Flesh white. Spores pink, globose, or 
elliptical, 6 x 6/n, or 7-8 x 6/z, 1-many-guttulate. Cystidia none. 
Dead wood. Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

100. P. violarius Massee. Cke. Illus. no. 311, t. 518, fig. B. 

Violariiis, a dyer of violet colour. 

P. 1-5-2-5 cm., dark purple, darkest at the disc, hemispherical, then 
nearly plane, minutely velvety; margin undulate. St. 2-3 cm. x 2- 
3mm., pale umber, sprinkled with delicate, black fibrils below, ivhitish 
above, attenuated upwards, silky. Gills whitish, then bright flesh 
colour, free, crowded, margin serrulate. Flesh grey, thickish. Spores 
pink, subglobose and apiculate, 5-6/i. On stumps, and rotten wood. 
Rare. 



PLUTETJS 59 

101. P. salicinus (Pers.) Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 1157, t. 1169, fig. A. 

Salicinus, pertaining to a willow. 

P. 23 cm., bluish-grey, then cinereous, disc darker, slightly fleshy, 
convex, then plane, subnmbonate,flocculoso-rugulose. St. 3-5 cm. x 2- 
6 mm., white-azure-blue, or sometimes becoming green, equal, often 
thicker at the base, fibrillose, fragile. Gills white, then rose-colour, free, 
ventricose. Flesh white, tinged with green. Spores pink, elliptical, 
8-9 x 6-7 fj,, with a large central gutta. "Cystidia on edge inflated 
clavate, 16 18/A broad, on sides fusoid bottle-shaped, with hooks " 
Lange. On willow, and alder trunks and branches. Feb. Dec. Not 
uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. beryllus (Pers.) Fr. ftrjpv\\o<;, a jewel of sea-green colour. 

Differs from the type in the pileus being streaked with green, the 
ash-coloured rugose disc, and the whitish stem with greenish fibrils. On 
alder. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. floccosus Karst. Floccus, a flock of wool. 

Differs from the type in the floccosely squamulose pileus. Rare. 

102. P. hispidulus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 90, fig. 2. 

Hispidulus, somewhat hairy. 

P. 1-2 cm., grey, thin, convex, then plane, obtuse, silky, or slightly 
pilose; margin at length slightly striate. St. 3-4 cm. x 2-4 mm., 
silvery white, equal, fragile, curved-ascending. Gills white, then rose 
colour, free, broadest in front. Flesh white, grey under the pellicle of 
the pileus. Spores pink, globose, 6-7 p. "Cystidia inflated-club- 
shaped, 13-16/u, broad " Lange. On beech stumps, and rotten wood. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

103. P. peffltus (Pers.) Fr. Quel. Jur. et Vosg. t. 5, fig. 4. 

Pellitus, covered with skins. 

Entirely white. P. 2-5 cm., fleshy, convex, then plane, sub- 
umbonate, silky. St. 4-5 cm. x 4-6 mm., equal, slightly thickened 
at the base, shining, fragile. Gills white, then flesh colour, free, rounded 
behind, crowded, ventricose, margin slightly toothed. Flesh white, 
soft, thin. Spores pink, "broadly ovate, 6-7 x 4-5 //,. Cystidia on 
sides, subfusoid with hooks, on edge, inflated obtuse" Lange. On 
and near trunks. July Sept. Uncommon. 

var. punctillifer Quel. Punctillum, a little dot;fero, I bear.-* 

Differs from the type in the disc of the pileus being tinged fuscous 
and covered with minute umber scales, and in the base of the stem being 
covered with minute umber scales. Spores pink, globose, 6ft, 1-3-guttu- 
late. On the ground. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



60 PLUTEUS 

**P. pruinate, somewhat pulverulent. 

104. P. nanus (Pers.) Fr. Cke. IUus. no. 309, t. 305, fig. A. 

vdvvo?, a dwarf. 

P. 1-5 cm., umber, sprinkled with fuscous, pulverulent sootiness, 
disc often darker, covered with veined, radiating, umber wrinkles, thin, 
convex, then flattened. St. 3-4 cm. x 2-4 mm., whitish, rigid, equal, or 
attenuated downwards, slightly striate. Gills white, then flesh colour, 
free, ventricose. Flesh white. Spores pink, broadly elliptical, 5- 
6 x 4-5 /A, 1-guttulate. "Cystidia cylindric bladder-shaped" Lange. 
On fallen sticks, especially birch and beech, and on sawdust. May 
Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. lutescens Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 309, t. 305, fig. B. 

Lutescens, becoming yellow. 

Differs from the type in the stem and often the gills and flesh being 
yellow. Spores pink, globose, 5-6/x. On stumps. May Oct. Not 
uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. major Mass. Cke. Illus. no. 309, t. 305, fig. C. Major, larger. 

Differs from the type in being larger, with an even greyish pileus. 
Fallen sticks. Eare. 

105. P. melanodon (Seer.) Fr. /te'Xa?, black; 6Sov<$, a tooth. 

P. 2-5 cm., dull yellow, thin, convex, then plane, conically umbo- 
nate, pulverulent; margin slightly striate. St. 6-7 cm. x 1-2 mm., 
yellowish brown, apex white, swollen base blackish, firm, polished. Gills 
whitish, tinged with rose colour, free, ventricose, margin black, denticu- 
late. Flesh white. Rotten wood in beech woods. Sept. Rare. 

106. P. spilopus B. & Br. (= Pluteus spodopileus Sacc.) Cke. Illus. 
no. 310, t. 325. <T7rtA.o9, a spot; Troy?, foot. 

P. 2-4 cm., broum, or dark fawn colour, fleshy, convex, then ex- 
panded, subumbonate, often depressed round the umbo, radiately 
rugulose. St. 4-5 cm. x 4-8 mm., whitish, or faintly tinged with fawn 
colour, punctate with scattered black points, equal, incurved. Gills 
white, then pink, free. Flesh white. Spores pink, globose, 7-8fi. On 
stumps. July Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

107. P. semibulbosus (Lasch) Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 89. 

Semi, half; bulbosus, bulbous. 

P. 1-4 cm., pale ashy ochraceous, becoming rosy and pale, sub- 
membranaceous, thin, somewhat diaphanous, convex, then plane, 
pulverulently pruinose, deeply striate. St. 3-6 cm. x 4-6 mm., white, 
delicately pubescent, and velvety, minutely striate; base bulbous, velvety. 



PLUTEUS 61 

Gills white, then flesh colour, or slightly yellowish, free, ventricose. 
Flesh white, somewhat filamentous in the stem. Spores pink, broadly 
elliptical, 7-8 x 5-7 p.. "Cystidia obtuse, elongated, cylindric, very 
prominent, 13-14^, broad, entire length, 75-1 15//," Lange. On poplar 
trunks, sawdust and rotten wood. Aug. Sept. Uncommon. 

***P. glabrous. 

108. P. leoninus (Schaeff.) Fr. (= Pluteus leoninus var. coccineus 
Massee.) Cke. Illus. no. 313, t. 421, figs. A, B. 

Leoninus, pertaining to a lion. 

P. 3-7 cm., yellow, lemon yellow, crimson orange, or vermilion, thin, 
fragile, campanulate, then expanded, margin striate. St. 4-7 x 1 cm., 
whitish light yellow, often vermilion at the thickened base, fragile, striate, 
fibrillose. Gills white, then flesh colour, margin often light yellow, free. 
Flesh white, or yellowish, reddish under the cuticle in the vermilion 
specimens. Spores pink, elliptical, or globose, 5-7 x 5/z, multi- 
guttulate. Cystidia "on gill surface flask-shaped to fusiform 60- 
110 x 24-33 ju, apex rounded, untoothed, on edge of gill clavate to 
bottle-shaped, 60-75 x 15-27//, " Rick. On old willows, and stumps. 
Sept. Jan. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

109. P. roseo-albus Fr. Rosens, rosy; albus, white. 
P. 7-8 cm., rosy, thin, convex, then expanded. St. 4-6 x 1 cm., 

white, pruinose, curved. Gills white, then flesh colour, free. Spores 
pink. Poplar trunks. Sept. Rare. 

110. P. chrysophaeus (Schaeff.) Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 91. 

%/ouoro9, gold; <ai09, dusky. 

P. 2-4 cm., dark cinnamon, or pale umber, often streaked with Hack, 
submembranaceous, convex, then expanded; margin striate. St. 
4-6 cm. x 3-9 mm., yellow, equal, striate, fibrillose. Gills white, then 
flesh colour, free. Flesh yellowish, deeper coloured in the stem. Spores 
pink, subglobose, 6-7 /z, multi-guttulate. "Cystidia obtusely fusi- 
form, subventricose, inflated" Lange. On twigs and stumps. May 
Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

111. P. phlebophorus (Ditm.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 315, t. 422, fig. A. 

<f>\ety, a vein; <f>epa), I bear. 

P. 3-5 cm., umber, slightly fleshy, convex, then expanded, 
wrinkled with veins. St. 3-6 cm. x 56 mm., white, shining, some- 
what incurved; base swollen, floccose. Gills white, then flesh colour, 
free. Flesh white, fragile. Spores pink, subglobose, 5-9 x 5-8/>t, 
1-guttulate. Cystidia "bladder-shaped on edge of gill, 30-40 x 15- 
18ju, " Rick. On rotten wood, dead twigs, and sawdust. June Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 



62 PLUTEUS. GLAUCOSPORA 

var. albo-farinosus Rea. Albus, white ; farinosus, mealy. 

Differs from the type in the white mealy apex of the stem. On 
rotten wood in woods. Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

var. reticulatus Cke. = Pleurotus palmatus (Bull.) Quel. 

var. marginatus Quel. Quel. As. Fr. (1884), t. 8, fig. 4. 

Marginatus, bordered. 

Differs from the type in the chestnut brown peridium, and the bistre 
black, crenidate edge of the gills. 

112. P. umbrinellus (Sommerf.) Fr. Umbrinellus, brownish. 
P. 15 mm., bistre, convex, tough; margin paler, fimbriate. St. 

5-7 cm. x 3-4 mm., white, shining, tough, rooting. Gills white, then 
flesh colour, free. Spores "subglobose or elliptical 8-9 x 6-7 /u, or 
7-8 x 6/x; cystidia 60-90 x 18-30/z, " Sacc. In coppices, and gardens. 
June Oct. Uncommon. 

Spores green. 

Glaucospora Rea 1 . 

(y\av/c6<;, green; cnropd, seed.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular; margin at first incurved. Gills free from the 
stem. Spores bluish green, elliptical, wall continuous. Growing on 
the ground. 

113. G. Eyrei (Massee) Rea. (= Schulzeria Eyrei Massee.) Grevillea, 
xxn (1894), t. 185, fig. 1, as Schulzeria Eyrei Massee. 

Rev. W. L. W. Eyre, the ardent mycologist of Swarraton. 
P. 2-4 cm., pallid, disc ochraceous, minutely granular, campanu- 
late, then expanded and plane, broadly umbonate; margin incurved, 
and appendiculate with the membranaceous veil when young, often 
split, and revolute when old. St. 5 cm. x 2-3 mm., pallid, becoming 
ochraceous, flexuose, subequal, apex minutely mealy. Gills pale green, 
then deep bluish green, free, narrowed, thin. Flesh white, yellowish in 
the stem. Spores bluish green, elliptical, 4-5 x 2-5-3ju,. Under spruce 
firs, and in pastures. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

Spores ochraceous. 
Pluteolus Fr. 

(Pluteolus, a little pent-house.) 

Pileus fleshy, very thin, viscid ; margin at first straight, adpressed 
to the stem. Stem central, subcartilaginous. Gills free, rounded 
behind. Spores ochraceous, ferruginous, or ochraceous brown, ellip- 
tical, smooth. Cystidia obpyriform, or ventricose. Growing on wood. 

1 The name Cfdoroapora proposed by Massee for this genus cannot stand, as 
Spegazzini had previously used it for a genus of the Peronosporaceae. 



PLUTEOLUS. PILOSACE 63 

114. P. reticulatus (Pers.) Fr. (= Pluteolus aleuriatus Fr. sec. Quel.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 516, t. 495. Reticulatus, netted. 

P. 4-5 cm., delicate bistre, becoming violaceous, fuscous, or livid 
grey, fleshy, campanulate, then expanded, umbonate when mature, 
subrepand, viscid at first, and covered with a network of anastomosing 
veins, becoming more even, or slightly pitted; margin slightly striate. 
St. 4-5 cm. x 4-6 mm., white, equal, fragile, fibrillose, the cuticle be- 
coming polished, even, subcartilaginous, apex mealy. Grills dingy 
cinnamon, distinctly free, ventricose, crowded, arid. Flesh white, thin. 
Spores ochraceous ferruginous, broadly elliptical, often slightly de- 
pressed on one side, 9-10 x 5-6^,, 2-4-guttulate. Cystidia obpyri- 
form, or ventricose and apiculate, 15 x 8/u,. Dead wood. Sept. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

115. P. aleuriatus Fr. (= Pluteolus reticulatus (Pers.) Fr. sec. Quel.) 

Fr. Icon. t. 126, fig. 5. a\evpov, wheaten flour. 

P. 1-2-5 cm., bluish grey, livid, or rose colour, submembranaceous, 
conical, then convexo-plane, viscid, striate to the disc. St. 2-5- 
4 cm. x 2-3 mm., white, slightly attenuated upwards, straight, or 
incurved, pulverulent. Gills saffron ochraceous, then cinnamon, free, 
ventricose, 2 mm. broad, thin. Flesh white, very thin. Spores ferru- 
ginous, oblong elliptical, 6-10 x 4/n, 1-guttulate. Rotten sticks, and 
stumps. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

116. P. Mulgravensis Massee & Crossl. 

Mulgravensis, belonging to the Mulgrave woods, near Whitby. 
P. 5-6 cm., grey, somewhat fleshy, convex, then expanded, um- 
bonate, flocculose, becoming broken up into squamules, striate. St. 
4 cm. x 3-4 mm., whitish, subequal, base subclavate, smooth. Gills 
white, then cinnamon, free, crowded, broad. Spores ochraceous brown, 
elliptical, 9-10 x 4-5/A. On wood. Sept. Rare. 

Spores purple, or fuscous. 
Pilosace Fr. 

(7rtX,09, a cap; era/eo?, a shield.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular. Stem central, stout. Gills free from the 
stem. Spores bay purple, globose, smooth, with a germ-pore. Grow- 
ing on the ground. 

117. P. Algeriensis Fr. in Quel. (\ = Stropharia epimyces (Peck) Atk. 
sec. Harper.) Algeriensis, Algerian. 

P. 10cm., snow white, then reddish, or bistre, fleshy, convex, 
then plane, smooth, shining like a kid glove. St. 4-5 x 4-5 cm., 
white, incrassated at the base, silky. Gills rosy flesh colour, then bistre 



64 LEPIOTA 

violaceous, free, horizontal, narrow. Flesh white, compact, soft. Spores 
"bay purple, globose, 8/u," Quel. Smell and taste pleasant. Edible. 
On the ground amongst ferns. Aug. Rare. 

**With a ring on the stem. 

Spores white. 

Lepiota (Pers.) Fr. 

(XeTTt?, a scale; ou<?, ear.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular. Stem central. Ring membranaceous, free, 
or adnate, persistent, or fugacious, always manifest in the adult stage. 
Gills free, adnate, or sinuato-adnate, often attached to a collar. 
Spores white, rarely pinkish, or ochraceous, oval, elliptical, pip- 
shaped, fusiform, subreniform, deltoid, or projectile shaped; con- 
tinuous, or with a germ-pore. Cystidia rare. Growing on the ground, 
rarely on wood. 

A. EPIDERMIS DRY. 
*P. squamulose, or becoming broken up into scales. 

(a) Ring movable, distinct from the volva ; apex of stem 
surrounded by a cartilaginous collar. 

118. L. procera (Scop.) Fr. Rolland, Champ, t. 11, no. 15. 

Procera, tall. 

P. 10-25 cm., whitish, the brownish cuticle breaking up into thick, 
separable scales, ovato-acorn-shaped, then campanulate, and flattened, 
with a broad, obtuse, prominent umbo; margin fimbriate, fibrillose. 
St. 15-30 x 1-5-2 cm., brownish, breaking up into snake-like markings, 
due to the slower growth of the external hyphae, cylindrical, base 
bulbous. Ring white above, brownish on the exterior, thick, movable, 
persistent, cartilaginous near the stem, fibrillose at the margin. Gills 
whitish, often becoming fuscous at the edge, remote from the stem, and 
separated by a cartilaginous collar, ventricose, crowded, broader in 
front, soft, crowded. Flesh white, floccose. Spores white, elliptical, 
15-18 x 10/A, multi-guttulate, with a germ-pore. Cystidia "on edge 
of gill bottle-shaped to clavate, 40-50 x 15-20 ju" Rick. Taste and 
smell pleasant. Edible. Woods, heaths, and pastures. July Nov. 
Common, (v.v.) 

119. L. prominens Fr. Viv. Ital. t. 12. Prominens, prominent. 
P. 5-10 cm., ochraceous, disc covered with brownish-ochre, imbricate 

scales, which are more sparse towards the fibrillose margin, hemi- 
spherical, then flattened, with a prominent, darker umbo. St. 7- 
18 x 1-2 cm., brownish, or ochraceous, with a few scattered adnate 
squamuks, equal, base abruptly bulbous. Ring whitish, movable, fim- 



LEPIOTA 65 

briate at the margin. Gills white, free, separated by a cartilaginous 
collar. Flesh white, floccose. Spores white, elliptical, 14-16 x 8-9 /A. 
Taste and smell pleasant. Edible. Woods, heaths, and upland downs. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

120. L. rhacodes (Vitt.) Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 10. paico?, ragged. 
P. 7-18 cm., greyish ochre, covered with large, thick, angular, ragged, 

yellowish scales, which become darker at their margin, disc flat, and 
deeper in colour, very fleshy, globose, then flattened, or depressed. 
St. 7-25 x 1-5-2 cm., white, bruising reddish, conical, then elongated, 
and attenuated upwards, base large, marginately bulbous, smooth. 
Ring white, or brownish, clothed on the outside with one or two zones 
of scales, fimbriate at the margin. Gills whitish, or reddish, free, 
separated by a cartilaginous collar, lanceolate or ventricose, crowded. 
Flesh white, reddening on exposure to the air, especially in the stem. 
Spores white, elliptical, 12-15 x 6-8/i, 1-2-guttulate, with a germ- 
pore. Cystidia "on edge of gill coloured, ventricose-bottle-shaped, 
30-36 x 12-15^t " Rick. SmeU and taste pleasant. Edible. Under 
trees in pastures, and in coniferous woods. July Nov. Common. 
(v.v.) 

121. L. puellaris (Fr.) Rea. Puellaris, girlish. 
P. 5-8 cm., white, disc gibbous and ochraceous, campanulate, then 

convex, surface breaking up into delicate, floccose scales. St. 9 
12 x 1 cm., white, equal, slightly mealy above the ring, base sub- 
bulbous. Ring white, movable, narrow. Gills white, free, separated 
by a narrow, cartilaginous collar, narrowed behind, crowded. Flesh 
white, or faintly tinted reddish. Spores white, oblong-elliptical, 12- 
18 x 7-8 /A, 1-3-guttulate. "Cystidia obovate-bottle-shaped, 16jLt 
broad, occasionally with a somewhat protruding apex" Lange. Taste 
pleasant. Edible. In pastures, generally under oaks. Aug. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

122. L. permixta Barla. Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 10, figs. 1-4. 

Permixta, mixed up. 

P. 12-15 cm., disc brown cinnamon, the paler ground colour else- 
where covered with cinnamon brown patches of the cuticle, campanula to- 
convex, then expanded, subumbonate; margin whitish, torn. St. 12- 
15 x 1-5-2 cm., white, covered with small, irregular brownish scales, 
base bulbous. Ring tawny brown, membranaceous, large, margin 
fimbriate. Gills yellowish white, or flesh colour, remote from the stem, 
and separated by a cartilaginous collar, narrowed behind, crowded. 
Flesh white, becoming reddish, floccose. Spores "oval, elliptical or 
almond shape, 12-20 x 8-1 2 p, hyaline, surrounded by a golden 
ring" Sacc. Taste pleasant. Edible. Woods, and pastures. Sept. 
Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



66 LEPIOTA 

123. L. excoriata (SchaefL) Fr. Krombb. t. 24, figs. 27-28. 

Excoriata, peeled. 

P. 6-10 cm., whitish, disc often brown, gibbous, fleshy, globose, then 
expanded and plane, the very thin cuticle breaking up into large patches 
and appearing as if it had been drawn inwards from thefimbriate margin. 
St. 4-7-5 x -5-1 cm., white, or tinged greyish, equal, base bulbous. 
Ring concolorous, firm, movable. Grills white, remote from the stem, 
and separated by a cartilaginous collar, soft, crowded. Flesh white. 
Spores white, elliptical, 1415 x 9-11^, with an apical germ-pore. 
"Cystidia obtusely fusiform, 50 x 10/i" Lange. Taste and smell 
pleasant. Edible. Heaths, and pastures, rarely in woods. May Nov. 
Common, (v.v.) 

124. L. gracilenta (Krombh.) Fr. Gracilenta, slender. 
P. 7-12 cm., whitish, the fuscous cuticle breaking up into closely 

adnate scales, ovate, then campanulate, and at length flattened, 
umbonate; margin deprived of its cuticle. St. 12-15 x -5-1 cm., 
whitish, covered with small, distinct, yellowish scales, attenuated up- 
wards, base subbulbous. Ring white, floccose, very laxly woven, 
movable, fugacious. Gills white, often dingy at the edge, remote from 
the stem and separated by a broad, cartilaginous collar, very crowded. 
Flesh white. Spores white, pip-shaped, 12-13 x 7-8fi, with a large 
central gutta, and an apical germ-pore. "Cystidia on edge of gill 
ventricose-bottle-shaped, 30-36 x 12-15ju," Rick. Taste and smell 
pleasant. Edible. Woods, heaths, and pastures. Aug. Nov. Com- 
mon, (v.v.) 

125. L. mastoidea Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 23, t. 24. 

/nao-To? etSo9, breast-like. 

P. 36 cm., whitish, the fuscous cuticle becoming broken up into 
adpressed scales, campanulate, then convex, acutely umbonate. St. 
7-10 cm. x 34 mm., whitish, or bistre, obsoletely squamulose, tough, 
flexible, attenuated at the apex, base bulbous. Ring white, margin 
brownish, entire, movable. Gills white, or cream colour, very remote 
from the stem, and separated by a cartilaginous collar, lanceolate, 
soft, very crowded. Flesh white. Spores white, elliptical, 15 x 9-10/>t. 
Taste and smell pleasant. Edible. Heaths, pastures, and clearings 
in woods. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

126. L. nympharum Kalchbr. Kalchbr. Icon. t. 2, fig. 1. 

Nympha, a bride. 

P. 3-10 cm., white, covered with white, concentric, squarrulose, torn 
scales, that become somewhat ochraceous at their margin with age, 
disc ochraceous, campanulate, then conico-convex. St. 7-510 x -5- 
1 cm., white, attenuated upwards, base bulbous, apex mealy. Ring 



LEPIOTA 67 

white, distant. Gills white, remote from the stem, and separated by 
a cartilaginous collar, attenuated behind. Flesh white, becoming pink- 
ish under the cuticle of the pileus and at the base of the st. Spores 
white, subglobose, or elliptical, 7 x 6/i, or 7-10 x 6/x, with a large 
central gutta. Taste pleasant. Edible. Heaths and hedgerows. Oct. 
Dec. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

(b) Ring fixed, homogeneous with the universal veil which clothes 
the st.; apex of st. without a cartilaginous collar; p. torn into 
scales, or flocci. 

127. L. acutesquamosa (Weinm.) Fr. (= Lepiota aspera (Pers.) Quel.) 
Holland, Champ. 1. 13, no. 20. Acutus, sharp; squamosa, scaled. 

P. 3-12 cm., pale ferruginous, covered with small, rigid, apiculate, 
fuscous, deciduous warts, which leave areolate scars, fleshy, hemispheri- 
cal, then expanded, convex, very obtuse, tomentose. St. 7-5-10 x 1- 
2-5 cm., white, becoming ferruginous downwards with the fibrils and 
spirally arranged scales (the remains of the universal veil) attenuated 
upwards, base subbulbous. Ring white, becoming yellow, margin 
sprinkled with rust coloured warts on the underside, large, soft, pendu- 
lous from the apex of the stem. Gills white, free, very crowded, 
lanceolate, often branched. Flesh white, thick. Spores white, ellip- 
tical, or globose, 3-6 x 3-4/n. Cystidia " obovate-subrotund " Lange. 
Taste slightly bitter, smell strong. Woods, pastures, and bare soil. 
Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

128. L. Friesii (Lasch) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 1105, t. 941. 

Elias Fries, the prince of mycologists. 

P. 9-10 cm., ferruginous fuscous, covered with adpressed, tomentose, 
reddish brown scales, very fleshy, campanulate, then convex, soft. 
St. 8-11 x 1-5-2 cm., concolorous, cylindrical, or subbulbous, scaly at 
the base. Ring white, superior, pendulous. Gills white, linear, free, 
often veined, branched. Flesh white, becoming yellowish, thick at the 
disc. Spores white, elliptical, 7 x 3-4 p, 1-guttulate. Cystidia "on 
edge of gill vesiculose, 15-18 x 10-13/x," Rick. Smell strong, taste 
unpleasant. On bare soil in gardens, and in oak and beech woods. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

129. L. hispida (Lasch) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 14. Hispida, rough. 

P. 3-7 cm., fuscous umber, fleshy, soft, hemispherical, then ex- 
panded, umbonate, tomentose, then breaking up into thin, pointed, 
fugacious papillae, or scales. St. 7-5 x -5-1 cm.., fuscous umber, attenu- 
ated upwards, densely fioccosely scaly below the ring. Ring whitish, 
superior, membranaceous, reflexed, floccose. Gills white, remote 
from the stem, with a prominent collar encircling the stem, crowded, 

52 



68 LEPIOTA 

ventricose. Flesh white, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 6-7 x 4/x. 
Cystidia none. Smell of radish. Shady beech woods, and coniferous 
woods. Aug. Oct. Eare. (v.v.) 

130. L. Badhami B. & Br. Boud. Icon. t. 11. Dr. C. D. Badham. 

Whole plant becoming saffron-red when touched or wounded, then 
finally blackish. P. 5-12 cm., greyish, campanulate, obtuse, at length 
expanded, often depressed and umbonate, hispid, with minute, vel- 
vety, fuliginous scales, but sometimes entirely fuliginous without any 
distinct scales. St. 5-18 cm. x 6-12 mm., white, silky, or floccoso- 
scaly, attenuated above, base bulbous. King white, firm, erect, and 
deflexed, more or less movable, often clothed with dingy granules on 
the outside. Gills white, remote from the stem. Flesh white, instantly 
becoming red when cut, and finally blackish. Spores white, elliptical, 
or pip-shaped, 6-7 x 3-4/x, 1-2-guttulate. Smell rather disagreeable. 
Under oaks, Spanish chestnuts, yews, and in hedgerows. Sept. Nov. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

131. L. meleagris (Sow.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 26, t. 26. 

Meleagris, a guinea-fowl. 

P. 2-5 cm., fawn colour, covered with minute blackish scales, fleshy, 
thin, ovate, or hemispherical, very obtuse, minutely tomentose and 
warty, then expanded, somewhat campanulate. St. 4-7-5 cm. x 5- 
8 mm., concolorous, here and there tinged with yellow, minutely squamu- 
lose below the ring, fusiform, or attenuated upwards from the bulbous 
base. Ring white, often covered with minute blackish scales on the out- 
side, torn, very fugacious. Gills white, then rose colour, rarely lemon 
colour, becoming reddish by rubbing, remote from the stem and 
separated by a collar, rounded behind, sometimes connected, 
ventricose. Flesh turning red, as does the whole plant when 
dried. Spores "elliptical, 6-7 x 4/u," Massee. Taste not disagree- 
able. Plantations, hedgerows, hot beds, and spent tan. May Oct. 
Rare. 

132. L. emplastnun Cke. & Massee. Cke. Illus. no. 1106, t. 1164. 

fj,7r\aa-rpov, a plaster. 

P. 5-7-5 cm., pallid, covered with a smooth, membranaceous, dark 
brown cuticle, which becomes broken up into large, persistent patches, 
convex, then expanded, silky below the cuticle. St. 7-5 x 1-1-5 cm., 
pallid, equal, base slightly thickened, more or less striate. Ring 
whitish, externally brown at the margin, rather distant, erect. Gills 
whitish, remote from the stem, crowded, narrowed behind. Flesh 
white, becoming pink, or reddish when cut. Spores white, elliptical, 
obliquely apiculate, 18-20 x 10-12^. Under trees. Oct. Rare. 



LEPIOTA 69 

133. L. biornata B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 27, t. 37. 

Bis ornata, doubly adorned. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., white, or yellowish, sprinkled with scattered, minute, 
dark red scales, fleshy, convex, broadly campanulate. St. 10 cm. 
x 8 mm., whitish spotted with red, attenuated at the base, rooting. 
Eing white, spotted at the edge like the pileus, descending. Gills 
white, approximate, ventricose, 4 mm. broad. Flesh white, or yellow, 
reddish in the stem. Spores white, elliptical, 10 x 8/i. The whole plant 
becomes blackish when dry. Melon, and cucumber frames. July. 
Eare. 

134. L. clypeolaria (Bull.) Fr. (= Lepiota metulaespora B. & Br. of 
many British authors.) Cke. Illus. no. 28, t. 27, as Lepiota 
hispida Lasch. Clypeus, a shield. 

P. 3-7-5 cm., very variable in colour, at first covered with a yellow, or 
'brownish, dense felt, which breaks up into floccose, torn patches, fleshy, 
campanulate, then convex, and flattened, disc gibbous; margin ap- 
pendiculate with the remains of the ring. St. 6-8 cm. x 4-10 mm., 
concolorous, equal, or slightly thickened at the base, fragile, clothed 
with the same felt-like covering below the ring. Eing concolorous, floccose, 
fugacious. Gills white or becoming yellow, free, 6 mm. broad, soft, some- 
what crowded. Flesh white, floccose. Spores white, fusiform, 14- 
15 x 6jLt, 1-many-guttulate. Smell and taste pleasant. Edible. 
Woods. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

135. L. clypeolarioides Eea (= Lepiota clypeolaria Auct. plur. non 

Quel.) Cke. Illus. no. 29, t. 38, as Lepiota clypeolaria Bull. 

Clypeolaria etSo?, resembling L. clypeolaria. 

P. 35 cm., tan colour, covered with small, adpressed reddish brown 
scales and fibrils, fleshy, convex, obtusely umbonate, then plane and 
depressed. St. 7-5-10 cm. x 4-8 mm., concolorous, scaly below the 
ring, slightly attenuated upwards. Eing concolorous, narrow, distant. 
Gills white, becoming yellowish, free, crowded. Flesh white. Spores 
white, elliptical, 6-8 x 3-4/u,, or 8 x 5/x, 1-guttulate. Woods, and 
hedgerows. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

136. L. pratensis (Fr.) Eea. Pratensis, growing in meadows. 
P. 2-5 cm., yellowish tawny, disc darker, margin paler, convex, then 

expanded, obtusely umbonate, almost smooth. St. 6-7 cm. x 6-10 mm., 
yellowish, densely clothed with erect, white flocci up to the ring. Eing 
white, floccose, somewhat fugacious. Gills white, free, attenuated at 
both ends, crowded. Flesh white, brownish under the epidermis and 
at the base of the stem. Spores white, fusiform, 12-14 x 4-5/z, 1-2- 
guttulate. Smell and taste pleasant. Edible. Heaths, hillsides, and 
pastures. Aug. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 



70 LEPIOTA 

137. L. alba (Bres.) Sacc. Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 16, fig. 1, as Lepiota 

clypeolaria Bull. var. alba Bres. Alba, white. 

P. 3-7 cm., whitish, becoming yellowish with age, fleshy, convex, then 
expanded, broadly umbonate, disc glabrous ; margin fibrillosely floc- 
culose, then squamulose. St. 4-6 cm. x 8-10 mm., white, somewhat 
fuscous at the base, equal, or attenuated downwards, white floccose and 
spotted below the ring, often forming a spurious second ring, finally 
becoming glabrous. Ring white, floccose and yellow on the outside, 
striate inside, distant, fugacious. Gills white, then ochraceous, free, 
crowded, 5-7 mm. broad. Flesh white, somewhat yellowish in the stem. 
Spores white, obovate-oblong, rounded at the one end, apiculate at 
the other, 11-14 x 6-7 p, 1-guttulate. Edible. Heaths, and hillsides. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

138. L. gracilis (Quel.) Rea. GracUis, slender. 
P. 2-3 cm., whitish, disc brown, becoming broken up into brownish or 

rufous squamules, convex, then plane, floccose; margin white, be- 
coming torn. St. 3-4 cm. x 3-5 mm., whitish, becoming discoloured, 
equal, smooth. Ring white, with a few scattered brownish squamules, 
median, silky, floccose, fugacious. Gills white, free, crowded. Flesh 
white, thin, floccose. Spores white, pip-shaped, or elliptical with an 
oblique basal apiculus, 9-11 x 5-6//,. Cystidia none. Under beeches. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

139. L. fulvella Rea. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. vi, t. 2, fig. 2. 

Fulvella, somewhat tawny. 

P. 3-5 cm., somewhat tawny, fleshy, convexo-campanulate, then 
expanded and subumbonate, covered with closely adpressed, darker 
squamules; margin thin. St. 3-6 cm. x 3-6 mm., concolorous, equal, 
or attenuated downwards, hollow, smooth. Ring whitish, inferior, 
fugacious. Gills pallid, then ochraceous, 4-6 mm. broad, free, rounded 
behind, crowded. Flesh whitish, watery. Spores white, oblong, angu- 
lar, truncate at the base, acute, or acutely angular at the apex, 9- 
10 x 3-5-4 JJL, 1-2-guttulate; basidia clavate, 4-sterigmata. Cystidia 
subglobose, or pyriform, 14-18 x 8-12/z. Smell and taste none. Bare 
soil in woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 
L. metulaespora B. & Br. The records of this as British are erroneous ; 

they should be referred to Lepiota clypeolaria (Bull.) Fr. as 

defined above. 

140. L. helveola Bres. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. iv, t. 8. 

Helveola, pale yellowish. 

P. 1-5-3 cm., madder brown, somewhat fleshy, convex, then ex- 
panded, subumbonate, scaly. St. 2-4 cm. x 3-7 mm., concolorous, 
equal, fibrilloso-tomentose. Ring whitish, distant, fugacious. Gills 



LEPIOTA 71 

creamy white, free, crowded, 4-5 mm. wide, ventricose, edge fimbriate. 
Flesh white, becoming reddish when dry. Spores white, elliptical, or 
subreniform, 6-10 x 4 6/i, granular. Poisonous. Amongst short 
grass. Sept. Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

141. L. felina (Pers.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 1108, t. 943, fig. A. 

Felina, cat-like. 

P. 2-3 cm., whitish, covered with concentric, small, blackish bistre 
scales, disc blackish, convex, subumbonate. St. 3-5 cm. x 4-5 mm., 
white, often sprinkled with blackish bistre scales near the base, equal, or 
subbulbous. Ring white, often sprinkled with blackish bistre scales, 
superior, membranaceous, fugacious. Gills white, or yellowish, free, 
ventricose. Flesh white, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 8-9 x 4/x, 
1-guttulate. Cystidia "on edge of gill clavate-vesiculose, 33-36 x 8- 
10/<i" Rick. Under conifers. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

142. L. micropholis B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 1108, t. 943, fig. B. 

/Aitcpos, small; <f>o\i<;, a scale. 

P. 1-1-5 cm., white, covered with minute, concentric, dark grey, or 
blackish scales, conical, then plane; margin slightly striate. St. 
2-2-5 cm. x 2 mm., white, curved, base minutely bulbous. Ring white, 
blackish on the under surface, distant, spreading. Gills white, free, 
2 mm. broad, crowded, ventricose. Flesh white, very thin. Spores 
white, elliptical, 56 x 3 4/A, with a large central gutta. On coconut 
fibre in stoves, and on soil in pots. Aug. Rare, (v.v.) 

143. L. nigromarginata Massee. Niger, black; marginata, margined. 

P. 3-5 cm., pale sienna-ochre, covered with small, concentric, umber 
scales, campanulate, soon expanded, subumbonate. St. 5-6 cm. 
x 3 mm., buff, peronate below the ring, attenuated upwards. Ring 
white, membranaceous, distant, persistent. Gills whitish, edge bordered 
with dark umber, free, broader in front, narrow. Flesh whitish, thin. 
Spores white, elliptical, 6-7 x 4/z, 1-guttulate. Amongst grass. Rare. 

144. L. cristata (A. & S.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 31, t. 29. 

Cristata, crested. 

P. 27 cm., whitish, disc brown, covered with reddish brown scales, 
slightly fleshy, campanulate, then expanded, often umbonate, silky. 
St. 46 cm. x 3-8 mm., white, yellowish, or rufescent, equal, silky, 
fragile. Ring white, often tinged reddish, distant, membranaceous, 
narrow, fugacious. Gills white, free, very crowded, plane. Flesh 
white, often tinged reddish, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 6-8 x 3-4 p. 
Cystidia "on edge of gill bottle-shaped, 30-36 x 8-12/*" Rick. Smell 
strong, often of radish, taste unpleasant. Woods, pastures, and lawns. 
July Nov. Common, (v.v.) 



72 LEPIOTA 

145. L. castanea Quel. Quel. As. Fr. (1880), t. 8, fig. 1. 

Kaaravov, the chestnut tree. 

P. 1-3 cm., reddish brown, campanulate, often umbonate, tomentose, 
then shaggy. St. 34 cm. x 3-4 mm., white, becoming concolorous with 
the tawny fibrils, firm, base bulbous. Ring white, narrow, thin, mem- 
branaceous, silky, tawny on the outside, fugacious. Gills cream colour, 
often tinged reddish when old, free, ventricose. Flesh cream colour, be- 
coming reddish in the stem and occasionally in the pileus. Spores white, 
oblong elliptical, or projectile-shaped, often with a spine-like appendage 
on the one side, 10-11 x 3-5-4-5/A, 1-2-guttulate. Cystidia "hair- 
shaped, rather broad and obtuse " Lange. Smell pleasant. Poisonous. 
Woods, and roadsides. Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

146. L. scobinella Fr. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. vi, t. 7. 

Scobinella, fine sawdust. 

P. 3-6 cm., mouse grey, disc darker, convex, then plane, umbonate, 
pellicle breaking up into minute, separable, bistre scales; margin whitish, 
smooth, silky. St. 4-6 cm. x 4-7 mm., white, stuffed, equal, slightly 
attenuated at the apex and base, covered with white squamules that 
become tinged with bistre below the ring, striate above. Ring whitish, 
becoming tinged with bistre at the edge, membranaceous, superior, often 
fugacious. Gills white, becoming yellowish, 3-4 mm. wide, ventricose, 
free, crowded. Flesh white, often tinged with fulvous at the base of 
the stem, thick at the disc, very thin at the margin of the pileus, 
floccose. Spores white, elliptical, 6-7 x 3-4 /a, contents granular. 
Cystidia hyaline, clavato-cylindrical, 28-30 x 6/4, sparse. Woods and 
pastures. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

147. L. citrophylla B. & Br. Boud. Bull. Soc. Myc. Fr. ix (1893), t. n, 
fig. 1. /clrpov, lemon ; <f>v\\ov, gill. 

P. 1-5-2 cm., lemon yellow, covered with rufous scales, convex, then 
expanded, obtuse, or broadly umbonate, at length depressed. St. 
2-4 cm. x 2-4 mm., lemon yellow, equal, squamulose. Ring fugacious. 
Gills lemon yellow, free, rounded behind, or attenuated, minutely 
serrate. Flesh white, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 7-8 x 4ju,. On 
the ground. Oct. Rare. 

**P. not, or rarely squamulose, often granular, mealy or pruinose. 

(a) Ring superior, fixed, subpersistent ; universal veil adnate to the p. 

Collar wanting, or similar in texture to the flesh of the p. 

L. Vittadinii (Moretti) Fr. = L. Amanita Vittadinii (Moretti) Vitt. 

148. L. naucina Fr. (= Lepiota pudica (Bull.) Quel; Psaliota cre- 
tacea Fr.) Rolland, Champ, t. 12, no. 17. Nucinus, nutty. 

P. 5-10 cm., white, often pinkish or yellowish, the thin cuticle 
breaking up into evanescent granules, fleshy, soft, globose, then ex- 



LEPIOTA 73 

panded, gibbous, or obtusely umbonate. St. 4-8 x 1-1-5 cm., white, 
fibrillose, attenuated upwards from the swollen base. Ring white, 
membranaceous, superior, thick, fimbriate at the margin, often finally 
fugacious. Gills white, free, separated by a collar, ventricose, soft, 
crowded. Flesh white, thick. Spores white, broadly ovoid, 8- 
9 x 5-5/i, with a large central gutta. " Cystidia club-shaped, 55 x 10- 
11/x," Lange. Smell and taste pleasant. Edible. Pastures and gar- 
dens. July Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. leucothites (Vitt.) Fr. Vitt. Fung. Mang. t. 40. Xeu/eo?, white. 

Differs from the type in the p. breaking up into squamules especially 
near the margin, and in the gills becoming pink with age. Spores white, 
elliptical, 7-8 x 5/z, or 9 x 1p. Edible. Pastures and heaths. Sept. 
Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

149. L. holosericea Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 34, t. 41. 

0X09, wholly; (rrjpiKos, silky. 

P. 5-10 cm., white, or yellowish, fleshy, soft, convex, then expanded, 
obtuse, fibrillosely silky. St. 6-10 x 1-1-5 cm., whitish, soft, fragile, 
base bulbous, silky-fibrillose. Ring whitish, membranaceous, superior, 
large, soft, pendulous. Gills white, becoming cream colour, free, ventri- 
cose, broad, crowded. Flesh white, soft. Spores white, elliptical, 
8-9 x 4-5/z. Edible. Bare ground in arable fields, hopyards, and 
gardens. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

150. L. erminea Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 32, t. 40. Erminea, white. 

Entirely white with the exception of the ochraceous disc of the p. 
P. 36 cm., campanulate, then flattened, slightly gibbous at the 
prominent disc, becoming fibrillosely silky towards the margin. St. 
57-5 cm. x 36 mm., equal, very fragile, silky. Ring membranaceous, 
distant, narrow, at length torn and fugacious. Gills sinuate, then free, 
somewhat crowded. Spores white, oblong elliptical, 9-11 x 3 4jti. 
"Cystidia on edge of gill vesiculose-pyriform, 36-40 x 12-16ju," Rick. 
Smell and taste of radish. Roadsides, and hilly pastures. Sept. Nov. 
Uncommon, (v.V.) 

151. L. constricta (Fr.) Quel. (= Armillaria constricta Fr.) Fr. Icon, 
t. 18. Constricta, compressed. 

Entirely white, becoming ochraceous when bruised. P. 3-5 cm., 
fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, pruinose, then silky; margin at 
first involute, and villous. St. 4-5 cm. x 6-9 mm., equal, or thickened 
at the base, slightly rooting, fibrillose, or squamulose. Ring superior, . 
narrow, adhering obliquely, at length fugacious. Gills emarginate, 
then free, very crowded, unequal. Flesh compact. Spores white, 
elliptical, granular, 7-8 x 4-5/x. Smell of new meal. Pastures, 



74 LEPIOTA 

especially where the grass is scorched by urine, and amongst short 
grass under conifers. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

152. L. cepaestipes (Sow.) Fr. (= Leucocoprinus cepaestipes (Sow.) 
Pat.) Gillet, Champ. Fr. t. 414. Cepa, onion; stipes, stem. 

Caespitose. P. 2-56 cm., white, or yellowish, covered with floccose, 
fugacious, yellowish scales, disc deeper coloured, umbonate, membra- 
naceous, obtusely conical, then campanulate ; margin striate. St. 7-5 
10 cm. x 5-8 mm., white, attenuated upwards from the bulbous base, 
covered with fugacious, delicate flocci. Ring white, narrow, membra- 
naceous, separating-free, fugacious. Gills white, then flesh colour, free, 
at length remote, attenuated at both ends, 4 mm. broad, very 
crowded. Flesh white, then pinkish, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 
6-7 x 4-5/i, 1-guttulate, wfth an apical germ-pore. Taste bitter. On 
tan in hot-houses, greenhouses, and in frames. March Oct. Not 
uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. cretacea (Bull.) Fr. Grev. Scot. Crypt. Fl. t. 333. 

Cretacea, chalk-like. 

Differs from the type in its chalk white colour and darker scales. 
Spores white, elliptical, 7-9 x 6-7 /A, 1-guttulate. Greenhouses, and 
on spent tan. May Sept. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

153. L. lutea (Bolt.) Quel. (= Agaricusflos sulfuris Schnitz.) Boud. 

Icon. t. 19. Lutea, yellow. 

Entirely sulphur colour. P. 14 cm., campanulate, thin, deeply 
striate, covered with concolorous flocci. St. 5-12 cm. x 3-4 mm., 
covered with concolorous flocci, apex smooth, base bulbous. Ring 
membranaceous. Gills free, remote, narrow. Flesh concolorous. 
Spores white, oval, 8-10 x 5-7 /x, with a large central gutta. On 
coconut fibre in greenhouses. Jan. Dec. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

154. L. medioflava Boud. Bull. Soc. Myc. Fr. x (1894), 1. 1, fig. 1. 

Medius, middle ; flava, yellow. 

P. 2-3 cm., white, soon expanded, and depressed, umbo prominent, 
becoming light yellow, deeply striate, minutely tomentose. St. 4 
7 cm. x 2-3 mm., white, minutely mealy above the ring, tomentose, 
often becoming light yellow at the bulbous base. Ring white, median, 
reflexed. Gills white, free, crowded, rounded behind. Flesh white, 
Spores white, ovate, obtuse, 5-6 x 3/n, 1-guttulate. On decaying 
coconut fibre, and soil in greenhouses. June Oct. Uncommon. 

155. L. pseudo-licmophora Rea. (= Lepiotalicmophoraauct. non B. & 

Br. and Petch.) 

i/reuSffc, false; \LKfios, a winnowing fan; <f>epo), I bear. 
P. 2-5-5 cm., lemon-yellow, sometimes wholly sulphur-white, mem- 
branaceous, plane, depressed, deeply sulcote up to the central disc, 



LEPIOTA 75 

glabrous; margin crenate. St. 7-5-10 cm. x 2-3 mm., lemon-yellow, 
attenuated upwards, base tomentose. Eing median. Grills lemon- 
yellow, remote, narrow, 2 mm. broad, slightly arched, distant, inter- 
stices veined. Spores white, elliptical, 9-10 x 5 /A. In greenhouses. 
Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

156. L. serena Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 57, t. 47, as Armillaria subcava 
Schum. fide Boudier. Serena, clear. 

P. 2-4 cm., white, becoming yellowish with age, fragile, campanulate, 
thin, expanded, becoming silky, margin slightly striate. St. 4-7 cm. 
x 4-5 mm., white, becoming greyish, equal, base subbulbous. Ring 
white, membranaceous, median, thin, narrow, erect, fugacious. Gills 
white, free, ventricose. Spores white, elliptical, 5-6 x 4/x, multi- 
guttulate. Amongst grass, and larch needles. Sept. Nov. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 

(b) Universal veil sheathing the st., at first extending continuously 
from the st. to the p., at length ruptured and forming an inferior 
ring. P. granular or warted, consisting chiefly of globose cells. 

L. pyrenaea Quel. = Pholiota aurea (Mattusch) Fr. fide R. Maire. 

157. L. granulosa (Batsch) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 39, t. 18, upper figs. 

only. Granulosa, granular. 

P. 3-5 cm., ferruginous, or rusty-brown, becoming pale-hoary when 
dry, fleshy, convex then flattened, obtusely umbonate, furfuraceo- 
granular, often wrinkled; margin appendiculate with the veil. St. 
59 cm. x 49 mm., white at the apex, covered below with fine, brownish 
granules, equal. Ring concolorous, membranaceous, inferior, torn. Gills 
whitish, or cream colour, slightly adnexed, or sinuato-adnate. Flesh 
yellowish, becoming reddish in the lower portion of the st. Spores white, 
elliptical, 7-8 x 5 /A. "Cystidia hair-shaped, acute, small, 2-3 /u, 
broad" Lange. Taste pleasant. Edible. Heaths, and hilly woods. 
July Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. rufescens B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 40, t. 213, upper figs. 

Rufescens, becoming reddish. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size, and the pure white p. and st. 
partially turning red with age or when bruised. Spores oval, 34 x 2/x,. 
Amongst beech leaves. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

158. L. amianthina (Scop.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 40, t. 213, lower figs. 

a/u'ai>T09, unspotted. 

P. 3-5 cm., ochraceous, somewhat fleshy, convex, then plane, sub- 
umbonate, furfuraceo-granulose, often wrinkled. St. 3-5 cm. x 4- 
6 mm., whitish at the apex, covered with ochraceous granules below the 
equal. Ring concolorous, granular on the outside, inferior, 



76 LEPIOTA 

fugacious. Gills cream colour, adnate, crowded. Flesh yellow. Spores 
white, elliptical, 4-5 x 3/i. Cystidia none. Taste pleasant. Edible. 
Coniferous woods, heaths, and lawns. Aug. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

var. Broadwoodiae B. & Br. Miss S. Broadwood. 

Differs from the type in the delicately tomentose p., and infiexed 
margin. Woods. Rare. 

var. alba Rene Maire. Alba, white. 

Differs from the type in being entirely white. Woods. Oct. Rare. 
(v.v.) 

159. L. cinnabarina (A. & S.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 38, t. 43. 

fcivvdftapi, dragon's blood. 

P. 5-8 cm., cinnabar-colour, fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, 
granuloso-furfuraceous ; margin fimbriate. St. 4-7 x 1-2 cm., con- 
colorous, covered with reddish granules below the ring, subbulbous. Ring 
concolorous, thin, narrow, inferior, fugacious. Gills white, free, lanceo- 
late. Flesh ochraceous, reddish under the cuticle of the p. and st. Spores 
white, elliptical, obtuse, 4 x 2-5-3 p,, 1-guttulate. "Cystidia hair- 
shaped, acute" Lange. Taste pleasant. Edible. Coniferous woods. 
Sept. Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

var. Terreyi B. & Br. Saund. & Sm. t. 35, figs. 1-5. 

Michael Terrey. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., bright tawny, somewhat hemispherical, pulverulent, 
roughened with minute warts. St. somewhat equal, often cylindrical, 
covered below the ring with furfuraceous scales of the same colour as 
the p. Ring at length torn into fragments. Gills white, remote, narrow, 
not branched. Spores white, elliptical, 5 x 4/i. Sandy ground. Rare. 

160. L. carcharias (Pers.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 37, t. 42. 

tcdpxapos, sharp-pointed. 

P. 2-5 cm., flesh coloured, fleshy, convex, then plane, often umbonate, 
covered with minute granules. St. 3-6 cm. x 4-8 mm., concolorous, 
and covered with minute, pointed warts below the ring, apex white, sub- 
bulbous, or equal and attenuated upwards. Ring concolorous, covered 
on the outside with the same minute, pointed warts. Gills white, adnate. 
Flesh whitish, or ochraceous. Spores white, elliptical, obtuse, 4-5 x 2 
3/A, 1-3-guttulate. Taste disagreeable, smell unpleasant. Coniferous 
woods, and amongst short grass. May Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

161. L. rosea Rea. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. vi, t. 2, fig. 1. 

Rosea, rose colour. 

P. 2-3-5 cm., bright rose colour, somewhat fleshy, convex, then ex- 
panded, densely granular, or mealy, consisting of globose cells, 45- 
50 fj. in diam. ; margin thin. St. 5-6 cm. x 3-5 mm., ivhitish, becoming 



LEPIOTA 77 

concolorous, equal, hollow, smooth. Ring concolorous, membranace- 
ous, medial, narrow, soon fugacious. Gills whitish, then ochraceous, 
free, rounded behind, crowded, 45 mm. broad. Flesh whitish, be- 
coming reddish especially in the stem. Spores white, elliptical, 5 x 3ja, 
1-guttulate; basidia clavate, with 4-sterigmata. Cystidia none. Bare 
soil in moist, shady woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

162. L. atrocrocea W. G. Sin. Ater, black; crocea, saffron. 
P. 3-4 cm., bright salmon orange, more or less covered with purple 

brown, almost black, granular fiocci, expanded, then slightly depressed. 
St. bright salmon orange, attenuated upwards, covered with salmon 
brown squamules. Ring fugacious. Gills salmon white, broadly adnate. 
Flesh salmon orange brown, thin. Oct. Rare. 

163. L. haematosperma (Bull.) Boud. (= Lepiota echinata (Roth) 
Boud.) Boud. Icon. t. 12. alpa, blood; crTre/o/x-a, seed. 

P. 2-3-5 cm., blackish grey, more or less olivaceous, convex, then 
plane, very thin, fragile, finely granular', margin paler, appendiculate 
with the veil. St. 3^6 cm. x 2-3 mm., dark, becoming vinous, equal, 
or slightly bulbous, base covered with pulverulent, fugacious granules. 
Ring reddish, floccose, granular on the outside, inferior, fugacious. 
Gills blood red, free, ventricose, rounded behind. Flesh whitish, be- 
coming reddish under the epidermis and in the stem. Spores pale 
ochraceous in the mass, becoming reddish with age, elliptical, 45 x 3/A. 
Cystidia none. Smell strong. Hedgerows, gardens, and occasionally 
in woods. July Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

164. L. polysticta Berk. Cke. Illus. no. 41, t. 30. 

TroXu?, many; o-rt/cro?, spotted. 

P. 2-^5 cm., ochraceous, covered on the obtusely umbonate disc with 
minute red brown scales from the breaking up of the cuticle, fleshy, 
firm, tough, convex, then expanded ; margin often appendiculate with 
the veil. St. 3-5 cm. x 5-9 mm., white at the apex, densely clothed with 
reddish, ferruginous scales below the ring, equal, or attenuated down- 
wards. Ring concolorous, very narrow, inferior, very fugacious. Gills 
white, then yellowish, free, rounded before and behind, broad, ventri- 
cose, crowded. Flesh, whitish, slightly reddish under the epidermis of 
the st. and p. Spores white, sub-globose, 4 x 3jn, 1-4-guttulate. Open 
pastures, and amongst short grass in woods. Sept. Nov. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 

(c) Smaller, slender. P. dry, cuticle entire, not scaly nor granular. 

165. L. parvannulata (Lasch) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 16, fig. 3. 

Parvus, small; annulata, ringed. 

P. 12 cm., white, becoming yellowish when dry, thin, ovato-cam- 
lulate, then plane, pruinose, then silky. St. 1-2 cm. x 2-3 mm., 



78 LEPIOTA 

white, equal, fibrillose below the ring. Ring white, very small, distant, 
entire. Gills cream colour, free, crowded. Flesh white, very thin. 
Spores white, elliptical, 4-5 x 3/n. Cystidia none. Amongst mosses 
and short grass in woods, and pastures. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 
(**) 

166. L. sistrata Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 42, t. 85, fig. A. 

Sistrum, a rattle. 

P. 1-2 cm., whitish, becoming light yellowish, or flesh colour, disc often 
darker, slightly fleshy, campanulate, then expanded and obsoletely 
umbonate, pruinate with shining atoms, margin often appendiculate 
with the veil. St. 2*5-5 cm. x 1^4 mm., white, or flesh colour, equal, 
flbrillosely silky and pruinose below the ring. Ring concolorous, fibril- 
lose, fugacious. Gills white, free, reaching the stem, crowded, 4 mm. 
broad, ventricose. Flesh white, often pinkish in the stem, fragile. 
Spores white, elliptical, 3-4 x 1-5-2/i. On bare ground in woods, and 
by roadsides. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

167. L. seminuda (Lasch) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 43, t. 19, fig. a. 

Semi, half; nuda, naked. 

P. 12 cm., whitish, or flesh colour, becoming yellowish, very thin, 
campanulato-expanded, umbonate, at first covered with fugacious, 
floccose meal, margin appendiculate with the veil. St. 2-3 cm. x 1 
2 mm., whitish, or flesh colour, equal, mealy below the ring. Ring con- 
colorous, mealy, torn, fugacious. Gills white, then cream colour, free, but 
reaching the st., thin, crowded, ventricose. Flesh white, often pinkish 
in the st. Spores white, elliptical, 4 x 2/x. Smell pleasant. Amongst 
moss in woods. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

168. L. Bucknallii B. & Br. (= Lepiota lilacina Quel.) Boud. Bull. 
Soc. Myc. Fr. ix (1893), t. n, as Lepiota lilacina Quel. 

Cedric Bucknall. 

P. 1-5-3 cm., white, fleshy, campanulate, then convex, minutely 
mealy, and becoming tinged with lilac. St. 5-7 cm. x 3-5 mm., white, 
gradually attenuated upwards, densely mealy, and becoming deep lilac 
below the ring with age or bruising. Ring concolorous, mealy, fuga- 
cious. Gills yellowish, free, not crowded. Flesh white, becoming deep 
lilac in the lower two-thirds of the st. Spores white, boat-shaped, 
7-8 x 3/Lt, 3-guttulate. Smell strong of gas-tar. Amongst grass. Oct. 
Rare, (v.v.) 

169. L. mesomorpha (Bull.) Fr. yLteo-o?, middle; fji,op<f>ij, form. 

P. 1 -5-2-5 cm., whitish, or yellowish flesh colour, umbo deeper coloured, 
slightly fleshy, very thin, campanulate, then expanded, at first pu- 
bescent, then becoming smooth, or minutely granular. St. 5-7-5 cm. 



LEPIOTA 79 

x 2 mm., concolorous, slightly attenuated upwards, silky. Ring mem- 
branaceous, floccose, superior, entire, spreading, fugacious. Gills 
whitish, or cream colour, free, crowded, ventricose. Flesh white, thin. 
Spores white, elliptical, 6-8 x 3-4/u, guttulate. Woods. Sept. Nov. 
Uncommon. 

170. L. ianthina Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 1112, t. 944, fig. A. 

Idv6ivo<f, coloured violet. 

P. 2 cm., whitish, covered with violet, radiating, hair-like squamules, 
umbonate disc dark violet, fibrillose, thin, campanula te, then expanded. 
St. 2-3 cm. x 2-3 mm., whitish, subequal, somewhat flexuose. Ring 
distant, narrow, fugacious. Gills whitish, free, 2 mm. broad, lanceo- 
late, scarcely crowded. Flesh white, thin. Stoves. March. Rare. 

171. L. martialis Cke. & Massee. Cke. Illus. no. 1112, t. 944, fig. B. 

Martialis, belonging to Mars. 

P. 2-3 cm., clear deep pink, disc darker, becoming yellowish with age, 
thin, campanulate, then plane, minutely silky, margin striate. St. 
2-5-4 cm. x 3 mm., pale ochraceous at the apex, pinkish red below the 
ring, slightly attenuated upwards. Ring white, broad, pendulous, 
rather distant, persistent. Gills whitish, free, 2 mm. broad, somewhat 
lanceolate, rather crowded. Flesh white, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 
8 x 4jti. On the trunk of a tree fern. March. Rare. 

172. L. submarasmioides Speg. 

Sub, somewhat; Marasmius e'So?, like a Marasmius. 

P. 2-5 cm., pale buff, umbo taivny, convex, then expanded, floccosely 
wrinkled towards the margin. St. 5 cm. x 3 mm., white, equal, slightly 
striate. Ring whitish, superior, fugacious. Gills ochraceous, free, 
3 mm. wide, rounded at both ends, crowded. Flesh white, reddish 
under the epidermis of the p. and in the st., tough. Spores pale ochrace- 
ous, deltoid, or pyramidal, 5-6 x 3/x,. On bare ground, Malvern Hills. 
Sept. Rare, (v.v.) 

B. EPIDERMIS VISCID. 

173. L. medullata Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 16. Medullata, pithy. 

P. 4-7 cm., white, often greyish at the disc, slightly fleshy, convexo- 
plane, umbonate, viscid; margin appendiculate with the veil. St. 
7-5 cm. x 6 mm., white, dry, equal, silky and squamulqse below the 
ring, apex striate, stuffed with a distinct separable pith. Ring white, 
incomplete, torn. Gills white, free, broader in front, ventricose, crowded. 
Flesh white, soft, watery. Smell strong of radish. Coniferous woods. 
Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



80 LEPIOTA 

174. L. arida (Fr.) Gillet. (= Amanita arida Fr.) Fr. Icon. t. 12, 
as Amanita arida Fr. Arida, dry. 

P. 5-7 cm., greyish, thin, convex, then plane, obtuse, silky; margin 
whitish, sulcato-striate. St. 6-9 x 1 cm., white, glabrous, floccose at 
the incrassated base. Ring concolorous, distant. Gills white, then flesh 
colour, attenuato-adnate. Flesh white, soft. Spores white, elliptical, 
9-10 x 7-7-5/Lt. Birch and fir woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

175. L. lenticularis (Lasch) Cke. (= Amanita lenticularis (Lasch) 
Fr., Lepiota guttata (Pers.) Quel.) Fr. Icon. t. 13, as Amanita 
lenticularis Lasch. Lenticula, a lentil. 

P. 4-10 cm., pinkish tan colour, fleshy, globose, then campanulato- 
convex; margin paler, slightly glutinous. St. 8-10 x 1-2 cm., white, 
or cream colour, apex marked with dark green, watery drops in very wet 
weather, which on drying become dingy, equal, or subbulbous, floccose, 
or smooth below the ring. Ring concolorous, often spotted like the apex 
of the stem, large, superior. Gills whitish, sometimes inclining to oliva- 
ceous, free, approximate, ventricose, broader in front, very crowded, 
sometimes forked. Flesh white, reddish at the base of the st. Spores 
white, pip-shaped, or elliptical, 7-8 x 4-5 /z. Smell mouldy. Edible. 
Deciduous woods, and heaths. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. megalodactylus (B. & Br.) Rea. Cke. Illus. no. 15, t. 11, as 
Amanita megalodactylus B. /meyas, large; 8a/rrv\o9, ringer. 
Differs from the type in being thinner, and paler in colour. Woods. 
Oct. Nov. Uncommon. 

176. L. irrorata Quel. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. in, t. 8. 

Irrorata, bedewed. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., yellowish, then straw colour, firm, convex, covered like 
the stem with dew-like transparent drops. St. 3-4 cm. x 7-10 mm., 
white, satiny above the ring, silky and variegated with small yellow, or 
brownish squamules below, equal. Ring concolorous, membranaceous, 
narrow. Gills white, then cream colour, free, emarginate, 4 mm. wide, 
ventricose. Flesh white. Spores white, ovoid, 4-5 x 4/z, punctate. 
Pastures, and clearings in woods. June Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

177. L. illinita Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 16. lUinitus, besmeared. 
P. 4-9 cm., white, or yellowish, fleshy, globose, then convex, umbo- 

nate, umbo often becoming fuscous, viscid; margin slightly striate, 
sometimes fimbriate. St. 5-8 x -5-1 cm., white, very viscid, equal, or 
subbulbous, fragile. Ring white, membranaceous, thin. Gills white, 
free, at length remote, crowded, soft, somewhat connected by veins. 
Flesh white, floccose, thin. Spores white, broadly elliptical, or sub- 
globose, 6 x 4-5/i, 1-2-guttulate. Smell pleasant. Plantations. 
Aug. Sept. Rare, (v.v.) 



LEPIOTA. HIATTJLA. ANNULARIA 81 

178. L. glioderma Fr. (= Armillaria glioderma (Fr.) Quel.) Fr. Icon, 
t. 15. <y\oiov, viscid; Sep/j,a, skin. 

P. 4 cm., brownish red, slightly fleshy, campanulate, then convex, 
broadly gibbous, or obtuse, glutinous. St. 7'5 cm. x 46 mm., whitish, 
or rufescent, equal, fragile, dry, floccosely scaly up to the ring. Ring 
white above, rufescent squamulose on the outside, fibrillose, silky, torn. 
Grills white, or cream colour, free, approximate, ventricose, broad, 
crowded. Flesh white, then pinkish, soft, thin. Spores white, sub- 
globose, 5)it. Fir woods. July Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

L. delicata Fr. = Armillaria delicata (Fr.) Boud. 

179. L. Georginae W. G. Sm. Cke. lUus. no. 47, t. 132. 

Miss Georgina E. Johnstone. 

Entirely white, turning crimson everywhere when touched, and finally 
becoming brown when dry. P. 13 cm., slightly fleshy, fragile, cam- 
panulate, then expanded, covered with a minute, dense, viscid pruinosity ; 
margin at length striate. St. 2-55 cm. x 34 mm., slightly attenu- 
ated upwards, viscido-pruinose. Ring fugacious. Gills free, very thin, 
moderately distant, somewhat ventricose, 3 mm. broad. Spores 
pinkish in the mass, pip-shaped, 6-8 x 4/x, 1- rarely 2-guttulate. Pine 
woods and amongst mosses in a cool fernery. May Nov. Rare. 
(v.v.) 

HiatulaFr. 
(Hio, I gape.) 

Pileus slightly fleshy at the disc, campanulate. Stem central. Ring 
very fugacious, not manifest in the adult stage. Gills free, or adnate. 
Spores white, subglobose, smooth, with a germ-pore. Growing on wood. 

180. H. Wynniae B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 676, t. 688. 

Mrs Lloyd Wynne. 

Entirely shining white. P. 3-4 cm., very thin, campanulate, then 
plane, with a trace of an umbo, striate, pulverulent, disc darker. St. 
2-5 cm. x 1-2 mm., equal, striate. Gills free, or very slightly adnexed 
at first, subdistant, 2 mm. broad, scarious. Spores white, subglobose, 
5 x 4/i, with a germ-pore. On wood in stoves. Phosphorescent. A 
native of Queensland. 

Spores pink. 
Annularia Schulz. 

(Annularia, pertaining to a signet-ring.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular. Stem central. Ring large, free, or adnate. 
Gills free. Spores pink, globose, or oval, smooth, continuous. Cystidia 
ventricose. Growing on the ground, or on wood. 



82 ANNULABIA. PSALIOTA 

181. A. laevis (Krombh.) Schulz. (= Lepiota pudica (Bull.) Quel.) 
Krombh. Icon. t. 26, figs. 16 and 17, as Agaricus laevis Krombh, 

Laevis, smooth. 

P. 5-12 cm., white, disc brownish, or yellowish, convex, expanded, 
obtuse, or subumbonate, sometimes minutely squamulose; margin 
often cracked, appendiculate with the remains of the ring. St. 
4-12 x -5-1 cm., white, slightly attenuated upwards, base bulbous, 
silky. Ring white, large, free, subdistant. Gills white, then flesh colour, 
free, narrowed behind, somewhat crowded, thin. Flesh white, firm. 
Spores pink, "subglobose, 7-8 /i" Massee. Bushy places amongst 
grass. Aug. Oct. Uncommon. 

182. A. transilvanica Schulz. 

Transilvanica, belonging to Transylvania. 

P. whitish, disc darker, campanulate, striate to the vertex; margin 
lobed. St. paler than the p., flocculose, hollow. Ring membranaceous, 
complete. Gills crowded, unequal. 

Spores purple, or fuscous. 

Psaliota Fr. 
(fyakiov, a ring.) 

Pileus more or less fleshy, regular. Stem central. Ring mem- 
branaceous, adnate, persistent, rarely fugacious. Gills free. Spores 
fuscous purple, reddish purple, blackish purple, or fuscous, elliptical, 
oval, globose, or obovate, with an apical germ-pore. Cystidia present, 
or absent. Growing on the ground. 

*Large, fleshy. 

183. P. augusta Fr. (= Psaliota Elvensis B. & Br. sec. Quel.) Bres. 

Fung. Trid. t. 60, as Psalliota villatica Brond. 

Augusta, majestic. 

P. 10-30 cm., whitish, fuscous citron, or dark straw colour, fleshy, 
globose-hemispherical, then expanded, very obtuse, silky, soon break- 
ing up into adpressed squamules; margin exceeding the gills, tomen- 
tosely toothed. St. 6-20 x 1-5-5 cm., white, becoming yellowish when 
bruised, then brownish, very firm, attenuated upwards from the base 
which is sunk in the earth, smooth, flocculose just under the ring. 
Ring white and smooth above, yellowish and areolately floccose on the 
under side, very wide, adnate to the st. for 2-3 cm., then free and 
pendulous. Gills pallid, then fuscous, free, separated from the st. by a 
broad collar, narrow at first, becoming wider, simple, thin, crowded. 
Flesh whitish, becoming yellowish or brownish in the st. when broken, 
soft, floccose like that of Lepiota procera. Spores brownish purple, 



PSALIOTA 83 

elliptical, 7-13 x 5-6/i. Smell pleasant like anise, sometimes dis- 
agreeable. Taste pleasant, often like almonds. Edible. Woods, and 
pastures, often near ant hills. Aug. Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

184. P. peronata Massee non Roz. et Rich. (= Psaliota augusta Fr. 
sec. Rene Maire.) Peronata, booted. 

P. 10-12-5 cm., pale dull ochraceous, densely covered with small, 
brown, silky scales, that become larger towards the margin, fleshy, 
hemispherical, then expanded. St. 12-5-15 x 1-5 cm., white, equal, 
marginately bulbous at the base, covered with large, white, upward point- 
ing, squarrose scales below the ring, smooth above the ring. Ring 
yellowish, large, spreading. Gills pink, then pale purple brown, very 
distant from the st., 6-7 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh white, becoming 
brownish in the st. when cut. Spores purple-brown, obliquely ellip- 
tical, 6 x 4/1,. Taste pleasant. Edible. Pine woods. Oct. Rare. 

185. P. Elvensis B. & Br. Boud. Icon. t. 134. 

Elvensis, belonging to the river Elwy. 

P. 8-15 cm., purplish brown, fleshy, subglobose, then hemispherical, 
at length often flattened and slightly depressed at the areolate disc, 
fibrillose, breaking up into large, persistent, floccose, pointed, somewhat 
revolute darker scales; margin very obtuse, thick, covered with pyra- 
midal warts. St. 7-15 x 2-5-5 cm., concolorous and fibrillose below the 
ring, apex paler, equal, becoming swollen in the centre, and attenu- 
ated at the base. Ring concolorous, membranaceous, thick, deflexed, 
broken here and there, more or less floccose at the margin and on the 
underside which is often areolate. Gills brownish flesh colour, then 
brownish purple, free, 6-8 mm. broad. Flesh turning red when cut, 
then becoming brownish, thick, firm. Spores brownish purple, globose, 
or subglobose, 6 x 4-5 p, with a large central gutta. Smell and taste 
pleasant. Edible. Often caespitose. Under oaks, beeches, firs, and 
on roadsides. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

186. P. Bernard!! Quel. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. ra, t. 14. 

G. Bernard. 

P. 10-20 cm., white, then becoming ferruginous at the apex of the 
warts, fleshy, convex, then expanded, firm, the tomentose surface 
soon breaking up into thick, angular warts. St. 6-7 x 4-5 cm., white, 
becoming reddish brown with age, attenuated upwards from the bulbous 
base, apex striate. Ring white, membranaceous, soon disappearing, 
striate on the upper surface. Gills greyish flesh colour, then blackish 
purple, free, attenuated at both ends, 8-12 mm. broad. Flesh white, 
then tinged with purple, and finally stained with reddish brown, firm. 
Spores blackish purple, ovoid elliptical, 9-11 x 6-7 fj,, 1-guttulate, 
with an apical germ-pore. Smell unpleasant. Taste disagreeable. 
near the sea. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



K^astures 



84 PSALIOTA 

187. P. arvensis (Schaeff.) Fr. Holland, Champ, t. 71, no. 159. 

Arvensis, belonging to cultivated fields. 

P. 7-20 cm., whitish, becoming stained with yellow, fleshy, globoso- 
campanulate, then flattened, obtuse, flocculoso-mealy when young, then 
slightly silky even or squamulose, dry. St. 7-12 x 2-5-3 cm., white, 
often stained with yellow, thickened at the base, obsoletely marginato- 
bulbous when young, villose. Ring white, superior, large, pendulous, 
formed as it were of two growing together, the interior one membrana- 
ceous, uniform, the exterior one thicker and shorter, somewhat free at the 
circumference, often appendiculate at the margin of the p., radiately 
split. Gills white, at length reddish fuscous, free, approximate, ventri- 
cose, broader in front, always arid. Flesh white, or tinged with yellow, 
compact, firm, juicy, at length softer. Spores brownish purple, 
elliptical, 810 x 5 6 /A. Smell pleasant, often like new meal. Taste 
mild. Edible. Often forming large rings. Pastures, and woods. 
May Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

var. purpurascens Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 541, t. 584. 

Purpurascens, becoming purple. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size and in the p. becoming tinged 
with purple. Spores reddish brown, broadly elliptical, 4-5 x Sp, 1- 
guttulate. Woods, pastures and under trees. July Oct. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

var. albosquamosa W. G. Sm. Field and cultivated mushrooms, fig. 8. 

Albus, white; squamosa, scaly. 

Differs from the type in the snow-white patches on the fawn- 
coloured p. the remains of the universal veil. Artificially made 
mushroom beds. Not uncommon. 

var. vaporaria (Otto) W. G. Sm. (= Psaliota campestris (Linn.) Fr. 

var. vaporaria (Otto) Fr.) Vaporaria, of hothouses. 

Differs from the type in the smooth, pilose brown p., and the white St., 

reddish at the apex, and brownish, or reddish at the base. A cultivated 

form in mushroom beds. Common, (v.v.) 

var. hortensis (Cke.) W. G. Sm. (= Psaliota campestris (Linn.) Fr. 
var. hortensis Cke.) Cke. Illus. no. 545, t. 527, as Psaliota cam- 
pestris Linn. var. hortensis. Hortensis, of gardens. 
Differs from the type in the fibrillose, or squamulose brownish p. 
Artificially made mushroom beds. Common, (v.v.) 

var. Buchananii (Berk.) W. G. Sm. (= Psaliota campestris (Linn.) Fr. 
var. Buchanani Berk.) Field and cultivated mushrooms, fig. 10. 

Buchanan, a gardener. 

Differs from the type in the white, opaque, nearly smooth, depressed 
p. Artificially made mushroom beds. 



PSALIOTA 85 

var. cryptarum (Letell.) W. G. Sm. (= Psaliota campestris (Linn.) Fr. 
var. cryptarum (Letell.) Fr.) Kpinrrrj, a cave. 

Differs from the type in the greyish white, or brownish white p. A 
cultivated form in caves. 

var. intermedia W. G. Sm. Field and cultivated mushrooms, fig. 5. 

Intermedia, intermediate. 

Differs from the type in the pale, livid brassy-yellow p., with small 
rusty-yellowish spots at the middle, in the very short, obese, dull whitish, 
stained pale rusty st., and in the white flesh, becoming pale vinous-brown. 
Amongst rank grass in fields, often near trees. 

var. epileata W. G. Sm. Field and cultivated mushrooms, fig. 16. 

E, without; pileatus, having a cap. 

Differs from the type in the almost or quite obsolete p. and in the 
white, ringless st. inflated below. It is really an aborted form and un- 
worthy of a varietal name. Artificially prepared mushroom beds. 
Common, (v.v.) 

var. obesa W. G. Sm. Field and cultivated mushrooms, fig. 15. 

Obesa, stout. 

Differs from the type in the ventricose st. equalling, or exceeding the 
width of the p., in the very narrow gills, and in the white flesh sometimes 
changing to deep mahogany brown. This is a monstrous form and un- 
worthy of a varietal name. Artificially prepared mushroom beds. 
Often common, (v.v.) 

188. P. xanthoderma Genev. (= Pratella cretacea Quel. sec. Maire.) 
Roze et Eichon, t. 17, figs. 5-8. gavQos, yellow; Sep/ia, skin. 
P. 8-12 cm., white, then somewhat tawny, becoming stained with 
yellow, especially when touched or rubbed, fleshy, campanulate, then 
convex, at length expanded, silky. St. 8-12 x 2-3 cm., white, be- 
coming yellow where touched or bruised, attenuated at the apex, more 
or less bulbous at the base, silky. Ring white, often stained with yellow 
at the margin. Gills white, then pink, cinereous, violet, or brownish, 
free, crowded. Flesh white, becoming yellow especially at the base of 
the st., and under the cuticle of the p. and st. Spores brownish purple, 
pip-shaped, 6 x 4/x. Smell and taste unpleasant, almost foetid. Poison- 
ous for some persons. Woods, pastures, and hedgerows. July Nov. 
Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. lepiotoides Rene Maire. Cke. Ulus. no. 542, t. 524, as Psaliota 

cretacea Fr. Lepiota, the genus Lepiota; e'So?, like. 

Differs from the type in the p. greyish white at first, then/wvered with 

greyish brown squamules, larger and denser at the disc, separated by 



86 PSALIOTA 

whitish cracks, and finally becoming tinged with reddish purple. Pas- 
tures, and stoves. Feb. Oct. Rare. 

189. P. flavescens Gillet. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. ra, t. 16. 

Flavescens, becoming yellow. 

P. 512 cm., white, at once turning saffron colour, then finally light 
brown when touched or bruised, campanulate, then expanded, smooth, 
dry, shining with a satin-like sheen, pellicle easily separable. St. 
10-14 x 1-5-2 cm., white, with a satiny sheen, tinged reddish yellow 
at the base on one side, cylindrical. Ring dirty white, yellow on the 
outside, and more deeply coloured at the margin, membranaceous, soon 
disappearing. Gills pale pink, then darker, and finally brownish, free, 
crowded. Flesh white, turning instantly bright saffron yellow when 
fresh, and reddish yellow when drier, especially near the cuticle of the 
p. and at the base of the st. Spores reddish brown, oval, 56 x 4-5 fi, 
1-guttulate, with an apical germ-pore. Smell none. Taste not dis- 
agreeable. Poisonous for some persons. Solitary, or in rings. Pas- 
tures, and fir woods. July Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

P. cretacea Fr. = Lepiota naucina Fr. 

190. P. perrara Schulz. (=Psaliota augusta Fr. sec. Maire.) Bres. 
Fung. Trid. t. 89. Perrara, very uncommon. 

P. 6-14 cm., yellow, covered with dense, imbricate, Lepiotsb-like, ful- 
vous scales, fleshy, campanulate, then expanded. St. 9-11 x 1-5- 
3 cm., whitish, covered below the ring with evanescent, fulvous scales, 
incrassated at the base. Ring white, becoming discoloured, squamosely 
floccose on the under side, large, superior, reflexed. Gills white, then 
rosy, and at length fuscous, free, often very remote, equally attenuated 
at both ends, 5 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh white, becoming yellowish 
in the st. when broken, soft. Spores purplish fuscous, obovate, 7 
9 x 4-5/u,, 1-guttulate. Oak woods, and under oaks. Aug. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

191. P. pratensis (Schaeff.) Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 543, t. 525. 

Pratensis, growing in meadows. 

P. 59 cm., whitish, becoming cinereous, fleshy, ovoid, then expanded, 
obtuse, silky, villous under a lens, becoming rimosely squamulose, dry. 
St. 5-8 x 1 cm., white, equal, slightly incrassated at the base, firm, 
smooth. Ring white, membranaceous, median, deciduous. Gills cine- 
reous, then fuscous, free, approximate, rounded behind, acutely attenu- 
ated in front. Flesh white, thick, firm. Spores brown, elliptical, or 
pip-shaped, 5-6 x 3/x, 1-guttulate. Smell and taste pleasant. 
Edible. Woods, pastures, and hedgerows. July Oct. Uncommon. 



PSALIOTA 87 

192. P. campestris (Linn.) Fr. Campestris, belonging to a plain. 

P. 5-12 cm., white, or rufescent, fleshy, lens-shaped-convex, then 
flattened, obtuse, dry, silky-even, or squamulose. St. 4-8 x 2-4 cm., 
white, firm, bulbous when young, then somewhat equal, even, or 
squamulose. Ring white, membranaceous, rarely in the form of a 
cortina, median, or more strictly sheathed to the middle, spreading, or 
reflexed, torn, often fugacious. Gills whitish, then soonflesh coloured, and 
at length umber-fuscous, free, approximate, ventricose, equally attenuated 
at both ends, crowded, often deliquescent. Flesh white, becoming 
reddish, or sometimes fuscous, thick, soft. Spores brownish purple, 
broadly elliptical, 6-7 x 5-5'5/A. Smell and taste pleasant. Edible. 
Pastures, and heaths, rarely in woods. May Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

var. alba Viv. Berk. Outl. t. 10, fig. 2. Alba, white. 

Differs from the type in the white, silky pileus and short st. Hardly 
worthy of a varietal name. Generally found along with the type. 
(v.v.) 

var. praticola (Vitt.) Fr. Vitt. t. 7. Praticola, living in meadows. 

Differs from the type in the rufous-scaly p., and in the flesh becoming 
immediately rufescent. 

var. subvolvacea W. G. Sm. Field and cultivated mushrooms, fig. 13. 
Sub, somewhat; volvacea, having a volva. 

Differs from the type in the pale brown p. breaking up into dark 
umber scales, and in the long pale brownish st. furnished with a thin 
brown volva at the base. Fields, and artificially made mushroom 
beds. 

var. rufescens Berk. Berk. Outl. t. 10, fig. 3. 

Rufescens, becoming reddish. 

Differs from the type in the rufous, minutely squamulose p., the 
elongated st., and in the bright rose, sometimes crimson flesh when cut. 

var. umbrina (Vitt.) Fr. Vitt. t. 8. Umbrina, umber. 

Differs from the type in the umber p. becoming even, and in the 
stout, squamulose st. 

var. fulvaster Viv. Viv. t. 45, upper fig. Fulvaster, yellowish. 

Differs from the type in the ochraceous tawny p., and in the rose 
coloured gills becoming blackish. 

var. costata (Viv.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 546, t. 528, fig. A. 

Costata, ribbed. 

Differs from the type in the sulcate, repand p. Woods. Rare. 



88 PSALIOTA 

var. elongate Berk. Field and cultivated mushrooms, fig. 3. 

Elongata, elongated. 

Differs from the type in the even, shining white p., in the margin 
permanently appendiculate with the veil, and in the long, bulbous st. 
Scarcely worthy of a varietal name. Pastures under trees. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 

var. exannulata Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 546, t. 528, fig. B. 

Exannulata, without a ring. 

Differs from the type in the evanescent, or obsolete ring. Scarcely 
worthy of a varietal name. Pastures. Occasionally, (v.v.) 

193. P. sylvicola (Vitt.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 547, t. 529, as Psaliota 
campestris Linn. var. sylvicola Vitt. 

Sylvicola, inhabiting woods. 

P. 7-11 cm., white, or yellowish, fleshy, globose, then convexo- 
expanded, silky, becoming even, shining; margin often appendiculate 
with the partial veil. St. 10-15 x 1-1-5 cm., concolorous, slightly 
attenuated upwards from the subbulbous base, smooth. Ring con- 
colorous, membranaceous, large, reflexed. Gills whitish, then slowly 
becoming fuscous, free, acute behind. Flesh whitish, at length becoming 
brownish, thin at the margin. Smell and taste pleasant. Edible. 
Woods and shrubberies. Aug. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

194. P. exserta (Viv.) Rea. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. m, t. 15. 

Exserta, thrust out. 

P. 6-18 cm., white, becoming yellowish ochraceous and broken up 
into minute adpressed scales, fleshy, campanulate, then convexo-ex- 
panded. St. 10-15 x 3-6 cm., white, either slightly attenuated up- 
wards from the base, or ventricose at the middle, bleeding when cut 
or wounded, almost smooth. Ring white, covered on the underside with 
yellowish, fugacious warts, membranaceous, large, thick, double, made 
up of two layers that split apart. Gills whitish, then pinkish, and 
finally fuscous, free, 5-10 mm. broad, somewhat crowded. Flesh 
white, immediately turning bright red when bruised, cut, or wounded, 
and exuding a bright red juice which finally stains the part affected deep 
brown. Spores deep ochre when deposited in the mass, subglobose, 
5-6 x 4-5 p, 1-guttulate, with an apical germ-pore. Smell and taste 
pleasant. Edible. Solitary, or in rings. Pastures. May Nov. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 

195. P. vfflatica (Brond.) Magn. Cke. Illus. no. 538, t. 521, as Psaliota 

augusta Fr. Villa, a country house. 

P. 10-40 cm., pale brown, sometimes with a yellowish tinge, fleshy, 
globose, then expanded, very obtuse, disc even, minutely fibrillose, 



PSALIOTA 89 

adpressedly silky, squamose towards the paler margin, the scales appear- 
ing as if they had been pressed down with a hot iron. St. 10-20 x 3- 
5 cm., white, becoming tinged with brown especially at the base, slightly 
attenuated upwards from the incrassated base, becoming smooth. 
King white above, yellowish and fioccosely scaly on the under side, 
membranaceous, soft, median, thick, reflexed. Gills pallid, then fus- 
cous cinereous, free, attenuated behind, 10-15 mm. broad, crowded. 
Flesh white, becoming reddish brown when cut, especially under the 
cuticle of the pileus and at the base of the st., compact, thick at the disc, 
thin at the margin. Spores rich brown, elliptical, 7-9 x 5-6/x,, with 
an apical germ-pore. Smell unpleasant. Taste mild. Edible. Pastures 
and gardens. July Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

196. P. sylvatica (Schaeff.) Fr. Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 90. 

Sylvatica, of woods. 

P. 7-5-11 cm., subferruginous, scales rufescent, or becoming fuscous, 
fleshy, oval, then campanulate and flattened, often somewhat umbo- 
nate, the whole surf ace floccose, torn into squamules, disc often remaining 
continuous, and at length denuded of scales; margin often rimosely 
incised. St. 6-9 x 1-1-5 cm., dingy white, at first stuffed with a 
cylindrical, separate, white pith, equal, or bulbous at the base, the 
bulb sometimes marginate, fibrillose below the ring, smooth above. 
Ring ivhite, distant, floccose on the underside, sometimes wide, thin 
and membranaceous, sometimes narrow, incomplete, fugacious. Gills 
white, then reddish, at length cinnamon fuscous, or umber fuscous, free, 
ventricose, equally attenuated at both ends, thin, arid, crowded. Flesh 
white, generally rufescent, often yellowish at the apex of the st., thin, 
fragile. Spores tawny flesh colour, elliptical, 6-7 x 3-5-4/x. Smell 
pleasant, or strong. Taste mild. Edible. Woods, and under cedars. 
July Sept. Not uncommon. 

197. P. haemorrhoidaria Kalchbr. (= Pratella sylvatica Schaeff. sec. 

Quel.) Kalchbr. Icon. t. 18, fig. 1. aifAoppoiSes, hemorrhoids. 

P. 5-12-5 cm., rufous fuscous, or brownish, fleshy, ovate, then ex- 
panded, covered with broad, adpressed, darker scales; margin at first 
incurved. St. 8-12 x 2-3 cm., white, becoming blood red when bruised, 
equal, often more or less bulbous at the base, silky, fibrillose. Ring 
white, becoming discoloured, large, persistent, superior, membranaceous. 
Gills rosy Jlesh colour, then purple umber, free, approximate, 6-12 mm. 
broad, crowded. Flesh white, immediately turning blood red when 
broken, thick. Spores purple-brown, elliptical, 6-7 x 3-4/u,. Smell 
and taste pleasant. Edible. Woods, especially coniferous woods, 
pastures, and under conifers. Aug. Jan. Common, (v.v.) 



90 PSALIOTA 

198. P. setigera Fr. 1 (= Pratella sylvatica SchaefE. sec. Quel.) Paul, 
t. 132, figs. 3-4. Setigera, having coarse hairs. 

P. pale umber, fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, smooth, silky. 
St. covered with pale umber, pilose squamules, equal. Ring thin, 
fugacious. Gills fuscous umber, free. Woods. 

199. P. rubella (Gillet) Rea (= Pratella sylvatica SchaefE. sec. Quel.) 
Gill. Hym. Fr. t. 102, as Pratella rubella Gillet. 

Rubella, reddish. 

P. 4-8 cm., entirely covered with red fibrils, or scales, disc red brown, 
paler towards the margin, convex, or obtusely umbonate. St. 5 cm., 
white, or whitish, becoming stained with blood red like the p., slightly 
subbulbous at the base, cartilaginous, fibrillose. Ring fugacious. Gills 
rosy flesh colour, then brownish purple, free, slightly ventricose, 
crowded. Flesh white, becoming blood red, firm. Spores "4-75 6 x 3- 4, 
generally 5 x 3-5 " Sacc. Under conifers. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

**Smaller, p. thinly fleshy. 

200. P. comtula Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 130, fig. 1. Comtula, adorned. 
P. 35 cm., yellowish white, disc often tawny, fleshy, convex, then 

plane, obtuse, adpressedly fibrillosely silky. St. 3-5 cm. x 4-6 mm., 
white, becoming somewhat light yellow, somewhat attenuated at the base, 
apex striate, satiny. Ring concolorous, membranaceous, median, torn, 
fugacious, very thin. Gills flesh colour, then rose, and finally fuscous 
flesh colour, free, rounded behind, broader in front, crowded. Flesh 
white, or slightly yellowish, thin, soft. Spores purple fuscous, elliptical, 
5 x 3/Lc, 1-guttulate. Smell and taste strong of anise. Edible. Woods, 
heaths and pastures. May Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

201. P. amethystina Quel. Roz. & Rich. t. 18, figs. 1-5. 

Amethystina, amethyst colour. 

P. 3-5 cm., white, becoming either rose, lilac, or amethyst coloured 
from the centre outwards, fleshy, convex, then expanded, umbonate, 
villose, or fibrillose. St. 3-6 cm. x 5-10 mm., white, subbulbous at 
the base, fragile, glabrous. Ring white, thin, satiny. Gills light grey, 
then bay brown, free, ventricose, 6-7 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh 
white, thin. Spores brownish purple, roundish oblong, 5-7 x 4/z, 
1-2-guttulate. Smell like that of Psaliota sylvicola. Taste pleasant. 
Edible. Woods, and pastures. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

202. P. subgibbosa Fr. Sub, somewhat; gibbosa, humpbacked. 
P. 2-2-5 cm., yellowish, fleshy, convexo-plane, subumbonate, 

smooth; margin silky fibrillose. St. 2-5 cm. x 2-4 mm., pallid. Ring 
cortinate, fugacious. Gills white, then cinereous fuscous, free, remote. 
Spores fuscous. Fir woods. Rare. 

1 This is listed as British by Massee in his Eur. Fung. Fl. Agar. 207. 



PSALIOTA. ANELLARIA 91 

203. P. sagata Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 1177, t. 968. 

Sagata, clothed in a mantle. 

P. 3-5 cm., yellowish tawny, or reddish brown, fleshy, convex, then 
plane, at length revolute, obtuse, smooth, subpelliculose, shining. St. 
5 cm. x 5-6 mm., yellowish, equal, at length compressed, fragile, 
smooth. King white, distant, entire, persistent. Gills pinkish, then 
umber, free, ventricose, 6 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh white, thin. 
Spores purplish umber, elliptical, 6 x 3-4/A. Cystidia "on edge of 
gill basidia-like, 36-40 x 8-12/it" Rick. Grassy places, and under 
beeches. Oct. Rare. 

204. P. dulcidula Schulz. Kalchbr. Icon. t. 17, fig. 1. 

Dulcidula, sweetish. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., lurid white, or ochraceous, disc subfuscous, or dirty 
violaceous, fleshy, convex, then plane, slightly gibbous, somewhat 
smooth, dry. St. 2-5-4 cm. x 4-6 mm., concolorous, fragile, base in- 
curved, subbulbous, almost smooth. Ring concolorous, membrana- 
ceous, median, erect, persistent. Gills pallid greyish, then black, free, 
widest in front, 4 mm. broad, rather crowded. Flesh white, thin at the 
margin. Smell pleasant. Taste sweetish. Under oaks, and on heaths. 
Oct. Rare. 

205. P. rusiophylla (Lasch) Fr. Russus, red; <f>v\\ov, a leaf. 
P. 2-3-5 cm., flesh colour, or ruddy, becoming pale, fleshy, campanu- 

late, then expanded, umbonate, fibrillose ; margin somewhat appendicu- 
late with the partial veil. St. 2-5-4 cm. x 2-3 mm., white, slightly 
attenuated from the thickened base, fibrillose. Ring superior, re- 
flexed, persistent. Gills rosy, then fuscous, free, crowded. Flesh pallid, 
thin at the margin. Spores reddish, elliptical, 5 x 3p. Frondose 
woods, and parks. Oct. Rare. 

P. haematosperma (Bull.) Fr. = Lepiota haematosperma (Bull.) Boud. 
P. echinata (Roth) Fr. = Lepiota haematosperma (Bull.) Boud. 

Spores black, or blackish fuscous. 

Anellaria Karst. 
(Anellus, a little ring.) 

Pileus fleshy, campanulate. Stem central. Ring membranaceous, 
persistent, or fugacious. Gills adnate, or often almost free. Spores 
black, or blackish fuscous, pip-shaped, or elliptical, smooth, with an 
apical germ-pore. Growing on dung, or on the ground. 

A. separata (Linn.) Karst. (= Panaeolus separatus (Linn.) Fr.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 623, t. 623, as Panaeolus separatus Fr. 

Separata, distinct. 



92 ANELLARIA. AMANITOPSIS 

P. 2-6 cm., clay whitish, or yellowish, fleshy, ovato-campanulate, 
2-5-4-5 cm. high, not expanding, obtuse, viscid, smooth, often 
wrinkled, or cracked when old; margin often appendiculate with the 
veil. St. 5-20 cm. x 4-8 mm., whitish, tense and straight, rigid, 
gradually attenuated upwards from the thickened base, striate under 
a lens, smooth. Ring white, membranaceous, distant, entire, narrow, 
persistent, often striate. Gills whitish, then cinereous black, adnate, 
but almost separating, ascending, 4-8 mm. broad, edge often whitish. 
Flesh whitish, yellowish under the cuticle, and towards the base of the st., 
thick at the disc. Spores black, pip-shaped, 16-20 x 10-12jM. Cystidia 
bottle-shaped, 30-40 x 8-1 4/x. x 5-8 ju, at apex. On dung, especially 
that of horse. Woods, fields, and gardens. April Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

207. A. fimiputris (Bull.) Karst. (= Panaeolus fimiputris (Bull.) Fr.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 626, t. 626, as Panaeolus phaknarum Bull. 

Fimus, dung; putris, rotten. 

P. 23 cm., fuliginous-cinereous, or livid, fleshy, conical, then ex- 
panded, somewhat gibbous, viscid, smooth, generally beaded with the 
veil. St. 5-10 cm. x 2 mm., pallid, equal, smooth, girt with an annular 
zone above the middle. Gills livid blackish, adfixed. Flesh whitish, thin. 
Spores black, "elliptical, apiculate, 9-10 x 6/u," Massee. On dung. 
Fields, roadsides, and gardens. April Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

208. A. scitula Massee. Cke. Illus. no. 625, t. 927, fig. B, as Panaeolus 
scitulus Massee. Scitula, pretty. 

P. 11-5 cm., dirty pale ochre, fleshy, campanulate, obtuse, smooth, 
viscid, margin exceeding the gills. St. 2-3 cm. x 1-2 mm., white, 
equal, shining, base peronate, sheath ending in a persistent ring below 
the middle of the st. Gills becoming ashy grey, speckled with the black 
spores, almost free, narrow, crowded. Flesh white, thin. Spores black, 
opaque, with a colourless hilum, elliptical, 12-13 x 4/x. On soil in a 
flower-pot. Eare. 

***With a volva at the base of the stem. 

Spores white. 

Amanitopsis Roze. 

(Amanita, the genus; cn/rt?, like.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular. Stem central, fleshy. Volva membranaceous, 
free, lax, sheathing. Gills free, or adnate. Spores white, globose, sub- 
globose, oblong elliptic, smooth, continuous. Growing on the ground. 

209. A. vaginata (Bull.) Roze. Gonn. & Rabenh. t. 7, fig. 1. 

Vagina, a sheath. 

P. 3-10 cm., livid, or mouse grey, covered with large, white, or grey, 
fugacious patches of the fragments of the volva, slightly fleshy, cam- 



AMANITOPSIS 93 

panulate, then flattened, obtuse, slightly viscid at first; margin 
deeply striate. St. 12-15 x 1-1-5 cm., white, or grey, floccose, slightly 
attenuated upwards, surrounded at the base by a large, free, lax, often 
lobed, white, or grey membranaceous volva, often inclosing a ring-like 
mark around the stem. Gills white, or greyish, free, ventricose. Flesh 
white, thin. Spores globose, 10-12/i, with a large central gutta. 
Taste pleasant. Edible. Woods, heaths, and pastures. June Nov. 
Common, (v.v.) 

210. A. fulva (Schaeff.) W. G. Sm. Boud. Icon. t. 7. Fulvus, tawny. 
P. 4-10 cm., tawny, disc deeper coloured, campanulate, then 

flattened, umbonate, slightly viscid, covered with a few, fugacious 
patches of the yellowish volva; margin striate. St. 7-20 x -5-1 cm., 
paler tawny, squamulose, base surrounded by the upright, lax, free 
yellowish, membranaceous volva. Gills white, tinged with yellow, free. 
Flesh white, yellow under the epidermis. Spores globose, 9-14/i, multi- 
guttulate. Taste pleasant. Edible. Woods, heaths, etc., especially 
under birch trees. May Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

211. A. nivalis (Grev.) Rea. Grev. Scot. Crypt. Fl. t. 18. 

Nivalis, snow coloured. 

P. 5-9 cm., white, disc pale ochraceous, covered at first with the very 
fugacious, white fragments of the volva, campanulate, then convex and 
plane, or slightly umbonate; margin striate. St. 713 x 1 cm., white, 
the subbulbous base surrounded by a white, lax, free, membranaceous 
volva. Gills white, free, broader in front. Flesh white, thin. Spores 
oblong elliptic, 11-12 x 9/u,, with a large central gutta. Taste pleasant. 
Edible. Woods, and heaths. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

212. A. strangulata (Fr.) Roze. Boud. Icon. t. 9, as Amanitopsis 
inaurata (Seer.) Boud. Strangulata, choked. 

P. 8-15 cm., bright tawny, or tawny brown, covered with numerous 
large, grey, patches of the fragments of the volva, convex, then plane, 
slightly viscid; margin deeply striate. St. 12-30 x 3-4 cm., greyish 
white, stout, attenuated upwards, encircled by one to three greyish rings 
on the lower half the remnants of the friable volva which disintegrates 
at the base. Gills white, or tinged yellowish, adnate, crowded, ventricose. 
Flesh white, tinged slightly yellowish under the cuticle. Spores globose, 
8-13 fi, multi-guttulate. Taste pleasant. Edible. Woods, and pastures, 
chiefly on the chalk and limestone. May Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

213. A. adnata (W. G. Sm.) Sacc. (= Amanita junquillea Quel.) 
Saund. & Sm. t. 20. Adnata, adnate. 

P. 6-7 cm., pale yellowish buff, covered with white, woolly patches of 
the volva, fleshy, very firm, convex, then expanded ; margin exceeding 
the gills. St. 5-10 x 1-5 cm., pale buff, fibrillose, base slightly swollen 



94 AMANITOPSIS. VOLVARIA 

and covered by the adnate volva, which has only a small, free, lax 
margin, sometimes almost obsolete. Ring generally absent. Gills 
white, truly adnate, crowded. Flesh white, buff beneath the epidermis. 
Spores subglobose, 7-9 x 6-7 /A, with a large central gutta. Woods, 
and heaths. July Oct. Uncommon, (v.v. 1 ) 

Spores pink. 
Volvaria Fr. 

(Volvaria, having a volva, or wrapper.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular. Stem central. Volva membra naceous, free, 
sheathing. Gills free. Spores pink, elliptical, or subglobose, smooth, 
continuous. Growing on the ground, or on wood. 

*P. dry, silky, or fibrillose. 

214. V. bombycina (SchaefT.) Fr. (= Volvaria Loveiana Berk. sec. 
Barb.) Bombycina, silky. 

P. 7-20 cm., white, becoming yellowish, fleshy, soft, globose, then 
campanulate and convex, subumbonate, silky, becoming squamuloso- 
villose, disc rarely becoming smooth. St. 7-15 x 1-2 cm., white, 
attenuated upwards, base bulbous, often curved. Volva whitish, be- 
coming discoloured, soon torn asunder, ample, 3-8 cm. broad, mem- 
branaceous, lax, laciniate, somewhat viscid, persistent. Gills white, 
then flesh colour, free, very crowded, ventricose, becoming toothed. 
Flesh white, becoming yellowish. Spores pink, elliptical, 6-7 x 4-5 /u,. 
Cystidia sparse, clavate, often slightly constricted near the apex, 
5560 x 18//,. Smell and taste pleasant. On decayed wood, stumps 
and sawdust. June Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

215. V. volvacea (Bull.) Fr. (= Volvaria Taylori Berk. sec. Quel.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 294, t. 294. Volvacea, having a volva. 

P. 7-10 cm., cinereous, black-streaked with adpressed fibrils, cam- 
panulate, then expanded, obtuse. St. 512-5 x 1 cm., white, villose, 
somewhat equal. Volva whitish, fuscous at the apex, oval, membra- 
naceous, lax, often adpressed to the stem. Gills white, then flesh colour, 
free, ventricose. Flesh white, floccose. Spores pink, elliptical, 6-7 
x 4-5/A, 1-guttulate. Gardens, in stoves, roadsides. July Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

216. V. Loveiana Berk. (= Volvaria plumulosa (Lasch) Quel.; Vol- 

varia hypopitys Fr. sec. Quel. ; Volvaria bombycina Schaeff. sec. 

Barb.) Berk. Outl. t. 7, fig. 2. Rev. R. T. Lowe 

P. 57 cm., tvhite, with a very slight shade of pink, or cinereous, sub- 

truncato-globose, then convex, or slightly expanded, beautifully silky; 

1 At Sandringham, Norfolk, on the 30th October, 1899, specimens were found 
both with a well-defined membranaceous ring and without any trace of a ring. 
C. R. 



VOLVARIA 95 

margin involute. St. 5 x -5-1 cm., pure white, bulbose, attenuated 
upwards, closely fbrillose, with a little matted, down, very juicy. Volva 
'pure white, with a little downy prominence within round the base of 
the stem. Gills white, becoming gradually pale pink, free, broad in 
front, subdeliquescent. Flesh white, becoming yellowish. Spores pink, 
elliptical, 5-6 x 3-4/x, 1-guttulate. On Clitocybe nebularis (Batsch) 
Fr. Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

217. V. Taylori Berk. (= Vdvaria volvacea Bull. sec. Quel.) Cke. 
Illus. no. 296, t. 296. M. A. Taylor. 

P. 2-5 cm., livid, conico-campanulate, obtuse, striato-rimose from the 
apex, thin; margin lobed, sinuate. St. 3-6 cm. x 3-5 mm., pallid, 
nearly equal, slightly bulbose at the base. Volva date-brown, lobed, 
somewhat lax, small. Gills rose colour, free, broad in front, very much 
attenuated behind, uneven, edge jloccose, white. Spores pink, elliptical, 
7-8 x 5/Lt, 2-guttulate. Gardens. July Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

218. V. temperata B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 300, t. 300, upper fig. 

Temper ata, moderate. 

P. 6 mm., whitish, disc tinged tawny, convex, then expanded, umbo- 
nate, pulverulent, striate. St. 1 -5-2-5 cm. x 1-2 mm., whitish, pel- 
lucid. Volva white, ample. Gills pinkish, free. Spores pink, elliptical, 
4 x 2-5 p. Greenhouses. Feb. Rare. 

**P. more or less viscid, smooth. 

219. V. speciosa Fr. (= VolvariagloiocephalaDC.sec. Dumee.) Boud. 
Icon. t. 84. Speciosa, handsome. 

P. 7-13 cm., whitish, subumbonate disc grey, or umber, fleshy, glo- 
bose, then campanulate, at length plane, viscid. St. 10-20 x 12-5 cm., 
white, firm, slightly attenuated upwards, base white-villose when young. 
Volva white, membranaceous, bulbous, free, variously torn into loops, 
externally tomentose. Gills white, then flesh colour, free, ventricose. 
Flesh white, floccose. Spores pink, elliptical, 15-16 x 8-10 p, 1-2- 
guttulate. Cystidia " vesiculose-pyrif orm, 60-70 x 20-36 p, some- 
times pointed" Rick. Smell none, or somewhat strong. Edible sec. 
Maire. Dunghills, roadsides, and occasionally in woods. June Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

220. V. gloiocephala (DC.) Fr. (= Volvaria speciosa Fr. sec. Dumee.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 298, t. 298. 7X0*09, sticky; Ke<f>a\tj, head. 

P. 7-11 cm., fuliginous, fleshy, campanulate, then expanded, umbo- 
nate, glutinous', margin striate. St. 8-18 x 1-2 cm., white, becoming 
fuscous, or tawny, attenuated upwards, base subbulbose and villose. 
Volva whitish, grey, or fuscous, circularly split, lobed, villose, often 
adpressed to the stem. Gills white, then reddish, free, broad, especially 
in front, attenuated behind, margin slightly toothed. Flesh white, 



96 VOLVARIA. LOCELLINA 

fuscous under the cuticle of the pileus. Spores pink, elliptical, 12 x 7fj,. 
Smell and taste unpleasant. Poisonous. On the ground. June Nov. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

221. V. viperina Fr. 1 (= ^Volvaria cornea (Pico.) Quel.; Volvaria 

speciosa Fr. sec. Maire.) Viperina, of a snake. 

P. 3-4 cm., grey, or cinereous, fleshy, persistently conical, acute, 

viscid, silky shining when dry. St. white, equal, subflexuose. Volva 

thin, entire, closely sheathing. Gills tinged yellowish then flesh colour. 

Spores pink, "6-8 x 4-4-5/i" Herpell. 

222. V. media (Schum.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 299, t. 299. 

Medius, middle. 

P. 3-5 cm., white, disc brownish, or yellowish, slightly fleshy, con- 
vexo-plane, obtuse, viscid, silky when dry and shining. St. 4-7 cm. 
x 4-6 mm., white, subbulbose, equal. Volva white, membranaceous, 
sheathing, lobed. Gills white, then rosy flesh colour, free, broad in front, 
attenuated behind. Flesh white. Spores pink, elliptical, 5-6 x 4/u,. 
Woods, and pastures. Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

223. V. parvula (Weinm.) Fr. (= Volvaria pusilla (Pers.) Quel.) Boud. 

Icon. t. 86. Parvulus, very small. 

P. 1-3 cm., whitish, disc yellowish, slightly fleshy, conical, then cam- 
panulate, at length rather plane and umbonate, at first slightly viscid, 
soon dry silky. St. 2-5-4 cm. x 2-4 mm., white, equal, silky, base villose. 
Volva white, membranaceous, free, lobed, minutely tomentose on the 
outside. Gills white, then flesh colour, free, broad in front. Flesh white. 
Spores pink, elliptical, 5 x 3/n, 1-2-guttulate. Pastures, gardens, and 
woods. May Oct. Common, (v.v.) 
var. biloba Massee (= Volvaria parvula, forma B. Fries Monogr.). 

Bi, two; A,oy8o?, the lobe of the ear. 

Entirely white when young. P. conical, 6-8 mm. high, dry, some- 
times floccosely squamulose. St. 2-5 cm. x 1-2 mm., equal, pubescent. 
Volva bilobed, sheathing, externally adpressedly silky. Pastures. July 
Sept. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

Spores ochraceous. 

Locellina GiU. 
(Acetabularia Berk.) 
(Locellus, a casket.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular. Stem central, thin. Volva membranaceous, 
sheathing. Gills free, or adnate. Spores ochraceous, or somewhat 
fuscous, oval, or oblong, smooth, continuous. Cystidia ventricose, 
pointed. Growing on the ground. 

1 This is listed as British by Massee in his Eur. Fung. Fl. Agar. 120. 



LOCELLINA. CLARKEINDA. AMANITA 97 

224. L. Alexandri Gillet. Alexandre. 
P. 2-3 cm., yellowish-tan, disc darker, convex, umbonate, viscid, 

pellicle easily separable; margin appendiculate with the cinnamon fibrils 
of the arachnoid veil. St. white, or whitish, equal, or slightly thickened 
at the base, flexuose, striate, covered with afibrillose, cinnamon veil up 
to 1-2 cm. of the apex. Volva white, or whitish, becoming reddish when 
handled, irregular, torn at the edge. Gills reddish fiesh colour, paler at 
the edge, adnato-decurrent, crowded. Flesh whitish. Spores "be- 
coming fuscous, oblong " Big. & Guill. Woods, at the base of beeches. 
Oct. Eare. 

225. L. acetabulosa (Sow.) Sacc. (= Acetabularia acetabulosa Berk. ; 
Pluteus semibulbosus Lasch sec. Boud.) Sow. Eng. Fung. t. 303, 
as Agaricus acetabulosus Sow. Acetabulum, a vinegar cup. 

P. 2-3 cm., tan colour, convex; margin plicate, or deeply striate. 
St. 4-5 cm. x 3 mm., white, equal. Volva discoid, socket-like. Gills 
tawny, free, lanceolate, 3 mm. broad. Flesh very thin. River bank, 
near high-water mark. May. Rare. 

Spores purple, or fuscous. 
Clarkeinda O. Kuntz. 

(Chitonia Fr.) 

(C. B. Clarke, 'Ii/So<?, pertaining to India.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular. Stem central, thin. Volva membranaceous, 
sheathing. Gills free. Spores brownish purple, elliptical, smooth, 
with an apical germ-pore. Growing on the ground. 

226. C. rubriceps (Cke. & Massee) Rea. Cke. Illus. no. 1176, t. 967, as 

Chitonia rubriceps Cke. & Massee. Ruber, red; caput, head. 
P. 1'5 2-5 cm., testaceous, fleshy, campanulate, then expanded, 
umbonate, often becoming depressed round the umbo, smooth; mar- 
gin arched, faintly striate. St. 7'5 cm. x 3-4 mm., paler than the p., 
equal, smooth, rooting. Volva whitish, sheathing, saccate, torn at the 
margin. Gills purplish brown, free, lanceolate, narrow, rather crowded. 
Flesh white, fairly thick at the disc. Spores brownish purple, elliptical, 
a little attenuated at both ends, 12 x 6ju. On soil in Aroid house. Dec. 
Rare. 

****With a ring on the stem, and a volva at the base of the stem. 

Spores white. 
Amanita (Pers.) Fr. 

(Probably from Mount Amanus in Cilicia.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular. Stem central, fleshy. Ring membranaceous, 
adnate, persistent, rarely fugacious. Volva membranaceous, free, or 
B. B. B. 7 



AMANITA 

adnate, persistent, or friable. Gills free, subadnate, or decurrent by 
a tooth, intermediate gills cut squarely behind. Spores white, rarely 
tinged greenish, globose, subglobose, oval, or elliptical, smooth, very 
rarely verrucose. Cystidia subglobose, or cylindrical ventricose. 
Growing on the ground. 

(a) Margin of volva free, persistent. P. generally naked. 

227. A. verna (Lam.) Fr. Syst. (= Amanita virosa Fr. Hym. Eur.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 1, t. 1, as Amanita virosa Fr. Ver, spring. 

Entirely white. P. 58 cm., fleshy, conical, acute, then campanulate, 
expanded, and subumbonate, glutinous, shining when dry; margin 
often unequal, repand, inflexed. St. 8-12 x 1-5-2 cm., cylindrical 
from the bulbose base, often compressed at the apex, split up into 
longitudinal fibrils, floccosely squamulose. Ring apical, lax, silky, 
splitting up into floccose fragments. Volva thick, lax, wide. Gills 
free, thin, linear-lanceolate, a little broader in front, crowded, edge 
often floccose. Spores white, globose, 7-8/z,. Smell foetid. Taste un- 
pleasant. Poisonous. Moist woods. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. grisea Massee. Grisea, grey. 

Differs from the type in the p. being shaded with grey. Woods. Rare. 

228. A. phalloides (Vaill.) Fr. (= Amanita virescens (Vaill.) Quel.) 
Rolland, Champ, t. 3, no. 3. (f>a\\6$, Phallus; etSo<?, like. 

P. 7-10 cm., greenish, or yellowish olive, streaked with dark, innate 
fibrils, fleshy, ovato-campanulate, then expanded, obtuse, viscid, rarely 
covered with one or two fragments of the volva. St. 8-12 x 1-5-2 cm., 
white, rarely besprinkled with olive or pale yellowish olive, adpressed 
squamules, smooth, or floccose, attenuated upwards, base bulbous. 
Ring white, superior, reflexed, slightly striate, swollen, generally en- 
tire. Volva free for half its depth, generally splitting up into three or 
four, more or less acute segments. Gills white, free, ventricose, 8 mm. 
broad. Flesh white. Spores white, subglobose, 8-11 x 7-9 fj., with a 
large central gutta. Smell foetid when old. Taste unpleasant. 
Poisonous. Woods, and ad joining pastures. July Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

var. verna (Bull.) Fr. 1 Boud. Icon. t. 2, as Amanita verna (Bull.) Fr. 

Verna, occurring in spring. 

Differs from the type in being entirely white. Spores white, globose, 
7-8/i,, with a large central gutta. July Aug. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. umbrina (Ferry) Maire. 

Differs from the type in the brownish umber p., and in the fuscous, 
adpressed squamules on the st. (v.v.) 

1 Boudier describes this as a distinct species with oval spores 10-14 x 7-9 fi. 



AMANITA 99 

229. A. porphyria (A. & S.) Fr. Barla, Champ, t. 3, figs. 5-6. 

Trop<f>vpa, purple. 

P. 3-6 cm., greyish bistre with a purplish tinge, campanulate, then 
expanded, moist; margin rarely slightly striate. St. 7-9 x 1 cm., 
white tinted with grey, base bulbous. Ring white, becoming fuscous, 
distant. Volva erect, white becoming fuscous. Gills white, adnexed, 
crowded, thin. Flesh white. Spores white, globose, 9/z, multi-guttu- 
late. Smell strong. Poisonous. Pine woods. July Oct. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

230. A. lutea Otth. Lutea, yellow 

P. 4-7-5 cm., yellow, or yellowish ochre, conical, then expanded, 
viscid, disc papillose, usually with broad scattered scales; margin invo- 
lute, striate. St. 7-8 cm., bulbous, rather narrowed upwards. Ring 
white, thin. Volva membranaceous. Gills white, crowded. Woods. 
Rare. 

(6) Volva circumscissile, or fugacious. P. generally covered 
with fragments of the volva. 

231. A. recutita Fr. Gonn. & Rabenh. i and n, t. 2, as Amanita 
Secretanii Rabenh. Recutita, circumcised. 

P. 6-9 cm., fuliginous, bistre, or brown, but without any tinge of 
purple, dry, convex, then plane, generally covered with fragments of 
the volva, silky. St. 8-10 x 1-5-3 cm., white, silky, attenuated up- 
wards, base bulbous. Ring white, distant. Volva greyish bistre, closely 
sheathing, ending abruptly. Gills white, adnexed with a decurrent line. 
Flesh white. Spores white, globose, 8-9 /x. Smell slightly foetid. 
Poisonous. Pine, and birch woods. July Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

A.junquillea Quel. = Amanitopsis adnata (W. G. Sm.) Sacc. 

232. A. mappa (Batsch) Fr. (= Amanita citrina (Schaefl.) Quel.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 4, t. 4. Mappa, a napkin. 

P. 6-9 cm., white, or becoming yellow, covered with patch-like frag- 
ments of the volva, slightly fleshy, dry, convexo-plane, obtuse, or 
depressed, orbicular. St. 5-8 x 1-1-5 cm., white, equal, base bulbous. 
Ring white, yellowish on the exterior, superior, soft, lax, minutely 
striate. Volva yellowish, or fuliginous, obtuse, the friable upper portion 
disappearing and leaving a distinct groove round the base of the st. 
Gills white, adnexed, crowded, narrow, edge often yellowish. Flesh 
white, yellowish under the cuticle. Spores white, subglobose, apiculate 
at the base, 8-10 x 7-9 fj,, with a large central gutta. Smell foetid. 
Poisonous. Woods, and heaths. July Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

72 



100 AMANITA 

var. citrina (Gonn. & Rabenh.) Eea. Gonn. & Kabenh. i and n, t. 4. 

Citrina, lemon yellow. 

P. 8-12 cm., bright yellow with white patches of the fragments of the 
volva, convex, obtuse. St. 10-12 x 2 cm., white, stout. Volva im- 
perfect. Spores white, "globose, waited, 6-7 /A" Massee. Rare. 

var. alba (Gillet) Rea. Cke. Illus. no. 3, t. 3. Alba, white. 

Differs from the type in being white, and then becoming discoloured. 
Woods. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

(c) Volva floccose, or friable. P. floccose, or verrucose with 
the fragments of the volva, rarely naked. 

233. A. muscaria (Linn.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 5, t. 117. Musca, a fly. 

P. 10-20 cm., scarlet, or orange, covered with white, or yellowish 
fragments of the volva, fleshy, viscid, globose, then convex, and at 
length flattened; margin slightly striate when mature. St. 10-22 
x 2-5 cm., white, or yellowish, firm, often torn into scales, apex striate, 
base bulbous, encircled by several concentric rings formed from the 
fragments of the volva. Ring white, yellowish on the exterior, superior, 
very soft, torn, somewhat striate. Gills white, rarely becoming yellow, 
free, but reaching the stem, crowded, thick, broader in front, minutely 
denticulate. Flesh white, yellow under the epidermis. Spores white, 
elliptical, apiculate, 8-10 x 6-7 //,. Taste mild. Poisonous. Birch, and 
coniferous woods, and under birches and conifers. July Dec. 
Common, (v.v.) 

var. regalis Fr. Regalis, royal. 

Differs from the type in the very glutinous, liver coloured p., and in 

the st. becoming light yellow internally. Beech woods. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. formosa Fr. Gonn. & Rabenh. i and n, t. 10, fig. 2. 

Formosa, handsome. 

Differs from the type in the lemon yellow p. covered with lax, mealy 
yellowish, fugacious fragments of the veil, and in the st. and ring often 
becoming yellow. Beech woods. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. umbrina Fr. Umbrina, umber. 

Differs from the type in being thinner, and more slender, and in the 
umber, or livid p., fuscous at the disc. Woods. Rare. 

var. paella (Batsch) Cda. Gonn. & Rabenh. i and n, t. 7, fig. 2. 

Puella, a girl. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size, and in the p. being destitute 
of any fragments of the volva. Woods. Rare, (v.v.) 



AMANITA 101 

var. aureola (Kalchbr.) Quel. Kalchbr. Icon. t. 1, fig. 1. 

Aureola, golden. 

Differs from the type in the erect, membranaceous volva. Under 
birches. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



234. A. rcmilii Kiel. Bull. Soc. Myc. Fr. xxm (1907), t. 1. 

Emile Boudier, the eminent French mycologist. 

P. 13-17 cm., yellowish butter colour, becoming tawny purplish, disc 
finally dark fuscous, covered with cream coloured fragments of the volva, 
fleshy, viscid, convex, then hemispherical, and finally expanded, and 
depressed; margin paler, finally striate. St. 12-20 x 1-5-3 cm., white, 
bulbous. Ring white, thick, especially at the margin, and covered 
with the fragments of the cream coloured volva, crenulate, torn. 
Volva friable, forming three to four concentric rings round the apex 
of the globose, rarely fusiform base of the stem. Gills whitish, or pale 
rose colour, attenuated or rounded near the stem, broad, somewhat 
crowded, edge denticulate, floccose. Flesh white, pale rose red under 
Spores white, subglobose, 9-10//,, 1-guttulate. Taste 
Poisonous. Deciduous woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 



235. A. solitaria (Bull.) Fr. (= Amanita strobiliformis (Vitt.) sec. 
Quel.) Boud. Icon. t. 3. Solitaria, lonely. 

P. 8-12 cm., white, then pearl grey, covered with moderately thick, 
angular, wart-like fragments of the volva, which are at first plate-like, 
floccose, white, and easily separable, then becoming greyish and 
hardened, very fleshy, moist, convex then expanded; margin appen- 
diculate with the veil. St. 10-20 x 3 cm., white, covered with thick, 
floccose, imbricate scales; base bulbous, prolonged into a root-like point. 
Ring cream colour, floccose, often torn, and finally disappearing, 
striate. Volva white, or greyish, very friable. Gills snow white, free, 
decurrent by a tooth, ventricose, minutely crenulate. Flesh white. 
Spores white, elliptical, 13-15 x 8-10/i. Smell and taste pleasant. 
Edible. Clearings in woods, and adjacent pastures. July Oct. Rare. 
(v.v.) 

236. A. strobilifonnis (Paul.) Quel. Cke. Illus. no. 9, t. 277. 

Strobilus, a pine cone. 

P. 6-30 cm., grey, covered with very thick, somewhat separable, angular, 
pyramidal, wart-like, grey fragments of the volva, very fleshy, hemi- 
spherical, then plane. St. 15-22 x 3-5 cm., whitish, clothed with grey 
flocci; base bulbous, immersed in the soil and surrounded by two or 
three circles formed by the remains of the volva. Ring white, apical, 
torn, dependent, wide, striate. Volva greyish, friable. Gills white, 
free, decurrent by a tooth. Flesh white. Spores white, elliptical, 



102 AMANITA 

10-11 x 7/x. Smell and taste pleasant. Edible. Downs, and woods 
especially on the chalk. July Oct. Locally common, rare elsewhere. 
(v.v.) 

237. A. aculeata Quel. Quel. Champ. Jur. et Vosg. i, t. 1, fig. 1, as 
Amanita strobiliformis Fr. Aculeata, prickly. 

P. 5-10 cm., white, becoming greyish, fleshy, convex, then plane, 
densely covered with erect, slender, pointed, angular, firm, adnate, 
whitish or greyish warts, that become tinged with bistre with age; margin 
white, smooth. St. 5-12 cm. x 2-5 cm., whitish, solid, equal, floc- 
cosely scaly; base bulbous, often attenuated downwards, surrounded 
by several concentric crenulate zones, the remains of the volva. Ring 
white, superior, thin, torn, striate, often becoming fugacious. Gills 
white, becoming yellowish with age, 5-15 mm. wide, sinuate behind, 
crowded. Flesh white, then tinged with yellow, thick, soft. Spores white, 
broadly elliptical, or subglobose, with a basal apiculus, 10-11 x 8-9 /x, 
contents granular. Smell and taste pleasant. Amongst beech leaves, 
in woods. Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

238. A. Vittadinii (Moretti) Vitt. (= Amanita umbella (Paul.) Quel.) 
Krombh. t. 27. Vittadini, an Italian mycologist. 

P. 6-12 cm., white, densely covered with small, erect, wart-like frag- 
ments of the volva, convex, then plane, silky. St. 15-20 x 2-2-5 cm., 
white, becoming tinged with greenish, floccosely scaly, base often some- 
what bulbous. Ring white, superior, large, flexuose, often double. 
Volva white, or grey, friable. Gills cream colour, finally becoming 
greenish, decurrent by a tooth, ventricose, thick. Flesh white, then 
tinged greenish. Spores white ("greenish" Quel.), elliptical, 6-9 x 6 /A. 
Smell and taste unpleasant. Poisonous. Downs, and woods on the 
chalk and limestone. July Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

239. A. echinocephala Vitt. Cke. Illus. no. 1102, t. 939, fide Boudier, 
as Amanita solitaria Bull. e^ti/o?, hedgehog; K<j)a\ij, head. 

P. 6-8 cm., white, or greyish, covered with thin, pointed, wart-like 
fragments of the volva, convex, then flattened and depressed at the 
disc; margin floccose. St. 8-14 x 2-4 cm., white, clothed with revo- 
lute squamules, base napiform and rooting. Ring white, distant, per- 
sistent, slightly striate. Volva greyish, friable. Gills greenish yellow, 
free, broad. Flesh white, yellowish at the base of the stem. Spores 
"white, ovoid, 11-13 x 7-10/t" Boud. Smell and taste unpleasant. 
Poisonous. Limestone pastures, and woods. July Sept. Rare. 

