(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "British bees: an introduction to the study of the natural history and economy of the bees indigenous to the British Isles"

1^ ^ 






.^^ 









li 



p y\f ./xi 




/ II Aa y I 



1^ \ 



ii 



I 










iy\f x;\i 




•s» 



xS. 



*!>> # 



.# 



>?• 






^'^ 



# 



Jl 



/\ • /\ • 




-• *"" 



■^ 



%. 










'^ / ^ x. " / 



>c? 



# 






./ 



V 



\ 



% 



^' 



# 



% 



^. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/britishbeesintroOOshucrich 



I 



^ 



I 



^ 



I 






I 



BRITISH BEES. 



I 



^ 



p 



BKITISH BEES: 

AN INTEODUCTIOX 

TO THE STUDY OF THE 

NATURAL HISTORY AND ECONOMY OF THE BEES 

|itMp0tts t0 tilt IritisI] |ste. 



W. E. SHUCKAED, 



AUTHOR OF 'ESSAY ON THE FOSSOBIAL HYMENOPTEKA,' 'COLEOPTEKA DELI- 
NEATED,' 'ELEMENTS OF BRITISH ENTOMOLOGY,' MONOGRAPHS OF 
THE ' DORYLID.T:,' ' AULACIDJE,' etc. etc. ; AND TRANSLATOR 
OF BURMEISTER'S ' MANUAL OF ENTOMOLOGY.' 




LONDON: 

LOVELL EEEVE & CO., 5, HENEIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, 

1866. 



J. E. TAYLOR AND CO., PEINTEES, 
I,ITTT,E QTTEEN STREET, LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS. 



TO 



A& 

AVILLIAM WILSON SAUNDERS, ESQ., 

F.R.S., TEEAS. & V.P.L.S., F.Z.S., 

TEEASUREfi OF THE ROYAL HOSTICULTUEAL SOCIETY, 
ETC. ETC. ETC., 

IX TESTIMONY OF THE ABILITY, ZEAL, AND LIBEEALITY 

WITH WHICH HE CULTIVATES AND PROMOTES 

THE- SCIENCE OF ENTOMOLOGY j 

AKD 

AS AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF MUCH KINDNESS, 
EXTENDING OVER MANY YEARS, 

STfjis Folume 

IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED, 

BY HIS FAITHFUL SERVANT, 

W. E. SHUCKAED. 



PREMCE. 



A FEW words are necessary explanatory of the course 
pursued in the following work, as regards the citation of 
authorities. 

All the facts recorded without reference to authori- 
ties, are the result either of personal observation or of 
diligent study, which, from the length of time that has 
intervened, have become so blended in my mind that 
I can no longer separate their sources. I may, how- 
ever, state that observation has, certainly, as often anti» 
cipated the perusal of the discoveries of others, as their 
record has stimulated direct observation to confirm 
them. 

The habits of animals, in which instinct is the sole 
prompter, are so uniform, that these, once well observed, 
may be considered as permanently established. The 
slight deviations that have been occasionally noticed, al- 
though temporarily infringing, do not abrogate the in- 
flexibility of the law which regulates this faculty ; and 



Vlll PREFACE. 

the descendants inevitably resume the economy of the 
ancestor. 

The merit that attaches to the discovery of such facts 
is due merely to patience and diligence, very common 
attributes ; and the repeated mention of the supposed 
first observer must, necessarily, in a work of this kind, 
which is far from being of a strictly scientific cha- 
racter, diminish the interest of the narrative by in- 
terrupting its connection, and thus making it an incon- 
gruous mosaic. The omission to cite authorities may 
also take place without any wish to detract from the 
merit of the discoverer, which is patent to all by his own 
record in the archives of science. 

Before concluding, I wish to express my best thanks 
to Thomas Desvignes, Esq., for the kindness and willing- 
ness with wfiich he lent me, for the purposes of this 
work, my own selection from the Bees of his choice col- 
lection of British insects. 

I now dismiss the book — truly a labour of love — 
with the hope that it will fall into the possession of 
many, who may be sufficiently interested in the subject 
to induce them to become ardent entomologists, by 
showing them within how small a compass much agree- 
able instruction lies. 

June^ 1866. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 
PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS, COMPRISING GENERAL RE- 
MARKS UPON THE USES OF BEES IN THE ECONOMY OF 
NATURE, THEIR DIVISION INTO SOCIAL AND SOLITARY, 
AND A NOTICE OF THEIR FAVOURITE PLANTS ... 1 

CHAPTER II. 

GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES 17 

THE EGG 18 

THE LARVA 19 

THE PUPA 22 

THE IMAGO 23 

CHAPTER III. 

SKETCH OF THE GEOGRA.PHY OF THE GENERA OF BRITISH 

BEES 61 

CHAPTER lY. 

NOTICE OF THE MORE CONSPICUOUS FOREIGN GENERA . . 101 

CHAPTER Y. 

PARASITES OF BEES AND THEIR ENEMIES 109 



Xll CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER VT. 

PAGE 

GENEEAL PEINCIPLES OP SCIENTIFIC AEEANGEMENT . . . 118 



CHAPTER VII. 

BEIEF NOTICE OF THE SCIENTIFIC CULTIVATION OF BEITISH 

BEES 142 

CHAPTER VIII. 

A NEW AEEANGEMENT OF BEITISH BEES, WITH ITS EA- 
TIONALE, AND AN INTEODUCTION TO THE FAMILY, SUB- 
FAMILIES, SECTIONS, AND SUBSECTIONS 153 

CHAPTER IX. 

A TABLE, EXHIBITING A METHOD OF DETEEMINING THE 

GENEEA OF BEITISH BEES WITH FACILITY . . . . 17l 

EASY DISTEIBUTION OF THE BEES 176 

CHAPTER X. 

THE SCIENTIFIC AEEANGEMENT AND DESCEIPTION OF THE 
GENEEA, WITH LISTS OF OUE NATIVE SPECIES, AND AN 
ACCOUNT OF THE HABITS AND ECONOMY OF THE IN- 
SECTS, WITH INCIDENTAL OBSEEVATIONS SUGGESTED 
BY THE SUBJECT 184 

ANDEENID^ (SUBNOEMAL BEES) 185 

GEN. 1. COLLETES . 185 

GEN. 2. PEOSOPIS 191 

GEN. 3. SPHECODE8 196 

GEN. 4. ANDEENA 200 

GEN. 5. CILISSA 211 

GEN. 6. HALICTUS 214 

GEN. 7. MACEOPIS 220 

GEN. 8. DASYPODA 224 



CONTENTS. Xlll 

PAGB 

APiDJE (noemal bees) 227 

scopuLiPEDEs (brush-legged bees) 227 

GEN. 9. PANUEGUS 227 

GEX. 10. euceea 231 

GEN. 11. ANTHOPHOEA 236 

GEN. 12. SAROPODA 242 

GEN. 13. CEEATINA 245 

NUDIPEDES (cuckoo BEES) 249 

GEN. 14. NOMADA ' . . . 249 

GEN. 15. MELECTA 255 

GEN. 16. EPEOLUS 258 

GEN 17. STELIS 262 

GEN. 18. CCELIOXYS 265 

DASYGASTEES (aETISAN EEES) 269 

GEN. 19. MEGACHILE 269 

GEN. 20. ANTHIDIUM 279 

GEN. 21. CHELOSTOMA 283 

GEN. 22. HEEIADES 288 

GEN. 23. ANTHOCOPA 290 

GEN. 24. OSMIA 294 

CENOBITES (social BEES) 302 

GEN. 25. APATHUS 302 

GEN. 26. bombus 307 

GEN. 27. APIS 318 

INDEX 363 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Note. — S signifies male ; ? , female ; ^ , neuter. 



Plate I. 

1. Colletes Daviesiana, (^ $ 
2 ^ . Prosopis dilatata. 
•2 ? . Prosopis signata. 
3. Sphecodes gibbus, (^ ? . 

Plate II. 

1. Andrena fulva, (^ $ . 

2. Andrena cineraria, ^ ? . 

3. Andrena nitida, (^ ? . 

Plate III. 

1. Andrena Rosse, ^ $ . 

2. Andrena longipes, (^ § . 

3. Andrena cingulata, <^ ? 

Plate IV. 

1. Halictus xantliopus, (^ $ 

2. Halictus flavipes, ^ ? . 

3. Halictus minutissimus, 



Plate V. 

1. Cilissa tricincta, (^ ? . 

2. Macropis labiata, (5" ? . 

3. Dasypoda hirtipes, (^ ? . 

Plate VI. 

1. Panurgus Banksianus, 

2. Eucera longicornis, (^ ? 

3. Anthophora retusa, (J $ 

Plate VII. 

1. Anthophora f areata, (^ $ 

2. Saropoda bimaculata, 

3. Ceratina caerulea, ^ ? . 

Plate VIII. 

1. Nomada Goodeniana, 

2. Nomada Lathburiana, 

3. Nomada sexfasciata, cJ ? 



XVI 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Plate IX. 

1. Nomada signata, (^ $ . 

2. Nomada Eubrician.i, (^ $ . 

3. Nomada flavoguttata, 

Plate X. 

1 . Nomada Jacobsese, (^ $ . 

2. Nomada Solidaginis, (^ $ 

(that marked (^ * should 
be ?). 

3. Nomadajateralis, (^ $ . 

Plate XI. 

1. Melecta punctata, (J $ . 

2. Epeolus variegatus, (^ $ . 

3. Stelis phseoptera, ^ $ . 

Plate XII. 

1. Coelioxys Vectis. ^ ? . 

2. Megachile maritima, (;^ ?. 

3. Megaehile argentata, c^ ?. 

Plate XIII. 
1. Anthidium manicatum, 



2. Chelostoma florisomne, 

3. Heriades truiicorum, (^ $ . 

Plate XIV. 

1. Osmia bicolor, ^ 2 . 

2. Antlioeopa Papaveris, 

3. Osmia leucomelana, ^ $ . 

Plate XV. 

1. Apathus rupestris, (^ ? . 
2(^. Apathus campestris 

(the sexual sign to this 

should be ? ) . 
2 $ . Apathus vestalis. 

3. Bom bus fragrans, $ . 

4. Borabus Soroensis, (^ 

(var. Burrellanus). 

Plate XVT. 

1. Bombus Harrisellus, ? . 

2. Bombus Lapponicus, $ . 

3. Bombus syl varum, $ . 

4. Apis mellifica, c^ ? ° . 



BRITISH BEES. 

{HYMENOPTEBA.) 



CHAPTEE I. 

PEELIMINAEY OBSEEVATIONS, 

COMPEISING GENEEAL EEMAEKS UPON THE USES OF BEES IN THE 

ECONOMY OP NATUEE; THEIE DIVISION INTO SOCIAL AND SOLI- 

TAET; AND A NOTICE OF THEIE FAVOUEITE PLANTS. 

It is very natural that the "Bee'' should interest the 
majority of us, so many agreeable and attractive associa- 
tions being connected with the name. It is immediately 
suggestive of spring, sunshine, and flowers, — meadows 
gaily enamelled, green lanes, thymy downs, and fragrant 
heaths. It speaks of industry, forethought, and compe- 
tence, — of well-ordered government, and of due but not 
degrading subordination. The economy of the hive has 
been compared by our great poet to the polity of a 
populous kingdom under monarchical government. He 
says :— 

'* Therefore doth Heaven divide 

The state of man in divers functions, 

Setting endeavour in continual motion ; 

/ B 



2 BRITISH BEES. 

To which is fixed, as an aim or butt, 

Obedience : for so work the honey bees ; 

Creatures, that, by a rule in nature, teach 

The act of order to a peopled kingdom. 

They have a king, and officers of sorts : 

Where some, like magistrates, correct at home ; 

Others, lilce merchants, venture trade abroad ; 

Others, like soldiers, armed in their stings. 

Make boot upon the summer's velvet buds ; 

Which pillage they, with merry march, bring home 

To the tent-royal of their emperor : 

Who, busied in his majesty, surveys 

The singing masons building roofs of gold j 

The civil citizens kneading up the honey ; 

The poor mechanick porters crowding in 

Their heavy burdens at his narrow gate; 

The sad-ey'd justice, with his surly hum, 

Delivering o'er to executors pale 

The lazy yawning drone." — Henry V., 1, 2. 

Nothing escaped the wonderful vision of this " myriad - 
minded " man, and its pertinent application. 

This description, although certainly not technically 
accurate, is a superb broad sketch, and shows how well 
he was acquainted with the natural history and habits of 
the domestic bee. 

The curiosity bees have attracted from time imme- 
morial, and the wonders of their economy elicited by the 
observation and study of modern investigators, is but a 
grateful return for the benefits derived to man from 
their persevering assiduity and skill. It is the just 
homage of reason to perfect instinct running closely 
parallel to its own wonderful attributes. Indeed, so 
complex are many of the operations of this instinct, as 
to have induced the surmise of a positive affinity to 
reason, instead of its being a mere analogy, working 
blindly and without reflection. The felicity of the adap- 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 3 

tation of the hexagonal waxen cells, and the skill of the 
construction of the comb to their purposes, has occupied 
the abstruse calculations of profound mathematicians; 
and since human ingenuity has devised modes of investi- 
gating, unobserved, the various proceedings of the in- 
terior of the hive, wonder has grown still greater, and 
admiration has reached its climax. 

The intimate connection of '' Bees '' with nature^s 
elegancies, the Flowers, is an association which links 
them agreeably to our regard, for each suggests the 
other; their vivacity and music giving animation and 
variety to what might otherwise pall by beautiful but 
inanimate attractions. When we combine with this the 
services bees perform in their eager pursuits, our admi- 
ration extends beyond them to their Great Originator, 
who, by such apparently small means, accomplishes so 
simply yet completely, a most important object of crea- 
tion. 

That bees were cultivated by man in the earliest 
conditions of his existence, possibly whilst his yet 
limited family was still occupying the primitive cradle 
of the race at Hindoo Koosh, or on the fertile slopes of 
the Himalayas, or upon the more distant table-land or 
plateau of Thibet, or in the delicious vales of Cashmere, 
or wherever it might have been, somewhere widely away 
to the east of the Caspian Sea, — is a very probable sup- 
position. Accident, furthered by curiosity, would have 
early led to the discovery of the stores of honey which 
the assiduity of bees had hoarded; — its agreeable savour 
would have induced further search, which would have 
strengthened the possession by keener observation, and 
have led in due course to the fixing them in his imme- 
diate vicinity. 

B 2 



4 BRITISH BEES. 

To this remote period, possibly not so early as the 
discovery of the treasures of the bee, may be assigned 
also the first domestication of the animals useful to man, 
many of which are still found in those districts in all 
their primitive wildness. The discovery and cultivation 
of the cereal plants will also date from this early age. 
The domestication of animals has never been satisfac- 
torily explained, but all inquiry seems to point to those 
regions as the native land, both of them, and of the 
graminecB, which produce our grain ; for Heinzelmann, 
Linnseus's enthusiastic disciple, found there those 
grasses still growing wild, which have not been found 
elsewhere in a natural state. 

Thus, long before the three great branches of the 
human race, the Aryan, Shemitic, and Turonian, took 
their divergent courses from the procreative nest which 
was to populate the earth, and which Max Miiller pro- 
poses to call the Rhematic period, they were already 
endowed from their patrimony with the best gifts nature 
could present to them; and they were thus fitted, in their 
estrangement from their home, with the requirements, 
which the vicissitudes they might have to contend with 
in their migrations, most needed. They would even- 
tually have settled into varying conditions, differently 
modified by time acting conjunctively with climate and 
position, until, in the lapse of years, and the changes 
the earth has since undergone, the stamp impressed by 
these causes, which would have been originally evan- 
escent, became indelible. That but one language was 
originally theirs, the researches of philology distinctly 
prove, by finding a language still more ancient than its 
Aryan, Shemitic, and Turonian derivatives. From this 
elder language these all spring, their common origin 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 5 

being deduced from the analogies extant in each. These 
investigations are confirmed by the Scriptural account 
that "The whole earth was of one language and of one 
speech/^ previous to the Flood, and it describes the first 
migration as coincident with the subsidence of the 
waters. 

That violent cataclysms have since altered the face of 
the then existing earth, the records of geological science 
amply show; and that some of mankind, in every portion 
of the then inhabited world, survived these catastrophes, 
and subsequently perpetuated the varieties of race, may 
be inferred from those differences in moral and physical 
features which now exist, and which have sometimes 
suggested the impossibility of a collective derivation 
from one stock. The philological thread, although gene- 
rally a mere filament of extreme tenuity, holds all firmly 
together. 

That animals had been domesticated in a very early 
stage of man^s existence, we have distinct proof in many 
recent geological discoveries, and all these discoveries 
show the same animals to have been in every instance 
subjugated; thus pointing to a primitive and earlier 
domestication in the regions where both were originally 
produced. That pasture land was provided for the sus- 
tenance of these animals, they being chiefly herbivorous, 
is a necessary conclusion. Thence ensues the fair 
deduction that phanerogamous, or flower-bearing plants 
coexisted, and bees, consequently, necessarily too, — thus 
participating reciprocal advantages, they receiving from 
these plants sustenance, and giving them fertility. 

These islands, under certain modifications, were, pre- 
vious to the glacial period, one land with the continent of 
Europe ; and it was when thus connected that those 



6 BRITISH BEES. 

many tropical forms of animal life^ whose fossil remains 
are found embedded in our soil, passed hither. By the 
comparatively rapid intervention of geological changes, 
some of the lower forms of life went no further than the 
first land they reached, and are, consequently, not even 
now to be found so far west as Ireland : the migration 
appears clearly to have come from the East. Thus, 
although we have no direct evidence of the presence of 
" bees," yet as insects must have existed here, from the 
certainty that the remains of insect-feeding reptiles are 
found, as well as those of herbivorous animals, it may be 
concluded that " bees" also abounded. 

Claiming thus this very high antiquity for man's 
nutritive ^' bee," which was of far earlier utility to him 
than the silkworm, whose labours demanded a very ad- 
vanced condition of skill and civilization to be made 
available; it is perfectly consistent, and indeed needful, 
to claim the simultaneous existence of all the bee's 
allies. The earliest Shemitic and Aryan records, the 
Book of Job, the Vedas, Egyptian sculptures and pa- 
pyri, as well as the poems of Homer, confirm the early 
cultivation of bees by man for domestic uses ; and 
their frequent representation in Egyptian hieroglyphics, 
wherein the bee occurs as the symbol of royalty, clearly 
shows that their economy, with a monarch at its head, 
was known ; a hive, too, being figured, as Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson tells us, upon a very ancient tomb at Thebes, is 
early evidence of its domestication there, and how early, 
even historically, it was brought under the special domi- 
nion of mankind. To these particulars I shall have 
occasion to refer more fully when the course of my nar- 
rative brings me to treat of the geographical distribu- 
tion of the "honey bee;" I adduce it now merely to 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 7 

iatimate how very early, even in the present condition 
of the earthy bees were beneficial to mankind, and that, 
therefore, the connection may have subsisted, as I have 
previously urged, in the remotest nnd very primitive 
ages of the existence of man ; and that imperatively with 
them, the entire family of which they form a unit only, 
was also created. 

In America, where Apis mellifica is of European in- 
troduction, swarms of this bee, escaping domestication, 
resume their natural condition, and have pressed forward 
far into the uncleared wild ; and widely in advance of 
the conquering colonist, they have taken their abode in 
the primitive, unreclaimed forest. Nor do they remain 
stationary, but on, still on, with every successive year, 
spreading in every direction ; and thus surely indicating 
to the aboriginal red-man the certain, if even slow, ap- 
proach of civilization, and the consequent necessity of 
his own protective retreat : — a strong instance of the dis- 
tributive processes of nature. It clearly shows how the 
wild bees may have similarly migrated in all directions 
from the centre of their origin. That they are now 
found at the very ultima Thule, so far away from their 
assumed incunabula, and with such apparent existing 
obstructions to their distributive progress, is a proof, had 
we no other, that the condition of the earth must have 
been geographically very different at the period of their 
beginning, and that vast geological changes have, since 
then, altered its physical features. Where islands now 
exist, these must then have formed portions of widely 
sweeping continents ; and seas have been dry land, which 
have since swept over the same area, insulating irregular 
portions by the submergence of irregular intervals, and 
thus have left them in their present condition, with 



8 BRITISH BEES. 

their then existing inhabitants restricted to the circuit 
they now occupy. That long periods of time must 
necessarily have elapsed to have efiected this by the 
methods we still see in operation, is no proof that it has 
not been. Nature, in her large operations, has no 
regard for the duration of time. Her courses are so 
sure that they are ever eventually successful ; for, as to 
her, whose permanency is not computable, it matters not 
what period the process takes ; and she is as indififerent 
to the seconds of time whereby man^s brevity is spanned, 
as she is to the wastefulness of her own exuberant re- 
sources, knowing that neither is lost to the result at 
which she reaches. Consuming the one, and scattering 
broadcast the other, but in un noticeable infinitesimals, 
she does it irrespective of the origin, the needs, or the 
duration of man, who can only watch her irrepressible 
advances by transmitting from generation to generation 
the record of his observations ; marking thus by imagi- 
nary stations the course of the incessant stream which 
carries him upon its surface. 

Tha;t other bees are found besides the social bees, may 
be new to some of my readers, who will perhaps now 
learn, for the first time, that collective similarities of 
organization and habits associate other insects with 
"the bee" as bees. Although the names "domestic 
bee," "honey bee," or "social bee," imply a contra- 
distinction to some other " bee," yet it must have been 
very long before even the most acute observers could 
have noticed the peculiarities of structure which consti- 
tute other insects "bees," and ally the "wild bees" to 
the "domestic bee," from the deficiency of artificial 
means to examine minutely the organization whereby the 
affinity is clearly proved. This is also further shown in 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 9 

the poverty of our language in vernacular terms to express 
them distinctively ; for even the name of " wild bees," 
in as far as it has been applied to any except the " honey 
bee " in a wildered state, is a usage of modern introduc- 
tion, and of date subsequent to their examination and 
appreciation. Our native tongue, in the words " bee," 
"wasp," "fly," and "ant," compasses all those thou- 
sands of different winged and unwinged insects, which 
modern science comprises in the two very extensive 
Orders in entomology of the Hymenoptera and the D^- 
ptera ; — thus exhibiting how very poor common language 
is in words to note distinctive differences in creatures, 
even where the differences are so marked, and the habits 
so dissimilar, as in the several groups constituting these 
Orders. But progressively extending knowledge, and a 
more familiar intimacy with insects and their habits, 
will doubtless, in the course of time, supervene, as old 
aversions, prejudices, and superstitions wear out, when 
by the light of instruction we shall gradually arouse to 
perceive that "His breath has passed that way too;" 
and that, therefore, they all put forth strong claims to 
the notice and admiration of man. 

It is highly improbable that ordinary language will 
ever find distinctive names to indicate genera, and far 
less species : and although we have some few words 
which combine large groups, such as " gnats," " flesh- 
flies," "gad-flies," "gall-flies," " dragon-flies," "sand 
wasps," " humble bees," etc. etc. ; and, although the 
small group, it is my purpose in the following pages to 
show in all their attractive peculiarities, has had several 
vernacular denominations applied to them to indicate 
their most distinctive characteristics, such as "cuckoo 
bees," "carpenter bees," "mason bees," "carding bees," 



10 BRITISH BEES. 

etc., yet many which are not thus to be distinguished, 
will have to wait long for their special appellation. 

The first breathings of spring bring forth the bees. 
Before the hedge-rows and the trees have burst their 
buds, and expanded their yet delicate green leaves to 
the strengthening influence of the air, and whilst only 
here and there the white blossoms of the blackthorn 
sparkle around, and patches of chickweed spread their 
bloom in attractive humility on waste bits of ground in 
corners of fields, — they are abroad. Their hum will be 
heard in some very favoured sunny nook, where the 
precocious primrose spreads forth its delicate pale blos- 
som, in the modest confidence of conscious beauty, to 
catch the eye of the sun, as well as — 

" Daffodils, that come before the swallow dares. 
And take the winds of March with beauty." — ShaJcspeare. 

The yellow catkins of the sallow, too, are already 
swarmed around by bees, the latter being our northern 
representative of the palm which heralded " peace to 
earth and goodwill to man.'' The bees thus announce 
that the business of the year has begun, and that the 
lethargy of winter is superseded by energetic activity. 

The instinctive impulse of the cares of maternity 
prompt the wild bees to their early assiduity, urging 
them to their eager quest of these foremost indicators 
of the renewed year. The firstling bees are forthwith 
at their earnest work of collecting honey and pollen, 
which, kneaded into a paste, are to become both the 
cradle and the sustenance of their future progeny. 

Wherever we investigate wonderful Nature, we observe 
the most beautiful adaptations and arrangements, — 
everywhere the correlations of structure with function ; 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 11 

in confirmation of which I may here briefly notice in 
anticipation, that the bees are divided into two large /, 
groups, — the short-tongTied and the long-tongued, — [ 
and it is the short- tongued, — some of the Andrenidcs, — 
which are the first abroad : the corollse of the first 
flowers being shallow and the nectar depositories obvious, 
an arrangement which facilitates their obtaining with 
facility the honey already at hand. These bees are also 
amply furnished, — as will be afterwards explained, — in the 
clothing of their posterior legs, or otherwise, with the 
means to convey home the pollen which they vigorously 
collect, finding it already in superfluous abundance, and 
which, being borne from flower to flower, impregnates and 
makes fruitful those plants which require external agents 
to accomplish their fertility. Thus nature duly provides, 
by an interchange of offices, for the general good, and 
by simple, although sometimes obscure means, gives 
motion and persistency to the wheel within wheel which 
so exquisitely fulfil her designs, and roll forward, unre- 
mittingly, her stupendous fabric. 

The way in which the bees execute this object and 
design of nature, and to which they, more evidently than 
any other insects, are called to the performance, is shown 
in the implanted instinct which prompts them to seek 
flowers, knowing, by means of that instinct, that flowers 
will furnish them with what is needful both for their 
own sustenance, and for that of their descendants. 
Flowers, to this end, are furnished with the requisite 
attractive qualifications to allure the bees. Whether 
their odour or their colour be the tempting vehicle, or 
both conjunctively, it is scarcely possible to say, but 
that they should hold out special invitation is requisite 
to the maintenance of their own perpetuity. This, it is 



12 BRITISH BEES. 

supposed, the colour of flowers chiefly effects by being 
visible from a distance. Flowers, within themselves, in- 
dicate to the bees visiting them the presence of nectaria 
by spots coloured differently from their petals. This 
nectar, converted by bees into honey, is secreted by 
glands or glandulous surfaces, seated upon the organs 
of fructification ; and nature has also furnished means 
to protect these depositories of honey for the bees, from 
the intrusive action of the rain, which might wash the 
sweet secretion away. To this end it has clothed the 
corollse with a surface of minute hairs, which effectually 
secures them from its obtrusive action, and thus displays 
the importance it attaches to the co-operation of the 
bees. That bees should vary considerably in size, is a 
further accommodation of nature to promote the ferti- 
lization of flowers, which, in some cases, small insects 
could not accomplish. Many plants could not be per- 
petuated, but for the agency of insects, and especially 
of bees ; and it is remarkable that it is chiefly those 
which require the aid of this intervention that have a 
nectarium, and secrete honey. By thus seeking the 
honey, and obtaining it in a variety of ways, bees accom- 
plish this great object of nature. It often, also, happens 
that flowers which even contain within themselves the 
means of ready fructification cannot derive it from the 
pollen of their own anthers, but require that the pollen 
should be conveyed to them from the anthers of younger 
flowers ; in some cases the reverse takes place, as for 
instance, in the Euphorbia Cyparissias, wherein it is 
the pollen of the older flower which, through the same 
agency, fertilizes the younger. Although many flowers 
are night-flowers, yet the very large majority expand 
during the day ; but to meet the requirements of those 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 13 

which bloom merely at night, nature has provided means 
by the many moths which fly only at that time, and 
thus accomplish what the bees perform under the eye of 
the sun. Here insects are again subservient to the ac- 
complishment of this great act; for the petals of even the 
flowers which open in the night only are usually highly 
coloured, or where this not the case, they then emit a 
powerful odour, both being means to attract the re- 
quired co-operation. But of course our clients have 
nothing to do with these night-blooming flowers, as I 
am not aware of a single instance of a night-flying bee ; 
nor are they on the wing very late in the evening, 
being before sunset, already in their nidus. In those 
occasional cases where the nectarium of the flower is 
not perceptible, if the spur of such a flower which usu- 
ally becomes the depository of the nectar that has oozed 
from the capsules secreting it, be too narrow for the en- 
trance of the bee, and even beyond the reach of its long 
tongue, it contrives to attain its object by biting a hole 
on the outside, through which it taps the store. The 
skill of bees in finding the honey, even when it is much 
withdrawn from notice, is a manifest indication of 
the prompting instinct which tells them where to seek 
it, and is a matter of extreme interest to the observer, 
for the honey-marks — the macula indicantes — surely 
guide them ; and where these, as in some flowers, are 
placed in a circle upon its bosom, as the mark upon 
that of Imogen, who had — 

" On her left breast 
A mole cinqiie-spotted, like the crimson drops 
I' the bottom of a cowslip." — Shaks'peare. 

they work their way around, lapping the nectar as 



14 BRITISH BEES. 

they go. To facilitate this fecundation of plants, which 
is Nature's prime object, bees are usually more or less 
hairy ; so that if even they limit themselves to imbibing 
nectar, they involuntarily fulfil the greater design by 
conveying the pollen from flower to flower. To many 
insects, especially flies, some flowers are a fatal attrac- 
tion, for their viscous secretions often make these insects 
prisoners, and thus destroy them. To the bees this 
rarely or never happens, either by reason of their supe- 
rior strength, or possibly from the instinct which repels 
them from visiting flowers which exude so clammy a sub- 
stance. It is probably only to the end of promoting 
fertilization by the attraction of insects that the struc- 
ture of those flowers which secrete nectar is exclusively 
conducive, and which fully and satisfactorily explains 
the final cause of this organization. 

To detect these things, it is requisite to observe 
nature out of doors, — an occupation which has its own 
rich reward in the health and cheerfulness its promotes, — 
and there to watch patiently and attentively. It is only 
by unremitting perseverance, diligence, and assiduity 
that we can ho[)e to explore the interesting habits and 
peculiar industries of these, although small, yet very 
attractive insects. 

Amongst the early blossoming flowers most in request 
with the bees, and which therefore seem to be great 
favourites, we find the chickweed [Alsine media), the 
primrose, and the catkins of the sallow ; and these in 
succession are followed by all the flowers of the spring, 
summer, and autumn. Their greatest favourites would 
appear to be the Amentncete, or catkin-bearing shrubs and 
trees, the willow, hazel, osier, etc., from the male flowers 
of which they obtain the pollen, and from the female 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 15 

the honey; all the Bosacea, especially the dog-rose, and 
PrimulacecB, the Orchidece, Caryophyllacece, PolygonecBj 
and the balsamic lilies ; clover is very attractive to them, 
as are also tares ; and the spots on those leaves of the 
bean which appear before the flower, and exude a sweet 
secretion ; also the flowers of all the cabbage tribe. Be- 
neath the shade of the lime, when in flower, may be heard 
above one intense hum of thrifty industry. The blos- 
soms of all the fruit-trees and shrubs, standard or wall, 
and all aromatic plants are highly agreeable to them, 
such as lavender, lemon-thyme, mignonette, indeed all 
the resedas ; also sage, borage, etc. etc. ; but the especial 
favourites of particidar genera and species I shall have 
occasion subsequently to notice in their series ; but to 
mention separately all the flowers they frequent would be 
to compile almost a complete flora. Bees are also en- 
dowed with an instinct that teaches them to avoid cer- 
tain plants that might be dangerous to them. Thus, 
they neither frequent the oleander [Nerium Oleander) 
nor the crown imperial {Fritillaria imperialis), and 
they also avoid the BanunculaceiS , on account of some 
poisonous property ; and although the Melianthus major 
drops with honey, it is not sought. It is a native of the 
Cape of Good Hope, and may be attractive only to the 
bees indigenous to the country, which is also the case 
with other greenhouse plants equally rich in honey, but 
which not being natives, possibly from that cause the 
instincts of native insects have no affinity with them. 

Bees may be further consorted with flowers by the 
analogy and parallelism of their stages of existence. 
Thus, the e^^^ is the equivalent to the seed ; the larva 
to the germination and growth ; the pupa to the bud ; 
and the imago to the flower. The flower dies as soon 



16 BRITISH BEES. 

as the seed is fully formed, which is then disseminated by 
many wonderful contrivances to a propitious soil ; and 
the wild bees die as soon as the store of eggs is as won- 
derfully deposited, according to their several instincts, 
in fitting receptacles, and provision furnished to sustain 
the development of the progeny. Thus, each secures 
perpetuity to its species, but individually ceases ; whereas 
the unfecundated plant and the celibate insect may, se- 
verally, prolong for a short but indefinite period, a brief 
existence, to terminate in total extinction. Nature thus 
vindicates her rights, for nothing remains sterile with 
impunity. 



17 



CHAPTER 11. 

GENERAL HISTOEY OF BEES. 

THE EGa. — THE LARYA. — THE PUPA. — THE IMAGO. 

Although the preceding pages have been written 
upon the assumption that the reader knows what a bee 
is, now that we are gradually approaching the more 
special and technical portion of the subject it will be 
desirable to conform a little to the ordinary usages of 
scientific treatment. 

The bees constitute a family of the order Hymeno- 
pterttf viz. insects ordinarily, but in the case of bees 
always, with four transparent wings, which are variously 
but partially traversed longitudinally and transversely 
with threads, called nervures, supposed to be tubular, 
the relative position of which, together with the areas 
they enclose, called cells, help to give characters to the 
genera. 

Most of the Hymenoptera further possess some kind 
of an ovipositor, — of course restricted to the females, — 
varying considerably in the different families. This is 
sometimes external, but is often seated within the apex 
of the abdomen, whence it can be protruded for the 
purpose of depositing the e^^ in its right nidus. In 
our insect this organ is converted into a weapon of de- 

c 



18 BRITISH BEES. 

fence and offence^ and forms a sting, supplied by glands 
with a very virulent poison, whicli the bee can inject 
into the wound it inflicts. It is not certain that this 
organ is used by the bee as an ovipositor, although it 
is evident it is its analogue. This brief description of 
the essential peculiarities of the family will, for the pre- 
sent, suffice. In the notice of the imago, I shall enlarge 
upon the general structure, and then particularize those 
portions of it which may facilitate further progress. 

The Bgg. — Although the e^^ of the parent is the 
source of the origin of the bee, we cannot abruptly com- 
mence from this point, for the preliminary labours of 
the mother are indispensable to the evolution of its off- 
spring. This e^^ has to be placed in a suitable deposi- 
tory, together with the requisite food for the sustenance 
of the vermicule that will be disclosed from it. 

Instinct instructs the parent where and how to form 
the nidus for its eg^. These depositories differ consi- 
derably in the several genera, but, as a general rule, 
they are tubes burrowed by the mother either in earth, 
sand, decaying or soft wood, branches of plants having 
a pith, the halm of grain, cavities already existing in 
many substances, and even within the shells of dead 
snails. These perforations are sometimes simple, and 
sometimes they have divergent and ramifying channels, 
Sometimes they are carefully lined with a silky mem- 
brane secreted by the insect, and sometimes they are 
hung with a tapestry of pieces of leaves, cut methodi- 
cally from plants, but some leave their walls entirely 
bare. All these particulars I shall have ample oppor- 
tunity to note in the special descriptions of the genera. 
I merely indicate them to show how various are the 
receptacles for the offspring of our bees. 



GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES. 19 

Before the eg^ is placed within its nidus, this is sup- 
plied with the requisite quantity of food needful for the 
support of the young to the full period of its maturity. 
The receptacle is then closed, and the same process is 
repeated again and again until the parent has laid her 
whole store of eggs. In other cases one tube, p^ 
or its ramification, contains but one eg^. These v \ 
eggs are usually oblong, sliglitly curved, and ta- \ \ 
pering at one extremity ; they vary in size ac- p. ^ 
cording to the species, but are never, however, The Egg. 
above a line in length, and sometimes they are very 
minute. When the stock of the mother bee is exhausted 
she leaves them to the careful nursing of nature, and the 
young is speedily evolved. She then wanders forth; 
time has brought senility ; her occupation has gone ; 
and she passes away; but her progeny survive to per- 
petuate the continual chain of existence. 

The Larva. — The temperature of the perforated tube 
wherein the egg is deposited must necessaj-ily be higher 
and more equal than that of the external atmosphere, 
being secluded from its vicissitudes. The egg is soon 
hatched, and the larva emerges from its shell to feed 
ravenously upon the sustenance stored up for its supply. 
This consists of an admixture of pollen and honey formed 
into a paste, the quantities varying according to the 
size of the species. By some species it is formed into 
little balls ; by others, it is heaped irregularly at the 
bottom of the cell. In the case of Andrena the quan- 
tity stored is of about the size of a pea. That it must 
be exceeding nutritious may be inferred from its very 
nature, consisting, as it does, of the virile, energetic, 
and fertilizing powder of plants, — the concentration of 
their living principle. It is strictly analogous to the 

c 2 



20 BRITISH BEES. 

fecundating property of the semen in animals, and, like 
them, produces spermatozoa, a fact corroborated by the 
researches of Robert Brown, Mirbel, and other dis- 
tinguished vegetable physiologists."^ 

We are told that the cells of HylcBUs, or Prosopis, and 
of Ceratina are supplied with a semifluid honey. It is 
very doubtful if Hylceus collects its own store, but that 
Ceratina does I have the authority of an exact observer 
(Mr. Thwaites) to verify it, for he has caught this in- 
sect with pollen on its posterior legs, which the long 
hair covering the tibia is intended for. What may be 
the nature of this semifluid honey ? It is questionable 
if the larva could be nurtured upon honey alone with- 
out the admixture of pollen, thus contradicting analogies 
presumable from ample verification in nature's processes. 
How, too, does it become semifluid ? It is the property 
of honey, at a certain temperature, to be very fluid, and 
this is doubtless the temperature that prevails within 
the receptacle of the larva during the time of the opera- 
tions of the bees. 

Its semifluid consistency could then apparently be 
produced only by some more solid admixture, which, if 
not of pollen, of what can it be ? This, even in small 
quantities, might, upon the bursting of its vesicles, have 
the power of thickening the fluent honey to the neces- 
sary consistency. 

But a bee without polliniferous organs cannot collect 
pollen, and the instance of the hive bee, which. collects 
honey in superabundance, feeding its larva with the bee- 

* Might not, by parity of inference, the milt of fishes, such as the 
herring, mackerel, etc., be a useful food in cases of consumption, both 
from the iodine necessarily existing in it, and also from its doubtless 
nutritive nature? 



GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES. 21 

bread, must inevitably lead to the conclusion that the 
larvae of bees require more than honey for their suste- 
nance. Nature is not usually wantonly wasteful of its 
resources, and if honey sufficed for the nurture of the 
grub, so much pollen would not be abstracted from its 
legitimate purpose, nor would bees have this double 
trouble given to them. By the admixture of pollen the 
honey has energetic power infused into it by the sper- 
matozoa which that contains. But it must necessarily 
be collected, for I never observed, nor have I seen re- 
corded, any instance of the pollen being eaten on the 
flower and regurgitated into the cell in combination 
with the imbibed honey. 

Pollen is eaten by the domestic bee and humble-bee 
to form wax for the structure of their cells, but the so- 
litary bees do not themselves consume it. 

The larva, when excluded from the egg, is a fleshy 





Fig. 2. — a, the Larva, when growing ; h, when preparing to change ; 
c, the head, viewed in front. 

grub, slightly curved, and a little pointed at each extre- 
mity. Its body is transversely constricted, the con- 
strictions corresponding with its fifteen segments, each 
of which, excepting the head and four terminal ones, is 
supplied with a spiracle placed at the sides, whereby it 
breathes ; and it has no feet. These segments have on 
each side a series of small tubercles, which facilitate the 
restricted motions of the grub, confined to the bounda- 



22 



BRITISH BEES. 



ries of its cell. Its small head, wbicli is smooth above, 
has a little projecting horn on each side representing 
the future antennse. The small lateral jaws articulate 
beneath a narrow labrum or lip, which folds down over 
them. To prove that the food provided requires still 
further comminution, these jaws are incessantly masti- 
cating it. The form of these jaws approximates to that 
of the insect which it will produce, being toothed and 
broad at the apex in the artisan and wood-boring bees, 
and simple in those which burrow in softer substances. 
On each side beneath these jaws there is an appendage, 
rather plump, having a setiform process at its extremity, 
and beneath these, in the centre, we observe a fleshy 
protuberance which, at its tip, has a smaller perforated 
process that emits the viscid liquid with which the grub 
spins its cocoon, and which immediately hardens to the 
consistency of silk. 

Having constructed its cocoon, where the species does 
so, — for it is not incidental to all the genera, — and 
shrunk to its most compact dimensions, the larva be- 
comes transformed into 

The Pupa. — This is semi-transparent at first, and 
« h c there may be seen 

through the thin 
pellicle, which inva- 
riably clothes every 
portion separately, 
of the body the ri- 
pening bee, which 
lies, like a mummy, 
with its wings and 
legs folded lengthwise along its breast. The parts gra- 
dually assume consistency, and the natural colours and 






Fiff. 3.- 



i, the pupa, seen beneath ; 6, seen 
above ; c,seen laterally. 



GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES. 23 

clothing of the perfect insect display themselves through 
its pellucid envelope. When arrived at perfect matu- 
rity, and ready to commence the part it has to perform 
in the economy of nature, it bursts its cerements, mak- 
ing its way through the dorsal covering of its silken 
skin, and, leaving the exuviae behind, it crawls forth 
from its dormitory, when, becoming invigorated by the 
bracing air and the genial sunshine, it stretches its legs 
and expands its wings, and flies forth jubilant, rejoicing 
in its awakened faculties. 

The Imago. — The bee having attained its majority, 
loses no time in quitting the confined abode wherein it 
has been hitherto secluded. It comes forth prepared to 
undertake the cares, and meet the vicissitudes of exist- 
ence. The new life that now opens to it is one appa- 
rently teeming exuberantly with every delight. It 
dwells in sunshine and amidst flowers ; it revels in their 
sweets, attracted by their beautiful colours and their 
delightful odours ; and the consummation of its bliss is 
to find a congenial partner. With him it enjoys a brief 
connubial transport, but which is speedily succeeded by 
life-long labour, for the cares of maternity immediately 
supervene. 

I believe the wild bees are not polyandrous, and there- 
fore many males, if there be any preponderating dis- 
crepancy in favour of that sex, must die celibate. But 
the fact of finding the males associated together in great 
numbers upon the same flowers or hedges, is certainly 
not conclusive of this being the case. To provide a 
fitting receptacle, furnished with suitable provision, for 
its future progeny, occupies all the subsequent solicitude 
of the female. 

As frequent reference will hereafter be made to 



24 BRITISH BEES. 

peculiarities of structure^ it will be desirable to take a 
rapid survey of the external anatomy of the bee^ for it 
will enable me to introduce in due order the requisite 
technicalities with their local explanations. This course 
will be found most subservient to preciseness and accu- 
racy, and when mastered, which will be found to be a 
very simple affair, it will greatly facilitate exact compre- 
hension. No circumlocution can convey what a few 
technicalities, thoroughly understood, will immediately 
explain, and no special scientific work can be read with 
any profit until they are acquired. 

Diagrams are introduced to aid the imagination in its 
conception of what is meant to be conveyed. 

This necessary detail I shall endeavour to make as 
entertaining as I possibly can, by introducing, with the 
description of the organ, the uses it serves in the 
economy of the insect. I hope thus to add an interest 
to it which a merely dry technical and scientific defini- 
tion would not possess. 

Structure is always expressive of the habits of the 
bees, and is as sure a line of separation, or means of 
combination, as instinct could be were it tangible. 
Hence the conclusion always follows with a certainty 
that such-and-such a form is identical with such-and- 
such habits, and that, in the broad and most distinguish- 
ing features of its economy, the genus is essentially the 
same in every climate. Climate does not act upon these 
lower forms of animal life, with the modifying influences 
it exercises upon the mammalia and man. A Megachile 
is as essentially a Megachile in all its characteristics in 
Arctic America, the Brazils, tropical Africa, Northern 
China, and Van Diemen's Land, as in these islands, and 
Apis is, wherever it occurs, as truly an Apis. Therefore 



GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES. 25 

tlie habitSj in whatever country the genus may be found, 
can thus be as surely affirmed of all its species, from the 
knowledge we have of those at home, as if observation 
had industriously tracked them. Therefore, the techni- 
calities of structure once learnt, they become perma- 
nently and widely useful. 

The body of the bee consists of a head, thorax, and ab- 
domen, which, althousrh to the casual ^ .^ i. 
observer, seemingly not separated ^^i^^c>^ 
from each other, are, upon closer d-^-'^e^^=^ 
inspection, more or less distinctly ^'U^^^^^^E^''^ 
disconnected. The three parts are ^"" /'^^^^^i.^^ 
merely united by a very short and lZZjvI 
slight tubular cylinder. This is ^"fc- J V| 
sometimes so much reduced as to ^&^ ^ 
be only a perforation of the parts ^Ja 
combined by a ligament, and Fig. 4.— Body of the bee. 

^, 1 1 • 1 , . . a, head and antennse; h, 

through which aperture a requisite vertex and ocelU ; c, gense, 

channel is formed for the passage - ''^^J,;,rT^^- 
of the ff and ion or nervous chord, "^.^^»^ 5 /, insertion of the 

^ ° ^ ^ wings; /jjScutellum; ^,post- 

which extends from one portion of scutellum ; k, metathorax ; 

the body to the other, giving off ' 
laterally, in its progress from the sensorium in the head 
onwards, the filaments required by the organs of sensa- 
tion and motion, as well as all which control the other 
functions of the body of the insect. 

These apertures form also the necessary medium of 
connection between the several viscera, whereby the food 
and other sustaining juices are conveyed from the mouth 
through the oesophagus to the various parts of the body. 

As this work will impinge but very incidentally upon 
the internal organization of the bee, it is unnecessary 
to be more explanatory. All that 1 shall have to notice 




36 BRITISH BEES. 

here are those portions of the external structure which 
have any special bearing upon the economy and habits, 
or upon the generic and specific determination of the 
insects, and to which therefore I shall specially limit 
myself. 

The head is the most important segment of the in- 
sect's body, if we may elevate to such distinction any 
portion, when all conduce to the 
same end, and either would be im- 
perfect without the other, yet we 
may perhaps thus distinguish it from 
the rest as it exclusively contains 
that higher class of organs, those of 
Fig. 5.— Front of the scnsc, wliich are most essential to 

head of the bee. a, ver- , ^ . „ , rri, 

tex; b, face; c, oceiu or the luuctions 01 the crcaturc. ine 

stemmata ; d, compound i j • i. c i.\ ± 

eyes • e ciypeus • /, man- head cousists 01 the vertex, Or crown ; 
^fai^arSrSliiSgt t^e <?««*, Or cheeks ; the face; the 
repose. clypeus, ov uosc; the compound eyes ; 

the stemmata, or simple eyes; the antennce, or feelers, 
and the trophi, or organs of the mouth collectively. 

The thorax f the second segment, carries all the organs 
of locomotion. It consists of the prothorax or collar, 
which carries beneath the anterior pair of legs ; the meso- 
thorax, or central division, with which articulate late- 
rally above the four wings, the anterior of which have 
their base protected by the squamulcR, or epaulettes, or 
wing scales, and beneath it carries the intermediate pair 
of legs ; the metathorax, or hinder portion, which has in 
the centre above, behind the scutellum, the post-scutel- 
lum, and at the extremity of this division just above the 
articulation of the posterior legs is attached the last seg- 
ment of the insect, — the Abdomen. 

The vertex, or crown of the head, is that portion 



GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES. 27 

whicli lies between the upper extremities of the com- 
pound eyes. Upon the vertex are placed the stemmata^ 
or ocelli (the simple eyes), in a curve or triangle; they 
are three in number, and are small, hyaline, circular 
protuberances, each containing within it a lens; some- 
times they occur very far forward upon the face, espe- 
cially when the compound lateral eyes meet above, as in 
the male domestic bee or drone. The uses of these 
simple eyes, from the experiments which have been 
made, seem to be for long and distant vision. To test 
their function, Reaumur covered them with a very ad- 
hesive varnish, which the bee could not remove, and he 
then let it escape. He found upon several repeated 
trials, that the insect always flew perpendicularly up- 
wards, and was lost. Although this was anything but 
conclusive as to the uses of these eyes, it would seem 
that by losing the vision of this organ, the insect lost 
with it all sense of distance. 

The compound eyes, seated on each side of the head, 
extend from the vertex generally to the articulation of 
the mandibles or jaws, their longitudinal axis being per- 
pendicular to the station of the insect. They vary in 
external shape and convexity in the several species and 
genera, although not greatly, and consist of a congeries 
of minute, hexagonal, crystalline facets, each slightly 
convex externally, and their interstices are sometimes 
clothed with a short and delicate pubescence. Each 
separate hexagon has its own apparatus of lens and fila- 
ment of optic nerve, each having its own distinct vision, 
but all converge to convey one object to the sensorium. 
The function of the compound eyes is concluded to be 
the microscopic sight of near objects. 

The /ace, which sometimes has a longitudinal carina ^ 



28 BRITISH BEES. 

or prominent ridge^ down its centre, lies between these 
eyes, descending from the vertex to the base of the cly- 
peus, or nose, but which is without the function of that 
organ. This clypeus is sometimes protuberant, and from 
shape or armature, characteristic. This part, however, is 
not always distinctly apparent, although a line or suture 
usually separates it above, from the face. At its lower 
extremity tlie lahrum, or upper lip, articulates, over 
which it is sometimes produced ; and it extends at each 
lateral apex to the base of the insertion of the mandibles. 
The gencB, or cheeks, descend from the vertex laterally, 
behind the compound eyes, to the cavity of the head 
which contains the lingual apparatus, when folded in re- 
pose. These cheeks, at their lower extremity, sometimes 
embrace the articulation of the mandibles. 

The antenn(By or feelers, are two filamentary organs 
articulating on each side of the face and above the cly- 
peus. They comprise the scape {a), or basal joint, and 
{b) the flagellum or terminal apparatus ; the latter con- 
sists of closely attached conterminal joints, and usually 
forms an elbow with the scape; collectively these joints 
number twelve in the female and thirteen in the male. 
They are all of various relative lengths, which sometimes 
, aid specific determination. The scape, how- 

^jf^fs^ ever, is usually much longer than any of the 

^« 1 rest, and in some males has a very robust and 

even angulated shape. A description of the 

^^\J^ antennae always enters into the generic charac- 

2 ^ ^^^'y *^^y usually difffer very materially both in 

Fig. 6.— 1. length and form in the sexes. They are often 
Snnil 2% ^^^^^^^ (2), but more generally subclavate (1), 
lifoi-m ditto; and sometimes distinctly so, and where thev 

a, scape; *, i , , ^ ' J 

tiageiium. have the latter structure it is found in botli 



GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES. 29 

sexes. They constantly differ in the species of a long 
genus [Andrena, Isiormadaj Halictus) . In the male of the 
genus Eucerttj they have a remarkable extension, being as 
long as the body, whereas folded back they are rarely 
so long, or not longer than the thorax in other males, 
speaking in reference only to our native kinds. In 
the females they are not often longer than the head. It 
is in the males of the genus Halictus that they take the 
greatest extension. In the male of the genus Eucera, 
we also find the remarkable peculiarity of the integu- 
ment of some of the joints being distinctly of an hexa- 
gonal structure, — a peculiarity often observable in na- 
tural structures. In this case it may refer to the sen- 
siferous function of the organ, and to which I shall have 
occasion to revert when I speak of the senses of our 
insects. We sometimes find the joints of the antennae 
moniliform, something like a string of beads, or with 
each separate joint forming a curve, or with their ter- 
minal one, as in MegacMle, greatly compressed. 

The relative lengths of the joints often yield conclusive 
separative specific characters, and which may be very 
advantageously made available, especially where other 
distinctive differences are obscure, and in cases where 
the practised eye observes a distinction of habit, evi- 
dently specific, although it is difficult to seize tangible 
characteristics. 

The trophi are the organs of the mouth of the bee 
collectively. When complete in all the parts, as exem- 
plified in the genus Anthopter a, they consist of the labrum, 
or upper lip ; the epipharynx, or valve, falling over and 
closing the aperture of the gullet; thepharyncCj or gullet, 
which forms the true mouth and entrance to the oeso- 
phagus; the hypopharyUoC which lies immediately below 



30 



BRITISH BEES. 




the gullet and assists deglutition ; the labium, or lower 
lip, and the true tongue. These parts are all single ; 
the parts in pairs are the mandibles, the maxillce, the 
maxillary palpi, the labial palpi, and the paraglossce. 
The labrum, or upper lip, is attached by joint to the 

apex of the cly- 
pens; it has a ver- 
tical motion, and 
falls over the or- 
7 gans beneath it, 
in repose, when it 
is itself covered 
by the mandibles. 
It is usually trans- 
verse in form, but 

Fig. 7. — Trophi and their unfolding, a, labrum ; . 

6, epiphaiynx ; e, pharynx; d!, hypopharynx ; e, man- IS SOmctimCS pcr- 
dible;/, maxillae; g, maxillary palpi ; A, mandible; -i. -i pc-np 

i, cardium; A;, labium ;/, labial palpi ; m, paraglossae ; pcnaiCUiar, espe- 

n>^on^^. cially in the ar- 

tisan bees. It takes many forms, sometimes semilunar 
or linear, emarginate or entire, convex, concave, or flat, 
and is occasionally armed with one or two processes, 
like minute teeth projecting from its surface, but of what 
use these may be we do not know. In the female of 
Halictus, it has a slightly longitudinal appendage in the 
centre. It is usually horny, but is sometimes coriaceous 
or leathery. This labrum often yields good specific cha- 
racters. 

The pharynx, or gullet, is a cavity immediately be- 
neath the epipharynx, which articulates directly under 
the base of the labrum, and which closes the pharynx 
from above, and immediately beneath this cavity is 
another small appendage, almost triangular, which re- 
ceives the food or honey from the canal conveying it 



GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES. 31 

from the tongue, or directly from the mandibles, when 
it is masticated, and helps it forward to the pharynx to 
be swallowed. The epipharynx closes this orifice from 
above, the labrum then laps over it and the articulation 
of the lingual apparatus, both which are further pro- 
tected in repose by the mandibles closing over the la- 
brum. This triple protection shows the importance 
nature attaches to these organs. The more direct por- 
tions of the lingual apparatus are the labium^ or lower 
lip, which forms the main stem of the rest, and articu- 
lates beneath the hypopharynx, and is beneath of a 
horny texture ; it forms a knee or articulating bend at 
about half its length, and has a second flexure at its 
apex, where the true tongue is inserted. This labium is 
extensible and retractile at the will of the insect, and 
lies inserted within the under cavity of the head when 
in complete repose, and the insect can withdraw or 
extend a portion or the whole at its pleasure. Attached 
on each side, at its first bend or elbow, lie the maxilla, 
which, for want of a better term, are called the lower 
jaws, and perhaps properly so from the function they 
perform; for at the point of their downward flexure, 
which occurs at the apex of the labium, and where the 
true tongue commences, they each extend forward in a 
broad, longitudinal membrane, partly coriaceous through- 
out its whole length, and these, folded together and be- 
neath, form the under sheath of the whole of the rest of 
the lingual apparatus in repose, and often lap over its 
immediate base when even it is extended. Externally 
continuous, the line of these maxill(S is broken at the 
point of flexure at the apex of the labium, by a deep 
sinus or curve, and within this is inserted the first joint 
of the maxillary palpi. The portion of the maxillse 



32 BRITISH BEES. 

extending forwards, hence takes several forms, usually 
tapering to an acute point, but sometimes rounded or 
hastate, according to the structure of the tongue, to 
which they form a protection. 

The maxillary palpi are small, longitudinal joints, 
never exceeding six in number, and generally in the 
normal or true bees not so numerous. They vary in 
relative length to the organ to which they are attached, 
and usually progressively decrease in length and size 
from the basal ones to the apical, but each joint, except- 
ing the terminal one, is generally more robust at its 
apex than at its own special base. The function of these 
maxillary palpi is unknown. They are always present 
in full number in the Andrenidce^ and in some few 
genera of the true bees, but they vary from their normal 
number of six to five, four, three, two, and one in the 
latter ; and it is curious that they are most deficient in 
those bees having the most complicated economy, as in 
the artisan bees and the cenobite bees ; they thus evi- 
dently show that it is not a very paramount function 
that they perform. On each side, at the apical summit 
of the labium, are inserted the labial palpi. These are 
invariably four in number, but vary considerably in 
length and substance. In the Andrenidce they have 
always the form of subclavate, robust joints, and are 
usually as long as the tongue, but not always ; they are 
only half the length of that organ in the subsection of 
the acute-tongued Andrenidce. In the normal bees, 
even in the genus Panurgus, which is the most closely 
allied to the Andrenidce, the labial palpi immediately 
take excessive development, especially in their two basal 
joints, and the structure of these two joints, excepting 
in this genus and in Nomada, partakes of a flattened form 



GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES. 33 

and membranous substance. All these four joints are 
either conterminal, or the two apical ones, or one of 
them is articulated laterally, towards the apex of the 
preceding joint. These two are always very short 
joints, and are comparatively robust. 

The labial palpi are, in the majority of cases, about 
half or two-thirds the length of the tongue, but in 
Apathus and Apis they are of its full length. At the im- 
mediate base of the tongue, and attached to it laterally, 
rather than to the apex of the labium, are the paraglossa, 
or lingual appendages, which are membranous and acute, 
except in the Andrenidce, where, in some, their apex is 
lacerated and fringed with short hairs. These organs 
are always present in the Andrenidce and generally in 
the Apidae, where they usually obtain extensive relative 
development; but in the artisan bees they are all but 
obsolete, and in Cei^atina, C(Blioxys, Apathus, and Apis^ 
they are not even apparent. Their use also has hitherto 
eluded discovery, but that they are not essential to the 
honey-gathering instinct of the bee is especially proved 
by the latter instance. 

The true tongue is attached to the centre of the apex 
of the labium, having the paraglossse, when extant, and 
the labial palpi at its sides. In the Andrenidce it is a 
flat short organ of varying form, either lobated, emargi- 
nate, acute, or lanceolate ; but in the Apidce, with Panur- 
gus it immediately becomes very much elongated, and 
with this genus the apparatus whereby the tongue folds 
beneath obtains its immediate development; but this 
development exhibits itself most fully in the genus An- 
thophora. The tongue is usually linear, tapering slightly 
to its extremity, and terminating in some genera with a 
small knob. It is clothed throughout with a very delicate 



34 



BRITISH BEES. 



pubescence, which enables the bee to gather up the nectar 
it laps. That it should be called the lip seems an ab- 
surdity, for it exercises all the functions of a tongue, and 



S^,' '^ '^ 






Fi^. 8. — Extremes of structure of tongues : 1, in subnormal bees {Col- 
letes) ; 2, in normal bees {Anthophora). a, tongue; b, paraglossae ; c, 
labial palpi ; d, maxillae ; e, maxillary palpi ; /, labium. 

it would seem almost that the fine hairs, with which it 
is covered, are the papillae of taste. Its structure in 
some genera seems to be a spiral thread twining closely 
round and round, but in others it appears throughout 
identical. 

This tongue was formerly thought to be tubular, and 
that the bee sucked the honey through an aperture at 
its apex. The knowledge of the flat form of the tongues 
of other bees should have dissipated the illusion, for we 
could have been perfectly sure of the analogical struc- 
ture and function of an organ in creatures so nearly 
alike. Reaumur's patient observations have totally 
dissipated the mistake, and through him we exactly 
know how the bee conveys the honey into its stomach 



GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES. 35 

As it exhibits an agreeable instance of the persevering 
industry and unblenching patience with which he made 
his researches, I will give a summary of what he says, 
for his bulky volumes, although teeming with delightful 
instruction, pleasantly narrated, will necessarily not be 
in every entomologist^s hand, and where not, not even 
always readily accessible. His observations were made 
upon the honey-bee, but we may attribute the same 
mode of collecting to all the rest. He says : — When 
this tongue is not lapping the nectar of flowers but in a 
state of perfect repose it is flattened. It is then at 
least three times broader than thick, but its edges are 
rounded. It gradually narrows from its base to its ex- 
tremity. It terminates in a slight inflation, almost 
cylindrical, at the end of which there is a little knob, 
which appears perforated in the centre. From the cir- 
cumference of this knob tolerably long hairs radiate, 
and the upper side of the tongue is also entirely covered 
with hairs. The basal and widest portion above seems 
striated transversely with minute lines closely approach- 
ing each other. 

The upper side of the anterior portion of the tongue 
seems of a cartilaginous substance, but the under side of 
the same part appears cartilaginous only over a portion 
of its width. The centre is throughout its whole course 
more transparent than the rest, and seems membranous 
and folded. It is only necessary to press the posterior 
portion of this trunk, whilst holding its anterior part j 
closely to a light, towards which its upper surface must | 
be turned, and then upon examining its inner surface with \ 
a lens of high power, a drop of liquid may be soon ob- 
served at its foremost portion. By continuing to press 
it this drop is urged forward, and as it passes every 

D 2 



36 BRITISH BEES. 

portion swells considerably, and the two edges separate 
more widely from each other. The under side of the 
tongue, which was before flat, rises and swells conside- 
rably, and all that thus rises up is evidently membra- 
nous. It looks like a long vessel of the most transparent 
material. But whilst this great increase of bulk is made 
upon the lower surface, the upper surface swells only a 
little, which seems to prove that its immediate envelope 
is not capable of much distension. 

If a bee be observed whilst sipping any sweet liquor, 
the anterior portion of its trunk will be sometimes seen 
more swollen than when in action, and alternations will 
be observed in it of varying expansion. 

The posterior portion of the trunk is a great deal 
larger than the anterior, and it is only in repose that 
the former nearly equals the latter in length. This 
posterior portion (this is the portion treated above as 
the labium, or under lip) is joined to the anterior by a 
very short ligature, wholly fleshy, and very flexible, 
which permits the folding of the trunk, and then its 
under side is quite scaly, very shiny, and rounded (the 
maxillae). This portion is apparently more substantial 
than the rest. Its diameter gradually increases as it 
recedes from about the middle to about two-thirds of 
its length ; there it is a little constricted, and the first 
of the two pieces of which it is composed there termi- 
nates. The first piece is rounded, for the purpose, it 
would appear, of fitting itself upon another, which 
serves as its base and pivot. This base is conical and 
of a scaly texture, and terminates in rather an acute 
point. It is this point which is articulated at the junc- 
tion of the two small elongate portions of which we 
spoke at the commencement, and which carry the trunk 
forward. 



GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES. 37 

In repose, the posterior part of the trunk lies along 
the lower part of the mouth, and the anterior part is 
folded back upon it, when it is covered by the maxillae, 
which then seem to form a portion of it. It has further 
another interior envelope ; these are the two first joints 
of the labial palpi (in the Apidce), which are entirely 
membranous, and these in repose cling closely to the 
tongue laterally. 

The bee would certainly not collect its honey diffe- 
rently from a flower than it would from a glass wherein 
it might be placed to observe the process ; and here it 
never appeared to obtain the honey by suction. The bee 
was never observed to place the end of its tongue in the 
drop of syrup, as it would necessarily do if it were requi- 
site to imbibe it through what seems the small aperture at 
the extremity of the knob, at the end of the tongue, pre- 
viously described. As soon as the bee finds itself near 
the spot spread with honey or syrup, it extends its 
tongue a line or so beyond the end of the palpi, which 
continue to envelope it throughout the rest of its 
length. If the honey be spread over the glass, the an- 
terior portion of the tongue, which is exposed, is turned 
round that its superior surface may be applied to the 
glass. There this portion does precisely what the 
tongue of any animal would do in lapping a liquid. 
This tongue repeatedly rubs the glass, and, moving 
about with astonishing rapidity, it makes hundreds of 
different inflexions. 

If the drop of syrup presented to the bee be thicker, or 
if it meet with a drop of honey, it then thrusts the ante- 
rior portion of its tongue into the liquid, but apparently 
only to use it as a dog might do its tongue in lapping milk 
or water. Even in the drop of honey the bee bends the 



38 BRITISH BEES. 

end of its tongue about^ and lengthens and shortens it 
successively^ and, indeed, withdraws it from moment to 
moment. We then observe it not merely lengthen and 
shorten this end, but it is also seen to curve it about, 
causing from time to time the superior surface to become 
concave, — to give, as it were, to the liquid with which 
it is loaded a downward inclination towards the head. 
In fact, this portion of the trunk appears to act as a 
tongue, and not as a pump. Indeed its extremity, 
where the aperture for receiving the liquid is assumed 
to be, is repeatedly above the surface of the liquid which 
the insect is lapping. 

By these continuous motions this anterior extremity 
of the tongue charges itself with the nectareous fluid, 
and conveys it to the mouth. It is along the upper 
surface of this pilose tongue that the liquid passes. 
The bee strives especially to load and cover it with 
honey. In shortening the tongue to the extent, some- 
times, of withdrawing it entirely beneath its sheaths, it 
conveys and deposits the liquid with which it is charged 
within a sort of channel, formed by the upper surface of 
the tongue and the sheaths which fold over it. Thus, 
these sheaths are, perhaps, less for the purpose of covering 
the tongue than to form and cover the channel by which 
the liquid is conveyed to the mouth. I have previously 
remarked that the trunk can swell and contract ; these 
^ swellings and constrictions are observed to succeed each 
other, and may be for the purpose of urging the liquid, 
already in transit beneath the sheaths, forward towards 
the true mouth. Further, I moved the sheaths aside 
from their position above the tongue of a bee which I 
held in my fingers, and I succeeded, by means of the 
point of a pin, in placing an extremely small drop of 



GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES. 39 

honey upon the tongue of this bee at a spot where it 
could be covered by the extremities of the external 
sheath. I then let these sheaths loose. Sometimes they 
spontaneously resumed their previous position, and 
sometimes I assisted them to resume it. The drop of 
honey which they then covered has in no instance re- 
turned to the extremity of the tongue; it has always 
passed towards the mouth, and doubtless entered that 
orifice itself. It is therefore very certain that the bee 
imbibes its honey by lapping, and that it never passes 
through the aperture which has been supposed to have 
been seen at the extreme apex of the tongue. Did this 
aperture really exist, it would be of extreme minuteness, 
and it did not appear to me possible that a large drop 
of honey, which I have seen imbibed in a very few- 
instants, could in so short a time have passed by so 
minute an opening. A further confirmation of the non- 
existence of this orifice has been given me when, by 
pressing a tongue towards its origin to compel it to 
swell, I have detected the liquid which 
gave it its extension, but all my press- 
ing would never make the liquid pass 
through the extremity, although the 
pressure has sometimes made it almost 
rend the membranes, to give it an open- 
ing to escape by. Having thus passed 
through the oesophagus into the stomach, ~~r^ 
it is then regurgitated into its requisite „. _Mode of 
repository upon arriving at home. folding the tongue 

„, . 1 • • 1 11 • ^^ repose. 1. In 

i he entire proboscis, With all its appen- abnormal bee. 2. 
dages attached, has in the Apidce three dis- pLToTarticuiation 
tinct hinges or articulations, includinsr that beneath the hypo- 

^ , , * pharynx : b, apex 

which attaches it by its extreme base to of the tongue. 





40 BRITISH BEES. 

the under surface of the mouth and lower portion of the 
head, the cavity of which, when folded, it fills, and even 
then the apex of the tongue protrudes in some genera 
beyond the sheathing maxillae. In the Andrenidce it has 
but two articulations, and the maxillae always cover them 
entirely in repose. The first articulation, forming the 
fulcrum of the whole, is always elbowed in the Apidce, 
and consequently not capable, like the rest of the joints, 
of full linear extension. The attached diagram will give 
a clearer conception of the mode of folding : a is the la- 
bium, and b the tongue. 

As we have no complete description of the mode by 
which the tongue of the bee is worked, and how it 
gathers up its honey, I thought it desirable to be fuller 
upon the subject than was originally my intention. 

The last portion of the trophi, also double, are the man- 
dibles ; they articulate on each side with the cheeks ; they 
act laterally, and are variously formed, according to the 
2 3 economy of the in- 

r^-—^ ^^CrUHr^ ^^^*- In the females 




they are usually 
more or less toothed, 

.J'^- .^vT^o^"^A^''= ^' f^^''^"'"*^*''a^'^f and are especially 

(Megachile) ; 2, of burrower {Andrena) ; 3, of r J 

parasite (JVow(w?a). broad, curvcd, and 

toothed in the artisan bees. In Apis and Bombus they 
are subdentate. In males they are frequently simply 
acute, but in some species, especially in Andrena ^ they 
have a long spine at the base, which points downwards 
when they are closed. To this sex they appear to be of 
no use beyond aiding them to stay the wayward caprice 
or flight of their mistresses ; and, although they have 
an analogical structure in the males of those genera 
wherein they are much dilated and toothed, yet they do 



GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES. 41 

not seem to be at all used by that sex for any purpose 
but sexual. In the females they are used for the con- 
struction of their burrows and nests, and for the pur- 
pose of nipping the narrow spurs and tubes of flowers 
to get at the nectar ; and they often nip, whilst seeking 
pollen, the anthers of the flowers which have not yet 
burst their receptacles of pollen. 