240. A. excelsa Fr. (= Amanita ampla (Pers.) Quel.) Rolland, 
Champ, t. 6, no. 8, as Amanita ampla. Excelsa, tall. 

P. 9-15 cm., reddish grey, or brownish grey, covered with mealy, 
fugacious patches of the volva, streaked with innate, blackish bistre 



AMANITA 103 

fibrils, globose, then plane, viscid, rugose, uneven; margin often finally 
striate. St. 12-20 x 2-3 cm., greyish, equal, or bulbous at the base, 
villose, concentrically scaly below the ring from the breaking up of the 
epidermis. Ring white, large, superior, dependent, torn, often fugacious. 
Volva whitish grey, friable. Gills white, free, very broad, 12-15 mm., 
ventricose. Mesh white, soft, fragile. Spores white, subglobose, 
9 x 7-8 \i, multi-guttulate. Cystidia "on edge of gill, globular, 20- 
35/u, in diam." Lange. Taste pleasant, smell unpleasant. Poisonous. 
Deciduous woods. July Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

241. A. pantherina (DC.) Fr. Holland, Champ, t. 7, no. 10. 

Pantherina, deceitful. 

P. 6-10 cm., olivaceous umber, fuliginous, or greyish olive, rarely 
whitish, covered with numerous small, white, moderately persistent frag- 
ments of the volva, fleshy, convex, then flattened, or subdepressed, 
viscid, shining when dry; margin striate. St. 7-9 x 1 cm., white, equal, 
or attenuated upwards, base bulbous. Ring white, distant, thin, striate, 
adhering obliquely, somewhat fugacious. Volva white, forming one or 
two concentric rings at the apex of the globose base of the stem. Gills 
white, free, reaching the stem, broader in front, 6-8 mm. broad. 
Flesh white. Spores white, elliptical, 11-12 x 7-9 /z. Cystidia "mostly 
cylindric-vesiculose about 12/z, in diam." Lange. Taste insipid, smell 
unpleasant. Poisonous. Woods, heaths, and pastures. July Oct. 
Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

242. A. cariosa Fr. Gonn. & Rabenh. t. 9, fig. 2, as Amanita aspera. 

Cariosa, rotten. 

P. 6-12 cm., umber, or dark cinereous, covered with white, mealy 
fragments of the volva, convex, then plane, often hemispherical, tender; 
margin often striate. St. 12-14 x 2-4 cm., white, fragile, attenuated 
upwards, not bulbous, villose, mealy. Ring white, superior, broad, 
fugacious. Volva white, friable. Gills white, adnate, becoming free. 
Flesh white, fragile. Spores white, ovoid, 11-13 x 7-10 /JL. Taste acid. 
Poisonous. Woods. Sept. Rare. 

243. A. spissa Fr. Rolland, Champ, t. 6, no. 9. Spissa, thick. 
P. 8-15 cm., umber fuliginous, or grey, fleshy, compact, convexo- 

plane, obtuse, covered with whitish, or greyish, fugacious patches of the 
volva; margin often fibrillose. St. 10-11 x 3-^ cm., white, clothed with 
concentric squamules below the ring, base bulbous, somewhat rooting. 
Ring white, superior, large, striate. Volva whitish, or greyish, friable. 
Gills white, slightly striato-decurrent, broad, crowded. Flesh white, 
firm. Spores white, subglobose, 9-10 x 8-9 p. Cystidia "on edge of 
gills globular, 18-30//, in diam." Lange. Taste insipid, or slightly 
biting. Edible. Deciduous woods. July Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 



104 AM ANITA 

244. A. rubescens (Pers.) Fr. (= Amanita rubens (Scop.) Quel.) 
Rolland, Champ, t. 9, no. 13. Rubescens, becoming red. 

P. 8-12 cm., reddish brown, or dingy reddish brown, sometimes pale, 
covered with large, grey (sometimes white, or yellowish) mealy patches 
of the volva, fleshy, convex then plane, obtuse, moist; margin slightly 
striate when old. St. 7-12 x 3-4 cm., reddish white, deeper in colour 
at the bulbous base, squamulose, attenuated upwards. Ring white, 
superior, large, membranaceous, soft, striate. Volva evanescent. Gills 
white, then spotted with red, decurrent by a tooth, attenuated behind, 
thin, crowded, soft. Flesh white, becoming reddish when broken. The 
whole plant becomes reddish with injury, or handling. Spores white, 
ovoid, or elliptical, 8-10 x 7/*, 1-2-guttulate. Taste sweet, then acrid. 
Edible. Woods, heaths, pastures, etc. Common, (v.v.) 

var. magnifica (Fl. Dan.) Rea. Cke. Illus. no. 14, t. 34, as Amanita 
magnifica Fr. Magnifica, splendid. 

Differs from the type in the smooth pileus, equal stem, and fugacious 
ring. Woods. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. alba W. G. Smith. Alba, white 

Differs from the type in being entirely white. Woods. Rare. 

var. annulo-sulphurea Gillet. 

Annulus, a ring; sulphurea, sulphur-yellow. 

Differs from the type in having a persistent, sulphur coloured ring. 
Woods, and heaths. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. gracilis Cat. de S. et L. Gracilis, thin. 

Differs from the type in being thinner, and smaller in all its parts. 
Heaths. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

245. A. nitida Fr. Nitida, shining. 
P. 6-10 cm., white, or yellowish, shining, covered with large, angular, 

thick fragments of the volva, which become fuscous, convex, then plane, 
fleshy. St. 6-7 x 1-2-5 cm., white, firm, slightly attenuated upwards, 
squamulose below the ring, base bulbous. Ring white, superior, thin, 
torn, slightly striate, villous outside, at length fugacious. Volva 
whitish, becoming fuscous, evanescent. Gills white, free, crowded, very 
broad, 8-12 mm., ventricose. Flesh white. Spores white, elliptical, 
6-9 x 4-5/Lt. Taste sweet, or slightly acrid. Poisonous. Deciduous 
woods. Aug. Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

246. A. aspera (Fr.) Qu61. Asper, rough. 
P. 5-8 cm., straw colour, grey, olive, or bistre, covered with small, 

pointed, floccose, sulphur coloured, persistent fragments of the volva, 



AMANITA. ARMILLARIA 105 

which become whitish or brownish in dry weather, convex, then 
plane. St. 5-8 x 1 cm., white, attenuated upwards, slightly floccose, 
base bulbous, surmounted by sulphur coloured flocci that become brown- 
ish. Ring white, distant, margin sprinkled with sulphur coloured flocci. 
Volva sulphur coloured, friable. Gills white, or tinged sulphur colour, 
rounded-free, ventricose. Flesh white, yellowish, or brownish under the 
epidermis. Spores white, ovoid, 7-8 x 6-7 /A, 1-guttulate. Cystidia 
sparse, vesiculose, 20-40 x 18-25 p. Smell and taste pleasant. 
Poisonous. Beech woods. July Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

A. magnifica (Fl. Dan.) Fr. = Amanita rubescens (Pers.) Fr. var. 
magnifica (Fl. Dan.) Rea. 

A. arida Fr. = Lepiota arida (Fr.) Gillet. 

A. lenticularis (Lasch) Fr. = Lepiota lenticularis (Lasch) Cke. 

A. megalodactylus Berk. & Br. = Lepiota lenticularis (Lasch) Cke. 
var. megalodactylus (B. & Br.) Rea. 

B. Pileus confluent, and homogeneous with the fleshy stem. 

*With a membranaceous ring on the stem. 

Spores white. 

Armillaria Fr. 

(Armilla, a ring.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular. Stem central, fleshy. Ring membranaceous, 
or subarachnoid, adnate, persistent, or fugacious. Gills sinuato- 
adnexed, decurrent, or adnate. Spores white, elliptical, oval, or 
globose, smooth. Growing on the ground, and on wood, sometimes 
caespitose. 

(a) Gills sinuato-adnexed. 
247. A. bulbigera (A. & S.) Fr. Bulbus, a bulb; gero, I bear. 

P. 7-5-10 cm., pale yellowish brick colour, fleshy, not compact, con- 
vexo-flattened, obtuse, moist; margin paler, squamuloso-fibrillose from 
the fragments of the veil. St. 5-7-5 x 1-5-2 cm., white, equal, floccose 
with the remains of the arachnoid veil up to the ring, sometimes the 
separable cuticle is marked longitudinally with blackish fibrils, base 
marginately bulbous. Ring white, arachnoid, silky, fugacious. Gills 
white, then cream colour, or reddish, broadly emarginate, ventricose, 
broad. Flesh white, reddish under the cuticle, and above the base of the 
gills. Spores white, elliptical, 6-7 x 4-5/A. In pine woods. Sept. 
Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

Exactly like a white-spored Cortinarius. 



106 ARMILLARIA 

248. A. rufa (Batt.) Quel. (= Agaricus causetta Barla sec. Quel.; 
Armillaria focalis Fr. sec. Quel.) Cke. Illus. no. 51, t. 33, as 
Armillaria aurantia Fr. fide Boudier. Rufa, red. 

P. 8-12 cm., chestnut, or brownish tawny, convex, then plane; 
margin fibrillose, torn. St. 6-9 x 3 cm., white, covered with reddish tawny 
squamules up to the ring, apex glabrous, equal, attenuated and root- 
ing at the base. Ring reddish, squamulose. Gills greenish white, sinuate. 
Flesh white, compact. Spores white, globose, 3-4/i, punctate. Taste 
pleasant. Edible. Sandy coniferous woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

249. A. focalis Fr. (= Armillaria rufa (Batt.) Quel.) 

Focale, a neck-cloth. 

P. 10-12-5 cm., reddish tawny, fleshy, convex, then flattened, obtuse, 
slightly shining, silky-fibrillose. St. 7-5-9 x 2-5 cm., whitish, becoming 
tawny, equal, fibrillose. Ring concolorous, median, oblique. Gills 
white, then pale, emarginato-free, crowded. Flesh pale tawny. Spores 
white, "4-5 x 3 /A" Rick. Pine woods, and under old laurel trees. 
Aug. Oct. Rare. 

var. Goliath Fr. The giant Goliath. 

Differs from the type in its larger size, in the revolute torn margin 
of the p., in the st. becoming tawny fibrillose downwards, in the fugacious 
ring, and in the thinner flesh at the margin of the p. 

250. A. robusta (A. & S.) Fr. (= Agaricus caligatus Viv. sec. Quel.) 
Boud. Icon. t. 22. Robusta, strong. 

P. 5-15 cm., bay brown rufescent, margin paler, very fleshy, convex, 
then expanded, obtuse; margin scaly-fibrillose. St. 4-7 x 2-3 cm., 
white, covered with rufescent squamules up to the ring, fusiform, apex 
mealy. Ring white, streaked with rufescent fibrils, large, subpersistent. 
Gills whitish, or cream colour, broadly emarginate, almost free, 10- 
12 mm. broad, crowded, often transversely veined. Flesh white, 
reddish under the cuticle of the p. Spores white, globose, 4-5 /it. Taste 
and smell pleasant. Edible. Coniferous woods. Sept. Oct. Com- 
mon, (v.v.) 

var. minor Fr. Quel. Jur. et Vosg. part in, t. 1, fig. 4, as Armillaria 
subannulata Batsch. Minor, smaller. 

Differs from the type in the smooth p. and in very narrow gills and 
ring. Woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

251. A. caligata (Viv.) Fr. (= Armillaria robusta A. & S. sec. Quel.) 
Boud. Icon. t. 21. Caliga, a soldier's shoe. 

P. 612 cm., brownish chestnut, somewhat purplish, covered with ad- 
pressed, denticulate, darker squamules on the disc, firm, convex, de- 



ARMILLARIA 107 

pressed at the centre; margin white, incurved, appendiculate with the 
veil. St. 58 x 1-2-5 cm., white, and mealy at the apex, covered with 
large, denticulate, dark chestnut squamules below the ring, attenuated at 
the base. Ring white inside, torn, covered on the outside with similar 
squamules, ascending. Gills white, adnate, slightly decurrent, broad. 
Flesh white, firm. Spores white, elliptical, 5-6 x 4ju,. Smell of pear. 
Taste bitter. Edible. Pine woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

A. aurantia (Schaeff.) Fr. = Tricholoma aurantium (SchaefE.) Fr. Syst. 

252. A. colossa (Fr.) Bond. (=Tricholoma colossum Fr.) Boud. Icon. 
t. 20. Ko\oacr6<f, a gigantic statue. 

P. 10-22 cm., reddish tawny, darker at the centre, globose, then ex- 
panded, plano-convex, then depressed, always very obtuse, repand, 
becoming broken up into scales; margin whitish, incurved, slightly 
viscid, cottony. St. 7-5-10 x 6-10 cm., concolorous, or more deeply 
coloured than the p. below the ring, apex white, floccose, base bulbous. 
Ring white, then becoming reddish, membranaceous, soon fugacious. Gills 
white, then pale brick red, rounded, sinuate, very wide, 12 mm. broad, 
fragile, torn. Flesh white, then pale brick-red, very hard, thick. Spores 
white, globose, 6-7 x 5-7 /*, with a large central gutta. Taste nutty, 
then slightly bitter. Edible. Pine woods. June Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

253. A. ramentacea (Bull.) Fr. (= Tricholoma ramentaceum (Bull.) 
Quel.) Cke. Illus. no. 53, t. 71. Ramenta, shavings. 

P. 57-5 cm., whitish, or greyish, covered with adpressed, floccose, 
dark grey, or bistre scales, convex, then plane, obtuse, or gibbous, at 
length depressed, and revolute. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 6-12 mm., white, 
covered with adpressed, fuscous, or bistre squamules below the ring, firm, 
unequal, often thickened at the base. Ring white above, greyish and 
scaly on the outside, often stained yellowish, membranaceous, fugacious. 
Gills white, often stained with yellow, emarginato-adnexed, separating 
free, 6-8 mm., broad, crowded, then subdistant, thin. Flesh white, 
yellowish under the epidermis. Spores white, elliptical, 5-6 x 4/A, with 
a large central gutta. Taste sweet. Smell unpleasant. Under pines. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

A. constricta Fr. = Lepiota constricta (Fr.) Quel. 
A. glioderma (Fr.) Quel. = Lepiota glioderma Fr. 

254. A. delicata (Fr.) Boud. (= Lepiota delicata Fr.) Boud. Icon, 
t. 23. Delicata, tender. 

P. 13 cm., rufescent, pale rose, yellowish, or brownish, convex, then 
plane, depressed at the centre, often slightly umbonate, viscid; margin 
faintly sulcate. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 4-6 mm., whitish, tinted with the colour 
of the p., and fioccoso-scaly or tomentose below the ring, equal. Ring 



108 ARMILLARIA 

concolorous, membranaceous, densely floccoso- scaly. Gills white, be- 
coming tinted with the colour of the p. when old, almost free, crowded, 
thin, ventricose. Flesh white, or yellowish, thin. Spores white, 
globose, 5-6 /z. Coniferous woods, hothouses, and about old stumps. 
June Sept. Rare in woods. 

255. A. haematites B. & Br. Cke. lUus. no. 54, t. 45. 

aifjLaTirr/s, bloody. 

P. 2-4 cm., red liver colour, hemispherical, then somewhat flattened, 
or depressed at the centre, thin, slightly hispid, becoming smooth. 
St. 4-6 cm. x 3-5 mm., concolorous below the ring, whitish above, equal ; 
base thickened, white floccose. Ring whitish, then concolorous, sub- 
membranaceous, narrow, inferior, scaly beneath, torn, often fugacious. 
Gills white, then whitish tinged with rose, and becoming rose colour 
when rubbed, sinuato-adnate, or shortly decurrent, scarcely crowded, 
narrow, 3mm. broad. Flesh pale liver colour, slightly yellowish in the st. 
Spores white, ovoid-ellipsoid, 4 x 3/Lt. Among fir leaves. Nov. Rare. 

256. A. Jasonis Cke. & Massee. (=Lepiota amianthina (Scop.) Fr. 
sec. Boud. Cke. Illus. no. 1113, t. 955. 

Jason and the golden fleece. 

P. 2-5-7-5 cm., golden yellow, disc tawny, fleshy, campanulate, then 
expanded, with a distinct rounded umbo, granularly papillate, granules 
innate; margin appendiculate with the fibrous veil. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 6- 
9 mm., concolorous, equal, or slightly thickened at the base, squamu- 
lose below the ring. Ring concolorous, distant, squarrose, torn. Gills 
white, then pallid, adnate, scarcely crowded, thin. Flesh reddish. 
Spores white, elliptical, 8 x 5/n. Smell strong. Caespitose. On 
stumps. Sept. Rare. 

(b) Gills more or less decurrent. 

257. A. mellea (Vahl.) Fr. Grev. Scot. Crypt. Fl. t. 332. 

Md, honey. 

P. 5-15 cm., ochraceous yellow, tawny, or bistre, covered with oliva- 
ceous, or brownish hairy squamules, fleshy, convex, then flattened, and 
depressed in the centre; margin paler, striate. St. 7-5-15 x -5-1 cm., 
yellow, tawny, or bistre, often covered with olivaceous down below the 
ring, becoming blackish with age, equal, or subbulbous at the base, 
elastic, fibrillose, apex striate. Ring white, becoming discoloured, apical, 
silky, membranaceous, thick, swollen at the margin. Gills whitish 
flesh colour, then rufescent, adnate, decurrent by a tooth, subdistant. 
Flesh white, becoming discoloured, floccose. Spores white, elliptical, 
8-9 x 5-6 p,. Cystidia "on edge of gill basidia-like, 40-60 x 8-12ju," 
Rick. Taste acrid. Edible. Caespitose. On old stumps, and buried 
fragments of wood. July Dec. Very common, (v.v.) 



ARMILLABIA 109 

var. sulphurea (Weinm.) Fr. Sulphurea, sulphur colour. 

Differs from the type in the yellow, or yellowish flesh coloured p., 
and the sulphur coloured gills. Woods. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. minor Barla. Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 21, figs. 3-4. 

Minor, smaller. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size, and thinner flesh. Woods 
(v.v.) 

var. maxima Barla. Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 22, figs. 1-2. 

Maxima, very large. 

Differs from the type in the very large p. 20 cm. or more, st. 15x4 cm., 
ventricose, attenuated at the base, and very wide ring, tawny on the outside. 
Woods. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. obscura Gillet. Obscura, dark. 

Differs from the type in the brownish p., covered with numerous 
black scales. Woods. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. glabra Gillet. Glabra, smooth. 

Differs from the type in the smooth pileus. Woods. Common, (v.v.) 

var. bulbosa Barla. Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 22, figs. 3-7. 

Bulbosa, bulbous. 

Differs from the type in the reddish, bulbous stem, and ochraceous, 
or bright bistre ring. Woods. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. viridi-flava Barla. Barla, Champ. Prov. Nice, t. 11, figs. 1-3. 

Viridis, green ;flava, yellow 

Differs from the type in the greenish p., covered with yellow scales, 
or fibrils, in the bright yellow, or sulphur coloured st., the citron yellow 
ring, and the yellowish gills. Stumps in hedgerows. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

var. laricina (Bolt.) Fr. Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 21, figs. 5-6. 

Larix, larch. 

Differs from the type in the flesh coloured, glabrous, not striate p., 
and the white, narrow gills. Woods. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. versicolor W. G. Sm. 1 Verto, I turn; color, colour. 

Differs from the type in the bulbous, white, then brown st., and the 
yellow white, then deep red brown gills. 

1 W. G. Smith probably referred this wrongly to Agaricus versicolor 
With. 



110 ARMILLARIA 

var. tabescens (Scop.) Rea. (= Clitocybe tabescens (Scop.) Fr.; 
Agaricus gymnopodius Bull. sec. Quel.) Boud. Icon. t. 51, 
cited in text under t. 61, as Clitocybe tabescens (Scop.) Fr. 

Tabesco, I waste away. 

Differs from the type in the complete absence of the ring. Woods, 
and hedgerows. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

258. A. denigrata Fr. (=Pholiota erebia Fr. sec. Lange). Fr. Icon. t. 20. 

Denigro, I colour very black. 

P. 3-6 cm., dark brown, convex, then plane, obtuse, slightly viscid, 
looking as if covered with minute drops of water, owing to the presence of 
elevated warts. St. 5-6 x 1-1-5 cm., pallid fuscous, brown at the base, 
equal, or ventricose and attenuated, elastic, fibrillosely striate. Ring 
paler, superior, membranaceous, narrow, entire, fugacious. Gills pale 
brown, then darker, sinuato-decurrent, narrow. Flesh bistre, firm. 
Solitary, or caespitose. At the base of old trees, and in garden 
humus. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

259. A. citri (Inzenga) Fr. Citrus, orange. 
P. 5 cm., sulphur yellow, convex, then plane, subumbonate, fleshy; 

margin becoming white, crenulate. St. 57-5 cm. x 1-2 mm., whitish, 
base rufescent, equal, apex white floccose. Gills whitish, adnate, 
crowded. Spores white, "subglobose, 5 x 4jn" Massee. Smell of 
new meal. Caespitose. On stumps. Rare. 

(c) Gills equal behind, st. externally subcartilaginous. 

260. A. subcava (Schum.) Fr. Sub, somewhat; cava, hollow. 

P. 25 cm., white, umbo umber, submembranaceous, convexo-plane, 
viscid, striate to the middle. St. 7-9 cm. x 6 mm., white, fistulose up- 
wards, equal, slightly dotted below the ring. Ring white, inferior, torn. 
Gills white, decurrent, plane. Flesh white, thick. Fir woods. July 
Nov. Rare. 

261. A. mucida (Schrad.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 58, t. 16. 

Mucida, slimy. 

P. 3-8 cm., white, or grey, thin, almost diaphanous, hemispherical, 
then expanded, obtuse, more or less radiato-wrinkled, glutinous ; margin 
striate when thinner. St. 4-7-5 cm. x 4-15 mm., white, base thickened 
and fuliginously scaly, rigid, striate above the ring. Ring white, 
becoming fuscous from the dried gluten, superior, dependent, often 
sulcate. Gills white, then yellowish, rounded behind, decurrent by a 
tooth, distant, broad, lax. Flesh white, mucilaginous. Spores white, 
globose, 15-17/u,, multi-guttulate. Cystidia none. Taste mild. Edible. 
On beeches, rarely on oaks and birches. Aug. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 



BOZITES. PHOLIOTA 111 

Spores ferruginous, rough; general veil persistent. 

Rozites Karst. 
(E. Roze, a French mycologist.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular, white pruinose with the thin general veil. 
Stem central, fleshy. Ring membranaceous. Gills adnate. Spores 
ferruginous, pip-shaped, rough, with an apical germ-pore. Growing 
on the ground. 

262. R. caperatus (Pers.) Karst. (= Pholiota caperata (Pers.) Fr.) 
Holland, Champ, t. 59, no. 132, as Pholiota caperata. 

Caperatus, wrinkled. 

P. 413 cm., more or less intensely yellow, campanulate, then ex- 
panded, obtuse, viscid only when moist and not truly so, incrusted 
with the fioccose-mealy universal veil, which is crowded on the even 
disc, and squamulose and fugacious towards the thin, lacunoso-wrinkled, 
sulcate, splitting margin. St. 8-17 x 2-5-3-5 cm., white, becoming 
tinged with yellow, stout, fibrillose, striate, equal, base often tuberous, 
and the universal veil often cohering in the form of a volva, squamulose 
above the ring. Ring white, becoming yellowish, membranaceous, 
striate, distant, often oblique and torn. Gills clay-cinnamon, adnate, 
crowded, thin, denticulate. Flesh whitish, becoming yellowish. Spores 
ferruginous, pip-shaped, 11-12 x 8/x, rough, 1-guttulate. Cystidia 
"on edge of gill clavate, 45-50 x 8-10//," Rick. Smell and taste 
pleasant. Edible. Woods. Aug. Dec. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

Spores ochraceous, or ferruginous, generally smooth; general veil 
none, or fugacious. 

Pholiota Fr. 

(</>oXt5, a scale; 0^9, the ear.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular. Stem central. Ring membranaceous, per- 
sistent, or fugacious, superior, or inferior. Gills adnate, or decurrent 
by a tooth. Spores ochraceous, or ferruginous, rarely fuscous, ellip- 
tical, oval, obovate, subreniform or oblong elliptical, generally smooth, 
continuous, or with a germ-pore. Cystidia variable. Growing on 
the ground, or on wood, often caespitose. 

I. Growing on the ground, not adnate to mosses, rarely caespitose. 

263. P. aurea (Mattusch) Fr. (= Lepiota pyrenaea Quel. sec. Maire ; 
Pholiota spectabilis Fr. sec. Quel.) Fr. Icon. t. 101. 

Aurea, golden. 

Entirely golden-tawny. P. 425 cm., fleshy, convex, obtuse, soft, 
at first velvety, then torn into innate, hairy squamules. St. 6-28 x 1- 
3-5 cm., somewhat equal, becoming pale, sprinkled below the ring with 



112 PHOLIOTA 

a separating, ferruginous scurf, apex flocculose. Ring membranaceous, 
externally flocculose and ferruginous-furfuraceous, internally golden- 
tawny, about 2-5 cm. distant from the p., properly inferior, but 
appearing to be medial, at first erect, then spreading, sometimes 
small, often however wide, laciniate. Gills pallid ferruginous, adnexed, 
then free, attenuated at both ends, ventricose, crowded, connected 
by veins. Flesh white, becoming yellow. Spores fuscous, elliptical, 
9-10 x 4-5ju, 1-guttulate. Cystidia none. Subcaespitose. On the 
ground, and on sawdust heaps. Aug. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. Vahlii (Schum.) Fr. Fl. Dan. 1. 1498. M. Vahl in Flora Danica. 
Differs from the type in the smooth pileus, and somewhat free gills. 

var. Herefordiensis Renny. Cke. Illus. no. 374, t. 347. 

Herefordiensis, belonging to Hereford. 
Differs from the type in the granulate, tuberculate stem. 

264. P. terrigena Fr. (= Pholiota Cookei Fr. sec. Massee.) Fr. Icon, 
t. 103, fig. 1. Terra, earth; yiyvo/jiat, to be born. 

P. 3-8 cm., dingy yellow, fleshy, convex, or lens-shaped, then 
flattened, obtuse, adpressedly silky with fibrils, fibrillosely scaly towards 
themargin. St. 4-5 cm. x 4-12 mm., concolorous, equal, fleshy-fibrous, 
covered withfloccose, squarrose squamules that become ferruginous. Ring 
thin, torn. Gills pallid light yellow, then olivaceous-ferruginous, adnate, 
decurrent with a tooth, scarcely crowded, 4 mm. broad. Flesh yellow. 
Spores ferruginous, "elliptical, 5-8 x 2-3 /x" Karst. Woods, hedge- 
rows, and old earthy stumps. Aug. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

265. P. erebia Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 377, t. 358. 

e/oe/So?, a place of nether darkness. 

P. 2-5 cm., lurid, or becoming ferruginous-lurid when moist, be- 
coming pale (ochraceous clay) when dry, slightly fleshy, convex, then 
flattened, almost viscid, rugulose; margin striate when dry. St. 2-5- 
5 cm. x 36 mm., fuliginous, becoming pale, equal, often cohering at 
the base, fibrillose, striate. Ring membranaceous, white, becoming 
discoloured, sulcate, superior. Gills pallid, then dingy cinnamon, 
adnate, subdistant. Flesh pale brownish. Spores ferruginous, pip- 
shaped, 10-12 x 5-6/n, 1-2-guttulate. Woods, pastures, and heaths. 
Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

266. P. ombrophila Fr. 0/4/8/305, a storm of rain; </>t\o<?, loving. 
P. 4-8 cm., pale ferruginous when moist, clay colour when dry, con- 
vex, then plane, gibbous, here and there repand, almost viscid, very 
hygrophanous; margin striate when moist. St. 5-8 cm. x 4-8 mm., 
pallid, fragile, equal, obsoletely fibrillose, or slightly striate. Ring 



PHOLIOTA 113 

membranaceous, white, distant, entire, reflexed. Gills pallid, then 
watery ferruginous, adfixed, then separating almost free, ventricose, 
crowded. Flesh becoming white, thin, soft. Spores ochraceous, ellip- 
tical, or pip-shaped, 8-10 x 4-6 yn,, 1-guttulate. Cystidia "on edge 
of gill lanceolate-capitate, 50-60 x 12-15//," Rick. Heaths, and 
pastures. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. brunneola Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 103, fig. 2. Brunneola, brownish. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size, its obtuse, brown pileus, and 
its narrower gills. 

267. P. molliscorium Cke. & Massee. Cke. Illus. no. 1161, t. 1171. 

Mollis, soft; ftopiov, skin. 

P. 57-5 cm., tawny yellow, disc darker, margin paler, fleshy, convex, 
then plane, obtuse, at length depressed, soft like kid leather, shining; 
margin acute, thin. St. 7-5 cm. x 6-10 mm., pale yellow, equal, erect, 
silky, apex punctately squamulose. Ring yellow, distant, broad, de- 
ciduous. Gills ferruginous, narrowly adnate, crowded, thin, ventri- 
cose, 4 mm. broad. Flesh yellow, thin. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 
12 x 5-6/i. Gregarious. On the ground. June. Rare. 

268. P. togularis (Bull.) Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 101. 

Togula, a little cloak. 

P. 2-4 cm., pallid ochraceous, disc darker, campanulate, then ex- 
panded, obtuse, orbicular, sometimes striate. St. 3-6 cm. x 2-3 mm., 
whitish, becoming fuscous at the thickened base, equal, fibrillosely striate, 
apex mealy. Ring white, membranaceous, medial, entire, spreading, 
reflexed. Gills yellow, at length pallid ferruginous, adnato-separating, 
attenuated at both ends, crowded. Flesh whitish, becoming yellow. 
Spores ferruginous, oblong, 78 x 3-4 /A, 1-guttulate, "with flattened 
germ-pore. Cystidia on edge of gill fusiform, 25-36 x 6-8 p," Rick. 
Woods, and pastures. May Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. fllaris Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 104, fig. 4. Filum, a thread. 

Differs from the type in being two to three times smaller with a 
yellowish stem. Lawns, and pastures. July. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

269. P. blattaria Fr. Blattarius, like a cockroach. 

P. 1-5-2-5 cm., ferruginous, becoming pale, hygrophanous, thin, 
convex, or umbonate, soon flattened; margin paler, striate. St. 2-5- 
5 cm. x 2 mm., white, equal, silky, straight. Ring white, membrana- 
ceous, distant, silky, entire. Gills watery-cinnamon, rounded behind, 
free, ventricose. Flesh concolorous, very thin. Spores ferruginous, 
EBB. 8 



114 PHOLIOTA 

elliptical, 8-10 x 4-5 /A, 1-3-guttulate. Cystidia "on edge of gill 
fusiform-subulate, 30-36 x 7-9 /i" Rick. Lawns, arable fields, and 
gardens. Aug. Sept. Rare, (v.v.) 

270. P. dura (Bolt.) Fr. Durus, hard. 
P. 5-9 cm., tawny tan colour, becoming fuscous, fleshy, somewhat 

compact, convexo-plane, obtuse, becoming cracked into patches. St. 
5-8 cm. x 10-15 mm., yellowish, hard, becoming silky-even, then 
longitudinally cracked when dry, apex thickened, mealy, sometimes 
ventricose and irregularly shaped, furnished with fibrillose rootlets 
at the base. Ring white, membranaceous, thin, apical, often torn, 
fugacious. Gills white, then livid, or fuscous ferruginous, adnate, 
striato-decurrent with a tooth, ventricose, 7-12 mm. broad. Flesh 
whitish. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 9-12 x 6-8/x,, with a germ- 
pore. Cystidia " vesiculose-clavate, on edge of gill almost flask- 
shaped, 36-50 x 12-18/z" Rick. Smell strong. Fields, and gardens. 
May Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. xanthophylla Bres. Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 159. 

gavffos, yellow; <f>v\\ov, a leaf. 
Differs from the type in the bright sulphur yellow gills. 

271. P. praecox (Pers.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 381, t. 360. 

Praecox, early. 

P. 3-8 cm., whitish, then tan colour, becoming pale, fleshy, soft, con- 
vex, soon plane, obtuse, moist. St. 4-9 cm. x 6-10 mm., white, be- 
coming yellowish, equal, at first mealy with white flocci, then somewhat 
naked, base white floccose. Ring whitish, membranaceous, entire, 
reflexed, striate above. Gills whitish, then rust coloured, rounded- 
adnexed, 4-10 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh white, yellowish in the stem, 
soft. Spores ferruginous, oblong elliptical, 10-13 x 6-8/A, 1-guttulate. 
Cystidia sack-shaped, often slightly constricted towards the apex, 
30-40 x 13-15/x. Taste sweet. "Edible," Quelet. Woods, pastures, 
and roadsides. May Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

var. minor (Batt.) Fr. Minor, smaller. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size (scarcely 2-5 cm. broad), and 
in the torn, appendiculate ring. Pastures. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

272. P. sphaleromorpha (Bull.) Fr. 

o~(f>a\p6<;, deceptive; fxop(f>ij, form. 

P. 2-5 cm., light yellow, fleshy, thin, convexo-plane, obtuse. St. 
7-10 cm. x 4-8 mm., yellowish, attenuated upwards, silky, base in- 
crassated, villose. Ring whitish, membranaceous, very thin, median, 
ample, spreading, lax, entire. Gills yellowish, then ferruginous-tan, 



PHOLIOTA 115 

equally broad, truly decurrent, linear, 3 mm. broad. Flesh whitish, 
hygrophanous. Spores "almost colourless under the microscope, 
cylindrical-elliptical, 6-7 x 3-Afj,, smooth. Cystidia ventricose-fusi- 
form, 60-75 x 10-12/x." Kick. Leaf soil, heaths, and peat bogs. 
July Oct. Uncommon. 

II. Growing on wood, or epiphytal, most frequently caespitose. 

*P. naked not scaly, but here and there rimoso-rivulose. 
Gills pallid, then rufescent, or becoming fuscous. 

273. P. radicosa (Bull.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 382, t. 361. 

Radicosus, having a root. 

P. 5-13 cm., clay-coloured, then spotted rufous, fleshy, convexo- 
plane, viscid, becoming dry. St. 7-5-24 x 1-2-5 cm., white, firm, 
thickened at the base and fusiform rooted, concentrically scaly below the 
ring, the floccose, erect scales becoming rufous, apex mealy, pruinose. 
Eing white, membranaceous, distant, rather erect, entire, scaly. Gills 
pallid, then rufescent ferruginous, rounded behind, somewhat free, very 
crowded, 6 mm. broad. Flesh whitish, moderately thick. Spores 
ochraceous, elliptical, 89 x 5/u,, "rough. Cystidia on edge of gill 
filamentous-clavate, 36-40 x 6-8/-1, thin walled " Rick. Smell plea- 
sant, like cherry laurel, or bitter almonds. Taste pleasant. Solitary or 
gregarious. Woods about stumps. Aug. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

274. P. pudica (Bull.) Fr. Pudica, modest. 
P. 5-10 cm., whitish, or slightly tawny, disc darker, globose, or oval, 

then convex, and expanded, obtuse, umbonate, dry. St. 3-6 cm. x 8- 
10 mm., whitish, straight, or curved at the base, equal, or attenuated 
upwards, sometimes excentric, fibrous. Ring white, membranaceous, 
large, spreading, persistent. Gills whitish, then tawny, adnato-de- 
current,wide,ventricose. Spores " ferruginous 8 x 5-6 /A " Sacc. Often 
solitary. In woods on old trunks, at the base of trees, and on elder 
trunks. May Nov. Uncommon. 

275. P. leochroma Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 384, t. 363. 

\ernv, a lion ; ^<w//,a, colour. 

P. 5-10 cm., bright tawny, whitish at the margin, fleshy, convexo- 
plane, at length depressed, soft, generally rivulose from the cracking 
of the cuticle. St. 7-12 cm. x 8-13 mm., paler than the pileus, white 
above, nearly equal, fibrous. Ring tawny, persistent, membranaceous. 
Gills pallid, then cinnamon, rounded, adnate, slightly ventricose. 
Flesh yellowish, somewhat tawny under the cuticle of the p., and at the 
base of the st. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 7-8 x 5/x, 1-2-guttulate. 
Smell and taste pleasant. Edible. Caespitose. Elm stumps. July 
Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

82 



116 PHOLIOTA 

276. P. aegerita (Porta) Fr. (= PTioliota capistrata Cke., Pholiota 

luxurians (Batt.) Fr.) Cke. Illus. nos. 385, 386, t. 364, as Pho- 
liota capistrata Cke. and t. 453. afoetpo?, the black poplar. 

P. 3-12 cm., tawny, becoming pale white towards the margin, fleshy, 
convex then plane, rivuloso- wrinkled, slightly viscid when moist, silky 
when dry, disc often areolately cracked; margin incurved, scalloped. 
St. 815 x 1-53 cm., white, becoming stained with yellow, attenuated 
downwards, fibrillose, often striate. Eing white, membranaceous, 
large, superior, reflexed. Gills pallid, then fuscous, adnate, decurrent 
with a small tooth, crowded. Flesh white, brownish under the cuticle 
of the p. and at the base of the st. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 
9-10 x 5-7 /i. Cystidia broadly clavate or pear-shaped, 30-36 x 12- 
15/x. Smell and taste pleasant. Edible. Caespitose. Stumps, 
especially elm. May Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

277. P. Junonia Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 397, t. 369. 

Junonia, belonging to Juno. 

P. 4-8 cm., rich yellow, or tawny yellow, fleshy, firm, convexo-plane, 
obtuse. St. 49 cm. x 614 mm., tawny, yellow and mealy above the 
ring, equal, firm, incurved, often excentric. Ring concolorous, mem- 
branaceous, inferior, reflexed. Gills yellow, then tawny, adnate, 
crowded, broad. Flesh pale yellow, compact. Spores ferruginous, 
elliptical, 8-10 x 6-7 /LI. Usually solitary. Trunks. Oct. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

**P. scaly, gills changing colour. P. not hygrophanous. 

a. Gills pallid, then becoming fuscous, olivaceous, clay 
coloured, not truly ferruginous. 

278. P. destruens (Brond.) Fr. (= Pholiota comosa Fr. sec. Quel., 

Pholiota heteroclita Fr. sec. Bres.) Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 84. 

Destruens, destructive. 

P. 6-20 cm., yellowish white, disc becoming tawny, covered with white, 
woolly, fugacious scales, fleshy, somewhat viscid, convex, then flattened, 
sometimes gibbose, or broadly umbonate; margin at first involute, 
fibrillose. St. 5-17 x 2-3 cm., concolorous, covered with white, fugacious 
squamules, becoming smooth, attenuated at the apex, base bulbous 
and rooting. Ring white, floccose, fugacious. Gills white, then becoming 
umber cinnamon, rounded behind, adnexed, or plano-adnate and 
striato-decurrent, crowded. Flesh white, fulvous cinnamon in the base 
of the st. Spores fuscous ferruginous, elliptical, 8 x 5/x. Cystidia "on 
edge of gill cylindrical, or clavate-capitate, 40-60 x 8-12ju " Rick. 
Smell unpleasant, taste bitter, then sweet. Poplar, birch, beech, and 
willow trunks. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



PHOLIOTA 117 

279. P. heteroclita Fr. (= Pholiota destruens (Brond.) Fr. sec. Bres.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 389, t. 366. erepos, one side; K\ivw, I lean. 

P. 5-15 cm., whitish, or yellowish, tawny when old, generally broken 
up into broad, scattered, innate, adpressed, spot-like (darker) scales, 
fleshy, compact, hemispherical, then flattened, very obtuse, some- 
times viscid when old and wet; margin often appendiculate with the 
remains of the ring. St. 5 x 1-2-5 cm., white, commonly curved- 
ascending, base bulbous and bluntly rooting, hard, fibrillose. Ring 
floccose, fugacious, cortinate, encircling the stem with an annular 
zone. Gills pallid, at length dirty ferruginous, rounded behind, slightly 
adnexed, very broad, crowded. Flesh white, rhubarb coloured at the 
base of the stem. Spores ferruginous, "8-10 x 5-6 /A" Karst. Smell 
strong, pungent, almost that of horse-radish. Solitary. Trunks of 
poplar, birch, and willow. Sept. Nov. Uncommon. 

280. P. auriveUa (Batsch) Fr. Aurum, gold; vellus, fleece. 
P. 5-17 cm., yellow, or ferruginous yellow, fleshy, campanulate, then 

convex, compact at the disc, gibbous when expanded, moist, with 
darker adpressed spot-like scales; margin involute, sprinkled with floc- 
cose scales. St. 7-10 x 1-1-5 cm., yellowish, clothed with adpressed, floc- 
coso-fibrillose, fuscous ferruginous scales up to the ring, at length naked, 
fibrillose, equal, somewhat rooting. Ring floccoso-fibrillose, superior. 
Gills whitish, then straw coloured, at length ferruginous date-brown, or 
somewhat fuscous, sinuato-adnexed, broad, crowded. Flesh white, be- 
coming yellowish. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 6-7 x 4-5 /A, 1-2-gut- 
tulate. Cystidia "on edge of gill clavate-fusiform, 30-45 x 6-9 /z, 
contents becoming yellow" Rick. Caespitose, or solitary. On old 
trunks, and stumps. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. filamentosa (SchaeflE.) Fr. Filum, a thread. 

Differs from the type in the smaller, fulvous pileus, with subcon- 
centric, adnate scales, in the filamentous stem, and the fioccoso-radiate 
ring. Pine woods. 

281. P. squarrosa (Mull.) Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 391, t. 367. 

Squarrosa, scaly. 

P. 3-10 cm., saffron ferruginous, or ochraceous, fleshy, campanulato- 
convex, then flattened, obtusely umbonate, or gibbose, squarrose with 
innate, crowded, revolute, darker (becoming fuscous) persistent scales. 
St. 6-20 x 1-2-5 cm., concolorous, attenuated downwards, often in- 
crassated at the base, squarrose up to the ring with crowded, revolute, 
darker scales. Ring of the same colour as the scales, fibrillose, laciniate, 
superior. Gills pallid olivaceous, then ferruginous, adnate with a de- 
current tooth, crowded, narrow. Flesh light yellow. Spores ferru- 
ginous, elliptical, 7-9 x 4-5 /A. Cystidia "clavate, pointed, 30- 



118 PHOLIOTA 

45 x 10-12ji, contents olive-yellow" Rick. Smell unpleasant, like 
rotting wood, sometimes none. Densely caespitose. On and near 
trunks and stumps, especially ash and apple, more rarely under 
conifers. July Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

var. Mulleri Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 392, t. 471. 

0. F. Muller, the Danish mycologist. 

Differs from the type in the obtuse, moist, pallid p., with darker ad- 
pressed scales, in the equal stem, the entire ring, and in the gills becoming 
fuscous. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 7-9 x 4-5 fi, 1-2-guttulate. On 
beech stumps. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. verruculosa (Lasch) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 398, t. 370, upper figs., 
as Pholiota tuberculosa (Schaeff.) Fr. sec. Boud. 

Verruculosa, full of warts. 

Differs from the type in the compact, obtuse, yellow p., with crowded, 
cinnamon scales and papillae, and in the villose-scaly stem. On maple 
trunks. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, 

var. reflexa (Schaeff.) Fr. Schaeff. Icon. t. 80. Reflexa, bent back. 

Differs from the type in the thinner, cuspidately umbonate, pilosely- 
squamulose p., the long, equal stem, and the membranaceous ring. At 
the base of oak, and beech trees. Uncommon. 

282. P. subsquarrosa Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 103, fig. 3. 

Sub, somewhat; squarrosa, scaly. 

P. 5-6 cm., brown-ferruginous, with darker, adpressed, fioccose scales, 
fleshy, convex, obtuse, or gibbous, viscid. St. 5-8 cm. x 8-10 mm., 
yellow-ferruginous, clothed with darker, adpressed scales, equal, fur- 
nished with an annular zone at the apex. Gills pale, then dingy yellow, 
deeply sinuate, emarginate, almost free, arcuate, crowded. Flesh of 
stem becoming yellow-ferruginous. Spores ochraceous, oblong-ellip- 
tical, 4-5-5 x 2-2-5/z. Cystidia ochraceous, fusiform, tapering into 
a long exserted point, 25-30 x 6-8 p., thick walled, contents yellowish, 
granular. Subcaespitose. On fir stumps and at the base of trunks. 
Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

283. P. grandis Rea. Grandis, large. 

P. 20-30 cm., fulvous tawny, fleshy, convex, then expanded and 
broadly gibbous, covered with innate, deep tawny squamules at the cir- 
cumference, which become revolute at the disc. St. 25-30 x 6-7 cm., 
tawny below the ring, paler and deeply striate for 5 cm. above, fusi- 
form, slightly squamulose. Ring distant, almost fugacious. Gills 
pallid, then fuscous, deeply sinuato-decurrent, very broad, 1-5-2 cm. wide, 
attenuated in front, somewhat crowded. Flesh light yellow, ferruginous 



PHOLIOTA 119 

in the stem. Spores fuscous, oblong, 6 x 3/j,, 1-guttulate. Smell and 
taste very pleasant. Caespitose. At base of oak, and ash trees. Aug. 
Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

yS. Gills yellow then truly ferruginous, or tawny. 

284. P. spectabilis Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 102. Spectabilis, remarkable. 
P. 5-13 cm., tawny, or golden yellow, then becoming pale, fleshy, 

compact, convex, obtuse, shining as if varnished in dry weather, torn 
into adpressed, innate, pilose squamules of the same colour, continued 
into the veil at the inflexed margin. St. 6-13 x 2-3 cm., sulphur 
yellow, hard, more or less ventricose, extended into a fusiform root, 
sheathed with the veil, sometimes squamulose, sometimes smooth, 
shining, apex mealy. King yellowish, becoming discoloured, inferior, 
persistent, spreading. Gills pure yellow, becoming ferruginous, adnate, 
most frequently with a small decurrent tooth, very crowded. Flesh 
sulphur yellow, reddening when touched, thick, hard. Spores ferru- 
ginous, elliptical, 8-9 x 5fj,, 1-guttulate. Smell pleasant. Taste bitter- 
aromatic. Caespitose. Stumps, and at the base of trees, especially 
ash and apple. Aug. Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

285. P. adiposa Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 395, t. 353. Adiposa, fat. 
P. 3-17-5 cm., yellow, covered with superficial, floccose, subconcentric, 

fugacious, ferruginous scales, fleshy, convex, then plane, somewhat 
gibbous, very viscid. St. 6-15 x 1-2-5 cm., whitish, then light yellow, 
clothed with squarroso-reflexed, separating, ferruginous scales, thickened 
downwards, viscid. Eing yellow, at length ferruginous, floccoso-radiate, 
cortinate. Gills pallid light yellow, then ferruginous, adnate, slightly 
rounded, broad. Flesh yellowish, tawny at the base of the stem. Spores 
fuscous ferruginous, elliptical, 6-7 x 3-4/u. Beech, ash, and birch 
trunks. July Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

286. P. lucifera (Lasch) Fr. Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 85. 

Lucifera, light-bringing. 

P. 3-5 cm., yellow, covered with minute, adpressed, fugacious, tawny 
scales, fleshy, convexo-plane, at length umbonate, sometimes gibbous, 
viscid, becoming smooth with age. St. 2-5 cm. x 4r-8 mm., yellow, 
covered with floccose, fugacious, ferruginous scales, pale yellow above the 
ring, equal, or attenuated downwards. Ring ferruginous, apical, 
floccose, fugacious. Gills yellow, then cinnamon, or ferruginous, 
sinuato-adnate, crowded, margin crenulate, pubescent, white. Flesh 
yellow, ferruginous in the stem. Spores yellow under the microscope, 
obovate, or subreniform, 7-8 x 5-6 //,. Cystidia "on edge of gill 
clavate-subulate, 30-35 x 6-8 /x" Rick. Trunks, branches, straw, and 
burnt earth. Sept. Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 



120 PHOLIOTA 

287. P. flamuians Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 104, fig. 1. Flammans, flaming. 
P. 210 cm., yellow tawny, sprinkled with superficial, pilose, some- 
what concentric, paler, or sulphur yellow, squarrose, or curly scales, 
convex then plane, subumbonate. St. 5-8 cm. x 4-10 mm., very light 
yellow, as are also the crowded squarrose scales, equal, often flexuose. 
Ring concolorous, floccose, apical. Gills bright sulphur yellow, then 
ferruginous, adnate, somewhat thin, crowded. Flesh light yellow, thin. 
Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 8 x 4/u,, 1-guttulate. Cystidia "clavate- 
bottle-shaped, rarely pointed, 30-33 x 6-8/A, contents becoming 
yellow" Rick. Gregarious, or solitary. Pine woods. July Oct. 
Common, (v.v.) 

288. P. tuberculosa (Schaeff.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 104, fig. 2, as Pholiota 
tuberculata. Tuberculosa, having swellings. 

P. 3-5 cm., tawny yellow, compactly fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse, 
sometimes depressed, smooth, then broken up into innate, broad, ad- 
pressed scales. St. 2-5-4 cm. x 4-6 mm., bright light yellow, incurved, 
base bulbous, rooting, fibrillose, somewhat scaly, often excentric. Ring 
concolorous, floccose, reflexed, fugacious. Gills light yellow, then tawny, 
or spotted ferruginous, emarginate, crowded, broad, plane, edge serru- 
lated, white floccose. Flesh becoming yellow, not very thick. Spores 
ochrey- ferruginous, elliptical, 5-8 x 3 /n. Solitary, or caespitose. 
Beech and birch trunks, and on sawdust. Oct. Uncommon. 

289. P. curvipes Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 104, fig. 3. Curvus, bent; pes, foot. 
P. 3-5 cm., tawny yellow, or orange, fleshy, thin, but slightly firm 

and tough, convex, then plane, obtuse, wholly innato-flocculose, then 
torn into minute scales. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 2-6 mm., light yellow, equal, 
incurved, tough, fibrillose, or delicately squamulose, sometimes attenu- 
ated downwards. Ring floccose, fugacious, rarely manifest. Gills 
light yellowish, at length tawny, adnate, crowded, 4-6 mm. broad, edge 
white, at length floccoso-crenate. Flesh yellowish, darker in the stem. 
Spores slightly tawny, "6-7 x 3-4: /JL" Karst. Smell and taste pleasant. 
On sawdust, and fallen trunks, especially poplar, birch, and rose 
bushes. Oct. Rare. 

290. P. muricata Fr. Muricata, pointed. 
P. 2-3 cm., yellow, covered with innate, fasciculate, granular, or 

needle-shaped, tawny flocci, that are either erect, or convergent like the 
warts of a Lycoperdon, convex, then expanded, obtuse, or umbilicate. 
St. 2-5-5 cm. x 2-4 mm., pale yellow, becoming fuscous, covered up 
to the ring with floccose, subsquarrose, or peronate, brownish tawny 
squamules, equal, or curved. Ring inferior, small, or incomplete, 
squamulose, or floccosely radiating, fugacious, like that of Lepiota 
granulosa. Gills whitish, or yellow, at length pale cinnamon, adnexed, 



PHOLIOTA 121 

separating, thin, broad, edge yellowish. Flesh whitish, or yellowish, 
thin. Spores fuscous, elliptical, "7-8 x 4-5 /u," Harper. Gregarious. 
Beech trunks. Sept. Eare. 

291. P. erinacea (Fr.) Quel. (= Naucoria erinacea Fr.) Cke. Illus. 
no. 513, t. 480, as Naucoria erinacea Fr. Erinaceus, a hedgehog. 

P. 5-15 mm., ferruginous-umber, scaly and prickly with very dense, 
crowded, fasciculate, squarrosefiocci, slightly fleshy, convex, umbilicate; 
margin at first involute, appendiculate with the fibrillose remains of the 
ring. St. 1-1-5 cm. x 2-3 mm., concolorous, tough, equal, incurved, 
everywhere shaggy with strigose hairs. Ring yellowish, fibrillose, ferru- 
ginous on the under side. Gills concolorous, adnate, subdistant, ventri- 
cose. Flesh reddish, dry, tough. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 
9-11 x 6-7 /i, 1-2-guttulate. Dead branches. Jan. Dec. Not un- 
common, (v.v.) 

292. P. cruentata Cke. & Sm. Cke. Illus. no. 399, t. 502. 

Cruentata, stained with blood. 

P. 45 cm., yellow, then turning red, breaking up into darker, ad- 
pressed scales, fleshy, convex, then expanded, obtuse; margin in- 
curved. St. 3-5 cm. x 6-8 mm., concolorous, curved, attenuated at 
the base and rooting, dark red brown and sparsely squamulose below. 
Ring fibrillose. Gills yellow, then clay colour, emarginate, rather dis- 
tant, 4-6 mm. broad, finally separating from the stem. Flesh pale 
yellow, at length changing to cinnabar colour. Taste insipid. Oak 
stumps, and burnt ground. Aug. Sept. Uncommon. 

***Hygrophanous. Gills cinnamon (not at first light yellow). 

293. P. paxillus Fr. Paxillus; like the species Paxillus involutus. 
Entirely cinnamon. P. 7-15 cm., subcompact, convexo-gibbous, 

then expanded, moist, rather repand, becoming pale, somewhat silky 
when dry. St. 8-16 x 1-5-2 cm., firm, slightly attenuated upwards. 
Ring white, membranaceous, narrow, spreading. Gills decurrent, 
crowded, broad. Flesh concolorous, compact. Trunks. Sept. Oct. 
Rare. 

294. P. dissimulans B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 400, t. 371. 

Dissimulans, deceiving. 

P. 2-3 cm., lurid, becoming pale, or whitish, campanulate, very 
obtuse, at length flattened, scarcely viscid, hygrophanous ; margin 
involute. St. 3-5 cm. x 3-4 mm., shining white, thickened down- 
wards, fistulose with transverse dissepiments, base cottony. Ring erect, 
mostly persistent. Gills pallid clay colour, sinuato-adnate, at length 
decurrent. Flesh white, thin. Spores fuscous, elliptical, 7 x 4-4-5/>t. 
Sloe and hawthorn sticks. Oct. Nov. Rare. 



122 PHOLIOTA 

295. P. sublutea (El. Dan.) Fr. Sub, somewhat; lutea, yellow. 
P. 6-7-5 cm., yellow, fleshy, thin, expanded, umbonate, moist, 

covered with darker squamules', margin striate when moist. St. 10- 
12 x -5-1 cm., yellow, base thickened. Ring narrow, spreading. Gills 
cinnamon, decurrent, crowded. Grassy ground. Oct. Rare. 

296. P. phalerata Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 105, fig. 1. Phalerata, decorated. 

P. 5 cm., yellow, covered with superficial, fugacious, pale scales, 
fleshy, thin, convex, then plane, obtuse, moist; margin involute, 
appendiculate. St. 710 cm. x 6 mm., concolorous, base becoming 
ferruginous, equal, everywhere fibrillose, or fasciculately squamosely 
pilose, adpressedly flocculose above the ring. Ring white, distant, entire, 
reflexed. Gills yellow, then cinnamon, adnato-decurrent, 2 mm. broad, 
attenuated at the margin. Flesh concolorous. Spores " elliptical, 
67 x 3 4/A, smooth. Cystidia on edge of gill fusiform-filamentous, 
30-36 x 5-6 IJL " Rick. Pine woods, on twigs, pine needles, and the 
ground. Rare. 

297. P. confragosa Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 105, figs. 2, 3. 

Confragosa, rough. 

P. 34 cm., brick-red, or cinnamon rufous when moist, tawny when 
dry, hygrophanous, slightly fleshy, convexo-plane, very obtuse, 
densely fiocculoso-furfuraceous, becoming smooth with age. St. 2-5 
7-5 x 2-4 mm., pale ferruginous, fragile, equal, flexuose, or incurved, 
fibrillosely peronate with the veil, or naked, striate above the ring. Ring 
white, membranaceous, spreading, fibrillose, persistent, or fugacious, 
at length reflexed. Gills rufous, or cinnamon rufous, sometimes tinged 
with purple, adnate, scarcely decurrent, very thin, crowded, linear, 
2 mm. broad, edge under a lens unequal, crenulate. Flesh concolorous, 
becoming pale. Spores "ferruginous, elliptic-oblong, 8 x 4jit" Massee. 
Subcaespitose. Beech, and fir trunks, and on old fallen elm. Oct. 
Uncommon. 

298. P. mutabilis (Schaeff.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 402, t. 355. 

Mutabilis, changeable. 

P. 3-6 cm., cinnamon when moist, becoming pale when dry, hygro- 
phanous, slightly fleshy, convex, then flattened, commonly obtusely 
umbonate, sometimes depressed, sometimes squamulose when young. 
St. 4-8 x -5-1 cm., ferruginous blackish, or umber downwards, paler 
upwards, rigid, equal, or attenuated downwards, squarrosely scaly up 
to the ring. Ring concolorous, membranaceous, externally squamulose. 
Gills pallid, then cinnamon, adnato-decurrent, crowded, rather broad. 
Flesh white, tinged brownish under the cuticle of the p. and in tJie st. 
Spores deep ochraceous, elliptical, or subglobose, 7-8 x 4-5/i, 1-guttu- 



PHOLIOTA 123 

late. Cystidia on edge of gill clavate, or cylindrical, flexuose, 
obtuse, 23-29 x 4 5 fj,. Caespitose. Stumps and trunks, especially 
Tilia cordata. April Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

299. P. marginata (Batsch) Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 403, t. 372. 

Marginata, furnished with a border. 

P. 2-5 cm., honey coloured when moist, tan when dry, hygrophanous, 
slightly fleshy, convex, then expanded, obtuse, margin striate. St. 
3-9 cm. x 2-8 mm., concolorous, equal, fibrillose, striate, but becoming 
fuscous, and commonly white velvety at the base. Ring pale yellow, 
membranaceous, distant, often cortinate and fugacious. Gills pallid, 
then darker cinnamon, adnate, crowded, thin, narrow. Flesh con- 
colorous, becoming paler. Spores deep ochraceous, fusiform-elliptical, 
8-10 x 5jn, 1-2-guttulate, "almost punctate" Rick. Cystidia "ven- 
tricose-fusiform, 50-60 x 10-12jU " Rick. On twigs, and on the 
ground, especially in coniferous woods. Aug. Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

300. P. sororia Karst. Sororia, sisterly. 

P. 2-5-4 cm., tawny cinnamon, convex, then expanded, slightly 
striate, squamulose. St. 5 cm. x 4-6 mm., concolorous, then paler, 
variegated with white squamules, equal, wavy, apex scurfy. Gills pallid, 
then cinnamon, sinuato-adnate, crowded. Spores 6-7 X 3-4 p. On 
chips, and twigs. Rare. 

301. P. mustelina Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 404, t. 356. 

Mustelina, belonging to a weasel. 

P. 1-1-5 cm., yellow, ochraceous, slightly fleshy, campanulate, con- 
vex. St. 2-2-5 cm. x 1-2 mm., pallid, equal, base thickened and white 
villose, white mealy above the ring. Ring brown, membranaceous, re- 
flexed. Gills tawny cinnamon, adnate, subdistant, edge white, crenulate. 
Stumps, especially pine. Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

302. P. unicolor (Fl. Dan.) Fr. Unicolor, of one colour. 

P. 6-20 mm., bay brown, then ochraceous, hygrophanous, fleshy, 
campanulate, then convex, umbonate, at length striate. St. 3-4 cm. 
x 2 mm., concolorous, or bistre brown at the base, equal, apex mealy. 
Ring yellowish, membranaceous, thin, entire, distant, persistent. Gills 
pallid-ochrey, slightly adnexed, ventricose, broad, edge white. Flesh con- 
colorous, thin. Spores deep ochraceous, elliptical, 7-8 x 4-5 /^, 1-guttu- 
late, "almost punctate. Cystidia on edge of gill filamentous, ventri- 
cose at base, 50-60 x 8-10/x, apex 5/u, in diam." Rick. Trunks and 
branches of larch, and on the ground. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon. 
(v.v.) 



124 PHOLIOTA. STROPHARIA 

III. Growing amongst mosses. Like ringed Galerae, hygrophanous. 

303. P. pumila Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 105, fig. 4. Pumila, dwarf. 
P. 8-15 mm., ochraceous, somewhat fleshy for its size, campanulate, 

then hemispherical, obtuse. St. 2-5-4 cm. x 2-3 mm., concolorous, equal, 
lax. Ring distinct, floccoso-woven in the form of a zone like that of the 
Cortinarii. Gills pallid, wholly adnate, at first ascending, then plane, 4 
6 mm. broad, almost triangular, crowded, stopping short of the acute 
margin. Flesh concolorous, thin, watery. Spores ferruginous, pip- 
shaped, 9 x 4-5jit. Amongst moss in pastures, on twigs, sawdust, 
and old walls. Aug. Jan. Common, (v.v.) 

304. P. mycenoides Fr. (= Galera mycenoides (Fr.) Quel.) Boud. 

Icon. t. 102. Mycena, the genus Mycena; etSo?, shape. 

P. 1-2-5 cm.., ferruginous, disc darker, transparent when moist; be- 
coming tawny, or pale when dry, membranaceous, hygrophanous, 
striate, campanulate, soon hemispherical, somewhat obtuse. St. 4- 
10 cm. x 1-3 mm., tawny ferruginous, darker than the pileus, filiform, 
apex furfur aceous, paler, then concolorous. Ring white, membranace- 
ous, entire, large, persistent. Gills yellowish, then ferruginous, adnate, 
with a small decurrent tooth, subdistant, at length plane. Flesh con- 
colorous, darker in the stem. Spores ferruginous, broadly elliptical, 
10-11 x 6-7 /A, 1-3-guttulate. Amongst moss in pastures, bogs, and 
on lawns. Sept. Dec. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

305. P. rufidula Kalchbr. Kalchbr. Icon. t. 37, fig. 3. Rufus, red. 
P. 6-10 mm., rufous brick-red, clay colour when dry, often becoming 

livid round the umbo, somewhat fleshy, convex, then somewhat plane, 
disc always depressed, white-fiocculose at the margin from the white 
veil, rarely appendiculate. St. 3-4 cm. x 2-3 mm., watery rufescent, 
sprinkled with white fugacious fibrils, floccose at the white base. Ring 
white, floccose, somewhat persistent, subapical, narrow, spreading, 
reflexed. Gills reddish, adnate, then decurrent, linear, branched, of 
different lengths, subdistant. Flesh concolorous. Spores ochraceous 
ferruginous, "8-10 x 4-6/u.," Massee. Pastures, and lawns. April. 
Rare. 

Spores purple, or fuscous. 

Stropharia Fr. 
(<TT/3o^o?, a belt.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular. Stem central. Ring membranaceous, adnate, 
persistent, or fugacious. Gills more or less adnate. Spores purple, or 
fuscous, rarely blackish, elliptical, elliptic-oblong or pip-shaped, 
smooth, with an apical germ-pore. Cystidia variable. Growing on 
the ground, on dung, and on wood, sometimes caespitose, sub- 
caespitose, or fasciculate. 



STROPHARIA 125 

A. Pellicle of the p. even, or scaly, most frequently viscid. 
*Not growing on dung. 

306. S. depilata (Pers.) Fr. Depilata, plucked. 

P. 3-12 cm., yellowish-livid, then tan, fleshy, convex, then plane, 
obtuse, smooth, viscid. St. 415 cm. x 513 mm., white, equal, 
clothed with white, revolute, squarrose scales below the ring. Ring white, 
large, distant. Gills white, then blackish, adnato-decurrent, 3-8 mm. 
broad. Flesh white, compact. Spores brownish purple, elliptical, 
7-8 x 4-5 /A. Amongst straw refuse, and in pine woods. Nov. Rare. 
(v.v.) 

307. S. Percevalii B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 554, t. 550. 

Cecil H. Spencer Perceval. 

P. 3-6 cm., ochraceous, fleshy, umbonate, then flattened, slightly 
viscid, white floccose here and there especially at the margin, flocci at 
length coming off. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 6 mm., pallid upwards, attenuated 
upwards from the thickened base, rooting, transversely scaly. Ring 
narrow, more or less persistent. Gills white, then somewhat cinereous, 
at length pallid umber, adfixed, 8 mm. broad, very distant. Flesh at 
length dull umber. Spores fuscous, oblong elliptic, 16-17 x 7/u,. Saw- 
dust, and rotten wood. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

308. S. versicolor (With.) Fr. (= Armillaria mellea (Vahl.) Fr. var. 
versicolor W. G. Sm.) Versicolor, of various colours. 

P. 2'5 10 cm., becoming greenish brown, fleshy, convexo-plane, 
scaly, the scales of the disc crowded. St. 5 cm., as thick as a swan- 
quill, whitish fuscous, spongy-stuffed, bulbous. Ring persistent. Gills 
pallid, then rufous brown, decurrent. On the ground. 

309. S. aeraginosa (Curt.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 555, t. 551. 

Aeruginosa, full of copper rust. 

P. 3-8 cm., verdigris green from the azure blue slime, becoming pale and 
yellowish as the slime separates, fleshy, campanulato-convex, then 
flattened, subumbonate, obtuse when larger, viscoso-pelliculose, often 
covered with white, fugacious squamules. St. 410 cm. x 412 mm., 
concolorous, equal, viscid, covered with white, fugacious squamules below 
the ring, smooth above. Ring whitish above, concolorous on the under- 
side, distant, floccose, fugacious. Gills white, then fuscous, at length 
somewhat purple, adnate, soft, plane, 4-8 mm. broad, not crowded, 
edge often white. Flesh bluish, becoming whitish, not compact, thin 
at the margin. Spores brownish purple, elliptical, 7-10 x 5)n. 
Cystidia "on surface of gill, clavate, often with a short point, 30- 
33 x 8-10, contents becoming yellow, on edge of gill filamentous- 



126 STBOPHARIA 

clavate, 40-75 x 8-10/u," Eick. Smell none, or somewhat strong. 
Poisonous. Woods, pastures, heaths, gardens, and thatched roofs. 
May Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

310. S. squamulosa Massee. Squamulosa, squamulose. 

P. 4-6 cm., very deep verdigris-green, margin whitish, disc becoming 
ochraceous with age, fleshy, subglobose, then expanded, and slightly 
depressed, margin drooping, often appendiculate with the veil, dry 
and silky from the first, soon becoming broken up into adpressed silky 
scales. St. 5-7 x 2 cm., paler green than the p., slightly constricted at 
the apex, fibrillosely striate, clothed with white patches of the broken 
up ring, base white. Gills brown, sinuately adnate, ventricose, rather 
broad, crowded, thin, dry. Flesh of p. white, tinged with green in 
the St., rather thin. Spores pale brown, elliptic-oblong, 8-9 x 5/x, 
obliquely apiculate. Amongst stones, and in woods. Sept. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

311. S. albocyanea (Desm.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 556, t. 552. 

Albus, white; Kvavos, dark blue. 

P. 13 cm., verdigris green, becoming whitish, sometimes white and 
shining when young, fleshy convex, then plane, viscid with a colourless 
gluten, smooth, naked. St. 5-8 cm. x 68 mm., whitish, or tinged 
green, equal, ascending, or flexuose, fragile, not viscid, smooth, 
pruinose about the ring. Ring white, becoming stained fuscous with 
the spores, narrow, distant, often incomplete. Gills whitish, becoming 
fuscous, sinuato-adnate, 3-4 mm. broad, thin, scarcely crowded. 
Flesh white, soft, watery. Spores purple, elliptical, 8-9 x 4-5/n, with 
a large central gutta. Woods, heaths, pastures, and ditches. Aug. 
Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

312. S. inuncta Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 557, t. 534. Inuncta, anointed. 
P. 2-5-5 cm., pallid light yellow, becoming livid-purple with the dense 

gluten with which it is at first besmeared, fleshy, convexo-plane, sub- 
umbonate, pelliculose, smooth; margin slightly striate. St. 4-7-5 cm. 
X 3-4 mm., shining white, equal, very flexuose, often decumbent, 
very soft, dry, silky fibrillose below the ring, pruinose above. Ring 
white, median, distant, very thin, fugacious. Gills whitish, then fuscous 
when bruised, whitish at the sides, adnate, with a decurrent tooth, 
6 mm. broad, scarcely crowded. Flesh white, thin, soft. Spores fus- 
cous purple, elliptical, 8 x 5/i, 1-2-guttulate. Smell and taste often 
disagreeable. Heaths, and pastures. Sept. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

var. Lundensis Fr. Lundensis, appertaining to Lund, Sweden. 

Differs from the type in the campanulate, then expanded p., and the 
stuffed st. 



STROPHARIA 127 

var. Upsaliensis Fr. Upsaliensis, appertaining to Upsala. 

Differs from the type in the convex then plane p. being distinctly 
umbonate, and in the hollow st. Woods, and pastures. Sept. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. pallida B. & Br. Pallida, pallid. 

Differs from the type in being very pale. 

313. S. coronilla (Bull.) Fr. (= Stropharia melasperma Fr. sec. Quel.) 
Quel. Jur. et Vosg. t. 14, fig. 7. Kopoavrj, a garland. 

P. 2-5 cm., ochraceous tawny, fleshy, hemispherical, then expanded, 
smooth ; margin white fioccose. St. 3-4 cm. x 4-10 mm., white, be- 
coming yellowish with age or when touched, equal, attenuated at the 
base. Ring white, narrow, median, striate, then violaceous, with the 
edge white, sinuato-adnate, crowded. Flesh white, firm. Spores purple, 
elliptical, 9-10 x 5^. Cystidia "on surface of gill clavate, 30-40 x 8- 
lOju,, on edge of gill filamentous-capitate, 36-45 x 6-10^" Rick. 
Taste mild. Heaths, and pastures. May Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

314. S. obturata Fr. (= Stropharia coronilla (Bull.) Fr. sec. Quel.) 

Obturata, stopped up. 

P. 2-3 cm., light yellow, fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, obso- 
letely viscid, commonly dry, smooth, often rimosely squamulose. St. 
2-5-4 cm. x 6-8 mm., white, firm, attenuated downwards, smooth. 
Ring ivhite, superior, deflexed. Gills white, then purple umber, adnate, 
plane, crowded. Flesh shining white, thick, compact. Spores purple 
brown, 7-9 x 4-6ju,. Pastures. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

315. S. melasperma (Bull.) Quel. non Fr. Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 61. 

fMe\a<;, black; (nreppa, seed. 

P. 3-6 cm., whitish, disc straw coloured, fleshy, convex, then plane 
and somewhat depressed, soft, smooth, slightly viscid, soon dry, often 
broken up into patches. St. 46 cm. x 6-7 mm., white, subequal, 
silky fibrillose, becoming smooth, apex striate. Ring white, adnate 
to the st., striately sulcate to the middle on the upper-side, smooth on 
the under-side, fugacious. Gills whitish, then violaceous cinereous, at 
length becoming blackish cinereous, sinuato-adnate, ventricose, crowded. 
Flesh of p. white, at length becoming somewhat straw colour in the st. 
Spores fuscous, 9-10 x 6/>t. Heaths, pastures, and woods. Aug. 
Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. lutescens Boud. Cke. Illus. no. 558, t. 535, as Stropharia coronilla 
Bull. sec. Boud. Lutescens, becoming yellow. 

Differs from the type in the yellow p. 



128 STROPHABIA 

316. S. squamosa (Pers.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 560, t. 553. 

Squamosa, scaly. 

P. 2-7-5 cm., brownish when moist, then becoming ochraceous, disc 
tawny, fleshy, hemispherical, then flattened, more frequently obtuse, 
or gibbous with an obsolete umbo, viscoso-pelliculose when moist, not 
viscid when dry, sprinkled with superficial, fugacious, piloso-fasciculate, 
concentric scales. St. 6-12-5 cm. x 4-6 mm., pallid, becoming ferru- 
ginous at the base, equal, tough, pulverulent above the ring, either 
squarrose withfibrillose reftexed scales, or covered over with dense, strigose 
down below the ring. Ring pallid, membranaceous, thin, distant. Gills 
cinereous, then blackish, edge white, adnate, ventricose, 10-12 mm. 
broad. Flesh pallid, often reddish when moist, thin, watery. Spores 
brownish purple, broadly elliptical, often depressed on one side, 14- 
15 x 7-8 /i, with an apical germ-pore. Cystidia "on edge of gill, fila- 
mentous-clavate, 50-70 x 4-7 /A " Rick. In troops. Woods and 
heaths. Sept. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

var. aurantiaca Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 562, t. 555, as Stropharia thrausta 
Kalchbr. var. aurantiaca. Aurantiaca, orange. 

Differs from the type in the orange, or brick-red p. Woods. Sept. 
Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. thrausta (Kalchbr.) Cke. (= Stropharia luteo-nitens (Fl. Dan.) 
Fr. sec. Quel.) Kalchbr. Icon. t. 15, fig. 2. 6pavw, I break. 

Differs from the type in being more slender, and in the p. being soon 
denuded of its scales. Woods. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

317. S. Worthingtonii Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 563, t. 556. 

Worthington G-. Smith, the eminent mycologist. 
P. 2-3 cm., yellow, fleshy, campanulate, smooth, viscid?. St. 4 
7 cm. x 1-2 mm., dark blue, flexuose, smooth. Ring incomplete, dis- 
tant. Gills brown cinnamon, adnate, broad. Flesh of p. pale sulphur 
yellow, pale bright blue in the St., thin. Spores brown, elliptical, 
7 x 4/Li. Pastures and woods. Nov. Dec. Uncommon. 

**Growing on dung. Ring often incomplete. 

318. 8. luteo-nitens (Fl. Dan.) Fr. Luteus, yellow; nitens, shining. 
P. 2-5-5 cm., yellow, fleshy, conico-hemispherical, umbonate, smooth, 

covered with pallid, superficial, fugacious squamules towards the margin, 
viscid when moist, shining when dry. St. 5 cm. x 4 mm., pallid, equal, 
somewhat firm, minutely silky fibrillose, apex pruinose. Ring white, 
distant, membranaceous, entire, spreading. Gills cinereous, becoming 
blackish, subadnate, truly ventricose, broad, plane. Flesh white, thin. 
Spores "at first violet, then olive yellow under the microscope, elliptical, 



STROPHARIA 129 

15-19 x 9-1 1/i. Cystidia only on the edge of the gill filamentous- 
capitate, 25-27 x 3-6 fj," Rick. On dung in pastures. Sept. Un- 
common. 

319. S. merdaria Fr. (= Psilocybe merdaria (Fr.) Rick.) Cke. Illus. 
no. 565, t. 537. Merdaria, of dung. 

P. 2-5 cm., somewhat cinnamon when moist, then yellow, and at 
length ochraceous, fleshy, obtusely campanulate, then convexo-plane, 
gibbous, smooth, pelliculose, moist, hygrophanous, slightly viscid; mar- 
gin thin, deflexed, even, at length somewhat striate. St. 57*5 cm. 
x 4-6 mm., straw white, tough, equal, subflexuose, stuffed with a pith, 
flocculosely villous, and slightly silky, dry, apex striate, base white 
villous. Ring concolorous, incomplete, torn, for the most part com- 
monly adhering to the margin of the p. Gills pallid, somewhat isabelline, 
at length brown fuscous, adnato-decurrent, plane, 6 mm. broad, very 
broad behind, somewhat crowded, soft, edge white. Flesh whitish, 
thick at the disc, sometimes fuscous in the st. when old. Spores black 
fuscous, broadly elliptical, 13-15 x 8-9 /A, with a large central gutta, 
and flattened germ-pore. Cystidia "on edge of gill cylindrical-fila- 
mentous, 25-30 x 3-5 jit" Rick. Gregarious, or subcaespitose. On 
horse dung. Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. major Fr. (= Stropharia ventricosa Massee.) Fr. Icon. t. 130, 
fig. 3. Major, larger. 

Differs from the type in its much larger size and in the ventricose, 
rooting st. On horse dung. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

320. S. stercoraria Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 566, t. 538. 

Stercoraria, of dung. 

P. 2-3 cm., yellow, fleshy, hemispherical, then expanded, obtuse, 
orbicular, pelliculoso-viscid, smooth; margin sometimes striate. St. 
7-10 cm. x 4-6 mm., yellow, equal, stuffed with a separable, fibrous 
pith, clothed below the ring with the viscid flocculose veil so that it 
appears as if smooth. Ring viscid, distant, thin, narrow, spreading, 
floccose. Gills white, then umber fuscous, or olivaceous fuscous, adnate, 
4-8 mm. broad, very broad behind, somewhat crowded. Flesh pallid, 
thin at the margin. Spores fuscous purple, oblong elliptical, 18- 
20 x 8-lOju,, with a flattened germ-pore. Cystidia "lanceolate, 50- 
70 x 12-18/x " Rick. Quelet says that the st. often rises from a 
sclerotium. Dry dung. Pastures. May Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

321. S. semiglobata (Batsch) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 567, t. 539. 

Semiglobata, hemispherical. 

P. 1-3 cm., light yellow, fleshy, hemispherical, very obtuse, smooth, 
viscid. St. 6-10 cm. x 2-3 mm., becoming yellow, apex paler, equal, 
tense and straight, smooth, smeared with the glutinous veil. Ring viscid, 



130 STROPHARIA 

incomplete, distant, thin. Gills clouded with black, adnate, very broad, 
8-10 mm., plane. Flesh pallid, thin. Spores fuscous purple, ellip- 
tical, 15-17 x 9-10/A. Cystidia only on edge of gill, filamentous, apex 
obtuse, 5-6/i in diam., base ventricose, 50-60 x 7-1 1/i. On dung, 
especially horse. Woods, and pastures. April Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

B. P. without a pellicle, but innato-fibrillose, not viscid. 

322. S. caput-Medusae Fr. (= Hypholoma caput-Medusae (Fr.) Rick.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 568, t. 540. 

Caput, head; Medusa, a monster with snakes instead of hair. 
P. 3-7-5 cm., disc umber, paler, somewhat tan colour towards the 
margin, fleshy, ovate, then convexo-expanded, obtuse, or obtusely 
umbonate, dry, when young very densely, scaly-squarrose with the fuscous 
veil, soon becoming smooth especially at the disc, which becomes 
rimosely warty, or granulose; margin thin, splitting. St. 5-12 x 1- 
1-5 cm., whitish, equally attenuated upwards, somewhat fragile, 
covered below the ring with fuscous, crowded, imbricate, squarrose scales, 
white mealy above. Ring white, superior, membranaceous, pendulous, 
margin very much swollen, floccose, fuscous. Gills clay white, then pale 
umber, fuscous spotted in appearance, adnate, ventricose, lanceolate, 
or semiovate, 4-6 mm. broad, not very crowded, fragile. Flesh pallid, 
thick at the disc. Spores fuscous purple, pip-shaped, 8-9 x 4/z, 
1-guttulate. Cystidia " vesiculose-flask-shaped, 45-60 x 12-20 p, 
rounded above" Rick. Subcaespitose, or fasciculate. On and near 
pine stumps. Sept. Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

323. S. scobinacea Fr. (= Stropharia versicolor (With.) Quel., Hypho- 

loma scobinacea (Fr.) Rick.) Cke. Illus. no. 1179, t. 1189. 

Scobinacea, powdered. 

P. 3-5 cm., fuscous, disc livid, becoming yellow, circumference grey- 
violaceous, fleshy, hemispherical, then expanded, gibbous, slightly sul- 
cate, covered with crowded, adpressed, separating, fugacious, blackish 
squamules. St. 6-9 cm. x 6-8 mm., white, attenuated from the 
thickened base, fragile, fibrillose, apex mealy. Ring white, superior, 
fugacious. Gills whitish flesh colour, then purple, adnate, crowded, 
crenulated. Flesh whitish, pinkish when exposed to the air, thin. 
Spores brownish purple, elliptical, 7-8 x 3/u,. Caespitose. On and 
near stumps, especially ash. April Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

S. cotonea Quel. = Hypholoma lacrymabundum Fr. 

324. S. Battarrae Fr. Quel. Jur. et Vosg. t. 22, fig. 4, as Stropharia 
aculeata Quel. 

J. A. Battarra, author of Fungorum Agri Ariminensis Historia. 

P. 57 cm., whitish, grey, fuscous, or olivaceous, fleshy, hemispherical, 

then plane, obtuse, covered with darker, adpressed, fibrillose scales, 



STROPHARIA 131 

which are erect on the disc; margin appendiculate with the partial veil. 
St. 2-5-5 cm. x 5-6 mm., whitish, incurved, thickened at the base, 
covered below the ring with imbricate, erect, fibrillose, fuscous, or olivace- 
ous scales, which often become rufescent, apex proinose. Ring white, 
membranaceous, thin, fugacious. Gills white, then rosy, and at length 
fuscous, sinuato-adnate, crowded, edge white. Flesh white, thin, 
fragile. Spores "brownish purple, elliptical, lOju," Quel. Poplars, 
and poplar stumps. Rare. 

325. S. Jerdonii B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 569, t. 541. A. Jerdon. 
P. 45 cm., ochraceous, brown when dry, fleshy, campanulate, obtuse, 

with a broad umbo, minutely rivulose, adorned with superficial, fuga- 
cious, white scales; cuticle not peeling off. St. 5-7 cm. x 4-6 mm., 
snow white, cylindrical, apex pulverulent, brownish with silky trans- 
verse scales below. Ring superior, deflexed. Gills pallid, then brown, 
adnate, sending a line down the st. but not truly decurrent, trans- 
versely striate. Flesh white, brownish towards the base of the st., thick 
at the disc. Spores dark brown, " 10 x 5/>t" Massee. Caespitose. Fir 
stumps. Sept. Nov. Rare. 

326. S. spintrigera Fr. (= Hypholoma appendiculatum Bull. sec. 

Quel.) Fr. Icon. t. 132, fig. 1. 

Spinther, a bracelet; gero, I wear. 

P. 210 cm., brownish, or pinkish tan, becoming pale, fleshy, fragile, 
ovate, then expanded, smooth, soft. St. 5-15 cm. x 4-10 mm., 
shining white, equal, or slightly ventricose, base often subbulbous, 
floccosely squamose, or fibrillose, apex naked. Ring white, very distant, 
thin, fugacious. Gills brownish fuscous, adnate, linear, 2-8 mm. wide, 
joined behind, subdeliquescent. Flesh white, thin, almost none at the 
margin. Spores fuscous cinereous, elliptical, 7-8 x 4-5/u,. Caespitose. 
On trunks and stumps. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

327. S. punctulata (Kalchbr.) Fr. (= Flammula gummosa (Lasch) 
Fr. sec. Quel.) Kalchbr. Icon. 1. 14, fig. 2, as Pholiota punctulata 
Kalchbr. Punctulata, minutely dotted. 

P. 2-5-3 cm., pallid, tinged slightly yellowish or fuscous, fleshy, con- 
vex, obtuse, disc somewhat depressed, dry, minutely squamulosely 
punctate from the veil, at length smooth; margin involute. St. 2-5- 
5cm. x 4-6 mm., pallid, equal, or bulbous at the base, clothed below 
the ring with fibrillose, punctiform squamules, smooth above. Ring 
superior, or subapical, thin, formed of the fibrils of the veil brought 
together in a zone, fugacious. Gills pallid, then pale umber, sinuato- 
adnate, decurrent with a tooth, 46 mm. broad. Flesh becoming pale 
fuscous, tawny at the base of the st., thin. Spores fuscous. On buried 
chips. Sept. Oct. Rare. 



132 STROPHARIA. CORTINABIUS 



328. S. hypsipus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 132, fig. 2. vtyl-Trovs, high-footed. 

P. 5-9 cm., livid fuscous when moist, pallid tan when dry, somewhat 
fleshy, campanulate, then convexo-plane, obtuse, smooth, hygrophan- 
ous', margin somewhat striate when moist. St. 715 cm. x 4-8 mm., 
white, fragile, equal, smooth. Ring white, membranaceous, median, 
distant, persistent. Gills white, then fuscous, adnate, at length sepa- 
rating, subdistant. Flesh white, very thin. Spores "brown, elliptical, 
12-14 x 6-7 fj," Massee. Damp places amongst grass, sometimes on 
twigs. Oct. Rare. 

329. S. cothurnata Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 132, fig. 3. 

KoBopvos, a high hunting boot. 

P. 12-5 cm., white, submembranaceous, convex, then plane, obtuse, 
smooth, silky smooth under a lens. St. 3-5 cm. x 2-3 mm., white, 
equal, sof t, fioccosely villose below the ring, smooth above. Ring white, 
median, narrow. Gills white, becoming fuscous, adnexed, ventricose, 
crowded. Flesh watery white, thin at the disc. Shady fir woods. 
Rare. 

S. lacrimabunda (Bull.) Quel. = Hypholoma velutinum (Pers.) Fr. 

S. pyrotricha (Holmsk.) Quel. = Hypholoma pyrotrichum (Holmsk.) 
Fr. 

**With an arachnoid or filamentous general veil. 

1. Veil forming an arachnoid, fugacious ring on the stem. 

Spores ochraceous, or ferruginous. 

Cortinarius FT. 

(Cortina, a veil.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular. Veil arachnoid, distinct from the pellicle of 
the pileus, viscid, or dry. Stem central. Gills adnate, sinuate, sinu- 
ato-adnate, or decurrent, pulverulent with the spores at maturity. 
Spores ochraceous, citron yellow, golden, clay colour, cinnamon, 
ferruginous, tawny, or fuscous; oval, elliptical, pip-shaped, oblong 
elliptical, almond-shaped, or fusiform; smooth, verrucose, granular, 
aculeolate, or echinulate, continuous. Cystidia none on the surface 
of the gills (except 333), rarely on the edge. Growing on the ground, 
solitary, caespitose, or subcaespitose. 

1. Phlegmacinm Fr. 

(<j>\eyna, phlegm.) 
Veil viscid on the pileus, arachnoid, dry on the stem. 



CORTINARIUS 133 

I. Partial veil superior, pendulous from the apex of the 
clavate, or subequal stem as an imperfect ring. 

*Gills pallid, then clay colour. 

330. C. (Phleg.) triumphans Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 682, t. 692. 

Triumphans, triumphal. 

P. 6-12 cm., yellow with a tinge of brown or ochraceous when moist, 
yellow when dry, disc sometimes variegated with minute, adpressed, 
spot-like scales, margin brighter coloured, fleshy, convexo-plane, ob- 
tuse. St. 6-17 x 1-2-5 cm., yellowish white, adorned with tawny scales 
arranged in many circles, or rings, firm, attenuated upwards from the 
ovato-bulbous base, striate; partial veil superior, woven, somewhat 
ringed. Gills whitish, or inclining to very pale bluish grey, then clay 
colour, and somewhat cinnamon, emarginate, crowded, 6 mm. broad; 
edge toothed, white. Flesh whitish. Spores brown, punctate, elliptical, 
9-10 x 4-5/A, 1-guttulate. Taste mild. Woods, heaths, and commons, 
generally under birches. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

331. C. (Phleg.) claricolor Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 141, fig. 2. 

Clarus, bright; color, colour. 

P. 7-12 cm., yellow, fleshy, convexo-plane, then depressed, veiled 
with superficial, silky-pruinose, villose down, at first everywhere, soon 
only round the margin, then smooth, and for the most part broken up 
into scales. St. 7-9 x 1-5-2 cm., white, or yellow, hard, clothed up to 
the superior cortina with fugacious, white, scaly flocci, or lax down, 
either short and bulbous, or elongated and conico-attenuated, or 
cylindrical. Gills whitish, then clay colour, emarginate, almost free, 
or adnate, crowded, edge toothed. Flesh white, compact. Spores brown, 
punctate, pip-shaped, 10-11 x 6-7 p. Taste pleasant. Woods, and 
heaths, under birches and conifers. Aug. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

332. C. (Phleg.) turmalis Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 684, t. 694. 

Turmalis, belonging to a troop. 

P. 5-9 cm., yellow-tan, disc often darker, compact, convex, then 
plane, very obtuse, when young veiled with pruinate, very fugacious, 
villose down, soon smooth, sometimes obsoletely piloso-virgate. St. 
7-15 x 2-5 cm., shining white when dry, very hard, rigid, cylindrical, 
attenuated at the base, when young sheathed with a fugacious, white, 
woolly veil. Cortina entirely fibrillose, superior and persistent in the 
form of a ring, at length ferruginous with the spores. Gills white, then 
clay colour, adnexed, rounded, or emarginate, even decurrent with a 
tooth, crowded, serrated. Flesh white, soft. Spores ferruginous, palish 
fuscous under the microscope, elliptical, 8-9 x 5/z. Densely caespitose. 
Mixed woods, and especially amongst beech leaves. Sept. Oct. 
Uncommon. 



134 COBTINARIUS 

333. C. (Phleg.) crassus Fr. (= Hebeloma crassum (Fr.) Eick.) Fr. Icon, 
t. 142, fig. 1. Crassus, thick. 

P. 6-12 cm., dirty yellow, opaque, very fleshy, convexo-plane, very 
obtuse, disc depressed, somewhat viscid, the circumference broken up 
into innate fibrils. St. 5 x 2-5 cm., whitish, either truly bulbous, or 
stout and equal, fibrillose, apex white-mealy, base often white-tomen- 
tose. Cortina very delicate, fugacious. Gills pallid-clay colour, then 
clay colour, rounded behind, crowded, 6 mm. broad. Flesh becoming 
pallid, pouring out a watery juice when the stem is compressed. 
Spores "brownish, pale yellow under the microscope, punctate, sub- 
fusiform, 6-7 x 4ju. Cystidia very abundant, both on the surface 
and edge of the gill, cylindrical-fusiform, 40-75 x 6-9 /x," Eick. 
Smell strong. Moist woods, and grassy places. Aug. Oct. 
Uncommon. 

334. C. (Phleg.) balteatus Fr. (= Cortinarius (Phlegmacium) nemo- 
rensis Fr. sec. Quel.) Fr. Icon. t. 142, fig. 2. 

Balteatus, girdled. 

P. 7-10 cm., disc tawny-fuliginous, or date colour, beautiful violet, or 
lilac near the floccose margin (but this colour often disappears with 
age, or when the plant is dry), compact, flattened, very obtuse, disc 
depressed, often unequal, shining when dry, innately floccose, fibrillose, 
and shining towards the margin. St. 4-6 x 2-5-3 cm., whitish, stout, 
very compact, equal, or ovately bulbous, minutely velvety, and dingy 
above the fibrillose, adpressed, rusty veil, longitudinally striate, or 
reticulate below, but sometimes white tomentose. Gills pallid, then 
somewhat tan colour, emarginate, or rounded behind, or subde- 
current, rather crowded. Flesh white, compact. Spores ferruginous, 
pip-shaped, 8-10 x 4-5/i, multi-guttulate. Mixed woods, and 
amongst pine needles in pine woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

335. C. (Phleg.) sebaceus Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 103. 

Sebum, tallow. 

P. 512 cm., whitish ochraceous, or deep ochraceous, convex, then 
campanulate, umbonate disc flattened, at first covered over with a 
whitish pruinose lustre ; margin appendiculate with the remains of the 
cortina. St. 7-18 x 1-2-5 cm., concolorous, or paler, stout, compact, 
often twisted and compressed, fusiform towards the fibrillose base. 
Cortina white, delicate, fugacious. Gills white, then cinnamon, paler 
near the margin, emarginate, adnate, connected by veins, 8 mm. wide, 
not crowded. Flesh white. Spores golden yellow, attenuated at the 
one end, oblong, 12-15 x 5-6/i,, multi-guttulate. Taste pleasant. 
Mixed woods. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



CORTINARIUS 135 

336. C. (Phleg.) lustratus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 688, t. 799. 

Lustratus, purified. 

Entirely whitish. P. 2-5-5 cm., equally fleshy, convex, then ex- 
panded, very obtuse. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 8-10 mm., equal, rarely attenu- 
ated at the base, covered with a few fibrils of the white cortina. Gills 
becoming slightly discoloured, rounded behind, almost free, very 
crowded, narrow. Flesh white, thick. Spores ochraceous. Amongst 
grass in sunny places. Oct. Rare. 

**Gills violaceous, or purplish, then cinnamon. 

337. C. (Phleg.) crocolitus Quel. Grevillea, t. 127, fig. 1. 

Kpotcos, saffron; litus, daubed. 

P. 10 cm., bright yellow, disc sprinkled with tender, saffron fiocci, 
convex. St. 6-10 x 1 cm., white, then citron yellow, fragile, swollen 
at the base, fibrillose, apex silky, adorned with scales, or woolly zones 
below the membranaceous, very fragile ring. Cortina white, fugacious. 
Gills whitish lilac, then nankeen yellow, uncinate, uneven, edge white. 
Flesh white, then citron yellow, soft. Spores "citron yellow, granular, 
pruniform, 11-12 x 5-6 p" Bat. Taste becoming bitter. Woods, 
especially birch. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

338. C. (Phleg.) varius (Schaeff.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 689, t. 698. 

Varius, changeable. 

P. 5-9 cm., bright ferruginous-tawny, or yellow tawny, compact, 
hemispherico-flattened, very obtuse; margin thin, at first incurved, 
appendiculate with the cortina. St. 48 x 2-3 cm., shining white, 
compact, adpressedly flocculose, the superior veil pendulous, base 
bulbous. Cortina white, silky. Gills violaceous-purplish, then ochraceous- 
cinnamon with the edge violaceous, emarginate, thin, somewhat crowded. 
Flesh white, firm. Spores ferruginous, warted, broadly elliptical, 
8-10 x 6-8ju,, often apiculate at one end. Woods. Sept. Nov. Not 
uncommon, (v.v.) 

339. C. (Phleg.) cyanopus (Seer.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 690, t. 699. 

KVCLVOS, dark blue; TTOU?, a foot. 

P. 5-8 cm., date-brown-livid, then tan, and opaque, fleshy when un- 
folded, flattened, obtuse, regular, dry in fine weather. St. 5-10 x 1- 
2 cm., violaceous, becoming whitish, the apex remaining violaceous, firm, 
ventricose, base bulbous. Gills intensely violaceous, or pallid bluish- 
grey, soon becoming cinnamon, adnate, then emarginate, broad, 6- 
10 mm. wide, not much crowded. Flesh violaceous at the apex of the 
stem, whitish elsewhere. Spores ferruginous, punctate, pip-shaped, 
9-10 x 5-6 jLt. Woods and under oaks. Aug. Nov. Not uncommon. 
(v.v.) 



136 CORTINARITTS 

340. C. (Phleg.) variecolor (Pers.) Fr. Varie, diversely; color, colour. 

P. 8-15 cm., date-brown, then fulvous-reddish, disc darker, the tomen- 
tose margin violet, rarely entirely violet, convex, then expanded, obtuse. 
St. 5-8 x 2-5-3 cm., white with the apex becoming blue, or blue becoming 
whitish, hard, stout, base bulbous, diffused upwards into the p., at 
first villose, then fiocculose. Gills blue, then clay-cinnamon, emarginate, 
decurrent, somewhat arcuate, thin, 12 mm. wide, margin crenulate. 
Flesh violaceous, becoming whitish. Spores ferruginous, "almond- 
shaped, 15-18 x 8-9 /A, warted-rough" Rick. Smell and taste pleasant. 
Edible. Pine woods. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. nemorensis Fr. (= Cortinarius (Phlegmacium) balteatus Fr. sec. 
Quel.) Cke. Illus. no. 692, t. 863. 

Nemorensis, belonging to a wood. 

P. 10-12-5 cm., bay-brown, then yellowish, margin violet, smooth, 
slightly viscid at first, soon dry, opaque, pilosely rivulose. St. 7-5 x 
2-5 cm., bluish, becoming white, obclavate, not bulbous, nor villose, apex 
mealy. Gills rounded, subdecurrent. Flesh white, bluish at the peri- 
phery. Beech woods. Sept. Oct. (v.v.) 

341. C. (Phleg.) largus Fr. Largus, large. 

P. 5-15 cm., sometimes violet when young, date-brown-tawny, fleshy, 
compact at the disc, thin at the circumference, convexo-flattened, 
very obtuse, only slightly viscid, adpressedly silky-fibrillose when dry, 
commonly rivuloso-squamulose, sometimes fibrillose towards the 
margin. St. 6-13 x 2-3 cm., white, tinted violaceous, equal, often 
curved and ascending, wholly fibrillose, apex pruinose. Cortina white, 
silky, thick, superior, pendulous. Gills bluish-grey-clay-colour, then 
cinnamon, adnate, or emarginate, crowded, 10-14 mm. broad, 
minutely denticulate. Flesh whitish-bluish-grey, becoming white when 
exposed to the air, that of the stem sometimes becoming bloody when 
bruised, wholly fibrous, firm. Spores ferruginous, pip-shaped, 10- 
11 x 5-6/x, "rough" Rick. Smell and taste pleasant. Edible. Caes- 
pitose. Deciduous and pine woods. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

342. C. (Phleg.) Riederi (Weinm.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 694, t. 702. 

M. Rieder, of Petrograd. 

P. 5-7-5 cm., ochraceous, compact, campanulate, then expanded, 
umbonate, glutinous, shining when dry. St. 5-12-5 cm. x 5-12 mm., 
white, apex violaceous, or lilac, tawny fibrillose, clavate. Gills lilac, then 
cinnamon, adnate, rather thick, crowded. Flesh greyish- white, be- 
coming yellow under the cuticle. Spores ferruginous, "warted, almond- 
shaped, 15-17 x 8-10/Lt " Rick. Pine woods. Sept. Oct. Rare. 



CORTINARIUS 137 

***Gills yellow, cinnamon, or ferruginous. 

343. C. (Phleg.) percomis Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 143, fig. 2. 

Percomis, very friendly. 

P. 5-7 cm., pale yellow, truly fleshy, compact, convex, obtuse. St. 
6-8 x 1-2 cm., sulphur yellow, compact, firm, fusiform, or davate, 
fibrillose, apex pruinose. Cortina citron yellow. Gills sulphur yellow, 
becoming fulvous, broadly emarginate, crowded, 4-6 mm. wide. Flesh 
sulphur yellow, compact. Spores ferruginous in the mass, broadly 
elliptical, 12-14 x 8-9 /x, " warted-punctate " Rick. Smell pleasant, 
"like lavender" Quel, "like toilet vinegar" Peltereau. Taste pleasant. 
Edible. Pine woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

344. C. (Phleg.) latus (Pers.) Fr. Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 162. 

Latus, broad. 

P. 6-10 cm., tan colour, disc darker, fleshy, convex, then expanded, 
obtuse, slightly viscid, soon dry, fibrillose, then glabrous. St. 5- 
7 x 1-5-2 cm., white, equal, base ovately bulbous, rarely emargi- 
nately bulbous, somewhat squamose, then fibrillose. Cortina white, 
superior, forming a ring, fugacious. Gills pallid, then clay cinnamon, 
emarginate, 6 mm. broad, crowded, distantly dentate. Flesh white. 
Spores ochraceous, punctate, minutely rough, oblong elliptical, 10- 
13 x 6-7 /i. Taste pleasant. Gregarious, or subcaespitose. Coniferous 
woods. Oct. Rare. 

345. C. (Phleg.) saginus Fr. Saginus, fattened. 

P. 10-12-5 cm., yellow, fleshy, plano-convex, irregular, repand. St. 
7-5 x 2-5-3 cm., light yellowish, somewhat bulbous, fibrillose, apex 
naked. Cortina fibrillose, fugacious, not very conspicuous. Gills 
dingy-pallid, then cinnamon, truly decurrent, 8-10 mm. broad, attenu- 
ated at both ends, edge eroded. Flesh white, soft. Spores "pale 
yellow under the microscope, almond-shaped, 10-11 x 6-6-5 /n, 
warted-punctate" Rick. Gregarious, subcaespitose. Mountainous 
fir woods. Oct. Rare. 

346. C. (Phleg.) russus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 696, t. 751. Russus, red. 

P. 6-10 cm., unicolorous, rufous, fleshy, convex, then flattened, ob- 
tuse, innately fibrillose round the margin. St. 7-5 x 1-5-2 cm., pale 
white, attenuated upwards, often curved-ascending, soft, adpressedly 
fibrillose, apex delicately pruinose. Cortina concolorous, very tender, 
fugacious. Gills rufous-ferruginous, obtusely adnate, 8-10 mm. broad, 
crowded, connected by veins. Flesh whitish- flesh-colour, violaceous 
under the cuticle. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 8-12 x 5-7 /z, " warted- 
punctate " Rick. Taste bitter, nauseous. Woods. Sept. Oct. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 



138 COBTINABITJS 

****Gills olivaceous. 

347. C. (Phleg.) infractus (Pers.) Fr. (= Cortinarius (Phlegmacium) 
anfractus Fr. sec, Quelet et Bresadola.) Bres. Fung. Trid. 1. 163. 

Infractus, broken. 

P. 5-10 cm., olivaceous-fuliginous, becoming fulvous, fleshy, convex, 
then plane, streaked, often fuscous zoned near the undulate, broken 
margin. St. 3-7 x 1-3 cm., concolorous, ovato-clavate, or elongate 
and bulbous, adpressedly fibrillose, apex often violaceous. Gills oliva- 
ceous-fuliginous, then umber, crowded, or somewhat distant, broad, 
undulate, crisped. Flesh yellowish white, somewhat violaceous at the 
apex of the stem. Spores ferruginous in the mass, somewhat ochraceous 
under the microscope, subglobose, or broadly elliptical, 6-9 x 4-6 /z,, 
verrucose. Smell somewhat nauseous. Taste bitter. Woods. Sept. 
Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

348. C. (Phleg.) praestans (Cordier) Sacc. (= Cortinarius (Phlegma- 

cium) anfractus Fr. sec. Berk., Cortinarius (Phlegmacium) 
Berkeleyi Cke., Cortinarius torvus Fr. sec. Kalchbr. and Quel.) 
Boud. Icon. t. 116, as Cortinarius torvus Fr. var. Berkeleyi Cke. 

Praestans, pre-eminent. 

P. 7 - 5-20 cm.., fuliginous, or brown, disc darker, often with a tinge of 
violet at the margin, at first inclosed in a whitish volva which breaks up 
in patches on the disc, convex, then expanded, shining when dry, very 
fleshy, sometimes radiately silky, becoming paler and rivulose with age. 
St. 10-20 x 3-6 cm., white, covered with the general veil, which is at first 
violaceous, then pale, often remaining appendiculate at the margin of 
the pileus, finally becoming ochraceous when old, base bulbous. Gills 
dingy olive, then cinnamon, adnate, slightly emarginate, broad, scarcely 
distant. Flesh pale ochraceous, darker under the pellicle of the pileus. 
Spores yellow-brown, fusiform, minutely verrucose, 15-16 x 8-9 /M. 
Forming large circles in woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

II. Bulb depressed, or turbinate, marginate. St. fleshy, fibrous; 
cortina commonly inferior, arising from the margin of the bulb. 
P. equally fleshy. Gills somewhat sinuate. 

*Gills whitish, then clay-coloured, or pale cinnamon. 

349. C. (Phleg.) multiformis Fr. (= Cortinarius rapaceus Fr. sec. 

Quel., Cortinarius talus Fr. sec. Quel.) Boud. Icon. t. 104. 

Multiformis, many shaped. 

P. 47 cm., unicolorous, light yellow, clay yellow, tawny, etc., fleshy, 
convex, then flattened, very obtuse, at length depressed, very viscid, 
or somewhat dry, and sprinkled with the universal white veil. St. 
5-12 x 1-1-5 cm., white, then yellowish, equal, or attenuated upwards, 



COBTINARIUS 139 

often adpressedly fibrillose, with a somewhat marginate bulb. Cortina 
white, fibrillose, fugacious. Gills whitish, often tinged with violet, then 
clay colour, emarginate, free, or with a small decurrent tooth, very 
thin, crowded, edge serrulate. Flesh white, becoming yellowish at the 
base of the stem. Spores ochraceous-tawny, verrucose, elliptical, 
10 x 6/1,. Taste mild. Woods, especially beech. Aug. Nov. Not 
uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. flavescens (Cke.). Cke. Illus. no. 702, t. 709. 

Flavescens, becoming yellow. 
Differs from the type in the yellow gills, and yellowish flesh. 

350. C. (Phleg.) napus (Fr.). Cke. Illus. no. 703, t. 710. 

Napus, turnip. 

P. 58 cm.., fuliginous, then date-brown-tawny, fleshy, convexo-plane, 
obtuse, glutinous, margin abruptly bent inwards. St. 5 x 1-2 cm., 
white, at length becoming yellow at the base, equal, ascending, firm, 
inserted in an obconic, acutely and obliquely marginate bulb. Gills 
whitish-fuliginous, emarginate, somewhat distant, broad, crisped. Flesh 
white, with a horny line at the base of the gills. Spores brownish, ellip- 
tical, 10 x 5/Lt. Pine woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

351. C. (Phleg.) allutus (Seer.) Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 704, t. 752. 

Allutus, washed. 

P. 2-3 cm., rufescent, fleshy, conical, then convex, finally expanded, 
and sometimes depressed, margin darker. St. 2-3 cm. x 3-4 mm., 
white, striate with reddish lines below, equal, apex mealy, viscid, base 
marginately bulbous. Gills whitish, then rufescent, adnate, rather 
crowded, edge crenulate. Flesh rufescent, thin. Pine woods. Oct. 
Rare. 

352. C. (Phleg.) talus Fr. (= Cortinarius (Phlegmacium) multiformis 
Fr. sec. Quel.) Fr. Icon. t. 145, fig. 2. Talus, the ankle bone. 

P. 4-8 cm. , of a yellowish dirty colour, becoming pale, margin somewhat 
olivaceous, yellowish, fleshy, thin, convexo-plane. St. 7'5 cm. x 12mm., 
pale, equal, cylindrical, base marginato-bulbous. Gills beautiful straw 
colour, or ochrey-pallid, emarginate, somewhat crowded. Flesh dingy 
pallid whitish, watery, with hyaline spots, and variegated with a horny 
line next the gills. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 8-10 x 4-5 /A, 1-2- 
guttulate. Woods. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

**Gills violaceous, dark blue or purplish, at length cinnamon. 

353. C. (Phleg.) glaucopus (Schaeff.) Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 706, t. 712. 

7\au/co9, pale blue; TTOVS, a foot. 

P. 6-12 cm., dingy yellow, tan-tawny, or clay colour, very fleshy, 
compact, convex, then flattened, somewhat repand, often fioccoso-scaly 



140 CORTINABIUS 

and marked with a raised fuscous zone round the split margin. St. 
6-8 x 12 cm., pale azure-blue, becoming yellowish, firm, fibrillose, 
striate, base marginately bulbous. Gills azure-blue, then cinnamon, 
rounded behind, emarginate, crowded, sometimes crisped. Flesh 
white, or bluish, becoming yellowish. Spores ferruginous, minutely 
verrucose, broadly elliptical, 9-10 x 5-6/x, with a hyaline apiculus at 
the one end. Woods, and pastures. Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

354. C. (Phleg.) calochrous (Pers.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 707, t. 713. 

Ka\6<:, beautiful; %p&>9, colour. 

P. 4-8 cm., tawny, yellow round the margin, compact, convex, then 
plane, obtuse, guttate, often stained with soil; margin involute, 
flexuose when expanded. St. 4-6 x 1-5-3 cm., yellowish, firm, equal, 
fibrillose, marginately bulbous, bulb very depressed. Cortina yellow 
("amethyst" Quelet), marginal, fugacious. Gills dark blue-purple, 
then ferruginous, emarginate, crowded, serrated. Flesh white, firm. 
Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 10-11 x 6-7 /x, minutely punctate. 
Smell sometimes foetid. Taste mild, sometimes acrid. Pastures, and 
woods, especially beech. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

355. C. (Phleg.) caerulescens Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 709, t. 722. 

Caerulescens, becoming azure. 

P. 5-7 cm., blue-violaceous, becoming tinged with ochre especially on 
the disc, sometimes entirely yellow ochraceous, convex, then convexo- 
plane, sometimes finally a little depressed at the disc, fleshy, pellicle 
separable; margin incurved, pubescent, white, then expanded and vio- 
laceous. St. 4-6 x 1-1-5 cm., blue-violaceous, or violet-amethyst, cylin- 
drical, conical, fibrillosely silky, then becoming smooth, marginately 
bulbous, bulb white. Cortina violaceous. General veil fibrillose, viola- 
ceous, fugacious, little distinct from the cortina. Gills violet-amethyst, or 
blue-violaceous, becoming rust colour, edge remaining violet for a long 
time, broadly adnate, deeply emarginate, attenuated in front, rounded 
behind, wide, somewhat crowded. Flesh pale blue-violaceous, especially 
in the stem and under the pellicle of the p., becoming whitish, finally 
tinged with ochre where wounded. Spores ferruginous in the mass, 
yellow ochraceous under the microscope, elliptical, or somewhat 
almond-shaped, 12-14 x 7-5/u, or 6-6-5 x 5/z, compressed on the side, 
verrucose. Taste sweet, or slightly bitter. Woods, especially beech, 
and fir. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

356. C. (Phleg.) caesiocyaneus Britz. Cke. Illus. no. 708, t. 721, as 

Cortinarius (Phlegmacium) caerulescens Fr. 

Caesius, bluish grey; icvavos, dark blue. 

P. 5-10 cm., pale blue-violaceous, more or less washed with yellow 
ochre at the centre, fleshy, convex, then convexo-plane, more or less 



CORTINABIUS 141 

radially streaked with innate fibrils, sometimes marked with loose, 
white patches, the remains of the volva. St. 5-8 cm. x 12-15 mm., 
bluish, then becoming pale, and finally whitish, attenuated upwards from 
the distinctly marginate, bulbous base, fibrillose; bulb white from the 
first, the margin often forming a ledge, or sheath. Cortina bluish, 
fugacious. Gills whitish, then bluish white, and finally clay colour and 
rust colour, narrowly adnate, slightly sinuate, or emarginate, thin, 
crowded, somewhat narrow. Flesh yellowish, whitish in the bulb, bluish 
in the stem. Spores ferruginous in the mass, yellowish brown under 
the microscope, almond-shaped, 10-12-5 x 5-6 /A (" 8-10 x 4-5 /A " 
Britz.), verrucose. Smell faint, like that of Cortinarius purpurascens. 
Taste pleasant. Fir woods. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

357. C. (Phleg.) purpurascens Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 710, t. 723. 

Purpurascens, becoming purple. 

P. 6-15 cm., bay brown, or date brown olivaceous, then tawny olivace- 
ous, fleshy, convex, obtuse, glutinous, opaque when dry, tiger-spotted, 
often depressed round the margin which is at first inflexed, then 
repand, and marked with a raised, violet fuscous zone. St. 5-9 x 1-5 
3 cm., intensely pallid azure-blue, darker when touched, fibrillose, base 
bulbous, somewhat marginate. Gills azure-blue-clay, then cinnamon, 
violaceous purple when bruised, broadly emarginate, 6-12 mm. wide, 
crowded. Flesh azure-blue. Spores ferruginous, rough, elliptical, 
9-11 x 5/Ji. Woods, and heaths. Sept. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

var. subpurpurascens Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 712, t. 725. 

Subpurpurascens, becoming somewhat purple. 
Differs from the type in the thinner, somewhat virgate p., becoming 
pale, in the somewhat equal, bluish white, somewhat marginately bulbous 
stem only fibrillose at the base, in the pallid, then cinnamon gills be- 
coming somewhat purplish when rubbed, and in the flesh in young 
specimens becoming purplish when broken, and finally white. Woods. 
Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

*** Gills ferruginous, tawny, or yellow. 
358. C. (Phleg.) dibaphus Fr. Saund. & Sin. t. 10. 

St-/3a(o9, twice dyed. 

P. 5-10 cm., purplish, disc yellowish, and at length variegated with 
lilac, fleshy, convex, then plane, at length depressed, somewhat re- 
pand. St. 6-9 x 1-3 cm., yellow, shining purplish at the apex, fibril- 
lose, base marginato-bulbous. Gills purplish-ferruginous, adnate, 
slightly rounded, somewhat crowded, broad ("margin lilac" Quel.). 
Flesh white, then yellow, variegated under the pellicle with a violet line. 
Spores purplish brown, pip-shaped, 12-14 x 7-8/u, verrucose. Smell 
and taste mild. Beech, and oak woods. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, 



142 CORTTNARITJS 

var. xanthophyllus Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 713, t. 753. 

fai>#o5, yellow; <f>v\\ov, a leaf. 

Differs from the type in the yellow gills. Woods. Oct. Nov. Rare. 
(*.*) 

359. C. (Phleg.) turbinatus (Bull.) Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 105. 

Turbo, a spinning- top. 

P. 5-13 cm., unicolorous, dingy yellow, or green, becoming pale, 
hygrophanous, opaque when dry, fleshy, convex, then flattened, 
obtuse, at length depressed, orbicular, covered with adpressed fibrils 
which are deeper coloured and somewhat squamulose at the disc. St. 
57 x 2-3 cm., concolorous, or paler than the p., sometimes tinged 
with violet at the apex, equal, cylindrical, springing from a globoso- 
depressed, distinctly marginate, turbinate bulb. Gills pallid light yellow- 
ish, sometimes tinted with dark purple, then ferruginous, uncinately 
adnate, thin, crowded, broad. Flesh white, soft. Spores ferruginous, 
elliptical, 15 x 7-8 p ("8-10 x 5-6/i" Boud.), verrucose. Taste some- 
what bitter. Beech woods, and pastures. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

var. lutescens Eea. Lutescens, becoming yellow. 

Differs from the type in the bright yellow colour of the flesh. Woods, 
and pastures. Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

360. C. (Phleg.) corrosus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 715, t. 715. 

Corrosus, gnawed to pieces. 

P. 5-8 cm., clay colour, becoming ferruginous, then pallid, fleshy, 
compact, expanded, umbilicate, opaque when dry, rivulose, fiocculose, 
only fugaciously viscid. St. 2-5-5 x 1-2-5 cm., white, cortinately- 
fibrillose, equal, base marginately bulbous. Gills somewhat ferruginous 
from the first, emarginate, or rounded behind, very crowded, narrow, 
4 mm. wide, edge unequal. Flesh white, rarely zoned with violet. 
Pine woods. Sept. Rare. 

361. C. (Phleg.) fulgens (A. & S.) Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 106. 

Fulgens, shining. 

P. 5-10 cm., orange-tawny, very fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse, 
occasionally punctate as if with drops, at length silky-fibrillose, or 
squamulose. St. 5-10 x 1-5-2 cm., yellow, paler at the apex, equal, 
densely fibrillose with the yellow cortina which is viscid in wet weather; 
base acutely marginately bulbous, then depressed and oblique. Gills 
bright yellow, then tawny, or ferruginous with the spores, emarginate, 
6-10 mm. broad, somewhat crowded. Flesh white-yellow, compact, 
then spongy and tan colour. Spores ferruginous, verrucose, pip-shaped, 
11-12 x 6 p. Smell pleasant, "like fennel" Quel. Woods. Sept. 
Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 



CORTINARIUS 143 

362. C. (Phleg.) fulmineus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 717, t. 717. 

Fulmineus, pertaining to lightning. 

P. 4-8 cm., tawny, almost brown, margin orange, variegated with 
dense, irregular, agglutinated scales, very fleshy, at first hemispherical, 
and attached to the bulb, then convex, very viscid; margin involute. 
St. 25 x 11-5 cm., yellow, white cortinate at the apex, when young 
inclosed in the bulb, bulb very depressed, marginate, rooting, wider 
than the young p. Gills golden yellow, at length tawny, rounded, thin, 
very crowded. Flesh white, often yellow at the circumference or wholly 
yellowish. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 13-14 x 7-8/A, verrucose. 
Deciduous woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

363. C. (Phleg.) orichalceus (Batsch) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 718, t. 754. 

o/36t'-%a\/co?, copper ore. 

P. 4-13 cm., reddish copper colour, disc darker, often spotted with 
scales, bluish green towards the margin, convex, then flattened, fleshy; 
margin incurved, pubescent, or white, then expanded and concolor- 
ous. St. 5-12 x 1-5-2 cm., pale greenish yellow, more or less covered 
with the fibrils of the cortina, fibrillosely silky, somewhat cylindrical, 
base marginately bulbous. Cortina whitish, or very light greenish 
yellow, then rust colour from the spores. General veil whitish, often 
becoming reddish copper colour, fibrillose, scarcely distinct from the 
cortina. Gills yellow tinted greenish, then olive, and finally olive rust 
colour, slightly adnate, sinuate, or emarginate, attenuated in front, 
slightly rounded behind, narrow, 4-6 mm. wide, thin. Flesh greenish 
yellow, then citron yellow under the pellicle of the pileus and in the base 
of the stem, finally becoming reddish brown in the bulb, with a strong 
bluish grey horny line at the base of the gills. Spores ferruginous, ellip- 
tical, or almond-shaped, 10-11 x 6-7 /x, verrucose. Smell strong, "of 
fennel" Quel. Coniferous woods, and under beeches. Sept. Nov. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

364. C. (Phleg.) elegantior Fr. Ekgantior, neater. 
P. 7-10 cm., tawny, often spotted with drops, fleshy, convex, then 

plane, margin split. St. 5-7 x 2-3 cm., becoming yellowish, stout, 
fibrillose, base marginately bulbous. Cortina pale. Gills egg-yellow, 
becoming olivaceous, sinuate, thin, crowded, serrulate. Flesh becoming 
yellow. "Spores sphaeroideo-ellipsoid, dark or yellowish (under the 
microscope), 11-14 x 7-8 ju, " Sacc. Woods. Oct. Eare. 

365. C. (Phleg.) testaceus Cke. (= Cortinarius rufo-olivaceus Fr. sec. 
Maire.) Cke. Illus. no. 1188, 1. 1190. Testaceus, brick coloured. 

P. 7-10 cm., brick-red, rather vinous, becoming paler, fleshy, convex, 
then flattened, umbonate, or depressed. St. 7-9 x 1-5 cm., whitish 



144 CORTINABIUS 

above, becoming rufous at the base, attenuated upwards, longitudinally, 
fibrously striate below; base submarginate, bulbous. Gills dusky 
cinnamon, adnate, a little emarginate behind, 6-10 mm. wide. Flesh 
rather flesh-colour, becoming ruddy at apex and base of stem. Spores 
elliptical, 9-11 x 5-6 /LI, rarely 16 x 8/x, narrowed at each end, 
verrucose. Woods, amongst leaves. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

****Gills olivaceous. 

366. C. (Phleg.) prasinus (Schaeff.) Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 107. 

Trpdo-ov, a leek. 

P. 5-8 cm., olivaceous, aeruginous, or tawny ferruginous, tiger-spotted 
as if scaly, convex, then plane and depressed at the centre, adpressedly 
fibrillose; margin involute. St. 5-8 x 1-2 cm., concolorous, equal, or 
slightly attenuated upwards, fibrillosely silky; base marginately bul- 
bous. Cortina whitish, or pallid-green. Gills yellow-olivaceous, or 
somewhat olivaceous, darker and cinereous olivaceous at the base, 
emarginate, undulate. Flesh dingy white, greenish white in the stem, 
olivaceous under the pellicle of the p. and at the base of the stem. 
Spores ferruginous in the mass, ochraceous under the microscope, 
elliptical, 12-15 x 6-8 /A, verrucose. Smell none, or "of sulphur" 
Quel. Taste mild. Beech woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

367. C. (Phleg.) atrovirens (Kalchbr.) Fr. Kalchbr. Icon. t. 19, fig. 3. 

Ater, black; virens, green. 

P. 510 cm., dark green, or olivaceous green, compact, convex, ob- 
tuse. St. 5-8 x 1-2 cm., yellow, firm, equal, fibrillose, except the sub- 
turbinate, marginate bulb. Gills sulphur colour, then greenish, at length 
cinnamon, adnate, 6-8 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh greenish yellow, 
then darker. Spores ferruginous, "elliptical, 10 x 6/4" Massee. 
Mycelium sulphur colour. Pine woods. Oct. Nov. Rare. 

368. C. (Phleg.) scaums Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 721, t. 755. 

with projecting ankles. 



P. 5-10 cm., of a peculiar tawny fuliginous colour, more tawny when 
dry, tiger-spotted, fleshy, convex, then plane and depressed; margin 
thin, slightly striate when old. St. 6-8 cm. x 8-10 mm., azure-blue, or 
olivaceous, becoming white and also yellowish when old, attenuated up- 
wards, fibrillosely striate; base marginately bulbous, the bulb some- 
times evanescent. Cortina greenish, fibrillose. Gills purplish-olivace- 
ous, olivaceous, or fuliginous, attenuato-adnexed, rounded, 2-4 mm. 
broad, thin, very crowded. Flesh watery, thin, soft. Spores ferru- 
ginous, broadly elliptical, 10-11 x 6-7 \L, "punctate-rough" Eick. 
Taste mild. Woods, and bogs. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



CORTINARIUS 145 

369. C. (Phleg.) herpeticus Fr. epTrerov, a creeping thing. 
P. 3-8 cm., olivaceous, then dirty tan colour, disc becoming pale, fleshy, 

convexo-plane, obtuse, somewhat spotted, slightly viscid. St. 5- 
8x1 cm., pallid, firm, unequal, somewhat twisted, fibrillose; bulb 
napiform, marginate. Gills violet-umber, then fuliginous-olive, slightly 
emarginate, at first crowded, 46 mm. broad. Flesh of the pileus pale 
violet when young, then becoming dirty white. Spores "nearly almond- 
shaped, punctate-rough, 7-8 x 4-5 /A" Rick. Woods. Sept. Rare. 

III. Cortina simple, thin, fugacious, median, or inferior. St. at the first 
exserted, somewhat thin, rigid-elastic, externally subcartilaginous, 
polished, shining. P. thin, often hygrophanous. 

*Gills whitish, then clay coloured, or dirty cinnamon. 

370. C. (Phleg.) cumatilis Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 146, fig. 2. KVfia, a wave. 
P. 48 cm., of a very charming violet, or purple violet, fleshy, convex, 

obtuse, often irregular. St. 5-10 x 1-1-5 cm., white, often curved, 
cortinate only at the apex, the universal veil (which serves as a pellicle 
of the p.) ruptured at the base, and adnate to it as a separable, agglu- 
tinated membrane of the same colour as the p. Gills white, then clay 
colour, attenuato-adnexed, almost free, crowded, narrow, 4-6 mm. 
broad, with a small decurrent tooth. Flesh white. Spores ferruginous, 
pip-shaped, 9-10 x 4-5//,, verrucose. Taste pleasant. Solitary, or 
subcaespitose. Fir woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

371. C. (Phleg.) serarius Fr. Serarius, living on whey. 
P. 7-10 cm., reddish-tan, fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, or 

broadly gibbous, viscid, opaque, appearing as if pruinately silky 
when dry. St. 10 x 1 cm., white, equal, entirely fibrillose, and soft, 
polished, shining. Cortina white, inferior, inconspicuous. Gills white, 
then clay colour, arcuately-adnate with a decurrent tooth, crowded, 
broad. Flesh white, with a hyaline line near the base of the gills. Spores 
"thin, fusiform, 7-8 x 3 /A, almost smooth" Rick. Mixed woods. 
Sept. Oct. Rare. 

372. C. (Phleg.) emollitus Fr. Emollitus, softened. 
P. 5-8 cm., tawny, then ochraceous yellow, fleshy, globose, then cam- 

panulato-convex, finally plane, or deformed, often fibrillosely virgate, 
shining when dry; margin incurved, flexuose. St. 4-8 x 1-1-5 cm., 
white, becoming yellowish, equal, or attenuated downwards, often 
thickened at the apex, striate, or fibrillose, base sometimes thickened, 
often compressed, curved, or somewhat twisted. Cortina white, fu- 
gacious, often appendiculate from the margin of the p. Gills white, 
then ochraceous, adnate, or emarginate, somewhat distant, 10-12 mm. 
broad, fragile. Flesh white, very soft. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 

B. B. B. 10 



146 CORTINABIUS 

6-7 x 4/u.. Taste very acrid. Often caespitose. Pastures, and woods, 
especially beech, and oak. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

373. C. (Phleg.) causticus Fr. Bull. Soc. Myc. Fr. xxvi, t. 5, figs. 1-4. 

tcava-Tircos, burning. 