These insects must necessarily nicely appreciate the 
quantity of pollen requisite to the full development of 
the young insect, and, although we often observe a re- 
markable difference of size in the individuals of a species, 
this may rather arise from some defect in the quality of 
the nutritive purveyance than in its quantity, for instinct 
would as efficiently provide for this purpose as it un- 
questionably guides to the collection and storing of the 
nutritive supplies. 

Having thus completed the description of the head 
and of all its attachments, I proceed to — 

The Thorax, which is divided by sutures into three 
parts already mentioned above, viz. the prothorax, the 
mesothorax, and the metathoraoc. 

The collar, or upper part of the prothorax, is often 
very distinct, and even angulated laterally in front, and 
frequently presents, both in colouring and form, a specific 
character. At its under portion on each side the ante- 
rior legs are articulated. 

All the legs comprise the coxa, or hip-joint ; the tro- 
chanter j which is a small joint forming the connection 
between this and the next joint the/ewwr, or thigh ; the 
ttbiay or shank ; and the tarsus, or foot. The latter con- 
sists of five joints, declining in length from the first, 
which is generally as long as all the rest united together ; 
the first, in the anterior pair, being called the palmce, 



43 BRITISH BEES. 

or palms ; and in the four posterior plantcR, or soles ; 
the other joints are called the digitiy or fingers, or tarsus 
collectively ; at the extremity of the terminal one are the 
two claws, which are sometimes simple hooks, but usually 
have a smaller hooklet within ; they have both lateral and 
perpendicular motion, and between their insertion is af- 
fixed the pulvillus, or cushion. The coxce in their occa- 
sional processes exhibit very useful specific characters, as 
do the markings and form of the remaining joints of the 
leg and foot, which in several genera furnish generic pecu- 
liarities. The four anterior tarsi have each a moveable 
spine, or spur, at their apex within, which can be expanded 
to the angle at which the insect wishes to place the limb, 
and to which it forms a collateral support ; the posterior 
tibise have two each of these spurs, excepting in the genus 
ApiSy which has none to this leg. Attached to this 
spur on the anterior tibise of all the bees, there is, with- 
in, a small veluin, or sail, as it has been 
called; this is a small angular appendage 
affixed within the spur by its base. At 
the base of the palrase of the same legs, 
and opposite the play of this velum, there 
is a deep sinus, or curved incision, the 
strigilis, called thus or the curry-comb, 
from the pecten, or comb of short stiff 
hair which fringes its edge. Upon this 
aperture the velum can act at the will of 
^i3i!',r^^*r~^^^*f' the insect, and combined they form a 
J, trochanter; c,fe- circular orifice. The obiect of this appa- 

mur, or thigh id, . " '■ '^ 

tibia, or shank; e, ratus IS to Kccp the antcnuse clean, for 

spur and velum; ,i • . ^ •- • i , i 

/ pianta and stri- the inscct, when it wishcs to cleanse one 

iw;^l*^lfivmus; ^^ *^^^ «*^^^ «^ t^e^' l^ys i* ^itlii^ this 
or cushion. sinus of the palma, and then, pressing the 




GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES. 43 

velum of the spur upon it, removes, by the combined 
action of the comb and the velum, all excrescences or 
soilure from it, and this process it repeats until satisfied 
with the cleanliness of the organ : and this it may be 
frequently seen doing. This arrangement proves how 
essential to the well-being of the insect is the condition 
of its antennae, the sinus, or strigilis, or curry-comb, as 
it may be called, being always adapted in size to the thick- 
ness of the antennae, for insects being always both right- 
and left-handed, they therefore use the limb on each side 
to brush the antenna of that side. The palmse and other 
joints of the tarsus of the fore legs are greatly dilated in 
many males, or fringed externally with stiff setae, which 
give it as efficient a dilatation as if it were the expansion 
of its corneous substance. The anterior tarsi of the 
females are likewise fringed with hair, to enable them to 
sweep off and collect the pollen, and to assist also in the 
construction and furnishing of their burrows. The in- 
termediate tarsi are as well often very much extended 
in the males, being considerably longer than those of the 
other legs. The use of the claws at the apex of the tarsi 
is evidently to enable the insect to cling to surfaces. 

The manner in which the bee conveys either the 
pollen, or other material it purposes carrying home, to 
the posterior legs, or venter, which is to bear it, is very 
curious. The rapidity of the motions of its legs is then 
very great ; so great, indeed, as to make it very difficult 
to follow them ; but it seems first to collect its material 
gradually with its mandibles, from which the anterior 
tarsi gather it, and that on each side passes successively 
the grains of which it consists to the intermediate legs 
by multiplicated scrapings and twistings of the limbs ; 
this then passes it on by similar manoeuvres, and depo- 



44 BRITISH BEES. 

sits it, according to the nature of the bee, upon the pos- 
terior tibice and planta, or upon the venter. The evi- 
dence of this process is speedily manifested by the 
posterior legs gradually exhibiting an increasing pellet 
of pollen. Thus, for this purpose, all the legs of the 
bees are more or less covered with hair. It is the man- 
dibles vrhich are chiefly used in their boring or excavat- 
ing operations, applying their hands, or anterior tarsi, 
Only to clear their way; but by the constructive or 
artisan bees they are used both in their building and 
mining operations, and are worked like trowels to collect 
moist clay, and to apply it to the masonry of their 
habitations. 

The mesothorax, or central division of the thorax, has 
inserted on each side near the centre the four wings, 
the anterior pair articulating beneath the squamulce, or 
wing scales, which cover their base like an epaulette, and 
this wing scale often yields a specific character. In 
repose the four wings lie, horizontally, along the body, 
over the abdomen, the superior above, the inferior beneath. 
The wings themselves are transparent membranes, in- 
tersected by threads darker than their own substance, 
called their nervures, which are supposed to be tubular. 
These nervures and the spaces they enclose, called cells, 
are used in the superior wing only, and only occasion- 
ally, as subsidiary generic characters, and their termi- 
nology it will be desirable to describe, as use will be 
made subsequently of it. At the same time, to facili- 
tate the comprehension of the terms, an illustrative dia- 
gram is appended; but those parts only will be de- 
scribed which have positive generic application. I may, 
however, first observe that upon the expansion of the 
wings in flight, the insect has the voluntary power 



GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES. 45 

of making the inferior cling to the superior wing by a 
series of booklets with which its anterior edge is fur- 
nished at about half the length of that wing, which gives 
to the thus consolidated combination of the two a greater 
force in beating the air to accelerate its progress. That 
the insect has a control over the operation of these 
booklets is very evident, for, upon settling, it usually 
unlocks them, and the anterior are often seen separated 
and raised perpendicularly over the insect ; but that this 
can be mechanically eflfected also is shown sometiiiies 
in pinning a bee for setting, when by a lucky accident 
the pin catches the muscles which act upon the wings, 
and they become distended, as in flight, closely linked 
together. Both the dia- 
gram and the description 
of this superior wing I 
borrow from an elaborate 
paper of my own in 
the first volume of the ,f ^; ^I'T^TJ'?'' "^'""f • ^'P^r^^^f^ 

cell ; 0, first cubital or submargmal cell ; 
' Transactions of the En- c, second ditto ; d, third ditto ; e and /, 
, . 1 c~^ ■ . r first and second recurrent nervures. 

tomological Society oi 

London,' wherein I gave a tabulated view, in chronolo- 
gical order, of the nomenclature introduced by succes- 
sive entomologists in the use they made of the anterior 
wing of the Hymenoptera for generic subdivision, and 
which I subsequently applied to my own work upon the 
* Fossorial Hymenoptera of Great Britain.' 

Attached to the mesothorax in the centre, above and 
behind, are the scutellum and post-scutellum, which in 
colouring or form often yield subsidiary generic or 
specific characters. On each side of the mesothorax in 
front, above the pectus, or breast, and just below and 
before the articulation of the anterior wings, there is a 




46 



BRITISH BEES. 



small tubercle, or boss, separated from the surround- 
ing integument by a suture, the colouring of which fre- 
quently yields a specific character, but its uses are not 
known. 

The metathorax carries the posterior legs laterally 
beneath, and in the centre, behind, the abdomen. The 
posterior legs are the chief organs 
used by the majority of bees for the 
conveyance of pollen to store in 
their cells, or, as in the case of 
humble-bees or the hive bee, the 
bee bread for the food for the young, 
or the requisite materials, in the ma- 
jority of other bees, for nidification. 
To this end they are either densely 
clothed with hair throughout their 
whole extent, — usually externally 
only, — or this is limited to the ex- 
ternal surface of the posterior shank. 
;tTiiWVS^«)?t I^ the social bees this shank is edged 
parasitic bee {Nomada). externally with stifF bristles. In 

a, coxa ; o, trochanter, "^ , 

with flocculus ; c, femur; these, as in most of the bees, this 

c?, tibia; e, planta ; /, spi- t , ,, , in ^ 

nui«; g, tarsus, with Its limb greatly and gradually expands 
^^^^^' towards its articulation with the 

planta, or first joint of the tarsus; and this surface, 
which is perfectly smooth, serves to the social bee as 
a sort of basket to hold and convey the collected 
materials. The first joint of the tarsus, or planta, of 
this leg is also used in the domestic economy of the in- 
sect to assist in the same object. In the domestic bee the 
under side of the posterior plantse have a very peculiar 
structure, consisting of a series of ten transverse broad 
parallel lines of minute dense but short brushes, which 




Fia:.13. — Posterior legs : 
1, of abnormal bee {An- 



GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES. 47 

are used in the manipulations within the hive. Neither 
the queen bee nor the drone have this structure^ and in 
the humble-bee and scopuliped bees the same joint is 
uniformly covered with this brush without its being se- 
parated into lines. 

The Abdomen of bees has many shapes, its form be- 
ing elliptical, cylindrical, subcylindrical, clavate, coni- 
cal or subconical, and sometimes semicircular, or con- 
cavo-convex. It consists of six imbricated plates, called 
segments, in the female, and of seven in the male; 
in the latter sex, in several genera, it takes beneath at 
its base and at its apex, as well as at the extremity of 
the latter, remarkable forms and armature. It is very 
variously clothed and coloured, and sometimes extremely 
gaily and elegantly so; these various markings often giv- 
ing the insects their specific characteristics ; the clothing 
of the under side of this segment of the body, likewise, 
furnishes subsidiary generic characters, especially in the 
artisan bees, in whom it takes the place of the pos- 
terior legs as a poUiniferous organ. This is possibly 
because were the supply conveyed upon their poste- 
rior legs it would be rubbed away as they entered the 
narrow apertures of their nests. Nature does nothing in 
vain, and there is evidently a purpose in this arrangement. 

If we can trace peculiarities of structure to efficient 
reasons, differences of form may be rationally concluded 
as having their cause too, even if it elude our explana- 
tory research. Although the reason of peculiar structure 
is not always obvious, it must exist, though undetected ; 
as, for instance, why in some bees, as in Megachile, 
Osmia, Chelostoma, Anthidium, etc., the under side of the 
abdomen should be furnished densely with hairs to carry 
their provision of pollen home to their nest, when in other 



48 BRITISH BEES. 

Ibees, as in Dasypoda, Panuryus, Eucera, Anthophora, etc. 
etc., it is conveyed upon the posterior legs, we do not 
know ; we can only surmise that it is either to save the 
insect, in the former case, the labour of constructing a 
larger cylinder for nidification^ so to prevent the possi- 
bility of its being rubbed oflP from the external surface 
of the legs, did these carry it, in entering the burrow, 
it being protected from this abrasion by being placed 
beneath the venter. In such insects the abdomen is 
usually truncated at its origin, or even hollowed within 
its base, thus to meet the projection of the metathorax, 
enabling it to draw itself closely up together, making 
the abdomen and metathorax, as it were, cohere. A 
different form of abdomen occurs in those bees which 
carry the pollen on their posterior legs. It is then more 
or less elliptical or lanceolate, which form permits the 
legs to be drawn up towards the metathorax within the 
space that kind of form furnishes, which, by this diffe- 
rent but equivalent arrangement, meets the same object. 
The similarity of the adjustment of the abdomen to the 
metathorax to that of Megachile, etc. in Apis and Bom- 
bus, by which insects the provision is also carried on the 
posterior legs, results from the totally different economy 
and habitation of the social bees, to which this structure 
is necessary for many purposes. 

If we observe this same peculiarity of structure in the 
cuckoo, or parasitical bees, it is because we find resem- 
blances where there are alliances. Thus, the male 
artisan bees, although not assisting in the labour of 
constructing the apartments, have similarly dilated man- 
dibles to those of their females. So also, in the form 
of the abdomen, the Nomadoe are like the Andren(B 
and Halicti, upon which they are chiefly parasitical. 



GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES. 49 

Melecta resembles Anthophora ; Ccelioxys has the form 
oi Megachile, both in the hollowed base of the abdomen 
and the peculiar manner the latter has of raising its 
extremity, — something like a Staphylinus. Many other 
peculiarities of resemblancce might be enumerated. 

Having thus completed the description of the external 
anatomy of the bee desirable to be known for facilita- 
ting the comprehension of what I may have subse- 
quently to say. I shall now refer to a few peculiarities 
of their manners, which could not be conveniently in- 
troduced elsewhere. 

In their modes of flight bees vary considerably ; some 
dart along in a direct line, with almost the velocity of 
lightning, visit a flower for an instant, and then dart ofi" 
again with the same fleetness and vivacity, like Saropoda 
and Anthophora ; others leisurely visit every blossom, 
even upon a crowded plant, with patient assiduity, like 
Bombus ; and some, either from fatigue, or heat, or in- 
toxication, repose, like luxurious Sybarites, within the 
corolla of the flower. The males seem to flutter about 
in idle vagrancy, and may be often observed enjoying 
themselves upon some fragrant hedge-row. But the 
domestic bee and the humble-bee are the most sedulous 
in their avocation, and both cheering their labour with 
their seemingly self-satisfied and monotonous hum. 

Bees, too, have a voice ; but this voice does not pro- 
ceed from their mouth, nor is it the result of air passed 
from the lungs through the larynx, and modulated by 
the tongue, teeth, and lips; for bees breathe through 
spiracles placed laterally along the several segments of 
the body, and their interior is aerified by tracheae, which 
ramify variously through it; but their voice is produced 
by the vibration of the wings beating the air during 

£ 



50 BRITISH BEES. 

flight. Even as Linnseus constructed a floral clock to 
indicate the succession of hours by the expansion of 
the blossoms of flowers, so might a Beethoven or a Men- 
delssohn — the latter in the spirit of his philosophical 
ancestor — note down the several sounds of the hum of 
the many kinds of bees to the construction of a scale 
of harmonic proportions, whose jfEolian tones, heard in 
the fitfulness of accidental reverberation amidst the soli- 
tudes of nature, repeatedly awaken in the mind of the 
entomologist the soothiug sensation of a soft, volup- 
tuous, but melancholy languor, or exhilarate him with 
the pleasing feeling of brisk liveliness and impatient 
energy. 

It is rarely that a bee is seen to walk, although a 
humble-bee or hive bee may be seen crawling sometimes 
from flower to flower on the same footstalk, but they 
are never good pedestrians. They convey themselves 
upon the wing from blossom to blossom, and even on 
proceeding home they alight close to the aperture of 
their excavated nidus, to which an unerring instinct 
seems to guide them. There occasionally they will 
meet with the intrusive parasite, to whom some genera 
[Anthophora, Colletes) give immediate battle, and usually 
succeed in repulsing the interloper, who patiently awaits 
a more favourable opportunity to eff'ect her object. 

Bees are exceedingly susceptible of atmospheric 
changes; even the passage of a heavy cloud over the 
sun will drive them home ; and if an easterly wind pre- 
vail, however fine the weather may otherwise be, they 
have a sort of rheumatic abhorrence of its influences, 
and abide at home, of which I have had sometimes woful 
experience in long unfruitful journeys. 

The cause would seem to be the deficiency of electri- 
city in the air, for if the air be charged, and a westerly 



GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES. 51 

wind blow, or there be a still sultriness with even an 
occasionally overcast sky, they are actively on the alert, 
and extremely vivacious. They are made so possibly by 
the operation of the influence upon their own system 
conjunctively with the intensity of its Action upon the 
vegetable kingdom, and the secretions of the flowers 
both odorous and nectarian. 

Bees do not seem to be very early risers, the influence 
of the sun being their great prompter, and until that 
grows with the progress of the morning they are not 
numerously abroad. Early sometimes in the afternoon 
some species wend homewards, but during the greatest 
heat of the day they are most actively on the alert. 
The numbers of individuals that are on the wing at 
the same time must be astounding, for the inhabitants 
of a single colony, where they may, perhaps, be called 
semi-gregarious, from nidificating collectively within a 
circumscribed space, can be computed by myriads. 
And then the multitude of such colonies within even a 
limited area ! When we add to this the many species 
with the same productiveness ! Yet who, in walking 
abroad, sees them but the experienced entomologist? 
"When we consider the important function they exercise 
in the economy of nature, and that but for them, in the 
majority of instances, flowers would expand their beau- 
tiful blossoms in abortive sterility, we can but wonder at 
the wise and exuberant provision which forecasts the 
necessity and provides accordingly. But that even these 
should not superabound, there is a counterbalance in 
the numerous Enemies to which they are exposed. The 
insectivorous animals, birds, among which there is one 
especially their arch-enemy — the bee-eater; those rep- 
tiles which can reach them ; many insects in a variety 

£ 2 



53 BRITISH BEES. 

of ways, as the cuckoo-bees, whose foster-young starve 
the legitimate offspring by consuming its sustenance; 
and personal parasites, whose abnormal and eccentric 
structure required an Order to be established for their 
admission. Strange creatures ! more like microscopic 
repetitions of antediluvian enormities than anything 
within the visible creation, and to whose remarkable 
peculiarities I shall have occasion to return. Amongst 
the Diptera and Lepidoptera also they have their 
enemies. 

Bees are sometimes exceedingly pleasant to capture, 
for many of them emit the most agreeable scents ; some 
a pungent and refreshing fragrance of lemons; others 
the rich odour of the sweetest-scented rose ; and some a 
powerful perfume of balsamic fragrance and vigorous in- 
tensity. These have their set-off in others which yield 
a most offensive smell, to which that of garlic is pleasant, 
and assafoetida a nosegay. These odours must have some 
purpose in their economy, but what it may be has not 
been ascertained. 

They present very frequently remarkable disparities 
of structure and appearance in the sexes, so much so 
that its infrequency is rather the exception than the 
rule, and nothing in many cases but practical experi- 
ence can associate together the legitimate sexes. Dif- 
ferences of size are the simplest conditions of these 
distinctions, for they occur also in individuals of the 
same sex. Differences of colour, consisting in increased 
intensity in the males, are also usually easily recognized ; 
but the relative length and structure of the antennse is 
a more marked disparity, and the development is always 
in favour of the male. The differences in the compound 
eyes are conspicuous in our native genera only in the 



GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES. 53 

drone, where they converge on the vertex, and throw the 
stemmata down upon the face. T have before alluded to 
special peculiarities in the legs when treating of those 
limbs. In the wings there are occasional differences, 
but so slight as not to require, in a general survey, spe- 
cial notice ; but wherever they occur it is always in the 
male that the greatest extension of those limbs is found. 
The differences in the termination of the abdomen I 
have noticed above, and these sexual peculiarities in 
some genera are very marked. The spines which arm 
it in Anthidium and Osmia, and its peculiar structure in 
Chelostoma we can account for; but we have not the 
same clue to their uses in Ccelioxys, in which the action 
of the abdomen is upward, and not downward, as in the 
others. 

The association of the legitimate partners of our native 
species has been to a great extent already accomplished 
and recorded ; therefore, in this case, with the requisite 
guides to further instruction at hand, the commencing 
entomologist will find no obstruction, but may register 
the observations of his own experience to verify the dis- 
coveries of his predecessors. 

It would seem from the facts that have been recorded, 
and the close investigations made, that in some instances 
the next year's bee is already disclosed and in the imago 
state, in the autumn of the existing year, so that it is 
ready, upon the first genial weather in the spring, to 
work its way out of its nidus, and take its part in the 
duties it has to perform. Whether this be for the eco- 
nomy of the food to the larva, or the saving of labour 
to the parent in gathering it, or that it would be preju- 
dicial for it to lie dormant in the pupa state during the 
winter is not known, but thus in many instances it is. 



54 BRITISH BEES. 

Sometimes a late autumnal impregnation takes place, 
for the males of some Andrence, Halidi, and Bombi are 
found abroad only late in the autumn, and then in fine 
and recently disclosed condition. 

It is a singular circumstance in the history of some 
species, that where they abound one season, nidificating 
on a certain spot in profusion, the following year, per- 
haps, and the year succeeding that, they will not be seen 
at all, but yet again a further year, and there they are 
as innumerable as ever. 

What may control this intermittent appearance it is 
impossible to conceive, all the conditions of the spot and 
its surroundings being the same. This I have found to 
be a peculiarity incidental to many of the aculeate Hy- 
menoptera. It occurs also in the flowering of many 
plants which blossom irregularly from season to season. 
It is a fact scarcely concordant with the observed rapi- 
dity of the disclosure of the larva from the egg, and the 
speedy growth, development, and transformation of the 
latter into the pupa and imago. 

The wild bees appear to be of annual, or of even more 
restricted duration merely. Of this, however, we have 
no certainty. The conclusion is derived chiefly from 
the circumstance that, as they progressively come forth 
with the growth of the year, they, when first appearing, 
are in fine and unsoiled condition. There are evidently 
in some species two broods in the year ; the one in the 
spring and the other autumnal. In bees without pu- 
bescence we have not the same guide. But humble-bees 
are reputed to have a longer life than of one year, and 
hive bees are said to survive several years, a duration of 
existence inconsistent with analogy, and which has been 
repeatedly and strongly denied. 



GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES. 55 

In speaking of the antenncB and palpi, I have called 
them sensiferous organs. The organ necessarily implies 
the perception, or whatever it may be, conveyed to the 
sensorium through its means, this being the receptacle 
of the sensation or idea, the external organ communi- 
cates. It is thus that activity is given to a power of 
discrimination, and consequently of election or rejection 
by the creature. This sensorium, in the higher animals, 
is the brain ; and in the loAver, where the nervous system 
is very diflferently constituted, a ganglion, or knot of 
nervous substance. That this brain, or ganglion, is the 
power exercising the control, may not be admitted, 
although it is there that our research compulsively ter- 
minates. The power itself is essentially spiritual, acting 
through a material agent, and may be an efflux of this 
nervous mass. Whether it cease with the death of the 
organ, we have no means of knowing. That it may be 
in some way analogous in nature to the human mind, 
but to a limited extent, there is reason to surmise. This 
power, in its collective capacity, is called Instinct. 
This instinct is a faculty whose clear comprehension and 
lucid definition seem impossible to our understanding. 
Its attributes are very various, and its operations are 
always all but perfect. It is an almost unerring guide 
to the creature exercising it, and is as fully developed 
on its awakening as is, and with it, the imago upon its 
transformation. 

Although observation has thought to have detected 
that experience sometimes uses a selection of means, and 
thus occasionally modifies the rigid exercise of the faculty, 
by adapting itself to the force of circumstances, it, when 
so, evidently assumes a higher character than has been 
willingly accorded to it. This instinct teaches the just 



56 BRITISH BEES. 

flisclosed bee^ without other teaching than that of the 
intuitive faculty, where to find its food, and how to 
build its abode. It directs it to the satisfying its ma- 
terial needs, and instructs it to provide for its offspring, 
and to protect them whilst in their nidus ; the impulse 
to which follows immediately upon the satisfaction of 
the sexual desire, to which it is the seal. 

If it be memory that guides the bee from its wide 
wanderings back to its home, this then becomes an at- 
tribute to the faculty. Instinct indicates to them their 
enemies, and the wrongs these may intend, and shows 
them how they may be repulsed or evaded. In some of 
its operations it seems to be of a more perfect capacity 
than the operative faculty of human intelligence. 

The senses evidently possessed by our insects are 
sight, feeling, taste, and smell, but whether they hear we 
cannot know, although the antennae have been supposed 
to be its organ, for the apparent responsiveness of these 
to loud and sudden sounds, may equally result from the 
agitations of the air these produce. Their possession of 
touch, taste, and smell, are implied from what has been 
observed. 

They certainly exercise a will, evinced by their power 
of discrimination, which decides what is salutary and 
what is noxious; and the passions are exemplified in 
their revenge, their sexual love, and their affection for 
their offspring, the latter being exhibited in their un- 
remitting labour and careful provision for them, although 
they are never to see them. If there be any precedence 
in the order of the relative quality and distinction of the 
bees, it Avill be shown in the degree of superiority with 
which this function is accomplished. The perfection of 
this function we see progressively maturing as it passes 



GENERAL HISTORY OP BEES. 57 

onwards from the merely hurrowing-bee to the more 
complicated processes of the masons, carpenters, and 
upholsterers, — all solitary insects, and working each in- 
dividually and separately to the accomplishment of its 
object. But we may certainly inquire where we shall 
intercalate the sagacity of the cuckoo-bees. A vast 
bound is immediately made from the artisan bees to 
the social bees with three sexes, which, as first shown in 
the humble-bee, works in small and rude communities, 
with dwellings of irregular construction. The next and 
most perfect grade is the metropolitan polity, accom- 
plished architecture, laborious parsimony, indomitable 
perseverance, and well-organized subordination of the 
involuntary friend of man, the domestic bee. This in- 
sect has furnished Scriptural figures of exquisite sweet- 
ness, poetry with pleasing metaphors, morality with 
aphorisms, and the most elegant of the Latin poets with 
the subject of the supremest of his perfect Georgics. 

That bees feel pain may be assumed from the evidence 
we have of their feeling pleasure, although instances are 
on record of insects surviving for months impaled ; and 
they lose a limb, or even an antenna, without evincing 
much suffering, and I have seen a humble-bee crawling 
along on the ground with its abdomen entirely torn 
away. 

In speaking of the antennse above, as possibly the 
organs of hearing, I would wish to add, that they evi- 
dently possess some complex function, of which, not 
possessing any analogy, we cannot certainly conceive any 
notion. They are observed to be used as instruments 
of touch, and that too of the nicest discrimination. They 
seem to be extremely sensitive to the vibrations of sound 
and the undulations of air, and keenly appreciative of 



58 BRITISH BEES. 

atmospheric influences^ of heat, of cold, and of electrical 
agitations. That they are important media in sexual 
communication must be assumed from their great differ- 
ences of structure and size in the sexes, probably both 
as organs of scent and stimulation. I have often ob- 
served bees thrust their antennse into flowers, one at the 
time, before they have entered the flower themselves, 
and in some insects, as in the Ichneumons, they are con- 
stantly in a state of vibration, — a tribe which, although 
of the same order, are remote in position from the bees, 
yet they may be instructively referred to by way of 
analogy in the discussion of the uses of an organ, w^hose 
functions so clearly follow its structure and position in 
the organization of the entire class of insects, that the 
analogy might be safely assumed in application to every 
family of the class, if observation could only correctly 
ascertain its uses in any one of them. 

That it is of primary signification to the bees, is suffi- 
ciently shown by nature having furnished these insects 
with an apparatus designed solely to keep the antennae 
clean, and which I have described above, when speaking 
of the structure of the anterior leg. 

In the social tribes the antennse are used as means of 
communication. The social ants, bees, and wasps may 
be often seen striking each other^s antennae, and then 
they will each be observed to go off" in directions diff*erent 
from that which they were pursuing. An extraordinary 
instance of this mode of communication once came under 
my own notice, having been called to observe it. There 
was a dead cricket in my kitchen, another issued from 
its hole, and in its ramblings came across this dead one ; 
after walking round, and examining it with its antennae 
and fore legs a short time, it started off*. Shortly, 



GENERAL HISTORY OF BEES. 59 

either attracted by sound, or meeting it by accident, it 
came across a fellow ; they plied their antennae together, 
and the result was that both returned to their dead com- 
panion, and dragged him away to their burrowing-place, 
— an extraordinary instance of intercommunication which 
I can vouch for. 

It would be curious to know if the means of commu- 
nication thus evidently possessed by animals, extends 
beyond the social and gregarious tribes, and whether the 
faculty undergoes any change through differences of 
climate and locality, as man has done in the lapse of 
time. For man, notwithstanding the vastly divergent 
differences of race, may be obscurely tracked through 
the dim trail of the affiliation of languages to one com- 
mon origin. But the complete identity of habit through- 
out the world of those genera which are native with us, 
would seem to affirm that they are as closely allied in 
every other particular, were we in a condition to make 
the investigation, and whence we may conclusively 
assume that they all had one central commencement. 

That this mode of communication, and this exercise 
of the organ in the solitary tribes is limited to the 
season of their amours is very probable, and I appre- 
hend that it is not exercised between individuals of dis- 
tinct species. But that, at that period, their action is 
intensified may be presumed from the then greater acti- 
vity of the males, who seem to have been called into 
existence only to fulfil that great object of nature, and 
which she associates invariably with gratification and 
pleasure. Even in plants it may be observed to be at- 
tended with something very analogous to animal enjoyr 
ment in the peculiar development at that period of an 
excessively energetic propulsion, which is the nearest 



60 British' bees. 

approacli the vegetable kingdom makes to the higher 
phase of sensiferous life. 

The clothing and colouring of bees are very various, 
but the gayest are the parasites, red and yellow, with 
their various tints, and white and cream-colour decorate 
them. The ordinary colour is deep brown, or chestnut, 
or black. Where the pubescence is not dense, they are 
often deeply punctured, and exhibit many metallic tinges. 
Many are thickly clothed with long hair, and this, espe- 
cially in the Bombi and Apathij is sometimes of bright 
gay colour, yellow, red, white, of a rich brown, or an in- 
tense black, sometimes in bands of different tints upon 
the same insect, and sometimes of one uniform hue. 



61 



CHAPTER III. 

SKETCH OF THE GEOGRAPHY OF THE GENERA OF 
BRITISH BEES. 

In givirsg a broad sketch of the geography of the 
genera of bees which are native to our islands, but 
whose local distribution I shall reserve for notice in the 
account of the genera themselves, I must regret at the 
outset the lack of materials for its satisfactory treat- 
ment. 

There are but very few exceptions to the dearth of 
assiduity in this direction ; a very favourable one is that 
of the son of the late venerable hymenopterologist, the 
Count le Pelletier de St. Fargeau, who, at his military post 
as an oflficer of the French army in Algeria, stationed at 
Oran, collected energetically for his father in that district, 
and where, in one of his collecting excursions, he was 
severely wounded by a musket-ball. Another equally 
favourable exception is that of Sydney Smith Saunders, 
Esq., residing at Prevesa, in Albania, who has stre- 
nuously and perseveringly collected in that country. 
Here and there we can point to something having been 
done in Upper India, in the vicinity of Poonah, at Pon- 
dicherry, in Java, in some limited localities of China, and 
to some extent in Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand, 



62 BRITISH BEES. 

but nothing of any magnitude. There is much hope that 
a great deal has been done in Ceylon by Mr. Thwaites, 
who, when resident at Bristol, was a most ardent and 
successful hymenopterologist. 

The Egyptian Hymenoptera have been extensively and 
admirably figured by Savigny, in the Imperial superb 
work published under the auspices of Napoleon I., but 
to these, unfortunately, no descriptive text was pub- 
lished, and they are therefore as useless to science as if 
they had not been figured. But those collected by 
Ehrenberg, and figured by Klug, in the ' Symbolse 
Physicse,^ exhibit how rich in variety is that remarkable 
region. These figures may be called the ne plus ultra 
of entomological artistic skill. 

Unfortunately, this Order has been sadly neglected for 
the sake of the less troublesome Coleoptera, and the more 
conspicuous Lepidoptera. This is plainly perceptible 
from the paucity of species recorded as having beea once 
in the Count Dej can's collection, where we might have 
expected to have obtained a rich view of the Hymenoptera 
of Spain; as also in those of other French collectors, 
who have had rare but neglected opportunities for the 
purpose. It is true M. Brulle has done a good deal in 
Greece. We are, as yet, in comparative ignorance, from 
the same cause of neglect, of the Hymenoptera of Italy, 
excepting something that has been done by the Marquis 
Spinola, in Liguria, and by Rossi, in Tuscany. A little 
has been contributed towards that of Carniola, but we 
are almost ignorant of the Hymenoptera of Sicily, which, 
from various causes, are likely to be very peculiar. Mr. 
Swainson's collection of them, although not numerous, 
were neglected until they became unintelligible. The 
only European countries that have been tolerably gleaned 



GEOGRAPHY OF THE GENERA. 63 

are Germany, Sweden, a part of Russia, and even Fin- 
land. It is impossible for any entomologist to examine 
every locality for himself, lie must, in great measure, 
depend on the labours of others ; and, of course, I can 
only speak of the collections which are accessible to me, 
or which are described in monographs, or have been 
named in lists that have been published. Doubtless the 
Museum of Berlin, so long under the administration of 
a lover of the Order, Dr. Klug, would present a large 
contribution to our knowledge of the distribution of the 
forms, did a list of its riches exist. Such a list of the 
menoptera of Portugal, contained in Count Hoffman- 
segg^s collection, was published many years ago in lUi- 
ger^s 'Magazin der Insectenkunde..' 

It has been a fatality incidental to this entomological 
branch of the study of natural history that some of its 
most energetic cultivators have been taken early away. 
There was formerly Illiger, then our own Leach, and 
then Erichsen. Leach, but for his afflicting malady, 
would have done much for the science; still, let us 
hope that the Hymenoptera, and especially the bees, are 
gaining ground in the estimation of entomologists gene- 
rally, and that not many years will pass before collec- 
tors will possess them in abundance. For the present, 
I can but give a slight summary of the knowledge we 
possess on this subject. 

Thus science has sustained great loss by reason of the 
unfortunate neglect which the family of bees, and, in- 
deed, the Order of Hymenoptera generally, has met with 
from collectors in distant localities whose tastes have 
led so directly to the collection of other more favoured 
Orders, and the opportunities for repairing the conse- 
quences of such neglect being in some cases extremely 



64 BRITISH BEES. 

rare. The present slight attempt to trace the geography 
and cosmopolitan range of our native genera of bees 
will necessarily be affected to some considerable extent 
by this neglect. 

Although the materials in our possession will yield 
some fruit, yet their collection will be but the gleaner^ s 
handful, instead of a loaded wain from a rich and abun- 
dant harvest. As what I have gathered may still have 
an interest for some of my readers, I will lay it before 
them, and in doing so I shall take the genera in their 
methodical series. 

The genus Colletes comes first, a position the more 
remarkable from the peculiarities of its economy and 
form, which bring it closely to the true bees, as do also 
its aptitude, by reason of its structure, for collecting 
pollen, and its energy in gathering it. The divergence 
in the form of the tongue brings it, however, to the ex- 
treme commencement of the series, it being the closest 
structural link we find for connecting the bees with the 
preceding family of wasps. This genus, in our own 
species, ranges through northern Europe to the high la- 
titude of Finland, passing through Sweden; and it oc- 
curs also in Russia and in the Polish Ukraine. In 
other species than ours, and differing among themselves, 
it occurs at both extremities of Africa, in Egypt, and 
Algeria, and at the Cape of Good Hope ; but whether 
throughout the wide interval collections do not inform 
us. It has been sent from Turkey, but whence? — for 
this is as vague a designation as Russia, both being 
empires which spread over vast areas, — and, if found in 
their Asiatic divisions, are the only instances we know 
of its Asiatic occurrence. It is so easy for collectors to 
add to their specimens a defined and precise locality, 



GEOGRAPHY OF THE GENERA. 65 

that its omission in any instance is to be regretted, as 
in many ways, and in all kinds of collections, it might 
be very serviceable to science. To our present purpose 
it has but a collateral interest as an object of curiosity, 
yet curiosity has led to many discoveries which have 
proved valuable to mankind. All the divisions of natu- 
ral science have a mutual and convertible bearing, and 
closely interlink in their relations. Thus, insects de- 
note the botany, which further indicates the climate or 
elevation and soil; and the superficial soil will point 
geological conclusions to subsoil and substructure. One 
natural science well mastered gives a key to the great 
storehouse of nature's riches, and yields a harvest of 
many different crops. This episode may be excused 
for the hint it is intended to give of the paramount im- 
portance of the correct registration of special localities. 

The genus Colletes also occurs in the Canary Islands, 
which shows a trending tendency to its southern ha- 
bitat at the Cape of Good Hope. It occurs on the west- 
ern edge of South America, in Chili ; it is found on its 
northern boundary in Columbia, and has been disco- 
vered in the southern States of North America, in Flo- 
rida and Georgia ; but there is no record of its further 
northern occurrence upon that continent. About thirty 
species are known. 

The genus Prosopts, or as it is more familiarly known 
by the name of Hyl^eus, is found in some of our native 
species throughout France and Germany, and, like the 
preceding, as high up as Finland, through Denmark and 
Sweden, to the adjacent parts of Russia. It is remark- 
able that it is caught in Algeria, although not recorded 
as occurring in several of the southern European States. 
But the apparent restriction of some of our species 



66 BRITISH BEES. 

to our own islands possibly arises from the fact of spe- 
cial attention having been paid to them in this country 
only. 

The genus itself, in other and more variegated forms 
than ours, presents itself in some portions of southern 
and south-western Europe, where the highly ornamented 
species would point almost to the certainty of its being 
a parasitical genus, great decoration being in our native 
genera of bees the badge of parasitism, and may be in- 
dicative of those habits, combined as they are conjunc- 
tively with their destitution of polliniferous organs. 
Some of our native entomologists have^ however, as- 
sumed, upon what appears to me very inconclusive 
grounds, that the genus is not parasitical. The obser- 
vations, however, of the most distinguished French hy- 
menopterologists confirm the notion of their being para- 
sites, which appears strengthened by the argument above 
suggested with regard to colour. 

This genus is apparently fond of hot climates. In 
eastern Europe, it occurs in Albania and the Morea, its 
extreme western domicile is Portugal, and its southern 
European habitat is Sicily. It is found in Algeria and 
Egypt, and at the Cape of Good Hope. We discover it in 
India, in the southern tropics at the Brazils, and in the 
northern tropics at the Sandwich Islands ; and it ranges 
along the southern edge of Australia, from Swan River 
through Adelaide and Port Phillip to Tasmania. The 
United States of North America furnish it, and on that 
continent it seems to contradict its ordinary tropical 
inclination by being exceptionally found upon the con- 
fines of the arctic circle at Hudson's Bay. Nearly sixty 
well-distinguished species are recorded. 

The genus Sphecodes has also a wide distribution. 



GEOGRAPHY OF THE GENERA, 67 

Our native species are found throughout France and Ger- 
many, Greece and Spain, still one or two seem limited 
to our islands. The genus is recorded as in Albania, 
Algeria, and Egypt ; it is found on the western edge of 
Africa at the Canaries; it occurs also in northern 
India, in the United States, on the western side of South 
America at Chili, and then we have a wide gap, for 
its next appearance is at Sydney, New South Wales. 
About twenty species are known. 

The genus Andrena, although infinitely more nume- 
rous in species than the genus Halictus, which is also 
abundant, does not appear to have so wide a distribution 
as the latter. Peculiarities of habits possibly limit its 
diffusion, although nothing has occurred to naturalists 
to explain the circumstance, unless it be the adventi- 
tious fact of no specimens having fallen into the hands 
of the collector. Our own species, represented by one 
or several members, are found (although some seem re- 
stricted to England) throughout Europe, north and 
south, east and west, as also in its islands. In Africa it 
is seen in Algeria and Egypt, and it occurs in the Canaries; 
and in Asia it is found in Siberia, and in northern India ; 
but we have no connecting chain to link those Asiatic 
and African localities, — although we may well sup- 
pose that it might be discovered amongst the steppes 
of Thibet and Tartary, revelling amidst the flowers of 
their luxuriant pastures, and even amongst the Persian 
sands. It passes through the United States from Flo- 
rida up and to our own colony of Nova Scotia, and 
extends its range to Hudson^s Bay. We do not trace it 
further. Nearly two hundred species occur. 

The genus Cilissa, too, has a limited distribution, 
and occurs in the same countries^ but ranges as high 

F 2 



68 BRITISH BEES. 

as Lapland ; it also crosses the Atlantic, being found in 
the United States. About six are known. 

Our solitary species of the genus Macropis, which 
is isolated possibly only from having been overlooked, 
appears to have but a European existence, and is 
found in France, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Fin- 
land. 

The genus Halictus is very cosmopolitan. Some of 
our own species occur throughout Europe, excepting 
only Italy and Sicily, although they are to be found 
.in Portugal and Dalmatia, thus traversing its entire 
breadth ; but from the latter country they do not seem 
to range down to Albania and Greece, yet are they 
discovered in Malta, and even in southern Africa, but 
they have not been recorded as extant in northern por- 
tions of that continent. Other species have been sent 
from the western coast of Africa and the adjacent Cana- 
ries, with their adjunct, Madeira, and the genus ranges 
from Barbary through Senegal and Sierra Leone ; some 
species also are found at the Cape of Good Hope. 

On the other side of Africa the genus has been dis- 
covered at the Isle of Bourbon; it then takes a wide 
sweep, occurring first in northern India ; it then springs 
up at Foo-chow-foo, and it is found in northern China. 
In western Asia it occurs in Syria. Across the Pacific 
it is found in Chili. Its next appearance on the rich 
and diversified continent of America is across its south- 
ern bulk, presenting itself in the Brazils, and on its 
northern boundary at Cayenne, and in Columbia ; and 
it then appears again in Jamaica. In North America 
it occurs throughout the United States from Florida 
upwards, where the genus in its species has a very 
English aspect, and if they be dissimilar, as may be 



GEOGRAPHY OF THE GENERA. 69 

fairly surmised,, tliey are so very like our own that one is 
said to be absolutely identical throughout Europe and in 
Ohio. It passes still forward and occurs in Nova Scotia, 
Hudson's Bay, and elsewhere in arctic America, where 
the botanist might almost herbalize through the agency 
of our insects, for the pollen they carry and still retain 
in cabinets would often indicate the plants which they 
there frequent. Thus those stern regions are not barren 
in fragrant and attractive beauties. We find it, too, in 
common with Sphecodes at Sydney, New South Wales, 
whence, doubtless, it passed to New Zealand, where it 
has been collected. About one hundred and fifty are 
registered. 

With the next genus, Dasypoda, I terminate the 
geography of the Andrenida. Our own single species 
of these very elegant bees occurs throughout France and 
Germany, and abounds in Sweden. Other species, all ele- 
gant, occur in the Isles of Greece, in Albania, and the 
Morea; profusely at Malaga in Spain, and at the further 
extremity of northern Africa in Tunis, and in Egypt. 
Twenty are known. 

The genus Panurgus is the advanced guard of the 
true bees, for, although it still retains much of the ap- 
pearance and structure of the terminal genus of the pre- 
ceding sub-family of Andrenidcs, it is strictly distinct, 
and well links the two sub-families together. This very 
peculiar form is limited in number of species and in 
distribution, for five only have been recorded. 

Our own species occur throughout France, Italy, Ger- 
many, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland, 
and one of them has also been sent from Oran. The 
genus is small, and may have been overlooked in other 
countries, although its appearance is sufficiently distinct 



70 BRITISH BEES. 

and marked to have caught the eye. It is as lithe and 
active as a Malay, as black as a negro, and as hairy as 
a gorilla, looking like a little ursine sweep. 

The genus Eucera, of which we have but one repre- 
sentative, although considerably more than fifty species 
are known, has not so wide a range as might be ex- 
pected from their numbers. Our own is found through- 
out Europe and in Algeria. Other species occur in 
Russia, the Morea, Albania, Dalmatia, and Egypt. In 
Asia some are found in Syria, and at Bagdad ; and 
from the New World they have been sent from Cayenne 
and the United States. 

The genus Anthophora, to which the genus Saropoda 
is very closely allied, — so closely, indeed, that by the 
celebrated hymenopterologist Le Pelletier de St. Ear- 
geau the species of both are incorporated together, — 
has, even as now restricted, a world-wide dissemination, 
and numbers nearly a hundred and fifty species. Se- 
veral of our own occur throughout France and Italy 
and the whole of northern Europe, and even among the 
Esquimaux in the arctic regions, showing that a bridal 
bouquet may be gathered even there; for where bees 
are flowers must abound. 

The genus in other species shows itself in the south 
of Europe, viz. in Spain, Sicily, the Morea, and Dal- 
matia; by way of Syria and Arabia Felix it passes down 
to Egypt and occurs in Nubia and also in Algeria. It 
dots the western coast of Africa at Senegal and Guinea, 
and has been discovered in the Canaries, and again 
makes its appearance at the Cape of Good Hope, 
rounding it to Natal. It travels round the peninsula 
of India, being found at Bombay, in Bengal, and in the 
island of Ceylon, and passes onward by way of Hong- 



GEOGRAPHY OF THE GENERA. 71 

kong to northern China, where, dipping to the Phi- 
lippines, it next occurs in Australia. In the New 
World it is found on its western side at Chili, and tra- 
verses that continent to Paraguay and Para, and has 
been sent from the West India Islands of Cuba, St. 
Domingo, and Guadaloupe. From Mexico, where we 
next find it, it passes to Indiana, and occurs throughout 
the United States, and thus completes its progress 
round the world. About one hundred and thirty are 
known. 

The genus Saropoda is closely allied to AnthopJiora, 
as closely as Heriades is to Chelostoma^ and is very 
limited in numbers, ten only being known, and but one 
of which is native with us. The genus occurs through- 
out France and Germany, and has been sent from 
Russia, Egypt, South Africa, and Australia, thus having 
a very wide range notwithstanding the paucity of its 
species. 

The very pretty genus Ce rat in a, although numbering 
but few species, — fewer than thirty, — and although not 
found in Australasia, is widely scattered throughout the 
Old and the New Worlds. Our own species inhabits as 
far north as Russia. Other species occur throughout 
France, and in the south of Europe, and show them- 
selves in the Morea, and in Albania. North, South, and 
Western Africa possess the genus, it being found in Al- 
geria and at the Cape of Good Hope, and in the inter- 
vening district of Senegal. It has been brought from 
Ceylon and Bengal, and also from the north of India. 
It reaches China by way of Java and Hongkong : and 
in the New World has been found in the Brazils and 
Cayenne, in the Southern, and throughout the United 
States in the Northern continent. 



72 BRITISH BEES. 

The genus Nomada is the first of the genuine para- 
sitical bees, and about the habits of which no doubt can 
be entertained ; certainly not the same as attaches both 
to Hyl(Bus and Sphecodes, among the Andrenida, The 
parasitical habits of Nomada are evident and unmistak- 
able. This is the handsomest genus, in variety of colour 
and elegance of form, of all our native bees, but the 
species are never conspicuous for size. They have much 
of the appearance of wasps, and are often mistaken for 
them even by entomologists, who have not paid attention 
to bees. Many of our native species seem limited to 
our own islands : others of our species occur in France 
and Germany, and through Denmark in direct line to 
Lapland, turning down into Russia, and have been 
caught as far south as Albania. One of our species, or 
so like as to want distinguishing characteristics, is found 
in Canada. Did ours migrate there ? and how ? The 
genus is of wide distribution, but occurs only north of 
the Equator, where it spreads from Portugal to the 
Philippine Islands. It is found in Siberia and North- 
ern China, whence through the Philippines it passes to 
Tranquebar, then up to Northern India, and thence by 
Bagdad to the Morea and Albania, and dips down to 
Northern Africa at Tunis, and on to Oran and Tangiers, 
and completes its circuit in Portugal. It is doubtless 
parasitical upon many more genera and species than we 
find it infest in this country, although all that the several 
species pair off with here are not fully designated, es- 
pecially among the Andrenae, and smaller Halicti. The 
number of species, British and foreign, known to col- 
lectors approximate to a hundred. 

The genus Melecta is another handsome parasitical 
insect. This is always a dark beauty, and is very limited 



GEOGRAPHY OF THE GENERA. 73 

in species^ for^ as far as they may be estimated from the 
contents of collections^ its numbers do not reach twenty. 
Our own species occur throughout the whole of Europe, 
north and south. Others are found in Sicily, Albania, 
the Morea, and show themselves at Bagdad. The genus 
has been sent from the Canaries, and crosses the tropics 
into Chili, but does not seem to have occurred elsewhere 
in either North or South America, although one of the 
genera {Eucera) on which, with us, it is parasitical, is 
found in the latter country, and the other genus {Antho- 
phora), which it also infests, is found throughout the 
world, excepting in Australasia. In all those countries, 
the closely- allied exotic genus Crocisa, which is very 
numerous in species, may supply its place. 

The elegant genus Epeolus occurs in our own species 
throughout northern Europe, as high as Lapland, and 
is found also at the southern extremity of the continent 
of the Old World, at the Cape of Good Hope. It has 
been brought from Sicily, and other species come from 
Siberia. The genus in America passes down from the 
United States, by way of Mexico, to the Brazils, where 
it crosses the southern continent, having been trans- 
mitted from Chili. It is very limited in the number of 
its species, considering its wide diffusion, for not more 
than twenty are registered. It is almost identical in 
distribution with the genus Colletes, upon which it is 
with us parasitical. The species are never so large as 
those of the preceding genus, Melecta. 

The genus Stelis is limited both in number of 
species and distribution, although the spots whence 
it has come are wide apart. Our own species al-e 
found throughout France and northern Europe, as far 
as Finland. Other species occur in North America, and 



74 BRITISH BEES. 

the Brazils, but the whole number yet described is under 
ten. 

The remarkable form in both sexes of the genus C^- 
LioxYS occurs in identity with our own species through- 
out France and Austria, and spreads north to Finland 
and Russia, and through all the intervening countries. 
It is singular that it should not be recorded from southern 
or south-western Europe, as it is found in Oran. Other 
species of the genus have been found in northern Africa, 
Egypt, and Algeria. On the western coast of Africa it 
has been caught on the Gambia, at Sierra Leone, and 
on the coast of Guinea. It doubles the Cape of Good 
Hope, where it is found extending its range to Port 
Natal. From Asia we have it from Turkey, and again 
from India. It has been sent from the hither side of 
South America, from the Brazils, and separately from 
Para, and occurs at Cayenne, and in the West India 
Islands, Cuba, and St. Thomases, and extends as high in 
North America, through the United States, as Canada. 
It is quite probable that it has as wide a range as the 
bees upon which it is parasitical {Megachile), although it 
has not yet come from such extensively-spread loca- 
lities. More than fifty species are known, but some of 
our own have not yet been enumerated amongst those 
found elsewhere. 

The genus Megachile, which embraces the most re- 
nowned of the mechanical bees, is extremely cosmopolitan, 
spreading north and south, east and' west; and is also 
very abundant in the numbers of its species, the census 
extending to not far short of two hundred. Some one, 
or several of our species, although other species are 
limited to our own country, — spread through Italy and 
France, and all the countries of northern Europe to the 



GEOGRAPHY OF THE GENERA. 70 

higli latitude of Lapland, which is higher than where 
even one of ours (viz. the M. centuncularis) is again 
found, which occurs in Canada and at Hudson's Bay. 
The genus also frequents southern Europe, in Spain, 
Sicily, and Albania, and in the East, in the Caucasus 
and Dalmatia. It traverses Turkey by Bagdad to India, 
having been captured in Nepaul, and it descends south- 
ward in the Indian peninsula, where it has been found 
at Bombay. From India it stretches to the Mauritius, 
thence across the Indian Ocean to Java, and thence to 
Hongkong and northern China. It then dips to the 
Philippines, and doubtless through the islands of the 
Indian Archipelago to Australasia, from which continent 
none are registered from its northern and eastern settle- 
ments, but species abound along its southern edge from 
Western Australia, through Adelaide to Tasmania. The 
genus has been brought from the West India Islands, 
St. Thomas's, St. Croix, and Cuba : it is found upon the 
main from Mexico, descending to the Brazils. It skirts 
all the coasts of Africa, being discovered in Egypt and 
Algeria, along the western coast by the Gambia, Sene- 
gal and Sierra Leone to Guinea, and the island of Fer- 
nando Po, and then again occurs at the Cape of Good 
Hope. Ascending the eastern coast by Natal, it stretches 
to Abyssinia. The species are very abundant in India, 
Africa, and Australasia. 

The genus Anthidium, although very numerous in 
species, and differing more remarkably in form amongst 
themselves than most other genera, has a far less ex- 
tensive range, no species having been found in Austra- 
lasia or India, although it occurs in Arabia, Syria, and 
Mesopotamia. Our own solitary species occurs in France, 
Italy, and the whole of northern Europe, extending to 



76 BRITISH BEES. 

Finland. In southern Europe the genus inhabits Si- 
cily, Spain, the Morea, Albania, and Dalmatia, and is 
also very abundant in Southern Russia. In Africa it is 
found in Nubia and Algeria, and on its north-western 
edge in Barbary, whence it descends by the Gambia and 
Sierra Leone to the Cape of Good Hope, and thence 
reaches to Natal. It is then found in Chili, and cross- 
ing the South American continent occurs in the Brazils, 
whence it ascends to Cayenne, and, by way of Mexico, 
to the United States. The number of species recorded 
exceed a hundred. 

The remarkable genus Chelostoma is very limited in 
the numbers of its species, of which less than a dozen 
are known; as also in the extent of their distribution. 
Our own are found throughout northern Europe, as far 
as Lapland, and in Russia. In southern Europe they 
occur in the Morea, and the genus has been discovered 
in Georgia in North America. 

The closely- allied genus Heriades seems limited to a 
European habitation, and occurs only in our own soli- 
tary species, but it ranges, like the preceding, to the high 
latitudes of Lapland. 

Anthocopa seems limited to our own country and 
France, possibly only from its having been associated 
from similarity of general habit with the genus Osmia. 
Only one species appears to be known, but this has a 
world-wide celebrity, from the interesting account given 
by Reaumur, of its hanging its abode with symmetrical 
cuttings from the petals of the poppy. 

The genus Osmia, although not including such able 
artisans as Megachile, still has in its species very con- 
structive propensities. Indeed, all the bees which con- 
vey the pollen on the under side of the abdomen, are 



GEOGRAPHY OF THE GENERA. 11 

more or less builders or upholsterers. The genus has a 
wide range^ and is tolerably numerous, numbering more 
than fifty species. Some of our own occur throughout 
Europe, and, like the two preceding genera, are found 
in the highest continental latitudes. Some of ours also 
occur in Algeria and the Canaries, other species in 
Albania and Moravia. Tn Africa they are found in 
Egypt, Barbary, and Port Natal, and in the New World 
from Florida, in the United States, through Nova Scotia 
to Hudson^s Bay. 

The genus Apathus, which is parasitical upon Bombus^ 
and to the uninitiated has all the appearance of this 
genus, seems to be the only instance of a parasitical 
genus of bees so closely resembling the crtTo?, (as we 
may, perhaps, for the sake of avoiding a periphrasis, be 
allowed to call the bee upon which the parasite is found,) 
as to be so easily liable to be mistaken for it, and which 
was indeed the case by even such a sagacious entomo- 
logist as the distinguished Latreille ; but Kirby had 
already noticed the difference, suggesting its separation 
from Bombus, until about the time that St. Eargeau was 
induced to propose a distribution of the Hymenoptera, 
based generally upon economy and habits, to which he 
had been led by a refining investigation of structure, 
that the distinguishing difference was appreciated, and 
used generically, by Mr. Newman. This difference, like 
many other simple facts, now that it has been found, is 
very obvious. It consists in the genus having no neu- 
ters, and the female of the species no polliniferous 
organs, but the determination of the legitimate males, by 
means other than empirical, is still difficult. In our own 
species this genus ranges throughout northern Europe, 
as high as Lapland ; a cause for which we shall discover 



78 BRITISH BEES, 

■when we trace the geography of the next genus, Bombus. 
One species different from any of ours occurs in the 
Brazils, and others are found in the Polish Ukraine, 
and in the United States of North America. The genus 
appears extremely limited in numbers, for although 
nearly a hundred of the genus Bombus are known, Apa- 
thus, in collections, seems limited to ten. This may 
perhaps arise from want of due observation or from the 
neglect of their careful separation from that genus, but 
our own species are far from co-extensive with our native 
species of Bombus, 

The genus Bombus, although with some southern 
irrepressible propensities, it being found Avithin the 
tropics in a few instances, is essentially a northern form, 
which is strongly indicated in its downy habiliments, 
for it is clothed in fur like the Czar in his costly blue- 
fox mantle. In the Old World its range extends to 
Lapland, whither it is followed, as previously noticed, 
by its parasite Apathus, and in the New World to 
Greenland, where one species seems an autochthon, 
perhaps originating there when the land was still verdant, 
and grew grapes, long before the age of Madoc. Other 
species occur far away to the north of east, booming 
through the desolate wilds of Kamtchatka, having been 
found at Sitka; and their cheerful hum is heard within 
the Arctic circle, as high as Boothia Felix, thus more 
northerly than the seventieth parallel. They may, per- 
haps, with their music often convey to the broken- 
hearted and lonely exile in Siberia, the momentarily 
cheering reminiscence of joyful youth, and by this bright 
and brief interruption break the monotonous and painful 
dullness of his existence, recalling the happier days of 
yore : but the flowers of humanity, here typified by 



GEOGRAPHY OF THE GENERA. 79 

the natural flowers whicli attract these stray comforters, 
will one day spring where the salt of tears now desolates, 
and thus the merry bees have sweetness for even these 
poor outcasts, and froth their bitter cup with bubbling 
hope. 

In the south of Europe the genus occurs in Austria, 
the island of Zante, and the Pyrenees. It is found in 
Syria, the island of Java, in China at Chusan and Silhet, 
and also in northern India; and, although crossing the 
tropics to fix itself at Monte Video, at the mouth of 
Rio de la Plata, in Africa it appears to be found at Or an 
only; nor does it occur in Australasia. In South 
America it is also found at Para and Cayenne, and on 
the opposite side at Columbia, Quito, and Chili, and 
passes up the isthmus to California, and thence to Mexico, 
whence it extends to the island of Antigua. 

The genus Apis, or the Hive Bee, — which perhaps in 
its past and present utility to man, may successfully 
compete in the aggregate with the silkworm, — with 
true regal dignity comes the last of the series of genera. 
The whole array of her precursors, who marshal her 
way, and derive their significance and importance from 
the more or less direct resemblance in structure and 
function to her, deduce their common name of " Bees " 
from this relationship, and consequently from her. 
Long before their existence had been traced by the ob- 
server of nature or by the naturalist, the comb of the 
Bee had dropped in exuberant luxuriance its golden 
stores for the gratification of mankind. This little crea- 
ture had garnered, from sources inaccessible to man, the 
luscious nectar concealed within the bosom of the flower, 
whose exquisitely beautiful varieties, in form, colour, and 



80 BRITISH BEES. 

fragrance, had delighted his sight and his smell long 
before he had been led by accident to discover that these 
industrious little workers collected into their treasury, 
from those same flowers, as exquisite a luxury for his 
taste, as they themselves had yielded to his other senses. 
Thus the earliest records speak of honey, and of bees, 
and of wax; and the land of promise to the restored 
Israelites, was to be a land flowing with milk and honey. 

Reaumur, whose observations upon bees had been pur- 
sued with such patient and indefatigable perseverance, 
combined with such minute accuracy, and then recorded 
so agreeably, and who conceived the possibility of esta- 
blishing a standard of length, for the common use of 
all nations, to be derived from the length of a certain 
number of the honey-cells of the comb, to which notion 
he was doubtless led by their mathematical precision and 
uniform exactitude, appears to have been unaware of the 
existence of other species of the genus, and hence he 
assumed, in his ignorance of this fact, that in all coun- 
tries they were alike. 

Travellers had, even for more than a century before, 
mentioned different kinds of honey, derived from diff'erent 
kinds of bees, which, however, Reaumur does not, from 
this circumstance, seem to have known. Had he been 
acquainted with it, his philosophical accuracy of observa- 
tion and habit of reflection would certainly have assumed 
the possibility of differences of size in the cells of the dif- 
ferent bees, and he would have waited until opportunity 
had given him the power of determining whether this 
mode of admeasurement could be safely adopted as cer- 
tainly being of universal prevalence. It is to be won- 
dered at also, that he did not weigh the possibility that 
climatic differences in the distribution of even the Apis 



GEOGRAPHY OF THE GENERA. 81 

mellifica might have involved discrepancies, by the effects 
constantly seen to be produced by climate, and which 
would have shown that the standard which he sought to 
establish could not be relied on. 

Collections exhibit about sixteen species of the genus 
Apis, whose natural occurrence is restricted to the Old 
World, for although the genus, especially in the species 
A. mellifica, has been naturalized in America, and also 
in Australasia, and in some of the Islands of the Pacific, 
these were originally conveyed thither by Europeans. 
Those countries possess representatives of the genus 
with analogous attributes and functions, in two other 
genera, which fulfil the same uses. It is remarkable 
that the Red Indians used to note the gradual absorp- 
tion of their territory by the White Man, through the 
forward advance of his herald Apis mellifica. This 
species has also been carried to India, to the Isle of 
Timor, and to northern, western, and southern Africa, in 
all which countries it is thoroughly naturalized, although 
they all possess indigenous species, which are quite as, 
or perhaps more largely, tributary to their inhabitants. 
Observation has not hitherto confirmed the identity of the 
manners of these exotic species with our own, owing to the 
deficiency of observers with the enthusiasm requisite to 
follow their peculiarities with the patience of a Reaumur, 
a Bonnet, or a Huber. That they are quite or all but 
similar, exclusively of differences of size, both in their 
habits and their nests, may be inferred from their iden- 
tity of structure. We know that they consist of three 
kinds of individuals — neuters, females, and males, — and 
that their combs are made in cakes built vertically, 
formed of hexagonal contiguous cells, which are placed 
bottom to bottom, and overlap each other in the same 



82 BRITISH BEES. 

strengthening position as do ours ; and also that the 
cells wherein the niales are developed are oval, larger 
than the honey-cells, and less uniform. With all these 
similitudes it is fair to suppose that their economy may 
be the same ; but their honey-cells, from their smaller 
size, (the bee vphich produces them being smaller,) have 
a more elegant appearance ; and it is concluded from the 
largeness of the nest, taken conjunctively with the small- 
ness of the cells, and of the bees constructing it, that 
the communities thus associated must in their collective 
number be considerably larger than those of our hives. 

Instinct, as expressed in the habits, is as sure a line 
of separation, or means of combination, as structure, 
and is corroborative in tending to preserve generic con- 
j unction in its inviolability. And, conversely, with 
certainty, is indicated that such-and-such a form, in the 
broad and most distinguishing features of its economy, 
is essentially the same in every climate. The habits, 
therefore, in whatever country the genus may occur, 
may be as surely affirmed of the species, from the know- 
ledge we have of those at home, as if observation had 
industriously tracked them. This is especially the case 
in a genus, the species of which present such a peculiar 
identity of structure as does Apis, whose specific differ- 
ences are derived only from colour and size, and this 
identity is a peculiarity, so far as I have observed, rarely 
found in other genera, numbering even no more species, 
but wherein slight differences of structure often yield a 
subsidiary specific character, complete structural identity 
being almost solely incidental to the genus Apis. 

The importance of honey and wax throughout the 
world, as well for the ceremonies of religion, as for the 
service of the arts, and for medical or domestic pur- 



GEOGRAPHY OF THE GENERA. 83 

poses, is attested by the vigilance, care, and assiduity 
with which bees are tended in every country. Although 
sugar, since its introduction to those northern countries 
which have not been favoured by nature with the cane 
that yields it, has superseded for ordinary uses the pro- 
duce of the hive, this still continues serviceable for many 
purposes to which sugar cannot be applied. It is used 
in many ways in pharmacy, and still retains in the in- 
terior of some continents, owing to the deficiency of 
sugar, arising from the difficulties and expenses of transit,, 
all its primitive uses. In the East, even in countries pro- 
ducing sugar in abundance, honey is extensively employed 
for the preservation of fruits, which in their ripe state in 
those hot climates would rapidly lose their fulness of 
flavour were they not thus protected, — honey here 
being esteemed superior to sugar in the circumstance of 
its not crystallizing by reason of the heat, and also from 
its applicability to this use in its natural state. 

This is especially the case in China, where a conserve 
of green ginger, and of a fragrant orange (the Cum Quat), 
are in high repute, and which are peculiarly grateful to 
Europeans on the spot. These, however, are so delicately 
susceptible of change of climate, that they lose some of 
the aroma that constitutes much of their attraction, 
upon transportation, and, indeed, like many kinds of 
Southern wines, can be appreciated only within their 
own country, from their extreme delicacy and tendency 
to spoil. 

Honey is a very favourite food and medicine with the 
Bedouins in Northern Arabia. Bees make their hives 
in all the crevices of rocks in Hedscha, finding every- 
where aromatic plants and flowers. At Taif, bees yield 
most excellent honey, and the honey at Mecca is ex- 

& 2 



84 BRITISH BEES. 

quisite. At Veit-el-Fakeh, wax from the mountainous 
country of Yemen is exchanged for European goods and 
for spices from the further Indies. In Syria and Pales- 
tine we find bees abound. At Ladakiah there are large 
exports both of honey and wax ; and the honey of Ain- 
nete, on the declivities of the Lebanon, is considered the 
finest of the whole of that mountain-range. Antonine 
the Martyr, in the seventh century, speaks of the honey 
of Nazareth being most excellent, and in the present 
day bees are extensively cultivated at Bethlehem, for the 
sake of the profit derived from the wax tapers supplied 
to the pilgrims. Some of the members of the German 
colony at Wadi Urtas speak of the purchase of eleven 
beehives at this place, and express themselves as very 
sanguine of an abundant harvest from the luxuriance and 
profusion of flowers, although they say the bees are 
smaller than those of Westphalia, and are of a yellowish- 
brown colour. The eastern side of this peninsula, espe- 
cially the district of Oman, is wholly destitute of bees, 
contrasting thus unfavourably with its western fertility. 

The enormous quantities of honey produced may be 
comparatively estimated by the collateral production of 
beeswax, which it exceeds by at least ten to one. When 
we reflect upon what masses of the latter are consumed 
in the rites of the Roman Catholic and Greek ckurches 
throughout the many and large countries where those 
religions prevail, we shall be able to form a general esti- 
mate of the extensiveness and universality of the cultiva- 
tion of bees. Nor are those the only uses to which wax is 
applied, and the collective computation of its consump- 
tion will show that bees abound in numbers almost 
transcending belief. 

The name of bougie for wax-candle or taper, is used 



GEOGRAPHY OF THE GENERA. 85 

by all the languages of the south of Europe, and is de- 
rived from the name of Bugia, a town of Northern 
Africa, whence, even as long back as the time of the 
Roman Empire, wax was obtained to make candles for 
lighting. The inhabitants of Trebizonde paid their tri- 
bute to the Roman Empire in wax. Both honey and 
w^ax are largely employed in pharmacy, and were also, 
in ancient times, both extensively used in embalming. 
The honey of Mount Hymetta in Attica, and of Hybla 
in Sicily, were each in as high repute in classical coun- 
tries as is that of Narbonne in Languedoc, by reason of 
its choice delicacy, with us, and throughout France. 
Distributed over the wide pastures of the Ukraine, every 
peasant has his store of hives, which frequently, in their 
harvests, realize more largely than their crops of grain, 
— multitudes of that peasantry computing as important 
items in the estimate of their wealth the number of 
their beehives, which often exceed five hundred to the 
individual possessor. In Spain and Italy bees are largely 
cultivated; and in the former country many a poor 
parish priest, the religious monitor of an obscure hamlet, 
can count hi.s five thousand. 

In countries so rich in the productions of Flora, whose 
seasons there are perennial, and which fluctuate only in 
special locality, bees are removed to and fro to meet 
these peculiarities. Thus in the south of France, where 
large tracts are cultivated with aromatic shrubs and 
flowers, for the distillation of essential oils and fragrant 
waters, the hives of bees are moved up and down the 
adjacent rivers upon rafts, as the flowering of the crops 
succeed each other. In Italy, Spain, and Southern 
Russia, the same practices are pursued, although we have 
no detailed accounts of the precise spots; but we know 



86 BRITISH BEES. 

from Niebulir, Savlgny, and Sir Gardiner Wilkinson, that 
upon the Nile it is customary thus to transport the bees 
from flower-region to flower-region upon rafts contain- 
ing about four thousand hives, each numbered by the pro- 
prietors of the hives for identification, who thus double- 
the seasons by continually shifting their bees from Lower 
Egypt to the Upper Nile and back again. 

In ancient Greece also, they were conveyed for this 
purpose from Achaia to Attica ; in the former of these 
provinces, owing to its higher temperature, flowers 
had passed their bloom before spring had opened in the 
latter. All these circumstances tend to show that the 
experience of bee-masters, both ancient and modern, has 
ascertained that their insects have not a very extensive 
range of flight. 