P. 3-5 cm., ochraceous nankeen yellow, almost hemispherical, then 
convex, and plane, sometimes slightly umbonate, and finally slightly 
depressed at the centre, pellicle easily separable, at first covered with 
the white fibrils of the universal veil, soon white pruinose, silky to- 
wards the margin, only slightly viscid when young, soon dry and shining ; 
margin slightly incurved, then straight. St. 5-8 cm. x 3-5 mm., 
white, straight, or flexuose, firm, elastic, covered with the fibrillose 
veil, and slightly viscid when young, soon dry, very minutely pruinose 
at the apex; base equal, or somewhat bulbose, sometimes fusiform 
and slightly rooting. Cortina white, fugacious. Gills cream colour, then 
ochraceous rust, broadly adnate, slightly emarginate, diminishing in 
width towards the margin, slightly crowded. Flesh yellowish when 
young, becoming whitish when dry. Spores ferruginous in the mass, 
yellowish brown under the microscope, elliptical, 6-5-7'5 x 4/>i, apicu- 
late, very minutely verrucose. Smell rather strong. Taste of the 
cuticle of the pileus very bitter, of the flesh sweet, or very slightly bitter. 
Pine woods, and under conifers. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

374. C. (Phleg.) crystallinus Fr. Grevillea, t. 107, fig. 3. 

icpvaraXkivos, crystalline. 

P. 1-5-4 cm., shining silvery white towards the margin, disc watery- 
pallid, becoming altogether shining white when dry, fleshy, convex, then 
plane, hygrophanous. St. 5-7 cm. x 6-10 mm., whitish, then straw 
colour, fragile, equal, or attenuated at the base, fibrillose. Gills day 
colour, emarginate, thin, 6 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh white, thin. 
Spores clay colour, elliptical, 4-5 x 3/n, "7-8 x 4-5 /M, faintly punc- 
tate" Rick. Taste very acrid. Woods, especially beech. Sept. Nov. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

375. C. (Phleg.) decoloratus Fr. Cke. Illus. no 726, t. 729. 

Decoloratus, stained. 

P. 4-10 cm., day colour, disc darker, thin, equally fleshy, cam- 
panulate, then convex, obtuse, soft, soon dry, and fiocculose, corru- 
gated and stained when old. St. 5-10 cm. x 10-12 mm., silvery, equal, 
thickened at the base, sometimes attenuated downwards, fibrillose. 
Cortina white, fibrillose, inferior. Gills whitish, or bluish, then day 
colour and cinnamon, emarginate, adnate, or decurrent, not much 
crowded, 6 mm. broad. Flesh white, watery, soft. Spores pale ferru- 
ginous, pip-shaped, 11-12 x 5-6/i, verrucose. Taste slightly acrid. 
Woods, especially beech. Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 



CORTINARIUS 147 

**Gills violaceous, purplisli, or flesh coloured. 

376. C. (Phleg.) decolorans (Pers.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 727, t. 730. 

Decolorans, discolouring. 

P. 3-6 cm., persistently yellow, fleshy, convex, then flattened, some- 
what gibbous. St. 57 cm. x 6-10 mm., shining white, equal, attenu- 
ated downwards, or slightly thickened at the base. Cortina white, 
persistent, median. Gills purplish, then soon cinnamon, sinuato- 
adnexed, thin, crowded, 6 mm. broad. Flesh white, thin, firm. Spores 
pale ferruginous, subglobose, 7-8 x 7 ft; "almond-shaped, 10-12 x 5- 
6/x, warted" Kick. Coniferous woods, and under birches. Sept. 
Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

377. C. (Phleg.) porphyropus (A. & S.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 728, t. 731. 

Trop(f>vpeos, purple; TTOU?, foot. 

P. 3-8 cm., livid-light-yellowish, or day colour, fleshy, very thin at 
the margin, convexo-plane, obtuse, innately streaked. St. 5-10 cm. 
x 6-10 mm., violaceous-lilac, becoming pale, even whitish, but soon 
becoming violaceous-lilac when touched, fragile, somewhat bulbous, or 
rather equally attenuated from the thickened base, sometimes equal. 
Cortina violaceous-lilac, fibrillose, inferior. Gills purplish, then watery 
cinnamon, becoming purple again when touched, rounded, or emar- 
ginate, somewhat crowded, 4-10 mm. broad. Flesh of pileus whitish, 
soon becoming purple-lilac when broken, of stem purple-lilac becoming 
whitish. Spores pale ferruginous, pip-shaped, 10-11 x 6-7 //,, "slightly 
rough" Eick. Woods, especially beech. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

378. C. (Phleg.) croceo-caeruleus (Pers.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 729, t. 732. 

Croceus, saffron; caeruleus, azure. 

P. 2-3 cm., lilac, or faintly violaceous, fleshy, thin, convex, then 
plane, obtuse, or gibbous. St. 5 cm. x 4-6 mm., whitish, fragile, 
somewhat equal, or attenuated downwards. Cortina white, fibrillose, 
fugacious. Gills lilac, then clay-saffron, attenuated, or broadly emar- 
ginate, with a small, very thin decurrent tooth, somewhat distant. 
Flesh pallid, lilac under the pellicle, watery. Spores ferruginous, pip- 
shaped, 6-8 x 4-5 fj,, punctate. Taste "bitter" Pers. Woods, especially 
under beeches, and hazels. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

***Gills pure ochre, tawny, or ferruginous. 

379. C. (Phleg.) coruscans Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 730, t. 733. 

Coruscans, glittering. 

P. 10 cm., yellow-ochraceous, often spotted tawny, fleshy, soon plane, 
regular, at length depressed, shining when dry. St. 7-15 x 1 cm., 
shining white, elastic, equal, apex enlarged, fibrillosely-striate. Cortina 

102 






148 CORTINARIUS 

white, fibrillose, fugacious. Gills bright ochraceous, decurrent by a 
tooth, thin, very narrow, 2-4 mm. wide, very crowded, linear. Flesh 
white, soft. Woods. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

380. C. (Phleg.) papulosus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 731, t. 718. 

Papulosus, having pimples. 

P. 6-9 cm., honey -tan colour, disc ferruginous, or fuscous, and here 
and there gibbous, fleshy, convex, obtuse, then plane, and at length 
depressed, the cuticle breaking up into minute, granular, fuscous patches 
when dry. St. 6-7 x 1-1-5 cm., white, firm, equal, or thickened at the 
base, densely fibrillose, apex naked. Cortina white, inferior, very 
fugacious. Gills pallid, soon ochraceous, at length very pale yellow 
cinnamon, adnato-decurrent, crowded, slightly joined behind, separa- 
ting from the stem when old, and connected by a spurious collar. 
Flesh white, thick at the disc, thin at the margin. Spores "sub- 
elliptical, 810 x 5 6/z,, very slightly punctate" Rick. Pine woods. 
Oct. Nov. Rare. 

var. major Fr. Major, larger. 

P. yellowish, ferruginous, margin much paler, glutinous, disc truly 
granular. St. at length coloured like the gills, attenuated from the base, 
filamentous from the inferior veil, apex cortinate. Gills slightly 
sinuate. 

381. C. (Phleg.) vespertinus Fr. Vespertinus, pertaining to evening. 
P. 7-9 cm., yellowish ochraceous, disc egg-yellow, fleshy, convex, then 

plane, glutinous, wrinkled and folded at the margin. St. 5-7-5 x 1- 
1-5 cm., shining white, firm, elastic, incrassated at the base, fibrillose. 
Cortina pallid, inferior, fugacious. Gills bright and intense fulvous- 
cinnamon, broadly emarginate, very broad, firm, little crowded, 
shining. Flesh white, firm. Spores "elliptical, 4r-5 x 34/x,, almost 
smooth" Rick. Deciduous woods. Oct. Rare. 

****Gills olivaceous, fuliginous. 

382. C. (Phleg.) olivascens (Batsch) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 147, fig. 2. 

Olivascens, becoming olivaceous. 

P. 3-5 cm., somewhat fuliginous, or bistre olivaceous, becoming pale, 
somewhat fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse; margin substriate. St. 7- 
9x1 cm., silvery, becoming pallid ("whitish lilac, then silvery at the 
apex, white in the middle and citron yellow at the base" Quel.), attenu- 
ated upwards, somewhat bulbose, fibrillose, striate. Gills olivaceous, 
or clay colour, then cinnamon, adnate, emarginate, thin, little crowded. 
Flesh paler ("violaceous, then reddish" Quel.), thin. Spores "tawny 
olivaceous, pruniform, 10-12 x 5'5-7/Lt, punctate" Bat. Taste acrid. 
Damp woods amongst Sphagna. Sept. Rare. 



CORTINARIUS 149 

-. Myxaciuni I' r. 

(fjbv^a, mucus.) 

General veil glutinous. Stem viscid. Pileus slightly fleshy. 
fSt. floccoso-peronate, the flocci at first covered with gluten. 

383. C. (Myx.) arvinaceus Fr. (= Cortinarius (Myxacium) mucosus 

(Bull.) Quel., (Myxacium) alutipes (Lasch) Fr. sec. Quel.) Cke. 

Illus. no. 734, t. 739, as Cortinarius (Myxacium) mucosus Fr. 

Arvinaceus, greasy. 

P. 6-10 cm., orange-tawny, or reddish tan, fleshy, soft, convex, then 
soon flattened, at length reflexed and undulating, viscid, glistening 
when dry; margin slightly striate when in full vigour. St. 10-20 x 1- 
1-5 cm., white, equal, silky-viscous. Cortina soon fibrillose, fugacious. 
Gills straw colour, then bright ochraceous, adnato-decurrent, very broad, 
12-18 mm., somewhat distant, edge crenulate. Spores ochraceous, 
"fusiform, 15-17 x 8-9 /x, rough" Eick. Beech woods. Oct. Bare. 

384. C. (Myx.) collinitus (Sow.) Fr. (= Cortinarius (Myxacium) muci- 
fluus Fr. sec. Quel.) Cke. Illus. no. 735, t. 740, as Cortinarius 
(Myxacium) mucifluus Fr. Collinitus, besmeared. 

P. 6-11 cm., orange-tawny, fleshy, not compact, convex, with the 
margin bent inwards, then expanded, obtuse, covered with persistent 
orange-tawny gluten, shining when dry. St. 7-12 x 1-2-5 cm., violace- 
ous, white, or yellowish, firm, cylindrical, at length soft, covered with 
afloccose, glutinous veil, which is commonly broken up into concentric 
scales, near the apex the gluten is continuous with that of the p. 
and forms an entirely viscous, fugacious ring. Gills whitish-bluish- 
grey, or clay colour then cinnamon, adnate, somewhat crowded. Flesh 
whitish, brownish under the cuticle of the p. and at the base of the st. 
Spores ferruginous, pip-shaped, 10-11 x 6/x,, rough. Woods. July 
Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

385. C. (Myx.) mucosus (Bull.) (= Cortinarius (Myxacium) alutipes 
(Lasch) Fr. and (Myxacium) arvinaceus Fr. sec. Quel.) Boud. 
Icon. t. 108. Mucosus, full of mucus. 

P. 4-10 cm., chestnut, fleshy, campanulato-convex, then expanded, 
covered with chestnut gluten, margin paler, striate. St. 5-15 x 2 cm., 
whitish ochre, or ochraceous, cylindrical, slightly attenuated at the 
base, fibrillosely tomentose. Cortina white, glutinous. Gills whitish, 
then cinnamon, adnate. Flesh whitish, tinged with chestnut under the 
cuticle of the p. and at the base of the st. Spores tawny, verrucose, 
lemon-shaped, 14-17 x 7-8/x. Pine woods. Aug. Oct. Not un- 
common, (v.v,) 



150 CORTINARIUS 

386. C. (Myx.) mucifluus Fr. (= Cortinarius (Myxacium) collinitus 

Sow. sec. Quel.) Fr. Icon. t. 148, fig. 1. 

Mucus, mucus; <f>\va), I boil over. 

P. 3-9 cm., livid-clay, tan when dry, opaque, thin, somewhat fleshy, 
campanulate, then expanded, at length reflexed and repand, smeared 
with separating, hyaline gluten; margin membranaceous, striate. St. 
white, or inclining to azure-Uue, spongy, attenuated downwards, viscid 
with the floccose-scaly fugacious veil. Gills clay colour, then watery 
cinnamon, adnate. Spores ferruginous, almond-shaped, granular, 
12 x 7fji. Cystidia "on edge of gill, vesiculose, 30-45 x 18-30 /x" 
Kick. Pine woods. Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

387. C. (Myx.) elatior Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 149, fig. 1. Elatior, taller. 
P. 6-12 cm., livid-light-yellow when moist, dingy ochraceous when dry, 

sometimes whitish, tan fuscous, date brown, violaceous brown, black, 
whitish round the margin, or grey with the margin violaceous, slightly 
fleshy only at the disc, cylindrical, or bullate, then campanulate, 
afterwards flattened and somewhat reflexed, disc above the stem 
obtuse, membranaceous and longitudinally plicato-wrinkled at the sides, 
fragile. St. 718 x 1-5 cm., violaceous, lilac, becoming white, com- 
monly attenuated at both ends, especially at the base, fibrillosely 
fioccose. Cortina concolorous, viscid, fugacious. Gills ochraceous, or 
lilac, then dark brown cinnamon, adnate, broad, connected by veins 
or wrinkled at the sides. Flesh whitish, or pale yellowish. Spores 
purplish-ferruginous, almond-shaped, 12-14 x 6/z, verrucose. Cystidia 
"on edge of gill vesiculose-pyriform, 36-45 x 21-28 ju," Rick. Woods. 
Aug. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

388. C. (Myx.) grallipes Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 738, t. 734. 

Grallae, stilts; pes, foot. 

P. 4-8 cm., ferruginous when moist, ochraceous tan when dry, opaque, 
almost membranaceous with the exception of the prominent, often 
acutely umbonate disc, campanulate, then flattened, hygrophanous, 
very viscid when wet. St. 10-15 cm. x 4-6 mm., yellowish tawny, 
ochraceous when dry, tough, equal, flexuose, fibroso-striate, viscid. 
Cortina pale, whitish brown, fugacious. Gills clay colour, then ferru- 
ginous, adnate with a decurrent tooth, 12 mm. broad, attenuated in 
front, crowded. Flesh white. Spores ferruginous, "7-8 x 4 5/x," 
Herpell. Caespitose. Mixed woods, and under oaks and poplars. 
Oct. Uncommon. 

389. C. (Myx.) livido-ochraceus Berk. Cke. Illus. no. 739, t. 767. 

Lividus, livid; ochraceus, ochre. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., livid-ochre, somewhat membranaceous, convex, then 
plane, cuticle thick, subcartilaginous, margin very thin, often with 



CORTINARIUS 151 

a few, indistinct fragments of the veil. St. 2-56 cm. x 7-10 mm., 
beautiful violet, ochraceous at the base, attenuated at both ends, some- 
what scaly, striate above the fugacious veil. Grills pale, then cinnamon, 
margin pale, somewhat adnexed, broad in front, moderately distant. 
Flesh yellowish, livid under the pellicle of the p. Spores ferruginous, 
elliptical, 8-10 x 5-6 /i, rough, 1-guttulate. Taste "like Ag. campes- 
tris " Berk. Woods. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

tfVeil entirely viscid, hence the st. is not floccoso-peronate, but 
only viscid, acquiring a varnished appearance when dry. 

*Gills whitish, then clay colour. 

390. C. (Myx.) nitidus (Schaeff.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 1189, t. 1191. 

Nitidus, shining. 

P. 4-12 cm., honey-coloured tan, at length whitish, disc tan colour, 
fleshy, convex, then expanded, gibbous, or almost obtuse, glutinous, 
when dry the cuticle often cracked in streaks, and appearing minutely 
fuscous punctate. St. 5-10 x 1-1-5 cm., pallid white and fibrillose 
when young, then becoming yellowish and naked, base clavate, often 
curved, tough, elastic, apex at first white-mealy. Cortina slightly 
fibrillose, fugacious. Gills whitish, soon clay colour, and finally watery 
cinnamon, truly decurrent, arcuate at first, crowded, narrow, 4 mm. 
wide. Flesh white. Spores light brown, "broadly pip-shaped, 10- 
12 x 8ji" Cke. Subcaespitose. Beech woods. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

**Gills at first violaceous, dark blue, or reddish. 

391. C. (Myx.) salor Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 150, fig. 1. 0-0X09, the high sea. 

P. 4-7 cm., grey, bright violaceous round the infiexed margin, at length 
of the same colour, obtusely conical, or parabolic, soon campanulate, 
and at length flattened, with a broad umbo on account of the fleshy 
disc, thin towards the circumference, thinly viscid, fibrillose towards 
the margin when dried. St. 4-8 x 1-1 -5 cm., white, covered up to the apex 
with the azure-blue glutinous veil when young, becoming pale when old, 
conico-attenuatedfrom the bulbous base, gradually elongated. Gills pale 
grey, with the edge violaceous, or bluish grey, then grey clay colour, or 
cinnamon, adnate, distant, 4-6 mm. broad. Flesh white, becoming 
yellow, or faintly azure-blue. Spores ferruginous, "subglobose, 8- 
9 x 8n, granular" Rick. Woods. Oct. Rare. 

392. C. (Myx.) delibutus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 741, t. 743. 

Delibutus, besmeared. 

P. 3-7-5 cm., light yellowish, fleshy, thin, especially towards the 
margin, convex, then flattened, obtuse, at length somewhat depressed, 
viscid with hyaline gluten, slightly silky fibrillose when the gluten has 



152 CORTINARIUS 

disappeared. St. 5-10 cm. x 6-8 mm., yellowish white, apex snow white, 
equally attenuated from the slightly bulbose base, or somewhat equal, 
elastic, viscid up to the white, scanty, fibrillose, fugacious cortins. 
Gills dark-blue, or violaceous dark-blue, then clay cinnamon, serrulated, 
pallid or often crisped at the edge, adnate, at length rounded, or slightly 
emarginate, more or less distant, 4-6 mm. broad. Flesh white. Spores 
pale ochraceous, "subglobose, 7 x 6-7 /LI, granular" Karst. Taste 
watery, then slightly pungent. Grassy, and damp places. Sept. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. elegans Massee. Elegans, neat. 

P. and st. very glabrous, yellow-viscid, shining when dry, only apex 
of stem white, flesh whitish-yellow, gills paler, more crowded. Grassy 
banks of streams. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

393. C. (Myx.) fflibatus Fr. Illibatus, unimpaired. 
P. 2-5-5 cm., yellow, disc darker, slightly fleshy, campanulate, then 

convex, at length plane, subumbonate, pellicle viscid. St. 7'5 cm. 
x 4 mm., white, commonly with reddish dots upwards, slightly attenu- 
ated upwards, viscid. Cortina superior, fibrillose, very fugacious. 
Gills flesh-colour, then clay and cinnamon, adnato-decurrent, arcuate, 
4 mm. broad, thin, crowded. Flesh white, very thin at the circum- 
ference. Spores cinnamon, elliptical, "15-16 x 6-7 //,, granular" 
Massee, "subglobose, 7-9 p, granular" Bat. Pine woods. Sept. Oct. 
Uncommon. 

***Gills at first ochraceous, or cinnamon. 

394. C. (Myx.) stillatitius Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 742, t. 831. 

Stillaticius, dripping. 

P. 4-6 cm., clothed with azure-blue gluten, fuscous-livid when the 
gluten separates in the form of drops, at length grey-white, slightly 
fleshy, convex, then plane, subumbonate; margin smooth. St. 5 
7 cm. x 6-8 mm., sheathed with thick azure-blue gluten which is ex- 
tended into the cortina, very soft, equally attenuated. Gills dark 
cinnamon, emarginate, 6 mm. broad. Flesh watery, soft, hygrophan- 
ous. Spores ferruginous, "subglobose, 8 x 6/x, 1-guttulate" Sacc., 
"almond-shaped, 13-15 x 7-8 JM, rough. Cystidia on edge of gill, 
30-40 x 12-20 /LI" Rick. Pastures, and amongst dead leaves. Oct. 
Uncommon. 

395. C. (Myx.) vibratilis Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 743, t. 744. 

Vibratilis, quivering. 

P. 3-6 cm., yellow, golden when dry and very shining, fleshy at tlte 
disc, thin elsewhere, convexo-plane, obtuse, very glutinous. St. 4-6 cm. 
x 4-8 mm., shining white, conically attenuated, or ventricose, equal and 
flexuose amongst mosses, fragile, very soft. Cortina glutinous, often 






COBTINARIUS 153 

forming a median ring. Gills pallid, then bright ochraceous cinnamon', 
rounded, emarginate, or decurrent by a tooth, crowded, thin. Flesh 
pallid. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 6-7 x ip, "punctate" Rick. 
Smell strong, taste very bitter. Woods. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

396. C. (Myx.) pluvius Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 744, t. 769. Pluvius, rainy. 
P. 1-5-3 cm., pale yellow-tawny when moist, ochraceous tan and 

opaque when dry, slightly fleshy, somewhat globose, then convex, 
commonly gibbous, slightly pellucidly striate when more fully grown, 
hygrophanous, viscid, shining in rainy weather. St. 4-6 cm. x 4-6 mm., 
white, then yellow and concolorous, soft, equal, or slightly attenuated 
upwards, slightly viscid, silky. Cortina white, fibrillose, slightly viscid, 
soon fugacious. Gills light yellowish, or at the first whitish, then ochrace- 
ous, adnexed, separating, ventricose, crowded. Flesh pale yellowish, 
becoming white. Spores deep ochraceous, broadly elliptical, 9-10x7- 
8/t, 1-guttulate. Taste watery, then acrid and pungent. Woods, 
especially pine. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

3. Inoloma Fr. 

(i9, fibre; \w/j,a, fringe.) 

Pileus equally fleshy, dry, at first fioccose, fibrillose, velvety, pubescent, 
or silky, then becoming somewhat smooth. Veil simple. 

*Gills at first white, or pallid. 

397. C. (Ino.) opiums Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 151, fig. 1. Opimus, plump. 
P- 7-10 cm., tan colour, fleshy, very thick, very hard, convex, then 

plane, deformed, repand, everywhere covered with short tan coloured 
tomentum, then rimoso-rivulose ; margin involute, pruinose, white, 
often split. St. 2-5-5 x 2-5 cm., whitish, covered with the white fibrils 
of the veil, attenuated at the base and rooting. Gills whitish, then clay 
colour, emarginate, much narrower than the flesh of the p., somewhat 
crowded, flexuose. Flesh whitish, firm. Spores ochraceous, "sub- 
globose, 8-9 x 7-8 /A, warted" Rick. Smell and taste pleasant. 
Woods, especially conifers. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. fulvobrunneus Fr. Fulvus, tawny; brunneus, brown. 

P. tawny brown, undulated, thinner (margin thin), glabrous, rimoso- 
rivulose. St. 3-5 x 2-5 cm., attenuated downwards, fibrillosely striate. 
Gills very broad. 

398. C. (Ino.) argutus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 151, fig. 2. Argutus, pointed. 
P. 7-10 cm., clay ochraceous, or deep ochraceous, fleshy, broadly 

conico-campanulate, soon convex, somewhat gibbous, at length plane, 



154 CORTINARIUS 

obtuse, fibrillosely silky, here and there minutely squamulose, becoming 
smooth with age, rather rimose, opaque. St. 6-10 x 2-3 cm., white, 
floccoso-squamulose, becoming smooth and yellowish, ovately bulbous, 
or ventricose at the base, often curved and prolonged below the 
bulb into a pointed root. Veil white, superior, simple, forming a ring 
when young, rarely noticeable when mature. Gills white, then clay 
colour, adnate, somewhat distant. Flesh very hard, white ("becoming 
red on exposure to the air " Quel.). Spores pale ferruginous, elliptical, 
7 8x4/i, verrucose, "almond-shaped, 13-15x8-9 p, coarsely warted " 
Eick. Deciduous woods. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

399. C. (Ino.) turgidus Fr. Grevillea, t. 109, fig. 1. 

Turgidus, swollen. 

P. 5-10 cm., clay colour, silvery-shining when full grown, very fleshy, 
compact, convex, then plane, very obtuse, hoary, rarely sprinkled with 
shining atoms; margin silky and white when young. St. 4-6 x 2 cm., 
silvery white, stout, bulbous base much swollen, externally cartilaginous, 
elastic, longitudinally fibrillose under a lens, and split up into sub- 
reticulate cracks, often undulate. Cortina white, fibrillose, fugacious. 
Gills whitish, then clay colour, emarginate, crowded, 4 mm. broad, 
denticulate. Flesh whitish, tough. Spores ferruginous, pip-shaped, 
7-9 x 4-5-6/x, 1-guttulate. Taste pleasant. Edible. Woods. Sept. 
Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

400. C. (Ino.) argentatus (Pers.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 745, t. 745. 

Argentatus, silvered. 

P. 4-10 cm., silvery-shining, disc becoming pale, at first silky-lilac 
round the margin, then dun-coloured, fleshy, convexo-plane, at length 
broadly gibbous, silky. St. 8-10 x 1-5-2 cm., concolorous, attenuated 
from the thickened base. Gills pallid, then watery cinnamon, emar- 
ginate, crowded; edge slightly serrated, white. Flesh whitish, often 
with a bluish tinge. Spores ferruginous, pip-shaped, 8-9 x 5/A, punc- 
tate. Smell and taste pleasant. Woods. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

var. pinetorum Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 746, t. 746. 

Pinetorum, of pine woods. 

Smaller. P. 5 cm., at first lilac and silky. St. 5 cm. Smell weak. 
Pine woods. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

401. C. (Ino.) fusco-tinctus Eea. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. v, t. 8. 

Fuscus, dark; tinctus, stained. 

P. 26 cm., pale ochraceous, becoming blood red immediately in places 
where touched, then fuscous especially around the margin, fleshy, con- 
vex, subgibbose, fibrillosely silky, disc floccosely squamulose under a 



CORTINARIUS 155 

lens; margin at first involute, arachnoid with the veil. St. 6-10 cm. 
x 510 mm., concolorous, becoming reddish when touched, and soon 
fuscous, fusiform, often incurved at the base, solid, firm, apex minutely 
white pruinose. Cortina white, manifest, median, at length fugacious. 
Gills clay colour, then pale cinnamon, sinuato-adnate, attenuated in 
front, 4-6 mm. broad, crowded; edge white, unequal. Flesh white, 
unchangeable, compact, firm, with a grey horn colour line at the base 
of the gills. Spores ferruginous in the mass, pale ferruginous under 
the microscope, elliptical, 9-10 x 5/*, contents granular. Smell and 
taste none. The change of colour is present only in the cuticle of the 
p., and st. Oak woods. Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

**Gills, as well as the st. and veil, violaceous. 

402. C. (too.) violaceus (Linn.) Fr. Sverig. atl. Svamp. t. 58. 

Violaceus, violet. 

P. 7-15 cm., dark violaceous, sometimes purplish-violet, fleshy, con- 
vex, then flattened, regular, obtuse, villous, the innate persistent villous 
down for the most part rimoso-squamulose; margin at first involute. 
St. 6-10 x 1-5-2 cm., dark violaceous, stout, remarkably bulbous, at 
first tomentose, then fibrillose. Cortina azure-blue, woolly, then ferru- 
ginous with the spores. Gills dark, almost black violaceous, then 
coloured ferruginous with the spores and again violaceous when these 
are rubbed off, somewhat adnate, firm, distant, connected by veins, 
broader than the flesh of the pileus. Flesh blue, becoming white. 
Spores ferruginous, broadly elliptical, 11-13 x 7-8 /i, verrucose. Taste 
pleasant. Edible. Woods, especially under birch, and beech. Aug. 
Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

403. C. (Ino.) cyanites Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 152, fig. 1. tcvavos, dark blue. 
P. 6-13 cm., dark blue, becoming azure-blue, or livid-fuscous, fleshy, 

soft, convex, then flattened, obtuse, silky. St. 7-13 x 1-2 cm., con- 
colorous, very bulbous, fibrillose. Cortina azure-blue, fibrillose. Gills 
deep dark blue, adnate, sinuate, crowded, thin, 6 mm. broad. Flesh 
blue, reddening on exposure to the air, and when compressed giving out 
a red juice. Spores pale ferruginous, elliptical, 9-10 x 4-5 jit, "warted" 
Rick. Woods. Sept. Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

var. major Fr. Major, larger. 

Differs from the type in the compact stem, in the p. tardily becoming 

reddish, and in the somewhat distant, cinereous dark 



404. C. (Ino.) muricinus Fr. 

Murex, a mollusc from which the Tyrian purple was obtained. 

P. 5-10 cm., violaceous, becoming reddish, fleshy, compact, convex, 

then plane, very obtuse, becoming smooth; margin fibrillose. St. 



156 CORTINARITJS 

3-10 x 1-5-2-5 cm., becoming violaceous, attenuated upwards from 
the bulbous base, villous. Gills purplish violet, at length reddish liver 
colour, emarginate, 12 mm. broad, somewhat crowded. Flesh paler, 
becoming bluish near the gills, spongy. Spores ferruginous, "almond- 
shaped, 13-15 x 7-8 /x, warted " Eick. Smell strong, peculiar. Fir, 
and larch woods. Oct. Uncommon. 

405. C. (Ino.) alboviolaceus (Pers.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 151, fig. 3. 

Albus, white; violaceus, violet. 

P. 5-7-5 cm., whitish violet, fleshy, convex, broadly umbonate, or 
rather gibbous, dry, beautifully innately silky, the fibrils longitudinally 
adpressed as in Inocybe geophylla. St. 5-10 x 1-2-5 cm., concolorous, 
becoming whitish, firm, clavato-bulbous, or conico-attenuated, white 
villous, fibrillose above with the cortina, and often zoned with the 
white veil at the middle. Gills greyish lilac, then grey-cinnamon, ad- 
nate, scarcely emarginate, 4-5 mm. broad, subdistant, subserrulate. 
Flesh azure blue white, juicy, thick at the disc. Spores ferruginous, 
oblong elliptical, 9-12 x 5-6/i, punctate. Woods, especially beech. 
Aug. Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

406. C. (Ino.) malachius Fr. fiaXd^t], a mallow. 

P. 5-10 cm., pale lilac, then fuscous ferruginous, pale brick colour 
when dry, very fleshy, compact, convex, then expanded, obtuse, or 
slightly gibbous, hoary with minute, fasciculate down, or silky towards 
the margin. St. 7-12 x 2-5 cm., bluish lilac, becoming whitish, bulbous 
base slightly marginate, ventricose, or equal, often deformed, striate 
with violaceous fibrils, very rarely having a white membranaceous 
ring. Cortina violaceous, thin. Gills purple, becoming pale, at length 
watery ferruginous, emarginate, crowded. Flesh violaceous, becoming 
white, thick, watery, soft in the st. Spores ferruginous, pip-shaped, 
"10-12 x 6-7 jLt" Cke., "punctate" Rick. Pine, and fir woods. Sept. 
Rare. 

407. C. (Ino.) camphoratus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 152, fig. 2. 

Camphoratus, strong scented. 

P. 5-8 cm., lilac, becoming whitish, or yellowish, very fleshy, convex, 
then flattened, obtuse, silky, becoming smooth. St. 7-13 x 1-2-5 cm., 
bulbous, or obclavate, peronately woolly when young. Cortina blue, 
fibrillose. Gills intense azure blue, becoming purple, decurrent, or 
emarginate, arcuate, thin, crowded. Flesh blue, white at the base of 
the stem, thick. Spores ferruginous, "somewhat almond shape, 12- 
14 x 7-8 n, granular" Cke. Smell foetid, exceedingly penetrating, 
like fenugreek, or curry-powder. Woods, especially pine. Sept. 
Rare. 



CORTINARIUS 157 

408. C. (Ino.) hircinus (Bolt.) Fr. (= Cortinarius amethystinus 
(Schaefl.) Quel.) Bolt. Hist. Fung. t. 52. Hircinus, of a goat. 

P. 4-5 cm., violet, disc at length becoming ferruginous, fleshy, convex, 
obtusely gibbous, silky with adpressed, violet fibrils. St. 4-5 x 1-5 cm., 
violet, becoming pallid, yellowish at the bulbous base, cortinate. Gills 
violet, then cinnamon, emarginate, broad, thin, subdistant. Flesh 
dingy, becoming yellowish especially at the base of the st., thick. Spores 
ferruginous, "8-5-10 x 4-5-5-5/z, minutely verrucose" Maire. Smell 
strong like goats, or burnt horn. Pine woods. Sept. Rare. 

***Gills or veil cinnamon, red, or ochraceous. 

409. C. (Ino.) traganus Fr. (= Cortinarius amethystinus (SchaefL) 
Quel.) Cke. Illus. no. 752, t. 757. rpdyos, a goat. 

P. 4-8 cm., lilac purplish, becoming pale and finally yellowish, very 
fleshy, convex, then flattened, obtuse, dry, silky, becoming smooth. 
St. 7-12 x 1-2-5 cm., violaceous, then whitish, spongy, attenuated up- 
wards, base villous, very bulbous, silky, then fibrillose. Cortina pallid 
violaceous, continuous with the silky covering of the p. Gills saffron- 
ochraceous, then cinnamon, emarginate, very broad, thick, distant, edge 
often somewhat crenate. Flesh yellowish, thick, deep saffron-ochraceous 
in the spongy st. Spores bright ferruginous, elliptical, 8-10 x 5-6 p, 
verrucose, 1-guttulate. Smell foetid like goats, or the larvae of Cossus. 
Pine woods. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. finitimus Weinm. Finitimus, nearly related. 

Differs from the type in the yellowish mottled flesh of the st., and the 
pleasant smell, like gum just beginning to ferment, or like camphor. 

410. C. (Ino.) sufflus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 152, fig. 3. 

Suillus, pertaining to swine. 

P. 710 cm., dingy, or pallid brick-red, fleshy, convex, obtuse, at 
length floccosely squamulose, silky towards the margin. St. 7-10 x 1- 
2-5 cm., dingy pallid, clavato-bulbous, attenuated upwards, darker 
when touched, fibrillose, apex pale violaceous, fugacious, base white- 
woolly. Gills cinnamon, opaque, adnate, 10-12 mm. broad, subdis- 
tant, fragile, often veined at the base. Flesh dirty pale brick colour, 
especially in the st., thick at the disc, thin elsewhere. Spores "ellipsoid, 
obtuse at the ends, 10-12 x 6-8 fj," Sacc. Fir, and pine woods. 
Sept. Nov. Rare. 

411. C. (Ino.) tophaceus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 153, fig. 1. Tophus, tufa. 
P. 7-10 cm., golden tawny, opaque, fleshy, hemispherical, villosely 

squamulose, varying slightly silky, and shining. St. 5-10 x 1-5-2 cm., 
tawny, slightly attenuated upwards from the bulbous base, villosely 
squamulose, often twisted. Gills concolorous, then tawny cinnamon, 



158 CORTINARIUS 

broadly emarginate, 12-15 mm. broad, distant. Flesh white, compact 
at the disc, thin at the margin, soft. Spores "roundish, 8-9 x 7 /LI, 
punctate" Eick. Subcaespitose, or solitary. Beech woods. Aug. 
Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. redimitus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 754, t. 773. 

Redimitus, bound round. 

Differs from the type in the thinner, obtusely umbonate, golden yellmc 
p. streaked with adpressed darker fibrils, the yellowish, fibrillosely striate 
st. slightly thickened at the base, and the light yellow gills adnate with a 
small decurrent tooth. Beech woods. Oct. Rare. 

412. C. (Ino.) callisteus Fr. icd\\i<rTO<;, very beautiful. 
P. 46 cm., yellow tawny, fleshy, convexo-expanded, rather smooth, 

silky towards the margin, generally broken up into minute, innate 
squamules. St. 7-12 x 1-1-5 cm., concolorous, or rhubarb colour, 
clavato-bulbous, equally attenuated upwards, fibrillosely striate. 
Cortina concolorous, marginal, fibrillose, fugacious. Gills concolorous, 
adnate, connected together at the base and to the stem byfiocci, plane, sub- 
distant, 8 mm. broad, thin. Flesh yellowish white, rhubarb colour in 
the st., thin at the margin. Spores pale ferruginous, broadly elliptical, 
6-8 x 6fj,, 1-guttulate, "punctate" Rick. Pine woods. July Oct. 
Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

413. C. (Ino.) vinosus Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 758, t. 759. 

Vinosus, wine colour. 

P. 5-7-5 cm., vinous red, fleshy, semiglobose, then expanded, at 
length flattened, smooth, shining. St. 5-7-5 x 1 cm., violet, cylin- 
drical, abruptly thickened into a marginately bulbous, reddish base. 
Cortina reddish. Gills ferruginous cinnamon, adnexed, ventricose, 
scarcely crowded. Flesh pale violet, reddish in the st. Spores ferru- 
ginous, almond-shaped, 16-18 x 8/u, granular. Under trees, and in 
woods. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

414. C. (Ino.) Bulliardii (Pers.) Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 109. 

Pierre Bulliard, the eminent French mycologist. 
P. 4-10 cm., dark rufescent, bay brown blood colour, becoming pale, 
fleshy, convex, then expanded, obtuse, smooth, or fibrillose. St. 
5-12 x 1-1-5 cm., whitish above, blood red downwards, and covered with 
blood red fibrils near the ovate bulb, which arises from a blood red myce- 
lium. Cortina whitish, fugacious. Gills purplish, then ferruginous, 
adnexed with a decurrent tooth, 6 mm. broad, somewhat crowded, 
often crenulated at the whitish edge. Flesh whitish, brownish under the 
cuticle, and reddish at the base of the st. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 
7-8 x 4-5/x, verrucose, 1-guttulate. Woods, especially beech. Sept. 
Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



CORTINARIUS 159 

415. C. (too.) bolaris (Pers.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 759, t. 760. 

/3Xo<?, a clod of earth. 

P. 3-7 cm., light yellow red, or pale, variegated with innate, adpressed, 
spot-like red scales, fleshy, convexo-plane, obsoletely umbonate. St. 
4-8 cm. x 6-10 mm., pale, variegated with saffron-red, adpressed, fibril- 
lose scales, sometimes entirely scarlet, apex white, firm, equal. Cortina 
saffron-red, fibrillose, fugacious. Gills cream colour, then dark cinna- 
mon, decurrent, or adnate, arcuate, crowded. Flesh white, yellowish 
in the st., firm. Spores pale ferruginous, broadly elliptical, 6-7 x 5ft, 
minutely punctate. Taste acrid. Woods, especially beech. Aug. 
Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

****Gills or veil dark, fuscous, or olivaceous. 

416. C. (too.) pholideus Fr. Grevillea, t. 117, fig. 1. $0X19, a scale. 
P. 5-10 cm., fawn colour, becoming pale, at length somewhat cinna- 
mon, fleshy, convex, then flattened, subumbonate and depressed round 
the umbo, covered with innate, piloso-fasciculate, crowded, fuscous 
blackish, squarrose scales. St. 7-10 cm. x 6-12 mm., brownish, attenu- 
ated upwards, sometimes shorter and clavato-bulbous, squarrose with 
fuliginous, blackish scales up to the cortinate, arachnoid ring, pale 
violaceous above. Gills violaceous, then day colour, and at length 
cinnamon, subemarginate, 4-8 mm. broad, thin, crowded. Flesh 
pallid, thin. Spores ferruginous, broadly elliptical, 6-7 x 4-5 /i, 
"punctate" Rick. Deciduous woods. Aug. Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

417. C. (too.) sublanatus (Sow.) Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 111. 

Sub, somewhat; lanatus, woolly. 

P. 4 W cm., fawn colour, or olivaceous fawn, becoming tan fuscous, 
and at length ferruginous, slightly fleshy, campanulate, then expanded, 
umbonate, clothed with innate, floccose, fuscous squamules. St. 8 
11 x 1-5 cm., pale ochraceous, conico-elongated, or clavato-bulbous, 
clothed to the middle with fuscous down, continued into a fibrillose 
cortina, which does not form a zone, apex slightly violaceous, naked. 
Cortina yellowish, arachnoid. Gills olivaceous yellowish, or ochraceous 
ferruginous, then cinnamon, adnate, broader behind, 6 mm. broad, 
scarcely crowded. Flesh ochraceous yellow, deeper coloured in the st., 
fairly thick, firm. Spores "ochraceous tawny, subglobose, 8-10/t, 
apiculate at the one end, verrucose " Boud. Smell of radish. Fir and 
larch woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

418. C. (too.) phrygianus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 153, fig. 3. 

Phrygianus, embroidered. 

P. 5-7 cm., honey colour, fleshy, convex, obtuse, densely covered with 
simple, black, hispid fibrils. St. 3-8 x 1-1-5 cm., paler than the p., 
whitish when dry, reticulately clothed with lax, black fibrils, 



160 COBTINARIUS 

equal, base bulbous. Gills dirty yellow, rounded behind, 48 mm. 
broad, somewhat crowded. Flesh white, firm. Smell of radish. 
Damp beech woods. Sept. Oct. Eare. 

419. C. (Inc.) arenatus (Pers.) Fr. Arena, sand. 
P. 3-6 cm., pale yellowish fuscous, or olivaceous, fleshy, convex, at 

first gibbous, punctate with granular, floccose, brown squamules. St. 
5-7 cm. x 6-10 mm., brown, clavato-attenuated, sheathed up to and 
beyond the middle with fuscous squamules, apex naked, cream colour. 
Gills yellowish, then cinnamon, emarginate, ventricose, somewhat 
crowded. Spores "obliquely elliptical, 7 x 5ju," Massee. Fir, and 
mixed woods. Aug. Oct. Uncommon. 

4. Dennocybe Fr. 

(Bepfia, skin; /cvfirj, head.) 

Pileus thinly, and equally fleshy, dry, not hygrophanous, at first 
silky with subinnate villose down, then smooth. Veil simple, forming 
a zone in C. caninus. 

*Gills at first whitish, or pallid. 

420. C. (Dermo.) ochroleucus (Schaeff.) Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 764, t. 775. 

&>%/>o9, pale; Xey/co?, white. 

P. 5-8 cm., pale white, or yellowish, disc ochraceous, fleshy, broadly 
campanulate, then expanded, and somewhat gibbous, slightly silky, 
becoming smooth. St. 4-7 cm. x 8-12 mm., white, firm, ventricose, 
naked. Cortina white, fibrillose. Gills clay colour, then ochraceous, 
sinuato-adnexed, then free, broader behind, 6 mm. broad, crowded. 
Flesh white, thick at the disc, firm. Spores pale ferruginous, broadly 
elliptical, 6-8 x 4-5/i, 1-guttulate. Taste bitter. Deciduous woods. 
Aug. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

421. C. (Dermo.) decumbens (Pers.) Fr. Grevillea, t. 127, fig. 3. 

Decumbens, lying down. 

P. 2'5-4 cm., white, or yellowish, fleshy, firm, convex, then plane, 
gibbous, then obtuse, silky-shining. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 5-6 mm., shining 
white, ascending, clavato-bulbous, smooth, apex mealy. Cortina white, 
silky. Gills white, then clay colour, at length ochre cinnamon, adnexed, 
4 mm. broad, ventricose, crowded. Flesh white, firm. Spores ochrace- 
ous, "elliptical, 9-12 x 5-6 /i" Eick. Taste slightly bitter. Woods, 
and grassy places. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

422. C. (Dermo.) riculatus Fr. Rica, a head veil. 
P. 5-8 cm., honey colour, but only conspicuously so at the disc, else- 
where clothed with a very thin, floccose, adpressed silkiness, that makes 
it appear almost glabrous, fleshy, convexo-plane, slightly gibbous. 
St. 5-6 cm. x 5-6 mm., pallid, becoming white, thickened downwards, 



CORTINAEITJS 161 

smooth. Cortina pallid, fibrillose. Gills clay colour, at length watery 
ferruginous, adnate, 4 mm. broad, somewhat crowded. Flesh pallid, 
fairly thick, spongy in the st. Spores "pale brown in the mass, oval, 
8-11 x 6-7 /x " Herpell. Pine woods. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

423. C. (Denno.) tabularis (Bull.) Fr. Tabula, a board. 
P. 48 cm., clay or fuscous clay colour, sometimes tawny, becoming 

pale, fleshy, convexo-plane, broadly gibbous, at length very flat, veiled 
at first with very thin, white flocci, which rarely in wet weather are col- 
lected in a zone at the margin, becoming smooth; margin silky. St. 
5-8 cm. x 6-12 mm., white, becoming pale, tough, elastic, equal, or 
attenuated upwards, erect, either floccosely scaly, or smooth. Cortina 
white, fugacious. Gills whitish, then clay colour, subemarginate, 6 mm. 
broad, thin, crowded. Flesh white, thick. Spores ferruginous, pip- 
shaped, 9 x 6/z. Woods. Common, (v.v.) 

424. C. (Denno.) camurus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 154, fig. 1. 

Camurus, crooked. 

P. 5-8 cm., fuscous, often hoary, becoming pale, pallid yellowish, 
umbo deeper in colour, fleshy, campanulate, then convex, with a broad, 
obtuse, often oblique umbo, rimosely incised when dry. St. 4-8 cm. 
x 7-14 mm., white, equal, ascending, flexuose, or twisted, fibrillose, 
apex silvery-shining, very fragile. Gills grey clay colour, then watery 
cinnamon, and somewhat fuscous, adnate, or sinuate, 6 mm. broad, 
thin, crowded. Flesh white, fuscous under the cuticle when moist, thin 
at the margin, loose. Spores ferruginous, subglobose, 7 x 6/z, multi- 
guttulate. Smell unpleasant. Often caespitose. Woods, especially 
birch, and beech. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

425. C. (Denno.) diabolicus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 765, t. 816, fig. B. 

8iay3o\o9, the Devil. 

P. 2-5-7 cm., fuscous with a grey bloom, becoming smooth and fuscous 
yellow, fleshy, thin, convex, then plane, hemispherical, obtuse, or 
umbonate, dry, fragile, often splitting at the margin. St. 4-8 cm. x 4- 
10 mm., pale, bluish grey at the apex, attenuated downwards, smooth. 
Cortina fugacious. Gills pale bluish grey, soon becoming white, at length 
clay colour, adnate, separating, subemarginate, 4-6 mm. broad, firm, 
somewhat crowded. Flesh whitish, thin. Spores "subglobose, 8- 
10 x 7-8/z, punctate " Rick. Beech woods. Aug. Oct. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

**Gills at first violaceous, becoming purple. 

426. C. (Dermo.) azureus Fr. Quel. Jur. et. Vosg. t. 24, fig. 4. 

Azureus, sky blue. 

P. 3-6 cm., lilac, becoming hoary, then fuscous, and pallid, fleshy, 
convex, then plane, obtuse, silky-shining, atomate. St. 6-8 cm. x 8- 

B. B. B. 11 



162 CORTINARIUS 

10 mm., sky blue, becoming whitish, thickened at the base, fragile, 
silky, stria te, often twisted. Cortina concolorous. Gills bright bluish 
violet, slightly emarginate, then decurrent, rather crowded. Flesh 
white, bluish in the st., thick at the disc. Spores " subglobose, 7-10 x 7- 
9 //,, punctate " Rick. Deciduous woods, especially beech. Sept. 
Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

427. C. (Derrno.) caninus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 768, t. 765. 

Caninus, belonging to a dog. 

P. 5-10 cm., fuscous brown, becoming bricJc-rufescent or tawny 
when dry, fleshy, firm, convex, then plane, obtuse, becoming smooth; 
margin at first whitish, silky. St. 7-12 cm. x 8-12 mm., pale white, 
apex violaceous, often ochraceous at the thickened, somewhat bulbous 
base, equal, fibrillose, elastic. Cortina forming a white, or fuscous zone 
near the apex of the st., fibrillose. Gills bluish grey, or purplish, then 
cinnamon, emarginate, 6-10 mm. broad, subdistant, thin. Flesh 
white, becoming yellowish, thick at the disc, soft. Spores ferruginous, 
elliptical, 9-10 x 6/j,, 1-guttulate. Taste mild. Edible. Deciduous 
woods, and heaths. Sept. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

428. C. (Denno.) anomalus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 772, t. 776. 

a, not; o/u,aA.6<?, even. 

P. 36 cm., fuliginous, then rufescent, becoming hoary with separating 
fibrils, at length yellowish, fleshy, thin, very convex, then expanded, 
and gibbous. St. 57-5 cm. x 6-8 mm., violaceous above, whitish below, 
at length becoming pale and somewhat yellow, attenuated from the base, 
slightly sheathed, fibrillose, or somewhat scaly. Gills more or less 
violaceous, bluish grey purplish, then cinnamon, adnate, or emarginate, 
with a decurrent tooth, crowded, thin. Flesh watery, becoming white 
when dry, violaceous at the apex of the st., thin, soft. Spores ferruginous, 
elliptical, 8-9 x 6-7/x-, punctate. Taste mild. Edible. Woods, and 
heaths. Aug. Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

429. C. (Dermo.) lepidopus Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 773, t. 850. 

t?, a scale; TTOU<?, a foot. 



P. 1-5-7 cm., umber, with a tinge of violet near the margin, disc be- 
coming rufescent, fleshy, convex, then expanded, gibbous, smooth. 
St. 6-12 cm. x 8-12 mm., violet at the apex, dirty white below, attenu- 
ated upwards, with concentric, fibrillose, darker bands. Cortina whitish, 
with a tinge of violet. Gills violet, then cinnamon, adnate, rather 
crowded, thin. Flesh whitish, tinged lilac at the apex of the stem, 
rather thin. Spores pale ferruginous, ovate, sometimes almost globose, 
8-9 x 6-7 /x, with a basal apiculus. Woods, and heaths. Aug. Oct. 
Not uncommon, (v.v.) 



CORTINARIUS 163 

430. C. (Dermo.) myrtillinus Fr. fj,vpro<;, the myrtle. 
P. 3-7-5 cm., fuliginous, tinged with lilac, becoming hoary silky 

with the dense white fibrils, fleshy, convex, gibbous, becoming plane. 
St. 5-7 cm. x 6-12 mm., whitish, streaked with sparse,, lilac fibrils, 
tough, slightly bulbous. Cortina white, fibrillose. Gills pure amethyst- 
azure-blue, scarcely changing colour, adnate, subdistant, edge whitish, 
denticulate. Flesh fuscous, becoming whitish when dry, violaceous at the 
apex of the St., tough, thin. Spores pale ferruginous, broadly elliptical, 
7-8 x 6/ji. Woods. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

431. C. (Dermo.) albocyaneus Fr. Albus, white; icvavos, dark blue. 
P. 2-3 cm., white, becoming yellow, fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse, 

hoary silky, becoming smooth. St. 6-10 x -5-1-5 cm., white, sub- 
clavate, naked. Cortina white, fugacious. Gills bluish purple, then 
somewhat ochraceous, emarginate, 6-8 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh 
white, thick at the disc. Spores pale ferruginous, elliptical, 10 x 6-7 /x, 
punctate. Smell "of apple" Quel. Coniferous, birch, and beech 
woods. Sept. Uncommon. 

432. C. (Dermo.) spilomeus Fr. Fr. Icon. 1. 154, fig. 3. 0-774X09, a spot. 
P. 3-7 cm., rufescent, or clay colour, fleshy, convex, then expanded, 

gibbous, becoming smooth. St. 5-7 x 1 cm., whitish lilac, covered in 
the basal half with rufous, or tawny scales, equal, slightly thickened at 
the base. Cortina white, fibrillose. Gills bluish grey, or violaceous, be- 
coming pale, at length watery cinnamon, adnate, or emarginate, crowded, 
thin. Flesh cinereous, becoming white, thick at the disc. Spores ferru- 
ginous, broadly elliptical, or subglobose, 6-9 x 6-7 /x,, apiculate at 
the base, multi-guttulate, "punctate " Rick. Woods. Sept. Nov. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

433. C. (Dermo.) violaceo-fuscus (Cke. & Massee) Massee. Cke. Illus. 

no. 1163, t. 1174, as Inocybe violaceo-fusca Cke. & Mass. 

Violaceus, violet ; fuscus, dark. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., umber, often tinged with violet, fleshy, more or less con- 
vex, then expanded, obtusely umbonate, flocculose, fibrillose, con- 
centrically scaly, dry; margin thin, torn, fimbriate. St. 5-6 cm. x 6- 
8 mm., violet above, pallid below, equal, silky. Gills violet, then umber, 
adnexed, rounded behind, or slightly sinuate, 4-6 mm. broad, scarcely 
crowded, edge paler, serrulate. Flesh thin. Spores ferruginous, ellip- 
tical, 7-8 x 4/z. Amongst grass in open places. Uncommon. 

***Gills bright cinnamon, red, or yellow. 

434. C. (Dermo.) phoeniceus (Bull.) Maire. (= Cortinarius miltinus 

Quel. non Fr.) Boud. Icon. t. 112, as Cortinarius miltinus Fr. 

s, purple-red. 
112 



164 CORTTNABIUS 

P. 2-5 cm., bay brown cinnamon, or dark cinnamon when moist, be- 
coming bright bay when dry, fleshy, convex, then expanded, broadly 
gibbous, or umbonate, flexuose, fibrillosely silky. St. 5-7 cm. x 4- 
9 mm., pale, reddish fibrillose below, equal, or slightly thickened at 
the base, rigid, striate. Cortina red, fibrillose. Gills reddish, then 
ferruginous, adnate, 3-5 mm. broad, somewhat crowded, thin. Flesh 
fuscous under the cuticle of the p., becoming paler, tinged reddish in 
the St., thin. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 6-8 x 4-5/i, multi-guttu- 
late. Smell none, or of radish. Woods, especially birch. Sept. Nov. 
Common, (v.v.) 

435. C. (Denno.) semisanguineus (Brig.) Maire. Eolland, Champ, t. 66, 
no. 146. Semi, half; sanguineus, bloody. 

P. 3-6 cm., tan, or tawny olivaceous, becoming paler, convex, then 
plane, silky. St. 3-6 cm. x 6-8 mm., paler tawny, or yellowish, equal, 
often slightly thickened at the base. Cortina tawny, fibrillose. Gills 
blood red, sinuato-adnate, broad, or narrow, crowded, thick. Flesh 
fuscous, becoming pale, thin at the margin. Spores pale ferruginous, 
elliptical, 6-7 x 3-4//.. Woods, and heaths under birches. Aug. 
Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

436. C. (Denno.) cinnabarinus Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 113. 

Kivvdfiapi, dragon's blood. 

P. 2-7-5 cm., scarlet-red, fleshy, campanulate, then flattened, obtuse, 
or obtusely umbonate, silky, then becoming smooth and shining. St. 
3-6 cm. x 6-8 mm., concolorous, equal, sometimes bulbous, fibrillose, 
or striate. Cortina cinnabar colour, fibrillose, lax. Gills concolorous, 
dark blood colour when bruised, adnate, subdecurrent, subdistant, often 
connected by veins; edge unequal and darker. Flesh concolorous, 
then paler, firm. Spores ferruginous, almond-shaped, 10-13 x 5-6/x, 
verrucose. Smell of radish. Woods, especially beech. Sept. Nov. 
Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

437. C. (Denno.) sanguineus (Wulf.) Fr. Grevillea, t. 110, fig. 5. 

Sanguineus, bloody. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., dark blood colour, becoming paler when dry, fleshy, 
convex, then plane, obtuse, or slightly umbonate, sometimes de- 
pressed, shaggy, or squamulose. St. 5-10 cm. x 4r-6 mm., concolorous, 
or darker, equal, or slightly attenuated downwards, flexuose, clothed 
with concolorous fibrils, base sometimes white. Cortina blood red, 
arachnoid, fugacious. Gills concolorous, then rust colour, adnate, 
sinuate, crowded. Flesh reddish, paler, thin, pouring out a blood red 
juice when pressed. Spores pale ferruginous, elliptical, 8-9 x 5-6 /M, 
1-guttulate, verrucose. Smell of radish, sometimes obsolete. Woods, 
especially of conifers. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 



COBTINABIUS 165 

438. C. (Dermo.) anthracinus Fr. avOpa%, coal. 
P. 2-3 cm., dark chestnut, or brown fuscous, often reddish rose colour 

at the margin, fleshy, convex, then expanded, umbonate, fibrillose, 
becoming smooth. St. 4-5 cm. x 3-5 mm., intense blood colour, fus- 
cous, or yellow at the base, equal, fibrillose. Gills deep red, or fiery in 
colour, becoming blood red when bruised, then rust colour with the edge 
deep red, sinuato-adnate, crowded. Flesh concolorous (lilac according 
to Quelet), soft, thick at the disc. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 
7 x 5/z, punctate. Woods. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

439. C. (Dermo.) cinnamomeus (Linn.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 777, t. 777. 

Kivvdfiwfjiov, cinnamon. 

P. 1-10 cm., somewhat cinnamon, or tawny ochraceous, fleshy, convex, 
then expanded, obtusely umbonate, silky, or squamulose with innate 
fibrils, at length becoming smooth. St. 5-9 x -5-1 cm., 

'i, equal, fibrillose. Cortina yellowish, fibrillose. Gills yellowish, 

then cinnamon, adnate, broad, thin, crowded, shining. Flesh yellowish, 
thin, scissile. Spores dark ochraceous, elliptical, 6-8 x 4-5 /A, 1-guttu- 
late, "faintly punctate" Kick. Coniferous, and deciduous woods. 
Aug. Feb. Common, (v.v.) 

var. croceus (Schaeff.) Fr. tcpotcos, saffron colour. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size, and its bright yellow st., and 
gills. Woods. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

440. C. (Dermo.) croceo-conus Fr. #poo9, saffron; /ez/o9, a cone. 
P. 3-5 cm., fulvous cinnamon, conical, then campanulate, per- 
sistently acute, almost glabrous. St. 712 cm. x 4 mm., yellowish, 
flexuose. Gills cinnamon, ascending, linear, crowded. Flesh very thin, 
1mm. thick. Spores " elliptical, almost smooth, 8-9-5 x 5ju, " Kauffm. 
Subcaespitose. Amongst moss in coniferous woods. Sept. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

441. C. (Dermo.) uliginosus Berk. Cke. lUus. no. 781, t. 851. 

Uligo, marshy ground. 

P. 3-5 cm., bright red brown, almost brick-red, fleshy, campanulato- 
conical, then expanded, very strongly umbonate, silky, sometimes 
streaked. St. 3-8 cm. x 3-8 mm., paler than the p., flexuose. Gills 
yellow, becoming olive, then cinnamon, adnate with a tooth, distant. 
Flesh yellow-olive, then cinnamon, thick at the disc. Spores dark 
ochraceous, elliptical, 8-9 x 4-5 /M. Amongst Sphagnum in woods. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

442. C. (Dermo.) orellanus Fr. non Quel. Cke. Illus. no. 776, t. 787, 
lower figs. 0/009, a mountain. 

P. 3-7 cm., orange tawny, fleshy, convex, then convexo-plane, more 
or less undulate, umbonate, covered with concolorous, or deeper coloured 



166 CORTINABIUS 

fibrillose squamules. St. 2-59 cm. x 4-20 mm., tawny, equal, or 
attenuated upwards, striato-fibrillose, or smooth. Cortina tawny, 
fibrillose. Gills tawny, then rust colour, broadly adnato-sinuate, broad, 
thick, distant, often veined on the sides. Flesh concolorous, reddening, 
thin at the margin. Spores brownish ferruginous, broadly elliptical, 
8-11 x 5-6 /i, 1-multi-guttulate, verrucose. Woods, and heaths. 
Aug. Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

443. C. (Denno.) malicorius Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 155, fig. 1. 

Malicorlum, the rind of a pomegranate. 

P. 3-6 cm., tawny, disc darker, golden, and floccose at the margin, 
fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, velvety, or fibrillose. St. 4- 
5 cm. x 12 mm., golden, at length fuscous, and olivaceous, covered with 
golden fibrils. Cortina golden, fibrillose. Gills golden tawny, rounded 
behind, adnexed, crowded, edge at length floccose and discoloured. 
Flesh yellow, then greenish olive, rather thick, scissile. Spores "ellip- 
tical, 8-9 x 4-5 /A, faintly punctate " Rick. Taste pleasant. Coniferous 
woods. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

444. C. (Denno.) infucatus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 155, fig. 2. 

Infucatus, painted. 

P. 2-5-4 cm., bright yellow, fleshy, convex, obtuse, silky when dry. 
St. 4-7-5 cm. x 4-8 mm., pale light yellow, equally attenuated upwards 
from the clavate base, fibrillose. Cortina yellow, fibrillose. Gills tawny, 
then cinnamon, adnate, almost linear, 2 mm. broad, crowded, thin. 
Flesh whitish. Spores "elliptical, 10 x 5 /A" Massee. Woods. Sept. 
Oct. Rare. 

445. C. (Denno.) colymbadinus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 155, fig. 3. 

K0\vfif3d<$, swimming. 

P. 5-8 cm., honey tan colour, becoming yellowish when dry, some- 
what fleshy, convex, then expanded, scarcely umbonate, often repand, 
covered with yellow, fugacious fibrils, then smooth, and shining. St. 
5-10 cm. x 6-8 mm., pallid, equal, somewhat naked, fibrillosely- 
striate, sometimes twisted. Cortina almost none, very fugacious. 
Gills dark ferruginous, adnate, 4-8 mm. broad, subdistant, thick, edge 
white-floccose. Flesh pallid, darker at the base of the st., scissile. Spores 
"subglobose, 7-8 x 6-7 p,, almost spinose" Rick. Smell very strong 
of radish. Pine, and beech woods. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

****01ivaceous, veil dingy pallid, or fuscous. 
P. not torn into scales. 

446. C. (Denno.) cotoneus Fr. KOTIVOS, the wild olive. 
P. 4-8 cm., olivaceous, fleshy, campanulate, then expanded, obtuse, 

somewhat repand, innately velvety, fragile when old. St. 5-9 x 1- 



CORTINARIUS 167 

1-5 cm., pale olivaceous, bulbous, somewhat fibrillose. Cortina yellow 
olivaceous, persistent, woven into a fuscous zone towards the apex of 
the st. Gills olivaceous, then cinnamon, adnate, separating, 4-6 mm. 
broad, somewhat crowded. Flesh pale olivaceous, deeper coloured in 
the st., thin, lax, soft. Spores ferruginous, subglobose, 8-9 x S/n, 
granular. Taste mild. Woods, especially oak. Sept. Oct. Not un- 
common, (v.v.) 

447. C. (Dermo.) subnotatus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 784, t. 832. 

Subnotatus, marked. 

P. 6-10 cm., olivaceous, becoming yellowish, then fuscous, fleshy, 
conical, campanulate, then expanded, gibbous, at first covered with 
hoary, silky fibrils, then smooth. St. 7-10 x 1-1-5 cm., pale olivaceous, 
conical, equally attenuated upwards, often curved and flexuose, 
fibrillose, or squamulose with the yellowish cortina, apex naked, 
silvery-shining. Cortina yellowish, fibrillose, inconspicuous. Gills 
bright ochraceous, then olivaceous cinnamon, adnate, 610 mm. broad, 
subdistant, often connected by veins. Flesh yellowish, very thin at the 
margin. Spores "elliptical, 6-8 x 5-6 p, granular" Massee. Smell 
of radishes or none. Beech woods. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

448. C. (Dermo.) raphanoides (Pers.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 786, t. 833, 
fig. A. pa(f)avi<;, a radish; etSo?, like. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., fuscous olivaceous, becoming tawny, fleshy, campanu- 
late, then expanded, obtusely umbonate, often undulate, silky fibrillose, 
then smooth. St. 5-8 x -5-1 cm., olivaceous, becoming pallid, equal, 
or slightly attenuated upwards from the somewhat thickened base, 
sometimes twisted, fibrillose. Cortina pallid olive, filamentous, often 
forming a narrow ring-like zone on the st. Gills subolivaceous, then 
cinnamon, and subferruginous, adnate, slightly ventricose, scarcely 
crowded, edge often paler. Flesh pallid, or ochraceous, thick at the 
disc, firm, then soft. Spores pale ferruginous, elliptical, 7-8 x 4-5/n, 
granular. Smell strong of radish. Taste bitter. Beech, birch, and 
fir woods. Sept. Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

449. C. (Dermo.) valgus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 785, t. 750. 

Valgus, bow-legged. 

P. 5-8 cm., yellowish fuscous, becoming paler, somewhat brick red 
when dry, fleshy, fragile, convex, then expanded and subumbonate, 
smooth; margin submembranaceous. St. 6-12 x 1-1-5 cm., pallid, 
smooth, shining, attenuated upwards, often somewhat twisted, apex 
lilac and substriate; base white-tomentose, bulbous, rooting. Gills 
yellowish, then cinnamon, adnate, somewhat separating, 4-6 mm. 
broad, subdistant. Flesh yellowish, thick at the disc. Spores pale 
ferruginous, elliptical, 8 x 5/u,. Smell none, or of radish. Amongst 
moss in coniferous woods. Oct. Uncommon. 



168 CORTINARIUS 

450. C. (Dermo.) venetus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 155, fig. 4. 

Venetus, sea-coloured. 

P. 4-5 cm., green, then greenish yellow, yellowish when dry, fleshy, 
hemispherical, obtusely umbonate, covered with a persistent, erect, 
yellow, velvety tomentum. St. 5-8 cm. x 6-8 mm., concolorous, or paler, 
equal, often curved, firm, very fibrillosely silky, base often yellow and 
villous. Cortina green, or citron yellow, fibrillose. Gills olivaceous, 
darker than the p., then brownish, adnate, very broad, in the form of a 
segment, often connected by veins, subdistant. Flesh pale yellowish; or 
greenish yellow, thick at the disc, soft. Spores "olivaceous, elliptical, 
10/1, echinulate " Bataille, "subglobose, 7-8 x 6-7 /x, roughish" 
Rick. Smell of radish. Taste acrid. Beech, and fir woods. Aug. 
Oct. Rare. 

5. Telamonia Fr. 
(re\afjicav, a broad linen bandage.) 

Pileus thinly fleshy, or abruptly thin at the margin, moist, hygro- 
phanous, smooth or sprinkled with superficial whitish fibres of the 
veil. Stem cortinate, and annulate, hence the veil is somewhat double. 

I. Gills very broad, rather thick, more or less distant. 

St. spongy, and wholly fibrous. 
*St. and cortina white, or whitish. 

451. C. (Tela.) macropus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 787, t. 788. 

fjt,aicp6s, long; TTOV<?, a foot. 

P. 5-9 cm., brick colour, at length becoming ferruginous, paler at the 
margin, which is at first incurved, fleshy, convex, then flattened, 
obtuse, dry, hoary with very small squamules, becoming smooth. St. 
7-5-15 x 1-2-5 cm., dingy whitish, then concolorous, subequal, fibrillose. 
Cortina white, forming a distant, inferior, narrow woven ring. Gills 
pallid, then watery cinnamon, adnexed, very broad, 1-2-5 cm., distant, 
edge sometimes crenate. Flesh whitish, then cinereous, thin at the 
margin, firm, then soft. Spores pale ferruginous, elliptical, 9-10 x 5 /M, 
minutely punctate. Woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

452. C. (Tela.) laniger Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 156, fig. 2. 

Laniger, wool bearing. 

P. 5-9 cm., bright or dark tawny, sometimes becoming pale, fleshy, 
hemispherical, then expanded, obtuse, at first floccosely squamulose 
with whitish fiocci, then becoming smooth, silky towards the margin. 
St. 510 x 24 cm., white, equal, or bulbous, sometimes ventricose, 
more or less distinctly sheathed by the veil. Cortina white, forming a very 
soft, shining white, distinct ring, very delicate above. Gills bright 
saffron cinnamon, then shining tawny, adnate, or sinuate, at first 
crowded, then subdistant, sometimes transversely veined. Flesh 



CORTINABITJS 169 

white, reddish white in the st. at length becoming tawny at the base, thick 
at the disc, thin at the margin. Spores ferruginous, pip-shaped, 
9-10 x 6/i, punctate. Smell strong. Coniferous woods. Sept. Oct. 
Eare. (v.v.) 

453. C. (Tela.) bivelus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 156, fig. 1. 

Bis, twice; velum, a veil. 

P. 5-12 cm., tawny ferruginous, often spotted, or darker at the disc, 
fleshy, convexo-plane, always obtuse, bibulous, smooth, or slightly 
silky round the margin, shining, rarely opaque, sometimes rivulose. 
St. 6-8 x 1-2 cm., dingy white, bulbous, or equally attenuated, fibril- 
losely villous. Cortina white, sheathing, terminating in a spurious and 
fugacious ring, thin and vanishing above. Grills ochraceous, then bright 
tawny cinnamon, adnate, or subemarginate, at first crowded, then 
subdistant. Flesh white, becoming somewhat ferruginous in the stem, 
thick, spongy in the stem. Spores pale ferruginous, elliptical, often 
pointed at the base, 9-10 x 6-7 /A, 1-2-guttulate, punctate, "almost 
smooth" Rick. Smell "strong," "pleasant" Quel. Taste mild. Woods, 
and heaths. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

454. C. (Tela.) bulbosus (Sow.) Fr. Sow. Eng. Fung. t. 130. 

Bulbosus, bulbous. 

P. 5-7-5 cm., date brown, becoming fuscous brick colour when dry, 
fleshy, campanulato-expanded, obtuse, or broadly gibbous, even, ozfibril- 
losely squamulose towards the margin from the torn epidermis. St. 
4-7-5 x 1-1-5 cm., paler than the p., becoming whitish, tinged saffron- 
yellow at the bulbous base, equal. Cortina white, sheathing, forming a 
fugacious ring. Gills dark, then brown-cinnamon, adnate, broad, sub- 
distant. Flesh concolorous and pallid when damp, whitish when dry, 
tinged with saffron-yellow at the base of the St., thick and compact at 
the disc. Spores pale ferruginous, elliptical, 8-9 x 5-6;u,, minutely 
verrucose. Smell none, or of radish. Woods. Sept. Oct. Uncom- 
mon, (v.v.) 

455. C. (Tela.) urbicus Fr. Grevillea, t. Ill, fig. 8. 

Urbicus, pertaining to the city. 

P. 3-5 cm., clay-whitish, fleshy, convexo-plane, smooth, pitted when 
larger. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 12-15 mm., concolorous, equal, villous above 
the ring when young. Cortina white, forming a narrow ring above 
the middle of the st. Gills watery ferruginous, emarginate, broad, 
thin, crowded. Flesh whitish, firm. Spores " ochraceous, pruniform, 
8/i, punctate" Quel. Grassy places. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

456. C. (Tela.) licinipes Fr. Licinium, lint; pes, foot. 
P. 5-7-5 cm., very pale yellow, tan pallid when dry, fleshy-membra- 

naceous, campanulate, then convex, and flattened, obtusely umbonate, 



170 CORTINARIUS 

at length depressed round the umbo, smooth. St. 5-12 cm. x 6- 
8 mm., pale white, at length fragile, equal, often flexuose, base white 
villous, clothed with shining, white, fugacious, fioccoso-plumose scales 
below the ring, even above. Cortina white, forming a distant, mem- 
branaceous ring. Gills watery cinnamon, adnate, very broad behind, 
up to 12 mm., somewhat crowded. Flesh watery white, thin. Fir 
woods, and Sphagnum swamps. Oct. Rare. 

var. robustior Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 792, t. 819. Robustior, firmer. 
Differs from the type in being larger and stouter. Spores 10 x 6-7 /z. 
Damp woods. Oct. Rare. 

457. C. (Tela.) microcyclus Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 793, t. 865. 

pi/epos, small; KVK\OS, a ring. 

P. 2-3 cm., brick-red fuscous, disc darker, becoming paler and opaque 
when dry, almost membranaceous, plano-convex, minutely umbonate, 
smooth. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 3-4 mm., pallid, then white, attenuated up- 
wards from the subbulbous base. Cortina white, forming a ring-like 
zone on the st. Gills lilac, then dark cinnamon, adnate, very broad, 
almost ovate, distant, thin. Flesh thin. Spores "reddish brown in 
the mass, elliptical, 5-7 x 4 /A " Herpell. Coniferous woods, and under 
trees. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

**St. and gills violaceous. Cortina commonly white-violaceous, 
universal veil white. Very distinguished. 

458. C. (Tela.) torvus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 157, fig. 1. Torvus, wild. 
P. 4-12 cm., brick colour, date brown, copper brown, fleshy, convex, 

then flattened, obtuse, sprinkled with hoary squamules and fibrils, at 
length becoming smooth. St. 7-12 x 1-1-5 cm., whitish, becoming dis- 
coloured, short and bulbous, then elongated and subequal, often curved, 
sheathed to the middle, and forming a white, membranaceous, persistent 
ring, fibrillose and floccosely scaly below the ring; apex pale violaceous, 
silky; base white villous. Cortina white, villous, then fibrillose. Gills 
violaceous, soon purplish umber, then dark cinnamon, subadnate, very 
broad, 6-12 mm., thick, distant, fragile, at length sometimes veined 
at the base. Flesh dingy, becoming whitish when dry, thick at the disc, 
firm. Spores ferruginous, pip-shaped, 9-10 x 5-6/x, 1-guttulate, 
"warted" Rick. Smell "of camphor" Maire. Woods, especially 
beech. Aug. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

459. C. (Tela.) impennis Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 157, fig. 2. 

In, not; penna, a feather. 

P. 5-10 cm., umber, then brick colour, decolouring and dingy, fleshy, 
convex, very obtuse, smooth; margin silky when young, at length 
cracked. St. 5-10 x 1-2-5 cm., pale, becoming violet at the apex, 






CORTINARIUS 171 

I, scarcely bulbous, fibrillose, veil forming an incomplete 

white zone towards the apex. Cortina white, fibrillose. Gills intense 
bright violaceous, somewhat purplish, soon becoming watery ferruginous, 
adnate, then emarginate, distant, rather thick. Flesh pallid, thick, 
becoming azure blue at the apex of the st. Spores ferruginous, 9-10 x 6/z, 
punctate. Woods, especially pine, and among dead leaves. Sept. 
Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. lucorum Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 1190, t. 1192, as a species. 

Lucus, a wood. 

Differs from the type in the unicolorous, clavato-bulbous stem, in the 
gills only being tinged with a fugacious violet, and in the firm dark 
watery flesh becoming isabelline when dry. Woods. Sept. Bare. 

460. C. (Tela.) plumiger Fr. Grevillea, t. 112, fig. 1. 

Plumiger, feather-bearing. 

P. 6-9 cm., fuscous, somewhat olivaceous when moist, brick tan when 
dry, fleshy, conical, then campanulate, with a broad, obtuse, very pro- 
minent umbo, then expanded, often cracked, dry, clothed with dense, 
white, fioccoso-plumose scales, which are either erect and squarrose, or 
adpressed and silky. St. 7-5-10 x 1 cm., pale, then often tinged with 
citron yellow, very clavate, apex pubescent, floccosely scaly from the veil, 
which forms a ring-like zone at the apex. Cortina white, floccose. Gills 
violaceous, soon watery then pure cinnamon, adnate, scarcely crowded, 
broad; edge lilac, or clay colour, often denticulate. Flesh white, or 
lilac, then yellowish, thin, firm. Smell unpleasant, foetid. Spores ferru- 
ginous, almond-shaped, 13-15 x 7-8/>i, minutely echinulate. Coni- 
ferous, and mixed woods. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

461. C. (Tela.) scutulatus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 158, fig. 2. 

Scutulatus, diamond- or lozenge-shaped. 

P. 2-5 cm., purple umber, or brick fuliginous, very hygrophanous, 
brick colour when dry, fleshy, ovato-globose, then campanulato-hemi- 
spherical, obtuse, sometimes umbonate, or umbilicate, white silky 
round the margin, then naked, rivulose in the form of innate squamules, 
sometimes lacunoso-wrinkled. St. 5-15 cm. x 4-12 mm., deep vio- 
laceous, at length becoming fuscous, cylindrical, or bulbous at the 
extreme base, white villous at the base, rigid, somewhat rooting, 
fibrillosely striate, veil sheathing and forming a white, narrow, mem- 
branaceous ring. Cortina white, floccose. Gills violaceous, then purple, 
at length cinnamon, adnate, rarely emarginate, 6 mm. broad, more or 
less distant, edge often white and serrate when young. Flesh violace- 
ous, firm, thick at the disc. Spores ferruginous, pip-shaped, 7-8 x 4//,, 
1-multi-guttulate, "slightly punctate" Rick. Smell "strong, of 
radish, or of violets " Quel. Woods, and moist places. Aug. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 



172 CORTINARIUS 

462. C. (Tela.) evernius Fr. Luc. Champ, t. 191. 

ev-epvrjs, flourishing. 

P. 3-10 cm., purple bay brown, brick colour when dry, becoming 
isabelline-hoary when old, very hygrophanous, fleshy, conico-campanu- 
late, then flattened, obsoletely umbonate, adpressedly silky, then 
smooth, at length rimosely incised, and torn into fibrils, fragile. St. 
7-15 x 1-1-5 cm., violaceous, becoming pale, equal, or attenuated down- 
wards, substriate, squamulose and obsoletely zoned with the white veil. 
Cortina white, fibrillose. Gills violaceous purple, becoming pale, then 
cinnamon, adnate, ventricose, very broad, 8-20 mm., distant. Flesh 
concolorous in the p., violaceous in the St., very thin at the margin. 
Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 7-8 x 5-6 (JL, 1-2-guttulate, "faintly 
warted " Eick. Smell like mushrooms. Deciduous, and pine woods, 
and damp places. Sept. Dec. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

463. C. (Tela.) quadricolor (Scop.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 799, t. 867. 

Quadricolor, four coloured. 

P. 4-7-5 cm., pallid yellow, then somewhat tawny, shining when dry, 
fleshy, conical, then flattened, umbonate, smooth, at length spotted ; 
margin radiato-striate. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 4-6 mm., violaceous, becoming 
whitish, equal, flexuose, subrigid, fibrilloso-striate with the adpressed 
veil, which forms an oblique, fugacious, white ring. Cortina white, 
fibrillose. Gills dark violaceous, or purplish, then cinnamon, adnate, 
6-8 mm. broad, distant, white- serrated at the edge. Flesh yellowish, 
thin. Spores ferruginous, broadly elliptical, 7-8 x 5/t, multi-guttu- 
late, "nearly spinulose " Rick. Woods, especially beech. Sept. Oct. 
Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

***St. and veil reddish or yellow. Gills tawny, or cinnamon, 
never violaceous, nor becoming brown. 

464. C. (Tela.) armillatus Fr. (= Cortinarius haematochelis (Bull.) Fr.) 
Fr. Icon. t. 158, fig. 1. Armillatus, having a bracelet. 

P. 4-12 cm., red- or fuscous-brick colour, fleshy, cylindrical, then 
campanulate, at length flattened, often gibbous, smooth, then innately 
fibrillose, or squamulose; margin at first incurved. St. 6-15 x 1-2 cm., 
white, becoming brownish with age, equal, base bulbous, the red veil 
forming one to four distant, oblique cinnabar zones, striate when old, 
and reddish fibrillose at the base. Cortina reddish white, fibrillose. 
Gills pallid cinnamon, then dark ferruginous, almost bay brown, adnate, 
slightly rounded, very broad, 10-15 mm., distant. Flesh dingy pallid, 
isabelline in the St., thin at the margin. Spores pale ferruginous, 
elliptical, 9-10 x 5-6/x, multi-guttulate, minutely verrucose. Smell 
of radish, or none. Woods, and heaths. Aug. Oct. Common. 
(v.v.) 



COBTINARIUS 173 

465. C. (Tela.) paragaudis Fr. 

Paragaudis, a border worked on a garment. 

P. 2-5-7-5 cm., bay, becoming tawny or yellowish tan colour when dry, 
fleshy, conical, then campanulate, and expanded, umbonate, often 
repand and torn on the surface, fragile. St. 7-15 x 1-1-5 cm., brick- 
red, becoming pale, reddish at the base, equal, or ventricose, curved 
and somewhat twisted, or undulate and flexuose, covered with reddish 
flocci, or squamules. Cortina whitish, fibrillose. Gills pale, then be- 
coming dark cinnamon, adnate, separating, ventricose, crowded, or 
subdistant, edge unequal. Flesh paler, thick at the disc. Spores 
"subelliptical, 8-10 x 4-5 /*, punctate" Rick. Damp places under 
pines. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

var. praestigiosus Fr. Praestigiosus, delusive. 

Differs from the type in the submembranaceous pileus being striate 
to the disc, in the thin stem, 2-3 mm. thick, and the tawny cinnamon, 
linear gills. Under pines, and amongst Scirpus caespitosus. Rare. 

466. C. (Tela.) croceo-fulvus (DC.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 1191, t. 1193. 

tcpo/cos, saffron ;fulvus, tawny. 

P. 510 cm., orange-tawny, fleshy, convex, then expanded, obtusely 
umbonate, or gibbous, smooth. St. 7-10 cm. x 6-18 mm., yellow, 
becoming reddish, equal, veil forming a rufous orange zone, apex pale. 
Gills becoming ferruginous, adnate, slightly sinuate, 6-8 mm. broad, 
rather distant. Flesh bright yellow. Spores obovate, 8-10 x 6/i, 
rough. Woods. Sept. Rare. 

467. C. (Tela.) limonius Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 159, fig. 1. 

Limonius, lemon-yellow. 

P. 5-10 cm., tawny lemon yellow, ochraceous yellow and opaque when 
dry, very hygrophanous, fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse, smooth when 
moist, rimosely incised when dry. St. 6-8 cm. x 12 mm., yellow, equal, 
base attenuated or thickened, and at length deep saffron, fioccosely scaly 
with the light yellow veil, which often forms a floccose ring at the apex. 
Gills yellow, or light yellow, at length tawny cinnamon, adnate, rarely 
emarginate, distant. Flesh concolorous, soft. Spores golden tawny, 
elliptical, 8-9 x 4-5/n, minutely echinulate. Smell slight of radish, 
or none. Coniferous woods. Sept. Oct. Tin common, (v.v.) 

468. C. (Tela.) helvolus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 802, t. 804, fig. B. 

Helvolus, pale yellow. 

P. 3-7-5 cm., dark tawny cinnamon, very pale yellow when dry, 
fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse, or obtusely umbonate, smooth; margin 
incurved, at first cortinate. St. 5-20 cm. x 4-8 mm., concolorous, at 
length fuscous ferruginous, equal, either attenuated upwards, or at 
the base, fibrillose, girt above with an annular, narrow, oblique, 



174 COBTINABIUS 

ferruginous, margined zone formed by the woven veil. Gills tawny, then 
dark cinnamon, very emarginate, 8 mm. broad, distant, thick, often 
veined at the base, opaque. Flesh tawny, firm, fuscous ferruginous in 
the st. Spores ferruginous, "elliptical, 9-10 x 5-6/Lt, verrucose " Rick. 
Woods, and wooded pastures. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

469. C. (Tela.) hinnuleus (Sow.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 803, t. 805. 

Hinnuleus, a young stag. 

P. 3-6 cm., pallid tawny cinnamon, becoming pale, shining when dry, 
fleshy, campanulato-expanded, obtuse, or obtusely umbonate, some- 
times depressed at the disc, smooth ; margin at first silky and white. 
St. 2-5-10 cm. x 4-12 mm., dingy tawny, or fuscous, equal, or attenu- 
ated downwards, rigid, white-silky with the adpressed silky veil, and 
white-zoned above with the membranqceous, or fibrillose veil, which is 
often oblique, or fugacious. Gills ochraceous, then tawny ferruginous, 
more or less emarginato-adnexed, 8-10 mm. broad, distant, thin, often 
connected by veins. Flesh concolorous, often reddish in the st., thick 
at the disc, firm. Spores ferruginous, pip-shaped, 9-10 x 6-7 /A, 
granular. Smell strong, slightly of radish, or none. Taste mild, then 
slightly acrid. Woods, and heaths. Aug. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

470. C. (Tela.) gentilis Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 159, fig. 2. 

Gentilis, of the same race. 

P. 1-4 cm., tawny cinnamon, yellow when dry, very hygrophanous, 
fleshy, conico-expanded, then flattened, acutely umbonate, rimosely 
incised, often somewhat silky. St. 6-9 cm. x 2-8 mm., concolorous, 
equal, or attenuated at the base, often curved, fibrillose, veil forming 
one or more oblique, yellow annular zones, sometimes floccoso-scaly 
below the ring, base white tomentose. Gills yellow, then tawny cinna- 
mon, adnate, thick, very distant, often connected by veins. Flesh con- 
colorous, thin at the margin. Spores bright ochraceous, elliptical, or 
pip-shaped, 7-8 x 6/x, granular, 1-guttulate. Gregarious. Woods, 
especially pines, and heaths. Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

471. C. (Tela.) helvelloides Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 159, fig. 3. 

Helvella, the genus Helvella; eZSo?, like. 

P. 1-3 cm., ferruginous, becoming tawny when dry, submembranaceous, 
convex, then flattened, umbonate, smooth, rarely fibrillose when 
young, substriate when moist, cracked and squarrose when more fully 
grown. St. 4-7-5 cm. x 2-4 mm., subferruginous, equal, very undulate 
and flexuose, apex white silky and glittering, veil forming a yellow, 
ring-like zone at the apex. Gills violaceous umber, then ferruginous, 
adnate, rather broad, very thick, very distant, edge white-fioccose. Flesh 
ferruginous in the St., very thin at the disc. Spores ferruginous, 
"elliptical, 9-10 x 5-5-5/Lt, verrucose" Rick. Moist woods. Aug. 
Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



COBTINARITJS 175 

472. C. (Tela.) rubellus Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 806, t. 835. 

Rubellus, reddish. 

P. 5-7-5 cm., rufous orange, darker at the umbo, fleshy, campanulate, 
then expanded. St. 7-10 x 1-1-5 cm., pale above, darker below, equal, 
or attenuated upwards, marked with concentric, dark ferruginous, 
fibrillose bands. Gills pale, then bright ferruginous red, adnate, sinuate, 
rather narrow, scarcely crowded. Flesh reddish ochre, thick at the 
disc. Spores ferruginous, pyriform, 8 x 5/x,, minutely rough. Swampy 
places. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

****St. becoming fuscous, veil fuscous, or dirty, gills dark 
coloured. 

473. C. (Tela.) bovinus Fr. (= Cortinarius brunneus (Pers.) Fr. sec Bar- 

bier.) Cke. Illus. no. 807, t. 822. Bovinus, pertaining to oxen. 
P. 6-12 cm., watery cinnamon, becoming tawny when dry, convex, 
then plane, obtuse, or gibbous, smooth, fragile, opaque, hygrophanous. 
St. 6-8 x 2-2-5 cm., dingy pallid, becoming fuscous cinnamon, very 
bulbous, veil forming a simple, interwoven fuscous zone, apex whitish. 
Gills cinnamon, becoming dark, adnexed, very broad, 12 mm., distant. 
Flesh pallid, watery, thick at the disc, spongy in the st. Spores pale 
ferruginous, elliptical, 9-13 x 6-7 /A, coarsely verrucose. Pine, and 
deciduous woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

474. C. (Tela.) nitrosus Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 808, t. 837. 

Nitrosus, full of natron. 

P. 5-7-5 cm., fawn colour, or tawny, disc darker and brownish, fleshy, 
obtuse, convex, then expanded, margin undulate, soon breaking up 
into minute, subconcentric darker scales. St. 5-8 x 1 cm., ochraceous, 
base darker, subequal, marked below with concentric darker squamose 
bands. Gills violet, then watery cinnamon, emarginate, rather broad, 
subdistant. Flesh pale brown, thin. Spores pale ferruginous, ellip- 
tical, 12 x 4jLt. Smell stinking, nitrous. Mixed woods. Sept. Oct. 
Uncommon. 

475. C. (Tela.) brunneus (Pers.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 810, t. 854. 

Brunneus, brown. 

P. 5-10 cm., umber, dirty brick tan colour when dry, fleshy, cam- 
panulate, then expanded, disc obtusely umbonate, smooth, innately 
fibrillose towards the margin. St. 6-10 cm. x 8-12 mm., becoming 
fuscous, clavate, or attenuated upwards from the thickened base, 
elastic, covered with dense, minute white striae, veil dingy white, forming 
a brownish white, ring-like zone. Gills dark purple cinnamon, then brown, 
at length umber brown, adnate, then adnexed, 10-15 mm. broad, thick, 
distant, often transversely veined, broadest in the middle. Flesh 
pallid fuscous, thick only at the umbonate disc. Spores ferruginous, 



176 CORTINARIUS 

broadly elliptical, 7-8 x 5-6/i, minutely verrucose. Woods, heaths, 
and swampy places. Sept. Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

476. C. (Tela.) injucundus (Weinm.) Fr. (= Cortinarius brunneus 

(Pers.) Fr. sec. Barbier.) Cke. Illus. no. 809, t. 823. 

Injucundus, unpleasant. 

P. 6-10 cm., fuscous cinnamon, fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, 
fibrillose. St. 6-10 x 1-1-5 cm., concolorous, then tawny yellow, clavate, 
attenuated upwards, covered with fuscous fibrils, veil fuscous. Gills 
lilac tan, then cinnamon, emarginate, very broad, 8-10 mm. Flesh 
pale reddish, compact, firm. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, or pip- 
shaped, 10-11 x 5-6 p,, granular. Smell musty, or pleasant. Fir 
woods, and under conifers. Oct. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

477. C. (Tela.) brunneofulvus Fr. Brunneus, brown ;fulvus, tawny. 
P. 5-11 cm., tawny cinnamon, scarcely changing colour when dry, 

fleshy, campanulate, then expanded, obsoletely umbonate, smooth, 
minutely fibrilloso-virgate with innate addressed hairs under a lens, 
margin at first white, fibrillose. St. 710 x 1-2 cm., concolorous, or 
paler, attenuated upwards, fibrillosely striate, veil dingy white, forming 
a fugacious zone. Gills tawny cinnamon, opaque, adnate, very broad, 
12-20 mm., subdistant, soft. Flesh pale tawny, thin. Spores ferru- 
ginous, elliptical, 7-8 x 4 5ju,, granular. Woods, heaths, and swampy 
places. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

478. C. (Tela.) glandicolor Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 812, t. 789. 

Glans, acorn; color, colour. 

P. 2-5 cm., brown, or cinnamon-brown, tan colour or isabelline when 
dry, submembranaceous, conical, then expanded, generally obtusely 
umbonate, soon glabrous; margin striate when moist, sprinkled with 
thin, short, white fibrils when dry. St. 7-12-5 cm. x 4-6 mm., con- 
colorous, at length date brown fuscous, equal, straight, sometimes undu- 
late, fibrillosely striate, veil forming a woven, white, distant, fugacious 
ring. Gills concolorous, or umber, adnate, rounded in front, very dis- 
tant, somewhat thick, up to 8 mm. broad. Flesh concolorous, very thin. 
Spores "tawny, elliptical, 9-10 x 5-6 /it, rough " Bataille. Pine woods. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

var. curtus Fr. Curtus, shortened. 

Differs from the type in the umbo of the p. becoming somewhat black, 

and in the short (2-5 cm.)flexuose st., peronate and zoned by the white veil. 

479. C. (Tela.) punctatus (Pers.) Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 813, t. 855. 

Punctatus, dotted. 

P. 1-2 cm., hoary umber, becoming pale, tan colour when dry, sub- 
membranaceous, conico-convex, umbo scarcely prominent, smooth, 



CORTINARIUS 177 

at length punctate. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 2-4 mm., yellow fuscous, equal, 
undulated, fibrillose; girt with a pallid fuscous zone from the fugacious 
veil. Gills brown cinnamon, adnate, very distant. Flesh yellowish, 
thin, firm. Spores ochraceous, "elliptical, 10-12 x 7-Sfi, punctate- 
warted" Rick. Smell strong. Pine, and beech woods. Sept. Oct. 
Uncommon. 

II. Gills narrow, thin, more or less crowded. P. thin. St. externally 

more rigid, subcartilaginous, often attenuated downwards. 

*St. whitish, pallid, not floccosely scaly. 

480. C. (Tela.) trifonnis Fr. Cke. Ulus. no. 814, t. 790, as var. 
Schaefferi Fr. Triformis, three formed. 

P. 4-8 cm., fawn colour, brownish, or livid yellowish, then yellowish 
or honey colour, isabelline, or dingy tan when dry, very hygrophanous, 
fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, or slightly gibbous, superficially 
fibrillose, or becoming smooth, at length punctate-dotted, opaque. 
St. 7-5 cm. x 12 mm., pallid, subbulbous, fragile, rather smooth, 
ringed upwards with the woven veil, ring distant, white. Gills watery 
honey colour, then watery cinnamon, adnate, subemarginate, ventricose, 
8 mm. broad, subdistant, often connected by veins. Flesh whitish, 
thin, spongy in the st. Spores ferruginous, " fusif orm-elliptical, 9- 
10 x 4-5/x " Rick. Woods, especially beech. Oct. Uncommon. 

var. fusco-paUens Fr. Fuscus, dark; pollens, pale. 

Differs from the type in the fuscous, umbonate p. becoming pale, and 
in the narrow (2-4 mm.), watery white gills. Coniferous woods. 

var. melleo-pallens Fr. Melkus, honey colour; palkns, pale. 

Differs from the type in the moist, isabelline yellow p. becoming 
yellow, in the striate margin and the pallid yellowish, fragile st. Pine 
woods. 

481. C. (Tela.) bifonnis Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 815, t. 869. 

Biformis, two formed. 

P. 3-8 cm., dark, or ferruginous brown, pale date brown and shining 
when dry, submembranaceous, conical, then campanulate, at length 
expanded, acutely umbonate, firm, smooth, rarely covered with fuga- 
cious fibrils. St. 5-10 cm. x 68 mm., paler than the p., attenuated 
downwards, distinctly striate, adpressedly fibrillose, firm. Ring white, 
distinct, oblique, interwoven, sometimes obsolete. Gills grey, then 
watery cinnamon, adnate, or emarginate, attenuated behind, connected 
by veins, 6 mm. broad, rather crowded, edge often crenulate. Flesh 
brownish, becoming pale, very thin except at the disc. Spores pale 
ferruginous, elliptical, 7-8 x 3-4|u,, minutely punctate. Pine, and 
mixed woods. Oct. Rare. 

B. B. B. 12 



178 CORTINABIUS 

482. C. (Tela.) fallax Quel. Grevillea, t. 128, fig. 6. 

Fallax, deceptive. 

P. 1-1-5 cm., yellow, then cream ochraceous, campanulato-convex. 
St. 4-5 cm. x 2 mm., whitish cream colour, flexuose, silky, lilac and 
satiny above the ring. Ring white, narrow, fugacious. Gills cream 
colour, then ochraceous, adnate, ventricose. Flesh white, thin. Spores 
straw colour, ovoid pruniform, 8/Lt, punctate. Woods. 

**St. inclining to violet. 

483. C. (Tela.) periscelis Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 816, t, 838. 

7Tpi(TK\i<;, a garter. 

P. 2-5 cm., lilac, tawny at the disc, violaceous at the margin, fleshy, 
hygrophanous, campanulate, then convex, umbonate, submembra- 
naceous, covered with white silky fibrils. St. 7-10 cm. x 4-8 mm., 
concolorous, becoming fuscous when dry, equal, straight, fibrillose, the 
fuscous veil forming several ^fibrillose zones, base white-villous. Gills 
pallid, then dark ferruginous, adnate, narrow, crowded. Flesh pale 
tawny, thin. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 8- 9 x 4-5/x, 1-2-guttulate. 
Woods, bogs, and under beeches. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

484. C. (Tela.) flexipes Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 817, t. 824, fig. A. 

Flexus, bent; pes, foot. 

P. 1-3 cm., dark date-brown fuscous, or inclining to violaceous, be- 
coming pale, very pale yellow when dry, becoming tan when old, fleshy, 
at first conical and acute, then expanded and acutely umbonate, at 
length depressed round the umbo, hoary fibrillose, finally naked, 
torn when old. St. 6-10 cm. x 4 mm., pallid, violaceous throughout, 
or at the apex, equal, flexuose, fioccoso-scaly below the ring; ring white, 
woven, distinct. Gills purple, or umber violaceous, then cinnamon, 
adnate, subdistant, edge whitish. Flesh concolorous, thin. Spores 
tawny, pip-shaped, 6-7 x 4-5 /A, rough, 1-guttulate. Woods. Sept. 
Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

485. C. (Tela.) flabellum Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 817, t. 824, fig. B. 

Flabellum, a small fan. 

P. 1-5-3 cm., olivaceous fuscous, tan when dry, submembranaceous, 
conical, then flattened, generally acutely umbonate, at first covered 
with white, superficial, separating scales, silky when dry, at length 
rimosely incised, torn into fibrils. St. 5-10 cm. x 2-4 mm., pallid, 
becoming violet at the apex, equal, undulated, flexuose, fioccosely scaly, 
Veil white, inferior, giving rise to the scales on the stem, terminating 
in a ring which is sometimes perfect and entire, sometimes woven and 
oblique, and sometimes wanting. Gills dark violaceous, then cinnamon, 
and at length ferruginous, adnate, linear, narrow, crowded. Flesh paler, 
very thin. Spores "elliptical, 8-9 x 5-6 /u, minutely punctate" Rick. 






COBTINARIUS 179 

Smell strong, somewhat of radish. Gregarious. Woods, especially 
beech, and damp places. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

***St. and p. tawny, ferruginous. 

486. C. (Tela.) psammocephalus Fr. non Bull. Cke. Illus. no. 818, 
t. 839, fig. A. ^a//,yu,o<?, sand; K(j)a\^, head. 

Entirely tawny cinnamon, becoming pale and somewhat golden when 
dry. P. 2-5-5 cm., fleshy, convex, then plane, at length umbonate and 
revolute, broken up into minute furfuraceous squamules. St. 2-5- 
5 cm. x 4-8 mm., somewhat attenuated downwards, sheathed with 
the continuous, squamulose veil. Cortina fibrillose. Gills at length 
darker, umber cinnamon, sinuato-adnate, 4 mm. broad, crowded. 
Flesh concolorous, or yellowish, thin. Spores ochraceous, elliptical, 
9-10 x 5-6ju, 1-2-guttulate, minutely verrucose. Woods, and char- 
coal heaps. Aug. Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

487. C. (Tela.) incisus (Pers.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 160, fig. 1. 

Incisus, cut into. 

P. 1-3 cm., tawny ferruginous, opaque, more rarely date brown, or 
olivaceous fuscous, fleshy, conico-convex, then expanded, very acutely 
or obsoletely umbonate, naked, then, especially in dry weather, torn 
into fibrils, or scales, even and shining when scorched by the sun. St. 
2-5-10 cm. x 2-6 mm., tawny or ochraceous, equal, flexuose, fibrillose, 
veil forming a woven, white ring, sometimes obsolete. Gills cinnamon- 
ferruginous, adnate, subdistant. Flesh concolorous, thin. Spores 
ochraceous, elliptical, 8-9 x 5-6/n, 1-guttulate, rough. Subcaespitose, 
or in troops. Woods, heaths, and dried up swamps. Sept. Oct. 
Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

488. C. (Tela.) iliopodius Fr. tXv?, mud; TTOU?, foot. 
P. 2-5-5 cm., opaque cinnamon, tan when dry, fleshy, conical, then 

expanded, generally acutely umbonate, silky with hoary fibrils, then 
becoming smooth. St. 2-5-10 cm. x 2-4 mm., tawny, becoming fus- 
cous, subcartilaginous, equal, flexuose, elastic, sheathed to the middle 
by the white veil which becomes even and silky, cortinately ringed 
where the sheathing ends, apex naked, fibrillosely striate. Gills cinna- 
mon, adnate, thin, somewhat crowded. Flesh of st. saffron cinnamon, 
thin. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 8-9 x 5-6 /x, with a large central 
gutta, punctate. Woods, especially pine and beech. July Dec. 
Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

****St. floccosely scaly, and, as well as the p., fuscous. 

489. C. (Tela.) hemitrichus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 820, t. 825. 

r)jj,t,, half; Opil;, hair. 

P. 2-5-8 cm., dark fuscous, fuscous tan when dry, umbo generally 
persistently dark, fleshy, convexo-expanded, acutely or obtusely 

122 



180 CORTINARITJS 

umbonate, or wholly obtuse, often umbilicate in large specimens, 
covered wholly, or only round the margin, with white, fibrillose, curled, 
erect, superficial fiocci, then becoming smooth. St. 4-7 cm. x 4-8 mm., 
concolorous, equal, firm, white fiocculose below the ring. Ring shining 
white, median, woven, often membranaceous and reflexed. Gills clay 
colour ("bluish clay" Quel.), then cinnamon, adnate, ventricose at the 
base, rounded, 6 mm. broad, very crowded. Flesh concolorous, be- 
coming paler, thick at the disc. Spores ochraceous, elliptical, 8-9 x 5- 
6fji, punctate. Taste mild. Woods, heaths, and boggy ground, especi- 
ally under birches. April Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

490. C. (Tela.) stemmatus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 160, fig. 3. 

arefifia, a wreath. 

P. 2-5 cm., date brown, becoming pale when dry, fleshy, convex, then 
flattened, obtuse, fragile, hoary silky round the margin when moist, 
fibrillose when dry. St. 5-8 cm. x 4-8 mm., ferruginous date brown, 
equal, or slightly attenuated at the base, often curved, soft, generally 
floccosely squamulose with two to four white ring-like zones, sometimes 
naked, apex paler, becoming silky even. Gills date brown, opaque, 
narrow, 4 mm. broad, very crowded. Flesh ferruginous date brown, 
thin at the margin. Spores ferruginous, pip-shaped, 9-10 x 5-6/z, 
punctate. Moist woods, and heaths. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

491. C. (Tela.) rigidus (Scop.) Fr. Cke. Urns. no. 822, t. 791. 

Rigidus, stiff. 

P. 1-4 cm., bay cinnamon, fuscous when decaying, pale yellow, or 
fuscous tan colour when dry, fleshy, conical, then convex, and expanded, 
acutely or obtusely umbonate, or quite obtuse, at length depressed 
round the umbo, smooth, becoming broken up into scales when fully 
grown, margin at length pellucidly striate, at first silky from the white 
veil. St. 5-10 cm. x 4-5 mm., concolorous, or becoming fuscous, or 
pale, equal, straight, or flexuose, adpressedly fibrillose, girt with the 
squamose, white veil. Ring white, floccose, sometimes membrana- 
ceous. Gills cream colour, then cinnamon, adnate, broad, plane, some- 
what crowded, often connected by veins. Flesh concolorous, thin at the 
margin. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 7-8 x 4-5/u,, minutely punc- 
tate. Smell strong, taste mild. Woods, and heaths, especially under 
birches. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

492. C. (Tela.) paleaceus (Weinm.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 160, fig. 4. 

Paleaceus, chaffy. 

P. 1-3 cm., fuscous, dingy when dry, very hygrophanous, sub- 
membranaceous, conical, then expanded, acutely or obtusely umbo- 
nate, silky with white, superficial squamuks, the remains of the veil, 
becoming smooth, opaque. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 2-3 mm., concolorous, 



CORTINARIUS 181 

paler when young, tough, equal, undulate, squamulose with white flocci, 
base white-villose. Ring white, fibrillosely floccose, fugacious. Gills 
pallid-whitish, then cinnamon, adnate, broad, crowded. Flesh con- 
colorous, very thin at the margin. Spores ferruginous, broadly ellip- 
tical, 7-8 x 4-5 /u,, rough. Smell weak. Woods, especially beech, and 
birch, also on boggy heaths. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

493. C. (Tela.) penicillatus (Fr.) Quel. (= Cortinarius (Inoloma) peni- 
cillatus Fr.) Penicillatus, pencilled. 

P. 2-4 cm., ferruginous fuscous, tawny when dry, fleshy, convex, 
minutely umbonate, dry, densely fioccoso-scaly with dark, innate, ferru- 
ginous fibrils. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 3-6 mm., paler than the p., equal, 
fragile, squamose to the apical ring with adpressed, fuscous, ferruginous, 
concentric scales, paler and adpressedly silky above the ring. Gills 
ochraceous, then cinnamon, sinuato-adnate, then separating, plane, 
6 mm. broad, somewhat crowded. Flesh concolorous, thin. Spores 
pale ferruginous, pip-shaped, 7-8 x 5/i, minutely rough. Coniferous 
woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

494. C. (Tela.) Iris Massee. tpis, the rainbow. 
P. 2-3 cm., pale ochraceous brown, fleshy, hemispherical, then ex- 
panded, acutely umbonate, silky, densely covered with minute white 
fibrils, usually splitting at the margin. St. 5-7 cm. x 4 mm., orange 
brown, conical, covered with concolorous, pointed, fibrillose squamules 
below the bright brown, fibrillose ring, smooth, silky, and violet, becoming 
pale above the ring. Gills dirty ochraceous, then bright orange brown, 
very much cut out behind, slightly attached, moderately broad, 
rather crowded. Flesh concolorous, thin. Spores orange brown, ellip- 
tical, obliquely apiculate, 10 x 5/u,. Solitary or in clusters of two to 
four. Woods. Oct. Rare. 

495. C. (Tela.) Cookei Quel. Cke. lUus. no. 821, t. 840, fig. B. 

M. C. Cooke, the eminent English mycologist. 
P. 1-2 cm., tawny yellow, conical, umbonate, fibrillose, covered with 
a paler, shining, woolly veil. St. 3-5 cm. x 2 mm., concolorous, equal, 
flexuose, girt with several yellowish floccose zones. Gills violet, then 
reddish, at length rust colour, adnate, 2-3 mm. broad, edge of ten floccose, 
white. Flesh yellowish, thin. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 7 x 3-5/Lt. 
Damp woods. Rare. 

6. Hydrocybe Fr. 

(vSwp, water; KV^IJ, head.) 

Pileus thinly fleshy, rarely compact, moist, hygrophanous, smooth, 
or covered only with white, superficial fibrils. Stem not sheathed, 
cortina rarely forming an arachnoid ring. 



182 CORTINARIUS 

I. P. somewhat fleshy, convex, or campanulato-convex, then ex- 
panded, obtuse, or at length gibbous; margin at first incurved. 
St. for the most part attenuated upwards. 

*St. white, cortina of the same colour. 

496. C. (Hydro.) firmus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 824, t. 792. Firmus, firm. 

P. 4-8 cm., tawny ockraceous, fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, 
firm, smooth, shining, dry. St. 6-8 x 1-1-5 cm., shining white, firm, 
somewhat elastic, base clavate, subbulbous, rarely equal, fibrillosely 
striate. Cortina white, fibrillose, sparse, fugacious. Gills almost con- 
colorous, emarginate, crowded, fairly broad, thin. Flesh white, thick, 
compact. Spores ferruginous, "tear-drop shaped, 9/z, minutely echinu- 
late " Quel. Smell of horse-radish. Woods, and grassy places. Sept. 
Oct. Uncommon. 

497. C. (Hydro.) subferrugineus (Batsch) Fr. 

Sub, somewhat ; ferrugineus, rust-colour. 

P. 4-8 cm., ferruginous, or watery cinnamon, either tawny and 
shining when dry, or becoming pale, more or less hygrophanous, fleshy, 
convex, then expanded, obtuse, flexuose, firm. St. 6-8 x 1-1-5 cm., 
pallid, more or less bulbous, attenuated upwards, adpressedly fibril- 
lose, rigid, subcartilaginous. Cortina white, fibrillose, marginal, very 
fugacious. Gills pallid, soon watery, then dark ferruginous, opaque, 
very emarginate, often connected by veins, 6 mm. broad, more or less 
crowded. Flesh dingy isabelline white, saffron yellow at the base of the 
St., scissile, thick at the disc. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 7-8 x 4- 
5 ft, 1-guttulate, "warted" Rick. Smell strong, taste unpleasant. 
Deciduous woods, and amongst rotting pine leaves. Sept. Oct. Not 
uncommon, (v.v.) 

498. C. (Hydro.) armeniacus (Schaeff.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 826, t. 793. 

Armeniacum, the apricot. 

P. 5-12 cm., tawny cinnamon, ochraceous when dry, fleshy, rigid, 
campanulate, then convex and flattened, broadly and obtusely umbo- 
nate, smooth, here and there slightly striate at the margin. St. 
5-8 x 1-1-5 cm., white, conico-attenuated, fibrillose, subcartilaginous, 
rigid, elastic. Cortina white, somewhat sheathing, collapsing and form- 
ing an adpressed, silky zone. Gills pallid, then tawny cinnamon, 
shining, adnate, at length slightly rounded, rather broad, crowded. 
Flesh somewhat concolorous, thin at the margin, scissile. Spores ferru- 
ginous, elliptical, 7-9 x 4-5/A, granular. Woods, especially pine. 
Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. falsarius Fr. Falsarius, deceptive. 

Differs from the type in the light yellowish p. becoming white when dry. 



CORTINARIUS 183 

499. C. (Hydro.) damascenus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 827, t. 856. 

Damascenus, a damson. 

P. 5-8 cm., bay cinnamon, disc often darker, becoming brick-red when 
dry, firm, convex, then plane, globose, obtuse, or very obtusely 
umbonate, smooth, generally rivulosely squamulose when dry. St. 
6-8 x 1-1-5 cm., white, quite cylindrical, equal, firm, elastic, fibrillose. 
Cortina white, fibrillose, fugacious. Gills pallid, then pale cinnamon, 
adnate, narrower in front, thin, subdistant, opaque. Flesh white, 
firm, thin at the margin. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 12 x 6/A. 
Taste acrid. Subcaespitose. Grassy places in woods, and pastures. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

500. C. (Hydro.) privignus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 828, t. 827. 

Privignus, a step-son. 

P. 4-6 cm.., fuscous, becoming hoary-pale with a very thin white film, 
pallid tan when dry, very fragile', fleshy, convex, then flattened, often 
reflexed and undulate, obtusely umbonate, dry, very hygrophanous. 
St. 5-8 cm. x 6-8 mm., silvery-pale, equal, or attenuated upwards, 
often twisted, white-silky. Cortina white, silky. Gills watery, then 
opaque cinnamon, adnate, broad, not crowded, edge white-fimbriate, 
serrate. Flesh white, hygrophanous, thin at the margin, fragile. Spores 
pale ferruginous, pip-shaped, 8-9 x 4-5ju, punctate, 1-guttulate. 
Smell unpleasant. Taste scarcely acrid. Pine, and oak woods. Sept. 
Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

501. C. (Hydro.) duracinus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 829, t. 809. 

Duracinus, hard-berried. 

P. 47 cm., watery brick colour, tan when dry, always opaque, fleshy, 
campanulate, or convex, then plane, gibbous, or with a broad, obtuse 
umbo, with an elevated ridge at the circumference, caused by the margin 
being at first sharply and regularly bent inwards to the breadth of 
1 mm. and white-silky, then becoming flattened and naked; cuticle 
hard, rigid, fragile. St. 5-8 x 1-1 -5 cm., pale white, hard, fusiform, 
or subbulbous, rooting at the attenuated base, smooth, rigid, with a thick, 
cartilaginous, rigid, separable cuticle (the fragments of which when it 
breaks up become revolute). Cortina white, appearing only as a nar- 
row zone round the margin of the p. Gills whitish, then watery cinna- 
mon, adnate, 4-6 mm. broad, moderately crowded; edge often white, 
irregular. Flesh white, then tinged reddish, thick at the disc. Spores 
ferruginous, " elliptical- almond-shaped, 10-11x5-6/4, punctate" 
Rick. Woods, and pastures. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

502. C. (Hydro.) ffluminus Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 830, t. 841. 

Illuminus, dull. 

P. 48 cm., pale brick-red, or tawny cinnamon, brick-red tan when dry, 
somewhat fleshy, convex, then plane, gibbous, or obtusely umbonate 



184 CORTINABITJS 

smooth, minutely innato-fibrillose and virgate under a lens, moist. 
St. 7-10 cm. x 6-10 mm., pallid, becoming ferruginous or yellowish, 
attenuated upwards, sometimes twisted, fibrillosely silky, base white. 
Cortina white, fibrillose, evident. Gills pale reddish tan, then cinnamon, 
adnate, scarcely crowded, 4-10 mm. broad, often veined at the base. 
Flesh white, thin at the margin. Spores "ferruginous, subelliptical, 
9-10 x 4-5/i, punctate " Rick. Pine, and deciduous woods. Sept. 
Uncommon. 

503. C. (Hydro.) tortuosus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 161, fig. 1. 

Tortuosus, twisted. 

P. 3-7-5 cm., ferruginous bay, somewhat shining, dull ochraceous 
when dry, submembranaceous, campanulate, then expanded, acutely 
or obtusely umbonate, convex, or revolute, smooth, moist. St. 7- 
10 cm. x 6-8 mm., silvery, becoming pale, apex at first tinged with 
fugacious lilac, fragile, equal, generally twisted, naked, rooting. Gills 
shining tawny, then ferruginous, becoming blood red when rubbed, 
adnate, separating, 4-8 mm. broad, somewhat crowded. Flesh pallid, 
thin, fragile. Spores ferruginous, " subelliptical, 8-10 x 5-6 /A, spinu- 
lose " Rick. Damp places in pine woods. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

504. C. (Hydro.) dilutus (Pers.) Fr. GreviUea, t. 85, fig. 2. 

Dilutus, diluted. 

P. 4-5 cm., bay brown, or watery brick colour, tan colour when dry, 
opaque, fleshy, convex, then expanded, umbonate, umbo thin, 
vanishing, silky and white at the margin, becoming smooth. St. 
5-8 cm. x 4-8 mm., whitish, opaque, slightly attenuated from the 
base, white-silky, becoming smooth. Cortina white, silky, often col- 
lapsing into patches, or forming spurious zones on the st. Gills ochra- 
ceous, then pale cinnamon, deeply emarginate, very ventricose, 6-8 mm. 
broad, crowded. Flesh white, becoming reddish, thin at the margin. 
Spores brownish, "subglobose, 5-6 x 5/z, punctate " Rick. Decidu- 
ous woods. Nov. Rare. 

**St. and gills commonly inclining to violet. 

505. C. (Hydro.) saturninus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 161, fig. 2. 

Saturninus, dull. 

P. 5-12 cm., dark bay-brown, somewhat umber when damp, soon 
becoming pale brick colour, changing colour very much, fleshy, cam- 
panulate, then expanded, obtuse, even, smooth, superficially white, 
silky round the margin when young. St. 5-8 x 1-2-5 cm., deep violet, 
becoming white, firm, thickened downwards, sometimes bulboso- ventri- 
cose, fibrittosely striate. Cortina white, fibrillose, inferior, abundant. 
Gills purplish, then watery ferruginous, rounded-adfixed, very broad, 
8 mm., crowded, thin, fragile, edge often whitefloccose. Flesh violaceous, 



CORTINARIUS 185 

then whitish, thin at the margin. Spores yellowish ferruginous, 
"almond shaped, 10-12 x 5-6 /A, punctate" Rick. Often subcaespi- 
tose. Woods, and pastures. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

506. C. (Hydro.) sciophyllus Fr. (= Cortinarius saturninus Fr. var. 
sciophyllus (Fr.) Quel.) Fr. Icon. t. 161, fig. 3. 

<TKid, shade; <fjv\\ov, leaf. 

P. 2-5 cm., dark sky blue fuscous, or steel blue, fleshy, convex, then 
expanded, obtuse, at first white silky round the margin from the 
veil. St. 5-7 x 1 cm., violaceous, becoming ferruginous at the base, 
attenuated upwards from the thickened base. Cortina white, very 
abundant, collapsing and leaving many, Telamonia-like, white zones 
on the st. Gills dark umber, adnate, narrow, 1-2 mm. broad, attenuated 
from the st. to the margin, crowded. Flesh pale umber, thick at the 
disc. Spores "ochraceous, elliptical, or subglobose, 8-9 x 6-8/1,, 
granular " Bataille. Smell somewhat strong. Gregarious, or sub- 
caespitose. Beech woods. Oct. Uncommon. 

507. C. (Hydro.) imbutus Fr. (= Cortinarius bicolor Cke. sec. Bataille.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 834, t. 870. Imbutus, saturated. 

P. 510 cm., toast brown, then pale yellowish, fleshy, convex, obtuse, 
smooth, obsoletely hoary-fibrillose towards the margin. St. 4-7 x 1- 
2 cm., whitish, equal, sometimes twisted, scarcely fibrillose, apex pale 
violaceous. Cortina white, appendiculate at the margin of the p. and 
on the apex of the st., fugacious. Gills dark bluish grey, or violaceous 
cinereous, then watery cinnamon, rounded, 6 mm. broad, with narrower 
and shorter ones intermixed, subdistant. Flesh dingy, violaceous only at 
the apex of the st., subequal. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 7-8 x 5/z. 
Woods. Sept. Uncommon. 

508. C. (Hydro.) castaneus (Bull.) Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 117. 

Kaaravov, the chestnut tree. 

P. 2-5 cm., fuscous chestnut, becoming pale and silky when dry, 
shining, umbo becoming black, paler at the slightly scalloped margin, 
and often white silky with the cortina, fleshy, firm, almost pliant, 
campanulate, then flattened, obtuse, or obtusely umbonate, rarely 
umbilicate, often irregular, smooth. St. 4-8 cm. x 4-6 mm., pallid 
violaceous, or pallid rufescent, subequal, rarely thickened at the base 
and rooting, cartilaginous, slightly fibrillose with the veil. Cortina 
white, fibrillose, scanty. Gills violaceous, then ferruginous, adnate, or 
emarginate, 4-6 mm. broad, thin, crowded, edge often whitish. Flesh 
violaceous, darker under the cuticle of the p., thin. Spores ferruginous, 
elliptical, 7-8 x 4-5/x,, minutely verrucose. Taste pleasant. Edible. 
Gregarious, sometimes caespitose. Woods, pastures, and roadsides. 
June Nov. Common, (v.v.) 



186 COBTINABIUS 

509. C. (Hydro.) bicolor Cke. (= Cortinarius imbutus Fr. sec. Bataille.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 836, t. 871. Bicolor, two coloured. 

P. 2-5 cm., dingy whitish, with an occasional tinge of lilac, fleshy, 
campanulate, then expanded, broadly or acutely umbonate, some- 
what fragile, smooth, silky shining. St. 5-8 cm. x 6-10 mm., pallid 
violet, becoming whitish, equal, or attenuated downwards. Cortina 
white, fugacious. Gills purplish violet, then cinnamon, adnate with a 
tooth, subventricose, rather broad, scarcely crowded, slightly eroded 
at the edge. Flesh colour of the pileus, or paler, bright purplish at the 
base of the St., pallid above, thin. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, a little 
attenuated towards one or both ends, 9-15 x 5-7 p., minutely verru- 
cose. Woods. Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

***St. and somewhat obsolete veil yellow or rufous. 

510. C. (Hydro.) balaustinus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 837, t. 794. 

/3a\avcmov, the flower of the wild pomegranate. 
P. 3-8 cm., reddish ferruginous, tawny brick-red and shining when 
dry, fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, moist, fibrillosely virgate 
under a lens. St. 58 cm. x 10-12 mm., pale and streaked with red 
when young, becoming ferruginous, often curved, clavately bulbous, or 
attenuated upwards, firm. Cortina reddish. Gills reddish, then ferru- 
ginous red, adnate, broad behind, somewhat crowded, at length sub- 
distant. Flesh ferruginous in the st., thin. Spores ferruginous, "sub- 
6-7 x 5-6/n, punctate " Kick. Beech woods. Oct. Un- 



511. C. (Hydro.) colus Fr. Paulet, t. 99. Colus, distaff. 
P. 2-5-5 cm., brown rufescent, paler brick colour and shining when 

dry, fleshy, campanulate, then convex, obtuse, or obtusely umbonate. 
St. 8-10 cm. x 4 mm., paler than the p., subbulbous, equally attenuated 
upwards, base encircled with the blood red mycelium, sometimes rooting, 
stiff, longitudinally fbrillose with fibrils of the same colour as the p. 
Cortina tawny reddish, fibrillose, fugacious. Gills pale, then dark cinna- 
mon, adnate, scarcely sinuate, 6 mm. broad, plane, firm, tough, rather 
thick, scarcely crowded, veined at the base. Flesh concolorous, dingy 
whitish when dry, thin. Spores ochrey-cinnamon, "dark under the 
microscope, 9-10 x 5-6/*, almost spinulose, cystidia on edge of gill 
vesiculose, 25-36 x 12-15ju, " Rick. Coniferous woods. Sept. Oct. 
Uncommon. 

512. C. (Hydro.) isabellinus (Batsch) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 839, t. 829. 

Isabellinus, dirty linen colour. 

P. 3-5 cm., yellowish, honey colour, yellow and shining when dry, 
fleshy, convex, subumbonate, smooth. St. 710 cm. x 8 mm., yellow- 
ish, equal, very rigid, firm, striate. Cortina concolorous, sparse, very 



CORTINARIUS 187 

fugacious. Gills yellow, then day cinnamon, adnate, broad, thin, sub- 
distant, edge often yellowish. Flesh cream colour, firm. Spores "ellip- 
tical, 7-9 x 4-5/A, rough " Bataille. Coniferous woods. Sept. Oct. 
Uncommon. 

513. C. (Hydro.) renidens Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 162, fig. 1. 

Renidens, glistening. 

P. 2-5 cm., ferruginous tawny, ochraceous when dry, or only becoming 
pale at the disc, fleshy, firm, convexo-plane, obtuse, or gibbous, rarely 
umbilicate, very smooth, shining. St. 4-8 cm. x 6-8 mm., pale 
yellowish, then tawny, firm, equal, subcartilaginous, splitting up into 
fibrils of the same colour as the p. Cortina yellow, laxly fibrillose, 
fugacious. Gills pallid cinnamon, then tawny, adnate, separating free, 
6 mm. broad, somewhat crowded. Flesh paler, thin, scissile. Spores 
dark ochraceous, "subglobose, 6-7 x 6/A, minutely warted " Rick. 
Smell weak. Deciduous woods. Sept. Uncommon. 

514. C. (Hydro.) angulosus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 162, fig. 2. 

Angulosus, full of corners. 

P. 48 cm., reddish tawny, somewhat variegated with darker spots, 
opaque tawny yellow when dry, fleshy, convex, then plane, very obtuse, 
repand, hygrophanous, fragile, very smooth ; margin membranaceous, 
splitting, flexuose. St. 3-7 cm. x 4-8 mm., somewhat tawny, firm, 
equal, often twisted, striate. Cortina tawny, very fugacious. Gills 
tawny, adnate, 6-8 mm. broad, thick, subdistant, fragile. Flesh yellow- 
ish white, darker in the St., thin, firm. Spores ferruginous, "roundish- 
elliptical, 7-8 x 5-6/4, minutely warted " Rick. Coniferous woods. 
Aug. Sept. Uncommon. 

var. gracilescens Fr. Gracilescens, becoming slender. 

Differs from the type in the st. being attenuated at the base. Pine 
woods. 

****St. inclining to fuscous ; cortina pallid, dirty, or white, 
not yellow, gills dark. 

515. C. (Hydro.) uraceus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 162, fig. 3. Uro, I burn. 
P. 25 cm., umber, or brown, sometimes olivaceous, somewhat shining, 

becoming brick colour when young, commonly tan or isabelline when dry, 
fleshy, conical, then campanulate and expanded, umbonate, or ob- 
tuse, smooth often becoming subfibrillose. St. 5-10 cm. x 4-8 mm., 
fuscous, sometimes olivaceous, apex becoming pale, at length becoming 
entirely fuscous black, cylindrical, quite equal, firm, fibrillosely striate 
with paler striae, becoming smooth, apex naked. Cortina fuscous, 
superior, fibrillose, rarely noticeable. Gills cinnamon brown, adnate, 
ventricose, 6mm. broad, distant, firm; edge sometimes white and 



188 CORTINARIUS 

fimbriately serrated. Flesh fuscous, darker in the St., thin. Spores 
ferruginous, "subelliptical, 12-18 x 7-9jn, verrucose," Rick. Coni- 
ferous woods. Oct. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

516. C. (Hydro.) jubarinus Fr. Jubar, radiance. 
P. 3-7-5 cm., bright tawny cinnamon, shining, fleshy, campanulato- 

flattened, obsoletely umbonate, often repand, undulate, at length 
reflexed, disc depressed when large and old, smooth, becoming innately 
fibrillose under a lens when old, silky round the margin when young. 
St. 5-6 cm. x 4-12 mm., pale tawny, paler at the base and naked at the 
apex, firm, equ.&l,fibrillosely striate. Cortina white, fibrillose, fugacious. 
Gills tawny cinnamon, adnate, 26 mm. broad, subdistant. Flesh pale 
tawny in the St., thick at the disc. Spores pale ferruginous, pip-shaped, 
78 x 4-5/i. Coniferous woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

517. C. (Hydro.) irregularis Fr. Irregularis, irregular. 

P. 3-7-5 cm., brown ferruginous, tawny ferruginous when dry, fleshy, 
convex, then plane, acutely umbonate, repand, at length depressed 
round the umbo, dry, smooth, sometimes deformed, undulate, and 
rugose, white silky round the membranaceous margin when young. 
St. 5-10 cm. x 4-6 mm., brick-red, equal, rigid, longitudinally fibril- 
losely striate, sometimes twisted, and attenuated downwards. Cor- 
tina white, silky, sparse, sometimes peronate at the base of the st. 
Gills watery, then dark ferruginous, adnate with a decurrent tooth, or 
arcuato-decurrent, 4-8 mm. broad, very crowded. Flesh pallid, thick 
at the disc. Spores ferruginous, "almond-shaped-elliptical, 8-10 x 5 
6/i, almost spinulose " Rick. Caespitose. Coniferous woods. Rare. 

518. C. (Hydro.) pateriformis Fr. Patera, a saucer ; forma, shape. 
P. 2-4 cm., fuscous chestnut, fleshy, orbicular, plane, then depressed, 

very obtuse, rigid, dry, smooth, at first white silky round the margin. 
St. 5-8 cm. x 2-4 mm., silvery white, becoming fuscous, firm, equal, 
or attenuated at the base, straight, fibrillose, base white villose. Cortina 
white, fibrillose, fugacious. Gills brick-red, or watery cinnamon, adnate 
with a decurrent tooth, plano-convex thin, crowded. Flesh pallid, 
thin. Spores brownish ferruginous, elliptical, 9 x 4-5/z,, with a large 
central gutta, "minutely warted " Rick. Grassy places in woods. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

519. C. (Hydro.) unimodus Britz. Unimodus, uniform. 
P. 4-7 cm., reddish brown, campanulate, then convex, umbonate, 

fibrillose. St. 8-11 cm. x 6 mm., concolorous, thickened at the base, 
fibrillose. Gills brown, emarginato-adnate, distant. Spores "pruni- 
form, 10-12 x 8/n, rough" Bataille. Woods, and grassy places. Sept. 
Oct. Rare. 



CORTINABIUS 189 

II. P. submembranaceous, conical, then expanded, umbonate, umbo 
acute, or more rarely obtuse and vanishing; margin at first straight. 
St. subequal, or attenuated at the base. 
*St. white. 

520. C. (Hydro.) dolabratus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 845, t. 811. 

Dolabra, a pick-axe. 

P. 5-10 cm., brick-red, tan colour when dry, fleshy-membranaceous, 
fragile, campanulate, then convex and expanded, smooth, superficially 
silky near the margin. St. 10-15 x 1-2 cm., shining white, quite equal, 
cylindrical, often curved, smooth. Cortina very fugacious. Gills 
tawny cinnamon, entirely adnate, with a decurrent tooth, widest behind, 
10-25 mm., very broad, somewhat thick, distant. Flesh whitish, thin 
at the margin. Spores ochraceous, broadly elliptical, 9-10 x ?//,. 
Smell strong, stinking. Coniferous woods, and amongst Vaccinium. 
Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

521. C. (Hydro.) rigens (Pers.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 846, t. 812. 

Rigens, rigid. 

P. 2-5-6 cm., opaque tan clay colour, whitish tan when dry, fleshy, 
campanulate, lax, then convex, obtuse, or broadly gibbous, smooth, 
firm. St. 5-10 cm. x 4-10 mm., pale, white whendry, equal, sometimes 
thickened upwards, sometimes downwards, sometimes fusiform, root- 
ing, tough, elastic, rigid, cortex very cartilaginous, naked, smooth. 
Cortina scarcely evident. Gills watery clay colour, then pallid, cinna- 
mon, adnate, subdecurrent, very broad, 6-10 mm., distant, often veined 
on the sides. Flesh white, thick, somewhat firm. Spores ferruginous, 
pruniform, 7-5-9 x 5-5-5/x,, granular. Smell strong, like iodoform, or 
balsam. Taste mild, then unpleasant. Woods, especially coniferous 
woods. June Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

522. C. (Hydro.) fulvescens Fr. GreviUea, t. 116, fig. 2. 

Fulvescens, becoming tawny. 

P. 23 cm., cinnamon, brick-red when dry, prominent umbo darker, 
submembranaceous, conical, soon convexo-plane, often acutely umbo- 
nate, shining, at length fibrillose ; margin cortinate, at length striate. 
St. 6-8 cm. x 3-6 mm., becoming pale, equal, or slightly attenuated 
upwards, soft, flexuose, smooth. Cortina concolorous, distinct. Gills 
tawny cinnamon, adnate, plane, subdistant, thin. Flesh white, thin. 
Spores ferruginous, "almond shaped, minutely echinulate, 12//. " 
Quel. Pine woods. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

523. C. (Hydro.) Krombholzii Fr. (= Cortinarius leucopus (Bull.) Fr. 
sec. Quel.) Cke. lUus. no. 847, t. 813. J. V. Krombholz. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., pale yellowish tan, disc darker, fleshy, conico-cam- 
panulate, then gibbous, smooth; margin appendiculate with the 



190 CORTINARIUS 

menibranaceous veil. St. 7-12 cm. x 6 mm., whitish, equal, slightly 
swollen at the base, naked. Veil white, menibranaceous, fugacious. Gills 
ferruginous, edge yellowish, rounded behind, slightly adnexed, 6 mm. 
broad. Flesh whitish, thin at the margin. Spores "ferruginous, ellip- 
tical, 8 x 4-5/z " Massee. Amongst moss, often caespitose. Rare. 

524. C. (Hydro.) Reedir Berk. Hussey, Illus. Brit. Myc. n, t. 45. 

Miss F. Reed, sister of Mrs Hussey. 

P. 2-3 cm., persistently brown, fleshy, conical, then expanded, 
strongly umbonate, smooth, shining, disc areolate; margin splitting. 
St. 4-5 cm. x 4 mm., white, slightly bulbous, fibrillosely striate. Veil 
fibrillose, evanescent. Gills white, or pallid, then cinnamon, ascending, 
attenuated behind, free, ventricose broad. Flesh pallid, thin at the 
margin. Spores "7-8 x 4/n" Massee. Amongst moss, and beech 
mast. May. Rare. 

525. C. (Hydro.) leucopus (Bull.) Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 848, t. 843, fig. B. 

XevKOTrovs, white footed. 

P. 2-3 cm., very pale yellow, tan colour and shining when dry, fleshy, 
conical, then expanded, umbonate, smooth, moist. St. 2-55 cm. x 4 
8 mm., shining white, equal, or slightly attenuated upwards, soft. 
Cortina white, median. Gills pallid, then cinnamon, adnexed, separating, 
ventricose, crowded, thin. Flesh pallid, thin at the margin. Spores 
ferruginous, elliptical, 8-9 x 5-6/x,, granular, "spiny " Rick. Woods. 
Aug. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

526. C. (Hydro.) scandens Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 163, fig. 1. 

Scandens, climbing. 

P. 1-3 cm., tawny ferruginous, then honey colour, tan colour when dry, 
umbo becoming tawny, submembranaceous, conical, then campanulate, 
acutely or obtusely umbonate, umbo sometimes obsolete; margin 
slightly striate. St. 6-10 cm. x 4 mm., yellowish, shining whitish when 
dry, thickened at the apex, attenuated at the white base, awl-shaped, 
fiexuose, soft, fibrillosely silky, apex often mealy. Cortina white, su- 
perior, thin, fibrillose. Gills yellowish, then tawny cinnamon, adnate, 
narrow, 2-4 mm. broad, attenuated in front, thin, subdistant. Flesh 
yellowish, thick at the umbo. Spores yellow, "elliptical, 6-7 x 4-5 /M, 
minutely warted" Rick. Pine woods. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

**St. inclining to violet, or reddish. 

527. C. (Hydro.) erythrinus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 850, t. 798, fig. A. 

epv8po<f, red. 

P. 2-5-4 cm., bay brown rufous, tawny when dry, fleshy, conical, then 
convex, regular, umbonate, the obtuse or obsolete umbo darker, smooth. 
St. 4-8 cm. x 4-6 mm., shining silvery white, violaceous upwards, 
equal, rarely thickened at the base, straight, or ascending, fibrillosely 



CORTINARIUS 191 

striate, apex often pruinose. Cortina white, superior, fibrillose. Gills 
pallid, then pale cinnamon, slightly adnexed, ventricose, thin, sub- 
distant. Flesh concolorous when moist, thin. Spores pale ferruginous, 
elliptical, 6 x 4-5 ju, 1-guttulate, "almost spinulose " Rick. Woods. 
Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. argyropus Fr. apyvpo-Trovs, with silver feet. 

Differs from the type in being more slender, and in the silvery stem 
white mealy at the apex. 

528. C. (Hydro.) decipiens (Pers.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 850, t. 798, fig. B. 

Decipiens, deceiving. 

P. 2-3 cm., bay brown, shining and brick colour when dry, umbo 
always darker, fleshy membranaceous, campanulato-expanded, acutely 
umbonate, at length depressed round the umbo, smooth; margin at 
length striate and torn. St. 5-10 cm. x 2-4 mm., pallid, pale rufescent, 
or with brick coloured spots, quite equal, tense and straight, or flexuose, 
fibrillose, covered with a pallid separable cuticle. Cortina white, fibrillose, 
very fugacious. Gills brick colour ferruginous, adnate, 4-6 mm. broad, 
thin, more or less crowded. Flesh pale, brick colour in the St., thin. 
Spores pale ferruginous, elliptical, 9 x 5/z, granular. Woods. Sept. 
Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

var. insignis Fr. Insignis, distinguished. 

Differs from the type in the paler p., flexuose, smooth St., and in the 
less crowded gills. 

529. C. (Hydro.) germanus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 851, t. 844. 

Germanus, born of the same parents. 

P. 2-3 cm., fuscous, clay colour when dry, very hygrophanous, opaque, 
submembranaceous, campanulate, obtusely umbonate when ex- 
panded, fragile, somewhat silky with white fibrils. St. 6-8 cm. x 2 
6 mm., silvery pale, somewhat lilac, equal, often twisted, smooth. 
Cortina white, fibrillose, fugacious. Gills watery cinnamon, adnate, 
broad, subdistant. Flesh concolorous, then whitish, thin. Spores pale 
ferruginous, elliptical, 7-8 x 4-5/A, 1-guttulate. Smell disagreeable. 
Beech, and pine woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

530. C. (Hydro.) ianthipes (Seer.) Fr. Grevillea, t. 113, fig. 7. 

Idvdivos, coloured violet; pes, foot. 

P. 1-2 cm., brown, or tawny, fleshy, somewhat firm, conical, then 
convexo-plane, obtusely umbonate, silky, shining; margin silky white, 
or becoming yellowish. St. 2-4 cm. x 2-4 mm., violaceous, becoming 
reddish downwards, equal, somewhat fragile and flexuose, shining, 
silky, base white villose. Ring white, silky, floccose. Cortina tawny, 
fugacious. Gills whitish, then greyish olivaceous, "lilac, then brownish 



192 CORTINARIUS 

violet " Quel., slightly adnexed, somewhat crowded. Flesh reddish, 
thin. Spores ferruginous, "pruniform, 8/x " Quel. Woods. Sept. 
Rare. 

***St. yellowish, generally becoming pale. 

531. C. (Hydro.) detonsus Fr. Detonsus, sheared off. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., bright yellowish, tan colour when dry, submembrana- 
ceous, conical, then expanded, subumbonate, striate to the middle when 
moist, slightly silky when dry, fragile. St. 58 cm. x 4 mm., yellowish, 
equal, or attenuated upwards, soft, smooth. Gills bright yellowish, 
then brick cinnamon, adnate, ventricose, subdistant. Flesh whitish, 
thin. Spores ferruginous, "elliptical, 7-8 x 3-4 /z, minutely verru- 
cose " Rick. Amongst moss in woods. Sept. Rare. 

532. C. (Hydro.) obtusus Fr. Fr. Icon. 1. 163, fig. 3. Obtusus, obtuse. 

P. 1-4 cm., bay brown, ferruginous, soon cinnamon, pale ochraceous, 
or tan whitish when dry, submembranaceous, conical, then campanu- 
late, at length expanded and obtusely umbonate, smooth; margin 
striate. St. 510 cm. x 48 mm., tan yellowish, becoming whitish when 
dry, ventricose, curved, flexuose, often attenuated at the base, fragile, 
sprinkled with adpressed, white, silky fibrils. Cortina white, very fuga- 
cious. Gills tawny cinnamon, adnate, ventricose, very broad, rather 
thick, subdistant, the shorter ones narrower, connected by veins, edge 
often white-fringed. Flesh yellowish, or reddish, thick at the disc. 
Spores brownish ferruginous, elliptical, 8-9 x 5-5-6/1,, verrucose. 
Smell strong. Woods, especially pine. April Nov. Not uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

var. gracilis Quel. Grevillea, t. 129, fig. 1. Gracilis, slender. 

Differs from the type in the pale yellow p. 

533. C. (Hydro.) saniosus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 163, fig. 2. 

Saniosus, full of bloody matter. 

P. 1-3 cm., tawny cinnamon, fuscous tawny, or cinnamon, becoming 
tawny and shining when dry, slightly hygrophanous, fleshy, campanu- 
late, then expanded, acutely, or obtusely umbonate, smooth, "covered 
with yellow fibrils" Quel.; margin fibrillosely torn. St. 3-6 cm. x 3- 
4 mm., dingy yellow, becoming yellow, rarely tawny or fuscous, equal, 
firm, somewhat curved, flexuose, covered with the yellow fibrils of the 
cortina, or fibrillosely silky, sometimes becoming saffron red at the 
base. Coitin&yellow,fibrillose. Gills pale, then dark cinnamon, adnate, 
ventricose, somewhat crowded, or subdistant. Flesh concolorous, 
sometimes becoming yellow in the st., thin. Spores ferruginous, "nearly 
almond-shaped, 9-10 x 4-5/u,, verrucose " Rick. Smell strong. 
Woods, pastures and swamps. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 



CORTINABIUS 193 

534. C. (Hydro.) acutus (Pers.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 852, t. 845, fig. B. 

Acutus, pointed. 

P. 1-3 cm., honey colour to very pale yellow, somewhat shining, tan, 
or white when dry, with a silky appearance, submembranaceous, conical, 
then campanulate and expanded, acutely umbonate and concolorous, 
at length depressed round the umbo, striate when moist', margin at 
first obsoletely fibrillose, then smooth. St. 4-8 cm. x 2-4 mm., con- 
colorous, equal, flexuose, white fibrillose, then smooth. Cortina white, 
fibrillose, adhering to the margin of the p. Gills ochraceous cinnamon, 
adnate, sometimes free, lanceolate, thin, crowded, becoming sub- 
distant. Flesh concolorous, thin. Spores pale ferruginous, elliptical, 
9-11 x 6jn, 1-guttulate. Woods and heaths. Aug. Nov. Common. 
(v.v.) 

****St. inclining to fuscous. 

535. C. (Hydro.) Junghuhnii Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 853, t. 846, fig. A. 

Francis Junghuhn. 

P. 2-3 cm., shining cinnamon, tawny when dry, fleshy, convexo- 
plane, umbonate with a papilla, striate to the middle when moist, some- 
what velvety with thin, sparse, white, persistent fibrils under a lens. St. 
5-8 cm. x 4-5 mm., pale brick colour, equal, or attenuated at the 
whitish base, shining, adpressedly fuscous fibrillose. Cortina white, 
inclining to fuscous, sparse. Gills saffron brick colour, adnate, ventri- 
cose, 4 mm. broad, thin, veined at the base. Flesh of stem darker brick 
colour, thick at the disc. Spores ferruginous, "elliptical, 7-8 x 6 /A, 
verrucose " Rick. Woods amongst moss. Aug. Rare. 

536 C. (Hydro.) depressus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 163, fig. 4. 



P. 5-8 cm., ferruginous fuscous, fuscous tan when dry, fleshy-mem- 
branaceous, conico-convex, obtusely umbonate, at length almost plane 
and depressed round the umbo, superficially silky at first; margin 
striate when moist. St. 3-5 cm. x 4 mm., reddish, at length becoming 
blackish, base becoming fuscous, equal, or attenuated downwards, 
rigid, subcartilaginous, white silky, then smooth. Cortina scarcely 
any. Gills saffron, becoming yellowish, then ferruginous, adnate, broad, 
plane, thin, more or less crowded. Flesh concolorous, very thin. 
Smell faint, of fish, or cucumber. Damp places in woods. Sept. Oct. 
Uncommon. 

537. C. (Hydro.) milvinus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 853, t. 846, fig. B. 

Milvinus, pertaining to the kite. 

P. 1-3 cm., olivaceous fawn colour, hoary tan and opaque when dry, 
membranaceous, conical, then convex, obtusely or obsoletely umbo- 
nate, striate to the middle when full grown and beautifully wreathed 
with white squamules at the margin, somewhat silky when dry. St. 
B. B. B. 13 



194 CORTINABIUS. INOCYBE 

5-8 cm. x 4 mm., pallid fuscous, equal, curved, silky, spotted with 
the white cortina. Veil obsolete except at the margin of the p. Gills 
olivaceous, becoming ferruginous, adnate, scarcely ventricose, very 
thin, subdistant, connected by veins. Flesh concolorous, thick at the 
disc. Spores ferruginous, "elliptical, 8-10 x 5-6 /x, verrucose" Rick. 
Smell strong. Woods. Oct. Uncommon. 

538. C. (Hydro.) fasciatus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 855, t. 814. 

Fasciatus, arranged in bundles. 

P. 2-4 cm., brick colour, acute umbo blackish, becoming pale and 
silky when dry, submembranaceous, conical, then expanded, acutely 
umbonate, smooth. St. 5-8 cm. x 2-3 mm., pallid fuscous, then cinna- 
mon fuscous, equal, straight, flexuose, undulate, fibrillosely fissile, 
smooth. Gills cinnamon, adnate, subventricose, 3 mm. broad, thin, 
distant. Flesh concolorous, slightly fleshy at the disc. Spores 
ferruginous, elliptical, 8-9 x 5-6/z,, with a large central gutta, 
punctate. Pine woods, and under pines. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

2. Veil concrete with the epidermis of the pileus. 
Spores ochraceous, or ferruginous, elliptical, smooth. 

Inocybe Fr. 
(19, fibre; fcvftij, head.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular. Veil marginal, fugacious. Stem fleshy, cen- 
tral. Gills adnate, sinuato-adnate, or adnexed. Spores ochraceous, 
ferruginous, olivaceous, or fuscous, elliptical, elliptic-oblong, pip- 
shaped, or subreniform, smooth. Cystidia present, or absent, ven- 
tricose, clavate, fusiform, or cylindrical. Growing on the ground. 

I. Cystidia present. 

*Stem whitish, or pallid. 

fGills brownish, ochraceous, or cinnamon. 

539. I. scabra (Mull.) Fr. (= Inocybe capucina Fr. sec. Quel.) Cke. 

Illus. no. 413, t. 391. Scabra, rough. 

P. 1-5-4 cm., becoming pale fuliginous, or pale tan, variegated with 
adpressed, darker (fuscous), spot-like, fibrous scales, fleshy, somewhat 
compact, conical, then convex, obsoletely gibbous. St. 2-4 cm. x 6- 
10 mm., whitish, firm, equal, cuticle cartilaginous, silky-fibrillose. 
Gills whitish, then somewhat fuliginous, slightly adnexed, thin, some- 
what crowded. Flesh white. Spores yellowish brown, pip-shaped, 
9-11 x 5-6/x. Cystidia slightly ventricose, 65-75 x 12-16/i, abun- 
dant. Coniferous, and mixed woods. June Oct. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 



INOCYBE 195 

var. firma Fr. Firma, firm. 

Differs from the type in the fuscous-tan p. spotted with fuscous scales, 
and in the velvety stem. 

540. I. pyriodora (Pers.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 411, t. 472. 

Pyrus, pear; odor a, scented. 

P. 4-8 cm., pale ochraceous, often reddish when young, campanulate, 
obtuse, fleshy at the darker disc, everywhere torn into fibrils', margin 
often bent in and lacerate, and sometimes repand. St. 5-15 x 1- 
1'5 cm., pallid often tinged with red, fragile, equal, or attenuated 
at the base, often curved, fibrillose, apex white-mealy. Gills whitish, 
then somewhat fuliginous, adnate, sinuate, thin, crowded, edge whitish. 
Flesh becoming reddish. Spores tawny, pip-shaped, 8-11 x 5-6 /A, 
2-many-guttulate. Cystidia ventricose, or clavate, 55-60 x 15-21 p, 
thick walled. Smell pleasant, like ripe pears. Woods. May Dec. 
Common, (v.v.) 

541. I. rimosa (Bull.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 429, t. 384. 

Rimosa, full of cracks. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., yellowish, varying rufescent, and date brown (especially 
when old), fleshy, conico-campanulate, obtuse, then more flattened, 
and at length reflexed, umbonate, somewhat fibrillose, longitudinally 
cracked; disc sometimes even, sometimes cracked in a tesselated 
manner. St. 47 cm. x 48 mm., whitish, becoming yellow, or fuscous, 
firm, apex mealy. Gills whitish, then becoming fuscous, and ferruginous, 
very much attenuated behind, free, or slightly adnexed, somewhat 
ventricose, edge serrulated, pallid. Flesh white. Spores ferruginous 
in the mass, ochraceous under the microscope, elliptical, 91 1 x 5 7 /A. 
Cystidia fusoid, or ventricose, 60-68 x 9-14/n. Smell earthy. Woods, 
and open ground. June Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

542. I. tomentosa (Jungh.) Quel. (= Inocybe eutheles B. & Br.) Cke. 
Illus. no. 431, t. 386, as Inocybe eutheles B. & Br. 

Tomentosa, downy. 

P. 2-5 cm., pale fawn-colour, campanulate, then expanded, strongly 
umbonate, thin, villose, fibrillose; margin white, often appendiculate 
with the veil. St. 4-8 cm. x 5-8 mm., pallid, or whitish, equal, 
slightly swollen at the base, fibrillose, slightly striate. Gills pallid, 
adnate, slightly toothed, margin white. Flesh white. Spores ochra- 
ceous, elliptical, 8-9 x 4-5/z,. Cystidia ventricose, 60-63 x 12-13/i, 
abundant. Smell of new meal. Woods, and among fir-leaves. Aug. 
Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

543. I. pallidipes Ellis & Everh. Pallidus, pale; pes, foot. 
P. 2-3 cm., light brown, conico-campanulate, then expanded and 

umbonate, fibrose-squamose, disc innately scaly, margin subrimose. 

132 



1 96 INOCYBE 

St. 2-5-5 cm., white, slightly narrowed and mealy above, loosely 
fibrillose below, base subbulbous, white tomentose. Gills pale cinna- 
mon, edge paler and fimbriate, broadly attached, with a strong decur- 
rent tooth, ascending at first, then ventricose, scarcely crowded, 
rather broad. Spores cinnamon, pip-shaped, 8-9 x 5/z Cystidia, nu- 
merous, fusoid, or subventricose, 40-50 x 14-18/*. Woods. Oct. Rare. 

544. I. sambucina Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 109, fig. 2. 

Sambucina, belonging to elder. 

Entirely white. P. 4-8 cm., often becoming pallid-yellow, fleshy, firm, 
convex, then expanded, often repand, obtuse, fibrilloso-silky. St. 2-5- 

4 x 1-2-5 cm., often curved, equal, or subbulbous at the base, striate, 
obsoletely pruinose at the apex. Gills becoming dingy ochre, emar- 
ginate, slightly adnexed, ventricose, 4-6 mm. broad. Flesh white. 
Spores ochraceous, elliptical, 9-12 x 6/u,. Cystidia ventricose, 50- 
60 x 12-16/x, scattered. Smell strong. Coniferous woods. Sept. 
Nov. Uncommon. 

545. I. Clarkii B. & Br. Cke. lUus. no. 439, t. 429, lower figs. 

J. Aubrey Clark. 
P. 2-3 cm., whitish, campanulate, obtuse, silky-fibrillose. St. 3- 

5 cm. x 4 mm., white, equal, slightly thickened at the \>a,se,fiocculose. 
Gills pallid, margin white, adnexed, rather distant, broadish. Flesh 
pallid. Spores pale, elliptical, 8-10 x 5-6 p. Cystidia ventricose, 
55-65 x 12-16/it, some narrower, scattered. Shady places. Oct. Rare. 

546. I. corydalina Quel. (= Inocybe pyriodora Fr. sec. Rene Maire.) 
Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. n, t. 4. Corydalis, the genus Corydalis. 

P. 3-6 cm., whitish, covered with bistre fibrils, green at the umbo, 
fleshy, campanulate, then expanded, umbonate. St. 3- 5 x -5-1 cm., 
whitish, curved, subbulbous, striate, pruinose. Gills whitish, then 
brown; edge fimbriate, white, adnate, emarginate, 5-7 mm. wide. Flesh 
white, becoming yellowish with age. Spores brown, elliptical, 7-9 x 4-5 /A . 
Cystidia fusiform, ventricose, 42-51 x 15-18/u,. Smell pleasant, like 
Corydalis cava. Deciduous woods. Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

547. I. geophylla (Sow.) Fr. (= Inocybe geophila (Bull.) Quel.) Cke. 
Illus. no. 440, t. 401. 777, earth; <j>v\\ov, leaf. 

P. 1-5-3 cm., white, sometimes tinged yellow when old, somewhat 
fleshy, conical, then expanded, umbonate, silky, then fibrillose, often 
cracking. St. 4-8 cm. x 2-6 mm., white, equal, base slightly thickened, 
often flexuose, satiny, apex white-mealy. Gills whitish, then clay- 
fuscous, and earth colour, almost free, rather broad, ventricose, crowded. 
Flesh white. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 7-10 x 4-5 /u,. Cystidia ven- 
tricose, 45-60 x 13-15//,, abundant. Smell earthy, taste slightly acrid. 
Woods, under trees, and hedgerows. July Dec. Common, (v.v.) 









INOCYBE 197 

var. lilacina Fr. (= Inocybe geophylla (Sow.) Fr., var. violacea Pat.) 

Boud. Icon. t. 125. Lilacina, lilac colour. 

Differs from the type in the violet colour of the p., the yellow umbo, 

the paler violet stem, and the ochraceous yellow base. Woods. Aug. 

Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

var. lateritia (Weinm.) Stev. Lateritia, made of bricks. 

Differs from the type in the brick-red p. 

var. fulva Pat. Fulva, tawny. 

Differs from the type in the rufous-ochre p., and the paler margin. 

548. I. Whitei B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 444, t. 404, fig. A. 

Dr F. Buchanan White, a Scotch botanist. 

P. 1-5-2-5 cm., tawny, margin white, then wholly pale tawny, conical, 
then convex, and at length expanded, slightly viscid. St. 3-4 cm. x 3- 
4 mm., shining white, then tawny, nearly equal, base slightly thickened. 
Gills shining white, then cinnamon, adnexed, crowded. Flesh white. 
Spores pale yellow-brown, obliquely elliptical, 9-11 x 4-5 p. Cystidia 
ventricose, or almost cylindrical, 50-60 x 16 20/ut, fairly abundant. 
Pine woods. Oct. Rare. 

549. I. sindonia Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 438, t. 400. vtvocav, muslin. 
P. 3-5 cm., dingy white, or at length becoming yellow, fleshy, some- 
what thin, campanulate, then convex, gibbous, silky-velvety, becoming 
even, margin appendiculate when young with fibrils of the cortina. 
St. 5-7-5 cm. x 6 mm., white, stuffed with a separate pith that dis- 
appears, equal, at first slightly fibrillose with the evanescent, delicate 
cortina. Gills becoming whitish fuscous, attenuato-adnexed, linear- 
lanceolate, 2 mm. broad. Flesh white. Spores reddish brown, ellip- 
tical, 8-10 x 5-6/x. Cystidia ventricose, 50-60 x 12-16/4. Mixed 
woods, damp shady places. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

550. I. descissa Fr. Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 122, fig. 1. 

Descissa, split up. 

P. 2-3 cm., greyish white, disc somewhat fuscous, conico-campanu- 
late, then expanded and umbonate, silky, then fibrillosely split up, 
subsquamulose around the umbo. St. 3-5 cm. x 3-4 mm-, white, 
often slightly tinged with flesh colour, somewhat equal, white fibril- 
lose, apex white pruinose, veil white, evanescent. Gills white, then 
fuliginous, or fuliginous yellow, sinuato-adnexed, somewhat crowded, 
edge fimbriate. Flesh white, sometimes flesh colour in the stem. Spores 
yellow, subreniform, 9-10 x 5-6/n. Cystidia fusiform, ventricose, 
55-70 x 14-20/x, thick walled, somewhat fuscous at the apex. Pine 
woods. Sept. Nov. Rare. 



198 INOCYBE 

var. auricoma (Batsch) Fr. Auricoma, golden-haired. 

Smaller, and thinner than the type, p. becoming yellow, margin striate, 
gills adfixed, ventricose, whitish fuscous. Remarkably cracked. Woods, 
and burnt soil. 

551. I. cervicolor (Pers.) Quel. Fr. Icon. t. 107, figs. 1, 2, as Inocybe 
Bongardii (Weinm.) Fr. Cervus, a deer; color, colour. 

P. 3-5 cm., pale brown, or fawn colour^ covered with brown, recurved 
firils, campanulate, thin. St. 4-10 cm. x 4-6 mm., whitish, fibrillose 
with brown, recurved filaments, firm, flexuose. Gills cream colour, then 
rusty brown, margin white, denticulate, emarginate, ventricose, thick. 
Flesh white, tinged purplish when cut. Spores brown, elongate pip- 
shaped, 10-12 x 6-7 /z. Cystidia cylindric-fusoid, 45-50 x 12-14/n, 
numerous. Smell strong, unpleasant, like a mouldy cask. Woods, 
and heaths. Aug. Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

552. I. deglubens Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 420, t. 394. 

Deglubens, peeling off. 

P. 25 cm., date-brown-rufescent, then becoming yellow, slightly 
fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse, or obtusely umbonate, adpressedly torn 
into fibrils, peeling off in darker, then separating fibrils. St. 4-7 cm. 
x 4-5 mm., pallid, equal, adpressedly fibrillose, apex slightly rough 
with brown points. Gills grey, then cinnamon, obtusely adnate, ventri- 
cose, somewhat distant. Flesh white. Spores pallid brown, pip-shaped, 
8-10 x 5-6/i. Cystidia ventricose, 50-60 x 10-15//,, fairly abundant. 
Smell earthy. Pine woods. Aug. Sept. Rare. 

ffGills with an olive tinge. 

553. I. abjecta Karst. Abjecta, mean. 
P. 1-3-5 cm., brownish, becoming ochraceous-brown when dry, every- 
where covered with white fibrils, disc with whitish, subsquarrose squa- 
mules, fleshy, subcampanulate, or convex, then expanded, sometimes 
umbonate. St. 2-5-4 cm. x 4-8 mm., pallid, everywhere covered with 
white, fibrous squamuks, equal, or fusiform, rather tough, flexuose, 
apex white-pruinose. Gills pale cinnamon-olive, adnate, ventricose in 
front, 6-7 mm. wide, rather distant, margin minutely flocculoso- 
crenulate at first. Flesh white. Spores ferruginous, pip-shaped, 
14-16 x 6-7 /*, 1-guttulate. Cystidia ventricose, 50-65 x 13-16^,, 
scanty. Amongst sand. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

554. I. Godeyi Gillet. (= Agaricus (Inocybe) hiukus (Fr.) Kalchbr. 
and Cke. Illus. no. 427, t. 337.) Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. n, t. 8. 

Dr Godey, an eminent French mycologist. 

P. 3-5 cm., whitish at first, then more or less suffused with rose which 
is usually accompanied by an ochraceous tinge, fleshy, campanulate, 



INOCYBE 199 

obtusely umbonate, silky-fibrillose, rimose. St. 4-6 cm. x 5-10 mm., 
concolorous, equal, often bulbous at the base, apex white-pruinose. 
Gills whitish, then dusky cinnamon, usually with an olive tinge, edge 
white, minutely flocculose, narrowed behind, adnexed, almost free, 
somewhat crowded. Flesh white, tinged with pink. Spores ferruginous, 
elliptical, slightly curved or subreniform, 7-8 x 4-5 p. Cystidia 
ventricose, 36-48 x 18-25/z, fairly numerous. Woods, and heaths. 
Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

555. I. lucifuga Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 123. Lux, light ;fuga, avoiding. 
P. 2-7-5 cm., somewhat olivaceous, sometimes becoming pale, rarely 
fawn colour, fleshy, convexo-campanulate, then plane, more or less 
umbonate, longitudinally fibrillose, or covered with minute adpressed 
scales. St. 3-7 x 4-12 mm., pallid, equal, rigid, often flexuose, apex 
white-farinose. Gills whitish, then yellowish, and finally pure olivaceous, 
sinuate, ventricose, crowded, broad, crisped in large specimens. Flesh 
white, slightly coloured under the cuticle. Spores olivaceous, elliptical, 
8-9 x 4-5/x,. Cystidia ventricose, 60-70 x 12-14/x, scattered. Smell 
strong, like radishes. Woods, roadsides, and under trees. Sept. 
Oct. Not uncommon. 



tinged violet. 

556. I. violaceifolia Peck. Violaceus, of a violet colour ; folia, leaves. 
P. 1-1-5 cm., grey, convex, or almost plane, fibrillose, squamulose. 

St. 2-5 cm. x 3-4 mm., whitish, firm, slender, fibrillose. Gills pale 
violet, then brownish cinnamon, adnexed, crowded. Spores elliptical, 
10 x 6ju. Cystidia ventricose, 50-60 x 12-16/*,, fairly abundant. 
Amongst moss. Sept. Kare. 

**Stem coloured. 
fGills brown, ochraceous, or cinnamon. 

557. I. caesariata Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 437, t. 388. 

Caesariata, covered with hairs. 

P. 4 cm., tawny-dirty, or like a smooth sugared cake, fleshy, convex, 
then expanded, gibbous, repand, becoming silky-even, finally almost 
smooth at the disc, silky at the margin. St. 4 cm. x 6 mm., pallid, 
unequal, sometimes twisted, somewhat thickened at the base, pruinose. 
Gills whitish fuliginous, somewhat adnate, thin, crowded, ventricose. 
Spores reniform, 8-10 x 4-5/a. Cystidia narrowly ventricose, 70- 
80 x 12-15 /LI, "often septate" Rick., fairly abundant. Smell dis- 
agreeable. Beech woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. fibrillosa Fr. (= Inocybe delecta Karst.) Fr. Icon. t. 109, fig. 3. 

Fibrillosa, full of fibrils. 

Differs from the type in the obsoletely umbonate, fibrillose, sometimes 
squamulose, ochraceous pileus becoming tawny, in the very ochraceous- 



200 INOCYBE 

fibrittose stem, and the pallid ochraceous gills at length turning brown. 
Deciduous woods, especially beech. 

558. I. obscura (Pers.) Fr. Obscura, dark. 
P. 1-5-2-5 cm., brown, more or less suffused with violet, somewhat 

fleshy, campanulato-convex, obtuse, or subumbonate, longitudinally 
fibrillose, disc scaly. St. 3-6 cm. x 4-6 mm., violaceous, becoming 
fuscous downwards, flexuose, fibrillose. Gills olivaceous, then brown, 
uncinato-adnexed, crowded, ventricose, edge often unequal. Flesh 
tinged bluish especially at the apex of the stem. Spores brownish, ellip- 
tical, 8-9 x 4jw,. Cystidia ventricose, 65-75 x 12-16/z, abundant. 
Smell strong, of radishes. Amongst pines, and in woods. July Nov. 
Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. rufa Pat. Rufus, red. 

Differs from the type in the reddish-brown, strongly umbonate p., 
the violet gills, and spores narrowed towards one end. 

559. I. lacera Fr. Lacera, torn. 
P. 2-4 cm., brownish, then mouse colour, becoming pale, slightly 

fleshy, convex, then expanded, obtuse, or obtusely umbonate, at first 
adpressedly fibrillose, then rimosely scaly and squarrose. St. 3-7 cm. 
x 5-8 mm., paler than the p., covered with brown, fibrillose squamules, 
tough, equal, or attenuated at the base. Gills white flesh, then mouse 
colour, attenuato-adnexed, ventricose, broad. Flesh of stem reddish. 
Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 10-12 x 6-7 fj,. Cystidia ventricose, 56- 
80 x 13-17jLt, numerous. Pine, and mixed woods. July Oct. Not 
uncommon, (v.v.) 

560. I. carpta (Scop.) Fr. Carpta, torn. 
P. 3-5 cm., tan colour, or dusky brown, convex, then flattened, 

usually at length more or less depressed at the disc, everywhere densely 
fibrillose and woolly. St. 3-5 x 1 cm., paler than the pileus, attenuated 
downwards, covered with a spreading, fibrillose woolliness like the p. 
Gills ochraceous, then brown fuscous, adnate, then free, ventricose, 
broad. Flesh pale ochraceous, becoming tinged with brown. Spores 
elliptical, 910 x 4-5/z,, 1 2-guttulate ; "angular, nearly trapezium 
shaped, 10-12 x 5-6/u, " Rick. Cystidia often slightly curved, ventri- 
cose, 60-70 x 13-15/i, abundant. Taste sweet, then bitter. Woods. 
Aug. Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

561. I. hystrix Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 106, fig. 1. Hystrix, porcupine. 
P. 4-9 cm., dull brown, or mouse colour, fleshy, firm, convex, then 

flattened, obtuse, or slightly gibbous, orbicular, squarrose with revolute, 
floccose scales, which are fibrilloso-adpressed towards the margin. 
St. 5-9 cm. x 6-10 mm., fuscous mouse colour, firm, equal, or attenu- 



INOCYBE 201 

ated downwards, or subfusif orm, squarrose with revolute, crowded, floe- 
cose scales up to the sharply defined annular zone, apex pallid. Gills 
whitish, becoming fuscous, adnate, crowded, linear, margin white. 
Flesh white. Spores brown, pip-shaped, or wedge-shaped, 9-10 x 4- 
5/z, 1-guttulate. Cystidia ventricose, 75-80 x 12-14/A, fairly abun- 
dant. Smell of new meal. Woods. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

562. I. incarnate Bres. (= Inocybe pyriodora (Pers.) Fr. sec. Rene 
Maire.) Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 53. 

Incarnata, made flesh colour. 

P. 5-8 cm., yellowish rufescent, or flesh colour, fleshy, convexo- 
campanulate, then expanded and gibbous, or broadly umbonate, 
fibrillose, then squamulose, margin villosely fimbriate. St. 6-8 cm. 
x 6-15 mm., rosy flesh colour, apex white, furfuraceous, attenuated 
downwards, somewhat rooting, somewhat fibrillose. Gills whitish, 
then cinereous-cinnamon, at length spotted with red, or from the first 
becoming red, sinuato-adnate, crowded, edge fimbriate. Flesh of 
pileus white, becoming deep red when broken, that of the stem red from 
the first. Spores yellowish-brown, broadly elliptical, 12-15 x 6-8/x. 
Cystidia fusoid, 50-65 x 15-18/z, apex brownish. Smell pleasant, 
like pears. Woods. June Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

563. I. nigrodisca Peck. Niger, black; discus, a quoit. 
P. 1-2 cm., blackish-brown, margin greyish, convex, then plane, or 

depressed, umbonate, very minutely fibrillose. St. 2-5-3-5 cm. long, red- 
dish brown, slender, firm, flexuose, minutely pruinosely downy. Gills 
greyish, then rusty-brown, sometimes tinged yellow, free, or subadnexed, 
rounded behind, crowded. Spores ferruginous, subelongate, 5-5- 
6-5 x 4-5-5/z. Cystidia fairly abundant, ventricose, 45-55 x 12-16/z. 
Among moss and grass. Rare. 

564. I. mutica Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 418, t. 382. Mutica, curtailed. 
P. 2-5-5 cm., whitish, or tinged yellowish with darker adpressed 

squamules, fleshy, convex, then plane, always very obtuse, at length 
subdepressed in the centre. St. 3-6 cm. x 5-8 mm., white straw colour, 
becoming somewhat fuscous, often attenuated downwards, sometimes 
enlarged at the base, fibrillose. Gills white, then slightly fuscous, 
adnate, or attenuated behind and becoming free, thin, crowded. 
Flesh white. Spores elliptical, 8-10 x 5/u., 1-guttulate. Cystidia 
fusoid, 51-80 x 12-15/u, abundant. Woods, and roadsides. Sept. 
Nov. Not common, (v.v.) 

565. I. brunnea Quel. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. n, t. 9. 

Brunnea, brown. 

P. 3-5 cm., chestnut colour, fleshy, campanulate, umbonate, fibril- 
losely silky, then cracked. St. 3-6 cm. x 5-6 mm., concolorous, or 



202 ENOCYBE 

paler, thickened at the base, apex white, pruinose, fibrillosely striate. 
Cortina concolorous, and fugacious. Gills cream colour, then umber, 
edge white, indented, emarginate, broadest in front, 5 mm. wide. Flesh 
white. Spores bistre, elliptical, 7-12 x 4-6/n. Cystidia ventricose, or 
fusoid, 50-55 x 12-15/1, fairly abundant. Woods, also amongst grass 
near pines. Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

566. I. haemacta Berk. & Cke. (= Inocybe pyriodora (Pers.) Fr. sec. 
Rene Maire.) Cke. Illus. no. 410, t. 390. at f /iaro9, bloody. 

P. 2-5-5 cm , umber, margin pallid, often becoming stained with red, 
or verdigris, disc darker, subsquamose, fleshy, compact, obtuse, cam- 
panulate, then expanded, floccosely fibrillose. St. 4-5 cm. x 6-8 mm., 
whitish above, tinged verdigris-green at the base, and often higher up, 
scarcely fibrillose, nearly equal. Gills pallid, then dingy tan, adnate, 
slightly rounded behind. Flesh turning blood red when touched or 
wounded, verdigris at the base of the stem, and also often elsewhere. Spores 
reddish brown, elliptical, 8-9 x 5/i, 1-guttulate. Cystidia ventricose, 
6678 x 14-16/z, fairly numerous. Lawns, and gardens. Aug. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. rubra Rea. Rubra, red. 

Differs from the type in the blood red colour of the p. and St., which 
is only tinged verdigris at the extreme base, although the flesh is tinged 
verdigris for some considerable distance upwards. Bare earth. Sept. 
Rare, (v.v.) 

567. I. conformata Karst. Conformata, shaped. 
P. 1-3 cm., pale fuscous, or tinged rusty, convex, then expanded, 

umbonate, fibrillosely rimose, sometimes minutely, adpressedly, floc- 
cosely squamulose. St. 3-5 cm. x 3-6 mm., concolorous, apex at first 
tinged violet, equal, often flexuose, solid, minutely fibrillose. Gills 
pallid, then brownish, 4-5 mm. wide, adnexed, ventricose, somewhat 
crowded; margin white, fimbriate. Flesh white, brownish under the 
cuticle of the p., bluish at first in the stem, thick at the disc, very thin 
at the margin of the p., firm. Smell and taste none. Spores brownish 
in the mass, oblong elliptical, depressed on one side, 8-11 x 4-5/n. 
Cystidia hyaline, fusiform ventricose, apex muriculate, 65-75 x 15- 
19/i. Under oaks in woods. Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

568. I. flocculosa Berk. (=Inocybe scabella (Fr.) Bres. sec. Bataille.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 416, t. 393. Flocculosa, woolly. 

P. 2'5 cm., brownish fawn colour, somewhat fleshy, convex, sub- 
campanulate, umbonate, silky squamulose, margin smoother, veil 
white, fibrillose, fugacious. St. 4cm. x 4mm., pale fawn, fibrillose, 
brown beneath the fibrillae, apex minutely squamuloso-pulverulent. 
Gills pale fawn, at length dull-ferruginous, rounded behind, adnate 



INOCYBE 203 

but not broadly so, ventricose, margin white. Spores ferruginous, 
elliptical, 8-10 x 4-5/z. Cystidia 45-60 x lQ-12fi, abundant. Smell 
of new meal, but nauseous. Bare soil, and amongst grass. Sept. 
Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

f fGills tinged olive. 

569. I. dulcamara (A. & S.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 408, t. 582, fig. B. 

Dulcis, sweet; amara, bitter. 

P. 3-6 cm., olivaceous-fuscous, becoming paler, campanulato-convex,. 
then expanded and umbonate, ^occoso-scaZ?/, silky towards the margin. 
St. 4-6 cm. x 4 mm., paler than the pileus, equal, cortinato-fibrillose, 
adpressedly squamulose, apex mealy. Gills pallid, then olivaceous, 
arcuato-adfixed, ventricose, crowded. Flesh becoming yellowish white, 
thin. Spores brown, almost colourless under the microscope, ellip- 
tical, 7-9 x 4-5/i. Cystidia ventricose, 55-65 x 15-18/x, fairly 
abundant, "on edge of gill only " Rick. Taste slightly bitter. Pine, 
and mixed woods. Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

570. I. relicina Fr. (= Astrosporina relicina (Fr.) Schroet.) 

Relicina, curled backwards. 

P. 1-5-3 cm., fuliginous, fleshy, thin, conical, then expanded, obtuse, 
everywhere scaly-squarrose with fasciculate down. St. 45 cm. x 4- 
6 mm., fuliginous, apex paler, soft, equal, fioccoso-scaly, fibrillose. 
Gills yellow, then olivaceous, adnexed, crowded. Spores olive brown, 
pip-shaped, 10-12 x 7ju. Cystidia ventricose, 70-85 x 14-16/x, 
scattered, "only on edge of gill " Rick. Damp pine woods amongst 
Sphagnum, and in bogs. July Oct. Uncommon. 

571. I. Bongardii (Weinm.) Massee. 

H. G. Bongard, a Russian botanist. 

P. 3-7 cm., whitish with a rufescent, or yellowish tinge, covered with 
darker fibrillose squamules, fleshy, campanulate, then expanded, ob- 
tusely umbonate. St. 5-8 cm. x 5-12 mm., concolorous, or slightly 
paler, equal, straight, or curved, tough, apex white-mealy. Gills 
whitish, then olive-cinnamon, arcuato-adnate, crowded, ventricose, 
edge white, eroded. Flesh, reddish. Spores cinnamon brown, yellow 
under the microscope, elliptical, 9 x 6/z, 1-guttulate. Cystidia ventri- 
cose, 50-65 x 12-16/4, scattered, "only on edge of gill, basidia with 
olive granular contents" Rick. Smell pleasant, like ripe pears. Woods 
and pastures. May Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

tttGiUs tinged violet. 

572. I. cincinnata Fr. Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 51, fig. 2. 

Cincinnata, with curled hair. 

P. 1-5-3-5 cm., mouse colour, or brownish chestnut, somewhat 
fleshy, convex, then expanded, obtuse, or obsoletely umbonate, disc 



204 INOCYBE 

besprinkled with fioccose scales; margin fibrillose. St. 3-5 cm. x 2-3 mm., 
fuscous, apex tinged violet at first, then becoming pale, base subbulbose, 
fibrillosely-squamulose. Gills fuscous -violaceous, then cinnamon, ad- 
nexed, or attenuated behind, separating, ventricose, crowded. Flesh 
whitish, bluish at the apex of the stem. Spores brown, elliptical, 7- 
8 x 4-5jLt, 1-2-guttulate. Cystidia subcylindrical, or ventricose, 60- 
70 x 9-15/M, "sometimes filled with a dark juice" Rick., fairly abun- 
dant. Woods. Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

II. No cystidia. 

*St. whitish, or pallid. 

fGills brownish, ochraceous, or cinnamon. 

573. I. perlata Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 1162, t. 961. 

Perlata, very broad. 

P. 6-10 cm., ochraceous, longitudinally streaked with darker, fuscous 
fibrils, disc dark bistre nearly black, fleshy, convex, then expanded, 
broadly umbonate; margin incurved. St. 6-11 x 1-5 cm., pallid, 
darker below, straight, or curved, sometimes twisted, striate, equal, 
apex mealy. Gills pallid, then pale umber, adnexed, somewhat rounded 
behind, broad, margin whitish, irregular. Flesh dingy white. Spores 
reddish brown, elliptical, 10 x 6-7 /z, with a large central gutta. 
Woods, and under hornbeam. Aug. Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

574. I. perbrevis (Weinm.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 434, t. 519. 

Per-brevis, very short. 

P. 1-5 3 cm., fuscous, or rufous, becoming yellowish, somewhat fleshy, 
convex, then plane, obtusely umbonate, often depressed round the 
umbo, fibrillose, or squamulose ; margin fibrillose, often splitting. St. 
2-2-5 cm. x 3-5 mm., pallid, somewhat attenuated downwards, white- 
fibrillose, apex pruinose, cortinate. Gills whitish, becoming fuscous, or 
clay colour, adnexed with a tooth, ventricose, rather distant. Flesh 
white. Spores brown, elliptic-oblong, 8-9 x 4-5-5/t, apiculate. 
"Cystidia only on edge of gill, basidia-like, 48-60 x 12-15/z " Rick. 
Woods, and shady places. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

575. I. squarrosa Rea. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. v, t. 4. 

Squarrosa, rough with scales. 

P. 5-13 mm,, mouse grey with an ochraceous tinge, slightly fleshy, 
campanulate, or convex, covered with erect, revolute, floccose, darker 
grey scales especially at the disc, floccosely fibrillose elsewhere ; margin 
at first involute, white. St. 1-5-3 cm. x 1-2 mm., white with a pinkish 
tinge, apex pruinose, base white, subbulbose. Gills white, then brown- 
ish, adnato-sinuate, 2 mm. wide, edge white. Flesh white. Spores 
greenish-fuscous, elliptical, 9-10 x 5-6/z, 1-guttulate. Under willows 
and alders in a brick pit. July Aug. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



INOCYBE 205 

576. I. vatricosa FT. Fr. Icon. t. 110, fig. 3. 

Vatricosa, with crooked feet. 

P. 1-7 cm., yellowish, becoming whitish with age, slightly fleshy, 
convex, then plane, obtuse, or umbonate, viscid when moist, shining 
when dry; margin obsoletely silky. St. 3-7 cm. x 3-10 mm., white, 
or greyish, equal, slightly thickened at the white villose base, often 
curved and contorted, white pulverulent. Gills white, then fuscous, 
adnexed, broadly emarginate, almost free, broad. Spores brownish, 
elliptical, 5-6 x 3-3-5^,. Woods, dead stumps, chips, and sawdust. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

**St. coloured. 
fGills brownish, ochraceous, or cinnamon. 

577. I. Cookei Bres. Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 121. 

Mordecai Cubitt Cooke, the eminent English mycologist. 

P. 3-5 cm., yellowish straw colour, becoming lurid yellowish, fleshy, 
conico-campanulate, then expanded and umbonate, margin at length 
revolute and split, silky-fibriUose, then rimose. St. 4-7 cm. x 5-7 mm., 
concolorous, equal, silky fibrillose, base marginately bulbose. Gills 
whitish cinereous, then yellowish cinnamon, attenuated behind, ad- 
nexed, crowded, somewhat ventricose, margin white, fimbriate. Flesh 
whitish straw colour. Spores ochraceous, subreniform, 8-10 x 5-5-5/z. 
Smell somewhat pleasant when young, becoming somewhat earthy. 
Fir woods. Sept. Uncommon. 

578. I. mimica Massee. (= Inocybe adequata Britz. sec. Cke.) 

fjLifju/cd, a mimic. 

P. 6-8 cm., yellow-brown, everywhere covered with large, adpressed, 
slightly darker, fibrous scales, fleshy, campanulate, obtusely umbonate, 
fibrillose. St. 6-8 x 1 cm., paler than the p., equal, fibrillose. Gills 
yellow-brown, deeply sinuate, attached to the stem by a very narrow 
portion, broad. Flesh brownish. Spores brown, subcylindrical, 14- 
16 x 6-8/x, with an oblique apiculus. Woods. Sept. Rare. 

579. I. rhodiola Bres. Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 200, as Inocybe frumen- 
tacea (Bull.) Bres. poSov, a rose. 

P. 4-8 cm., rufous-chestnut, or fuscous flesh colour, fleshy, campanu- 
late, then expanded and umbonate, fibrillosely cracked, centre even. 
St. 5-8 x 1-1-5 cm., vinous, fibrilloso-squamulose, becoming glabrous, 
apex pallid, subfloccose. Gills white, then yellowish umber, often spotted 
with brownish umber, sinuato-uncinate, almost free, crowded, edge 
fimbriate. Flesh white, vinous at the base of the stem. Spores yellowish, 
subreniform, 12-13 x 6-8/4, or 9-10 x 5-7 p, 1-2-guttulate. Cells on 
edge of gills, clavate, or subfusoid, 45-60 x 12-15ju,. Smell fruity. 
Woods, fields, and parks. Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 



206 INOCYBE 

580. I. hirsute (Lasch) Fr. Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 86, fig. 2. 

Hirsuta, bristly. 

P. 1-4 cm., fuscous, or ochraceous fuscous, disc sometimes tinged with 
green, slightly fleshy, conico-campanulate, then expanded, and 
acutely or obtusely umbonate, squarrose with fasciculato-pilose scales, 
margin fibrillose, fimbriate. St. 4-9 cm. x 2-6 mm., concolorous, base 
verdigris, somewhat equal, or somewhat thickened at the base, tough, 
fibrillose, apex white floccoso-scaly. Gills pallid, then fuscous cinnamon, 
adnate, crowded, narrow, edge whitish, fimbriate. Flesh pallid, be- 
coming faintly tinged with red on exposure to the air, greenish in the 
stem. Spores ochraceous, oblong pip-shaped, 9-11 x 4-5/x. Woods. 
Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

581. I. calamistrata Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 106, fig. 2. 

Calamistrata, curled with the curling-iron. 

P. 2-5-6 cm., fuscous, slightly fleshy, campanulate, obtuse, margin 
at first bent inwards, often repand, at length flattened, everywhere 
squarrose-scaly, St. 4-9 cm. x 4-6 mm., concolorous, base dark azure 
blue, rigid, tough, equal, somewhat rooting, squarrose throughout with 
rigid, recurved scales. Gills white, then ferruginous, adnexed, separating, 
crowded, broad, edge whitish, somewhat serrated. Flesh reddish, 
azure blue at the base of the stem. Spores ochraceous, elliptical, 10- 
11 x 6/i. Smell strong. Pine, and fir woods. Aug. Oct. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

I. echinata (Roth) Cke. = Lepiota haematosperma (Bull.) Boud. 
tfGills tinged olive. 

582. I. destricta Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 121. Destricta, stripped off. 
P. 4-8 cm., livid violet tinged brownish, fleshy, campanulate, covered 

longitudinally with darker fibrils, then torn into scales, rimosely cracked. 
St. 5-10 x 1-1-5 cm., concolorous, covered with darker fibrils, apex 
mealy. Gills olivaceous, uncinately adnate, narrow, 4 mm. wide. 
Flesh whitish violaceous, deeper coloured under the cuticle, reddish at 
the base of the stem. Spores olivaceous, often slightly curved, oblong, 
11-13 x 5-5-7 p,, multi-guttulate. Cystidia none 1 . Woods, and under 
poplars. July Nov. Uncommon. 

583. I. fastigiata (Schaefi.) Fr. (= Inocybe Curreyi Berk. sec. Massee.) 
Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 57. Fastigiata, having a gable. 

P. 3-7 cm., straw colour, yellow fuscous, sometimes fuscous brown, 
disc ochraceous, or livid-fulvous, fleshy, conico-campanulate, obtusely, 
or acutely umbonate, longitudinally fibrillose and cracked, rarely ad- 
pressedly scaly; margin sometimes lobed. St. 4-9 cm. x 4-8 mm., 
pallid, becoming fuscous, equal, slightly enlarged downwards, minutely 
fibrillose, often twisted with age. Gills yellow, then olivaceous, sinuato- 
1 Massee and Ricken have a different plant in view as they describe cystidia. 



INOCYBE. ASTROSPORINA 207 

free, ventricose, crowded. Flesh white. Spores brownish, pip-shaped, 
7-10 x 4-5 /z, 1-guttulate. "Cystidia only on the edge of the gills, 
bottle-shaped-clavate, 50-60 x 1 5-20 /A " Rick. Woods, and pastures. 
June Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

III. Insufficiently described. 

584. I. mamillaris Pass. 1 Mamilla, a teat. 
P. white, convex, mammillate, squamulose. St. white, hollow, equal, 

flexuose. Gills emarginato-adnexed. Spores smooth. 

585. I. phaeocephala (?Bull.) Cke. Cke. lUus. no. 425, t. 396. 

<ato<?, dusky; /ee</>aX?;, head. 

P. 5-10 cm., fuliginous, becoming brownish, subcampanulate, rarely 
flattened and umbonate, smooth. St 7-13 cm. x 8-14 mm., grey, 
with brownish lines, base white and swollen, naked. Gills yellowish 
bistre colour, free, semilunate, very broad. Spores bright ferruginous 
red, elliptical, 6 x 4/t. Pine, and mixed woods. Oct. Rare 

586. I. schista Cke. & Sm. Cke. Illus. no. 423, t. 504. o^aro?, split. 
P. 5-7-5 cm., bay brown, obtusely campanulate, broadly subumbo- 

nate, cracking longitudinally, rather fibrillose. St. 5-8 x 1 cm., paler 
than the p., equal, twisted, solid. Gills rufescent, adnate with a decur- 
rent tooth, rather broad; edge pale, serrate. Lawns. May. Rare. 

/. subrimosa (Karst.) Sacc. = Astrosporina asterospora (Quel.) Rea. 

/. scabella (Fr.) Bres. = Inocybe flocculosa Berk. 

/. tricholoma (A. & S.) Fr. = Flammula tricholoma (A. & S.) Fr. 

7. strigiceps Fr. = Flammula strigiceps Fr. 

7. Curreyi Berk. = Inocybe fastigiata (SchaefL) Fr. 

7. adequata Britz. = Inocybe mimica Massee. 

7. lanuginosa Fr. sec. Bataille = Astrosporina sabuletorum (B. &Curt.) 

Rea. 
7. violaceo-fusca Cke. & Massee = Cortinarius (Dennocybe) violaceo- 

fuscus (Cke. & Massee) Massee. 
7. Trinii (Weinm.) Bres. = Inocybe Godeyi Gill. 
7. hiulca (Fr.) Kalchbr. = Inocybe Godeyi GiU. 

Spores ochraceous, or ferruginous, irregular, angular, 

echinulate, or verrucose. 

Astrosporina Schroet. 

(aa-T^p, star; <riropd, seed.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular. Veil marginal, fugacious. Stem fleshy, cen- 
tral. Gills adnate, sinuato-adnate, or adnexed. Spores ochraceous, 
1 Massee, Eur. Fung. Fl. Agar. p. 156. 



208 ASTROSPOBINA 

ferruginous, olivaceous, or fuscous; angular, nodose, verrucose, 
echinulate, or irregular in shape. Cystidia present, or absent, fusi- 
form, ventricose, cylindrical, or clavate. Growing on the ground, 
rarely caespitose. 

I. Cystidia present. 
*Stem whitish, or pallid. 

587. A. fibrosa (Sow.) Rea. (= Inocybe fibrosa (Sow.) Fr.) Bres. 
Fung. Trid. t. 56, as Inocybe fibrosa Sow. Fibrosa, fibrous. 

P. 6-10 cm., white, or straw colour, sometimes spotted yellow, fleshy, 
obtusely campanulate, then expanded and gibbous, or broadly um- 
bonate, silky, at length cracking; margin deeply split, often lobed. 
St. 6-10 x 1-5-2-5 cm., white, base at length straw colour, subequal, 
striate, or somewhat sulcate, apex pruinose. Gills white, becoming 
cinereous-cinnamon with age, attenuated behind, nearly free, crowded. 
Flesh white. Spores ochraceous, angular, oblong, 10-13 x 5-7 /i. 
Cystidia fusoid, 70-90 x 10-16/u, thick walled. Smell foetid. Coni- 
ferous woods. May Sept. 

588. A. duriuscula Rea. (= Inocybe duriuscula Rea.) Trans. Brit. 
Myc. Soc. in, t. 3, as Inocybe duriuscula Rea. 

Duriuscula, somewhat hard. 

P. 6-7 cm., fulvous ochraceous, disc becoming pale, fleshy, campanu- 
late, then expanded and gibbous, floccose, soon longitudinally fibril- 
lose; margin at length revolute. St. 8x1-5 cm., white, enlarged at 
the apex and base, firm, striate, apex ribbed with the decurrent teeth of 
the gills. Gills white, becoming fuscous, sinuato-adnate with a decurrent 
tooth, 6-8 mm. wide, somewhat crowded. Flesh white, very firm. 
Spores umber, strongly nodulose, 9-10 x 7-8 p, 1-guttulate. Cystidia 
ventricose, 52-60 x 13-15/u, abundant. Woods. Sept. Oct. Not 
uncommon, (v.v.) 

589. A. proximella (Karst.) Rea. (= Inocybe proximella Karst.) 
Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. in, t. 2, as Inocybe proximella Karst. 

Proximella, somewhat near. 

P. 2-5 cm., pallid yellow, disc, and especially the umbo, becoming 
rusty brown, or bay, fleshy, conico-convex, then expanded and umbo- 
nate, becoming longitudinally fibrillosely cracked. St. 6-8 x -5-1 cm., 
pallid, slightly narrowed upwards, often attenuated at the base, 
sometimes wavy, subfibrillose. Gills pallid, then tan, finally brown, 
adnate, 6-7 mm. wide, crowded, ventricose. Flesh white. Spores fer- 
ruginous, nodulose, irregularly oblong, 7-10 x 5-7 ft, 1-guttulate. 
Cystidia ventricose, 55-70 x 15-24/u,, abundant. On the ground. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



ASTROSPOBINA 209 

590. A. praetervisa (Quel.) Schroet. (= Inocybe praetervisa Quel.) 
Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. n, t. 5, as Inocybe praetervisa Quel. 

Praetervisa, overlooked. 

P. 2-6 cm., fawn, generally darker at the margin, conico-campanu- 
late, then expanded, umbonate, or gibbous, often splitting at the 
margin with age, slightly viscid, fibrillose, disc glabrous, soon longi- 
tudinally virgate. St. 4-7 cm. x 4-8 mm., white, then pale straw colour, 
equal, base bulbous, apex pruinose. Gills white, then dirty cinnamon, 
attenuated behind, adnexed, almost free, narrow, 3 mm. wide, 
crowded; edge white, fimbriate. Flesh white. Spores dark brownish in 
the mass, ochraceous under the microscope, angular, 9-11 x 5-6 /x, 
1-3-guttulate. Cystidia fusiform, ventricose, 55-75 x 18-30/u,, some- 
what fuscous at the apex, "sometimes with olive granular contents" 
Rick. On the ground under conifers. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

591. A. lanuginella Schroet. Lanuginella, somewhat floccose. 
P. 1-5-3 cm., tawny, or greyish brown, campanulato-convex, then 

plane, obtusely umbonate, fibrillose, cracked ("fibrils septate, apical 
cell 35-40 x 8-llju, with rounded ends" Schroeter). St. 1-5- 
5 cm. x 1-5-5 mm., pallid, apex at first delicately tinged with lilac, 
base brownish, equal, fibrillose. Gills pallid, then cinnamon, 2-3 mm. 
wide, slightly adnexed, somewhat crowded, edge fimbriate. Flesh 
white, tinged reddish under the cuticle of the pileus and stem, thick at the 
disc, thin at the margin of the pileus, firm. Spores cinnamon in the 
mass, oblong, obtusely angular, 8-11 x 5-7 /*. Cystidia hyaline, 
either fusiform, ventricose, obtuse at the apex, muriculate or not, 
40-70 x 15-23 /LI, or acicular and acute. On the ground in oak woods. 
Aug. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

592. A. infida (Peck) Rea. (= Agaricus (Hebeloma) infidus Peck, 
Inocybe umbratica Quel.) Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 58, fig. 2, as 
Inocybe commixta Bres. Infida, unsafe. 

Entirely white. P. 2-3 cm., fleshy, conico-campanulate, then ex- 
panded and umbonate, silky-fibrillose ; margin often split. St. 3- 
4 cm. x 3-6 mm., minutely pruinose, equal, apex mealy, base bulbous. 
Gills white, then greyish-cinnamon, free, very crowded, edge minutely 
fimbriate. Flesh white, somewhat straw colour at the base of the 
stem. Spores ochraceous, angular, globose-oblong, 9-10 x 6-7 p. 
Cystidia fusiform or subventricose, somewhat fuscous at the apex, 
40-45 x 12-14/t. Smell earthy, strong. Taste mild. Coniferous woods. 
Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

593. A. trechispora (Berk.) Rea. (= Hebeloma trechisporum Berk.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 443, t. 403, upper figs., as Inocybe trechispora 
Berk. Tpa^vs, rough; <nropd, seed. 

P. 1-52-5 cm., whitish, or cinereous, umbo tawny, submembrana- 
ceous, convex, strongly umbonate, viscid at first, then dry and silky; 

B. B. B. 14 



210 ASTROSPORINA 

margin paler with a slight livid tinge, thin. St. 5 cm. x 4 mm., white, 
equal, often flexuose, with a mass of white mycelium at the base, 
slightly striate under a lens and mealy. Gills whitish, then pinkish 
grey, emarginate, scarcely adnate, ventricose, margin denticulate. 
Flesh white. Spores bistre-brown, warted, angular, 7-8 x 5-6 /n. 
Cystidia fusoid, or subventricose, 40-50 x 12-18/>t, fairly abundant. 
Woods. Aug. Oct. Uncommon. 

**Stem coloured. 

594. A. asterospora (Quel.) Rea. (= Inocybe asterospora Quel., Ino- 
cybe subrimosa Sacc., Clypeus subrimosus Karst.) Cke. Illus. 
no. 430, t. 385, as Inocybe asterospora Quel. 

ao'Trip, star; <nropd, seed. 

P. 2-5 cm., bistre, with brown striae, convex then expanded and 
umbonate, becoming rimose. St. 5-8 cm. x 6-8 mm., reddish, streaked 
with brown fibrils, pubescent, equal, base marginately bulbous, cuticle 
separable. Gills whitish bistre, then cinnamon, emarginate, ventricose, 
thin. Flesh white. Spores ferruginous, stellately-nodulose, sub- 
globose, 9-12/M. Cystidia ventricose, 33 x 18/M, abundant. Smell 
mouldy. Woods, and under trees. Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

595. A. fasciata (Cke. & Mass.) Rea. (= Inocybe fasciata Cke. & 
Massee.) Cke. Illus. no. 1164, 1. 1173, as Inocybe fasciata Cke. & 
Massee. Fasciata, bound together in bundles. 

Densely caespitose. P. 5-7-5 cm., tawny, disc rufous, campanulato- 
convex, silky, clad with minute, darker, squarrose scales. St. 5-7-5 cm. 
x 3-10 mm., pallid, base reddish, equal, or a little attenuated below, 
fibrillose. Gills pallid, attenuated in front, rounded behind, or slightly 
sinuate, crowded. Flesh white, reddish towards the base of the stem. 
Spores fuscous, angular, elliptical, 10 x 6/x. Cystidia ventricose, 
40-50 x 12-15/n, scanty. Amongst grass. Rare. 

596. A. lanuginosa (Bull.) Schroet. (= Inocybe lanuginosa (Bull.) 

Bres.) Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 117, as Inocybe lanuginosa Bull. 

Lanuginosa, woolly. 

P. 2-5-4 cm., umber, at length becoming yellow, slightly fleshy, hemi- 
spherical, or campanulato-convex, then expanded and umbonate, 
fiocculosely-scaly, disc squarrose with hairy scales. St. 2-5-4 cm. x 2- 
3 mm., somewhat concolorous, equal, fibrillosely-squamulose', cortina 
greyish white, soon disappearing. Gills pallid clay colour, then reddish 
cinnamon, rounded behind, adnexed, then separating, somewhat 
crowded; margin white, fioccosely crenulate. Flesh pallid. Spores 
fuscous ochraceous, angular, 10-15 x 8-9/n. Cystidia cylindrical, or 
clavate, 50-60 x 20-25 /M, somewhat fuscous at the apex. Mossy stumps, 
especially conifers, "never on the ground" Bres. July Nov. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 



ASTROSPORINA 211 

597. A. calospora (Quel.) Kea. (= Inocybe calospora Quel.) Bres. 
Fung. Trid. t. 21, as Inocybe calospora Quel. 

Ka\6s, beautiful; cnropd, seed. 

P. 2-3 cm., fuscous rufescent, becoming somewhat yellowish, some- 
what fleshy, conico-campanulate, then expanded and umbonate, 
fibrillosely villose, then covered with adpressed, concolorous squamules', 
margin whitish, fibrillose. St. 3-5 cm. x 2-4 mm., livid then rufescent, 
apex white-pruinose, base subbulbose. Gills pallid, then tawny cinna- 
mon, free, ventricose, crowded; edge white-pruinose. Flesh somewhat 
concolorous. Spores ferruginous in the mass, bright ochraceous under 
the microscope, globose, 10-14/z, bluntly warted. Cystidia fusiform, 
45-55 x S-Wfj,, somewhat fuscousatthe apex, scanty. Taste slightly acid. 
Deciduous woods, and under trees. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

598. A. Gaillardii (Gillet) Rea. (= Inocybe Gaillardi Gillet.) 

A. GaiUard. 

P. 13 cm., tawny-yellow, or rust colour, convex, then plane, umbo- 
nate, fioccosely squamulose; margin fimbriate. St. 1-5-3 cm. x 2-4 mm., 
concolorous. Gills brownish cinnamon, free, ventricose; edge whitish. 
Flesh concolorous, or paler. Spores ferruginous, globose, covered with 
long, slender, hyaline spines, 8/z,, or 10-12/n, including the spines. 
Cystidia subcylindrical, 40-45 x 10/A, scanty. Woods, and under 
trees. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

599. A. seabella (Fr.) Schroet. (= Inocybe scabella (Fr.) Quel.) Fr. 
Icon. t. 110, fig. 1, as Inocybe scabella Fr. Scaber, rough. 

P. 1-2 cm., fuscous, or fuscous rufescent, somewhat fleshy, conical, 
then expanded, umbonate, silky-fibrillose, at length torn into scales 
around the even umbo. St. 4 cm. x 12 mm., rufescent, or becoming 
pale, apex pruinose, equal, tense and straight, or flexuose. Gills 
dingy, becoming fuscous, adnexed, more or less crowded. Flesh dingy. 
Spores bistre, warted, angular elliptical, 8x6/4. Cystidia ventricose 
fusiform, 55-65 x 12-15ju,. Woods, and amongst short grass. Sept. 
Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

600. A. Trinii (Weinm.) Rea. (= Inocybe Trinii (Weinm.) Fr.) Cke. 
Illus. no. 435, t. 428, lower figs., as Inocybe Trinii Weinm. 

Carl Bernard Trinius, the Russian botanist. 
P. 1-2 cm., whitish with a rufous tinge due to longitudinal rufous 
fibrils, tawny when dry, hemispherical, obtuse. St. 4-6 cm. x 2-3 mm., 
white, covered with loose reddish, or rufous fibrils, equal, apex white- 
mealy. Gills dusky cinnamon, rounded behind, adnexed, ventricose, 
edge white-fiocculose. Flesh white. Spores angular, subglobose, or 
somewhat oblong, 9-10 /i, or 9-10 x 6-8/i. Cystidia ventricose, 50- 
60 x 14-17/A, abundant. Smell pleasant, like clove-pinks. Woods, 
and amongst grass. Aug. Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

142 



212 ASTROSPORINA 

601. A. maritima (Fr.) Rea. (= Inocybe maritima Fr.) Cke. Illus. 
no. 414, t. 392, as Inocybe maritima Fr. 

Maritima, pertaining to the sea. 

P. 2-3 cm., fuscous, or mouse colour, becoming hoary when dry, 
hygrophanous, fleshy, somewhat soft, convex, then flattened, obtuse, or 
umbonate, flocculosely fibrillose, more or less adpressedly scaly. St. 
2-4 cm. x 4-6 mm., a little paler than the pileus, equal, fibrillose, at 
first furnished with a cortina. Grills fuscous-grey, then becoming fer- 
ruginous, rounded, adnexed, somewhat separating, ventricose. Flesh 
becoming fuscous-grey. Spores ferruginous, angular, oblong, 9-10 x 6/x, 
1-guttulate. Cystidia ventricose, 4555 x 12-18ju,. Often caespitose. 
Sea shores, and sandy ground in woods. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

602. A. Rennyi (B. & Br.) Rea. (= Inocybe Rennyi B. & Br.) Cke. 
lUus. no. 442, t. 520, fig. A, as Inocybe Rennyi B. & Br. 

J. Renny, a British mycologist. 

P. 1 '5-2 cm., pale fawn colour, disc brown, hemispherical, slightly 
fibrillose. St. 3-5 cm. x 3-4 mm., paler than the p., attenuated down- 
wards, fibrillose. Gills dingy ochraceous, rounded behind, almost free. 
Spores ochraceous, angular, slightly nodulose, oblong, 11-13 x 7- 
8/i, pointed at one end. Cystidia fusoid, 40-50 x 12-16/z, scanty. 
On the ground. 

var. major (Massee) Rea. (= Inocybe Rennyi B. & Br. var. major 

Massee.) Cke. Illus. no. 442, t. 520, fig. B, as Inocybe Rennyi 

B. & Br. var. Major, larger. 

Differs from the type in its larger size, and slightly nodulose spores, 

13-17 x 10/Lt. Fir woods. Nov. 

603. A. sabuletorum (B. & Curt.) Rea. (= Inocybe sabuletorum B. & 
Curt., and Inocybe lanuginosa Fr. sec. Bataille.) 

Sabuletorum, of sandy places. 

P. 1-3 cm., umber, at length becoming yellowish, slightly fleshy, con- 
vex, then expanded, obtuse, or somewhat umbonate, velvety, the pile 
becoming matted together into little squamules, which stand erect at the 
disc. St. 2-4 cm. x 6-8 mm., concolorous, tough, equal, fibrillosely 
squamulose, or downy, apex white mealy. Gills clay colour, then fer- 
ruginous, sinuate, or separating free, thin, ventricose; edge white, 
minutely fimbriate. Flesh concolorous. Spores ferruginous, angular, 
9-10 x 6-7 p. Cystidia fusoid, or ventricose, 45-50 x 12-15/z, some- 
what scanty. Woods. July Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

604. A. fulva Rea. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. vi, t. 7. Fulvus, tawny. 
P. 3-4 cm., tawny, darker at the disc, fleshy, convex, then expanded, 

longitudinally adpressedly fibrillose; margin thin. St. 5-6 cm. x 5- 



ASTROSPORINA 213 

6 mm., concolorous, apex lilac colour becoming pale, equal, slightly 
attenuated at the base, fibrillosely striate. Gills white, then ochraceous, 
margin whitish, sinuato-adnate, 6-7 mm. broad, somewhat crowded. 
Flesh white, becoming reddish in the stem, thin. Spores deep ochraceous, 
oblong, angular, 10 x 5-G-5//,. Cystidia hyaline, bladder-like, obtuse, 
42 x 20/A, thin walled, often slightly granular at the apex. Bare 
ground in frondose woods. Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

605. A.fulvella (Bres.) Rea. (= Inocybe fulvella Bres.) Trans. Brit. 
Myc. Soc. n, t. 8, as Inocybe fulvella Bres. Fulvus, tawny. 

P. 6-12 mm., olivaceous honey colour with the umbo somewhat darker, 
then becoming yellowish, or fuscous olive with the umbo tawny, conico- 
campanulate, then expanded, and umbonate, flocculosely silky, 
glabrous at the centre, somewhat hygrophanous. St. 2-3 cm. x 1- 
2 mm., lilac, soon changing to rufescent, attenuated downwards, apex 
white-pruinose. Gills lilac, then cinnamon, rounded behind, and 
almost free, ventricose, 1-5 mm. wide, subdistant, edge fimbriate. 
Flesh yellowish, lilac at the apex of the stem and then rufescent. Spores 
ferruginous, angular, warted, 7-9 x 5-6/A. Cystidia fusiform, ventri- 
cose, 45-60 x 10-18/A, somewhat fuscous at the apex. Amongst moss. 
Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

606. A. Bucknallii (Massee) Rea. (= Inocybe Bucknallii Massee.) 
Annals of Bot. xvm (1904), t. 32, figs. 5, 6, as Inocybe Bucknalli 
Massee. Cedric Bucknall, the Bristol mycologist. 

P. 12 cm., brownish, campanulato-convex, fibrillose, disc with a 
few squamules. St. 2-4 cm. x 2 mm., concolorous, equal, or slightly 
thickened at the base, fibrillose. Gills rusty-brown, adnexed, thick, 
rather distant, edge minutely fimbriate. Spores irregularly oblong, 
15-17 x 89/1,, angular, apiculate at one end. Basidia clavate, ex- 
ceptionally large, 70-80 x 16-18ju,, 4-spored. Cystidia on edge of 
gill only, clavate, 75-85 x 15-20/x, thin walled. Under bushes. 
Autumn. Rare. 

607. A. petiginosa (Fr.) Rea. (= Hebeloma petiginosum Fr., Inocybe 
petiginosa (Fr.) Quel.) Fr. Icon. t. 114, fig. 4, as Hebeloma peti- 
ginosum Fr. Petiginosa, scurfy. 

P. 1-2 cm., fuscous at the gibbous, naked disc, hoary-silky with 
superficial, closely adpressed fibrils at the circumference, when old 
rufescent, or becoming yellow, slightly fleshy, conical, then convex, 
somewhat umbonate. St. 2-55 cm. x 2 mm., brick rufescent, be- 
coming fuscous, tough, equal, or slightly attenuated at the base, 
white pulverulent. Gills light yellow, then olivaceous-date-brown, beauti- 
fully ciliated under a lens, at first slightly adnexed, soon free, ventri- 
crowded. Flesh cream colour, rufescent in the stem. Spores 






214 ASTROSPORINA. TRICHOLOMA 

olivaceous, angular, warted, oblong, 8-9 x 5-6 /z. Cystidia fusiform, 
48-65 x 9-10/i. Beech woods. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

II. No cystidia. 

608. A. margaritispora (Berk.) Eea. (= Inocybe margaritispora Berk.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 432, t. 505, as Inocybe margaritispora. 

Hapyapirris, a pearl; (nropd, seed. 

P. 3-5 cm., fawn colour, or pale yellowish-brown, campanulate, then 
expanded and broadly umbonate, undulating, silky, clad with ad- 
pressed fibrillose scales. St. 6-10 cm. x 5-8 mm., pallid, equal, fibril- 
lose. Gills pallid, reaching the stem, scarcely adnate. Flesh yellowish. 
Spores ochraceous, coarsely warted, subglobose, 8/z. On the ground. 
Oct. Rare. 

III. No record given in the diagnosis whether cystidia 
are present or not. 

609. A. plumosa (Bolt.) Rea. (= Inocybe plumosa (Bolt.) Fr.) Boud. 
Icon. t. 118, as Inocybe plumosa (Bolt.) Fr. 

Plumosa, feathered. 

P. 3-5 cm., dark fuliginous, campanulate, then expanded, umbo- 
nate, fibrillose, squamulose with recurved scales especially at the darker 
disc. St. 4-6 cm. x 48 mm., concolorous, squamulosely fibrillose, apex 
naked. Gills concolorous, adnate, fairly wide. Flesh pallid, concolorous 
under the pellicle of the pikus and stem. Spores olivaceous, or fuliginous, 
angular, 8-12 x 5-7 /A. Pine woods. Aug. Nov. Uncommon. 

A. leucocephala (Boud.) Rea. (= Inocybe leucocephala Boud.) Massee 
makes this a synonym for Astrosporina infida (Peck) Rea, but 
this requires confirmation. 

A. hiulca (Fr.) Rea. (= Inocybe hiulca (Fr.) Bres.) This Astrosporina 
has erroneously been recorded as British, but the specimens 
should have been referred to Inocybe Godeyi Gill. 

***Gills sinuate. 

Spores white. 

Tricholoma Fr. 

(6pi%, hair; Xw/ia, fringe.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular, margin incurved. Stem central, fleshy. Gills 
sinuate, sinuato-adnate, or decurrent by a tooth. Spores white, 
rarely pinkish, or yellowish in the mass ; elliptical, oval, pip-shaped, 
globose, subglobose, or oblong; smooth, punctate, verrucose, or 
echinulate, continuous. Cystidia present, or absent. Growing on the 
ground, very rarely on wood, sometimes forming large rings. 



TRICHOLOMA 215 

A. P. viscid, fibrillose, scaly or pubescent. 
(a) Gills not changing colour. 

610. T. equestre (Linn.) Fr. Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 24, figs. 1-12. 

Equestre, belonging to the order of knights. 

P. 7-5-12-5 cm., pale yellowish, sulphur-olive, olivaceous, brick 
rufescent, disc and innate squamules darker, becoming fuscous, com- 
pactly fleshy, unequal, convex, then plane, very obtuse, flexuoso- 
repand, viscid. St. 2-55 x 1-52-5 cm., sulphur-yellow, hard, squamu- 
lose. Gills sulphur-yellow, or sulphur-olive, emarginate, or rounded, 
scarcely adnexeu, broad, somewhat ventricose, crowded. Flesh 
whitish, yellow under the cuticle of the p., thick. Spores white, ellip- 
tical, 6 x 3/z. "Cystidia on edge of gill cylindrical-clavate, 30- 
36 x 10-14^, filled with yellow juice" Rick. Taste pleasant. Edible. 
Pine woods. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

611. T. cdryphaeum Fr. Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 76. 

tcopv(f)aio<>, a leader. 

P. 512 cm., yellowish, disc darker, punctate with brown squamules, 
fleshy, ccnvexo-campanulate, then plane, sometimes broadly umbo- 
nate, somewhat viscid, soon dry. St. 57 x 1 cm., white, tinged with 
yellow in the middle, apex white mealy, base obclavate, or fusiform and 
somewhat rooting. Gills white with a yellow margin, often grey at the 
base, sometimes connected by veins, emarginate, crowded, broad. 
Flesh white, citron-yellow under the epidermis, thick. Spores white, 
subglobose, 5-6 x 4-5ju,, 1-guttulate. Taste somewhat bitter. Beech 
woods. Sept. Nov. Rare, (v.v.) 

612. T. sejunctum (Sow.) Fr. Sow. Eng. Fung. t. 126. 

Sejunctum, separated. 

P. 7 -5-10 cm., light yellow, streaked with innate fuscous fibrils, con- 
vex, then expanded, gibbous, viscid in wet weather; margin yellowish, 
or white, villous, becoming torn. St. 6-12-5 x 1-5-2-5 cm., white, 
tinged with yellow, ventricose, then elongated, apex delicately squamu- 
lose. Gills shining white, sometimes tinged with yellow, emarginate, 
broad, subdistant. Flesh white, yellowish under the cuticle of the p. 
and in the St., fragile. Spores white, subglobose, 5-7 p. Smell of new 
meal. Taste slightly bitter. Mixed woods, especially oak, and pine. 
Sept. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

613. T. portentosum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 24, upper figs. 

Portentosum, monstrous. 

P. 7-5-12-5 cm., fuliginous, livid, sometimes violaceous, streaked with 
black, innate fibrils, fleshy, convexo-plane, subumbonate, unequal, 
repand, viscid. St. 7-5-15 x 2-5 cm., white, becoming tinged with 
sulphur-yellow, or greenish glaucous, equal, sometimes attenuate- 



216 TRICHOLOMA 

rooted at the villous base, fibrillosely striate. Gills white, becoming 
straw colour, or glaucous, rounded, almost free, broad, distant. Flesh 
white, often tinged with yellow or greenish, very thin at the margin of the 
p., fragile. Spores white, elliptical, 4-5 x 3/n, 1-guttulate. Taste 
pleasant. Edible. Pine, and fir woods. Sept. Nov. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

614. T. fucatum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 24, lower figs. Fucatum, painted. 
P. 5-10 cm., lurid yellow, or cinereous light yellow, variegated with 

bistre, tiger-like spots, disc darker, fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse, often 
irregular, viscid, soon dry. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 8-12 mm., straw colour, 
streaked with fibrils that become blackish, apex white, pruinose, fragile, 
subequal. Gills whitish, deeply emarginate, 6-10 mm. broad, some- 
what crowded, fragile. Flesh yellowish, thin, fragile. Spores white, 
"subglobose, 5-6 x 5/u," Rick. Pine woods. Sept. Nov. Un- 
common. 

615. T. quinquepartitum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 25. 

Quinque, five; partitum, divided. 

P. 5-7-5 cm., pallid light yellow, margin paler, fleshy, convex, then 
plane, obtuse, umbonate, repand, viscid, fragile. St. 6-10 cm. x 12- 
15 mm., white, or whitish, equal, or attenuated upwards, striate. Gills 
white, emarginate, 12 mm. broad, not crowded. Flesh white, fragile, 
thin at the margin. Spores "5-6 x 3-4/u," Sacc. Taste mild. Pine 
woods. Oct. Nov. Rare. 

616. T. resplendens Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 29, upper figs. 

Resplendens, shining brightly. 

Entirely shining white, becoming yellowish externally and internally. 
P. 5-10 cm., silvery shining when dry, often with hyaline spots, disc 
becoming yellow, fleshy, convex, then flattened, obtuse, viscid ; margin 
straight, thin. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 12-15 mm., equal, or subbulbous, 
sometimes curved, apex slightly flocculose. Gills emarginate, some- 
what crowded, 6-8 mm. broad, equally attenuated in front. Spores 
white, elliptical, 8 x 4/i. "Cystidia on edge of gill basidia-like, 30- 
36 x 8-9/z" Rick. Smell pleasant, taste mild. Beech, and hazel 
woods. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

617. T. spermaticum (Paul.) Fr. (= Tricholoma columbetta Fr. sec. 

Quel.) Gillet, Hym. t. 62. (nreppa, semen. 

Entirely white. P. 4-9 cm., somewhat fleshy, convex, then flattened, 
obtuse, repand, viscid, shining when dry, and often becoming yellow- 
ish; margin involute. St. 5-9 x 1-5-2 cm., twisted. Gills emarginate, 
subdistant, eroded. Spores white, elliptical, 6-8 x 5-6/u, verrucose. 
Smell strong, taste unpleasant. Oak, and fir woods. Sept. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 



TBICHOLOMA 217 

(6) Gills changing colour, generally with reddish spots. 
T. colossum Fr. = Armillaria colossa (Fr.) Boud. 

618. T. nictitans Fr. (= Tricholoma acerbum Bull. sec. Quel.) Hussey, 

Illus. Brit. Myc. n, t. 46. Nictitans, winking. 

P. 5-6 cm., brownish red, becoming yellow, disc darker, fleshy, convex, 
then flattened, obtuse, viscid. St. 7-5 cm. x 12 mm., pallid light 
yellow, equal, or attenuated upwards, base truncate, elastic, dry, apex 
squamulose. Gills light yellow, rufescent spotted when old, rounded 
adnexed, crowded, rather broad, subventricose. Flesh white, thin. 
Spores white, "elliptical, 7-8 x 5/i" Massee. Taste pleasant. Mixed 
woods. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

619. T. ful vellum Fr. Fulvus, tawny. 
P. 2-5-8 cm., pale yellowish rufescent, or tan colour, fleshy, convex, 

then plane, viscid, disc darker, dotted wrinkled. St. 4-7-5 x 1 cm., 
whitish rufescent, fibrillose, apex naked. Gills white, then rufescent, 
rounded, then emarginate, crowded. Flesh often more or less yellow. 
Spores white, "subglobose, 4-5 /z" Massee. Beech woods. Oct. 
Nov. Rare. 

620. T. aurantium (Schaeff.) Fr. (= Armillaria aurantia (Schaeff.) 

Fr. Hym. Eur.) Fr. Icon. t. 27, upper figs., as Armillaria 

aurantia Schaeff. Aurantium, orange coloured. 

P. 5-8 cm., rusty orange colour, disc often darker, fleshy, convex, 

then plane, obtuse, viscid, obsoletely innato-squamulose, or almost 

smooth. St. 6-8 x 1-1-5 cm., concolorous with concentric, orange 

scales, apex white, mealy, equal, or slightly attenuated upwards. Gills 

white, then tinged with rufous, emarginate, adnexed, crowded, 4 mm. 

broad. Flesh white, reddish in the st. Spores white, elliptical, 6- 

7 x 4-5/i, 1-guttulate. Smell very pleasant. Taste bitter. Edible. 

Coniferous woods. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

621. T. fulvum (DC.) Fr. (= Tricholoma flavo-brunneum Fr. Hym. 
Eur.) Fr. Icon. t. 26, upper figs., as Tricholoma flavo-brunneum Fr. 

Fulvum, tawny. 

P. 7-5-15 cm., reddish brown, or rufous tawny with a darker disc, 
fleshy, conico-convex, then flattened, broadly gibbous, viscid, streaked 
with fibrils, or innately squamulose. St. 7-5-12-5 cm. x 12 mm., 
rufescent, or becoming fuscous, streaked with rufous fibrils, attenuated 
at both ends, equal only when smaller, viscid at first, apex naked. Gills 
light yellow, spotted rufous when old or touched, emarginate, decurrent 
by a tooth, crowded. Flesh white, sulphur-yellow in the stem. Spores 
white, elliptical, 5-6 x 3-4 /u, 1-guttulate; "basidia on edge of gill filled 
with yellowish juice" Rick. Smell of new meal, or rancid. Decidu- 
ous woods, and heaths under birches. Sept. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 



218 TBICHOLOMA 

622. T. albobrunneum (Pers.) Fr. (= Tricholoma striatum (Schaeff.) 

Quel.) Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 27, figs. 7-11. 

Albus, white; brunneum, brown. 

P. 7-5-10 cm., rich brown, or chestnut, fleshy, compact only at the 
papillose disc, campanulate, then hemispherical, viscid, streaked with 
innate fibrils; margin incurved, often wrinkled-crenate. St. 4-5 x 2-5- 
4 cm., rufescent, constantly white at both ends, equal, dry, apex white mealy. 
Gills white, becoming pale, or rufescent, rounded emarginate, scarcely 
crowded, very broad, 6 mm. and more wide, firm. Flesh white, scissile. 
Spores white globose, or elliptical, 4-6 x 4/x, 1-guttulate. Taste mild. 
Edible. Coniferous woods. Sept. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

623. T. irregulare Karst. In, not; regulare, regular 
P. 10 cm., pale, tinged tawny rufous, convex, then expanded, very 

irregular, rather viscid, fibrillosely virgate. St. 6-9 x 1-5-3 cm., white, 
equal, curved, apex fiocculose. Gills white, then reddish, or spotted, 
emarginate. Flesh white. Spores white, subglobose, 3-4 x 2-3/it. 
Smell strong of meal. 

624. T. ustale Fr. Gonnerm. & Rabenh. t. 14, fig. 2. Ustale, burnt. 
P. 3-8 cm., bay brown rufous, disc darker, fleshy, not compact, 

hemispherico-expanded, umbonate at first, soon plane, obtuse, viscid, 
smooth. St. 5-7 cm. x 12 mm., rufescent, apex whitish, equal, some- 
what rooted, dry, fibrillose, often rufous scaly downwards. Gills white, 
at length rufescent, emarginate, with a small decurrent tooth, crowded, 
rather broad. Flesh white, becoming reddish in places when broken. 
Spores white, subglobose, 5 x 4-5/x, 1-guttulate. Taste bitter. Pine 
woods, and under larches. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

625. T. pessundatum Fr. Holland, Champ, t. 21, no. 39. 

Pessundatum, ruined. 

P. 6-9 cm., bay brown, or rufescent, paler or whitish at the margin, 
compactly fleshy, convex, then expanded, very obtuse, granulate, or 
guttato-spotted, viscid. St. 5-7-5 x 2-5 cm., white, covered with small, 
brownish granules, bulbous at first, then somewhat equal. Gills white, 
then rufescent, deeply emarginate, somewhat free, crowded. Flesh 
white. Spores white, globose, 5/x, 1-guttulate. Smell of new meal, 
taste acid, and bitter. Edible. Fir woods, heaths, and pastures. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

626. T. stans Fr. (= Tricholoma striatum Schaeff. sec. Quel.) Fr. 

Icon. t. 28, as Tricholoma pessundatum Fr. Stans, standing. 

P. 7-12 cm., rufescent, compact, convex, then flattened, smooth, 

viscid. St. 5-7-5 x 1-5-2 cm., whitish, tinged rufescent, squamulose, 

somewhat equal. Gills whitish, stained reddish on the margin, rounded 

behind, crowded. Flesh reddish under the cuticle. Spores white, 



TRICHOLOMA 219 

elliptical, 7-8 x 5/z, 1-guttulate. Smell of new meal. Pine woods. 
Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

T. russula (Schaeff.) Fr. = Hygrophorus rassula (Schaeff.) Quel. 
T.frumentaceum (Bull.) Fr. = Hygrophorus russula (Schaeff.) Quel. 
B. P. never viscid; torn into scales, or fibrillose. 
(a) Gills not changing colour. 

627. T. rutilans (Schaeff.) Fr. Holland, Champ, t. 18, no. 32. 

Rutilans, becoming reddish. 

P. 520 cm., yellow, densely covered with granular, purplish downy 
scales, fleshy, campanulate, then convex and flattened, often umbo- 
nate. St. 6-9 x 1-2-5 cm., light yellow, besprinkled with purple, 
squamulose flocci, bulbous, then ventricose. Gills sulphur-yellow, 
sinuato-adnate, crowded, broad; margin thickened, obtuse, floccose. 
Flesh light yellow, golden when broken, soft, thick. Spores white, 
globose, or elliptical, 5-8 x 4-7 /i. Cystidia "on edge of gill, clavate, 
or clavate-capitate, rarely fusiform, 60-175 x 20-36/1," Kick. Taste 
mild. Poisonous. Stumps of conifers. Aug. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

628. T. variegatum (Scop.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 1117, t. 642. 

Variegatum, variegated. 

P. 4-6 cm., yellowish, covered with purple-reddish flocci, slightly 
fleshy, fragile, convex, then flattened. St. 5-6 x -5 cm., yellowish, 
equal, curved, sometimes bulbous, rarely sprinkled with purple red- 
dish flocci, generally smooth. Gills light yellowish white, adnate, narrow, 
crowded, thin. Flesh pallid, yellowish in the st. Spores white, sub- 
globose, 7 x 6/i, with a large central gutta. On rotten wood, and pine 
stumps. June Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

629. T. decorum (Fr.) Quel. (= Pkurotus decorus Fr. Hym. Eur., 

Clitocybe decora Fr. Icon. t. 60, upper figs., Tricholoma rutilans 

(Schaeff.) Fr. sec. Dumee). Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. n, t. 10, 

as Pleurotus decorus Fr. Decorum, beautiful. 

P. 5-12 cm., yellow, covered with linear, bistre fibrils that become 

black with age, fleshy, brittle, convex, then expanded, or depressed, 

often excentric. St. 6-10 x 1-5-2 cm., concolorous, covered with fibrils 

that blacken with age, equal, slightly enlarged at the base, often twisted. 

Gills golden yellow, adnate, or sinuato-adnate, 5-10 mm. broad, 

crowded, often separating from the p. when old, edge uneven. Flesh 

pale yellow, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 6 x 4-5/tt, with a large 

central gutta. Taste bitter. Stumps of conifers. Sept. Oct. Un- , 

common, (v.v.) 

630. T. centurio Kalchbr. (= Tricholoma molybdinum (Bull.) Quel., 

Clitocybe ampla Pers. sec. Quel.) Kalchbr. Icon. t. 4, fig. 2. 

Centurio, captain. 
P. 7-5-12-5 era., fuscous, then livid, acorn-shaped, then campanulate, 



220 TRICHOLOMA 

strongly umbonate, at length expanded, and somewhat repand, cuticle 
breaking up into adpressed fibrils ; margin splitting. St. 7-10 x 5 cm., 
white, ventricose, obsolet ely fibrillose. Gills pallid, deeply emarginate, 
almost free, 6-8 mm. wide, scarcely crowded. Flesh white, thick. 
Spores white, globose, minute. Taste mild. Pine woods. Sept. 
Oct. Rare. 

631. T. luridum (Schaeff.) Fr. Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 31, 

figs. 48. Luridum, lurid. 

P. 10 cm., lurid, becoming yellow cinereous, sometimes light yellow, 
disc darker, convex, then plane, obtuse, somewhat repand, irregularly 
shaped, dry, the cuticle breaking up into free, brown fibrils ; margin 
fimbriate. St. 5-7-5 x 1-2-5 cm., whitish or yellowish, unequal, fibril- 
lose. Gills whitish, or glaucous, then greyish, emarginate, broad, very 
crowded. Flesh whitish, soft, fibrous. Spores white, "elliptical, 12 x 7- 
8/A, 1-guttulate" Bat. Smell of new meal. Taste mild. Fir woods. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

632. T. guttatum (Schaeff.) Fr. (= Tricholoma amarum (A. & S.) 

Quel., Tricholoma gentianeum Quel.) Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. 

t. 31, figs. 9-12. Guttatum, spotted. 

P. 7-5-12 cm., cinnamon, or pale yellowish, disc darker, fleshy, con- 
vex, then flattened, broken up into granular, or fioccose squamules ; 
margin involute at first, white fioccose, remotely sulcate. St. 5-8 
x 1-5 cm., white, subequal, mealy. Gills snow-white, emarginate, de- 
current in the form of lines, very crowded. Flesh white. Spores white, 
elliptical, 4-6 x 3/n. Smell and taste bitter, somewhat acrid. Woods. 
Oct. Uncommon. 

633. T. truncatum (Schaeff.) Quel. (= Hebeloma truncatum (Schaeff.) 

Fr.) Boud. Icon. t. 26. Truncatum, maimed. 

P. 5-10 cm., somewhat rufous, or yellowish tawny, convex, then de- 
pressed, undulato-repand, very irregular, smooth, then minutely floe- 
cose; margin whitish, or flesh colour, lobed, incurved, pruinose. St. 
4-9cm. x S-\Om.m., white, equal, firm, pruinoselytomentose. Gillscmm 
colour, then flesh colour, emarginate with a tooth, narrow, often crisped, 
branched and anastomosing. Flesh white, firm. Spores yellowish in the 
mass, uncoloured under the microscope, elliptical, 5-8 x 3-4/it. Smell 
weak. Taste somewhat bitter. Edible. Fir, and deciduous woods. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

634. T. psammopum Kalchbr. Kalchbr. Icon. t. 3, fig. 2. 





^, sand; TTOU?, foot. 
P. 3-5 cm., tawny brown, fleshy, campanulate, then convex, obtuse, 
or slightly umbonate, minutely fibrillosely squamulose, or smooth. St. 
5-7 x 1-5 cm., concolorous, equal, or ventricose, attenuated at the base, 



TRICHOLOMA 221 

granularly punctate from, the breaking up of the epidermis, apex white. 
Gills straw, or flesh colour, emarginate, adnate by a tooth, ventricose, 
subdistant, 4 mm. broad. Flesh white, or whitish, firm. Spores white, 
subglobose, 4-5 x 3-4/>i, 1-guttulate. Taste mild, then slightly bitter. 
Coniferous woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

635. T. amarum (A. & S.) Quel. (= Clitocybe amara Fr., Tricholoma 
guttatum Schaeff., and Tricholoma gentianeum Quel. sec. Quel.) 

Amarum, bitter. 

P. 5-8 cm., rufescent, or becoming fuscous, then becoming pale whitish, 
fleshy, pliant, convex, then flattened, obtuse, often unequal, and 
Tepaud,fibrittosely-silky, becoming smooth and rivulose; margin paler, 
or whitish, thin, involute at first, tomentose. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 12 mm., 
white, equal, attenuated at the white floccose base, tough, elastic, 
firm, tomentose, often striate. Gills white, adnato-decurrent, or 
sinuate, crowded, thin, 4 mm. broad. Flesh white, compact. Spores 
white, subglobose, 6 x 5/u., 1-guttulate. Smell pleasant. Taste very 
bitter. Woody places, and hedgerows. Sept. Nov. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

636. T. opipamm (Fr.) Quel. (= Clitocybe opipara Fr.) FT. Icon. 

t. 49, upper figs., as Clitocybe opipara Fr. var. major Fr. 

Opiparum, splendid. 

P. 5-10 cm., yellowish flesh colour, pale yellow, or rosy flesh colour, 
very fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, delicately flocculose at first, 
then very smooth, shining. St. 4-7 x 1-2 cm., white, often becoming dis- 
coloured, firm, equal, or slightly attenuated at the base, smooth. Gills 
white, adnate, or adnato-decurrent, equally attenuated behind, 
crowded, 6-8 mm. broad, often connected by veins. Flesh white, com- 
pact. Spores white, elliptical, 7-8 x 3-4/u,, 1-guttulate. Smell and 
taste very pleasant. Edible. Mossy places under trees. Oct. Nov. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

637. T. columbetta Fr. (= Eypophyllum spermaticum Paul. sec. Quel.) 

Fr. Icon. t. 29, lower figs. Columba, a pigeon. 

Entirely shining white, occasionally spotted with red or blue. P. 
5-10 cm., disc sometimes greyish, fleshy, convex, then flattened, ob- 
tuse, flexuose, dry, at first smooth, then silky-fibrillose, becoming even, 
or squamulose; margin incurved, tomentose. St. 7-510 x 2-5 cm., 
equal, or unequal, sometimes attenuated at the base, often fibrillosely 
striate and tinged with bluish green towards the base. Gills somewhat 
emarginate, almost free, 4-6 mm. broad, often subserrulate. Flesh 
white, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 6-7 x 3-4/x, 1-guttulate. Smell 
and taste pleasant. Edible. Woods, and pastures. Aug. Nov. Not 
uncommon, (v.v.) 



222 TRICHOLOMA 

638. T. scalpturatum Fr. (= Tricholoma argyraceum (Bull.) Quel.) 

Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 151. Scalpturatum, engraved. 

P. 5-7*5 cm., whitish, or greyish, becoming fuscous with the adpressed 
scattered, floccose, umber, or rufescent scales, fleshy, conical, then con- 
vex and flattened, often umbonate, floccose when young; margin 
fibrillosely tomentose. St. 3-7 cm. x 8-12 mm., whitish, equal, either 
thickened, or attenuated at the base, firm, adpressedly fibrillose. Gills 
white, or greyish white, becoming yellow, or spotted with yellow, emar- 
ginate, almost free, crowded, ventricose. Flesh whitish, becoming cine- 
reous, thin, slightly firm. Spores white, elliptical, 5-7 x 3-4/x, 1 
2-guttulate. Fir woods. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

(b) Gills rufescent, or becoming cinereous, edge often 
spotted red, or black. 

639. T. imbricatum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 30. 

Imbricatum, covered with tiles. 

P. 7-5-10 cm., rufous umber, torn into squamules except at the disc, 
fleshy, broadly convex, then flattened, and obtuse, very dry; margin thin, 
at first inflexed, pubescent, then naked. St. 4-5 x 2-5 cm., brownish, 
ventricose, base either conico-bulbous, or attenuated, adpressedly 
fibrillose, apex white, mealy. Flesh white, often becoming discoloured, 
firm, compact, thick. Spores white, subglobose, 4-5 x 3-5/i, with a 
large central gutta. Taste pleasant. Edible. Coniferous woods. Sept. 
Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

640. T. vaccinum (Pers.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 80, t. 60. 

Vaccinum, cow-like. 

P. 2-5-6 cm., rufous, torn up into floccose, squarrose, or when smaller, 
adpressed scales, fleshy, campanulate, then expanded, umbonate, dry; 
margin involute, very woolly, tomentose for a short distance on the p. 
over the base of the gills. St. 7-5-10 cm. x 8-16 mm., brownish, equal, 
thickened, or attenuated at the base, fibrillose, cortinote. Gills whitish, 
then spotted rufous, and at length rufescent, slightly sinuate, almost 
adnate, subdistant, 6-12 mm. broad. Flesh white, then reddish, firm, 
thick. Spores white, subglobose, 6-8 x 6-7 /A. Taste somewhat acrid. 
Coniferous woods. Aug. Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

T. immundum Berk. = Collybia fumosa (Pers.) Quel. 

641. T. inodermeum Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 1120, t. 945. 

t?, fibre; Sepyu.a, skin. 

P. 25 cm., fuscous becoming reddish, becoming torn up into fibrils, 
and variegated with radiating scales, slightly fleshy, conico-campanulate, 
acute, then rather convex and subumbonate. St. 7-8 cm. x 3-5 mm., 
whitish, becoming rufescent, firm, equal, scarcely fibrillose, apex white 
mealy. Gills white, becoming spotted red when touched, free, or slightly 



TRICHOLOMA 223 

adnexed, very broad, strongly ventricose, almost semicircular, distant. 
Flesh white, slightly reddening, thin, fibrous in the stem. Spores white, 
elliptical, obtuse at both ends, more rarely with a basal apiculus, 
7-9 x 4-5//,,3-4-guttulate. Coniferous woods. Aug. Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

642. T. unguentatum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 31, upper figs. 

Unguentatum, anointed. 

P. 5-10 cm., cinereous, or greyish brown, slightly fleshy, campanu- 
late, then expanded, umbonate, covered withfioccose, viscid squamules', 
margin at first inflexed, then spreading, smooth. St. 7-10 x 1-2-5 cm., 
grey, or white, equal, firm, laxly fibrillose. Gills dirty white, emarginate, 
crowded, very broad. Flesh white, firm. Pine woods. Sept. Rare. 

643. T. gausapatum Fr. Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 35, figs. 1-4. 

yava-aTrrjs, a shaggy woollen cloth. 

P. 5-7-5 cm., cinereous grey, fleshy, somewhat thin, bullate, or ob- 
tusely campanulate, then expanded, repand, densely tomentose with 
superficial, separating, silky, adpressed fibrils ; margin white, incurved, 
woolly. St. 5-6 x 1 cm., shining white, equal, blunt, laxly fibrillose, 
cortinate. Gills grey, emarginate, free, crowded, 4 mm. broad, edge 
often uneven. Flesh white, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 6-7 x 4-5 p. 
Woods, and grassy places. Sept. Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

644. T. terreum (Schaeff.) Fr. (= Tricholoma triste (Scop.) Quel.) 

Terreum, earthy. 

P. 4-8 cm., fuscous, mouse grey, bistre, or blackish, slightly fleshy, 
campanulate, then expanded, repand when larger, often umbonate, 
villous, for the most part floccoso-scaly, sometimes broken up into 
dark innate, adpressed, fibrils ; margin inflexed, naked. St. 5-8 cm. 
x 8-12 mm., white, or grey, equal, fioccosely fibrillose, apex white 
pruinose. Gills white, becoming cinereous, emarginate, subdistant, 
6 mm. broad, edge uneven. Flesh whitish grey, thin, soft, fragile, 
scissile. Spores white, broadly elliptical, 5-7 x 4-5ja, 1-guttulate. 
Taste slightly acid. Edible. Coniferous, and beech woods. Jan. 
Dec. Very common, (v.v.) 

var. atrosquamosum Chev. Cke. Illus. no. 85, t. 51. 

Ater, black; squama, a scale. 

Differs from the type in the small black squamules on the p. and in 
the apex of the stem having a few black squamulose points. Woods. Sept. 
Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

645. T. argyraceum (Bull.) Fr. (= Tricholoma scalpturatum Fr. sec. 

Quel.) Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 36, figs. 14-18. 

apyvpos, silver. 

P. 5-7 cm., whitish, or pale grey, covered with grey scales and fibrils, 
disc darker, often speckled with yellow, or bistre, convex, then plane, 



224 TRICHOLOMA 

subumbonate; margin white. St. 4-7 cm. x 8-12 mm., white,or greyish, 
equal, often covered with small, blackish scales. Gills whitish, often 
tinged with yellow, sinuato-adnate, crowded. Flesh greyish. Spores white, 
pip-shaped, or almond-shaped, 5-6 x 3-5-4/z, with a large central 
gutta. Beech, oak, and pine woods. Sept. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

646. T. chrysites (Jungh.) Gillet. ^pvcrLrr)^, like gold. 
P. 4-5 cm., brownish black, often stained yellowish, campanulate, 

then plane, umbonate, covered with floccose scales ; margin yellowish. 
St. 4-5 cm. x 8-12 mm., white, often tinged with yellow, equal, slightly 
fibrillose, base reddish. Gills white, stained yellowish, especially at the 
edge, sinuato-adnate. Flesh yellowish. Spores white, elliptical, 
6-7 x 4 /*. Pine woods, and under pines. Sept. Oct. Not un- 
common, (v.v.) 

var.. virescens Wharton. Cke. Illus. no. 1118, t. 641, as Tricholoma 

argyraceum Fr . var . virescens Cke . Virescens, becoming green . 

Differs from the type in the p., St., and gills becoming greenish. 
Woods. Sept. 

647. T. orirubens Quel. Quel. Jur. et Vosg. n, t. 1, fig. 2. 

Os, mouth; rubens, becoming reddish. 

P. 6-8 cm., grey, disc brownish black, fragile, convex, then plane, 
smooth and pruinose, then shaggy. St. 5-7 cm. x 8-12 mm., white, 
streaked with rose colour, more or less coloured blue, or greenish at the 
base, fusiform, fibrillose. Gills white, edge reddish, emarginate, distant, 
undulating. Flesh white. Spores white, elliptical, 8 x 6/i. Smell of 
new meal. Taste unpleasant. Woods. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

648. T. triste (Scop.) Fr. Triste, sad. 
P. 3-4 cm., dark grey, minutely scaly fibrillose, slightly fleshy, 

conico-campanulate, then convex and umbonate; margin involute, 
fibrillose, appendiculate with the white, arachnoid veil. St. 3-5 cm. x 5- 
12 mm., white, with a fuscous ring-like mark, the remains of the arach- 
noid veil, floccose, then smooth. Gills whitish becoming cinereous, 
emarginato-adnexed, narrow, subdistant. Flesh whitish, thin. Spores 
white, subglobose, 3-4 x 3/x, with a large central gutta. Under 
beeches. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 
T. ramentaceum (Bull.) Quel. = Armillaria ramentacea (Bull.) Fr. 

649. T. murinaceum (Bull.) Fr. Murinaceum, like mice. 
P. 510 cm., blackish brown, covered with darker, longitudinal fibres, 

and cracked, fleshy, convex, broadly umbonate, or gibbous; margin 
dark, incurved, woolly. St. 5-7 x 2-5 cm., concolorous, longitudinally 
streaked with blackish fibrils, thickened at the base. Gills white, then 
grey, deeply sinuate, very broad, fragile, often undulated and blackish 



TRICHOLOMA 225 

on the edge, distant. Flesh white, then greyish, thick. Spores white, 
elliptical, 6-8 x 4-5/n. Smell strong, unpleasant. Taste unpleasant. 
Mixed woods. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

650. T. squarrulosum Bres. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. n, t. 4. 

Squarrulosum, scaly. 

P. 4-8 cm., fuscous, densely covered with squarrose, blockish squamules, 
fleshy, convex, then expanded, dry; margin fibrillose, exceeding the 
gills. St. 4-5 cm. x 5-7 mm., concolorous, equal, or incrassated at 
the base, densely covered with blackish, fuscous squamules. Gills grey, 
becoming reddish when touched, sinuato-adnexed, almost free, 6-7 mm. 
broad, crowded. Flesh greyish, then white. Spores white, pip-shaped, 
7-8 x 4-5/u,, with a large central gutta. In pine, and oak woods. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

651. T. horribile Rea. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. n, t. 7. 

Horribile, terrible. 

P. 10-12 cm., fuscous, and densely covered with dark fuscous squa- 
mules, that become squarrose with age especially on the disc, the p. 
becoming tinged with a pink background at maturity, fleshy, convex, 
then expanded; margin thin exceeding the gills. St. 8-9 x 2cm., 
white, smooth, incrassated at the base. Gills whitish, then pinkish, 
emarginate, very broad, 2 cm. wide, crowded, edge uneven. Flesh 
white, becoming pinkish, everywhere covered with fuscous spots, which 
on the interior of the p. suggest that its squamules have been riveted 
through the depth of the flesh. Spores white, globose, 5/t. Under 
beech trees. Oct. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

C. Cuticle of the p. rigid, punctate-granulate, or broken 
up into glabrous squamules when dry. 
(a) Gills white, or pallid, not spotted. 

652. T. macrorhizum (Lasch) Fr. Kalchbr. Icon. t. 3, fig. 1, as Tricho- 

loma macrocephalum Schulz. pa/epos, long; pia, root. 

P. 20-30 cm., ochraceous, then darker, fleshy, compact, convex, then 
plane, depressed at the disc, at first smooth, then broken up in a 
tesselated manner. St. 1015 x 5-6 cm., whitish, ochraceous downwards, 
very minutely granular, ventricose, prolonged into a thick, blunt, white 
root, deeply sunk in the soil. Gills pallid, deeply emarginate, almost 
free, attenuated in front, scarcely crowded, 12-18 mm. broad. Flesh 
white, firm, becoming light yellow when broken. Spores white, "irregu- 
larly globose, Qfj, " Massee. Smell very unpleasant, corpse-like Taste 
unpleasant. Under oaks in pastures. Sept. Nov. Rare. 

653. T.compactumFr. Fr. Icon. t. 35, upper figs. Compactum, compact. 
P. 7-15 cm., cinereous-livid, fleshy, convex, then plane, smooth, 

dry, glabrous. St. 3-5 x 3 cm., white, attenuated upwards, smooth, 

15 






226 TRICHOLOMA 

polished. Gills yellow, rounded, subdistant. Flesh white, spongy, 
compact, softer in the stem. Spores white, "elliptical, 6-7 p,, guttu- 
late " Quel. Woods. Rare. 

654. T. cartilagineum Fr. non Bull. Fr. Icon. t. 33. 

Cartilagineum, cartilaginous. 

P. 5-7-5 cm., blackish, becoming black-dotted from the cuticle breaking 
up into minute granules, fleshy, rigid, convex then expanded, gibbous, 
undulated ; margin persistently incurved, pubescent at first. St. 2-5-5 
x 2-5 cm., shining white, firm but fragile, equal, polished. Gills white, 
then pale grey, emarginato-sinuate, crowded, moderately thin, 4 mm. 
broad. Flesh white, not compact, somewhat fragile. Spores white, 
elliptical, 5-6 x 4/n, with a large central gutta. Grassy places in woods, 
pastures, and under pines. Aug. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

655. T. tenuiceps Cke. & Massee. Cke. Illus. no. 1121, t. 1166. 

Tennis, thin; caput, head. 

P. 5-8 CTO.., fuliginous, fleshy at the disc, convex, obtuse, or some- 
times slightly gibbous, dry, granular. St. 7-5 x 2-5 cm., ochraceous 
white, tough, slightly attenuated upwards, minutely granular, base 
abrupt, furnished with long, spreading, cord-like mycelium. Gills white, 
adnexed, rounded behind, attenuated in front, 4 mm. broad, ventri- 
cose. Flesh white, thin at the margin. Spores white, globose, 6-7 /x,. 
Amongst grass under trees. July. Uncommon. 
T. loricatum Fr. = Clitocybe cartilaginea (Bull.) Bres. 

656. T. atrocinereum (Pers.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 31, lower figs. 

Ater, black; cinereum, ash-coloured. 

P. 3-4 cm., cinereous, disc prominent, darker, fleshy, convexo-plane, 
smooth, dry, becoming rimosely incised and revolute at the margin. 
St. 5-7-5 cm. x 8 mm., whitish, equal, slightly striate with longitudi- 
nally adpressed fibrils, apex naked. Gills hyaline white, free, or decur- 
rent with a tooth, or arcuato-adnexed, somewhat ventricose, thin, 
crowded. Flesh hyaline when moist, hygrophanous, fragile. Spores 
white, elliptical, 10 x 6-7 /u,, minutely punctate. Smell of new meal. 
Grassy ground, and coniferous woods. Aug. Oct. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

657. T. cuneifolium Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 91, t. 52, fig. B. 

Cuneus, a wedge ; folium, a leaf. 

P. 1-2-5 cm., fuscous, or livid, then grey, slightly fleshy, convex, 
then plane, obtuse, at length depressed, pruinose. St. 2-5-4 cm. x 4- 
6 mm., pallid, attenuated downwards, rarely equal, hollow, somewhat 
fibrillose, becoming smooth. Gills white, then greyish, ovate-wedge- 
shaped, very much attenuated behind, very broad in front, deeply 
sinuato-adnate, crowded, fragile, often connected by veins. Flesh 



TRICHOLOMA 227 

white, or greyish, very thin. Spores white, subglobose, 5-6 x 5/u,, 
minutely punctate, 1-guttulate. Smell of new meal. Taste pleasant. 
Edible. Pastures, lawns, and heaths. Aug. Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

var. griseo-rimosum (Batsch) Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 92, t. 261, as var. 
cinereo-rimosum Batsch. Griseus, grey; rimosum, full of cracks. 

Differs from the type in its larger size, and the concentrically rimose 
p. Generally abundant with the type, (v.v.) 

658. T. amplum (Pers.) Rea. (=Clitocybeampla(Peis.)FT.,Tricholoma 

molybdinum (Bull.) Quel., Tricholoma centurio Kalchbr. sec. 
Quel.) Fr. Icon. t. 53, as Clitocybe ampla Pers. Amplum, large. 

P. 10-20 cm., dark bistre, disc reddish, becoming greyish, fleshy, 
campanulate, then expanded, gibbous, minutely streaked with fibrils. 
St. 9-14 x 1-5-2 cm., white, equal, thickened at the base, firm, 
fibrillosely striate, apex mealy. Gills greyish, or yellowish, sinuato- 
adnate, 10-12 mm. broad, subdistant, margin often toothed. Flesh 
white, compact. Spores white, pip-shaped, 9 x 6/>t, 1-guttulate. 
Caespitose. Woods. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

(b) Gills becoming reddish, or cinereous, or spotted. 

659. T. saponaeeum Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 88. t. 91. Sapo, soap. 
P. 5-10 cm., fuscous livid, fleshy, convex, then flattened, obtuse, 

smooth, becoming cracked, and broken up into scales in dry weather, 
somewhat soapy when moist, margin thin, inflexed. St. 5-10 x 1-5- 
2 cm., pallid, often becoming reddish, often unequal, curved, base 
attenuated, often rooting. Gills white with a glaucous tinge, becoming 
spotted with red, uncinato-emarginate, distant, thin. Flesh white, 
often becoming reddish, firm. Spores white, elliptical, 5-6 x 3-4/ti, 
1-guttulate. Smell soapy. Deciduous, and pine woods. Aug. Nov. 
Very common, (v.v.) 

var. squamosum Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 89, t. 216, as var. "stipite 
squamuloso." Squamosum, scaly. 

Differs from the type in the st. being covered with darkish scales. 
Woods, (v.v.) 

var. sulphurinum Quel. Sulphurinum, sulphur coloured. 

Differs from the type in the canary yellow p. and the pale yellow st. 
and gills. Woods. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. atrovirens (Pers.) Quel. Ater, black; virens, becoming green. 
Differs from the type in the dark green p. covered with black squa- 
mules. Woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

T. crassifolium Berk. = Collybia crassifolia (Berk.) Bres. 

152 



228 TRICHOLOMA 

660. T. sudum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 34, lower figs. Sudum, dry. 
P. 6-9 cm., greyish rufous, or brownish, fleshy, convexo-plane, then 

reflexed, obtuse, often rimosely squamulose; margin paler. St. 6 
8 x 1-5 cm., whitish, tinged with reddish, slightly attenuated upwards, 
punctate with minute squamules, fibrillosely striate, apex dilated, base 
white floccose. Gills whitish, becoming reddish at the edge, deeply 
emarginate with a decurrent tooth, crowded. Flesh white, firm. Spores 
white, elliptical, 6 x 4/x, punctate. Grassy places in woods. Sept. 
Oct. Eare. 

661. T. tumidum (Pers.) Fr. Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 39, figs. 1-5. 

Tumidum, swollen. 

P. 7-5-9 cm., cinereous-livid, disc darker, variegated with tiger-like 
spots, subcartilaginous, irregularly shaped, bullate, then undulated 
when expanded, at length rimosely incised, shining when dry; margin 
tlnn,lobed. St. 7-5 x 1-5-2 cm., shining white, equal, sometimes swollen, 
stout, striate, often attenuated and rooting at the base. Gills shining 
white, then cinereous rufescent, emarginate, 12 mm. broad, thicker at 
the base, subdistant. Flesh white, often tinged reddish in the St., firm, 
rigid. Spores white, elliptical, 6-7 x 4/A, granular. Smell slight, 
pleasant. Moist pine woods. Sept. Nov. Uncommon. 

var. Keithii Phill. & Plowr. Rev. Dr J. Keith. 

Differs from the type in the cinereo-rufescent p., the dirty white st., 

with brownish innate fibrils, becoming tinged with red especially near the 

base, and in often having a strong smell of new meal. Pine woods. Oct. 

662. T. hordum Fr. Hordum, pregnant. 
P. 8 cm., grey, disc darker, soon cracking, and covered with minute, 

squarrose scales, slightly fleshy, campanulato-expanded, then plane, 
subumbonate, revolute, dry. St. 6-8 x 1-1-5 cm., whitish, or greyish, 
equal, striate. Gills white, becoming cinereous, emarginate, broad, 
subdistant. Flesh white, thin. Spores white, "subglobose, 10/x, with a 
large central gutta" Quel., "elliptical, 6-7 x 4-5 /u" Kick. Taste 
mild. Beech woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

663. T. virgatum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 34, upper figs. Virgatum, striped. 
P. 5-10 cm., grey-cinereous, umbo often darker, fleshy, rigid, convex, 

then flattened, subumbonate, very dry, streaked with fine black innate 
fibrils, or black squamules', margin straight, naked. St. 7-5-10 x 1- 
1-5 cm., whitish, or greyish, firm, equal, or tuberous at the very base, 
striate, sometimes squamulose. Gills white, then greyish, becoming 
hoary, broadly emarginate, 6-10 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh greyish 
white, becoming white in the st., thin. Spores white, broadly elliptical, 
67 x 4 5/z, punctate. Cystidia "on edge of gill clavate, 45 x 10- 
!3fjL, filled with darkish juice " Rick. Taste very bitter when young, 
then mild. Mixed, and pine woods. Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 



TBICHOLOMA 229 

664. T. elytroides (Scop.) Fr. eXvrpov, a cover; e'Sos, like. 
P. 6-9 cm., mouse grey, or brownish black, slightly fleshy, convex, 

then plane, obtuse, fragile, very dry, rough with crowded, erect minute 
granules, disc floccosely scaly, becoming hoary when old. St. 7- 
8x 1-1 -5 cm., white, becoming cinereous, attenuated downwards, 
covered with erect, light grey fibrils. Gills cinereous, then pruinose, 
deeply emarginate, very broad, somewhat thick, fragile, veined at 
the base. Flesh white, sometimes becoming reddish, thick at the disc. 
Spores white, 6-7 x 4-5 /z, or "5-6 x 3-5-4 p. " Sacc. Smell weak, of 
new meal. Grassy places. Oct. Rare. 