Of the fact that the honey of bees is not always 
salutary to man, there is a remarkable instance recorded 
in Xenophon, in his narrative of the retreat of ^' The Ten 
Thousand," who reports that upon falling in with quan- 
tities of it, in Asia Minor, those who indulged in its 
enjoyment were seized with vertigo, or headache, and 
violent diarrhoea, attended with sickness, but which had 
no fatal consequences, although they did not recover 
from its injurious effects for a couple of days, and were 
left then in a very prostrated condition. The celebrated 
physician and botanist Tournefort, when travelling in 
the East, towards the end of the seventeenth century, 
found, in the neighbourhood of Trebizonde, an excessive 
luxuriance of the flowers of the Rhododendron ponticum 
and of the Azalea pontica, which, although sumptuous 
in their blossoms, were held in bad repute by the in- 
habitants, who ascribed to their odour the deleterious 
effect of causing headache and vertigo. He was thence 



GEOGRAPHY OF THE GENERA. 87 

induced to surmise that these had possibly been the 
flowers the bees had extracted the honey from which 
had been so baneful to the troops of Xenophon. 

But it seems that bees themselves cannot collect with 
impunity the honey of noxious flowers, for they are oc- 
casionally subject to a disease resembling vertigo, from 
which they do not recover, and which is attributed to 
the poisonous nature of the flowers they have been re- 
cently visiting. 

Several different kinds of honey and wax have been 
described, but some degree of uncertainty exists as to 
whether they are all the produce of genuine species of the 
genus Apis ; for it will be found, in a rapid notice I pur- 
pose giving of the more conspicuous genera of foreign 
bees, that there are two exotic genera of this section of 
the family, both social in their habits, and which both pro- 
duce the same materials ; there is a wasp also that makes 
honey. But of all the many kinds of honey noticed, the 
green kind furnished to Western India by the island of 
Reunion, the produce of an Apis indigenous to Madagas- 
car, but which has been naturalized in the French island, 
and also in the Mauritius, is perhaps the most remarkable. 
It is of a thick syrupy consistency, and has a peculiar 
aroma. It is much esteemed upon the most proximate 
coasts of the peninsula of India, where it bears a high 
price. Whether its greenness of colour is derived from 
the flowers which this species frequents, or whether it be 
incidental to the nature of the bee, has not been ascer- 
tained, but the honey of the South American wasp, the 
sole species producing the material, has also a green tinge. 

Nature has assigned the task of thus catering for 
man, by collecting and garnering from the recondite 
crypts within the blossoms of flowers, to about sixteen 



88 BRITISH BEES. 

species congenerical with our honey-bee^ but sufficiently 
differing. As I have before noticed, the species of this 
genus greatly more resemble each other in structure 
than perhaps do the species collocated within any other 
genus of insects, and whence may be inferred an exact 
similitude of habits, although as yet unconfirmed by 
direct observation. 

The second European species, the Apis Ligustica, or 
Ligurian bee, is rather larger, but very like ours, and 
inhabits the whole of tlie north of Italy, its occupation 
of that country extending from Genoa to the vicinity of 
Trieste; its progress further north being impeded by the 
Alps of Switzerland and the Tyrol. It is also found in 
Naples, and may likewise spread to the Morea, Turkey, 
and the Archipelago of Greece, and is perhaps the bee 
noticed by Virgil. Either this species, or possibly one 
distinct from ours, is that which is so extensively culti- 
vated in Spain, although ours is found in Barbary. 

Another smaller kind, the Apis fasciata, has been 
cultivated in Egypt from time immemorial, and which 
yielded its abundant harvests for the gratification of the 
ancient Eomans. Only five other distinct species, so far 
as is yet known to us, appear to occupy the vast conti- 
nent of Africa, — two on its western coast at Senegal and 
Congo, the A. Adansonii and the A. Nigritarium ; two 
in Caffraria, the A. scutellata and the Apis Caffra. That 
at Madagascar, and doubtless on the adjacent mainland, 
which has also been naturalized in the Mauritius and at 
Reunion, is the Apis unicolor, which produces the green 
honey mentioned above. 

India, however, at present appears to be the true metro- 
polis of the genus. Further discoveries in Africa may here- 
after give that vastly larger continent the predominancy ; 



GEOGRAPHY OP THE GENERA. 89 

but there is no doubt that, so far as present information 
extends, India has the superiority. Thus Apis dorsata, 
Apis nigripennis, and Apis socialis, are cultivated in 
Bengal, the latter being also found along the Malabar 
coast and at Java. It is singular that the only instance 
of the occurrence of the very distinct genera of Apis 
and Mellipona, both honey-storing genera, yet known 
to exist indigenously in the same locality, is found in 
this island. At Pondicherry and its vicinity are found 
Apis Delessertii and Apis Indica. This latter bee is 
extensively cultivated^ and its hives are perhaps the 
most largely inhabited of any of the species; the num- 
bers occupying a single nest being estimated at above 
eighty thousand. 

From India also, but to which no special locality is 
assigned, come Apis Perrottetii, Apis lobata, as likewise 
Apis Peronii, which is equally native to the Isle of 
Timor. The honey produced by this last bee is yellow, 
more liquid than ours, and of a very agreeable flavour. 

Thus science dissipates the popular supposition, that 
a multiplicity of the individuals of one species of this 
insect produces the tons of wax and the myriads of 
gallons of honey that are annually consumed. 

Which of these bees first benefited the human race, 
in its primitive seat, and before the multiplication of 
mankind forced them to take divergent courses from the 
cradle of their birthrace, " to people the whole earth," it 
is impossible to say. And it is equally impossible to con- 
jecture whether, like man, they by this course of migra- 
tion have assumed the features they now exhibit of dis- 
tinctly different species ; yet they do not vary so conside- 
rably among themselves as do many other creatures that 
have come under the direct influence of man, — the chief 



90 BRITISH BEES. 

differen«es consisting in the comparatively slight dis- 
tinctions of colour and of size, but which are sufficiently 
marked to constitute them good species. 

The earliest manuscript extant, which is the Medical 
papyrus, now in the Royal Collection at Berlin, and of 
which Brugsch * has given a facsimile and a transla- 
tion, dates from the nineteenth or twentieth Egyptian 
dynasty, accordingly from the reign of Ramses II., and 
thus goes back to the fourteenth century before our 
era. But a portion of this papyrus indicates a much 
higher antiquity, extending as far back as the period of 
the sovereigns who built the Pyramids, consequently to 
the very earliest period of the history of the world. 

It was one of the medical treatises contained within the 
Temple of Ptah, at Memphis, and which the Egyptian 
physicians were required to use in the practice of their 
profession, and if they neglected such use, they became 
responsible for the death of such patients who succumbed 
under their treatment, it being attributed to their con- 
travening the sacred prescriptions. This pharmacopoeia 
enumerates amongst its many ingredients, honey, wine, 
and milk; we have thus extremely early positive evi- 
dence of the cultivation of bees. That they had been 
domesticated for use in those remote times, is further 
shown by the fact mentioned by Sir Gardiner AVilkin- 
son of a hive being represented upon an ancient tomb at 
Thebes. 

It may have been in consequence of some traditional 
knowledge of the ancient medical practice of the Egyp- 
tians, that Mahomet, in his Koran, prescribes honey 
as a medicine. One of the Suras, or chapters, of that 

* 'Eecueil de Monuments Egyptiens dessines sm' les lieux.' In 
Three Parts. 4to. Leipzig, 1862. 



GEOGRAPHY OF THE GENERA. 91 

work, is entitled ^The Bee/ aud in which Mahomet 
says : — " The Lord spake by inspiration unto the Bee, 
saying, ' Provide thee houses in the mountains and in 
the trees [clearly signifying the cavities in rocks and 
hollows of trees, wherein the bees construct their combs], 
and of those materials wherewith men build hives for 
thee ; then eat of every kind of fruit, and walk in the 
beaten paths of thy Lord.' There proceedeth from their 
bellies a liquor of various colours, wherein is a medicine 
for men. Verily herein is a sign unto people who con- 
sider." 

It is remarkable that the bee is the only creature that 
Mahomet assumes the Almighty to have directly ad- 
dressed. Al-Beidawi, the Arabic commentator upon the 
Koran, whose authority ranks very high, in notes upon 
passages of the preceding extract, says, "The houses 
alluded to are the combs, whose beautiful workmanship 
and admirable contrivance no geometrician can excel.'' 
The " beaten paths of thy Lord," he says, " are the ways 
through which, by God's power, the bitter flowers, 
passing the bee's stomach, become honey; or, the 
methods of making honey he has taught her by instinct ; 
or else the ready way home from the distant places to 
which that insect flies." The liquor proceeding from 
their bellies, Al-Beidawi says, "is the honey, the colour 
of which is very ditferent, occasioned by the different 
plants on which the bees feed ; some being white, some 
yellow, some red, and some black." He appends a 
note to where Mahomet says, "therein is a medicine 
for man," which contains a curious anecdote. The note 
says, " The same being not only good food, but a useful 
remedy in several distempers. There is a story that a 
man once came to Mahomet, and told him his brother 



92 BRITISH BEES. 

was afflicted with a violent pain in his helly; upon 
which the Prophet bade him give him some honey. Th*e 
fellow took his advice; but soon after, coming again, 
told him that the medicine had done his brother no 
manner of service. Mahomet answered : ' Go and 
give him more honey, for God speaks truth, and thy 
brother's belly lies.' And the dose being repeated, the 
man, by God's mercy, was immediately cured.'' 

That the primitive Egyptians were familiar with the 
peculiar economy of the bee in its monarchical institu- 
tion is proved by the figure of the bee being adopted 
as the symbolical character expressive of the idea of 
a people governed by a sovereign This figure is fre- 
quently met with upon Egyptian sculptures and tablets, 
dating as far back as the twelfth dynasty; but upon 
these the bee is very rudely represented, being figured 
with only four legs and two wings ; but upon a tablet 
of the twentieth dynasty the bee is correctly represented 
with four wings and six legs. 

All these facts take us far back in the history of the 
bee. But the indication of a higher antiquity of its 
domestication may be traced in the Sanskrit, wherein 
ma signifies honey, madhupa, honey-drinker, and ma- 
dhukara, honey-maker, the root of the latter signify- 
ing ^'to build." Madhu has clearly the signification of 
our mead, thence we may thus trace an affinity, point- 
ing to those early times, for the origin of a drink still in 
use amongst us. In Chinese mih, or mat (in different 
dialects) signifies honey, thus clearly showing a second 
derivation, in this Turonian term, from a more primitive 
language whence both flowed. In the Shemitic branch 
nothing analogous is to be traced. But this double 
convergence to a more distant point veiled in the obscu- 



GEOGRAPHY OF THE GENERA. • 93 

rity of time^ necessarily takes the domestication of the 
bee back also to that anterior period now only dimly 
traceable. 

There can be but little doubt that the majority of the 
creatures now domesticated by man were in those ancient 
days subjected to his sway, and to which later times 
have not added any, or but few fresh ones. A natural 
instinct possibly prompted him originally in the selec- 
tion ; and if the reindeer of the Laplander seem an aber- 
ration, this has happened through the contingency of 
climate, for in the high latitudes it inhabits, it, in its 
uses to man, supplies the double function performed in 
more southern regions by the equine and bovine tribes. 

In the Greek and in the Teutonic languages, two 
branches of the Aryan stem, the names of the bee, 
melissa and biene, are clearly derived from the con- 
structive faculty of the insect, and to which the root 
of the Sanskrit word madhukara^ above noticed, also 
points. It would seem, therefore, that an earlier notice 
of its skill than of its honey, had suggested its name. 
Thus everything points to a very early acquaintance 
with the bee, its economy, and its properties, and this 
familiarity might be easily traced down in regular suc- 
cession to the present times, were it desirable to recapi- 
tulate what has been so often repeated in the history of 
the " Honey-bee.^' The facts I have gathered together 
above, do not seem to have been hitherto strung to- 
gether, and may be suggestive of reflection, as well as 
affording some amusement. 



94) BRITISH BEES. 



The study of the geographical distribution of natural 
objects has a more universal bearing, and yields collec- 
tively more definite instruction and information than its 
partial treatment, when restricted to small groups, may 
at first seem to promise. This, however, is very useful, 
for it is but by the combination of such special details 
that the enlarged views are to be obtained, from which 
theories of the general laws of distribution can be de- 
duced. Of course, small creatures with locomotive capa- 
cities will not supply the positive conclusions that may 
be framed from such objects as are fixed to their abode, 
and have not the same power of diffusion, although they 
certainly appear to be generally restrained within par- 
ticular limits by physical conditions of the earth's surface 
subservient to the maintenance of special forms of organic 
life; and these, once determined, would yield and de- 
rive reciprocal illustration. They may be merely cli- 
matic, but climate thus indicated cannot be estimated 
by zones, or belts, or regions ; for they seem to traverse 
all these, and follow undulations not specially appreci- 
able except in the results they exhibit. 

Unfortunately the bees have been too imperfectly col- 
lected, and too irregularly registered, to admit of arriving 
at any precise conclusions with respect to them. All 
that can as yet be done will be to combine the scanty 
notices afforded by the contents of our collections, in 
the hope that their promulgation may induce collectors, 
who happen to have the often extremely rare opportunity 
of examining distant countries, to avail themselves of 



GEOGRAPHY OF THE GENERA, 95 

the happy chance, which may never recur, or only at 
long intervals. 

Nor can I too impressively reiterate the importance 
of noting both special localities, altitude, temperature, 
season, flora, etc., as being all conducive to the widest in- 
struction upon the subject. Indulging in the hope that 
travellers will act upon these suggestions, and thus con- 
siderably add to the value of what they may industriously 
collect, we must patiently await until time brings it 
about. 

Encouraging this expectation, I have summarily col- 
lected, under their topical arrangement, the notices 
which precede, but which are there arranged in the 
generic order of the bees. 

From the information we thus possess, we learn that 
some of our genera have an extremely wide diffusion, 
and occur in countries where we might have expected 
that other forms would have superseded them in the 
offices they are ordained to fulfil. None of the schemes 
for the geographical distribution of insects yet pro- 
pounded, seem to curb the eccentricities of their range. 
The regions proposed by Fabricius in his 'Philosophia 
Entomologica,^ they break through as readily as through 
the concentric circles of the cobweb when this opposes 
them : and all I can do is to present them as they offer 
themselves, with the remark that the occurrence of soli- 
tary forms in certain localities are almost sure indica- 
tions that allied genera would be found at hand were 
they heedfully sought. It will also be observed, that in 
some places a parasitical genus, and its known sitos, 
only, have been captured there. 

The following list will strongly show how totally our 
genera of bees are unaffected by isothermal, isotheral, 



96 BRITISH BEES. 

or isocheimal lines drawn over the earth^s surface. Nor 
do botanical conditions seem to influence them beyond 
the probability of their dissemination being restricted to 
the special difi'usion of the families of such plants whose 
genera and species they frequent with us. 

Thus, inhabiting Northern Europe we find in — 
Lapland. Cilissa; Anthophora; Epeolus; Megachile; 

Chelostoma; Heriades; Osmia; Apathus; Bombus; 

Apis. 
Finland. Colletes; Prosopis; Cilissa; Anthophora; No- 

mada; Epeolus; Stelis; Coelioxys; Megachile; An- 

tliidium; Chelostoma; Heriades; Osmia; Apathus; 

Bombus; Apis. 
Sweden. All our genera except Sphecodes; Halictus; 

Macropis; Anthocopa. 
Denmark. All our genera except Macropis and An- 
thocopa. 
Russia. All our genera except Macropis and Anthocopa. 
The other Northern European Countries. All our genera, 
with the same exceptions. 

Western, Southern, and Eastern Europe present us 
with, in — 

France. All our genera. 

Portugal. Prosopis; Sphecodes; Andrena; Halictus; 
Eucera; Nomada; Anthidium ; Apathus; Bombus; 
Apis. 

Spain. Prosopis; Sphecodes; Andrena; Halictus; 
Dasypoda; Eucera; Anthophora; Nomada; Mega- 
chile ; Anthidium ; Apathus ; Bombus ; Apis. 

Italy. Andrena ; Halictus ; Panurgus ; Eucera ; Antho- 
phora; Nomada; Melecta; Epeolus; Coelioxys; 
Megachile; Anthidium; Osmia; Apathus; Bom- 
bus; Apis. 



GEOGRAPHY OF THE GENERA. 97 

Sicily. Prosopis; Sphecodes; Eucera; Anthophora; 
Melecta ; Epeolus ; Megachile ; Anthidium ; Osmia ; 
Apatbus; Bombus; Apis. 

Malta. Halictus; Apis. 

Isles of Greece. Dasypoda; Apis. 

The Morea. Prosopis; Spbecodes; Halictus; Dasy- 
poda; Eucera; Anthopbora ; Ceratina ; Nora ad a ; 
Melecta; Anthidium; Chelostoma; Osmia; Bom- 
bus; Apis. 

Albania. Prosopis; Sphecodes; Dasypoda; Eucera; 
Ceratina; Noraada; Melecta; Megachile; Anthi- 
dium; Osmia; Bombus; Apis. 

Dalmatia. Halictus; Eucera; Anthophora ; Megachile ; 
Anthidium; Apis. 

Asia exhibits to us, in — 

Siberia. Andrena; Nomada; Epeolus; Bombus; Apis. 

Kamchatka. Bombus. 

China. Halictus; Nomada; Anthophora; Megachile; 
Bombus; Apis. 

Northern India. Prosopis; Sphecodes; Andrena; Ha- 
lictus; Ceratina; Nomada; Coelioxys; Megachile; 
Bombus; Apis. 

Bengal. Anthophora; Ceratina; Apis. 

Tranquebar. Nomada; Apis. 

Ceylon. Anthophora ; Ceratina ; Apis. 

Bombay. Anthophora; Megachile; Apis. 

Arabia Felix. Anthophora ; Anthidium ; Apis. 
Note. — The genus Apis does not occur in Oman. 

Mesopotamia. Eucera; Nomada; Melecta; Megachile; 
Anthidium. 

Syria. Halictus; Eucera; Anthophora; Coelioxys; An- 
thidium; Bombus; Apis. 

H 



98 BRITISH BEES. 

In Africa we find, in — 

Egypt. Colletesj Sphecodes; Andrena; Dasypoda; 
Eucera; Anthophora; Saropoda; Coelioxys; An- 
thidiumj Osmia; Apis. 

Nubia. Anthidium; Anthophora; Apis. 

Abyssinia. Megachile; Apis. 

Tunis. Dasypoda; Nomada; Apis. 

Algeria. Colletes; Prosopis; Sphecodes; Andrena; 
Panurgus; Eucera; Anthophora; Ceratina; No- 
mada; Coelioxys; Megachile; Anthidium; Osmia; 
Bombus; Apis. 

Barbary. Halictus; Nomada; Anthidium; Osmia; 
Apis. 

Madeira. Halictus; Apis. 

Canaries. Colletes; Sphecodes; Andrena; Halictus; 
Anthophora; Melecta; Osmia; Apis. 

Senegal. Halictus; Anthophora; Ceratina; Megachile; 
Apis. 

Gambia. Coelioxys; Megachile; Anthidium; Apis. 

Sierra Leone. Halictus ; Coelioxys ; Megachile ; Anthi- 
dium; Apis. 

Coast of Guinea. Anthophora ; Coelioxys ; Megachile ; 
Anthidium; Apis. 

Fernando Po. Megachile. 

Western Africa. Halictus ; Apis. 

Cape of Good Hope. Halictus; Anthophora; Ceratina; 
Epeolus; Coelioxys; Megachile; Anthidium; Apis. 

South Africa [no distinct locality]. Halictus; Saro- 
poda ; Apis. 

Natal. Anthophora; Coelioxys; Megachile; Anthidium; 
Osmia; Apis. 

Madagascar. Apis. 

Reunion. Halictus; Apis. 



GEOGRAPHY OF THE GENERA. 99 

Mauritius. Megacliile; Apis. 

In America we find^ in — 

Arctic America and Hudson's Bay. Prosopis ; Andrena ; 
Halictus; Megachile; Osmia; Bombus. 

Canada and Nova Scotia. Andrena ; Halictus ; Nomada ; 
Coelioxys; Megachile; Osmia; Bombus. 

United States. Colletes; Sphecodes; Andrena; Cilissa; 
Halictus; Eucera; Anthophora ; Ceratina ; Epeolus; 
Stelis; Coelioxys; Anthidium ; Chelostoma; He- 
riades; Osmia; Apathus; Bombus. 

Mexico. Anthophora; Epeolus; Megachile; Anthidium; 
Bombus. 

California. Bombus. 

Columbia. Colletes; Bombus. 

Quito. Bombus. 

Chili. Sphecodes; Halictus; Anthophora; Melecta; 
Epeolus ; Anthidium ; Bombus. 

Jamaica. Halictus. 

Cuba. Anthophora; Coelioxys; Megachile. 

St. Domingo. Anthophora. 

Antigua. Bombus. 

Guadeloupe. Anthophora. 

St. Thomas's. Coelioxys; Megachile. 

St. Croix. Megachile. 

Cayenne. Halictus; Eucera; Ceratina; Coelioxys; An- 
thidium ; Bombus. 

Para. Anthophora; Coelioxys; Bombus. 

Brazils. Prosopis; Halictus; Ceratina; Epeolus; Stelis; 
Coelioxys; Megachile; Anthidium; Apathus; Bom- 
bus. 

Paraguay. Anthophora. 

Monte Video, Bombus. 

H 2 



100 BRITISH BEES. 

In Polynesia there occur — 
Sandwich Islands. Prosopis. 
Philippines. Antliopliora ; Nomada; Megachile. 

In Australia are found — 
Swan River. Prosopis ; Megachile. 
Adelaide. Prosopis; Megachile. 
Port Phillip. Prosopis. 
Tasmania. Prosopis; Megachile. 
Sydney. Sphecodes; Halictus. 
New Zealand. Halictus. 

Australia [but no distinct locality]. Authophora; Saro- 
poda. 



101 



CHAPTER IV. 

NOTICE OF THE MORE CONSPICUOUS FOREiaN 
OENERA OF BEES. 

Seeing thus the wide and almost universal distribution 
of many of our own genera, we might be induced to ask 
whether this could not suffice, by the impetus which more 
genial climates give to the multiplication of individuals, 
to meet all the exigencies of the most favoured regions of 
the vegetable kingdom. This is not so. There seems 
scarcely a limit to the exuberance wherein nature revels 
in the production of variations of form. The splendour, 
elegance, and infinite variety which she displays in her 
floral beauties in the most luxuriant climates, find rivalry 
as well in the multitude as in the magnificence of the 
insects which she has allied with them as the indis- 
pensable promoters of their perpetuation. How other- 
wise than through some of the insects we shall mention 
could tropical LahiatcB and the tubulated flowers of the 
RubiacecB, etc. be fertilized ? The reader will therefore, 
I trust, welcome an acquaintance with some of the most 
conspicuous of the group of bees produced by tropical 
countries, although the main object of this treatise is to 
exhibit the attractions of " our native bees." 

I will but superficially and rapidly glance at the 



102 BRITISH BEES. 

more distinguished exotic genera and species, as sup- 
plementary to the preceding notice of the geographical 
range of those which are indigenous with us. 

How our own species reached us is a subject which 
has at present eluded all satisfactory determination. 
For its solution we must await the further discoveries of 
geology ; at present we can only attribute their advent 
here to the same causes which are common to the pro- 
duction of all our groups of both the animal and the vege- 
table kingdoms. 

Knowing how affluent tropical and subtropical countries 
are in the variety, size, and number of the forms, as well 
as in the splendour of their plants and vertebrated 
animals, we may fairly expect as gorgeous a richness in 
the insects they produce. Nor shall we be disappointed, 
for the imperial magnificence of their Lepidoptera and 
Coleoptera guarantees an equivalent brilliancy in the 
other orders of insects, and which is fully confirmed by 
the harmonious splendour of their bees. 

They thus put forward claims to attention and must 
excite curiosity by their beauty and size, which the com- 
parative smallness of our own, and the usual dulness of 
their colours do not possess. The latter only repay notice 
upon close investigation, but they then as amply reward 
all labour bestowed upon them by the mental recreation 
they yield, as their more gaudy exotic rivals. The former 
present themselves obtrusively and exact notice, whereas 
ours meekly solicit it by their humble but solid allure- 
ments. Here, as well as there, we behold the works of 
a mighty hand and of an immeasurable intelligence. 

Tlie bees throughout the world, as known collectively 
to the richest cabinets, number about two thousand 
species. This host, in itself numerically so large, solicits 



FOREIGN GENEllA OF BEES. 103 

attention, for it is opposed to the economy of nature 
that there should exist any without functions of essential 
usefuhiess, making them important elements in her har- 
monious order and necessary to her due course, irre- 
spective of the instruction to be derived from the study 
of the manifold varieties of structure, which unquestion- 
ably point to distinguishing peculiarities of habits. 

In the true bees the division of the Dasyg asters presents 
the fewest differing generic forms : the Nudipedes and 
Scopulipedes exhibit more numerous varieties, the pre- 
ponderance being in favour of the pollen-collecting bees 
(the latter), although the cuckoo bees (the Nudipedes) 
are very abundant, and taken en masse, are certainly the 
handsomest. If it be absolutely the case that there are 
no parasites amongst the Andrenid(2, this subfamily will 
add very largely to the exotic pollinigerous majority, 
which thereby becomes extensively subservient to the 
fruition of the vegetable kingdom. 

Those bees which are exclusively inter- or sub-tropical, 
seem furnished with larger capacities for fulfilling the 
special mission to which the family is appointed. Their 
pollinigerous and honey-collecting organs are peculiarly 
adapted both to the structure and luxuriance of the 
superb vegetation of those regions, and to which they 
seem distinctly limited. But that they are not con- 
sidered equivalent to the entire demand of the profuse 
bloom everywhere abounding, may 'be concluded from 
the tropical range and distribution of many of our 
northern forms. Thus, whilst the flora of those climates 
is strictly circumscribed in its diffusion, its fauna, dis^ 
tinctly in the class of insects, and especially in the family 
of bees, is very considerably less limited, in extension. 

The exotic genera of bees which are peculiarly notice- 



104) BRITISH BEES. 

able, either from splendour, size, or remarkable eccen- 
tricities of structure, are numerous. Tropical and sub- 
tropical regions of course abound with them, in indivi- 
duals, in species, and in genera ; and when we reflect upon 
the riches of the flora of those countries, which is per- 
petuated mainly by the agency of insects/amongst which, 
in fulfilling this indispensable demand, bees, as I have 
reiterated, are pre-eminently conspicuous, we shall not 
even wonder that their number, although excessive in 
the extreme, is considerably aided, in many cases, in 
the performance of this task, by peculiarities of structure. 
Thus, the splendid Brazilian genus Euglossa, although 
not conspicuous for size, is remarkably so for the enor- 
mous development of its posterior tibise, which form 
very large triangles, compared with the size of the insect, 
deeply hollowed for the conveyance of pollen. Its 
tongue also, from the length of which the genus derives 
its name, is, when extended, more than twice the length 
of the body, and with which it is enabled to reach the 
nectarium, seated within the depths of the longest tubes 
of flowers. Other exotic bees, further to aid them in 
collecting pollen, in addition to the dense brushes with 
which their posterior legs are variously covered, have 
each individual hair of these thick brushes considerably 
thickened by hairs given ofi" laterally, and in some cases 
these again ramify. Sometimes, in variation, the simple, 
single hairs have a spiral curve, which almost equally 
enlarges the activity of their operation. This is also the 
case with two very hairy-legged genera of our native 
bees, proximately allied to each other in the methodical 
arrangement, Dasypoda and Panurgus, the hair of whose 
posterior legs have this spiral twist. The most hairy- 
legged exotic bees are essentially the genera Centris and 



FOREIGN GENERA OF BEES. 105 

Xylocopa. Of the habits of the former we know nothing, 
but those of the latter we are intimately acquainted 
with, through the elaborate descriptions given by Reau- 
mur and the Rev. L. Guilding, the latter of whom made 
his observations upon a species found in the island of St. 
Vincent's, in the West Indies. This last genus exhibits 
in some of its species the giants among the bees, and one 
is especially so, a native of India, the Xylocopa latipes, 
which is an inch and a quarter long, and more than three 
inches in the expansion of its black, acute wings ; and it is 
also noticeable from the anterior tarsus in the male -being 
greatly dilated and white, the bee itself being intensely 
black, and which in this same sex has enormous eyes 
united at the vertex, as in the male Apis, or drone. In 
this genus, as in many other genera of bees, there is often 
a great discrepancy in the appearance of the sexes, they 
being so totally dissimilar that no scientific skill has 
hitherto been able to discover a clue for uniting toge- 
ther correctly, by scientific i)rocess merely, the sexes of a 
species ; thence the numbers of the species in such ge- 
nera are unduly augmented beyond their natural limits, 
from the fact of observation having neglected to associate 
the legitimate partners. 

In some of our native genera this same difficulty 
existed, which, however, is gradually diminishing as the 
authentic sexes are slowly discovered. 

Exotic bees exhibit also a peculiarity I had occasion 
to observe before, in reference to our own bees, amounting 
perhaps to a law, viz the more highly-coloured condition 
of the parasite, for we find all the parasitical bees of those 
latitudes, usually gorgeously arrayed in metallic splen- 
dour, as instanced in Aglae, Mesonychia, Mesocheira, 
etc., and Mdissoda (my Ischnoceraj in Lardner), is re- 



106 BRITISH BEES. 

markably conspicuous for its long and delicately slender 
antennae in the malCj each joint of which is nodose at 
its extremity. 

The widely-distributed Nomia seems to abound chiefly 
in India. It, although neither gay nor large, has, in its 
males, a distinguishing form of the posterior tibiae, 
which is greatly incrassated or thickened ; a peculiarity 
of structure found also in some other genera of Hyme- 
noptera, and in several genera of the Diptera, giving the 
insects which have it a remarkable gait. 

The singularly anomalous distortion of these posterior 
legs is conspicuous also in the genus Ancylosceles, which 
is named in allusion to it. 

Another remarkable peculiarity is to be observed in 
the above genus, Mesocheira, as likewise in the superb 
Acanthopus, both of which genera have the spur of the 
intermediate leg palmated at tlie extremity, and the 
latter genus is further distinguished by its large size and 
splendid development, and by having the fifth joint of 
the tarsus of the posterior legs longer than the three pre- 
ceding united, and covered with a pollinigerous brush as 
dense as that of the elongate first joint of the same limb. 

But the foreign genera which will be most interesting 
to the reader will, I expect, be those of Trigona and 
Mellipona, which, in many peculiarities, seem abortive 
Apes. They seem nature's first endeavour to construct 
Apis, for they have an apparently imperfect neuration of 
the wing, in which the external submarginal cell is un- 
finished. Their only separating distinction from each 
other is the difference in their mandibles, which in Mel- 
lipona are broad and edentate, whereas in Trigona they 
are also broad but denticulated. In Apis these organs 
are merely irregularly enlarged at the extremity, and 



FOREIGN GENERA OF BEES. 107 

hollowed within, rather like a spoon, which structure 
would of course imply a difiPerence of economy. 

A further characteristic of these genera, and in which 
they participate with Jpis, is the deficiency of spurs to 
the posterior tibiae, which separates them from all other 
genera of bees, as also from Bombiis, which has two, yet 
with which, in point of their economy, they more closely 
assimilate than with Apis. They are the South Ameri- 
can and Australian indigenous representatives of the 
genus Apis, and are found likewise in Java and Sumatra, 
and in some of the larger and extreme islands of the 
Indian Archipelago, thus also similarly in countries 
where marsupial animals occur. Like Apis, they are 
social in their habits ; but their neuters only are as yet 
known, neither males nor females having been described. 
They are reputed to be stingless, and to make honey 
and wax in enormous quantities. The combs in Melli- 
pona are attached either to the branches of trees or are 
suspended from them, but how they are enveloped for 
security is not reported, but sometimes, like Apis^ they 
construct them within hollow trees and in the cavities 
of rocks, as in Trigona, in like manner as Apis does in 
its natural state. Their communities are not so large 
as those of the hive bee, and the cells of their combs are 
less perfectly hexagonal, the wax being expended upon 
them in denser quantities, whereas the hive bee is ex- 
ceedingly parsimonious in the use of this material, a cir- 
cumstance arising possibly from the different and more 
difficult mode the latter have of obtaining it. In the 
latter it is a secretion ; but these exotic genera possibly 
collect their wax ready-made by the exudation of plants, 
and, thus, having more readily obtained it, they are more 
lavish in its use. 



108 BRITISH BEES. 

Early travellers and historians describe many kinds 
of honey made by these bees, native to the South 
American continent, but they report nothing of the 
peculiarities of the social economy of these insects, nor 
whether they are as closely allied in this respect to Apis, 
as they are in the collection of honey and wax. 

To enter into further detail relative to them would be 
beyond the province of this work, and I have only given 
this extremely superficial and brief notice of foreign 
genera, to show what multitudes of others of this in- 
teresting family await admiration and study, when some 
proficiency has been acquired in the knowledge of our 
own. 



103 



CHAPTER y. 

PARASITES OF BEES AND THEIR ENEMIES. 

Nature seems to have imposed a restraint upon the 
undue increase of all its creatures, by creating, to check 
it, others that prey upon them. It thus enlarges the 
sphere of its activity by making life accessory to life, 
and promoting thereby a more extended enjoyment of 
all its pleasures. Other forms are brought into exist- 
ence, and other terms given to duration than those which 
the laws of life attach to specific organization. No abate- 
ment is thereby made upon the quantity of contempora- 
neous vitality, for what subsides in one rises in another, 
and the undulation of the waves is perpetual. 

Does the quantity of life, extant upon the earth, vary ? 
Perhaps mortality ever comes in some shape to prevent 
it, when excess threatens to render its energy effete. 
Yet under every circumstance the wise arrangements of 
Providence suffice, for everything has its enemies or its 
parasites, which are also enemies, but frequently in dis- 
guise. For defence there is an implanted instinctive 
fear, or abhorrence ; and the creature is then left to its 
skill, prudence, or strength, either to evade or to miti- 
gate, to the extent of its capability, the danger of the 
attack. 



110 BRITISH BEES. 

We find the bees are not at all exempted from this 
prevailing condition. They have many enemies and 
parasites of remarkably differing organization. They 
are attacked by many kinds of birds, among which the 
Merops Apiaster (or bee -eater) is conspicuous. All 
the swallow tribe prey upon them, as do the shrikes and 
some of the soft-billed small birds, and also many small 
quadrupeds when they can find the opportunity. Wasps 
also attack them, but they do not often get entangled 
in spiders' nets, being generally too strong for the re- 
tention of its meshes, but I have seen a Bombus en- 
veloped in a tangle of its wonderful filament. 

The wild bees' parasites are of two kinds, personal, 
and such which, like the young of cuckoos, live at the 
expense of the offspring. The personal parasites are 
again of two kinds, for bees are infested with several 
kinds of Acari, and once I found a Bombus upon the 
ground in Coombe Wood so swarming with the Acarus 
that it lay hopelessly helpless until I threw it into a 
pool of water, when its attaches were washed away. But 
the poor bee seemed so prostrated by their attack, that 
even when freed from them it had not energy to fly, and 
having landed it I left it to the kindly nursing of nature. 

A little yellow hexapod larva sometimes also infests 
the wild bees in great numbers, running over and about 
them with great activity. I have never followed these to 
their development, but they are said to be the larvae of 
Meloe proscarabcBus, a conspicuously large coleopterous 
insect. The assertion has produced much discussion; 
and I believe the larva has been bred to the imago, and 
consequently it has been proved that it is the larva of 
that insect. But that it should be parasitical upon so 
small a creature, and that numbers should infest it for 



BEES AND THEIR ENEMIES. Ill 

their nutriment, is extremely improbable. It is far more 
likely that instinct has taught them to be conveyed 
elsewhere through the medium of the bee, as they might 
also be by attaching themselves to any other volatile 
insect, and that upon arriving at a suitable locality they 
descend from their temporary hippogriff. We see seeds 
thus conveyed by the agency of animals and birds to 
suitable places, where they fall and germinate. 

Another little hexapod is occasionally found upon 
them : this is intensely black, and like the former, very 
active : these I never could rear, nor did they ever seem 
to enlarge, and they speedily died. I have found them 
in profusion also within the flowers of syngenesious or 
composite plants, especially of the dandelion in the 
spring. 

But their most remarkable personal parasites consist 
of some very extraordinary insects, so anomalous in 
their structure as to have required the construction of 
an order for their reception, — the Order Strepsiptera, or 
" twisted-winged,^' thus named from the twist taken by 
their anterior wings or wing-cases. Their natural history 
is but imperfectly known, and I believe the males have 
not yet been discovered. Their larva lives within the 
bee, and feeds on its viscera by absorption, being at- 
tached within by a sort of umbilical cord. It presently 
consumes the viscera, and renders the bee abortive, by 
destroying its ovaries, for it is usually upon female bees 
that it is found. When full fed it forms a case within 
which it changes into the pupa and imago, the head of 
which case protrudes between the scales of one of the 
dorsal segments of the abdomen. How it becomes depo- 
sited within the bee or the bee's larva remains a mystery, 
although many hypotheses have been hazarded to account 



112 BRITISH BEES. 

for it, but all are unsatisfactory. The Order consists of 
three genera {S iy lops, Elenchus, and Halictophagus) found 
in England, and other parts of Europe ; indeed, the genus 
Elenchus has been also discovered in the Mauritius. 
The Continent possesses the genus Xenos, of the same 
order, and parasitical upon a wasp, neither of which occur 
with us. 

Mr. Kirby, in studying the bees for his invaluable 
'Monographia Apum Anglise,' first came across this 
extraordinary creature. His description of his discovery 
is highly interesting. He says, at page 111 of volume ii. 
of the above work, that having observed a protuberance 
upon the body of the bee, he was anxious to ascertain 
whether it might be an Acarus, and goes on : '^ What was 
my astonishment when, upon attempting to disengage it 
with a pin, I drew forth from the body of the bee, a 
white fleshy larva, a quarter of an inch long, the head of 
which I had mistaken for an Acarus, How this animal 
receives its nutriment seems a mystery. Upon examining 
the head under a strong magnifier, I could not discover 
any mouth or proboscis with which it might perforate 
the corneous covering of the abdomen, and so support 
itself by suction ; on the under side of the head, at its 
junction with the body there was a concavity, but I 
could observe nothing in this but a uniform unbroken 
surface. As the body of the animal is inserted in the 
body of the bee, does that part receive its nutriment 
from it by absorption ? After I had examined one 
specimen, I attempted to extract a second, and the 
reader may imagine how greatly my astonishment was 
increased, when, after I had drawn it out but a little 
way, I saw its skin burst, and a head as black as ink, 
with large staring eyes, and antennae consisting of two 



BEES AND THEIR ENEMIES. 113 

branches, break forth, and move itself briskly from side 
to side. It looked like a little imp of darkness just 
emerging from the infernal regions. I was impatient to 
become better acquainted with so singular a creature. 
When it was completely disengaged, and I had secured 
it from making its escape, I set myself to examine it as 
carefully as possible ; and I found, after a careful inquiry, 
that I had not only got a nondescript, but also an insect 
of a new genus whose very class seemed dubious." 

As everything connected with so strange a creature 
is very attractive, I will cite what other observers also 
have seen. Mr. Dale, from whom Curtis received Elen- 
chus to figure in his ' British Entomology,^ vol. v. pi. 
226, says: " These parasites look milk-white on the wing, 
with a jet-black body, and are totally unlike anything else. 
It flew with an undulating or vacillating motion amongst 
the young slioots of a quickset hedge, and I could not 
catch it until it settled upon one, when it ran up and 
down, its wings in motion, and making a considerable 
buzz or hum, as loud as a Sesia ; it twisted about its 
rather long tail, and turned it up like a Staphylinus. I 
put it under a glass and placed it in the sun ; it became 
quite furious in its confinement, and never ceased run- 
ning about for two hours. The elytra or processes were 
kept in quick vibration, as well as the wings ; it buzzed 
against the sides of the glass with its head touching it, 
and tumbling about on its back. By putting two bees 
(Andrena labialis) under a glass in the sun, two Stylops 
were produced : the bees seemed uneasy, and went up 
towards them, but evidently with caution, as if to fight ; 
and moving their antennae towards them, retreated. I 
once thought the bee attempted to seize it; but the 
oddest thing was to see the Siylops get on the body of 

I 



114 BRITISH BEES. 

the bee and ride about, the latter using every effort to 
throw his rider. 

"As the Stylops emerges from the body of the bee, the 
latter seems to suffer from much irritating excitement." 

Mr. Thwaites writes to me, on the 12th May, thus : 
" I had the good fortune to capture a Stylops flying, and 
on the Tuesday following saw at least twenty flying 
about in the garden, but so high from the ground that I 
could capture only about half-a-dozen ; since that time 
they have become gradually more scarce. 

"The little animals are exceedingly graceful in their 
flight, taking long sweeps as if carried along by a gentle 
breeze, and occasionally hovering at a few inches distance 
from the ground. Their expanse of wing and mode of 
flight give them a very different appearance to any other 
insect on the wing. When captured they are exceedingly 
active, running up and down the sides of the bottle in 
which they are confined, moving their wings and antennae 
very rapidly. Their term of life seems to be very short, 
none of those I have captured living beyond five hours, 
and one I extracted from a bee in the afternoon was 
dead the next morning. 

"All the bees stylopized, both male and female, I 
have taken, have manifested it by having underneath the 
fourth (invariably) upper segment of the abdomen a pro- 
tuberance which is scale-like when the Stylops is in the 
larva state ; but which is much larger and more rounded 
when the Stylops is ready to emerge. A bee gives nourish- 
ment generally to but one Stylops; but I have occasionally 
found two, and once three larvse in one bee." 

The structure of these insects is very remarkable : the 
typical genus Stylops is named from its compound eyes, 
which consist of a very few (about fifteen) hexagonal 



BEES AND THEIR ENEMIES. 115 

facets, seated upon a sort of footstalk. The man- 
dibles are lancet-shaped and very acute, and the head, 
by reason of the protuberant eyes, has very much the 
shape of a dumb-bell. The antennae are branched, but 
in Halictophagus, they are fiabellate. The thorax is 
greatly developed; the superior wing is like a rudi- 
mentary wing-case, and is twisted, the inferior wings 
are very large, and fold along the abdomen in repose 
like a fan ; the legs are slender, and the tarsi with four 
joints in Stylops, with three in Halictophagus, and with 
two in Elenchus ; the abdomen is long, very flexible, 
and consists of eight segments. The insects themselves 
do not exceed a quarter of an inch in length in the 
largest, but they are generally very much smaller. The 
perfect insect is very short-lived, not surviving many 
hours, as just stated. They are usually found in the 
months of May and June, and they have been dis- 
covered to infest several species of Andrena and Ha- 
lictus, for instance the A. nigro-cenea, upon which Mr. 
Kirby first found it ; A. labialis, which I have frequently 
caught stylopized ; A. rufit arsis, fulvicrus, Mouffetella, 
tibialis, Collinsonana, varians, picicornis, nana, parvula, 
wanthura, convexiuscula, Afzeliella, Gwynana, etc., and 
upon Halictus ceratus, etc. 

The other mode of parasitism destructive to the bees is 
where the parasite deposits its own egg upon the proven- 
der stored by the bee for the sustenance of its own young. 
The young of the parasite, either by being more speedily 
hatched or more rapacious than the larva of the sitos, 
starves the latter by consuming its food. This kind of 
parasites consists of several Diptera, but they are mostly 
bees which form a distinctive subsection of the family of 
true bees (Apidae), the subsection being called the Nudi- 

i2 



116 BRITISH BEES. 

pedes or naked-legged, from their not having the neces- 
sary apparatus of hair upon the posterior thighs or shanks, 
for the conveyance of pollen wherewith to store their 
nests. Thus nature, having rendered them unable to 
perform this duty to their offspring, has imposed upon 
them the necessity of resorting to strangers to support 
them, and they are not led to it by idleness or indifference. 
These insects consist, with us, of six genera, the species 
of which are individually attached to some particular 
bee, who thus nurtures their young. They are, as a rule, 
gayer insects than those which they infest, and the genus 
most abundant in species is Nomada, which attaches 
itself chiefly to Andrena, although some of its species, 
especially the smaller ones, infest the species of Halic- 
tu8, and one frequents Eucera. Melecta appears confined 
to Anthophora ; Epeolus to Colletes ; Stelis perhaps to 
Osmia, judging from the great similarity of habit ; and 
Ccelioxys to the constructive Megachile. None of these 
parasites resemble their sitos, but Nomada is exceed- 
ingly different, being in its gay array more like a wasp 
than a bee. The only close approach in the appearance 
of a parasite to the insect upon which it is parasitical is 
in the resemblance between Apatkus and Bombus, which 
are so alike that they were long continued to be united in 
the same genus, until the peculiar characteristic of the 
parasitical bees was detected, when they were readily se- 
parated. Although, cuckoo-bees as they are familiarly 
called, they could not be associated with the Nudipedts, 
because their posterior legs, though not pollen-conveying 
organs, are hairy ; but the Cenobites, to which section 
they belong, have a peculiar and distinguishing structure 
of that limb. They are further separated from the Nudi- 
pedes by several frequenting the same nest, thus habi- 



BEES AND THEIR ENEMIES. 117 

tually associating with their sitos. Some of the Chrysi- 
did(B are likewise, as I shall have occasion to notice in 
the description of the habits of the genera, similarly 
parasitical upon some of the species of the family of 
bees. The genus Mutilla is also probably entirely para- 
sitical upon bees, for Mutilla Europcea is a parasite upon 
Bombus lapidarius, from whose nests it has been dug in 
winter, by my friend the late Mr. Pickering, whose ac- 
tivity and accurate observation once promised to be very 
beneficial to the science, but he, like many others of my 
entomological friends, is now no more ! 



118 



CHAPTER VI. 

GENEEAL PEINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC AEEANGEMENT. 

The following rapid observations are addressed to those 
whom it is the desire that this series of volumes may in- 
duce to take up the study of Nature in a methodical 
manner. With this view, the merest summary of the 
principles upon which scientific arrangement is based, is 
here exhibited. The study requires method as a lode- 
star to guide through its intricacies, but it is one which, 
pursued simply as a recreation, yields both much amuse- 
ment and gratifying instruction. It shows us that when 
we unclasp the book of nature, and wherever we may 
turn its leaves, every word, the syllables of which we 
strive to spell, is pregnant with the fruitfulness of won- 
derful wisdom, whose profound expression the human 
intellect is too limited thoroughly to comprehend. 

Is there an arrangement that human skill could 
mend? Is there an organization that man can fully 
solve, or a combination that his mind can wholly com- 
pass? Do we not behold limitless perfection every- 
where, but all so deeply mysterious. So exquisite are 
the feelings which the contemplation commands, that 
they imbue us deeply with the sense of the high privilege 
conferred upon the intellect by its being permitted to 
embrace a study, which, even pursued merely as a re- 



PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC ARRANGEMENT. 119 

laxation, inculcates in so serene and pleasing a manner 
such profound veneration and reverence. 

To acquire the prospect of a possibility to unravel the 
exuberant profusion of the natural objects surrounding 
us, successive students of nature have endeavoured to 
systematize the seeming confusion in which her riches 
are spread about. Like has been brought to like, and 
gradation made to succeed gradation. Resemblances 
have been combined and disparities disjoined, until the 
labour of centuries has constructed of all the natural 
objects within the ken of man a vast and towering edifice, 
whose basis is seated at 'the lovi^est substructure of the 
earth which research has yet reached, but whose head 
ascends high into the empyrean. 

All things have been collected, and arranged, and 
classed. Method has endeavoured to give them suc- 
cession according to an assumed subordination. The 
labour of the great minds which framed the large 
theories of this vast branch of human knowledge, has 
permitted men of lesser powers of combination to ab- 
stract parts for special examination and investigation. 

The study of natural science has progressively reached 
an extraordinary development, spreading in every direc- 
tion its innumerable tentacula; to which the perfection 
of the telescope and of the microscope have still further 
added by the discovery of new worlds of wonder. 

Just as language is systematized and made easier by 
grammar methodizing its co-ordinates and their rela- 
tions, so natural science arranges its subjects into sub- 
divisions of which genera and species are the lowest 
terms. The higher and more complicated are of many 
denominations, which, notwithstanding, have for their 
chief purpose the simplification of the survey by assisting 



120 BRITISH BEES. 

accurately to determine accurately natural objects indi- 
vidually. Once the clue of the labyrinth caught, the 
seeming intricacy of its involution vanishes ; for when a 
clear conception of the general scheme is obtained, the 
solution of the parts is comparatively easy. The same 
principle rules throughout, however variously treated. 

The large divisions of nature appear simple and dis- 
tinct enough in their great frame, but when we approach 
their confines, close investigation discovers analogies and 
affinities, which, where the separation seems most appa- 
rent, create insuperable difficulties, and render linear 
succession, or distinct division, nearly an impossibility. 
Here we find parallelism, and there radiation, and else- 
where a complicated reticulation without subordination ; 
and this is one of the great problems, which it is the office 
of the mature naturalist to endeavour to solve. The pre- 
sent work has to do, however_, with but one small portion 
of the whole. 

Thus we see that, in order to arrive at a knowledge of 
natural objects, a method must be pursued to avoid being 
overwhelmed by their multiplicity, whereby confusion 
would be produced in the mind which their methodical 
investigation tends to dissipate. Their abundance pre- 
cludes the possibility of their being all equally well 
known, although it is very desirable to have a general, if 
even superficial acquaintance with them, that is to say, 
in the broad and distinguishing features of their large 
groups, for as to an accurate knowledge of all their 
species, it would be futile to attempt it. Possessing this 
general knowledge, the attention may be turned with 
greater advantage in any special direction, and that pur- 
sued to its entire acquisition. 

Natural objects have been arranged in Kingdoms_, 



PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC ARRANGEMENT. 121 

Orders, Classes^ Families, and Genera, all deduced 
in their successive and collateral groups from characters 
exclusively derived from species; therefore to the accu- 
rate knowledge of species all endeavours must be directed, 
they comprising within themselves all the rest, although 
the characters upon which they themselves depend for 
separation from their congeners are the most trivial of 
any. Each combination, in its analytical descent, con- 
tains characters of wider compass than those which suc- 
ceed it, and consequently embraces in that descent more 
species than the successive divisions ; just as in the ascent, 
or synthetical method, the characters of every successive 
group gradually expand. Species being thus the only 
real objects in nature from which all knowledge springs, 
and in which exclusively all uses lie, other combinations 
being perhaps as merely imaginary as are the many 
lines which are drawn over the surface of the globes, it 
would imply that subdivisions merely lend aid to ac- 
quire more rapidly the details upon which they depend. 
"We will, therefore, first turn our attention to species. 

Both combination and subdivision are intended to 
facilitate identification, by aiding us to arrive at this 
knowledge of species ; for each species represents a dis- 
tinct idea, whose correct definition is important to the 
progress of accurate science. This alone permits ob- 
servation to be attributed to its right object, aild when 
properly recorded, the information is secured for ever 
fj-om error or obscurity. It is not, however, the gift of 
every mind to discern accurately even specific differences, 
or to form skilfully generic combinations. The very best 
favoured by nature, — for it is a natural gift, although 
under high cultivation, — have sometimes a bias towards 
seeing more than actually exists. Hence varieties are 



122 BRITISH BEES. 

often elevated into species, and species thus overwhelm- 
ingly multiplied ; and genera are frequently framed upon 
vague distinctions. 

Species are the basis of all natural science. 

A species in zoology is a combination of creatures 
which unites the sexes, and these being two, the as- 
sumed existence of neuters in some instances does not 
invalidate this, it comprises two individuals having in- 
dependent existence, but whose co-existence is indis- 
pensable to perpetuation, but which often, from their 
great differences, no single set of scientific characters 
will bind together, yet which must exist in some undis- 
covered peculiarity, that individuals may be able to distin- 
guish their legitimate partners. The species, therefore, is 
a complete unit in its entirety, although consisting of two 
distinct beings, for in the large majority of cases in 
zoology these sexes are distinct, although their conjunc- 
tion is, in the higher forms of life, indispensable for 
their continuance. In some of the lower forms of animal 
life they exist in union, and in the vegetable kingdom we 
perceive every possible combination and modification of 
this conjunction, and in both of these life may be per- 
petuated also by simpler processes. 

The species may consist of any indefinite number of 
individuals, and no law has hitherto been discovered 
which fegulates the relative proportions of the sexes, 
although it is very apparent that some recondite influ- 
ence operates to control it. It is also extremely re- 
markable to observe how eccentric nature is in some 
species, and the extent to which she sometimes carries 
the variation of some particular specific type, and to 
which some species are singularly prone, and yet how 
rigidly in other cases she adheres to the particular spe- 



PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC ARRANGEMENT. 123 

eific form in the succession of generations, that even 
the shadow of a deviation from the typical distinction is 
scarcely to be discovered : a reason for this it is hard to 
surmise. We may, nevertheless, conclude it to be cer- ] 
tain that true species are ever distinct, and can no more 
coalesce, hovrever closely they may approach together, [ 
than can asymptotes. 

Specific differences result from many characteristics, — 
from colour, clothing, size, and sometimes from pecu- 
liarities of structure; but these last are usually of a 
higher order, tending to indicate an aberration, slight 
though it be, from the normal generic character which 
holds the group together, thus implying a distinctive 
economy. This is sometimes called a subgeneric attri- 
bute, and there might be a reason, certainly, for not 
elevating such species to the full rank of genera, were 
genera equivalents, which they are not, and it merely 
remains an evasive admission of the doubt that attaches, 
except for the sake of convenience, to any subdivision, 
but the specific. 

The species is thus the very last term of subdivision, 
the very elemental principle itself, which unites toge- 
ther as one, solely for the purposes of perpetuation, the 
two sexes of similar individuals, and without whose in- 
tercourse the kind or species would die out. 

That some species greatly abound in individuals, as 
before observed, whilst others appear to be extremely 
limited, is an absolute fact, and not merely suggested 
by a defective observation of their occurrence, resulting 
from their rapid dispersion. It is verified by being 
noticed to occur where we know they would resort, as is 
exemplified in the case of some of the parasitical species 
of the insects herein treated of, and which are sometimes 



124 BRITISH BEES. 

rare, even in the vicinity of the metropolis of their sitos, 
and where this also greatly abounds. In other cases, 
other species absolutely swarm where the similar at- 
traction lies. 

Even supposing species to be the sole natural division, 
we may accept the superior combinations as means to 
aid us to a gradually extending survey of the whole. 
Perhaps did we possess all the links of the vast chain of 
beings we should find genera, and every other superior 
combination, melt away through the intimate alliance of 
the succession of species that would obliterate the lines 
of separation, by making the sutures imperceptible ; but 
what mind could compass the detail of such a limitless 
unbroken series? Their subdivision may therefore be 
accepted as a positive necessity, to enable us to compass 
their investigation. As it at present stands, with our 
imperfect knowledge of the entire series of species, these 
higher groups are indispensably requisite. 

The specific diagnosis being the only sure basis upon 
which all our knowledge can rest, its accuracy is all- 
important, and requires a few observations. It com- 
prises two parts — the specific character ^ and the specific 
description. The difference between these is, that the 
first is constructed with the extreraest brevity consistent 
with its utility, is fluctuating and not permanent. The 
latter permits all the diffuseness needful to embrace a 
full description of the creature. 

The object of the first is to establish the present iden- 
tity of the species amongst all its known congeners — 
those associated in the same genus ; — and that of the 
second to secure it in its perpetual identity, and segre- 
gate it from all future and contingent discoveries. The 
specific character admits, consequently, modifications to 



PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC ARRANGEMENT. 125 

suit any extension of the genus, and in fact exacts it at 
the hands of all who describe new species. This many- 
naturalists undertake without any apparent conscious- 
ness of the scientific responsibilities that attach to it, 
and whence results the confusion so much to be deplored, 
of the synonymy that prevails, constituting, as it does, 
such a Daedalian labyrinth. The describer of a new 
species is bound to cast around, and endeavour to know 
all that has been previously done upon the subject of 
the genus. He has to revise all the specific characters 
within the genus, and mould them to those he introduces, 
and he must insert these closest to their evident affini- 
ties. Thus, therefore, the describer's labour is not light, if 
to be of any value. The specific character, although thus 
varying, becomes a permanent utility, and only so fulfils 
its object, — that of rapidly showing, at a glance, the 
known species of a genus, and thereby permitting the 
speedy determination of the identity or distinctness 
of a compared object. If doubt should exist from this 
brevity, the specific description is at hand to solve it, by 
the amplitude and completeness of its details. Of course 
this mode of treatment is only suitable to monographs, 
or portions of the science discussed separately, and not 
to a general or universal survey. 

The amount of toil thus saved to the describing na- 
turalist, and to those who wish to name their specimen, 
the experienced only can estimate. This brevity of spe- 
cific character is one of Linnseus^s terse and valuable 
axioms, who limits its length to twelve words. The best 
examples, I think, that I can adduce in entomology, of 
valuable and exemplary specific descriptions, is Gyllen- 
haPs ' Insecta Suecica,^ which contains exclusively a de- 
scription of Swedish Coleoptera; Gravenhorst's large 



126 BRITISH BEES. 

monograph of European Ichneumons ; Erichson's ela- 
borate work upon the Staphylinidse ; and our own Kirby's 
'Monographia Apum Anglise/ Their perfection con- 
sists in fulfilling thoroughly all the above conditions, 
for if any doubt exist upon comparing your insect with 
their descriptions, you may be fully assured yours is 
not identical. The only drawback to the utility of Mr. 
Kirby's book is that he had to deal with insects variable 
in condition from many causes, and the variable state of 
the insect that may have to be compared ; his descrip- 
tion has evidently been made sometimes from a worn 
specimen, one that had been exposed to wind and 
weather, and sometimes from an insect in fine condition. 
Thus it is important that compared insects should be in 
an identical state to substantiate the comparison, — a diffi- 
culty which this family has specially to contend with, as 
these insects are more liable than almost any others to 
vary, owing to their specific character depending much 
•upon pubescence, which is extremely subjected to many 
modifying influences, for the tinges and positive colour 
of the hair will much vary by exposure, as it is not pos- 
sible always to capture a bright individual. 

Taking specific description thus practically in its full 
and wide sense, it is requisite, for the purpose of avoid- 
ing repetition, that all the characters of the superior 
combinations should be eliminated, leaving it with those 
only which have not been thus absorbed, which now 
constitute its sole remaining distinctive specific pecu- 
liarities. Every species necessarily contains within it- 
self, every character of every combination in direct line 
above it, although these have been gradually abstracted 
to form those several combinations which are arrived 
at successively in the synthetical ascent. Analytically, 



PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC ARRANGEMENT. 127 

species are the last but combining element of all, al- 
though their most remote members. The whole system 
is an ingenious contrivance for breaking down a com- 
plex multiplicity of characters, to simplify the means of 
reaching all the collateral or adjacent species, that we 
may be able to determine identity or difference. 

Entomology, and indeed natural history generally, 
uses three words, very much alike, but very different in 
signification and application. These are, habit, habits, 
and habitat. The habit is that peculiar character of 
identity, that Je ne sais quoi, which marks all the species 
of a genus collectively, and which, in some cases, only 
the trained eye can detect. It is then seen instantane- 
ously, and forcibly illustrates the extreme precision the 
study of the natural sciences tends to cultivate. Their 
utility, also, as a discipline to the mind, conjunctively 
with the keen accuracy which practice gives the sight, are 
qualifications not lightly to be esteemed. 

It is from such absolute control of detail that the 
most efficient power of generalizing emanates, which, 
when it has once become habitual, gives, from its rapi- 
dity, an almost instinctive facility, as its inevitable con- 
comitant, for both synthetical and analytical survey. 
The mind thus becomes strengthened by vigorous exer- 
cise, and has always, for every purpose, a powerful in- 
strument at command, often used unconsciously, but 
always effectively. Thus is habit, once correctly per- 
ceived, ever retained. 

The habits are the peculiar manners and economy of 
a species ; and the habitat is the kind of locality the 
creatures affect, such as hill or plain, wood or meadow, 
forest or fell, hedgebank or decaying timber, sand or 
chalk or clay, and ground vertical or horizontal ; and the 



128 BRITISH BEES. 

metropolis of a species — another term in use — is the 
centralization of the general habitat where the insect 
either nidificates collectively with its fellows, or, where, 
from any other cause, it may be found in its season, 
usually in profusion. But good fortune does not always 
attend the discovery of this locality. 

It is by the acquired skill of perceiving habit, that 
a large and confused collection may be sorted rapidly, 
or fresh captures immediately placed with their conge- 
ners, without the necessity of going tediously through 
all the descriptive characteristics. Incidental errors are 
afterwards speedily corrected. It is then that the specific 
character exhibits its utility by enabling us at once to dis- 
tinguish the new from the old. 

The concentration and summary of the specific cha- 
racter is the name of the species, or trivial name as it 
is sometimes called, which is, as it were, the baptismal 
designation that attaches to it always afterwards, and is 
contemporaneous with the introduction of the creature 
into the series of recognized beings. 

Upon the revival of the study of natural history, when 
learning dawned after the night of the Middle Ages, 
much difficulty attached to the imposition of discrimi- 
native names. The works of the ancients were ransacked, 
and endeavours made to verify and apply the names they 
had used. Ray published a vocabulary of such names. 
But the ancients never studied natural history in the sys- 
tematic way pursued by the moderns ; they did not want 
the skill, but they wanted the facilities. Anatomy and 
physiology had not made the progress necessary to aid 
them in the pursuit, and the assistance all these sciences 
obtain from optical instruments was barred from them. 
The names they gave to natural objects were vernacular 



PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC ARRANGEMENT. 129 

iiames_, which^ like our own vernacular names, applied 
rather to groups than to species, and have in conse- 
quence ultimately become the names of genera. But this 
was the work of time, with which discovery progressed. 
As these discoveries were made by the new cultivators 
of natural history, they added them to those which they 
resembled, by some brief distinctive character adapted 
to the momentary exigency, such as majors or minora 
etc.; and these additions were constantly treated as 
varieties of the species, whose name headed the list 
by the designation first adopted. Discoveries still con- 
tinued, which were compulsively arranged with the pre- 
decessors they most nearly resembled, until resem- 
blances vanished, and the boundaries fixed by the as- 
sumed correct application of the names thus derived 
from the ancients were passed, and there was an over- 
flow on all sides. 

To meet this difficulty, the new discriminative name 
had to be moulded into a phrase to correct its exceptive 
peculiarities, and specific names became descriptive 
phrases, the bulk of which no memory could retain, 
and which usually were neither clear nor expressive. 
Thus genera were continually treated as species, and 
species as numbered varieties, with long distinguishing 
descriptive phrases. 

So it remained till day dawned, and the great lumi- 
nary of systematic natural history rose with a bound to 
irradiate the obscurity of science with his subtile and 
vivifying beams. 

This 'was Linn^us, to whom we owe the binomial 
system, wherein, by means of two words only (the ge- 
neric or surname, and the specific or baptismal name), 
the recognition of a species is perpetuated ; for Liu- 

K 



130 BRITISH BEES. 

nseiis truly says, ^'Nomina si nescis, perit et cognitio 
rerumy 

By a law tacitly admitted, but universally recognized, 
for the sake of securing to a name its intangibility, 
no two genera in the same kingdom of nature may be 
named alike. There is, therefore, if this rule be ob- 
served, no fear of similar names coming into collision in 
the same province, and thus producing confusion. A 
ready means to prevent the possibility of such mischance 
is the admirable work which has been published by 
Agassiz, with the assistance of very able coadjutors, in 
the ' Nomenclator Zoologicus,^ which is a list of all the 
generic names extant in zoology, exhibiting what names 
are already in use either appropriately or synonymously 
in this great branch of the natural world, and if this 
work receive periodically its necessary supplements and 
additions, no excuse will remain for the repetition of a 
name already applied. The most defective character in 
this laborious work, is the frequent incorrectness of its 
etymology of the names of genera. It would be, perhaps, 
without such aid, too great a labour to require of the 
describing naturalist, or it might not be otherwise even 
practicable for him, to ascertain whether the generic 
name he purposes to impose be, or not, anticipated. 
The penalty of its being superseded is understood to 
attach to the imposition of such a name, for the altera- 
tion may be made with impunity, and thereby it becomes 
degraded to the rank of a mere synonym. 

Nomenclature has thus, by the happy invention of 
Linnaeus, been made a matter of the greatest simplicity, 
conciseness, and lucidity, and to him, therefore, our 
gratitude is due. 

An indispensable branch of nomenclature is Synonymy, 



f 

PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC ARRANGEMENT. 131 

which, briefly, is the chronological list of the several 
names under which species or genera may have been 
known. This diversity of names has originated in several 
ways, — from indolence, or ignorance, or excessive refine- 
ment. The views of systematists will differ in the collo- 
cation of creatures; hence, sometimes what had been 
previously divided will be recombined, or divisions into 
further groups be made of what had been before united. 
Both processes will necessarily produce synonyms ; the 
recombination of what had been separated reduces the 
names of such groups to the rank of synonyms of the 
old one from which they have been disjoined. In the 
latter case the old name will be retained to the typical 
species merely, and be also made a partial synonym oi 
the names of the new generic groups : or, indeed, 
it may happen that the same creature has been described 
generically, unknowingly, by two different persons, about 
the same time. By another recognized rule in nomen- 
clature, the Haw of priority,' the name given by the 
first describer is accepted, and the other consequently 
falls to the condition of a synonym. 

With respect to specific synonymy, many causes con- 
duce to it ; namely, an imperfect description which can- 
not be clearly recognized, reducing it to that category, 
with a mark of interrogation appended ; subsequent de- 
scription when want of tact has not discerned the iden- 
tity of the old one ; indolence in looking about for 
works upon the same subject ; inability to obtain access 
to books wherein they may be described, owing either to 
their costliness or to their obscurity, or by lying buried 
in some collapsed journal, or the poverty of our public 
libraries, etc. etc. But however thus lost sight of, or 
wilfully ignored, the name still retains vital elasticity, 

k2 



132 BRITISH BEE8. 

for the describer has not thereby lost his rights, but 
revives to them with all due justice upon the cessation 
of this coma. The really culpable among such de- 
scribers are those who neglect to look around them to 
ascertain what has been done, and this course is some- 
times illicitly adopted to obtain a fleeting and mere- 
tricious fame, by the description of ostensibly new species, 
which critical investigators soon detect to have been long 
since known and very ably described. 

Thus, a complete synonymy, which can almost only 
come within the province of a monograph, would give, 
chronologically, the entire history of a species under all 
the names it has been known by in the several works in 
which it has been published. Nature is so uniform and 
stable that Aristotle^ s descriptions can be clearly recog- 
nized, therefore there is no fear that whatever may 
have been synonymously, but yet correctly recorded of 
the economy of a species, can possibly be lost when once 
registered in the archives of science. 

The working out of a correct synonymy is an ungrate- 
ful task of much labour, for few appreciate it, and not 
many use it, although when thoroughly elaborated it is 
so extremely valuable. 

A further rule in nomenclature is, that the generic 
name must always be a substantive; and it is always 
desirable that the specific name should be an adjective. 
In the event of the imposition of a proper name, which is 
sometimes done to record a private friendship, but im- 
properly so, for it is a distinction due only to promoters 
of the science, the genitive form must be adopted. 

The next grade in ascent from the species is invariably 
the Genus, for subgenera, like varieties in species, are not 
uniformly present, but are mere contingencies, even if 
they do properly exist. 



PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC ARRANGEMENT. 133 

Why some genera abound in species and others are 
so limited is as difficult to determine as the differing 
numerical abundance of individuals in species. That 
long genera (genera numerous in species) may be the 
result of natural selection^ as Mr. Darwin surmises, and 
the offspring of a common parentage, is contradicted, 
not merely by peculiar although sometimes slight dis- 
similarities of habit, combined with size and colour, but 
also if any lines of demarcation are to be admitted, it is 
possible, were their generic similitude to be subjected to 
severe test, they might present characteristics normally 
discrepant and suggestive of further division, although 
the habit may be very like. 

The generic grouping is effected by structural pecu- 
liarities, which are essentially of a higher class than 
the characters of specific separation, these being deter- 
mined by colour, pubescence, sculpture, etc. etc. ; spe- 
cific characters combining only individuals with such 
peculiar inferior resemblances. The generic characters 
thus establish groups of species allied only by such more 
general character and similarity, but conjunctively of 
one permanent habit, although the members of the genus 
may differ somewhat in habits, and so on of the higher 
groups into which insects are collected, each group in 
its ascent upwards presenting characteristics of a wider 
range than those of the descending series. And so, 
by degrees, we rise until we reach the characters which 
combine the whole order. The process is necessarily 
and imperatively synthetical, for the whole foundation is 
based upon species, and thence emanates the supposition 
that only species exist. 

The type of a genus is that species upon the charac- 
ters of which the genus was originally framed and named, 



134} BRITISH BEES, 

and theoretically, however generic groups may be sub- 
sequently divided to suit views or to meet systems, the 
primitive generic type is assumed to retain the primitive 
generic name. It is much to be doubted whether, in 
every case, the type is the true pattern, or leader, or 
centre of the group called the genus ; nor is it likely if 
genera be natural groups. It has usually been accident 
which has dropped upon the favoured species, and not a 
well- calculated and thoroughly digested selection, and 
which, although accepted, will require emendation or 
change if the whole collective series should ever be ob- 
tained. 

It is the necessary result of the imperfection of our 
intellect, and one of the dominant conditions of over- 
ruling time, that one thing must follow the other. It 
is, therefore, neither an expressed nor even an implied 
inferiority that puts one species before the other in a 
generic group ; or one genus before the other in their 
successive order. Affinities may lead both species and 
genera in varying directions, although treated descrip- 
tively as of linear succession, in which order they are 
usually arranged, but this is unavoidable and therefore 
not derogatory. It is for the mind to conceive their 
radiation from a type, or their parallelism with other 
forms, even in the connection of affinity, and not merely 
of analogy, for the latter can be expressed even in 
arrangement. 

Thus encouragement attends the beginner at the very 
outset of his study, and the prospect of a wide field for 
discoveries, in all directions, lies open to him. 

The Family, after the Genus, is the next natural group 
at which we arrive, proceeding synthetically. Its cha- 
racters, succeeding to those of the Okder, group together 



PRINCIPLES or SCIENTIFIC ARRANGEMENT. 135 

collectively the largest numbers of forms that in their 
several combinations are the most nearly equivalents, 
and may be almost paralleled in that quality to the alli- 
ance of species. Ascending from species, the naturalist 
scarcely hopes to find in the groups formed above them 
strict parallelism, although, to be logical, it should be 
so, and, where the combinations are most natural, it 
is most nearly so. Thus we do not again distinctly 
reach equivalents until we arrive at these families, which 
from linking together associations usually combined 
by an identity of instinct and functions, attach to them- 
selves greater interest, and form alliances pointed out 
by the finger of nature itself, which are therefore 
exempted from the arbitrary caprice of the constructive 
systematist. 

It does not follow that families should be even nearly 
numerically equivalent, for a family may contain a few 
or a multitude of genera and species, or a multitude of 
genera and few species, or also a multitude of species 
and few genera. Families comprise groups of forms to 
which nature delegates the execution of certain duties 
and offices, and whether specifically numerous or few, 
we may assume they are sufficient for the object in- 
tended. If we can reach the motive that controls the 
peculiarities of the group, it is a golden key to the 
explanation of the structure of its constituents, and, 
perhaps might furnish us, if not with a positive clue, 
yet with a surmise as to the functions of the collateral 
groups of which it forms a member, and which diligent 
observation may accurately determine. 

Families, to be natural divisions, should stand in the 
same relationship to genera as species do, but from the 
opposite sidcj whatever the subdivisions are into which 



136 BRITISH BEES. 

they may be separated, for the sake of convenience, and 
as descending grades whereby to arrive with greater 
facility at their genera, just as the species of the latter 
are also sometimes grouped, that they may be reached 
with greater ease. These subdivisions of families have 
no analogy with the varieties which species occasionally 
throw off, although they may be as irregular in their 
occurrence ; that is to say, in the association of a group 
of families arranged in their series of most proximate 
affinities, the first may present subdivisions, others, in 
irregular occurrence, may not require them, — ^just as in 
the species of a genus, arranged also in the series of 
their closest resemblances, one will present a stringent 
adherence to the specific type, or all may do so, or all 
or some may have a tendency to vary. Groupings of 
species are, however, of a less natural character usually 
than are those of families, and generally are artificial, 
being capriciously made to break down long genera, that 
the required species may be more readily arrived at. 

The characters which group families differ inter se. 
Thus in the Order Hymenopteray the family of the bees 
is essentially framed upon their most distinguishing 
peculiarity — the tongue, — which in other families be- 
comes of secondary importance. In some the neuration 
of the wings, their mode of folding, the form of the 
eyes, conjunctively with other peculiarities of general 
structure, etc. etc., which point to the differences in the 
economy that accompany all these, have successively the 
same prominent position which the trophi take in the 
family of the bees. 

I have already recently alluded to the relations of 
affinity and analogy, and it is desirable that some notion 
of the meaning and bearing of these terms should be 



PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC ARRANGEMENT. 137 

given, as, in the majority of modern works on natural 
history, use is frequently made of them. 

On carefully surveying any class or order of creatures, 
the mind speedily becomes impressed by observing cer- 
tain similitudes out of the direct line of continuous 
connection, and therefore remote from the strongest 
connecting links of positive relationship in the methodi- 
cal series. Induced thence to inspect them more closely, 
we presently ascertain that what we at first conceived 
might be an error in their collocation, arises from very 
strong resemblances in certain particular features, but 
which are less important than those which directly 
unite them, and may not be permitted to interrupt the 
order established. It is, however, equally evident that 
they indicate relations which may not be neglected. 

Thus, although the succession be direct in the evolu- 
tion of its primary characteristics, the prominent features 
which so present themselves establish the conviction 
of the existence of connections oblique to the straight 
line, but all embraced within the normal conditions 
which bind the group together. These are called re- 
lations of affinity. Pursuing them, it is sometimes 
observed that nature, as it were, returns upon itself, re- 
producing similar notes in another key. 

These indications have led philosophical naturalists to 
Surmise that the true arrangement of natural objects is 
in groups, and not in a straight and continuous line. 

Several schemes have been suggested for the purpose 
of giving uniformity to these groups, making them 
equivalents by associating together the same numbers 
of allied forms, which again return in a circular series 
upon themselves, and impinge upon other circles at the 
parallel points of their circumference by affinities less 



138 BRITISH BEES. 

direct than those which unite them within their own 
circle. 

Many novel views and interesting combinations have 
been thus elicited, showing that very strong affinities lie 
in very divergent directions, but no system has been 
hitherto devised which overrules the conflicting difficul- 
ties that attend these arrangements. Whatever number 
may have been adopted to bring nature within this 
circular system, it has always been found that some, or 
several members, both in the circles themselves, or in 
their series, is as yet deficient, and awaits either dis- 
covery or creation. 

The pursuit of such views stimulates profound inves- 
tigation, and may lead to valuable discoveries that will 
eventually give a loftier and more philosophical cha- 
racter to the study of natural history than it has hitherto 
possessed, and make it an attraction to the highest class 
of mental powers. The key to the universe hangs at 
the girdle of the veiled goddess ; and happy the student 
who shall achieve possession of it, and unlock the mys- 
teries to the reverential gaze of mankind. 

The relation of analogy is different in kind, although 
the general affinities which bind a class together are 
necessarily affinities in the widest construction of the 
term ; bat the class being resolved into its elements, 
those affinities, thus dissevered, no longer retain the 
uniting links whereby the mass coheres. They, more 
correctly, stream from their origin in parallelisms rather 
than in a continuous and uninterrupted current; and 
these parallelisms present resemblances often of a merely 
superficial character. As strong an instance as I can 
adduce is possibly the analogical parallelism of the Pen- 
iamera and the Heieromera in the Coleoptera, which 



PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC ARRANGEMENT. 139 

are^ however^ bound by the common affinity of being 
all beetles. 

It is, nevertheless, often difficult to determine between 
the relationships of affinity and analogy, for groups even 
in close contiguity may also possess both. Thus, the 
normal Ichneumones have their analogues in the Ichneu- 
mones adsciti, if the comparison be restricted to them- 
selves, but these revert into the relationship of affinity 
when a comparison is instituted between them and the 
adjacent groups on the one side of the Tenthredines, or 
on the other of the Aculeata, with which, when a re- 
lationship presents itself, it is merely one of analogy. 
So, also, within the pentamerous Coleoptera we have 
a relationship of analogy between the Staphylinidce and 
the HisteridcBy but it becomes one of affinity when it 
unites them within this section of the class. 

Innumerable other instances might be given readily, 
but these will suffice to convey a notion of the relative 
meanings of the terms, ' relation of affinity^ and * relation 
of analogy,' which is all here aimed at. 

The problem naturalists have to solve is, ''^What is 
the natural system ?" We can clearly see that the sys- 
tems adopted are not Nature's, that they are essentially 
imperfect, and that the science, even with all the force 
of the intelligence that has been applied to it, is far from 
having attained perfection. It still awaits the master 
mind that shall cope with its difficulties, determine its 
intricacies, and, threading the labyrinth, guide his en- 
thusiastic disciples into the adytum of the temple. 

The subjects here brought under view admit of very 
considerable development, and of strictly didactic and 
methodical treatment. It has been my object only to 
gossip upon them, that I might stimulate curiosity to 



140 BRITISH BEES. 

undertake systematic study, by showing how interest- 
ing it may become if earnestly pursued, being so fraught 
with instruction of large compass. 

Works on natural history have divers objects in view, 
and may be intended either for popular and general dis- 
tribution, or for special scientific purposes, and in each 
case the mode of treatment will materially differ. Many 
purposes may also be intended to be severally met in 
the strictly and rigidly scientific treatment. They may 
be either general methodical arrangements treated super- 
ficially, having no other design than to give a sort of bird^s- 
eye view of the subject in its wider distributions and 
broader landmarks, or they may treat of portions of the 
large subject more specially ; again, they may constitute 
monographs of varying extent from a family to a genus ; 
or they may comprise loose descriptions of new species 
of old and well-established genera ; and some such, con- 
junctively with new species, establish likewise new genera, 
indicating, at the same time, their proximate position in 
the general series. The two latter classes are usually 
the appendages to voyages and travels in distant unex- 
plored countries, or are the result of a careful collection 
of neglected tribes at home. Each, thus, with its special 
application has its special construction ; but in the case 
of new species, I would strenuously counsel a full and 
complete description, and urge as imperative the con- 
struction of a specific character, formally framed to meet 
the condition of the science, based upon the precise 
antecedents and existing state of the genus to which 
such species belong. 

Even assuming that the knowledge of species is the 
essential foundation of the science, the preceding obser- 
vations show that there is a higher knowledge connected 



PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC ARRANGEMENT. 141 

with the pursuit than this mere knowledge of species, 
and yet from which it emanates. There is a higher 
object to be achieved than the accumulation of a store 
of them, arranged in seemly order, set with manifest 
taste, and named in accordance with the accepted no- 
menclature. These are extremely pleasing to the eye, 
but the intellect languishes over them in unsatisfied 
desire, craving more solid aliment. There is besides 
room for observation on every side, either confirmatory 
or original, and both are much needed, and must be 
considerably augmented before it is accumulated in 
satisfactory abundance; and until this be procured, 
existing systems can be viewed merely as temporarily 
useful, for until all that nature can teach shall be ex- 
hausted, perfection cannot be attained. 

The many kinds of knowledge which the study sub- 
serves, and the recreation and pleasure each affords, are 
a sufficient reply to the sneering Cui bono ? of its detrac- 
tors, who, when they urge that it occupies time which 
might be more profitably employed, present themselves 
but as the priests of the Fetish of the age, and may be 
told that we use it only as a relaxation to necessary 
worldly toils. When pursued, in cases where it can be 
so, in unmolested security, is there a more salutary pur- 
suit than that which inculcates the high veneration and 
love which the study of nature should inspire towards 
the Great Parent of all? What can compete with it in 
other studies? The investigation of the works of the 
Almighty lead directly to the steps of the altar of reli- 
gion, and there we find the study of the Works confirmed 
by the precepts of the Word, both inculcating humble 
reverence and fervent love. Thus pursued, is it not a 
reply to every cavil ? 



142 



CHAPTER VII. 

BEIEF NOTICE OF THE SCIENTIFIC CULTIYATION 
OF BRITISH BEES. 

With the great John Ray dawns the scientific cultiva- 
tion of British bees. Before his time, the only entomo- 
logical work which had been published in England was 
Dr. Moufiett's ' Theatrum Insectorum.^ In this work 
there is an ample account of the domestic bee, with 
gleanings from many sources of some of its habits and 
economy, but there is no notice of any insects, excepting 
some species of the genus Bombus, which may be at all 
consorted with the social bee by affinities of structure 
or identity of function. 

In Ray's correspondence with his disciples and friends, 
we have straggling observations upon the habits of a few 
wild -bees, especially some jotted down by his diligent 
pupil, the distinguished Francis Willughby. It is in 
Ray's posthumous ' Historia Insectorum,^ published in 
1710, at the instance of the Royal Society, that we first 
find collected together all that had been previously 
known of ^British Bees/ In that work he describes 
them systematically. He there arranges the bees into 
Apis and Bombylius, which may be regarded almost as 
genera. 



SCIENTIFIC CULTIVATION OF BRITISH BEES. 143 

He divides Apis into what may be considered as two 
sections, Apis domestica forming the first, and the 
second containing his Apes silvesfres, or wild bees. 
Nine of these are described and numbered consecutively, 
which are followed by eleven descriptions unnumbered, 
some of the latter having been supplied to him by 
Francis Willughby, whose initials are attached to these, 
and amongst which we find the description of the willow 
bee, subsequently, from this cause, named by Kirby, 
from its original describer, and now universally known 
as Megachile Willughbiella. 

Ray's second genus is Bombylius, identical, as far as 
it goes, with the modern genus Bombus, excepting that 
it includes an Anthophora. He here describes nineteen, 
all numbered. Ray's names are phrases, the mode of 
describing then prevalent in all the natural sciences, 
until the happy introduction of the binomial system by 
the great genius of natural history — Linn^us. These 
phrases are almost tantamount to the modern specific 
character; but Ray unfortunately attaches no size, yet 
size might have lent some aid to their modern deter- 
mination. 

Mr. Kirby was able to identify and introduce into his 
synonymy only a few of Ray's insects, from the defec- 
tiveness of the descriptions ; the following embrace all 
that could be verified : — 

No. 1 of the Apes silvestres is our Anthidium man- 
caium ; No, 3, the male of Anthophora retusa, the fe- 
male of which being No. 4 of his Bombylii ; No. 4 of 
the Apes is Andrena nitida : these comprise all of those 
numbered which could be recognized. The first of the 
unnumbered is the male of Eucera longicornis ; the 
fourth is Melecta punctata ; the sixth is Colletes fodiens ; 



144 BRITISH BEES. 

the seventh is the male of Osmia bicornis ; and the ninth 
the celebrated Megachile Willughbiella. 

In Bombylius No. 1 is Bombus lapidarius ; No. 2, B. 
Raiellus, named by Mr. Kirby in honour of its great 
describer ; No. 3 is B. muscorum ; No. 4 is the female 
of Anthophora retusa, as noticed above ; No. 5 is Bombus 
terrestris, as is also No. 6 ; No. 7 is the male of B. lapi- 
darius ; No. 8 is B. pratorum ; No. 9 is B. sylvarum ; 
No. 10 is B. subiniemiptus ; No. 11 is 5. hortorum ; No. 
13 is B. Francillonellus, and No. 17 is Apaihus Barbu- 
tellus. Thus ten of the Apes silvestres, and six of the 
Bombylii are unidentified, and those recognized may be 
placed correctly, by the aid I give in attaching Mr. 
Kirby^s synonymy to the list of species added to each 
genus below. 

Nothing of any moment thence intervened, until the 
Eev. W. Kirby, of Barham, in Suffolk, made a careful 
and earnest collection of the ' British Bees/ with a view 
to their scientific description and distribution. Strag- 
glers were to be found in many entomological cabinets, 
and some of their habits had been observed and recorded 
by patient and attentive naturalists; but these collec- 
tions were small, very imperfect, and widely dispersed^ 
until Mr. Kirby's energy and activity nurtured the idea, 
and carried it into execution, of bringing into one focus 
the scattered notices and vagrant specimens he had seen 
about. 

The diligence he himself exercised in procuring all the 
individuals he possibly could, by continued collecting 
during a succession of years, enabled him, in the course 
of time, to add considerably to those he was already 
acquainted with, either in collections, or through dis- 
persed notices. The growing bulk of his store suggested 



SCIENTIFIC CULTIVATION OF BRITISH BEES. 145 

Lis looking around for guides to their methodical ar- 
rangement, as a clue to what might have been observed 
of their habits. Finding no such assistance, and no- 
thing to meet his wants, for Linnseus^s notices were too 
few, and Fabricius^s labours too inconsequential, he de- 
termined to aid himself by elaborating their distribution 
upon the basis of the principles established by Fabricius 
himself, but which this celebrated entomologist had worked 
out so inconclusively as to make his system an indigested 
mass heaped together in the greatest disorder. 

Mr. Kirby's patience and diligence, although working 
only upon the same principle, speedily brought into 
lucidity and order the obscurity and confusion that had 
prevailed. By one of those strange coincidences which 
have been remarkably recurrent in scientific invention 
and discovery, Latreille, in France, was at the same 
time arranging all the bees known to him, by a process 
precisely similar to that adopted by Mr. Kirby. He 
consequently arrived at exactly the same results, with 
this difference only, that what Mr. Kirby calls genera 
are to Latreille sub-families, and the sections which 
Mr. Kirby was induced to form in his genera, from 
their structural differences, and which sections he called 
families, inconveniently indicating them merely by 
letters, asterisks, and numbers, were formed by Latreille 
into genera, and to which the latter either applied or 
adopted names, or framed new ones, when deficient; these 
however are essentially genera, with all their discrimina- 
tive characteristics, for they bring together the very same 
species in both cases. This clearly exhibits the beauty 
and certainty of the principle upon which each had 
worked out his distribution, both being based chiefly 
upon the structure of the trophi, or the organs of the 

L 



146 BRITISH BEES. 

mouthy but which Fabricius, its projector, had, singu- 
larly enough, failed to accomplish successfully. 

Both works were published in the same year, 1802 
(An X. of Liftreille's book), unknown to each other, 
but Mr. Kirby's sprang into life in matured perfection, 
like the imago of the bee itself, whereas Latreille's 
labours were progressively nursed to maturity in succes- 
sive publications, until they received their final elabora- 
tion in 1809, in the fourth volume of his 'Genera 
Crustaceorum et Insectorum,' whose successive stages 
were, first, the notice appended at the end of his ' Histoire 
desFourmis^ in Paris in 1801, and then in the thirteenth 
volume of his ' Histoire Naturelle des Insectes,' in 1805, 
a supplement to Sonnini's edition of Buffon, and then in 
the ' Nouveau Dictionnaire d^ Histoire Naturelle/ Even 
thus the subject was not so amply discussed, although 
applied more extensively, and made to embrace all the 
bees, exotic as well as European, at that time known, as 
it had been done in Mr. Kirby's model work, which 
leaves nothing to be desired but the naming of his 
anonymous subdivisions, and a little more artistical skill 
in the execution of his plates. The terminology used 
by him also difiers from that subsequently adopted 
through foreign influences, but which is readily reduced 
to his standard. 

The merits of the work greatly transcend these trivial 
deficiencies, for it is a "canon'' as invaluable to the 
entomologist as the celebrated canon of Polycletus was, 
and the Phidian marbles still are to sculptors. Of course 
observation has greatly reduced the number of his species 
by their due association with legitimate partners, which, 
from their dissimilarity, he was compelled to separate, 
as only successive observation could prove their identity. 



SCIENTIFIC CULTIVATION OF BRITISH BEES. 147 

More extensive collecting has also shown that some of 
his species are merely varieties of others^ which have 
thus been brought to their authentic type. This also 
could only be proved by experience, for it is remarkable 
how very Protean some species are, whilst others are 
almost rigidly unchangeable. Evidently there does exist 
a line of demarcation between distinct species, which 
only requires to be diligently sought to be found, 
obscure as it may appear to be, but which the insects 
themselves obey, for however closely species may some- 
times approximate, yet I do not believe, as I have before 
expressed, that they ever permanently coalesce, and that 
rthey are always as distinctly separate as are asymptotes. 

As Mr. Kirby's work is in few hands, or perhaps not 
readily accessible, I will give here a summary outline of 
it, with the names of the genera with which his families 
coincide. 

In this work he established only two named genera — 
Melitta and Apis. 

His genus Melitta, which is equivalent to the subse- 
quent subfamily AndrenidcB, he divides into two sections, 
^ and "^ ■^, the first containing two families, a and b, (these 
we call genera, and they are now named Colletes and 
Prosopis) ; the second section ^ "^ contains three fami- 
lies, a, bj c, {a, is Sphecodes, b, Halictus, and c comprises 
our three genera, Andrena, Cilissa, and Dasypoda.) 

His genus Apis he also divides into two sections, * 
and * * ; the first is subdivided into two families, a and 
b (our genera Fanurgus and Nomada) ; and the second 
is divided into five subsections, a, b, c, d, e ; a and b 
constitute families (our genera Melecta and Epeolus). 
The subsection c is divided into two parts, 1 and 2, 
the first containing the two divisions a and /3, each 

L 2^ 



148 . BRITISH BEES. 

comprising a family (our genera Ccelioxys and Stelis) ; 
and the second is divided into the four families, a, /3, 7, 
8, (a being the modern Megachile ; /S, Anthidium; 7, 
Chelostoma and Heriades conjunctively, and h is our 
Osmia). The subsection d has two subdivisions, 1 and 
2, the first being a family (our Eucera) ; and the se- 
cond is divided into the two families a and yS {a com- 
prising our Saropoda, Anthophora, and Ceratina), and 
the family yS, consisting of the genus Xylocopaj then 
supposed to be indigenous, but whose native occurrence 
has not been substantiated. 

The fifth subsection, e, is split into two divisions, 1 
and 2, each containing a family (1 is our Apis, and 2, 
our Bombus) . 

In this last of his families Mr. Kirby had already 
noticed, with the same sagacity with which he had pre- 
viously conjectured the cuckoo-like habits of some of 
the solitary bees, the distinctive structure of some of the 
species, wliich incapacitated them from providing the 
sustenance of their own young, and which thus reduced 
them to the same category ; but he left the idea in its 
supposititious condition, being too modest to use it as a 
mark of separation, but which Newman, on our side of 
the Channel, and St. Fargeau on the other side, subse- 
quently, and both nearly about the same time, but with 
the advantage in favour of Newman, distinguished, and 
separated generically, respectively by the names of Apa- 
thus and Psithyrus ; the former, having the priority, is 
adopted, according to the rights of precedence in nomen- 
clature. 

The above description of Mr. Kirby^s system will 
perhaps be difficult to understand, unless T append the 
naked scheme itself, which is as follows : — 



SCIENTIFIC CUIiTIVATION OF BRITISH BEES. 149 



MELITTA. 



^ r Family a. 
L „ b. 



** 



C, 



APIS. 

^ r Family a. 

' Subsection a. Family a. 
b, ,, ^. 



^¥: 



2 /Family a. 
1 „ /3. 



3-^ 






}} 



8. 



1 Family 

2 1,,^. 



f Family 1. 
l J, 2. 



Mr. Kirby could scarcely have considered that there 
were more than two series of equivalents in this scheme, 
the first being the great division into the two genera ; 
and the second, the final division, where his analysis 
terminated in his families, which, with some further 
slight subdivision, as shown above, constitute our pre- 
sent genera. The synthetical combinations which the 
arrangement presents, as we ascend from his families, 
result from an almost arbitrary selection of characters 



150 BRITISH BEES. 

and certainly are not equivalents. The whole method is 
very perplexing ; for, to cite an insect for the purpose of 
making a communication, it would have to be preceded 
by its whole array of subdivisions. Thus Megachile Wil- 
lughbiella, which is now so compendiously noticed by 
the binomial system, would have to be quoted as Apis^ 
* * c, 2, a, Willughbiella, and so with the rest. 

Although I have strongly applauded the ' Monographia 
Apum Anglise,^ as an excellent treatise wherever I have 
had an opportunity, the praise is to be applied to the 
correct care with which both the family descriptions and 
the specific descriptions are elaborated; whilst Mr. 
Kirby^s timidity in fearing to depart from the course of 
his masters, Linnaeus and Fabricius, by establishing a 
multitude of genera unrecognized by their authority, 
although every one of his families is pertinently a well- 
constituted genus, is much to be deplored. He has thus 
lost the fame of naming the offspring, of which, although 
legitimately the parent, he was not the sponsor. But 
he has won the higher renown, as I have elsewhere 
remarked, of his work being a canon of entomological 
perfection. 

Notwithstanding that this very elaborate, and, to 
some extent, artificial method is based upon a plurality 
of characters, and apparently upon such as most readily 
presented themselves to substantiate the feasibility of 
subdivision indicated by habit, it is very remarkable in 
having brought the series into more satisfactory sequence 
than that presented by Latreille and his modifiers. 
Panurgus here holds its permanent post as the connect- 
ing link between the Apidce and Andrenidce, pointed out 
by nature in its close resemblance to Dasypoda. But 
this genus^ however, establishes for itself a stronger 



SCIENTIFIC CULTIVATION OF BRITISH BEES. 151 

affinity to the Apida, exclusively of that presented by 
the folding of the tongue in repose, in its presenting 
immediately the large development of the labial palpi 
which is peculiarly characteristic of this subfamily. 

All the cuckoo bees then follow in order ; these are 
succeeded by the true Dasyg asters ; after which come 
Latreille's ScopuUpedes ; and the series is wound up by 
Apis and Bomhus, 

Mr. Kirby, I suppose, was induced to associate in the 
same section Panurgus and Nomada, from their resem- 
blance in general habit, which in both conforms to the 
type predominant in the Andrenidce, although they are 
thence dislocated by the differences in the important 
organs of the mouth, which verify in this case the seem- 
ing paradox of a part being greater than the whole ; for 
these are certainly of greater relative importance to the 
economy of the creature than mere general habit, and 
to which all the peculiarities of structure finally converge, 
for the purpose of giving it what it thence acquires, its 
own proper and distinctive place in the series of created 
beings. 

The most extensive work since published upon bees 
generally, is that treating oi the Hymenopt era universally, 
written by Le Pelletier de St. Fargeau, and comprised 
in four thick octavo volumes, contained in the ' Suites a 
Buffon.' In this work both the genera and species of our 
bees occur, of course conjunctively with the rest, but its 
utility, especially to the beginner, is materially diminished 
by the peculiar systematic views of the author. The dis- 
tribution of the Order is framed chiefly upon the eco- 
nomy of the insects, which is not so tangible as structure, 
and blends very heterogeneous forms, — widely separa- 
ting, in some cases, structural affinities, and sometimes 



152 BRITISH BEES. 

uniting discordant habits. Wasps and bees we here find 
intermingled, and to commence study with this work 
would much perplex the student. It can be used bene- 
ficially only when some progress has been made in the 
pursuit. 

The only British entomologists who have treated of 
the bees since the time of Mr. Kirby, are Stephens, 
Curtis, West wood, and Smith, — the first in his elaborate 
'Catalogue of British Insects,^ published in 1829; and 
the second in his ' Guide to the Arrangement of British 
Insects,' published in 1837. The arrangement of the 
family of bees in both these works is exceedingly arbi- 
trary and without any obvious reason, either as regards 
the consecutive order of the genera or species. This 
originated possibly in their personal rivalry, which led 
them to make their systems as dissimilar as they could, 
and as unlike the true order as they could well dispose 
them. Both arrangements are certainly far beneath 
criticism. 

In the Synopsis of Westwood, at the end of his ' Guide 
to the Classification of Insects,' published in 1840, and 
in Smith's ' Catalogue of the British Bees, contained in 
the Collections of the British Museum,' published in 
1855, we have Latreille's distribution, with slight modi- 
fications, to which I shall not advert at present, but 
which I shall discuss in my next chapter, where I shall 
introduce the arrangement I myself propose for the 
combination of the genera of British bees. 



153 



CHAPTER VIII. 

A NEW ARRANGEMENT OF BRITISH BEES, WITH ITS 
RATIONALE, AND AN INTRODUCTION TO THE FAMILY, 
SUBFAMILIES, SECTIONS, AND SUBSECTIONS. 

If perfection of instinct, and an organization exquisitely 
moulded to a complete adaptation to the many delicate 
and varied functions of that instinct, as well as to the 
exercise of every faculty incidental to the class, be cer- 
tainly a proof of pre-eminence, we may justly claim this 
position for the Order Hymenoptera. There is no cha- 
racteristic in which they are deficient, nor any in which 
some of the members of the Order do not transcend in 
aptitude the insects of all the others. 

If they have not been placed at the head of the class 
Insecta, it has been because systematic convenience did 
not permit the transposition, on account of the inter- 
ruption it would have caused to the convenient linking 
of the rest in a consecutive arrangement. Yet are they 
the most volatile fliers, the most agile runners, the most 
skilful burrowers, and consummate architects.' 

The beauty resulting from the combinations of sym- 
metry of form, elegance of motion, brilliancy of colour, 
and vivacity of expression, is to be found exclusively 



154 BRITISH BEES. 

amongst them. Either in the velocity of their flight, or 
in its playful evolutions and graceful undulations, the}'' 
are unsurpassed, and they hover in the execution of their 
designs with pertinacious perseverance. No insect struc- 
ture can more thoroughly exemplify the most appropriate 
adaptation to its uses, and the most admirable elegance 
in the formation of the means of execution. 

I thus claim for them, and which I think I may with- 
out infraction of dispute, the distinctive rank amongst 
insects. 

Having fixed the station of the Hymenoptera generally, 
we have next to seek the relative rank of the natural 
divisions into which they readily separate. 

Taking structure and instinct conjunctively, there can 
be no doubt that the first position will be conceded to 
that division of the Order which comprises the aculeated 
tribes — those armed with stings, — some of whose mem- 
bers, in each of the three large divisions into which they 
fall, being social, that is, living in communities, orga- 
nized by a peculiar polity or administration. 

These aculeates divide into, first, the fossorial Hyme- 
nopteray or burrowers; and the equivalent branch the 
Diploptera, or wasps, distinguished and named from 
their folding the superior wings longitudinally in repose ; 
secondly, the heterogeneous Hymenoptera, or ants, named 
from the dissimilarity either in size or structure of their 
females, a peculiarity incidental to all the social Hyme- 
noptera, but living in community is more peculiarly cha- 
racteristic of this division, it being in the other divisions 
restricted to a few genera only, whereas here the soli- 
tary habit is the exceptional. In all cases of socialism 
there are three classes of individuals, — males, females, 
and abortive females. In the other social kinds of 



NEW ARRANGEMENT OF BRITISH BEES. 155 

Hymenoptera_, these abortive females, called neuters, per- 
form the labours of the community, and they are always 
winged; whereas amongst the ants they are never 
winged, and they constitute civil and military depart- 
ments, the former attending to domestic matters, and 
the latter making predatory excursions to enslave the 
inhabitants of other communities, to aid their civilians 
in their many duties. 

The third and last division of the aculeate Hyme- 
noptera contains the Mellicolligerce, the bees, or honey - 
gatherers. 

Thus each division of the aculeated Hymenoptera is 
closely linked to the others by the strong affinity of the 
social habits of some of the genera of their several 
families. 

The food of these three divisions of the aculeated 
Hymenoptera differs considerably, the Fossores being 
raptorial flesh-feeders, which hunt down and destroy 
their prey, and supply it as food to their young; the 
Heterogynce are omnivorous, — grain, fruits, or carrion 
being equally welcome to them ; but in these climates 
I am not aware that they destroy life, although their 
wide migrations within the tropics are undertaken in 
the very spirit of the Huns and Vandals, for they de- 
vastate everything they come across; but the whole 
family of bees are exclusively honey-feeders without any 
carnivorous propensities, and use their stings merely as 
weapons of defence. 

Although all the social aculeates are edifiers, and 
although the wasp in its papier mdche domicile may vie 
with the honey-bee in capacity and skill in the structure 
of the hexagons of the habitation it erects or suspends, 
which are as perfect, and almost as delicate, although 



156 BRITISH BEES. 

fabricated of a coarser material than those within the 
hive, and wherein also the several compartments form a 
more homogeneous unity, and the uniformity of the 
several layers or floors is more in accordance with archi- 
tectural symmetry, — yet must the palm of precedence 
he accorded to the bee, from the more elaborate and per- 
fect development of the social instinctive faculty. 

We may be the more excused for this preference 
when we weigh the interest of the genus Apis to man. 
The wasp boots us nothing, but is the pilferer of our 
fruits, and a marauder upon the hive, whose inhabitants 
it destroys and consumes their produce, it being in- 
different to them which they obtain — the bee or the 
honey, — either furnishing them with sustenance. The 
ant is obtrusive and incommodious, making incursions 
upon the pantry, the store-room, the green-house, and 
the hot-house; disfiguring our flower-beds, and often 
disgusting us with our aliment by the impertinent in- 
trusion of its appearance. But the bee stores up for us 
honey, whose cruses are as inexhaustible as the oil cruse 
of the good widow of Zarephath, and whose waxen shards 
furnish us with a beautifully soft light, which in Ca- 
tholic worship adds solemnity to the rites of religion. 
In doing this the bee fulfils a sovereign function in the 
economy of nature, by the fertilization of the flower- 
ing plants, with which she reciprocates benefits; the 
preponderance, however, is importantly in favour of the 
flower. 

If captious objectors should dispute the position we 
thus claim for the bees, we will willingly leave them the 
wasp with its sting, whilst we sedulously cultivate the 
active and industrious bee, whose associations range 
through all the fields of poetry, but nowhere more lusci- 



NEW ARRANGEMENT OF BRITISH BEES. 157 

ously than in the beautiful compositions of the Sanskrit 
poets Kalidasa and Yayadeva. 

The position of the family, whose English constituents 
I shall subsequently treat of, being thus fixed, I have 
next to explain the several subdivisions into which it is 
divided in the following arrangement. 

I am prompted to propose this new distribution of the 
British bees, by the manifest imperfection of the several 
arrangements of them already extant. The defects of 
these systems I shall have occasion to exhibit in refer- 
ence to the course I have been induced to take. 

Mr. Kirby^s keenness of observation led him to sur- 
mise, from the absence of polliniferous brushes upon 
the posterior legs, or other parts of the body of some, 
that there might be a class of bees analogous to the 
cuckoo, amongst the birds, who did not rear their own 
young, or undertake any of the cares of maternity ; but 
that led by a peculiar instinct they deposited their eggs 
in the nests of more laborious kinds, for their young to 
be nurtured upon the provision laid up in store by the 
latter for the supply of their own progeny. This being 
merely a supposition, Mr. Kirby made no use of it in the 
distribution of his families. 

Observation has since confirmed the conjecture, and 
the fact lends material aid to the combination of the 
bees into detached groups, and which has been partially 
applied since by all systematizers. 

Conjunctively with the assistance derived from this 
circumstance, the various modes whereby pollen is col- 
lected and conveyed, either on the legs or on the belly, 
further facilitates the grouping of the family. Other 
structural or economical peculiarities lend their aid, and 
although the arrangement primarily emanates from the 



158 BRITISH BEES. 

differences in the formation of the tongue, these are cor- 
roborated by differences in other organs, and the general 
distribution, as well as the special combinations, all re- 
sult from natural characteristics. 

The simplicity of the arrangement thus effected is 
very striking; and we thus find all the bees having 
similar habits, and with a similar structure united to- 
gether by it in distinct groups. 

I will here insert my scheme, and exhibit why and 
in what it differs from those of my predecessors ; and, 
where necessary, I shall append such observations upon 
the several methods extant, as will sufficiently show the 
necessity, and vindicate the introduction of a new one. 

Eamilt MELLICOLLIGEE^ (Honey-collectors). 

Subfamily 1. Andeenid-E (Subnormal Bees). 

Section 1. With lacerate par aglosscB. 

Subsection a. With Emaeginate Tongues. 

1 a p^ ^^ ' Genus 1. Colletes. liu\Xr\7^ ^ 

l'^ .^ h^c^K< „ 2. Prosopis. - ^-^. €trn-\ VNi^ 

Subsection 6. With Lanceolate Tongues. 
/^^ CLU'i^>tl> Genus 3. Sphe'codes. - q ' - 

oou ij-M^h ^y ^' Andrena. ^v 

2^1'i^ „ 5. CiLISSA. 

Section 2. With entire paraglosscB. 
Subsection c. With Acute Tongues. 

2 .> <?r^'»*^* "^ Genus 6. Halictus. :i 
2 ^'2 I^&t^j^^'- ,i T'- Macropis. 

8. Dasypgda. 1 



H 



>) 



NEW ARRANGEMENT OF BRITISH BEES. 



159 



^' . Subfamily 2. Apid^ (Normal Bees). 
Section 1. Solitary. 
Subsection 1. ScoprLiPEDES (brush-legged). 

a. Femorifera (collectors on the entire leg). 

f With two suhmarginal cells. 

xvoofyi>$ Genus 9. Panurgus. ^^ ii.n-> %-w 2 2Cj 

b. Cruriferce (collectors on the shank only). 

f With two suhmarginal cells. 

^£v k?fa^- Genus 10. Eucera. ;^ 111 

ft With three suhmarginal cells. 

iu ij-o t, (^At>/'os Grenus 11. Anthophora. 

^«f^C ,775 1. 5 „ 12. SaROPODA. 

K^CArJ*/T7 ,i 13. Ceratina. ^■ 

Subsection 2. Nfdipedes (naked-legged), 
a. With three suhmarginal cells. 

Genus 14. Nomada. ^ 

, ^, 15. Melecta. 

16. Epeolus. ^ 





^b' 




~'^9 


Lh,t,lyt^\.. 


/*. 


*/- 


7 >jU 


Jx^nrii. 






■7 



t,lo 






b. With two suhmarginal cells. 

jTvAii Genus 17. Stelis. ^ 

rcAiJiia a^VS' „ 18. CCELIOXYS. 1 

Subsection 3. Dastgastees (hairy-bellied). 
All with two suhmarginal cells. 

Genus 19. Megachile. ( fA»<^^^i^fv '/^ 

, ^ „ 20. Anthidium. ^'fC^ou^i^ ^^ ' 

VrJ;.77 '^"^ru'^ ,, 21. Chelostoma. ./irvfic.^ ^w-/l^N^ 

„ 22. Heriades. i^ uy*^^ 

v.^« Kct.- '^ ^^* Antiiocopa. ^^^^«Yec-^^. 



^9 ^ 



^^ 



24. OSMIA. ^ J££^pZ^;j 



,^y 



160 



BRITISH BEES. 



'O^H^ "^(PUUfV* 



'ft:^ 



k 



Itttl'^ 



^^05 



^f/^' 



3/^ 



J/^ 



/iti 



Section 2. Cenohites (Dwellers in Community). 

Subsection 1. Spueeed. 

t Parasitical. 

Genus 25. Apathus. 

ft Collectors. 
Temporarily social. 

Genus 26. Bombus. ^ 

Subsection 2. Unspueeed. 
Permanently social. 

Genus 27. Apis. 



into two large 
abnormal bees, 



The primary division of the bees 
branches, viz. into the Andrenida, or 
and the Apid<B, or normal bees, is effected by the mode 
in which they fold the cibarial apparatus in repose. 
In the description of the structure of the imago, I have 
enlarged upon these organs, and for their explanation I 
must refer to that chapter where diagrams exhibit the 
structure of the different kinds of trophi of the bees, as 
well as their mode of folding. Here it is only necessary 
to notice that in the Aadrenida, the joint at the base 
draws back the basal portion when protruded, and this 
basal portion is further jointed at the point of the in- 
sertion of the paraglossse and labial palpi, and parallel 
with which joint the maxillae are likewise jointed close 
to the sinus where the maxillary palpi are inserted 
laterally upon it. The basal portion thus throws the 
anterior part forward or retracts it, at the will of the 
insect, and in the latter case, being then in repose, it lies 
in contiguous parallelism to the basal half, but beneath 
it. When thus withdrawn, the short tongue itself, with 
its paraglossse and labial palpi are sheltered beneath the 



NEW ARRA.NGEMENT OF BRITISH BEES. 161 

coping of the labrum and the lateral protection of the 
mandibles, whilst the horny sheathing of the maxillse 
protect the softer parts folding underneath. 

In the Apidce, or normal bees, the basal joint has the 
same action in withdrawing the entire organ into its 
place of rest ; but the joint which gives it this power is 
not in an analogous situation to that in the Andremdcs, 
for it is seated short of the joint which lies at the base 
of the several organs of the cibarial apparatus. By 
bending these downwards, it carries their apex back- 
wards towards the basal fulcrum through the action of 
these two joints, and, when there, the more delicate 
ones are protected from abrasion or injury, by the lateral 
overlapping of the horny skin of the maxillae. All being 
thus withdrawn within this covering, upon the joint 
which folds them back, seated at the base of the tongue, 
the labrum falls, and further to strengthen this protec- 
tion, the mandibles close over it like forceps. 

That this difference in the arrangement of the cibarial 
apparatus points to any distinctive peculiarities of eco- 
nomy has not been ascertained, for the habits of the Sco- 
pulipedes greatly resemble those of the Andrenidce ; al- 
though the habits of one of them, Anthophora furcata^ 
are remarkably like those of the foreign genus Xylocopa, 
in its mode of drilling wood. But the Apidce have cross 
affinities amongst themselves, thus Ceratina resembles 
Heriades, and some of the Osmice, in the way in which 
it nidificates. 

The tongues of the AndrenidcB are always shorter, 
broader, and flatter than those of the Apida, in which 
they are always long, cylindrical, and tapering. In the 
first section of the Andrenidce^ the paraglossae are ob- 
tusely terminated at the apex, thence called lacerated, 

M 



162 BRITISH BEES. 

and where they are fringed with brief bristles. The 
peculiar form of the tongue in this section suggests its 
being separated into two subsections, that organ being in 
the first subsection very broad and bilobated, which gives 
those insects their position in the series by approximating 
them to the preceding family of the Diplojitera, or 
"wasps, whose tongues have the same bilobate form, but 
each lobe in them is furnished with a gland. These 
tongues, in both cases of the wasps and these bees, may 
conduce to the building or plastering habits of the in- 
sects. The form may aid the wasp and the ColleteSj 
the first in the moulding of its hexagonal papier-mache 
cells, as it may the second in shaping and embroidering 
the silk-lined abode of its embryonic progeny. Why 
Prosopis should have this organization is difficult to 
conceive, unless it be from an analogy of structure inci- 
dentally previously referred to, beyond which any special 
object has hitherto escaped detection. 

In the second section of the Andrenidce, which have 
the paraglossse entire and terminating in a point, the 
tongues all also terminate acutely with a lateral incli- 
nation inwards. In the ianceolate-tongued tribe they 
bulge outwards laterally, although pointed at the apex. 

All this subfamily of Andrenidce , excepting only the 
two genera reputed parasites, viz. Prosopis and Sphe- 
codes, are essentially Scopulipedes, densely brush-legged, 
for the conveyance of pollen which they vigorously 
collect ; but from the brevity of their tongues they are 
restricted to flowers with shallow petals and apparent 
nectaria, their favourite plants being the abounding 
Compositce and Umbellifer(Bj as well as the Rosacece, 
whence they derive the agreeable odours which many of 
them emit upon being captured. 



NEW ARRANGEMENT OF BRITISH BEES. 163 

Their peculiar mode of collecting is a further reason 
for bringing the brush-legged Apidce collectively to the 
top of the normal bees, in juxtaposition to the Andre- 
nidce, where the transition is made very naturally from 
Dasypoda to Panurgus, 

The whole of the cibarial apparatus, or trophi, is 
always complete in all its constituent parts throughout 
the Andrenidcs ; and it is only with Ceratina, in the 
group of scopuliped Apidce, that it begins to show the 
tendency it has to abnormal deficiencies, by the para- 
glossse, in that genus, being obsolete. This charac- 
teristic, then, exhibits itself in the Nudipedes with two 
submarginal cells who are parasitical upon the Dasy- 
gasterSj in whom also the maxillary palpi participate in 
a deficiency in the authentic number of their joints, 
whilst in Apis both maxillary palpi and paraglossse are 
unapparent. This shows that the numerical completion 
of the organs of the mouth have nothing to do with the 
qualifications of the creature, the best endowed in other 
respects being thus curtailed, the final cause of which is 
not yet understood. 

The shape of the tongue itself thus separates the 
And7^enid(B into three well-defined divisions readily per- 
ceptible. These, as I have just observed with respect to 
the difierences in the mode of closing the oral apparatus 
in both cases, yield no clue to economy and habits, for 
which observation must supervene to illustrate it. This, 
patiently carried out, is very desirable, as it is still in 
discussion whether, notwithstanding the elucidation 
structure affords, Prosopis and Sphecodes are or are 
not parasitical. Structure says they are, for, like the 
cuckoo-bees forming the group Nudipedes in the Apidce, 
they are destitute of the requisite apparatus for collect- 

M 2 



164 BRITISH BEES. 

ing pollen. Mr. Kirby, however, gives direct testimony 
in favour of Sphecodes being a burrower^ in the case of 
which bee it ought not to be a matter of much difficulty 
to determine, for on sandy plateaus I have occasionally 
found it very abundant, especially where there was rag- 
wort {Senecio) in flower in the vicinity, to which the 
males resorted; but being at the time more intent on 
other matters, I neglected the opportunity. Other ob- 
servers COD cur with Mr. Kirby as regards Sphecodes j 
and also say as much for Prosopis (better known as 
Hylceus). I strongly incline to the opinion enunciated 
by Latreille and Le Pelletier de St. Fargeau, that they 
are parasites. My opinion is based upon peculiarities 
in them other than, although strengthened by, the nega- 
tive characteristic of absence of polliniferous organs. A 
negative cannot be proved, it is true, yet what has been 
positively asserted may as certainly result either from 
defective observation, or from too strong a desire to find 
no parasites among the Andrenidae. My reasons occur 
elsewhere in this work, and I need not repeat them. It 
is still an open question, and the young entomologist, if 
entering the arena unprepossessed, might win his spurs 
in determining it. It would be well worth the trouble 
of attending to for those who have leisure, and if decided 
in favour of the independency of these genera, which 
must be corroborated by a plurality of observations, and 
not confined to one locality, they would form strong and 
remarkable instances of a defective analogy in nature's 
workmanship, and suggest looking further for the causes 
of so extraordinary an anomaly, and urge us to endea- 
vour to trace the equivalent which supersedes it. 

The main subdivision of the Apida results from the 
habits of the insects^ which divides them into social 



NEW ARRANGEMENT OF BRITISH BEES. 165 

and SOLITARY. The only tangible characters the social 
tribes present to distinguish them from the solitary is 
the glabrous surface of the posterior tibise^ with their 
lateral edges fringed with bristles slightly curved in- 
wards, and which form, with the slightly indented sur- 
face of the limb, a sort of natural basket for the convey- 
ance of pollen or other stores to the nest. This, how- 
ever, has not been made use of as a main feature for 
scientific distribution, although they might follow the 
Dasygasters, as corbiculated bees, or little basket bearers, 
in which case they would form as pertinent a group as 
any of the rest, and the whole distribution of the bees, 
Apidce, would then rest upon the absence of, or the 
mode in which the poUiniferous organs were present. 
But the wonderful attribute of their extraordinary in- 
stinct prohibits their being treated with the rest in a 
consecutive line, and renders it rationally imperative 
that all the Cenobites should group together in a section 
by themselves, and separate from the rest. Therefore 
in my arrangement I have not availed myself of this 
very natural character, and here indicate it, to show that 
I have not passed it from not noticing it. 

Although the division into social and solitary yields in 
itself no tangible character whereby the insects may be 
separated, it being wholly empirical, yet is it so natural 
and necessary that it is impossible to gainsay it. We find 
the solitary section readily resolve itself into groups or 
subsections, determined by positive structural characters, 
indicative of certain habits, and having a conforming 
economy, besides which they are equivalents. 

Thus the first subsection presents us with the brush- 
legged Apidoi [Scopulipedes) J which collect pollen upon 
their posterior legs. These are further subdivided into 



166 BRITISH BEES. 

those which collect it upon the whole limb, viz. the coxa, 
the femur, the tibia, and first joint of the tarsus, (the 
femorifera:), aud those which gather it merely upon the 
shank and basal joint of the foot (the cruriferat) . These 
collectively form a wxll-defined group, and why Panur- 
gus should be separated from the brush-legged bees, 
when it is a most couspicuous instance of the faculty, 
even more so than any other of the Scopulipedes, I have 
yet to learn. It is true its mode of collecting closely 
resembles that practised by the Andrenidce, as does also 
the furniture for the purpose of its posterior legs, but 
being essentially collocated with the Apida or normal 
bees by its tongue, it fittingly links itself to the other 
brush -legged ^/?i^« (which have hitherto been placed be- 
tween the Dasygasters and the Social Bees), by means of 
the genus Eucera, by reason of its two submarginal cells, 
the structure of its maxillary palpi, its mode of burrow- 
ing, and by each being infested by a similar parasite — 
a Nomadaj which in accommodation to the size of the 
sitos is the largest of the genus. Nomada does not 
occur as a parasite upon any other of the brush -legged 
bees, or indeed upon any other of the true bees at all, 
which peculiarity brings these two genera into close 
contiguity to all non-parasitical Andrenidce, all of which 
have their legs furnished with polliniferous brushes, and 
upon which subfamily, exclusively of these two instances 
of Panurgus and Eucera, Nomada is solely parasitical. 

With respect to the two submarginal cells to the 
wings, nature must have some reason for the limitation, 
for we find it prevalent also throughout the Dasygasters, 
or hairy-bellied bees. 

The next very natural group is consistently central. 
It comprises the cuckoo- bees, which are naked-legged 



NEW ARRANGEMENT OF BRITISH BEES. 167 

[Nudipedes], by reason of their parasitism, they not re- 
quiring organs to collect what they have no occasion 
to use. Their parasitism extends both upwards and 
downwards, those with three submarginal cells being 
parasitical upon all the brush-legged bees, whether sub- 
normal Andrenidce or the Scopulipedes, those with two 
submarginal cells being restricted in their parasitism to 
the Dasygasters. 

These Dasygasters, or hairy-bellied bees, form the 
next very natural group. Their general peculiarity of 
structure I have had occasion to advert to, in treating, 
in a former section of the work, upon the structure of 
the imago, and to which I now refer to avoid repetition. 
This group contains the majority of the artisan bees, ) 
whose habits T shall particularize when I speak of the ! 
genera specially; but we find carpenters amongst the 
Scopulipedes, and essentially builders amongst the Ceno- 
bites, which form a further and the last of our natural 
groups. A true cuckoo-bee [Apathus) consorts amongst 
these Cenobites, and properly so, from many causes. 
The anomaly would have been too great to have removed 
it to a place amongst the Nudipedes, for although in 
obsolete paraglossse, and in a deficiency in the normal 
number of the joints of the maxillary palpi, it resembles 
some of these, its general habit and general structure, 
bating that controlled by its parasitical habits, are so 
like Bombus, that it cannot well be separated far from 
the latter, — especially as we know too little of its habits 
to say that it does not regularly dwell in the nest of its 
sitos, which may well mistake it for one of its own com- 
munity, it resembling the species it infests so closely ; 
it therefore consistently associates systematically with 
the temporarily social societies. 



168 BRITISH BEES. 

Having thus cursorily skimmed the surface of the 
method I suggest, I have next to give my reasons for 
proposing it in lieu of adopting any yet extant. 

My exhibition of Kirby's grouping, in the preceding 
section, where I treat of the scientific cultivation of 
British bees, will fully explain why I could not adopt 
that arrangement. 

Why I cannot follow Latreille's, is, that in his last 
elaboration, in his 'Families Naturelles,' published in 
1825, which must be considered as his final view, he 
does not satisfactorily divide the Andrenidce, of the ge- 
nera of which he has made a complete jumble. With the 
Apidce in his group of Dasygasters, he intermixes Cera- 
tinttj separating it from the group of Scopulipedes, where 
it truly belongs by every characteristic, and he mingles 
also with them the two cuckoo genera Stelis and Coeli- 
oxySj which are merely parasites upon these DasygasterSy 
and can only be associated by the structural conformity 
of the two submarginal cells to the superior wings, and 
the length of the labrum, the latter being a character of 
very secondary importance ; and further, he dissevers the 
Scopulipedes in placing Panurgus at the commencement 
of the Apidce, and the rest proximate to the social bees. 

Westwood, in his modification of Latreille's system, 
certainly divides the Andrenidce better than his master 
had done, but he does not go far enough. Besides, he 
interposes Halictus and Lasioglossum, (the latter ad- 
mitted as a genus merely out of courtesy to Curtis, who 
had elevated it to that rank in his ' British Entomology,' 
although it is nothing more than a male Halictus), 
between Sphecodes and Aiidrena with Cilissa, these 
having lanceolate tongues with lacerate paraglossse, 
whereas Halictus has a very acute tongue, and its para- 



NEW ARRANGEMENT OF BRITISH BEES. 169 

glossse are entire, as is also the case with DasypodUj 
from which Halictus is thus divided. In the Apidae, 
he does not separate the cuckoo-bees, but with Latreille 
intermixes Cmlioxys and Stelis with the artisan-bees, 
although without retaining Latreille' s convenient and 
suitable name of Dasygasters, for this group of mecha- 
nics. The same objection I take to his Scopulipedes as 
that expressed above, relative to Latreille's. 

Precisely the same fault I find with the Andrenida of 
Smith, as that urged above with respect to Westwood's. 
He is more careful with his Apidcs, his Cuculince being 
all genuine parasites, but he includes Ceratina with the 
DaRygasterSj with which it has no affinity of structure, 
and only a slight analogy in the form merely of its ab- 
domen without its hairiness beneath, to that of Osmia, 
from whose proximity he takes it to place it near 
Heriades, when it is certainly intimately allied in every 
respect with the Scopulipedes, and by reason of its sub- 
clavate antennse might suitably be brought into juxta- 
position with PanurguSj did not its obsolete paraglossse 
and three submarginal cells interfere with its occupying 
this position. To his Scopulipedes the same objection 
is valid as that taken to Latreille's and Westwood's dis- 
position of them. Amongst the social bees he separates 
Bombus from Apis, by the intervention of Apathus, 
which is scarcely consistent. 

It is in no spirit of captiousness that these objections 
are made; they are deduced from collocations whose 
conspicuous incoherence is patent to the most superficial 
observation. The distribution I have here introduced 
has been made merely to ameliorate, and make more 
cogent, what was so palpably defective and feeble. 



170 



CHAPTER IX. 

A TABLE, EXHIBITma A METHOD OF DETERMINING 
THE GENERA OF BRITISH BEES WITH FACILITY. 

The following table is constructed exclusively to facili- 
tate, by the most obvious characters, the recognition of 
the several genera into which the family is divided ; it 
will, however, be incumbent upon the learner to use 
some diligence in order to acquire an accurate percep- 
tion of their distinguishing characteristics. 

By the present extremely artificial plan the systematic 
sequence is disturbed ; but the numbers, which will be 
found appended to the names in the table, will show 
their orderly succession. 

The natural generic character which precedes the ac- 
count of each genus in the next division of the work will 
give the reason, by comparison, of the order in which 
"system" arranges them, and which being based mainly 
upon the differences of the trophi, — although, conjunc- 
tively with other characters, the trophi must necessarily 
be studied for its explanation, — their description in the 
description of the part of the imago is consequently re-k 
ferred to. 

Did we know exactly the uses of the component parts 



METHOD OF DETERMINING GENERA. 171 

of the trophi severally, we should be better able to de- 
termine the legitimacy of applying them to the purpose 
of indicating the natural generic character, but being 
compelled, by reason of our ignorance of their several 
special functions, to avail ourselves of their form, relative 
proportions, and number only, uncertainty of having 
caught the clue of nature^s scheme must of necessity 
attend this distribution. 

But as what we do know of their uses in this family 
clearly indicates them to be an essential instrument 
indispensable to the economy of the insect, and which 
gives these organs an almost paramount importance, 
their comparative construction in the several genera 
would yield clear notions of the true order of succession, 
were we acquainted with the relative significancy of the 
various portions of the entire organ. Thus we see it 
numerically most complete in what we are pleased to 
suppose the least genuine bees — the Andrenidce. 

In my series of the genera proposed in the preceding 
section, with the Nudiped true bee Melecta commences 
a deficiency of either some of the joints of the maxil- 
lary palpi, or of the paraglossse ; — throughout the artisan 
bees this abridgment is conspicuous both in number 
and proportion ; and it culminates in what we consider 
the facile princeps, that most wonderfully organized 
of all insects — the genus Apis, which in its neuters has 
neither paraglossse nor maxillary palpi, the latter being 
equally deficient in the male or drone, and in the queen j 
and in both the male and the queen the paraglossse are 
but rudimentary. 

Nature appears too mysterious in her operations to 
permit us to solve these remarkable anomalies, for no 
combination of the genera founded exclusively upon them 



173 BRITISH BEES. 

supplies us with Ariadne's thread. Every such combi- 
nation breaks up more harmonious groups^ and we then 
retrace our steps, satisfied that we are on the wrong 
road. 

In some other orders of insects the cibarial apparatus 
has but little bearing upon the insect's mode of life, for 
in many it is not used either for nutrition or in their 
economy, or so slightl}^ so as to admit of its being con- 
sidered of very inferior importance, although systema- 
tists — to enhance the value of their own labours, by the 
frequent difficulty, from excessive minuteness, of its exa- 
mination — have usually made it a prominent feature in 
their arrangements. 

That science has not widely strayed away from the 
true succession and natural affinities by the main selec- 
tion of the trophi for the arrangement of the bees, seems 
partially confirmed by the gradations of form or habit 
that this method of treatment in general exhibits. A 
higher method doubtless exists, which would give form, 
number, and proportion very inferior rank in ordering 
the arrangement, but at present the clue to it has not 
been discovered. 

These questions are indeed beyond the scope of a 
work of this character, which is merely a ladder to the 
fruits of learning, and the bearing of them is only hinted 
at to indicate that there is much exercise for the intelli- 
gence in the study of even this small family. The mind 
that would stop in the study of nature at the knowledge 
of genera and species, can be very speedily satisfied, and 
one bright spring day's successful collecting will furnish 
the materials for much patient and industrious occu- 
pation. 

In nature we find all things apparently blended in the 



METHOD OF DETERMINING GENERA. 173 

grandest confusion ; but they all have mutual and re- 
ciprocal bearings which give a definite purpose to the 
seeming disorder, and which make each separate unit 
the centre of all. But we, from our inability to grasp in 
its fulness the order of this disorder, are obliged to seize 
fragments and, separating them into what we conceive 
to be their coherent elements, use them as exponents 
of the entirety. They could not so exist in nature, but 
would speedily die out, and it is only by the way in 
which we find them intermingled, that they can be main- 
tained. Thus, as all conduce to the conservation of each, 
each conduces to the conservation of all. 

A large collection of natural history, composed of 
every available item that can be gathered from every 
kingdom of nature's vast domain, may perhaps be com- 
pared [magnis componere parva) with the constituent 
parts of a most elaborately- constructed and complicated 
clock, which its skilful artificer has designed and made 
to record and chime the divisions of time, and to register 
the days, weeks, months, and seasons, and which a 
virtuoso having taken to pieces, has sorted into its details 
of wheels and springs, levers and balances, chains, bells, 
and hands, which told the time when its music would 
peal; and arranging like to like, thinks he will thus 
understand more clearly the complexity of the varied 
movements. But, sadly disappointed, he finds he cannot 
comprehend the combination of the intricate machinery, 
although he singly admires the minute perfection of each 
delicate and ingenious piece lying before him which 
composed the structure, but which has now lost all 
expression, his curiosity having deprived the organism of 
its vitality, which is its most wonderful element. 

And this is our process^ for if we stop here we have 



174 . BRITISH BEES. 

but an assortment of vapid machinery, no click of whose 
wheels gives note of the vital hilarity of their relative 
and combined effects. The final cause of creation 
escapes us thus frittering it into details, which if we 
merely abide by, we but loiter at the foot of Pisgah, in- 
stead of ascending its summits to survey thence the 
sunny and varied landscape, the glorious sea, and, arch- 
ing over all, the blue cope of heaven. The manifold 
relations of animate and inanimate nature, which, al- 
though they must be studied in detail, are to be appre- 
ciated in their entirety, should stimulate the efforts of 
the, naturalist to conquer all impending difficulties, and 
he should not permit himself to be satisfied with this 
preliminary knowledge. 

Although the above be the inevitable effect of dis- 
tributing nature into its component parts, it is the in- 
dispensable precursor to the study, for the scientific 
treatment is the only mode whereby, through special 
study, we can arrive at the comprehension of the great 
generality. We thus strive to trace the mode in which 
each emanates from each ; ancl even when this is not 
absolutely tangible we may discover affinities or analo- 
gies by structural resemblances which implicitly lead to 
physiological inferences, and thence on, higher and 
higher, all lending us aid to make the larger survey, 
wherein we behold the concatenation of the many links 
which harmonize the spiritual with the material. But 
the study must be thorough, and its details are not to 
be spread out before us merely as a beautiful picture- 
'*'= book. They all have their place in the great ordinance 

of nature, which it is for us to find. At first we can 
only spell the syllables, which the study of species puts 
together for us, but by degrees we shall trace the words. 



METHOD OF DETERMINING GENERA. 175 

and read the sentences : a study more abstruse but far 
more pregnant than that of the Egyptian hieroglyphics, 
and whose attainment is rewarded with a supremer 
knowledge than is accorded by these, which exhibit 
merely the legends of dead despots; but here we have 
a display of the vitality of the wisdom inscribed in 
gleaming characters upon the leaves of the wonderful 
book of life, God's glorious works, made manifest to 
man. 

Thus we should aim at the knowledge of final causes, 
the apparent wisdom of whose adaptations points clearly 
to the source of all — the first great Cause. A naturalist 
with such large views has a wide field before him, which 
with every step expands, and which alone is worthy of 
engrossing the earnest attention of his intelligence, and 
is in itself sufficient to absorb the profoundest contem- 
plation. His mind becomes thus filled with great objects, 
which charm it with their beauty and feed it with the 
complexity of their intricate combinations, whose earnest 
development is an affluent stream of perpetual instruc- 
tive occupation. With Newton we may say : " We 
everywhere behold simplicity in the means, but an inex- 
haustible variety in the efiects,'' resulting all from the 
luminous wisdom of prearranged design. 

The humiliation which attends the sentiment of the 
utter inability and incompetency of the mind to grasp 
the intricacy and vastness of nature, is consoled by the 
redundant proofs the contemplation yields of a supreme 
and benevolent Providence presiding over all things, and 
thence we derive the comfortable and supporting assur- 
ance, in the fickle waywardness and vicissitudes of a ha- 
rassed and anxious life, that a benevolent eye is ever 
watchfully awake j for the naturalist everywhere beholds 



176 BRITISH BEES. 

that omnipotently wise and loving Providence in active 
operation throughout nature. 

No study like natural history, pursued in a humble 
and docile spirit, so harmoniously elicits the religion of 
the soul, or than which so fitly prepares it to enter, by 
the pathway of the works of God, the august temple of 
His revealed Word. 

But to return : what we call science is the mere acci- 
dence of nature, which in fact aggravates our infirmity 
by permitting our intelligence to attempt to grasp, 
through the various details, their intricate combinations. 
But as truth sooner arises out of error if methodically 
pursued, and its results recorded, than out of confusion 
and guesswork, theories based upon observation, how- 
ever inaccurate at first, ultimately lead up to the certain 
acquisition of the truth itself. 



AN EASY DISTEIBUTION OF THE BEES, 

THE NUMBERS EEFEEEING TO THE SCIENTIFIC SERIES. 

Andrenid^ (Subnormal Bees). 

TONGUE SHOETEE THAN THE MAXILLiE, POEEEOT. 

Posterior tiUce clothed with hair to convey pollen. 

Two submarginal cells. 

Posterior legs very robust, pollini- 

ferous hair on tibiae and plantse 

dense but short Maceopis (7). 

Posterior legs slender ; polliniferous 

hair on femora, tibiae, and plantse 

dense and very long Dastpoda (8; 



METHOD OF DETERMINING GENERA. 177 

Three submarginal cells to the wings. 

Abdomen truncated at base . . . Colletes (I). 
Abdomen ovate. 

Abdomen entire at apex ; maxil- 
lary palpi as long or longer tlian 

the maxillae Andre^a (4). 

Abdomen entire at apex ; maxil- 
lary palpi half the length of the 

maxillae Cilissa (5). 

Abdomen with a vertical incision 
at the apex Halictus (7). 

Posterior tihirs toithout hair to convey pollen. 
Two submarginal cells to the wings , . Prosopts (2). 
Three submarginal cells to the wings . Sphecodes (3). 

Apid^ (Normal Bees) . 

Tongue as long or longer than the maxillae, in- 
flected BENEATH, AND COVERED BY THE MAXILLA IN 

repose. 

Without polliniferous organs. 

Two submarginal cells to the wings. 

Abdomen at apex rounded . . . Stelts (17). 
Abdomen at apex conical .... Coslioxys (18). 
Three submarginal cells to the wings. 

Abdomen lanceolate Nomada (14), 

Abdomen subtruncate at base. 

Abdomen obovate, thorax glabrous Epeoltjs (16). 
Abdomen subconica), thorax hir- 
sute Melecta (15). 

Entire body densely hairy . . . Apathus (25). 

With polliniferous organs. 

Pollen conveyed on the venter. 

Two submarginal cells to the wings of all. 



178 



BRITISH BEES. 



Abdomen subclavate. 

First three joints of labial palpi 
continuous, terminal joint in- 
serted before apex of third . 
First two joints of labial palpi 
continuous, two last inserted 
before the apex of the second 
Abdomen obovate, rounded at apex 
Abdomen truncated at base. 
Segments slightly constricted, 
and not spotted with colour . 
Segments not constricted, 
spotted with yellow . . . 
Pollen conveyed on the posterior legs. 
Two submarginal cells to the wings. 
Abdomen lanceolate ; antennae 
clavate; posterior legs covered 

with long hair 

Abdomen obovate ; antennae fili- 
form ; posterior legs covered 
densely with short hair . . . 
Three submarginal cells to the win^s. 
Short dense hair on the whole pos- 
terior tibiae externally. 
Abdomen obovate ; first joint of 
labial palpi twice as long as 

second 

Abdomen subrotund; first joint 
of labial palpi six times as 

long as the rest 

Long hair, but loose, on the en- 
tire posterior tibiae, exter- 
nally and internally. 
Abdomen subclavate .... 
Curved hair fringing the edge only 



Chelostoma (21). 



Heriades (22). 
OSMIA (240. 



Megachile (19). 
Anthtditjm (20). 



Panurgus (9). 
Eucera (10). 



Anthophora (11), 
Saropoda (12), 

Ceratina (13). 



METHOD OF DETERMINING GENERA. 179 

of tlie posterior tibiae, the 

centre glabrous. 
Body densely hirsute, spurs to 

all the tibife Eombus (26). 

Body subpubescent, no spurs 

to the posterior tibiae . . . Apis (27). 



It will be desirable to add a few observations to the 
preceding table to facilitate its use, and because, as 
raany of the characters upoii which it is framed are ex- 
clusively those of the female, it is necessary to point out 
the differences of their males, that the sexes of the 
genera may be duly recognized and associated. 

It may be first noticed generally that the antennse, 
in the males, are not usually geniculated at the scape, 
which is nearly always the case in the opposite sex, and 
they are also, with rare exceptions, always longer than 
those of their females. In Collet es, Prosopis, Dasypoda^ 
Panurgus, Ceratina, Nomada, Melecta, Epeolus, Stelis, 
and Anthidium, the habit or colouring of the males is 
so similar to that of the females, that their genus may 
be thus at once determined, and, in fact, the brief cha- 
racters in the table will embrace them. 

The male Eucera can be distinguished from those of 
Anthophora and Saropoda, both by the differences in the 
number of the submarginal cells of the wing, and by the 
extreme length of its antennae, whence the genus derives 
its name. In Andrena and Cillssa, the males have 
usually lanceolate bodies. In the latter genus there 
will be no difficulty in associating the legitimate part- 
ners ; but in Andrena, although general habit will usually 

N 2 



180 BRITISH BEES. 

bring tlie male within the boundary of the genus, nothing 
but experience, or specific description will associate the 
sexes correctly, there being in many cases an extraordi- 
nary discrepancy between them. These two genera 
themselves also can scarcely be distinguished apart, ex- 
cepting by means of their trophi ; Cilissa, however, in 
general habit greatly resembles the genus Co/letes, espe- 
cially the Cilissa tricincta, which might, upon a super- 
ficial glance, be almost mistaken for one of them. 

The male Halicti have long cylindrical bodies and 
long antennae, but from the male Chelostomay which has 
a very similarly shaped body also and long antennse, 
they may be distinguished by the differences in the num- 
ber of the submarginal cells ; and from those of Sphe- 
codes, by the antennse, which, in the latter are not rela- 
tively so long, and are usually moniliform. The thorax 
of these is also less pubescent, and the tinge of the red 
colour of their abdomen is different from that of the red 
male Halicti, 

The males of Coelioxys can be readily distinguished 
from those of Meffachile, by the spinose apex of their 
abdomen. In Megachile, general habit will bring the 
males within the precincts of their genus, as well as their 
largely dilated anterior tarsi in some of the species. 

A difficulty similar to what is found in the distinction 
between Andrena and Cilissa, arises in the separation of 
Chelostoma from Heriades, and which we shall again 
meet with in drawing the line between Anthophora and 
Saropoda. The difference can only be detected by ex- 
amining the trophi, but a pin and a little patience will 
elucidate the separation. The males in all but two 
species of Anthophora may be readily associated with 
their partners ; but in these two the females are entirely 



METHOD OF DETERMINING GENERA. 181 

black, and so hirsute as to have led Ray (wanting the 
knowledge of the use of the trophi and posterior shanks) 
to unite the one he knew with his Bombylii ; their males 
are fulvous, and the latter have a remarkable elongation 
of the intermediate tarsi, from one of the joints of which 
also a tuft of hair or a loose lateral fringe projects, giv- 
ing them thus a wider expansion, and the use of which 
is prehensile, the same as that for which the anterior 
tarsi in some of the MegacJiiles and in our single Anthi- 
dium receive their dilatation. This structure has also 
the effect of adding very considerably to the elegance of 
their appearance when they are in fine condition. 