665. T. opicum Fr. Opicum, clownish. 
P. 2-5-3-5 cm., grey, or brownish grey, disc blackish, slightly fleshy, 

convex, then expanded, obtusely, or conically umbonate, at length 
split, revolute, very dry, smooth, then minutely squamulose; margin 
often white, or whitish. St. 47-5 x -5 cm., pallid, becoming cinereous, 
somewhat shining, equal, fibrillose, becoming smooth. Gills white, or 
slightly greyish, becoming hoary, broadly emarginate, ventricose, some- 
what thick, scarcely distant. Flesh greyish, very thin at the margin. 
Pine woods. Sept. Nov. Rare. 

D. P. at first slightly silky, soon becoming smooth, very dry. 
(a) Gills broad, rather thick, subdistant. 

666. T. sulphureum (Bull.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 96, t. 62. 

Sulphureum, sulphur coloured. 

P. 4-8 cm., sulphur yellow, disc dingy, or rufescent, fleshy, globose, 
then convexo-plane, subumbonate, at length depressed, unequal, silky, 
becoming smooth. St. 5-11 x 1 cm., concolorous, equal, often curved, 
striate. Gills sulphur yellow, adfixed, narrowed behind, arcuato- 
emarginate, rather thick, distant. Flesh yellow. Spores white, ellip- 
tical, 9-10 x 4 5/x. Smell pleasant, of gas tar. Oak, and mixed 
woods. Sept. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

667. T. bufonium (Pers.) Fr. Kalchbr. Icon. t. 39, fig. 1. Bufo, a toad. 
P. 3-7 cm., umber, fuscous tan, or tawny, disc rufescent, fleshy, con- 
vexo-plane, subumbonate, silky, becoming smooth, rugulose. St. 4- 
5 cm. x 8-14 mm., yellow, or tinged with red, equal, or attenuated 
at the base, fiocculose. Gills yellow tan, pallid, arcuato-subdecurrent, 
subdistant, margin often irregular. Flesh yellow. Spores white, 
elliptical, 7-8 x 5/x. Smell weak, of gas tar. Pine woods, and pastures. 
Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

668. T. lascivum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 38, upper figs. Lascivum, wanton. 
P. 5-9 cm., pallid tan, disc darker, fleshy, convex, then plane, 

obtuse, at length somewhat depressed, delicately silky, then smooth, 



230 TBICHOLOMA 

dry; margin at first involute. St. 7-5-11 x 1 cm., whitish, becoming 
discoloured, rigid, equal, fibrillose, apex white pruinose; base tomentose, 
white. Gills whitish, arcuato-adnexed, at length arcuato-decurrent, 
thin, crowded, broad. Flesh white, compact. Spores white, elliptical, 
67 x 4 5/Lt. Smell very pleasant, like that of the flowers of Syringa 
vulgaris according to Quelet. Deciduous woods. Sept. Nov. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 

var. robustum Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 99, t. 217. Robustus, strong. 

Differs from the type in being more robust, in the p. being almost 

white, and in there being scarcely any perceptible odour. Pastures. May. 

669. T. inamoenum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 38, lower figs. 

Inamoenum, unpleasant. 

P. 3-6 cm., dingy white, fleshy, convex, then flattened, subumbonate, 
very dry, slightly silky, then smooth, or cracked. St. 7-5-10 cm. x 6- 
12 mm., white, firm, equal, pruinose, villous. Gills shining white, 
emarginate with a decurrent tooth, or adnato-decurrent, plane, rather 
thick, very broad, very distant. Flesh white, firm, thick at the disc. 
Spores white, elliptical, 9-10 x 6-7 /n, with a large central gutta. 
Cystidia "clavate, with a prominent point, 33-40 x 9-12/i" Eick. 
Smell "pleasant, like honeysuckle " Quelet. Fir woods. Sept. Nov. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. insigne Massee. Insignis, striking. 

Differs from the type in the decurrent gills. 

670. T. interveniens Karst. Interveniens, intermediate. 
P. 8 cm., tan, becoming pale, fleshy, convexo-plane, then depressed, 

silky, then smooth, somewhat shining; margin involute, distantly 
rugulose. St. 11 x 1 cm., pallid, equal, fibrillose, apex pruinose, base 
tomentose, rooting. Gills becoming pale, arcuato-adnexed, crowded. 
Flesh watery. Spores white, oblong, attenuated at both ends, 6-7 x 2- 
2-5/z. Smell almost none. Mixed woods. Sept. Rare. 

(6) Gills thin, crowded, narrow. Small, inodorous. 

671. T. cerinum (Pers.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 39, upper figs. 

Cerinum, wax coloured. 

P. 3-5 cm., dingy wax colour, or becoming fuscous, fleshy, convex, 
then flattened, obtuse, at length depressed, very opaque, very dry, 
silky, then smooth; margin often paler. St. 4-6 cm. x 4-8 mm., light 
yellow, often fuscous at the base, equal, fibrillosely striate. Gills dark 
yellow, or wax colour, sinuato-adnexed, separating, horizontal, plane, 
very thin, very crowded, 2 mm. broad. Flesh white, thin, firm. Spores 
white, "2-3x2-3/i" Rick. Taste becoming bitter. Fir woods. 
July Oct. Rare. 



TRICHOLOMA 231 

672. T. fallax Peck. Fallax, deceptive. 
P. 2-5 cm., yellow, disc sometimes rufous, thin, convex, then ex- 
panded, rarely depressed at the centre, moist, smooth. St. 2-5 cm. 
x 3 mm., pale yellow, base sometimes narrowed. Gills white, then 
yellowish, adnexed, rounded behind, crowded. Flesh thin. Spores 
white, elliptical, 4-5 x 3/i. Under firs. Sept. Rare. 

673. T. onychinum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 39, lower figs. 

Onychinum, yellowish marble colour. , 

P. 4-6 cm., dingy purple, or reddish bay, fleshy, convexo-plane and 
umbonate, then expanded and obtuse, very dry, opaque; margin 
paler, somewhat silky, narrowly incurved, striate. St. 4-6 cm. x 4- 
8 mm., pallid, or yellow, apex becoming purple, then lilac, delicately 
fibrillosely silky, equal. Grills dark yellow, adnexed, then free, plane, 
horizontal, rounded behind, rather crowded, 24 mm. broad, unequal. 
Flesh white, becoming yellow, thin, firm. Spores white, ovoid, 4-5/u, 
punctate. Smell and taste pleasant. Under pines, and in fir woods. 
Sept. Oct. Rare. 

674. T. ionides (Bull.) Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 24. iov, violet; eZSo?, like. 
P. 3-6 cm., deep violet, becoming paler, fleshy, campanulato-convex, 

then plane, often umbonate, becoming smooth; margin incurved, 
pruinose. St. 3-6 cm. x 7-12 mm., paler violet, elastic, attenuated 
downwards, or thickened at the base, fibrillosely striate. Gills white, 
becoming yellowish, emarginate with a decurrent tooth, crowded, thin, 
6 mm. broad, edge uneven. Flesh white, tinted violet in the p., and at 
the base of the st. Spores white, elliptical, 5-6 x 3/x, 1-2-guttulate. 
Smell and taste pleasant. Edible. Moist woods, especially beech, 
and open pastures. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. pravum (Lasch) Fr. Pravum, deformed. 

Differs from the type in being smaller, thinner, and more fragile, and in 
its fuscous-reddish, fuscous-purple, lilac-reddish, or livid colour. Stoves. 
July. 

675. T. persicolor Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 25. Persicum, peach ; color, colour. 
P. 1-2 cm., ochraceous reddish yellow, convex, then flattened, slightly 

umbonate, hygrophanous, smooth. St. 3-4 cm. x 3-6 mm., con- 
colorous, equal, smooth. Gills whitish, tinged slightly with the colour of 
the p., sinuate, narrow, not crowded. Flesh concolorous. Spores white, 
elliptical, 4-5 x 3-3-5 /x. Pastures. Sept. Rare, (v.v.) 

676. T. carneum (Bull.) Fr. (= Tricholoma carneolum Fr. sec. Quel.) 

Fr. Icon. t. 40, fig. 2, as Tricholoma paeonium. 

Carneum, flesh coloured. 

P. 2-3 cm., red, then flesh colour, becoming pale, and shining, thin, 
slightly fleshy, hemispherical, then convex and regular, obtuse, at 



232 TRICHOLOMA 

length flattened and obtuse, often umbonate, smooth, dry. St. 
2-5 cm. x 4-6 mm., flesh colour, becoming pale, attenuated downwards, 
tough, almost cartilaginous, rigid, apex somewhat pruinose. Gills 
shining white, rounded, somewhat free, horizontal, very crowded, wider 
at the base, 2-3 mm. broad. Flesh white, thin. Spores white, ellip- 
tical, 5-6 x 2-3jLt. Pastures, heaths, and downs. July Oct. Com- 
mon, (v.v.) 

T. carneolum Fr. = Tricholoma carneum (Bull.) Fr. 

677. T. caelatum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 37, lower figs. Caelatum, engraved. 
P. 2-5-3 cm., fuscous, becoming pale grey when dry, slightly fleshy, 

convex, umbilicate, smooth, becoming flocculose and rimosely cracked. 
St. 2-5-3-5 cm. x 3-5 mm., concolorous, tough, elastic, equal, or 
slightly thickened at the pruinose apex. Gills dingy whitish, or grey, 
sinuato-adnate, with a small decurrent tooth, slightly arcuate, 
crowded. Flesh subfuscous, thin. Spores dingy white, elliptical, 
8 x 4/i. Cystidia "subulate, 40-60 x 5-6 p, filled with olive yellow 
juice " Rick. Woods, and downs. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

E. P. fleshy, soft, fragile, spotted, or rivulose. Vernal, 
(a) GUIs whitish. 

678. T. gambosum Fr. (= Tricholoma Georgii (L'Ecluse) Quel.) 

Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 41, figs. 1-7. Gamba, a hoof. 

P. 7-5-11 cm., ochraceous, or pale tan, fleshy, hemispherico-convex, 
then flattened, obtuse, undulated, repand, even, smooth, spotted as 
with drops, at length widely cracked; margin at first involute, tomentose. 
St. 5-10 x 1-3 cm., white, or ochraceous, firm, almost equal, often 
curved-ascending at the base; apex white, villous, striate from the 
decurrent tooth of the gills. Gills whitish, rounded, or emarginato- 
adnexed, with a subdecurrent tooth, sinuato-decurrent when old, 
ventricose, 4-6 mm. wide, crowded. Flesh white, thick, soft, fragile. 
Spores white, elliptical, 6-7 x 3-4/u,, 2-guttulate. Smell and taste 
strong, of new meal. Edible. Pastures, often forming large rings. 
April June. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

679. T. Georgii (Clus.) Fr. Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 41, figs. 8-11. 

Georgius, Saint George. 

P. 4-6 cm., ochraceous, then white, fleshy, convexo-plane, then 
somewhat repand, often gibbous, dry, slightly floccose; margin naked. 
St. 4-6 x 1-5-2 cm., whitish, or tinged yellowish, attenuated down- 
wards, fibrillose. Gills whitish, attenuato-adnexed, narrow, crowded. 
Flesh white, firm, thick. Spores white, elliptical, 56 x 3/j,. Taste 
and smell weak, of new meal. Edible. Woods, and open downs. 
April June. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 



TRICHOLOMA 233 

680. T. albellum Fr. Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 41, figs. 12-17. 

Albellum, whitish. 

P. 6-7 cm., yellowish, then whitish, becoming greyish when dry, 
fleshy, conical, then convex, gibbous when expanded, moist, spotted as 
with scales; margin thin, naked. St. 5-8 x 1-1-5 cm., concolorous, 
fibrillosety striate, often incrassated at the base. Gills white, then 
cream colour, attenuato-adnexed, broad in front, very crowded. Flesh 
white, thick at the disc, soft, floccose. Spores white, elliptical, 5- 
6 x 3/ji, 1-guttulate. Smell and taste weak, of new meal. Edible. 
Woods, and under yews. April June. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

681. T. boreale Fr. (= Tricholoma irinum (Fr.) Quel.) Fr. Icon. t. 41, 

upper figs. Boreale, northern. 

P. 57-5 cm., flesh colour, then whitish tan, fleshy, very variable in 
shape, convex, umbonate, unequal, often flexuose, smooth, cracked 
wlien dry, margin thin, involute, naked. St. 5-7-5 x 1 cm., paler than 
the p., attenuated downwards, often twisted and incurved, apex obso- 
letely pruinose. Gills whitish, emarginate with a decurrent tooth, thin, 
crowded. Flesh white, soft. Spores white, elliptical, 7-8 x 4 5/n. 
Smell of new meal. Grassy places in woods. June July. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

(b) Gills discoloured, rufescent, or smoky. 

682. T. amethystinum (Scop.) Fr. non Quel. 

Amethystinum, amethyst colour. 

P. 3-5 cm., livid, spotted with azure blue, fleshy, convexo-plane, 
obtuse, repand, smooth, even, moist; margin paler, wrinkled. St. 
35 x 11-5 cm., paler than the p., attenuated at the base. Gills white, 
then rufescent, subadnate, crowded. Spores white, "ovoid, 7/u, long " 
Sacc. Pine woods. Sept. Rare. 

T. tigrinum Fr. Icon, non Schaeff. = Hygrophorus camarophyllus 

(A. & S.) Fr. 

683. T. pes-caprae Fr. (= Clitocybe conglobata (Vitt.) Bres.) 

Pes, foot; capra, she-goat. 

P. 5-10 cm., grey, becoming fuscous, variegated, fleshy, conical, then 
expanded, umbonate, unequal, rimosely incised; margin thin, naked. 
St. 6-7 x 1 cm., white, equal or attenuated downwards, naked. Gills 
white, becoming cinereous, emarginate, very broad, 12-15 mm., at length 
distant. Flesh thick at the disc. Spores white, " 6 x 4 " Sacc. Smell 
of new meal. Edible. Open places under oaks. Oct. Nov. Kare. 
var. multiforme (SchaefE.) Cke. Schaeff. Icon. t. 14. 

Multiforme, many shaped. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size, and in the irregular thinner 
p. Lawns. Nov. Rare. 



234 TBICHOLOMA 

F. P. compact, then spongy, obtuse, even, smooth, moist, 

but not hygrophanous. 

(a) Gills not discoloured. 

684. T. Schumacher! Fr. Christian Friedrich Schumacher. 
P. 5-8 cm., cinereous livid, disc darker, becoming paler and whitish, 

fleshy, convex, then flattened, obtuse, regular, smooth, moist; margin 
exceeding the gills, inflexed. St. 7-10 cm. x 10-12 mm., white, equal, 
villous and sometimes ventricoso-bulbous at the base, slightly striate, 
fibrous. Gills white, or cream colour, emarginate, very crowded, plane, 
6-8 mm. broad. Flesh white, pinkish when broken, spongy, compact. 
Spores "elliptical, 9 x 6-7 /A, minutely punctate, glaucous" Quel. 
Taste mild. Woods, hot-houses. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

685. T. amicum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 36, upper figs. Amicum, friendly. 
P. 5-9 cm., fuscous, disc sometimes darker, not becoming paler when 

dry, fleshy, convex, then expanded, gibbous, very regular, smooth. 
St. 7-9 x 1-5 cm., white, attenuated upwards from the subbulbous 
base, fibrillosely striate, elastic. Gills shining white, deeply emarginate, 
almost free, distant, 6-8 mm. broad. Flesh white, brownish under the 
cuticle, thick at the disc, rather soft. Spores "elliptical, 6 x 4/*" 
Massee. Pine woods. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

686. T. circumtectum Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 1125, t. 1182. 

Circumtectum, covered round. 

P. 5-8 cm., olive, or dusky, disc tawny, fleshy, convex, very obtusely 
umbonate, or only obtuse, rarely becoming slightly depressed, crack- 
ing slightly when old; margin incurved, tomentose, wavy. St. 3- 
4 x 1-2 cm., whitish, firm, obclavate, or sometimes attenuated down- 
wards, striate. Gills white, slightly sinuate, adnexed, 34 mm. broad, 
scarcely crowded. Flesh white, thick. Spores white, subglobose, 
4-5 /u,. Taste pleasant. Bare ground under trees. Sept. Rare, (v.v.) 

687. T. patulum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 37, upper figs. Patulum, spread out. 
P. 4-12 cm., pallid cinereous, fleshy, firm, convexo-plane, obtuse, 

often repand, smooth. St. 4-6 x 1-3 cm., white, firm, equal, some- 
what elastic, smooth. Gills whitish, emarginate, almost free, crowded, 
fairly narrow, 4 mm. broad, plane, somewhat veined at the sides. 
Flesh white, thin, not compact. Spores white, elliptical, 8-9 x 4-5/Lt. 
Woods and pastures. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

688. T. oreinum Fr. opeivos, hilly. 
P. 3-9 cm., fuscous livid, fuliginous grey, or light bistre, becoming 

darker, convex, slightly gibbous, then globose, and plane; margin at 
first incurved, prolonged into a narrow membrane along the edge of the 
gill. St. 5-7 cm. x 4-12 mm., white, rigid, fibrillosely striate, apex 
floccosely mealy, base bulbous. Gills white, rounded, then free, crowded, 



TBICHOLOMA 235 

thin, 4-6 mm. broad. Flesh white, bistre under the cuticle. Spores 
white, elliptical, 7-9 x 5-6 JJL, minutely punctate. Cystidia lanceolate 
subulate, 25-30 x 4-6 /z, apex shaggy, 3/j, in diam. Taste pleasant. 
Edible. Heaths, and downs. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

689. T. album (SchaefE.) Fr. Album, white. 
Entirely white, or becoming yellowish at the disc. P. 5-12 cm., fleshy, 

convex, then flattened, becoming plane, obtuse, very dry, smooth; 
margin at first incurved, floccosely striate over the base of the gills. St. 
7-8 x 1-1-5 cm., elastic, attenuated upwards, subbulbous, apex 
slightly mealy. Gills emarginate, somewhat crowded, 8 mm. broad. 
Flesh white, thick, not compact, fibrous in the stem. Spores white, 
broadly elliptical, 6 x 4-5 /*, 1-guttulate. Smell pleasant, taste bitter. 
Poisonous. Mixed woods. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 
var. caesariatum Fr. Caesariatum, covered with hair. 

Differs from the type in being more slender, and in the silky fibrillose 
p. Shady beech woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

690. T. leucocephalum Fr. Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 33, figs. 8-13. 

Xeu/co?, white; ice$a\ri, head. 

P. 3-6 cm., white, disc sometimes becoming ochraceous, fleshy, thin, 
tough, convexo-plane, obtuse, or often umbonate, moist, smooth, 
when young covered with shining whitish, adpressed silky, at length 
separating villous down; margin acute, spreading, smooth. St. 4- 
6 cm. x 5-10 mm., white, subcartilaginous, polished, twisted, smooth, 
rooting at the attenuated base. Gills shining white, rounded-free, 
crowded, thin. Flesh watery, becoming whitish, thin, compact. Spores 
white, ovoid, 6-7 x 4-6/z, minutely echinulate, 1-guttulate. Smell 
pleasant, of new meal. Deciduous woods. Aug. Oct. Uncommon. 

(b) GiUs discoloured. 

691. T. acerbum (Bull.) Fr. (= Tricholoma nictitans Fr. sec. Quel.) 

Barla, Champ, t. 44, figs. 1-5. Acerbum, bitter. 

P. 7-12 cm., yellowish buff, becoming rufous at the disc, fleshy, con- 
vexo-expanded, smooth, moist; margin involute, viscid, tomentosely 
ribbed over the base of the gills. St. 5-9 x 2-3 cm., white, becoming 
yellowish, apex white, mealy, base generally bulbous, sometimes 
attenuated. Gills pallid, then rufescent, emarginate, crowded. Flesh 
white, compact, firm. Spores white, globose, 3-Afj,. Smell unpleasant, 
taste bitter. Edible. Woods and downs. Aug. Oct. Not un- 
common, (v.v.) 

692. T. luteocitrinum Rea. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. in, t. 8. 

Luteus, yellow; citrinus, citron. 

P. 2-7 cm., bright yellow, fleshy, campanulate, then expanded and 
gibbous, floccose, soon breaking up into adpressed, small squamules, 



236 TRICHOLOMA 

which become revolute and fibrillose with age ; margin citron yellow, 
involute. St. 6-7 x 1-2 cm., whitish, spotted with yellow, attenuated 
downwards. Gills whitish, becoming yellowish, sinuato-adnate, 4-5 mm. 
broad, somewhat crowded. Flesh whitish, citron yellow under the epi- 
dermis of the p., and dark yellow at the base of the stem. Spores white, 
elliptical, 6 x 4/x, 1-guttulate. Taste mild. Under larches. Sept. 
Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

693. T. militate (Lasch) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 112, t. 169. 

Militare, soldier-like. 

P. 10-17 cm., reddish cinnamon, fleshy, gibbous, then plane, or 
depressed, compact, flexuous, rather smooth, viscid ; margin involute, 
white, floccose. St. 7-12 x 2-2-5 cm., pallid, becoming stained with 
red, fibrillosely striate, base subbulbous. Gills whitish, or reddish, 
then livid-spotted, emarginate, somewhat crowded, torn, margin eroded. 
Flesh white, brownish, under the cuticle of the p. and in the centre of the 
stem, thick, compact, firm. Spores white, elliptical, 4-5 x 3/A, 1-guttu- 
late. Smell very strong, taste unpleasant. Woods. Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

694. T. civile Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 42, upper figs. Civile, citizen-like. 
P. 69 cm., tawny yellow, becoming paler, disc darker, fleshy, fragile, 

convexo-plane, obtuse, very smooth, moist, pellicle separable. St. 5- 
8 x 23 cm., whitish, fragile, attenuated upwards from the thickened 
base, fibrillose, or squamulose. Gills whitish, becoming yellowish, deeply 
emarginate, almost free, crowded, 6 mm. broad, very soft. Flesh 
whitish, soft, fragile, spongy. Spores white, elliptical, or pip-shaped, 
5-6 x 3fji. Smell none, or like hay according to Barla. Taste sweet, 
then astringent, and bitter. Woods. Oct. Nov. Rare. 

695. T. irinum Fr. (= Tricholoma boreale Fr. sec. Quel.) Trans. Brit. 

Myc. Soc. rv, t. 8. ipivov, belonging to the Iris. 

P. 5-12 cm., pale flesh colour, fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, 
moist, glabrous, sometimes obscurely virgate ; margin white, incurved, 
pruinose. St. 6-12 x 2-3 cm., paler than the p., subbulbous, striate, 
apex whitish, pruinose. Gills pale ochre, becoming somewhat lurid with 
age, sinuato-adnate, narrow, 5-6 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh tinted 
pale pink, then white, firm, thick, compact. Spores dirty pink, or 
yellowish in the mass, hyaline, elliptical, or pip-shaped, 7-9 x 4-5/i, 
1-guttulate. Smell very pleasant, like Iris, or Viola, according to 
Quelet. Taste mild. Edible. Pastures, and orchards. Sept. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

696. T. personatum Fr. (= Tricholoma amethystinum Quel. non Fr.) 

Cke. Illus. no. 113, t. 66. Personatum, masked. 

P. 6-15 cm., tan colour, fuscous, or whitish, very fleshy, thick, hemi- 
spherical, then convex and flattened, very obtuse, regular, at length 



TRICHOLOMA 237 

also repand, smooth, moist in rainy weather, opaque when dry; 
margin white, involute at first, exceeding the gills, pruinose. St. 
5-9 x 2-3 cm., whitish, covered with evanescent, Hue fibrils, equal, 
base often bulbous, firm, sometimes very short. Gills whitish, becoming 
discoloured, rounded, then free, broad, 10-15 mm., crowded. Flesh 
greyish when moist, white when dry, compact, then spongy-soft, thick. 
Spores white, elliptical, 7 x 5/z, 1-guttulate. Smell and taste pleasant. 
Edible. Forming large rings in pastures. Sept. Dec. Common. 
(v.v.) 

697. T. saevum Gillet. Saevum, wild. 
P. 6-9 cm., pale tawny, or tan colour, sometimes tinted with violet, 

compact, fleshy, convex; margin incurved, exceeding the gills. St. 
3-5 x 1-5-2 cm., lilac, or violaceous, apex paler, base white, slightly 
squamulose, equal. Gills dirty white, or yellowish white, emarginate, 
narrow, crowded. Flesh whitish, or slightly tinted with violet, thick, 
spongy. Spores white, elliptical, 7 x 5ju,. Woods, and pastures. 
Oct. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

698. T. glaucocanum Bres. Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 2. 

yKavKos, bluish grey; canum, hoary. 

P. 6-9 cm., bluish grey, becoming hoary, fleshy, somewhat soft, con- 
vex, then expanded, smooth, moist; margin involute, floccosely 
pruinose. St. 4-5 x 1-5-2 cm., concolorous, becoming paler, base bulb- 
ous, fibrillosely-striate, apex subsquamulose. Gills greyish violet, be- 
coming hoary, emarginate, easily separating from the hymenophore, very 
crowded. Flesh pale bluish grey, soft, thick. Spores white, elliptical, 
6-7 x 3/x, 1-guttulate. Smell strong of new meal. Taste pleasant. 
Edible. Coniferous, and beech woods on calcareous soil. Sept. Nov. 
Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

699. T. nudum (Bull.) Fr. Berk. Outl. t. 4, fig. 7. Nudum, naked. 

P. 7-10 cm., entirely purple violaceous, or with the disc brownish, or 
tawny, becoming paler, fleshy, convexo-plane, then depressed, obtuse, 
even, moist; margin inflexed, thin, naked. St. 5-9 x 2 cm., violaceous, 
becoming pale, elastic, equal, apex mealy. Gills concolorous, becoming 
pale, rounded, then decurrent, crowded, narrow. Flesh tinged with 
violet, becoming whitish when dry, thick at the disc. Spores white, 
elliptical, 7 x 3-4/A, 1-guttulate. Smell and taste pleasant. Edible. 
Coniferous, and deciduous woods, rarely in pastures. Sept. Dec. 

Common, (v.v.) 

. 

var. inajus Cke. Majus, larger. 

Differs from the type in being larger, and more robust. Woods. 
Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



238 TRICHOLOMA 

var. lilaceum Quel. Quel. Jur. et Vosg. t. 3, fig. 1, as Tricholoma 

sordidus Fr. Lilaceum, lilac colour. 

Differs from the type in its small size, and the blue violaceous colour 

of all its parts. Spores white, elliptical, 6 x 3ft, 1-guttulate. Woods, 

and pastures. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

700. T. cinerascens (Bull, non Fr.) Quel. (= Clitocybe fumosa Fr. sec. 

Quel.) Boud. Icon. t. 29. Cinerascens, becoming ash-colour. 
P. 4-10 cm., fuliginous fuscous, or livid, becoming grey when dry, 
fleshy, firm, convex, then plane, gibbous, sometimes slightly umbonate, 
either circinate and regular, or flexuose and undulated, smooth, some- 
what hygrophanous. St. 5-10 cm. x 8-16 mm., whitish, often stained 
with brown towards the base, cylindrical, or attenuated at the base, 
fibrillose, apex pruinose, often connate at the base, or branched. Gills 
greyish white, paler than the p., adnate, or emarginate, crowded. Flesh 
greyish, white when dry, thick at the disc, firm. Spores white, globose, 
5-6/u-, punctate. Taste becoming bitter. Woods. Aug. Oct. Not 
uncommon, (v.v.) 

701. T. panaeolum Fr. (= Tricholoma nimbatum (Batsch) Quel.) Fr. 

Icon. t. 36, lower figs. iravalo\o<;, variegated. 

P. 510 cm., cinereous-fuliginous, becoming paler, pruinosely hoary, 
and spotted, fleshy, convex, then plane, or here and there depressed, 
obtuse, often repand and excentric; margin thin, involute, mealy. 
St. 3-7-5 x 1-2 cm., whitish-grey, fragile, equal, or attenuated at the 
base, fibrillosely striate. Gills white, then grey, or dingy rufescent, 
emarginate, or rounded, at length decurrent, very crowded, plane, 
4 mm. broad. Flesh greyish, becoming whitish, with a horn colour line 
at the base of the gills, thick at the disc, soft. Spores dirty pink in the 
mass, elliptical, 4-5 x 3/i. Smell and taste pleasant. Edible. Form- 
ing large rings in pastures. Oct. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 
var. caespitosum Bres. Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 153. 

Caespitosum, caespitose. 

Differs from the type in its caespitose habit, the mealy apex ofthest., 
and the narrower gills. Hilly pastures, and heaths. Oct. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 
var. calceolum (Sterb.) Fr. Calceolus, a small shoe. 

Differs from the type in the deformed p., the naked, incised margin, 
the excentric, short, fusiform st. and the fuliginous gills. Under hazels. 
Oct. Rare. 

702. T. cnista Fr. (? = Tricholoma melaleucum (Pers.) Fr. sec. 

Dumee.) Kvlcra, smell of burnt sacrifice. 

P. 58 cm., pale tan, or whitish, disc darker, fleshy, convex, then 

plane, obtuse, smooth, moist; margin incurved naked. St. 3-5 cm. 

x 8-10 mm., white, tough, equal, smooth. Gills white, pallid yellow 



TRICHOLOMA 239 

when bruised, adnexed, rounded behind, inclined to separate from 
the p., transversely veined, crisped when dry. Flesh white, rather thick, 
soft. Spores white, elliptical, 7-10 x 4/x,, "roughish" Eick. Smell 
of cooked flesh. Amongst grass in open places. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

703. T. duracinum Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 1126, t. 640. 

Durus, hard; acinum, berry. 

P. 5-7-5 cm., cinereous, fleshy, firm, convex, broadly umbonate, 
dry, smooth, shining; margin involute. St. 5-7-5 x 2-5-3 cm., paler 
than the p., or greyish white, attenuated upwards, striate below, apex 
reticulately squamose. Gills cinereous, emarginate, arcuate, narrow, 
2-3 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh nearly white, thick, firm. Under 
cedars. Oct. Rare. 

G. P. thin, subumbonate, hygrophanous (Melanoleuca Pat.), 
(a) Gills whitish, unspotted. 

704. T. grammopodium (Bull.) Fr. (=Tricholomamelaleucum (Pers.) Fr. 

sec.Dumee.) Cke.Illus.no. 118, t. 98. 7pa/i/z.7,aline; 7rou9,foot. 
P. 7-15 cm., pallid-livid, or fuscous rufous, whitish when dry, fleshy, 
campanulate, then convex, at length flattened, obtusely umbonate, 
smooth, moist pellicle separable. St. 7-10 x 1-1-5 cm., whitish, longi- 
tudinally striate with bistre, or brownish fibrils, elastic, equal, base 
thickened, firm. Gills whitish, becoming brownish, arcuato-adnate, or 
broadly, horizontally emarginate, often acute at both ends, very 
crowded, very many shorter gills, often branched behind. Flesh bistre 
when moist, becoming white when dry, thick at the disc, spongy. Spores 
white, elliptical, 7-8 x 4-6/4, punctate. Smell mouldy. Edible. 
Forming large rings in pastures and orchards, and solitary, on leaf 
mould, in deciduous woods. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

705. T. melaleucum (Pers.) Fr. (= Tricholoma arcuatum Fr. sec. 

Quel.) Fr. Icon. t. 44, upper figs. ^eXa<?, black; \evfcov, white. 
P. 4-10 cm., dark fuliginous when moist, then livid fuscous, paler 
when dry, umbo blackish, fleshy, convex, then flattened, umbonate, 
smooth, moist. St. 5-8 cm. x 4-8 mm., whitish with darker striae, 
base fuscous, elastic, thickened at the base, fibrillosely striate. Gills 
white, emarginato-adnexed, horizontal, straight, broad, more or less 
ventricose, crowded. Flesh white, becoming fuliginous, soft. Spores 
white, elliptical, 8 x 5/n, warted, apiculate at the base. Cystidia on 
edge of gill lanceolate subulate, 50-60 x 10-15/u,, shaggy at the apex. 
Taste mild. Edible. Woods, and pastures. Sept. Nov. Common. 
(v.v.) 

var. adstringens (Pers.) Quel. Adstringens, abridged. 

Differs from the type in the rigid, pitch black p. and in the white gills 
becoming pinkish. Pastures, and downs. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon. 
(v.v.) 



240 TRICHOLOMA 

706. T. porphyroleucum (Bull.) Fr. (= Tricholoma melaleucum (Pers.) 

Fr. sec. Dumee.) Cke. Illus. no. 119, t. 119. 

Trop^vpa, purple; \evic6v, white. 

P. 4-6 cm.., fuliginous, or fuscous, becoming rufescent, with a darker, 
evanescent umbo, fleshy, firm, convex, then plane and depressed, 
smooth. St. 3-5 cm. x 6-9 mm., bistre, equal, striate, apex white 
mealy. Gills white, often becoming yellowish, sinuato-adnate, attenu- 
ated in front, somewhat distant. Flesh white, cinereous under the cuticle 
of the p., bistre in the st. Spores white, elliptical, 8 x 5 {JL. Pastures, 
and open downs. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

707. T.polioleucumFr. (=Tricholomamedium(Paul.)Quel., Tricholoma 
melaleucum (Pers. )Fr sec. Dumee.) 7roXi09,grey; Xeu/cov, white. 

P. 5-7 cm., grey, umbo darker, whitish at the margin, slightly fleshy, 
convex, then plane and depressed, umbo often evanescent, pruinose, 
margin often scalloped. St. 4-6 x 1 cm., concolorous, elastic, striate, 
apex mealy, equal. Gills whitish, or greyish, sinuate, decurrent by a 
tooth, attenuated in front, edge denticulate, crowded. Flesh greyish, 
becoming white, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 6-7 x 4/>t, rough. Taste 
pleasant. Edible. Lawns, and hilly pastures. Aug. Oct. Not un- 
common, (v.v.) 

708. T. phaeopodium (Bull.) Quel. (= Tricholoma melaleucum (Pers.) 

Fr. sec. Dumee.) Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 46, fig. 16. 

<ato?, dusky; ?rou9, foot. 

P. 3-5 cm., blackish bistre, becoming paler, fleshy, convex, then 
plane, subumbonate, smooth ; margin incurved. St. 5-7 cm. x 4- 
9 mm., concolorous, equal, striate; base subbulbous, clothed with the 
white mycelium. Gills white, sinuato-adnate, 7-9 mm. broad, crowded. 
Flesh dark bistre, very thin at the margin. Spores white, pip-shaped, 
8-9 x 5-6/Li, minutely warted. Damp pastures, and woods. Sept. 
Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

709. T. arcuatum (Bull.) Quel. (= Tricholoma arcuatum var. cognatum 

(Fr.) Quel. and Rene Maire, Tricholoma melaleucum (Pers.) Fr. 

sec. Dumee.) Gillet, Champ, t. 665. Arcuatum, curved. 

P. 5-10 cm., pale brownish, brownish clay colour, or coffee and milk 
colour, fleshy, convex, then plane, becoming smooth, moist, hygro- 
phanous; margin at first involute. St. 4-8 cm. x 7-14 mm., con- 
colorous, firm, equal, fibrillose, base thickened. Gills yellowish, tinged 
with pinkish flesh colour, emarginate, decurrent with a long tooth, 
broad, moderately crowded. Flesh white, tinged with flesh colour, soft, 
thick at the disc. Spores white, elliptical, 9-10 x 6/x, punctate. 
Cystidia "on edge of gill lanceolate, 40-60 x 10-1 2 /a" Eick. Taste 
mild. Heaths, and on twigs, and rotting wood, in coniferous woods. 
Oct. Nov. Rare. 



TRICHOLOMA 241 

710. T. brevipes (Bull.) Fr. (= Tricholoma melaleucum (Pers.) Fr. sec. 

Dumee.) Cke. Illus. no. 120, t. 68. Brevis, short; pes, foot. 
P. 58 cm., umber, becoming pale, fleshy, convex, then plane, smooth, 
moist, opaque when dry; margin at first strongly incurved. St. 
13 x 1-3 cm., fuscous, or bistre, rigid, firm, equal, attenuated down- 
wards, or bulbous, fibrillose, apex pruinose. Gills fuscous, or bistre, 
becoming whitish, emarginato-free, ventricose, crowded. Flesh of p. 
fuscous, becoming white when dry, fuscous in the st., especially at the 
base, firm, then soft. Spores white, elliptical, 7-8 x 5-6/x, punctate. 
Cystidia on edge of gill sparse, lanceolate, 55-65 x ll-14|u, shaggy 
at the apex. Taste mild. Edible. Pastures, woods, and cinder paths. 
June Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

711. T. humile (Pers.) Fr. (= Tricholoma exscissum Fr. sec. Quel., 

Tricholoma melaleucum (Pers.) Fr. sec. Dumee.) Cke. Illus. 

no. 122, t. 263, fig. A. Humile, lowly. 

P. 5-12 cm., fuscous-cinereous, mouse grey, or bistre, becoming pale, 
fleshy, convex, soon flattened, somewhat repand, often umbonate, 
sometimes depressed, pruinose, pulverulent, hygrophanous ; margin 
thin, exceeding the gills, often white. St. 4-9 x 1-5-2-5 cm., white, or 
becoming greyish, fragile, somewhat equal, villosely pulverulent. Gills 
white, then greyish, rounded-adnexed, decurrent with a tooth, and 
often arcuato-decurrent, crowded, narrow, 4-6 mm. broad. Flesh 
whitish, grey under the cuticle, soft, thick at the disc. Spores white, 
elliptical, 9 x 6ja, minutely echinulate. Cystidia "on edge of gill 
lanceolate, pointed, 55-65 x 10-13/>t, shaggy at the apex" Rick. 
Smell of new meal. Edible. Woods, and pastures. April Oct. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 

var. blandum Berk. = Tricholoma melaleucum (Pers.) Fr. 

var. evectum Grove. Evectum, carried out. 

P. 7-59 cm., fuscous, becoming pale, plane, then depressed, or con- 
cave, smooth; margin entire, not striate. St. 7-5-8 cm. x 8mm., 
somewhat fuscous, incrassated at the apex, thickened at the base, 
fibrous, punctately squamulose, striate, apex white, pulverulent. Gills 
pale ochraceous, sinuate, crowded, thin, edge entire. Flesh pallid. 
Spores white, oval, 6-7 x 4-5|u,. Amongst heaps of leaves. Sept. 
Oct. Uncommon. 

712. T. exscissum Fr. (= Tricholoma humile Pers. sec. Quel.) Fr. 

Icon. t. 44, lower figs. Exscissum, torn out. 

P. 3-7 cm., mouse grey, or fuscous cinereous, becoming paler and 
often yellowish, slightly fleshy, campanulate, soon plane, with a pro- 
minent umbo, smooth. St. 2-5-5 cm, x 2-8 mm. white, then ochraceous, 
equal, polished. Gills white, emarginate, linear, narrow, 2-3 mm. 

B. B. B. 16 



242 TRICHOLOMA 

broad, edge uneven. Flesh white, or yellowish, thin. Spores white, 
broadly elliptical, 10 x 6-7 /LI, punctate. Pastures. May Sept. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 

713. T. subpulverulentum (Pers.) Fr. (= Tricholoma medium Paul. 

sec. Quel.) Hussey, Illus. Brit. Myc. n, t. 39. 

Sub, somewhat; pulverulentum, dusty. 

P. 4-8 cm., livid, becoming whitish with the innate pruina, fleshy, 
convex, then plane, or depressed; margin inflexed, exceeding the gills. 
St. 4-6 x 1 cm., concolorous, equal, smooth, substriate, apex obsoletely 
pruinate. Gills white, becoming darker, rounded, crowded, narrow. 
Flesh white, hygrophanous. Spores very pale ochraceous in the mass, 
elliptical, 6-7 x 4/z, minutely punctate. Often forming large rings in 
pastures, and woods. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

(b) Gills becoming violet, grey, or fuliginous. 

714. T. sordidum (Schum.) 'Fr. Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 47, 

figs. 10-18. Sordidum, dirty. 

P. 3-8 cm., bistre, or livid-lilac, becoming fuscous and pale when old, 
somewhat fleshy, campanulato-convex, then plane, or depressed, sub- 
umbonate, often undulate, or excentric when old, smooth; margin 
often slightly striate at maturity. St. 4-6 x 1-2-5 cm., concolorous, 
flexuose, pliant, often thickened at the base, fibrillosely striate. Gills 
violaceous, becoming pale, or fuliginous, rounded, then sinuato-decur- 
rent, at length distant. Flesh grey, or tinged with lilac, thin. Spores 
pale ochraceous in the mass, elliptical, 7-8 x 4/x,. Taste mild. Edible. 
Pastures, hedgerows, and manure heaps. July Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

715. T. paedidum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 46, upper figs. Paedidum, nasty. 
P. 3-5 cm., fuliginous mouse grey, somewhat fleshy, flaccid, cam- 

panulate, then convex, flattened, umbonate, at length depressed round 
the conico-prominent umbo, moist, radiately streaked with innate fibrils, 
becoming smooth. St. 2-5-4 cm. x 4-6 mm., dingy grey, subcarti- 
laginous, slightly bulbous at the base, substriate. Gills whitish, then 
grey, sinuate with a small decurrent tooth, narrow, crowded. Flesh 
becoming white, very thin, very tough. Spores white, "elliptic-fusi- 
form, 10-11 x 5-6/Li" Massee. Grassy places in woods. Aug. Eare. 

716. T. lixivium Fr. (= Tricholoma arcuatum (Bull.) Quel.) Fr. Icon. 

t. 45, lower figs. Lixivium, made into lye. 

P. 5-10 cm., cinereous fuscous, then umber, slightly fleshy, convex, 
then plane, umbonate (the umbo vanishing), sometimes sinuous, 
smooth; margin flattened, membranaceous, at length slightly striate. 
St. 58 x -5-2 cm., concolorous, at first white-fioccoso-pruinose, often 
flexuose, apex white, fragile. Gills grey, rounded-adnexed, truncato- 
free, distant, soft, 6 mm. broad, sometimes crisped, attenuated from 



TRICHOLOMA. ENTOLOMA 243 

the stem towards the margin. Flesh white, thin at the margin. 
Spores white, elliptical, 5-6 x 3fj,, 1-guttulate. Pine woods, and under 
conifers. Oct. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

717. T. putidum Fr. Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 47, figs. 19-22. 

Putidum, stinking. 

P. 3-6 cm., greyish bistre, or olivaceous, becoming hoary when dry, 
often sprinkled with white silkiness, hygrophanous, slightly fleshy, 
hemispherical, umbonate, soft; margin straight. St. 4-9 x -5-1 cm., 
grey, equal, covered with a white, thin, evanescent pruina, fibrillosely 
striate, somewhat fragile. Gills cinereous, sinuato-adnate, ventricose, 
crowded, 4-6 mm. broad. Flesh bistre, thin. Spores white, pip-shaped, 
9-11 x 4-5 p, with a large central gutta. Smell rancid, of new meal. 
Fir woods, and amongst pine needles. Oct. Dec. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

Spores pink. 

Entoloma Fr. 

(eVro9, within; \(Ofia, a fringe.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular, or irregular. Stem central, fibrous, or fleshy. 
Gills sinuate, sinuato-adnate, or adnexed. Spores pink, angular, 
globose, elliptical, or verrucose. Cystidia rarely present. Growing on 
the ground, very rarely on wood; solitary, gregarious, or caespitose. 

I. Pileus fleshy, smooth, moist or viscid. 

718. E. sinuatum Fr. (= Entoloma lividum (Bull.) Fr. sec. Dumee.) 

Cke. Illus. no. 316, t. 310. Sinuatum, waved. 

P. 8-25 cm., becoming yellowish white, very fleshy, convex, then 
expanded, at first gibbous, then depressed; margin repand, sinuate. 
St. 7-18 x 2-5 cm., shining white, firm, equal, compact, fibrillose, 
then smooth. Gills pale yellowish-rufescent, emarginate, slightly ad- 
nexed, 12-18 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh white. Spores pink, angular, 
globose, 8-9 ju,. Smell strong, pleasant, almost like burnt sugar. Taste 
pleasant. Poisonous. Gregarious, in mixed woods. July Oct. 
Common, (v.v.) 

719. E. lividum (Bull.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 90, fig. 3. Lividus, livid. 
P. 7-15 cm., livid tan, becoming pale, fleshy, disc somewhat com- 
pact, convex, then plane, somewhat gibbous, silky, fibrillose under a 
lens. St. 7-8 x 2-5-3 cm., shining white, equal, slightly striate, apex 
pruinose. Gills whitish, then flesh colour, rounded, somewhat free, 
attenuated in front, 6-10 mm. broad, distant. Flesh white, brownish 
under the cuticle of the pileus. Spores pink, angular, elliptical, 9- 
11 x 6-8 /x, 1-3-guttulate. Smell pleasant, of new meal, then becoming 
unpleasant. Taste pleasant. Poisonous. Woods, and pastures. 
April Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

162 



244 ENTOLOMA 

var. roseum Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 318, t. 469. Roseum, rosy. 

Differs from the type in the rosy disc, and the whitish margin of the 
p. On logs. 

720. E. prunuloides Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 91, fig. 1. 

Prunulus, the species prunulus', eZSo?, like. 

P. 5-7 cm., whitish, becoming yellow, or livid, fleshy, campanulate, 
then convex, at length flattened, subumbonate, viscid, finally longi- 
tudinally rimose; margin at length slightly striate. St. 6-8 cm. x 6- 
8 mm., white, fibrous-fleshy, even, often slightly striate. Gills white, 
then flesh colour, somewhat free, emarginate, rarely rounded, slightly 
adnexed at first, 6-8 mm. broad, crowded, ventricose. Flesh white, 
yellowish in the centre of the stem. Spores pink, angular, 8-10 x 8ju,, 
1-multi-guttulate. Smell strong, of new meal. In woods, and pastures. 
May Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

721. E. porphyrophaeum Fr. (= Entoloma phaeocephalum (Bull.) 

Quel., Entoloma placenta Batsch sec. Quel.) Fr. Icon. t. 93, fig. 1. 
Tropffrvpa, purple; <f>aiov, dusky. 

P. 4-10 cm., brownish bistre, becoming paler and mouse colour when 
dry, slightly fleshy, campanulate, then expanded, umbonate, cracking, 
minutely fibrillose. St. 5-7 cm. x 8-12 mm., greyish, streaked with 
violet or lilac fibrils, base subbulbose, white villose, attenuated up- 
wards. Gills greyish white, then reddish grey, truncate behind, almost 
free, ventricose, rather distant, 4-6 mm. broad. Flesh bluish, or 
brownish, becoming white. Spores pink, angular globose, 7-8 x 7/x, 
1-guttulate. Cystidia "inflated, large, flask-shaped, occasionally 
with a roundish head" Lange. Woods, and pastures. Aug. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

722. E. repandum (Bull.) Fr. Bull. Champ, t. 423, fig. 2. 

Repandum, bent backwards. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., whitish, or ochraceous, fleshy, conical, then expanded, 
umbonate, striate with darker spots, somewhat silky when dry; margin 
incurved, lobed. St. 4 cm. x 5-6 mm., white, silky. Gills flesh colour, 
broader in front. Spores " substellate, 11 x 6/z, becoming yellow" 
Sacc. Smell of new meal. Pastures. June Oct. Eare. 

723. E. erophilum Fr. rjp, spring ; <f>L\ov, loving. 
P. 3-4 cm., brownish, or greyish, slightly fleshy, convex, then ex- 
panded, obtuse, venosely striate and virgate. St. 3-5 cm. x 4-8 mm., 
white, becoming greyish, equal, pruinose. Gills greyish, then flesh 
colour, rounded behind, adnate, wide. Flesh white, yellowish under 
the cuticle of the p. Spores pink, globose, 7-9 /A, 1-guttulate. Woods, 
and hilly pastures. May Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



ENTOLOMA 245 

724. E. placenta (Batsch) Fr. (= Entoloma phaeocephalum (Bull.) 
Quel.) Cke. Illus. no. 321, t. 314. Placenta, a flat cake. 

P. 4 cm., brown, fleshy, convex then flattened, umbonate, orbicular, 
moist when damp. St. 5-8 cm. x 4-6 mm., brown, wholly fibrous, 
equal, fibrilloso-striate. Gills whitish, then pallid flesh colour, emargi- 
nato-adnexed, crowded, rather thick. Flesh becoming pale, thin. 
Spores pink, globose, S/A. Taste becoming acrid. Hedgerows, and 
damp places. April Oct. Rare. 

725. E. helodes Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 322, t. 339. eXo?, a marsh. 
P. 3-6 cm., varying cinereous, fuliginous, and at the same time 

becoming purple, slightly fleshy, convex, then rather plane, tough, 
umbonate, often depressed round the umbo, often as if variegated 
with tiger-spots; margin spreading, sometimes striate. St. 5-7-5 cm. 
x 6 mm., cinereous-fibrillose, becoming pallid cinereous, fragile, equal, 
or slightly thickened at the base, sometimes twisted. Gills white, then 
flesh colour, obtusely adnate, 6 mm. broad, subdistant. Flesh pallid, 
thin. Spores pink, subglobose, 10/z, coarsely warted. Smell of new 
meal, taste watery. Heathy pastures, and bogs. Sept. Oct. Un- 
common. 

726. E. Batschianum Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 325, t. 326. 

A. J. G. C. Batsch, author of Elenchus Fungorum. 
P. 1-4 cm., dark fuscous, ox fuliginous black, slightly fleshy, viscid, 
shining when dry, slightly convex, scarcely umbonate, then depressed ; 
margin at first manifestly involute. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 4-10 mm., grey, 
moderately tough, wholly fibrous, equal, or attenuated at both ends, 
slightly striate with adpressed fibrils. Gills whitish, then cinereous, 
or -fuliginous, narrowed behind, wholly adnexed at the apex, crowded, 
becoming subdistant. Flesh yellowish. Spores pink, angular, sub- 
globose, 6-9 x 6-7 /x. On the ground, and among fir needles in damp 
places. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

727. E. Bloxamii Berk. (= Entoloma madidum (Fr.) Quel.) Cke. Illus. 
no. 326, t. 327. Rev. A. Bloxam, a British mycologist. 

P. 2-10 cm., blackish-blue, compact, campanulate, very obtuse, 
somewhat lobed, moist, slightly silky. St. 3-8 cm. x 12-15 mm., 
concolorous, base white, obtuse, slightly attenuated upwards, fibrillose. 
Gills yellowish, then pale pink, attenuated behind, or slightly adnexed, 
moderately broad. Flesh white, bluish under the cuticle, very thick in 
the centre. Spores pink, subglobose, minutely warted, 8 9 jit. Heaths, 
and pastures. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. triste Boud. Boud. Icon. t. 92. Triste, gloomy. 

Differs from the type in its blackish grey slate colour. 



246 ENTOLOMA 

728. E. Parrahii Massee & Crossland. Naturalist, 1904, t. 1, figs. 1-4. 

John Farrah, F.L.S. 

P. 5-6 cm., blackish-blue, cylindrico- ovate, then campanulate and 
somewhat repand, umbonate, fibrilloso-silky; margin pallid. St. 6- 
7 x 11-5 cm., concolorous, ventricose, base white. Grills salmon 
colour, sinuato-adnexed, broad, ventricose, somewhat distant. Spores 
pink, elliptical, smooth, 10 x 4 5/z. Cystidia cuspidate, ventricose, 
50-60 x 12-15/A. Taste mild. Pastures. Sept. Uncommon. 

729. E. ardosiacum (Bull.) Fr. (= Entoloma nitidum Quel.) Cke. 
Illus. no. 327, t. 328. apSeiv, to water. 

P. 25 cm., steel-blue-fuscous, becoming blackish when young, and 
cinereous when older, slightly fleshy, campanulate, then convex, obtuse, 
often slightly depressed at the disc. St. 5-8 cm. x 4-6 mm., steel- 
blue, slightly attenuated upwards, easily splitting into fibres. Gills 
white, or grey, then flesh colour, free, broad, ventricose, attenuated 
behind, crowded, edge uneven. Flesh white, bluish under the cuticle of 
the p. Spores pink, angular, subglobose, 8-10 x 6-8/u, 1-guttulate. 
Moist meadows, and bogs. July Sept. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

730. E. madidum Fr. (= Entoloma Bloxamii Berk. sec. Quel.) Fr. 
Icon. t. 91, fig. 3. Madidum, soaked. 

P. 2-6 cm., blackish violet when young, fuliginous when old, fleshy, 
campanulate, then convex, viscid in wet weather, shining when dry; 
margin inflexed, thin, slightly striate. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 4-10 mm. at 
the white base, x 4-6 mm. at the apex, violet, thickened in a clavate 
manner below, fleshy fibrous, surface fibrillose, apex naked. Gills 
greyish white, slightly adnexed, almost free, ventricose, watery, soft. 
Flesh white, darkish under the cuticle of the pileus. Spores pink, globose, 
angular, 6-8/A. Smell strong, somewhat like that of Russula foetens. 
In pastures, and amongst leaves. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

731. E. liquescens Cke. (= Psilocybe spadiceo-grisea (Schaeff.) Fr. sec. 
Boud.) Cke. Illus. no. 328, t. 581. Liquescens, dissolving. 

P. 5-6 cm., yellowish ochre, disc reddish brown, convex, then plane, 
broadly umbonate, margin thin, flexuose. St. 5-8 cm. x 4-8 mm., 
white, equal, flexible. Gills white, then pale dirty lilac, free, crowded, 
deliquescent. Flesh white, thin. Spores pink, subglobose, irregular, 
7-8 fj,. On the ground under trees. April. 

732. E. ameides B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 329, t. 341. 

d/4et8?79, gloomy. 

P. 2-5-6 cm., pale reddish grey, irregular, broadly campanulate, 
thin, gibbous, centre polished; margin white- flocculent, at length 
smooth, silky-shining, undulated. St. 3-4 cm. x 5-10 mm., whitish, 



ENTOLOMA 247 

compressed, striate, fibrillose, apex flocculent, base villose. Gills 
greyish, then flesh colour, slightly adnexed, distant, wrinkled. Flesh 
becoming reddish. Spores pink, angular, oblong, 12-13 x 9ju,, 1-guttu- 
late. Smell a,t first unpleasant, like a mixture of orange-flower water 
and starch, or of burnt sugar. Pastures. Aug. Nov. Not uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

E.frumentaceum (Bull.) Berk. = Hygrophorus russula (Schaeff.) Quel. 
E. Cookei Kich. = Pleurotus palmatus (Bull.) Fr. 

II. P. absolutely dry, flocculose, or somewhat scaly. 

733. E. Saundersii Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 331, t. 306. 

W. W. Saunders who collaborated with W. G. Smith in Myco- 

logical Illustrations. 

P. 4r-12 cm., white, becoming fuscous when old, fleshy, campanulate, 
then expanded, obtuse, or umbonate, repando-lobed, adpressedly 
tomentose. St. 3-10 x 1-1-5 cm., white, equal, silky-fibrous, apex 
furfur aceous. Gills reddish, slightly adnexed, often quite free, broad, 
distant. Flesh white, yellowish under the cuticle of the pileus. Spores 
pink, elliptical, 4-6 x 3-4 /x, 1-guttulate ("round, slightly angular, 
ll-13ju," Boud.). On the ground, river-sand, sawdust. June Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

734. E. fertile 'Berk. (= Entoloma lividum (Bull.) Fr. sec. Big. & 
Guill.) Cke. Illus. no. 332, t. 316. Fertile, fruitful. 

P. 10-15 cm., pinkish-buff, fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, 
pulverulento-squamulose. St. 6-12 x 2-3 cm., paler than the p., firm, 
fibrillose, subsquamulose, subcompressed, base subbulbose. Gills flesh 
colour, adnexed, nearly free. Flesh white, thickest at the disc. Smell 
pleasant, of new meal. Woods. Aug. Sept. Rare. 

735. E. Rozei Quel. Quel. Soc. Bot. xxm, t. 2, fig. 2. 

E. Roze, the eminent French mycologist. 

P. 3 cm., pearl grey, lilac at the margin, thin, convex, umbonate, then 
plane, velvety with thin, very short, white hairs. St. 5-6 x -5 cm., white, 
somewhat silvery, silky-fibrillose, apex bistre. Gills white, then flesh 
colour, adnate, emarginate. Spores pink, angular, elliptical, 10/u,. 
Amongst Sphagnum, and under pines. July Oct. Uncommon. 

736. E. jubatum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 92, fig. 1. 

Jubatum, having a mane. 

P. 3-8 cm., mouse colour, somewhat fleshy, campanulate, then ex- 
panded and flattened, umbonate, floccoso-scaly, or fibrillose. St. 5 
12 cm. x 4-10 mm., concolorous, fleshy-fibrous, though rigid, fragile, 
equal, clothed with fuliginous fibrils. Gills dark fuliginous, then purple 
fuliginous, slightly adnexed, somewhat emarginate, easily separating, 



248 ENTOLOMA 

crowded, ventricose. Flesh white, thin, easily scissile. Spores pink, 
angular, oblong, 10-12 x 7-8^,, multi-guttulate. Heaths, and pas- 
tures May Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

737. E. resutum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 92, fig. 2. Resutum, ripped open. 
P. 2-3 cm., becoming fuscous, disc darker, slightly fleshy, convex, 

somewhat obtuse, densely floccoso- scaly, sometimes with darker ad- 
pressed scales, sometimes becoming even, longitudinally fibrillose. 
St. 47 cm. x 24 mm,, somewhat grey, wholly fibrous, soft, equal, 
polished, slightly striate. Gills grey, at first darker, adnexed, very 
ventricose, almost free, 4 mm. broad, rather crowded, rather thick. 
Spores pink, "irregular, globose-elliptical, angular, 9-12 x 7-8 p,, also 
subglobose, 7-10/x" Herpell. Woods, and pastures. Oct. Un- 
common. 

738. E. griseocyaneum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 94, fig. 1. 

Griseus, grey; KVCLVOS, dark blue. 

P. 2-4 cm., grey, or inclining to lilac, thin, campanulate, then convex, 
obtuse, wholly floccoso-scaly '. St. 46 cm. x 46 mm., pallid, then be- 
coming azure-blue, sometimes white, fibrous, floccoso- fibrillose. Gills 
whitish, then flesh colour, adnexed, separating- free, ventricose. Flesh 
bluish, becoming white. Spores pink, angular, elliptical, 9-11 x 7-8 /it, 
1-guttulate. Pastures, downs, and woods. June Oct. Not uncom- 
mon, (v.v.) 

var. roseum Maire. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. in, t. 11. Roseum, rosy. 
Differs from the type in the pink stem, and the pink pileus covered 
with darker scales. Downs, and pastures. Aug. Oct. Not un- 
common, (v.v.) 

739. E. Wynnei B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 339, t. 329. 

Mrs Lloyd Wynne, of Coed Coch. 

P. 3-4 cm., fuliginous, convex, then' plane, more or less umbonate, 
often wavy, velvety, then squamulose; margin striate, often undulated. 
St. 35 cm. x 36 ram., fuliginous-azure-blue, often compressed; base 
cottony, white. Gills pallid, then flesh colour, almost free, 4 mm. 
broad, transversely ribbed, edge crenulate. Flesh white, very thin 
except at the disc. Spores "elliptic-oblong, apiculate, coarsely warted, 
10-11 x 7-8 /x" Massee. Smell unpleasant, like bugs. Fir woods. 
Sept. Nov. Uncommon. 

740. E. bulbigenum B. & Br. (= Entoloma Persoonianum Phill. & 

Plowr., Entoloma Persoonii Du Port.) Cke. Illus. no. 324, t. 315, 
as Entoloma Persoonianum Du Port. 

/3o\/3o9, a bulb; yiyvofMai, to be born. 

P. 1-4 cm., shining white, campanulate, or hemispherical, minutely 
tomentosely scaly. St. 6-8 cm. x 3-5 mm., whitish, equal, piloso- 



ENTOLOMA 249 

squamulose, base bulbous, solid. Gills red flesh colour, slightly adnexed, 
3-4 mm. broad. Flesh white, thin. Spores pink, angular, 15//,. Grassy 
places. Feb. Oct. Uncommon. 

741. E. pulvereum Rea. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. n, t. 14. 

Pulvereum, dusty. 

P. 5-30 mm., fuliginous, thin, campanulate, then expanded and 
flattened, densely covered with very minute scales which are erect at 
the centre, striate at first; margin very slightly incurved. St. 2-5- 
5 cm. x 23 mm., fuliginous, equal, densely velvety, covered when 
young with a reddish, rust coloured meal which becomes darker with 
age. Gills grey, at length dusted with the pinkish ferruginous spores, 
adnate with a minute sinus, veined, subdistant, exceeding the margin 
of the p. ; edge irregular, thick, pale or pinkish at first then deep rose 
colour. Spores pink, irregular, angular, 12-13 x 6/u,, 1-guttulate. 
Woods, and pastures. Aug. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

742. E. dichroum (Pers.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 92, fig. 3. 

Siypovv, two coloured. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., violet, then livid mouse colour, somewhat fleshy, cam- 
panulate, then expanded and plane, obtusely umbonate, squamuloso- 
fibrillose. St. 3-5 cm. x 2-8 mm., blue, becoming paler at the base, 
wholly fibrous, fibrillosely-mealy, and sublacunose. Gills white, or 
pallid, then flesh colour, sinuato-adnexed, crowded, 2-3 mm. wide. 
Flesh white, tinged with blue. Spores pink, becoming fuscous, 
"longish, 9-11 x 6-7 p, with a few distinct angles" Rick. Woods, 
and hilly pastures. June Sept. Uncommon. 

E. sericellum Fr. = Leptonia sericeUa (Fr.) Quel. 

743. E. Thomson!! B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 336, t. 374. Dr Thomson 
P. 2-5-3 cm., grey, convex, then expanded, more or less umbonate, 

tomentose, adorned with raised, radiating ribs, which form reticulations 
in the centre. St. 3-5 cm. x 4 mm., paler than the pileus, fibrillose, 
tomentose. Gills flesh colour, rounded behind, very slightly adnexed, 
4 mm. broad, rather distant. Flesh mottled, thick at the umbo, thin 
elsewhere. Spores pink, elliptical, 6 x 3-5/x,. Amongst grass in 
plantations. Rare. 

III. P. thin, hygrophanous, rather silky when dry, 
often irregular and repand. 

744. E. clypeatum (Linn.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 337, t. 319, as Entoloma 

clypeum Fr. Clipeatum, furnished with a shield. 

P. 5-8 cm., lurid when moist, grey when dry, variegated, or 

streaked with darker spots, or lines, fleshy, campanulate, then flattened, 

umbonate, fragile. St. 4-8 x -5-1-5 cm., whitish, becoming cinereous, 



250 ENTOLOMA 

wholly fibrous, equal, fragile, longitudinally fibrillose, apex pulverulent. 
Gills whitish, or dingy, becoming red-pulverulent with the spores, 
rounded-adnexed, separating free, 4-8 mm. broad, ventricose, sub- 
distant, edge serrulate. Flesh dark, becoming white, thin. Spores 
pink, angular, globose, 7-9 or 89 x 6 ?//,, 1-guttulate. Taste some- 
what acid. Edible. Woods, gardens, pastures, and waste places. 
Caespitose, or solitary. April Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

745. E. nigrocinnarnomeum Kalchbr. (= Pluteus umbrosus (Pers.) 

Fr. sec. Quel.) Kalchbr. Icon. t. 11, fig. 1. 

Niger, black; cinnamomeum, cinnamon. 

P. 5-7 cm., umber brown, becoming blackish, thin, tough, convex, 
then flattened and depressed round the somewhat prominent umbo, 
rather silky and shining; margin incurved, often splitting. St. 3- 
4 cm. x 58 mm., grey, becoming tawny, fibrillose, often twisted. 
Gills reddish cinnamon, adnexed, rounded behind, soon seceding from 
the stem, 6-8 mm. broad, rather distant. Flesh darkish, becoming 
yellowish. Spores pink, angular, oblong, 11-13 x 7-8 /x, 1-guttulate. 
Smell pleasant, of new meal. Pastures, and heaths. Aug. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

746. E. rhodopolium Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 338, t. 342. 

p68ov, rose; Tro\iov, grey. 

P. 3-12 cm., fuscous, or livid, becoming pale, isabelline-livid, silky- 
shining when dry, slightly fleshy, campanulate, then expanded and 
subumbonate, or gibbous, at length somewhat plane, and sometimes 
depressed, fibrillose when young, then smooth ; margin bent inwards, 
and when larger undulated. St. 5-10 x -5-1-5 cm., white, equal, or 
attenuated upwards, slightly striate, apex white pruinose. Gills white, 
then rose colour, adnate, then separating, somewhat sinuate, flexuose. 
Flesh white, darkish under the cuticle of the p. Spores pink, angular, 
elliptical, 8-9 x 7-8/*, 1-guttulate. Smell like new meal, or burnt 
sugar, or none. Woods. May Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

747. E. pluteoides Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 91, fig. 2. 

Pluteus, the genus Pluteus; etSo<?, like. 

P. 2-5-8 cm., whitish grey, becoming dirty yellowish when dry, slightly 
fleshy, scissile, convex, then expanded, obtuse, slightly fibrillose at 
first, then smooth. St. 5-8 cm. x 4-8 mm., white, becoming yellow 
when touched, rigid, equal, straight, or curved and ascending, covered 
with a white, fibrillose, subtomentose cuticle, base swollen, villose, 
commonly obliquely and shortly rooting. Gills white, then flesh 
colour, emarginato-adnexed, crowded, attenuated in front. Flesh 
dark. Spores pink. Taste mild. On fir stumps and rotten wood. 
Rare. 



ENTOLOMA 251 

748. E. majale Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 94, fig. 2. Majus, the month of May. 
P. 4-6 cm., somewhat cinnamon, ockraceous pale yellow when dry, 

fleshy-membranaceous, scissile, campanulate, then convex, sub- 
umbonate, somewhat fragile; margin repand, easily rimoso-incised. 
St. 7-10 cm. x 4-6 mm., whitish, somewhat compressed, twisted, striate, 
somewhat fibrillose, often connate at the thickened, white tomentose 
base. Gills pallid, then flesh-coloured with the rosy spores, free, 
ventricose, crowded, crenate. Flesh very thin. Spores pink, "sub- 
spheric, 5-6-angular, 7-10 x 7-8 ft" Lange. Pastures, open woods, 
and mossy places in fir woods. April Sept. Eare. 

749. E. costatum Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 340, t. 320, upper figs. 

Gostatum, ribbed. 

P. 3-8 cm., fuscous-livid, becoming grey when dry, or shining black 
when scorched by the sun, fleshy-membranaceous, convexo-bullate, undu- 
lated, irregularly shaped, then rather plane, more or less umbilicate. 
St. 46 cm. x 48 mm., grey, often compressed, somewhat striate, 
apex white mealy. Gills pallid, or greyish, then flesh colour, emarginate, 
5-7 mm. broad, transversely veined with raised ribs, undulate. Flesh 
grey, becoming white. Spores pink, angular, globose, 6-7 \i, or oblong, 
9-10 x 7-8/i. Pastures, and heaths, occasionally in woods. May 
Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

750. E. sericeum (Bull.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 340, t. 320, lower figs. 

Sericeum, silky. 

P. 2-4 cm., umber, becoming pale with a silky appearance when dry, 
fleshy-membranaceous, convex, then plane, obtuse, often umbonate, 
somewhat repand ; margin involute, striate at first. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 3- 
6 mm., grey, fibroso-fissile, equal, or thickened upwards, fibrillose, 
shining. Gills grey, then rufescent, emarginate, slightly adnexed, 
equally attenuated from the stem to the margin. Flesh umber, becoming 
whitish. Spores pink, angular, elliptical, 8-^ x 6/x,, 1-guttulate. Smell 
pleasant, of new meal, or bitter almonds. Pastures, and woods. 
May Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

751. E. venosum Gillet. Venosum, full of veins. 
P. 3-4 cm., brown, or blackish, disc darker when moist, thin, convex, 

slightly umbonate, silky and shining when dry. St. 46 cm. x 3- 
4 mm., grey, very fragile, easily splitting, fibrillosely striate, apex 
slightly squamulose. Gills dirty reddish grey, free, broad, covered with 
prominent, transverse veins. Spores pink. Smell strong, of new meal. 
Woods, and heaths. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

752. E. nidorosum Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 341, t. 321. Nidorosum, reeking. 
P. 3-7 cm., fawn cinereous, livid, silky shining when dry, sub- 

membranaceous, convex, then expanded, at length often concave, 



252 ENTOLOMA. HEBELOMA 

and irregularly shaped, rimose. St. 5-13 cm. x 3-15 mm., pale white, 
equal, or attenuated upwards, apex white pruinose. Gills pallid, then 
flesh colour, emarginato-free, 6-12 mm. broad, at length distant, 
sometimes undulato-flexuose. Flesh white. Spores pink, angular, 
subglobose, 8-10 x 7-9 jii, 1-3-guttulate. Smell strong, alkaline, or 
none. Woods, heaths, and lawns. Aug. Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

753. E. speculum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 95, fig. 2. Speculum, a looking glass. 
P. 2-5 cm., watery, or straw white, silvery when dry, submembra- 

naceous, convex, soon flattened and depressed, obtusely, and obso- 
letely umbonate ; margin thin, bent inwards, flexuose, pellucid-striate. 
St. 5-8 cm. x 4-8 mm., yellowish, round, often compressed, shining, 
very fragile. Gills white, then flesh colour, slightly adnexed, broadly 
emarginate, 6-8 mm. broad, ventricose, the shorter ones narrower, 
edge becoming fuscous. Flesh brownish. Spores pink, angular, oblong, 
12-14 x 7-8 /A, 1-2-guttulate. Woods, and pastures. Sept. Oct. 
Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

754. E. tortipes Massee. Tortus, twisted; pes, foot. 
P. 6-7 cm., dark brown, and shining as if oiled when moist, then 

cinnamon and silky shining when dry, convex and broadly umbonate, 
then expanded and depressed round the umbo; margin arched, 
flexuose, often splitting. St. 5-6 x -5 cm., whitish, tinged with cinna- 
mon, flexuose, or angularly bent, silky-fibrillose. Gills pale dingy pink, 
broadly adnate with a minute sinus, then free, 8-10 mm. broad 
behind, tapering towards the margin, crowded. Flesh dark when 
moist, paler when dry. Spores pink, elliptical, 5 x 3[j,. Amongst grass. 

Spores ochraceous, or ferruginous. 

Hebeloma Fr. 

(17/377, youth; \a>pa, a fringe.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular, margin incurved. Stem central, fibrous, or 
fleshy. Gills sinuate, sinuato-adnate, or adnexed. Spores ochraceous, 
ferruginous, or fuscous, elliptical, pip-shaped, pruniform, almond- 
shaped, elliptic oblong, or fusiform, smooth, continuous. Cystidia 
present, or absent. Growing on the ground, solitary, caespitose, or 
subcaespitose. 

I. Furnished with a cortina from the manifest veil, by which 
the p. is often superficially silky round the margin. 

755. H. mussivum Fr. (= Cortinarius percomis Fr. sec. Quel.) Fr. 

Icon. t. Ill, fig. 1. Musso, I mutter. 

P. 5-10 cm., yellow, sometimes darker, and brownish at the disc, 

fleshy, convex, then plane, unequal, very obtuse, viscid, smooth at 



HEBELOMA 253 

first, then generally repand and broken up into squamules. St. 10- 
13 x 2-5 cm., light yellow, equal, or ventricose, wholly fibrillose, apex 
pruinose. Veil fibrillose, very fugacious. Gills light yellow, then some- 
what ferruginous, emarginate, 6 mm. broad, arid, somewhat crowded. 
Flesh becoming yellow, compact, firm, very thick in the st. Spores 
ferruginous, "elliptical, 12 x 6ju," Massee. Smell weak, not un- 
pleasant. Coniferous woods. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

756. H. sinuosum Fr. (= Hebeloma senescens Batsch sec. Quel.) 

full of curves. 



P. 7-5-15 cm., never equalling the length of the st., pale yellow, or 
brick-red becoming pale, rarely clay colour, fleshy, irregular, convex, 
then plane, obtuse, smooth, viscid, soon dry, very sinuosely repand; 
margin whitish, membranaceous, inflexed, exceeding the gills, crenu- 
late, striate. St. 5-15 x 2-5-3-5 cm., white, equal, generally oblique 
at the very base, fibrillosely striate, apex at first fioccosely squamulose. 
Gills dirty white, then becoming ferruginous, slightly adnexed, broadly 
emarginate and appearing free and distant, but connected with the 
st. by a slender tooth, 6-12 mm. broad, dry, crowded, often undulate. 
Flesh white, thick, soft, somewhat fragile. Spores ferruginous, 
"almond-shaped-oval, 10-12 x 7-9 /z, slightly rough. Cystidia on 
edge of gill clavate, 50-60 x 7-9/x," Rick. Smell fruity. Coniferous 
woods. Aug. Rare. 

757. H. fastibile Fr. Fr. Icon. t. Ill, fig. 2. Fastibile, disagreeable. 
P. 4-8 cm., pale yellowish tan, or becoming pale, fleshy, convexo- 
plane, obtuse, somewhat repand, smooth; margin involute, pubescent. 
St. 4-8 cm. x 6-12 mm., white, or pallid, fleshy fibrous, somewhat 
bulbous, often twisted, white silky and fibrillose, white scaly upwards. 
Cortina white, silky, often in the form of a ring. Gills pale-white, then 
dingy clay colour, very emarginate, rather broad, subdistant, edge 
whitish, distilling drops in rainy weather. Flesh white, compact. 
Spores earth colour, pale under the microscope, pip-shaped, 9-11 x 5- 
6ju,, "punctate. Cystidia on edge of gill filamentous-clavate, 50- 
75 x 6-9/x" Rick. Smell unpleasant, taste of radish, bitterish. 
Poisonous. Woods. July Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

var. album Fr. Album, white. 

Differs from the type in the long, equal stem, fibrillosely squamose 
at the apex, and in the distant gills. 

var. sulcatum Lindgr. Sulcatum, furrowed. 

Differs from the type in the sulcate, or rugose plicate margin of the p. 

var. elegans Massee. Elegans, nice. 

Differs from the type in the purple-brown p. 



254 HEBELOMA 

758. H. senescens (Batsch) B. & Br. (= Hebeloma sinuosum Fr. sec. 

Quel.) Senescens, becoming old. 

P. 5-10 cm., ochraceous tawny, convex, then flattened, slightly 
glutinous, delicately tomentose, margin white. St. 7-12-5 x 1-2-5 cm., 
fuscous downwards, apex shining white, tomentose, at first bulbous, 
attenuated upwards, covered with paler, transversely arranged squa- 
mules. Gills pallid, then cinnamon, adnexed, 4-5 mm. broad, crowded. 
Flesh white, thick at the disc. Spores pale ferruginous, pip-shaped, 
8-9 x 5/x, with a large central gutta. Smell strong, acrid. Coniferous 
woods, and under conifers. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

759. H. glutinosum (Lindgr.) Fr. (= Flammula lenta (Pers.) Fr. sec. 

Quel.) Fr. Icon. t. 112, fig. 1. Glutinosum, sticky. 

P. 5-9 cm., yellow white, disc darker, fleshy, convex, then plane, 
regular, obtuse, glutinous, slimy in wet weather, sprinkled with white, 
superficial, fugacious squamules. St. 7-9 x 1-1-5 cm., whitish, be- 
coming ferruginous downwards, firm, subbulbous, white squamulose, 
fibrillose, apex white mealy, base strigose. Partial veil manifest, 
fugacious. Gills pallid, then light yellowish, at length clay cinnamon, 
sinuato-adnate, subdecurrent, broad, crowded. Flesh whitish, be- 
coming light yellow, ferruginous in the st. especially towards the base, 
thick at the disc. Spores pale cinnamon, elliptical, 8 x 3-4 p,, 1-guttu- 
late, "punctate. Cystidia filamentous, 30-40 x 2-3 /x" Rick. Smell 
not unpleasant, taste mild. Woods, especially oak and beech. Sept. 
Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

760. H. testaceum (Batsch) Fr. Cke. JQlus. no. 449, t. 408. 

Testaceum, brick red. 

P. 35 cm., brick pale, often ochraceous tan, or tan, somewhat opaque, 
whitish at the margin, fleshy, campanulato-convex, then flattened, 
regular, obtuse, smooth, obsoletely viscid, or dry. St. 3-7-5 cm. x 6- 
8 mm., whitish, becoming somewhat tawny at the somewhat thickened, 
fibrillose base, somewhat fragile, apex white mealy. Cortina thin, 
fugacious. Gills pallid, then clay colour, subferruginous, attenuato-free, 
lanceolate, very thin, at first ascending, very crowded. Flesh whitish, 
then brownish, thin at the margin. Spores pale ferruginous, pip- 
shaped, 8-9 x 4-5-5 /x, multi-guttulate, "rough. Cystidia on edge 
filamentous-clavate, 40-60 x 6-10/u," Rick. Smell faint, of radish. 
Woods, and heaths. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

761. H. firmum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 112, fig. 3. Firmum, hard. 
P. 5-7 cm., brick-red, fleshy, convex, then plane, at length depressed, 

smooth, viscid. St. 5-8 cm. x 4-12 mm., whitish, brown and fibrillose 
at the base, firm, somewhat attenuated downwards, covered with white, 
fioccose squamules. Cortina white, fugacious. Gills whitish, then clay 



HEBELOMA 255 

% 

colour and ferruginous, sinuate, thin, arid, crowded. Flesh whitish, 
then tawny. Spores "pale dirty colour under the microscope, sub- 
fusiform, 9-11 x 4-5 /x, minutely punctate. Cystidia only on the 
edge of the gill, filamentous-clavate, 36-40 x 3-5/x" Rick. Smell 
faint. Coniferous woods. Feb. Oct. Rare. 

762. H. claviceps Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 451, t. 410. 

Clavus, a nail; caput, head. 

P. 2-4 cm., yellowish white, umbo darker, fleshy, convex, then ex- 
panded, umbonate, or gibbous, viscid, naked ("more or less scaly, and 
fibrillose" Gillet). St. 5-7 cm. x 4-6 mm., white, brownish at the base, 
equal, white mealy. Gills pallid, then ochraceous brownish, emarginate, 
arid, crowded. Flesh pale, yellowish under the cuticle of the p., thick 
at the disc. Spores "reddish under the microscope, almond-shaped, 
10-12 x 6-7 ft, roughish. Cystidia on edge of gill remarkably long, 
filamentous-clavate, 75-90 x 6-12ju" Rick. Woods, especially beech. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

763. H. punctatum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 113, fig. 1. Punctatum, dotted. 
P. 2-5 cm., tan colour, disc umber, becoming pale when dry, fleshy, 

convex, soon plane, disc obtuse, or gibbous, viscoso-papiUose, at length 
depressed at the centre; margin white, superficially silky with the fibril- 
lose veil. St. 5-10 cm. x 4-8 mm., pallid, equal, flexuose, dry, silky- 
fibrillose with the adpressed veil, apex white pruinose. Cortina white, 
fugacious. Gills pallid, then pale ferruginous, or brownish, arcuato- 
adnate, narrowed behind, slightly ventricose, narrow, 4-6 mm. broad, 
plane, crowded. Flesh white, thick at the disc. Spores " almond-shaped, 
10-12 x 5-6 fjL, rough, with a thick membrane. Cystidia on edge of 
gill short, filamentous, 30-36 x 3-4^,, filled with yellow juice" Rick. 
Smell faint, not unpleasant. Gregarious. Pine woods. Sept. Un- 
common. 

764. H. versipelle Fr. Versipelle, changeable in appearance. 
P. 2-5-8 cm., reddish tan, becoming pale at the disc, then dingy tan 

and opaque when old, fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse, at first covered 
with a tenacious, glutinous pellicle, then becoming dry; margin at first 
covered with glued white-silky, villose down, then smooth. St. 5-8 cm. 
x 4-6 mm., white, becoming fuscous at the base, tough, equal, at first 
remarkably white-silky with the evident cortina, then longitudinally 
fibrillosely striate, and easily splitting up into fibres, white mealy 
above the ring formed by the cortina. Gills whitish, then clay cinnamon, 
rounded, arid, 6-10 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh whitish, becoming 
fuscous in the st. Spores pale ferruginous, elliptical, 8-12 x 6-7 /u,, 
1-2-guttulate, rough. Smell faint, not unpleasant. Subcaespitose. 
Grassy places, and among fir needles. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



256 HEBELOMA 

765. H. strophosum Fr. o-rpo^o?, a belt. 
P. 2-4 cm., bay, white and silky from the veil at the margin, fleshy, 

fragile, convex, then plane, subumbonate, viscid when wet, then dry. 
St. 2-5-5 cm. x 6 mm., whitish, at length becoming fuscous downwards, 
equal, fragile, often curved at the base, clothed with the white silky veil 
which forms an apical ring. Ring white, floccose, reflexed. Gills flesh 
colour, then clay colour, slightly adnexed, leaving a wide, bare space 
at the apex of the st., ventricose, 4-8 mm. broad, plane. Flesh watery 
white, thin at the margin. Spores pale cinnamon, elliptical, 8-9 x 5/x, 
1-guttulate. Cystidia "only on the edge of the gill, clavate-filament- 
ous, 40-50 x 5-7 /x,, thin walled" Rick. Bare soil, and grassy places. 
Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

766. H. mesophaeum Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 452, t. 411. 

/ieo-o?, middle; fyaibv, dusky. 

P. 2-5-4 cm., pale yellowish, or becoming pale, disc date brown, fleshy, 
conical, then convex, then plane, or depressed and darker at the disc, 
viscid, smooth. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 4 mm., whitish, then ferruginous, 
tough, equal, fibrillose, base becoming fuscous, apex pruinose. Cortina 
manifest, thin, fugacious. Gills clay ferruginous, rounded, or emargi- 
nate, thin, plane, arid, crowded. Flesh greyish, becoming white, thin 
at the margin. Spores pale ferruginous, elliptical, 9-10 x 5-6/z, with 
a large central gutta, roughish. Cystidia on edge of gill, " clavate- 
filamentous, rarely fusiform-filamentous, 50-70 x 5-9 /x, thin walled" 
Rick. Smell faint, sometimes of radish. Taste acrid. Woods, especially 
coniferous woods, and charcoal heaps. Sept. Oct. Common, (v.v.) 
var. holophaeum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 113, fig. 3. 

6X05, entirely; <f>aiov, dusky. 

Differs from the type in the umbonate p. being entirely dark fuscous, 
in the st. becoming fuscous and subannulate with the cortinate veil, and 
in the gills being slightly sinuate. 

var. minus Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 453, t. 412. Minus, smaller. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size. Common along with the 
type, (v.v.) 

767. H. subcollariatum B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 454, t. 506, as a var. 

Sub, somewhat; collariatum, having a collar. 
P. 2-5 cm., pallid, disc subfuscous, fleshy, convex, then more or less 
expanded, slightly glutinous, the floccose veil soon vanishing. St. 
5 cm. x 4 mm., pale, brown at the base, often flexuose, pulverulent. 
Gills clay colour, edge shining white, very slightly rounded behind, 
broadly adnate, soon separating from the st. and forming a short inter- 
rupted collar, ventricose, 4-6 mm. broad. Spores pale, ferruginous, 
elliptical, 12-13 x 6/i, 1-guttulate. On naked soil. May Oct. 
Uncommon. 






HEBELOMA 257 

II. P. smooth, at the first with no cortina. 

768. H. sinapizans (Paul.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 455, t. 413. 

aLvairi, mustard. 

P. 7-5-20 cm., clay colour, disc sometimes pale yellowish, fleshy, con- 
vex, then plane, very obtuse, for the most part repand, often excentric, 
smooth, slightly viscid when fresh. St. 7-5-12-5 x 2-5 cm., white, 
rigid, equal, or fusiform rooted, fibrilloso-striate, apex white squamu- 
lose. Gills clay cinnamon, opaque, deeply emarginate, sometimes 
arcuato-decurrent, 610 mm. broad, crowded, fragile, arid. Flesh 
white, compact. Spores ferruginous, almond-shaped, 10-11 x 6/z. 
Smell strong, of radish. Woods, and under trees. Sept. Oct. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 

769. H. crustuliniforme (Bull.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 456, t. 507. 

Crustulum, a small cake ; forma, shape. 

P. 5-10 cm., pale whitish tan, pale yellowish, or brick colour, disc 
deeper coloured, fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse, or slightly gibbous, 
rarely repand, smooth, at first viscid. St. 47 x 1-2-5 cm., whitish, 
equal, or subbulbous, firm, apex white squamulose. Gills whitish, 
then clay colour, at length date brown, rounded-adnexed, almost adnate, 
narrow, linear, 2-4 mm. broad, crowded; edge unequal, guttate, dis- 
tilling watery drops in wet weather, spotted when dry. Flesh whitish, 
watery, thick. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 10-12 x 5-6ju, rough. 
Cystidia " only on the edge of the gill, filamentous-capitate, sometimes 
also subventricose, 50-60 x 7-10/t, thin walled" Eick. Smell strong 
of radish, or like the flowers of the common laurel. Taste acrid. 
Poisonous. Woods, heaths, andpastures. Aug. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 
var. minus Cke. (= Hebeloma hiemale Bres. sec. Big. & Guill.) Cke. 
Illus. no. 457, t. 414. Minus, smaller. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size, in the floccose edge of the 
gill and in its faint smell. Woods, and heaths. Oct. Nov. Not 
uncommon, (v.v.) 

770. H. subsaponaceum Karst. Karst. Icon. t. 44. 

Sub, somewhat; sapo, soap. 

P. 3 cm., gilvous, then pallid, darker when dry, expanded, obtuse, 
naked, dry. St. 2-3 cm. x 3-4 mm., pale, becoming umber below when 
touched, equal, rather wavy, adpressedly fibrillose, apex rather mealy. 
Gills pale alutaceous, then ferruginous, adnate, 2mm. broad, crowded, 
dry. Spores oval oblong, 6-10 x 4-6/A. Smell strong, of soap. Fir, 
and mixed woods. Aug. Uncommon. 

771. H. elatum (Batsch) Fr. Cke. IUus.no. 1165, t. 962. Elatum,tall. 
P. 2-5-8 cm., tan colour, becoming pale tan when dry, fleshy, convex, 

then flattened, obtuse, smooth, slightly viscid, opaque, margin very 
thin. St. 8-10 cm. x 8-12 mm., whitish, equal, cylindrical, tense and 

17 



258 HEBELOMA 

straight, twisted with spiral fibres, base with, an ovately, villose bulb 
when growing amongst fir leaves, adpressedly fibrillose, apex white 
mealy. Gills pale cinnamon, rounded, with a small decurrent tooth, 
6 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh whitish, thick at the disc. Spores 
brownish ferruginous, elliptical, 8-10 x 5/x. Smell very strong of 
radish. Woods, especially coniferous woods, and heaths. Sept. 
Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

772. H. longicaudum (Pers.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 458, t. 415. 

Longus, long; cauda, a tail. 

P. 4-12 cm., clay colour, becoming whitish, disc sometimes becoming 
fuscous, fleshy, convex, then expanded, umbonate, at length repand, 
smooth, viscid; margin whitish, pruinose. St. 8-11 x 1-2 cm., white, 
at length becoming tawny at the base, fragile, equal, or thickened at the 
base, obsoletely fibrillose, apex mealy. Gills white clay, then cinnamon, 
arcuato-adnate, 6 mm. broad, crowded, edge serrulate, somewhat 
dotted. Flesh white, soft, watery, thin at the margin. Spores tawny 
ochraceous, oblong elliptical, 11-12 x 6/i, minutely verrucose. 
Cystidia "on edge of gill long, filamentous-clavate, 60-90 x 6-8^" 
Eick. Smell faint, not unpleasant. Taste mild. Edible. Woods, 
especially coniferous woods. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

773. H. radicatum (Cke.) Maire. (= Hebeloma elatum Quel. non 
Batsch sec. Maire.) Cke. Illus. no. 459, t. 416, as Hebeloma 
longicaudum Fr. var. radicatum Cke. Radicatum, rooting. 

P. 3-10 cm., ochraceous fiesh colour, whitish at the margin, convex, 
gibbous, glutinous. St. 7-11 x -5-1 cm., white, becoming brownish, 
fusiform, rooting, soft, twisted, fibrillose, villose, mealy at the apex. 
Gills pale fiesh colour, then brownish, adnate by a tooth, undulate. 
Flesh white, thick, soft. Spores fuscous ferruginous, elliptical, 10 x 5/x. 
Smell of radish, or of honey, like that of Pholiota radicosa. Taste bitter. 
Caespitose. Coniferous woods. Sept. Rare, (v.v.) 

774. H. lugens (Jungh.) Fr. Lugens, mourning. 
P. 4-7-5 cm., brown, becoming somewhat yellow, fleshy, convex, then 

plane, gibbous, often repand and irregular, smooth, subviscid. St. 
4-7-5 cm. x 6-8 mm., white, shining, subbulbous, fibrillosely striate, 
apex white mealy. Gills pallid, then ferruginous, somewhat free, 
fragile, 4 mm. broad, edge crenulate, darker. Flesh white. Spores 
"10 x 6/x," Massee. Smell strong. In troops. Woods, especially 
beech. Sept. Oct. Rare. 
H. truncatum (Schaeff.) Fr. = Tricholoma truncatum (Schaeff.) Quel. 

775. H. nudipes Fr. Kalchbr. Icon. t. 14, fig. 3. 

Nudus, naked; pes, foot. 

P. 4-7 cm., pale tan, or clay colour, fleshy, convex, then flattened, 
obtuse, unequal, smooth, slightly viscid, scarcely perceptibly streaked ; 



HEBELOMA 259 

margin membranaceous, exceeding the gills. St. 5-8 cm. x 8-16 mm., 
white, equal, fibrillose at the base, smooth above, straight, or curved 
and ascending, pellicle separable. Gills tan colour, broadly emarginate, 
crowded, dry. Flesh watery, white when dry, compact at the disc, very 
thin at the margin. Spores fuscous, elliptical, 12 x Qfj,. Smell weak, 
not unpleasant. Taste mild. Edible. Woods. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

776. H. sacchariolens Quel. Quel. Soc. sc. n. de Rouen,- 1879, t. 1, 

fig. 2. Saccharum, sugar; olens, smelling. 

P. 2-6 cm., whitish, disc buff colour, but the whole surface deepens in 
colour with age, fleshy, campanulate, then convex, smooth, viscid. 
St. 4-5 x 1 cm., white, streaked with fawn fibrils below, attenuated 
above and at the base, striate, silky, apex pruinose. Gills whitish, then 
buff colour, and finally ferruginous, sinuato-adnate, 6-10 mm. broad, 
crenate, edge whitish. Flesh yellowish, or somewhat buff, thin at the 
margin. Spores deep ferruginous, almond-shaped, 10-11 x 7-8 /x, 
with a hyaline basal apiculus. Smell very peculiar and strong, like 
that of Entoloma ameides or "of burnt sugar, or orange fiowers" 
Quel. Woods, heaths, and pastures. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

777. H. nauseosum Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 1166, t. 963. 

vav<Tia, sea-sickness. 

P. 2-5-3-5 cm., ochrey-white, fleshy, convex, gibbous, more or less 
expanded, smooth, viscid. St. 3-5 cm. x 6-10 mm., concolorous, in 
decay turning black at the base, equal, or attenuated at the base, 
faintly striate downwards, mealy above. Gills pallid, then clay colour, 
and at length ferruginous, sinuate, ventricose, 6-10 mm. broad, sub- 
distant. Flesh white, thick at the disc. Spores pale ferruginous, 
elliptical-fusiform (20 x 10/z Cke.), 12 x 6/z, 1-2-guttulate. Smell 
very unpleasant. Woods, and heaths. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

778. H. ischnostylum Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 463, t. 420. 

iV%i>o<?, thin; crrOXo?, a pillar. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., white, or a little pallid at the disc, fleshy, convex, then 
expanded, broadly umbonate, slightly viscid. St. 5 cm. x 3-4 mm., 
whitish, equal, or a little thickened at the base, smooth. Gills whitish, 
then clay colour, rounded behind, adnexed, edge slightly serrate. Flesh 
white, thin at the margin. Spores fuscous, elliptical, 12 x 7-5/u,. 
Smell none, or with a faint odour of Spiraea. Amongst grass under 
alders. Sept. Uncommon. 

T79. H. capniocephalum (Bull.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 462, t. 419. 

KCLTTVOS, smoke; ice<j>a\r), head. 

P. 4-7-5 cm., pale yellowish, or reddish, disc darker, margin at length 
ling black, fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, smooth. St. 5- 
cm. x 4-6 mm., whitish, attenuated downwards, striate with rufescent 

172 



260 HEBELOMA. HYPHOLOMA 

fibrils, becoming pale. Gills ferruginous, emarginate, broad, scarcely 
crowded. Flesh whitish, thin at the margin. Spores fuscous, ellip- 
tical, 9 x 5jit. "Smell of musk" Secretan. Mixed woods, and under 
firs, and pines. Oct. Nov. Rare. 

780. H. diffractum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 114, fig. 1. 

Diffractum, broken in pieces. 

P. 3-5 cm., tan colour, fleshy, thin, convex, then plane, obtuse, 
smooth, somewhat dry, at length squamosely broken up. St. 2-5- 
4 cm. x 6-8 mm., white, subfusiform, attenuated downwards, hollow, 
squamulose with white flocci above. Gills pallid, then ferruginous, 
emarginate, ventricose, broad, crowded, dry. Spores ferruginous, 
"10-12 x 4 5/x" Massee. Smell weak, unpleasant, somewhat of 
radish. Pine needles in woods. Sept. Rare. 

III. P. scarcely 2-5 cm. broad. Stature that of the Naucoriae. 

781. H. magnimamma Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 114, fig. 2. 

Magnus, large; mamma, breast. 

P. 1-2-5 cm., brick colour, at length becoming pale yellowish, fleshy, 
convex, then plane, with a prominent, breast-shaped umbo, smooth, 
but becoming somewhat streaky towards the margin. St. 2-5-7 cm. 
x 23 mm., pale yellowish, becoming pale, equal, or flexuose, often 
substriate, fibrous, smooth. Gills pallid, then ferruginous, sinuato- 
adnate, 2-3 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh yellowish, tawny under the 
cuticle of the p., very thin at the margin. Spores pale ferruginous, 
broadly elliptical, 9-12 x 5-6 fj,, with a hyaline basal, or subbasal, 
apiculus, multi-guttulate. Pastures, under oaks, and apple trees. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 
H. petiginosum Fr. = Astrosporina petiginosa (Fr.) Rea. 

Spores purple, or fuscous. 

Hypholoma Fr. 
(i></>?7, a web; \a)/j,a, a fringe.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular, firm, or fragile. Stem central, fibrous, or 
fleshy. Gills sinuate, sinuato-adnate, or adnexed. Spores purple, 
fuscous, or cinereous purple; elliptical, subglobbse, pip-shaped, or 
reniform, smooth, rarely verrucose, with an apical germ-pore. 
Cystidia present, or absent. Growing on wood, more rarely on the 
ground, often densely caespitose, or fasciculate. 

*Colour of the tough, smooth, dry (except Hypholoma 
silaceum) p. bright, not hygrophanous. 

782. H. silaceum (Pers.) Fr. (= Flammuloides sublateritia Schaeff. 
sec. Quel.) Silaceum, ochraceous. 



HYPHOLOMA 261 

P. 6-8 cm., orange rufous, fleshy, convex, viscid; margin whitish, 
silky. St. 7-10 cm. x 6-8 mm., concolorous, bulbous, shining, fibril- 
loso-striate. Gills grey, then olivaceous, adnate, crowded. Spores pale 
purplish brown. Smell pleasant, of meal. Solitary, " caespitose from 
a common tuber" Secretan. Old pastures, and under firs. Aug. 
Nov. Eare. 

783. H. sublateritium (Schaeff.) Fr. Holland, Champ, t. 73, no. 162. 

Sub, somewhat; lateritium, brick colour. 

P. 3-10 cm., tawny-brick-red, paler round the margin, fleshy, con- 
vexo-plane, obtuse, discoid, dry, covered with a superficial, somewhat 
silky, whitish cloudiness (arising from the veil), becoming smooth', 
margin often append iculate with the veil. St. 5-10 cm. x -15 mm., 
yellow, ferruginous downwards, firm, attenuated downwards, rarely 
equal, scaly-fibrillose, fibrils pallid. Cortina white, at length becoming 
black, superior. Gills dingy yellowish, and darker at the base, then 
fuliginous, at length inclining to olivaceous, adnate, sinuate, somewhat 
crowded. Flesh yellowish, ferruginous at the base of the st., compact. 
Spores fuscous purple, elliptical, 6-7 x 3-4/z,, 1-2-guttulate. Cystidia 
cylindric-clavate, or flask-shaped, apex obtuse, 6-7/z in diam., 
35-50 x 10-15/x, on the edge of the gill, fusiform-capitate, 30-36 x 
7-9 fji, contents yellow. Taste bitter. Poisonous. Subcaespitose. 
Woods, hedgerows, and old posts. Jan. Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

var. Schaefferi B. & Br. Schaeff. Icon. t. 49, figs. 4-5. 

J. C. Schaefier. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size, in the light yellowish, conical, 
at length depressed, wrinkled p., and the narrow decurrent gills. Stumps. 
July Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. pomposum Fr. Pomposum, stately. 

Differs from the type in the thicker, almost entirely tawny p., the 
thick stem up to 2-5 cm. broad, becoming pale above, the membranaceous 
ring, and the gills at length becoming a beautiful olive. Stumps. July 
Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. squamosum Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 573, t. 558. Squamosum, scaly. 
Differs from the type in the p. being spotted with scales, especially 
towards the margin. Trunks. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

784. H. capnoides Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 133, fig. 1. KaTrvtoSrjs, smoky. 
P. 2-5-8 cm., ochraceous-yellowish, fleshy, convex, then flattened, 

obtuse, dry, smooth, often wrinkled, margin appendiculate with the 
veil. St. 5-7 cm. x 4-8 mm., pallid, becoming ferruginous under the 
surface covering when old, apex whitish, equal, often curved and flexu- 
ose, becoming silky-even, here and there striate. Cortina white, then 



262 HYPHOLOMA 

becoming fuscous purple. Gills whitish, or bluish-grey, then 
purple, adnate, easily separating, rather broad, somewhat crowded. 
Flesh whitish, often somewhat ferruginous towards the base of the st. 
Spores pale fuscous, elliptical, 7-8 x 3-4//,, 1-guttulate. Cystidia 
"clavate, with a prominent point, 36-50 x 10-15/u," Eick. Smell 
and taste mild. Caespitose, or fasciculate. Coniferous stumps. 
April Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

785. H. epixanthum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 133, fig. 2. eVtfai/#oi>, tawny. 
P. 5-7-5 cm., light yellow, or becoming pale, disc generally darker, 

fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse, or gibbous, sometimes depressed at 
the disc, slightly silky, then becoming smooth; margin appendiculate 
with the veil. St. 7-14 cm. x 6-10 mm., yellow, pale ferruginous, or 
becoming fuscous below, equal, or attenuated from the thickened base, 
floccoso-fibrillose, apex pruinose. Cortina white, silky. Gills light 
yellowish white, or citron yellow, then cinereous, adnate, crowded. 
Flesh yellow, often ferruginous at the base of the st., thin at the mar- 
gin. Spores cinereous purple, broadly elliptical, 6 7 x 4/x, 1-guttulate. 
Cystidia "clavate, with a prominent point, 36-40 x 9-12 ju," Rick. 
Smell strong. Caespitose. Stumps in frondose, and coniferous woods, 
hedgerows, and parks. June Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

786. H. elaeodes Fr. (= Flammuloides fascicularis Huds. sec. Quel.) 

eXaia, the olive-tree; etSo<?, like. 

P. 4-8 cm., brick-red, or tan tinged reddish at the disc, fleshy, convex, 
then plane, or slightly depressed, obtuse, or subumbonate, dry, smooth, 
opaque; margin for a long time incurved, undulate, folded. St. 5- 
9 cm. x 510 mm., dirty yellow, more or less ferruginous, equal, or 
attenuated at the base, incurved, or flexuose, fibrillose. Cortina white, 
apical. Gills green, or greenish yellow, then olivaceous, and finally 
brownish purple, adnate, crowded, thin. Flesh yellow, ferruginous in 
the st., thin at the margin. Spores brownish purple, broadly elliptical, 
6-8 x 4-5 /A, 1-2-guttulate. Cystidia "nearly flask-shaped, 30 x 8- 
lOju., obtuse, filled with yellow juice" Rick. Smell and taste bitter. 
Caespitose. On stumps, and on the ground. Woods, and pastures. 
Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

787. H. fasciculare (Huds.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 576, t. 561. 

Fasciculare, in little bundles. 

P. 2-5 cm., light yellow, disc often darker, fleshy, convex, then 
flattened, obtuse, or subumbonate, smooth, dry; margin often ap- 
pendiculate with the veil. St. 5-22 cm. x 4-10 mm., concolorous, 
equal, base attenuated, or thickened, incurved, or flexuose, fibrillose. 
Cortina yellowish-white, fibrillose, torn. Gills sulphur yellow, then 
green, adnate, linear, 3-4 mm. broad, very crowded, subdeliquescent 



HYPHOLOMA 263 

Flesh yellow, thin. Spores purple, elliptical, 6-7 x 4-5/n, 1-guttulate. 
Cystidia clavate, 28-35 x 7-10/u,, contents yellowish. Smell and 
taste very bitter. On stumps, and on the ground. Woods, pastures, 
and hedgerows. Jan Dec. Common, (v.v.) . 

788. H. instratum Britz. Cke. Illus. no. 1181, t. 1157. 

Instratum, bare. 

P. 2-3-5 cm., dark brown, fleshy, hemispherical, convex, broadly 
umbonate, radiately rugose, margin appendiculate with the white veil. 
St. 5-7-5 cm. x 4 mm., white above, brownish at the base, equal, apex 
smooth, fibrillose, or squamulose below. Gills brown, then purple brown, 
adnate, subventricose, 6 mm. broad. Flesh brownish, thin. Spores 
purple brown, elliptical, 8 x 4/i. Caespitose. On stumps. Sept. 
Oct. Eare. 

789. H. aellopum Fr. aeXXo-Trow, storm-footed. 
P. 2-5 cm., rufescent, fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, smooth. 

St. 5-6 cm. x 48 mm., variegated with minute, red squamules, fusi- 
form, rooting, with a separable tube inside. Gills yellowish, then 
fuscous-olivaceous, adnate. Subcaespitose. Stumps, especially fir, and 
larch. Sept. Rare. 

790. H. dispersum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 133, fig. 3. Dispersum, scattered. 
P. 2-4 cm., tawny honey colour, not hygrophanous, fleshy, campanu- 

late, then convex, at length expanded, smooth, superficially white 
silky with the veil round the margin. St. 5-7 cm. x 4-6 mm., somewhat 
ferruginous, becoming fuscous at the base, apex pale, equal, tense and 
straight, tough, fibrillosely silky, besprinkled with white, zone-like 
markings from the remains of the veil. Gills pallid straw colour, at 
length clouded, obsoletely green, adnate, ventricose, 4-8 mm. broad, 
thin, crowded, edge often white Flesh yellowish, ferruginous under the 
cuticle of the p. and in the st., thin. Spores purple, pip-shaped, 8- 
9 x 4-5 /A. Cystidia "subclavate, 30-45 x 7-10/i, often drawn out 
into a point, filled with a yellow juice" Rick. Solitary, rarely caespi- 
tose. Amongst coniferous needles and twigs, rarely on stumps, and 
sawdust. April Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

791. H. irroratum Karst. Irroratum, bedewed. 
P. 4 cm., tawny honey colour, convex, then plane, gibbous, even; 

margin silky, pruinose. St. 13 cm. x 5 mm., pallid, equal, rooting, 
tough, fibrillosely silky, wavy below, and with dense rusty down. Gills 
straw colour, then darker, and tinged green, adnate, crowded ; margin 
dentate. Spores hyaline under the microscope, elliptical, 6-9 x 4-5/>i. 
Smell and taste very sour. Rare. 



264 HYPHOLOMA 

**P. naked, viscid. 

792. H. incomptum Massee. Incomptum, unadorned. 
P. 7-5-10 cm., deep bay brown, orange-tawny when dry, campanulate, 

then expanded, broadly gibbous, viscid, silky when dry; margin 
usually flexuose. St. 6-7-5 cm. x 16 mm., pale above, dark ferruginous 
below, equal, covered with minute, spreading, ferruginous, fibrillose 
squamules, mixed with primrose yellow tomentum. Gills pallid, then 
deep olive, finally clouded with purple from the spores, adnate, slightly 
rounded behind, 3-4 mm. broad, crowded, thin. Flesh tawny, 2 mm. 
thick. Spores purplish, obliquely elliptical, 8 x 3-5/i. Stumps. 
Sept. Oct. Rare. 

793. H. oedipus Cke. Cke. Elus. no. 579, t. 587, fig. A. 

oiSiTrovs, swollen footed. 

P. 12-5 cm., umber, or brownish olivaceous, paler, and subochraceous 
at the striate margin, which exceeds the gills, fleshy, turbinate, or hemi- 
spherical, then convex, glutinous, smooth, dull; margin at first ap- 
pendiculate with the veil. St. 3-5 cm. x 4-6 mm., pallid, tawny at the 
base, attenuated upwards from the bulbous base, apex pruinose, fibril- 
lose below the ring. Ring whitish, median, torn, fugacious. Gills 
whitish, then umber, broadly adnate, sometimes with a minute decur- 
rent tooth, plane, edge somewhat granular, or crenulate, often whitish. 
Flesh brownish, becoming white, thick at the disc. Spores dark brown, 
elliptical oblong, 9-10 x 5-6/t. Sticks, and dead leaves. Solitary, or 
caespitose. Feb. Rare. 

***P. silky with innate fibrils, or streaked. 

794. H. lacrymabundum Fr. non Quel. (= Stropharia cotonea QueL, 
Hypholoma storea Fr. var. caespitosum Cke., Hypholoma hypo- 
xanthum Phill. & Plowr., Hypholoma pseudostorea W. G. Sm.) 
Fr. Icon. t. 134, fig. 1. Lacrymabundum, weeping. 

P. 4-7-5 cm., whitish, becoming fuscous and pale round the margin, 
fleshy, convex, obtuse, piloso-scaly, the innate scales darker; margin 
appendiculate with the veil. St. 5-11 cm. x 6-12 mm., whitish, then 
fuscous whitish, slightly attenuated upwards from the somewhat 
thickened base, which is often yellowish, curved, fibrillosely scaly, apex 
smooth. Cortina white, separate, fibrillose. Gills whitish, then fuscous 
purple, adnate, 6 mm. broad, crowded, edge whitish, often distilling 
drops in wet weather. Flesh white, greyish when moist, soft. Spores 
fuscous purple, elliptical, 7-9 x 4-4-5/z. Cystidia cylindrical, or flask- 
shaped, base ventricose, apex obtuse, 5-6/x in diam., 28-40 x 8-18/z. 
Taste pleasant. Densely caespitose. On stumps, and on the ground. 
Beech, birch, and coniferous woods. Sept. Dec. Notuncommon. (v.v.) 

795. H. pyiotrichum (Holmsk.) Fr. (= Stropharia pyrotricha(Holmsk.) 

Quel.) Cke. Illus. no. 583, t. 564. irvp, fire; 0pi^ t hair. 



HYPHOLOMA 265 

P. 5-10 cm., fiery tawny, fleshy, hemispherical, obtuse, then ex- 
panded, densely clothed with somewhat adpressed, tawny fibrils, which 
are here and there fasciculate in the form of scales. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 4- 
15 mm., pallid, becoming tawny, equal, fibrillose, commonly squarrose 
with small, fiery tawny scales. Cortina tawny. Gills pallid, then be- 
coming brown, adnate, at length free, 10-12 mm. broad, somewhat 
crowded, edge white, flocculose. Flesh tawny, deeper coloured in the st., 
thin at the margin. Spores fuscous purple, pip-shaped, 10-11 x 6-5- 
7fji. Cystidia clavate, 12-13^ in diam. at apex, 44-70 x 7-9/u,, con- 
tents often yellowish. Caespitose. Woods, and about roots of trees. 
Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. egregium Massee. Egregium, distinguished. 

Differs from the type in the st. below the ring being covered with 
spreading, squarrose, whitish scales, and in the purple brown, broadly 
elliptical, or subglobose, apiculate spores, 6 x 4-5/x. Fasciculate, near 
to stumps. Fir woods. Oct. Rare. 

796. H. velutinum (Pers.) Fr. (= Stropharia lacrimabunda (Bull.) 
Quel.) Cke. Illus. no. 582, t. 563. Velutinum, velvety. 

P. 5-15 cm.j lurid, becoming tawny, then clay colour isabelline, 
hygrophanous, fleshy, campanulate, then expanded, at length ob- 
tusely umbonate, adpressedly, tomentosely fibrillose, becoming smooth ; 
margin appendiculate with the white veil. St. 5-12-5 cm. x 4-15 mm., 
dingy clay colour, equal, fragile, fibrillosely silky, apex tomentose 
above the veil. Cortina white, then black, woolly. Gill inclining to 
fuscous, then date brown fuscous, dotted black, adnexed, easily sepa- 
rating, 8-10 mm. broad, subdistant, edge white,fioccose, distilling watery, 
hyaline drops. Flesh pallid, very thin, fragile. Spores brownish 
purple, elliptical, 8-10 x 6-7 /x, verrucose, with an apical germ pore. 
Cystidia capitate-clavate, 50-60 x 12-15/x. Taste mild. Poisonous. 
Solitary, or in groups of two or three. Woods, pastures, roadsides, 
rarely on stumps. May Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

var. leiocephalum B. & Br. \eto<?, smooth; K(j>a\,ij, head. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size, in the very rugose disc, and 
pallid p., smooth except at the fibrillose margin, and the pallid st., 
farinose at the apex. Densely caespitose. Old stumps, and in woods. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

797. H. melantinum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 134, fig. 2. 

/xeXa?, black; t?, a fibre. 

P. 2-6 cm., umber, then pale, fleshy, campanulato-convex, then 
plane, obtuse, covered with innate, adpressed, hairy, black squamules. 
St. 4-6 cm. x 4-12 mm., pallid, equal, or slightly attenuated up- 
wards, fibrillosely hispid with whitish, then fuscous fibrils. Cortina 



266 HYPHOLOMA 

white, tender, fugacious. Gills pallid, then umber, adnexed, almost 
free, ventricose, crowded. Flesh white, very thin. Spores fuscous 
purple, reniform, 78 x 3-^/z, 1 2-guttulate. Cystidia "on surface 
of gill sparse, flask-shaped, on edge of gill vesiculose, 45-55 x 12- 
15/i " Rick. Solitary. Base of birch, and elm trees. Parks. Sept. 
Rare, (v.v.) 

****P. covered with floccose, superficial, fugacious scales. 

798. H. cascum Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 584, t. 544. Cascum, old. 
P. 4-8 cm., livid grey, tan whitish when dry, fleshy, oval, then ex- 
panded, obtuse, covered when young with superficial, white, fugacious 
scales, then smooth, slightly wrinkled when dry, disc persistently 
even; margin appendiculate with the white, squamulose veil. St. 
7-5-10 cm. x 4-6 mm,, white, equal, fragile, fibrillose, apex white- 
mealy. Gills grey, then black fuscous, rounded-adnexed, ventricose, 
4-8 mm. broad, arid, fragile. Flesh white, thin. Spores purple, ellip- 
tical, 7-8 x 4-5/x. Cystidia "fusiform-pointed, 40-50 x 9-13/x, 
somewhat thick walled " Rick. Taste bitter. Coniferous woods, and 
pastures. July Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

H. punctulatum (Kalchbr.) Cke. = Stropharia punctulata (Kalchbr.) 
Fr. 

*****P. smooth, hygrophanous, margin appendiculate with the veil. 

799. H. lanaripes Cke. (= Hypholoma appendiculatum Bull. sec. 
Quel.) Cke. Illus. no. 585, t. 545. Lana, wool; pes, foot. 

P. 3-6 cm., pallid, fleshy, campanulate, then expanded, hygro- 
phanous, squamose with superficial scales arising from the breaking up 
of the cuticle', margin appendiculate with the fugacious veil. St. 
5-7-5 cm. x 4 mm., white, equal, fragile, subfibrillose, base tomentose. 
Gills whitish, then purplish brown, reaching the st., crowded. Flesh 
pallid, thin. Soil in conservatories. Subcaespitose. June July. 
Uncommon. 

800. H. Candolleanum Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 586, t. 546. 

Alphonse de Candolle. 

P. 5-10 cm., date brown, then white, disc ochraceous, fleshy acorn- 
shaped, then campanulate, soon convex, at length flattened, obtuse, 
unequal, smooth; margin appendiculate with the white, at length 
fuscous veil. St. 47-5 cm. x 4-8 mm., white, somewhat thickened at 
the base, fragile, fibrillose, apex striate. Gills violaceous, then fuscous 
cinnamon, edge at first whitish, rounded-adnexed, then separating, 
crowded. Flesh white, thin. Spores brownish violet, "elliptical, 
8 x 4/Lt " Karst. Cystidia "only on edge of gill, subcylindrical or sub- 
ventricose, 30-45 x 9-10/z" Rick. Taste mild. Edible. In troops, 
or subcaespitose. Woods and stumps. April Nov. Common. 



HYPHOLOMA 267 

801. H. appendiculatum (Bull.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 587, t. 547. 

Appendiculatum, having a small appendage. 

P. 58 cm., date brown, then tawny, ochrey pale when dry, fleshy - 
membranaceous, ovate, then expanded, at length flattened, obtuse, 
pruinose, sprinkled with a few, fugacious flecks, then smooth, slightly 
wrinkled when dry; margin appendiculate with the white, fugacious 
veil. St. 4-7-5 cm. x 4-6 mm., white, equal, fragile, fibrillose, apex 
pruinose. Gills white, then flesh colour, at length fuscous, subadnate, 
crowded. Flesh white, very thin. Spores fuscous purple, elliptical, 
7-8 x 4-4-5ju,. Cystidia cylindrical, often slightly constricted below 
the apex, base subventricose, 35-45 x 10-13 p. Taste mild. Edible. 
In troops, or caespitose. Woods, hedgerows, and wood heaps. 
June Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

var. lanatum B. & Br. Lanatum, woolly. 

Differs from the type in being densely woolly when young, traces of 
the woolly coat remaining at the apex when the p. is expanded. 

var. flocculosum Boud. Boud. Icon. t. 137. Flocculosum, flocculose. 

Differs from the type in the white squamulose, longitudinally striate, 
or sulcate, somewhat lobed p., and the striate st. of ten flocculose. Woods. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

802. H. catarium Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 1180, t. 1176. 

Catarium, belonging to a cat. 

P. 1-5-2-5 cm., ochraceous, then paler, fleshy membranaceous, hemi- 
spherical, then expanded, smooth, hygrophanous ; margin appendicu- 
late with the white veil. St. 2-5-4 cm. x 2-3 mm., white, rather 
shining, base incrassated and white floccose, apex striate. Gills white, 
then fuscous, adnate, narrow, rather crowded. Flesh white, thin. 
Spores fuscous purple, elliptic-oblong, 6 x 3//,. Gregarious, or sub- 
caespitose. Amongst grass in parks, and roadsides. Sept. Eare. 

803. H. leucotephrum B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 588, t. 548. 

Xevtf09, white; re^pov, ash-coloured. 

P. 3-7 cm., dark grey, whitish when dry, fleshy, somewhat cam- 
panulate, then convexo-expanded, wrinkled; margin appendiculate 
with the white veil. St. 7-10 cm. x 6-10 mm., white, equal, attenu- 
ated at the base, silky-fibrillose downwards, apex striate, or sulcato- 
striate. Gills cinereous whitish, then grey, turning black, slightly adnate, 
3-6 mm. broad. Flesh pallid, becoming white, thick at the disc. Spores 
cinereous purple, elliptical, 89 x 5/z. Cystidia "on edge of gill sub- 
cylindrical, constricted-capitate, 30-40 x 6-8 //," Rick. Caespitose. 
Base of ash trees, and amongst beech leaves, and pine needles. Sept. 
Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



268 HYPHOLOMA 

804. H. egenulum B. & Br. (= Hypholoma appendiculatum Bull. sec. 

Quel.) Cke. Illus. no. 589, t. 605, fig. A. Egenulum, poor. 

P. 3-4 cm., watery white, snow white when dry, fleshy, hemispherical, 
then expanded, umbonate, smooth; margin finely striate, appendicu- 
late with the white veil. St. 4-5 cm. x 3 mm., white, attenuated up- 
wards, or nearly equal, minutely adpressedly scaly. Gills purplish 
timber, edge white, adnate, with a tooth, slightly ventricose, sub- 
distant. Flesh white, thick at the disc. Spores brown purple. Solitary. 
Amongst grass. May. Eare. 

805. H. pilulaeforme (Bull.) Fr. (= Hypholoma hydrophilum Bull, 
sec. Quel.) Bull. Hist. Champ. Fr. t. 112. 

Pilula, a little ball;/orme, shaped. 

P. 1-2 cm., fuscous, dingy ochraceous when dry, submembranaceous, 
globose, then convexo-plane, obtuse, smooth; margin pale, striate, 
slightly appendiculate with the white veil. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 2 mm., 
white, equal, flexuose, often slightly thickened at the base. Cortina 
white, membranaceous, often forming a ring, fugacious. Gills white, 
then cinereous, at length fuscous, adnexed, easily separating, narrow, 
2-3 mm. broad, thin, crowded. Flesh yellowish, thin. Spores cinereous 
purple, elliptical, 6-8 x 4//,. Densely caespitose. On stumps, and 
buried wood. Woods, and pastures. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

806. H. hydrophilum (Bull.) Fr. (= Bolbitius hydrophilus (Bull.) Fr. 
Hym. Eur.) Cke. Illus. no. 606, t. 610, as Psilocybe spadicea Fr. 

vSwp, water; (j)i\ov, loving. 

P. 3-6 cm., date brown when moist, tawny, or tan colour when dry, 
fleshy, globose, then convex and expanded, pruinose, striate near 
the margin when moist, wrinkled when dry; margin often undulate, 
appendiculate with the white, fugacious veil. St. 5-10 cm. x 4-8 mm., 
white, becoming somewhat ferruginous downwards, rigid, but fragile, 
equal, or attenuated slightly upwards, curved, fibrillose at the base. 
Gills whitish, then date brown fuscous, adnate, ventricose, crowded, 
often distilling hyaline drops. Flesh pallid, white when dry, very thin 
at the margin. Spores ferruginous purple, elliptical, 5-6 x 3-3-5/A, 
1-2-guttulate. Cystidia cylindrical, ventricose, often constricted 
below the apex, apex obtuse, 8-9/z in diam., 25-28 x 12-14/z. 
Densely caespitose. Stumps in woods, and on sawdust. Aug. Dec. 
Common, (v.v.) 

H. fibrillosum (Pers.) Quel. = Psathyra fibrillosa (Pers.) Fr. 
H. nolitangere (Fr.) Quel. = Psathyra nolitangere Fr. 
H.fatuum (Fr.) Quel. = Psathyra fatua Fr. 
H. ammophilum (Mont.) Quel. = Psilocybe ammophila (Mont.) Fr. 
H. gossypinum (Bull.) Quel. = Psathyra gossypina (Bull.) Fr. 



HYPHOLOMA. CLITOCYBE 269 

H. pennatum (Fr.) Quel. = Psathyra pennata Fr. 

H. semivestitum (B. & Br.) Quel. = Psathyra semivestita B. & Br. 

H. bifrons (Berk.) Big. & Guillem. = Psathyra bifrons Berk. 

H. Gordonii (B. & Br.) Big. & Guillem. = Psathyra Gordonii B. & Br. 

****Gills decurrent, or adnato-decurrent by a tooth.. 
Spores white ; hymenium not waxy, nor pulverulent. 

Clitocybe Fr. 

(:\iT09, a slope; /cvftrj, head.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular, or irregular; margin incurved. Stem central, 
externally fibrous. Gills decurrent, rarely adnate, with an acute edge. 
Spores white, rarely yellowish, or greenish, elliptical, pip-shaped, 
globose, subglobose, or oblong; smooth, punctate, verrucose, or 
echinulate, continuous. Growing on the ground, rarely on wood, 
solitary, caespitose, or forming rings. 

A. P. fleshy, often pale and silky when dry, not hygrophanous. 

a. P. convex, then plane, or depressed, regular, obtuse. 

*P. cinereous, or fuscous. 

807. C. nebularis (Batsch) Fr. Grev. Scot. Crypt. Fl. t. 9, as Agaricus 
turgidus. Nebularis, clouded. 

P. 7 -5-20 cm., fuliginous, or fuscous, then grey, fleshy, somewhat 
compact, convex, then plane, very obtuse, at length depressed at the 
disc, dry, at first pruinosely grey, becoming smooth, more rarely 
innately streaked, or shining when scorched by the sun. St. 7- 
12 x 2-3 cm., whitish, thickened at the base, attenuated upwards, 
spongy, elastic, fibrillosely striate. Gills whitish, sometimes becoming 
yellow, shortly and equally decurrent, arcuate, very crowded, thin. 
Flesh white, thick. Spores white, elliptical, 7-8 x 3-4/i, 1-2-guttu- 
late. Smell and taste pleasant. Edible. Woods, heaths, and pastures. 
Aug. Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

808. C. clavipes (Pers.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 47, upper figs. 

Clavus, a nail; pes, foot. 

P. 46 cm., fuscous, fuliginous, cinereous-livid, sometim.es whitish 
round the margin, very rarely wholly white, fleshy, slightly convex, 
soon plane, at length almost obconical, very obtuse, sometimes um- 
bonate, smooth. St. 4-6 x 1 cm., concolorous, conical, base bulbous, 
elastic, somewhat fibrillose. Gills white, sometimes yellowish, deeply 
decurrent, subdistant, flaccid, broad. Flesh cinereous, then white, lax, 
thin at the margin. Spores white, elliptical, 6-7 x 4-5/t, 1-guttulate. 
Smell faint, pleasant. Taste mild. Beech, and coniferous woods. 
Aug. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 



270 CLITOCYBE 

809. C. comitialis (Pers.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 47, lower figs. 

Comitialis, belonging to the comitia. 

P. 25 cm., umber fuliginous, almost becoming black, fleshy, convex, 
then plane, obtuse, smooth, somewhat moist. St. 4-7 cm. x 6-15 mm., 
concolorous, equally attenuated upwards, elastic, smooth. Gills white, 
adnato-decurrent, horizontal, plane, crowded, thin. Flesh white, firm, 
compact. Spores white, elliptical, 6-7 x 4/u,, 1-guttulate. Pine woods. 
Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

810. C. obscurata Cke. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. in, t. 5, fig. C. 

Obscurata, darkened. 

P. 5 cm., greyish umber, plane, then infundibuliform, moist, smooth. 
St. 3-4 cm. x 6-8 mm., concolorous, slightly attenuated downwards, 
sometimes substriate. Gills white, decurrent, rather distant. Spores 
white, siibelliptical, 3 x 1-5-2/n. Smell of meal. Amongst grass and 
dead leaves. Sept. Rare. 

811. C. gangraenosa Fr. ydyypaiva, a gangrene. 
P. 4-8 cm., whitish, tinged with bistre, or livid, sometimes green, 

fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse, white, pulverulent, then covered ivith 
brownish hairs especially at the margin, then naked, variegated, or 
streaked. St. 4-5 x 1 cm., white, subbulbous, soft, striate,, or slightly 
sulcate, curved, sometimes excentric. Gills dingy white, subdecurrent, 
arcuate, very crowded. Flesh white, becoming blackish or spotted with 
black. Spores white. Smell stinking, foetid. Woods, and larch planta- 
tions. Oct. Nov. Rare. 

var. nigrescens (Lasch) Cke. Nigrescens, becoming black. 

Differs from the type in its whitish colour, and rather sweet smell. 
Larch plantations. Rare. 