The male Apathi can only be distinguished from the 
male Bombi by familiarity with specific characteristics, 
or by the examination of the trophi. But the former 
is the more certain mode of separation, as the trophi 
in Bombus vary in some species, but not sufficiently to 
authorize generic subdivison. General appearance will 
mark where they approximately belong. The length of 
their antennae sufficiently distinguishes them as males, 
and they may be taken with impunity in the fingers 
from flowers for examination, being, like all the male 
aculeate Hymenoptera, unarmed with stings. The female 
Apathi may be superficially distinguished from the female 
Bombi, which they most resemble, exclusively of the 
generic characters of the convex and subpubescent ex- 
ternal surface of the posterior tibiae and the trophi, also 
])y their abdomen being considerably less hirsute than 
that of the genuine Bombi, in which it is entirely covered 
with dense shaggy hair, whereas in Apathus there is a 
broad disk upon its surface nearly glabrous. If I I'C- 
mcmber rightly, it is the male Apathi only, and not the 
male Bombi, which emit on capture a pleasantly fragrant 
odour of attar of roses. 



183 BRITISH BEES. 

The table will suffice for distinguishing the male Apis 
from all other male Apidce, and which has a further 
peculiarity exhibited by no other of our native bees, in 
the conjunction upon the vertex of the compound eyes, 
in front of which, upon the frons, the simple eyes or 
ocelli are placed in a very slightly curved line. 

These indications are enough to enable the beginner 
to ^fbrk his way smootlily, and a little practice will soon 
render these observations superfluous. 

The economy of nature is so perfect that wherever 
we can trace a difference, we may assume that a reason 
and a purpose exist for the variation. Thus we do not 
know why some bees have three submarginal cells to 
their wings, and others only two. Nor do we know 
what governs their variety of shape. The deficiency we 
might think implied inferiority ; but this cannot be, for 
those with most frequently the smaller number, viz. the 
artisan bees, are, in the majority of cases, the most 
highly endowed, and have the most special habits. 

In the relative numbers of the maxillary and labial 
palpi, there are remarkable differences, the reason for 
which we cannot trace, for, as before observed, wx do 
not know even their function, which would perhaps 
guide us to other views. Their normal numbers are six 
maxillary, and four labial palpi. The latter take re- 
markable relative development and peculiarity of inser- 
tion and form, especially in the Apidce ; but throughout 
the whole series of our bees, they are never reduced to 
fewer than their normal number, whereas the maxillary 
palpi never have similarly large development of struc- 
ture, and are variously modified in number and consis- 
tency from the typical or normal condition. 

Thus in Eucera and Melecta there are but five joints; 



METHOD OF DETERMINING GENERA. 183 

in Osmia and Saropoda, four; in Chelostoma and Cceli- 
oxys, three; in Anthidium and Megachile^ etc., two; 
and in Epeolus and Apis but one. 

In this collocation no incidental peculiarity beyond 
diversity is apparent, for in the first instance a parasite 
and a bee not parasitical are associated ; and in the last, 
a parasite is associated with the bee which has the most 
elaborate economy, and the most largely developed in- 
stinct of all known insects. Nor are, in any case, those 
parasites associated by these means with their own sitos, 
or insect upon which they are parasitical. 

Thus encouragement attends the beginner at the very 
outset of his study ; and the prospect of a wide field for 
discoveries, in many directions, lies open to him, to 
excite his curiosity and to stimulate his industry to the 
pursuit of higher aims than the mere accumulation of 
species. 



184 



CHAPTEE X. 

THE SCIENTIFIC ARRANGEMENT AND DESCRIPTION 
OF THE GENERA, WITH LISTS OF OUR NATIVE SPE- 
CIES AND AN ACCOUNT OF THE HABITS AND ECO- 
NOMY OF THE INSECTS, WITH INCIDENTAL OBSER- 
VATIONS SUGGESTED BY THE SUBJECT. 

I NOW proceed to the treatment and description of the 
genera severally, and the enumeration of the species in 
due scientific consecutive order. 

The generic names adopted are those of the first 
describers of the genera; but the generic characters 
given by them could not be employed, they having been 
usually framed to suit special purposes. 

All the generic characters introduced into this work 
are therefore quite original, and have been made from 
a very careful autoptical examination of the insects 
themselves. 

The synonymy added to the lists of species is limited 
to the species described in Mr. Kirby's work, where he 
is not the first describer, or to those of such other 
English works wherein the species may have been de- 
scribed in ignorance of its previous registration. 

The observations appended, wherein the habits of the 
insects are described, will be found to embrace discur- 



COLLETES. 185 

sive subjects suggested by the matter in hand^ and here 
a dry didactic style has been purposely avoided, as in 
the majority of cases they record the personal experi- 
ences or notions of and hints from an old practical en- 
tomologist. 



Class INSECTA METABOLIA, Leach, 

Order HYMENOPTERA, Linnceus. 

Division ACULEATA, Leach. 

Antennae in male with 13 joints, in female with 12. Abdomen in male 
with 7 segments, in female with 6. 

Eamilt MELLICOLLIGER^ (Honey-collectors), Shuck. 

Subfamily 1. Anduenides (Subnormal Bees), Leach. 

Sijn. Genus Melitta, Kirhy. 

The maxillary palpi always six-jointed. 

Section 1. With lacerate par aglossa. 

Subsection a. LingUjE emaeginat^ (with emarginate tongues). 
Syn. Obtusilingues, Westw. 

Three submarginal cells to the toings. 

Genus 1. COLLETES, Latreille. 
(Plate I. fig. 1 c^ ? .) 
Melitta * «, Kirby. 

Gen. Char. : Head transverse, flattish ; ocelli in an 
open triangle on the vertex ; antennce not geniculated, but 
slightly curved, filiform, short ; joints, excepting the basal 
or scape, which is as long as five of the rest and slightly 
curved, nearly equal; face beneath and within the inser- 
tion of the antennae, slightly protuberant, laterally flat 
or concave; clypeus cou\ ex, margined anteriorly, entire; 
labrum transverse, slightly produced in the centre in 



186 BRITISH BEES. 

front, and the process rounded ; mandibles obtuse, sub- 
bidentate ; cibarial apparatus short ; tongue deeply 
emarginate and bilobate, the lobes fringed with short 
setae ; paragloss(B half the length of the tongue, abruptly 
terminating and lacerate, and setose at the apex ; labial 
palpi much shorter than the paraglossse, four-jointed, the 
joints equal and each subclavate ; labium about the same 
length as the tongue, its inosculation acutely angulated ; 
maxilla broad, lanceolate, the length of the tongue; 
maxillary palpi six -jointed, not so long as the maxillse, 
the two basal joints the longest, the rest equal, short, and 
subclavate, the apical one rounded. Thorax subquad- 
rate, very pubescent, the prothorax inconspicuous ; scu- 
tellum transversely triangular or ^em.\\\ii\ditQ,postscutellum 
lunulate; metathorax abruptly truncated, and densely pu- 
bescent, especially laterally, for the conveyance of pollen ; 
wings with three submarginal cells and a fourth slightly 
commenced, the second and third each receiving about 
their centre a recurrent nervure ; legs all pubescent, the 
anterior and intermediate on their external surface chiefly, 
their plantce also setose ; the posterior coxce, trochanters, 
femora, and tibice very hirsute, especially beneath, their 
tarsi entirely setose; claws bifid. Abdomen truncated 
at the base, subconical with a downward bias, the seg- 
ments with bands of closely decumbent nap, and the sur- 
face of all more or less deeply or delicately punctured ; 
the basal segment in the centre, beneath, with a longi- 
tudinal tuft of long hair. 

The MALE differs in having the mandibles more dis- 
tinctly bidentate, and in being less densely pubescent, 
especially upon the legs. In general aspect it is very 
like its female. 

Note. The genus Cilissa has, superficially observed, 



COLLETES. 187 

much of the habit of Collet es, particularly in the male of 
Cilissa tricincta. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

1. succinct a, Linnseus, c^ ? . SJ-oi lines. 
succincta, Kirby. 

fodiens, Curtis. 

2. fodiens, Kirby, ^ ? . 3J-4i lines. 
pallicincta, Kirby, ? . 

3. marginata, Linn., S ? • S-4 lines. 

4. Daviesiana, Kirby, c^ $ . 3i-4| lines. (Plate I. 

%. 1 ^ ? .) 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

This genus is named from /coXXt^tt;?, one that plasters j 
in allusion to the habits of the insects, which will be de- 
scribed below. The female insects themselves have, at 
the first glance, very much the appearance of the work- 
ing honey-bee, but they are considerably smaller, and, 
upon a very slight inspection, they are found to be ex- 
ceedingly distinct. The respective males of the species 
are conspicuously smaller than their females, but their 
specific characteristics are very much alike, and there is 
some difficulty in separating and determining the species. 
One strong peculiarity, marking all of them, is that the 
segments of the abdomen are banded with decumbent, 
hoary or whitish down, in both sexes, and the determi- 
nation of the species lies chiefly in the variations of these 
bands, and in the almost entire absence or conspicuous 
presence of minute punctures covering the segments. 
The females are very active collectors of pollen, and re- 
turn from their excursions to obtain it, very heavily 
laden to their nests. I am not sure that all the species 
are not gregarious, to use this term in an acceptation 



188 BRITISH BEES. 

somewhat different from its usual application, for here, 
and whenever used in entomology, it is meant to signify 
that they burrow collectively in large communities, form- 
ing what is called their metropolis, although each bores 
its independent and separate tube, wherein to deposit its 
store of eggs. The males, neither in these insects nor 
throughout the whole family of the bees, participate at 
all in the labours required for the preservation and 
nurture of the progeny, a duty that wholly devolves upon 
the maternal solicitude of the female, — these males 
having fulfilled their mission, which is not perhaps re- 
stricted to their sexual instinct, but may also be condu- 
cive to the grand operation of the family in the economy 
of nature, viz. the fertilization of the flowering plants, 
flit from blossom to blossom, and thus convey about the 
impregnating dust. They may also be often seen bask- 
ing in the sunshine upon the leaves of shrubs, and 
thence they become lost or dispersed or the prey of their 
many enemies, — birds or insects, which are always on 
the alert in search of ravin. 

The aspect selected by the females for their burrows, 
varies according to the species. Some choose a northern, 
and others a southern aspect; thus, the C. succincta 
seems to prefer the former, and the C. fodiens the latter, 
as does also the C. Daviesana ; and where they burrow 
they congregate in enormous multitudes. The mortar 
interstices of an old wall, or a vertical sand -rock, which, 
from exposure, is sufficiently softened for their purpose, 
are equally agreeable to them ; nor have they any objec- 
tion to clay banks. 

In these localities each individual perforates a cylin- 
drical cavity, slightly larger than itself, and which it 
excavates to a depth of from eight to ten inches, or even 



COLLETES. 189 

sometimes less. Now comes into operation the use of 
the peculiarly -formed tongue with which nature has 
furnished them, and described above in the generic cha- 
racter. These cells are occupied by a succession of six, 
or eight, or even sometimes no more than two, three, or 
four cartridge- or thimble-like cases, in each of which 
is deposited a single egg with a sufficiency, taught the 
creature by its instinct, of a mingled paste of honey and 
pollen, for the full nurture and development of the vermi- 
cle that will proceed from the egg upon its being hatched, 
and wherein this larva, having consumed its provender, 
becomes transformed into the pupa, and by the con- 
tinuance of nature's mysterious operations, it speedily 
changes into the perfect insect. But the beauty with 
which these little cells are formed transcends conception. 
Each consists of a succession of layers of a membrane 
more delicate than the thinnest goldbeater's skin, and 
more lustrous than the most beautiful satin. In glitter 
it most resembles the trail left by the snail, and is 
evidently, from all experiments made, a secretion of the 
insect elaborated from some special food it consumes, and 
by means of its bilobated tongue, which it uses as a trowel, 
it plasters with it the sides and the bottom of the tube 
it has excavated to the extent necessary for one division. 
As this secretion dries rapidly to a membrane it is 
succeeded by others, to the number of three or four, 
which may be separated from each other by careful 
manipulation. It then stores this cell, deposits the egg, 
and proceeds to close it with a covercle of double the 
number of membranes with which the sides are fur- 
nished, and continues with another in a similar manner, 
until it has completed sufficient to fill the tubular cavity, 
which, after closing the last case similarly to the rest, it 



190 BRITISH BEES. 

stops up the orifice with grains of sand or earth. The 
food stored up is subject to fermentation, but this does 
not appear to be prejudicial to the larva, Avhich first con- 
sumes the liquid portion of the store and then drills 
into the centre of the more solid part, and continues 
enlarging this little cylinder until increasing in growth 
by its consumption, it itself fills the cavity, and thus 
supplies the lateral stay or prop which, by means of the 
stored provender, was previously prevented from falling 
in. It has not been ascertained what number of eggs 
each insect lays, or whether it bores more than one 
tube, but it is presumable that it may do so, and pos- 
sibly thus, from the numbers annually produced, for 
there are two broods in the year, colonies are thrown off 
which gradually form another metropolis somewhere in 
the vicinity, although the majority continue to occupy 
the old habitat from year to year. But the number of 
these insects is kept within due limits by the individual 
abundance of the parasites that infest them, and by the 
unsparing and unflinching attacks of earwigs, which con- 
sume all before them, — perfect insect, larva, and pro- 
vender. The two most conspicuous parasites they have, 
are the beautiful little bee, Epeolus variegatus, the young 
of which is sustained, as in all bee parasitism, by con- 
suming the food stored for the sustenance of the young 
of the Collet es ; and the other is the little dipterous 
Miltogramma punctata, whose larva, evolved from the 
egg deposited in the cell, feeds upon the larva of the 
Colletes, or possibly upon that of the Epeolus, which 
otherwise would seern to have no check to its fertility, 
excepting that it may be subdued by the Forficulce. 

These insects are to be found during the spring and 
summer months, and throughout the southern counties, 



PROSOPIS. 191 

although some species are extremely local. Some occur 
also in the north of England and in Ireland. I am not 
prepared, to say what flowers they prefer, for I have 
never captured them on flowers, but they have been 
found frequenting the Ragwort, and Curtis took a spe- 
cies at Parley Heath, in Hampshire, on the Bluebell 
{Campanula glomerata). They form a remarkable in- 
stance of an artisan bee, but so only in its habits, amongst 
the Andrenides. 



Two suhmarginal cells to the wings. 

Genus 2. PROSOPIS, Fabricius. 

(Plate I. fig. 2 c^ ? .) 

Melitta * b, Kirby. — Hyl^us, Latreille. 

Gen. Char. : Head transverse, flattish ; ocelli in an 
open triangle on the vertex ; antenna geniculated, the 
basal joint of the flagellum as long as the second, and 
both subclavate, the rest of the joints short and equal ; 
face flat, slightly protuberant between the insertion of 
the antennae, and distinguished from the clypeus by a 
suture ; clypeus transversely quadrate, slightly widening 
gradually to the apex, marginate ; labrum transverse, 
obovate, fringed with setse; mandibles broad at apex, 
tridentate ; cibarial apparatus short ; tongue broad, sub- 
emarginate and fringed with short hair ; paraglossce very 
slightly longer than the tongue, their apex broadly 
rounded and fringed with hair ; labial palpi as long as 
the tongue, joints subequal, gradating in substance, sub- 
clavate; labium about as long as the tongue, pyramidal 
at its apical inosculation ; rnaxillce about as long as the 
tongue, slightly lanceolate, fringed with short hair; 



192 BRITISH BEES. 

maxillary palpi rather longer than the maxillae^ with 
six joints, the basal joint robust and slightly constricted 
in the middle, the third joint linear and the longest, the 
remainder gradually decreasing in length and substance. 

Thorax subquadrate; prothorax transverse, linear, 
angulated at the sides ; mesothorax with its bosses pro- 
tuberant ; scutellum and post-scutellum semilunulate ; 
metathorax abruptly truncate, and longitudinally cari- 
nated in the centre ; wings with two submarginal cells, 
a third slightly indicated, the first recurrent nervure 
springing from the extreme apex of the first submarginal 
cell, closely to the first transverso-cubital nervure, and 
the second closely before the termination of the second 
submarginal cell ; stigma of the wing large and distinct ; 
legs wholly destitute of polliniferous hair, the terminal 
joint of the tarsus as long as the two preceding; claws 
bifid; Abdomen subtruncate at the base, subconical 
with a downward bias. 

The MALE differs in having the mandibles distinctly 
bidentate, the external tooth acute ; the antenna are 
very slightly longer and more curved, and their colouring 
is more intense and more widely distributed. These 
insects are glabrous, generally intensely black, dull on 
the head and thorax, but shining on the abdomen, and 
are more or less thickly punctured, and they are usually 
gaily marked with yellow, citron, or red, especially on 
the face, thorax, and legs. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

1. annulatus, Fab., (^ ? . 2^-3 lines. 
annulatus, Kirby. 

2. dilatata, Kirby, S - 3 lines. (Plate I. fig. 2 c^ .) 
HylcBus dilatatus, Curtis. 



PROsopis. 193 

3. annularis f Kirby, c^ ? . 2^-3 lines. 

4. hyalinata, Smith, ^ ? . 2-3 lines. 

5. signata, Panzer, c? ? . 3-34 lines. (Plate I. 

fig. 2 ? .)^ 
signata, Kirby. 

6. cornuta, Kirby, S ? • 3-3 J lines. 

7. varipes, Sm., (^ ? . \\ lines. 

8. variegatttj Fab., c^ ? . 2-3 lines. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

This genus is named from TrpoacoirU, apparently in 
allusion to its seemingly masked face, most of the species 
having yellow markings more or less conspicuous upon 
the face. 

It is the least pubescent of any of the bees, even 
less so than those confirmed parasites, the genera No- 
mada and Stelis, thus further tending to corroborate its 
apparently parasitical habits, for none of the truly poUi- 
iiigerous bees are so destitute of hair. The ground- 
colour of the species is intensely black, variously deco- 
rated on the face, thorax, and legs, with markings of 
different intensities of yellow; but one of our species, 
the P. variegata, is also gaily marked with red. Indeed 
exotic species, and especially those of warm climates, 
are often very gay insects. 

They have usually been considered as parasitical in- 
sects, from their being unfurnished with the customary 
apparatus of hair upon the posterior legs, with which 
pollinigerous insects are generally so amply provided. 
In contradiction to their parasitism, it is asserted that 
they have been repeatedly bred from bramble sticks ; 
this circumstance is no proof of the fact of their not 

o 



194 BRITISH BEES. 

being parasitical, for many bees, for instance Cerctina, 
Heriades, etc., nidificate in bramble sticks, and they 
may have superseded the nidificating bee by depositing 
their ova in the nests of the latter ; although it certainly 
is a remarkable circumstance that some one of these 
bees has never escaped destruction in the several instances 
in which these have been thus bred. It is also said that 
their nests contain a semi-liquid honey. The fact of the 
larva of a wild bee being nurtured upon any other pro- 
vender than a mixture of pollen and honey, does not 
elsewhere occur, and it would seem to contradict the 
function this family is ordained to exercise, by conveying 
pollen from flower to flower, and which besides, in every 
other case, constitutes the nutritive aliment of the larva. 
But then, again, the structure of its tongue, which re- 
sembles somewhat that of Colletes in lateral expansion, 
and with which it would be provided for some analogous 
purpose, seems to contradict parasitical habits, although 
St. Fargeau asserts that it is parasitical upon this genus, 
and if so, although it has not been observed in this 
country, the analogous structure of the tongue might be 
perhaps explained. 

But notwithstanding this deficiency of positive cha- 
racters, from the absence of pollinigerous organs, nature 
is not to be controlled by laws framed by us upon the 
imperfect induction of incomplete facts, for if it be in- 
contestable that this genus is constructive and not pa- 
rasitical, the riddle presented by this structure of its 
tongue is at once solved, for without any affinity beyond 
that single peculiarity with Colletes, it presents an ano- 
maly of organization which cannot be accounted for but 
by its application to a use similar to what we find it 
applied in that extraordinary genus, — a use that could 



PRosopis. 195; 

not be extant in a parasite. In Colletes it is tbe con- 
comitant of as ample a power of collecting pollen as any 
that we find exhibited throughout the whole range of 
our native bees, but in Prosopis it is concurrent with a 
total deficiency of the ordinary apparatus employed for 
that purpose. 

One of the species of this genus has been found near 
Bristol, with the indication of a Stylops having escaped 
from it, which is a further extension of the parasitism 
of that most extraordinary genus, but the Stylops fre- 
quenting it has not yet been discovered, which would 
doubtless present a new species, therefore an interesting 
addition to the series already known. 

These insects are not at all uncommon in some of the 
species during the latter spring and summer months, 
and they frequent the several Resedas, being very fond 
of Mignonette. They are also found upon the Draco- 
cephalum Moldavica, and occur not unfrequently upon the 
Onion, which in blossom is the resort of many interest- 
ing insects. The majority of them emit when captured, 
and if held within the fingers, a very pungent citron 
odour, exceedingly refreshing on a hot day, in intense 
sunshine. Some of the species are rare, especially those 
very highly coloured, as is also the P. dilatata, so named 
from the peculiar triangular expansion of the basal joint 
of the antennse, the female of which is not known or 
possibly has only been overlooked or not identified. 
The P. varipes and P. variegata, which are the most 
richly coloured, occur in the west of England, and 
in one, the P. cornuta, the clypeus is furnished with a 
tubercle. 



o 2 



196 BRITISH BEES. 

Subsection h. Litsgvm lanceolate (with lancet-shaped tongues). 

Genus 3. SpHECODKS, Latreille. 
{Plate I. fig. 3 c^ ? .) 
Melitta ** a, Kirby. 

Gen. Char. : Head transverse, linear, fully as wide as 
tlie thorax, flat, with a slightly convex tendency ; ocelli 
in a triangle ; antenna short, scarcely geniculated ; face 
beneath the insertion of the antennse, protuberant; 
clypeus transverse, margined, convex ; labrum trans- 
versely ovate, deeply emarginate, in the centre in front ; 
mandibles bidentate, obtuse, the external tooth project- 
ing much further than the second ; tongue short, lan- 
ceolate, fringed with setse; paraglosscB not so long as 
the tongue, abruptly terminated, and setose at the ex- 
tremity ; labial palpi not so long as the paraglossae ; 
the joints comparatively elongate and slender, and 
decreasing towards the apex in length and substance ; 
labium rather longer than the tongue, its inosculation 
straightly transverse ; maxilla about the length of the 
tongue, broad and lanceolate; maxillary palpi six- 
jointed, the first joint shorter and less robust than the 
second, which is also shorter and less robust than the 
third, which is the longest and most robust of all, the 
terminal joints more slender, and declining gradually in 
length. Thorax ovate ; prothorax linear, produced into 
a sharp tooth on each side ; mesothorax with longitudi- 
nal lateral impressed lines; bosses acutely protuberant ; 
scutellum quadrate ; postscuiellum inconspicuous ; 7neta- 
thorax slightly gibbous ; wings with three submarginal 
cells, and a fourth slightly commenced, the second 
narrow, forming a truncated triangle, and receiving the 



. SPHECODES. 197 

first recurrent riervure in its centre, the second recurrent 
nervure springing from just beyond the centre of the 
third submarginal cell ; legs slightly but rigidly spinose 
and setose ; claws bifid. Abdomen ovate. 

The MALES differ, in having the antennae longer and 
sometimes moniliform, the lower part of the face and 
clypeus usually covered with a dense short silvery decum- 
bent pubescence, and they have the metathorax truncated 
at its base ; in other respects they greatly resemble their 
females. 

The insects of this genus may be called glabrous, their 
pubescence being so slight and scattered, they usually 
shine brightly, and are more or less deeply punctured ; and 
the abdomen is always partially or entirely of a bright 
ferruginous red, sometimes verging into fuscous or pitchy. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

1. gibbus, Linngeus, ^ ? . 3-4^ lines. (Plate I. fig. 

sphecoideSf Kirby, ? . 
monilicornis, Kirby, ^^ . 
picea, Kirby, c^. 

2. Geoffroyella, Kirby, S ? • 1-3 lines. 

divisa, Kirby, (^ . 
S.fuscipennis, Germar, ^ ? . 4|-6 lines. 

GENEUAL OBSERVATIONS. 

This genus is named from crc^^f, a wasp, from its 
apparent resemblance to some of the sand wasps. 

They are not uncommon insects, and I have found 
them abundant in sandy spots sporting in the sunshine 
upon the bare ground, where they run about with great 
activity, the females chiefly, the males the while dis- 



198 BRITISH BEES. 

porting themselves upon any flowers that may be ad- 
jacent, and they are especially fond of Ragwort. Their 
prevalent colours are black and red^ the latter occurring 
only on the abdomen in different degrees of intensity 
and extension, sometimes occupying the whole of that 
division of the body, and sometimes limited to a band 
across it. Much difficulty attaches to the determina- 
tion of the species from the characters which separate 
them being extremely obscure, for it is not safe to de- 
pend upon the differences of the arrangement of colour 
upon them, as it varies infinitely ; nor can their relative 
sizes be depended upon as a clue, for in individuals 
which must be admitted to be of the same species, size 
takes a wider extent of difference than in almost any of 
the genera of bees. St. Fargeau, who maintains the 
parasitism of the genus, accounts for it by saying that 
in depositing their eggs in the nests of the Andrencs, 
Halicti, and Dasypoda, the Sphecodes resorts to the 
burrows of the species of these genera indifferent to 
their adaptation to its own size, and thus from the 
abundance or paucity of food so furnished to its larvse, 
does it become a large or a small individual. "VYest- 
w^ood says the species are parasitical upon Halictus. 
Latreille says they are parasites. They are certainly 
just as destitute of the pollinigerous apparatus as the 
preceding genus. Mr. Thwaites once thought he had 
detected a good specific character in the differing lengths 
of the joints of the antennae, but I believe he never 
thoroughly satisfied himself of its being practically 
available. At all events great difficulty still attaches to 
their rigid and satisfactory determination. There is an 
array of entomologists who deny their being parasites. 
Mr, Kirby says they form their burrows in bare sections 



SPHECODES. l99 

of sandbanks exposed to the sun, and nine or ten inches 
deep, and which they smooth with their tongues. But 
then, in impeachment of the accuracy of his observation, 
he further supposes there are three sexes, founding his 
statement upon what Keaumur remarks of having ob- 
served pupse of three different sizes in the burrows. In 
the first place, it is not conclusive that these pupae were 
those of Sphecodes, and secondly we know that this con- 
dition of three sexes is found only in the social tribes, 
wherein the peculiarities of the economy exact a division 
of oflBces. Therefore his adoption of this inaccuracy 
militates against the reception of his other statement. 
But Smith also states that they are not parasites, and 
apparently founds his assertion upon direct observation. 
It still, however, remains a debatable point, from the 
fact of the destitution of pollinigerous brushes, and 
thence the character of the food necessary to be stored 
for the larva. It would be very satisfactory if these 
apparent inconsistencies could be lucidly explained. 

If, however, it be ultimately proved that Sphecodes is 
a constructive bee, as well as Prosopis, we have then 
this fact exhibited by our native genera, that none of the 
subfamily of our short- tongued bees, or Andrenidce, are 
parasitical. This is a remarkable peculiarity, as it is 
amongst them that we should almost exclusively expect 
to find that distinguishing economy, from the seemingly 
imperfect apparatus furnished in the short structure of 
their tongues. It is possible, however, that nature has 
so moulded them as to fit them chiefly for fulfilling its 
objects within merely a certain range of the floral reign, 
and which restricts them to visiting flowers which do 
not require the protrusion of a long organ to rifle their 
sweet stores. 



200 BRITISH BEES. 

Genus 4. An^DEENA, Fabricius. 

(Plates II. and III.) 

Melitta ** c, Kirby. 

Gen. Char. : Head transverse^ as wide as the thorax ; 
ocelli in a triangle on the vertex ; antennce filiform^ geni- 
culated, the basal joint of the flagellum the longest ; face 
flat; clypeus convex, transverse, quadrate^ slightly rounded 
in front ; labrum transverse, oblong ; mandibles bidentate ; 
tongue moderately long, lanceolate, fringed with fine 
hair ; paraglossce half the length of the tongue, abruptly 
terminated and setose at the extremity ; labium about 
half the length of the entire apparatus, its inosculation 
acute ; labial palpi inserted above it, below the origin of 
the paraglossse in a sinus upon the sides of the tongue ; 
maxillae irregularly lanceolate ; maxillary palpi six- 
jointed, longer than the maxillae, the basal joint about 
as long as the fourth, but more robust, the second joint 
the longest, the rest declining in length and substance. 
Thorax ovate; prothorax not distinct; mesothorax 
quadrate; bosses protuberant; scutellum lunate; post- 
scutellum lunulate ; metaihorax gibbous, and pubescent 
laterally ; wings with three submarginal cells, and a 
fourth slightly commenced, the second quadrate, and 
with the third receiving a recurrent nervure about their 
middle ; legs densely pubescent, especially externally, 
and particularly the posterior pair, which have a long 
curled lock upon the trochanter beneath, the anterior 
upper surface of the femora clothed with long loose hair, 
which equally surrounds the whole of the tibise, but which 
is less long upon their plantse, the claws strongly bifid. 
Abdomen ovate, a dense fringe edging the fifth segment. 



ANDRENA. 201 

and the terminal segment having a triangular central 
plate, its sides rigidly setose. 

The MALE dijffers in having the head rather wider than 
the thorax, the vertex where the ocelli are placed more 
protuberant, the mandibles very large and more acutely 
bidentate, sometimes largely forcipate and with but one 
acute tooth; the males in most species greatly differ 
from their females. 

None of these insects exhibit any positive colouring of 
the integument, excepting in some upon the abdomen, 
which exhibits red bands, and is disposed to vary con- 
siderably in intensity and breadth, and in some the 
clypeus and /ace are of a cream -colour, but which occurs 
chiefly among the males. They are very dissimilar in 
general appearance, some being densely pubescent all 
over, others merely so on the head and thorax ; others 
are banded with white decumbent down, and some are 
wholly unmarked upon the abdomen. These pecu- 
liarities help to group them, and thus facilitate their 
recognition. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

§ Banded with red on ihe abdomen^ the segments of which are more or 
less fringed. 

1. Hattorfiana, Fab., S ? • 6-7 lines. 
Lathamanay Kirby, $ , 
hamorrhoidalis, Kirby, $ . 

2. zonalis, Kirby, ^ $ . 4i-5 lines. 

3. florea, Fabricius, ^ $ . 5-64 lines. 
Rosce, Kirby, var. 

4. Rosce, Panzer, J ? . 4-6 lines. (Plate III. fig. 

Ic? ?.) 
Rosce, Kirby, ? . 



202 BRITISH BEES. 

5. decorata, Smith, ^ ? . 5-6 J lines. 

6. Schrankellaj Kirby, ^ ? . 4-5 lines. 
affinisj Kirby. 

7. cm^w/a/a, Fabricius, c? ?• 3^-4 lines. (Plate III. 

%. 3c? ?.) 
cingulattty Kirby. 

§§ Abdominal segments edged with decumbent short down, or fringed 
tvith long hair. 

8. longipes, Shuckard, S ? • 4-6 lines. (Plate III. 

fig. 2 c? ? .) 

9. chrysosceles, Kirby, c? ? . 3^-44 lines. 

10. dor sat a, Kirby, S ? • 4-4 J lines. 
combinata, Kirby. 

nudiusculttj Kirby. 

11. connectenSy Kirby. 5 lines. 

12. Wilkella, Kirby, ? . 5i lines. 

13. Coitana, Kirby, c? ? . 4 lines. 
Shawella, Kirby. 

14. labialis, Kirby, ^ ? . 5^-6 lines. 

15. Lewinella, (^ . 3| lines. 

16. xanthura, Kirby, ($ $ . 34-6 lines. 
ovaiula, Kirby. 

17. Collinsonana, Kirby, c? ? . 3J-44 lines. 
digitalis^ Kirby. 

proxima, Kirby. 

18. albicrus, Kirby, J $ . 4-5 1 lines. 
barbilabris, Kirby. 

19. minutula, Kirby, ,$ ? . 2^-34 lines. 
parvula, Kirby. 

20. nana, Kirby, ? . 3 J lines, 

21. conveociuscula, Kirby, c? ? . 5 lines. 

22. Kirbyi, Curtis, ? . 6 lines. , 



ANDRENA. 203 



23. 


fuscata, Kirby, ? . 4| lines. 


24. 


Afzeliella, Kirby, S ? • 


4i-5 lines. 


25. 


fulvicrus, Kirby, c? ? , 
contigua, Kirby. 


34-5 i lines. 


26. 


falvagoy Christ. S ? • 
fulvagOj Kirby. 


4-44 lines. 


27. 


tibialis, Kirby. 5-7J lines. 




atriceps, Kirby. 




28. 


Mouffetella, Kirby, ^ 5 


! . 5-7 lines. 


29. 


nigro-cenea, Kirby, ^ $ 


. 5-64 lines. 


30. 


bimaculataj Kirby, c^. 


5| lines. 


31. 


Trimmeranaj Kirby, c^ ? . 5-6 lines. 


32. 


, coTijuncta, Sraith, ? . 


54 lines. 


33. 


varianSy Rossi, c? ? . ' 


i-54 lines. 


31. 


helvola, Linnseus, J ? . 
picipes, Kirby, c?. 
angulosa, Kirby. 


5-54 lines. 


35. 


Gwynana, Kirby, c^ ? . 
pilosula, Kirby. 


4-54 lines. 


36. 


angustior, Kirby, c? ? . 


4-5 lines. 


37. 


picicornis, Kirby, ^ ? . 


5-6 lines. 


38. 


spinigera, Kirby, ^ $ . 


5-6 lines. 


39. 


Smithella, Kirby, S ? • 


3-6 lines. 


40. 


, Lapponica, Zetterstedt, 


c^ ? . 34-54 lines. 


41. 


, tridentata, Kirby, ^ . 


44 lines. 


42. 


, dtnticulata, Kirby, S 5 
Lister ella, Kirby. 


1 . 4-54 lines. 


43, 


. nigriceps, Kirby, ? . 5 lines. 


44, 


. pubescens, Kirby, ^ ? • 
rufit arsis, Kirby. 
fuscipes, Kirby. 


4-5 lines. 



204 BRITISH BEES. 

§§§ Thorax very pulescent^ abdomen smooth and shining. 

45. albicans, Kirby, S ? • 4-5 lines. 

46. pilipes, Fabricius, c^ $ . 5-7 lines. 
pratensis, Kirby. 

47. cineraria, Linnaeus, c^ ? . 5-7 lines. (Plate II. 

fig. 2 c^ ? .) 
cineraria, Kirby. 

48. thoracica, Fabricius, c^ ? . 5-7i lines. 
thoracica, Kirby. 

melanocephala, Kirby. 

49. nitida, Fourcroy, c^^ ? . 5-6i lines. (Plate II. 

fig. 3 J ?.) ' 
nitida, Kirby. 

50. vitrea. Smith, $ . 6i lines. 

§§§§ The entire body densely pubescent. 

hl.fulva, Schrank, J^ ? . 4-6i lines. (Plate II. 

fig. I c^ ? .) 
fulva, Kirby. 
52. Clarkella, Kirby, S ? • 4^-6 i lines. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

Fabricias seems to have named this genus from 
avOprjvT], a wasp, but why, it is impossible to say. Al- 
though one name is as good as another, it being indif- 
ferent what the name may be, yet where so evident an 
attempt to give a name pertinence is conspicuous, it is 
remarkable that it should be so little relevant, for none 
of the characteristics of a wasp or hornet are exhibited 
in these insects. 

Possibly it was from the genus being the most nu- 
merous in species that Dr. Leach was induced to give 



ANDRENA. 205 

this subfamily its collective designation, making the 
other genera thus converge to it as to a centre. He 
took its elliptical form as typical. Indeed, it is remark- 
able how very judiciously this was done, for it is a form 
not apparent among the normal bees excepting in two 
exceptional cases, the one upon the frontiers of this 
subfamily, in almost debatable land, where the last of 
the Andrenida and the first of the Apida seem almost 
to melt into one another ; and in the other case, in the 
parasitical Nomada, whose parasitism is in every in- 
stance, but one only, restricted to the first subfamily. 
A different type of form prevails amongst the Apidce, 
upon which I shall have subsequently occasion to speak. 
These insects are not distinguished for any elaborate 
economy. Varying in the species, some prefer vertical 
banks, others sloping undulations, and again others ho- 
rizontal flat ground or hard down-trodden pathways. 
Some burrow singly, and others are gregarious, col- 
lected in great numbers upon one spot. They are, 
perhaps, the most inartificial burrowers of all the bees. 
Their tunnels vary from five to nine or ten inches in 
depth, and in some species they are formed with other 
small tunnels slanting off from the main cylinder. The 
sides and bottom are merely smoothed, without either 
drapery or polish. The little cells thus formed are then 
supplied with the usual mixture of pollen and honey 
kneaded together, which in the larger species forms a 
mass of about the size of a moderate red currant, its 
instinct teaching it the quantity necessary for the nur- 
ture of the young which shall proceed from the g^^ 
that it then deposits upon this collected mass of food. 
The aperture of each little tunnel is closed with par- 
ticles of the earth or sand wherein the insect burrows. 



206. BRITISH BEES. 

and it proceeds to the elaboration of another receptacle 
for a fresh brood until its stock of eggs becomes ex- 
hausted. Some species have two broods hatched in the 
year, especially the earlier ones_, — for several present 
themselves with the earliest flowers, — but others are re- 
stridted to but one. The quantity of pollen they col- 
lect is considerable, and in fact they are supplied with 
an apparatus additional to what is furnislied to any of 
the other genera in a curled rather long lock of hair 
that emanates from the posterior trochanters. This, with 
the fringes that edge the lower portion and sides of the 
metathorax, as well as the usual apparatus upon the 
posterior legs, enables the insect to carry in each flight 
home a comparatively large quantity of pollen, but per- 
haps scarcely enough at once for the nurture of one 
young one, and it therefore repeats the same operation 
until sufficient is accumulated. 

The exact period occupied by their transformations is 
not strictly known ; it will, of course, vary in the spe- 
cies, as also in those in which two broods succeed each 
other in the year, but the larva rapidly consumes its 
store and then undergoes its transformation. It does 
not spin a cocoon, but in its pupa state it is covered 
all over with a thin pellicle, which adheres closely to 
all the distinct parts of the body. It is not known how 
this is formed ; perhaps it is a membrane which trans- 
udes in a secretion through the skin of the larva, or it 
may be this itself converted to its new use, which seems 
to be for the protection of all the parts of the now 
transmuting imago, until these in due course shall have 
acquired their proper consistency. 

These insects in their perfect state vary very consi- 
derably in size, both individually and specifically, the 



* 



ANDRENA. • 207 

former depending upon both the quantity and quality 
of the food stored up^, for the pollen of different plants 
varies possibly in its amount of nutriment, else why 
should we observe so marked a difference in the sizes 
of individuals whose parent instinct would prompt to 
furnish them with an uniform and equal supply. The 
differences of specific appearance is often very consider- 
able in long genera, and perhaps in no genus is it 
more conspicuously so than in Andrena, for here we 
have some wholly covered with dense hair, and others 
almost glabrous; others again with the thorax only 
pubescent ; some are black, some white, some fulvous, 
or golden tinted, and some red; some we find banded 
with decumbent down, and others with merely lateral 
spots of this close hair, but the most prevalent colour 
is brown, which will sometimes by immaturity take a 
fulvous or reddish hue. In many males we see excen- 
trically large transversely square heads broader than the 
thorax, which also have widely spreading forcipate man- 
dibles, with often a downward projecting spine at their 
base beneath; and it is chiefly these extravagantly 
formed males which are most dissimilar to their own 
partners that the result of observation alone confirms 
their specific identity. In other cases the males are so 
like their females that a mere neophyte would unite them. 
In many males the clypeus and labrum are white, which 
also occurs in some females ; for instance, in A. labialis, 
but this peculiarity is found more rarely in this sex. 
The species are much exposed to the restricting in- 
fluences of several parasites, whose parasitism is of a 
varying character, but the term should properly be ap- 
plied only to the bees which deposit their eggs in their 
nests, and whose young, like that of the cuckoo among 



208 BRITISH BEES. 

the birds, thrives at the expense of the young of the 
sitos by consuming its food, and thus starving it. These 
parasites consist of many of the species of Nomada, 
very pretty and gay insects, but in every case totally 
unlike the bee whose nest they usurp. Several of the 
species of these Nomad(B are not limited to any particu- 
lar species of Andrena, but infest several indifferently, 
whereas others have no wider range in their spoliation 
than one single species, to which they always confine 
themselves. In my observations under the genus No- 
mada I shall notify those which they assail amongst the 
AndrencBj as well as the other genera which they also 
infest. 

The others w^hich attack them are more properly po- 
sitive enemies than parasites, for they prey upon the 
bees themselves, or, as in the case of the remarkable 
genus Sty lops, render the bee abortive by consuming 
its viscera and ovaries. I have spoken of these insects 
in the chapter upon parasites, to which I must refer, 
but I may here add that the female is apterous, and 
never quits the body of the bee. Much mystery at- 
taches to their history in which their impregnation is 
involved, for the male, immediately upon undergoing its 
change into the imago, escapes through the dorsal plates 
of the abdomen of the bee wherein it was bred and 
takes flight. In localities where they occur they may 
be usually taken on the wing in the month of May. 
The female would seem to be viviparous, and produces 
extraordinary multitudes at one birth, extending to hun- 
dreds. Being born as larvae within the body of the 
bee they seek to escape from their confinement, and find 
the opportunity in the suture which separates the meso- 
thorax from the metathorax. Their extreme minuteness 



ANDRENA. 209 

admits of their passing through the very constricted 
tube which connects the abdomen with the thorax. 
Having now escaped into the air they alight upon the 
flowers which the bee frequents, and thence they affix 
themselves to other bees which may visit these plants, 
and thus perpetuate the activity of the function it is 
their instinct to fulfil. That many may be lost there 
can be no question ; but Nature is very prodigal of life, 
for by life it endows life, and thus its activity is en- 
larged to a wider circle. Although the matured Stylops 
has preyed upon all the internal organs of the bee its 
attack is not immediately fatal, although the life of the 
creature may be thus considerably abridged, but it seems 
to live sufficiently long afterwards to disseminate the 
distribution of the Stylops. A small blackish Pediculus, 
which Mr. Kirby called Pediculus Melitta, is found also 
both upon the flowers the bees frequent and also upon 
the bees themselves, especially the pubescent ones ; but 
this insect is not limited to the genus Andrena, as I 
shall have occasion to notice. The flower I have 
chiefly found them upon is the Dandelion (Leontodon) . 
Their peculiar economy and connection with the bees is 
unknown ; it may be merely an accidental and tempo- 
rary attachment, but they even accompany them to their 
burrows. 

Another and more curious case of attack upon the 
young of the Andrena , is instanced in the reputed para- 
sitism of the Coleopterous genus Melo'e. The perfect in- 
sect is a large apterous, fleshy, heteromerous beetle, ten 
times as big as the bee. Its vermicle, having issued from 
the e^^, has the appearance of a very small pediculus, of 
an orange colour. They are often seen upon flowers, and, 
like the former pediculus, attach themselves to such suit- 



210 BRITISH BEES. 

able Andrena as may happen to visit the flowers they are 
upon ; and, it is said, that they are thus conveyed by the 
bee to its domicile, and there feed to maturity upon the 
larva of the bee. I have no faith in the correctness of this 
statement, for it is not credible that so small a creature 
as the larva of an Andrena could fully feed the larva of 
so large a beetle. Observation has not satisfactorily con- 
firmed it, and the connection may be, as in the former 
case, merely accidental. 

Although, perhaps, not a strictly scientific course, it is 
certainly a matter of convenience in very long genera 
to break them up into divisions, framed upon external 
characters, readily perceptible, and, by which means, the 
species sought for may be more readily found. This I 
have done in the preceding list of the species, and which 
are based upon very prominent features. A slight diva- 
rication from the typical neuration of the wing is ob- 
served in some species, but it is not of a sufficiently 
marked character to afibrd a divisional separation, and 
even much less a subgeneric one. I have therefore passed 
it unnoticed. The commencing entomologist will often 
find considerable difficulty at first in determining the 
species of this genus, for so much depends upon con- 
dition ; and where the colour of the pubescence is the 
chief characteristic, a very little exposure to the atmo- 
sphere much alters their physiognomy, but time, patience, 
and perseverance will ripen the novice into an adept. 
The coimection of the males with the females, from their 
ordinarily great dissimilarity, was only to be accom- 
plished by positive observation, but now that this, in the 
majority of cases, is efiected, good descriptions facilitate 
their discrimination. 

The most conspicuous species are the Hattorfiana and 



CILISSA. 211 

the Rosce for size and colour ; the SchranJcella is also a 
very pretty species ; and perhaps the commonest of all 
the cingulata is the prettiest of all, with its yellow nose 
and red abdomen ; in the next section we may point out 
the longipes as being a very elegant insect,"^ as are also 
the chrysosceles and the helvola. In this section we find 
those most subject to the attacks of the Sty lops, for in- 
stance the labialis, convexiuscula, picicornis, Afzeliella, 
nigro-oineaj Trimmerana, Gwynana, etc. The whole of 
the third and fourth sections are splendid insects, espe- 
cially the fulva in the last. The comparative rarity of 
some results chiefly from an exceedingly local habitat. 
Many of the species may be found everywhere where in- 
sects can be collected, consequently, all over the United 
Kingdom. In all the three seasons of the year, which 
prompt animal life, some of the species may be collected, 
and the flowers they chiefly prefer are the catkins, espe- 
cially of the sallow, the early flowering-fruits, the hedge- 
row blossoms, the heath, the broom, the dandelion, chick- 
weed, and very many others. 



Genus 5. CiLlSSA, Leach, 

(Plate V. fig. 1 (^ J .) 

Melitta ** c, partly, Kirby. — Andeena, Fab. Latreille. 

Gen. Char. : Head transverse, scarcely so wide as the 
thorax, flat ; ocelli in an open triangle on the vertex ; 

* This insect was first captured by me, and with this, my manuscript 
name, attached to it, it was distributed to entomologists with an un- 
sparing hand. The ordinary courtesy of the science has been, for the 
describer, when not the captuver, to adopt and circulate the original 
authority, and not to appropriate it. Similar buccaneering has been 

p 2 



212 BRITISH BEES. 

face flat; clypeus transverse, margined; labrum trans- 
verse, slightly rounded in front ; mandibles bidentate ; 
cibarial apparatus moderately long ; tongue lanceolate, 
fringed with delicate hair ; paraglossa about one-third 
the length of the tongue, abruptly terminated, lacerate 
and setose at the extremity ; labial palpi rather longer 
than the paraglossse, the basal joint considerably the 
longest, all the joints subclavate and diminishing both in 
robustness and length to the apex ; labrum half the 
length of the entire apparatus, its inosculation acutely 
triangular ; maxillce subhastate, as long as the tongue ; 
maxillary palpi six-jointed, less than half the length of 
the maxillse, the joints short, subclavate and decreasing 
gradually from the base to the apex. Thorax densely 
pubescent, obscuring its divisions; metathorax trun- 
cated ; wings with three submarginal cells, and a fourth 
slightly commenced, the second subquadrate and receiv- 
ing the first recurrent nervure in its centre, the second 
recurrent nervure issuing from beyond the centre of the 
third submarginal cell; legs all pilose, especially the 
posterior pair, which have hair beneath the coxa and 
trochanters, above only on their femorse, but surrounding 
the tibicB, and as dense externally upon their planter ; 
claws distinctly bifid. Abdomen ovate, truncated at the 
base, the segments banded at their apex, with decumbent 
down, which becomes densely and widely setose on the 
fifth segment, the terminal segment having a central tri- 
angular glabrous plate, carinated down the centre, and 
very rigidly setose laterally. 

The MALE scarcely differs, except in having the antennce 

practised with poor Bainbridge's Osmia pilicornis, to which he had at- 
tached this manuscript name, he being the first to introduce it, haying 
caught it at Birchwood. 



CILISSA. 213 

less distinctly geniculated, the flagellum taking a sweep- 
ing curve, the face and clypeus much more pubescent, 
but the legs sexually less so ; the sexes are much alike. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

1. tricmcta, Kirby, c^ ? . 5 lines. (Plate V. fig. 1 c^ ? .) 
? Apis leporina, Panzer. 

2. hmmorrhoidalis, Fab. ^ ? . 
hamorrhoidalis chrysura, Kirby. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

This genus has been named without any reference to 
any peculiarity. Dr. Leach having applied a Proper name 
to it to designate it. 

The Cilissa tricincta is perhaps most like the larger 
species of the genus Colletes, both in markings and in 
the form of the body, but in resemblance of form the se- 
cond species participates. Although robust insects, and 
as large as the larger Andrence, they are yet unprovided 
with the same ample means for conveying pollen, being 
destitute of the lock of hair upon the posterior trochan- 
ters and the sides of the metathorax are less densely pu- 
bescent. The ground colour is brown. Their economy 
is assumed to resemble that of Andrena, although it has 
not been so closely investigated ; for my own part I have 
never had the opportunity of tracing it to its nidus, hav- 
ing always captured the species upon flowers. They are 
fond of the trefoil [Trifoliumrepens), and the C. chrysura 
frequents the Campanula rotundifolia, as well as the 
flowers of the throatwort {Trachelium) . In their excur- 
sions they are usually accompanied by their males. Both 
species are found in the south and west of England. 



214 BRITISH BEES. 

Section 2. With entire par aglossce. 

Subsection c. LiNau^ acijt^ (acute tongues). 

a. With three suhmarginal cells to the wings. 

Genus 6. Halictus, Latreille. 

(Plate IV.) 

Melitta ** b, Kirbj. 

Gen. Char. : Head transverse^ flattish^ scarcely so 
wide as the thorax ; ocelli in an open triangle on the 
vertex, which is flat ; antennce short, filiform, genicu- 
lated, scape quite or more than half as long as the fla- 
gellum; face flat, excepting in the centre just below the 
insertion of the antennae, where it is protuberant ; clypeus 
transversely lunulate, very convex ; labrum subquadrate, 
very convex, with a central, linear, carinated appendage 
in front, nearly as long as the basal portion ; cibarial 
apparatus moderate; tongue very acute and delicately 
fringed with short hair; paraglossa acute, about half 
the length of the tongue ; labial palpi not quite so long 
as the paraglossse, the basal joint very long, the rest 
decreasing gradually in length ; labium about as long 
as the tongue, its inosculation emarginate; maxillce 
subhastate, rather longer than the tongue ; maxillary 
palpi filiform, the basal joint the shortest, second the 
longest, the rest decreasing in length. Thorax oval, 
usually pubescent, sometimes glabrous; prothorax in- 
conspicuous, as are the bosses of the mesothorax ; scuteU 
lum and post-scutellnm lunulate, the former convex ; 
metathorax gibbous or truncated, but laterally pubescent 
even in the glabrous species; wings with three suhmar- 
ginal cells, and a fourth sometimes commenced, the se- 
cond subquadrate and receiving the first recurrent nervure 
close to its extremity, the second being received beyond 



HALICTUS. 215 

the centre of the third submarginal cell [a slightly diffe- 
rent arrangement takes place in some of the species, 
which will be noticed subsequently] ; the legs all setose, 
but the setse not very long, and the posterior coxae and 
trochanters have long hair beneath ; the claws bifid. 
Abdomen ovate, the terminal segment with a longitu- 
dinal linear incision in its centre. 

The MALES differ in having the antennse as long or 
longer than the thorax; the labrum transverse, linear, 
and the abdomen usually elongate and cylindrical, and 
much longer than the head and thorax. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

1. (canthopus, Kirby, ^ $ . 4-54 lines. (Plate IV. 

fig. 1 (? ? .) 
Lasioglossum tricingulum, Curtis. 

2. quadricinctus, Fabricius, J ? . 4-44 lines. 
quadricinctus, Kirby. 

3. rubicundus, Christ. (^ $ . 4-5 lines. 
rubicunduSj Kirby. 

4. cylindricus, Fabricius, (^ $ . 3-5 lines. 
malachura, Kirby. 

fulvo-cincta, Kirby. 
abdomi7ialis, Kirby. 

5. albipes, Fabricius, <^ ? . 3-4 lines. 
albipes, Kirby. 

obovata, Kirby. 

6. IcevigatuSy Kirby, ,$ $ . 3-4J lines. 
lugubrisj Kirby. 

7. leucozonius, Schrank, (^ . 3-44 lines. 
leucozoniuSy Kirby. 

8. quadrinotatus, Kirby, (^ $ . 2-3 lines. 

9. sexnotaivSj Kirby, c? ? • 



216 BRITISH BEES. 

10. l(Bvis, Kirby, ? . 4 lines. 
W.fulvicornis, ^\vhy, c^. 4 lines. 

12. minutus, Kirby, $ $ . 2^-3 J lines. 

13. nitidius cuius, Kirby, ^ ? . 2-3 lines. 

14. minutissimus, Kirby, ^ ? . 14-2 J lines. (Plate 

lV.%.3c^$.) * 
l^.flavipes, Kirby, (^ ?. 3-4 lines. (Plate IV. fig. 

sdadonia, Kirby. 

16. Smeathmanellus, Kirby, (^ $ . 2^-34 lines. 

17. ceratus, Kirby, ^ ? . 2^-3 lines. 

18. leucopus, Kirby, ^ ? . 3-34 lines. 

19. morio, Kirby, S ? • 2-24 lines. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

This genus was named by Latreille from oXl^co, to 
crowd, or collect together, from the fact of their nidifi- 
cating in numbers on the same spot. 

The females closely resemble in form those of the 
genus Andrena, but the males are very unlike both 
those of that genus and their own females, for they all 
have long cylindrical bodies and very long antennae, 
much longer relatively than those of the former genus. 
Although none of the species approach in size the larger 
ones of the preceding genus, their extremes of specific 
size are as distant apart as they are in that genus, the 
smallest being extremely minute. Some of even the 
commoner species are very pretty when in fine con- 
dition, and several of them have a rich metallic green 
or blue tint, and in the majority the wings are iridescent 
with the brightest and gayest colours of the rainbow. 
The numbers in which they associate together upon the 
same spot varies considerably, and a very few indeed 



HALICTUS. 217 

burrow solitarily and apart from their congeners. In 
burrowing they form a tunnel which branches off to 
several cells^ the excavations being as inartificial as are 
those of Andrena. Walkenaer tells us in his memoir 
upon the genus Halictus, that they line their cells with 
a kind of glaze, that they burrow in horizontal surfaces 
to a depth of about five inches, and which they polish 
very smoothly previous to covering it with their viscous 
secretion, and that the cells are all oval, the largest end 
being at the bottom. He says also that they burrow 
solely during the night, especially when the moon is 
shining, when it is difficult to walk without treading 
upon them; so numerous are they, indeed, that they 
look like a cloud floating close to the surface of the 
ground. Although burrowing thus at night, it is only 
during the day that they supply their nests with their 
provision of pollen and lay their eggs. Each of their 
cells is furnished with a small ball of pollen, varying in 
size with the species, but which never entirely fills the 
cell, and is affixed intermediately between both extremi- 
ties, and upon the mass contained in each cell they de- 
posit their small egg, which is placed at the extremity 
of the lump of pollen most distant from the entrance. 
The larva is hatched in about ten days, when it changes 
into the pupa. Some doubt attaches as to the length of 
time that the pupa remains before its transformation 
into the imago, and also as to the period at which this 
takes place. A peculiarity attends the appearance of 
the larger species. Some are very early spring insects, 
among which is the Halictus rubicundus ; this I have 
seen in abundance on the first fine spring days collecting 
its stores on the flowers of the chickweed. It is then in 
the very finest condition, and it is really a very beautiful 



318 BRITISH BEES. 

althougli a very common insect, having a richly golden 
fulvous pubescence on the thorax, an intensely black 
and glabrous abdomen, the apex of which is fringed with 
golden hair. No males are now to be found at all. Yet 
it is only some species, and these the larger ones, which 
are subject to this peculiarity, for the smaller ones I 
have found burrowing during the summer months in 
vertical or sloping banks with a sunny aspect, whilst 
the males were hovering about both in the vicinity and 
close by, sometimes either playing or fighting on the 
wing with the very small Nomada, which infest these 
species parasitically, whilst their females were sedulously 
pursuing their vocation. Gradually these joyous spring 
insects lose their gayness and their brilliancy, as do 
those which have followed in succession of development 
with the growing year, and they become senile and 
faded and are lost as they have progressively fulfilled 
their function. By this time the ragwort is in bloom, and 
the thistle displays its pinky blossoms ; now the males 
are to be found numerously exhibiting themselves upon 
these flowers, and also another equally fresh brood to 
those of the spring and early summer, of females. My 
friend the late Mr. Pickering, who was in the early days 
of the present Entomological Society, when it held its 
meetings in Old Bond Street, its honorary curator, 
and who was then and always, even when less leisure 
was afforded him from professional duties, a most assi- 
duous and diligent observer of the habits of insects, 
propounded his theory, both in conversation and before 
the meetings of the Society, although he never drew up 
a paper upon the subject, that these females were then 
impregnated, upon which they retired to a hibernaculum, 
and there remained until the breath of a new spring 



HALICTUS. 219 

brought them forth in all the beauty of their gay attire, 
and that it was from their broods deposited thus in the 
spring and early summer,, that the autumnal insects 
were developed. This theory is both plausible and pos- 
sible, and I have no doubt that it is the correct one ; and 
thus is explained the total absence of males at the time 
of the appearance of the females in the foremost portions 
of the year ; this habit we shall find also in the Bombi. 

The flowers they delight in, besides those previously 
named, are among others the ribwort plantain, and the 
bramble, as well as the Umbellifera and the flowers of 
the broom. The females possess two remarkable dis- 
tinctions of structure not found in any of the other bees, 
which consist in an articulated appendage in the centre 
of the front margin of the labrum, and a vertical cleft in 
the terminal segment of the abdomen, both of which 
will necessarily have their uses in the economy of the 
insect, although what these may be has not been dis- 
covered. 

They, like Andrena, are exposed to parasites and 
enemies. The smaller species of Nomada infest their 
smaller kinds, and St. Fargeau tells us that the Sphe- 
codes are also parasitical upon them. The smallest of 
the genus, which is indeed an exceedingly minute insect, 
is subject to a very minute strepsipterous destroyer; 
whether this be a genuine Stylops I am not aware, but 
the supporting insect being so minute, in fact the 
smallest of our bees, how small must^ be the enemy bred 
within it ! Another genus of this order has been found 
by Mr. Dale upon them, and which is figured as the 
genus Elenchus in Curtis^s ' British Entomology.' The 
smaller species are also attacked, upon their return home 
laden, by spiders and ants. Chryses and Hedychra are 



220 BRITISH BEES. 

bred at their expense, and some of the Ichneumons 
attack them, as well as the fossorial Hymenoptera of the 
genera Cerceris, Crabro, ^nd Philanthus, and these 
latter carry them off bodily to furnish their own nests 
with pabulum. Several of the species exhale a rich 
balmy odour, and, like all the Andrenida, they are 
silent on the wing, and their sting is innocuous and not 
painful. The males are very eager in their amours, and 
are not easily repulsed. 

Some of the species vary slightly in the neuration of 
the wings, and this being a rather numerous genus, al- 
though not nearly approaching the extent of Andrena, 
it has been proposed to make use of it for its division, 
but I think this is scarcely required, it not being suffi- 
ciently abundant to cause any inconvenience, the species 
being so distinctly marked in their specific differences by 
the aid of the metallic brilliancy of several of them. I 
have therefore arranged the species in the above list in 
connective order without intermission, and have placed 
in juxtaposition those species which appear the closest 
in affinity. 



b. With two suhmarginal cells to the wings. 

Genus 7. Macropis, Panzer. 
(Plate V. fig. 2 c^ ? .) 

Gen. Char. : Head transverse, as wide as the thorax, 
flattish ; ocelli placed in a very open curve upon the 
vertex ; face flat, but convex in the centre beneath the 
insertion of the antennae; clypeus very slightly convex; 
labrum transverse, narrowly lunulate ; mandibles biden- 
tate ; cibarial apparatus moderately long ; tongue very 



MACROPIS. 221 

acute and fringed with delicate down ; paraglossce barely 
half the length of the tongue^ and acute, their apex 
fringed laterally with down ; labial palpi inserted in a 
deep sinus, filiform, the basal joint the longest, the rest 
diminishing both in length and substance; labium about 
half the length of the entire organ, its inosculation 
emarginate; maxilla hastate, rather longer than the 
tongue ; maxillary palpi six-jointed, the basal joint the 
shortest, the third the longest, the remainder diminish- 
ing gradually in length, and all declining in substance 
from the basal joint. Thorax oval, rather pubescent; 
prothorax transverse, curving to the mesothorax, whose 
bosses are inconspicuous; scutellum transverso-quadrate ; 
post-scutellum transverse linear; metathorax truncated. 
Wings with two submarginal cells, and a third com- 
menced, the second about as long as the first, and re- 
ceiving both the recurrent nervures, the first near its 
commencement, and the second nearer its extremity ; 
legs robust, with the posterior tibiae and planice densely 
clothed externally with short hair ; the plantce broad ; 
the second joint of the tarsus inserted at the lower angle 
of the plantse ; claws bifid. Abdomen subtri angular, 
truncated at its base, not longer than the thorax. 

The MALE differs in having the antenna as long as the 
thorax and curved; the posterior coxa very large and 
robust, the trochanters small and triangular ; the femora 
large and much swollen in the centre, the posterior 
tibiae very large and triangular and convex externally, 
and the plantae longer than the rest of the tarsus, and 
slightly curved beneath longitudinally. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

1. labiata, Panzer, c? ? . 4-4 J lines. 
(Plate V. fig. 2 ^ ? .) 



222 BRITISH BEES. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

The name of this genus comes from fiaKpof;, long, and 
Myjr, face, in allusion to the length of that portion of 
the head, although this assumed discriminative charac- 
teristic is scarcely suitable; this again constitutes 
another of the many instances wherein it would have 
been much preferable to have imposed a name without 
any significancy than one which is not thoroughly ap- 
plicable. It is, indeed, always dangerous to attach a 
name to a new genus which has reference to some indi- 
vidual peculiarity, for it may eventually exhibit itself as 
limited to the one single species or sex to which it was 
originally applied, as to every other subsequently dis- 
covered species in the genus it may be inappropriate. 

Nothing, so far as I am aware, is known of the habits 
of these singular insects, which, I believe, have been 
caught only three times in this country and then only 
the male sex. 

The first, which is in the collection of the British 
Museum, was brought by Dr. Leach from Devonshire ; 
the second was caught in the New Forest by the late 
John Walton, Esq., distinguished for his knowledge of 
the British Curculionida, and who kindly presented it to 
me for my collection when I was at the zenith of my 
enthusiasm for the Hymenoptera, and with that collec- 
tion it passed to Mr. Thomas Desvignes, in whose pos- 
session it remains; and the third was caught by Mr. 
Stevens, at Wey bridge, in Surrey. Why I enter so 
particularly into these circumstances is, that the genus 
is extremely peculiar both for scientific position and for 
structure. In the latter the male is extremely like the 
male of Saropoda and its female is more like the female 
Scopulipedes among the Apidce than one of the An- 



MACROPIS. 223 

drenida, especially in the form of the abdomen and of 
the intermediate and posterior legs, as well as in the 
length of the claws and the low insertion of the posterior 
joints of the tarsi upon their plantse, a peculiarity not 
occurring in another genus of the Andrenidce. 

I have no doubt, also, that they are very musical in 
their flight and are, perhaps, as shrill-winged as is Sa- 
ropoda ; whereas one of the great characteristic specia- 
lities of the Andrenidce is their silence. This genus, 
although restrained within the circuit of the subnormal 
bees by the structure and folding of its tongue, has so 
much of the habit of one of the true Apida that it al- 
most prompts the wish to resuscitate the circular systems 
and place it within its own circle in analogical juxtapo- 
sition to Saropoda in the circle of the Apidce, where 
they might impinge one upon the other. It is not often 
that so rare an insect is at the same time so curious 
and so suggestive. Having been found, there is no 
reason why it may not be again found with due and 
patient diligence ; my own experience has taught me 
how easy it is even in well-hunted ground to make 
rarities common, within almost a stone^s throw of the 
metropolis, at Hampstead, Highgate, and Battersea, 
from which localities in the course of my entomological 
career I have introduced to our fauna many novelties, 
one of which was certainly a remarkable discovery, 
from the last spot named, which it is worth recording. 
A quantity of soil had been removed from the City 
where an artesian well was being bored, and consequently 
from varying depths, and carted thence and cast upon 
the edge of the river-bank at Battersea. The following 
season, from this soil, a thick and prodigious quantity of 
the common mustard plant shot up, and when in flower 



224 BRITISH BEES. 

I happened to be collecting near the spot on the day of 
our gracious Queen^s coronation, when I captured mul- 
titudes of a splendid large Allantus, entirely new to the 
British fauna, and a choice addition to collections. This 
ground had been hunted at all seasons through all bo- 
tanical and entomological time, and neither had the 
mustard plant been found there before nor had the in- 
sect. Whence did they both come ? These observations 
have certainly nothing to do with the subject in hand, 
beyond suggesting that with untiring energy in the 
vicinities indicated where Macropis has been already 
found it may possibly turn up in abundance. 



Genus 8. DasypODA, Latreille. 

Melitta ** c, partly, Kirby. 

(Plate V. fig. 3 c? $ .) 

Gen, Char, : Head transverse ; vertex glabrous ; ocelli 
placed in a curved line ; antenna short, filiform, genicu- 
lated, the scape thickly bearded with long hair and 
scarcely half the length of the flagellum ; face and cly- 
peus densely pubescent, the latter slightly convex ; labrum 
transverse, linear, slightly rounded in front ; mandibles 
arcuate, bidentate, the teeth acute and robust ; cibarial 
apparatus moderately long ; tongue long, very acute, and 
fringed with delicate hair ; paraglossm about one-third 
the length of the tongue, very slender, and acute ; the 
labial palpi inserted upon the junction of the labium, 
very slender, filiform, of uniform thickness, the joints 
subclavate, the basal joint considerably the longest, the 
second joint also long, the two terminal joints much 
shorter and decreasing in length; labium abo&t the 



. DASYPODA. J225 

length of the tongue, its inosculation acutely triangular ; 
maxillae hastate, as long as the tongue ; maxillary palpi 
six-jointed, rather more than half the length of the 
maxillae, slender, the basal joint the most robust, the 
second the longest, the rest declining both in thickness 
and length. Thorax oval, densely pubescent, the divi- 
sions indistinct from its density; scutellum lunulate; 
metathorax subtruncate; wings with two submarginal 
cells and a third commenced, the second receiving both 
the recurrent nervures, the first close to its commence- 
ment and the second just beyond its centre ; legs slender, 
pubescent, especially the tibice and plants, the hair upon 
the posterior pair being extremely dense and long, and 
each hair twisted minutely spirally ; their coxce, trochan- 
ters, and femora also covered with long hair; claws 
bifid, the inner tooth very short. Abdomen oval, the 
basal and fifth segments densely hairy, the superior sur- 
face glabrous and shining, excepting where the white 
decumbent bands broadly edge the three intermediate 
segments. 

The MALE differs in being more densely pubescent, 
especially upon the abdomen, which is not glabrous, 
and in not having the antennce geniculated ; the bands 
of the abdomen are fulvous, and its legs are longer and 
more slender, and it is sexually less hairy, although still 
considerably so. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

1 . hirtipes, Fab., ^^ ? . 6-7 lines. (Plate V. fig. 3 c? ? .) 
Swammerdamella, Kir by. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

This genus is named from the extreme hairiness of 
its posterior legs, Baav^, hairy, ttoO?, 7roB6^,foot or leg. 

Q 



226 BRITISH BEES. 

It is one of the most elegant of our native bees, both 
in form and the extreme congruity of its habiliment. 
This is unfortunately but a bridal raiment, for almost 
as soon as the arduous duties of maternity supervene 
these bright garments fade, and the workday suit im- 
mediately shows the wear and tear produced by the 
labours of life. The male flaunts about longer in the 
freshness of his attire, but he is usually the assiduous 
companion of his spouse, although he does not partici- 
pate in her toils. They are late summer insects, and 
form their burrows upon banks having a southern as- 
pect; these they excavate deeper than does Andr'ena, 
and smooth and polish them internally. They gene- 
rally prefer spots intertangled with shrubs, and at the 
mouth of the cylinder they tunnel they heap up the 
extracted soil, to use a portion for closing it when their 
task is accomplished. In the course of this process, 
especially if a cloud pass over ttie sun, they will come 
forward to the aperture. They collect large quantities 
of pollen, for which the hair upon their posterior 
tibiae and plantse is excellently well adapted both by 
its length and the additional storing power it possesses 
in each individual hair being spirally twisted, although 
they are unprovided with the furniture of hair upon 
the femora and coxse found in the genus Andrence. 
Thus nature likes to vary its mode of accomplishing 
the same object. The details of their nursery processes 
are not known. For their protection their sting is very 
virulent, and also actively employed, as they have many 
enemies, especially amongst the fossorial Hymenoptera, 
whom they stoutly resist to the extent of their strength. 
We are not aware of any special parasites that infest 
them. They are semigregarious in their habits, for 



PANURGUS. 227 

where they occur any quantity of them may be taken. 
They are found in their season in the southern counties, 
the Isle of Wight, and in several parts of Kent and its 
eastern coast, and even as near London as Charlton. 
They seem to prefer the composite flowers, having a 
great liking for the bastard Hawkweed and the Dande- 
lion. A fine series of them forms a great ornament to 
a collection. 



Subfamily 2. Apid^ (Normal Bees), Latreille. 

Syn. Apis, Kirhy. 

Tongue always folded hack in repose. 

Maxillary palpi varying in the number of the joints. 

Section 1. Solitary. 

Subsection 1. Scopulipedes (brusli-legged). 

a. FemorifercB (collectors on entire leg). 

t With' two submarginal cells to the wings. 

Genus 9. PANURGUS, Panzer, 

(Plate VI. fig. I c? ? .) 

Apis * a, Kirhy. 

Ge7i. Char.: Head transversely subquadrate; ocelli 
in a triangle on the vertex, which, as well as the face, is 
convex, the latter between the antennae carinated as far 
as the clypeus; antenna short, subclavate, the second 
joint of the flagellum considerably the longest, the re- 
mainder equal ; clypeus slightly convex ; labrum trans- 
versely quadrate, convex ; mandibles acutely unidentate ; 
cibarial apparatus long; tongue half its entire length, 
gradually acute, and fringed laterally with delicate hair ; 
paraglosscB slender, acute, membranous, not quite half 
the length of the tongue ; labial palpi more than half 

Q 2 



228 BRITISH BEES. 

the length of the tongue, the basal joint longer than 
the two following, the remainder gradually decreasing 
in length, all conterminous; labium half the length of 
the cibarial apparatus, broad; maxilla slender, sub- 
hastate, as long as the tongue; maxillary palpi six- 
jointed, the basal joint robust, subclavate, as is the 
second joint, but more slender, the remainder filiform, 
gradually declining in length. Thorax oval; prothorax 
inconspicuous ; mesothorax with a deep central groove ; 
bosses protuberant ; scutellum and post-scutellum lunu- 
late ; metathorax gibbous ; wings with the marginal 
cell slightly append iculated, two submarginal cells and a 
third commenced, the second receiving both the recur- 
rent nervures, the first close to its commencement and 
the second beyond its centre ; the legs densely pilose, 
the posterior pair having their coxce and trochanters 
beneath, their femora in front, above, the tibiae and 
plantce all round, covered with long hair; claws bifid. 
Abdomen ovate, the base subtruncate, the basal seg- 
ment having a deep central impression at its base, the 
fifth segment fringed with short dense hair, the terminal 
segment with a triangular plate carinated in the centre, 
and fimbriated laterally, and all very slightly con- 
stricted. 

The MALE scarcely differs, except in having the head 
rather more globose and more pubescent ; and the legs, 
although still hairy, much less so than in the female. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

1. Banksiana, Kirby, S ? • 4-5 J lines. 

ursinus, Curtis, iii. 101. (Plate VI. fig. 1 ^ '^ .) 

2. calcaratus, Scopoli, (^ ? . 3-4 lines. 
ursinus, Kirby. 



PANURGUS. 229 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

'navovpyo<; signifies one excessively industrious, at 
least as it is applied here, although it has other less 
meritorious meanings, hut these insects can scarcely be 
considered more energetic than any of their associates ; 
perhaps the contrast made between the bright yellow 
pollen and their lugubrious vestment might give the 
idea of very active collecting, they being usually, upon 
returning from their foray, almost entirely disguised in 
the produce of their excursion. They are rather re- 
markable insects from their intensely black colour and 
their compact active forms ; their square head and short 
clavate antennae give them a sturdy business-like ap- 
pearance. They also are silent on the wing, but being 
at the very van of the present subfamily, forming as 
it were the advanced picket of the Apida, it may be 
considered suitable that they should retain, by way of 
partial disguise, some of the characteristics of the pre- 
ceding subfamily. In many respects, therefore, they 
closely approach Dasypoda : thus their legs are similarly 
furnished with hair, relatively as long and having the 
same spiral twist, and their whole habit is that of one of 
the Andrenida, excepting that their clavate antennae, 
and the folding of their tongue in repose, separate them 
from that subfamily. They are local insects, but extremely 
abundant when fallen upon. I used to find the first 
species upon an elevated plateau, on the south side over- 
hanging the Vale of Health and its large pond at Hamp- 
stead. Every Dandelion, for a wide circuit in the vicinity, 
was crowded with individuals — assiduously collecting, 
in the case of females, but basking in sunny indolence, 
and revelling in the attractions of the flower, in the case 



230 BRITISH BEES. 

of males^ and_, at the same time, their burrowing spot, 
which was not larger than half-a-dozen square yards, 
was swarming with them, coming and going, burrowing 
and provisioning. Very numerous, but not so numerous 
as themselves, were their pretty parasite, the Nomada 
Fabricianttj fine specimens of both sexes of which I have 
constantly captured ; and a remarkable singularity per- 
taining to the latter is, that some seasons it would totally 
fail, and another season present itself sparsely, when, 
after these lapses, it would recur in all its primitive pro- 
lusion, although the Panurgus was every season equally 
present. Both these insects are found during the months 
of June and July, especially about the middle of the 
former. In their burrows, which they perforate verti- 
cally, they usually enclose about six cells, each being 
duly provisioned and the e^g deposited, when each is 
separately closed and the orifice of the cylinder filled up. 
This species is also found in Kent and Surrey, and I 
have no doubt they might be discovered in most of the 
southern counties. The smaller species, which is a good 
deal like a little Tiphia, is remarkable for the peculiarity 
of the male having a projecting process upon its poste- 
rior femora, whence it derives its specific name, calca- 
ratus, which is hardly consistent, as it is not quite the 
right place for a spur. This smaller species is also found 
in Kent, Hampshire, and at Wey bridge, in Surrey, and 
in the Isle of Wight. As well as in the Leontodon, it 
likes to repose in the flowers of the Mouse-ear Hawk- 
weed [Hieracium). 



EUCERA. 231 

b. CrurifercB (coUectors on the shanks and tarsi), 
f With two suhmarginal cells to the wings. 

Genus 10. EUCEEA, Scopoli. 

(Plate YI. fig. 2 c? ? 

Apis ** dl, Kirbj. 

Gen. Char.: Head transverse; vertex concave ; ocelli 
in a curve, and very high up; /«ceflattish; clypeus very- 
convex, hirsute, and fimbriated; /a^rwm transverse-ovate, 
and emarginate in front; mandibles very obtusely and 
inconspicuously bidentate ; tongue very long and slender, 
and gradually acuminating, transversely striated ; pa- 
ra(jloss(R slender, membranous, very acute^ and about 
two-thirds the length of the tongue ; labial palpi mem- 
branous, and about the length of the paraglossse, the 
basal joint linear, broad, longer than the rest united, 
the second about half its length and acuminate, the two 
terminal ones are very short and equal, and articulate 
within the apex of the second joint ; labium less than 
half the length of the tongue, its inosculation concave ; 
maxillm two-thirds the length of the tongue, subhastate; 
maxillary palpi six-jointed, short, less than one-third the 
length of the maxillae, the basal joint robust, the rest 
filiform, and gradually decreasing in length and sub- 
stance. Thorax very pubescent, which conceals its 
divisions; metathorax truncated; wings with two sub- 
marginal cells, the second receiving both the recurrent 
nervures, one near each of its extremities ; legs setose, 
especially the tibiae and plantse, which, in the posterior 
pair is very dense on the exterior of the tibise, and both 
externally and internally upon the plantse, the following 
joints of the posterior tarsi inserted beneath, and within 



233 BRITISH BEES. 

the extremity of their plantse ; the claw-joint being longer 
than the two preceding, and the claws acutely bifid. 
Abdomen oval, convex above, subtruncate at the base, 
where it is thickly pubescent, the other segments gla- 
brous on the disk ; the fifth segment fimbriated with 
decumbent short hair, and the terminal segment having 
a central triangular plate at the sides of which it is rigidly 
setose. 

The MALE differs in having the antennce longer than 
the thorax, filiform, but with their several joints curved, 
the curvature increasing towards the terminal joints, the 
integument of the whole of the flagellum consisting of a 
congeries of minute hexagons, the edges of which are all 
raised, and the whole resembling shagreen ; the legs have 
the usual sexual slighter and extended development, and 
are necessarily less setose ; it is also deficient in the 
transverse whitish bands of decumbent hair upon the 
abdomen, which is more densely pubescent on the first 
and second segments ; and the four terminal joints of 
the posterior tarsi are conterminous with their plantse. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

1. longicornis, Linnieus. 6-7 lines. (Plate VI. fig. 2 c? $ .) 
longicornis, Kirby, 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

This genus derives its name from the great length of 
the antennae in the male, — ev,good or great , Kepa<;, horn. 
The name of the genus is usually given from some 
female characteristic, or from a peculiarity common to 
both sexes, or irrespective of any direct application, but 
here we find it deduced from a feature exclusively mas- 
culine. Instances of the first class we see in Colletes, 



EUCERA. 233 

Halictus, Andrena, Dasypoda, Panurgus, Saropoda, 
Ceratina, CwMorys, Chelostoma, Heriades, Anthocopa, 
and Apathus; of the second class we have Pr'osopis, 
Sphecodes, Macropis, Anthophora, Nomada, Melecta, 
perhaps Epeolus, according to Latreille^s idea, Stelis, 
Anthidium, Osmia, and Bom bus ; the third class com- 
prises in our series merely Cilissa, and in this series the 
male characteristics that have suggested the name are 
just as few, being limited to the present genus. But 
the males among the bees exhibit in many cases strong 
and striking peculiarities which distinguish them from 
their partners. Exclusively of the general distinction 
expressed in their organic difference by the possession 
of one additional joint to the antennae and one more 
segment to the abdomen than is exhibited in the fe- 
males, we find in many cases in these two parts of their 
structure very marked singularities. Great sexual dif- 
ferences in the length of the antennae are not restricted 
to the present genus; in fact, in most of the genera, 
this is the first striking feature, but which becomes 
conspicuously so in some species of Sphecodes, in most 
of the Halicii, in some Nomadae, in Chelosioma, Osmia, 
Apathus, and Bombus. In Eucera and Sphecodes, each 
joint of the flagellum is slightly curved, and in the 
former the surface of those joints appears compounded 
of hexagons. In Chelostoma the antennae, besides being 
longer than in the female, are also very much slighter 
and slightly compressed, and have a structure capable 
of curling upon itself; in the female of this genus the 
organ is clavate ; and in Osmia, besides their length, in 
one species the male has a fringe of hair attached to 
one side along the whole of the organ. In other cases, 
where the antennae are not remarkably longer in the 



234 BRITISH BEES. 

male they have extra development by becoming thicker, 
as in Melecta ; and in Megachile the terminal joint of 
their antennae is laterally dilated and compressed. In 
scarcely any case are they geniculated at the scape in the 
male, as they are in the female. The other genera with 
clavate antennae have the same structure in both sexes, 
as in Panurgus and Ceratina. Remarkable peculiarities 
in the terminal ventral segment or segments of the male 
may be found most conspicuously developed in Halidus, 
CcBlioxys, Anthidium, Chelostoma, Heriades, Ostnia, Apa- 
thus, Bombus, and Apis. In CcBlioxys and Anthidium, and 
some of the Osmice, this sex is further furnished with a 
series of projecting spines, processes, or serrations at the 
apex of the terminal dorsal segment. In Chelostoma, the 
ventral structure of the male is very singular, the *apex 
being adapted to a mucro at the base which permits the 
insect to curl up this portion of the body similarly to 
its antennae, the furcated extremity of the abdomen 
fitting, when thus folded, upon the mucro. It is as 
well to draw observation to these peculiarities, which 
give additional interest to the study of the group. 

The genus Eucera appears in May and June. In 
some parts they are found in large colonies; although I 
have seen them abundant I never found them in this 
gregarious condition, and I have usually discovered 
them frequenting loamy and sandy soils ; they burrow 
a cell six or eight inches deep, form an oval chamber at 
its extremity, which as well as the sides of the cylinder 
leading to it they make extremely smooth, and by some 
process prevent its absorbing the mixture of honey and 
pollen which they store for the supply of the larva, and 
each contains but one young one. These, having full 
fed, lie in a dormant state throughout the winter and 



EUCERA. 235 

do not change into pupae until mid-spring, and speedily 
transform into the imago, which, until fully matured, is 
closely in every part and limb covered with a thin silky 
pellicle, wherein it lies as in a shroud, but at its appointed 
time, regulated by some influence of which we have no 
cognizance, active life becomes developed, it then casts 
off its envelope and comes forth to revel in the sun- 
shine, in close companionship with a partner which its 
instinct promptly teaches it to find. The largest of our 
native Nomadee is its parasite the N. secccincia, and 
which seems wholly restricted to it, but which is often 
even rare in places where the Eucera abounds. The 
female, like those of the rest of the bees, is no time- 
waster, but flies steadily to and fro in her occupation of 
provisioning her nest, and the male often accompanies 
her in these expeditions, gallantly winging about with 
extreme velocity as if to divert his sedulous companion 
in the fatigue of her toil, by his evolutions and his 
music, which is very sonorous. And on a fine May day 
it is extremely pleasant in a picturesque situation to sit 
and watch the operations of these very active insects. 
In their recent state, when just evolved from the nidus, 
they are very elegant, being covered with a close silky 
down, which labour and exposure soon abrades. It is 
said that this bee deserts her nest when she finds the 
stranger's e^^ deposited on the provender laid up in 
store, or when she meets with the Nomada within, which 
sometimes lays two eggs in one cell. To this she does 
not deliver battle, as does the Anthophora to Melecta, 
but patiently vacates the nest, leaving it to the service 
of the parasite, which is also supposed to close it her- 
self, having been caught with clay encrusted upon her 
posterior legs. For the accuracy of this supposition I 



236 BRITISH BEES. 

cannot vouch, never having observed the circumstance, 
nor have I seen reason to abandon the idea that the pa- 
rasite has no instinct for labour of any kind, — the pre- 
sence of the clay being, I expect, merely accidental, for 
it is notorious that these insects have an overruling pre- 
dilection for keeping themselves extremely clean. 



ft With three suhmarginal cells to the toings. 

Genus 2. Anthophora, Latreille. 

(Plate VI. fig. 3, and Plate VII. fig. I.) 

Apis ** d, 2 <?, Kirby. 

Gen. Char,: Head transverse, nearly as wide as the 
thorax ; vertex depressed ; ocelli placed in a curved line 
upon its pos'terior margin; antenna short, subclavate, 
basal joint of flagellura globose, its second joint longer 
than the scape, very slender, the rest of the joints 
subequal; face flattish; clypeus protuberant; labrum 
quadrate, convex; mandibles distinctly bidentate and 
obtuse ; cibarial apparatus very long ; tongue very long, 
transversely striated, and with a small knob at the ex- 
tremity ; paraglossae about one-third the length of the 
tongue, acuminate; labial palpi slender, more than half 
the length of the tongue, membranous, the basal joint 
as long again as the remainder, the second joint very 
slender and very acute; the two terminal joints very 
short and subclavate, inserted before the extremity of 
the second joint ; labium short, one-fourth the length of 
the tongue, its inosculation concave; maxill(2 hastate, 
not so long as the tongue; maxillary palpi one-third 
the length of the maxillse, six-jointed, the basal joint 
very robust, the rest filiform, the second the longest, 



ANTHOPnORA. 237 

and all the rest decreasing in length and substance. 
Thorax oval, densely pubescent, which conceals its 
divisions; metathorax truncated; wings with three 
submarginal cells, closed, the second receives the first 
recurrent nervure in its centre, and the third, which 
bulges externally, receives the second at its extremity ; 
legs setose, the exterior of the posterior tibiae and 
plantae moderately so, and the interior of the latter also 
densely setose; the second joint of the posterior tarsi 
inserted beneath and within the termination of their 
plantse; the claw joint longer than the two preceding; 
claws bifid, the inner tooth distant from the external. 
Abdomen ovate, subpubescent, the fifth segment densely 
fimbriated and the terminal segment with an emarginate 
appendage. 

In the MALES the antennae are very siihilar, but the 
mandibles are more acutely bidentate, and with the 
exception of the form of the legs, the general aspect is 
like the female; the legs, although setose, are less con- 
spicuously so, the intermediate tarsi in the first section 
of the genus being longer than the rest of the entire leg, 
and are fringed externally with very long hair, or it is 
restricted to the plantse of that leg and then it is short 
and very rigid ; the entire limb stretched out extends 
beyond the widest expansion of the superior wings. 
The ABDOMEN is also less retuse than in the female, at 
its basal segment. 

In the second division of this genus, of which Antho- 
phora furcata may be considered to be the type, the 
general habit is precisely the same, but the insects are 
not so pubescent, and there is a greater similarity be- 
tween the sexes. The intermediate legs also, although 
long in the male, are not so extremely long as they are 
in the first section. 



238 BRITISH BEES. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

§ Males with elongate tufted intermediate tarsi, and differing from 
female in colour. 

1. retusa, Linnseus, c^ ? . 6 lines. (Plate VI. fig. 3 

Haivorthana, Kirby. 
Haworthana, Curtis, viii. 357. 

2. acervorum., Fabricius, S ? • 6-8 lines. 
reiusa, Kirby. 

§§ Males without elongate tufted intermediate tarsi, concolorous with 
their females. 

3. furcata, Panzer, cT ? . 5-6 lines. (Plate VII. 

fig. 1 c^ ? .) 
furcata, Kirby. 

4. quadrimaculata, Panzer, c^ ? . 4-5 lines. 
vulpina, Kirby. 

subglobosa, Kirby. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

The name avOo^, (j)oop (j)copo<;, flower-rifler, would 
be as suitable for any other genus of bees, and therefore 
may be classed with those names which have no explicit 
signification. 

The two divisions which our native species of this 
genus form, might very consistently constitute two ge- 
nera, differing so much as they do both in habit and 
habits. In the first section the males totally differ from 
their females, the latter being black and the pubescence 
of their partners fulvous, and whose intermediate legs 
are so much longer, and are decorated besides with tufts 
of hair upon their plantse, neither peculiarity being 
found in those of the second section^ Avhich conform 



ANTHOPHORA. 239 

more regularly to the ordinary type of structure. The 
first section also nidificate gregariously, forming enor- 
mous colonies which consist of many hundreds ; whereas 
the second are solitary nidificators, and at most half-a- 
dozen may be found within as many square yards of 
territory, and one species, the A. f areata, diverges con- 
siderably from the ordinary habits of the genus, and 
closely approaches those of the foreign genus Xylocopa, 
but its structure necessarily retains it within the boun- 
daries of the genus. All these insects exhibit the pecu- 
liar characteristic of the Scopulipedes, in the insertion of 
the second joint of the posterior tarsi at the very bottom 
of their plantse, conjunctively with the polliuiferous 
scopa, placed externally upon their tibiae and plantae, in 
which characteristics the Andrenoid Macropis remark- 
ably resembles them, and which I have noticed in my 
remarks upon that genus. 

The first section burrows in banks, where their colo- 
nies are extremely numerous. In the tunnels which 
they form they construct several elliptical cells which 
they line with a delicate membrane of a white colour, 
formed by a secretion or saliva derived from the di- 
gestion of either the pollen or the honey which they 
consume. Each cell when formed is stored as usual, 
and the eg^ deposited, and then it is closed. There is 
but little variation in these processes among all the 
solitary bees, excepting in the case of the artisan bees 
and the more elaborate processes of Colletes, in which, 
however, the casing is merely thicker, arising from 
several layers of the coating membrane. The perfect 
insects make their appearance during the spring and 
summer months, their successive maturity being the 
result of the previous summer and autumn deposit of 



2iO BRITISH BEES. 

eggs. They pass the winter and spring in the larva 
state, and undergo their transformations into pupa and 
imago with but slight interval, and only shortly before 
the appearance of the perfect insect. When first pre- 
senting themselves they are certainly very handsome 
insects, and if carefully killed preserve their beauty for 
many years in the cabinet. I have found the retusa, 
Linn., (Kirby's Haworthana^ in enormous profusion at 
Hampstead Heath, indeed, so numerous were they, that 
late in the afternoon, upon approaching the colony, they, 
in returning home, would strike as forcibly against me 
as is often done by Melolontha vulgaris or Geotrupes 
stercorarius. In equal abundance I have found the 
A. acervorum at Charlton, where I have experienced 
a similar battery. This is the insect which Gilbert 
White, in his letters from Selborne, describes as having 
found in numbers at Mount Caburn, near Lewes, a spot 
I have often visited in my schoolboy days. This sec- 
tion is subject to the parasitism of the genus Melecia, 
whose incursions are very repugnant to them, and which 
they exhibit in very fierce pugnacity, for if they catch 
the intruder in her invasion they will draw her forth and 
deliver battle with great fury. I have seen both the 
combatants rolling in the dust, the combat and escape 
made perhaps easier to the Melecta by the load the 
Anthophora was bearing home. Upon the larva also of 
this bee it is said that the larva of the Heteromerous 
genus Melo'e is nurtured ; this I have never been able to 
verify, but I believe the fact is fully confirmed. This 
beetle is closely allied to the Cantharides, or blister- 
beetles, and it itself exudes a very acrimonious yellow 
liquid when touched or irritated. Two of the Chalci- 
did(B also infest their larvae, which they destroy ; one is 



ANTHOPHORA. 241 

the MeliitoUa, named thus from its preying upon bees ; 
it, like the majority of its tribe, is exceedingly minute, 
and of a shining dark green metallic colour. It is pe- 
culiar from having its lateral eyes simple, and in possess- 
ing besides three ocelli. The other genus is Monodonto- 
meris, an equally small insect, which, although living 
upon the larva of Anthophora, is equally preyed upon by 
that of the Melittobia. The universal scourge, Forficula, 
is a great devastator of these colonies, where, of course, 
it revels in its destructive propensities. 

The insects of the second division I have never been 
able to track to their burrows, but have always caught 
them either on the wing or on flowers, especially upon 
those of the common Mallow, and I have found both spe- 
cies all round London. They are said also to frequent the 
Dead Nettle {Lamium purpureum). The A. quadrima- 
culata burrows in banks, and its processes are scarcely 
different from those of the preceding species, only its 
habits are solitary. In flight it is exceedingly rapid, 
and thus much resembles Saropoda. But the A.furcata 
bores into putrescent wood, in which it forms a longi-- 
tudinal pipe subdivided into nine or ten oval divisions, 
separated from each other by agglutinated scrapings of 
the same material, very much masticated, the closing of 
each forming a sharp sort of cornice ; each of these cells 
is about half an inch in length, and three-tenths of an 
inch in diameter, the separations between them being 
about a line thick. These pipes or cylinders run parallel 
to the sid.es of the wood thus bored, an angle being 
made both at its commencement and its termination, 
and thus the latter permits the ready escape of the de- 
veloped imago nearest that extremity, which being the 
first deposited, that cell being the first constructed, it 

R 



242 BRITISH BEES. 

necessarily becomes the first transmuted, and thus has 
not to wait for the egress of all above it. 

All these insects are usually accompanied by their 
partners in their flight, and their amorous intercourse 
takes place upon the wing. 



Genus 12. SaropodA, Latreille. 

(Plate VII. fig. 2 c? ? .) 

Apis ** d^ 2, a, Kirby. 

Gen. Char. : Head transverse, as wide as the thorax, 
very pubescent ; ocelli placed in a triangle, the anterior 
one low towards the face ; vertex slightly concave ; an- 
tenncB short, filiform, basal joint of flagellum globose, 
the second joint subclavate and the longest, the rest 
short and equal ; face flattish, short ; clypeus forming 
an obtuse triangle, slightly convex; labrum quadrate, 
with the angles rounded ; mandibles obtusely bidentate ; 
ciba7'ial apparatus long; tongue very long and slender, 
but gradually expanding towards half its length and then 
as gradually tapering to the extremity and terminating 
in a small knob, its sides throughout being fimbriated 
with short delicate down; paragloss(B one-third its 
length, membranous, very delicate, and tapering to a 
point; labial palpi slender, membranous, the joints con- 
terminous, the basal joint more than half the length of 
the tongue, the remainder short, the second the longest 
of these three, and all tapering to the pointed apical 
one ; labium scarjcely one-third as long as the tongue, 
rather broad, bifid at its inosculation ; maxillce nearly as 
long as the tongue, gradually diminishing from its basal 
sinus to a point at its extremity ; maxillary palpi four- 



SAROPODA. 243 

jointed, about one-third the length of the maxillae, the 
basal joint short, robust, the second tapering from its 
base to the third joint, which is rather shorter and sub- 
clavate, the terminal joint slender. Thorax very pu- 
bescent, rendering its divisions inconspicuous ; scutellum 
and post-scutellum lunulate and convex; metathorax 
truncated ; wings as in Anthophora, with three marginal 
cells closed, the second forming a truncated triangle, 
and receiving the first recurrent nervure near its centre, 
the third bulging outwardly and receiving the second 
recurrent nervure at its extremity ; legs very setose, 
especially the posterior tibiae externally, and their plantse 
both externally and internally, but the setse are longer 
on the exterior of the joint, the second joint of these 
tarsi inserted beneath, and before the termination of 
their plantse, the terminal joint longer than the two 
preceding ; claivs bifid, the inner tooth distant from the 
apex. AbdOxMen subovate, very convex, truncated at its 
base, where it is densely pubescent, the fifth segment fim- 
briated with stiff setse, and the terminal segment having 
a central triangular plate with rigid setse at its sides. 

The male scarcely differs, excepting in the charac- 
teristic sexual disparities of slightly longer antennae, and 
considerably longer intermediate tarsi, whose apical joint 
is very clavate. 

native species. 
1. bimaculata, Panzer. ^ ? . 4-5 lines. (Plate 
VII. fig. 2 c? ? .) 

bimaculata, Kirby. 

rot/undataj Kirby. 

general observations. 
The name of this genus is as applicable to the sub- 

R 2 



244 BRITISH BEES. 1 

section as to the genus itself, adpo^j brush, ttov^ tto-So?, 
a foot, in allusion to their polliniferous posterior legs. 

We have but one species, but it is very characteristic; 
for, although retaining several of the features of the 
second division of Anthophora (in the colouring of the 
face it participates with the males of both divisions), 
yet has it still a marked physiognomy of its own; it 
retains the normal colouring of bees generally, but its 
strongest distinction from that division oi Anthophora 
is the shortness of the antennae in the female, as in the 
length of the intermediate legs of the male it would 
seem to form a link between the two divisions, could a 
distinct genus stand in such a position, and would al- 
most import the necessity of elevating that division to 
generic rank, as hinted at in the observations under 
Anthophora. In the large development of its claws it 
seems to point to an economy somewhat differing from 
that second division, but nobody appears to have traced 
it to its nidus. I have often captured it at Battersea 
upon the Mallow, together with A. quadrimaculata, but 
the singular velocity of its flight might indicate a very 
distant domicile, — in a few minutes it could traverse 
miles. The electrical vivacity and rich opaline tint of 
its eyes has been often observed, but this, unfortunately, 
fades with death ; yet so marked is it that it has called 
forth the distinct observation of a Panzer and a Kirby. 
Besides the Mallow it has been observed to frequent the 
Heaths, and were its habits better known would be found, 
I have no doubt, to visit many other flowers, for Curtis 
took it in the Isle of Wight sleeping in the great Knap- 
weed, Centaur ea scabiosa. I have never caught it laden. 

I have hazarded the conjecture in a different part of 
this work that the music of the bees mi^ht be attuned 



CERATINA. 245 

to a musical scale by associating the different species in 
the due gradation of their varying tones. Here we have 
one of the most musical of the tribe^ — not a monotonous 
dull sleepy hum^ but a fine contralto, the very Patti 
amongst the bees. But it is rapidity of motion which 
in them intensifies the note they chant, and the velo- 
city of the flight of this insect is something remarkable. 
They dart about with almost the rapidity of a flash of 
lightning, and this swiftness of approach and retreat 
modulates their accents. 

Under the head " Macropis ^^ I have pointed to some 
strong resemblances between this genus and that. 



Genus 13. CeratinA, Latreille, 

(Plate VII. fig. 3 c^ ? .) 

Apis ^*d 2, a, Kirby. 

Gen. Char. : Head transverse, convex, glabrous; ocelli 
placed in a triangle on the vertex, which is, as well as 
the face, convex ; antennae short, subclavate, each in- 
serted in a separate deep cavity in the centre of the face, 
the first joint of the flagellura globose, the second the 
longest of all and slender at its base, but all gradually 
enlarging to the extremity; clypeus very gibbous; la- 
brum quadrate, convex ; cibarial apparatus long ; tongue 
long and tapering, and with a minute knob at its ex- 
tremity ; paragloss(B obsolete ; labial palpi three-fourths 
as long as the tongue, the two first joints membranous 
and diminishing in width, the second joint rather shorter 
than the basal one and acute at its extremity, and exter- 
nally before its termination the two very short terminal 
ones are inserted ; labium half the length of the tongue. 



246 BRITISH BEES. 

with a lozenge-shaped inosculation ; maxill(2 as long as 
the tongue^ broad at the base, whence it abruptly acu- 
minates to the slender apex ; maxillary palpi six-jointed, 
filiform, the three first joints subequal, the three ter- 
minal gradually decreasing in length. Thorax oval, 
glabrous ; prothorax inconspicuous ; mesothorax with a 
central basal groove, the bosses conspicuous and shin- 
ing; scutellum and post-scutellum lunulate; metathorax 
subtruncate ; wings with three submarginal cells and a 
fourth slightly commenced, the second in the form of a 
truncated triangle, the third considerably larger than 
the second, and each receiving a recurrent nervure just 
beyond the centre ; legs plumose but not densely so, the 
hair very long within the posterior tibise, but denser 
and shorter on its exterior; the posterior plantce also 
plumose, and all the joints of the posterior tarsi conter- 
minous; claws bifid. Abdomen glabrous, subclavate, 
very convex above and flat beneath, subtruncate at the 
base, and the basal segments slightly constricted. 

The male scarcely differs, excepting in the clypeus 
being less gibbous, the legs not plumose, and the sixth 
segment of the abdomen carinated in the centre towards 
its extremity, and impending over the seventh, which 
is transversely gibbous, then depressed, and with an ob- 
tuse process at its extremity. 

native species. 

1. ccerulea, Villers, c^ ? . 2-3 lines. (Plate VII. 

fig. 3 c^ ? .) 
cyanea, Kirby. 

2. albilabris, Fabricius, c^ $ , 2J lines. 

general observations. 
This genus is named from the presence of a little 



CERATINA. 



247 



horn between its antennae, Keparivr], a horn. Some 
foreign entomologists, especially Latreille and Le Pelle- 
tier de St. Fargeau, have considered it to be parasitical, 
but that it is not so we have the authority of the Mar- 
quis Spinola, of Genoa, confirmed by the testimony of 
Mr. Thwaites, a very accurate observer, in the vicinity of 
Bristol, where the insect is not at all uncommon, al- 
though extremely rare in most other parts, and conse- 
quently usually a desideratum to cabinets, from its great 
beauty both of form and colour, notwithstanding that it 
is so very small in size. It has also been found in other 
localities, as at Birchwood, where the late Mr. Bambridge 
used to take it, and as near London as Charlton, at 
feoth which places I have no doubt it might frequently 
be found were it carefully looked for, but the practised 
entomological eye is often wanting to detect an insect 
unless it be conspicuously present. Its usual nidus is a 
bramble or briar stick, from which it excavates the pith, 
and this it has been frequently observed doing, and both 
sexes have been repeatedly bred from such sticks. We 
have no notice of any peculiarity in its mode of form- 
ing its cells, which may resemble that of such wood- 
boring genera as Chelostoma and Heriades, although its 
structure would intimate a closer affinity to the habits of 
the exotic genus Xylocopa ; nor is there extant any ac- 
count of the process or time occupied in the development 
of its young. Spinola's notion, from not seeing the 
sufficiency of the hair upon the posterior tibiae for the 
purpose, assumed that the pollen was conveyed home 
on the forehead and between the antennse, he having 
caught an insect with some pollen accidentally incrusted 
there in the insect's honey-seeking excursion. The 
hair upon these legs is very sparse, it is true, but then it 



248 BRITISH BEES. 

is very long, and the quantity of pollen required for the 
nurture of the larva is evidently small, from its having 
been observed that the store upon which the e^^ is de- 
posited is semiliquid, thus preponderating in the admix- 
ture of honey. 

That it has not been caught laden with pollen upon 
its legs has no weight against the fact of its non-para- 
sitism, for it is not always that the excursions of bees 
are made for the purpose of collecting pollen. Honey 
is as necessary to their economy — and in this case per- 
haps more so — as pollen, and the only way to determine 
the fact of its carrying pollen, corroboratively, would 
be when knowing that one of these bees has visited a 
bramble stick — its presumptive nidus, — to watch the 
stick very patiently for the insect's return from every 
journey until it came back laden; the presence of 
pollen upon its legs would surely be indicated by the 
difference of its colour from the ordinary dark hue of 
the little labourer. 

We have already noticed bees with metallic hues 
among the Halicti, and there are slight indications of it 
in some of the Andrenas, for instance, in the A. cinerea 
and the A. nigro-dsnea, etc., but in none hitherto so 
absolutely is it exhibited as in this genus. The preva- 
lent colour of the bees, that is to say, the ground colour 
of the integument, and not the fleeting one of the pu- 
bescence, is black or brown, but here we have a positive 
metallic tinge, which we shall again come across in 
many shades and hues in the genus Osmia. 

A second species of the genus was brought from 
Devonshire by Dr. Leach, and is in the collection of the 
British Museum, but no other specimens of the same 
species have since been found. 



NOMA.DA. 249 

The only flower which it has been noticed that they 
frequent is the Viper's Bugloss [Echium vulgare). 



Subsection 2. Ntjdipedes (naked-legged Cuckoo Bees), 
a. With three suhmarginal cells to the wings. 

Genus 14. NOMADA, Fabricius. 

(Plates VIII., IX., X.) 

Gen. Char.: Head transverse; ocelli in a triangle on 
the vertex; antennae filiform, scarcely geniculated, the 
scape short, the basal joint of the flagellum subglobose, 
the second joint clavate, the remainder subequal ; face 
flat, or slightly concave, carinated longitudinally in the 
centre between the insertion of the antennae; clypeus 
subtriangular, convex, deflected at the lateral angles; 
labrum subcircular, very gibbous and protuberant; 
mandibles acute or subbidentate ; tongue long, acute; 
paraglosscs about one-fourth its length, acute; labial 
palpi two-thirds the length of the tongue, the two basal 
joints membranous, the basal one as long as the rest 
united, and tapering to its extremity, the second joint 
less than half the length of the first, and not wider at 
its base than the apex of the first joint, and tapering 
like that to its end, where it is acute, the third joint 
short, subclavate, and the terminal one half the length 
of the preceding, very slender and linear; labium about 
one-half the length of the tongue, and at its inosculation 
produced obtusely in the centre; maxilla subhastate, 
about the length of the tongue; maxillary palpi six- 
jointed, the basal joint short, robust, subclavate, the 
second the longest, and with the rest tapering in sub- 
stance and diminishing in length to the extremity, the 



250 BRITISH BEES. 

terminal joint being very little shorter than the preced- 
ing. Thorax ovate ; prothorax inconspicuous^ or distinct 
and angulated laterally; mesothorax glabrous^ deeply 
punctulated ; its bosses conspicuous and prominent; 
scutellum divided into two very prominent tubercles; 
post-scutellum linear, convex; metathorax with a tri- 
angular space at its base, and declining to the insertion 
of the abdomen; wings with three submarginal cells, 
and a fourth very slightly commenced, the first as long 
as the two following, and each of which receives a re 
current nervure about its centre ; legs subspinose exter 
nally on the tibiae, and not polliniferous ; claws of tarsi 
small and not bifid. Abdomen oval, glabrous, shining 
terminal segment triangular, with its sides ridged. 

The male scarcely difiers, excepting in sometimes 
being more profusely adorned with colour, but this is not 
always the case, the female being often the most ornate. 
There are very slight dififerences in the antennae in the 
sexes^ which may be readily associated together. 

native species. 

§ Witli filiform antennce. 

1. sex-fasciata. Panzer, ^ ? . 5-6 lines. (Plate 

VIII. fig. 3 cT ? .) 
Schajferella, Kirby. 
connexa, Kirby. 

2. Goodemana, Kirby, S ? • 4-5 lines. (Plate VIII. 

fig. 1 c? ? •) 
? succincta, Panzer. 

3. alternata, Kirby, ^ ? . 4-5 lines. 
Marshamella, Kirby. 

4. Lathburiana, Kirby, (^ ?. 4-54 lines. (Plate 

VIII. fig. 2 c? ? .) 



NOMADA. 251 

5. vana, Panzer, c^ ?. 4-4i lines. 
varia, Kirby. 

fucata, Kirby. 

6. ruficornis, Linnaeus, c^ ? . 
7'uficorms, Kirby. 
leucophthalma, Kirby. 
fiava, Kirby. 

7. lateralis, Panzer, S ? • 4-44 lines. (Plate X. 

fig. 3 c^ ? .) 

8. ochrostoma, Kirby, ^ ? . 4-4i lines. 
Hillana, Kirby. 

9. signata, Jurine, S ? • 4-5 lines. (Plate IX. 

fig. 1 c? ? .) 

10. borealis, Zetterstedt, S ? • 3^-5 lines. 

11. lineola, Panzer, c? ? • 4-6 lines. 
cornigera, Kirby. 
subcornuta, Kirby. 

Caprece, Kirby. 
sex-cincta, Kirby. 

12. xanthostida, Kirby, S ? • 2-2| lines. 

13. flavo -guttata, Kirby, c^ ? . 2-3 lines. (Plate IX. 

fig. 3c? ?.) 

14. furva, Panzer, S ? • 2-2^ lines. 
rufocincta, Kirby. 
Sheppardana, Kirby. 

Dalii, Curtis. 

15. Germanica, Panzer, c? ? 4 lines. 
ferruginata, Kirby. 

16. Fabriciana, Linnseus, S ? • 34-5 lines. (Plate 

IX. fig. 2 (? ?.) 
Fabriciella, Kirby. 
quadrinotata, Kirby. 

17. armata, Schaeffer, S ? • 5-54 lines. 



252 BRITISH BEES. 

Kirbiij Stephens. 

§ § With suhclavate antennce. 

18. JacobeaSy Panzer, S ? • 4-^4 lines. (Plate X. 

%. 1 c? ? .) 
Jacobeae, Kirby. 
flavopicta, Kirby. 

19. Solidaginis, Panzer, S ? • 3^-4 lines. (Plate X. 

fig. 2 c^ $ .) 
picta, Kirby. 
rufopicta, Kirby. 

20. Roberjeotianttj Panzer, 3" ? . 3 lines. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

This genus was named by Fabricius from the Nomades, 
a pastoral Scythian tribe, in allusion to the assumed 
wandering habits of the insects, and it is the fact indeed 
that they are usually found leisurely hovering about 
hedgerows, or the banks enclosing fields, or about the 
metropolis or nidus of any bee upon which they are 
parasitical. They are the gayest of all our bees, their 
colours being red or yellow intermixed with black, in 
bands or spots; they are also very elegant in form, 
which is after the type of that of the most normal An- 
dreniddB, and to which they have a further affinity by 
the silence of their flight, and by their parasitism upon 
many of the species of that subfamily. From their 
very general resemblance to wasps in colour they are 
often mistaken for wasps, and are popularly called wasp- 
bees, although they have none of the virulence of that 
vindictive tribe, for although all the females are armed 
with stings, they are not prompt in their use, or if 
roused to defence the puncture is but slight. In addi- 



NOMADA. 253 

tion to their prettlness of colour and elegance of form, 
they have a further attraction in the agreeable odours 
they emit, sometimes of a balmy or balsamical, and 
sometimes of a mixed character, and often as sweet as 
tlie pot-pourri, and occasionally pleasantly pungent. A 
fine string of specimens of the several species is a great 
ornament to a collection, but to secure this in its per- 
fection some care is required in the mode of killing 
them. Their colours are best permanently retained by 
suffocating them with sulphur, which fixes the reds and 
yellows in all their natural and living purity. My 
method was in my collecting excursions to convey with 
me a large store of pill-boxes of various sizes, and as 
I captured insects in my green gauze bag-net, I trans- 
ferred them separately to these boxes. When home 
again I lifted the lids slightly on one side and placed as 
many as would readily go beneath a tumbler, and then 
fumigated them with the sulphur. This is a better 
plan than killing them with crushed laurel- leaves, for it 
leaves the limbs much longer flexible for the purposes 
of setting, whereas the laurel has a tendency to make 
them rigid, and this rigidity is extremely difficult to 
relax, whereas the setting of those killed with sulphur, 
if they are kept in a cool place, may be deferred for a 
few days, until leisure intervene to permit it, and even 
then if they become stiffened they are readily relaxed 
for the purpose. 

A division might very consistently be established in 
the genus by the separation of those which have sub- 
clavate antennae, and the segments of whose abdomen 
are slightly constricted; these also are more essentially 
midsummer insects, and usually frequent the Ragwort. 
This is the only genus of parasites amongst the true 



254j BRITISH BEES. 

bees whose parasitism is directed exclusively upwards 
in the scientific arrangement ; the parasitism of all the 
rest of the genera of Nudipedes bears upon the genera 
below them in the series. Some of the species of the 
NomaddB attack more than one species or one genus, 
but the majority are strictly limited to but one genus 
and one species. The genera obnoxious to this annoy- 
ance are Andrena, Halictus, Panurgus, and Eucera ; the 
latter two have but one of these enemies each, the No- 
mada Fabriciana infesting the Panurgus Banksianus, 
and the N. sexfasciata frequenting the Eucera longicornis. 
Under Panurgus I have alluded to the relative abun- 
dance of the parasite at the metropolis of its sitos. As 
far as known, the other species are thus distributed. 
Those frequenting several indifferently are the Nomada 
alternatay Lathburiana, succincta, and ruficornis, which 
are found to infest Andrena Trimmerana, tibialis, Afze- 
liella, and fulva, without displaying any choice ; whereas 
others confine themselves to one sitos exclusively : thus 
Nomada ochrostoma limits itself to Andrena labialis ; 
N. Germanica to A. fulvescens ; N. lateralis to A. Ion- 
gipes ; N. baccata to A. argentata ; N. borealis to A. 
Clarkella ; N. Fabriciana to Panurgus Banksianus ; and 
N. sexfasciata to Eucera longicornis. Observation has 
not yet fully determined whither each species of Nomada 
conveys its parasitism ; several infest the Halicti, espe- 
cially the smaller species ; the association of these it is 
difficult to determine; I have usually found several 
of the small Halicti burrowing together in the vertical 
surface of an enclosure bank, and several of the small 
Nomada hovering cautiously opposite, now alighting and 
entering a burrow, then retreating backwards and wing- 
ing off. I lost patience in endeavouring to combine the 



MELECTA. 255 

species by the aid of blades of grass or slight straws 
thrust into the aperture, but the crumbling nature of 
the soil frustrated my wishes, and I abandoned the at- 
tempt. This field of observation is widely open to the 
exertions of observing naturalists, and the novelty of 
their discoveries would well reward the toil of the un- 
dertaking, for it would not be long before they gathered 
fruit. 



Genus 15. Melecta, Latreille. 

(PlateXI. fig. 1(^ $.) 

Apis ** a, Kirby. 

Gen. Char. : Head transverse, scarcely so wide as the 
thorax; ocelli in a triangle on the vertex; antennce fili- 
form, rather robust, and but slightly geniculated, the 
scape not longer than the two following joints, the se- 
cond joint of the flagellum the longest and clavate, the 
rest short, nearly equal, and the' terminal one laterally 
compressed at its extremity ; face flat, very pubescent ; 
clypeus short transverse, lunulate, convex ; labrum irre- 
gularly gibbous, obovate ; mandibles strongly bidentate ; 
tongue long, slightly expanding towards the middle and 
thence tapering to the extremity, and with a central 
line ; paraglosscB scarcely half the length of the tongue, 
almost setiform, but robust at the base ; labial palpi 
more than half the length of the tongue, the two first 
joints membranous and very slender, the first longer 
than the rest united, the second about half the length 
of the first, and terminating acutely, the third not more 
than one-fourth the length of the second, and inserted 
laterally before its termination, the fourth about as long 



256 BRITISH BEES. 

as the third, and, like it, subclavate, both being more 
robust than the second ; labium not half the length of 
the tongue, and acutely triangular at its inosculation ; 
maxillce subhastate, not quite so long as the tongue ; 
mascillary palpi five-jointed, about one-third the length 
of the inaxillse, the basal joint clavate, short, and robust ; 
the second elongate, subclavate, the remainder gradually 
but slightly diminishing in substance and length, the 
terminal not so long as the basal joint. Thorax very 
retuse, and its divisions scarcely distinguishable ; scu- 
tellum bidentate ; metathorax al)ruptly truncated ; wings 
with three closed submarginal cells, the second the 
smallest, irregularly triangular, and receiving the first 
recurrent nervure just beyond its centre, the third sub- 
marginal considerably larger than the second, sublunu- 
late, but angulated externally and receiving th#^ second 
recurrent nervure about its centre ; the legs robust and 
spinulose, especially the tibiae externally (where they are 
very convex) and the femora beneath ; the claws short, 
strong and bifid. The abdomen conical, truncated, and 
retuse at its base, the apical segment with a central 
triangular plate ridged laterally, and fimbriated at its 
sides with strong setse. 

The MALE scarcely differs in personal appearance, 
excepting that its antennse are more robust and its 
ornamental pubescence is more profuse, its posterior 
tibise very robust and almost triangular, and the termi- 
nal segment of its abdomen slightly emarginate and con- 
cave at its extremity. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

1. punctata, Fabricius, ^ ^ . 6 lines. (Plate XI. 
fig. 1 c^ ? .) 



MELECTA. 257 

? Atropos, Newman. 

P Lachesis, Newman. ^ 

2. armata, Panzer, J ? . 6-7 lines. 
punctata, Kirby. 
? Tisiphone, Newman. 
? Alecto, Newman. 
? Clotho, Newman. 
? Megcera, Newman. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

Named from ^eXi, honey, Xeyo), I collect ; which is 
scarcely the case, for the parasites, although they may 
indulge in the luxury of honey as epicures, or resort to 
it as a repast, cannot be said to collect it, for it is only 
the labouring bees that truly collect it for the purpose 
of storing. 

These insects are extremely handsome, their ground- 
colour being intensely black, brightly shining on the 
abdomen, upon the segments of which it is laterally 
ornamented with silvery pubescent tufts and spots ; the 
black legs are also variously ringed with similar silver 
down. The great variation these spots and markings 
undergo — from what cause we know not — has induced 
several entomologists to consider them as distinct spe- 
cies. But the strongest varieties so rarely recur with 
identical ornaments, and as almost all can be closely 
connected together in a regular series by interlacing 
differences impossible to divide, it would be certainly 
incorrect^ without stronger characteristics, to raise such 
fugitive variations to specific rank. Whether the cu- 
rious spines of the scutellum which they possess fur- 
nish a more certain character is doubtful, for we find 
all such processes equally liable to variation in size and 



258 BRITISH BEES. 

form. What can be the uses of these spines ? They 
can hardly be for defence, although an entomologist 
has said that a male which he held endeavoured to 
pinch by that means. We find similar processes in 
the same situation in Coelioxys, equally a parasitical 
genus; but the former genus infests the Scopulipedes 
and the latter the Dasygasters, whose economies are 
so very different, and thus it can hardly be supposed 
to have reference to habits. In Epeoms and Stelis the 
same part is mucronated, a tendency to which we see in 
the Nomada with subclavate antennse. Under Anfho- 
phora I have given an account of the pugnacious spirit 
of these insects in their contests with the sites, and it is 
necessary to be cautious in handling them, as they sting 
very severely. Our two native species are parasitical 
upon the two species of the first division of Anthophorct, 
— those which are gregarious. The circumstance of Me- 
lecta being often caught with many of the extremely 
young larvae of Melo'e upon it seems to confirm the fact 
of this coleopterous insect preying upon Anthophora, as 
it may be thus assumed to prey simultaneously upon the 
larva of Melecta. I have never captured these insects 
upon flowers, nor can I trace what flowers they fre- 
quent, although Latreille tells us, in the name he has 
imposed, that they are honey collectors ; but Curtis re- 
ports that he has found the genus upon the common 
furze or whin ( Ulex Europceus) , 



Genus 16. Epeolus, Latreille, 
(Plate XI. fig. 2 c? ? .) 
Apis ** l, Kirby. 
Gen. Char. : Body glabrous. Head transverse, ver- 



EPEOLUS. 259 

tex convex ; ocelli placed in a triangle on its summit ; 
antenncB short, linear, the joints of the flagellam sub- 
equal; face flat, carinated longitudinally in its centre 
between the insertion of the antennse ; clypeus trans- 
verse, lunulate, convex, margined anteriorly ; labrum 
transversely ovate, with a small process in the centre in 
front; mandibles bidentate, the internal tooth minute, 
the external robust and broad ; tongue rather long, more 
than twice the length of the labium, tapering to its ex- 
tremity ; paragloss(B short, about one-fourth the length 
of the tongue, broad at the base, and acuminate towards 
the apex ; labial palpi more than half the length of the 
tongue, the basal joint longer than the three following, 
membranous, and gradually decreasing to the second, 
which is one-third the length of the first, and acute at 
its apex, where the third subclavate joint is articulated, 
the terminal joint considerably shorter than the third ; 
labium not more than one-third the length of the tongue, 
and trifid at its inosculation, the central division being 
hastate; maxill(B subhastate, more than one-half the 
length of the tongue ; maxillary palpi consisting of one 
robust short conical joint inserted in a deep circular re- 
ceptacle. Thorax subglobose; prothorax conspicuous, 
with its lateral angles slightly prominent; mesothorax 
with its bosses prominent; wing scales large; scuteU 
lum transverse, gibbous, margined posteriorly, slightly 
mucronated laterally, slightly depressed in the centre, 
and impending over the post-scutellwn, which is inap- 
parent; metaihorax abruptly truncated; wings with 
three submarginal cells, and a fourth feebly commenced, 
the first as long as the two following, the second subtri- 
augular, and receiving the first recurrent nervure about 
its centre, and the third lunulate^ and receiving the 

s 2 



260 BRITISH BEES. 

second recurrent nervure also about the centre; leps 
short, stout, the tibice slightly spinulose externally ; claws 
very small, short, robust and simple. Abdomen obtusely 
conical, truncated at the base, its terminal segment tri- 
angular, and the lateral margins slightly reflected. 

The MALE scarcely differs, excepting in the usual male 
characteristics, and that the apical segment of the ab- 
domen is rounded and margined. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

1. variegatus, Linnaeus, ^ ? . 3-4 lines. (Plate XL 
fig. 2 c^ ? .) 
variegatuSy Kirby. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

It is difficult to assign a reason for the name of this 
genus, or to trace an applicable derivation from eVtaXo?, 
for the insect in no way suits, either directly or by anti- 
phrase, any of the significations of this word. It is one 
of the prettiest of our little bees, and is parasitical upon 
the Colletes Daviesiana^anA it may be found in abundance 
wherever the metropolis of this species occurs. There 
is one special locality near Bexley, in Kent, a vertical 
sandbank within a few hundred yards of the village, 
where I have always found it in the spring months, and 
have there taken it as numerously as I wished. I have 
already alluded, in another part of this work, to the 
uniformly greater beauty of the parasitical bees, to those 
which they infest, and their exceedingly different appear- 
ance in every case excepting in that of the genus Apa- 
thus. We might have expected that they would have 
been disguised like these, the better to carry on their 
nefarious practices, but what can well be more dissimilar 
than Epeolus and Colletes, or than Nomada and all its 



EPEOLrs. 261 

supporters, aud the same of Melecta, CcelioocySy and Stelis. 
These facts puzzle investigation for a reason; nor will 
the perplexity be speedily solved. All that we can sur- 
mise is that there must be a motive for it, for wherever 
we successfully elicit her secret from the veiled goddess, 
we invariably find the reason founded in profound wis- 
dom. In some cases the mystery seems devised to test 
our sagacity, but it cannot be so here, for the most pal- 
pable and plausible cause that would suggest itself in the 
supposition of its being for the guardianship and apprisal 
of the sitos is often contravened, as in this instance, by 
it and its parasite living in great harmony together, 
again by the desertion of its nidus by Eucera in favour 
of the parasite, although itself is a very much more power- 
ful insect; but in the cases of Panurgus, Halicius, and 
Andrena, they all live well reconciled to the intrusion 
of the stranger^s young, and this, without their enumera- 
tion, may be adopted as nearly the universal case. The 
hostility of Anthophoray previously noticed, is an almost 
insulated case of the contrary. The form of these insects 
does not promise much activity, and we accordingly find 
that they are slow, heavy, and indolent ; yet they must 
be cautiously handled, for they sting acutely ; but in- 
deed it is not well ever to handle insects whose mark- 
ings, as we find them in these, consist of a close nap, as 
evanescent as the down upon a plum, and of course the 
fingers carry it readily off, and disfigure the beauty of 
the little specimen. When their special habitat is not 
known they may often be found upon the blossoming 
Kagwort in the vicinity, or upon the Mouse-ear Hawk- 
weed [Hieracmm murorum) within whose flowers they 
are frequently observed enjoying their siesta. 



262 BRITISH BEES. 

b. With two suhmarginal cells. 

Genus 17. Stelis, Panzer. 

(Plate XI. fig. 3 c^ ? .) 

Apis ** c, 1 ^, Kirbj. 

Gen. Char. : Body glabrous,, much punctured. Head 
transverse, curving posteriorly to the thorax, where it is 
angulated laterally ; ocelli in a triangle at the summit 
of the vertex ; antennce short, slender, filiform, scarcely 
geniculated, the scape about as long as the three first 
joints of the flagellum, all the joints of which are sub- 
equal but slightly increasing in length towards the apical 
one, which is a little compressed laterally ; face entirely 
flat ; clypeus transverse, rather convex ; labrum elongate, 
convex ; mandibles robust, tridentate, the external tooth 
considerably the stoutest ; cibarial apparatus long, tongue 
three times as long as the labium, slightly inflated in the 
centre, and terminating in a small knob; paraglossce 
very short, not more than one- sixth the length of the 
tongue and acuminate ; labial paljn about two-thirds 
the length of the tongue, the two first joints membra- 
nous, the basal one the most robust, and both tapering 
to an acute apex, shortly before which the two very short 
subclavate terminal joints articulate; labium about one- 
third the length of the tongue, its inosculation trifid, 
the central division considerably the longest and trun- 
cated at its extremity ; manllcs subhastate, nearly as long 
as the tongue, acutely acuminated towards their apex ; 
maxillary palpi very short, two-jointed, the basal joint 
subclavate and slightly the longest, and inserted in a 
circular cavity, the terminal joint short ovate. Thorax 
subglobose ; prothorax inconspicuous ; mesothorax very 
convex ; scutellum lunulate, very gibbous, and impending 



STELIS. 263 

over the post-scutellum and metatliorax, mucronated 
laterally ; metathorax abruptly truncated ; wings with 
two submarginal cells, and a third very slightly com- 
menced, the two subequal, the second being the largest 
and receiving the first submarginal cell near its com- 
mencement and the second at the inosculation of the 
terminal transverso- cubital nervure; legs short, mode- 
rately stout, the tibia very slightly setose externally; 
clavjs short, bifid, the internal tooth near the external. 
Abdomen oblong, truncated at its base, very convex above 
and flat beneath, deflexed towards its extremity, and the 
terminal segment almost rounded, being very slightly 
produced in the centre and margined. 

The MALE scarcely differs, excepting in the usual male 
characteristics, and by the apical segment being obso- 
letely tridentate. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

1. aterrima, Panzer, ^ ? . 4-4 J lines. 
punctulatissima, Kirby, 

2. ph(Boptera, Kirby, S ? • 4-44 lines. (Plate XT. 

fig. 3 ^ ? .) ^ 

3. octomaculata, Smith, S ^ - ^ lines. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

The name of this genus may be derived from crreXt?, 
a sort of parasitical plant , perhaps mistletoe, if we could 
be sure that Panzer imposed it after being aware of the 
parasitical nature of these bees. It is true his book (the 
' Revision ') was published in 1805, and Kirby, who 
first intimated a suspicion of such cuckoo-like habits in 
some of the bees, published his in 1802; therefore it 
might have been given in allusion to that peculiarity of 



264 BRITISH BEES. 

their economy, but it may also be from (TTrjXU, a little 
column, in application to their cylindrical form. In 
but few of the parasitical bees do we know the precise 
nature of their transformations, I have therefore been 
obliged to be silent upon this point of their natural 
history, and I have nothing to state of its nature in 
these, although I expect there is much uniformity with 
but slight modifications in all. The species of this genus 
are parasitical upon the Osmice ; thus the S. phaoptera 
is found to infest the O. fulviventris, and the S. octo- 
maculata intrudes itself into the nests of O. leucomelana, 
both of which occur tolerably abundantly near Bristol. 
I have no doubt that the south-west and west of England, 
if well searched, would yield many choice insects. 

It is singular that bee parasitism does not prevail 
throughout all the genera of bees, some being subject to 
it and others not. Thus the genera Colletes, Andrena, 
HalictuSy Panurgiis, Eucera, Anthophora, Saropoda, 
Megachile, Osmia, and Bombiis have all parasites, 
whereas the genera Cilissa, Macropis, Dasypoda, Cera- 
tina, Anthidium, Chelostoma, Heriades, Anthocopa, and 
Apis have none, as far as we yet know ; and some of the 
genera of parasites frequent two or more genera indif- 
ferently, whilst others are restricted to a single one; 
also some of the species of the parasitical genera infest 
indifferently several of the species of the genus to which 
their parasitism is mainly limited ; other species have 
a more circumscribed range and do not visit the nests of 
more than a single species. What law may control all 
these seeming anomalies we cannot discover, — it may 
possibly be scent that guides thern, and this may con- 
trol their parasitism by indicating the species they are 
taught by their instinct to be most suitable from the 



C(EL10XYS. 265 

quality of the pollen with which it supplies its own nest, 
to be that which is best adapted for the nurture of their 
young. It is not likely that we shall very speedily lift 
the veil from these mysteries, but they are suggestive of 
observation which in seeking one thing may fall upon 
another equally interesting. 

I have usually caught these insects settled upon the 
leaves of shrubs, especially of fruit bushes, particularly 
that of the black currant, upon which, in a favourable lo- 
cality, many bees, as well as numerous small fossorial 
Hymenoptera may be found in genial weather. I have 
never caught them upon flowers, nor do I know what 
flowers they frequent. The end of May, if warm, and 
throughout June, they are usually found most abun- 
dantly. 



Genus 18. CCELIOXYS, Latreille. 

(Plate XII. fig. I c^ ? .) 
Apis ** c 1 a, Kirhy. 

Gen. Char. : Body subglabrous. Head transverse, 
concave posteriorly to fit the anterior portion of the 
thorax; ocelli in a triangle on the vertex; antennce fili- 
form, short, subgeniculated, the basal joint of the flagel- 
lum globose, the second subclavate, and all from the 
second subequal, the terminal joint compressed late- 
rally ; face flat, very pubescent ; clypeus ovate, concavely 
truncated in front, its surface convex ; labrum oblong, 
with its sides parallel, but with lateral processes at its 
articulation ; mandibles broad, quadridentate ; cibarial 
apparatus long, the tongue very long, nearly three times 
the length of the labium, linear but slightly inflated in 
the centre, and thence tapering . to its extremity, and 



266 



BRITISH BEES. 



slightly covered with a very short down; paraglosscB 
wholly wanting ; labial palpi membranous, the two first 
joints long, the second slightly the longest, and both 
tapering to the extremity of the second, which is acute, 
and has the third joint, which is very short and sub- 
clavate, articulated before the extremity, with the ter- 
minal one of equal length, and rounded at the apex, 
appended to it; labium about one-third the length of 
the tongue, its inosculation trifid and equal, and the 
central division acute; maxillae subhastate and acumi- 
nate, not quite so long as the tongue; maxillary palpi 
very short, three-jointed, the basal joint the smallest, 
the second the most robust, and the terminal one ovate. 
Thorax subglobose; prothoradd inconspicuous; mesotho- 
rax convex ; wing-scales large ; scutellum produced hori- 
zontally^ and impending over the post-scutellum and 
metathorax, and having at each lateral extremity an 
acute, slightly-curved tooth projecting backwards; m2- 
tathorax abruptly truncated ; wings with two submar- 
ginal cells and a third commenced, the first slightly the 
longest, the second receiving both the recurrent ner- 
vures, the first near its commencement, and the second 
close to its termination ; legs slender, spinulose exter- 
nally on the tibise ; claws rather long, slender, and simple. 
Abdomen very conical, truncated at the base, its segments 
slightly constricted, the apical one long, superficially ca- 
rinated longitudinally in the centre, and much deflexed. 
The MALE scarcely differs, excepting that the whole 
of the front of the head is more densely pubescent ; the 
mandibles are deeply, acutely, and nearly equally tri- 
dentate, the terminal segment of the abdomen is va- 
riously mucronated or toothed at its apex, these pro- 
cesses pointing backwards, and the penultimate segment 
is more or less produced laterally. 



CCELIOXYS. ^Q7 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

1. conica, Linnaeus, S' $ • 4-5 lines. 
quadridentatttj Linnaeus, ^ , 
quadridentata, Kirby, c^. 

2. simplex, Nyland, (^ $ . 5 lines. 
conica, Kirby. 

conica, Curtis, viii. 349. 
Sponsa, Smith, c^. 

3. umbrina, Smith, S ? • 

4. rvfescens, St. Fargeau, { . 4-6 lines. 

5. vectis, Curtis, S ? • 5-6 lines. (Plate XTI. fig. 

Ic? ?.) 

6. inermis, Kirby. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

This genus is named from KoiXla, belly, o^v^, acute, 
in application to the conical abdomen of the female. 
The insects of this genus are parasitical upon the genera 
Megachile and Saropoda. Thus, C. simplex infests M. 
circumcincta ; C. ritfescens, M. Willughbiella ; C. vectis, 
M. maritima ; and C. umbrina is parasitical on Saropoda 
bimacidata. Linnseus, from the different appearance of 
the two sexes made two species of them, and from the cir- 
cumstance of his having described first the male as Apis 
quadridentata, this, by the law of priority, supersedes the 
name of C. conica as the name of the species, which is its 
female, and which he next described, and thus that sex, 
•whose form Latreille adopted as typical of the genus, is in 
the series of species totally superseded and reduced to a 
synonym. The species of this genus are extremely dif- 
ficult to separate from each other, no tangible character 
presenting itself conspicuously, although the Swedish 




268 BRITISH BEES. 

entomologist Nylander supposes he has found one in the 
plates of the apical segment of the abdomen^ especially 
those of the venter,, in which he detects both a differ- 
ence of form and a difiPerence of relative length to that 
of the superior plates, and in the males he assumes that 
the teeth of the apical segment are constant characters. 
Not having had sufficient opportunity since this sup- 
posed discovery was made, for the examination of a 
great multitude of specimens, for it is only upon such 
an investigation that it can be firmly based, I cannot 
speak corroboratively upon the point, but it is very pos- 
sibly a correct solution of the difficulty. 

The peculiarity of these spines at the apical segments 
of the abdomen of the males is remarkable, they being 
straight projecting processes, or they have even a slight 
upward bearing. In the males of Anthidium and Osmia 
we observe spines also arming the apex of the last seg- 
ment, but in these we can trace an evident use, both 
from the downward curvature of the abdomen itself, and 
that same tendency also in the spines. But in the in- 
sects of this genus they have not the same conspicuously 
apparent object, the abdomen itself even having an up- 
ward curvature, or rather a greater facility for turning 
upwards than downwards. These insects appear to be 
most abundant in the midland and southern counties^ 
and, according to Curtis, they are numerously found at 
the back of the Isle of Wight. I have usually taken 
them on the wing and never on a flower, and I do not 
know the plants which they may prefer. 



MEGACHILE. 269 

Subsection 3. Dasygastees (convey pollen on the belly). 
All with two suhmarginal cells to the wings. 

Genus 19. MEaAOHiLE, Latreille. (Leaf-cutters. ) 

Apis ** c 2 a, Kirby. 

(Plate XII. fig. 2 and 3 c^ ? .) 

Gen. Char. : Head as wide as the thorax, flat and 
broad on the vertex^ where, on the anterior edge, the 
ocelli are disposed in a triangle ; antenn(B shortish, fili- 
'forra, geniculated ; scape about as long as two first joints 
of flagellum, which increases both in length of joints and 
their substance from base to apex, the terminal one 
being the longest, and longitudinally compressed; face 
and clypeus very pubescent, concealing their divisions ; 
clypeus transversely lunulate, scarcely convex ; labrum 
longitudinally slightly convex and oblong, with the sides 
parallel ; mandibles broad, widening outwardly, irregu- 
larly quadridental, the two inner teeth obtuse ; cibarial 
apparatus moderately long; tongue more than twice the 
length of the labium, tapering from the base to the apex, 
where it terminates in a minute knob ; paragloss(B very 
short, scarcely one-sixth the length of the tongue, co- 
adunate at the base and acuminate at the apex, where, 
in repose, they lap round the base of the tongue; labial 
palpi three-fourths the length of the tongue, the two 
basal joints long, subequal, membranous, linear, slightly 
tapering to the acute apex of the second, where the third 
subclavate joint articulates just before its termination, 
and conterminous with which is the fourth, shorter than 
the third, but also subclavate ; labium not quite half the 
length of the tongue, with a long subobtuse process in 
the centre of its inosculation ; maxilla subhastate, and 



270 BRITISH BEES. 

very acuminate^ nearly as long as the tongue ; maxillanj 
palpi very short, two-jointed, the basal joint the shortest, 
and the terminal one obtuse at its apex, where it is 
furnished with brief setse. Thorax subglobose, pubescent, 
the pubescence almost concealing its divisions; pro- 
thorax inconspicuous; mesothorax convex, subglabrous 
on the disk; scutellum lunulate, convex; metathorax 
truncated; wings with two submarginal cells, the com- 
mencement of a third slightly indicated, the two com- 
plete ones nearly equal, the second of which receives 
both the recurrent nervures, one towards each extremity \ 
legs robust, very setose; the posterior tibim slightly 
curved longitudinally, concavo-convex, broad at the ex- 
tremity; all the plantcB as long as their tibiae and as 
broad at the base but decreasing at the apex to the 
width of the following tarsal joints, the anterior pair 
fimbriated externally, and the posterior pair clothed, on 
the inner surface, with a dense, short brush, the three 
following joints short, subequal, the claw-joint as long 
as the three, and the claws with a broad basal inner 
tooth. Abdomen ovate, with parallel sides, convex 
above, truncated and concave at its base to fit the meta- 
thorax, distended horizontally in length, or with an up- 
ward curve, the four first segments slightly constricted, 
and their edges usually clothed with decumbent down ; 
the terminal segment obtusely pointed and slightly de- 
pressed transversely towards its extremity ; the ventral 
segments commencing with the second, clothed with 
parallel layers of moderately long, straight setse, which 
in each parallel are of equal length, but those on the 
fifth segment are the shortest, upon all of which the in- 
sect conveys the pollen it collects. 

The FEMALES of the second division of the genus 
scarcely differ. 



MEGACHILE. 271 

The MALES of the first division differ in having ths 
head slightly larger and squarer above; the antennae 
very slightly longer; the mandibles more acutely tri- 
dentate, with a distinct powerful basal tooth beneath, 
terminating the concavity of the organ; the anterior 
femora, tibice, and joints of their tarsi, excepting the ter- 
minal one, concavo-convex, the four first joints of the 
latter distended laterally, and edged with a dense fringe of 
setse, the distension of these joints is widest at their arti- 
culation with the tibise and they decline in length to the 
claw joint which is long; the claws bifid; the interior 
claw acute, but remote from the apical one ; the posterior 
femora are very robust, their tibicB much curved, robust, 
almost triangular, and externally very convex; their 
plants almost glabrous, not so long as the three follow- 
ing joints, externally rather twisted, and beneath fur- 
nished with a dense brush of long stiff hair. 

In the second division of the genus the males are des- 
titute of the distension of the anterior tarsi, these being 
instead densely fimbriated externally ; the legs in them 
are much less robust, and more closely resemble those of 
their females. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

§ Anterior tarsi of males much dilated. 

1. Willufjhbiella, Kirby, ^ ? . 5-7 lines. 

2. maritima, Kirby, c? ? . 6-7 lines. (Plate XII. 

%.2c??.) 

3. circumcincta, Kirby, (^ $ . 4^-5 1 lines. 

§§ Anterior tarsi of males not dilated. 

1. ligniseca, Kirby, ^ ? . 5-7 lines. 