812. C. polia Fr. (= Paxittus inornatus (Sow.) Quel.) Fr. Icon. t. 48, 
fig. 1. TroXta, grey. 

P. 2-5 cm., grey, fleshy, convexo-plane, regular, smooth ; margin 
white, incurved. St. 39 x -5-1 cm., greyish white, equal, base sub- 
bulbous, smooth. Gills white, decurrent, very crowded, very narrow, 
1 mm. broad. Flesh greyish, becoming white. Spores white, "6-8 x 3 
4/u," Sacc. Caespitose. Woods. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

813. C. inornata (Sow.) Fr. (== Paxillus inornatus (Sow.) Quel.) 
Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 155. Inornatus, unadorned. 

P. 4-8 cm., cinereous grey, then somewhat tan colour, fleshy, convex, 
then plane and depressed, sometimes slightly gibbous; margin at 
first involute, pubescent, striate with evanescent veins. St. 4-6 cm. x 8- 
12 mm., concolorous, subequal, fibrillosely tomentose, base white, floe- 
cose. Gills concolorous, rounded behind, adnate, or adnato-decurrent, 



CLITOCYBE 271 

crowded, easily separable from the hymenophore. Flesh whitish grey, 
thick at the disc. Spores white, oblong, apiculate at the base, 
8-10 x 3^i. Smell rancid, taste insipid. Woods, and pastures. Oct. 
Nov. Rare. 
C. niinbata (Batsch) Quel. = Tricholoma panaeolum Fr. sec. Quel. 

814. C. luscina Fr. Luscus, one-eyed. 
P. 2-5-6 cm., brown, then grey, fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, 

sometimes excentric, smooth, moist. St. 5 cm. x 4-6 mm., white, 
slightly attenuated downwards, entirely white pulverulent, or only so at 
the apex. Gills white-hyaline, decurrent, horizontal, straight, crowded, 
thin, 2-4 mm. broad. Flesh pallid, thin. Spores white. Pastures. 
Sept. Oct. Rare. 

815. C. curtipes Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 48, fig. 5. Curtus, short; pes, foot. 
P. 2-7-5 cm.., fuscous, then pale and becoming whitish, fleshy, convex, 

then plane, obtuse, oblique, silky. St. 2-5 cm. x 4-6 mm., reddish 
fuscous, rigid, cartilaginous, attenuated downwards, somewhat fibrillose, 
apex white pruinose. Grills shining white, adnate, scarcely decurrent, 
very crowded, 2 mm. broad. Flesh white, firm. Spores white. 
Amongst grass. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

816. C. hirneola Fr. Hirneola, a small jug. 
P. 1-2 cm., cinereous, or grey, becoming pale and hoary, slightly 

fleshy, plano-convex, then depressed in the centre and umbilicate, very 
smooth, shining, semi- viscid when fresh, the cuticle as if with a glued 
silkiness ; margin involute, very thin. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 2-3 mm., con- 
colorous, elastic, equal, flexuose, smooth, apex white pruinose. Gills 
whitish-grey, subdecurrent, crowded, thin, rather broad. Flesh white, 
often bistre when moist, thin. Spores dirty white in the mass, sub- 
globose, 4-5 x 4/A, multi-guttulate. Edible. Amongst grass, and 
leaves. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. undulata (Bull.) Fr. (= var. major Fr. Mon.) Undulata, waved. 
Differs from the type in its larger size, the p. being 3-4 cm., flattened, 
flexuose, subzonate, grey, becoming whitish. 

817. C. zygophylla Cke. & Massee. Cke. Illus. no. 1137, t. 948. 

wyov, a yoke ; <j>v\\ov, leaf. 

P. 5-10 cm., greyish when moist, pale ochraceous white when dry, 
fleshy, convex, then expanded, disc often slightly depressed, tough, 
flaccid, hygrophanous ; margin thin, involute at first, rugose, or plicate, 
as if pinched up at regular intervals. St. 5-6 x 1 cm., white, then pallid, 
equal, expanding into the p., smooth, base with a thin white tomentum. 
Gills cinereous, deeply decurrent, rather distant, 4 mm. broad, dis- 
tinctly connected by veins. Flesh white, greyish under the cuticle of the 



272 CLITOCYBE 

p., thick at the disc, thin at the margin. Spores white, elliptical, 
8-9 x 4/x, with a large central gutta. Amongst leaves. Oct. Nov. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

**P. violet, or rufescent. 

818. C. cyanophaea Fr. Gonn. & Rabenh. Heft. 8-9, t. 17, fig. 3, as 
Tricholoma nudum. Kvavos, dark blue; <j>aid, dusky. 

P. 7-10 cm., fuscous, becoming azure-blue, rather fleshy, convex, 
then plane, obtuse, smooth. St. 7-8 x 1-2 cm., bluish when young, 
attenuated upwards from the thickened base, apex abruptly white, 
smooth. Gills violet, then pale, deeply decurrent, crowded. Woods. 
Rare. 

var. Pengellei B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 131, t. 264. 

T. W. Pengelly, the geologist. 

Differs from the type in having the st. attenuated at the base. 

C. opipara Fr. = Tricholoma opiparum (Fr.) Quel. 

C. amara (A. & S.) Fr. = Tricholoma amarum (A. & S.) Quel. 

819. C. socialis Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 49, lower figs. Socialis, sociable. 
P. 2-3 cm., reddish yellow, fleshy, convex, then expanded, acutely 

umbonate when young, smooth, dry. St. 2-3 cm. x 4-6 mm., reddish, 
ascending, fibrous, rooting base peronately hairy. Gills becoming yellow, 
plano-decurrent, scarcely crowded. Flesh white, thin. Spores white. 
Densely gregarious. Amongst pine needles. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

***P. becoming yellow. 

820. C. amarella (Pers.) Fr. (= Paxillus amarellus (Pers.) Quel., 
Clitopilus popinalis Fr. sec. Quel.) Amarella, bitterish. 

P. 45 cm., pale yellowish, or pallid fawn colour, fleshy, plane, firm, 
subumbonate, smooth. St. 5 cm. x 4-6 mm., concolorous, equal, tough, 
white villous at base. Gills pallid, somewhat shining, subdecurrent, 
crowded, here and there dichotomous. Spores white, "5-6 x 2-3 /i" 
Rick. Smell strong, like prussic acid, taste very bitter. Woods. Oct. 
Rare. 

821. C. vernicosa Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 50, upper figs. Vernicosa, varnished. 
P. 5-6 cm., pale yellowish, shining, fleshy, convex, then flattened 

or piano-depressed, obtuse, sometimes infundibuliform, smooth, 
margin involute. St. 2-3 cm. x 6-8 mm., yellow, firm, tough, equal, 
smooth. Gills light yellow, adnato-decurrent, or deeply decurrent, 
equally attenuated behind, subdistant. Flesh whitish, firm. Spores 
white, "subglobose, 3-4 /*, nearly spinulose" Rick. Fir and larch 
woods. Sept. Oct. Rare. 



CLITOCYBE 273 

822. C. venustissima Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 50, lower figs. 

Venustissima, most beautiful. 

P. 2-5 cm., rich orange-reddish, becoming pale, slightly fleshy, con- 
vex, then expanded, obtuse, or somewhat umbilicate, becoming 
slightly silky-even; margin even, in large specimens striate, and 
crenate, or toothed in a crisped manner. St. 3-4 cm. x 4-8 mm., 
reddish, equal, smooth, base often white villous. Gills concolorous, de- 
current, subdistant, 3 mm. broad, subarcuate. Flesh reddish, thin. 
Spores white, broadly elliptical, 11-16 x 8-10/A, multi-guttulate. 
Amongst fir and larch leaves. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

823. C. alutacea Cke. & Massee. Aluta, soft leather. 
P. 1-1-5 cm., tan colour, convex, then umbilicate, smooth; margin 

incurved. St. 3-4 cm. x 1-2 mm., pale, smooth. Gills paler than the 
p., decurrent, arcuate, narrow, crowded. Spores white, elliptical, 
6 x 4)Lt. Amongst grass and moss. Sept. Uncommon. 

824. C. subalutacea (Batsch) Fr. Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 50, 
figs. 10-15. Sub, somewhat; aluta, soft leather. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., pale tan, becoming whitish, fleshy, soft, tough, convex, 
then flattened, obsoletely umbonate, or depressed, smooth. St. 5- 
8 cm. x 6-8 mm., reddish white, deeper coloured at the base, cylindrical, 
flexuose, firm, elastic, fibrillose, smooth. Gills pallid, adnate, then 
subdecurrent, distant, broad. Flesh whitish, soft, tough. Spores 
white, "subglobose, 3-4 x 3/u," Rick. Smell pleasant of anise, some- 
times disagreeable like rancid meal, sometimes obsolete. Woods, 
and under trees. Nov. Uncommon. 

825. C. aurantiaca (Wulf.) Studer. (= Cantharellus aurantiacus 
(Wulf.) Fr.) Holland, Champ, t. 53, no. 117, as Cantharellus 
aurantiacus. Aurantiaca, orange coloured. 

P. 2-8 cm., orange-ochraceous, fleshy, soft, depressed, often excentric 
and undulated, subtomentose; margin involute. St. 5cm. x 6-8 mm., 
ochraceous, or bistre, somewhat incurved and unequal. Gills deep 
orange, decurrent, tense, straight, repeatedly dichotomous, crowded, often 
crisped at the base. Flesh yellowish, soft, thick at the disc. Spores 
elliptical, 6-7 x 4-5ju,, with a large central gutta. Taste unpleasant. 
Heaths, and woods, especially coniferous woods. Aug. Nov. 
Common, (v.v.) 

var. albida (Gillet) Rea. Cke. Illus. no. 1057, 1. 1104, fig. B, as Cantha- 
rellus aurantiacus var. pallidus. Albida, whitish. 

Differs from the type in the white gills. Heaths, and woods. Sept. 
Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 
var. lactea (Quel.) Rea. Lactea, milk white. 

Differs from the type in being entirely white. Heaths, and coniferous 
woods. Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

18 



274 CUTOCYBE 

var. nigripes (Pers.) Rea. Niger, black; pes, foot. 

Differs from the type in the st. becoming black towards the base. 
Boggy places in woods, and on heaths. Sept. Nov. Common. 
(v.v.) 

826. C. hypnorum (Brond.) Rea. Hypnum, moss. 
P. 3-4 cm., pale primrose yellow, sometimes verging on pale ochre, 

campanulato-convex, then expanded and slightly depressed ; margin 
incurved, minutely downy, the down sometimes collected in little 
fascicles. St. 23 cm. x 4-6 mm., yellow, sometimes darker than the 
p. at the base, often slightly flexuose, almost glabrous. Gills yellow, 
decurrent, branched, thin, somewhat crowded, edge acute. Flesh 
whitish, thin. Spores white, oblong, 7 x 4/z, with a minute apiculus. 
Sept. Uncommon. 

****P. greenish. 

827. C. odora (Bull.) Fr. (= Clitocybe viridis (Scop.) sec. Quel.) 
Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 51, figs. 10-15. Odora, fragrant. 

P. 5-9 cm., greenish, fleshy, convex, then flattened, obtuse, or 
obsoletely umbonate, then depressed; margin incurved, pubescent. 
St. 3-5 cm. x 6-8 mm., concolorous, somewhat cylindrical, flexuose, 
flocculoso-fibrillose, then smooth, white villous at the thickened base. 
Gills paler than the p., adnato-decurrent, subdistant, broader than the 
flesh of the p. Flesh dirty white, tough. Spores white, elliptical, 
8 x 4-4-5/x, 1-2-guttulate. Smell pleasant, of anise. Taste pleasant. 
Edible. Deciduous woods. Aug. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

828. C. viridis (With.) Fr. (= Agaricus virens Scop. sec. Fr.) Barla, 
Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 51, figs. 1-9. Viridis, green. 

P. 3-6 cm., pale greenish blue, fleshy, convex, then expanded, 
obtuse, smooth ; margin naked. St. 3-8 cm. x 3-7 mm., whitish, firm, 
cylindrical, attenuated at the base, smooth. Gills white, with a tinge of 
greenish, adnato-decurrent, thin, crowded. Flesh white, thick at the 
disc, firm. Spores white, elliptical, 7-8 x 4-5/Lt, with a large central 
gutta. Smell and taste pleasant, of anise. Edible. Deciduous woods. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

829. C. Trogii Fr. (= Clitocybe subalutacea (Fr. non Batsch) Quel.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 135, t. 102. 

Jacob Gabriel Trog, an eminent Swiss botanist. 
P. 68 cm., cinereous, then white, fleshy, compact, convex, then 
expanded, obtuse, smooth, opaque. St. 3-5 x 1 cm., white, thickened 
and villous at the base. Gills white, subdecurrent, crowded. Flesh 
whitish, thick at the disc, compact. Spores white. Smell very 
fragrant, spicy. Woods. Sept. Nov. Uncommon. 



CLITOCYBE 275 

*****P. whitish, white, or becoming white. 

830. C. rivulosa (Pers.) Fr. Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 51, figs. 16- 
23. Rivulosa, rivulose. 

P. 2-5-5 cm.., flesh colour, becoming whitish, or rarely fuscous, slightly 
fleshy, convexo-plane, then depressed, undulato-lobed, repand, minutely 
tomentose, at length rivulosely-streaked', margin at first incurved, villous. 
St. 3-5 cm. x 4-8 mm., concolorous, tough, elastic, equal, somewhat 
fibrillose, minutely tomentose. Gills flesh colour, becoming whitish, 
adnate, then subdecurrent, obliquely acute behind, broad, somewhat 
crowded. Flesh white, soft, spongy. Spores white, elliptical, 4-6 x 2- 
3/z, 1-guttulate. Smell and taste pleasant. Poisonous. Heaths, and 
pastures. Aug. Nov. Very common, (v.v.) 

var. Neptunea (Batsch) Fr. Neptune, god of the sea. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size. 

831. C. cerussata Fr. (= Clitocybe tornata Fr. sec. Quel.) Barla, 
Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 51, figs. 24-28. 

Cerussata, painted with white-lead. 

Entirely white. P. 5-8 cm., with a white-lead appearance, fleshy, 
convex, then expanded, obtuse, or gibbous, smooth, at first fioccoso- 
fibrillose; margin involute, villous. St. 5-8 x -5-1 cm., fleshy -flbrous, 
elastic; base thickened, more or less white tomentose. Gills adnate. 
then slightly decurrent, very crowded, thin. Flesh white, soft, compact. 
Spores white, elliptical, 5-6 x 3-4/n. Taste and smell pleasant. 
Poisonous. Deciduous, and coniferous woods. April Oct. Not un- 
common, (v.v.) 

var. difformis (Schum.) Fr. Difformis, deformed. 

Caespitose, often gigantic. P. 5-18 cm., undulato-lobed, often at 
first sprinkled with flocci. St. 2-5 x 2-5 cm., sulcate, or longitudinally 
wrinkled. Gills at length pallid. Spores white, 4 x 3/u,. Rich ground, 
and gardens. Oct. Uncommon. 

var. obtexta (Lasch) Fr. Obtexta, covered. 

Differs from the type in its snow-white colour, the fibrillose texture of 
the subviscid p., the tomentose St., and the narrow gills. Heaps of leaves. 
Eare. 

832. C. phyllophila Fr. Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 52, figs. 1-6. 

<j)v\\ov, a leaf; <t\o9, loving. 

P. 5-10 cm., tan, or cream colour, becoming pale white, fleshy, con- 
vex, then piano-depressed, obtuse, often excentric and repand, hoary 
with superficial villose down; margin silky. St. 5-8 cm. x 5-8 mm., 
concolorous, elastic, fibrous, equal, villous at the base, incurved. Gills 

182 



276 CLITOCYBE 

white, then becoming pale and yellowish, adnate, subdecurrent, 4-6 mm. 
broad, subdistant. Flesh white, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 6 x 4ju. 
Taste mild. Poisonous. Woods, especially beech. Sept. Dec. 
Common, (v.v.) 

833. C. pithyophila (Seer.) Fr. (= Clitocybe cerussata Fr. sec. Quel.) 
Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 52, figs. 7-10. 

TUTU?, pine; $1X09, loving. 

P. 5-7-5 cm., dead white when moist, shining whitish when dry, 
fleshy, thin, rather plane, umbilicate, at length irregularly shaped, 
repand, undulato-lobed, smooth, flaccid; margin slightly striate when 
old. St. 45 cm. x 58 mm., white, often compressed, equal, smooth, 
apex obsoletely, or scarcely pruinose, base white tomentose. Gills 
always white, adnate, subdecurrent, very crowded, plane, 4-6 mm. 
broad. Flesh whitish, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 6-7 x 4/A. Smell 
and taste pleasant. Poisonous. Pine woods. Sept. Nov. Common. 
(v.v.) 

834. C. tornata Fr. (== Clitocybe cerussata Fr. sec. Quel.) Fr. Icon, 
t. 51, fig. 1. Tornata, turned in a lathe. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., pure white, fleshy, convex, then becoming plane, at 
length depressed round the gibbous disc, dry, somewhat silky with a 
glued film, at length delicately rimoso-rivulose. St. 4 cm. x 4-6 mm., 
concolorous, tough, equal, or attenuated downwards, round, smooth, 
base pubescent. Gills white, adnate with a small decurrent tooth, 
horizontal, plane, very crowded, 2 mm. broad. Flesh white, thick at 
the disc. Spores white, elliptical, 4-6 x 3-4/z. Taste mild. Poisonous. 
Woods, and amongst grass. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. opala Fr. Opala, opal. 

Differs from the type in the viscid p. Fir woods. Rare. 

835. C. candicans (Pers.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 51, fig. 3. 

Candicans, shining white. 

Entirely white. P. 2-5 cm., slightly fleshy, convex, then plane, de- 
pressed, umbilicate, regular, or a little excentric, pruinose, silky, 
shining. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 2-5 mm., cartilaginous, polished, like an 
Omphalia, equal, base incurved, villous, rooting. Gills adnate, then 
decurrent, very thin, crowded, narrow, straight, almost linear. Flesh 
whitish, thin. Spores white, "elliptical, 4-5 x 2-3 /M, smooth" Rick., 
"ovoid, 6-7 p,, minutely rough" Quel. Taste mild. Deciduous woods. 
July Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

836. C. dealbata (Sow.) Fr. Sow. Eng. Fung. t. 123. 

Dealbata, white- washed. 

P. 2-3 cm., whitish, with greyish, or flesh coloured zones towards the 
margin, shining white when dry, slightly fleshy, tough, convex, then 



CLITOCYBE 277 

plane, at length re volute, undulated, dry, smooth, but innately 
pruinose under a lens. St. 2-5-3-5 cm. x 8-10 mm., whitish, becoming 
flesh colour, equal, often ascending, apex white-mealy. Gills greyish, 
then whitish, adnate, scarcely decurrent, thin, crowded. Flesh white, 
thin, arid. Spores white, elliptical, 5-6 x 3/ot. Smell and taste 
pleasant, of new meal. Edible. Woods, and pastures. July Nov. 
Common, (v.v.) 

var. minor Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 143, t. 173. Minor, smaller. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size. Woods, and heaths. Sept. 
Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

837. C. gallinacea (Scop.) Fr. Hussey, lUus. Brit. Myc. i, t. 39. 

Gallinacea, pertaining to domestic fowls. 

P. 1-2-5 cm., dingy white, becoming whitish when dry, slightly fleshy, 
convex, then plane, obtuse, unequal, dry, opaque, pruinose. St. 5- 
6 cm. x 6-10 mm., white, equal, ascending, or flexuose, excentric, 
incurved, striate, mealy. Gills white, adnato-decurrent, thin, plane, 
crowded. Flesh white, thin, compact. Spores white, oblong elliptical, 
9 x 4/z, 1 2-guttulate. Smell strong, taste bitter. Woods, and pas- 
tures. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

ft. P. fleshy at the disc, margin thin, at first umbonate, then 
expanded, depressed, and irregular; generally caespitose. 

C. ampla (Pers.) Fr. = Tricholoma amplum (Pers.) Rea. 
C. molybdina (Bull.) Fr. = Tricholoma amplum (Pers.) Rea. 

838. C. decastes Fr. (= Tricholoma decastes (FT.)Quel.) Fr.Icon.t.52. 

Se/ea?, a company of ten men. 

Caespitose. P. 10-20 cm., mouse grey, or livid, becoming whitish tan 
colour when dry, flesh j, fragile, convex, then plane, gibbous, or obtuse, 
smooth; margin membranaceous, at first incurved, then expanded, 
very undulate and lobed. St. 7-5-10 x 2-5-4 cm., white, fibrous, con- 
nate at the base, attenuated, or curved-ascending, often compressed, 
smooth, rarely pruinose at the apex. Gills white, adnato-decurrent, or 
sinuate, 6-8 mm. broad, crowded, or subdistant, attenuated towards 
the margin, often undulated and crenulate at the edge. Flesh white, 
fragile, thick at the disc, very thin at the margin, scissile. Spores 
white, globose, 6-8/A. Taste pleasant. Edible. Woods, pastures, and 
gardens. Oct. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

839. C. subdecastes Cke. & Massee. Cke. Illus. no. 1131, t. 958. , 

Sub, near to; decastes, the species C. decastes. 

Caespitose. P. 3-6 cm., pale ochraceous, becoming paler, and whitish 

towards the margin, fleshy, campanulate, or convex, very obtuse, 



278 CLITOCYBE 

smooth; margin more or less lobed. St. 8-12 cm. x 12-16 mm., 
whitish, equal, fibrillose, connate at the base. Gills white, rounded 
behind, adnate, 4-6 mm. broad, narrower in front, rather crowded. 
Flesh white, thin. Spores white, globose, 4-5/A. On the ground. 
Sept. Uncommon. 

840. C. cartilaginea (Bull, non Fr.) Bres. (= Tricholoma loricatum Fr. 
sec. Bres.) Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 110, 111. 

Cartilaginea, cartilaginous. 

Caespitose or in troops. P. 4-12 cm., fuliginous black, or chestnut 
fuliginous, becoming paler, fleshy, convex, then expanded, depressed, 
or gibbosely-umbonate, cuticle cartilaginous. St. 4-8 x 1-1-5 cm., 
white, becoming greyish, or horn colour, connate at the ventricose base 
and somewhat rooting, apex white and villosely-furfuraceous, cuticle 
cartilaginous. Gills white, then straw-, or horn-colour, adnate, or sinuato- 
adnate, rarely rounded behind, tough, subcartilaginous, crowded, often 
undulate. Flesh white, firm. Spores white, globose, 6-8/z, 1-guttulate. 
Smell of mice, or like fresh nuts. Taste sweet, then bitter. Edible. 
Mixed woods. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

841. C. aggregata (Schaeff.) Fr. (= Tricholoma aggregatum (Schaeff.) 
Quel.) Schaeff. Icon. t. 305, 306. Aggregata, heaped together. 

Caespitose. P. 7-12 cm., livid-grey, then rufescent, fleshy, convex, 
then expanded, at first umbonate, then depressed, often excentric, 
flaccid, somewhat silky-streaked. St. 7-10 x 1-5 cm., white, often 
rufescent, attenuated downwards, connate at the base, often branched, 
curved, compressed, subfibrillose. Gills ashy-white, then flesh colour, 
and becoming light yellow, unequally decurrent, 6-8 mm. broad, thin, 
crowded. Flesh whitish, thin. Spores white, subglobose, 6-7 x 5-6/z. 
Smell strong. Oak woods, sawdust heaps, and garden soil. July Oct. 
Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

C. tabescens (Scop.) Bres. = Annillaria mellea (Vahl.) Fr. var. tabescens 
(Scop.) Rea. 

842. C. elixa (Sow.) Berk. Sow. Eng. Fung. t. 172. Elixa, soaked. 
Not caespitose. P. 5-8 cm., fuliginous, becoming pale and somewhat 

silky when dry, fleshy, convex, then flattened, or depressed, umbonate, 
undulato-repand, delicately virgate. St. 3-5 cm. x 10-12 mm., fuligi- 
nous whitish, firm, subequal, apex velvety. Gills white, unequally de- 
current, distant, connected by veins, 4 mm. broad. Flesh dingy white, 
thick at the disc, soft. Spores "white, elliptical, 7 x 4/z" Massee. 
Woods. Oct. Nov. Not uncommon. 

Ag.fumosus Pers. = Collybia fumosa (Pers.) Quel. 
C. fumosa Fr. = Tricholoma cinerascens (Bull.) Quel. 



CLITOCYBE 279 

843. C. conglobata (Vitt.) Bres. (= Agaricus pes caprae Fr., Agaricus 
humosus Fr., Agaricus tumulosus Kalchbr. sec. Bres.) Bres. 
Fung. Trid. t. 32. Conglobata, crowded together. 

Caespitose. P. 5-10 cm., umber, becoming blackish, or spotted with 
cinereous, or grey, or becoming pale and livid cinnamon, fleshy, fragile 
at first, then tough, convex, then expanded, plane, or depressed, 
sometimes umbilicate, often irregular and lobed, dry, margin at first 
involute, white pruinose. St. 49 x 1-2 cm., white, or greyish, equal, 
or attenuated downwards, connate at the tuberous base, sometimes 
branched, fioccosely pulverulent, then smooth. Gills whitish cinereous, 
or cream colour, crowded, sinuate, adnate, or decurrent. Flesh white, 
greyish at the circumference, fragile, then tough. Spores white, globose, 
5-6 p (somewhat angular with age according to Bresadola). Smell 
faint, of new meal. Taste pleasant. Edible. Woods. Sept. Nov. 
Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

844. C. tumulosa (Kalchbr.) Fr. (= Clitocybe conglobata (Vitt.) Bres., 

Tricholoma humosum Fr. sec. Quel.) Kalchbr. Icon. t. 5. 

Tumulosa, like a mound. 

Caespitose. P. 2-5-8 cm., dark umber, becoming pale lurid fuscous, 
conical, then expanded and umbonate, or depressed round the umbo, 
smooth; margin sometimes repand and torn. St. 2-8 x -5-2 cm., 
pallid, fleshy, subequal, either attenuated, or ventricosely thickened at 
the connate, half-buried base, curved, ascending, floccosely pruinose, 
then smooth. Gills white, then pale cinereous, adnate, or decurrent. 
Flesh white, livid, or cinereous at the circumference when moist, thick 
at the disc. Spores white, oval, 6-7 x 4/A. Smell faint, of new meal. 
Taste pleasant. Edible. Woods. Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

845. C. connata (Schum.) Fr. Bres. Fung. Mang. t. 37. 

Connata, joined together. 

Caespitose. P. 5-10 cm., white, slightly tinged with ochre, or bistre, 
convex, pruinose. St. 3-6 x -5-1 cm., white, connate at the swollen 
base, mealy. Gills glaucous white, then cream colour, adnate, or decur- 
rent, arcuate, distant. Flesh white, firm, elastic. Spores white, 
globose, 6 x 5/n, minutely punctate. Smell pleasant. Parks, and 
woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

846. C. pergamena Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 1132, t. 643. 

Pergamena, parchment. 

Caespitose. P. 3-8 cm., ochraceous, whitish at the margin, sub- 
cartilaginous, convex, then plane, obtusely umbonate, smooth. St. 
5-12 x 1-2 cm., concolorous, equal, ascending, apex punctate squamose, 
cuticle cartilaginous. Gills white, broadly adnate with a decurrent 
tooth, 4 mm. broad, rather crowded. Flesh yellowish, thick at the 



280 CLITOCYBE 

disc. Spores white, elliptical, 6 x 3-4/z, 1-guttulate. On the ground, 
and on stumps. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

847. C. cryptarum (Letell.) B. & Br. Crypta, a cellar. 
Caespitose. P. 34 cm., brown, somewhat conical, then depressed, 

spotted, fioccose. St. 6-9 x 2 cm., white, attenuated upwards, more 
or less compressed, somewhat striate, virgate. Gills white, subdecurrent, 
arcuate, narrow. Flesh of stem mottled. Spores white. Taste insipid. 
Sawdust. Oct. Rare. 

848. C. monstrosa (Sow.) Gillet. Sow. Eng. Fung. t. 283. 

Monstrosa, strange. 

Often caespitose. P. 3-10 cm., white, opaque as if whitewashed, often 
tinged with ochre, fleshy, convex, umbonate, then waved and lobed; 
margin incurved. St. 2-6 x 2-2-5 cm., concolorous, compressed, 
streaked, downy-squamulose above, slightly rooting. Gills white, or 
cream colour, scarcely rounded behind, not truly decurrent, rather 
distant, broad, margin waved. Flesh white, thick at the disc. Spores 
white, elliptical, 7-9 x 5/x. On the ground. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 



849. C. opaca (With.) Fr. Sow. Eng. Fung. t. 142. Opaca, shady. 
Caespitose, rarely solitary, entirely white. P. 3-7 cm., fleshy, con- 
vex, then expanded, umbonate, repand, covered over with a fioccose 
lustre. St. 3-8 cm. x 5-8 mm., unequal, flexuose, connate at the base, 
subfibrillose. Gills adnato-decurrent, very crowded, 3-4 mm. wide. 
Flesh white, thick at the disc. Spores white, elliptical, 6 x 4/n, 
1-guttulate. Woods, and pastures. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

850. C. occulta Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 1133, t. 1184. Occulta, hidden. 
P. 5-7 cm., whitish, disc smoky, fleshy, convex, then plane and 

depressed, smooth, but innately streaked, or virgate, viscid] margin 
whitish. St. 4-6 x 1 cm., white, equal, or slightly expanded into the 
p., often curved, fibrillosely striate. Gills white, adnate, very slightly 
decurrent, scarcely emarginate, 5 mm. broad, subdistant. Flesh white, 
thick at the disc, cartilaginous. Spores white. Gregarious. On 
charred ground. Nov. Rare. 

7. P. attenuated from a fleshy disc towards the margin, at length 
infundibuliform, or deeply umbilicate. 

*P. coloured, or becoming pallid, innately floccose, or silky, 
bibulous, not moist. 

C. gigantea (Sow.) Quel. = Paxillus giganteus (Sow.) Fr. 

851. C. maxima (Fl. Wett.) Fr. (= Clitocybe geotropa (Bull.) Quel.) 

Maxima, greatest. 



CLITOCYBE 281 

P. 1230 cm., tan colour, becoming paler, or whitish, fleshy, some- 
what flaccid, broadly infundibuliform, gibbous, umbo central, very dry, 
becoming silky, or squamulose; margin involute, pubescent. St. 7 
10 x 1 cm., whitish, attenuated upwards, fibrillosely-striate, elastic. 
Gills whitish, deeply decurrent, pointed at both ends, somewhat 
crowded, soft. Flesh white, thick at the disc, soft. Spores white, 
elliptical, 4-6 x 3-4^. Smell and taste pleasant. Edible. Woods, 
and pastures. July Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

852. C. infundibulifonnis (Schaeff.) Fr. Holland, Champ, t. 26, no. 61. 

Infundibuliformis, funnel-shaped. 

P. 3-6 cm., flesh colour, then pale tan, fleshy, moderately firm, con- 
vexo-depressed, gibbous with an umbo, at length infundibuliform, 
silky, bibulous ; margin at first involute. St. 3-8 cm. x 4-8 mm., 
concolorous, conico-attenuated, rarely equal, firm, elastic; base swollen, 
and white tomentose. Gills shining white, very decurrent, somewhat 
crowded, very pointed at each end, soft. Flesh white, thick at the disc, 
soft. Spores white, ovoid, 6-7 x 6 /A, pointed at the base, punctate, 
1-guttulate. Smell and taste pleasant. Edible. Woods, heaths, and 
pastures. June Dec. Very common, (v.v.) 

var. membranacea (Fl. Dan.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 1135, t. 646. 

Membranacea, skinny. 

Differs from the type in being thinner in all its parts, in the equal 
st., and the brighter coloured, and not umbonate p. Pine woods, and 
pastures. June Dec. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

853. C. trullaeformis (Fr.) B. & Br. Tndlaeformis, ladle-shaped. 
P. 35 cm., fuscous cinereous, fleshy, infundibuliform, flattened at 

the margin, always obtuse, flocculosely villous, dry. St. 5 cm. x 8- 
10 mm., cinereous, attenuated upwards, firm, elastic, fibrillosely- 
striate, base villous. Gills shining white, decurrent, distant, 4-6 mm. 
broad, connected by veins. Flesh snow white, equal. Spores white, 
elliptical, 6 x 3-4/z, minutely punctate. Borders of fir wood, hedge- 
rows, and thickets. Oct. Uncommon. 

854. C. incilis Fr. Incilis, incised. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., brick-red, fleshy, plano-umbilicate, then infundibuli- 
form, silky -flocculose, obtuse ; margin involute, crenate. St. 1-2 cm. 
x 4-6 mm., concolorous, attenuated downwards, often compressed, 
tough, at first covered with an evanescent, flocculose pruina. Gills 
white, becoming pale, decurrent, arcuate, 4-6 mm. broad, distant, often 
reticulated with veins. Flesh whitish, thin at the margin. Spores white, 
elliptical, 8-9 x 5-6/u,, 1-guttulate. Smell of new meal, sometimes 
absent. Coniferous woods. March Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



282 CLITOCYBE 

855. C. sinopica Fr. Sinopica, of Sinope, where red lead is found. 
P. 3-5 cm., brick-red, becoming paler, fleshy, piano-depressed, 

slightly or deeply umbilicate, then repand, flocculose and bibulous, 
then rimosely rivulose and broken up into squamules ; margin undu- 
late, silky. St. 3-5 x -5-1 cm., concolorous, equal, firm, flbrillosely 
striate. Gills white, becoming yellow, decurrent, arcuate, very crowded, 
3-4 mm. broad. Flesh white, reddish under the cuticle, thick at the 
disc. Spores white, subglobose, 89 x 6 7/z,. Smell strong, of new 
meal. Heaths, woods, and burnt ground. May Oct. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

856. C. parilis Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 48, fig. 6. Parilis, equal. 
P. 1-5-3 cm., fuscous, then greyish white, slightly fleshy, convex, 

then plane and depressed at the disc, or umbilicate, disc atomate, or 
flocculose; margin involute, deflexed. St. 2-5 cm. x 3-6 mm., fuligi- 
nous, becoming fuscous grey , tough, equal, smooth. Gills grey, becoming 
whitish, deeply decurrent, very crowded, narrow. Flesh greyish, becoming 
white. Spores white, oblong, 9 x 3/z, 1-2-guttulate ; "greyish in the 
mass, subglobose, 6x 5/>t" Rick. Woods, and hilly pastures. Sept. 
Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

**P. coloured, or pallid, glabrous, moist in wet weather. 

857. C. gilva Fr. (= Clitocybe subinvoluta Batsch sec. Quel.) 

Gilva, pale yellow. 

P. 410 cm., pale yellowish, fleshy, compact, convex, then depressed, 
very obtuse, smooth, dull, moist, polished and shining when dry, often 
spotted as with drops; margin very involute, swollen, villose. St. 
2-5-5 x 1-2-5 cm., paler than the p., fleshy, subequal, smooth, base 
villous. Gills pallid, then ochraceous especially at the edge, decurrent, 
thin, narrow, arcuate, often branched and anastomosing. Flesh con- 
colorous, compact, at length fragile. Spores white, globose, 4 6/u, 
punctate. Pine woods. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

858. C. subinvoluta W. G. Sm. non Batsch. Saund. & Sm. t. 36. 

Subinvoluta, somewhat rolled in. 

P. 5-10 cm., creamy flesh colour, fleshy, convex, then plane, or 
depressed, gibbous, or umbonate, leathery, margin incurved. St. 
5-10 x 1-5-2 cm., pinkish flesh colour, zoned with spots, attenuated 
upwards from the subbulbous base, fibrillose. Gills white, then 
yellowish, deeply decurrent, broad, rather crowded. Flesh buff-white, 
darker below, thick, firm. Spores white, pip-shaped, 6-7 x 4-5/n, 
1-guttulate. Smell and taste pleasant. Edible. Pastures, and under 
firs. Oct. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

Ag. subinvolutus Batsch = Paxillus involutus (Batsch) Fr. var. sub- 
involutus (Batsch) W. G. Sm. 



CLITOCYBE 283 

C. spinulosa Stev. & Sm. = Clitocybe subinvoluta W. G. Sm. 
"Saunders wrongly described the spores as echinulate " 
W. G. Sm. in litt. 

859. C. geotropa (Bull.) Fr. Grev. Scot. Crypt. Fl. t. 41, as Agaricus 
gilvus. yf), earth; rpoTros, turned. 

P. 3-20 cm., tan flesh colour, very fleshy, convex, then piano-de- 
pressed, generally gibbous, very smooth, moist in wet weather, when 
young spotted as with drops, the spots vanishing with age; margin 
involute, thin, pubescent. St. 5-12 x 2-3 cm., white, becoming yellow, 
fleshy, slightly attenuated upwards, subfibrillose. Gills white, be- 
coming pale, deeply decurrent, 4-6 mm. broad, somewhat crowded. 
Flesh white, thick, firm. Spores white, subglobose, 5-7/1,. Smell and 
taste pleasant. Edible. Woods, and pastures, often forming large 
rings. Sept. Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

860. C. splendens (Pers.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 55, upper figs. 

Splendens, shining. 

P. 5-8 cm., pale yellowish,becoming yellow, somewhat fleshy, convex, 
then piano-depressed, at length infundibuliform, smooth, shining; 
margin reflexed, white, mealy. St. 4-5 x 1-2 cm., white, becoming 
light yellow, or ochraceous, equal, or attenuated upwards, elastic, 
smooth. Gills white, becoming light yellow, deeply decurrent, thin, 
crowded, often forked at the base. Flesh white, becoming concolorous, 
thin at the margin. Spores white, subglobose, 4-6 x 4-5/i, 1-guttu- 
late, punctate. Smell and taste pleasant. Woods. Sept. Nov. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 

861. C. inversa (Scop.) Fr. Barla, Champ. Alp. Marit. t. 60, figs. 6-8. 

Inversa, inverted. 

P. 5-8 cm., brick colour, or liver-rufescent, fleshy, somewhat fragile, 
convexo-plane, obtuse, then infundibuliform and undulated, very 
smooth, moist when fresh, sloping towards the margin, sometimes 
excentric. St. 4-6 x 1-1-5 cm., whitish, compressed, cuticle rigid, 
somewhat rooted and white villous at base. Gills whitish, becoming 
reddish at the edge, decurrent, 3-4 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh of the 
same colour as the p. but paler, thin, rigid, fragile. Spores white, globose, 
4jii, minutely echinulate, 1-guttulate. Smell and taste acid. Coniferous 
woods. Aug. Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

862. C. flaccida (Sow.) Fr. Sow. Eng. Fung. t. 185. 

Flaccida, flabby. 

P. 5-8 cm., tawny ferruginous, shining, not becoming pale, slightly 
fleshy, tough, orbicular, flaccid especially when dry, umbilicate, then 
infundibuliform, smooth, rarelv rimuloso-squamulose ; margin spread- 
ing, slightly convex. St. 2-5-5 x -5-1 cm., rubiginous ferruginous, 



284 CLITOCYBE 

elastic, tough, subequal, polished, base thickened and villous. Gills 
whitish, becoming yellow especially at the edge, deeply almost obconico- 
decurrent, very arcuate, very crowded, narrow, 1-2 mm. broad. Flesh 
pallid, thin, fragile when fresh, flaccid when dry. Spores white, 
globose, 3-4/x, minutely warted, 1-guttulate. Woods, and heaths, 
often forming rings. Sept. Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

var. lobata (Sow.) Cke. Sow. Eng. Fung. t. 186. Lobata, lobed. 

Differs from the type in its more caespitose habit, in the darker colour, 
the lobed, or contorted margin of the p., and the st. thickened upwards. 
Woods, and heaths. Sept. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

863. C. vermicularis Fr. Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 49. 

Vermicular is, belonging to a little worm. 

P. 2-4 cm., deep flesh colour, then tan flesh colour, slightly fleshy, 
umbilicato-convex, then expanded and infundibuliform, undulato- 
lobed, smooth, moist, slightly hygrophanous ; margin involute, 
pruinosely tomentose. St. 3-5 cm. x 3-6 mm., whitish, equal, often 
compressed and curved, fibrillosely striate, apex mealy and often 
surrounded by a floccose zone, base white tomentose and arising from 
stout, palmately branched, strigose mycelia. Grills white, then cream 
colour, edge ochraceous, slightly decurrent, attenuated, or obtuse at 
the base, very crowded, easily separating from the hymenophore, 
thin. Flesh concolorous, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 5 x Sp. Smell 
slight, of new meal. Taste somewhat acid. Edible. Coniferous woods. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

864. C. senilis Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 56, fig. 1. Sentiis, aged. 
P. 4-8 cm., dingy fuscous tan, or brown becoming paler, fleshy - 

membranaceous, flaccid, disc depressed, soon infundibuliform, smooth, 
concentrically cracked; margin spreading. St. 4-5 x -5-1 cm., whitish, 
equal, often ascending, smooth. Gills whitish, then concolorous with 
the p., deeply decurrent, linear, narrow, very crowded. Flesh white, 
thin, flaccid. Spores white, pip-shaped, 6 x 3-4/u,, 1-guttulate. Woods, 
and lawns. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

***P. shining white. 

865. C. catinus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 51, fig. 4. Catinus, a bowl. 
P. 5-8 cm., white, becoming discoloured with age, fleshy, plane, 

then infundibuliform, always obtuse, smooth. St. 5-8 x -5-1 cm., 
white, elastic, tough; base thickened and tomentose. Gills white, de- 
current, straight, descending, broad, not much crowded. Flesh white, 
thin, flaccid. Spores white, pip-shaped, 45 x 3 /A, minutely punctate. 
Smell and taste pleasant. Edible. Woods, and among dead leaves. 
Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 



CLITOCYBE 285 

866. C. tuba Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 164, t. 112. Tuba, a trumpet. 
Entirely white. P. 5-8 cm., fleshy, thin, convexo-plane, umbilicate, 

dead white when moist, shining whitish when dry, smooth, slightly silky 
when young. St. 2-55 cm. x 5-6 mm., very tough, equal, at length 
compressed, smooth. Gills becoming pale, deeply decurrent, horizontal, 
very crowded, 6 mm. broad. Spores white, elliptical, 45 x 2-3 fj,, 
"punctate" Quel. Smell none, or of new meal. Coniferous woods. 
Oct. Nov. Uncommon. 

867. C. ericetorum (BuU.) Fr. Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 113. 

Ericetorum, of heaths. 

P. 25 cm., shining white, becoming slightly yellowish with age, some- 
what fleshy, convex, then umbilicate and cup-shaped, smooth, at 
length striate; margin undulate, or lobed. St. 2 3 cm. x 4 5 mm., 
white, attenuated downwards, sometimes compressed, pubescent. 
Gills white, more or less decurrent, subdistant, often connected by veins. 
Flesh white, thin, firm. Spores white, oval, 4-5 x 2-5-3/A, sparsely 
and minutely rough. Smell pleasant, like Anthoxanthum odoratum. 
Taste somewhat acrid. Edible. Heaths, and lawns. Sept. Nov. 
Eather uncommon, (v.v.) 

B. P. fleshy-membranaceous, truly hygrophanous. 
B. P. thin, depressed, then cup-shaped. Colour dingy when moist. 

868. C. cyathiformis (Bull.) Fr. KvaOo*;, a cup; forma, shape. 
P. 2-7 cm., fuscous cinereous, or dark bistre, becoming paler when 

dry, slightly fleshy, piano-depressed, then cup-shaped, often undu- 
lated, somewhat shining when moist, opaque when dry, very hygro- 
phanous; margin persistently incurved. St. 5-10 cm. x 6-9 mm., con- 
colorous, or paler, elastic, attenuated upwards, fibrillosely-reticulated, 
base white villous. Gills cinereous fuscous, adnate, or decurrent, 
connate at the base, distant, sometimes branched. Flesh concolorous, 
watery, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 10-11 x 5-6 /*, punctate. 
Smell pleasant, or none. Edible. Woods, pastures, rarely on rotten 
wood. Aug. Feb. Common, (v.v.) 

var. cinerascens (Batsch) Fr. (= Clitocybe cinerascens (Batsch) 
W. G. Sm.) Cinerascens, becoming ash-coloured. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size, in the plane then depressed 
p., and yellowish gills. Autumn. Uncommon. 

869. C. expallens (Pers.) Fr. (= Clitocybe vibecina Fr. sec. Quel.) 

Expallens, becoming pale. 

P. 2-5 cm., cinereous fuscous, becoming whitish, at first sprinkled 
with white-silky dew, slightly fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse, then 
plano-infundibuliform, somewhat zoned when dry; margin mem- 



286 CLITOCYBE 

branaceous, striate, soon expanded. St. 4-7 cm. x 4-6 mm., whitish, 
tough, equal, smooth, apex white-silky. Gills greyish, decurrent, acute 
at both ends, thin, subdistant, soft. Flesh greyish, thin. Spores 
white, "broadly elliptical, 7-9 x 6-7 ft, smooth" Rick. Taste mild. 
Edible. Woods, and pastures. Aug. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

870. C. albo-cinerea Rea. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. iv, t. 8. 

Albus, white; cinerea, ash-coloured. 

P. 2-3 cm., cinereous fuscous, becoming pale, fleshy, convexo-um- 
bilicate, then expanded and cup-shaped, silky; margin involute. 
St. 5-6 cm. x 3-5 mm., white, equal, smooth, base white-tomentose. 
Gills white, decurrent, narrow, 1-2 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh white, 
thin, firm. Spores white, elliptical, 56 x 4/x,, minutely punctate. 
Smell and taste pleasant. Edible. Woods, and pastures. Sept. 
Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

871. C. obbata Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 57, fig. 1. Obbata, a kind of cup. 
P. 2-3 cm., fuscous blackish, or cinereous, becoming very pale when 

dry, submembranaceous, convexo-plane, with a broadly umbilicate disc, 
smooth, striate to the middle. St. 4-5 cm. x 2-4 mm., fuscous cinereous, 
equal, often compressed, ascending, or flexuose, striate with white, 
base often subbulbous. Gills dark, cinereous, slightly decurrent, distant, 
broad. Flesh ochraceous, thin. Spores white, broadly elliptical, 
9-10 x 6-7 /x. Taste mild. Edible. Woods, and pastures. Sept. 
Jan. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

872. C. pruinosa (Lasch) Fr. (= Omphalia litua Fr. sec. Quel.) 

Pruinosa, rimy. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., brown, becoming cinereous, hygrophanous, fleshy- 
membranaceous, umbilicate, and covered with a lead-grey pruina, then 
broadly infundibuliform and smooth, sometimes squamulose. St. 
2-5-5 cm. x 2-4 mm., concolorous, or paler, equal, often ascending, 
or curved, fibrillose. Gills white, then dingy, or bistre, decurrent, 
crowded, narrow, arcuate, then scythe-shaped. Flesh becoming cinere- 
ous, thin. Spores "6-8 x 2-4/x" ex Britz. in Sacc. (1915). Taste mild. 
Edible. Pine woods, and on rotten wood. Nov. Dec. Rare. 

873. C. concava (Scop.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 57, fig. 2. 

Concava, hollowed out. 

P. 3-5 cm., fuliginous, then cinereous, or hoary-clay, hygrophanous, 
slightly fleshy, very thin, flaccid, plano-convex, widely and deeply 
umbilicate, then wholly concave, the convexo-plane border undulated, 
smooth; margin even. St. 3-6 cm. x 3-8 mm., cinereous, tough, 
equal, smooth, base attenuated. Gills dark fuliginous, then greyish, 
decurrent, arcuate, very crowded, 2-4 mm. broad. Flesh pallid, tough, 
very thin. Spores "greenish, ovoid, 8-12 x 6-8/u," Sacc. Coni- 
ferous woods. Sept. Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 



CLITOCYBE 287 

874. C. suaveolens (Schum.) Fr. (= Clitocybefragrans Sow. sec. Quel.) 

Suaveolens, sweet smelling. 

P. 2-3 cm., white when moist with the disc darker, becoming pure 
white when dry, fleshy, thin, convexo-plane, then depressed, often 
umbilicate and somewhat infundibuliform, discoid, smooth; margin 
pellucidly striate, at length reflexed. St. 4-5 cm. x 2-4 mm., white, 
becoming pinkish, elastic, base swollen and villous. Gills whitish, then 
discoloured, adnato-decurrent, crowded, thin. Flesh white, thin. Spores 
white, "elliptical, 6-7 x 3-4 /z" Kick. Smell very pleasant, of aniseed. 
Taste pleasant. Edible. Woods, especially coniferous. Sept. Dec. 
Uncommon. 

875. C. brumalis Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 170, t. 114. 

Brumalis, pertaining to winter. 

P. 35 cm., livid when moist, becoming whitish, and at length yellowish 
when dry, disc generally darker, fleshy-membranaceous, convex, um- 
bilicate, reflexed at the circumference, then infundibuliform, often 
irregular and undulated, smooth. St. 3-6 cm. x 3-8 mm., greyish, 
then whitish, equal, or slightly thickened at the apex, at length com- 
pressed, somewhat incurved, smooth, elastic, base white- villous. 
Gills livid, becoming yellowish, or whitish, decurrent, arcuate, then 
descending, 2 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh whitish, thin. Spores 
white, elliptical, 5-6 x 3/i, 1-guttulate. Smell faint, pleasant. Taste 
pleasant. Edible. Woods, and pastures. Aug. Jan. Common, (v.v.) 

e. P. rather fleshy, convex then flattened, or depressed, polished. 
Colour dingy, or becoming pale. 

*Gills becoming cinereous. 

876. C. orbiformis Fr. Orbiformis, round-shaped. 
P. 4-5 cm., greyish fuliginous, slightly fleshy, convexo-plane, very 

obtuse, orbicular, scarcely depressed, smooth, hygrophanous ; margin 
spreading, finally striate. St. 6-8 cm. x 8-10 mm., grey, attenuated 
upwards from the villous, thickened base, elastic, fibrillosely striate. 
Gills whitish, then greyish, adnate, subdecurrent, plane, horizontal, 
little crowded. Flesh thin. Spores white, ovoid, "6-7 x 3-4ju," Sacc. 
Pine woods. Sept. Nov. Kare. 

877. C. metachroa (Fr.) Berk. 

/*era, change; %pa>9, colour of the skin. 

P. 2-8 cm., fuscous cinereous, then livid, whitish when dry, slightly 
fleshy, convex, and subumbonate, soon plane, or depressed; margin 
finally slightly striate. St. 3-4 cm. x 4-6 mm., grey, equal, often com- 
pressed, tough, cuticle horny, fibrous, apex white-mealy. Gills whitish 
cinereous, adnate, scarcely decurrent, crowded, linear, plane, thin. 



288 CLITOCYBE 

Flesh greyish, becoming whitish, thin. Spores white, elliptical, or pip- 
shaped, 6 x 3/u,, 1-guttulate. Pine woods. Aug. Nov. Common. 
(v.v.) 

878. C. incana Quel. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. iv, t. 5. Incana, hoary. 

P. 35 cm., mouse grey, margin white, convexo-plane, then depressed, 
hygrophanous, pruinose. St. 4-6 cm. x 4-6 mm., pearl grey, straight, 
or slightly curved, base white floccose. Gills greyish, becoming some- 
what ochraceous, decurrent with a tooth, 2-4 mm. broad. Flesh 
greyish, soft, thin. Spores white, globose, 3/j.. Amongst fir needles. 
Oct. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

879. C. pausiaca Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 58, fig. 2. Pausiaca, olive colour. 

P. 2-5-4 cm., cinereous, then olivaceous, becoming somewhat ochra- 
ceous when dry, fleshy, thin, convex, sometimes umbonate, then plane 
and depressed, hygrophanous, silky hoary when young, then smooth. 
St. 5-7 cm. x 3-6 mm., concolorous, tough, equal, striate, often un- 
dulated, apex white pruinose. Gills olivaceous, or brownish, obtusely 
adnate, very broad behind, very crowded, semicircular. Flesh ochra- 
ceous, thin. Spores white, globose, 3 4yn, 1-guttulate. Smell weak, 
frumentaceous. Pine woods. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

880. C. ditopus Fr. SITTOS, double; TTOU?, foot. 
P. 5-6 cm., cinereous, drying deep ochre from the centre outwards, 

somewhat fleshy, tough, convexo-plane, obtuse, then inverted, in- 
fundibuliform, and often undulato-lobed. St. 3-5 cm. x 5-15 mm., 
pale cinereous, compressed, equal, naked, often very white floccose at the 
basal half of the st. Gills dark cinereous, adnate, crowded, thin, at length 
turned upwards, and divergent in the lobes, often undulate. Flesh 
greyish, then white, thin. Spores white, globose, 3-4^. Smell strong, 
of new meal. Woods, and amongst dead leaves. Sept. Nov. Com- 
mon, (v.v.) 

**Gills whitish. 

881. C. diatreta Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 173, t. 232. 

SiarprfTos, pierced through. 

P. 2-3 cm., flesh colour, then tan colour, slightly fleshy, tough, con- 
vex, regular, obtuse, then piano-depressed, often flexuose, becoming 
flaccid, smooth, hygrophanous; margin white, incurved, pruinose. 
St. 3-5 cm. x 4-8 mm., pallid, elastic, flexile, equal, round, smooth, 
villose at the base. Gills whitish flesh colour, then whitish, adnate, 
sharp pointed behind, decurrent with a tooth, 2 mm. broad, crowded. 
Flesh concolorous, becoming whitish, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 
7-8 x Qfj,, often pointed at one end, 1-guttulate. Coniferous woods. 
Oct. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



CLITOCYBE 289 

882. C. fragrans (Sow.) Fr. (= Clitocybe suaveokns (Schum.) Fr. sec. 
Quel.) Sow. Eng. Fung. t. 10. Fragrans, scented. 

P. 2-5 cm., watery pallid when moist, whitish when dry, of one colour, 
not darker at the disc, slightly fleshy, convex, then plane, or sub- 
depressed smooth ; margin slightly striate when moist. St. 5-7 cm. 
x 46 mm., concolorous, or yellowish, equal, elastic, smooth, apex 
obsoletely pruinose, base very often villous. Gills whitish, adnate, 
sharp-pointed behind, subdecurrent, rather crowded, broader than the 
flesh of the p. Flesh white, watery, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 
6-7 x 4/i. Smell and taste very pleasant, of aniseed. Edible. Woods, 
and pastures. July Jan. Common, (v.v.) 

883. C. angustissima (Lasch) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 59. 

Angustissima, very narrow. 

P. 3-5 cm., cream, or flesh coloured, shining whitish when dry, fleshy, 
thin, piano-depressed, smooth; margin spreading, slightly striate 
when old. St. 5-7 cm. x 2-3 mm., concolorous, often curved, or 
flexuose, internally fibrous, base sometimes pubescent. Gills white, 
subdecurrent, very crowded, narrow, thin. Flesh whitish, very thin, 
moderately firm. Spores white, elliptical, 3-4 x 2-3/z. Woods, and 
amongst leaves. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

884. C. obsoleta (Batsch) Fr. Obsoleta, worn out. 
P. 2-3 cm., grey, or cream colour, soon turning whitish, clay white 

when dry, sometimes inclining to flesh colour, somewhat fleshy, soft, 
convex, or gibbous, then plane, or depressed, hygrophanous, smooth. 
St. 5 cm. x 6-8 mm., whitish, elastic, tough, round, often compressed, 
equal, smooth, apex pruinose. Gills greyish, then whitish, obtusely 
adnate, almost rounded behind, then adnato-decurrent, broad, crowded. 
Flesh whitish, thin, soft. Spores white, elliptical, 7 x 4-5/z. Smell 
faint, pleasant. Coniferous woods, and amongst grass and leaves. 
Oct. Nov. Uncommon. 

. P. deformed, more or less squamulose. 

885. C. ectypa Fr. (= Collybia ectypa (Fr.) QueL) Fr. Icon. t. 59, fig. 1. 

eTV7ro5, wrought in relief. 

P. 4-7-5 cm., dingy, or light yellow honey colour, then rufescent, or 
brownish, fleshy, somewhat thin, convex, then rather plane, or de- 
pressed, disc streaked with innate fibrils radiating from the centre, as if 
sprinkled with soot, or squamulose; margin very thin, striate. St. 
5-10 x -5-1 cm., dingy light yellow, then olivaceous, becoming black at 
the often bulbous base, elastic, equal. Gills white, soon pale, then spotted 
rufous, somewhat mealy, adnate, or decurrent with a rather delicate 
tooth, distant, often connected by veins. Flesh pallid straw colour, thin 
at the margin. Spores white, elliptical, 9 x 6-7 p, 1-guttulate. Smell 

E. B. B. 19 



290 CLITOCYBE. LACCARIA 

pleasant, of aniseed, at length, foetid. Meadows, damp places, and 
peat bogs. June Dec. Eare. 

C. Sadleri B. & Br. = Hypholoma fasciculate (Huds.) Fr. 

Spores white; hymenium pulverulent. 

Laccaria B. & Br. 
(Lac, a resinous excretion left by the lac insect.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular, or irregular. Stem central, externally fibrous. 
Gills adnate with a decurrent tooth, pulverulent. Spores white, glo- 
bose, or elliptical, echinulate, or verrucose. Growing on the ground, 
and on wood. 

886. L. laccata (Scop.) B. & Br. (= Clitocybe laccata (Scop.) Fr.; 

CollyUa laccata (Scop.) Quel.) Cke. lUus. no. 179, t. 139, figs. 
coloured red, as Clitocybe laccata Scop. 

Lac, the exudation from the lac insect. 

P. 3-5 cm., rufous flesh colour when moist, ochraceous when dry, 
fleshy, convex, then rather plane, more or less umbilicato-depressed, 
dry, very hygrophanous, becoming pale in drying, the cuticle often 
breaking up into mealy squamules, or somewhat silky, sometimes un- 
dulato-crisped and irregularly shaped. St. 7-10 cm. x 6-10 mm., 
concolorous, tough, fibrous, equal, often flexuose, or twisted, fibrillose, 
base white villous. Gills flesh colour, then white mealy, adnate with a 
decurrent tooth, very broad, distant, plane, thick. Flesh concolorous, 
somewhat thin, firm in the st. Spores white, globose, 8-9 p, echinulate. 
Cystidia "on edge of gill clavate-vermiform, 50-60 x 9-12/t" Rick. 
Taste mild. Edible. Heaths, and woods. June Dec. Very common. 
(,*) 

var. proxima (Boud.) Maire. Boud. Icon. t. 60, as Laccaria proxima 

Boud. Proxima, very near. 

Differs from the type in its brighter colour, and the larger elliptical 

spores, 10-15 x 6-7/x,, minutely echinulate 1 . Heaths, and woods. 

Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. amethystina (Vaill.) B. & Br. Amethystina, amethyst colour. 
Differs from the type in the whole of the plant, including the flesh t 
being of a beautiful deep violet colour, becoming paler when dry. Woods, 
and pastures. June Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

887. L. tortilis (Bolt.) Boud. Boud. Icon. t. 59. Tortilis, twisted. 
P. 1-2-5 cm., pale rose, or slightly yellowish, striate to the deeper 

coloured disc, membranaceous, thin, convex, then plane and depressed ; 

1 Both elliptical and globose spores have been found on the same plant. 



LACCABIA. HYGROPHORUS 291 

margin often undulate. St. 1-2-5 cm. x 2-3 mm., reddish yellow, or 
pale, equal, or attenuated downwards, slightly fibrillose. Gills con- 
colorous, becoming white mealy, adnate, with a very slight tooth, broad, 
often connected by veins. Flesh, pinkish, very thin. Spores white, 
globose, 8-10/z, echinulate. Charcoal heaps, roadsides, and bare soil 
in woods. Aug. Sept. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

888. L. bella (Pers.) B. & Br. (= Clitocybe bella (Pers.) Fr. ; Collybia 
bella (Pers.) Quel.) Bella, lovely. 

P. 3-5 cm., dark yellow, or golden, sometimes rufescent, sprinkled 
with darker, or orange coloured squamules, becoming pale, somewhat 
fleshy, pliant, convex, then expanded, depressed at the disc, then 
undulato-repand. St. 5 cm. x 4-6 mm., bright yellow, or becoming 
yellow, tough, equal, fibrous, rivulose with the fibrils. Gills yellow, then 
rufescent and white mealy, adnate, then decurrent with a tooth, very 
broad, distant, connected by veins, sometimes branched. Spores white, 
subglobose, 7 x 5-7^,, minutely warted. Smell foetid. On decaying 
coniferous stumps. Sept. Rare. 

889. L. nana Massee. Massee, Kew Bull. (1913), t. to face p. 195, 

figs. 17-20. vdvvos, dwarf. 

P. 1 cm., livid cinnamon, becoming paler, somewhat fleshy, hemi- 
spherical, then plane and concave, smooth; margin at first covered 
with white meal. St. 1 cm., white, fibrillose. Gills pale, at length 
white mealy, adnate, attenuated at the base, rather distant. Spores 
white, globose, 15-16//,, echinulate. Naked soil under trees. 

Spores white; hymenium waxy. 
Hygrophorus Fr. 

(7/905, moist; </>epo>, I bear.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular, viscid, or dry. Stem central, fleshy. Gills 
decurrent, or adnato-decurrent. Spores white, very rarely slightly 
coloured, elliptical, oval, globose, clavate, pip-shaped, or oblong- 
elliptical, smooth, continuous. Cystidia present, or absent. Growing 
on the ground, very rarely on wood. 

I. Universal veil viscid, with occasionally a floccose partial one, 
which is annular, or marginal. St. clothed with scales, or more 
frequently rough with dots above. Gills adnato-decurrent. 
*White, or yellowish white. 

890. H. chrysodon Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 872, t. 885. 

Xpucro9, gold; oSou?, a tooth. 

P. 5-7 cm., white, or yellowish, covered with evanescent, yellow, 
floccose squamules, which are more permanent at the involute margin, 

192 



292 HYGROPHORUS 

convex, then plane, viscid. St. 5-7-5 x 1-1-5 cm., white, covered with 
minute, light yellow squamules, which form a zone at the apex. Gills 
white, somewhat yellowish at the edge, adnate, or decurrent, broad, dis- 
tant, sometimes crisped. Flesh white, sometimes reddish. Spores 
white, elliptical, 6-7 x 3p. Smell pleasant, taste mild. Edible. Oak, 
and beech woods. Aug. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. leucodon (A. & S.) Fr. Xev/co9, white; 0801;?, a tooth. 

Differs from the type in having white squamules. 

891. H. eburneus (Bull.) Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 873, t. 886. 

Eburneus, ivory white. 

Entirely shining white, becoming yellowish with age. P. 3-10 cm., 
convexo-plane, somewhat repand, very glutinous, margin involute, at 
first pubescent. St. 3-8 x 1-1-5 cm., glutinous, rough at the apex with 
dots in the form of squamules, unequal. Gills decurrent, distant, veined 
at the base. Spores white, elliptical, 8 x 4/z. Smell not unpleasant, 
taste mild. Woods, and pastures. Aug. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

892. H. cossus (Sow.) Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 30. 

Cossus ligniperda, the Goat moth. 

P. 4-8 cm., white, disc ochraceous, convexo-plane, then expanded 
and depressed, umbonate, very viscid. St. 5-10 cm. x 5-12 mm., 
white, or becoming tinged with yellow, viscid, equal, or slightly attenu- 
ated at the base, furfuraceous and granular at the apex. Gills white, 
decurrent, distant, thick, connected by veins. Spores white, oval, 
8-9 x 5-6/M, 1-guttulate. Smell strong, like that of the larva of 
Cossus ligniperda. Woods, and under conifers. Aug. Nov. Com- 
mon, (v.v.) 

893. H. melizeus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 165, fig. 3. fie\i, honey. 
Internally and externally becoming yellowish tan. P. 2-5-4 cm., disc 

fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, often repand, viscid ; margin thin, 
at first pubescent. St. 7-8 cm. x 6-10 mm., attenuated downwards, 
subfusiform, apex rough with innate, fioccose, white granules. Gills 
deeply decurrent, distant, connected by veins. "Spores elliptic- 
oblong, apiculate, creamy- white, 10 x 5 /A" Mass. & Crossl. Smell 
pleasant. Woods. Nov. Uncommon. 

894. H. discoxanthus (Fr.) Rea. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. in, t. 3. 

&107CO9, disc; %av06$, yellow. 

P. 4-6 cm., white, then yellowish, deeper coloured at the centre, the 
extreme margin becoming brownish with age, viscid, convex, then 
expanded and revolute, disc depressed. St. 3-4 cm. x 6-12 mm., 
soon becoming reddish brown, apex white farinaceous, viscid, gradu- 
ally attenuated downwards, often curved. Gills white, then yellowish, 



HYGROPHORUS 293 

edge turning reddish when bruised, and then finally reddish brown, 
especially towards the margin of the pileus. Flesh white, becoming red- 
dish in the stem. Spores white, pruniform, apiculate, 6-7 x 4/u,, 
1-guttulate. Smell pleasant, like aniseed. Parks, and pastures. Sept. 
Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

895. H. penarius Fr. Sverig. atl. Svamp. t. 48. 

Penarius, for provisions. 

P. 7-10 cm., white, then tan colour, opaque, umbonate, then obtuse, 
hemispherical, then flattened, generally dry, hard; margin at first 
involute, exceeding the gills, undulate when flattened. St. 4 cm. 
x 12 mm. at apex, pale white, often yellowish at the base, compact, 
hard, attenuated at the base into a fusiform root, ventricose to the neck, 
then attenuated upwards, or wholly fusiform-attenuated, smeared 
with tenacious easily dried slime, scabrous. Gills white, or tan, adnato- 
decurrent, distant, thick, 6-8 mm. broad, rigid, veined. Flesh white, 
compact, thick. Spores white, "ovate-spherical or ovate-oblong, 
7-8 x 3-4/A" Sacc. Smell pleasant, taste sweet. Edible. Oak woods. 
Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

896. H. pulverulentus B. & Br. Quel. Soc. sc. n. de Rouen (1879), 
t. 3, fig. 9. Pulverulentus, dusted. 

P. 8-18 mm., shining white, pulvinate, viscous; margin involute, 
tomentose. St. 18 x 2-4 mm., white, wholly powdered with rose- 
coloured meal, nearly equal, attenuated at the extreme base. Gills 
whitish, decurrent, thick, obtuse at the edge. Spores white, globose, 
7/u,. Amongst pine leaves. Nov. Dec. Rare. 

**Reddish. 

897. H. russula (Schaeff.) Quel. (- Tricholoma russula Fr.) Cke. 
Illus. no. 1116, t. 926, as Tricholoma russula Schaeff. 

Russula, reddish. 

P. 10-20 cm., flesh colour, or purplish with deeper coloured streaks, 
paler and whitish at the tomentose margin, viscid, gibbous, convexo- 
plane, then depressed. St. 6-12 x 1-2 cm., white, stained reddish, 
apex white, farinaceous. Gills whitish, then spotted with bright red, 
sinuate, or emarginate, thin, rather crowded. Flesh white. Spores 
white, elliptical, 7-8 x 4-5fi or 6-7 x 4-5/n, slightly depressed on 
one side, with a large central gutta. Taste sweet, or slightly bitter. In 
deciduous woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

898. H. erubescens Fr. (= Limacium rubescens (Pers.).) Cke. Illus. 
no. 876, t. 888. Erubescens, becoming red. 

P. 5-10 cm., whitish, spotted with rose, slightly viscid, gibbous, then 
convexo-plane. St. 5-8 x 2 cm., whitish stained reddish, tinged yellowish 



294 HYGROPHORUS 

when bruised, or rubbed, equal, or attenuated at the base. Gills 
whitish, washed with flesh colour, decurrent, somewhat distant. Flesh 
yellowish. Spores white, elliptical, 8-11 x 6/x., with a large central 
gutta. Taste bitter, then sometimes slightly acrid. Coniferous woods. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

899. H. pudorinus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 877, t. 911. 

Pudorinus, modest. 

P. 5-9 cm., bright reddish flesh colour, disc deeper coloured, convex, 
then depressed, viscid; margin white, pubescent. St. 5-8 x 1-5-3 cm., 
white, or flesh colour, firm, viscid; apex contracted, rough withfloccose 
granules. Gills white, flesh colour near the edge, adnate, wide, thick, 
often crisped. Flesh white, rose colour under the cuticle of the pileus. 
Spores white, elliptical, 67 x 4-5/z. Smell very pleasant, taste 
sweet. Edible. Coniferous woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

900. H. glutinifer Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 878, t. 889. 

Gluten, glne;fero, I bear. 

P. 59 cm., rufescent, whitish round the margin, convexo-expanded, 
thin with the exception of the gibbous disc, pellicle glutinous, disc 
wrinkled dotted. St. 7-10 x 1-1-5 cm., concolorous, apex white- 
squamulose, somewhat elastic, ventricose downwards, with a viscid veil. 
Gills shining white, or pale grey, arcuato-decurrent, rather thick. 
Spores white, clavate, 9-10 x 7/t, 3-guttulate. Taste mild. Woods. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

901. H. persicinus Beck. Persicinus, pertaining to a peach. 

P. 5 cm., peach colour, or somewhat orange, conical, then hemi- 
spherical, shining, even; margin incurved. St. 10 x 2cm., pale 
lilac-peach colour, base yellowish, constricted below the gills. Gills 
fuscescent, adnato-decurrent, edge very obtuse. Spores 15-20 x 5 6)ti. 
Amongst grass in woods. Rare. 

***Tawny, or light yellow. 

902. H. arbustivus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 879, t. 896, fig. A. 

Arbustivus, belonging to plantations. 

P. 3-10 cm., slightly tawny-brick colour, paler round the pubescent 
margin, convexo-plane, obtuse, umbonate, somewhat repand, viscid, 
disc streaked with innate fibrils. St. 4-9 cm. x 6-15 mm., pale white, 
elastic, cylindrical, viscid, apex covered with white, free, mealy granules. 
Gills white, adnate, scarcely decurrent, distant, thick. Spores white, 
elliptical, 8 x 4-5/z, 2-guttulate. Smell and taste pleasant. Edible. 
Woods. Sept. Dec. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 



HYGROPHORUS 295 

903. H. discoideus (Pers.) Fr. Gonn. & Rabenh. vm-ix, t. 10, fig. 4. 

Ster/eo9, disc; etSo?, like. 

P. 2-5-6 cm., pale yellowish inclining to pale, disc darker, somewhat 
ferruginous, campanulate, then plane, obtusely umbonate, very glutinous. 
St. 4-6 cm. x 6-10 mm., pale white, viscid, fiocculose, apex with white 
dots. Gills pale yellowish white, or flesh colour, adnate, decurrent, dis- 
tant, soft. Flesh under the cuticle of the umbo ferruginous, yellowish 
white, or flesh colour elsewhere. Spores white, elliptical, 6-9 x 5/x, 
1-guttulate. Woods. Oct. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

904. H. aureus (Arrh.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 166, fig. 2. Aureus, golden. 
P. 2-4 cm., bright golden yellow, becoming reddish, convex, then 

plane, glutinous. St. 46 cm. x 6 mm., becoming tawny, apex white 
pruinose above the glutinous, ring-like, fugacious, tawny-reddish veil. 
Gills white, or yellowish, adnato-decurrent, distant. Flesh white, or 
pale ochraceous. Spores white, elliptical, 8-10 x 5-6/z. Woods. Nov. 
Rare. 

905. H. aromaticus (Sow.) Berk. Sow. Eng. Fung. t. 144. 

apcofjMTiKos, fragrant. 

P. 5-8 cm., cinnamon, convex, then expanded and plane, very 
fragile, glutinous, the gluten in drying sometimes contracting and 
forming raised, anastomosing ribs. St. 3-5 cm. x 4-8 mm., concolorous, 
sub-equal. Gills white, with a pink tinge, slightly decurrent, 2-3 mm. 
broad. Flesh bruising blackish. Smell spicy, taste like peppermint, 
acrid. Amongst grass. Rare. 

****01ivaceous umber. 
H. latitabundus Britz. = Hygrophorus Clarkii (B. & Br.) W. G. Sm. 

906. H. limacinus Fr. Saund. & Sm. t. 28. Limacinus, slimy. 
P. 46 cm., disc umber, then fuliginous, margin paler, convex, then 

plane, obtuse, viscid. St. 5-8 x 1-1-5 cm., white, greyish, or bistre, 
firm, ventricose, viscid, fiocculose, fibrilloso-striate, apex squamulose. 
Gills white inclining to cinereous, or yellowish, adnate, then decurrent, 
subdistant. Flesh firm, white. Spores white, elliptical, 12 x 8/x. 
Amongst leaves in woods. Oct. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

907. H. squamulosus Rea. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. iv, t. 6. 

Squamulosus, covered with little scales. 

P. 57 cm., yellow olivaceous, disc fuscous, convex, then expanded, 
subumbonate, glutinous, floccosely squamulose beneath the gluten, 
tomentose at the incurved margin over the base of the gills. St. 6- 
8 x 1-52 cm., concolorous, apex white, mealy, equal, or enlarged 
downwards, glutinous. Gills white, 5-10 mm. wide, sinuato-adnate, 



296 HYGROPHORUS 

margin irregular, somewhat crowded. Flesh whitish, becoming yellow- 
ish towards the lower half of the stem. Spores white, globose, 3-5-4 
x 3-5/a. Smell and taste pleasant. Amongst short grass. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

908. H. olivaceo-albus Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 31. 

Olivaceus, olivaceous; albus, white. 

P. 3-10 cm., olivaceous-fuscous, becoming pale especially towards the 
margin, at first acorn-shaped, then expanded, umbonate, at length de- 
pressed round the umbo, glutinous and often forming tear-like drops 
at the margin, which becomes striate when old. St. 5-13 cm. x 6- 
15 mm., white, sheathed with the squamulose, spotted, fuscous, viscid 
veil which terminates at the apex in the form of a ring, equal, or 
attenuated at the base, apex shining white. Gills white, or olivaceous 
from the gluten, decurrent, distant, broad, connected by veins at the 
base. Flesh white. Spores white, elliptical, 7-8 x 4-5/z, 2-guttulate. 
Woods, especially of conifers. Aug. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

var. obesus Bres. Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 92. Obesus, stout. 

Differs from the type in having a thick, squat stem. Pine woods. 
Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

909. H. hypothejus Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 32. 

VTTO, under; Oeiov, brimstone. 

P. 3-6 cm., at first covered with olivaceous gluten, cinereous when the 
gluten disappears, becoming pale and yellowish, orange, or rarely (when 
rotting) rufescent, convex, then depressed, obtuse, somewhat streaked. 
St. 5-10 cm. x 410 mm., whitish, becoming yellowish, equal, viscid, 
rarely spotted with the veil ; partial veil floccose, at the first cortinate 
and annular, soon fugacious. Gills pallid, soon yellow, sometimes flesh 
colour, decurrent, distant. Flesh white, then light yellow. Spores white, 
elliptic-oblong, 10-11 x 4-5jn, 1-many-guttulate. Woods, and heaths, 
under conifers. Sept. Jan. Common, (v.v.) 

var. expallens Boud. Boud. Icon. t. 33. Expallens, becoming pale. 
Differs from the type in its smaller size, paler colour, and decreased 
viscidity. Under pines. Nov. Jan. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

910. H. cerasinus Berk. (= Hygrophorus agathosmus (Fr.) Quel.) Cke. 
Illus. no. 884, t. 898. Cerasus Laurocerasus, the cherry laurel. 

P. 46 cm., pale umber, then grey, convex, broadly umbonate, often 
more or less undulate, sometimes depressed, viscid, shining when dry ; 
margin minutely tomentose. St. 2-5-8 x 1 cm., white, attenuated 
below, sometimes ventricose, punctato-squamulose above. Gills 



HYGBOPHOBUS 297 

white, tinged with pink, decurrent, broad, sometimes forked, very 
distant. Spores white, elliptical, 8 x 4 /A. Smell like that of cherry 
laurel leaves. Fir woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

*****Fuscous cinereous, or livid. 

911. H. fusco-albus Fr. Fuscus, dark; albus, white. 

P. 4-8 cm., fuscous, then cinereous, convexo-plane, then depressed, 
moderately firm, viscid ; margin white-floccose. St. 5-12 cm. x 8- 
15 mm., white, equal, when dry white-floccose at the apex. Gills snow- 
white, decurrent, broad, rather thick. Flesh greyish white. Spores 
white, pip-shaped, 7-8 x 5/t, 1-guttulate. Woods, and amongst grass 
under conifers. Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

912. H. agathosmus Fr. (= Hygrophorus cerasinus Berk. sec. Quel.) 
Gonn. & Rabenh. vm-ix, t. 11, fig. 4. 

dya66s, good; 007477, scent. 

P. 4-7 cm., livid grey, unicolorous, dotted with minute, raised, 
crowded, viscid, pellucid, whitish papillae, convex, then plane, gibbous, 
viscid ; margin at first involute, villose, at length reflexed, and undu- 
lated. St. 512 cm. x 6-15 mm., white, equal, or slightly thickened 
downwards, somewhat fibrillosely striate, granularly farinose at the 
apex, the squamules at length becoming cinereous. Gills shining white, 
decurrent, distant, 6-8 mm. wide, soft, somewhat veined at the base. 
Flesh watery whitish, soft. Spores white, pip-shaped, 8-9 x 4 5/u.. 
Smell very pleasant. Coniferous woods. Sept. Nov. Not uncom- 
mon, (v.v.) 

913. H. pustulatus (Pers.) Fr. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. in, t. 13. 

Pustulatus, blistered. 

P. 2-5 cm., livid grey, disc fuscous, broken up into papillae, convex, 
then expanded, umbonate, viscid. St. 3*5 4-5 cm. x 5-13 mm., white, 
rough with black points, equal, or fusiform. Gills white, sometimes 
glaucous, adnato-decurrent, 5-6 mm. wide, distant, soft. Spores 
white, ovoid pruniform, 8-9 x 5/x. Fir woods. Sept. Oct. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 

914. H. mesotephrus B. & Br. 

/ieo-09, middle; Tempos, ash-coloured. 

P. 2-3 cm., white, disc brown, convex, somewhat hemispherical, 
viscid, striate, the extreme margin often remaining quite even. St. 
5 cm. x 4-6 mm., white, often stained yellowish, flexuose, attenuated 
at the base, viscid, floccoso-granulated at the apex. Gills pure white, 
shortly decurrent, moderately broad, ventricose, rather distant. 
Flesh white, hygrophanous. Spores white, elliptical, somewhat pointed 
at the one end, 9 x 6/i. Woods. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



298 HYGROPHORT7S 

915. H. livido-albus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 888, t. 915. 

Lividus, livid; albus, white. 

P. 4-7 cm., livid, umbo bistre, with darker streaks, convex, viscid. 
St. 6-10 cm. x 6-10 mm., grey, becoming yellowish downwards, equal, 
or attenuated at the base, fibrillosely striate. Gills shining white, 
decurrent, distant. Flesh greyish when moist, white when dry, often 
tinged with yellow in the stem. Spores white, elliptical, 10-11 x 5-6 jit, 
multi-guttulate. Woods. Oct. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

II. Veil none. St. even, smooth, or fibrillose, not rough with dots. 
P. firm, opaque, moist in rainy weather, not viscous. Gills 
distant, arcuate. 

*Gills deeply, and at length obconically decurrent. 

916. H. camarophyllus (A. & S.) Fr. (= Hygrophorus caprinus (Scop.) 
Fr.) Cke. Illus. no. 889, t. 916, as Hygrophorus caprinus Scop. 

tca^dpa, a vault; <j)v\\ov, a leaf. 

P. 3-10 cm., blackish-fuliginous, or blackish, at length cinereous- 
fuliginous, but varying azure-blue, convex, then plane and depressed, 
sometimes more or less umbonate, especially when young, firm, moist, 
or dry, more or less radiately streaked with innate fibrils, pellicle hardly 
separable ; margin at first white, pruinose, incurved, then expanded, 
revolute, concolorous and undulating. St. 4-8 x 1-1-5 cm., fuliginous, 
equal, or attenuated downwards, longitudinally fibrillose, apex finally 
whitish, base white, pubescent. Gills white, becoming glaucous, or 
grey, deeply decurrent, distant, 58 mm. wide, thick, connected by 
veins. Flesh white. Spores elliptical, slightly apiculate at the one 
end, 6-9 x 4-5/u., multi-guttulate. Smell strong, like that of Corti- 
narius purpurascens, taste mild, slightly sweet. Heaths and pastures 
under firs. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

917. H. leporinus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 891, t. 931, as Hygrophorus 
nemoreus Fr. Leporinus, belonging to a hare. 

P. 3-6 cm., yellow-rufescent, varying fuscous, equally fleshy, convex, 
gibbous, fibrilloso-fioccose, firm, opaque, margin scalloped, then split, 
silky. St. 4-5 x 1 cm., whitish flesh colour, firm, rigid, attenuated 
commonly downwards, more rarely upwards, fibrillose, base white. 
Gills pale yellowish, decurrent, branched. Flesh reddish flesh colour. 
Spores "pale umber, subglobose, 6-8 x 4-4-5/i" Sacc. Woods, and 
downs. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

H. bicolor Karst. = Hygrophorus Karstenii Sacc. & Cub. 

918. H. nemoreus (Lasch) Fr. Nemoreus, belonging to a wood. 
P. 3-8 cm., somewhat orange, equally fleshy, convex, then expanded, 

gibbous, at length depressed. St. 4-6 x 1-1-5 cm., pale, firm, squamu- 



HYGROPHORTJS 299 

lose, fibroso-striate, attenuated at the base. Gills somewhat concolorous, 
decurrent, thick, distant, wide. Flesh yellowish, deeper coloured under 
the cuticle of the pikus. Spores white, globose, 5-6 x 5/z. Taste 
pleasant. Edible. Woods, and pastures. Oct. Dec. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

919. H. pratensis (Pers.) Fr. (= Hygrophorus ficoides (Bull.) Schroet.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 892, t. 917. Pratensis, growing in meadows. 

P. 2-5-8 cm., tawny yellow, or buff, compactly fleshy especially at 
the disc, thin towards the margin, convex, then flattened, gibbous, 
almost turbinate from the stem being thickened upwards, moist, 
rimosely incised when dry. St. 4-6 x 1-1-5 cm., concolorous but paler, 
attenuated downwards, dilated into the pileus. Grills concolorous, or 
white, deeply decurrent, at first arcuate, then extended in the form of 
an inverted cone, very distant, thick, firm, brittle, connected by 
veins. Flesh ochraceous. Spores white, elliptical, 7-8 x 5/i. Smell 
and taste pleasant. Edible. Pastures, and heaths. Aug. Dec. 
Common, (v.v.) 

var. cinereus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 893, t. 932, fig. B. 

Cinereus, ash colour. 

Differs from the type in the thinner, cinereous p., at length striate 
at the margin, the white st. sometimes yellowish at the base, and the 
cinereous gills. Heaths and downs. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

var. pallidus B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 893, t. 932, fig. A. 

Pallidus, pallid. 

Differs from the type in the pallid, infundibuliform p., with undulate, 
defiexed margin, the dilated, fibrillosely striate St., and the pallid, decur- 
rent, branched, distant gills. On downs and hillsides. Sept. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. umbrinus W. G. Sm. Umbrinus, umber. 

Differs from the type in the umber p., substriate at the margin, the 
white, equal st., and the flesh being coloured umber under the cuticle 
of the p. Hilly pastures. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. meisneriensis Fr. Meisneriensis, belonging to Mount Meisner. 
Differs from the type in the much smaller p., at length striate at the 
margin, the white st., and the easily separable pellicle of the p. 

920. H. Karstenii Sacc. & Cub. (= Hygrophorus bicolor Karst. sec. 

W. G. Sm.) Karst. Icon. t. xm. 

P. A. Karsten, the eminent Finnish mycologist. 

P. 5-8 cm., white, or whitish, convexo-plane, at length often 

depressed, disc compact. St. 8-14 x 1-5-2 cm., white, or whitish, 



300 HYGBOPHORUS 

attenuated downwards, wavy. Gills yellow, deeply decurrent, thick, 
distant. Spores white, elliptical, 10 x 6ju. Woods. Nov. Uncommon. 

921. H. foetens Phill. Cke. lUus. no. 904, t. 903, fig. B. 

Foetens, stinking. 

P. 1-5-2-5 cm., dark brown, convex, then plane, at length broken up 
into squamules. St. 2-5-7-5 cm. x 4 mm., paler than the pileus, attenu- 
ated downwards, shining, clothed with transversely arranged fibrous 
scales. Gills somewhat of the same colour as the pileus, or paler, some- 
what glaucous-pruinose, decurrent, distant, rather thick. Flesh dark 
coloured. Spores white, globose, 4-5 /z. Smell very foetid, nauseous. 
Grassy places. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

922. H. virgineus (Wulf.) Fr. (= Hygrophorus ericeus (Bull.) Schroet.) 
Boud. Icon. t. 37. Virgineus, maidenly. 

Entirely white. P. 37 cm., convex, then plane, obtuse, subumbonate, 
moist, at length depressed, cracked into patches, floccose and becoming 
yellowish when dry. St. 5-11 cm. x 5-10 mm., firm, attenuated at 
the base, pruinose, striate. Gills decurrent, distant, rather thick, 
veined at the base. Spores white, oblong elliptic, 9-12 x 5-6 ft. Smell 
and taste pleasant. Edible. Pastures, heaths, and woods. Aug. 
Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

var. roseipes Massee. Cke. Illus. no. 895, t. 893. 

Roseus, rose-coloured; pes, foot. 

Differs from the type in the stem being rose-coloured externally, and 
internally towards the base. Woods, and pastures. Sept. Nov. Not 
uncommon, (v.v.) 

923. H. ventricosus B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 897, t. 901. 

Ventricosus, ventricose. 

Entirely white. P. 5-7-5 cm., convex, unequal. St. 6 x 1-1-5 cm., 
ventricose, attenuated at both ends. Gills deeply decurrent, narrow, 
sometimes forked. Spores white, elliptical, 7 x 4/z. Pastures, and 
amongst grass. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

924. H. niveus (Scop.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 896, t. 900, fig. A. 

Niveus, snow-white. 

Entirely white. P. 1-5-3 cm., submembranaceous, campanulate, then 
convex, umbilicate, striate and viscid when moist. St. 4-6 cm. x 2- 
4 mm., equal. Gills decurrent, distant, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 
7-8 x 4-5/i. Smell and taste mild. Edible. Heaths, and pastures. 
Sept. Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

925. H. russocoriaceus Berk. & Miller. Cke. Illus. no. 896, t. 900, 
fig. B. Russus, Russian; coriaceus, leathery. 

P. 1-2 cm., ivory-white, convex, slightly viscid. St. 1-5-4 cm. x 2- 
6 mm., pure white, thickened upwards. Gills concolorous, decurrent, 



HYGROPHORUS 301 



arched, thick, very few, distant. Spores white, elliptical, 7-8 x 
multi-guttulate. Smell very pleasant, like Russian leather. Edible. 
Pastures, and heaths. Sept. Dec. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

**Gills ventricose, sinuato-arcuate, or plano-adnate. 

926. H. fomicatus Fr. Fornicatus, arched. 
P. 2-55 cm., white, or pallid livid, campanulate, then expanded, 

obsoletely umbonate, subrepand, viscid. St. 5-8 cm. x 5-13 mm., 
shining white, firm, tough, equal, subundulate. Gills white, almost 
free, or sinuato-adnexed, thick, ventricose, distant, exceeding the margin. 
Spores white, elliptical, 6 x 3-4/4. Pastures. Oct. Nov. Un- 
common. (v.v.) 

927. H. clivalis Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 898, t. 933, as Hygrophorus forni- 
catus Fr. Clivalis, belonging to hills. 

P. 3-4 cm., whitish, disc yellowish, campanulate, silky, umbonate, 
becoming split, scalloped, thin, striate. St. 46 x 1 cm., white, fragile, 
attenuated at the base. Gills pale ochraceous, sinuate, almost free, 
ventricose, distant, wide. Spores white, elliptical, 6 x 3/x. Parks, and 
pastures. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

928. H. distans Berk. Berk. Outl. t. 13, fig. 1. 

Distans, being distant. 

P. 35 cm., white with a silky lustre, here and there stained with 
brown, plane, or depressed, often umbilicate, viscid. St. 3-4 cm. x 5- 
6 mm., white above, cinereous below and attenuated. Gills pure white, 
then tinged with cinereous, decurrent, few, very distant, subventricose, 
interstices obscurely rugose. Spores white, broadly elliptical, 10 x 8/a. 
Smell sometimes pleasant, like the essence of almonds. Woods. Oct. 
Rare. 

929. H. Clarkii (B. & Br.) W. G. Sm. (= Hygrophorus latitabundus 

(Britz.) sec. W. G. Sm.) J. Aubrey Clark. 

P. 9-10-5 cm., opaque umber, or livid cinereous, margin white, obtuse, 
convexo-plane, viscid. St. 4r-7 x 2-3 cm., white-squamulose above, 
pale umber-scaly below, equal, or attenuated downwards, viscid. Gills 
ivory-white, adnate, distant, broad, thick, veined. Spores white, 
elliptical, 10 x Qfj,. Woods, and pastures. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

930. H. metapodius Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 901, t. 918. 

fierd, reversed; TTOU<?, foot. 

P. 4-8 cm., cinereous-fuscous, convex, then plane, obtuse, at first 
viscid and slightly shining, then silky and squamulose, irregular. St. 
410 x 1-2 cm., concolorous, attenuated downwards, sometimes 
swollen at the base, fibrillosely striate. Gills dark grey, becoming 



302 HYGROPHORUS 

stained with red, adnate, or arcuato-decurrent, distant, thick, veined, 
broad. Flesh pallid grey, reddish when broken and at length becoming 
black. Spores white, broadly elliptical, 7-8 x 6/n, with a large central 
gutta. Smell of new meal, taste mild. Old mossy pastures. Oct. 
Jan. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

931. H. ovinus (Bull.) Fr. Hussey, Illus. Brit. Myc. n, t. 50. 

Ovinus, belonging to sheep. 

P. 4-5 cm., fuscous, campanulate, then expanded, somewhat umbo- 
nate, at first slightly viscid, then dry and squamulose, at length revo- 
lute, undulated, rimosely incised. St. 3-4 x -5-1 cm., pallid, or grey- 
ish, subequal, or slightly thickened at both ends, curved, or twisted, 
fibrillosely striate. Gills grey, then rufescent, arcuato-adnate, decur- 
rent with a tooth, thick, broad, connected by veins. Flesh fragile, 
grey, then tinged reddish, and finally black. Spores white, subglobose, 
6 x 4-5^t. Smell strong, of new meal, taste mild. Pastures, and hill- 
sides. Sept. Dec. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

932. H. connatus Karst. Connatus, born together. 
P. 3-4 cm., grey, margin submembranaceous, convex, then plane, 

unequal, dry, silky, then smooth. St. 6-7 cm. x 4-5 mm., concolorous, 
equal, silky fibrillose, apex farinose. Gills dark grey, decurrent, some- 
what thick, distant, branched. Spores white, pip-shaped, 7-8 x 4- 5 /it. 
Caespitose. Woods. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

933. H. subradiatus (Schum.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 902, t. 935, fig. A. 

Sub, somewhat; radiatus, rayed. 

P. 3-4 cm., white, livid, grey, or flesh colour, disc fuscous, sub- 
membranaceous, convex, then expanded, slightly umbonate, radiato- 
striate from the translucent gills. St. 4-5 cm. x 4-5 mm., pale, equal, 
twisted, attenuated at the white base. Gills white, deeply decurrent 
with a tooth, plane, ventricose, somewhat thin, distant, connected by 
veins. Spores white, subglobose, 7-8 x 6 /A, with a large central gutta. 
Heaths, and pastures. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. lacinus Fr. Kalchbr. Icon. t. 25, fig. 3, as Hygrophorus lacmus. 

Lac, varnish. 

P. 2-5 cm., lilac, then becoming pale, convex, umbonate, unequal at 
the circumference, radiato- striate when moist, even when dry, shining, 
disc often fibrillose, or squamulose. St. 3-5 cm. x 7-15 mm., white, 
or greyish, often tinged with yellow at the base, narrowed at the base 
and apex. Gills cinereous, plano-decurrent, thin, connected by veins, 
subdistant. Flesh tinged with grey, yellowish at the base of the stem. 
Spores white, subglobose, 7-8 x 6/1-, with a large central gutta. 
Heaths, and pastures. Sept. Oct. More common than the type. 
(v.v.) 



HYGROPHOBTJS 303 

934. H. irrigatus (Pers.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 168, fig. 3. 

Irrigatus, bedewed. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., livid, becoming dingy white as the gluten separates, 
fragile, campanulate, expanded, obtuse, viscid, margin striate. St. 
5-8 cm. x 2-4 mm., livid, very viscid, equal, tough. Gills white, or 
grey, adnate with a decurrent tooth, subdistant, wide, fragile, rather 
thick, connected by veins. Spores white, "elliptical, 6-7 x 4/n" 
Massee. Fir woods, grassy places, and pastures. Oct. Nov. Un- 
common. 
III. Veil none. Whole fungus thin, watery, succulent, fragile. 

P. viscid when moist, shining when dry, rarely floccosely 

squamose. St. hollow, soft, not punctate. Gills soft. Most of the 

species brightly coloured, and shining. 

*Gills decurrent. 

935. H. Colemannianus Blox. Cke. Illus. no. 904, t. 903, fig. A. 

W. H. Coleman. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., reddish umber, paler when dry except in the centre, 
subcampanulate, then expanded, strongly umbonate, striate when 
moist, and slightly viscid. St. 2-54 cm. x 24 mm., white, very 
slightly tinged with umber, nearly equal, brittle, fibrous, somewhat 
silky. Gills umber, paler than the pileus, deeply decurrent, rather 
broad, distant, interstices veined and rugose. Flesh white, tinged 
with umber under the cuticle of the pileus. Spores white, broadly ellip- 
tical, 6-8 x 6/x. Pastures, and hillsides. Oct. Nov. Not uncommon. 
(t>.*) 

936. H. sciophanus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 167, fig. 1. 

(TKid, shade; fyaivw, I appear. 

P. 1-4 cm., deep tawny, or brick colour, becoming paler when dry, 
opaque, hemispherical, then expanded, obtuse, slightly viscid, some- 
what fleshy; margin paler, striate. St. 3-7-5 cm. x 2-6 mm., tawny 
yellowish, or paler, equal, flexuose, viscid. Gills of the same colour as 
the pileus, or yellowish, attenuato-adnate, distant. Flesh yellowish, 
reddish near the cuticle. Spores white, elliptical, 8-9 x 4-5 /z. Amongst 
grass. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

937. H. sciophanoides Rea. Cke. Illus. no. 905, t. 937, fig. A, as 
Hygrophorus sciophanus Fr. 

Sciophanus, the species H. sciophanus; etSo9, like. 
P. 1-3 cm., rosy pink, campanulate, then expanded, striate to the 
disc, interstices paler, subumbonate, or papillate, membranaceous, 
fragile. St. 2-5 cm. x 2-3 mm., concolorous, equal, base white. Gills 
pale pink, uncinato-adnate, broadest in front. Flesh pale yellow, 
becoming white. Spores white, elliptical, 6-7 x 4/n. Heaths, and 
hilly pastures. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



304 HYGROPHORTJS 

938. H. laetus (Pers.) Fr. (= Hygrophorus Houghtoni Berk. sec. Quel.) 
Fr. Icon. t. 167, fig. 2. Laetus, cheerful. 

P. 2 3 cm., tawny, shining, convex, then flattened, obtuse, viscid; 
margin almost membranaceous and slightly pellucid-striate. St. 
3'5-7*5 cm. x 4 mm., concolorous, apex externally and internally 
bluish green, equal, tough, viscid. Gills flesh colour, whitish, or fuli- 
ginous, subdecurrent, distant, thin, somewhat connected by veins. 
Flesh of the same colour as the pileus but paler. Spores white, elliptical, 
7-9 x 4-5/Lt, 1-2-guttulate. Heaths, and hilly pastures. Sept. Dec. 
Common, (v.v.) 

939. H. vitellinus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 167, fig. 3. 

Vitellinus, of yolk of egg. 

P. 1-2-5 cm., citron-egg-yellow, becoming white when dry, very thin, 
convex, umbilicate, viscid; margin plicato-striate. St. 5 cm. x 2 mm., 
pallid light yellow, becoming white when dry, equal, flexuose, fragile. 
Gills yellow, then egg-yellow, deeply decurrent, subdistant. Spores 
white, broadly elliptical, with an apiculus at one end, 8-9 x 6jii, with 
a large central gutta. Woods, and pastures. Sept. Dec. Uncommon. 



940. H. citrinus Rea. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. in, t. 11. 

Citrinus, lemon yellow. 

P. 1-2 cm., citron yellow, convex, then plane, viscid; margin striate. 
St. 1-2 cm. x 2-3 mm., citron yellow, apex white, base attenuated, 
viscid. Gills whitish citron yellow, adnato-decurrent, somewhat 
crowded, 2-3 mm. broad. Flesh concolorous. Spores white, elliptical, 
apiculate at the one end, 7-7-5 x 5/*, 1-guttulate. Roadsides, and 
hilly pastures. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

941. H. ceraceus (Wulf.) Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 39. Ceraceus, waxy. 
P. 2-4 cm., waxy-yellow, shining, viscid, convexo-plane, obtuse; 

margin slightly striate, pellucid. St. 3-5 cm. x 4 mm., concolorous, 
often unequal, flexuose, at length compressed, base attenuated, white. 
Gills yellow, adnato-decurrent, broad, connected by veins, almost tri- 
angular. Flesh concolorous. Spores white, elliptical, 6-8 x 4/x. Woods, 
and pastures. Sept. Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

942. H. coccineus (Schaeff.) Fr. (= Hygrophorus miniatus (Scop.) 

Schroet.) Boud. Icon. t. 38. Coccineus, scarlet colour. 

P. 26 cm., bright scarlet, soon changing colour and becoming yellow- 
ish, convex, then plane, often unequal, obtuse, at first viscid. St. 
5-7 cm. x 68 mm., concolorous, becoming yellowish, compressed, 
base always yellow. Gills purplish at the base, light yellow in the middle, 
glaucous at the edge, adnate, decurrent by a tooth, distant, broad, con- 



HYGROPHORUS 305 

nected by veins, trama red. Flesh concolorous. Spores white, ellip- 
tical, 8-11 x 5-6 //,. Woods, and pastures. June Dec. Common. 



943. H. miniatus Fr. (= Hygrophorus fiammans (Scop.) Schroet.) Cke. 

Illus. no. 910, t. 921, fig. A. 

Miniatus, coloured with red-lead. 

P. -5-2 cm., vermilion, then becoming pale, and opaque, convex, 
often umbonate, then umbilicate, glabrous, or squamulose. St. 3 
5 cm. x 2-4 mm., vermilion, shining, equal, round. Gills yellow, or 
yellow-vermilion, adnate. Flesh reddish, then yellow. Spores white, 
elliptical, 6-7 x 4-5/A, 1-guttulate. Heaths, pastures, and peat bogs. 
June Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

944. H. Reai Maire. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. in, t. 11. 

Carleton Eea. 

P. 1-5-2-5 cm., scarlet, fleshy, thin, convex-campanulate, then 
plane; margin orange yellow, or yellow, slightly striate when moist; 
no separable pellicle. St. 3-6 cm. x 2-3 mm., orange scarlet to yellow, 
base whitish, viscid, shining, somewhat tough. Gills flesh colour, then 
orange, edge whitish, then yellow, broadly adnate with a decurrent tooth, 
broad, thin, unequal. Flesh orange. Spores white, elliptical, apiculate, 
7-8 x 3-5-4-5/u, 2-guttulate. Cystidia none. Taste bitter. In woods, 
and pastures. Aug. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

945. H. turundus Fr. Turunda, a kind of sacrificial cake. 
P. 1-2-5 cm., yellow, or tawny, variegated with cinereous-fuscous 

squamules, slightly fleshy, sometimes viscid at first, convex, then 
expanded, umbilicate, or depressed; margin often elegantly crenate. St. 
3-5 cm. x 2-4 mm., tawny-reddish, rigid-fragile, attenuated at the 
base. Gills white, then cream colour, decurrent, narrow, 1-2 mm. wide, 
distant. Flesh yellowish, or reddish. Spores white, elliptical, 8-1 1x5- 
6/x, 1-2-guttulate. Heaths, pastures, and peat-bogs. July Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. mollis B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 910, t. 921, fig. B. Mollis, soft. 
Golden. P. 12-18 mm., nearly plane, at length depressed, clad with 
soft, short, radiating hairs of the same colour. St. 2-5-3 cm. x 2-4 mm., 
equal. Gills whitish, decurrent, narrow, distant. Flesh yellow. Spores 
white, elliptical, 8 x 4/i. Woods, and pastures. July Oct. More 
common than the type, (v.v.) 

var. sphaerosporus Rea. crfyalpa, a ball; <nropd, seed. 

P. 18 mm., reddish, covered with golden yellow fibrils, plane, then 

depressed. St. 3-4 cm. x 3-5 mm., reddish, base white, slightly in- 

crassated upwards. Gills white, decurrent, distant. Flesh bright 

R. B. B. 20 



306 HYGROPHORUS 

yellow. Spores white, subglobose, 67 x 5-6/z, verrucose. Amongst 
short grass, and moss. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. lepidus Boud. Bull. Soc. Myc. Fr. xm, 1. 1, fig. 2, as Hygrophorus 

lepidus Boud. Lepidus, charming, 

P. 1-5-4 cm., brilliant golden orange, becoming paler, disc deeper 

colour, convex, umbilicate, minutely squamulose, or hirsuto-tomentose. 

St. 5-7 cm. x 2-3 mm., concolorous, slightly incrassated upwards. 

Gills pallid, slightly tinged with the colour of the pileus at the base, 

deeply and abruptly decurrent, thick, distant. Flesh of stem orange, 

paler elsewhere. Spores white, oblong-elliptic, 9-10 x 5-6/x. Woods, 

and bogs. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

946. H. mucronellus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 905, t. 937, fig. B. 

Mucronellus, having a little sharp point. 

P. 2-8 mm., scarlet, or yellow, then pale, becoming hoary, acutely 
conical when small, when larger campanulate, obtuse, then expanded, 
pellucidly striate when moist, somewhat silky when dry. St. 2-4 cm. 
x 1-2 mm., concolorous, white at the base, flexuose, subattenuated 
downwards, somewhat silky. Gills yellow, decurrent, thick, triangular. 
Flesh concolorous. Spores white, globose, 3 x 2 3/x. Amongst moss 
and short grass in pastures, and heaths. Aug. Dec. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

947. H. micaceus B. & Br. Micaceus, like mica. 
P. 812 mm., light yellow, becoming cinereous, hemispherical, like a 

small Leotia lubrica, glittering with micaceous granules, wrinkled. St. 
1820 x 2-3 mm., light yellow, then brown towards the base, granulated. 
Gills pallid umber, decurrent. Flesh yellowish, somewhat brownish 
under the cuticle of the pileus. Spores white, subglobose, 4 x 3/x, 
1-guttulate. On bare earth, and clayey soil. Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

948. H. Wynniae B. & Br. (= Omphalia bibula Quel.) Cke. Illus. 
no. 911, t. 905, fig. A. Mrs Lloyd Wynne, of Coed Coch. 

Entirely lemon-yellow, hygrophanous. P. 1-2-5 cm., thin, hemi- 
spherical, umbilicate, or somewhat infundibuliform, pellucidly striate. 
St. 3-4-5 cm. x 1-3 mm., attenuated upwards from the white, swollen, 
strigose base. Gills decurrent, narrow, thin. Spores white, broadly 
elliptical, 7-8 x 6/*. Smell foetid when decayed. On fir needles, twigs, 
chips, and stumps. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

**Gills adnexed, somewhat separating. 

949. H. puniceus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 912, t. 922. 

Puniceus, blood-red. 

P. 5-11 cm., blood-red scarlet, becoming pale with age especially at 
the fleshy disc, campanulate, obtuse, generally repand, or lobed, very 



HYGROPHORUS 307 

irregular, viscid. St. 7-11 x 12-5 cm., concolorous, or light yellowish, 
base always white, attenuated at both ends, often incurved, striate, 
apex often squamulose. Gills white-light-yellow, or yellow, often reddish 
at the base, ascending, appearing free, ventricose, broad, thick, distant. 
Flesh concolorous. Spores white, broadly elliptical, 6-7 x 5/x, with 
a large central gutta. Taste mild. Edible. Woods, heaths, and pas- 
tures. July Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

950. H. nigrescens Quel. (= Hygrophorus puniceus Fr. var. nigrescens 

(Quel.) Massee.) Nigrescens, becoming black. 

P. 510 cm., white, then citron or jonquil yellow, streaked with pink- 
ish, or orange fibrils, becoming grey and silky and finally black, campanu- 
late, scalloped, lobed. St. 5-7 x 1-2 cm., citron yellow, streaked with 
orange, base white, substriate, wrinkled, splitting, tough. Gills 
cream, or citron yellow, orange at the base, then grey, becoming black. 
Flesh orange, white in the stem, becoming black; juice becoming lilac 
colour on exposure to the air. Spores white, elliptical, 11-13 x 6-7 /n. 
Heaths, and pastures. Sept. Rare, (v.v.) 

951. H. obrusseus Fr. o/3pvov, pure gold. 
P. 5-12 cm., golden-sulphur-yellow with a tinge of green, campanu- 

late, then expanded and somewhat revolute, lobed and often split- 
ting at the margin, obtuse, fragile, shining. St. 5-11 x 1-3-5 cm., 
sulphur yellow, becoming tawny at the base, often compressed, unequal. 
Gills white, tinged with yellowish green towards the base, adnexed, at 
length separating, free, very broad, 10-12 mm., distant, thick. Flesh 
concolorous. Spores white, elliptical, 8-9 x 5-6/z, 1-2-guttulate. 
Woods, and pastures. Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

952. H. intermedius Pass. Intermedius, intermediate. 
P. 3-5-5 cm., golden yellow, becoming greyish, or bright orange, very 

thin, campanulate, then expanded, obtuse, or subumbonate, fibril- 
losely-silky; margin often wavy. St. 4-7-5 cm. x 6-9 mm., yellow, 
equal, fibrillosely-striate. Gills whitish, then yellow, adnate, ventricose, 
distant. Spores white, elliptical, 8-9 x 6/u,. Smell of meal. Road- 
sides, grassy places, and damp ground. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

953. H. conicus (Scop.) Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 40, as var. nigrescens Boud. 

Conious, conical. 

P. 3-6 cm., scarlet, yellow, tawny, sulphur-greenish, livid, or fuli- 
ginous-light yellow, becoming black, submembranaceous, campanulate, 
conical, acute, often lobed, then expanded and cracked, viscid when 
moist, shining when dry. St. 6-9 cm. x 4-9 mm., concolorous, or 
yellow, becoming black, cylindrical, tense and straight, fibrillosely- 
striate. Gills white, or yellow, sometimes reddish at the base, becoming 
black when bruised, attenuato-free, ventricose, thin, somewhat 

202 



308 HYGROPHORTTS 

crowded. Flesh concolorous, becoming black. Spores white, broadly 
elliptical, 10-11 x 7-8 /A, with a large central gutta. Pastures, heaths, 
roadsides, and woods. July Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

954. H. calyptraeformis Berk. (= Hygrophorus amoenus (Lasch) 

Quel.) Cke. lUus. no. 916, t. 894. 

KoXvTrrpa, a woman's veil; forma, shape. 

P. 3-10 cm., pink, becoming pallid, thin, campanulate, acutely 
conical, lobed below, then expanded and revolute, minutely innato- 
fibrillose, moist. St. 6-12 x 1 cm., white, often with a rosy tinge within 
the p., striate, brittle, often splitting longitudinally, easily separating 
from the pileus. Gills rose coloured, at length pallid, acutely attenu- 
ated behind, distant. Flesh of pileus pink, of stem white. Spores 
white, elliptical, 7-8 x 5/z, 1-guttulate. Pastures, heaths, and woods. 
Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. niveus Cooke. Cke. Illus. no. 917, t. 923. Niveus, snow-white. 
Differs from the type in being entirely snow-white. Pastures, and 
lawns. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

955. H. chlorophanus Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 41. 

^Xtpo9, pale green; <f>aiva), I appear. 

Entirely rich yellow, becoming pale, rarely scarlet, fragile. P. 3-5 cm., 
submembranaceous, convex, then plane and depressed, obtuse, 
orbicular, lobed, at length cracked, viscid, often striate. St. 3- 
8 cm. x 4-8 mm., equal, often compressed, viscid, sometimes sulcate 
in the middle. Gills white, then sulphur yellow, emarginato-adnexed, 
very ventricose, thin, distant. Flesh yellow, deeper coloured under the 
cuticle. Spores white, broadly elliptical, 7-8 x 5-6/A. Taste mild. 
Edible. Pastures, heaths, and woods. July Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

956. H. psittacinus (Schaeff.) Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 42. 

i/rtTTa/eo<?, a parrot. 

P. 2-5 cm., green at first from the gluten, then yellowish, whitish, or 
brick colour, and finally purplish, campanulate, then expanded, 
umbonate, striate. St. 4 7 cm. x 4 7 Tarn.., green at first from the gluten, 
which is persistent at the apex, then yellowish, equal, often bent, 
toughish. Gills yellow, greenish at the base, adnate, ventricose, thick, 
broad, subdistant. Flesh white, tinged with green and yellow. Spores 
white, elliptical, 8-9 x 4-5/z. Taste mild. Edible. July Nov. 
Common, (v.v.) 

957. H. spadiceus (Scop.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 168, fig. 1. 

ffTrdSiJ;, date-brown. 

P. 1-6 cm., olivaceous date-brown, black and shining when dry, 
fragile, campanulate, then expanded, obtuse, or acute, very glutinous, 



HYGROPHORUS. CLITOPILUS 309 

distinctly virgate with black fibrils. St. 4-7 cm. x 6-10 mm., yellowish, 
striato-virgate with fuscous fibrils, equal. Gills citron yellow, sinuate, 
broad, ventricose, rather thick, distant. Flesh citron yellow. Spores 
white, elliptical, "10-12 x 6-7 /A" Sacc. Mossy meadows. July. 
Uncommon. 

958. H. unguinosus Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 168, fig. 2. Unguinosus, oily. 
P. 3-6 cm., smeared with dense fuliginous gluten, slightly fleshy, 

campanulate, then convex, obtuse, very fragile, even, or at length 
rimosely incised. St. 5-9 cm. x 5-10 mm., concolorous, glutinous, 
attenuated at the base and apex, unequal, somewhat compressed. 
Gills shining white becoming glaucous, adnate, very ventricose, dis- 
tant, thick, broad, connected by veins. Flesh greyish. Spores white, 
broadly elliptical, 9 x 7/x, with a large central gutta. Woods, and 
pastures. Aug. Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

959. H. obscuratus Karst. Obscuratus, darkened. 
P. 3-4 cm., sooty, or livid blackish, mouse colour when dry, fragile, 

convex, obtuse, dry, squamulose. St. 4-6 cm. X 4-8 mm., pallid, 
centre often tinged smoky, unequal, usually inflated below, wavy, 
glabrous. Gills whitish, or glaucous, sinuato-adnate. Spores white, 
elliptical, 7-10 x 3-5/A. Pastures. Sept. Rare. 

960. H. nitratus (Pers.) Fr. Nitratus, nitrous. 
P. 16 cm., fuscous-cinereous, becoming pale, scarcely fleshy, very 

fragile, convex, obtuse, or depressed in the centre, at first slightly 
viscid, soon flocculose, then squamulose, or fibrillosely striate, rimosely 
incised, irregularly shaped, somewhat repand. St. 2-5-10 cm. x 2- 
12 mm., whitish, grey, or yellowish, equal, often twisted, fragile, some- 
times compressed, base attenuated. Gills whitish, then becoming 
glaucous, broadly emarginate, broad, distant, thick, mucid-soft, con- 
nected by veins. Flesh grey, darker under the cuticle of the pileus. 
Spores white, pip-shaped, 6-7 x 4-5/x,, 1-guttulate. Smell strong, 
nitrous. Pastures, and heaths. Aug. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. glauco-nitens Fr. y\avtc6<;, pale green ; nitens, shining. 

Stiff. P. olivaceous black, or fuliginous, becoming pale, streaked with 
St. equal, shining. Gills becoming glaucous. Mixed woods. 
Aug. Rare. 

Spores pink. 

ClitopUus Fr. 
(/c\/T05, a slope; 77-1X09, cap.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular, or irregular. Stem central fleshy. Gills de- 
current. Spores pink, elliptical, fusiform, globose, oblong, angular, 
smooth, or verrucose, continuous. Growing on the ground. 



310 CUTOPILUS 

I. P. irregular; margin at first flocculose. Gills deeply decurrent. 

961. C. prunulus (Scop.) Fr. (= Clitopilus orcella (Bull.) Fr.) Cke. 
lUus. no. 343, t. 322. Prunulus, a little plum. 

P. 3-11 cm., while, or yellowish, or more rarely becoming cinereous, 
fleshy, compact, convex, then flattened, at length depressed and 
repand or unequal, viscid when moist, delicately pruinose, often 
spotted, or zoned; margin involute, thin, mealy. St. 2-6 x 1-1-5 cm., 
white, ventricose, or thickened upwards, pruinose, or villose, often 
striate, cottony at the base. Gills white, then flesh colour, deeply 
decurrent, attenuated at both ends. Flesh white. Spores pink, fusi- 
form, 11-13 x 5/A, 1-2-guttulate. Cystidia none. Smell and taste 
of new meal. Edible. Woods, and pastures. June Nov. Common. 



962. C. mundulus (Lasch) Fr. (= Clitopilus pseudo-orcella Fr. sec. 
Quel.) Cke. Ulus. no. 345, t. 375, fig. A. Mundus, neat. 

P. 3-5 cm., becoming pale white, then spotted cinereous, at length 
becoming black, fleshy, thin, convex, gibbous, soon flattened and de- 
pressed, unequal repand, often excentric, rivulose, or even, fioccoso- 
soft; margin involute. St. 2-3 cm. x 4 mm., white, subequal, floccoso- 
villose, base white- villose. Gills pallid, deeply decurrent, very crowded, 
narrow, thin, with many shorter ones intermixed. Flesh white, 
soft, becoming black in the stem. Spores elliptical, 8-11 x 4-5 p. Taste 
bitter. Woods, amongst leaves. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. nigrescens (Lasch) Fr. Nigrescens, becoming black. 

Differs from the type in the whole of the flesh becoming black. 

963. C. popinalis Fr. (= Paxillus amarellus (Pers.) Quel.) Fr. Icon. 
t. 96, fig. 1. Popinalis, belonging to a cook-shop. 

P. 2-5 cm., cinereous, here and there mottled with guttate spots, 
slightly fleshy, flaccid, convex, then depressed, somewhat repand; 
margin thin, inrolled, pruinose, grey. St. 2-5 cm. x 5-12 mm., paler 
than the p., subequal, often flexuose, attenuated, or somewhat bulbous 
at the white, cottony base. Gills ochraceous, then grey, deeply decur- 
rent, thin, narrow. Flesh grey, becoming white. Spores pink, globose, 
4-6/z, warted. Cystidia none. Smell of new meal, or rancid. Downs, 
fields, and sandy sea-shores. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

964. C. undatus Fr. (= Eccilia undata (Fr.) Quel.; Clitopilus vilis Fr. 

sec. Quel.) Fr. Icon. t. 96, fig. 4. Undatus, waved. 

P. 2-4 cm., fuliginous cinereous, becoming pale, membranaceous, 

convex, then depressed, umbilicate, sometimes infundibuliform, un- 

equal, undulated, often somewhat zoned, pruinose, silky. St. 2- 

3 cm. x 2-4 mm., concolorous, entirely fibrous, unequal, compressed, 






CLITOPILUS 311 

mealy; base cottony, white, and attenuated. Gills dark cinereous, 
deeply decurrent, 4 mm. broad, thin, entire, or undulate. Spores 
"distinctly rusty-brown, pure yellow under the microscope, elliptical, 
7-8 x 4-5/z" Rick. Downs, and hilly pastures. Sept. Oct. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 

var. viarum Fr. Via, a way. 

Differs from the type in the greyish hoary, smooth, shining, zoned p., 
and glabrous stem. 

965. C. cancrinus Fr. (=Eccilia cancrina (Fr.) Quel.) Fr. Icon. t. 95, 
fig. 4. Cancer, a crab. 

P. 2-3 cm., whitish tan, or wholly white, becoming pale, slightly 
fleshy, submembranaceous, convex, then plane, very irregularly shaped, 
at length broken into cracks, becoming flocculoso-even. St. 2-2-5 cm. 
x2-4 mm., white, round, or compressed, equal, or enlarged upwards, 
base white- villose, the mycelium often gathering the soil into a ball. 
Gills white, then flesh colour, truly decurrent, distant, 3 mm. broad, 
rather thick, arcuate when young then straight. Flesh white, hyaline 
near the gills. Spores pink, angular, oblong, 9 x 5-6/z, multi-guttu- 
late. Pastures, and roadsides. July Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

966. C. cretatus B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 345, t. 375, fig. B. 

Cretatus, marked with chalk. 

P. 6-18 mm., dead white, but shining, membranaceous, convex, 
then umbilicate, margin involute. St. 46 x 12 mm., white, often 
curved at the base, sometimes thickened, tomentose, especially below. 
Gills rose colour, very decurrent, narrow. Flesh white. Spores pink, 
elliptical, 7-8 x 3-4jU. Woods, and pastures. Aug. Oct. Uncom- 
mon, (v.v.) 

II. P. regular, silky, or hygrophanous-silky ; margin naked. 
Gills adnate, slightly decurrent. 

967. C. carneo-albus (With.) Fr. (= Eccilia carneo-alba (With.) 
Quel.) Cke. Illus. no. 349, t. 324, upper figs. 

Caro, flesh; albus, white. 

P. 1'5 3 cm., white, disc often becoming reddish, or yellowish, convex, 
then expanded and depressed, slightly silky. St. 2-3 cm. x 4-6 mm., 
white, unequal, fibroso-striate, silky. Gills white, then flesh colour, 
adnato-decurrent, narrow. Flesh white, thin. Spores pink, angular, 
"10x6/z" Sacc. Woods, and heaths. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

968. C. angustus (Pers.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 96, fig. 3. A ngustus, narrow. 
P 1-2 cm., bluish-grey-cinereous, somewhat fleshy, convexo-plane, 

subumbonate, hygrophanous, silky-shining when dry. St. 7-8 x 1- 



312 CLITOPILUS 

1-5 cm., white, curved, strigosely rooting at the hairy base. Gills some- 
what flesh colour, adnato-decurrent, crowded, narrow. Flesh brownish. 
Spores pink, 7-8 x 5/z. Woods. Sept. Rare. 

969. C. Sarnicus Massee. Sarnicus, belonging to Guernsey. 

P. 23 cm., mouse colour, paler with a ruddy tinge when dry, cam- 
panulate, then quite plane, subumbonate, often more or less depressed 
round the umbo, slightly striate when moist, minutely silky flocculose. 
St. 2-3 cm. x 2 mm., white, equal, slightly flexuose. Gills pinkish 
salmon colour, plane nearly up to the stem then suddenly decurrent, 
3-4 mm. broad, rather crowded. Flesh very thin. Spores pink, 
nodulose, with an apiculus, 7-8 x 6/u. Amongst grass. Rare. 

970. C. vilis Fr. (= Eccilia undata (Fr.) Quel.) Cke. Illus. no. 351, 
t. 487. Vilis, of small value. 

P. 2-3 cm., grey, submembranaceous, convex, umbilicate, silky - 
fibrillose when dry. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 2-4 mm., concolorous, equal, 
tough, but fibroso-fissile, fibrilloso-striate, base white-villose. Gills 
whitish, plano-decurrent, or adnate with a decurrent tooth, nearly 
triangular, crowded, almost extending beyond the margin of the p. Flesh 
white. Spores pink, "quadrangular, almost quadrilateral, 8-9 /x ' 
Rick. Downs, and open spaces. July Sept. Not uncommon. 
(9.9.) 

971. C. stilbocephalus B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 349, t. 324, lower 

figs. <7TiX/3&>, I shine; ^)aX^, the head. 

P. 2-6 cm., yellowish white, or greyish, sparkling with atoms, whitish 
and rather silky when dry, campanulate, obtuse, sometimes umbonate, 
hygrophanous ; margin straight. St. 5-8 cm. x 3-8 mm., white, or 
greyish, somewhat equal, undulato-fibrous. Gills salmon colour, 
adnate, sometimes emarginate behind, 3-5 mm. broad, veined. Flesh 
whitish. Spores pink, angular, oblong, 9-12 x 6-9 /u,, 1-guttulate. 
Smell pleasant of new meal. Pastures. Aug. Sept. Uncommon. 
(9.9.) 

972. C. Smithii Massee. Cke. Illus. no. 350, t. 599, as Clitopilus stilbo- 
cephalus Berk. var. 

Worthington G. Smith, the eminent mycologist. 
P. 2-4 cm., whitish, or with a dingy yellow tinge, soon becoming plane 
and orbicular, sometimes undulated, atomate. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 3 
4 mm., pallid, with a reddish tinge below, tapering very slightly up- 
wards, undulated, base white, downy. Gills salmon colour, broadly 
adnate with a slight decurrent tooth, 4 mm. broad. Flesh white, 
rather thick except at the margin. Spores pink, globose, 4/A. Oct. 
Rare. 



CLITOPILUS. FLAMMULA 313 

973, C. straminipes Massee. Cke. Ulus. no. 1159, t. 960. 

Stramen, straw; pes, foot. 

P. 3-5 cm., whitish, submembranaceous, fragile, at length expanded 
and depressed in the centre, shining. St. 5 cm. x 3 mm., straw colour 
below, sprinkled with white meal above, equal, often compressed. 
Gills whitish then rosy, shortly decurrent, scarcely crowded. Flesh 
white. Spores pink, angular, globose, 11 12/z % Amongst grass. Sept. 
Uncommon. 

Spores ochraceous, or ferruginous. 

Flammula Fr. 
(Gyninophilus (Karst.) Murr. sec. Maire.) 

(Flammula, a little flame.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular, viscid, or dry. Stem central, fleshy, or fibrous. 
Gills decurrent, or adnate with a decurrent tooth. Spores ochraceous, 
ferruginous, or fuscous, elliptical, oblong elliptical, globose, or navicu- 
lar; smooth, punctate, or verrucose; continuous, or with a germ-pore. 
Cystidia present, rarely none. Growing on the ground, or on wood; 
solitary, gregarious, fasciculate, or caespitose. 

I. Veil none; p. dry, most frequently squamulose. Spores 
ferruginous, in Flammula decipiens fuscous ferruginous. 

974. P. gymnopodia (Bull.) Fr. (= Armillaria mellea (Vahl.) Fr. var. 

tabescens (Scop.) Rea sec. Quel.) yvpvos, naked; TTOVS, foot. 

Entirely dark ferruginous. P. 5-7-5 cm., fleshy, campanulato-con- 

vex, squamulose. St. 5-6 x 1 cm., becoming smooth, ascending 

equal. Gills deeply decurrent, arcuate, crowded. Caespitose. Pine 

sawdust, and on the ground. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

975. F. Aldridgei Massee. (= Flammula veluticeps Cke. & Massee.) 

Miss Emily Aldridge. 

P. 2-5 cm., brick red with a tinge of orange, or tawny orange, fleshy, 
convex, then infundibuliform, with a subinvolute margin, minutely 
velvety. St. 7-10 cm. x 6-8 mm., concolorous, equal, flexuose, smooth, 
base with a white floccose mycelium. Gills golden yellow, then ferru- 
ginous-orange, deeply decurrent, lanceolate, 3 mm. broad, rather 
crowded. Spores ferruginous orange, elliptical, slightly apiculate at 
the base, 16 x 5/i. Gregarious. Amongst moss on the ground in 
woods. Sept. Rare. 

976. F. vinosa (Bull.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 466, t. 437. 

Vinosa, full of wine. 

P. 2-4 cm., ferruginous fawn, fleshy, expanded, at length depressed, 
dry, delicately fiocculose. St. 2-3 cm. x 6mm., pale, firm, somewhat 
thickened at the base, delicately fiocculose. Gills ferruginous, decurrent, 



314 FLAMMULA 

simple, narrow, crowded. Spores "pale brown, 5 /z long, ovate" 

Sacc. On the ground. Rare. 

F. paradoxa Kalchbr. = Paxillus paradoxus (Kalchbr.) Quel. 

F, Tammii Fr. = Paxillus paradoxus (Kalchbr.) Quel. 

977. F. clitopila Cke. & Sin. Cke. lUus. no. 468, t. 500. 

K\I,TO<;, a slope; TrtXo?, cap. 

P. 2-55 cm., purplish brown, or madder brown, fleshy, convex, then 
expanded, disc depressed and umbilicate, smooth, dry. St. 5-7-5 x 1- 
1*5 cm., fuliginous, ventricose, erect, with a few scattered fibrils to- 
wards the base. Gills pallid, or yellowish, slightly adnexed, ventricose, 
scarcely crowded. Flesh white, brown in the st., fairly thick. Spores 
brown, elliptical, 10 x 4jLi. Amongst firs. Nov. Rare. 

978. P. purpurata Cke. & Massee. Cke. lUus. no. 1167, t. 964. 

Purpurata, clad in purple. 

P 2-5-5 cm., purple, or purple brown, fleshy, convex, then expanded, 
obtusely umbonate, clad with minute, floccose, concolorous scales, dry. 
St. 2-55 cm. x 46 mm., pallid above, purple below, equal, curved, 
ascending, apex smooth, granular dowmvards. Ring imperfect, fibril- 
lose. Gills lemon yellow, at length bright ferruginous, adnate, somewhat 
rounded behind, subdistant, narrow. Flesh purplish, yellow at the 
apex of the st., thick at the disc. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 8 x 5/u.. 
Taste very bitter. Tree-fern stems. May. Rare. 

979. F. floccifera B. & Br. Cke Illus. no. 467, t. 438, upper figs. 

Floccus, a flock of wool ; fero, I bear. 

P. 4r-5 cm., tawny, fleshy, convex, then expanded, sprinkled with 
snow-white fibrils, becoming somewhat zoned in drying. St. 3-4 cm. 
x 6 mm., white, attenuated downwards, silky scaly, apex furfura- 
ceous. Gills ferruginous, edge white, adnate, rounded behind, scarcely 
ventricose, moderately broad, wrinkled transversely. Flesh white, 
tawny at the edge, and beneath the cuticle of the p., umber in the st., 
fleshy at the disc. Spores ferruginous. Caespitose. On lime stumps. 
Oct. Rare. 

980. F. decipiens W. G. Sm. Cke. Illus. no. 467, t. 438, lower figs. 

Decipiens, deceiving. 

P. 2-5-3 cm., rich brown, becoming pale, and almost white at the disc, 
fleshy, convex, very obtuse, or umbonate, at length sometimes de- 
pressed round the umbo, dry, minutely squamulose. St. 3-6 cm. x 4- 
6 mm., rich tawny, attenuated downwards, often twisted, striate. Gills 
orange brown, decurrent, 4 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh golden yellow, 
bright brown at base of st., thick at the disc. Spores orange brown, 
elliptical, apiculate at the base, 6-7 x 4/i. Inclined to be fasciculate. 
Charcoal heaps, and burnt earth. June Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



FLAMMULA 315 

981. F. nitens Cke. & Massee. Cke. Illus. no. 1168, t. 1154. 

Nitens, shining. 

P. 2-5 cm., dark purple brown, fleshy, hemispherical, convex, then 
expanded, obtuse, shining, dry, somewhat silky. St. 4-7-5 x 1 cm., 
flesh colour, or pale pinkish brown, equal, fibrillose, incurved. Gills 
pallid, then umber, adnate, 4-6 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh white, 
thin at the margin. Spores pale brown, almond-shaped, 10 x 5-7 /x. 
Caespitose. On the ground. Aug. Sept. Rare. 

II. P. covered with a continuous, somewhat separable, smooth, viscid 
pellicle ; cortina manifest fibrillose. Spores ferruginous, not tawny ; 
fuscous ferruginous in Flammula carbonaria. Gregarious, growing 
on the ground, rarely on wood. 

F. lenta (Pers.) Fr. = Hebeloma glutinosum (Lindgr.) Fr. 

982. F. lubrica (Pers.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 116, fig. 1. Lubrica, slimy. 
P. 5-10 cm., brick-red tawny, or bright cinnamon, sometimes pallid 

with the disc tawny, fleshy, convex, then flattened, obtuse, or slightly 
umbonate, sometimes depressed and repand, viscid, smooth, some- 
times spotted with glued down scales ; margin sometimes striate. St. 
5-10 cm. x 6-10 mm., whitish, at length becoming fuscous, equal, or 
slightly attenuated upwards, dry, laxly fibrillose, base pubescent. 
Gills pallid, then clay colour, adnate, subdecurrent, 6 mm. broad, 
crowded. Flesh white, thick at the disc, tough. Spores pale rusty 
brown, "cylindrical-elliptical, nearly reniform, 5-6 x 3-3-5/u,, smooth. 
Cystidia lanceolate-fusiform, 50-65 x 12-18/*, contents at first 
yellowish" Rick. Smell scarcely strong. On and near trunks, and 
in pastures. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

983. F. lupina Fr. Lupina, pertaining to a wolf. 
P. 7-10 cm., brown, tan fuscous, or tawny, fleshy, convex, obtuse, 

then piano-depressed, smooth, covered with a viscid, easily separable 
pellicle. St. 2-5 cm. x 12 mm., whitish at the apex, elsewhere ferru- 
ginous with dense adpressed fibrils, sometimes light yellowish, firm, 
thickened either upwards or downwards. Gills clay colour, or light 
yellowish, adnato-decurrent, broad, moderately crowded. Flesh 
white, becoming ferruginous in the St., soft. Spores "nearly elliptical- 
oval, 9-10 x 5-6//,, smooth, almost colourless under the microscope. 
Cystidia on edge of the gill ventricose-fusiform, with a long pointed 
clavate apex, 50-60 x 9-12 fj," Rick. Smell very strong or mild. 
Taste very bitter. Pastures. Aug. Oct. Uncommon. 

984. F. mixta Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 474, t. 476. Mixta, mixed. 
P. 2-5-5 cm., dingy tan, fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse, disc unequal, 

darker, rugulose, smooth; margin sloping, paler. St. 2-5-7-5 cm. x 6- 



316 FLAMMULA 

8 mm., whitish, equal, either short, ascending, curved, or elongated, 
flexuose, with lax, fuscous fibrils, clothed below with reflexed, rufous 
fuscous scales, base somewhat thickened. Cortina manifest, fibrillose. 
Gills white, then clay colour, subdecurrent, 6-8 mm. broad, somewhat 
crowded, unequal at the edge. Flesh watery, rather firm. Spores 
yellow brown, "almost almond-shaped, 12-15 x 6-7 /z, smooth. 
Cystidia flask-shaped-lanceolate, 50-60 x 13-15/u" Rick. Sub- 
caespitose. Pine and mixed woods. Aug. Nov. Rare. 

985. F. juncina W. G. Sm. Cke. lUus. no. 472, t. 475. 

Juncina, pertaining to a rush. 

P. 3-4 cm., sulphury yellow, disc rich brown, fleshy, hemispherical, 
convex. St. 8-10 cm. x 4-6 mm., sulphur yellow, base tawny, attenu- 
ated downwards, clothed with a few fibres. Gills red brown, decur- 
rent, 46 mm. broad, very thin. Flesh sulphur whitish, brownish to- 
wards the base of the st., thin at the margin. Taste nauseous and 
disagreeable, somewhat bitter. Dead bulrushes in an old clay pit. 
Nov. Rare. 

986. F. gummosa (Lasch) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 116, fig. 2. 

Gummosa, sticky. 

P. 3-6 cm., pallid light yellow, or becoming green, at length ferru- 
ginous with the spores, paler at the circumference, fleshy, regular, cam- 
panulate, then soon flattened, obtuse, or depressed, covered with a 
separable, viscid pellicle, sprinkled with superficial floccose scales, then 
smooth. St. 4-7-5 cm. x 4-6 mm., ferruginous, rubiginous at the base, 
paler upwards, equal, tense, straight, rigid, silky fibrillose. Gills 
pale yellowish white, then cinnamon, adnate, narrow, crowded. Flesh 
becoming yellow, thin. Spores yellow, elliptical, 5-7 x 3-4/z, smooth. 
Cystidia on the surface of the gill sparse, subulate-fusiform, 30- 
40 x 7-8//,, on edge of the gill cylindrical, capitate, flexuose, apex 
6-7 jit in diam., 40-45 x 4-5 /n. On and about old stumps, and in 
grassy places. Oct. Dec. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

987. F. decussata Fr. (=Flammula carbonaria Fr. var. decussata Fr. 
sec. Quel.) Kalchbr. Icon. t. 15, fig. 1. 

Decussata, divided crosswise. 

P. 3-4 cm., crust colour, fleshy, convex, then plane, viscid, virgate 
with innate, radiating, darker fibrils; disc gibbous, darker. St. 3- 
5 cm. x 4 mm., pallid above, elsewhere becoming fulvous, equal, ad- 
pressedly fibrillose. Cortina manifest. Gills yellowish, then clay colour, 
adnate, narrow, crowded. Flesh white, becoming yellowish under the 
separable pellicle. Spores "7-8 x 3/x" Sacc. Beech woods. Rare. 

988. F. spumosa Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 116, fig. 3. Spumosa, full of foam. 
P. 3-5 cm., pallid light yellow, disc often darker, fleshy, convex, then 

plane, subumbonate, very viscid, pellicle separable, naked. St. 5- 



FLAMMULA 317 

10 cm. x 4 mm., light yellow, or concolorous, sometimes olivaceous 
fuscous, attenuated downwards, more or less fibrillose, remarkably 
cortinate. Gills light yellow, then ferruginous, adnate, crowded. Flesh 
light yellow, becoming green, watery, thin. Spores pale ferruginous, 
bluntly elliptical, 8-9 x 4-5 //,, 2-guttulate. Cystidia "flask-shaped, 
50-60 x 10-15/z, long-necked" Eick. Gregarious, or subcaespitose. 
Woods, especially fir, sawdust, pastures, and rarely on trunks. Sept. 
Dec. Rare, (v.v.) 

989. F. carbonaria Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 475, t. 442 

Carbonaria, pertaining to charcoal. 

P. 3-9 cm., tawny, fleshy, convex, then soon plane, and often de- 
pressed at the disc, smooth, viscid; margin incurved, often floccosely 
fimbriate. St. 2-5-11 cm. x 2-14 mm., pallid, often blacJcish at the 
base, rigid, equal, or slightly thickened upwards, fibrillosely-squamu- 
lose, the mycelium at the base often forming a pseudo-bulb with the 
soil. Cortina fibrillose, fugacious. Gills clay, then fuscous clay colour, 
adnate, rather broad, crowded. Flesh yellowish, firm, thin at the 
margin. Spores fuscous ferruginous, subelliptical, 6-7 x 4/z,, 1- 
guttulate. Cystidia flask shaped, apex obtuse, 4-6 /z in diam., 
35-50 x 10-16/z. Densely gregarious. Charcoal heaps, and burnt 
earth. Aug. Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

III. Cuticle of the p. continuous, not distinct, nor separable, smooth 
(here and there with a superficial covering), moist, or a little 
viscid in wet weather. Cortina manifest, appendiculate. Spores 
not tawny, nor ochraceous. Caespitose, growing on wood. 

990. F. filia Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 117, fig. 1. Filia, a daughter. 
P. 5-7 cm., pale yellow, disc rufescent, fleshy, convex, soon plane, 

moist, smooth. St. 7-515 cm. x 12 mm., pallid, base reddish, equal, 
or attenuated at the base, smooth. Veil terminated by an incomplete 
ring, fugacious. Gills white, then pallid, adnate, somewhat crowded. 
Flesh whitish, reddish in the St., thin. Spores "tawny orange, elliptic- 
fusiform, 10 x 5fi " Massee. Woods, and on logs. Oct. Rare. 

991. F. fusus (Batsch) Fr. Fusus, a spindle. 
P. 5-9 cm., somewhat brick colour, fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, 

smooth, slightly viscid. St. 4-6 x 1-1-5 cm., pallid, firm, attenuated 
downwards in a fusiform manner, rooting, fibrillosely striate. Cortina 
manifest, appendiculate. Gills pallid, or light yellow, then ferruginous, 
sometimes becoming green grey, subdecurrent, not very crowded. Flesh 
pallid, becoming yellowish, compact, firm. Spores dingy ferruginous, 
subelliptical, 8-9 x 4-5 /LI. Cystidia "flask-shaped or clavate with a 



318 FLAMMULA 

prominent point, 30-36 x 10-15/i, filled with olive yellow juice" 
Rick. Taste mild. Gregarious. On the ground, and on stumps. Sept. 
Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. superba Massee. Cke. Illus. no. 478, t. 434. Superba, splendid. 
Differs from the type in the bright deep orange p. with darker disc, 
the pale orange st., the bright yellow gills, and the reddish tinge of the 
flesh. On the ground. Nov. Rare. 

992. P. astragalina Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 117, fig. 2. 

aa-Tpaya\ivos, a goldfinch. 

P. 3-8 cm., blood saffron, or golden flesh colour, darker at the disc, 
pale at the circumference, fleshy, convex, or lens-shaped, then flattened, 
obtuse, somewhat moist in rainy weather, smooth, at first superficially- 
silky round the margin with the very thin, adpressed, whitish veil. St. 
5-10 cm. x 4-6 mm., concolorous, or paler, equal, or attenuated down- 
wards, flexuose, floccosely fibrillose. Cortina white, manifest, appen- 
diculate. Gills pallid light yellow, concolorous with the p. at the base, 
adnate, broad, crowded, edge obtuse, flocculose when young. Flesh 
concolorous, becoming black when wounded, or bruised, firm. Spores 
pale ferruginous, broadly elliptical, 6 x 3-4/n, 1-guttulate. Cystidia 
"clavate-lanceolate, 50-75 x 12-15/u,, filled with olive brown juice" 
Rick. Taste bitter. Subcaespitose. Pine and fir stumps, and dead 
branches. Aug. Oct. Uncommon. 

993. F. rubicundula Rea. Grevillea, xxn (1894), t. 185, fig. 2. 

Rubicundula, somewhat ruddy. 

P. 4-6 cm., yellow, then tinged with red, at length tawny orange, 
fleshy, convex, then plane, often splitting at the margin, viscid at 
first and innately fibrillose, soon becoming smooth ; margin at first 
veiled. St. 5-6 x 1-5-2-5 cm., whitish, then tinged with red and be- 
coming red at the base, equal, or attenuated downwards, fibrillose below 
the veil, apex white mealy. Veil white, then yellowish and at length 
reddening. Gills light ochre, then ferruginous, adnate with a sinus, or 
adnato-decurrent, often forming a ring-like zone at the apex of the 
st., often separating, 3-4 mm. broad, crowded; edge unequal, tinged 
red with age or when bruised. Flesh bright yellow, then lighter. Spores 
ferruginous, elliptical, 9-10 x 4-5/i, 1-2-guttulate. Taste acrid. The 
whole plant becoming reddish with age, or when touched. Woods, 
under scrub oak. July Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

994. F. alnicola Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 480, t. 443. 

Alnus, alder; colo, I inhabit. 

P. 3-8 cm., yellow, at length becoming ferruginous, and sometimes 
green, fleshy, convex, then flattened, obtuse, slimy when moist, at 
first superficially fibrillose towards the margin. St. 4-9 cm. x 6- 



FLAMMULA 319 

12 mm., yellow, becoming ferruginous, attenuato-rooting, sometimes 
subbulbous at the base, commonly curved, flexuose, fibrillose. Cor- 
tina concolorous, either fibrillose, or woven into an arachnoid veil. 
Gills dingy pallid, then ferruginous, somewhat adnate, broad, plane. 
Flesh concolorous, thick at the disc, not very compact. Spores ferru- 
ginous, elliptical, 9 x 4-5/x,, 1-2-guttulate. Cystidia flask-shaped, 
40-50 x 7-15jt*. Taste bitter. Often fasciculate. On stumps, and 
trunks. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. salicicola Fr. Salix, willow; colo, I inhabit. 

Differs from the type in the glabrous, rarely at the first fioccosely 
squamulose, gibbous p., and the gills being at first yellowish pallid. On 
willow. Sept. Rare. 

995. P. flavida (Schaeff.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 481, t. 444. 

Flavida, light yellowish. 

P. 2-5-12-5 cm., bright light yellow, fleshy, convex, then expanded, 
obtuse, smooth, moist, generally regular. St. 4-9 cm. x 6-10 mm., 
light yellow, becoming ferruginous towards the base, either attenuated, 
or thickened downwards, subflexuose, fibrillose. Cortina white, mani- 
fest, woven, adhering to the margin of the p., rarely almost forming 
a ring. Gills whitish, then light yellow, at length tawny ferruginous, 
adnate, not much crowded. Flesh white, becoming light yellow, thin 
at the margin. Spores ferruginous, broadly elliptical, 5-8 x 4/u,, 
1-2-guttulate. Cystidia "clavate, 36-40 x 8-9 p., filled with golden 
yellow juice" Rick. Caespitose. On trunks, stumps, and buried 
wood. Aug. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

996. F. inaurata W. G. Sm. Cke. Illus. no. 482, t. 477. 

Inaurata, gilded. 

Entirely sulphur yellow. P. 2-3 cm., fleshy, convex, then expanded, 
moist, smooth, furnished with a distinct veil. St. 2-5-3-5 cm. x 4 mm., 
incurved, clothed with innate scales. Veil slight, fibrillose, fugitive. 
Gills pale yellowish clay colour, adnate with a decurrent tooth, broad. 
Flesh yellowish, ferruginous at base of the st. Taste mild. Single, 
or caespitose. Willows. Nov. Rare. 

997. F. conissans Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 483, t. 445. KOVIS, dust. 
P. 1-7-5 cm., light yellowish tan, fleshy, hemispherico-expanded, 

obtuse, or umbilicate, moist, smooth. St. 5-8 cm. x 4-10 mm., be- 
coming light yellow white, equal, or attenuated downwards, often 
compressed, irregular, twisted, silky, base white- villose. Cortina 
white, silky-fibrillose, appendiculate. Gills whitish, then fuscous clay 
colour, adnate with a decurrent tooth, linear, 3-4 mm. broad, very 
crowded. Flesh white, or pale yellow, equal, 2 mm. thick. Spores 
dark ferruginous, elliptical, 8 x 4 /A. Cystidia "on edge of gill 



320 FLAMMULA 

filamentous-clavate, subcapitate, or undulating, 3645 x 5-7 /u." Rick. 
Smell acid. Densely caespitose. Woods, dead stumps, and on willows. 
Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

998. F. inopus Fr. (= Flammula fusus (Batsch) Fr. sec. Quel.) Fr. 

Icon. t. 118, fig. 1. 45, a fibre; TTOV<}, foot. 

P. 3-10 cm., honey tan, or reddish tan, paler round the margin, 
fleshy, convex, then expanded, obtuse, slippery (almost viscid) when 
moist, and smooth when dry. St. 7-25 cm. x 2-10 mm., pallid, 
brick colour downwards, equal, or slightly enlarged before continuing 
into the long, tapering, rooting base, tough, flexuose, adpressedly fibril- 
lose. Cortina fugacious. Gills pale yellowish white, sometimes green, then 
becoming purplish, adnate, emarginate, 46 mm. broad, thin, crowded. 
Flesh concolorous, becoming whitish, ferruginous in the st., thin at the 
margin. Spores purple, broadly elliptical, 8 x 5/z, 1-guttulate. Soli- 
tary, or caespitose. Pine trunks, and stumps. May Dec. Not 
uncommon, (v.v.) 

999. P. apicrea Fr. (=Flammula alnicola Fr. var. salicicola Fr. sec. 

Quel.) Cke. Ulus. no. 485, t. 436. a-jrucpos, not bitter. 

P. 3-7-5 cm., dingy orange, or deep tawny, disc darker, fleshy, con- 
vex, then expanded and almost plane, gibbous, or obtusely umbonate, 
smooth, moist; margin often splitting. St. 5-10 cm. x 4-10 mm., 
pallid, ferruginous downwards, equal, or attenuated downwards, 
covered with ferruginous fibrils, somewhat striate. Gills ferruginous, 
shining, adnate, or sinuate, 45 mm. broad, thin, crowded, edge often 
uneven. Flesh yellow, tawny under the cuticle of the p., and ferruginous 
in the base of the st., thin at the margin. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 
8 x 5/i, 2-3-guttulate. Taste mild. Subcaespitose. Stumps, base of 
trees, and deal boards. Sept. Dec. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1000. F. carnosa Massee. Carnosa, fleshy. 
P. 2-3-5 cm., dull tawny orange, very fleshy, soon expanded, broadly 

gibbous, edge remaining more or less incurved for some time, even, 
smooth. St. 5-7-5 cm., concolorous, subequal, fibrous. Gills rust 
coloured, powdered with the spores, slightly decurrent, thin, some- 
what crowded. Flesh yellowish, compact, 1 cm. or more thick at the 
disc, thin at the extreme edge. Spores brown, elliptical, 7 x 5/x. 
Tufted in small clusters. On wood. Sept. Rare. 

1001. F. azyma Fr. a 17105, unleavened. 
P. 2-3 cm., ferruginous, tan colour when dry, fleshy, convex, then 

plane, obtuse, smooth when in full vigour, becoming silky and rimosely 
squamulose when dry. St. 2-5-4 cm. x 4-6 mm., concolorous, or paler, 
firm, somewhat equal, often curved, or flexuose, slightly fibrillose, 
base white woolly. Cortina fugacious, sometimes forming a ring-like 



FLAMMULA 321 

zone on the st. Gills yellowish, then ferruginous, broadly adnate, con- 
nected behind, 4 mm. broad, subdistant, edge whitish. Flesh yellowish, 
ferruginous under the cuticle of the p., and in the st., thin at the margin. 
Spores ferruginous, navicular, 8-9 x 5/Lt, 1 multi-guttulate, "sub- 
verrucose. Cystidia on edge of gill ventricose-subulate, 36-45 x 8- 
9/i" Rick. Taste mild. Gregarious, or subcaespitose. On Tilia 
cordata, Pyrus Malus, and rotten wood. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

IV. P. scarcely pelliculose, flesh scissile, or torn above into scales, 
not viscid, at first somewhat hoary. Veil fibrillosely adpressed 
to the st., not furnished with an appendiculate cortina, almost 
none, or forming an annular zone on the st. Gills light yellow, 
or yellow, then tawny. Spores ochraceous, or tawny. Subcaespi- 
tose, always on conifers, or on the ground amongst conifer 
branches. 

1002. P. penetrans Fr. Fr. Icon. 1. 118, fig. 2. Penetrans, penetrating. 
P. 5-8 cm., yellowish tawny, or golden, becoming pale and yellowish, 

fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, often irregular, dry, smooth, hoary 
under a lens when young. St. 5 cm. x 6-10 mm., pallid, or yellowish 
becoming pale, firm, somewhat equal, base white villous and often 
rooting, sometimes fusiform when on the ground, silky, striate with 
tawny fibrils. Cortina white, flocculose, submembranaceous, very 
fugacious. Gills whitish, then pale yellow, spotted tawny when old, 
adnate, emarginate, 4-6 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh whitish ("pale 
sulphur yellow" Quel.), thick at the disc. Spores ochraceous, ellip- 
tical, "8-9 x 4 5/x" Sacc. Taste bitter. Gregarious. Coniferous 
stumps, and humus. Oct. Uncommon. 

1003. F. hybrida Fr. Hybrida, a mongrel. 
P. 4-5 cm., tawny cinnamon, then tawny orange, fleshy, hemi- 
spherical, with the margin involute, then expanded, obtuse, regular, 
well formed, smooth, moist. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 5-10 mm., becoming 
tawny, equal, or attenuated upwards, somewhat striate, apex often 
somewhat mealy, base white villous. Cortina white, at length coloured 
with the ferruginous spores, manifest, forming a ring at the apex of the 
st. Gills light yellow, then tawny, adnate, somewhat crowded. Flesh 
pallid, or yellow, moderately compact. Spores ferruginous, oblong- 
elliptical, 9 x 4 fj,, "roughish. Cystidia on edge of gill filamentous, 
subcapitate, 45-50 x 4-6 /A" Rick. Taste bitter. Growing in troops. 
On fir stumps, and fallen branches. Aug. Dec. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1004. F. sapinea Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 118, fig. 3. 

Sapinea, pertaining to a fir tree. 

P. 2-5-10 cm., golden tawny, opaque at the disc, paler and shining 
towards the margin, fleshy, hemispherical, then convexo-plane, very 

E. B. B. 21 



322 FLAMMULA 

obtuse, dry, covered with thin, squamulose, adpressed fioccules, often 
rimosely scaly, with a few remnants of the yellowish cortina at the 
margin. St. 4-6 cm. x 4-12 mm., becoming yellow pallid, turning 
fuscous when bruised, irregularly shaped, often compressed, very 
fleshy, fibrous, sulcate, or lacunose, naked, often rooting at the base. 
Gills golden, at length tawny-cinnamon, adnate, plane, 8 mm. broad, 
crowded. Flesh becoming yellow, thick, firm, but at length soft, not 
scissile. Spores deep ochraceous, elliptical, 7-8 x 4-5 /*, "roughish. 
Cystidia ventricose-fusiform, 36 x 9/u" Rick. Smell strong, taste 
often bitter. Subcaespitose. Coniferous stumps, branches, and saw- 
dust. Aug. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

var. terrestris Fr. Terrestris, pertaining to the earth. 

Differs from the type in the long, fusiform st. Growing on coniferous 
humus. 

1005. F. liquiritiae (Pers.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 119, fig. 1. 

Liquiritia, liquorice. 

P. 2-5-7-5 cm., bay brown, or orange tawny, becoming pale, fleshy, 
convex, then flattened, subumbonate, very smooth, moist; margin at 
length flaccid, slightly striate. St. 4-5 cm. x 4-6 mm.* tawny, then 
ferruginous, attenuated upwards, often unequal, curved, striate, some- 
what naked, or obsoletely pruinose at the apex, base thickened and 
villose. Cortina none. Gills golden, then tawny, obtusely adnate, 
sometimes rounded, separating, 6 mm. broad, plane, crowded. Flesh 
yellow, yellow tawny in the st., thin, scissile. Spores ochraceous, "sub- 
elliptical, 8-9 x 5-6/Lt. Cystidia on edge of gill subcylindrical, slightly 
ventricose-capitate, 30-40 x 6-9 /u," Rick. Taste slightly bitter, then 
sweet like liquorice. Subcaespitose. Fir stumps, rarely pine. Oct. 
Uncommon. 

1006. F. picrea Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 119, fig. 2. Triicpos, bitter. 
P. 2-3 cm., rufous, or bay brown cinnamon, becoming pale and tawny, 

fleshy, campanulate, then convex, obtuse, regular, smooth, rarely 
rimuloso-papillate, moist in rainy weather. St. 57-5 cm. x 2-4 mm., 
umber, slightly attenuated upwards, tense and straight, white-pul- 
verulent when young. Cortina none. Gills yellow, then ferruginous, 
adnate, or decurrent and separating, ascending, narrow, 1-2 mm. 
broad. Flesh concolorous, very thin, not easily scissile. Spores ferru- 
ginous, "elliptical, 8-10 x 5-6/x" Schroet. Taste acid. Caespitose. 
Pine stumps, and old deal boards. Sept. Dec. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

V. Furnished with a cortina. Cuticle of the p. slightly 
silky, dry, or at the first viscid. 

1007. F. tricholoma (A. & S.) Fr. (= Paxillus tricholoma (A. & S.) 
Quel.) Cke. Illus. no. 444, t. 404, fig. B, as Inocybe tricholoma 
A. & S. Qpi%, hair; Xo/xa, fringe. 



FLAMMULA 323 

P. 1-4 cm., whitish, fleshy, orbicular, rather plane, depressed in the 
centre, fibrillose with white, adpressed, fugacious hairs, viscid when 
moist, shining when dry; margin fringed with strigose hairs. St. 2-5- 
7-5 cm. x 4-5 mm., whitish, slightly attenuated upwards, fibrillosely 
scaly at the apex, often becoming reddish in places. Gills whitish, be- 
coming pallid fuscous, then clay fuscous, decurrent, 1-2 mm. broad, 
thin, crowded. Flesh white, thin at the margin. Spores pale ochraceous, 
globose, 3-5/A, minutely verrucose. Cystidia none. Woods. Sept. 
Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1008. F. strigiceps Fr. (= Paxillus tricholoma (A. & S.) Quel.) 

Strix, a furrow; caput, head. 

P. 1-2 cm., obsoletely rufescent, slightly fleshy, convex, obtuse, then 
plane, dry, silky with long, strigose hairs; margin at first involute, 
fringed with long, defiexed ciliate hairs. St. 3-5 cm. x 4 mm., white, 
equal, firm, densely villose, especially when young. Gills whitish, 
becoming fuscous, adnato-decurrent, arcuate, crowded. Beech woods. 
Eare. 

1009. F. helomorpha Fr. (= Paxillus helomorphus (Fr.) Quel.) Fr. 
Icon. t. 120, fig. 4. ^Xo<?, a nail; fj,op<j>ij, form. 

P. 13 cm., white, fleshy, convexo-plane, gibbous, or with a broad, 
obtuse, prominent umbo, often angular, viscid, becoming adpressedly 
fibrilloso-even when dry; margin thin, unequal, inflexed, naked. St. 
2-3 cm. x 4-6 mm., whitish, equal, or not perceptibly attenuated 
from the base, sometimes enlarged upwards, ascending from the 
incurved base, adpressedly silky, or pruinose upwards under a lens, 
smooth. Gills whitish, scarcely clay colour, plano-decurrent, 1-2 mm. 
broad, very crowded. Flesh whitish, thick at the disc. Spores pale 
ochraceous, globose, 4-5/Lt, minutely verrucose. Fir woods. Oct. 
Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1010. F. scamba Fr. (= Paxillus scambus (Fr.) Quel.) Fr. Icon. 1. 120, 
fig. 3. o-tfa/a/309, crooked. 

P. 1-4 cm., whitish, then clay white, fleshy, convex, then plane and 
depressed, sometimes umbonate, slightly silky, viscid in wet weather 
when young, soon becoming dry and opaque. St. 1-3 cm. x 2-3 mm., 
whitish, equal, curved ascending, fiocculose, or sprinkled with white 
mealy squamules, base pubescent, sometimes attenuated and becoming 
ferruginous downwards. Gills light yellow clay colour, adnate, or sub- 
decurrent, somewhat repand, crowded. Flesh yellowish, thin. Spores 
pale ferruginous, elliptical, 9 x 5/A. Pine woods, and on larch 
branches. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1011. F. ochrochlora Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 120, fig. 2. 

e3^po<?, pale; x\<op6<;, green. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., straw colour, becoming greenish, fleshy, convex, then 
I 21-2 



324 FLAMMULA. GOMPHIDIUS 

plane, obtusely umbonate, dry, silky, squamulose. St. 5-6 cm. x 4- 
10 mm., yellowish, becoming ferruginous towards the base, attenuated 
upwards, often curved, or flexuose, squamulose and white fioccose. 
Cortina white, manifest, Hypholoma-like. Gills whitish, then becoming 
greenish, and at length olivaceous, adnate, or somewhat sinuate, 2- 

4 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh whitish, becoming greenish, and ferru- 
ginous at the base of the st. Spores pale ferruginous, elliptical, 6-7 x 4/u,, 
1-2-guttulate. Caespitose. On old trunks, and buried wood. Aug. 
Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

1012. F. filicea Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 491, t. 450. Filix, a fern. 
P. 2-4 cm., deep yellow, disc tawny orange, fleshy, convex, then 

plane, or slightly depressed, minutely squamuloso-fibrillose. St. 3- 

5 cm. x 3 mm., sulphur yellow, base often tawny, equal, almost smooth. 
Veil reddish, adhering to the st. and the margin of the p. in fugacious 
fragments. Gills sulphur yellow, then tawny cinnamon, adnate, 3 mm. 
broad, crowded. Flesh sulphur yellow, thin. Old tree fern stems. 
Spring and summer. Rare. 

F . chrysophylla (Fr.) Quel. = Omphalia chrysophylla Fr. 

Spores greenish fuscous, or blackish; gills mucilaginous. 

Gomphidius Fr. 
(<y6fj,<f)os, a large wedge-shaped nail.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular, viscid. Stem central, fleshy. Gills decurrent, 
mucilaginous. Spores fuscous, olivaceous, or blackish, fusiform, or 
oblong, smooth, continuous. Cystidia cylindrical, projecting. Grow- 
ing on the ground. 

1013. G. glutinosus (Schaeff.) Fr. Holland, Champ, t. 74, no. 165. 

Glutinosus, glutinous. 

P. 5-12-5 cm., purple fuscous, or fuscous, often mottled with black 
spots, fleshy, convex, obtuse, at length plane, smooth, very glutinous. 
St. 5-10 x 1-2 cm., whitish, yellow at the base, equal, thickened, or 
attenuated at the base, glutinous, fibrillose, sometimes with black 
scales. Cortina annular, fugacious. Gills whitish, then cinereous, 
deeply decurrent, forked, distant, mucilaginous, 6-8 mm. broad. 
Flesh white, yellow towards the base of the stem, thick. Spores deep 
olivaceous, spindle-shaped, 18-24 x 5-6/z, 4-5-guttulate. Cystidia 
"cylindrical, 130-160 x 12-16/Li" Rick. Taste bitter. Coniferous 
woods. July Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

1014. G. roseus (Fr.) Quel. Cke. Illus. no. 857, t. 880. 

Roseus, rose-coloured. 

P. 2-5 cm., rose, or rose-red colour, convexo-plane, obconical, obtuse, 
at length sometimes depressed, slightly glutinous. St. 3-5 x 1- 






GOMPHIDIUS 325 

1-5 cm., white, often tinged with rose at the base, attenuated downwards. 
Cortina thin, slightly glutinous. Gills whitish cinereous, then olivaceous, 
decurrent, 4-5 mm. broad, distant, forked. Flesh white, rosy under 
the cuticle and at the base of the st. Spores pale greyish olivaceous, 
fusiform, 15-17 x 4-5 /i, 1-3-guttulate. Cystidia "cylindrical, 90- 
160 x 12-15 fj." Kick. Taste pleasant. Coniferous woods, and under 
conifers. Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1015. G. viscidus (Linn.) Fr. Cke. Elus. no. 858, t. 881. 

Viscidus, viscid. 

P. 5-15 cm., fuscous rufous, fleshy, campanulate, or obconical, then 
expanded, umbonate, slightly viscid, paler and shining when dry. 
St. 7-12 x 2-3 cm., concolorous, paler, yellowish at the base, equal, or 
attenuated downwards, fibrillosely scaly, slightly viscid. Cortina 
floccose, forming a fugacious ring. Gills olivaceous, then fuscous 
purple, deeply decurrent, distant, often branched, edge often paler. 
Flesh reddish, deep yellow in the lower two-thirds of the st. Spores 
brownish olivaceous, subfusiform, 18-22 x 6-7 /x, 3-guttulate. Cys- 
tidia obtusely cylindrical, apex often subcapitate, 135150 x 15 17/u,. 
Taste mild, often slightly astringent. Edible, indigestible to some 
people. Coniferous woods, and under conifers. July Dec. Common. 
(v.v.) 
var. testaceus Fr. Testaceus, brick-red. 

Differs from the type in the brick-red colour of the flatter p., and base 
of st. both externally and internally. Coniferous woods, and under 
conifers. July Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

1016. G. maculatus (Scop.) Fr. (= Gomphidius gracilis B. & Br. sec. 
Quel.) Maculatus, spotted. 

P. 36 cm., reddish brown, disc paler, often spotted with black, and 
becoming black at the edge, campanulate, or obconic, then plane, 
glutinous. St. 6-8 x 1-1-5 cm., white, yellow at the base, becoming 
blackish when touched, ventricose downwards, expanding into the p. 
at the apex, floccose, slightly viscid. Gills white cinereous, then 
olivaceous, deeply decurrent, often forked, somewhat crowded. Flesh 
whitish, stained bistre in the p. and yellow towards the base of the st., 
thick at the disc, thin at the margin. Spores olivaceous, fusiform, 
somewhat blunt at the end, 17-20 x 6/z, 1-3-guttulate. Cystidia 
obtusely cylindrical, or fusiform, 120 -140 x 18-20/A. Coniferous 
woods, and under conifers. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 
var. Cookei Massee. Cke. Illus. no. 859, t. 882, as Gomphidius macu- 
latus Scop. var. M. C. Cooke, the eminent mycologist, 

P. 2-5-5 cm., whitish, with black stains especially near the margin, 
convex, then subdepressed, or gibbous, viscid. St. 6-8 x 1 cm., pale 
above, becoming blackish towards the base, attenuated upwards. Gills 



326 GOMPHIDIUS. COLLYBIA 

whitish, then brownish, decurrent, distant. Flesh pallid, blackish at the 
base of the St., thick at the disc, very thin at the margin. Spores 
brownish, fusiform, 20 x 5-6jU, 1-guttulate. Woods. Sept. Rare. 

1017. G. gracilis B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 860, t. 883. 

Gracilis, slender. 

P. 2*5 5 cm., pale vinous brown, or dingy tan colour, conico-hemi- 
spherical, clothed with dingy gluten, at length spotted with black, 
especially near the margin, the spots often forming an irregular black 
border. St. 4-5 cm. x 3-6 mm., pale above, yellow at the base, and 
often becoming blackish, slightly attenuated downwards, flexuose, apex 
white squamulose, virgate below with the remains of the gluten. Gills 
whitish cinereous, decurrent, arched, forked, thick, obtuse, clothed 
(under a lens] with short, washy bistre hairs. Flesh white, yellow, or 
reddish at the base of the st., thin at the margin. Spores dingy olive, 
or brown, fusiform, 18-19 x 5 7/z, 2-3-guttulate. Fir woods, and 
heaths. July Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

C. Pileus confluent with, but heterogeneous from, 

the cartilaginous stem. 
*Gills adnate, or sinuato-adnate. 

|Margin of pileus at first incurved, or exceeding the gills. 
Spores white. 
Collybia Fr. 

(Ko\\v/3o<;, a small coin.) 

Pileus fleshy, membranaceous, regular; margin incurved. Stem 
central, cartilaginous. Gills adnate, adnexed, or free. Spores white, 
rarely yellowish, greenish, or brownish red; elliptical, globose, oblong, 
pip-shaped; smooth, verrucose, punctate, or echinulate; continuous. 
Cystidia present, or absent. Growing on the ground, or on wood; 
solitary, or caespitose. 

a. St. stout, sulcate, or fibrillosely striate. 

A. Gills white, or brightly coloured, not cinereous. Flesh often white. 
*Gills broad, subdistant. 

1018. C. radicata (Relh.) Berk. Holland, Champ, t. 45, no. 98. 

Radicata, rooted. 

P. 3-10 cm., fuscous-olivaceous, bistre, or whitish, fleshy, thin, con- 
vex, then flattened, gibbous, often irregular, glutinous, radiato-rugose. 
St. 10-20 x -5 cm., white, or paler than the p., attenuated upwards, 
and downwards from the level of the soil, and forming a long tail-like 
fusiform root, smooth, at length striato-sulcate, cuticle cartilaginous, 



COLLYBIA 327 

often twisted. Grills shining white, sometimes bistre at the edge, attenu- 
ated behind, and adfixed, often with a decurrent tooth, at length 
somewhat separating, ventricose, distant, rather thick. Flesh white, 
thin, soft, elastic. Spores white, broadly elliptical, 14-15 x 8-9/x,, 
1-guttulate; "cystidia inflated, cylindric-sack-shaped, 20/x, broad" 
Lange. Woods, and pastures. June Nov. Common. 

1019. C. retigera Bres. (= Collybia pkxipes (Fr.) Quel.) Bres. Fung. 
Trid. t. 4. Rete, a net; gero, I bear. 

P. 3-6 cm., fuscous cinereous, becoming pale, disc somewhat tawny, 
fleshy, thin, campanulate, then expanded, umbonate, reticulated with 
swollen, pale, anastomosing veins, especially when old, dry, smooth; 
margin striate. St. 4-6 cm. x 5-7 mm., livid-pallid, equal, somewhat 
rooting, often compressed, white-fibrillose. Gills cinereous, edge paler, 
fimbriate, rounded behind, almost free, broad, ventricose, somewhat 
crowded. Flesh concolorous, thin, soft, somewhat watery. Spores 
white, elliptical, 7 x 5-6ja. Beech stumps. Dec. Uncommon. 

1020. C. Henriettae W. G. Sm. Henrietta Smith. 
P. 10 cm., somewhat yellowish umber, convex, then expanded, dry, 

even, somewhat downy. St. 18-19 cm. x 6-7 mm., pale pallid yellowish 
brown, darker below, attenuated upwards, even, slightly rooting, sub- 
pruinose. Gills broadly adnate, slightly rounded behind, broad, 
distant. Flesh very thin, pale pallid yellowish brown in the st. Spores 
white, 18 x 12/x. On and about trees, stumps, etc. Sept. Un- 
common. 

1021. C. longipes (Bull.) Berk. (= Marasmius longipes (BuU.) Quel.) 

Longus, long; pes, foot. 

P. 5-10 cm., pale brown, fleshy, thin, conico-expanded, then plane, 
umbonate, dry, somewhat velvety-villous. St. 8-12 cm. x 6-8 mm., 
dark brown, attenuated upwards, with a long fusiform root, velvety, 
at length sulcate. Gills milk white, free, rounded behind, very distant, 
ventricose. Flesh white, yellowish in the stem, firm. Spores white, 
globose, 12-15//,. Cystidia "very sparse, cylindrical-subulate, 50- 
60 x 8-lOju," Rick. Taste nutty. Edible. Heaths, and pastures. 
Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 
var. badia Lucand. Badia, bay brown. 

Differs from the type in being thinner and smaller, and in the deep 
chestnut brown p. and st. covered with long, bay brown, shining hairs. 
Spores globose, 10-11/i. Hedgerows. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

1022. C. eriocephala Rea. epiov, wool; Ke<f)a\rj, head. 
P. 3-6 cm., fulvous tawny, convex, then expanded, velvety; margin 

involute. St. 4-7 x -5-1-5 cm., concolorous, paler above, fusiform, 
extending into the long, branched, rhizomorphoid, brown mycelium, 



328 COLLYBIA 

striate, only slightly velvety at the thickest part. Gills deep ochre, 
sinuato-adnate, 5-8 mm. broad, distant. Flesh pale, then yellowish, 
somewhat rufous at the base of the st., thick at the disc, firm. Spores 
white, oblong, 7-8 x 3-4/n, 1-2-guttulate. Caespitose. Interior of a 
rotten elm stump, and in timber yards. Sept. Jan. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1023. C. platyphylla (Pers.) Fr. (= Collybia grammocephala (Bull.) 
Quel.; Collybia platyphylla var. repens Fr.) Holland, Champ, 
t. 47, no. 101, as Collybia grammocephala. 

7rA.aTU9, broad; $v\\ov, leaf. 

P. 5-20 cm., fuscous, or cinereous, becoming whitish, fleshy mem- 
branaceous, thin, fragile, convex, soon flattened, obtuse, watery when 
moist, streaked with bistre fibrils. St. 7-12 x 1-2 cm., whitish, equal, 
fibrillosely striate, apex sometimes pruinose, arising from a network of 
white, creeping, string-like mycelium. Gills white, obliquely truncate 
behind, slightly adnexed, very broad, 10-15 mm., distant, soft. Flesh 
white, thin at the margin. Spores white, broadly elliptical, 8-10 x 6- 
8fji, 1-guttulate; "cystidia sack-shaped-club-shaped, 14/A broad" 
Lange. Woods. May Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

1024. C. fumosa (Pers.) Quel. (= Collybia semitalis Fr. sec. Quel. : 
Tricholoma immundum Berk. sec. Bres.) Bres. Fung. Trid. 
t. 156. Fumosa, smoky. 

P. 3-9 cm., pitch black, lurid grey, or smoky greyish, becoming paler 
and spotted fuscous, fleshy, convexo-campanulate, then expanded and 
depressed, silky, then smooth; margin undulate, finally splitting. St. 
4-8 x -5-1-5 cm., concolorous, or paler, subequal, subcartilaginous, 
somewhat fibrillosely striate, base sometimes bulbous. Gills greyish- 
cinereous, rounded behind, or truncate and free, veined at the sides, 
spotted with black when touched. Flesh cinereous, becoming whitish, 
thick at the disc. Spores white, globose, 6-7 /z, 1-guttulate. Smell 
rancid, taste bitterish. Caespitose. Woods, and pastures. Sept. 
Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1025. C. crassifolia (Berk.) Bres. (= Tricholoma crassifolium Berk.) 
Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 157. Crassus, thick; folium, leaf. 

P. 4-7 cm., lurid ochraceous, disc fuscous, becoming concolorous, 
fleshy, convex, or campanulate and umbonate, then expanded and 
depressed silky, becoming smooth; margin undulate, or lobed. St. 
2-5-5 x -5-1-5 cm., white, becoming fuscous, often attenuated at the 
base, pruinose, becoming smooth, round, or compressed, subcarti- 
laginous. Gills whitish-grey, becoming bluish and finally blackish when 
touched, rounded behind, adnexed, sometimes forked, distant, broad, 
thick, fleshy. Flesh white, spotted black when broken, thick at the disc. 
Spores white, globose, 5-7 /x, 1-guttulate. Smell strong, rancid, taste 
mild. Coniferous woods. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



COLLYBIA 329 

1026. C. semitalis Fr. (= CollyUa fumosa (Pers.) Quel.) Bres. Fung. 
Trid. t. 158. Semitalis, pertaining to footpaths. 

P. 37 cm., whitish fuliginous, or fuscous, becoming pale cinereous 
yellow, or isabelline when dry, fleshy-membranaceous, convex, or con- 
vexo-campanulate, then expanded and umbonate, or depressed, 
smooth, moist, sometimes innately fibrillose; margin striate. St. 
3-8 cm. x 6-8 mm., white, becoming fuscous, subequal, fibrillose, base 
white-strigose. Gills white, becoming yellowish, and finally spotted black 
when touched, adnate, or sinuato-adnate, somewhat crowded. Flesh 
white, becoming black when broken, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 
7-8 x 3-4/z, pointed at one end, 1-guttulate. Smell rancid, taste 
bitterish. Coniferous woods. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1027. C. fusipes (Bull.) Berk. Cke. Illus. no. 185, t. 141. 

Fusus, a spindle ; pes, foot. 

P. 4-10 cm., rufescent reddish brown, or liver colour, becoming pale, 
or dingy tan, fleshy, convex, then flattened, umbonate, the umbo 
evanescent, smooth, dry, often splitting. St. 7-15 x 1 cm., concolorous, 
very cartilaginous, swollen, ventricose in the middle, attenuated at both 
ends, often twisted, longitudinally striato-sulcate, fusiformly attenuated 
at the base and blackish, often arising from the remains of under- 
ground stems of a previous year's growth, the so-called sclerotium 
of Leveille. Gills whitish, becoming concolorous and often spotted, 
annulato-adnexed, soon separating, free, broad, distant, firm, con- 
nected by veins, crisped. Flesh concolorous, becoming whitish, firm. 
Spores white, elliptical, 5-6 x 3-4/M. Cystidia filiform, flexuose, 
clavate, 10-44 x 1-2/z. Taste mild. Edible. Caespitose, at the base 
of oaks and on old stumps. May Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

var. oedematopus (Schaeff.) Fr. Bulliard, t. 76, as Agaricusfusiformis. 

oiBrjfj,a, a swelling; TTOVS, foot. 

Differs from the type in the rufous date brown, conical, then plane, 
pulverulent p., the pulverulent, very ventricose stem, and the pallid gills. 
Stumps. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. contorta (Bull.) Gill. & Lucand. Bulliard, t. 36. 

Contorta, twisted together. 

Differs from the type in the equal, contorted stems, connate at the 
base, the white, crowded gills, and the deeper coloured, thinner p. Stumps. 

1028. C. lancipes Fr. Lancea, a spear; pes, foot. 
P. 4-7 cm., pale reddish brown, or flesh colour, becoming paler, often 

white at the striate margin, fleshy, convex, then plane, often umbonate, 
radiately rugose, smooth. St. 4-10 cm. x 5-12 mm., concolorous, or 
paler, equal, attenuated at the base, striate, tivisted. Gills pale flesh 



330 COLLYBIA 

colour, or yellowish, emarginate, adnexed, becoming free, broad, thick, 
distant, often connected by veins. Flesh whitish, reddish under tJie 
cuticle. Spores white, pip-shaped, 6 x 4ju,, 1-2-guttulate. Taste mild. 
Edible. On the ground, and near stumps. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

**Gills narrow, crowded. 

1029. C. maculate (A. & S.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 186, t. 142. 

Maculata, spotted. 

P. 7-12 cm., white, then spotted rufescent, rarely becoming wholly 
rufescent, fleshy, very compact, convexo-plane, obtuse, repand, 
smooth; margin thin, involute at first. St. 7-12 x 1-2 cm., white, 
spotted rufescent, somewhat ventricose, attenuated downwards to the 
praemorse base, hard, externally cartilaginous, striate. Gills cream 
colour, often spotted rufescent, emarginato-free, linear, 2-4 mm. broad,. 
very crowded, denticulate. Flesh white, thick, firm. Spores white, sub- 
globose, 5-6/z, punctate. Cystidia none. Smell pleasant, or none. 
Taste unpleasant, bitter. Beech, and pine woods. May Nov. 
Common, (v.v.) 

var. immaculate Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 187, t. 221. 

Immaculata, unspotted. 

Differs from the type in not being spotted, and in the broader gills. 
Pine woods. Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 
var. scorzonerea (Batsch) Fr. Scorzon, a serpent. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size, and in becoming yellowish, 
in the long, rooting often flexuose St., and the yellowish gills. Beech 
woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1030. C. fodiens Kalchbr. Kalchbr. Icon. t. 36, fig. 2. 

Fodiens, digging, 

P. 5-8, flesh colour, becoming yellowish, disc darker yellow, fleshy, 
firm, convex, obtuse, smooth; margin involute. St. 10-12 cm. x 10- 
12 mm., white, firm, subventricose, often longitudinally ribbed, smooth, 
attenuated downwards in a long root deeply sunk in the ground. Gills 
yellowish white, emarginate, rounded behind, narrow, crowded. Flesh 
yellowish, thick at the disc, firm. Spores white, elliptical, 6-8 x 4-5 /z, 
1-guttulate. Smell and taste pleasant. Grassy places. Oct. Uncom- 
mon, (v.v.) 

1031. C. prolixa (Fl. Dan.) Fr. Prolixa, stretched out. 
P. 5-12 cm., brick-red ferruginous, becoming paler, fleshy, fragile, 

convex, then plane, gibbous, lax, smooth, margin often irregular. 
St. 10 x 1-3 cm., brick-red, firm, subequal, sulcate, often scrobiculate, 
minutely pubescent, fibrillose, base praemorse. Gills white, free, 






COLLYBIA 331 

crowded. Flesh, white, rather thick. Spores white, "subglobose, 3-4 /JL, 
smooth" Rick. In dense clusters on leaf heaps. Aug. Sept. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 

1032. C. distorta Fr. Distorta, twisted. 
P. 5-9 cm., bay brown, becoming pale, fleshy, thin, convex, then 

expanded, umbonate, very lax, smooth. St. 5-8 x 1 cm., pallid, 
fragile, externally cartilaginous, attenuated upwards from the tomen- 
tose base, contorted, sulcate. Gills white, then spotted rubiginous, 
slightly adnexed, crowded, somewhat linear, toothed. Flesh white, 
reddish under the cuticle of the p. and in the centre of the stem, thin. 
Spores white, broadly elliptical, 5-6 x 4-5/*, 3-4-guttulate. Gre- 
garious, or growing in rings. Pine woods. July Nov. Not un- 
common, (v.v.) 

1033. C. butyracea (Bull.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 189, t. 143. 

Butyracea, buttery. 

P. 5-8 cm., rufous brown, fuscous livid, bistre, or bay, becoming pale 
and almost white when dry, fleshy, convex, then expanded, more or 
less umbonate, smooth, greasy. St. 5-8 x -5-1 cm., rufous, or bistre, 
conico-attenuated upwards from the swollen, white-tomentose base, 
cuticle rigid, cartilaginous, striate, smooth, rarely villous. Gills white, 
slightly adnexed, somewhat free, broad, thin, crowded, crenulate. 
Flesh pinkish, or pale brown, becoming whitish, soft, watery, with a 
horn-like line at the base of the gills. Spores white, elliptical, 9x4- 
5/z, 1-guttulate. Cystidia none. Woods, heaths, and hilly pastures. 
Jan. Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

var. bibulosa Massee. Bibulosa, sodden. 

Differs from the type in the dingy olive p. 
var. aurorea (Larb.) Fr. Aurorea, like the dawn. 

Differs from the type in the thinner p., and striate margin. 
C. phaeopodia (Bull.) Fr. = Tricholoma phaeopodium (Bull.) Quel. 

1034. C. stridula Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 62, lower figs. Stridula, creaking. 
P. 3-6 cm., blackish, or fuliginous, becoming pale, fleshy, soft, con- 
vex, then plane, slightly umbonate, smooth, moist, or slightly viscid, 
hygrophanous. St. 5-7 cm. x 4-6 mm., concolorous, cylindrical, rigid, 
but fragile, subcartilaginous, fibrillosely striate, base thickened, prae- 
morse. Gills white, arcuato-adnexed, crowded, broad. Flesh brown, 
then whitish, soft. Spores white, "8-10 x 4/z" Sacc. On the ground. 
Oct. Rare. 

1035. C. pulla (Schaeff.) Fr. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. n, t. 1. 

Pulla, dusky. 
P. 3-6 cm., purplish bay, nearly black, becoming paler when dry, 



332 COLLYBIA 

fleshy, thin, fragile, campanulate, then expanded, obtuse, smooth, 
hygrophanous. St. 6-8 cm. x 4-8 mm., whitish, equal, twisted, some- 
what striate, apex mealy, attenuated at the praemorse base. Gills 
whitish, adnexed, rather broad, transversely pellucid- striate and veined, 
crowded. Flesh white, thick at the disc. Spores white, elliptical, 
10 x 6-7 /A. Smell none, or strong of garlic. Caespitose, or solitary. 
Birch stumps. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1036. C. xylophila (Weinm.) Fr. (= Mycena rugosa Fr. sec. Quel.) 
Fr. Icon. t. 63, lower figs. v\ov, wood; <tXo<?, loving. 

P. 6-10 cm., whitish, or becoming fuscous tan at the disc, slightly 
fleshy, campanulate, lax, obtuse, or with a minute umbo, then ex- 
panded, broadly gibbous, smooth, moist ; margin often rimosely split. 
St. 4-8 cm. x 5-8 mm., whitish, equal, often flexuose, fibrillosely 
striate. Gills white, adnate, often decurrent with a small tooth, very 
narrow, 2 mm. broad, very crowded. Flesh becoming watery fuscous, 
thin, fragile. Spores white, "elliptical, 4 x 2-5/x" Massee. Caespitose. 
Old stumps. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

ft. St. thin, velvety, floccose, or pruinose. 
*Gills broad, subdistant. 

1037. C. velutipes (Curt.) Fr. (= Pleurotus velutipes (Curt.) Quel.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 191, t. 184, fig. A. Vellus, a fleece; pes, foot. 

P. 2-10 cm.., fulvous, or tawny, sometimes paler at the margin, fleshy, 
convex, soon becoming plane, often excentric, irregular and repand, 
smooth, viscid; margin spreading, at length slightly striate. St. 5- 
10 cm. x 4-8 mm., lemon yellow, then umber and blackish, equal, often 
ascending, or twisted, tough, cartilaginous, densely velvety. Gills 
pallid yellow, becoming tawny, broader and rounded behind, slightly 
adnexed, subdistant, very unequal. Flesh yellowish, thin at the margin, 
watery, soft. Spores white, elliptical, 7-8 x 5/x,, 1-2-guttulate. 
"Cystidia conic, rather acute, almost subulate, 8-12;u, broad, pro- 
truding part 18-30 /u- long" Lange. Taste and smell very pleasant. 
Edible. Caespitose. On old stumps, fallen trunks, and pales. Aug. 
April. Common, (v.v.) 

var. lactea Quel. Lactea, milk-white. 

Differs from the type in being creamy white. Stumps. Oct. (v.v.) 

var. rubescens Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 1141, t. 650. 

Rubescens, becoming reddish. 

Differs from the type in the bright ferruginous brown p., the darker 
blackish cinnamon St., and the gills becoming spotted with brown. 
Amongst fir leaves. 



COLLYBIA 333 

1038. C. laxipes (Batt.) Fr. (= Marasmius laxipes (Batt.) Quel.) 
Quel. Jur. et Vosg. n, t. 2, fig. 2. Laxus, loose; pes, foot. 

P. 1-3 cm., whitish, often yellowish at the disc, slightly fleshy, con- 
vexo-plane, obtuse, smooth, moist, sometimes striate. St. 6-12 cm. 
x 2-4 mm., rufous, lax, stiff, velvety, apex white pruinose, channelled, 
and twisted when dry. Gills milk white, separating free, broad, ventri- 
cose, distant. Flesh white, rufous in the st., thin. Spores white, ellip- 
tical, 5-6 x 3/i, 1-guttulate. Amongst pine chips, twigs, and on 
wood. Feb. Sept. Not common, (v.v.) 

1039. C. mimica W. G. Sm. Cke. IUus.no. 192, 1. 129. Mimica, mimic. 
P. 2-4 cm., pale yellow-buff, disc brownish buff, slightly fleshy, 

plane, smooth, with a thin separable cuticle. St. 5 cm. x 3-4 mm., 
deep brown, apex yellow buff and smooth, or slightly pruinose, base 
fibrillose, fibrillosely striate in the middle. Gills dingy ochraceous, 
very broad, subdistant. Flesh rufous, very thin. Spores white, ellip- 
tical, 8 x 4-5/u,. Smell and taste strong, like fish. Amongst deal 
shavings. Nov. Uncommon. 

1040. C. floccipes Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 1142, t. 1168. 

Floccus, a flock of wool; pes, foot. 

P. 1-2 cm., fuliginous black, becoming livid, rather fleshy, campanu- 
late, then convex, umbonate, smooth. St. 3-5 cm. x 23 mm., pallid, 
equal, straight, rooting, rough with black, punctiform, fioccose scales. 
Gills white, adnexed, ventricose, thick, subdistant. Flesh white, greyish 
under the cuticle of the p., thin. Spores " white, subglobose, promi- 
nently apiculate, 56 x 4 5fj,. Cystidia abundant, narrowly lan- 
ceolate, 60-90 x 7-11/i, apex subobtuse " Kauffm. On the ground, 
and about trunks, in beech woods. Sept. Rare. 
C. undata Berk. = Marasmius undatus (Berk.) Quel. 
C. vertirugis Cke. = Marasmius undatus (Berk.) Quel. 
C. stipitaria Fr. = Crinipellis stipitarius (Fr.) Pat. 

1041. C. leucomyosotis Cke. & Smith. Cke. Illus. no. 1144, t. 651. 

\evfc6s, white; Myosotis, the Forget-me-not. 
P. 2'5 3 cm., pale mouse-grey, disc darker, paler at the margin, the 
whole plant becoming pallid, almost white when dry, fleshy, convex, then 
expanded, sometimes obtusely umbonate; margin faintly striate. 
St. 10-13 cm. x 4-6 mm., pallid, equal, very brittle, apex slightly 
pruinose, base white, obtuse. Gills white, adnate, sinuate behind, 
thick, subdistant. Flesh dingy, rather thick. Spores white, elliptical, 
6-7 x 4/i, 1-guttulate. Cystidia flask-shaped, apex obtuse, 3-3'5^t 
in. diam., 25-30 x 7/i. Smell strong, rather fragrant. On Sphagnum 
in bogs. May Sept. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

** Gills very narrow, crowded. 
C. hariolorum (DC.) Fr. = Marasmius hariolorum (DC.) Quel. 



334 COLLYBIA 

C. confiuens (Pers.) Fr. = Marasmius hariolorum (DC.) Quel. 
C. ingrata (Schum.) Fr. = Marasmius ingratus (Schum.) Quel. 
C. esculenta (Wulf.) Fr. = Marasmius esculentus (Wulf.) Karst. 
C. conigena (Pers.) Bres. = Marasmius conigenus (Pers.) Karst. 

1042. C. cirrhata (Schum.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 68, fig. 1. Cirrata, curled. 
P. -5-1 cm., white, disc rufescent, or ochraceous, slightly fleshy, 

conico-eonvex, then plane, umbilicato-depressed, and often with a 
small central protuberance, slightly silky, at length very delicately, and 
often concentrically rivulose. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 1 mm., pallid, filiform, 
flexuose, white-pulverulent, rooted with a fibrillose twisted tail. Gills 
white, adnate, at length occasionally separating, linear, very narrow, 
very unequal, crowded. Flesh whitish, very thin. Spores white, ellip- 
tical, 4-5 x 2-3/x. Amongst leaves and on bare ground. Aug. Nov. 
Common, (v.v.) 

1043. C. tuberosa (Bull.) Fr. Grev. Scot. Crypt. Fl. t. 23, as Agaricus 
tuberosus. Tuberosa, having a swelling. 

P. 4-12 mm., white, disc ochraceous, slightly fleshy, convex, then 
plane, umbonate, slightly silky, becoming smooth, opaque. St. 1-5- 
3 cm. x 1 mm., white, or rufescent, equal, commonly ascending, 
pruinose, arising from a purple brownish, or ochraceous, pear-shaped 
or roundish lobed sclerotium. Flesh whitish, or reddish becoming whitish, 
very thin. Spores white, elliptical, 4-6 x 2-5-3 /x, punctate. Cystidia 
"on edge of gill scattered, filamentous" Rick. On dead Agarics, 
chiefly Russula adusta, Russula nigricans, Lactarius vellereus, Poly- 
porus squamosus and Hydnei. Aug. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

1044. C. racemosa (Pers.) Fr. Sow. Eng. Fung. t. 287. 

Racemosa, clustered. 

P. 5-8 mm., grey, submembranaceous, convex, then plane, often 
imperfectly formed, papillate, tomentose, striate. St. 3-5 cm. x 1 mm., 
grey, springing from a swollen black sclerotium, racemose with simple, 
small, capitate hairs, which are globose at the apex, hyaline, glutinous, 
and are really oblong, 12-15/x long, guttulate, greenish conidia. 
Gills concolorous, adnate, very narrow, crowded. Spores "oval, in- 
curved, 5/x, minutely echinulate, greyish " Quel. On the ground, and 
rotten fungi. Sept. Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

7. St. thin, glabrous. 
*Gills broad, rather distant. 

1045. C. cofflna (Scop.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 198, t. 205. 

Collina, belonging to hills. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., pale fuscous, or pale tan, fleshy-membranaceous, cam- 
panulate, then expanded and often umbonate, smooth, subviscid, striate 
when moist, shining when dry. St. 7-10 cm. x 4-6 mm., pallid 



COLLYBIA 335 

whitish, or cream colour, subequal, or slightly attenuated upwards, 
somewhat fragile, smooth, apex mealy, base pubescent, praemorse. 
Gills whitish, adnexed, then free, broad, lax, often veined at the base, 
subdistant. Flesh white, thin. Spores white, "pruniform, 10/u,, 
1-guttulate" Quel. Smell like burnt meat. Edible. Beech stumps, 
and forming rings in pastures and on grassy slopes. May Oct. 
Uncommon. 

1046. C. thelephora Cke. & Massee. Cke. Illus. no. 1143, t. 1167. 

#77X7;, a nipple; <f>epa), I bear. 

P. 2-3 cm., pale dingy ochraceous, disc darker, slightly fleshy, cam- 
panulate, lax, with a small, acute, papillate umbo, then expanded and 
wavy, often depressed round the umbo, smooth, slightly striate; 
margin at first incurved. St. 6-10 cm. x 2-3 mm., purplish brown at 
the base, paler upwards, equal, smooth. Gills whitish, adnate, narrower 
in front, 3 mm. broad, thin, rather crowded. Flesh pinkish, thin. 
Spores white, elliptical, 9 x Ip. Gregarious. Peat bogs, and partly 
dried up Sphagnum swamps. Sept. Uncommon. 

1047. C. ventricosa (BuU.) Fr. Bulliard, t. 411, fig. 1. 

Ventricosa, ventricose. 

P. 1-4 cm., tan, or isabelline, slightly fleshy, campanulato-convex, 
umbonate, smooth; margin slightly striate. St. 6-10 cm. x 2-3 mm., 
concolorous, or rufescent, base ventricose and attenuated into a long, 
slender, tapering root, smooth. Gills rufescent, arcuato-adfixed, ventri- 
cose, subdistant, undulate. Flesh white, thin. Spores white. Soli- 
tary, or gregarious. Woods. Oct. Uncommon. 

1048. C. Stevensonii B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 199, t. 145, fig. B. 

Rev. John Stevenson, the eminent Scotch mycologist. 
P. 1-1-5 cm., pallid yellow, slightly fleshy, semi-ovate, obtuse, viscid, 
here and there spotted by the viscous matter. St. 3-5 cm. x 2 mm., 
slightly rufous, attenuated at the base into a somewhat long, thread-like 
root deeply immersed in the soil, fibrillose, pulverulent upwards. Gills 
white, adnate with a decurrent tooth, subventricose, very broad, dis- 
tant. Flesh white, reddish in the st., thin. Spores white, elliptical, 
10-11 x 7-8 ju-. Old pastures. Aug. Rare. 

1049. C. psathyroides Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 200, t. 266. 

Psathyra, the genus Psathrya', etSo?, like. 

Entirely ivory white. P. 2-5 cm. high, 18 mm. broad, slightly fleshy, 
campanulate, obtuse, rather viscid; margin regular, even. St. 7- 
10 cm. x 3-4 mm., equal, straight, rather tough. Gills adnate with 
a decurrent tooth, very broad, 6-8 mm., triangular, subdistant. Flesh 
whitish, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 15 x 7/z. On the ground in 
woods. Oct. Rare. 



336 COLLYBIA 

1050. C. xanthopus Fr. %av06<;, yellow; TTOV<;, foot. 
P. 2-5-5 cm., tan, becoming pale, slightly fleshy, campanulato-convex, 

then expanded, lax, umbonate, smooth, dry; margin at length spread- 
ing, slightly striate. St. 6-10 cm. x 4-6 mm., tawny yellow, equal, 
tough, smooth, strigosely rooting at the base. Gills whitish, truncate 
behind, adnexed, then free, very broad, crowded, lax. Flesh white, 
yellowish under the cuticle of the p., rufous in the St., thin. Spores white, 
elliptical, 5 x 3jti, 1-guttulate. Cystidia "flask-shaped, 45-50 x 10- 
15/x " Rick. On stumps, and amongst leaves, chiefly in pine woods. 
July Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1051. C. nitellina Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 65, figs. 1, 2. 

Nitellina, belonging to a dormouse. 

P. 1-5-4 cm., tawny, or brick tawny, becoming tan colour when dry, 
submembranaceous, convexo-plane, obtuse, often umbonate, elastic, 
flaccid, hygrophanous, smooth, polished, somewhat rugulose under a 
lens, pellucido-striate when moist. St. 2-5-7-5 cm. x 3-5 mm.., ferru- 
ginous tawny, becoming yellow when dry, equal, flexuose, cartilaginous, 
shining, polished, apex often pruinose, base white villous. Gills 
whitish, or citron yellow, then, flesh colour, adnate, very obtuse behind, 
broad, attenuated in front, somewhat crowded, often undulate. Flesh 
concolorous, thin. Spores "bright brownish red in the mass, yellowish 
under the microscope, elliptical, with a basal apiculus, 7-8 x 4-5/i, or 
sometimes 10 x 5//,, 1-many-guttulate, warted" Rene Maire. Smell 
strong, rancid, or "like melon" Quel. Taste mild. Edible. Forming 
rings on the ground in coniferous woods. May Oct. Uncommon. 

1052. C. succinea Fr. Cke. Ulus. no. 203, t. 151, upper figs. 

Succinea, of amber. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., rufous, or brown fuscous, becoming pale, fleshy, thin, 
convex, then flattened, obtuse, at length depressed and unequal, 
rimosely split when dry, smooth. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 2-5 mm., rufescent, 
apex paler, equal, attenuated at the base, tough, smooth, shining, 
sometimes arising from nodules of compact mycelium. Gills cream 
colour, adnate, obtuse behind, very broad, rather thick, not much 
crowded, delicately toothed. Flesh reddish, thin. Spores white, pip- 
shaped, 7-8 x 4/n, depressed on one side, multi-guttulate. Cystidia 
none. Solitary or gregarious in coniferous woods and under conifers. 
May Aug. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1053. C. nummularia (Lam.) Fr. Cke. IUus. no. 203, t. 151, lower figs. 

Nummularia, like a coin. 

P. 1^4 cm., whitish, or very pale ochre, becoming white, tinged yellow at 
the umbilicate disc, slightly fleshy, convex, then plane, orbicular, then 
depressed round the obsolete umbo, hygrophanous, smooth. St. 3-5 cm. 
x 3-4 mm., whitish, attenuated downwards to the bulbous, tomentose 



COLLYBIA 337 

base, curved, tough, smooth. Gills white, free, subdistant, narrow, 
minutely toothed. Flesh pallid, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 7x4- 
5/i. In troops, in mixed woods. July Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 
C. tenacella (Pers.) Fr. = Marasmius conigenus (Pers.) Karst. 
C. tenacella (Pers.) Fr. var. stolonifera (Jungh.) = Marasmius coni- 
genus (Pers.) Karst. 

1054. C. planipes (Brig.) Fr. Planus, flat; pes, foot. 
P. 2-3 cm., bay, slightly fleshy, convexo-plane, orbicular, somewhat 

viscid, smooth; margin paler, crenate. St. 3cm. x 2-3 mm., con- 
colorous, equal, compressed, rooting. Gills whitish, free, ventricose. 
Spores white. Caespitose. Woods. Sept. Rare. 

**Gills narrow, crowded. 

1055. C. acervata Fr. (= Collybia enjthropus (Pers.) Quel.) Fr. Icon. 
t. 64, lower figs. Acervata, heaped up. 

P. 3-7 cm., reddish flesh colour, whitish when dry, slightly fleshy, 
convex, then flattened, obtuse, or at length gibbous ; margin at first 
involute, at length flattened and slightly striate. St. 5-10 cm. x 2- 
5 mm., rufous, sometimes brown, rigid-fragile, slightly attenuated up- 
wards, rarely compressed, very smooth, base white-tomentose. Gills 
flesh colour, then whitish, adnexed, soon free, linear, narrow, plane, 
very crowded. Flesh pallid, reddish in the St., thin. Spores white, 
elliptical, 6-8 x 3-4/A. Caespitoso-fasciculate. Pine stumps. Aug. 
Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

C. dryophila (Bull.) Fr. = Marasmius dryophilus (Bull.) Karst. 
C. dryophila (Bull.) Fr. var. funicularis Fr. = Marasmius dryophilus 
(Bull.) Karst. var. funicularis (Fr.) Rea. 

C. dryophila (Bull.) Fr. var. aurata Quel. = Marasmius dryophilus 
(Bull.) Karst. var. auratus (Quel.) Rea. 

C. dryophila (Bull.) Fr. var. oedipus Quel. = Marasmius dryophilus 
(Bull.) Karst. var. oedipus (Quel.) Rea. 

C. dryophila (Bull.) Fr. var. alvearis Cke. = Marasmius dryophilus 
(Bull.) Karst. var. alvearis (Cke.) Rea. 

C. dryophila (Bull.) Fr. var. aquosa (Bull.) Quel. = Marasmius dryo- 
philus (Bull.) Karst. var. aquosus (Bull.) Rea. 

1056. C. extuberans (Batt.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 202, t. 146, as Collybia 
nitellina Fr. Extuberans, swelling out. 

P. 2-5 cm., rufous fuscous, bay brown, occasionally becoming pale, 
slightly fleshy, convex, then flattened, orbicular, at length depressed 
round the prominent umbo, smooth, slightly viscid when moist. St. 
4-5 cm. x 3-5 mm., concolorous, or paler, equal, tense and straight, 

R. B. B. 22 



338 OOLLYBIA 

smooth, shining, base attenuated and rooting. Gills white, then cream 
colour, somewhat free, reaching the st. with a small tooth, crowded, 
narrow, plane. Flesh reddish, becoming white, thin. Spores white, 
pip-shaped, 6 x 3/z, ("yellowish" Quel). Smell pleasant, or none. 
Edible. On the ground, and on trunks, in pastures, and coniferous 
woods. May Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

C. exsculpta Fr. = Marasmius exsculptus (Fr.) Rea. 

1057. C. luteifolia Gillet. Luteus, yellow; folia, leaves. 
P. 3-5 cm., reddish, or cinnamon, becoming paler and white or 

whitish, slightly fleshy, convex, soon plane, smooth, glabrous; margin 
often lobed, irregular. St. 3-4 cm. x 2-3 mm., concolorous, equal, 
smooth. Gills sulphur yellow, free, rounded at the base, pointed at 
the margin, very crowded. Flesh white, reddish in the st. Taste pleasant. 
Woods, and parks. Rare. 

1058. C. macilenta Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 66, fig. 1. Macilenta, lean. 
P. 1-2-5 cm., dark yellow, bright yellow at the margin, slightly fleshy, 

convex, then plane, obtuse, orbicular, smooth, dry. St. 4 cm. x 2- 

3 mm., concolorous, or bright light yellow, becoming brownish at the 
fibrillose, rooting base, tough, cartilaginous, flexuose, smooth. Gills 
pure yellow, separating- free, narrow, linear, very crowded, very unequal. 
Flesh yellow, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 5-6 x 4^i. " Cystidia hair- 
shaped, subnodulose or wavy' ; Lange. Amongst pine needles. 
Autumn. Rare. 

C. clavus (Linn.) Fr. = Mycena clavus (Linn.) Rea. 

1059. C. ocellata Fr. (= Collybia cirrhata (Schum.) Quel. var. ocel- 
lata (Fr.) Rene Maire.) Cke. lilus. no. 209, t. 147, middle figs. 

Ocellata, having little eyes. 

P. 1-2 cm., whitish, fuscous, rufous, or yellowish at the depressed, 
eye-like, umbonate disc, slightly fleshy, conico-convex, then plane, 
smooth ; margin crenulate. St. 3-5 cm. x 1-2 mm., white, becoming 
yellowish, or fuscous, equal, filiform, tough, smooth, often pruinose, 
base fibrillose and rooting. Gills white, adnate, at length separating, 
crowded, the alternate ones shorter. Flesh white, thin. Spores white, 
elliptical, 5 x 3/u.. Amongst mosses, and Jungermannia in woods. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1060. C. muscigena (Schum.) Fr. (= Mycena musdgena (Schum.) 
Quel.) Cke. Illus. no. 209, t. 147, lowest figs. 

Muscus, moss; yiyvopai,, to be born. 

Entirely white. P. 3-6 mm., submembranaceous, pellucid, globoso- 
hemispherical, then flattened, obtuse, smooth, withering up. St. 3- 

4 cm. x 1 mm., capillary, flexuose, flaccid, smooth, base attenuated, 



COLLYBIA 339 

rooting. Grills adnate, linear, somewhat crowded, the alternate ones 
shorter. Flesh very thin. Spores white, elliptical, 10 x 6-7 /u, minutely 
echinulate. Amongst moss, and short grass. Aug. Oct. Uncommon. 
JW;.) 

C. ludia Fr. = Mycena lactea (Pers.) Fr. var. pithya (Pers.) Fr. 
B. Gills becoming cinereous. Hygrophanous. 
8. P. fuscous, or becoming cinereous. 
*Gills crowded, rather narrow. 

1061. C. rancida Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 210, t. 153, upper figs. 

Rancida, stinking. 

P. 2-5 cm., lead colour, or fuliginous, disc blackish, or fuscous, at 
first covered with a delicate, silky, white pruina, then becoming paler, 
slightly fleshy-cartilaginous, tough, convex, then plane, broadly and 
obtusely umbonate, smooth, viscid when very wet. St. 715 cm. x 4 
6 mm., livid, becoming greyish, rigid, equal, tense and straight, smooth, 
attenuated at the base into a long, fusiform, villous root. Gills dark 
cinereous, somewhat pruinose, free, crowded, narrow, but ventricose. 
Flesh greyish, thin at the margin. Spores white, oblong elliptical, 
9-10 x 4-5/x, 1-2-guttulate, minutely punctate. Smell like rancid 
meal. Woods, and hedgerows. Aug. Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

1062. C. eustygia Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 1146, t. 1185. 

ev, truly; crrvyia, belonging to the nether world. 
P. 3-5 cm., dingy white, disc a little darker, shining when dry, fleshy, 
convex, then plane, sometimes depressed, sometimes wavy, smooth. 
St. 5-8 cm., white above, sprinkled with small punctate scales, darker 
below and often becoming sooty, attenuated downwards into a rooting 
base, often curved, somewhat longitudinally striate, or fibrous. Gills 
dark grey, rounded behind, adnexed, or almost free, rather broad, 
not crowded. Flesh white, thick at the disc. Spores white, globose, 
4r-5fj,. Smell like rancid meal. The whole plant becoming black in 
drying. On the ground. Oct. Uncommon. 

1063. C. coracina Fr. Kopa^, a raven. 
P. 24 cm., fuscous and shining, becoming grey and opaque when dry, 

somewhat fleshy-cartilaginous, convexo-expanded, umbonate, or de- 
pressed, often irregular and undulate, smooth, hygrophanous', margin 
sometimes wrinkled. St. 2-4 cm. x 4-8 mm., becoming fuscous, very 
cartilaginous, tough, rigid, at length fragile, often compressed, or 
twisted, apex mealy with white squamules, attenuated downwards to 
the swollen base. Gills whitish grey, obtusely adnate, separating-free, 
broad chiefly behind, scarcely crowded, distinct, then connected by 
veins. Flesh white, scissile, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 6-7 x 3-4/A, 
punctate, 1-guttulate ("greenish" Quel.). Smell strong of new meal. 
Grassy places, and fir plantations. Oct. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

222 



340 COLLYBIA 

1064. C. ozes Fr. ofa, I have a smell. 
P. 23 cm., grey-fuscous, becoming clay-fuscous, pallid when dry, 

slightly fleshy, convex, then plane, umbonate, hygrophanous, smooth; 
margin striate when moist. St. 611 cm. x 2 mm., fuliginous grey, 
equal, or scarcely attenuated from the base, lax, flexuose, fragile, 
slightly striate, containing a pith when young, apex white mealy. Gills 
fuliginous-olivaceous, adnate, subventricose, 4-6 mm. broad, crowded 
often veined. Spores white, "elliptical, 6-7 x 3-4/x, smooth. Cystidia 
none" Rick. Smell strong of new meal. On the ground and on pine 
needles. Feb. Rare. 

1065. C. mephitica Fr. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. n, t. 14. 

Mephitis, a noxious exhalation from the ground. 
P. 1-5-4 cm., greyish ochre, becoming whitish, fleshy, convex, sub- 
umbonate, hygrophanous, smooth, dry, adpressedly and innately silky. 
St. 5-7 cm. x 2-5 mm., grey, filiform, equal, rigid, pruinosely velvety 
with white fiocci, base enlarged, covered with the white mycelium. 
Gills grey, obtusely adnate, separating from the St., attenuated in 
front, 47 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh yellowish, thin. Spores white, 
elliptical, 7-8 x 4/z. Smell strong of new meal. Amongst pine needles 
in woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1066. C. inolens Fr. Inolescens, growing in. 

P. 25 cm., livid, becoming pale tan and slightly silky when dry, but 
opaque, slightly fleshy, campanulato-convex, then plane, obtusely and 
broadly umbonate, hygrophanous, very smooth ; margin inflexed, then 
expanded, striate, undulate. St. 5-8 cm. x 2-8 mm., concolorous, be- 
coming pale when dry, rigid, equal, often compressed, undulated, apex 
white-squamulose, base white- strigose. Gills grey, adfixed, separating, 
somewhat free, linear, or slightly ventricose, 24 mm. broad. Flesh 
greyish, thin. Spores white, elliptical, 7 x 4 5/*, 1-guttulate. Smell 
of new meal. Pine woods, and under conifers. Sept. Nov. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 

1067. C. plexipes Fr. (= Collybia retigera Bres. sec. Quel.) Cke. Illus. 
no. 211, t. 154, lower figs. Plexus, twisted; pes, foot. 

P. 3-5 cm., blackish, whitish at the margin, becoming fuliginous livid, 
fleshy-membranaceous, campanulate, umbonate, somewhat wrinkled, 
slightly striate. St. 7-10 cm. x 2-4 mm., livid, cartilaginous, equal, 
covered with a network of silky-fibrils, slightly striate, base shortly, 
and bluntly rooted. Gills white, then glaucous, free, very much 
attenuated behind, ventricose, somewhat crowded. Spores white, 
elliptical, 8-9 x 5^. Woods, especially beech. Sept. Nov. Un- 



COLLYBIA 341 

1068. C. atrata Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 212, t. 155, upper figs. 

Atrata, clothed in black. 

P. 2-4 cm., pitch-black and shining, becoming fuscous when dry, 
slightly fleshy, firm, piano-depressed at the disc, convex at the margin, 
orbicular, smooth, viscid when very wet. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 3-7 mm., 
fuscous, very cartilaginous, tough, equal, or thickened upwards, round, 
smooth. Gills whitish, then grey, becoming fuscous, adnate, scarcely 
decurrent, arcuate, then plane, rather broad, subdistant. Flesh 
fuscous, especially in the St., thin. Spores white, globose, 5/n, with a 
large central gutta. Smell none, or strong, and unpleasant. Charcoal 
heaps, and burnt soil. July Dec. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1069. C. ambusta Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 212, t. 155, lower figs. 

Ambusta, scorched. 

P. 1-2-5 cm., fuscous, becoming greyish, submembranaceous, convex, 
then plane, at length depressed, umbonate with a minute papilla, 
smooth, becoming slightly striate. St. 2-3 cm., concolorous, cartila- 
ginous, tense, straight, pruinose when young. Gills pallid, becoming 
fuscous, adnate, with a decurrent tooth, lanceolate, plane, crowded. 
Flesh becoming whitish, thin. Spores white, globose, 5/x, very minutely 
warted, "4-5-angled" Rick. Burnt soil, and charcoal heaps. July 
Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

**Gills broad, rather distant. 

1070. C. lacerata (Lasch) Berk. Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 19. 

Lacerata, torn to pieces. 

P. 2-5 cm.., fuscous fuliginous, becoming pale, fleshy-membranaceous, 
campanulate, then convex and umbilicate, somewhat moist, streaked 
with fuscous lines; margin fimbriately torn, splitting with age. St. 
4-7 cm. x 4-6 mm., pallid, equal, at length compressed, fibrillosely 
striate, firm, often twisted, apex floccoso-pruinose, base white-tomen- 
tose, somewhat rooting. Gills white-grey, rounded behind, adnate, 
broad, thick, somewhat crowded, or distant. Flesh greyish white, 
thin, firm. Spores white, subglobose, 6-7 /z, 1-guttulate, "sub-granu- 
lar" Rick. Caespitose. Fir woods, often on stumps. Autumn. Rare. 

1071. C. murina (Batsch) Fr. Murina, of mice. 
P. 3-4 cm., fuscous brown, becoming pale, slightly fleshy, campanu- 

lato-convex, then expanded, obtuse, or umbilicate, slightly wrinkled, 
or very thinly squamulose, tough; margin at first involute. St. 5-8 cm. 
x 3-4 mm., white, becoming cinereous, equal, tense, straight, delicately 
fibrillose, apex flocculose when young, base pubescent. Gills white, 
becoming cinereous, attenuato-adnexed, very broad, almost obovate, 
rather thick, distant. Flesh greyish white, thin, tough. Spores 
white, " subfusiform-elliptical, 8-9 x 3-4/u," Rick. Woods, and 
under oaks. Oct. Uncommon. 



342 COLLYBIA 

1072. C. protracta Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 67, fig. 2. Protracta, drawn out. 
P. 2 cm., grey-fuscous, shining, submembranaceous, convexo-plane, 

disc depressed, often with a little central umbo; margin paler, striate. 
St. 15-16 cm. x 2-3 mm,, livid grey, very cartilaginous, tense, straight, 
smooth, attenuated at the base into a tapering, subterranean, strigosely 
fibrous root. Gills grey, delicately white-pruinose, adfixed, very ventri- 
cose, as if truncate behind, very broad, 6 mm., subdistant. Spores 
white, "elliptical, 7-9 x 5-6 /x," Bres. Mossy ground near stumps in 
fir woods. Aug. Nov. Rare. 

1073. C. tesquorum Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 70, .fig. 3. Tesqua, deserts. 
P. 6-10 mm., fuscous black, becoming pale, fleshy-membranaceous, 

slightly firm, convex, very obtuse, smooth. St. 2-4 cm. x 2 mm., 
fuscous, somewhat filiform, equal, flexuose, smooth, apex mealy. Gills 
cinereous fuscous, free, very ventricose, 4 mm. broad, subdistant. Flesh 
concolorous, thin. Spores white, broadly elliptical, 78 x 5-6jLt, 
echinulate. Waste ground, and open pastures. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1074. C. clusilis Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 215, t. 247, lower figs. 

Clusilis, easily closing. 

P. 1-3-5 cm., livid, becoming pale, grey clay colour when dry, sub- 
membranaceous, rather plane, disc depressed, or broadly umbilicate, 
very much sloped downwards towards the margin, smooth, soft, 
fragile; margin at first incurved, slightly striate when moist. St. 
4 cm. x 2 mm., livid, cartilaginous, soft, flexile, equal, smooth, 
polished, stuffed with a white floccose pith. Gills white, becoming cream 
colour, adnate, plane, with a decurrent tooth, 4-8 mm. broad, in the 
form of a segment, somewhat crowded. Flesh white, thin at the margin. 
Spores white, elliptical, 8-9 x 4-5^,, with a large central gutta. 
Amongst moss and grass on heaths, and hillsides. Sept. Oct. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 

1075. C. tylicolor Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 215, t. 247, upper figs. 

Tylus, a crustacean allied to the woodlouse; color, colour. 
P. 1-3 cm., grey cinereous, slightly fleshy, convex, then flattened, 
subumbonate, smooth, opaque. St. 2-5 cm. x 2 mm., grey, somewhat 
fragile, equal, whitish-pulverulent. Gills grey, paler than the p., free, 
broad, plane, distant, rather thick. Spores white, "oval, 5-5-6 x 3-3-5/Lt, 
minutely echinulate" Sacc. Deciduous woods amongst grass. Oct. 
Eare. 

Introduced species. 

1076. C. Dorotheas Berk. Lady Dorothy Neville. 
P. 2-3 cm., dark brown, becoming paler, globose, then flatly hemi- 
spherical, at length expanded, slightly umbonate, finally de- 
pressed, radiately sulcate almost to the disc, granulated, covered with 



COLLYBIA. LEPTONIA 343 

short, white bristles pointing in every direction when young; margin 
crenate. St. 5-6 cm. x 2 mm., brownish, white below, becoming white 
above and yellowish or rufous below, granulated, covered with white 
bristles, base with a minute disc-like swelling. Gills white, adnexed, 
slightly ventricose, connected behind, distant. Dead fern stems in a 
hot-house. Eare. 

1077. C. caldarii Berk. Caldarium, a hot bath. 
P. 1215 mm., brown, hemispherical, umbonate, rugose. St. 45 cm. 

x 2 mm., paler, cartilaginous, smooth. Gills somewhat ash-coloured, 
adnato-decurrent, interstices veined near the margin. On Sphagnum in 
an orchid pot. Eare. 

Spores pink. 

Leptonia Fr. 

(Xe7TT09, thin.) 

Pileus slightly fleshy, regular; margin incurved. Stem central, 
cartilaginous. Gills adnate, sinuato-adnate, or adnexed. Spores pink, 
angular, elliptical, subglobose, or oblong; continuous. Cystidia 
rarely present. Growing on the ground, or on wood. 

*Gills whitish. P. slightly fleshy. 

1078. L. placida Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 97, fig. 1. Placida, gentle. 
P. 2-3 cm., grey, becoming bluish, disc densely villose, blackish, fleshy 

membranaceous, campanulate, then convex, obtuse, squamulose with 
dark concentric scales and dark fuliginous black fibrils. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 
2-6 mm., dark azure-blue, or black-blue, equal, very rigid; apex thick- 
ened, white pruinose and black-dotted. Gills whitish, then purplish, 
adnexed, very broad behind, plane crowded. Flesh brownish in the 
pileus, bluish in the stem. Spores pink, "angular, 7-12 x 6-7 /u," 
Herpell. On and near beech, and fir stumps. Sept. Oct. Eare. 

1079. L. anatina (Lasch) Fr. Anatina, belonging to a duck. 

P. 3-4 cm., greyish fuscous, somewhat fleshy, conico-campanulate, 
broadly umbonate, longitudinally fibrillose and squamulose, often 
rimose. St. 3-4 cm. x 4-6 mm., blue, equal, or attenuated down wards, 
at first pruinose, then squamoso-fibrillose, apex smooth, base white- 
villose. Gills whitish, then flesh colour, adnexed, then separating, 
broad, ventricose. Flesh bluish, becoming whitish. Spores pink, 
angular, broadly elliptical, 10-11 x 9-10/u,, 1-2-guttulate. Heaths, 
and pastures. July Oct. Uncommon, (v v.) 

1080. L. lappula Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 97, fig. 2. Lappa, a bur. 
P. 2-5-4 cm., grey, somewhat fleshy, hemispherical, convexo-plane, 

umbilicate, flocculoso-soft, then roughish with short erect fibrils, which 



344 LEPTONIA 

become Hack and crowded on the disc. St. 4-5 cm. x 2-4 mm., fuscous 
lilac, or dark purple, equal, moderately tough, striate and black-dotted 
upwards under a lens, base white- villose. Gills whitish-grey, then pur- 
plish, adnate with a small tooth, then separating, plane, very broad, 
ovate, crowded. Flesh white. Spores pink, "angular, elliptical, 12/u," 
Quel. Amongst beech leaves. July Oct. Uncommon. 

1081. L. Reaae Maire. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. in, t. 11. 

Mrs E. A. Rea, the artist who has made many original 

paintings of fungi. 

P. -5-1 cm., dark blackish blue, convex, then expanded, submem- 
branaceous disc fleshy, not, or only slightly hygrophanous, rarely 
umbonate or papillate at maturity; margin slightly incurved, then 
expanded and sometimes substriate. St. 2-3 cm. x 1-5 mm., deep 
blue, or blue black, then often vinous, equal, flexuose, wavy, shining, ob- 
soletely whitish mealy at the apex. Gills whitish then greyish-pink, 
broadly and deeply sinuate, narrowly adnate, then free, somewhat 
crowded, short, broad. Flesh vinous. Spores pink, obsoletely polygonal, 
subglobose, 8-10 x 7-8/4, including the apiculus, containing many oil 
drops. Pastures. Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1082. L. lampropus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 353, t. 331. 

Xa/ix7rpo9, bright; TTOI;?, foot. 

P. 13 cm., mouse colour, or steel-blue, then fuliginous-grey, some- 
what fleshy, convex, then expanded and depressed, becoming more or 
less squamulose. St. 2-5-4 cm. x 24 mm., becoming azure-blue, com- 
monly steel-blue-violaceous, cartilaginous. Gills whitish, then slightly 
rose colour, adnate, readily separating, then free, ventricose. Flesh 
bluish. Spores pink, angular, broadly elliptical, 9 x 7/z, 1-guttulate, 
with somewhat rounded angles. Heaths, and pastures. July Nov. 
Common, (v.v.) 

var. cyanulus (Lasch) Fr. icvavos, dark blue. 

Differs from the type in the more slender, membranaceous, blackish- 
blue, subumbilicate, fioccosely-villose p., the capillary, pruinose st., and 
the glaucous, then flesh colour, adnate, distant gills. On the ground 
near alders. 



1083. L. aethiops Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 97, fig. 3. al6ioty, an Ethiop. 

P. 1-3 cm., black, then fuliginous, slightly fleshy, piano-depressed, 
streaked with fibrils, shining when dry. St. 4-5 cm. x 2 mm., fuscous 
blackish, black dotted upwards. Gills whitish, then purplish, adnexed, 
or adnate, linear, or ventricose. Flesh whitish. Spores pink, angular, 
9-10 x 6/Lt, 1-guttulate. Woods, and heaths. Sept. Oct. Not un- 
common. (v.v.) 



LEPTONIA 345 

1084. L. solstitialis Fr. Solstitialis, belonging to midsummer. 
P. 1-3 cm., becoming fuscous, slightly fleshy, at length depressed, 

papillate in the centre, slightly wrinkled, obsoletely innato-fibrillose. St. 
2-3 cm. x 2-4 mm., smoke colour. Gills whitish, then flesh colour, 
emarginate, broad. Spores pink, angular, oblong, 10 x 7/u,, 1-guttu- 
late. Pastures, and amongst stones. Aug. Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 
**Gills at the first azure-blue, or slightly dark-blue. 

1085. L. serrulata (Pers.) Fr. Serrula, a small saw. 
P. 1-3 cm., blackish-blue (shining when dry), fuliginous when old 

or in wet weather, and then slightly striate, slightly fleshy, convex, 
umbilicato-depressed, squamulose, or fibrillose. St. 2-3 cm. x 2-4 mm., 
paler than the p., cartilaginous, equal, apex black dotted, base white- 
woolly. Gills bluish-grey-whitish, then grey flesh colour, adnate, in 
the form of a segment, broad in the middle; edge black, serrulate. 
Flesh whitish. Spores pink, angular, 8-11 x 7/u,, 1-guttulate. Cystidia 
"pale grey, fasciculate, clavate, 11-12/x broad" Lange. Woods, 
and pastures. June Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

var. Berkeley! Maire. Cke. Illus. no. 355, t. 333, as Leptonia serrulata 
Fr. Rev. Miles Joseph Berkeley, the father of British mycology. 

P. 2-5-4 cm., whitish with a lilac tinge, umbilicate, slightly sprinkled 
with fibrils; margin vaulted. St. 7-10 cm. x 3mm., whitish with a 
lilac tinge, flexuose, smooth. Gills salmon colour, broad, adnate, little 
or not serrulate. Flesh whitish. Spores pink, angular, oblong, 11-12 x 
6-7 IJL, 1-2-guttulate. Pastures. July Sept. Not uncommon (v.v.) 
var. laevipes Maire. Laevis, smooth ; pes, foot. 

Differs from the type in the smooth (not black dotted) apex of the stem. 
Woods, and pastures. July Sept. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1086. L. euchroa (Pers.) Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 98. 

e#%pco<?, well coloured. 

P. 1-4-5 cm., violaceous, then purple-fuliginous, slightly fleshy, con- 
vex, obtuse, squamuloso-fibrillose. St. 2-6 cm. x 2-4 mm., concolorous, 
equal, fibrillosely mealy especially at the apex, tough; base white, 
hairy. Gills dark violaceous, becoming pale, the edge retaining the darker 
colour, adnate, ventricose. Flesh bluish. Spores pink, angular, 
10-15 x 7-9/i. On stumps, and branches of alder, hazel, and birch. 
Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1087. L. chalybaea (Pers.) Fr. %aXwf , steel. 
P. 2-3 cm., dark violaceous, or blackish blue, slightly fleshy, convex, 

subumbonate, flocculose, then squamulose. St. 4-5 cm. x 2 mm., dark 
blue, cartilaginous, slightly firm. Gills bluish-grey-whitish, edge paler, 
adnate, crowded, broad, ventricose. Spores pink, "longish, 5-6- 
angled, 9-10 x 7-8 ju, with prominent angles" Rick. Pastures. 
July Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 



346 LEPTONIA 

1088. L. lazulina Fr. Lapis lazuli, ultramarine. 
P. 1-5-2 cm., becoming black fuliginous, at first black blue, or date- 
brown-mouse colour, with the disc darker, submembranaceous, campanu- 
late, then expanded and obtuse, striate, obsoletely umbilicate, rimoso- 
squamulose. St. 4-5 cm. x 2-3 mm., dark blue, cartilaginous, base 
white-woolly. Gills pallid deep blue, adnate, separating, equally at- 
tenuated from the stem to the margin of the pileus. Flesh dark blue. 
Spores pink, angular, oblong, 11-12 x 7-8/x, 1-guttulate. Heaths, 
and pastures. Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

***Gills pallid. Becoming pale, yellow or green. 

1089. L. incana Fr. (= Leptonia chloropolia (Fr.) Quel.) Cke. Illus. 
no. 359, t. 336 Incana, hoary. 

P. 2-3 cm., variegated fuscous and green, becoming cinereous when 
dry, submembranaceous, fragile, convex, then expanded, umbilicate, 
striate, slightly silky when dry. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 2-4 mm., green, or 
fuscous green, cartilaginous, base white-floccose. Gills whitish green, 
then flesh colour, adnate, decurrent with a tooth, at length separa- 
ting, 4-6 mm. broad at the middle, distant. Flesh green, thin. Spores 
pink, angular, 8-12 x 7-8/z, 1-guttulate. Smell like that of mice. 
Woods, heaths, and pastures. July Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

1090. L. euchlora (Lasch) Fr. Boud. Icon. t. 99. 

e, well; %Xo>pa, pale green. 

P. 1 -5-3-5 cm., olivaceous, becoming paler, submembranaceous, cam- 
panulato-convex, then plane, fuscous fibrillose, subsquamulose, especi- 
ally at the darker, finally depressed disc. St. 3-6 cm. x 3-5 mm., 
greenish, apex yellowish, becoming deep blue or verdigris when bruised 
or handled, equal, slightly thickened at the white, tomentose base, 
hollow, fragile, smooth. Gills whitish, or very pale yellowish, then pink, 
56 mm. wide, broadly adnate, subdistant. Flesh greenish, becoming 
deep blue or verdigris when bruised or pressed, thin. Taste and smell 
none. Spores pink, oblong, angular, 11-15 x 8-10/>t, multi-guttulate. 
Amongst short grass in woods and open downs. Sept. Oct. Un- 
common, (v.v.) 

1091. L. sericella (Fr.) Quel. (= Entoloma sericellum Fr.) Cke. Illus. 
no. 335, t. 307, as Entoloma sericellum Fr. Sericus, silken. 

P. 1-5-3 cm., white, or becoming yellow white, somewhat fleshy, 
convex, then plane, obtuse, at length depressed, often unequal, silky, 
often squamulose ; margin inflexed, floccose. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 2-3 mm., 
white, then becoming pale, waxy, equal, fibrillose, at length somewhat 
polished, pellucid. Gills white, then flesh colour, at first adnate, even, 
decurrent with a tooth, then separating and somewhat emarginate, 
very broad, subdistant. Flesh white, thin. Spores pink, angular, 



LEPTONIA 347 

oblong, 9-11 x 6-7/z,, 1-guttulate. Woods, and pastures. July 
Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

var. decurrens (Boud.) Kea. Boud. Icon. t. 94. 

Decurrens, running down. 

Differs from the type in the distinctly decurrent gills. Woods, pas- 
tures, and roadsides. July Sept. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. lutescens Fr. Lutescens, becoming yellow. 

Differs from the type in the yellowish, more regular, convex, even p., 
and almost adnate gills. 

var. sublutescens Henn. Sub, somewhat; lutescens, becoming yellow. 
Differs from the type in the white, silky-floccose p. becoming smooth 
and dingy yellow, and the white st. becoming yellowish. 

1092. L. formosa Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 98, fig. 1. Formosa, beautiful. 
P. 2-3 cm., yellow wax colour, sprinkled over with minute fuscous 

squamules or fibrils, submembranaceous, slightly tough, convex, then 
plane, slightly umbilicate, striate. St. 4-5 cm. x 1-2 mm., yellow, car- 
tilaginous, equal, shining. Gills light-yellow-pallid, then flesh colour, 
adnate, decurrent with a tooth, subdistant. Spores pink, angular, 
oblong, 10 x 8/i,, 1-guttulate. Coniferous woods, and heaths. Sept. 
Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. suavis (Lasch) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 360, t. 488. Suavis, pleasant. 
Differs from the type in the stem becoming blue. Amongst Equisetum. 
Sept. Bare. 

1093. L. chloropolia Fr. (= Leptonia incana Fr. sec. Quel.) Fr. Icon. 
t. 98, fig. 2. x\top6s, pale green; 7roXto<?, grey. 

P. 2-3 cm., livid, disc black squamulose, membranaceous, convex, 
then flattened, striate; margin at first inflexed. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 2- 
4 mm., bluish-grey-green, slightly firm, rigid. Gills whitish, then flesh 
colour, adnate. Spores pink, angular, globose, 9-10 x 8/4, 1-guttu- 
late. Heaths, and pastures. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

****Gills grey, or glaucous. Hygrophanous, p. somewhat striate. 

1094. L. asprella Fr. Quel. Jur. et Vosg. t. 6, fig. 4. 

Asprella, somewhat rough. 

P. 2-4 cm., fuliginous, or mouse colour, then livid-grey, submem- 
branaceous, convex, then flattened, darker umbilicus villose, at length 
squamulose, marked with spots, striate, often fibrillose. St. 2-55 cm. 
x 1-2 mm., fuscous, green, or azure-blue, cartilaginous, equal, tense 
and straight, base white- villose. Gills whitish grey, then flesh colour, 
adnate, separating free, subdistant, equally attenuated from the stem 



348 LEPTONIA. NAUCORIA 

towards the margin, edge often black. Spores pink, angular, oblong, 
10 x 6-7 [i. Pastures, and heaths. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1095. L. nefrens FT. Nefrens, having no teeth. 
P. 2-5-5 cm., fuliginous, then livid-grey, membranaceous, campanu- 

late, then flattened, with a deep darker umbilicus, at length infundibuli- 
form, striate, obsoletely fibrillose. St. 2-3 cm. x 2-4 mm., fuscous- 
livid, fragile, equal. Gills pallid grey, adnexed, separating, broad, 
edge slightly black. Spores pink, "elliptical, 4-5 x 3/x." Massee. 
Grassy places, and marshy pastures. July Sept. Uncommon. 

Spores ochraceous, or ferruginous. 
Naucoria Fr. 

(Naucum, a flock of wool.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular; margin at first incurved. Stem central, car- 
tilaginous. Gills adnate, sinuato-adnate, or adnexed. Spores ochra- 
ceous, ferruginous or fuscous; elliptical, pip-shaped, almond-shaped, 
or oblong elliptical, smooth, punctate, or verrucose; continuous, or 
with a germ-pore. Cystidia present. Growing on the ground, more 
rarely on wood ; solitary, gregarious, or caespitose. 

I. P. smooth. Veil none. Spores ferruginous, not becoming 

fuscous ferruginous. 
*Gills free, or slightly adnexed. 

1096. N. lugubris Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 121, fig. 1. Lugubris, mournful. 
P. 5-8 cm., pallid, then ferruginous, at length almost date brown, 

fleshy, campanulate, then expanded, gibbous, smooth, rarely bullate, 
undulated, and tenaciously viscid. St. 5-10 cm. x 6-10 mm., pallid, 
becoming ferruginous downwards when old, with a long, attenuated, 
fusiform root, externally very cartilaginous, rigid, smooth. Gills 
pallid, then ferruginous, quite free, ventricose, very broad behind, 
12 mm. and more broad, crowded, edge for the most part serrated. 
Flesh white. Spores pallid, then ferruginous, "nearly almond-shaped, 
7-8 x 4-5 /n. Cystidia only on edge of gill, clavate filamentous " Rick. 
Often caespitose. Mountainous fir woods. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

1097. N. festiva Fr. Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 22. Festiva, handsome. 
P. 2-5 cm., olivaceous fuscous, becoming olivaceous straw colour, 

isabelline, bay, or rufous when dry, fleshy, convex, slightly gibbous, 
smooth, glutinous when fresh. St. 5-9 cm. x 4-8 mm., rufous, violaceous, 
olivaceous, or pallid, with reticulately adpressed black fibrils, equal, or 
attenuated downwards, somewhat rooting, sometimes ventricose and 
compressed, very cartilaginous, either fuscous squamulose, or smooth. 
Gills whitish, then olivaceous, rufous, or ferruginous blood red, free, 



NAUCOBIA 349 

attenuated behind, generally ventricose, 6 mm. broad, crowded, edge 
often white, pubescent. Flesh pallid, becoming reddish in the St., thin 
at the margin. Spores ferruginous, almond-shaped, 8 x 4ju,, 1-guttu- 
late, "roughish. Cystidia only on edge of gill, filamentous" Kick. 
Smell weak, of radish. Coniferous woods, and amongst grass. Sept. 
Bare. 

1098. N. obtusa Cke. & Massee. Cke. lUus. no. 1171, t. 1155. 

Obtusa, blunt. 

P. 2-3 cm., rufous, or orange tawny, becoming pale, campanulate, 
obtuse, margin faintly striate. St. 5 cm. x 4-6 mm., flesh colour, or 
pale cinnamon, equal, smooth. Gills cinnamon, broadly adnate, or 
with a tooth, 4-6 mm. broad, ventricose, edge serrate. Flesh con- 
colorous, becoming pale, darker at the base of the st. Spores ferruginous, 
elliptical, 7-8 x 4/u,. On the ground. Sept. Rare. 

1099. N. subglobosa (A. & S.) Fr. 

Sub, somewhat; globosa, spherical. 

P. 2-3 cm., light yellow, darker at the disc, fleshy, hemispherical, 
smooth, moist. St. 2-5 cm. x 2-4 mm., concolorous, brownish at the 
base, equal, rigid, striate at the apex. Gills concolorous, somewhat free, 
very broad, convex, rhomboidal. Flesh lemon yellow, thin. Spores 
ochraceous, "unequal-elliptical, 6-7 x 3 4/z, smooth. Cystidia on 
edge of gill large, lanceolate-fusiform, 50-60 x 12-15/u,, without a 
globose head" Rick. Pine woods, and on the ground. Sept. Oct. 
Uncommon. 

1100. N. hamadryas Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 121, fig. 3. 

apaSpvds, a wood nymph. 

P. 45 cm., bay brown ferruginous, pale yellowish when old, and be- 
coming pale, fleshy, convex, then expanded, gibbous, smooth. St. 
5 7-5 cm. x 6 mm., pallid, somewhat fragile, equal, smooth. Gills 
ferruginous, opaque, attenuato-adnexed, somewhat free, slightly ventri- 
cose, 3-4 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh paler, thin, that of the p. easily 
separating from the st. Spores "ferruginous, elliptical, 13-14 x 7/n" 
Massee. Woods, and under trees. Sept. Nov. Uncommon. 

1101. N. cidaris Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 123, fig. 2. Kt,Sapi<;, a tiara. 
P. 2-5 cm., clay cinnamon, or dark tawny cinnamon, tan colour when 

dry, fleshy, conical, then campanulate, slightly striate when moist at 
the undulate, membranaceous margin, pruinose, or smooth. St. 
4-5 cm. x 4 mm., fuscous black, apex concolorous and pruinose, at- 
tenuated from the apex to the base, or fusiform, subcompressed, flexuose, 
or straight, tough, smooth. Gills honey colour, or cinnamon clay, ad- 
fixed, separating free, ascending, ventricose, 4-6 mm. broad, crowded. 
Flesh whitish, scissile, thin at the disc. Spores ferruginous, "elliptical, 



350 NAUCORIA 

5-6 x 3-4/Lt, smooth. Cystidia only on edge of gill, filamentous" 
Rick. Pine woods, and on the ground round trunks. Oct. Nov. 
Uncommon. 

1102. N. Cucumis (Pers.) Fr. (= Nolaneanigripes (Trog) Fr.; Nolanea 
pisciodora (Ces.) Fr.; Nolanea picea Kalchbr. sec. Quel.) Cke. 
Illus. no. 364, t. 378, upper figs., as Nolanea pisciodora Ces. 

Cucumis, cucumber. 

P. 1-4 cm., tawny cinnamon, pitch black, bay-brown-fuscous, be- 
coming paler towards the margin, umber, fawn, or tan colour when dry, 
fleshy, campanulate, then convex, umbonate, or obtuse, pruinose; 
margin incurved, often striate when moist. St. 3-6 cm. x 3-6 mm., 
date brown, chestnut brown, or fuscous blackish, tough, equal, pruinose, 
velvety, apex often paler, white floccose at the base. Gills pale, yellowish 
flesh colour, then saffron yellow, or tawny, emarginate, ventricose, 
crowded. Flesh concolorous, thin at the margin. Spores pale, ferru- 
ginous, oblong, elliptical, 8-10 x 3-4 p,, 1-3-guttulate. Cystidia 
"broadly lanceolate, 60-75 x 18-23/i" Rick. Smell unpleasant, of 
fish, or cucumber. Coniferous, and damp woods, amongst dead leaves, 
and bare soil in gardens. Aug. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

1103. N. echinospora W. G. Sm. e'^o/o?, hedgehog; <nropd, seed. 
P. 12 mm., buff, then pale, flat, subumbonate, moist, hygrophanous, 

slightly furfur aceous; margin substriate. St. 2 cm. x 4-5 mm., brown- 
ish salmon, paler above, rufescent below, white flocculose. Gills ochre, 
olive-shaded, sinuate, subdistant. Spores 7 x Qp,, rough. Greenhouses. 
Aug. Rare. 

1104. N. anguinea Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 122, fig. 1. Anguinea, snaky. 
P. 3-6 cm., rufous, or pale yellowish, somewhat tan colour when dry, 

fleshy, campanulate, then convex, gibbous, smooth, covered near the 
margin when young with a superficial silky zone from the fibrils of the 
veil. St. 5-8 cm. x 4-6 mm., bay brown, equal, base thickened, often 
flexuose, densely white-fibrillose, and forming numerous zone-like marks; 
often with silky spots when dry. Gills pallid isabelline, or yellow, then 
ferruginous, somewhat free, ascending into the top of the cone, some- 
what linear, 3-4 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh concolorous, thin except 
at the disc. Spores ferruginous. Damp places in woods, and heaths. 
Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1105. N. centunculus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 495, t. 601, fig. A. 

Centunculus, patch- work. 

P. 820 mm., lurid, or olivaceous fuscous, becoming light yellow 
green, finally becoming pale, but not hygrophanous, fleshy, convex, then 
plane, obtuse, often excentric, dry, slightly silky under a lens ; margin 
incurved, often striate, occasionally yellow-pulverulent. St. 2-5- 
3 cm. x 2-4 mm., cinereous light yellow, somewhat equal, often curved, 



NATJCORIA 351 

pulverulent with white mealy squamules at the apex, base white- villous. 
Gills light yellow cinereous, adnate, separating, broad, rather thick, 
convex, undulated when old, edge slightly toothed with greenish yellow 
floccules ("pulverulent with crystalline particles under a lens" Quel.). 
Flesh pallid, thin. Spores ochraceous, elliptical, 8-10 x 6/u,. Cystidia 
"undulating-clavate, or fusiform-capitate, 30-36 x 4-6 //," Kick. 
Gregarious, or caespitose. Eotten wood, especially beech. Oct. Bare. 

1106. N. horizontals (Bull.) Fr. (= Galera horizontal (Bull.) Quel.) 
Cke. nius. no. 495, t. 601, fig. B. Horizontalis, horizontal. 

Entirely watery cinnamon. P. 5-15 mm., fleshy, convexo-plane, 
obtuse, smooth. St. 6-12 x 2 mm., incurved, smooth. Gills rounded, 
free, plane, broad, subdistant. Flesh concolorous, paler, thin. Spores 
ferruginous, punctate, broadly elliptical, 6-8 x 5-6/n. Cystidia cla- 
vate, or conical, flexuose, 20-35 x 2-4/t. On bark of elm, and pear 
trees. Nov. Dec. Rare, (v.v.) 

1107. N. rimulincola (Lasch) Rabenh. (= Galera horizontal^ (Bull.) 
Quel.) Cke. Illus. no. 496, t. 509, fig. B. 

Rimula, a small crack; colo, I inhabit. 

Entirely cinnamon. P. 10-12 mm., hemispherical, umbilicate, pli- 
cate, slightly wrinkled, tomentose. St. 10-12 x 2 mm., somewhat ex- 
centric, incurved, somewhat thickened at the base. Gills adnexed, 
thick, very broad, subdistant, edge whitish crenulate. Flesh white, thin. 
Spores "cinnamon, elliptical, 10 x 5/x" Massee. On elm, and pear 
twigs. Oct. Dec. Rare. 

1108. N. semiflexa B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 496, t. 509, fig. A. 

Semi, half; flexa, bent. 

P. 12 mm., chestnut, hygrophanous, fleshy, subcampanulate, then 
hemispherical, or flattened ; margin adorned with the delicate white veil. 
St. 6-18 x 1-2 mm., pale, semi-horizontal. Gills tawny, adnexed, 
rather broad, distant. Flesh white, thin. Spores "amber, elliptical, 
8 x 5/A, verrucose" Massee. On wood, and on the ground. Oct. Rare. 

N. rubricata B. & Br. = Marasmius nibricatus (B. & Br.) Massee. 

**Gills adnate, p. convexo-plane. 

1109. N. abstrusa Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 122, fig. 2. Abstrusa, hidden. 
P. 2-4 cm., ferruginous clay, fleshy, convex, then plane, orbicular, 

smooth, viscid. St. 2-5-3-5 cm. x 2-4 mm., pallid ferruginous, base 
darker, very cartilaginous, tough, rigid, equal, round, tense, straight, 
polished, naked. Gills watery ferruginous, or cinnamon, adnate, plane, 
crowded. Flesh concolorous, becoming pale, thin at the margin. Spores 
ferruginous, "elliptical, 10 x 5/u," Sacc. Woods, and on sawdust. Oct. 
Uncommon. 



352 NATJCORIA 

1110. N. innocua (Lasch) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 498, t. 489, fig. A. 

Innocua, harmless. 

P. 34 cm., rufous, becoming pale when dry, fleshy, convex, obtuse, 
rather smooth, fibrillosely-smooth under a lens, striate. St. 4-5 cm. x 
3-4 mm., white fibrillose, base woolly. Gills light yellow ochraceous, 
adnate, somewhat crowded. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 10 x 4-6 p.. 
Damp places. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

1111. N. cerodes Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 498, t. 489, fig. B. 

KrjpfaSrjs, wax-like. 

P. 1-3 cm., watery cinnamon, tan colour when dry, submembrana- 
ceous, campanulato-convex, then flattened, at length depressed, obtuse, 
smooth, pellucidly striate at the margin when moist, slightly 
silky -atomate when dry. St. 5-8 cm. x 2-4 mm., pallid, or pale 
yellowish, becoming bay -brown-fuscous, sometimes only at the base, 
slightly firm, equal, somewhat flexuose, fibrillosely striate under a 
lens, apex mealy. Gills pattid, then cinnamon, adnate, separating, 
very broad behind, hence almost triangular, subdistant, broad, plane, 
edge minutely fimbriate under a lens. Flesh pallid, thin. Spores 
brownish ferruginous, broadly elliptical, 9-12 x 6-7 /z, 1 2-guttulate. 
Cystidia "on surface of gill fusiform, 35-40 x 10-1 2 /z, sparse, on 
edge of gill the majority filamentous-clavate " Rick. Woods, heaths, 
burnt ground, and on stumps. May Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1112. N. melinoides Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 499, t. 457, upper figs. 

fteXt, honey; etSo?, like. 

P. 1-2 cm., tawny, ochraceous when dry, fleshy, convex, then plane, 
sometimes globose then hemispherical, obtuse, or gibbous, striate at 
the margin when old. St. 4-7-5 cm. x 2 mm., concolorous, or ochraceous, 
base paler, white, equal, or slightly attenuated, sometimes attenuated 
at both ends, slightly firm, smooth, apex white pruinose. Gills some- 
what tawny, or light yellowish ochraceous, adnate, ventricose, crowded, 
edge often denticulate. Flesh yellowish, thin at the margin. Spores pale 
ferruginous, elliptical, 9-13 x 4-8 /LI, with a large central gutta. 
Cystidia flask-shaped, capitate, apex 5-8/z in diam., base ventricose, 
50-55 x 8-19jit. Heaths, pastures, lawns, and roadsides. June Nov. 
Common, (v.v.) 

1113. N. pusiola Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 124, fig. 4. Pusio, a little boy. 
P. 6-12 mm., yellow, or tawny yellow, submembranaceous or slightly 

fleshy, hemispherical, or campanulato-hemispherical, then expanded, 
obtuse, smooth, slightly viscid. St. 2-5-4 cm. x 1-2 mm., shining 
light yellow, or lemon yellow, tough, equal, or attenuated upwards, 
flexuose, smooth, slightly viscid, apex often pruinose, base often be- 
coming brownish. Gills yellow white, or watery cinnamon, then brown, 
adnate, broad, plane. Flesh concolorous, thin. Spores "brown, pruni- 
form, 8 x 4/z" Sacc. Pastures, and mossy hillsides. Sept. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 



NAUCORIA 353 

***Gills adnate. P. campanulate, then expanded. 

1114. N. nucea (Bolt.) Fr. Bolt. Hist. Fung. t. 70. 

Nucea, belonging to a nut. 

P. 1-2-5 cm., pale chestnut, submembranaceous, globoso-campanu- 
late, never flattened, umbilicate, smooth, slightly dotted; margin in- 
curved, somewhat lobed. St. 7-8 cm. x 2 mm., white, tough, equal, 
silky fibrillose, becoming even, base with a small bulb. Gills cinnamon, 
adnate, semicircular, 6-8 mm. broad, plane, often undulate. Spores 
ferruginous, "elliptical, base apiculate, 10-11 x 6jii" Massee. Pine, 
and fir woods. Oct. Eare. 

1115. N. glandiformis W. G. Sm. Cke. lUus. no. 500, t. 490, fig. B. 

Glans, acorn ; forma, shape. 

P. 2-5 cm., nut brown, disc darJcer, obtusely campanulate, becoming 
somewhat hemispherical, or filbert- shaped, smooth. St. 7-5-10 cm. x 
4 mm., pallid, equal, sometimes twisted, splitting. Gills umber, ad- 
nate, very broad, 12 mm. and more, rounded behind, serrate. Flesh 
yellowish, thick at the disc. Spores ferruginous, broadly almond- 
shaped, 10-12 x 6-8/z. On the ground. Oct. Rare. 

1116. N. scolecina Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 124, fig. 1. <7Kta\^, a worm. 
P. 1-2 cm., bay -brown-ferruginous, becoming pale, opaque, fleshy, 

campanulate, then convex, often umbonate, obtuse, smooth, fragile; 
margin paler, at length striate. St. 3-7-5 cm. x 1-3 mm., rufous ferru- 
ginous, base becoming fuscous, equal, often flexuose and curved, white 
mealy everywhere, then only at the paler apex. Gills whitish flesh colour, 
then ferruginous, adnate, broader behind, 2-4 mm. broad, edgefloccu- 
lose, ciliate. Flesh pallid, thin at the margin. Spores ferruginous, 
subglobose, 4 x 3/i, 1-guttulate. Alder swamps, and damp places. 
Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1117. N. striaepes Cke. Cke. Hhis. no. 502, t. 478. 

Stria, a furrow; pes, foot. 

P. 2-5-6 cm., ochraceous, fleshy, campanulate, obtuse, then ex- 
panded, smooth. St. 4-8 cm. x 4-6 mm., white, equal, straight, or 
flexuose, longitudinally striate. Gills tawny ferruginous, slightly ad- 
nate, subdistant, 4-6 mm. broad. Flesh concolorous, then white, thin 
at the margin. Spores pale ferruginous, elliptical, 7-9 x 4-5 /x,. Caespi- 
tose, or gregarious. Woods, lawns, pastures, and roadsides. Sept. 
Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1118. N. amarescens Quel. Boud. Icon. t. 127. 

Amarescens, becoming bitter. 

P. 1-5-4 cm., reddish brown, or cinnamon, becoming pale when dry, 
campanulate, then expanded, often umbonate, minutely rugose, then 
torn and cracked, moist. St. 3-7 cm. x 4-6 mm., concolorous, or 

E. B. B. 23 



354 NAUCOBIA 

ochraceous, then blackish bistre, apex often slightly velvety, equal, 
base white tomentose. Gills ochraceous, then tawny, emarginate, ad- 
nate, ventricose, very broad. Flesh concolorous, scissile. Spores 
brownish ferruginous, oblong elliptical, 10-12 x 5-6/i. Taste insipid, 
then very bitter. In troops. Old charcoal heaps in woods. May Sept. 
Uncommon. 

1119. N. sideroides (Bull.) Fr. Cke. JQlus. no. 503, t. 458, upper figs. 

(riBr/pos, iron; etSo9, like. 

P. 1-2-5 cm., pale yellowish, honey colour, or cinnamon, tan ochra- 
ceous when dry, somewhat shining, fleshy, campanulate, then ex- 
panded, umbonate, smooth, very slightly viscid when moist; margin 
incurved at first, then slightly striate. St. 5-8 cm. x 2-4 mm., pallid, 
then becoming yellow and ferruginous downwards, base at length be- 
coming fuscous, slightly firm, equal, sometimes undulated, or slightly 
thickened at the apex, smooth, apex often white pruinose. Gills be- 
coming watery-yellow ochraceous, at length somewhat cinnamon, adnate, 
with a small decurrent tooth, sometimes sinuate and uncinato-adfixed, 
ascending, linear, crowded. Flesh pallid, thin. Spores pale yellow, 
"cylindrical-elliptical, 7-8 x 3-4 p,. Cystidia on edge of the gill very 
delicate, filamentous-fusiform, 30-36/x,, apex with a globose head" 
Rick. Stumps, ash and pine trunks, twigs, and chips. Oct. Nov. 
Uncommon. 

1120. N. badipes Fr. (= Galera badipes (Fr.) Rick.) Fr. Icon. t. 123, 
fig. 3. Badius, bay brown ; pes, foot. 

P. 8-20 mm,, yettowish ferruginous, tan when dry, submembrana- 
ceous, campanulate, then convex, umbonate, pellucidly striate to the 
disc when moist, smooth; margin almost straight and adpressed to the 
st. St. 5 7'5 cm. x 2 mm., ferruginous, darker and becoming fuscous 
towards the base, equal, firm, rigid, often flexuose, covered up to the 
middle with white floccose scales, apex paler, naked. Gills pale yellowish 
ferruginous, adnate, very ventricose, thin, subdistant. Flesh con- 
colorous, thin. Spores ferruginous, elliptical, 10-12 x 5/u,. Cystidia 
"thin, fusiform, with long, blunt point, 50-60 x 10-15/x," Rick. 
Damp places in coniferous woods, and on heaths. Sept. Nov. Not 
uncommon, (v.v.) 

1121. N. camerina Fr. (= Galera camerina (Fr.) Rick.) Fr. Icon, 
t. 124, fig. 2. Kapdpa, an arched roof. 

P. 1-2 cm., honey colour, tan colour when dry, obtuse umbo often 
darker, fleshy, campanulato-convex, obtuse, umbonate, smooth, hy- 
grophanous; margin somewhat striate when moist. St. 3 4 cm. x 1 
2 mm., umber, apex pallid, equal, or attenuated downwards, some- 
what curved, or flexuose, tough, adpressedly fibrdlose. Gills yellowish 
cinnamon, then ferruginous, adnate, plane, ascending, attenuated be- 






NAUCORIA 355 

hind, very crowded, often crenulate. Flesh, concolorous, thin at the 
margin. Spores ferruginous, "elliptical, 6-7 x 3-4 jn, smooth. Cys- 
tidia on the edge of the gill subulate-capitate, 36-40 x 5-6 /u," Eick. 
Coniferous stumps. May Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1122. N. hydrophila Mass. (= Naucoria nasuta Kalchbr. sec. Cke.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 1173, t. 1172, fig. A, as Naucoria nasuta Kalchbr. 

v8(op, water; 0tXo?, loving. 