2. centuncularis, Linnaeus, ^ ? . 4-6 lines. 
centunculariSj Kirby. 



272 BRITISH BEES. 

3. argentata, Fabricius, (^ ? . 3-4 1 lines. (Plate 
Leachella, Kirby. [XII. fig. 3 c? ? .) 
Leachella, Curtis. 

4. odontura, Smith, J • 4^ lines. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

Named from the great development of the labrum, 
^liya large J x^TXo^ Up, which is characteristic of all the 
DasygasterSj and also of some of the proximate NudU 
pedes, those parasitical upon them, Stelis and Coelioxys, 
and which, too, resemble the sitos in the expansion and 
dentated formation of their mandibles, although they do 
not use them for the same purposes ; this again exhibits 
an analogy of structure, that appears in the parasite to 
be merely corroborative of identity of existence. 

These are more essentially summer insects than the ma- 
jority of the preceding genera, although some of them pre- 
sent themselves with genial spring weather. The genus 
may be separated into two distinct divisions by the pe- 
culiar dilatation of the tarsi of the males of some of the 
species, but such division is not indicative of a differ- 
ence of habits, as is distinctly the case in the genus An- 
thophor a, 2iiidi in which these combined circumstances Mr. 
Kirby suggested as acceptable for generic division, or, as 
he called it, the institution of another family. But in 
these we find in both divisions both wood-borers and 
earth-tunnelers, and some species are*indifferently either 
as suits their accidental convenience. The general ap- 
pearance of the insects is more that of ordinary bees, 
and the sexes are more approximate in their habit than 
is usually the case. 

With this genus commences essentially those desig- 
nated as artisan bees, although Colletes might very 



MEGACHILE. 273 

suitably come under that denomination. The species 
themselves of the genus are called leaf-cutters, from the 
habit they have of cutting pieces from the leaves of 
various shrubs and trees, for the purpose of lining their 
nests. The description of the operations of one species 
will apply precisely to that carried on by all, the occa- 
sional difference between them being the selection of the 
leaves of distinct plants ; and it will exhibit the patient 
industry and perseverance with which these little uphol- 
sterers carry on their labours. 

Thus M. centuncularis , the type of the genus, burrows 
in decaying wood or in brick walls, and sometimes also in 
the ground, and makes use of the cuttings of rose leaves, 
— not the petals, — and the leaves of the annual and peren- 
nial Mercury [Mercurialis annua and M.perennis). The 
M. ligniseca bores into sound Oak and the Mountain Ash, 
as well as into putrescent Elm, and uses Elm leaves to 
line its nests, sometimes called centunculi from their 
being as it were patched together. This is the largest 
of all our species, and is found very abundantly every- 
where around London frequenting the flowers of the 
Thistle. The M. argentata^ Fab., or Leachella of Kirby, is 
perhaps the prettiest of all the species, and forms its 
tunnels in sandbanks. I do not know what leaves this 
species selects, which used to be extremely rare, indeed 
for a long time only known by the specimen in the British 
Museum, until that ardent entomologist the Eev. F. W. 
Hope, to whom the University of Oxford owes its superb 
entomological collection, brought it in abundance from 
Southend, where, during his brief annual stay at his 
residence there, he used to find it in the grove which 
runs under the cliff edging the terrace of the village ; 
it is extremely local, as that and Wey bridge, in Surrey, 

T 



274 BRITISH BEES. 

are the only two spots where I have known it to be found. 
It is one of the most vivid fliers among the bees, and 
darts about, especially during brilliant sunshine in June, 
with the velocity of a sand-martin, and its note is slirill, 
but harmonious ; it is not often caught upon flowers, 
being so extremely alert, but has been seen to visit the 
common Viper's Bugloss [Echium vulgar e) . TheM.odon- 
tura, the last of the second division, which is known only 
in a single male specimen in the cabinets of the British 
Museum, is one of Dr. Leach's west country captures, of 
which nothing precise is known, and it is only noticed 
here on account of the singular peculiarity of the arma- 
ture of the apex of its abdomen, which brings it closer 
to the genus Osmia in that particular, although the ma- 
jority of the males of the genus have the terminal seg- 
ment slightly furcated. 

In these observations I have commenced with the 
division which contains the type, and to which the pre- 
sent name of the genus would attach from that circum- 
stance, were it ever thought desirable to separate those 
species, which have dilated anterior tarsi in the males, 
into a distinct genus, but which I could scarcely recom- 
mend. In the arrangement of the species in the pre- 
ceding list, I have placed these latter first, from their 
more symmetrical appearance in the cabinet, by leading 
down to the terminal smaller species in due order, from 
these larger and more conspicuous ones. 

The M. Willughbiella and maritima prefer decaying 
wood, and they have been found upon decaying Willows 
in the Midland Counties in extreme abundance ; they 
might be called gregarious were the material within 
which they burrow connected in a continuous plane. 
The M. Willughbiella makes use of the leaves of the 



MEGACHILE. 275 

Rose and of the Laburnum, but the M. maritima seems 
to prefer the leaves of the Sallow. The M. circumcincta 
invariably burrows in banks, confirming the semi-grega- 
rious habits of the genus, where it forms large colonies, 
and it is only by accident that it constructs secluded and 
solitary nests ; it also makes use of rose leaves for lining 
its apartments. The insects are subject to the molesta- 
tion of bee-parasites of the genus Coelioxys, the C. qua- 
dridentata having been bred from the cells of this latter 
species, — that parasite also frequenting the M. Willugh- 
biella, and the C, vectis is well known to infest the M. 
maritima. Thus, it appears to be only the species of this 
division with the dilated tarsi that are exposed to such 
incursions^ there being no record of parasites frequenting 
the division in which the males have simple anterior tarsi. 
Besides this bee-parasite, they are also subject to the 
attacks of some dipterous insect, whose larvse destroy the 
larvse of the Megachile. Much difficulty exists in separa- 
ting the females of some of the species from each other ; 
in others the specific character is sufficiently noticeable. 
It is a singular concomitant that those males with the 
dilated anterior tarsi have the apical joint of the flagel- 
lum of the antennae considerably compressed and also 
dilated laterally. 

The proceedings of these bees are very curious. Al- 
though the tubes they usually form are long, they are so 
constructed as not to branch far away from the exterior of 
the material into which they bore, — sound or putrescent 
wood or earth, or old mortar joining the bricks of walls, — 
if in the second material, they usually follow the pu- 
trescent vein, and their tunnel in every case is rarely 
further than an inch or an inch and a half from the ex- 
ternal surface. Both the sides of the tube, and the cells 

T 2 



276 BRITISH BEES. 

tliey form within them, will necessarily vary in diameter 
and length with the size of the species, but in the larger 
species they are about an inch and a quarter long and half 
an inch in diameter. Some entomologists have surmised 
that different species use the leaves of different plants for 
lining their cells ; this, however, is not strictly the case, as 
shown in the preceding remarks ; but, although not so, 
the series of nests in the same tube are always lined with 
cuttings from the same plant ; perhaps a varying caprice 
operates upon each day^s labours and changes the plant, 
influenced by the drift of the w^ind or some casual freak. 
The cylindrical tube being prepared, which is done 
very similarly to the way in which it is practised by 
all the labouring genera, by the gradual removal of the 
particles of the wood, or sand, or earth of which it con- 
sists, the insect^s instinct prompts it to fly forth to ob- 
tain the requisite lining, that the lateral earth may not 
fall in, or the wood taint the store to be accumulated 
for the young, for it is before this is done that the 
upholstery is commenced. Having fixed upon the pre- 
ferred plant, Eose-bush or Laburnum or Sallow, or 
whatever it may be, it alights upon the leaf, and fixing 
itself upon the edge, it holds it with three legs on each 
side, then using its mandibles as the cutter of silhouettes 
would his scissors, and, just as rapidly as he cuts out a 
profile, does this ingenious little creature ply the tools it 
is furnished with by nature. The oval or semicircular 
cutting being thus speedily dispatched, with the legs still 
clinging to the surfaces, the insect biting its way back- 
wards, the piece cut off necessarily remains within the 
clutch of the legs, and, when about falling, the rejoicing 
labourer expands her wings and flies oft" with it with a 
hum of delightful triumph, the cutting being carried 



MEGACHILE. 277 

perpendicularly to her body. In a direct line she wings 
her way to the receptacle, and arrived at the month of 
the aperture within which she has to convey it, she rolls 
it to its requisite tubular form and thrusts it forward to 
the bottom of the cavity. The first piece for the lining 
of each cell is always oval and larger in proportion than 
the succeeding ones, which, to the number of three or 
four, are semicircular, the first piece having an extra 
use to serve in forming a concave bottom to the cavity. 
Having completed the requisite manipulation, for ad- 
justing it to shape the external lining of the bottom and 
sides of the first cell, she withdraws backwards, again 
flies off, and, as if she had traced a trail in the air, or 
had marked its limpidity with a frothy surge, like 
that left in the wake of a ship, to note the road for 
her return, back she wends to the same plant, and proxi- 
mately to the spot of her recent triumphant exploit re- 
news the operation, but the result of which, this time, is 
to be semicircular. Home she flies again, and the ar- 
rangement within of this piece is different to that of the 
first, for this is simply tubular, and so placed that it 
imbricates with its cut margin within the serrated edge 
of the first and the third, and in case of a fourth the 
fourth also is similarly placed, so that one laps within the 
other, the edges of two of these cuttings never being 
conterminous. The number of the coatings is apparently 
regulated by the drier or moister condition of the sub- 
stance in which the tunnel is drilled. Another duty has 
now to be performed, indeed, that for which all the pre- 
ceding labours were undertaken, — the provision for its 
young, wherein it perpetuates its kind, — and thus on 
and on flows the wonderful stream of life, whose origin 
who shall estimate through the millennia it has hitherto 



278 BRITISH BEES. 

SO placidly and uniformly traversed, and whose termi- 
nation who shall predict ? Having completed the re- 
quisite store of honey mixed with pollen, this is carried 
to the brush with which the under side of the abdomen 
is furnished, by means of the posterior legs. The honey 
and pollen are gathered from different kinds of thistles, 
whence it acquires a reddish hue and looks almost like 
conserve of roses, and the nest is filled with it to within a 
line of its top ; the egg is then deposited, but the coating 
of leaves, which enclose the cell completely, secures the 
store from lateral absorption, although the mixture is 
rather more fluid, consisting of a relatively greater quan- 
tity of honey than is usual, excepting perhaps in the case 
of Ceratina, and although no viscous secretion is used 
to bind the leaves together, which retain their position 
from merely lateral pressure. The cell has now to be 
closed, and the artificer knowing that the transverse 
section of the cylinder is circular, again flies forth, and 
without compass, but with all the accuracy with which 
Leonardo da Vinci struck a circle with his pencil, to 
testify his mastery, cuts the leaf again in that form, 
and as surely : and, three or four, or five or six times, re- 
peats this operation, returning each time with each piece, 
so many having been variously observed. The separa- 
tion between the cells being thus consolidated, it is 
further thickened by the lateral, spare, protruding edge 
of the leaf first introduced lapping over it. The whole 
process is again renewed in the same manner as at first, 
the bottom edge of the cutting of the external leaf is 
again curved to form a concave bottom to the next cell, 
and the sides are similarly formed, and each cell fits 
the preceding like the top of one thimble placed in 
the mouth of another. The repetition of all this is 



ANTHIDIUM. 279 

continued until the completion of the five or six cells 
necessary to fill the tube, when another is formed with 
the same routine, if her store of eggs is not exhausted ; 
and the orifice of the tube, upon the completion of the 
last cell, which is closed in the usual way, is filled up 
with earth. Should any casualty interfere with her la- 
bours or temporarily derange their utility, without the 
obstruction being one that would permanently affect it, 
the remarkable patience and rapidity with which the 
repairs are effected, or the obstructions removed, is 
worthy of all admiration, — the aropyrj, or love of off- 
spring, being the predominant passion which overthrows 
and controls every difficulty. 

When full fed, the larva spins a thick cocoon of silk, 
which is attached to the sides of the cell; the outer 
coating of this cocoon is of a coarser and browner silk 
than the interior, which is formed of very delicate threads 
of a slaty-whitish colour and of a close texture, and 
which is as lustrous as satin. The exact period of their 
evolution from this sj;ate is not recorded, but it is pro- 
bable that they pass the winter enveloped in their cocoon 
as pupse, and in their season come forth the following 
year. 



Genus 20. Anthidium, Fabricius. 

(Plate XIII. fig. 1 c? ? .) 

Apis ** c 2 i3, Kirby. 

Gen. Char. : Body subglabrous. Head transverse, as 
wide as the thorax ; ocelli in a triangle on the vertex, 
which is flat; antennce shortish, slender, filiform, sub- 
geniculated; the scajje stouter than the flagellum, sub- 



280 BRITISH BEES. 

clavate_, first joint of flagellum globose, the remainder sub- 
equal ; face flat ; clypeus triangular_, truncated at its base, 
slightly rounded in front and convex ; labrum longitu- 
dinally oblong, the sides parallel and concavo-convex ; 
mandibles dilated at the apex, where they are quinque- 
dentate; the alternate teeth smallest ; cibarial apparatus 
long ; tongue very long, tapering to its extremity ; para- 
glossce very short, one-sixth the length of the tongue, 
coadunate at the base and subhastate ; labial palpi more 
than half the length of the tongue, the two first joints 
very long, the second the longest, and both tapering to 
the acute extremity of this, where, just before its apex, 
the third very short subclavate joint articulates with 
the still shorter terminal joint conterminous with it; 
labium one-third the length of the tongue, its inoscula- 
tion with an acute projection in the centre ; maxillce as 
long as the tongue, subhastate and acuminate; maxil- 
lary palpi springing from a deep sinus at its base, very 
short, two-jointed, the basal joint the shortest, and the 
second obtuse one terminating with a few rigid setse. 
Thorax subglobose ; prothorax inconspicuous ; mesa- 
thorax slightly convex, wing-scales large ; scutellum lunu- 
1 ate, projecting and impending over the metathorax, which 
is truncated; wings with two submarginal cells, and 
a third indistinctly commenced, the second slightly the 
longest, and receiving the two recurrent nervures one at 
each extremity; legs moderate, subsetose, the tibiae 
fimbriated along the edges, the anterior spurs slightly 
palmated ; the plantce of the four anterior pairs longer 
than their tibise, but those of the posterior not quite so 
long, and all densely clothed all round with a brush of 
short close hair ; the claws distinctly bifid. Abdomen 
semicircular, very convex ; the base truncated and hoi- 



ANTHIDIUM. 281 

lowed to fit the metathorax ; the segments slightly con- 
stricted, the terminal segment transversely concave, and 
its apex terminating in three slight angles ; the venter y 
which is flat, is densely clothed from the second segment 
with parallel layers of equal, moderately long, shining hair, 
the segment being distinctly indicated by these layers. 

The MALE differs in being considerably larger; the 
mandibles merely trid en tate; the /e^'^ longer and more 
robust ; the tibice and tarsi more densely fimbriated 
externally, and the tarsi relatively much longer ; the 
abdomen densely edged laterally with short curled hair, 
the terminal segment with three processes, the lateral 
ones strong and curved internally, the central one 
shorter and straight, and the penultimate segment trans- 
versely concave, with a strong tooth on each side curved 
externally, and the venter glabrous beneath. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

1. manicatum, Linnaeus. 5-8 lines. (Plate XIII. fig. 

1 c? ? .) 
manicatumy Kirby. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

The generic name in this instance seems to be manu- 
factured from the root dv6o^, a flower. I cannot trace 
any other derivation as it may not be attributed merely 
to the habits of the species in frequenting flowers, for is 
not this the prime function of all the bees, wherein they 
fulfil a most important office in the economy of nature ? 
How easy might it have been to regulate that flowers 
should fertilize themselves, as many do without any ex- 
traneous intervention, but by this wise and benevolent 
ordination a tribe of sensitive creatures is introduced to 



282 BRITISH BEES. 

be perpetuated by the perpetuation they supply to that 
which supports thera^ and in this circle of reciprocal 
good offices lend an additional charm to the genial sea- 
sons, by the animation which they give to the face of 
nature, in embellishing the plants they visit with their 
vivacity and music. 

These bees are gay insects, for both sexes are richly 
spotted with yellow, and they present the single instance 
which occurs amongst our bees of the male being con- 
siderably the largest, and so boisterous is he in his 
amours that he forcibly conveys his partner to the upper 
regions of the air, where she is compelled to yield to his 
solicitations. His whole structure is fully adapted to 
carry out this violent abduction, as well in the length 
and power of his limbs as in the prehensile teeth with 
which the apex of his abdomen is armed. 

We have but one species of the genus, although the 
southern parts of the Continent abound in them. The 
habits of ours differ very considerably from those of the 
preceding genus. First, in the peculiarity just described, 
and then in the formation of their nests. They do 
not, like the majority of the wild bees, excavate or bore 
a cavity for themselves, but take one already formed 
by the xylophagous larva of some considerable insect, 
such as Cerambyx moschatus, or Cossus ligniperda. 
This they line, to the depth suitable to them, with 
cottony down which they scrape from the leaves or 
stalk of the Woolly Hedge-nettle [Stachys Germanica), 
the Wild Lychnis [Agrostemma) , and other woolly- 
leaved plants. In collecting this wool the insect is 
very active, scraping it off rapidly with its broad man- 
dibles, and as this is doing she gradually rolls it up 
into a little ball, making with the vibration of her wings 



ANTHIDIUM. 283 

a considerable hum all the time she is gathering it, and 
when the ball is sufficiently large she flies off with it 
to her nidus ; this operation she continues until suffi- 
cient is accumulated for her purpose, which consists in 
lining the cavity with the material ; she then forms cells 
within it in succession, gluing the same material together 
to resist the escape of the mixed store of pollen and 
honey she intends to fill it with, having in the operation 
smoothed the sides of the cell which is closed after the 
deposit of the egg, and another similar cell is then pro- 
ceeded with, and this is repeated until the selected cavity 
is filled, or that she has exhausted 'her store. Having 
completed her labours, she wanders away. Sometimes 
the cavity is large and admits of the conjunction of 
many of these cells together ; in that case they are all 
collectively covered with the same envelope of downy 
substance. The larva, having consumed its entire store 
of food, spins a cocoon of brown silk wherein it remains 
throughout the winter, and with the evolution of spring, 
feeling its propulsive energy, it changes into the pupa. 
In June and July, but earlier if the weather be contin- 
uously warm, the imago comes forth in its maturity, to 
live its little life of labour intermingled with pleasure, 
and in its pleasing hum to give cheerful notification of 
its perfect satisfaction. 



Genus 21. Chelostoma, Latreille, 
(Plate XIII. fig. 2, c? ? .) 
Apis ** c 2 y partly, Kirby. 

Gen. Char. : Body nearly glabrous and coarsely punc- 
tured. Head subglobose, rather wider than the thorax; 



284 BRITISH BEES. 

ocelli in a triangle in the centre of fhe vertex, which is 
broad and slightly convex; antenna short, subclavate, 
geniculated, the scape nearly one-half the length of the 
flagellum and more robust ; the first and second joint of 
the flagellum subclavate, the basal one the longest and 
most robust, the remainder short, subequal, and gra- 
dually enlarging to the apical one, which is obtuse and 
as long as the basal joint; face flat, slightly convex 
between the insertion of the antennae ; cheeks large and 
protuberant; clypeus concave, projecting, lobated in 
front, where it is slightly emarginate in the centre; 
labrum elongate at i*s articulation, broader than beyond, 
and from this expansion immediately and abruptly 
contracting, from the inner angles of the contraction 
waving to about three-fourths its length, whence it is 
produced into an equal truncated oblong; mandibles 
bidentate, external tooth acute, inner one obtuse ; ciba- 
rial apparatus long ; the tongue twice the length of the 
labium, narrowest at its base and obtuse at the ex- 
tremity, and clothed with short setae; paraglossce very 
short, coadunate at the base and acuminate; labial palpi 
two-thirds the length of the tongue, with the three first 
joints membranous and flat, conterminous and tapering 
to their extremity, the first joint about one-half the 
length of the second, the third twice the length of the 
fourth, which is clavate and articulated within the apex 
of the thipd ; maxillae subhastate and acuminate, as long 
as the tongue ; maxillary palpi very short, rather stout, 
the joints subequal and the terminal one acute. Thorax 
oval, convex; prothorax inconspicuous; wing-scales 
rather large ; scutellum transversely quadrate, convex ; 
post-scutellum transverse, linear; metathorax gradually 
declining, with a glabrous triangular space at its base ; 



CHELOSTOMA. 285 

wings with two submarginal cells nearly equal and a third 
commenced; the second receives both the recurrent 
nervuresj the first beyond its commencement and the 
second before its termination; legs shortish, subsetose, the 
anterior spurs short, broad, and emarginate at the apex ; 
the posterior plant(£ with a compact dense brush within ; 
claw-joint long; claws simple. Abdomen longer than 
head and thorax, subclavate, convex above, retuse at the 
base, and the apical segment obtuse at its extremity, the 
venter flat, its segments clothed from the second with 
dense parallel brushes of longish hair for the conveyance 
of pollen. 

The MALE differs in having the headle^^ conspicuously 
globose; ihQ cheeks less protuberant; the whole body 
more pilose, the anterior spurs robust, short, and abruptly 
obliquely truncated ; the antenna slender, filiform, much 
longer than in the female, but not much longer than the 
head, and from the fourth to the ninth joints serratulate 
within, adapting it to a sharp curve ; the abdomen being 
equal, cylindrical, retuse at its base, convex above, and 
flat on the venter, where it has a longitudinal deeply 
concave mucro in the centre of the second segment, 
which concavity runs along all the subsequent segments, 
and it is densely pilose on the fourth; the terminal 
dorsal segment being deeply emarginate in the centre 
and produced on each side into a broad obtuse pro- 
cess ; the claws are more robust than in the female and 
bidentate ; the posterior pair being subclavate, and their 
single tooth abruptly reflected. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

1. fiorisomne, Linnseus, $ ? . 3-5 lines. (Plate 
XIII. fig. 2 c^ ? .) 



286 BRITISH BEES. 

maxillosa, Linuseus. 
maxillosa, Kirby. 
2. campanularum, Kirby, S ? • 2-2 J lines. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

These insects are named from %?;X>;, a forceps, and 
(jToiJba, a mouth, — in allusion to the forcipate form of 
the mandibles, which are strong, and cross each other in 
inaction. 

They and the next genus are styled carpenter bees, 
but they are not more consistently thus called than 
might be Anthophora furcata and the genus Cera- 
tina; they, in fact, like the latter, just as often avail 
themselves of an empty straw to form their cells in, or 
the cylinder that has been drilled by some xylophagous 
beetle of their own size, as they themselves drill into 
palings and solid wood for the purpose, but when they 
do this, it is facilitated to them by their powerful man- 
dibles and their square and strong head. They are cer- 
tainly very compactly formed, their structure being in- 
dicative of great power, of course relatively to their size. 
When they drill their cylinders themselves they are 
extremely persevering in its execution, and in the pro- 
cess, the material they extract, which is like fine saw^dust, 
they withdraw from the depth of the cavity by passing 
it beneath them, and pushing it out at the orifice by 
means of their posterior legs and the apex of the abdo- 
men, for they are too long to be able to turn within the 
cavity they have formed, its capacity not being suflScient 
to permit this, as it is very little larger in diameter than 
themselves. I have repeatedly watched them in these 
operations. 

Having found or drilled a suitable cylindrical tube, they 



CHELOSTOMA. 287 

do nothing further to it but collect a sufficient store of 
provender for the nutriment of the young one, upon 
which they deposit the egg which is to produce it. The 
insect then flies away to collect a small quantity of clay 
intermingled with sand, and this they knead together 
by means of a viscous secretion which they disgorge, 
and this forms a concrete that hardens firmly and 
rapidly ; to anticipate its rapid drying they speedily fly 
back, carrying this small ball within their mandibles, 
and with it they cover over the provision they have col- 
lected, and which, adhering to the sides of the cavity, 
forms a firm and hard division, effectually separating it 
from the next store of provision that is to be accumulated 
for the supply of the larva that will be hatched from the 
egg that is to be deposited, and the same process is 
repeated again and again until all the eggs are laid. In 
their development, which takes place near midsummer, 
the males precede the females by about ten days. They 
associate sometimes in colonies, often using the tubes of 
the straw thatch which covers cottages for their nidus. 

These bees are subject to the parasitical intrusion of 
Fcenus jaculator and assectatoVy which I have repeatedly 
caught at Battersea, hovering opposite the cells of these 
insects bored in the shingles forming the enclosure of 
an old garden outhouse. These parasites are themselves 
peculiar creatures, forming a type distinct from the 
Ichneumons, and belonging to the group Aulacus, upon 
which see my paper in the 'Entomologist,' June, 1841. 
In these insects, the abdomen springs from immediately 
beneath the scutellum. Chrysis cyanea and ignita are also 
bred at the expense of these bees, neither of the species of 
which are uncommon ; the smaller one, the C. campanu- 
larunij which is the smallest of our true bees, excepting 



288 BRITISH BEES. 

perhaps one or two of the Nomadce, I used to find in 
abundance upon the railings of the fields that skirt 
Hampstead Heath, on the right-hand going from Lon- 
don, parallel with the Vale of Health, and thence rising 
to the Holly enclosure of the Earl of Mansfield's man- 
sion. This spot has been productive to me of many 
very choice aculeate Hymenoptera, and supplied me 
with them in abundance at a time when even the chief 
metropolitan collections were bare of them. It has also 
furnished me with several very desirable Diptera of ex- 
tremely rare genera. The male of the larger species of 
this genus Linnaeus called florisomne, from its habit 
of curling up its abdomen and antennae, and passing the 
night in flowers. Those which they chiefly frequent 
are the species of Wallflower, and the Campanula^ espe- 
cially the round-leaved Throatwort. 



Genus 22. Heeiades, Spinola. 

(Plate XIII. fig. 3 J ? .) 

Apis ** c 2 y partly, Kirby. 

Gen. Char. : Body glabrous and much punctured. 
Head globose and curving to the thorax posteriorly; 
ocelli in a triangle far forward on the vertex ; antenn(B 
slightly subclavate, the scape not half so long as the 
flagellum, the first joint of which is robust, subclavate, 
and twice the length of the second, which, with the rest, 
are subequal, very slightly lengthening to the terminal 
one, which is as long as the basal one and laterally com- 
pressed ; face slightly convex, cheeks large and convex ; 
clypeus lunulate, convex, and with two minute central 
teeth on its front margin ; lahrum longitudinally oblong. 



HERIADES, 289 

rather broadest at the base and slightly waved late- 
rally, concavo-convex and suberaarginate at the apex ; 
mandibles subequal, tridentate at the apex, and the cen- 
tral tooth obtuse ; cibarial apparatus moderately long, 
tongue twice the length of the labium, with a small 
knob at its apex ; paraglossce very short, almost obsolete, 
coadunate at the base ; labial palpi two-thirds the length 
of the tongue, the two first joints membranous and long, 
the first one-third the length of the second, which 
tapers to its acute extremity, before the end of which 
the two terminal, subclavate, very short, subequal joints 
are inserted; labium half the length of the tongue, 
slightly produced in the centre of its inosculation; 
maxillcB subhastate, two-thirds the length of the tongue ; 
maxillary palpi three-jointed, short, robust, equal, and 
collectively subfusiform, the terminal one rather acute. 
Thorax globose ; prothorax inconspicuous ; scutellum 
lunulate ; post-scutellum linear, transverse ; metathorax 
declining; wings ^^^ith two submarginal cells, and the 
commencement of a third indicated, the second larger 
than the first, subtriangular, and receiving both the 
recurrent nervures, one at each of its extremities ; legs 
short, rather robust, subsetose and spinulose ; posterior 
tibids convex externally and with their plantse rugose, 
the latter covered beneath with a dense brush of short 
hair; claws simipie. Abdomen cylindrical, convex above, 
retuse at the base, and the first and second segments 
slightly constricted at their extremity, obtuse, and from 
the end of the third segment sensibly declining to the 
apex ; plane on the venter, where, from the second seg- 
ment, the plate of each, excepting the glabrous terminal 
one, is covered with a dense brush of short hair for the 
conveyance of pollen. 

V 



290 BRITISH BEES. 

The MALE differs in the antenn(2 being rather longer, 
more distinctly filiform, the seventh segment of the 
abdomen concealed under the extremity of the sixth, and 
the venter from the third segment longitudinally deeply 
concave, the plate of the third itself covered with hair ; the 
claws more robust and each equally bifid, not bidentate. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

1. truncorum, Linnseus, S ? • 3-3 J lines. (Plate 
XIILfig.3c? ?.) 
truncorum, Kirby. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

The names of insects are not always very aptly given, 
for the only available derivation of this appears to be 
from epiov, wool; in allusion to the clothing of its 
venter ; but, if so, it should be spelt without the H, for 
the first letter is without an aspiration. The habits of 
these closely resemble those of the preceding genus, to 
which they have a great personal likeness, and therefore 
their natural history would be but its reiteration. Our 
solitary species is a rare insect, but I expect western 
England would produce it. It is like those of the pre- 
ceding genus, of a uniform black colour, punctured, 
but it approximates more closely than they do to the type 
of form exhibited in the genus Osmia, They visit tlie 
same flowers as the preceding genus. 



Genus 23. Anthocopa, -S^^. Fargeau. 

(Plate XIV. fig. 2 c^ ? .) 

Gen. Char. : Body glabrous, subpubescent, shining. 

Head subglobose, as wide as the thorax ; ocelli placed 

in a slight curve on the summit of the vertex ; antenna 



ANTHOCOPA. 291 

shorty geniculated^ the flaffellutn subclavate seen in front, 
but seen from above, owing to the compression of the 
terminal joint, subfusiform, the first joint of the flagel- 
lum globose, rather robust, the second short, subclavate 
and subequal with the rest, which increase gradually in 
length and substance to the terminal one, which is the 
longest, and laterally compressed ; face fiattish ; clypeus 
subquadrate, very convex and very pubescent ; " labrwn 
oblong, quadrate ; mandibles strong, tridentate ; labium 
(tongue) long, filiform ; labial palpi having the third joint 
articulated externally on the outer side of the second ; 
maxillary palpi four-jointed." Thorax globose ; scu- 
tellum lunate; post-scutellum transverse, linear; meta- 
thorax rounded ; ivings with two submarginal cells and 
the commencement of a third just indicated, the second 
very slightly larger than the first, and receiving both the 
recurrent nervures, the first just beyond its commence- 
ment and the second close to its termination ; legs short, 
rather robust, subsetose ; the posterior tibia externally 
convex and the posterior planta with a dense, short 
brush beneath; the claws simple. Abdomen cylin- 
drical, retuse at the base, convex above, declining from 
the base of the fourth segment to the extremity, the 
first and second segments very slightly constricted, 
the margin of the posterior one, at the apex, slightly 
crenulated, the ventral segments plane and from the 
second covered with a dense brush of parallel hair, ex- 
cepting the sixth, which is reflected laterally and longi- 
tudinally, convex down the centre. 

The MALE differs in having " the sixth segment of the 
abdomen emarginate, and with a strong tooth on each 
side; the terminal segment emarginate, thus producing 
two strong, lateral^ obtuse teeth, the ventral plates of 

u 2 



292 BRITISH BEES. 

these same segments emarginate at the extremity, and 
the emargination fringed with hair; the claws bifid/^ 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

1. papaveris, Latreille. (Plate XIV. fig. 2 cT ? •) 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

Named by St. Fargeau from dv6o<;, a flower, and 
KOTTT], a cutting or incision, from its habit of cutting sec- 
tions out of the petals of the common scarlet poppy with 
which to line the cells it forms within the cylinder it 
excavates, just as Megachile does with the leaves of 
various plants. It is noticed as British upon the faith 
of the specimens introduced by Leach into the cabinets 
of the British Museum and presumptively caught in the 
west or south-west of England, a region rich in rarities. 
E-ennie in fact tells us that he has found it at Largs, in 
Scotland. One of Leach's specimens I received in ex- 
change from that establishment in 1842, and which is 
now in the possession of Mr. Desvignes, to whom my 
collections passed in the following year. This genus 
forms a sort of combination between the genera Mega- 
chile and Osmia, it having the upholstering habits of the 
former in the mode with which it lines its nest, and the 
general habit of the latter. At a first glance, before its 
habits were known or its structure examined, even an 
experienced entomologist might have placed it under Os- 
mia, as an unrecognised species, for it very strongly re- 
sembles the Osmia leucomelana. This proves how very 
inconclusive habit is as an index to habits, the latter of 
these insects drilling into the pith of brambles, and the 
Anthocopa tunnelling cylinders into the hardest trodden 
roads or pathways and lining them with its crimson haug- 
insrs. 



ANTHOCOPA. 293 

From the extreme rarity of the insect_, I have been 
unable to examine the cibarial apparatus, and thence to 
ascertain upon what substantial grounds the generic 
distinctions are based, which separate it from Osmia. 
Whether it was these mere habits of the insect which 
induced Le Pelletier de St. Fargeau to establish the 
genus I do not know, but he is always extremely slovenly, 
and therefore very unsatisfactory in his characteristics, 
which are never framed in a strictly explicit manner. 
In consequence of all these difficulties, I have merely 
been able under the generic character to introduce such 
as he has given, which I could not derive from the per- 
sonal external inspection of Mr. Desvignes' female (my 
own selection of whose bees for the purposes of this work 
he has been so kind as to lend me, and whom I thus 
publicly present with my best thanks) . I have there- 
fore compounded a character as well as I could from 
St. Fargeau's descriptions, inserted in the tenth volume 
of the ^ Encyclopedie Methodique, and from his work on 
the Hymenoptera, forming one of the ^ Suites a Bvffon.' 

The habits of these bees, as said above, are to excavate 
vertical cylinders in hard down-trodden pathways and 
roads, by the sides of fields where corn is grown, and 
where consequently the common red poppy is abundant. 
From the petals of the flowers of this plant they cut 
out semicircular pieces, precisely as is done by Mega- 
chile with the more rigid leaves of shrubs and trees, 
and convey them home and line their nests with them, 
just as is practised by that genus with those leaves. — 
with this difference merely, that a sufficient portion ot 
the upper edge of the pieces of the petals used is left 
projecting, for the purpose of forming a covercle to the 
nidus^ and which, when filled with provender and the 



29i BRITISH BEES. 

egg deposited, is refolded over it and covered in, and it 
is closed up with earth. They then proceed to make 
another excavation, which is treated in the same man- 
ner, for they deposit only one larva in a tube. If dis- 
turbed in their retreat, they will show themselves at its 
mouth, like Dasypoda, to see what is the matter. 

I would urge our collecting entomologists, especially 
those who have the opportunity of hunting up the west 
of England, to use due diligence and strive to confirm 
the native existence of this bee and add specimens to the 
cabinets of their fellow-entomologists. 



Genus 24. OSMIA, Latreille, 

(Plate XIV. figs. 1 and 3 c? ? .) 

Apis ** c 2 S, Kirby. 

Gen. Char. : Head subglobose, concave, posteriorly 
fitting the prothorax and about as wide as the thorax; 
ocelli placed far forward on the vertex, which is wide 
and convex, in a curved line ; antennce filiform, some- 
times subclavate, short, and geniculated, the scape ro- 
bust, as long as the four following joints, the basal 
joint of the flagellum, globose, its second joint clavate 
and as long as the terminal one, the remainder short, 
snbequal, and gradually but slightly increasing in length; 
the face flattish; the clypeus a truncated triangle, con- 
vex ; labrum longitudinally oblong, a little laterally dis- 
tended at the articulation, from whence the sides are 
parallel ; mandibles broad at the apex, obscurely triden- 
tate, the internal teeth obtuse and short; cibarial ap- 
paratus long; the tongue three times the length of the 
labium, clothed with short hair and tapering from the 



osMiA. 295 

base to the acute apex ; paraglossce very short, coadunate 
at the base and acuminate at the apex; labial palpi more 
than half the length of the tongue, the two first joints 
membranous and long, the basal one the broadest, seated 
on a petiole and not so long as the second, which tapers 
to an acute point, before the apex of which the remain- 
ing two short subclavate conterminous joints articulate; 
labium about one-third the length of the tongue, acutely 
produced in the centre of its inosculation; maxillcB as 
long as the tongue, subheistate and acuminate ; maxil- 
lary palpi four-jointed, rather short, the joints subequal 
and subclavate, but the second is both the most robust 
and slightly the longest. Thorax oval or globose ; pro- 
thorax inconspicuous; scutellum lunulate and convex; 
post-scutellum transverse and linear ; the metathorax ab- 
ruptly truncated; wings with two submarginal cells, and a 
third distinctly commenced, the second the longest, and 
receiving both the recurrent nervures, the first towards 
its centre and the second near its termination; legs 
moderate, setose, the plantse of all with a dense brush 
beneath; claw-joint longer than the three preceding; 
claws simple. Abdomen short, cylindrical, convex, the 
terminal segment slightly pointed, the ventral segments 
densely pilose in parallel lines from the second. 

The MALE differs in having the antenms longer and 
always filiform, the ventral segments very concave, and 
the terminal dorsal segment variously mucronated^ tu- 
berculated, spinose or serrated, and the claws bifid. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

1. leucomelana, Kirby, ^ $ . 3-44 lines. (Plate 

XIV. fig. 3 S ?\) 

2. spinulosaj Kirby, ^ ? . 3-4 lines. 



296 BRITISH BEES. 

5. pilicornis, Bainbridge, MS.^ (^ ?. 4-4| lines. 
4. bicolor, Sclirank, S ? • 4-5 lines. (Plate XIV. 

fig. 1 c? ? .) 
h.falviventris, Panzer, S ?• 4-5 lines. 
Leaiana, Kirby. 

6. anea, Linnaeus, (^ $ . 3-4 1 lines. 
cmrulescens, Linnaeus, $ . 
ccerulescens, Kirby, ? . 

7* parietina, Curtis, [V. 222.] c? ? • 3-4 lines. 
'8. xanthomelana, Kirby, S ? • 4-7 lines. 

atricapilla, Curtis, [V. 222.] ? . 
9. aurulenta, Panzer, ^ $ . 4^6 lines. 

tvnensis, Kirby. 
10. rufa, Linnaeus, ^ $ . 3-6 lines. 

bicornis, Linnseus. 

bicornis, Kirby. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS, 

Named from oafir), sweet-scenty from some fancied idea 
of their possessing the property of emitting a sweet 
odour ; but this, although it is the case with many of 
the bees, — for instance, with the genera Prosopis, Halic- 
tuSj Nomada, some of the Anthophorce, Saropoda, and 
the male Bombi and Apathi, — I have not noticed in any 
of this subsection, the Dasygasters, and therefore not 
in any of the present genus. It is possible that when 
richly laden with pollen, this may emit some smell, 
but I am not aware that any of the scent of flowers 
lies in the anthers or their pollen, although this in 
some cases has a spermatic odour pointing to its express 
function; but be this as it may, such is their name. 
These as a group are what are called the * Mason Bees,^ 
from the habit they have of agglutinating particles of 



osMiA. 297 

sand or earth mixed with minute pebbles, scarcely lar- 
ger than grains of sand, or raspings of wood combined 
in the same manner, with a secretion which they emit, 
and of which they form their cells. The instinct of the 
creature prompts it to be speedy in the operation, as the 
material, like plaster of Paris, dries very rapidly to a 
hard substance. Whether they have the power of 
softening the edges as the manufacture of the cell pro- 
ceeds is not known, nor whether, as they add the 
material, it instantaneously consolidates itself, but the 
colour of the structures themselves would indicate a 
simultaneous mixture. This could not be the case, if 
the mortar or mixture were formed away from the domicile 
and brought home in little pellets, each being added 
upon the insects' arrival, although they obtain it all from 
the same spot, whence arises its uniformity in colour, 
and they are speedy in the formation of their nests. 
These cells are rather rough externally, according to the 
nature of the material of which they are compossd, but 
they are very smooth within. The nature of the cells 
varies with the places of their deposit, which is dependent 
upon the idiosyncrasy of the species. Thus, those which 
construct their cells in wood, form them of moistened 
particles of wood, and those which make them in cavi- 
ties of any kind, in the earth, beneath stones, or within 
empty snail-shells, make a mortar of earth and sand 
and small pebbles. Some are strictly uniform in the 
selection of the material wherein they build, but others 
are perfectly indifferent to its locality, and adopt either 
earth or wood, and sometimes the mortar of walls, sand- 
banks or chalk cliffs. According to the nature or the 
size of the receptacle which they select, is the adjust- 
ment of these cells. Where the cavity is restricted they 



298 BRITISH BEES. 

place them end to end, but where it is more roomy they 
affix them side to side, completely adapting themselves 
to the circumstances of the locality as I shall instance 
below, in the description of the special habits of the 
more conspicuous species. I have elsewhere referred to 
the metallic colouring of many of the species of this 
genus, and amongst them is found the greatest sexual 
disparity of personal appearance, the O. leucomelana, 
and one or two of the neighbouring species being, per- 
haps, the only ones wherein uniformity of appearance 
would unite the partners together. The majority are 
very pubescent insects, and the females of the terminal 
species in the foregoing list are remarkable for a couple 
of inwardly curved horns, springing from the base of the 
clypeus just below the insertion of the antennse, an ap- 
pendage usually a male attribute. 

There is very great dissimilarity in the habits of the 
various species, whence no single characteristic will em- 
brace them, nor is there any distinctive feature whereby 
the genus might bear subdivision, either from habits or 
habit, as will be collected from the following cursory 
survey of their special natural history. 

Thus the first species, the O. leucomelana^ named so 
from the white decumbent down which edges the black 
segments of the abdomen, extracts the pith from bram- 
ble-sticks, and its cells are formed and closed with a 
composition made of triturated wood or leaves. The 
cylinders it forms are usually about five inches deep, 
and within this it constructs about the same number of 
cells proportionate to the small size of the insect. These 
are midsummer insects, coming forth in June and July ; 
they are very local, but seem to abound in the vicinity 

Bristol^ whence. Mr. Thwaites formerly sent me speci- 



osMiA. 299 

mens. A very few days serve for the hatching of the 
larva, which spins a slight silken cocoon, and in this 
dormitory it reposes until its season again comes round. 
Under the influence of the following first genial spring 
weather, the larva is transmuted into the pupa, and the 
active little imago comes forth upon the settlement of 
our variable spring, in the merry days of June, and thus 
is perpetuated the circle of its existence, but which is 
sometimes abridged by its special parasite, the pretty 
little Stelis octomaculata. Many of the species in the 
males are distinguished by a peculiar armature of the 
apex of the abdomen ; the second being named by Kirby 
from the circumstance. A very remarkable singularity 
distinguishes the males of the third species, in the fringe 
of short hair that runs along the flagellum of its an- 
tennae. This, I believe, was first noticed by the late 
Mr. Bainbridge, a very active practical entomologist, 
who took the insect at Darenth or Birchwood, and dis- 
tributed specimens with this manuscript name attached, 
which has since been appropriated by another entomo- 
logist to whom the science was wholly unknown at that 
time, but as it is scarcely consistent with scientific 
courtesy to adopt such a course, and as the MS. names 
of Linna3us and Kirby have been retained, where it 
was authorized by their being attached to undescribed 
species, I have restored to Mr. Bainbridge his just 
rights, and have claimed the same for myself, in the 
case of Andrena longipes, and which many cabinets must 
still possess with my name attached, in my own writing, 
unless their possessors have chosen to adopt the illegiti- 
mate parentage ; for the entomologists of my own stand- 
ing well know that I always freely distributed speci- 
mens to all who desired them of the many very desirable 



300 ' BRITISH BEES, 

insects which I have captured in the course of my ento- 
mological career. The fourth and the ninth species, the 
0. bicolor and 0. aurulenta, have very much the same 
hahits, both usually burrowing in sandbanks, sometimes 
however in wood, in which case the perforation, contrary 
to the mode of wood-drilling bees, is made upwards, a 
sagacity or instinct which saves it much trouble, for the 
particles as they are removed by the mandibles are passed 
beneath the insect, and their own gravity carries them 
downwards, and thus the insect saves itself the labour of 
conveying them out as they accumulate in inconvenient 
quantities. The cells in this case are placed end to end. 
When they burrow in the earth, the latter species often 
associate gregariously in large numbers, and if they select 
a cavity, instead of tunnelling it themselves, and it be 
too large to take one cell upon the others, they form them 
side by side, and thus fill the space. This is the case when 
they adopt snail-shells as the receptacle for their incu- 
nabula, and this is done by both these species, and the 
shells they select are the empty ones of Helix nemoraliSf 
hortensis, and adspersa. The capacity of the latter shell 
being much greater than that of the others, and too wide 
for a single succession, she fills the interval by placing 
them side by side, and with the increase of the whorl 
of the shell towards its orifice she places them across the 
space, and thus completes her task. In the former 
shells, the cavity at first admits of the succession of but 
one upon the other, but with its enlargement she places 
them side by side, and this repeated fills the hollow. Its 
aperture is then closed with earth and pebbles or sticks 
agglutinated together, as described at the commence- 
ment. The O. fulviventris burrows in wood, and upon 
this species the Stelis phceojjtera is parasitical ; and that 



I 



OSMIA. 301 

very pretty but extremely common speCies the 0. (Rnea^ 
in which the male is of a rich bronzy tint, and the female 
of a beautiful blue, verging sometimes to nearly black, 
burrows also in wood, although sometimes it capriciously 
selects old walls or chalk-cliffs, and is subject to the 
incursions of the same parasite. Perhaps the most 
extraordinary species is the O. parietina, figured and 
named by Curtis, and which he first found at Amble- 
side ; it has since been found in the Grampians very con- 
siderably above the level of the sea, and it is thus essen- 
tially a northern species both from altitude and locality. 
It would appear that this species selects some flat stone 
of about a foot in surface, lying upon the ground over 
a hollow spot. Such a specimen, sent to the British 
Museum, had attached to its under side two hundred and 
thirty cocoons, indicative of a considerable colony, or 
perhaps the accumulation of successive years, as one- 
third of these cocoons were empty of tenants. These, in 
their new depository, continued developing themselves 
in the perfect state between March and June, males ap- 
pearing first. When the transformations of the season 
ceased, five-and-thirty were still left to present them- 
selves another year, and the following spring these were 
developed ; thus, including those which had already 
escaped when the stone and its treasure was secured, 
three successive seasons were occupied in their trans- 
mutations. It may be a species that requires three 
years for its metamorphosis, and the whole deposit of 
cocoons may have been the result of three years' accu- 
mulative structure, the vital activity of their northern life 
being perhaps more sluggish than in species frequenting 
the south. The last species the O. rufa, that in which 
the female is remarkable for its inverted horns, which 



302 BRITISH BEES. 

must be for som^ use in its economy, is perhaps the most 
common of all. I have found it in abundance upon old 
walls with a sunny aspect at Erith, and throughout the 
pleasant Grays of Kent. It is indifferent as to the choice 
of its domicile, selecting either walls, where I have chiefly 
found them, sandbanks, or the decaying stumps of pol- 
lard-willows. Its processes are similar to those of some 
of the earlier described, but its larva is longer in full 
feeding, which, when it has consumed all its provender 
spins a tough cocoon of brown silk, wherein it under- 
goes its changes ; some, depending much upon locality, 
pass into pupae in the autumn, others hibernate as larvae 
which are subject to destruction from the attacks of the 
Chalcideous insect, Monodontomerus denlipes, previously 
noticed under Anthophora. Some of the Chrysididce 
also infest several of the species of this genus, and I have 
no doubt that Stelis aterrima is parasitical upon one of 
them, although it has not been recorded. The various 
species frequent many flowers, especially those abundant 
in the locality they inhabit, but the 0. pilicornis chiefly 
aflects the common Bugle [Ajuga reptans), and they 
much frequent composite flowers, especially the species 
of the genus Hieracium. 



Section 2. Cenohites {dwellers in community). 

Subsection 1. Spueeed. 

f Parasitical. 

Genus 25. Apathus, Newman, 
(Plate XV. figs. 1 and 2.) 
Apis ** e 2 partly, Kirby. — Psithyeus, St. Pargeau. 
Gen. Char.: Body subhirsute. Head subglobose; 



APATHUS. 303 

vertex broad, glabrous, with a deeply impressed cross 
upon its summit, in the centre of which the ocelli are 
placed in an almost straight line and contiguously ; an- 
tennm short, filiform, geniculated, the scape slightly 
curved, the basal joint of the flagellum subglobose, its 
second joint as long as the terminal one and subclavate, 
the rest short, subequal, but gradually increasing in 
length to the terminal one, which is laterally compressed ; 
the face flat; clypeus transversely lunate but straight in 
front; labrum lunulate, tuberculated laterally; man- 
dibles broad and obscurely bidentate ; cibarial apparatus 
moderate; tongue twice the length of the labium, taper- 
ing from base to apex, where it terminates in a small 
knob, and is clothed with short hair; paraglossce obsolete; 
labial palpi as long as the tongue, the two first joints 
long and membranous and tapering to the apex of the 
second, which is acute, and about one-fourth the length 
of the first, it has the two very short, subclavate, ter- 
minal joints, which are conterminous, and articulated 
just before its acute apex ; maxilla subhastate and acu- 
minate; maxillary palpi very short, linear, and equal. 
Thorax globose, pubescent, concealing its divisions; 
metatJwrax truncated ; wings with three submarginal 
cells nearly equal, or the third the largest, the second 
receiving the first recurrent nervure at about one-third 
its length, and the second is received by the third sub- 
marginal cell near its extremity ; legs setose ; the pos- 
terior tibice convex, very slightly enlarging from base to 
apex, rounded at the extremity externally, and unfur- 
nished with means to convey pollen ; posterior planter 
oblong, narrowly equal, and not auriculated ; claws bifid. 
Abdomen ovate, convex above, deflecting toward its ex- 
tremity, and subglabrous on the disk, the terminal 



304 BRITISH BEES. 

dorsal segment triangular, and its ventral plate straight 
at its apex with the lateral angles reflected, making it 
concave beneath and subcarinated longitudinally in the 
centre, or also triangular and the sides of the prominent 
angle deflected. 

The MALE differs in having the antennae slightly 
longer, in being rather more pubescent, more highly 
and rather diff'erently coloured, and its terminal segment 
merely rounded. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

3. campestris,VsLnzeYj(^ ?. 6-9 lines. (Plate XV. 
fig. 2. The fig. marked (J by mistake for $ .) 
campestriSj Kirby, ? . 
Rossiella, Kirby, ^, 
Leeana, Kirby. 
Franciscana, Kirby. 
subterranea, Kirby. 

2. Barbutellus, Kirby, S ? • ^-9 lines. 

3. vest alls, Fourcroy, c^ ? . 6-10 lines. (Plate XV. 

fig. 2?.) 
vestalis, Kirby, ? . 

4. rw;?e5/m, Fabricius, c? ?• 6-10 lines. (Plate XV. 

fig. Ic??.) 
albinella, Kirby, ^. 

' GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

Named from a, privative, Trddo^, affection ; that is 
to say, without affection, from their habit of leaving 
their young to be nurtured by others, in allusion to 
their parasitical instincts, for the young of these bees 
are brought up in the nests of the Bombi. They form 
the only instance in bee-parasitism of the parasite 



APATHUS. 305 

closely, or nearly so, resembling its sitos_, if not al- 
ways in colour, certainly in habit. Having no labours 
to undergo they consist of merely males and females, 
but the latter, although very like the large female Bombi, 
are much less pubescent than these, for they have a broad 
disk, upon the upper surface of the abdomen, always 
smooth and shining. Both sexes appear to have free 
in- and egress to the nests of those Bombi which they 
infest, without any let or hindrance on the part of the 
latter, with whom they seem to dwell in perfect amity. 
In the times of their appearance they closely resemble 
the Halicti and the neighbouring Bombi, Thus the 
females, after impregnation in the autumn, having hi- 
bernated during the winter in selected receptacles, come 
out with the first gleams of -spring conjunctively with the 
large maternal Bombi ^ in whose nests they have taken 
their long repose in perfect torpidity ; and as soon as 
these begin to accumulate the masses of conglomerated 
honey and pollen whereon to deposit their eggs, the 
parasite takes advantage of it, lays her eggs too, and 
thus secures food for her offspring. There being two 
broods of them in the year, many are gradually deve- 
loped with the advance of summer, but the great hatch- 
ing takes place in the autumn, when the thistles are in 
blossom. Then both males and females come forth in 
abundance, the latter are made fertile, and their partners 
enjoy the brief interval of the still blossoming flowers 
until the usual period is put to their existence by natural 
decay, the first frosts, or the rapacity of insectivorous 
birds. Connected with this last circumstance I have a 
personal experience to record, and which its repetition 
would indicate as being one of .Nature's prompting acts. 
A lofty sandy level, very near the high-road which leads 

X 



306 BRITISH BEES. 

at the upper part of Hampstead Heath _, to Highgate, from 
which road it was separated by merely a band of whins 
and coarse grass, used to be a very favourite collecting 
place of mine, for there, and in its immediate vicinity, 
I have often caught, within a very brief period, more 
than half the genera, and a very large number of the 
species of the fossorial Hymenoptera, One particular 
little spot was inhabited by Psen equestris, rare every- 
where else, and our largest Cerceris, who carried on their 
instinctive pursuits during all the summer months, but 
at a particular time in the autumn, varying slightly 
with the nature of the season, a flock of wagtails [Mota- 
cilla) would alight and make brief work of those fossores 
which were still aflight ; and this was repeated season 
after season, as if the wagtails thought it was time that 
their own rapacity should stop the course of these pre- 
dacious insects. But to return, the female Apathi then 
resort to the nests of the Bombi whence they have issued, 
and lay themselves up in their winter dormitory. That 
this must take place speedily after impregnation is ren- 
dered almost conclusive by the fine state in which their 
pubescence appears in the spring, which would be tar- 
nished did they loiter about visiting flowers previous to 
their return home. But the labours of the female and 
neuter Bombi themselves are now over, and they would 
therefore find no store whereon to deposit their eggs. 
The parasitical allocation of these insects is as follows. 
Apathus rupestris infests Bombus lapidarius ; A. vestalis 
the B. terrestris, and this forms an instance in which 
the parasite is not clothed in the colours of its sitos. 
But A, Barbutellus has a wide range, for it frequents 
the nests of B. pratorum, B. Derhamellus, and B. Skrim- 
shiranus. 



BOMBUS. 307 

ft Not parasitical. Collectors of pollen. 
X Temporarily social. 

Genus 26. BOMBUS, Latreille. 

(Plate XV. figs. 3 and 4, and Plate XVT. figs. 1, 2, 3.) 

Apis ** e 2, Kirbj. 

Gen. Char. : Body densely hirsute. Head small, sub- 
globose, not so wide as the thorax ; the vertex glabrous, 
with a longitudinal, short, deep channel, crossed in its 
centre by a deeper transverse one, wherein the ocelli are 
disposed in a very slightly curved line; antenncB short, 
geniculated, and filiform ; the scape half as long as the 
flagellum, the first joint of which is globose, the se- 
cond subclavate, the rest short and subequal, and the 
terminal one compressed laterally; face flat, densely 
pubescent ; clypeus sub triangular, gibbous, its base trun- 
cated, and apex convexly lobated, or straight and mar- 
gined; lahrum lunulate; mandibles broad at the base, 
and obscurely tridentate ; cibarial apparatus moderate ; 
tongue twice the length of the labium, clothed with pu- 
bescence to within a brief distance of its apex, and ter- 
minating in a small knob; paraglossce about one-fourth 
the length of the tongue, coadunate at the base, and 
acuminate ; labial palpi three-fourths the length of the 
tongue, broad at the base, and tapering to the extremity 
of the acute apex of the second joint, which is about 
one-fifth the length of the first, the two terminal joints 
very short and articulated laterally just before the 
end of the second; labium one-half the length of the 
tongue, broadest at its base, and acutely produced in the 
centre of its inosculation ; maccillce as long as the tongue, 
subhastate and acuminate ; maxillary palpi two-jointed, 
short, sometimes equal, and slightly robust, or with the 

X 2 



308 BRITISH BEES. 

basal joint very robust, and its terminal joint twice as 
long and linear. Thorax globose, very hirsute, whence 
its divisions are inconspicuous ; scutellum lunate ; meta- 
thorax truncated; wings with three submarginal cells sub- 
equal, or the third the longest, and a fourth slightly com- 
menced, the second receiving the first recurrent nervure 
near its centre, and the third receiving the second re- 
current nervure close to its extremity; legs robust, 
pilose, the four anterior plantse with a dense, short, se- 
tose brush beneath ; the posterior tibia triangular, very 
smooth, and irregularly concave on their external sur- 
face, fringed with long pile along its two external edges, 
and its extremity tipped with a short pecten of stiff setae ; 
the plantce elongate and broad, nearly equal, externally 
shagreened and spinulose, with a longish auriculated 
process at the external angle of the superior edge, a 
dense brush of short, stiff hair beneath, and a short 
pecten of stiff setse edging its subemarginate extremity ; 
the claw-joint the longest of the four short subsequent 
joints, and the claws bifid. Abdomen ovate or globose, 
deflected towards its extremity, its base retuse, the last 
segment triangular, and terminating obtusely. 

The MALE differs in always being more intensely co- 
loured ; in having the antennce distinctly longer, less dis- 
tinctly geniculated, the scape shorter, the third joint of 
the flagellum almost as short as its basal joint, and the 
fourth as long as the terminal one, which latter two 
are the longest of all, and the joints from the fourth to 
the eleventh severally more or less slightly curved. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

1. lapidarius, Linngeus, c? ? ^ . 6-10 lines. 
lapidarius, Kirby. 



BOMBUS. 309 

2. Harrisellus, Kirby, (^ ? ? . 6-10 lines. (Plate 

Xyi. fig. 1 ? .) 

3. subterraneus, Linnaeus. ^ ? ° . 5-10 lines. 
Soroensis, Kirby? 

4. Latreillellus, Kirby, d" ? ? . 5-8 lines. 
Tunstallana, Kirby. 

5. hortorum, Linnaeus, ^ $ ^ • 5-10 lines, 
hortorum, Kirby. 

6. Soroensis, Fabricius, c^ ? ^ . 5-8 lines. Plate 

XV. fig. 4 c^.) 
Cullumana, Kirby, ^ . 

7. lucorum, Linnaeus, (^ ? o . 5-9 lines. 
lucorum, Kirby. 

virginaliSj Kirby. 

8. terrestris, Linnaeus, (^ ? ^ • ^"^ lines. 
terrestriSf Kirby. 

9. SkrimshiranuSj Kirby, ^ ? 7 • ^~^ lines. 
Jonella, Kirby. 

10. nivalis, Dahlbom, ^ ? . 6-8 lines. 

11. pratorum, Linnaeus, S ^ ^\ • 4-8 lines. 
praiorum, Kirby. 

subinterrupta, Kirby. 
Donovanella, Kirby. 
Burrellana, Kirby. 

12. Derhamellus, Kirby, c? ? ^ . 4-8 lines. 
Raiella, Kirby, ? . 

13. Lapponicus, Fabricius, c^ ? ^ . 5-9 lines. 
regelationis, Newman. 

14. fragrans, Pallas, c? ? ? . 5-10 lines. (Plate XV. 

fig. 3?.) 
fragrans, Kirby. 

15. sylvarum, Linnaeus, c? ? ? . 6-8 lines. (Plate 

XVLfig."3$.) 



310 BRITISH BEES. 

sylvarum, Kirby. 

16. Smithianus, White, c? ? ? • 4-10 lines. 

17. senilis, Fabricius, J" ? ? . 6-9 lines. 
muscorum, Kirby. 

18. muscorum, Linnaeus, (^ ? ° . 4-9 lines. 
Francillonana, Kirby. 

floralis, Kirby. 
Sowerbiana, Kirby. 
Beckwithella, Kirby. 
Curtisella, Kirby. 
Forsterella, Kirby. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

These, perhaps the most conspicuous of our native 
bees, certainly the largest, and probably the most gene- 
rally known after the domestic bee, have their scientific 
generic name from /So/a/3o9, an imitative word, made to 
indicate the sound of the hum of the insects themselves. 
They have many popular names such as bumble bees, 
dumbledors, humble bees, and in Scotland they are called 
foggie bees. They consist of three sexes, males, females, 
and neuters, which differ considerably in size, the females 
being very much the largest, and the neuters the smallest. 
Of course, individually, like all other insects, there is 
much variation among them in the intensity or diver- 
sity of the colouring of their pubescence, from which it 
is chiefly that they derive their specific distinctions ; in 
the relative sizes of individuals also there are great differ- 
ences. It is the males, as is usual among the bees, 
which are the gayest in their attire, and take the widest 
range of variation, and sometimes so much exceed the 
typical specific character in their markings as to require 
experience to identify them, and to place them correctly 



BOMBUS, 311 

with their true species, which can only be ascertained 
with certainty by the examination of the male organs of 
generation, which differ in the various species, but are 
undeviating in their specific uniformity. Of this cha- 
racter, which I was the first to discover as being of spe- 
cific value for critical determination in the separation of 
the species of very diflScult insects, I was enabled to make 
important use in the genus Dorylus, in a monograph on 
the Dorylidae, an exotic family proximate to the ants, 
and which was published in Taylor's ' Annals of Natural 
History' for May, June, and July, 1840. The females 
and neuters of Bombus are less subject to such extensive 
dissimilarity, and may be usually associated, by their pu- 
bescence, in their legitimate groups. Form also frequently 
lends its aid as subsidiary to their specific identification. 
These and Apis mellifica are our only social bees, 
which live in numerous communities under a kind of 
municipal government which is considerably less per- 
fectly organized in the present genus than in the domes- 
tic bee, and thence they are called " villagers," in con- 
tradistinction to the citizenship of the hive bee, earned 
by its comparatively metropolitan institutions, and the 
centralization of its government, which wholly ema- 
nates from the pervading influence of the queen upon 
the labours, and, indeed, upon the existence of her sub- 
jects. But the Bombi are under much less social re- 
straint, and admit of several co-regents in the same com- 
munity, without its being productive of any disturbance 
of social harmony. In the account of the genus Apathus, 
the last described, we have seen that the Bombi are sub- 
ject to bee-parasites, which in some closely resemble the 
species they infest, and we have also shown there how 
these are distributed. The hive bee is not exposed to 



312 BRITISH BEES. 

such intrusion^ although, like these, they have many ene- 
mies. In the very earliest spring months these Bombi 
are abroad; for as soon as the catkins of the sallow 
are ripe for impregnation, they are on the wing. But 
it is now that the large females only are at work, for 
they have to create their companions before they can 
be surrounded by them. Their fruition is the result of 
the previous autumn^s amours, at a period too late to 
form sufficient stores for the numerous brood they will 
produce, and accordingly, after revelling in a brief honey- 
moon, they resort, like staid matrons, to a temporary 
domicile, some cavity just large enough for themselves. 
In this retirement they pass the cheerless wintry months, 
requiring perhaps the incubation of time thoroughly to 
mature their fruit. Whether this be the case or not, as 
soon as the earth begins to feel the warmth of the sun 
upon its return from its far southern journey, and to 
respond to the renewed vitality it gives to vegetation, 
these bees feel its active influence and come forth. With 
the progress of the spring and summer most flowers are 
exposed to their rifling, but they revel upon the elegant 
flowers of the Horse-chestnut, and their hum is the 
music of the lime when it is in blossom. According to 
the species, they select a cavity for their nest, or con- 
struct it upon the surface of the ground, this being the 
case with the carder-bees, which gather moss to con- 
struct their residence. In those which inhabit beneath 
the surface, the selection of an already formed cavity 
greatly abridges their labour, and their instinct prompts 
them to choose one sufficiently large for the prospective 
community, but the nest itself is gradually extended in 
size suitable to their progressive increase in numbers. 
All that the parent female does at first is to form a 



BOMBUS. 313 

receptacle sufficiently large for her first gatherings of 
pollen and honey, whereon to deposit her first eggs, and 
to form a waxen cruse or two to contain the honey re- 
quisite for the nest operations of keeping these masses 
moist enough for the nurture of the larvae. The ma- 
terial of these pots although called wax is not pro- 
perly so, but is an agglutination of collected vegetable 
matter, for it is not plastic to the fingers like wax, and 
it burns, leaving a carbonaceous residuum very attractive 
to moisture. The larvae hatched from the eggs now 
deposited produce the first neuters, which spin a cocoon 
wherein they rapidly undergo their transformations. 
They are, in the first instance, aided to emerge from 
their silken cot by the parent gnawing ofi" its top, but 
subsequently this duty is performed, as the family in- 
creases, by the neuters then developed. The young 
bee, on emerging from its cocoon, is not thoroughly 
hardened in its integument, and its pubescence also 
acquires by degrees only its proper colouring ; all this 
is not long in being effected, but, until they are tho- 
roughly able to fly forth, they continue to be fed by 
their elder sisterhood, for the neuters are properly ab- 
ortive females. Males, and further productive females 
are produced later in the spring, and are smaller than 
the normal sizes of those sexes ; the autumnal brood, con- 
sisting also of males and females, again resume the full 
size of the complete insect, and it is these females which, 
after impregnation, hibernate and reappear in the fol- 
lowing early spring to be each the parent of a new 
progeny. The population of these nests varies consi- 
derably in the several species : in some, as in that of 
Bombus terrestris, there are more than two hundred, 
and in that of B. senilis there are about a hundred 



314 BRITISH BEES. 

and forty ; but it is in those that construct their nests 
above the ground that the fewest are found. As with 
the general population, so with the relative proportions 
of the sexes, the several species vary. Of course all 
these numbers are approximative only, as under certain 
conditions they will necessarily differ, nor are the general 
or relative numbers identical, even in the same species, 
in the same season, and in the same locality. The pro- 
portions are usually somewhat like this, about double 
the number of neuters to females, and nearly the same 
number of males as of females. In some of the com- 
munities there are even as few as twenty neuters, and 
these, of course, comprise those species which are most 
rarely found by collectors. The most pugnacious of all, 
and the fiercest in their attacks and most painful in 
their stings, are those which live underground or in 
cavities formed of accumulations of stones, and it is these 
which are the least constructive in their habitations, as 
if their truculent nature rejected the concomitants of 
incipient civilization ; for it is those which build moss- 
nests, requiring a certain amount of skill, that are the 
most gentle in their habits. With the increase of 
numbers in the habitation, the rapidity of the labours 
progresses, and the accumulations quickly increase ; but 
there is always opportunity for the entire community to 
find employment, either in enlarging their nests, when 
they build them, or in securing them from the intrusion 
of water, or repelling enemies, or feeding the young, and 
accumulating stores. In collecting pollen they are often 
covered as if they had rolled themselves in it, and this 
they brush from their hairy bodies chiefly with their 
posterior legs; sometimes they return in this disguised 
condition, and free themselves from it only at home ; in 



BOMBUS. 315 

other cases they bring it home collected in little masses 
upon the corbiculum, or basket, of the posterior shanks. 
They may be often caught thus laden, and I once cap- 
tured a large female of B. terrestris, with the shanks and 
plantse of both intermediate and posterior legs covered 
with masses of thick clay, required doubtless at home 
for some domestic repairs. The instinct of these bees 
teaches them that where the tube of the flower is too 
narrow for the introduction of their body, and too long 
for even their long proboscis to reach the nectarium at 
the bottom, they may get at the honey by piercing a 
hole near that organ, which they know where to find, 
and thus they readily get at the treasure that they 
seek, lapping it through the aperture and carrying it 
off. If, in their collecting-excursions, they are inter- 
cepted by heavy rains, or loiter far away too long until 
the twilight closes, they will pass the night away from 
home, and return laden with their gatherings as soon as 
the warmth of the sun reanimates them to activity; 
thus they will often sleep in flowers, and a nest therefore 
taken at night is not always a sure indication in those 
found within it, of its complete population. In their 
amours, the autumnal females evince considerable co- 
quetry to attract their partners : they place themselves 
upon some branch in the most fervid sunshine, and here 
they practise their cajoleries in the vibrations of their 
wings, and allure them by their attractive postures, 
The males are simultaneously abroad, and soon perceive 
them. The seduction is complete, and they pounce 
down upon them with impetuosity, but their brief in- 
dulgence terminates in death, for with his abating vigour 
the female repulses him, and he falls to the ground 
never to take wing again. Amongst their insect enemies 



316 BRITISH BEES. 

the Dipterous genera^ Volucella and Conops, are very 
destructive to their larvae^ — the first of these genera in 
its colouring greatly resembling the species upon which 
it preys. Foxes, weasels, field-mice, all prey upon them, 
and, like schoolboys, often destroy the bee for the sake 
of its honey-bag, an instance of which I have before 
recorded as illustrative of their endurance of the loss of 
a considerable portion of the body without its being 
fatal. 