P. 1-3-5 cm., pale ochraceous tan with a distinct tinge of green here 
and there, fleshy, campanulate, then slightly expanded, acutely um- 
bonate, smooth; margin striate when moist. St. 3-5 cm. x 2mm., 
rather ferruginous, or with red and green tints, equal, flexuose, smooth. 
Gills pallid, then brownish, adnexed, rather crowded, 3 mm. broad, 
edge pale. Flesh greenish, very thin. Spores brown, elliptical, 13- 
14 x 6-7^1,. Gregarious. Swampy places under trees. Sept. Oct. 
Eare. 

1123. N. triscopa Fr. (= Galera triscopa (Fr.) Quel.) Fr. Icon. t. 124, 
fig. 3. rpi-, three; CT/COTTO?, faced. 

P. 4-10 mm., deep bay, tawny or ochraceous when dry, always 
opaque, fleshy, hemispherical, obtuse, then convexo-plane, with a 
prominent umbo, smooth. St. 1-3 cm. x 1-2 mm., ferruginous, opaque, 
base umber, often velvety, equal, curved, or flexuose, smooth. Gills 
yellowish, then dark ferruginous, adnate, ventricose, plane, thin, some- 
what crowded. Flesh yellowish, ferruginous in the St., very thin at the 
margin. Spores "ferruginous, pruniform, 10//," Quel. Stumps, and 
rotten wood of frondose trees, rarely on humus. May Sept. Un- 



II. P. naked. Gills and spores fuscous ferruginous. 
Veil potential, rarely manifest. 

*Growing in fields, and plains. 

1124. N. vervacti Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 504, t. 617, fig. A. 

Vervactum, fallow ground. 

P. 2-3 cm., light yellow, or pallid yellow, fleshy, convex, then plane, 
obtuse, or umbonate, soft, smooth, slightly viscid, shining when dry. 
St. 2-5-4 cm. x 46 mm., whitish, cartilaginous, rigid, attenuated 
either upwards or downwards, smooth, often striate. Gills pallid, 
then ferruginous fuscous, adnate with a decurrent tooth, 6 mm. 
broad, plane, at length ventricose, crowded. Flesh white, thick at 
the disc. Spores "olive brown in the mass, elliptic-oval, 12-17 x" 
8-12ju. Cystidia on edge of gill fusiform, 40-45 x 9-10/i, with or 
without a head" Eick. Gardens, and pastures. May Nov. Un- 
common. 

232 



356 NAUCORIA 

1125. N. pediades FT. (= Cantharellus Brownii B. & Br. sec. Pat.; 
Naucoria semi-orbicularis (Bull.) Fr. sec. Quel.) Cke. Illus. no. 
505, t. 492. vreStoi/, a plain, or field. 

P. 2-5 cm., yellow, or pale yellowish ochraceous, then becoming pale, 
fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, dry, smooth, at length rimoso- 
rivulose. St. 5-8 cm. x 2-4 mm., yellowish, stuffed with a pith, sub- 
flexuose, tough, equal, base bulbous from the mycelium being rolled 
together, slightly silky, becoming even. Gills somewhat fuscous, then 
dingy cinnamon, adnexed, 4-10 mm. broad, crowded, then subdistant. 
Flesh white, thin at the margin. Spores fuscous ferruginous, broadly 
elliptical, 8-9 x 5-6 p, with a large central gutta. Cystidia "ventri- 
cose-fusiform, or with an enlarged head, 45-50 x 8 10/u," Rick. 
Pastures, and roadsides. July Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1126. N. semi-orbicularis (Bull.) Fr. (= Naucoria pediades Fr. sec. 
Quel.) Cke. lUus. no. 507, t. 493, fig. A. 

Semi-, half; orbicularis, round. 

P. 25 cm., tawny ferruginous, then ochraceous, fleshy, convexo- 
expanded, obtuse, slightly viscid when fresh and moist, then dry, 
smooth, corrugated when dry. St. 7-10 cm. x 2-3 mm., ochraceous, 
becoming pallid ferruginous, shining, often darker at the base, cartilagi- 
nous, tough, equal, tense, straight, smooth, internally with a separate 
fistulose tube which is easily broken up into fibrils. Gills pallid, then 
ferruginous, adnate, rarely sinuate, 46 mm. broad, crowded. Flesh 
white, thin at the margin. Spores brownish, elliptical, 9-12 x 5-7 /x. 
Cystidia flask-shaped, or fusiform, 45-50 x 13-1 5 p, apex obtuse, 6-8 p 
in diam. Pastures, heaths, roadsides. June Oct. Common, (v.v.) 

1127. N. arvalis Fr. Arvum, an arable field. 
P. 1-2 cm., yellow fuscous, pallid ochraceous when dry, disc yellow, or 

concolorous, fleshy, firm, convex, then expanded, orbicular, obtuse, 
smooth, slightly viscid. St. 3-4 cm. x 1-2 mm., becoming yellowish, 
equal, smooth, often pulverulent, attenuated into a long, cottony root, 
internally with a not easily separable fistulose tube. Gills pallid grey, 
then umber fuscous, or becoming ferruginous, adnexed, plane, very broad, 
quaternate, distant, edge often lemon yellow. Flesh lemon yellow. 
Spores "light yellow, almond-shaped, 10-12/i, oblong" Quel. Arable 
fields, gardens, and sea-sands. July Oct. Uncommon. 

1128. N. tabacina (DC.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 507, t. 493, fig. B. 

Tabacum, tobacco. 

P. 6-20 mm., umber, then bay-brown-cinnamon, very moist, tan 
colour when dry, fleshy, convex, then plane, disc very obtuse, smooth ; 
margin involute, often covered with a silky veil. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 2 mm., 
brown, darker and fuscous at the base, equal, attenuated downwards 



NAUCORIA 357 

when shorter, somewhat flexuose, smooth. Gills bay -brown-cinnamon, 
then ferruginous, adnate, plane, linear, or ovate, crowded. Flesh pallid 
reddish, deeper in the St., thin. Spores tobacco coloured in mass, 
"elliptical, 8-9 x 4-5 /A" Massee. Cystidia "on edge of gill fusiform- 
subulate, 30-40 x 5-6 /x" Rick. Lawns, waysides, and heaths. Sept. 
Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

**Growing in moist, uncultivated, wooded places. 

1129. N. tenax Fr. Tenax, firm. 
P. 25 cm., varying between cinnamon and an olivaceous, or somewhat 

fuscous yellow, dirty, becoming pale when dry, fleshy, hemispherical, 
then expanded, obtuse, rarely umbonate, sometimes becoming de- 
pressed at the disc, smooth, or slightly wrinkled, slightly viscid when 
young. St. 5-10 cm. x 4-10 mm., concolorous, or dingy pallid, be- 
coming fuscous, or olive, apex paler, equal, or thickened upwards, 
striate with adpressed fibrils, and sprinkled with white fibrils, the re- 
mains of the fugacious veil. Gills whitish fuscous, then ferruginous 
with the edge whitish, adnate, becoming somewhat rounded and 
separating, 6-10 mm. broad, plane, triangular, or oblong. Flesh 
yellowish, becoming whitish, thick at the disc. Spores ferruginous, pip- 
shaped, 13-16 x 7-8/z, sometimes depressed on one side, 1-2-guttu- 
late. Bogs on dead stems of Potentilla Comarum, and in ditches 
amongst sticks. May Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1130. N. Myosotis Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 125, fig. 1. 

Myosotis, the Forget-me-not. 

P. 24 cm., olivaceous, or fuscous green, becoming pale, or light 
yellow, disc darker, fleshy, convex, then plane, subumbonate when 
flattened, smooth, with a viscid pellicle. St. 7-15 cm. x 2-6 mm., 
pallid, then fuscous, apex white pruinose, slightly firm, equal, often 
flexuose, either fibrillose (the fibrils here and there blackish) or scaly. 
Gills pallid umber olivaceous, then brown ferruginous, with the edge 
whitish and serrate, adnate, decurrent with a tooth, 56 mm. broad, 
subdistant. Flesh pallid, thin. Spores fuscous ferruginous, pip-shaped, 
16-18 x 8-lOjLt, 1-guttulate. Cystidia on gill edge subcylindrical, 
flexuose, 36-40 x 7-9 /z, apex obtuse, 5-6/A in diam. Bogs amongst 
Sphagnum, and Potentilla Comarum. July Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1131. N. temulenta Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 125, fig. 2. Temulenta, sodden. 
P. 1-3 cm., ferruginous, ochraceous, or whitish when dry, hygro- 

phanous, submembranaceous, campanulate, then convex, sometimes 
subumbonate, smooth ; margin striate when moist. St. 4-8 cm. x 2mm., 
yellow, or ferruginous, tough, equal, flexuose, polished, fistulose with a 
pith, apex pruinose, base white-villous. Gills yellow, or lurid ferrugi- 
nous, then umber, or ferruginous, adnate, attenuated in front, sub- 



358 NAUCORIA 

distant. Flesh pallid, thin at the disc. Spores ochraceous, elliptical, 
9 x 4-5 /M, 1-2-guttulate. Cystidia "on edge of gill flask-shaped, on 
surface of gill quite differently shaped, ventricose with three points at 
the apex, 60 x 20/*" Kick. Woods and heaths. Aug. Oct. Not un- 
common, (v.v.) 

1132. N. subtemulenta Lamb. Sub, somewhat; temulenta, sodden. 

P. brown ochre, tan when dry, campanulate, then convex, slightly 
umbonate, striate, hygrophanous. St. concolorous, dark rusty at the 
thickened base. Gills concolorous, almost free, narrow, crowded. 

1133. N. latissima Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 510, t. 482. 

Latissima, very broad. 

P. 1-3-5 cm., deep chestnut brown, fleshy, subglobose, then hemi- 
spherical; margin at first incurved. St. 2-5 cm. x 4 8 mm., dark 
brown below, paler above, attenuated downwards, rooting, smooth. 
Gills tawny umber, rounded behind, slightly adnate, very broad, 12 mm. 
Flesh white, brownish at the base of the stem, thick at the disc. 
Amongst grass. Sept. Rare. 

1134. N. reducta Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 125, fig. 3. Reducta, reduced. 

P. 8-20 mm., olivaceous, or fuscous honey colour, dirty tan colour 
when dry, membranaceous, convex, then plane, sometimes umbonate, 
hygrophanous, smooth, then pruinose under a lens, striate to the disc 
when moist. St. 5-8 cm. x 2-4 mm., amber fuscous, apex paler, 
pruinose, slightly attenuated upwards, tough, flexuose, soft and 
splitting, smooth. Gills dirty yellow, or pale ochraceous, then ferrugi- 
nous, adnate, or rounded and separating, broad, ventricose, somewhat 
crowded. Flesh subconcolorous, slightly thick at the disc. Spores 
"ochraceous, pruniform, oblong, 10/x, punctate" Quel. Boggy woods. 
Sept. Oct. Rare. 

III. P. flocculose, or squamulose. Veil manifest. 

Spores ferruginous. 
*Squamules of p. superficial, separating. 

1135. N. porriginosa Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 511, t. 510. 

Porriginosa, full of scurf. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., tawny, tan colour when dry, fleshy, hemispherical, then 
convex, hardly expanded, very obtuse, viscid when moist, covered with 
superficial, fugacious, saffron coloured squamules; margin striate when 
old. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 2-3 mm., pallid, equal, more or less fibrillosely 
silky, base white villose. Gills yellow, then tawny cinnamon, adnate, 
often with a small decurrent tooth, crowded. Flesh lemon yellow, thick 
at the disc. Amongst twigs, and rubbish. Oct. Rare. 



NATTCORIA 359 

1136. N. sobria Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 512, t. 511, fig. A. 

Sobria, sober, not bibulous. 

P. 620 mm., honey colour, disc darker, becoming pale, fleshy, con- 
vex, obtuse, or umbonate, slightly viscid, margin appendiculate with 
the silky, fugacious veil. St. 3-4 cm. x 2 mm., pallid upwards, ferrugi- 
nous fuscous downwards, slightly firm, somewhat tough, straight, or 
slightly bent, equal, often sprinkled with whitish spots, the remains 
of the veil, apex often mealy. Gills paler than the p., then saffron, with 
the edge whitish or yellowish floccose, obtusely adnate, broader behind, 
plane, 3 mm. broad, subdistant. Flesh pallid, somewhat ferruginous 
towards the base of the st., thin. Spores ochraceous, elliptical, or pip- 
shaped, 6-7 x 4/i. Charcoal heaps, and on the ground in woods. 
July Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. dispersa B. & Br. Dispersa, scattered. 

Differs from the type in its smaller size, in the punctulate p. and the 
appendiculate ring on the st. Lawns. July. Rare. 

**P. with innate squamules. 
N. erinacea Fr. = Pholiota erinacea (Fr.) Quel. 

1137. N. siparia Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 126, fig. 2. 

Siparium, a little curtain. 

Entirely rufous ferruginous. P. 6-20 mm., fleshy, convex, then 
plane, obtuse, densely villoso-squamulose, moist. St. 12-5 cm. x 2mm., 
fragile, equal, tense and straight, densely sheathed with the scaly, 
villose, downy veil; apex ochraceous, pruinose. Gills ochraceous, then 
ferruginous, adnate, quaternate, subdistant, edge flocculose. Flesh 
concolorous, becoming yellowish, thick, soft. Spores pale ferruginous, 
pip-shaped, 8-9 x 6-7 /LI, 1-guttulate. On wood, dead branches, earth, 
dead fern stems, and caddis worm cases. July Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

1138. N. conspersa (Pers.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 514, t. 512, fig. A. 

Conspersa, besprinkled. 

P. 1-2-5 cm., bay brown, or rufous cinnamon, ochraceous when dry, 
fragile, very hygrophanous, fleshy, campanulato-convex, then flat- 
tened, obtuse, even, soon furfuraceous and broken up into small scales. 
St. 2-5-5 cm. x 2 mm., cinnamon, ochraceous when dry, equal, fibrillose, 
apex squamuloso-furfuraceous, base white tomentose. Gills dark cinna- 
mon, adnate, then em&Tgiji&to-separating, linear, or ventricose, 
crowded. Flesh whitish, thin. Spores "ferruginous, elliptical, 9-11 x 
5-6 /*" Karst. Gregarious. Woods, heaths, and pastures. Aug. Oct. 
Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. uliginosa Fr. Uligo, marshy ground. 

Differs from the type in being twice or thrice as large in all its parts, 

in the fuscous rufescent, umbonate pileus, the long, twisted, umber st. 



360 NAUCORIA 

and the broader gills. Bogs, and amongst Sphagnum. Aug. Un- 
common. (v.v.) 



1139. N. escharoides Fr. eV^apoiS?;?, scab-like. 
P. 1-2 cm., tan, then whitish, disc at length becoming fuscous, fleshy, 

soft, conico-convex, soon flattened, obtuse, flocculoso-furfuraceous. 
St. 2-5-5 cm. x 2-3 mm., pallid, at length becoming fuscous, fragile, 
equal, flexuose, adpressedly fibrillose, or floccose, becoming smooth, 
apex pruinose. Gills pallid tan, then somewhat cinnamon, edge often 
pale and floccose, adfixed, or decurrent with a tooth, at length emargi- 
nate, somewhat free, ventricose, 3-4 mm. broad, lax. Flesh whitish, 
thin at the margin. Spores pale ferruginous, elliptical, 11-12 x 6/z, 
1-guttulate. Alder swamps, and bare damp ground. Aug. Oct. Not 
uncommon, (v.v.) 

1140. N. Wieslandri Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 126, fig. 3. J. Wieslander. 
P. 2-4 mm., tawny, fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, smooth, but 

the cuticle is soon areolately rivulose, hence spotted with darker, 
crowded, wart-like papillae. St. 5 cm. x 1 mm., becoming black, flaccid, 
almost naked. Gills at length dark ferruginous, adnate, broad. Flesh 
ferruginous, thin. Amongst short grass in woods. Sept. Kare. 

***P. destitute of scales, silky, or sprinkled with atoms. 

1141. N. carpophila Fr. (= Galera carpophila (Fr.) Quel.) Fr. Icon. 
t. 126, fig. 4. Aca/mo?, fruit; </>t\o<?, loving. 

P. 2-10 mm., tan, pallid, or whitish when dry, hygrophanous, sub- 
membranaceous, convex, obtuse, furfurate with shining atoms, some- 
times also floccoso-squamulose, striate, diaphanous ; margin crenulate 
with furfuraceous, fugacious flocci. St. 2-2-5 cm. x 1 mm., pallid, 
firm, furfuraceous, then naked. Gills pallid, then ochraceous, rounded, 
adnexed, somewhat free, ventricose, broad, subdistant, often crenu- 
late. Flesh yellowish, thin. Spores "rusty-yellowish in the mass, 
subpyriform, 7-8 x 4-5 /x, smooth. Cystidia on the edge of the gill 
filamentous-subulate" Kick. Beech leaves and mast. May Oct. 
Kare. (v.v.) 

1142. N. graminicola (Nees) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 515, t. 513, fig. B. 

Gramen, grass; colo, I inhabit. 

P. 5-8 mm., fuscous, then fawn ochraceous, submembranaceous, 
convex, papillate, shaggy tomentose. St. 1-5-2-5 cm. x 1 mm., be- 
coming fuscous, apex pale, tough, equal, hairy. Gills pale ochraceous, 
then pale cinnamon, slightly adnexed, subdistant. Flesh whitish, thin. 
Spores pale ferruginous, broadly elliptical, 6-7 x 4-5/A, 1-3-guttu- 
late. On grass stalks, and dead Pteris stalks. Aug. Oct. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 



* NAUCORIA. PSILOCYBE 361 

1143. N. effugiens Quel. (= Crepidotus EuU Berk. sec. Quel.) Quel. 
Jur. et Vosg. n, t. 2, fig. 3. Effugiens, escaping notice. 

P. 5-8 mm., ochraceous, then pale olivaceous greyish, convex, then 
plane, globose, diaphanous, covered with shining crystalline grains. 
St. 5x1 mm., cream olivaceous, curved, mealy, base villose. Gills 
cream colour, then brown, or olive, sinuato-free, or decurrent by a 
tooth. Flesh olivaceous, thin. Spores brown, broadly elliptical, 
9-10 x 5-6/A, with a large central gutta. Dead twigs and branches 
of pear. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

Spores purple, or fuscous. 

Psilocybe Fr. 
(^4X09, naked; KV@r), head.) 

Pileus fleshy, regular; margin at first incurved. Stem central, 
cartilaginous. Gills adnate, sinuato-adnate, or adnexed. Spores 
purple, fuscous, rarely pinkish fuscous ; elliptical, pip-shaped, almond- 
shaped or oblong elliptical; smooth, or verrucose, with an apical 
germ-pore. Cystidia present. Growing on the ground, or on wood, 
solitary, gregarious, caespitose, or subcaespitose. 

I. Veil accidental, rarely conspicuous. St. thick-skinned, flexile, 
most frequently coloured. P. pelliculose, most frequently slightly 
viscid in wet weather, becoming somewhat pale. Colour of p. 
bright. 

*Gills ventricose, not decurrent. 

1144. P. sarcocephala Fr. (= Psathyra sarcocephala (Fr.) Quel.) Fr. 
Icon. t. 135, fig. 1. crdp%, flesh; cee^aX?;, head. 

P. 3-12 cm., ferruginous, becoming pale, fleshy, convex, then ex- 
panded, obtuse, smooth, dry. St. 5-12 x -5-2 cm., whitish, sometimes 
becoming slightly ferruginous, equal, or slightly attenuated downwards, 
firm, smooth, apex white mealy, and somewhat squamulose. Gills 
whitish, then flesh colour and at length fuscous, adnate, ventricose, 
8-13 mm. broad, thick, fragile, not crowded. Flesh white, thick, firm. 
Spores pinkish fuscous, oblong elliptical, 9-10 x 4-5 /A, 1-2-guttulate. 
Cystidia broadly lanceolate, acute, 50-60 x 12-18 /JL. Taste pleasant. 
Edible. Solitary, or caespitose. Often at the base of trees. Woods, 
and pastures. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. Cookei Sacc. Cke. Illus. no. 591, t. 620. 

M. C. Cooke, the eminent English mycologist. 

Differs from the type in the larger, ochraceous, radiately rivulose, 

atlengthumbilicatep. Base of trees. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



362 PSILOCYBE 

1145. P. atrobrunnea (Lasch) Fr. Ater, black; brunnea, brown. 
P. 25 cm., brownish, fleshy, thin, campanulate, then convex, um- 

bonate. St. 6-12-5 cm. x 4-5 mm., paler than the p., fibrillose, apex 
white-mealy. Gills becoming brownish, adnexed, then separating, sub- 
distant, somewhat thick, wide. Spores dark brown, "9-12 x 5-6/x" 
Sacc. Smell and taste of radish. Marshes amongst Sphagna. Eare. 

1146. P. nemophila Fr. 1/6/409, wood; <j>i\of, loving. 
P. 4-10 cm., brick red, paler at the margin, fleshy, convex, 

obtuse, smooth. St. 7-10 x 1 cm., concolorous but paler, fusiformly 
attenuated downwards, naked. Gills pallid, deeply decurrent, very 
narrow, edge crisped and dentate. On the ground, under old trees. 
Eare. 

1147. P. helvola (Schaeff.) Massee. Schaeff. Icon. t. 210. 

Helvola, pale yellow. 

P. 2-4 cm., tawny ochraceous, disc darker, fleshy, campanulate, then 
expanded, obtuse, smooth, the cuticle often cracked into patches near 
the disc. St. 4-6 cm. x 3-4 mm., white, or tinged ochraceous, equal, 
fibrillose, often twisted ; base white, thickened, downy. Gills purplish 
umber, clouded, edge white, adnate, then separating from the st., 
broad, rather distant. Flesh pallid, thin at the margin. Spores 
"purplish brown, obliquely elliptical, ends pointed, 9-10 x 4-5 /A, 
warted" Massee. Amongst grass. Sept. Eare. 

1148. P. ericaea (Pers.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 136, fig. 1. epeiKt), heath. 
P. 2-4 cm., tawny ferruginous, tawny yellow, or date brown, fleshy, 

convex, then expanded, obtuse, slightly viscid when wet, dry and 
shining when dry. St. 7-10 cm. x 2-4 mm., paler than the p., be- 
coming yellowish, equal, tough, somewhat smooth, or silky. Gills 
pallid, becoming blackish, adnate, narrowed behind, 6-8 mm. broad, 
plane, edge whitish. Flesh yellow, thin. Spores fuliginous, broadly 
elliptical, 12-14 x 7-8 /LI. Cystidia "on surface of gill sparse, clavate 
with a prominent point, 30-36 x 9-10/i, contents yellowish, on edge 
of gill filamentous" Eick. Heaths, and damp pastures. May Oct. 
Common, (v.v.) 

1149. P. subericaea Fr. (= Psilocybe ericaea (Pers.) Fr. sec. Quel.) Fr. 
Icon. t. 136, fig. 2. 

Sub, somewhat; ericaea, the species P. ericaea 
P. 3-5 cm., tawny, fleshy, convex, then plane, smooth. St. 2-5-6 cm. 
x 2-5 mm., becoming yellow, equal, tough, smooth. Gills pallid, then 
fuscous purple, sinuato-adnate, 5-10 mm. broad. Flesh yellow, thin. 
Spores fuliginous purple, elliptical, or pip-shaped, 7-8 x 4/i. Heaths, 
and grassy places. June Sept. Common, (v.v.) 



PSILOCYBE 363 

1150. P. uda (Pers.) Fr. (= Flammuloides uda (Pers.) Quel.) Cke. 
Illus. no. 594, t. 569. Uda, moist. 

P. 1-2-5 cm., brick tawny, becoming pale, fleshy, convex, then flat- 
tened, often more or less umbonate, smooth, slightly wrinkled when 
old; margin often striate. St. 4 7-5 cm. x 2 4 mm., tawny ferrugi- 
nous, apex paler, equal, flexuose, fibrillose. Gills pallid, then becoming 
fuscous purple, adfixed, ventricose, 4-6 mm. broad, lax, plane, or 
convex. Flesh yellow, ferruginous towards the base of the st., thin. 
Spores purple, broadly elliptical, 8-11 x 5-6 /A, 1-2-guttulate. Cys- 
tidia "on the edge of the gill clavate-filamentous, 45-50 x 3-4/x" 
Rick. Swampy places and amongst Sphagna. Woods, and heaths. 
Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 
var. Polytrichi Fr. Polytrichum, a genus of mosses. 

Differs from the type in the p. being pallid yellow, becoming whitish 
especially at the margin, and at length plane and depressed, in the 
glabrous, pallid tawny st., and the whitish clouded gills at length be- 
coming decurrent, never becoming purple but often greenish. Amongst 
Polytricha. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 
var. elongata (Pers.) Fr. Elongata, tall. 

Differs from the type in the submembranaceous p. being livid, or 
greenish yellow, and striate when moist, becoming yellowish when dry. 
Amongst Sphagna in mountain pine woods. 

1151. P. canofaciens Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 595, t. 621. 

Canus, hoa,Ty,faciens, making. 

P. 2-4 cm., dark bay brown, disc ferruginous, fleshy, campanulate, 
then expanded, scarcely umbonate, clad everywhere as well as the st. 
with delicate, scattered, white hairs, which are soon evanescent at the 
apex; margin appendiculate with the white, fibrillose veil. St. 
5-7-5 cm. x 4-6 mm., concolorous, base very dark, subequal. Gills dark 
umber, adnate, 6 mm. broad, ventricose. Flesh of the p. pallid, of the 
st. rufescent, gradually darker downwards, thick at the disc. Spores 
umber brown, elliptic oblong, 17 x 8, 10 x 4ju. Caespitose. Rotten 
straw, and rubbish. May. Rare. 

1152. P. areolata (Klotzsch) Berk. Cke. Illus. no. 596, t. 570. 

Areolata, divided into small patches. 

P. 3-7-5 cm., ochraceous, or fuscous, fleshy, convex, minutely 
fibrillose, cuticle cracking into nearly equal, square patches, interstices 
and margin pale. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 4-6 mm., dirty white, equal, often 
thickened at the base, fibrillose. Gills umber, at length blackish, edge 
white and beaded with drops of moisture, adnate, 4-6 mm. broad. 
Flesh tinged brown, thick at the disc. Spores "blackish umber with 
a purple tinge, broadly almond-shaped, 12-13 x 8/u." Massee. Densely 
caespitose. On wood. Gardens. May Oct. Rare. 



364 PSILOCYBB 

1153. P. virescens (Cke. & Massee) Massee. Cke. Illus. no. 1182, 
t. 1177, as Psilocybe areolata Klot. var. 

Virescens, growing green. 

P. 3-5 cm., bright dark brown, fleshy, convex, obtuse, then ex- 
panded, minutely silky when young, the brown cuticle breaking up 
into persistent, angular patches, the interstices being clear pale green, 
becoming yellowish with age. St. 4-5 cm. x 6 mm., pale green, and 
strongly striate at the apex, ferruginous below, base snow-white, downy, 
equal, smooth, firm, straight, or slightly incurved. Grills pallid, then 
smoky purple, edge pale, adnexed, 6 mm. broad, rather crowded, soft. 
Flesh whitish, ferruginous towards the base of the St., thick at the disc. 
Spores sooty purple, elliptical, ends obtuse, 9 x 5/u. Solitary. On 
rotten chips, and stumps. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

1154. P. agraria Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 137, fig. 1. 

Agraria, pertaining to land. 

P. 2-5-5 cm., white, becoming cinereous when dry, fleshy, convex, at 
length flattened and then often umbonate, smooth. St. 4-5 cm. x 
2-4 mm., white, equal, smooth. Gills white, at length fuscous, obtusely 
adnate, linear. Flesh white, firm, not 2 mm. thick. Clay fields, and 
about the roots of decayed trees. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

1155. P. chondrodenna B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 599, t. 606, fig. A. 

%6vSpo<;, grain; Sep/j,a, skin. 

P. 2-3 cm., dark dale brown, fleshy, campanulate, very smooth, 
cracked here and there in different directions; margin appendiculate 
with the woven, jagged veil. St. 4-5 cm. x 5-6 mm., paler than the p., 
subequal, fibrillose, base squamulose. Gills dark brown, edge white, 
adfixed, separating, ventricose. Flesh yellowish, ferruginous towards 
the base of the st., thick at the disc. Spores "purple black, elliptical, 
6-7 x 3-3-5/z" Massee. Fir woods. Sept. Rare. 

1156. P. scobicola B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 598, t. 607. 

Scobis, saw-dust; colo, I inhabit. 

P. 2-5-4 cm., white, fleshy, convex, umbilicate, smooth. St. 2-5- 
4 cm. x 4 mm., whitish, subequal, or dilated at the apex, fibrillose. 
Gills brown with a red tinge, adnexed, broad. Flesh white, thin. Spores 
pale, elliptical, 8 x 5/A. On pine sawdust, and branches. Nov. Rare. 

**Gills plane, very broad behind, somewhat decurrent. 
(Deconica W. G. Sm.) 

1157. P. ammophila (Dur. & Mont.) Fr. (= Hypholoma ammo- 
philum (Mont.) Quel.) Cke. Illus. no. 599, t. 606, fig. B. 

a//,/io<?, sand; </>tA.o9, loving. 

P. 2-4 cm., reddish tan, becoming paler, fleshy, campanulate, then 
convex, and at length flattened, fibrillose. St. 4-5 cm. x 2-3 mm., 



PSILOCYBE 365 

white, becoming yellowish except at the apex, equal, basal half clavate, 
densely covered with matted mycelium and sunk in the sand, sometimes 
fusiform and rooting, striate. Gills smoky, then bistre purple, sub- 
decurrent with a tooth, 4 mm. broad. Flesh white, yellowish at the 
base of the st., very thin at the margin. Spores purple, broadly ellip- 
tical, 11-12 x 7-8 /z. Sands on the sea shore. Aug. Oct. Not un- 
common, (v.v.) 

1158. P. coprophila (Bull.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 600, t. 608, fig. A. 

/eoTTjOO?, dung; <tXo?, loving. 

P. 23 cm., rufescent tan, fleshy, hemispherical, then expanded, 
umbonate, slightly viscid, smooth. St. 2-5-4 cm. x 2-3 mm., rufescent, 
becoming pale, attenuated upwards, at first containing a pith, shaggy- 
flocculose, the smooth and shining apex pruinose. Veil reddish, 
floccose, very fugacious Gills livid, then fuscous, somewhat arcuato- 
decurrent, very broad, 4-6 mm., crowded. Flesh white, thin. Spores 
purple, "nearly lemon-shaped, 11-12 x 7 8ju,, smooth, with a very 
thick membrane. Cystidia cylindric-fusif orm, 40-50 x 8-10 p, " Rick. 
On dung, especially cow and rabbit. Pastures, and manure heaps. 
Sept. Jan. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1159. P. bullacea (Bull.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 600, t. 608, fig. B. 

Bullacea, having a knob. 

P. 1-2 cm., dark bay brown tawny, then ochraceous brick and tan 
when dry, fleshy, hemispherical, obtuse, then expanded, umbonate, 
covered with a viscid, separable pellicle, striate ; margin at first appen- 
diculate with the white, floccose, fugacious veil. St. 2-5-3 cm. x 
2 mm., slightly tawny, becoming yellow, fuscous ferruginous at the base, 
equal, or attenuated at the base, slightly fibrillose, apex pruinose. 
Gills livid-whitish, then fuscous purple, adnate, somewhat triangular, 
plane, crowded. Flesh brown, very thin at the margin. Spores purple, 
pip-shaped, 7-8 x 4-5 p. Cystidia "on the edge of the gill, filamentous " 
Rick. Gregarious. Horse dung, pastures, and amongst Polytricha. 
April Oct. Common, (v.v.} 

1160. P. physaloides (Bull.) Fr. Cke. Ulus. no. 601, t. 609, fig. A. 

<f>v<ra\i<;, a bladder; etSo?, like. 

P. 11-5 cm., fuscous purple, then tan, or flesh colour, paler round the 
margin, fleshy, campanulate, then expanded, at length flattened, 
with a prominent umbo, finally depressed round the umbo, often striate, 
pelliculoso-viscid, smooth, shining. St. 23 cm. x 2 mm., becoming 
pale, base date brown, equal, filiform, flexile, adpressedly fibrillose. 
Gills pallid, or flesh colour, then ferruginous-fuscous, adnate, subde- 
current, equally attenuated from the st. Flesh whitish, subferruginous 
at the base of the st., thin. Spores "yellowish under the microscope, 



366 PSILOCYBE 

oval, 8-9 x 5-6 /u-. Cystidia on edge of gill filamentous" Eick. 
Heaths, pastures, rarely on dung. Feb. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1161. P. atrorufa (Schaeff.) Fr. Schaefl. Icon. t. 234. 

Ater, black; rufa, red. 

P. 1-1-5 cm., black-rufous, or purple-fuscous, becoming very pale 
when dry, fleshy, hemispherico-convex, obtuse, or with a knob, 
smooth, striate at the margin when in full vigour, without striae when 
dry. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 2 mm., pallid date brown, equal, fibrillose, or 
smooth, fragile, apex pruinose. Gills greyish, then umber, or purple 
umber, adnate, subdecurrent, triangular, broad, edge white. Flesh 
thin. Spores "yellowish under the microscope, oval-elliptical, 7-8 x 
4-5/1. Cystidia on edge of gill fusiform-subulate, 30-36 x 4-6 /u," 
Rick. Mixed woods. Nov. Rare. 

1162. P. nuciseda Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 601, t. 609, fig. B. 

Nux, a nut; sedeo, I sit. 

P. 1-2 cm., light yellowish, fleshy, convex, subumbonate, slightly 
silky when dry. St. 2-3 cm. x 2 mm., pallid, becoming fuscous, at- 
tenuated downwards, tough, base white villose. Gills fuscous, then 
umber black, adnate, scarcely decurrent, broad, plane. Flesh yellow- 
ish, thin. Spores "brown, elliptical, 8 x 4/u," Massee. Beech mast, 
hazel nuts, and among chips. Rare. 

***Gills somewhat linear, ascending. 

1163. P. tegularis (Schum.) Fr. Tegula, a tile. 
P. tan colour, fleshy, acorn-shaped, then campanulate, smooth, 

rimosely areolate. St. pallid, attenuated upwards from the thickened base, 
firm. Gills becoming fuscous, attenuato-adnexed, ascending, crowded. 
Grassy places. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

1164. P. compta Fr. (= Agaricus comptulus B. & Br. non Fr.) Cke. 
Illus. no. 603, t. 589, fig. A. Compta, adorned. 

P. 2-5-4 cm., pallid, then ochraceous, submembranaceous, conical, 
then expanded, striate, sprinkled with shining spots; margin sub- 
crenulate. St. 5 cm. x 23 mm., pallid, pale rufous downwards, 
flexuose, silky-shining. Gills rosy umber, adnate, ascending, distant. 
Flesh white, thin. Spores purple brown. Amongst grass. Woods. 
Sept. Oct. Rare. 

1165. P. semilanceata Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 604, t. 572. 

Semi-, half; lanceata, spear-shaped. 

P. 1-2-5 cm., yellow, green, or fuscous, submembranaceous, acutely 
conical, almost cuspidate, 10-15 mm. high, never expanded, covered 
with a viscid pellicle, separable in wet weather; margin incurved when 



PSILOCYBE 367 

young, slightly striate. St. 4-7-5 cm. x 2 mm., pallid, equal, often 
flexuose, containing a pith, capable of being twisted round the finger, 
smooth, cortinate when young. Gills cream colour, then purple black, 
ascending into the apex of the cone, adnexed, almost linear, crowded. 
Flesh white, thin. Spores purple, 11-13 x 6-7-5 ju,. Cystidia on edge 
of gill flask-shaped, or fusiform-subulate, 18-22 x 5-7 /n. Woods, 
heaths, pastures, and roadsides. Aug. Dec. Common, (v.v.) 



Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 605, t. 573. 

Caerulescens, becoming blue. 

Differs from the type in the base of the st. turning indigo-blue. 
Heaths, and pastures. July Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1166. P. callosa Fr. Pers. Myc. Eur. t. 27, fig. 3. 

Callosa, thick-skinned. 

P. 1-2 cm., livid, becoming fuscous, yellow, or whitish, fleshy, conical, 
then campanulato-convex, obtuse, or broadly gibbous, smooth, dry. 
St. 5-7-5 cm. x 1-2 mm., yellowish, becoming pallid, equal, often 
flexuose, smooth, tough. Gills cream colour, then fuliginous black, 
adnate, ascending, ventricose, crowded. Flesh thin. Spores "dark to 
dark brown, elliptic-oval, triangular-globose, of various sizes and 
shapes, 5-11 x 4-6 /A" Herpell. Pastures, lawns, and roadsides. 
Aug. Oct. Uncommon. 

II. No veil. St. rigid. P. scarcely with a pellicle, but the flesh most 
frequently scissile, hygrophanous. Gills adnexed, very rarely 
adnate. 

1167. P. canobmnnea (Batsch) Fr. (= Psathyra canobrunnea (Batsch) 
Quel.) Canus, hoary; brunnea, brown. 

P. 5-8 cm., watery pallid, or fuscous flesh colour, becoming pallid 
tan, dry, fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, smooth, sometimes cracked 
into small squares, somewhat viscid when moist. St. 5-6 cm. x 6- 
10 mm., whitish, rigid, equal, rooting at the base, squamulose. Gills 
pallid, then fuscous purple, somewhat free, ventricose, 6 mm. broad, 
somewhat crowded. Flesh white, thick, firm. Spores "very dark in the 
mass, narrowly elliptical, 8-9 x 4-5/x, brown, almost opaque. Cys- 
tidia on edge of gill clavate-filamentous, 45-50 x 5-7 JM" Rick. Soli- 
tary, or laxly gregarious. Grassy places in woods, and burnt ground 
in beech woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

1168. P. spadicea Fr. (= Psathyra spadicea (Fr.) Quel.) 

Spadicea, date brown. 

P. 3-12 cm., date-brown-umber, becoming pale when dry, fleshy, 
convex, then plane, obtuse, smooth, moist in rainy weather, often 
broken up in cracks when dry, hygrophanous] margin inflexed when 



368 PSILOCYBE 

young. St. 4-10 cm. x 3-10 mm., white, firm, subcartilaginous, equal, 
often curved, smooth, silky. Grills whitish, then flesh colour, at length 
umber, rounded adnexed, crowded, arid. Flesh whitish, soft, somewhat 
thick at the disc. Spores brownish purple, elliptical, 9 x 5-6/u,, 1- 
guttulate. Solitary, or subcaespitose. On stumps, and on the ground. 
Woods, and pastures. April Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. hygrophila Fr. 7/309, moisture ; (1X09, loving. 

Differs from the type in its larger size, the bullate p., the long, 10 
15 cm., subfusiform rooting st., and the emarginate gills deeply decurrent 
in the form of lines. Base of ash trees, and stumps. Oct. Eare. 

var. polycephala Fr. TroXv?, many; Ke^a\f], head. 

Differs from the type in the more slender, densely crowded pilei, and 
the connately branched, thinner, flexuose stems. Prostrate trunks. 
Rare. 

1169. P. cernua (Fl. Dan.) Fr. (= Psathyra cernua (Fl. Dan.) Quel.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 607, t. 574. Cernua, nodding. 

P. 2-5-6 cm., livid, inclining to pale when moist, white when dry, 
hygrophanous, fleshy, fragile, campanulate, then flattened, obtuse, 
smooth, or atomate under a lens, slightly wrinkled when dry, often 
slightly pellucid-striate. St. 5-6 cm. x 3-4 mm., shining white, equal, 
round, rigid-fragile, sometimes curved, smooth, apex mealy. Gills 
white, then cinereous-blackish, adnate, at first linear, then ventricose, 
2-4 mm. broad. Flesh white, thin at the margin. Spores "dark 
brown in the mass, brown under the microscope, subcylindrical, 
7-8 x 3-4/A, smooth. Cystidia on edge of gill clavate-bottle-shaped, 
36-40 x 12-20 ju," Rick. Solitary, or gregarious. On dead wood, 
chips, leaves. Aug. Dec. Uncommon. 

1170. P. squalens Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 137, fig. 2. Squakns, dirty. 
P. 2*5-5 cm., ferruginous, with a lurid tinge, becoming pale and dirty 

tan when dry, fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, or depressed, smooth. 
St. 2-55 cm. x 24 mm., concolorous, equal, slightly rigid, obsoletely 
fibrillose, apex somewhat pruinose, striate. Gills clay colour, then 
umber cinnamon, adnato-decurrent, ventricose, 4 mm. broad, crowded. 
Flesh becoming whitish, thin. Spores fuscous ferruginous. Solitary, 
or subcaespitose. On rotten trunks. Rare. 

1171. P. hebes Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 137, fig. 3, minor. Hebes, blunt. 
P. 23 cm., lurid, pale when dry, hygrophanous, fleshy, convex, then 

expanded, obtuse, smooth, somewhat viscid, slightly striate at the 
margin when moist, even when dry. St. 4-5 cm. x 4 mm., becoming 
pale white, cartilaginous, rigid, equal, smooth. Gills white, becoming f us- 



PSILOCYBE. PANAEOLUS 369 

cous, wholly adnate, very broad behind, triangular, rigid, arid, crowded. 
Flesh cinereous, thin at the margin. Spores black purple, "elliptical, 
14-16 x 7/x"Massee. Commonly solitary. On trunks in beech woods, 
and amongst grass and leaves near chestnut trees. Nov. Rare. 

1172. P. foenisecii (Pers.) Fr. (== Psathyra foenisecii (Pers.) Quel.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 608, t. 590. Foenisecia, hay-harvest. 

P. 1-5-2-5 cm., pale fuliginous fuscous, or brown, becoming pak from 
the disc outwards in drying, fleshy, campanulato-convex, obtuse, 
smooth, slightly wrinkled in very dry weather. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 2- 
4 mm., rufescent, at first paler and white pulverulent, somewhat 
pubescent, then naked, equal, rigid fragile, tense and straight. Gills 
inclining to fuscous, livid fuscous at the sides, then umber, adnate, ven- 
tricose in front, hence appearing broadly emarginate, subdistant, edge 
white. Flesh whitish, thin at the margin. Spores cinereous purple, 
almond-shaped, 12-15 x 7-9/z. Cystidia on edge of gill cylindrical, 
flexuose, apex obtuse, 4-7 /z in diam., base ventricose, 29-42 x 9-1 1/z. 
Taste mild. Edible. Pastures, lawns, heaths, and roadsides. Feb. 
Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

1173. P. clivensis B. & Br. Cke. lUus. no. 1183, t. 969. 

Clivensis, belonging to a hill. 

P. 2-3 cm., pallid brown, then pallid ochre inclining to white, sub- 
hemispherical, smooth, sprinkled with shining particles; margin striate. 
St. 2-54 cm. x 2-3 mm., whitish, nearly equal, base slightly clavate, 
somewhat silky. Gills umber, edge white, adnate, widely emarginate, 
45 mm. broad, ventricose in front. Flesh brownish, becoming whitish, 
thin. Spores cinereous purple, broadly elliptical, 9-10 x 6-7 /z, 1-2- 
guttulate. Heaths, and pastures. June Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1174. P. catervata Massee. Catervata, crowded. 
P. 1-1-5 cm., snow white, campanulate, obtuse, smooth, satiny. 

St. 4-5 cm. x 2 mm., white, equal, usually rather wavy, shining, brittle. 
Gills grey, then brown with a tinge of purple, edge white, slightly ad- 
nexed, rather broad, crowded. Flesh white, rather thick. Spores 
brown with a purple tinge, elliptic-oblong, 12 x 4ju,. Densely fascicu- 
late. On the ground. Oct. Rare. 

P. spadiceo-grisea (SchaefL) Boud. = Psathyra spadiceo-grisea (Schaeff.) 
Fr. 

Spores black, or blackish. 

Panaeolus Fr. 
(Travaio\o<$, all variegated.) 

Pileus slightly fleshy, regular, viscid, or dry, margin exceeding the 
gills. Gills adnate, or adnexed, variegated with the dark spores. 
Spores black, or fuscous black, elliptical, oblong ovate, boat-shaped, 
B, B. B. 24 



370 PANAEOLUS 

or almond-shaped; smooth, with an apical germ-pore. Cystidia 
present. Growing on dung and rich soil, solitary, or caespitose. 

*P. viscid, shining when dry. 

1175. P. leucophanes B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 625, t. 927, fig. A. 

\evic6$, white; <f>at,va), I appear. 

P. 2-3 cm., white, here and there somewhat ochraceous, campanulate, 
obtuse, viscid, shining when dry, innately silky; margin appendiculate 
with the veil. St. 5-8 cm. x 2-4 mm., white, attenuated upwards, 
fibrillose, sprinkled with mealy particles, somewhat transversely un- 
dulated. Gills pallid grey flesh colour, then black, adnate, edge white. 
Flesh white, thin at the margin. Spores black, "red-brown under the 
microscope, elliptical, with a flattened germ-pore, 10-12 x 6-7 /*. 
Cystidia on edge of gill clavate-vesiculose, 30-36 x 9-lOju," Kick. 
Pastures. Aug. Rare. 

1176. P. egregius Massee. Cke. Illus. no. 624, t. 624. 

Egregius, distinguished. 

P. 4-5 cm., bright orange brown, disc darker, fleshy, ovate-campanu- 
late, 6 cm. high, smooth, viscid when moist, with a trace of agglutinated 
down, slightly wrinkled when dry; margin exceeding the gills. St. 
12-5 cm. x 12 mm., pale brown, duller than the p., slightly thickened 
at the base, fibrillose, readily splitting longitudinally, base white 
and cottony, apex smooth. Gills brownish black, with a tinge of purple 
at maturity, adnexed, ventricose, 12 mm. broad, thin, crowded, dry, 
not deliquescent; edge paler. Flesh ochraceous, thick at the disc. 
Spores brown, then blackish, oblong ovate, with a minute apiculus, 
15-17 x 7-8/x,. Solitary. On the ground. Jan. Rare. 

1177. P. phalaenamm Fr. <f>d\cuva, a moth. 
P. 14 cm., clay white, fleshy, campanulato-convex, obtuse, viscid, 

smooth ; margin appendiculate with the fugacious veil. St. 6-10 cm. 
x 3-4 mm., pallid rufescent, equal, slightly firm, pruinose. Gills grey, 
then cinereous black, adnexed, broad. Flesh pallid, thin. Spores black, 
"elliptical, 10 x 6/n" Massee. On dung, especially cow. Rich pas- 
tures. July Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

**P. moist, opaque, bibulous, subflocculose when dry. 

1178. P. retirugis Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 628, t. 627. 

Rete, a net; ruga, a wrinkle. 

P. 13 cm.., flesh tan colour, or pale grey, fleshy, globose, then hemi- 
spherical, often subumbonate, reticulate with raised ribs, atomate, 
opaque; margin appendiculate with the dentate, torn, fugacious veil. 
St. 5-9 cm. x 2-4 mm., flesh colour, becoming purple, equal, pruinose. 
Gills cinereous blackish, adfixed, ascending. Flesh thin. Spores black, 
"olive black under the microscope, nearly lemon-shaped, 12-14 x 8- 



PAN AEOLUS 371 

9/M, smooth. Cystidia on edge of gill filamentous-clavate, 30-36 x 5- 
6/z" Rick. On dung. Pastures, and parks. April Nov. Not un- 
common, (v.v.) 

1179. P. sphinctrinus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 629, t. 628. 

a-faytcTijp, a band. 

P. 1-3 cm., fuliginous, or fuliginous grey, livid when dry, hygro- 
phanous, fleshy, oval, then campanulate, 2-2-5 cm. high, never ex- 
panded, obtuse, always opaque, moist in rainy weather, somewhat silky 
when dry; margin crenate with the appendiculate, fugacious, white veil. 
St. 2*5 7-5 cm. x 2-4 mm., fuliginous grey, tense and straight, equal, 
fragile, pruinose, apex smooth. Gills cinereous blackish, adnate, 
ascending, crowded, edge often white. Flesh reddish, fairly thick. 
Spores black, globose-elliptical, 13-14 x 9-10/z, with a hyaline germ- 
pore at each end. Cystidia on the edge of the gill cylindrical, 
flexuose, apex obtuse, 4-5 p in diam., base often subventricose, 
30-38 x 6-7 fj,. Rich pastures, and garden soil. April Nov. Common. 
(v.v.) 

***P. dry, smooth, slightly shining, not zoned. 

1180. P. campanulatus (Linn.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 630, t. 629. 

Campanulatus, bell-shaped. 

P. 13 cm., fuscous fuliginous, rufescent when dry, fleshy, campanu- 
late, at length convex, often umbonate, slightly viscid when moist, 
then somewhat shining, often excoriated when dry. St. 6-9 cm. x 
2-4 mm., rufescent, whitish pruinose at first, equal, tense and straight, 
apex striate. Grills varying grey and black, adnate, ascending, crowded, 
edge often white, and distilling watery drops. Flesh reddish, thin. 
Spores black, almond-shaped, 10-12 x J-Sp,. Cystidia cylindrical, 
flexuose, apex obtuse, 4-6/z in diam., 35-40 x 7-9 /z. On dung, 
especially horse. Pastures, and gardens. June Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

1181. P. papilionaceus (Bull.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 631, t. 630. 

Papilionaceus, like a butterfly. 

P. 2-4 cm., pallid, or pale grey, disc reddish, hemispherical, pruinose, 
rimosely cracked when dry. St. 2-5-7 cm. x 3-6 mm., whitish, equal, 
or attenuated downwards, apex white pulverulent. Gills blackish, 
broadly adnate, 6-15 mm. broad, at length plane, edge often white. 
Flesh pallid, then whitish, thick at the disc. Spores black, almond- 
shaped, 14-15 x 7-8 JM, with a large central gutta. Cystidia "on edge 
of gill clavate-capitate, 30-36 x 6-7 /A" Rick. On dung, and on the 
ground. Pastures, and woods. June Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1182. P. caliginosus (Jungh.) Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 632, t. 631, fig. A. 

Caliginosus, dark. 

P. 1-2 cm., brown, fleshy, campanulate, obtuse, smooth. St. 4-7 cm. 
x 2 mm., concolorous, equal, even, naked. Veil very thin, or obsolete. 

242 



372 PANAEOLUS 

Gills fuliginous black, slightly adnexed, ascending, lanceolate. Flesh 
thin. Spores "blackish, elliptical, 10 x 6-7 /A" Massee. Rich pas- 
tures, and lawns. Oct. Nov. Rare. 

****P. dry, smooth, zoned round the margin. 

1183. P. subbalteatus B. & Br. Cke. Illus. no. 632, t. 631, fig. B. 

Sub, somewhat; balteatus, belted. 

P. 25 cm., dull deep fawn colour, pallid when dry, hygrophanous, 
fleshy, convex, margin slightly incurved, then expanded, obtuse, or 
slightly umbonate, irregular, slightly wrinkled, marked near the margin 
with a dark, narrow zone. St. 5-8 cm. x 2 mm., red brown, equal, 
brittle, stringy, splitting longitudinally, marked with short white fibrils. 
Gills brownish, adnate, slightly ventricose, edge white, slightly toothed. 
Flesh brownish, thick at the disc. Spores "black, opaque, almost 
lemon-shaped, 13-14 x 8-9/A. Cystidia on edge of gill filamentous, 
with a brown apex, 36-45 x 6-7 /u," Rick. Caespitose. In a tare-field. 
Sept. Oct. Rare. 

1184. P. acuminatus Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 633, t. 632, fig. A. 

Acuminatus, pointed. 

P. 1-5-2-5 cm., flesh tan colour, fleshy, conical, acuminate, smooth, 
shining, zoned with a blackish line round the margin which is at first 
crenulate. St. 2-5-7-5 cm. x 2-3 mm., pallid above, fuscous below, 
equal, pruinose, base thickened. Gills whitish, then blackish, adnexed, 
ventricose, broad. Flesh pallid, fuscous towards the base of the st., 
thin. Spores black, "opaque when mature, lemon-shaped, 12-15 x 
8-10ju. Cystidia on edge of gill filamentous, 50-70 x 4-6 /x" Rick. 
On dung. Pastures, and roadsides. Oct. Nov. Rare. 

1185. P. fimicola Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 633, t. 632, fig. B. 

Fimus, dung; colo, I inhabit. 

P. 1-2 cm., fuliginous grey, clay hoary when dry, fleshy, campanu- 
late, then convex, obtuse, smooth, opaque, marked round the margin 
with a narrow fuscous zone, and inside this with a white one. St. 
5-10 crn. x 2 mm., becoming dingy pale, equal, soft-fragile, obsoletely 
slightly silky striate, apex white pruinose. Gills variegated grey and 
fuliginous, adnate, slightly rounded, somewhat ventricose, broad, 
almost semi-ovate, edge often white. Flesh grey white, thin. Spores 
brownish black, "nearly transparent, subelliptical, 11-12 x 7-8 p,, 
smooth. Cystidia on edge of gill, cylindrical-filamentous, rarely flask- 
shaped, 40-50 x 6-12/i" Rick. On dung. Rich pastures. April 
Oct. Uncommon. 

var. cinctnhis (Bolt.) Cke. Bolt. Hist. Fung. t. 152. 

Cinctulus, a little girdle. 
Differs from the type in the reddish cinnamon p. with broad brown 



PANAEOLUS. MYCENA 373 

marginal zone, and the dingy brown st. On dunghills after rain. June 

July. Not found since the time of Bolton. 

P. caudatus (Fr.) Quel. = Psathyrella caudate Fr. 

P. atomatus (Fr.) Quel. = Psathyrella atomata Fr. 

tfMargin of pileus straight, at first adpressed to the stem. 

Spores white. 

Mycena Fr. 

(jiv/cr)*;, a fungus.) 

Pileus fleshy, or submembranaceous, regular; margin straight, 
never incurved. Stem central, cartilaginous. Gills adnate, or sinuato- 
adnate with a decurrent tooth. Spores white, elliptical, oval, globose, 
or oblong elliptical; smooth, punctate, or verrucose; continuous. 
Cystidia present, very rarely absent. Growing on the ground, or on 
wood; solitary, or caespitose. 

I. St. juiceless, base not dilated into a disc. Edge of gills 
darker, denticulate. 

1186. M. pelianthina Fr. (= Mycena denticulata (Bolt.) Quel.) Cke. 
Illus. no. 216, t. 156, fig. 1. 7T\iaivojjiai, to be livid. 

P. 2-4 cm., pale purple livid, becoming whitish when dry, diaphanous, 
fleshy, convex, obtuse, or obsoletely umbonate; margin striate. St. 
5-8 cm. x 2-5 mm., concolorous, equal, sometimes incurved at the 
base, firm, apex fibrillosely striate. Gills dark violaceous, edge blackish 
violet, denticulate, truncato-adnexed, very sinuate, distant, very ele- 
gantly connected by a network of veins. Flesh whitish, somewhat yellow- 
ish under the pellicle of the p., thick at the disc. Spores white, elliptical, 
67 x 3jii, 1-2-guttulate. Basidia clavate, with 4-sterigmata. Cys- 
tidia filled with a dark purplish juice or colourless, cylindric-fusiform, 
60-100 x 10-12jLt. Smell of radish. Amongst dead leaves in woods, 
especially beech. Aug. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

1187. M. carneosanguinea Eea. Caro, flesh; sanguinea, blood-red. 
P. 2-5-3 cm., livid grey, disc tinging rufous, becoming paler, fleshy, 

convex, subumbonate, smooth. St. 4 cm. x 5-9 mm., grey, equal, 
base yellowish, incrassated, clad with short mycelial strands. Gills 
dull purplish brown, adnate, broad in front; edge denticulate, blood-red. 
Flesh of p. and apex of st. white, changing to blood-red. Spores white, 
elliptical, 4-5 x 2-3/x, 1-guttulate. Woods. Aug. Sept. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

1188. M. marginella Fr. (= Mycena mirabilis Cke. & Quel.) Cke. 
Illus. no. 1148, t. 951, fig. A, as Mycena mirabilis Cke. & Quel. 

Margo, a border. 

P. 6-8 mm., somewhat fuscous when young, fleshy, campanulate, 
umbo darker, smooth, slightly striate elsewhere and somewhat 



374 MYCENA 

azure-blue-floccose. St. 6-7 cm. x 1-2 mm., azure-blue-floccose, equal, 
tomentosely rooting. Gills white, or cinereous, slightly adnexed, dis- 
tant; edge fringed with azure-blue, or red floccules. Flesh tinged with 
blue, thin at the margin. Spores white. Fir trunks amongst Hypnum 
cupressiforme. Aug. Sept. Uncommon. 

1189. M. avenacea (Fr.) Schroet. Avenacea, oaten. 
P. 1-2-5 cm., dirty yellowish brown, disc often darker and obtusely 

umbonate, submembranaceous, campanulate, 1 cm. high, wrinkled 
when dry; margin striate. St. 5-6 cm. x 1-2 mm., yellowish brown, 
apex paler, equal, tough, shining, base white floccose. Gills dirty white, 
or greyish, slightly adnexed, fairly distant, 1-5-2 mm. broad; edge 
floccose, brown. Spores white, ovate ellipsoid, 9-11 x 5-6 /i. Cystidia 
filled with a brownish juice, flask-shaped, pointed above, sometimes 
branched, attenuated at base, 45-70 x 6-12 x 2-5-3/x at apex. 
Woods, hedgerows and wood stacks. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon. 
(9.9.) 

var. olivaceo-marginata (Massee) Rea. Cke. Ulus. no. 1153, t. 959, 
fig. A, as Mycena olivaceo-marginata Massee. 

Olivaceus, olive-coloured; marginata, bordered. 
Differs from the type in the smaller spores, 6-7 x 4-5 /i. Amongst 
short grass in pastures, hill sides, and hedgerows. Sept. Nov. Not 
uncommon, (v.v.) 

1190. M. aurantio-marginata Fr. Fl. Dan. t. 1292. 

Aurantius, orange; marginata, bordered. 

P. 1-2 cm., olivaceous-fuscous, or olivaceous tan, becoming paler, 
fleshy, campanulate, then convex, obtuse, or obsoletely umbonate, 
smooth; margin striate when moist. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 2-4 mm., yellow- 
ish, or greyish, firm, equal, smooth, base inflated ventricose, clothed with 
strigose yellow hairs. Gills grey, then greenish livid, very attenuato- 
adnexed, very ventricose, crowded, connected by veins ; edge orange, 
floccose. Flesh fuscous, becoming whitish, thick at the disc. Spores 
white, elliptical, or pip-shaped with a lateral apiculus, 6-8 x 4-5/i. 
Cystidia filled with a yellowish juice, broadly clavate, or bludgeon- 
shaped, coarsely verrucose, 30-34 x 12/z. Smell none, or strong. 
Grassy places in woods and amongst conifer needles. Aug. Nov. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1191. M. elegans (Pers.) Fr. Elegans, graceful. 
P. 10-12 mm., yellow fuscous, or light yellow livid, opaque, mem- 

branaceous, campanulate, more or less umbonate; margin saffron 
coloured, slightly sulcate. St. 5-6 cm. x 2 mm., deep, or light yellow, 
apex paler, rigid, tense and straight, equal, base attached to its sup- 
port by yellow bristling filaments. Gills greyish, adnate, decurrent with 



MYCENA 375 

a tooth, linear, 2 mm. broad ; edge darker, saffron yellow. Flesh white, 
thin. Spores white, elliptical, with a basal, or subbasal apiculus, 
8-9 x 4-5 JM. Cystidia "content dark yellow, obovate or bludgeon- 
shaped, prickly, warted, about 9-1 Ifj, broad" Lange. Coniferous 
woods. July Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

1192. M. atro-marginata Fr. (= Mycena balanina Berk. sec. Quel.) 
Fr. Icon. t. 78, fig. 3. Ater, black; marginata, bordered. 

P. 1-53 cm., cinereous-fuscous, or purplish fuscous, paler at the 
margin, very membranaceous, conical, then conico-campanulate, 
1-5-3 cm. high, lax, deeply sulcate, smooth, slightly viscid when moist. 
St. 4-10 cm. x 2-4 mm., concolorous, apex paler, strict, very fragile, 
equal, or slightly attenuated upwards, sometimes twisted, sulcate', 
base rooting, white tomentose. Gills whitish grey, then flesh colour, 
slightly adnexed, attenuated behind, almost linear, narrow, 2-3 mm. 
broad, subdistant, often slightly connected by veins; edge black, very 
thin. Flesh white, purplish in the stem, thin. Spores white, oblong- 
elliptic, 10-12 x 7/x, with a large central gutta. Pine woods. Sept. 
Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1193. M. balanina Berk. (= Mycena atro-marginata Fr. sec. Quel.) 
Cke. Illus. no. 216, t. 156, fig. 2. fiaXavos, an acorn. 

P. 2-4 cm., ochraceous with a slight tinge of umber, fleshy membrana- 
ceous, convex, somewhat campanulate, obtusely umbonate, at length 
more or less expanded, minutely pulverulent, slightly rugulose, striate 
when moist. St. 6-7 cm. x 2-4 mm., white and pruinose above, deep 
sienna-brown below, attenuated downwards, flexuose, rigid, shining, 
quite smooth; base dark brown, villose. Gills pale, or whitish with a 
pinkish tinge, quite free, rounded, 3 mm. broad, connected by veins, 
edge fringed with dull purple spiculae, which are also sprinkled over the 
surface. On beech mast, and amongst oak leaves. 

1194. M. rubro-marginata Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 78, fig. 4. 

Ruber, red; marginata, bordered. 

P. 12 cm., red-livid, or purple fuscous, becoming pale, sometimes 
almost white, hygrophanous, membranaceous, campanulate, obtuse, 
striate, smooth. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 2-3 mm., pallid livid, rigid-fragile, 
equal, often curved, smooth, base slightly thickened. Gills whitish, 
then grey, adnate, with a small decurrent tooth, distant; edge fuscous 
purple, then brown. Flesh whitish, thin. Spores white, boat-shaped, 
12-13 x 3-4-5/z, 1-guttulate. Cystidia "claviform, pointed at the 
free end, 50-60 x 10-16/u, filled with brownish juice" Barbier; "with 
one or more sterigma-like projections on the top" Rick. Pine, and 
larch woods. July Nov. Common, (v.v.) 



376 MYCENA 

var. fusco-purpurea (Lasch) Cke. Fuscus, brown; purpurea, purple. 

Differs from the type in the purple brown p., the finely striate st. 
villosely rooting at the base, and the eroded, brown edge of the gills. 
Willow trunks, and amongst dead leaves. Sept. Uncommon. 



1195. M. strobilina Fr. o-rpo/StXtvo?, belonging to a pine cone. 

P. 6-12 mm., persistently scarlet, often paler at the circumference, 
membranaceous, conical, then campanulate, acutely umbonate, slightly 
striate, smooth, dry. St. 3-5 cm. x 1-2 mm., concolorous, slightly 
rigid, equal, smooth, base white strigose. Gills rosy red, adnate, de- 
current with a tooth, distant, alternate ; edge darker, deep blood colour. 
Flesh reddish, very thin at the margin. Spores white, elliptical, 
7-9 x 4-4-5/A, 1-guttulate. Cystidia " on edge of gill elongate-vesicu- 
lose, 45-50 x 15-18/x" Rick. Gregarious. On pine needles, occa- 
sionally in beech woods. Sept. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1196. M. rosella Fr. (= Mycena rosea (Pers.) Sacc.) 

Rosella, somewhat rose-coloured. 

Rose colour, becoming pale. P. 7-10 mm., membranaceous, cam- 
panulate, then hemispherical, obtusely umbonate, slightly hygro- 
phanous, striate. St. 2-3-5 cm. x 1 mm., equal, soft, base white 
tomentose. Gills rose colour, adnate, with a tooth, subdistant, edge 
blackish purple. Flesh white, reddish in the st., very thin at the margin. 
Spores white, elliptical, 7-8 x 4/u,. Cystidia "obovate or bludgeon- 
shaped, 42 x 7-15ju,, occasionally the apex drawn out, somewhat 
bottle-neck-like, the free portion more or less warted, filled with a 
reddish or pinkish juice" Lange and Schroeter. On coniferous needles. 
June Dec. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1197. M. atrovirens Rea. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. vi, t. 7. 

Ater, black; virens, green. 

P. 8 mm., blackish green, paler and whitish at the striate margin, 
bright green at the circumference, slightly fleshy, hemispherical, smooth, 
somewhat viscid on the disc at first. St. 3 cm. x 1 mm., cinereous, 
or greyish fuliginous, equal, smooth. Gills whitish, green and minutely 
toothed on the edge especially towards the margin of the p., adnate, 
2 mm. broad, subdistant, attenuated in front. Flesh fuscous, thin. 
Smell and taste none. Spores white, elliptical, or pip-shaped, often 
with an oblique apiculus, 5-6 x 3/u,, minutely punctate; basidia 
clavate, 23-25 x 6-7 p,, with 4-sterigmata. Cystidia on edge of gill 
abundant, often fasciculate, slightly clavate, or cylindrical, 35-40 x 
3-4 /A, flexuose, filled with a greenish juice, thin walled. Beech stumps. 
Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 



MYCENA 377 

II. St. juiceless, base not dilated into a disc. Gills unicolorous, not 
changing colour. P. pure coloured, bright, not becoming fuscous, nor 
cinereous. 

1198. M. pura (Pers.) Fr. (= M ycena pseudopura Cke.) Pura, clean. 
P. 28 cm., rose, purple, lilac, bluish-grey, or white, fleshy, cam- 

pamilate, then expanded, at length rather plane, sometimes um- 
bonate; margin striate. St. 3 10 cm. x 2-6 mm., concolorous, or 
whitish, tough, polished, equal, or attenuated upwards when larger, 
smooth, base white villose. Gills pallid, or whitish, adnate, broad, 
ventricose, connected by veins. Flesh white, thin at the margin. Spores 
white, elliptical, 6-9 x 3-5-4/n, 1-2-guttulate. Cystidia on gill edge 
only, hyaline, cylindrical, broadly fusiform, or bladder-like, obtuse, 
more rarely somewhat pointed, becoming larger with age, 4560 x 
11-20 x 5-10/x, at apex. Smell and taste of radish. Poisonous. 
Woods and pastures. June Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

var. carnea Rea. Carnea, fleshy. 

Differs from the type in the fleshy, fibrillose st. Amongst oak and 

beech leaves in deciduous woods. Aug. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. multicolor Bres. Bres. Fung. Trid. t. 114. 

MuUus, many; color, colour. 

P. 3-5-5 cm., bright greyish blue, umbo fulvous. St. 5-7 cm. x 4- 
8 mm., rosy purple, base becoming yellowish, white tomentose. Gills 
grey. Spores white, elliptical, 5 x 3/i (7-9 x 4-5/A Bres.). Cystidia 
cylindrical, or ventricosely fusiform, rarely subclavate. Amongst 
leaves. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1199. M. zephirus Fr. (= Mycena spiripes (Schwartz) Sacc.) Fr. 
Icon. t. 78, fig. 6. Ze^vpo?, the west wind. 

P. 2-3 cm., livid reddish, whitish flesh colour, or greyish, disc occa- 
sionally becoming fuscous, diaphanous, submembranaceous, campanu- 
late, then convex, striate to the middle. St. 3-8 cm. x 2-4 mm., lilac, 
becoming rufescent, fragile, equal, or slightly attenuated upwards, 
slightly striate, at first clad with deciduous, white scales; base incurved, 
woolly. Gills white, or flesh coloured, adnate, subdecurrent with a 
small tooth, at length separating, broad, slightly connected by veins. 
Flesh pallid, thin at the margin. Spores white, pip-shaped, 7-9 x 4/u, 
1-4-guttulate. Cystidia "obovate, globose, or clavate, 40-60 x 16- 
25 ,u, crowned with 1-4-finger-like, often branched protuberances, 
sometimes only toothed" v. Hoehnel. Gregarious. Amongst fir 
needles, or decayed fir wood, and amongst dead leaves. Sept. Dec. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1200. M. Seynii Quel. Quel. Soc. bot. Fr. xxm, t. 2, fig. 9. M. de Seynes. 
P. 1-2 cm., rosy vinous, disc greyish, pellucid, very thin, campanu- 



378 MYCENA 

late, then convex, silky. St. 35 cm. x 2 mm., hyaline white, be- 
coming purplish, often flattened, bristling with white hairs at the 
base. Gills rose, or lilac, adnate by a tooth, distant, reticulately con- 
nected by veins, firm. Spores white, punctate, elliptical, 7-13 [JL, 
barrel-shaped. Smell none, taste like turnips. Fasciculate. Pine 
cones. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

1201. M. flavipes Quel. (= Mycena Renati Quel.) Quel. Jur. et Vosg. 
ii, t. 1, fig. 4. Flavus, light yellow; pes, foot. 

P. -5-2 cm., rosy pink, or violaceous, disc brownish, membranaceous, 
campanulate, striate, pellucid, smooth, wrinkled when dry. St. 
25 cm. x 12 mm., yellow amber, pellucid, tough, curved, shining, 
villose base swollen. Gills white, then flesh colour, adnate with a tooth, 
distant, connected by veins. Flesh yellow in the st., very thin. Spores 
white, elliptical, 11-12 x 6-7 /*, punctate. Cystidia "only on the edge 
of the gill, very numerous, threadlike above, long and ventricose 
below, 26-35 x 10-lQp" v. Hoehnel. Smell faint, of radish. On fir 
branches, and stumps. June Sept. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1202. M. clavus (Linn.) Rea. (= Mycena rubella Quel.) Boud. Icon. 
t. 68, as Mycena rubella Quel. Clavus, a nail. 

P. 512 mm., orange scarlet, disc often darker, fleshy, conico-convex, 
then plane, umbo acute, diaphanous, smooth; margin pale, striate. 
St. 2-4 cm. x 2 mm., white, hyaline, with a fugacious, rosy tint at 
the apex, equal, smooth, base woolly. Gills white, then rose colour, 
edge paler, adnexed. Flesh of p. red. of st. white, very thin. Spores 
white, elliptical, or pip-shaped, 6-7 x 3-4/z, multigranular. Cystidia 
"only on the edge of the gill, sparse, rigid and threadlike above, 
ventricose below, 28-32 x 10/x," v. Hoehnel. On twigs, leaves, and 
amongst mosses. Aug. Dec. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1203. M. coccinea (Sow.) Quel. Coccinea, scarlet colour. 
P. 5-12 mm., rosy-red, somewhat orange, membranaceous, cam- 
panulate, striate; margin incurved, wrinkled. St. 2-3 cm. x 1 mm., 
rose colour, equal, smooth ; base subbulbose, white strigose. Gills rosy, 
emarginate. Flesh of p. red, whitish or yellowish in the st., very thin. 
Spores white, pip-shaped, or elliptical, with a basal apiculus, 8-10 x 
5-6 /A. Cystidia hyaline, flask-shaped, ventricose, apex pointed, or 
obtuse, often constricted at about one-third of its length from the 
apex, 25-35 x 7-10 x 3-5/z at apex. On larch cones, twigs and 
needles. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1204. M. Adonis (Bull.) Fr. Adonis, son of Cinyras, king of Cyprus. 
P. 610 mm., rose-red, margin whitish, membranaceous, campanu- 
late, 6-8 mm. high, minutely and almost obsoletely papillate, smooth, 
pellucidly striate. St. 35 cm. x 1 mm., shining white, pellucid, fiexuose, 



MYCENA 379 

equal, smooth; base swollen, strigose. Gills white, or flesh coloured, 
uncinato-adnexed, ascending, very thin, narrow, somewhat distant. 
Flesh of pileus red, of st. white, very thin. Spores white, elliptical, 
often with a basal apiculus, 7-8 x 4/u,, 1-3-guttulate. Basidia "2- 
spored. Cystidia awl-shaped-conical, long, pointed, up to 60 p," 
Lange. Woods and pastures. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1205. M. chlorantha Fr. (= Mycena wrens (Bull.) Quel.) Trans. 
Brit. Myc. Soc. in, t. 7, as Mycena wrens (Bull.) Quel. 

%X&)/)05, grass green; avOos, flower. 

P. 10-15 mm., olive green, becoming paler, disc yellow, membrana- 
ceous, conico-campanulate, 4-8 mm. high, then expanded, obtuse, 
smooth, striate when moist. St. 2-5-10 cm. x 2-3 mm., bluish, 
transparent, firm, straight, smooth, base white villose. Gills white 
with a slight tinge of green, adnate, narrow, 2 mm. broad, subventri- 
cose, thin, crowded. Flesh bluish in the st. Spores white, elliptical, 
8-9 x 5-6/n, 1-guttulate, white in the mass, greenish by transmitted 
light. Cystidia "only on the edge of the gill, rarely obtuse, obovate 
oblong, generally fusiform, conical or bluntly pointed at the apex, 
27-35 x 9-15/i" v. Hoehnel. Woods, and hedgerows. Aug. Oct. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1206. M. lineata (BuU.) Fr. Lineata, striate. 
P. 6-15 mm., yellow, olivaceous, rarely whitish, generally becoming 

light yellow, very membranaceous, hood-shaped, then campanulate, 
obtuse, lineato-sulcate to the disc, smooth. St. 4-7 cm. x 2-3 mm., 
concolorous, equal, smooth, base white villose. Gills white, or pale 
cream, adnate, linear, 2-3 mm. broad, subdistant. Flesh yellowish at 
the disc, very thin at the margin. Spores white, pip-shaped, 7-8 x 4/u, 
or elliptical, often slightly depressed on one side, 9-12 x 5-6 /z, often 
1-guttulate, punctate. Cystidia pyriform, setulose, 20-25/A in diam. 
Amongst moss. Woods, and pastures. Aug. Oct. Not uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

var. expallens Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 78, fig. 5. Expallens, becoming pale. 
P. 1-2 cm., pale yellow, campanulate, striate up to the disc. St. 
5cm. x 1 mm., pallid; base white, downy. Gills white, linear, very 
narrow, rather distant. Amongst moss. 

1207. M. farrea (Lasch) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 80, fig. 4, wrongly cited as 
t. 79, fig. 4, in the text 1 . Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. i, t. 2, fig. 1, 
surface cells of the pileus magnified. Farrea, mealy. 

P. 1-2 cm., whitish, or yellowish, often with a tinge of flesh colour, 
membranaceous, campanulate, then expanded, subumbonate, sulcate, 
covered with a shining pruina (" composed of globose, hollow bodies, 
1 Plates 79 and 80 are interchanged in some copies of Fries' Icones. 



380 MYCENA 

40-50 fi " Plowright) ; margin light yellow, or flesh colour, becoming 
whitish when dry, at first floccose, crenulate. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 2-3 mm., 
white, somewhat fragile, equal, silky-striate, often somewhat rooting. 
Gills white, adnate, thin, somewhat crowded, connected by veins, often 
fimbriate. Flesh white, thick at the disc. Amongst moss and heather 
on heaths. Sept. Rare. 

1208. M. luteo-alba (Bolt.) Fr. Luteus, yellow; alba, white. 
P. 6-10 mm., yellow, somewhat shining, not becoming pale, mem- 

branaceous, acutely campanulate, umbonate when expanded, slightly 
pellucidly striate, smooth. St. 2-5-5 cm. x 2 mm., canary yellow, or 
yellowish, equal, subflexuose, tough, smooth, base subfibrillose. Gills 
shining white, adnate, somewhat uncinate, at first joined behind, 
broad, alternate. Spores white, "elliptical, 6-8 x 3-5-4-5/u," Schroeter. 
Cystidia "scattered, conical, often crowned with threadlike pro- 
tuberances, 22-36 x 9-12/z, or slightly ventricose, conical, numerous, 
obtuse, 16-21 x 7-9/x," v. Hoehnel. Amongst moss. Pine woods. 
Aug. Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1209. M. flavo-alba Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 80, fig. 5, wrongly cited as t. 79, 
fig. 5, in text. Flavus, light yellow; alba, white. 

P. 1-2 cm., ochraceous, light yellow-white, or wholly white, submem- 
branaceous, campanulate, then convex, at length flattened, um- 
bonate, smooth, often striate, scalloped when dry and rimosely split. 
St. 2-3 cm. x 2 mm., pellucidly white, or with a yellowish tinge, slightly 
rigid, fragile, tense and straight, equal, apex pruinose. Gills white, 
adnato-decurrent, soon separating-free, at length plane, ventricose, 
distant. Flesh white, thick at the disc. Spores white, elliptical, 
6-8 x 3-4/x, 1-guttulate. Cystidia flask-shaped, apex subulate, 3-4/z 
in diam., ventricose at the base, 35-55 x 12-15/x. Pastures, heaths, 
and woods. July Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

1210. M. chelidonia Fr. 1 (= Mycena pumila (Sow.) Quel.; Mycena 
raeborhiza (Lasch) Gill.) Fr. Icon. t. 83, fig. 4, as Mycena rae- 
borhiza Lasch. ^e\i8(av, a swallow. 

P. 1-2-5 cm., yellow flesh colour, or somewhat tawny, becoming paler 
flesh colour, or whitish at the margin, submembranaceous, campanu- 
late, conical, fragile, pruinose, pellucidly striate when moist, even when 
dry. St. 3-5 cm. x 2 mm., pallid, or becoming yellow, equal, tough, 
rooting, smooth, apex mealy, base villose. Gills whitish, becoming 
yellowish, or flesh colour, adnate, or somewhat free, subdistant, at 
length connected by veins. Flesh yellowish, thin at the margin. 
Spores white, elliptical, 3 x 1-5-2^, 1-guttulate ("subglobose, 6-8 /x, 
or 6-7 x 5-6/t" Gill.). Beech, and alder stumps. Oct. Rare, (v.v.) 

1 Friea placed this species in the section having milk, or a coloured juice in the 
St., but this factor is so slight that the fungus is far better ranged in this position. 



MYCENA 381 

1211. M. lactea (Pers.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 222, t. 159, bottom figs. 

Lactea, milk-white. 

Entirely white. P. 1-2 cm., membranaceous, campanulate, disc 
sometimes becoming light yellowish, subumbonate, striate when moist, 
even when dry, margin scalloped. St. 3-7 cm. x 1-2 mm., equal, 
flexile, smooth, base fibrillosely rooting. Gills adnate, ascending, 
narrow, crowded. Flesh white, very thin at the margin. Spores white, 
elliptical, 8-9 x 3-3'5/x,, 1-guttulate. Basidia with 2-sterigmata. 
Cystidia sparse, subulate, apex 3 /n in diam., base sub ventri cose, 
35-40 x 9/i. Gregarious. On needles, and twigs. Coniferous woods. 
July Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

var. pithya (Pers.) Fr. (= Collybia India Fr. sec. Quel.) Fr. Icon. 
t. 68, fig. 4, as Collybia India Fr. TTITVS, a pine, or fir tree. 
Snow white, drying up and becoming yellowish. P. 6-10 mm., be- 
coming almost plane, margin incurved. St. 2-2-5 cm. x 1-2 mm., 
pulverulent, base villose, subbulbous, villosely strigose. Gills somewJiat 
wide, distant. On coniferous needles and chips. Sept. Rare. 

var. pulchella Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 80, fig. 3, wrongly cited as t. 79, fig. 3, 
in text as Mycena lactea Pers. Pulchella, beautiful little. 

Differs from the type in the much thinner p., prominent umbo, and 
the gills broader at the base and subdistant. Caespitose. On wood. 

M. muscigena (Schum.) Quel. = Collybia muscigena (Schum.) Fr. 

1212. M. gypsea Fr. 71^05, chalk. 
P. 12 cm., white, or yellowish, disc yellow, membranaceous, some- 
what fragile, conico-campanulate, umbonate, umbo not prominent, 
striate to the disc. St. 6-8 cm. x 1-2 mm., white, equal, or attenuated 
upwards, rigid, fragile, smooth, or pruinose, base villose. Gills shining 
white, adnate, broadest behind, equally attenuated to the margin. 
Spores white, elliptical, 8-10 x 4-5 p. Cystidia "obtusely conical, 
30 x llfj,, or obtuse and broadly thread-shaped above, slightly conical 
below, 30-62 x 8-16/x" v. Hoehnel. Gregarious and caespitose. 
Amongst fragments of wood, and on trunks. June Nov. Uncommon. 

1213. M. nivea Quel. Quel. Soc. bot. Fr. xxm, t. 2, fig. 1. 

Nivea, snow-white. 

Shining white, transparent. P. 15 mm., very thin, campanulate, 
never expanding, sulcate from the apex to the base, pruinose. St. 
2-3 cm. x 1 mm., rigid, smooth, apex pruinose, base recurved, fbril- 
lose. Gills adnate, uncinate, narrow, distant. Spores pruniform, 
10-12/A, granular. On twigs. Deciduous woods. 
M . galeropsis Fr. = Marasmius dryophilus (Bull.) Karst. var. oedipus 
(Quel.) Eea. 



382 MYCENA 

III. St. firm, rigid, somewhat tough, juiceless, somewhat strigose 
and rooted at the base. Grills changing colour, white, then grey, 
or reddish, commonly at length connected by veins. P. not 
hygrophanous. Generally lignicolous and caespitose. 

M . cohaerens (A. & S.) Fr. = Marasmius cohaerens (A. & S.) Cke. 

1214. M. prolifera (Sow.) Fr. Sow. Eng. Fung. t. 169. 

Proles, offspring ;fero, I bear. 

P. 1-2 cm., pallid, disc fuscous, fleshy, campanulato-expanded, 
broadly umbonate, dry, slightly striate; margin at length sulcate, or 
rimosely split, pale yellowish, or becoming fuscous tan. St. 5-8 cm. x 
4-5 mm., pallid, apex greyish, base tawny bay, firm, rigid, smooth, 
shining, slightly striate, rooting, often proliferous. Gills white, then 
ochraceous, adnexed. Flesh pallid, thin. Spores white. Densely 
caespitose, glued together by villose down. Woods, and old logs in 
gardens. July Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1215. M. excisa (Lasch) Gillet. Excisa, cut out. 
P. 23 cm., brownish, rugulose, disc pallid fuscous, or greyish fuscous, 

membranaceous, campanulate, then convex, subumbonate, tough; 
margin paler, striate. St. 3-4 cm. x 3-4 mm., greyish brown, be- 
coming fuscous, apex paler, firm, tough, smooth, rooting. Gills paler 
than the p., hoary, somewhat free, very attenuated at the base, ventri- 
cose, connected by veins, very distant, thick. Flesh pallid, thick at the 
disc. Spores white, broadly elliptical, 9-11 x 7-8 /x. Basidia with 
4-sterigmata. Cystidia subulate, filiform, or bottle-shaped, rarely 
furcate, base swollen, 20-30 x 10-15/Lt. Caespitose, rarely solitary. 
On trunks and stumps of pine. Aug. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1216. ML fagetorum (Fr.) Gillet. Fagetum, a beech wood. 
P. 1-2 cm., yellowish, pale livid, or fuliginous, membranaceous, 

campanulate, then convex, striate half way to the disc, smooth. St. 
3-6 cm. x 3-4 mm., pallid, incurved, base villose, attached at right 
angles to the beech leaves. Gills white, or glaucous, attenuated at the 
base and attached to a collar. Spores white, "oblong elliptical, 9-5- 
11 x 4-4-5/x. Cystidia few, small, insignificant, club, or pear-shaped, 
their not much protruding free portion set with short setae" Lange. 
Gregarious. On dead beech leaves. Sept. Nov. Notuncommon. (v.v.) 

1217. M. Berkley! Massee. Cke. Illus. no. 224, t. 148, as Mycena 
excisa Lasch. 

The Rev. Miles Joseph Berkeley, the founder of British mycology. 
P. 3-7 cm., dingy brown, umbo darker, paler when dry, fleshy, cam- 
panulate, then more or less expanded, slightly umbonate, slightly 
and distantly striate to the umbo, hygrophanous. St. 8-13 cm. x 6- 
8 mm., dingy brown with a purple tinge, almost equal, or slightly 



MYCENA 383 

thickened below, more or less striate; base long, tapering, rooting. 
Gills tinged purplish, or flesh colour, broadly sinuate behind, and 
adnate with a decurrent tooth, ventricose, 4-6 mm. broad, rather 
distant, thin. Flesh of si. purplish. Spores white, elliptical, 5 x 3'5/x, 
with an oblique basal apiculus. Cystidia none. Solitary or sub- 
caespitose. On trunks. Mixed woods. Sept. Oct. Rare. 

1218. M. psammicola B. & Br. Cke. lUus. no. 225, t. 186, upper figs. 

i/rayu,yu,o9, sand; colo, I inhabit. 

P. 49 mm., brown, becoming paler towards the margin, hygro- 
phanous, somewhat hemispherical, sprinkled with very minute par- 
ticles', margin striate. St. 1-2 cm. x 1 mm., white upwards, umber 
downwards, firm, rooting, wholly white pulverulent. Gills white, shortly 
adnate, sinuate behind, in the form of a segment. Smell strong, but 
not nitrous. Amongst moss on a sandbank. Sept. Eare. 

1219. M. rugosa Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 225, t. 186, lower figs. 

Rugosa, wrinkled. 

P. 2-6 cm., cinereous, becoming pale, very tough, membranaceous, 
campanulate, then expanded, at length rather plane, somewhat 
obtuse, more or less corrugated, rugosely wrinkled, dry, striate at 
the circumference. St. 3-8 cm. x 3-4 mm., pallid, very cartilaginous, 
rigid, tough, straight, at length compressed, smooth, with a short, 
oblique, strigose root. Gills white, then grey, arcuato-adnate, with a 
decurrent tooth, united behind in a collar, broad, ventricose, con- 
nected by veins, edge sometimes serrulate. Flesh whitish, thick at 
the disc. Spores white, oblong elliptical, 9-11 x 6-7 ft, with a large 
central gutta. Basidia with 2-4-sterigmata. Cystidia hyaline, broadly 
clavate, or bludgeon-shaped, apex covered with short, simple, more 
rarely branched setae, 24-50 x 10-12/A. On stumps and old posts. 
July Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

1220. M. sudora Fr. Sudor, sweat. 
P. 2-5 cm., whitish, or yellowish, diaphanous, submembranaceous, 

convex, umbonate, often irregular, striate, viscid. St. 611 cm. x 
3-6 mm., concolorous, equal, firm, dry, smooth, rooting. Gills white, 
then flesh colour, obtusely adnate, broad, subdistant. Flesh white, thick 
at the disc. Spores white, broadly elliptical, 9-11 x 7-8 /A. Cystidia 
"small, little protruding, 24 x 8/z,, elliptical- vesiculose, mostly bluntly 
conical, somewhat ventricose below and often oblique" v. Hoehnel. 
On and near beech, and beech stumps. Aug. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1221. M. galericulata (Scop.) Fr. (= Mycena simillima Karst.) 

Galericulum, a cap. 

P. 2-5 cm., fuscous-livid, or changeable in colour, often becoming 
yellow, or rubiginous, sometimes white, submembranaceous, conico- 
campanulate, then expanded, striate to the umbo, dry, smooth. St. 



384 MYCENA 

5-12 cm. x 3-5 mm., concolorous, often becoming yellowish, or rubi- 
ginous, somewhat fragile, polished, often curved, smooth; base strigose, 
fusiform-rooted. Gills whitish, then flesh colour, adnate, decurrent with 
a tooth, sometimes connected by veins. Flesh greyish, very thin at 
the margin. Spores white, broadly elliptical, 10-11 x 6-8 /x, 1-guttu- 
late. Basidia generally with 2-sterigmata only. Cystidia hyaline, 
broadly clavate, or bludgeon-shaped covered with short setae, 
15-40 x 9-12/1. Caespitose, the numerous stems often glued together 
with villose down at the base. On stumps, trunks, and pollards. 
Jan. Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

var. calopus Fr. (= Mycena inclinata Fr. sec. Lange.) Fr. Icon. t. 80, 

fig. 2. /caXo?, beautiful; TTOU?, foot. 

Differs from the type in the fasciculate, fusiform chestnut coloured 

stem. "P. viscid, gills cinereous becoming whitish, spores ovate 

globose, 8 x 6/4" Sacc. On stumps. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1222. M. simillima Karst. Simillima, very like. 
P. livid, or dingy pattid, conico-campanulate, even, dry, glabrous. 

St. fragile, polished, even, glabrous, base curved, rooting. Gills white, 
very slightly tinged with rose, emarginato-decurrent, crowded. Tree 
stumps. Sept. Rare. 

1223. M. polygramma (Bull.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 228, t. 223. 

?roXv9, many; ypapfiij, a line. 

P. 2-5 cm., fuscous, cinereous, livid, or becoming light yellow, margin 
white when young, submembranaceous, conical, then campanulate, 
subumbonate, striate, smooth, rarely pruinose; margin often toothed. 
St. 610 cm. x 2-4 mm., silvery, livid, blue grey, or becoming azure 
blue, rigid, tense and straight, equal, longitudinally striato-sulcate, 
base strigose-rooted. Gills white, or pinkish, attenuated behind, un- 
cinate, subdistant, sometimes serrulate. Flesh greyish, very thin at 
the margin. Spores white, broadly elliptical, 9-12 x 6-8 p, 1-2- 
multi-guttulate. Basidia with 4-sterigmata. Cystidia hyaline, flask- 
shaped, base ventricose, apex prolonged and attenuated upwards, 
flexuose, simple or branched, 20-60 x 410 x 1 -5-3/1, at apex. Gre- 
garious or solitary . On stumps and twigs. Aug. Feb. Common, (v.v.) 

1224. M. inclinata Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 234, t. 225, upper figs., as 
Mycena alcalina Fr. Inclinata, bent in. 

P. 2-3 cm., fuscous, livid fuscous, or bistre, submembranaceous, 
globose, then campanulate, obtuse, rarely gibbous, at length ex- 
panded and depressed at the apex, smooth, striate to the disc, shining 
when dry; margin at first white, exceeding the gills, delicately crenulate. 
St. 6-10 cm. x 2-4 mm., whitish, or brownish, becoming fulvous from 
the base upwards, slightly attenuated upwards, twisted, flexuose, apex 
incurved at first, somewhat tough when young, then fragile, pruinosely 



MYCENA 385 

fibrillose, apex interruptedly striate; base rooting, villose. Gills whitish, 
greyish at the base, sometimes pinkish, adnate, crowded, at length 
soft. Flesh whitish, tawny in the st., thick at the disc. Spores white, 
subglobose, 8-10 x 6-8 /A, 1-guttulate; basidia with 4-sterigmata. 
Cystidia clavate, apex covered with short setae, 30-40 x 9-16/A. 
Smell somewhat alkaline. Densely caespitose on oak stumps, and 
at the base of posts. Aug. Dec. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1225. M. parabolica Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 79, fig. 3, wrongly cited as t. 80, 
fig. 3, in the text. Parabolica, like a parabola. 

P. 25 cm., somewhat violaceous, disc black, margin whitish, or lilac, 
submembranaceous, at first erect and oval, then conical, never ex- 
panded, moist, somewhat shining when dry, smooth, striate to the 
disc. St. 5-8 cm. x 2-3 mm., whitish, or lilac, apex dark violaceous, 
tense and straight, not very rigid, white mealy when young, smooth, 
dry; base thickened, bearded-rooting. Gills white, greyish at the base, 
adnate, ascending, subdistant, rarely connected by veins. Spores 
white, elliptical, 7-8 x 5-6 /z. "Basidia 2-spored. Cystidia obovate, 
crowned with minute wart-like setae" Lange; "conical (not, or 
slightly ventricose), mostly sharp pointed, 40-60 x 10-20 /u," v. 
Hoehnel. Gregarious, or caespitose. On needles and rotten wood, in 
coniferous woods. Sept. Dec. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1226. M. tintinnabulum Fr. Fr. Icon, t 79, fig. 4, wrongly cited as 
t. 80, fig. 4, in the text. Tintinnabulum, a door bell. 

P. 2-3 cm., date brown, becoming pale, yellowish fuscous, azure blue, 
or whitish, submembranaceous, very tough, campanulato-convex, then 
plane, smooth, subviscid when moist. St. 2-3 cm. x 1-2 mm., pallid, 
very tough, smooth; base shortly white-strigose. Gills whitish, then 
cream, or flesh colour, adnate, decurrent with a tooth, horizontal, 
narrow, very thin and crowded. Spores white, "elliptical, 9-10 x 
5-7 /x; basidia with 4-sterigmata. Cystidia on edge of gill subulate" 
Rick. For Mycena tintinnabulum Fr. sensu Schroet., v. Hoehnel and 
Lange give the following dimensions. Spores long-cylindrical, or 
ovate, 5-7 x 2-5-3jn. Cystidia vesiculose, obovate, subglobose, or 
cylindrical, often set with wart-like setae, 9-15/z across. Caespitose, 
or solitary. On fallen beech trunks. Oct. April. Uncommon. 

IV. St. fragile, dry, juiceless, fibrillose at the base, scarcely rooting, 
but not dilated nor inserted. P. hygrophanous. Gills changing 
colour, at length somewhat connected by veins. Usually strong 
scented, solitary and terrestrial, a few caespitose and lignicolous. 

1227. M. atroalba (Bolt.) Fr. Bolt. Hist. Fung. t. 137. 

Ater, black; alba, white. 

P. 2-3 cm., bistre blackish, whitish at the margin, submembrana- 
ceous, conico-campanulate, obtuse, smooth; margin pellucidly striate. 

B, B. B. 25 



386 MYCENA 

St. 7-10 cm. x 3-4 mm., pallid, apex dark and occasionally pruinose, 
tense and straight, shining, smooth, base with a hairy, bulbous, swollen 
root. Gills white, becoming glaucous, free, ventricose, crowded. Spores 
white, "oval, 12-14 x 7-8/u," Sacc. Cystidia "lanceolate-subulate, 
75-105 x 15-20 /x" Rick. Solitary, or gregarious. Amongst moss. 
Mixed woods. July Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1228. M. dissiliens Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 81, fig. 2. Dissiliens, flying apart. 
P. 2-5 cm., cinereous-fuscous, margin whitish, submembranaceous, 

very fragile, acorn-shaped, then conico-campanulate, sulcate to the disc, 
pruinose; margin revolute. St. 4-5 cm. x 2-5 mm., cinereous, at- 
tenuated upwards from the strigose base, somewhat incurved, smooth, 
or pruinate, slightly striate under a lens, split and breaking up into 
revolute flaps when compressed or bent, often twisted. Gills whitish, 
or cinereous at the base, rounded behind, separating free, broader in 
front, soft, watery. Flesh white, greyish in the st., thin at the margin. 
Spores white, elliptical, 7-8 x 4-5 /z, multi-guttulate. Cystidia "glo- 
bose-ovate, 20/z, crowned with a few, short, finger-like protuber- 
ances " v. Hoehnel. Smell weak. Amongst grass in woods and heaths, 
and on trunks. July Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1229. M. atrocyanea (Batsch) Fr. (= Mycena nigricans Bres. sec. 
Quel.) Cke. Illus. no. 231, t. 236, lower figs. 

Ater, black; cyanea, dark blue. 

P. 5-13 mm., fuscous, then azure-blue-grey, membranaceous, cam- 
panulato-convex, at length flattened, gibbous, with an irregularly 
shaped, somewhat angular, wrinkled, obtuse, fuscous blackish umbo, 
deeply sulcate to the umbo, sprinkled with a white, evanescent pruina. 
St. 3-5 cm. x 1-2 mm., dark blue-black, slightly attenuated from the 
subbulbous base, almost equal, rigid, fragile, smooth. Gills white, 
grey at the base, attenuat o-adnate, joined in a collar, ventricose, distant. 
Flesh greyish, thin. Spores white, oblong, often apiculate at one end, 
10-12 x 6-7/u,. Cystidia subulate-fusiform, or cylindrical, apex acute, 
2-3/x, in diam., 80-100 x 10-12/A. Amongst pine needles and on 
stumps. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1230. M. pullata Berk. & Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 232, t. 237. 

Pullus, dark coloured. 

P. 18 mm., dark brown with a tinge of purple, disc almost black, 
becoming paler, sometimes with a glaucous bloom, membranaceous, 
campanulate, obtusely umbonate, sulcato-striate to the middle. St. 
7-5 cm. x 2 mm., concolorous; base thickened, whitish floccose, some- 
times rooting. Gills white, adnexed, rather broad, scarcely crowded. 
Spores white, elliptical, 6 x 3/i. Smell slightly nitrous. Amongst 
dead leaves. Oct. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 



MYCENA 387 

1231. M. cinerella Karst. Cke. Illus. no. 264, t. 210, upper figs., as 
Omphalia grisea Fr. sec. Lange. Cinerella, somewhat ash colour. 

P. 5-15 mm., grey, or pallid greyish, submembranaceous, campanu- 
late, entirely striate. St. 2-4 cm. x 1-2 mm., greyish white, equal, base 
fibrillose. Gills greyish white, broadly adnato-decurrent. Spores elliptical, 
7-10 x 4-6 /A. Cystidia "ovate oblong, generally conical, ventricose 
below, apex obtusely conical, often rough, 50-60 x 12-16/u." v. 
Hoehnel; "globose, finely warted, not protruding" Pearson "in litt." 
Smell very strong, of meal. Woods, and pastures. Sept. Nov. Not 
uncommon, (v.v.) 

1232. M. paupercula Berk. (= Mycena metata Fr. sec. Quel.) Cke. 
Illus. no. 231, t. 236, upper figs. Paupercula, poor. 

P. 2-5 mm., pale ochraceous white, becoming almost tawny with 
age, submembranaceous, obtusely conical, or hemispherical, minutely 
innato-fibrillose, sometimes translucidly striate. St. 1-2-5 cm. x 
1 mm., white, curved, rooting, smooth; base thicker, villose. Gills 
white, at first free, then adnexed. Smell of new meal. Inside decayed 
stumps. July Sept. Uncommon. 

1233. M. leptocephala (Pers.) Fr. Pers. Ic. et Desc. t. 12, fig. 4. 

Xe-TTTo?, thin; K<f>d\.ij, head. 

P. 1-2-5 cm., cinereous, submembranaceous, campanulato-expanded, 
repand, umbonate, fragile, sulcate, pruinose, opaque. St. 4-6 cm. x 
2-3 mm., concolorous, equal, slightly striate, opaque, dry. Gills white 
cinereous, becoming white at the edge, emarginate, connected by veins. 
Flesh grey, thin at the margin. Spores white, elliptical, 6-9 x 3-4ju,, 
with a large central gutta. Cystidia "acute awl-shaped, somewhat 
fusiform, 60-70 x 10-14/u," Lange; "lanceolate, 60-100 x 10-18^" 
Rick. Smell nitrous. Solitary. On trunks, and on the ground, espe- 
cially in coniferous woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1234. M. alcalina Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 81, fig. 3. Alcalina, alkaline. 
P. 2-5 cm., cinereous, fuscous, date brown, inclining to olivaceous, 

often tinged with yellow or pink, submembranaceous, campanulate, 
obtusely umbonate, deeply striate when moist, shining when dry. 
St. 5-8 cm. x 2-4 mm., normally yellow, often cinereous, slightly firm, 
rigid, slippery when moist, shining when dry, smooth, base villose. 
Gills glaucous white, or dark cinereous, becoming white and sometimes 
brown at the edge, adnate, slightly ventricose, sometimes connected 
by veins, subdistant. Flesh whitish, thick at the disc. Spores white, 
broadly elliptical, 8-10 x 6-7 /A. Basidia with 4-sterigmata. Cystidia 
hyaline, flask-shaped, or fusiform, base often ventricose; apex pro- 
longed, obtuse or pointed, 35-45 x 10-18 x 4-5/x at apex. Smell 
strong, alkaline. Caespitose, rarely solitary. Coniferous stumps, 
trunks, and needles. Jan. Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

252 



388 MYCENA 

1235. M. ammoniaca Fr. Cke. lUus. no. 235, t. 238, upper figs. 

Ammoniaca, ammoniacal. 

P. 1-5-2 cm., fuscous, becoming blackish, varying cinereous, disc 
fuscous blackish, paler round the striate margin, submembranaceous, 
acutely conical, papillate, then campanulate, naked, discoid, opaque. 
St. 2-5-5 cm. x 1-2 mm., whitish, slightly firm, equal, polished, dry, 
smooth; base rooting, strigose. Gills whitish, or grey, edge whitish, 
adnate, linear, distant. Flesh greyish in the p., becoming whitish, thin 
at the margin. Spores white, elliptical, 611 x 4-7 ju, often 1-2- 
guttulate. Cystidia hyaline, flask-shaped, ventricose at the base ; apex 
acute, obtuse or subglobose, 40-55 x 15-18 x 3-7 /x at apex. Smell 
strong, alkaline. In troops on coniferous needles, and amongst short 
grass. July Nov. Common, (v.v.) 

1236. M. metata Fr. (= Mycena paupercula Berk. sec. Quel.) 

Metata, conical. 

P. 1-2 cm., cinereous and slightly striate when moist, opaque, whitish, 
and somewhat silky in appearance when dry, submembranaceous, 
hemispherico-campanulate, obtuse, then plane, disc papillate or 
somewhat umbilicate, very hygrophanous. St. 5-7-5 cm. x 1-2 mm., 
white, becoming cinereous, rarely yellowish, or flesh colour, soft-flaccid, 
equal, smooth, base white fibrillose. Gills whitish, or yellowish grey, 
adnate, linear, subdistant. Spores white, elliptical, 6-8 x 4-5/A, with 
a large central gutta. Cystidia "obovate or pyriform, 12-19/u, across, 
set with setulose warts" Lange; "spinulose, 30 x 12-15/>i" Rick.; 
"conical, ventricose, 20-50 x 12-16/u," v. Hoehnel. Smell faintly 
alkaline. In pastures, and amongst short grass. Sept. Nov. Com- 
mon, (v.v.) 

1237. M. plicosa Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 81, fig. 4. Plicosa, folded. 
P. 1-5-3 cm., fuscous cinereous, opaque when dry, membranaceous, 

fragile, campanulate, then expanded, broadly and obtusely um- 
bonate, deeply lineato-sulcate, plicate with the distant furrows, often 
split. St. 2-5 cm. x 2-3 mm., grey, then fuscous, rigid but fragile, 
equal, smooth; base abrupt, white villose. Gills grey, at length whitish 
pruinose, adnate, thick, distant, connected by veins Spores oblong- 
elliptical, 9-1 1 x 4 5 fi, " minutely punctate " Quel. Cystidia "on edge 
of gill clavate, 40-45 x 12-18/x, with finger-like appendages" Rick. 
On bare soil in woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1238. ML cinerea Massee & Crossl. Cinerea, ash colour. 
Entirely grey. P. 1-5-2 cm., submembranaceous, subgibbous, or 

obtuse, soon expanded, paler and silky when dry; margin striate. 
St. 5-7 cm. x 2 mm., cylindrical, smooth; base white, downy. Gills 
adnate, subdistant, edge pale, mealy with the spores. Flesh greyish, 



MYCENA 389 

thin. Spores white, elliptical, 8 x 5/x, 1-2-guttulate. Cystidia fusi- 
form. Smell of radishes. Pastures, and amongst short grass. Sept. 
Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1239. M. peltata Fr. Peltata, having a shield. 

P. 1-5-3 cm., black fuscous when moist, grey when dry, membrana- 
ceous, convex, soon exactly plane, disc orbicular, even, fiat, rather 
umbilicate than umbonate; margin up-turned and becoming black 
when dry, very closely striate. St. 4-5 cm. x 2 mm., livid, equal, rigid, 
somewhat fragile, often flexuose, smooth. Gills grey, paler at the edge, 
adnate, with a small decurrent tooth, ventricose. Flesh greyish t thick 
at the disc. Spores white, elliptical, 8-10 x 4-6 /a. Cystidia "broadly 
lanceolate, 40 x 12-1 5 jit, sometimes slightly capitate" Rick. Smell 
none, or alkaline. Woods, and heaths. Aug. Oct. Uncommon. 



1240. M. consimilis Cke. Cke. Illus. no. 1150, t. 1186. 

Consimilis, entirely similar. 

P. 2-5-3 cm., cinereous, umbo darker, membranaceous, conically 
campanulate, umbonate, striate to the middle, smooth, opaque; 
margin soon upturned, at length splitting. St. 23 cm. x 2 mm., paler 
than the p., attenuated upwards, often compressed below, rather 
rigid, dry, smooth. G-ills cinereous, adnexed, or nearly free, linear, 
1-2 mm. broad, scarcely crowded. Flesh white, thick at the disc. 
Spores white. Amongst grass. Sept. Rare. 

1241. M. aetites Fr. (= Mycena umbellifera (Schaefi.) Quel.) Fr. Icon. 
t. 81, fig. 5. dertrj;?, the eagle-stone. 

P. 12 cm., fuscous grey, becoming pale, membranaceous, campanu- 
late, then convex, sulcate to the broad, obtuse, prominent umbo, hygro- 
phanous, smooth; extreme margin becoming black. St. 4-5 cm. x 
2 mm., whitish, becoming fuscous downwards, shining, often com- 
pressed, unequal, fragile, smooth. Gills white, grey at the sides, 
adnate, subuncinate, thin, at first cohering in the form of a cottar, 
beautifully reticulated by veins, linear, subdistant. Spores white, 
elliptical, often with an oblique apiculus, 8-10 x 5-6/x. Cystidia 
hyaline, flask-shaped, ventricose at the base ; apex prolonged, acute, 
or obtuse, 25-50 x 6-8 x Ifj, at apex. Smell alkaline, or none. Taste 
bitterish, or obsolete. Amongst moss, and short grass in woods and 
upland pastures. June Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1242. M. stannea Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 82, fig. 2. Stannea, tin-colour. 
P. 34 cm., grey when moist, tin colour and silky shining when dry, 

hygrophanous, membranaceous, campanulate, then flattened, obso- 
letely umbonate, fragile, often rimose, smooth, pellucidly striate when 
moist. St. 5-8 cm. x 2-4 mm., grey, becoming pale, slightly rigid, 



390 MYCENA 

not very fragile, sometimes compressed, smooth, shining. Gills 
whitish grey, adnate, with a small decurrent tooth, connected by veins, 
scarcely crowded. Flesh pallid, thin at the margin. Spores white, 
elliptical, 8-10 x 4-5/i. Cystidia " flask-shaped-fusif orm, 45-50 x 
10-18 fj,, blunt, sometimes capitate" Eick. Smell, like fresh trout, or 
none. Amongst grass in woods. June Oct. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1243. M. vitrea Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 82, fig. 1. Vitrea, glassy. 
Very fragile. P. 1-2-5 cm., fuscous, then livid or bluish grey, mem- 

branaceous, campanulate, obtuse, entirely lineato-striate, opaque, 
smooth, dry. St. 5-10 cm. x 1 mm., whitish, hyaline, equal, smooth, 
glistening, striate under a lens, base fibrillose. Gills whitish, adnate, 
linear, subdistant. Flesh fuscous in the p., very thin. Spores white, 
"oblong oval, 10 x 4-5 JLI. Cystidia nearly globose, with short spines 
in circles, 45 /z broad" v. Hoehnel. In woods amongst Sphagnum. 
Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 

1244. M. tennis (Bolt.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 237, t. 160, lower figs. 

Tenuis, thin. 

Very fragile, caespitose, white. P. 1-2 cm., hyaline, or becoming 
fuscous white, very membranaceous, campanulato-convex, obtuse, 
lineato-striate, smooth; margin slight, beautifully fringed in a crenate 
manner, as if appendiculate with the fragments of the veil. St. 7-8 cm. 
x 1-2 mm., hyaline, base becoming yellowish, membranaceous, pellucid, 
tense and straight, smooth. Gills adnate, with a small decurrent tooth 
which is often obsolete, linear, rather thick, comparatively distant, 
soft. Spores white, subglobose, 4 x 3p,, with a large central gutta. 
Woods, and pastures. Sept. Oct. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

V. St. filiform, scarcely a line thick (and not more), flaccid, somewhat 
tough, rooting, dry, juiceless, commonly very long in proportion 
to the p. Gills paler at the edge and changing colour. Very slender, 
tense and straight, terrestrial, and amongst moss, inodorous, solitary. 
P. fuscous, becoming somewhat pale, not hygrophanous, in the last 
species orange. 

1245. ML filopes (Bull.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 238, t. 161, upper figs. 

Filum, a thread; pes, foot. 

P. 1-1-5 cm., livid fuscous, or livid grey, rarely whitish, very mem- 
branaceous, conical then campanulate, obtuse, striate, dry, smooth. 
St. 7-9 cm. x 1-2 mm., livid, or becoming fuscous, filiform, tense and 
straight, flaccid, not very tough, equal, rooting with a long pilose tail, 
filled with a watery juice when in full vigour. Gills white, at length 
grey at the base, free, or only reaching the St., ventricose, or lanceolate, 
crowded. Flesh whitish, thin at the margin. Spores white, elliptical, 



MYCENA 391 

8-10 x 4-5 //,. Basidia with 2-4-sterigmata. Cystidia on gill edge, 
hyaline, crowded, forming a compact layer, obovate, or pyriform, 
minutely setulose towards the apex, 20-48 x 16-32 /JL. Amongst dead 
leaves in deciduous woods, hedgerows and plantations. Aug. Jan. 
Common, (v.v.) 

1246. M. amicta Fr. (= Mycena Iris Berk. sec. Quel.) Fr. Icon. t. 82, 
fig. 3. Amicta, clothed. 

P. 6-12 mm., green, bluish grey, or livid, membranaceous, conico- 
campanulate, slightly pellucidly striate to the disc, covered with fuga- 
cious pruina. St. 6-8 cm. x 1-2 mm., livid, equal, flexile, covered with 
a delicate white pruina] base straight, or with a long tortuose root, 
smooth. Gills grey, edge paler, free, or only reaching the st., linear, 
narrow, crowded. Flesh fuscous, thin at the disc. Spores white, 
elliptical, 7-8 x 4-5 p,, 1-2-guttulate. Basidia with 2-sterigmata. 
Cystidia hyaline, flask-shaped, apex acutely conical, 20 x 6/z. 
Amongst mosses in woods, and pastures. Sept. Nov. Not un- 
common, (v.v.) 

1247. M. Iris Berk. (= Mycena amicta Fr. sec. Quel.) Cke. Illus. 
no. 238, t. 161, lower figs. Ipts, the rainbow. 

P. 10-15 mm., grey, becoming yellowish, membranaceous, hemi- 
spherical, obtuse, covered with blue, evanescent fibrils, viscid; margin 
denticulate. St. 4-9 cm. x 2-3 mm., grey, equal, covered with evan- 
escent blue fibrils, which are often only apparent at the base. Gills 
grey, edge becoming pale, free, or slightly adnexed, linear, edge some- 
times denticulate. Flesh greyish, thick at the disc. Spores white, 
elliptical, 6-8 x 3-4 /x. Cystidia "crowded, conical, threadlike, ob- 
tuse, 20 x 4-4-5 /i" v. Hoehnel. On fir stumps, and sticks. Sept. 
Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. caerulea Rea. Caerulea, azure blue. 

Differs from the type in the pure blue colour of the p., in the absence 
of blue fibrillae on the p. and st., and in the white pulverulent apex of 
the st. Spores white, elliptical, with an oblique apiculus, 8-9 x 5/x. 
Inside a hollow tree. May. Rare, (v.v.) 

1248. M. urania Fr. Ovpavia, the Heavenly One. 
P. 6-10 mm.-, dark blue, then becoming violaceous, and at length 

pallid lilac, rarely becoming fuscous, membranaceous, campanulate, 
then hemispherical, obtuse, striate, dry, smooth. St. 5-8 cm. x 
1-2 mm., dark blue, then becoming somewhat azure blue, equal, flexile, 
flaccid, smooth, slightly rooting; base white floccose. Gills white, 
uncinato-adnate, thin. Amongst alder leaves, Jungermanniae, and 
twigs in damp woods. July Sept. Rare. 



392 MYCENA 

1249. M. plumbea Fr. (= Omphalia plumbea (Fr.) Rick.) 

Plumbea, lead colour. 

P. 1-3 cm., cinereous lead colour, covered with a white pruina, some- 
times bluish ash colour, membranaceous, convex, then plane, obtuse, 
sulcate. St. 7-10 cm. x 2 mm., becoming cinereous, equal, fragile, 
pulverulent, apex hyaline, base white strigose. Gills concolorous, 
adnate, horizontal. Flesh whitish, very thin at the margin. Spores 
white, elliptical, 10-11 x 5-6 p,, 2-multi-guttulate. Mossy pastures, 
and amongst leaves. Sept. Nov. Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1250. M. debilis Fr. Quel. Jur. et Vosg. i, t. 14, fig. 6. 

Debilis, weak. 

P. 4-6 mm., whitish livid, or somewhat flesh colour, becoming fuscous, 
withered and corrugated when dry, membranaceous, very thin, cam- 
panulate, then convex, obtuse, striate when moist, even when dry, 
smooth. St. 5-10 cm. x 1 mm., concolorous, capillary-filiform, weak, 
lax, base fibrillose. Gills whitish, or concolorous, broadly adnate, rather 
broad, subdistant. Spores white, elliptical, 10-12 x 5/z. Cystidia 
"thin, lanceolate, 60-75 x 9-12/u,, much projecting and making the 
gills appear rough" Rick. Amongst dead leaves in woods, and hedge- 
rows. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1251. M. vitilis Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 240, 1. 189, fig. 2. Vitilis, plaited. 
P. 6-10 mm., fuscous, or livid, becoming pale, or whitish, membrana- 
ceous, conical, then campanulate, papillate, striate to the middle, 
dry, smooth. St. 7-15 cm. x 1-2 mm., livid, filiform, rooted, tense and 
straight, rigid, tough, easily flexile, smooth, shining. Gills whitish, 
or grey, edge becoming whitish, attenuato-adnate, ascending, linear, 
thin. Flesh white, very thin at the margin. Spores white, broadly 
elliptical, apiculate at base, 9-12 x 5-7 /A. Cystidia "very like those 
of Mycena polygramma, free portion hair-shaped, c. 10/x, long, 2p, 
broad, basal part slightly thickened" Lange. Amongst dead leaves 
in deciduous woods. Sept. Feb. Common, (v.v.) 

var. amsegetes Fr. Amsegetes, field by the roadside. 

Differs from the type in the obsoletely umbonate p., and the shorter, 
and thicker st. Meadows, and roadsides. 

1252. M. collariata Fr. Collariata, possessing a collar. 
P. 1-2 cm., fuscous, becoming pale, often greyish white, becoming 

fuscous only at the disc, membranaceous, campanulate, then convex, 
subumbonate, striate, rigid when dry, smooth. St. 5 cm. x 1-2 mm., 
grey, becoming pale, filiform, tough, dry, smooth, slightly striate under 
a lens. Gills hoary-whitish, or obsoletely flesh colour, adnate, joined in 
a collar behind, thin, crowded. Spores white, "elliptical, 8-10 x 



MYCENA 393 

4-6/i" Berk. Cystidia on gill edge "lanceolate subulate, 50-60 x 
10-13/z" Rick. In woods, amongst grass, and on oak bark. Oct. 
Nov. Uncommon. 

1253. M. speirea Fr. (= Omphalia speirea (Fr.) Quel.) Fr. Icon. t. 78, 
fig. 2. tnrelpa, a coil. 

P. 4-10 mm., pallid cinereous, or whitish variegated with fuscous 
striae, umbo fuscous, membranaceous, conico-convex, then plane, at 
length depressed at the disc, smooth, sometimes pruinose. St. 5 cm. x 
1 mm., white, base becoming fuscous and ending in a tail-like flbrillose 
root, tough, filiform, equal, smooth, shining. Gills shining white, 
adnate, then deeply decurrent, distant, the alternate ones shorter. 
Flesh white, thin at the margin. Spores white, "globose, 6/x, or broadly 
elliptical, 6-9 x 4-6/x. Cystidia numerous, cylindrical, conical, gene- 
rally sharp pointed, full of small oil globules, on the edge of the gill, 
60 x 20/A, on the surface, 85 x 20jn, or cylindrical, conical, with 
protruding points, 40 x 20 /JL" v. Hoehnel. Woods, and mossy trunks. 
Aug. Oct. Uncommon. 

1254. M. tenella Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 241, t. 190, middle figs. 

Tenella, rather tender. 

Entirely white, or livid flesh colour, caespitose. P. 5-12 mm., mem- 
branaceous, very tender, campanulato-convex, obtuse, pellucid; mar- 
gin slightly striate. St. 2 cm. x 1 mm., filiform, soft, smooth, base 
villose. Grills white, then flesh colour, uncinate, very thin, crowded. 
Flesh white, very thin. Spores white, elliptical, 8-9 x 4-5 p,, minutely 
punctate. Cystidia "on the edge, in several rows, globose, 16-23 /n, 
crowned with numerous, short spines" v. Hoehnel. On felled trunks, 
and twigs in wood heaps. Aug. Dec. Common, (v.v.) 

1255. M. acicula (Schaeff.) Fr. (= Mycena coccinea (Scop.) Sacc.) 

Acicula, a small pin. 

P. 2-10 mm., vermilion-orange, membranaceous, campanulate, then 
convex, with a very small slightly fleshy unibo, striate, smooth, shining. 
St. 2-5 cm. x 1 mm., bright yellow, becoming pale, filiform, rooting, 
smooth, shining, apex somewhat pruinose, base villose. Gills yellow, 
becoming whitish at the edge, or wholly white, rounded-adnexed, almost 
free, comparatively broad, ventricose, somewhat ovate, distant, the 
alternate ones shorter. Flesh reddish in the p., very thin. Spores 
white, oblong-fusiform, 9-12 x 2-4/u,, attenuated at the base, 1- 
guttulate. Cystidia hyaline, flask-shaped, base ventricose or fusiform ; 
apex acute, obtuse, or subglobose; 25-30 x 8-12 x 2-4/x at apex. 
On dead leaves and twigs in woods and hedgerows. May Dec. 
Common, (v.v.) 



394 MYCENA 

VI. St. and gills exuding a milky, usually coloured juice 
when broken. St. dry, rooting. 

1256. M. hematopus (Pers.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 83, fig. 1. 

alpa, blood; Troy?, foot. 

P. 2-4 cm., greyish, or white flesh colour with a purplish tinge, disc 
bistre, fleshy-membranaceous, conical, then campanulate, obtuse, 
smooth; margin denticulate, slightly striate. St. 5-10 cm. x 2-5 mm., 
white, greyish, flesh colour, or violaceous, becoming cinereous, rigid, 
fragile, recurved, white pruinose, becoming smooth, containing a 
blood-like juice, base strigose. Gills white, then flesh colour, or viola- 
ceous, adnate, often with a small decurrent tooth, the alternate ones 
shorter. Flesh turning blood red, thick at the disc. Spores white, 
broadly elliptical, 10 x 6/u, rounded at both ends, with a large central 
gutta. Cystidia "conical, sharp pointed, often ventricose below, 
45 x 15/n, or rigid, long, threadlike and pointed above, ventricose 
below, 40-45 x 12/z, contents colourless, seldom reddish" v. Hoehnel. 
Caespitose. On trunks, and stumps, especially birch. Aug. Dec. 
Common, (v.v.) 

var. marginata Lange. Marginata, bordered. 

Differs from the type in the dark edge of the gills. Cystidia "drawn 
out to a sharp point, below the middle fusiformly inflated, 10-1 7 \L 
broad, their free portion 45 ju, long, contents pale brownish red " Lange. 
On stacked birch logs. Oct. Probably not uncommon, (v.v.) 

1257. M. craenta Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 83, fig. 2. Cruenta, bloody. 
P. 6-20 mm., bay brown, or fuscous, then red, becoming pale, sub- 

membranaceous, conical, then campanulate, obtuse, striate, smooth. 
St. 5-8 cm. x 2 mm., paler than the p., slightly firm, tense and straight, 
smooth, containing a dark red juice, base villose-rooted. Gills whitish, 
or pinkish, adnate, linear, crowded. Flesh dark red, thin. Spores 
white, broadly elliptical, 9-10 x 6/n, with a large central gutta. 
Cystidia "on gill edge only, contents granular, 35 x 9 x 2/z at apex" 
v. Hoehnel. Generally solitary . Pine woods. Sept. Oct. Uncommon. 
(v.v.) 

1258. M. sangninolenta (A. & S.) Fr. Fr. Icon. t. 83, fig. 3. 

Sanguinolenta, bloody. 

P. 420 mm., pallid reddish, becoming fuscous, umbo and striae com- 
monly darker, very membranaceous, campanulato-convex, or hemi- 
spherical, papillate, smooth. St. 5-12-5 x 1-2 mm., pallid, flaccid, 
weak, almost capillary, moderately tough, smooth, containing a pale 
reddish juice, base subfibrillose. Gills whitish, or paler than the p., 
edge black purple, adnate, linear, subdistant, the alternate ones 



MYCENA 395 

shorter. Flesh reddish, becoming whitish, very thin. Spores white, 
elliptical, pip-shaped, or pyriform, 8-9 x 4 6/i, 1-2-guttulate. Cys- 
tidia filled with a reddish juice, or colourless, flask-shaped, often pro- 
longed at the base; apex long, conical, pointed, 35-50 x 6-8 x 1-2-5/u, 
at apex. Gregarious or solitary. Amongst dead leaves in woods, 
especially coniferous woods, and in hedgerows. May Dec. Common. 
(v.v.) 

1259. M. crocata (Schrad.) Fr. Croatia, saffron yellow. 

P. 1-2-5 cm., olivaceous, cinereous, or shining white, umbonate disc 
reddish, submembranaceous, conical, then campanulate, smooth; 
margin striate. St. 7-12-5 x 2-3 mm., saffron-Uood-colour, especially 
towards the rooting, creeping, fibrillose base, slightly attenuated up- 
wards, apex whitish, containing a saffron-blood juice that readily 
stains the rest of the fungus. Gills white, attenuato-adnexed, broader 
in front, subventricose, subdistant. Flesh saffron-blood-colour, yellow- 
ish in the centre of the St., thick at the disc. Spores white, broadly 
elliptical, or pip-shaped, 9-11 x 6-7 /n, punctate. Basidia with 4- 
sterigmata. Cystidia "club-shaped, or somewhat pyriform set with 
minute wart-like setae, apex occasionally with a hair-shaped appendix" 
Lange. On dead leaves, and twigs in woods, especially beech. Sept. 
Uncommon, (v.v.) 

1260. M. galopus (Pers.) Fr. Cke. Illus. no. 244, t. 207. 

iyd\a, milk; TTOV?, foot. 

P. 615 mm., fuscous, or greyish, the indistinct umbo darker, mem- 
branaceous, conical, then campanulate, striate, smooth, or pruinose. 
St. 5-11 cm. x 1-2 mm., fuscous, or grey, apex white, firm, somewhat 
fragile, smooth or pruinose; base thickened, white villose and rooting, 
containing a milk white juice. Gills white, sometimes becoming glaucous, 
attenuated behind, slightly adnexed, broader towards the margin of 
the p. Flesh white, very thin. Spores white, oblong elliptic, 12-14 x 
6-7 //,. Cystidia hyaline, subulate, fusiform; apex acute, simple or 
forked, 30-90 x 10-12 x 2-5-3|u. at apex. Amongst dead leaves, on 
twigs and stumps. Woods, hedgerows, and wood piles. July Jan. 
Common, (v.v.) 

var. alba Fl. Dan. Alba, white. 

Differs from the type in being entirely white. In woods amongst 
leaves. Sept. Nov. Not uncommon, (v.v.) 

var. nigra Fl. Dan. (= Mycena leucogala Cke.) Cke. Illus. no. 1151, 
t. 653, as Mycena leucogala Cke. Nigra, black. 

Differs from the type in the dark colour of all its parts. In woods, 
on stumps, twigs, and leaves. Aug. Nov. Common, (v.v.) 



396 MYCENA 

VII. St. juiceless, glutinous, or viscid. Gills at length 
decurrent with a tooth. 

1261. M. epipterygia (Scop.) FT. Cke. Illus. no. 245, t. 208, upper figs. 

67T4, upon; Trrepvyiov, a little wing. 

P. 1-3 cm., cinereous, grey, or yellow, becoming whitish, membrana- 
ceous, campanulate, then more or less expanded, s