The most interesting part of their history is perhaps 
that upon which I have not yet enlarged, namely, the 
structure of their nests. This is particularly the case 
with the carder-bees, which felt and plait the filaments 
of moss to form its whole enclosure. Such species se- 
lect a spot close to an abundant supply of the material ; 
this they bite off and form pellets of. To these nests a 
moderately long arched passage is formed of the same 
material, of sufficient size to permit the free passage of 
the bees to and fro. This necessarily is shorter at first 
and leads to a smaller receptacle when the parent bee 
works alone. But as her offspring of workers increases, 
the passage is lengthened and the nest enlarged. To 
construct it, when in full activity, the bees form a chain, 
one behind the other, extending from the growing ma- 
terial to the entrance of their passage to the nest, all 
their heads being turned towards the moss and their backs 
to the nest. The first bites off the raw material, rolls it 
and twists it, and passes it to the second, by whom and 
the succeeding ones it undergoes further manipulation, 
and where the chain terminates at the commencement 
of the passage another bee receives it and conveys it 
along this into the interior, and then applies it itself 
or passes it to others thus employed where it is re- 



BOMBUS. 317 

quired. A vaulted covering and sides is thus formed 
or extended within the cavity by the plaiting or wreath- 
ing together of these sprigs of moss, and the inside of 
which is further strengthened by being plastered with a 
coating of the pseudo-wax, which, however, smeljs much 
like true wax, and with which the lower loose filaments 
of the moss are intermingled, that one cannot be sepa- 
rated from the otlier without tearing the whole to pieces. 
Thus ingeniously do these insects enclose their home. 
These nests are not always on the surface, but often 
cavities of the necessary size are thus lined, and then 
they are doubly secure. Within these nests, with the 
increase of the population the number of the cocoons of 
course increases, as they are never used twice over, ex- 
cepting that when they are conveniently situated for the 
purpose they are converted into honey pots. Thus 
sometimes several layers are formed of these irregularly- 
placed cocoons, of which the longest diameter is, how- 
ever, always perpendicular to the horizon. In this way 
B. muscorum, senilis, fragi'ans, and others build. Some 
use a naked cavity, and merely secure it in its crevices 
from the filtering intrusion of rain or other water, the 
closing patches being formed of the usual waxy material. 
This is the practice of B. terrestris, which associates the 
largest communities of all; and B. lapidarius seeks 
cavities among stones or in the earth, and forms a nest 
of a regular oval, but merely clothes the sides, which is 
done by bits of moss and grass carried carefully home. 
The domestic arrangements within are much the same 
in all, the prolific females and the neuters being the 
labourers, which perform all the duties of building, the 
eoUecting and caring for the young, the function of the 
males being limited to the perpetuation of the species. 



318 BRITISH BEES. 

Subsection 2. Without Spurs to the posteeioe Tibiae. 
XX Permanently social. 

Genus 27. APIS, LmiKms. 

(PlateXVI. fig. 4(^ ? ? .) 
« Apis ** e 1, Kirby. 

Gen. Char. : — The neuter. — Body nearly cylindrical 
and subpubescent. Head transverse, about as wide as 
the thorax ; vertex and /ace deeply longitudinally chan- 
nelled in the centre, the latter to the apex of a small 
triangular elevated space between the insertion of the 
antennae, and extending to the base of the clypeus, the 
sides of the face flat ; the ocelli rather large, seated far 
hack upon the vertex in a triangle, the anterior one in 
the depth of the longitudinal channel, the two lateral 
ones placed further back towards the occiput in a trans- 
verse indentation crossing the longitudinal one; com- 
pound eyes very pubescent ; the hexagonal facets very 
minute ; antenncs short, filiform, geniculated ; the scape 
nearly half the length of the flagellum and subfusiform, 
the basal joint of the flagellum globose, the second sub- 
clavate and subequal with the remainder, very slightly 
lengthening to the apical joint, which is compressed 
and as short as the second ; clypeus quadrate, convex ; 
labrum transverse, linear, slightly waved in front ; man- 
dibles broad at the apex, edentate, obliquely truncated 
and concavo-convex ; cibarial apparatus shortish ; tongue 
nearly twice the length of the labium, linear, pubescent, 
and terminating in a small knob; paraglossce obsolete, 
coadunate with the base of the tongue; labial palpi not 
quite so long as the tongue, the first joint four times as long 
as the remainder, and tapering from the base to the apex 
of the second joint, which is about one-fourth the length 
of the preceding, and has the two very short terminal 



APIS. 319 

joints articulated just before its acute apex ; maxilla 
broad, hastate ; labium half the length of the tongue, its 
inosculation straightly transverse, not so long as the 
tongue and acuminate ; the maxillary palpi extremely 
short, the basal one the shortest. Thorax subglobose ; 
prothorax inconspicuous; scutellum lunulate and im- 
pending over the post-scutellura, which is transverse and 
linear ; metathorax truncated ; wings with a long mar- 
ginal cell extending nearly to the end of the wing, and 
obtuse at its extremity, three submarginal cells which 
terminate at less than half the length of the marginal, 
the second the largest and receiving the first recurrent 
nervure towards its commencement, the third oblique 
and narrow and receiving the second recurrent nervure 
just beyond its centre; legs slender, subpilose ; the 
anterior and intermediate tibicR with a spur, their plantae 
with a dense short close brush all round, the posterior^ 
tibice triangular, glabrous within, externally smooth, 
shining, and irregularly concave, the edges fringed lon- 
gitudinally with long hair curving inwards, and forming 
the sides of the corbiculum, or basket, which conveys the 
materiel of the nest, the apex transverse and pectinated 
with short rigid setse, but wholly without spurs ; the 
plant(B oblong, not quite so long as the tibise, the sides 
nearly parallel, the upper edge fringed with long loose 
hair, subglabrous externally, but furnished internally 
with ten transverse, parallel rows of short stiff golden 
hair, with an auricle at the outer angle, forming collec- 
tively a dense brush, and its oblique apex pectinated 
with short stiff setse, the remainder of the tarsal joints 
short, the fourth the shortest, and the claw joint the 
longest; the claws short, robust, and bifid. Abdomen 
retuse at the base^ subcylindrical, convex above, and ter- 



320. BRITISH BEES. 

minating conically, the first segment very short, the se- 
cond the longest, the ventral segments ridged longitu- 
dinally in the centre. 

The FEMALE, or QUEEN differs in the head not being 
quite so wide as the thorax, in having the cibarial appa* 
ratus very much shorter; the mandibles distinctly bi- 
dentate, the inner edge of the inner tooth stretching 
obliquely to the acute inner extremity of the broad apex 
of the organ ; the labial palpi as long as the tongue, 
with all the joints conterminous, the basal one slightly 
acuminate, the second linear, the two terminal ones 
more slender and shorter, the pubescence of the eyes 
very much longer than in the neuter; the legs more 
robust and less pilose ; the posterior tibicB convex exter- 
nally, without the lateral fringes of hair, and their 
plantae merely oblong, without the external basal auricle. 
The ABDOMEN is also considerably relatively longer; 
and has not the central ventral ridge. 

The MALE or drone differs from both in being con- 
siderably more robust and more completely cylindrical, 
and very much more densely pubescent ; the compound 
eyes contiguous at the summit, occupying the whole of 
the vertex, and nearly all the lateral portions of the face, 
extending below to the articulation of the mandibles, 
their pubescence much shorter but denser than in the 
other sex ; the ocelli large, and seated at the top of the 
central portion of the face in a close triangle, a little 
above the insertion of the antennae, and in front of the 
conjunction of the compound eyes, the lateral ones of 
the triangle being closely contiguous to the upper inner 
edge of those eyes; the antennae are more robust and 
rather longer ; the cibarial apparatus very short ; the 
labial palpi about three-fourths the length of the tongue, 



APIS. 321 

and the joints conterminous, the tongue robust ; the 
thorax is nearly quadrate; the legs are nearly naked, 
the four anterior very slender ; the posterior tibiae slightly 
curved, convex externally; the posterior plantce more 
robust, and more convex externally than their tibise, 
they are regularly oblong, and without the basal auricle, 
the rest of the joints of the tarsi are very short. The 
ABDOMEN robust, and obtuse at its extremity, but its 
seventh segment is concealed beneath; the ventral seg- 
ments concave longitudinally. 

NATIVE SPECIES. 

1. mellifica, Linnseus. (Plate XVI. fig. 4 c^ ? o .) 
mellifica, Kirby. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

The name of this genus. Apis, adopted by Linnseus 
as the classical generic name of the bee, although with 
him it comprised the whole modern family of these in- 
sects, but which, as now restricted, in accordance with 
its limitation exclusively to the congeners of his adopted 
type, is the ancient Latin vernacular name of the honey 
bee, and to which it has been ever since uniformly 
attached. This name, as shown by its derivative mean- 
ing, was originally imposed with direct reference to the 
insect's constructive habits, as was the case with the 
names given to it in the more primitive languages be- 
fore referred to, and which is also the origin of its Teu- 
tonic and Scandinavian appellations — Biene, Bie, and Bi, 
whence our own common name for it is obtained through 
the Saxon Beo, and we have beside Bye or bee, signi- 
fying a dwelling. From this circumstance it would 
seem that a very early and universal discernment existed 

Y 



322 BRITISH BEES. 

of its ingenuity and skill, its significant name being 
everywhere analogous. 

The habits and economy of these industrious little 
creatures have been a source of greater wonder and 
admiration the more closely and accurately they have 
been observed. They have attracted the thoughtful spe- 
culation of minds of the largest compass throughout 
all ages, which, reasoning upon the modus operandi of 
these insects, have endeavoured to define, and determine 
the differences between instinct and reason, with their 
precise limitations. But baffled in their attempt to 
settle whether these be affinities or analogies, it should 
rather have persuaded them to adopt the motto of 
Montaigne, and exclaim. Que sais-je ? Into these meta- 
physical discussions it is not necessary to enter, and I 
confine myself to the natural history of the insect. 

Although the description of the three sexes which 
comprise the population of the hive are technically given 
above with scientific precision, it will be as well, perhaps, 
to recapitulate them briefly, with their distinctive attri- 
butes, in a more popular form. 

They consist of a queen, or productive female, whose 
function is thought to be exclusively to lay eggs, but who 
may perhaps have some hitherto undiscovered control 
over the executive of the hive, to be implied by the con- 
fusion invariably following her death or her removal 
from the community, and which becomes totally destruc- 
tive to its organic constituency unless stayed by another 
monarch being improvised, or by one extraneously sup- 
plied; one monarch alone rules without a coadjutor, 
and without any equal being tolerated, for the presence 
of a second queen, or the immature larva of one, even of 
her own progeny, maddens her to murderous aggression, 



APIS. 323 

or to the impulse of emigration accompanied with a 
host of adherents. She never leaves the hive when 
once her duties have fully commenced, for by distinc- 
tion of structure she is rendered incompetent to execute 
any of the labours that devolve upon the workers; 
her tongue is formed only to lap nutriment ; she has no 
cysts for the secretion of wax, she is without the honey- 
bag for conveying tiiat liquid home, and her posterior 
shanks are convex externally, and thus deficient in the 
concave basket for carrying home the stores of pollen 
or propolis, whilst their plantse are without the little 
earlet at the top externally, or the close dense brush 
arranged in rows within, which aid these workers in their 
many manipulations. Her wings are too short to con- 
vey her ponderous body through the air, and her sting 
becomes stronger by being curved. Thus she is exone- 
rated from labour by the incapacity of her structure to 
execute it, although her duties are quite as incessant and 
as arduous, being indispensable to the perpetuation of 
the species. 

Her consort, the drone, is the male of the hive, and /J}q)^AX. 
although the queen is monandrous or single- spoused, 
and although the hive during the season rarely throws 
off more than three swarms, usually restricted to the 
accompaniment of a single queen, and thus but three 
males are absolutely required, nature is so provident of 
the great design of perpetuation, that to provide against 
the possibility of its frustration, the hive usually pro- 
duces about a thousand drones. A peculiarity in the 
structure of the drone which facilitates his discovery of 
the virgin queen when she issues from the hive on the 
bridal excursion, which she makes preliminary to her 
heading a swarm of emigrants, or assuming monarchy 

Y 2 



324 BRITISH BEES. 

at home, consists in the vertical enlargement of his 
compound eyes, which meet over the brow, and in the 
posterior expansion of the inferior wings, which take a 
broad backward sweep, giving the insect larger powers 
of flight, but perhaps required as much by its own bulki- 
ness and weight as for the purpose of ascending above 
his bride in the upper regions of the air ; but that its 
weight cannot be the sole reason is testified by the 
analogous structure in the male of the genus Astata, 
one of the fossorial Hymenopteraj where a similar ex- 
pansion of the inferior wing is concomitant with a similar 
development of the compound eyes, yet in which the 
abdomen is very small, and this power is therefore evi- 
dently given to these merely to increase the velocity or 
the duration of their flight. The rest of the structure of 
these drones disables them, like all other male bees, 
for any labour ; and as they must be sustained as long 
as they may be of service, the possibility of which termi- 
nates with the last issue of a swarm from the hive, a 
period appreciated by the instinct of tlue workers, they 
are then driven forth, but it is in dispute whether the 
workers destroy them, or whether their destruction is 
effected by exposure and hunger, or by the natural limita- 
tion of their lives, for although their tongues are formed 
upon the same type as that of the worker, it is con- 
siderably less developed, and appears to be adapted only 
to obtain nutriment from the honey already collected in 
the cells, as they seem even deflcient in the instinct to 
gather it for themselves from flowers, never being ob- 
served to visit them. 

The last inhabitant of the hive is the worker, or 
abortive female, whose labour has several phases. A 
difference of size amongst them has been supposed to 



APIS. 325 

have been noticed by observers as varying with their 
occupation and duties, but as they are all constructed 
in the same manner, with precisely the same organs, 
which are of the same form and in the same situation, 
this must be a mere imaginative surmise. Their simi- 
larity of structure permits them, collectively, to apply 
themselves to the same occupations which the needs of 
the community may at any moment demand. Taking 
them separately with their distinctive occupations at any 
given time, without implying by it a permanent separa- 
tion of classes, we find them to consist of wax secreters, 
builders or cell-sculpturers, honey collectors, pollen col- 
lectors, propolis collectors, nurses of the young, venti- 
lators, undertakers to carry off the dead, who are perhaps 
also the scavengers which cleanse away any occasional 
dirt, sentinels to guard the hive outside and inside, and 
attendants upon the queen, or as the " * Times ' Bee 
Master " very aptly designates them " ladies in waiting," 
and at all times many slumberers are reposing from 
their toils. That all these duties are transferable, and 
consequently are transferred indifferently from one to 
the other, is implied by their general capacity for ful- 
filling them resulting from this identity of structure, 
which will be understood as not at all infringed by the 
separate capacities I unfold as devolving from their 
temporarily limited functions, all being simultaneously 
in action, but distributed amongst the several indi- 
viduals. 

The first important occupation of the worker is the /# M y; 
secretion of wax for the structure of the cells, and, to 
effect this, honey must be collected, for it is solely from 
the digestion of honey that the wax is produced. This 
in due course passes from the first stomach or honey- 



326 BRITISH BEES. 

poucli wherein it is collected, thence to the second 
stomach, and then on to the cysts or little bags which 
run along on each side from the second to the fifth 
ventral segments, and correspond and communicate with 
eight trapezoidal depressions placed externally upon the 
plates of the ventral segments — four on each side, 
through the concavity of which the secreted wax exudes 
in a liquid, transparent, hot state, forming a thin scale 
within each, which the air hardens into a white sub- 
stance, as the pulp of paper is hardened upon the form 
into which it is introduced, or like salt crystallizing iuto 
flakes from sea-water in shallow salines. This, how- 
ever, is not yet wax, although its essential constituent, 
but to become so these scales are removed by the sco- 
pulse of the posterior plantse and their auricle, to the 
intermediate feet and by these transferred to the ante- 
rior pair, which pass them to the mandibles, where they 
are masticated and mixed with a saliva issuing from the 
mouth, and thus intermingled they consolidate into a 
white opaque mass, which issues from the mouth like a 
thin strip of riband, and constitutes true wax, plastic to 
their manipulation. To form this secretion, the bees 
having collected the honey themselves in the first in- 
stance, or having consumed sufficient before leaving the 
hive with the swarm, but which they subsequently ob- 
tain from the supplies stored in the present hive, hang 
themselves in festoons in all directions about its cavity, 
each festoon being formed by two parallel chains of bees 
clinging together ; the top bee on each side hangs by its 
anterior claws to the top of the hive, and the next in 
succession grasps with its fore claws the hind claws of 
that and so on, until the depth of the festoon they find 
to be sufficient, when the bottom bees of each chain swing 



APIS. 327 

themselves together, and cling to each other in the same 
manner by their hind claws only. These festoons are 
speedily suspended, and "with a fresh swarm are in im- 
mediate active operation. The secretion requires about 
twenty-four hours to complete, and as this is accom- 
plished the festoons break up, and these secreters convey 
it to where the sculpturer bees or builders are moulding 
the cells, to w^hom it is successively supplied by the 
secreters themselves as wanted, for none is stored, al*. 
though the wax of old or dilapidated parts of the hive, or 
of the vacated cells of the new-born queens are recon- 
verted to use. These builders are very rapid in their 
construction of the hexagonal cells, which, as they are 
progressively completed, are stored with honey, this 
being during the time assiduously gathered by the honey 
collectors, and these cells are interspersed occasionally 
with those wherein pollen or propolis is stored, each of 
which, as the bees collecting them successively return, 
is cast into the selected cell by the bee collecting it, who 
returns at once to the same employment, whilst the 
store thus deposited is immediately compactly pressed in 
and warehoused by other bees who fulfil that duty, or 
who cover it in when the cells are filled, with a waxen 
covercle formed of concentric circles ; or, in the case of 
the honey-cells, to keep the thickened operculum de- 
posited upon it in due position and repair, after the re- 
tiring of the bee which brought home the fresh store of 
honey, and w^hich had displaced it to regurgitate her 
addition into the cell. This operculum or cover is of a 
thicker consistency than the honey itself, and prevents 
its oozing from the cells, which would often take place 
from their uniformly horizontal position, were it not for 
the sagacity which prompts them to introduce this pre- 



328 BRITISH BEES. 

ventive, and whicli is not removed until the cell is filled ; 
it is then covered hermetically with its waxen top. 

A sufficient number of cells being ready, and sufficient 
stores of honey, pollen, and propolis for the progressive 
labours of the hive, and a great number of empty cells 
all finished for the use of the queen, she begins to lay 
her eggs. As these are hatched the duty of the nursing- 
bees commences, which is to feed the young, who crave 
for food like young birds, and are as diligently supplied 
by these nurses with a material called bee-bread, which 
consists of masticated pollen, the pollen being exclusively 
stored and used for the purpose. This is mixed with 
some secretion from the mouth, which converts it into a 
sort of frothy jelly. These bees are never negligent of 
their duties, and with their feeding the larvgR rapidly grow. 

To keep up a necessary supply of air in the hive, and 
to prevent suffocation from heat, a certain number of 
the community are employed in fanning the passages 
between the cakes of comb and the whole interior of 
the hive, by the vibration of their wings, which thoroughly 
ventilates it, and the accumulation of deleterious air is 
prevented ; some, for this purpose, being posted at the 
aperture to the hive, where, this vibration causing a tem- 
porary vacuum, the external air rushes in, and the chain 
of succession of bees within becoming thus vibrating air- 
valves completes the ventilating arrangement. While 
all these operations are progressing, a certain number 
are acting as a militia of citizens, who have substitutes 
only in the succession and change of duties. These act 
as sentinels, who guard the entrance and patrol the in- 
terior and courageously intercept all inimical intrusion, 
for the bees have many enemies, but who are merely so 
to benefit themselves, and are not parasites of the nature 



APIS. 329 

of the bee parasites of the solitary kinds ; and where they 
cannot individually avert it, they obtain collateral aid 
from others of their staff. The next class is the atten- 
dants upon the queen : these vary in number from twelve 
to twenty ; they invariably accompany her wherever she 
proceeds throughout the hive, for the purpose of laying 
her eggs; and whether their custom gave rise to the 
etiquette which attends human royalty, that a subject 
may never turn the back upon the sovereign, these at- 
tendant bees surround her with the head always turned 
towards her, and seem to caress her with their antennae 
and pay her every kind of deferential homage, those in 
front moving backwards as she advances, and those on 
each side_, laterally, so that they ever face her; and as 
they tire others succeed them in their duties. Another 
set fulfil the office of keeping the hive thoroughly clean, 
for the transit of such large numbers will inevitably 
collect occasional dirt, as will the drift of the wind at the 
entrance of the hive and the action of the ventilators 
themselves. Their duty it is also to remove any extra- 
neous organic body that has forcibly entered and which 
may have succumbed to the vindictiveness of the bees. 
Where they are not strong enough, even collectively, to 
effect the removal, as in the case of a mouse or anything 
else as large or larger, they then call to their aid the 
wax workers and the repairers ; these enclose the ob- 
noxious body, which they have the judgment to know 
will become dangerous from putrefaction, to aid in its 
prevention, by a cerement of wax or propolis, which pre- 
vents any offensive exhalation, and thus secures the 
wholesomeness of the hive. 

Here is completed, with the enumeration of those 
which successively repose from their toil, the several 
labours of the cornmunitv which inhabits the hive. 



330 BRITISH BEES. 

The structure of the workers, which enables them 
to carry on all these operations with the requisite faci- 
lity, is very different from that of the two sexes we 
have just described. As before said, they are abortive 
females, but, as I shall have occasion to explain lower 
down, capable of having this special incapacity removed, 
if the necessary process requisite to be adopted for the 
purpose be applied within three days of their being 
hatched into the larva state. The acquisition of the 
faculty of fertility entails, however, the loss of all 
power of pursuing any of the other occupations of the 
hive practised exclusively by the workers in general. 
The nurture that gives it them converts them into 
queens, and moulds them to the structure of this sex de- 
scribed above. As a remarkable and rare exception, 
some one or other of these workers will occasionally have 
power of laying a few eggs, but which are always those 
of drones. The other peculiarities of their structure are 
its adaptation to the secretion of wax above described ; 
and their power of throwing up the honey they have 
collected in the first stomach or honey-bag, before it 
passes on by digestion, somewhat in the way the rumi- 
nant quadrupeds bring up the cud, of course by muscular 
action, without the convulsion of vomiting. Their next 
distinction is that their mandibles are edentate and more 
like spoons, and are often so used, or as the plastering- 
trowel of masons is for smoothing surfaces. Their legs 
remarkably differ from those of the other sexes, all of their 
limbs being somewhat adapted to the collection and con- 
veyance of pollen and its manipulation, as well as that of 
propolis ; but it is the posterior shanks which are spe- 
cially constructed for the conveyance of these materials, 
by being framed externally like a little basket ; being 



APIS. 331 

hollowed longitudinally and their lateral edges fringed 
■with recurved hair, which retains whatever may be placed 
within the smooth and hollow surface, and the apical ex- 
treme edge has a pecten or comb of short stiff bristles. 
The first joint of the posterior feet have also their dis- 
tinctive forna, adapted to special branches of their eco- 
nomy. These are oblong, wider than the shank, and 
about two- thirds its length, and -consequently powerful 
limbs ; at the outer angle of the edge, nearest the shank, 
is a little projection called the auricle or earlet, the inner 
surface is clothed with ten parallel transverse rows of 
close dense hair, and its apical edge has along its whole 
width a pecten similar to that of the apex of the shank. 
This shank being without spurs, which only the domestic 
bee is deficient in, gives the pecten a freedom of action 
it would not otherwise have, and enables it to be used 
together with the earlet opposite to it on the foot, as an 
instrument for laying hold of the thin flakes of wax 
upon the venter, and to bring them forward to the inter- 
mediate legs to be passed on to the mouth, and there to 
be converted into wax. The pecten of the foot and also 
its brush aid in their removal in case of need, and help 
as well both in the manipulation and the storing the 
materials collected. Thus, this whole structure, exclu- 
sively possessed by the worker, is pre-eminently designed 
for the manifold operations of the hive; and the bee 
itself and its works are but one closely linked chain of 
wonderful contrivances. 

The entire economy of the hive seems to emanate ex- 
clusively from the two most prominent attributes of in- 
stinct, that of self-preservation, and that other more im- 
portant axis of the vast wheel of creation, the secured 
perpetuation of the kind by the conservative aropyrj, or 



332 BRITISH BEES. 

absorbing love of the offspring. The latter is more emi- 
nently developed in the social bees than in any other 
group of the family of these insects. In the solitary 
bees it presents itself as a blind impulse, unconscious of 
its object ; for did we admit the consciousness of the 
purpose of their labours, we should evidently endow 
them with reason. How could they know, without re- 
flection, that the food they store in the receptacle they 
form for the egg they will deposit, and which receptacle 
is exactly adapted to the size that the larva which Avill 
be hatched from it will take, is to nurture a creature 
they will never see, and whose wonderful transformations 
they will not therefore witness ? In the hive bee the ma- 
ternal instinct exhibits itself as an energy diffused though 
a multitude of individuals, but these witness the results 
of their solicitude, and exclusively promote its successful 
issue; and in these also the instinct of self-preservation 
is a diffused impulse, which likewise includes the pre- 
servation of the society. 

As male and female conjunctively make up the species, 
thus do the queen-bee and the neuters collectively make 
up one sex, — the mother, — for the functions performed 
by the female alone in the case of the solitary kinds of 
bees are, in the genus Apis, separately executed. The 
cares and labours of maternity devolve upon these neuters, 
while the queen-bee's maternal function is limited to 
merely laying the eggs with which she is replete, with 
the instinctive power of selecting for them their proper 
depository, — each of which is adapted in size to that of 
the sex which will be produced. Her maternal instinct 
stops abruptly here, without the development of an after- 
thought or care for their future thriving. The instinct 
of the neuters, like the anticipative promptings of the 



APIS. 333 

liiiman mother, to prepare the clothing and other neces- 
saries for her expected infant, has forecast the queen's 
needs in its intermittent urgency, by progressively con- 
structing cells fitted severally in size for the growth and 
nurture of neuters, the first developed ; of drones, the 
next produced ; and lastly, of queens, which soon after- 
wards appear ; she instinctively knowing the proper time 
and the suitable use of them, having the faculty of dis- 
tinguishing them with a view to the deposit of the par- 
ticular kind of eggs of which she is for the moment 
parturient. 

The drones, or male bees, appear to receive life for 
one substantial purpose only, which is soon accomplished, 
but during the short space of time its successive perform- 
ance requires, it is incidentally accompanied with assist- 
ance to the general community whilst they remain per- 
mitted occupants of the hive, by aiding in heating and 
ventilating it, — a labour repaid by the food, which they 
obtain from the stores kept open for daily consumption. 
Although uncontributive to the acquisition of the riches 
of the hive, yet are they indispensable to the perpe- 
tuation of the species, and their murder as supposed 
by some apiarians, or their expulsion as thought by 
others, in either case equally terminating in their de- 
struction, seems an unworthy return for the important 
service performed, although this is restricted to the 
number of individuals required by the equal number of 
queens that may be produced. To this number their 
production might be limited, but for the chance of either 
or all of these queens failing by some casualty to ob- 
tain a prince consort. To baffle the possibility of this 
mischance, a very superfluous number of these drones is 
hatched, as above stated, which are on the alert, when 



334 BRITISH BEES. 

each queen successively issues forth upon her bridal 
morn, to catch her favouring glances, and be the ac- 
cepted groom. That they are not further conducive to 
the well-being of the hive is the fault of their structure 
and of their instinct, which are correlative, they being 
as little fitted either in their tongue or their legs for the 
uses of the hive as the queen herself. The physiology 
of their intercourse is a mystery of mysteries, and would 
seem to partake of the principle, modified, of that deve- 
loped in the aphides, where the vital power passes on 
through successive generations by the efficiency of the 
energy of one ancestral intercourse. In the hive-bee 
this is not the case, but in these the one espousal fer- 
tilizes eggs to the number of often a hundred thousand, 
yet undeveloped and even indiscernible by the aid of 
the microscope in the ovaries of the queen, and which 
become bees progressively in the course of a couple of 
years, the supposed duration of her existence, during 
the whole of which time she is laying. The accepted 
male is destroyed by the effects of the amour, and when 
all the queens which are to be the heads of independent 
communities are successively fertilized, and have led 
forth their colonies, the remaining drones issue compul- 
sively from the hive and are lost in the wideness of na- 
ture, and die by the natural limitation of their existence, 
or become the prey of their numerous enemies. 

The neuters or workers are, as it were, emanations of 
the queen, or the organs whereby her several functions 
as a mother are performed, considering the species as 
restricted to two sexes, and thus they comprise with her, 
collectively, one organic whole. That this is a consistent 
view of their condition is further proved by the circum- 
stance that from their larvae, upon the failure of a queen. 



APIS. 335 

a new queen is produced upon one being supplied with 
a certain nutriment that developes the capacity that 
would remain inert and abortive, were it not thus pro- 
moted from its primary state. It majr be questioned 
whether the eggs deposited by the queen in the royal 
cells are other than neuter eggs, their subsequent nature 
being changed by the different quality of the sustenance 
they are fed with when hatched, as is the case in the 
above noticed defection of a queen. This then would 
limit the queen's eggs to the eggs of neuters and of 
drones, thus further corroborating the idea of the exis- 
tence of but two sexes. 

I have stated above the supposition that the queen's 
office may be restricted to the laying of eggs, but it must 
be inferred that it has a wider compass, and possibly com- 
prises some administrative function in the regulation of 
the hive, from the circumstance that with her loss the 
entire community loses its self-possession and self-con- 
trol. Labour then ceases and the hive becomes the scene 
of turmoil and confusion, and unless the loss be repaired 
in the way named above, which their instinct teaches 
them to adopt, if any eggs have been already deposited, or 
if supplied by the surreptitious introduction of another 
queen which they immediately raise to their superinten- 
dency, paying her the same deference they had done to 
their lost monarch, or would do to a legitimately native 
birth, it disperses and destroys the community. Such a 
loss in its natural course must necessarily, to be effec- 
tively repaired, take place in the interval after the laying 
of the drones' eggs, and before those of the queens are 
deposited, for otherwise she would remain unimpreg- 
nated. Having thus shown reasons for supposing that 
the hive actually contains but two sexes, and having also 



336 BRITISH BEES. 

shown that the first phase exhibited of this distributed 
maternal instinct by which the neuters form conjunc- 
tively with the queen a many-headed and many-hearted 
mother, is their preparation of the cells for all the pur- 
poses required, — the next and most important, and the one 
perhaps which elevates them vastly higher in the scale of 
social intelligence and affection, is the absolute develop- 
ment in them only of maternal solicitude for the well-being 
of the offspring. This certainly proves the existence of 
the diffused maternity urged, for they feed the hatched 
young as the bird does its callow, from hour to hour, 
and which, when full grown, they enclose in its forma- 
tive cell, to undergo its changes and become one amongst 
themselves. It is not absolutely determined whether 
the functions performed within the hive are restricted to 
distinct sets of the workers, but it may be presumed that 
the duties are transferable, for the most plausible sup- 
position is, that all the offices are interchangeably per- 
formed by the entire population, possibly merely limited 
to daily alternation of individuals taled off each morning 
for the day's duties. That an administrative regulation 
must exist under some executive authority, emanating 
doubtless from the centralization of all in the queen, 
and communicated to the rest by her relays of atten- 
dants, may be conclusively inferred, otherwise all might 
similarly employ themselves from day to day, and thus 
overwhelm with one work the multiplicity of labours 
required for the well-being of the hive. For whilst 
some are secreting the wax from the honey they have 
consumed, others are moulding it into shape, others are 
harvesting the bee-bread to feed the voracious larvae, 
others are gleaning the propolis for the security of the 



APIS. 337 

domicile, others are collecting honey to store as needful 
supplies, others are either ventilating or heating the in- 
terior, others act as sentinels and guard the approaches 
or patrol the passages within, and will die in that defence 
like genuine patriots, and others are in attendance upon 
the queen in her progresses through her dominions, and 
who may individually act as aides-de-camp to convey her 
commands to the rest. All these are not fanciful em- 
bellishments of the narrative, but substantial and well- 
authenticated facts, supported by the repetition on many 
sides of careful observations, but perplexing to human 
intelligence, for not the least wonder of this conventicle 
of wonders — the hive — is that it confounds the astute 
reason of man to comprehend it in all its significancies. 
The first necessity of a new colony is the selection of 
a locality for habitation, which is usually effected by pre- 
liminary trustworthy intelligencers determining upon a 
site suitable from its concurrent conveniences. A suffi- 
cient supply of sustenance must be conveyed by the 
emigrants to accompany the preparatory construction of 
the settlement, until land can be cleared, grain grown, 
etc., and a year at least will pass, even under the most 
favourable circumstances of the exertion of the greatest 
industry, concurrently with the most propitious succes- 
sion of the seasons, before it can become self-sustaining. 
But when once the wheel is fairly on the move, round it 
spins without interruption or relaxation. The colony 
thrives, increasing rapidly in its population ; and where 
all have put the shoulder to the wheel it climbs the steep 
and rugged hill of prosperity, whilst those who are car- 
ried onward by its evolutions, from each of the many 
successive terraces of this noble height, survey a broad, 
cheerful, and fertile landscape, extending itself with their 



338 BRITISH BEES. 

elevation, spread out to a distant horizon, which many 
of the more venturous spirits amongst them, urged by 
the teeming increase of their compatriots, have already 
traversed, and who themselves are now rejoicing in the 
establishment of offshoots, which speedily rival, in suc- 
cessful fruitfulness, the wide-branched productiveness of 
the parent stock. 

This is strictly the history of the hive, and the paral- 
lelism is complete, even to the conveyance with them of 
the preliminary needful stores. Before a swarm issues 
from the hive, some fly forth to select a dwelling-place, 
and return, it is presumed, to make their report. 

The population of the hive becoming so dense that 
there is no longer room for the free and unrestrained 
circulation of the ordinary processes of the community, 
and so hot from the inconvenient accumulation of such 
numbers, — for they extend sometimes to as many as 
fifty thousand, — instinct prompts a portion of the commu- 
nity to migrate. This disposition is further promoted 
by the progressive, or completed development of some of 
the young queens. The inveterate and internecine ani- 
mosity of these — anticipated rivalry, suggesting, it is 
surmised, the murderous desire, but being prevented from 
its indulgence by the defensive guardianship of several 
of the workers — urges the old queen to abandon at this 
conjuncture her royal metropolis. The inclination to do 
so, it would appear, is already foreseen by a very large 
body of her subjects, for if her departure be delayed by 
her successor's protracted incapacity for undertaking 
the sovereign rule, the intending emigrants, having al- 
ready abandoned all the labours of their old domi- 
cile preparatory to their issuing forth, will cluster in 
groups about the bee board until she is ready to emerge. 



APIS. 339 

This condition will sometimes last a day or two, and 
thence of course all is confusion both within and with- 
out the hive, for her subjects have suspended their la- 
bours and she has suspended her egg-laying, and roams 
wildly about within, striving, whenever she approaches 
a royal cell, or a fully developed young queen, to attack 
the latter, and destroy her by stinging her to death, or, 
to tear the former to pieces to get kt the imago within, 
which indicates its apprehension by a shrill piping 
sound. But she is forcibly dragged back from this api- 
cidal purpose by the working bees which surround each, 
and who now intermit their usual deference to prevent 
this destruction, and bite her and drag her back. The 
future queen of the abdicated throne having, during 
this turmoil, returned from her wedding tour, and be- 
ing still protected from slaughterous aggression, the old 
queen indignantly issues forth. This exodus takes 
place usually on a brilliant and warm day, between 
twelve and three, — accordingly during the hottest hours. 
This is the first swarm of the year, and if the season 
be very genial it will take place in May. In this 
migration she is accompanied by all her most faithful 
lieges, which comprise, to the honour of beehood, by 
very much the largest majority of the inhabitants, to 
the number usually, in a well-stocked hive, of several 
thousands, — say from ten to twenty, depending on the 
population of the hive. 

Having thus issued forth in a body, they shortly alight 
upon and about the branch of some adjacent tree, clus- 
tering, in as close proximity as they can, to their royal 
leader. In a natural state, when duly organized to pro- 
ceed, they would thence start for the domicile that had 
previously been selected by the emissaries above noted ; 

z2 



340 BRITISH BEES. 

but, as their natural habits are not at all perverted by 
their subjugation to man, we will pursue their history 
under his dominion. This will be the more convenient, 
for in the comfortable hive to which they have been 
transferred by his agency, we shall have every opportu- 
nity of exactly watching their manoeuvres by the facili- 
ties yielded in its being glazed for the purpose. We 
shall thus be enabled to see and follow the wonderful 
economy of the hive and its many mysteries, which it 
would not have been possible to accomplish in an abode 
of their own choice, — some cavity presented by Nature 
herself, the hollow of a tree, or an excavated rock. 
They are, therefore, now housed, and after the survey of 
the capacity of their abode, which is a short affair, 
with all the prompt energy peculiar to them they at 
once commence their labours. The queen is already 
matured, and ready to lay ©ggs. In a natural abode 
the gathering of propolis would perhaps be a first ne- 
cessity to make their home water-a«d-wind-tight, for 
they abhor the inconveniences of the intrusion of wet 
or cold. It is with this material that they make repairs, 
fill crevices, and strengthen the suspension of their 
combs, which are hung vertically ; and they apply it also 
to other purposes, which we shall see hereafter. This 
material is of a resinous nature, it has a balsamic odour, 
and is of a reddish-brown or darker colour, and is sup- 
posed to be collected from fir or pine trees, or from the 
envelopes of the buds of many plants, or their resinous 
exudations, especially that of the blossoms of the holly- 
hock. It is exceedingly clammy, and they have been 
observed ten minutes moulding it into the lenticular 
pellets in which they carry it home in the corbicula, or 
little basket^ of the posterior tibiae. They gather it like 



APIS. 341 

pollen with the fore feet, and pass it to the interme- 
diate ones, whence it is taken by the posterior plantse, 
kneaded into shape, and deposited upon the hind 
shanks. It dries so rapidly that often, upon arriving 
home, the bees which store it have much difficulty in 
tearing it from the legs of these collectors. The hottest 
days only are propitious to its gathering, for all moisture 
is injurious to it, and the hottest period of the day, also, 
is alone occupied in its collection. It is said that they 
have been known to fly as many as from three to five 
miles for it, from the circumstance that suitable plants 
were not to be found within a lesser radius ; but this 
may be a mistake, for their ordinary excursions are not 
supposed to range wider than a single mile or something 
more, and bees may be able to find it where we may 
suppose it not to occur. In the abode with which we 
have provided them it is not so urgent a necessity, this 
being already wind-and- water-tight, although in the 
progress of their labours they fitid it indispensable, and 
use it to fasten the crevices that intervene between the 
bottom of the hive and the bee board, and, as before 
noticed, to strengthen the support of the cakes of comb 
which hang from the roof. The name it still retains is 
that which was applied to it by the ancients, and signi- 
fies before the city, as indicative of its use in strength- 
ening the outworks. 

Conjoined herewith is the imperative need for the 
construction of cells for every purpose of the hive, 
namely, for the storing of the propolis, and that of the 
pollen, as also the collected honey, as well as for the 
reception of the young brood, for the mature queen is 
waiting impatiently to deposit her eggs. Simultaneously, 
therefore, is the wax being secreted and elaborated by 



342 BRITISH BEE3. 

the processes previously noticed. Tlie community is 
already lai*ge, and all are at once in active operation, but 
four-and-twenty hours must elapse before the cells can 
be commenced, for it takes that time to secrete the first 
batch of wax. Festoons, as before described, of these 
wax secreters are hanging in every direction within the 
cavity of the hive, and as soon as the process is com- 
pleted by the first festoon, this dissolves itself by the se- 
veral bees unlinking their feet, and a leading bee proceeds 
to the top of the centre of the hive, where she makes 
herself room from the lateral pressure of other bees, by 
turning herself sharply about and agitating her wings, 
and there she collects the scales from the surface of her 
ventral segments, manipulates them as before noticed, 
and thus converts them into wax. The rest follow her, 
and she collects it from them into a little oblong mass of 
about half an inch ; whilst other bees from other festoons 
are continually arriving to deposit their produce ; and as 
soon as the mass is sufficiently large, which is speedily the 
case, a sculpturer bee succeeds, and the first cell is late- 
rally commenced. On the opposite side to where this 
is being framed, two other bees are at work, moulding 
the bottoms of two cells in apposition to the basis of the 
first one. The wax keeps constantly increasing by fresh 
deposits, and the rudiments of more cells are as rapidly 
formed. These all emanate laterally, in a horizontal 
direction or with a very slight incline towards their base. 
They gradually form the vertical cake of comb, for the 
bottom of one entire range of cells suffices for both 
sides and inevitably they are so adjusted that the bot- 
toms of those on either side are each covered by one- 
third of the bottoms of each cell on the opposite side, 
and so conversely, receiving and communicating strength 



APIS. 343 

by three thus supporting one. Here comes the great 
wonder of the hive ; here in this fragile structure abides 
a mystery that has perplexed man's keenest sagacity. 
Is it accident or is it intelligence that instructs the bee, 
or is it the impulse of the instinct implanted by that 
Supreme Intelligence which gives man his reason and 
moulds all things to their most fitting use ? 

Ray's view is precisely this ; he says : — " The bee, a 
creature of the lowest forms of animals, so that no man 
can suspect it to have any considerable measure of 
understanding, or to have knowledge of, much less to aim 
at, any end, yet makes her combs and cells with that 
geometrical accuracy, that she must needs be acted by 
an instinct implanted in her by the wise Author of Na- 
ture." To support this idea of the geometrical skill of 
the bee, he cites " the famous mathematician Pappus,'^ 
the Alexandrian, of the time of Theodosius the Great, 
who " demonstrates it in the preface to his third book 
of Mathematical Collections." ^' First of all (saith he, 
speaking of the cells), it is convenient that they be of 
such figures as may cohere one to another, and have 
common sides, else there would be empty spaces left 
between them to no use but to the weakening and spoil- 
ing of the work, if anything should get in there, and 
therefore though a round figure be most capacious for 
the honey, and most convenient for the bee to creep into, 
yet did she not make choice of that, because then there 
must have been triangular spaces left void. Now, there 
are only three rectilineous and ordinate figures, which 
can serve to this purpose, and inordinate, or unlike ones, 
must have been, not only less elegant and beautiful, but 
unequal. [Ordinate figures are such as have all their 
ides and all their angles equal.] The three ordinate 



344) brit;sh bees. 

figures are triangles, squares, and hexagons; for the 
space about any point may be filled, up either by six 
equilateral triangles, or four squares, or three hexagons ; 
whereas three pentagons are too little, and three hep- 
tagons too much. Of these three, the bee makes use 
of the hexagon, both because it is more capacious than 
either of the others provided they be of equal compass, 
and so equal matter spent in the construction of each. 
And, secondly, because it is most commodious for the 
bee to creep into. And, lastly, because in the other 
figures more angles and sides must have met together at 
the same point, and so the work could not have been so 
firm and strong. Moreover, the combs being double, 
the cells on each side the partition are so ordered that 
the angles on one side insist upon the centres of the 
bottoms of the cells on the other side, and not angle 
upon or against angle; which also must needs contri- 
bute to the strength and firmness of the work." 

Each cell therefore is in shape a hexagon, that is to 
say, a figure with six equal sides, to each of which six 
other hexagons attach, for each wall forms also one wall 
of another hexagon. The basis of each hexagonal cavity 
is of an obtuse three-sided pyramidal shape inverted, and 
consisting of three rhomboidal plates, each forming one- 
third of the basis of the three opposite cells ; thus the 
edges of these three basal plates of one side support 
three lateral walls of three hexagons on the other side. 
The inverted triangular pyramid thus made by these 
three equal rhomboidal plates, form, at one extremity and 
at each pair of their posterior edges a re-entering angle, 
and at the other extremity a salient angle. From these 
edges spring the lateral walls of the hexagonal cell, this 
shape being superinduced by the form of the edges of 



APIS. 345 

the basal cavity. That the bees should have been thus 
guided to elect a form which combines conjunctively the 
advantages of strength and capacity evidently proves that 
it is their instinct which guides them, which, being an 
afflation from the highest source, ensures the most com- 
plete perfection in its result. That it cannot be the 
effect of simultaneous lateral pressure is proved incon- 
testably by the whole superstructure resulting from the 
design of the base ; and this is further corroborated by 
the base of one cell on one side forming invariably equal 
portions of the base of three cells on the opposite side, 
— all clearly the result of preconceived design impressed 
upon their sensorium. From this combination of forms 
results the security procured to the fragile tenement, 
which consists of the very smallest quantity of material 
that will cohere substantially, for the bees are exceed- 
ingly parsimonious of their wax, as if the production of 
it were attended with pain or inconvenience, and it is 
only upon the construction of the royal cells that a pro- 
fusion of this choice material is squandered. As soon 
as these cohorts of bees are in active operation, it is 
astonishing with what pertinacity and rapidity they 
labour, for within the space of four-and-twenty hours 
they will construct a cake a foot deep and six inches 
wide, containing within its double area some four 
thousand cells. Other cakes parallel to each side of the 
original are being at the same time carried forward with 
an interval between each sufficient for two bees to pass 
each other dos a dos, and further to promote the con- 
venience of traffic within the hive, and ready communica- 
tion to its several parts, passages are left through these 
cakes from one to the other, so that the means of transit 
are opened, wliich of course saves much time. The queen 



346 BRITISH BEES. 

is already making her progresses from one side of each 
comb to the other, and depositing her eggs as rapidly as 
she can, and is constantly attended by her aides-de-camp ^ 
as I have suggested, which act, as they evidently some- 
times are, as the emissaries of her commands. They 
consist of ten or twelve or sometimes more, and have 
been previously described. They are replaced by others 
as they quit to obey orders, or as they retire fatigued, 
so that she is always surrounded. The number of eggs 
she will lay in a day is about two hundred. In doing 
this she first thrusts her head into a cell to ascertain its 
fitness, which having done, she withdraws it, and then 
curving her body she thrusts the apex of her abdomen, 
which tapers to the extremity for the purpose, into the 
cell, wherein by- means of the sheaths of her curved sting, 
which act as an ovipositor, she places the e^g at the 
bottom of the cell. It is possibly from some taction of 
this instrument that she discerns the sizes of the eggs, 
and thence their respective sex. This process she con- 
tinues repeating, passing from one side of the comb to 
the other by means of the passages perforated through 
it, making the numbers as nearly as possible tally on each 
side and as opposite to each other as may be, and she 
will then go forward to further cakes of comb. In this 
way she lays about ten or twelve thousand in six weeks, 
depending much upon the propitiousness of the season, 
but the rapidity of this laying intermits according to the 
months; the above estimate is based upon what April 
and May produce, as it slackens during the summer 
heats and again revives in the autumn, but totally ter- 
minates with the first cold weather. She thus will lay 
from thirty to forty thousand or more in a year. 

Apiarians do not state whether the sane queen heads 



APIS. 347 

another swarm on the following year, which perhaps she ' 
does in those cases of excessive fertility where her abun- j 
dance is estimated at one hundred thousand, when by 
her sole individual capacity she populates three hives. 
In the more usual and ordinary case of her teeming with 
about seventy thousand, or fewer, she evidently heads 
but one swarm. With the described rapidity of the pro- 
duction of the cells, although the majority are s^ore cells 
and not brood cells, conjunctively with her prolific lay- 
ing, the population of the hive rapidly increases, which, 
added to the large original colony, will enable it in a 
propitious year to throw off a swarm of its own ; but \ 
ordinarily she does not again lay drone eggs and royal \ 
eggs until the following season. The period at which to 
do this is taught her by the condition of the hive, as 
urgent for relief to its oppressive population by an exodus. 
The drone eggs are then laid, and are speedily succeeded 
by the laying of the royal eggs, so that the males of the 
season and the new queens may be hatched almost simul- 
taneously, the drones slightly preceding the develop- 
ment of the queens. As soon as the e^g of a worker 
is hatched, which, by means of the high temperature, is 
effected in four days after the laying, it, from its birth, 
is sedulousTy attended by the bees called nurse-bees. 
The little vermicle is very voracious and is heedfully 
supplied by these careful attendants, when it has con- 
sumed the quantity of bee bread already deposited in 
the cell by some of these nurses as soon as the egg was 
laid. This bee bread consists of pollen, taken from the 
cells by the nurses, where it is garnered for the pur- 
pose, being therein mixed with a slight quantity of 
honey. This, in masticating, the nurses intermingle 
with some secretion of their own, which gives it a sort 



3i8 BRITISH BEES. 

of gelatinous frothy appearance, and upon this the young 
thrives so rapidly, greedily opening its jaws to receive 

I it, that in four more days it is full grown, and fills the 

\ whole cell. The nursing-bees then cover this in with a 
light brown top, convex externally, and within it the 
larva spins for itself a cocoon to undergo its subsequent 
transformations. This cocoon is spun of a fine silk, which 
issues from the organ of the larva called the spinner, in 
two delicate threads, which, as they pass out, cohere to- 
,>, gether. It works at this labour for thirty-six hours, and 

\ then changes into the pupa or grub ; thus it lies quiescent 
for three days, when it gradually undergoes its transfor- 
mation into the imago, and it issues as a perfect insect 
A about the twenty-first day after being deposited as an 

|[ eg^. The cocoon it has formed exactly fills the cell it 
has left, which still continues to serve as a brood cell 
until the succession of cocoons with which it is thus 
lined renders it too small for the purpose, it is then 
cleaned out by the scavengers of the hive and changed 
into a honey depository, but the honey stored in such 
a cell is never so pure as that which comes from the 
exclusively waxen cell. Thus is effected the transfor- 
mation of the working bee, which, upon the very day of 
its emancipation from its nursery, commences its duties 
as an active member of the community, in the successive 
and several labours undertaken for the benefit of the 
commonwealth, and these it assiduously follows for the 
period of its natural life, which extends to about six or 
eight months. 

The hive is now in the liveliest activity. The swarm 
which entered with the queen, and the large addition 
to the population which has already been produced 
from her incessant laying, are all at their several avo- 



APIS. 349 

cations. The whole hive, its entrance and the immedi- 
ate vicinity, and far around is jocund with the bustle 
and the buzz of the busy little creatures going and 
coming; those returning are all laden, although some do 
not appear so, but these are conveying riches home 
within them, as they are returning from their excur- 
sions with their honeybag well filled. There is wel- 
coming recognition at the entrance to the hive, where, 
on its broad platform, they all alight, and there many 
are to be seen touching each other with their an- 
tennae, or refreshing themselves by the vibrations of 
their wings, and in doing this they often raise them- 
selves on the hind legs, or they are resting for a few 
seconds before they enter. Others are to be seen arriv- 
ing unrecognizable from a coloured envelope of pollen 
which mantles them. The incessant hum that accom- 
panies these proceedings is like the mildest tones of 
the surge of the distant sea, or the inarticulate 
buzz of the voice of large crowds. In this seeming 
confusion all obey the strictest order, for each attends 
to his own business only ; there is no collision or loss 
of time or labour, each one fulfilling precisely its own 
mission. At this period the hive is a perfect model of 
order, neatness, and beauty. The combs we have seen 
so rapidly growing are to be filled, and fresh cells are 
l^eing constantly constructed. The honey there stored 
from the gradual gatherings of these active harvesters 
is partly to be reserved for the winter's needs, and is 
carefully husbanded, for each of these cells is, when 
filled, closed by a covercle of wax moulded as it is sup- 
plied to the operator in concentric circles, commencing 
at the edge, and each circle being completed before an- 
other is begun, and not in a spiral twist towards the 



350 BRITISH BEES. 

centre. To prevent the trampling of the discharging 
bees from injuring the delicate structure of the walls of 
the cell, each edge is furnished with a strengthening 
rim of wax. The bulk of these stores is never broken, 
except in bad wet seasons, in times of great dearth, or 
upon any suspension of torpidity during their hiberna- 
tion. For the ordinary and daily consumption of those 
of the community whose labours confine them to the 
hive, open stores are left. As of course it occupies 
the excursions of several bees for some time to fill one 
of these vases, and to prevent the liquid flowing out, 
as it might do from its exceeding tenuity through the 
influence of the summer heat, and the then increased 
temperature of the hive, as well as from its inclined 
horizontal position, — this is guarded against by the 
precautional sagacity of the little creatures placing 
upon it from the deposit of the very first supply a sort 
of operculum, as before described, of a thicker consis- 
tency, which lies upon the top of its progressive increase, 
and thus prevents its oozing. It lies upon the honey 
across the transverse diameter of the cell, and conse- 
quently in a vertical position. Its purpose, like that of 
the flat pieces of wood which are placed upon the water 
of full pails when carried by the yoke, is to prevent its 
spilling or overflowing. This small cover has to be par- 
tially removed upon the arrival of a bee with fresh store, 
which she herself does by tearing aside a portion of it 
to enable her to regurgitate into the cavity the portion 
she has brought home ; upon freeing herself from this 
she does not wait to restore the dilapidation she has 
caused, but proceeds on a fresh harvesting. Another 
bee, whose duty it is, then readapts this cover to its 
purpose, and repairs it. Their excursions to collect are 



APIS. 351 

variously estimated at from one to three miles, and they 
make about ten a day. The bees, in their temporary 
distribution of labour, are something like the Indians 
which have caste, among whom each service has its spe- 
cial servitor, who never undertakes or interferes with 
the duties of another. The collection of pollen is almost 
as needful to the well-being of a hive as honey, this 
being used exclusively as the basis of the sustenance of 
the new brood in their larva state, in all their conditions 
of worker, drone, and queen, the perfect bee itself never 
partaking of it. It is variously commingled upon its 
application to use with secretions of their own, which 
convert it into bee bread or royal jelly, as the case may 
be, to fit it for its special employment, which is done by 
the nurse-bees, who diligently attend to the nurture of 
all the young. The cells for storing this material are 
not so numerous as the honey cells, and ihej are jotted 
about without any distinct order, amongst them. When 
a bee arrives with her store of pollen on the edge of one 
of these cells, she turns round with her back to it and 
thrusts it in as fast as she can free it from her legs, both 
by their aid and the twisting about of her abdomen, and 
then, like the honey -gatherer, commences another jour- 
ney. As soon as she is gone, another bee manipulates 
it with a small stock of honey, and packs it closely in. 
Whilst all this is doing, the set which watch the condi- 
tion of the hive, like surveyors, to apply repairs where 
necessary, or to add strength and further support to the 
suspended cakes of comb, impatiently await the return 
of the collectors of propolis ; this they tear from their 
shanks as fast as they arrive and as quickly as they can, 
for it rapidly hardens, especially in fine hot weather, 
and they convey it away for their requirements^ whilst 



352 BRITISH BEES. 

those which collected it fly off for fresh supplies, should 
more be needed. Concurrently with the execution 
of all these things, wax is still being secreted by fes- 
toons of bees suspended wherever there is space, the 
sculpturer bees are still moulding cells, the queen is still 
laying eggs, deferentially attended, as usual, by her 
maids of honour ; the young brood is still being fed ; 
other bees are ventilating the hive at its entrance and 
within its streets and lanes by the rapid vibration of 
their wings ; the sentinels are diligently keeping guard 
to repel the inimical intrusion of wasps or snails or 
woodlice, or the moth which is so destructive to the in- 
terior in her larva state, from the covered moveable 
silken retreat which she constructs impervious to the 
sting, and thence with impunity gets at the silk of the 
cocoons and consumes the wax, making, when once fairly 
domiciled, such fearful havoc in the hive that the bees are 
fain to desert it, — and the many other numerous enemies 
which lust for the luscious honey, or whose voracity is 
attracted by the poor little diligent bees themselves, but 
who in such contingencies exhibit invincible courage, 
which, if not always successful in its efforts, is always 
meritorious. Where self-preservation is not the promp- 
ter, or the rivalry of love the instigator, but the duration 
of which is limited to a season, the feuds of the animal 
world all seem to proceed from the urgency of their 
gastronomic suggestions, the acrimony of which urges 
craft and strength to their most powerful exhibition. 
To allay hunger, destruction is perpetrated and order 
despoiled, and thus our bees become the victims of the 
imperativeness of this universal law. But sometimes 
they are triumphant over a very large enemy ; for in- 
stance, an intrusive mouse, or a slug that has slimed its 



APIS. 353 

way through the arched portal. They have been known 
to kill these enemies within the hive as they could not 
make them withdraw, but perplexity results from their 
success ; they are, however, gifted with the sagacity to 
know that the putridity of these masses will poison with 
its effluvia the atmosphere of their city which no venti- 
lation can purify, and they convert that part of their 
metropolis into a mausoleum, covering the carcases 
with a coating of propolis, alone or mixed with wax, as 
before noticed. Those which execute this summary 
martial law are the sentinels — the armed police of the 
hive — which guard its entrance and avenues, and patrol 
its streets and lanes and passages. Concurrently with 
all these doings, scavengers are heedful ly conveying away 
any particles of dirt or other undesirable superfluity 
which may have accidentally found its way in. That all 
these labours produce fatigue and exact rest is proved 
by the circumstance that many bees are always observed 
in a state of repose, — perhaps only forty winks during 
the day just to restore exhausted energy, — for they are 
soon seen again to resume their toil, this inactivity 
never being idleness. Whether they proceed with the 
same kind of employment upon the renewal of their 
work is not known, nor how long lasts a particular kind 
of labour, but the change of occupation may be one of 
frequent occurrence, and it may be presumed that each 
bee severally and successively undertakes each task, that 
the faculty for exercising it may not be extinguished. 
It is very possibly a daily change, which circulates 
through the entire civic population of workers. 

Although the labours of the bees are divided, we do 
not find that even the most successful observers, who 
have had every opportunity, by the nature of the hives 

2 A 



354 BRITISH BEES. 

they possessed, and the sagacity they applied to the de- 
tection of the most minute particulars, have been enabled 
to discover that these workers were permanently sepa- 
rated into distinct classes, — indeed, although surmising 
from this distribution of labour that such might be the 
case, and thus made alert to the discovery of its posi- 
tive confirmation by direct observation, they have never 
been able to do so ; and they strongly deny it, maintain- 
ing that these duties are individually transferable, and 
that they are not restricted to certain classes, already 
sufficiently implied by the organization of the workers. 
Huber, it is true, states that the wax-sculpturers — those 
which finish the cells to their nicety of perfection — are 
smaller than any of the rest of the community, to facili- 
tate their operations within the cells, which may perhaps 
be a foregone conclusion. 

The idea of administrative vigilance in the distribution 
of the labour of the community is strongly corroborated 
by the fact that all the labours proceed pari passu and 
in equable order, no excessive preponderance of any par- 
ticular work having been observed, which would certainly 
sometimes be the case were there no limiting control 
over their individual action, and thus the harmonious 
concurrence of all to one eff'ect seriously disturbed. The 
supposition is also strengthened by the unfailing attend- 
ance of the queen's numerous and deferential retinue, 
some one or other of whom, every now and then, quits 
that service — perhaps as an envoy on business of govern- 
ment — and is replaced by another. All these many cir- 
cumstances lead to the presumption that the queen is 
the heart, of the whole body, the organ which forces for- 
ward the circulation through its diverse channels, giving 
to all the temperate pulsation of vigorous health. 



APIS. 355 

The hive is, of course, quite dark within, and to carry on 
the numerous operations which we have noticed are done 
there, either sight of a peculiar nature must lend its aid, 
or some faculty residing in a sensation analogous to 
touch, but which it may be cannot be known_, nor where 
it may lie, but if it exist its organ is most probably the 
antennae. We can, it is true, compute their eyes, which 
comprise more than sixteen thousand, namely, about 
eight thousand in each of the compound organs placed 
laterally upon the head, each separate eye being an 
hexagonal facet furnished with its separate lens and 
capillary branch of the optic nerve, and also edged with 
short hair ; in this hair, therefore, may lie the particular 
sensation which guides them, for we cannot be sure that 
this large congeries of hexagonal facets facilitate sight in 
the dark, as in number and position they do not exceed 
or differ from the analogous structure and number of the 
same organs in many other insects which we know to be 
only seers by day, and which repose at night ; but the 
hairy addition to the eyes of these bees is a structure 
not observed in them. 

This constitution of the hive and its various opera- 
tions continues during the remainder of the season until 
the approach of winter cautions them from venturing 
abroad, when, if the temperature of the hive is much 
lowered, they hibernate and remain in a torpid con- 
dition until the sunshine of the following spring, and 
with it the flowering of plants, rouses them again to re- 
sume their suspended labours. The population of the 
hive having continued to increase, although not so 
vigorously as at first, up to the very intrusion of winter, 
and the renewed year giving renewed energy to the 
queen_, the population thence rapidly further increasing, 

2 a2 



356 BRITISH BEES. 

it becomes inconveniently thronged, especially as spring 
advances and hot weather sets in. These promptings 
then urge her to lay drone eggs, for which preparations 
have already been made by the workers, who have 
already framed for their reception — they being much 
larger insects — larger cells moulded precisely in the same 
manner, and which are also used occasionally as recep- 
tacles for honey, and always skirt the bottom of the 
several combs. This task she has completed in about 
five days, and it is carried on precisely in the same way 
as is practised in the case of the neuters ; and they are 
nurtured by nursing- workers just like them. Of these 
eggs she lays, as before said, about a thousand, and the 
workers by some instinctive faculty have framed about 
such a number of the needful cells. The transforma- 
tions of the drone occupy about twenty-four or twenty- 
five days, of which three are passed in the maturing of 
the eg^ which then hatches into the larva. This occupies 
nearly seven days in attaining its full growth, and the 
remaining portion of the time is spent in its spinning 
its cocoon, in the same way as the larva of the worker 
does, and it changes into the imago. To effect all these 
changes in the transformations of all the sexes, a heat of 
about seventy degrees is indispensable, but that of the 
hive in summer is considerably higher. They as well as 
the workers are assisted to emerge from the cocoon by 
some of the older workers, who use their mandibles to 
bite through the enclosure, and who also help to cleanse 
them from their exuviae. 

Concurrently with the formation of the brood cells of 
the drones, some of the workers are constructing cells to 
receive the royal eggs. These cells are totally unlike 
the other cells of the hive, and are of a sort of pear- 



APIS. 357 

shape five times as large as the drone cells, and are 
attached laterally to the edges of the comh in a vertical 
position, with the narrowest part, which is the orifice, 
hanging downwards. In the forming of these cslls the 
workers are very lavish of their wax, making the coats of 
them thick and opaque, and they are irregularly rough 
outside, but within very smoothly polished. Just as 
the construction of these cells intervenes irregularly with 
the formation of the cells of the drones, so does the 
queen intermit at intervals the laying of the drone eggs 
to deposit occasionally an egg in one of the royal cells, 
which are not usually completed at the time she com- 
mences laying them, but are finished afterwards, even 
during the time the larva is growing. This provision 
seems to be made for the earliest development of the 
young queens after the drones come forth, with the pos- 
sible prevision that the sooner all of these young queens 
are fertilized that are needful for the requirements of 
the swarms that the hive may throw off, the sooner will 
the hive be rid of the incumbrance and the consumption 
of stores caused by the drones. The transformations of 
the queens take place more rapidly than the others, for 
in sixteen days they are completed, of which three are 
occupied in hatching the egg, and for five they are feeding 
as larvae, and in that time attain their full growth ; the 
cell is then closed in with a waxen cover by the workers, 
and the full-fed larva within is occupied in spinning its 
cocoon, which it takes twenty-four hours to accomplish. 
This cocoon is unlike that of the drones and workers, 
both of which completely enclose the pupa, but the royal 
larva only forms so much of a cocoon as will cover the 
head and thorax, and by which imperfection she un- 
consciously facilitates her destruction by her rivals in 



358 BRITISH BEES. 

case they are permitted to attempt it before she emerges, 
— this being supposed to be the object of it, as the close 
texture of the silk of the cocoon would intercept the 
action of the rival queen's sting. In this state she re- 
mains in complete repose up to a part of the twelfth day, 
and it takes about four days more to change into the 
imago, which is ready to emerge on the sixteenth. In 
her larva state she has been very carefully and profusely 
supplied by her nurses with the royal jelly, made in the 
manner before described. This royal jelly is very sti- 
mulating, it is pungent, rather acescent, and is very dif- 
ferent from the food supplied to the drone- and worker- 
larvae. A great many of the drones being now perfect 
insects, some young queen, that is ready to go forth, is 
at length permitted to do so by her guardian protectors, 
for the old queen is already aware of her existence, and 
has more than once attempted her destruction, but from 
which she has been prevented. At a suitable opportu- 
nity this young queen issues, attended by a bevy of 
drones ; she immediately ascends in a spiral direction 
high into the air, far out of sight, and is followed by her 
suitors. Their larger capacity of flight speedily permits 
them to overtake her, and they ascend above her ; one 
being favoured, the rest descend again, and either at 
once return to the hive or frolic about in its vicinity. It is 
not long before this young queen returns, matured into 
an incipient mother. Now comes renewed hostility from 
her own parent, who is still prevented from the murder- 
ous assault, but who succeeds in ejecting her young rival. 
During this contest the hive has become a scene of con- 
fusion, and the preliminaries and accompaniments of fresh 
swarming take place, and in going forth she is accom- 
panied by a large body of the present population, and thus 



APIS. 359 

the first swarm of the fresh season is thrown off. Other 
queens become gradually developed, and other swarms 
similarly accompany them, but each swarm successively 
diminishes in the number of its participating emigrants, 
the last consisting perhaps of not more than two thou- 
sand. The order of the hive is speedily restored after 
each swarming convulsion has subsided, until the popula- 
tion being sufficiently reduced, the motive to leave is de- 
stroyed, and the queen is then permitted to execute her 
murderous onslaught on the hapless young queens, which 
are either still embryonic, or, if developed, have not been 
allowed to leave their cells ; but, where they have done 
so, and are still within the hive, her attendants and the 
old queen^s attendants open their ranks, and the furious 
rivals attack each other. The contest is sharp but short, 
the young queen is stung to death, the body is conveyed 
away, and the old queen reigns paramount. Her next 
effort is to destroy the royal brood in their cells ; the 
cells she tears to pieces, the young ones within, where 
developed, may be heard uttering a plaintive cry, whilst 
she sounds a triumphant note as loud as the highest note 
of a flute. Her throne is now free from pretenders, aud 
after the expulsion of the drones, which then takes place, 
the entire harmony of the hive is restored for another 
season. The queen meanwhile is growing old, a new 
spring has set in, her stock of eggs is being exhausted, 
and mortality, which afflicts even royalty itself, lays 
her low. Now comes into operation that extraordinary 
faculty possessed by these insects. Her death has taken 
place after she had laid new spring eggs, which are to 
produce a further addition of neuters and a supply of 
drones. The loss of their queen is soon communicated 
to the inhabitants of the hive, confusion ensues, and 



360 BRITISH BEES. 

labour is suspended. They group about in clusters of a 
dozen or more, and after about a day's intermission of 
the ordinary routine of labour they appear to have come 
to a resolution. Bustle is again renewed, and several, 
as the delegates of the general body, pass into the midst 
of the neuter brood cells, tear down the separating walls 
of three, kill two of the very young larvse, convert these 
three cells into one by fitting alterations, and transfer 
the care of this vermicle to the nursing bees. Under 
their care, they heedfully feeding her with the royal 
jelly, her transformations speedily are completed, and 
whilst this is being done, drones are coming forth. As 
soon as she is ready she is aided to quit her cell. She 
now leaves the hive, and the drones which are already 
perfected accompany her; she makes her wedding tour 
in the air, and quickly returns as the queen-regnant of 
the rejoicing monarchy, whose vacant throne is again 
royally occupied, and the entire harmony of the hive re- 
newed. 

The quantity of pollen that is collected in the course 
of a season, by the diligence of the bees, has been esti- 
mated at from sixty to seventy pounds ; and the weight 
of the honey, so affluent a hive will produce by abstrac- 
tion from the bees, is calculated at as much as sometimes 
fifty pounds. This, however, must be vastly exceeded 
by the quantity collected, as it is being constantly 
consumed for sustenance, and for the secretion of the 
raw material of wax, as well as for the production of 
the liquid which converts this into its mouldable con- 
sistency. It is possible to estimate pretty nearly the 
quantity of honey required for each secretion of the raw 
material, by finding what the honey-bag will contain 
when gorged, as it is this quantity which seems to make 



APIS. 361 

the eight scales of it upon the ventral plates, for they 
cannot convey more up when they hang themselves in 
the festoons to secern it. But it is impossible to know 
what addition this liquid from their mouths makes to it 
when they manipulate it into its plastic state, other bees 
often undertaking this task, which may apply themselves 
to it with a larger stock than the wax-secreters possess, 
they being perhaps already exhausted by their labours. 
It is a singular fact that wax is more rapidly and largely 
made by feeding the bees with dissolved sugar than from 
the honey they collect themselves, the sugar thus evi- 
dently containing more of its productive elements. 

Some of the labours within the hive are apparently 
continued at night, or the bees may be then revelling, 
after the day^s toils, in social enjoyment, or otherwise 
more worthily employed ; for, to use the words of the 
benevolent apiarian, the Rev. Wm. Chas. Cotton, "If 
you listen by a hive about nine o'clock, you will hear 
an oratorio sweeter than any at Exeter Hall. Treble, 
tenor, and bass are blended in the richest harmony. 
Sometimes the sound is like the distant hum of a great 
city, and sometimes it is like a peal of hallelujahs.^' 

This is the history of the hive and its inhabitants. 
Modifications may occasionally occur, but nothing of 
sufficient consequence seriously to affect or neutralize this 
ordinary routine. It would occupy space already too 
largely encroached upon to go into these minute parti- 
culars, which, although parts of their general history, 
where treated of in special detail, are not necessarily the 
province of a work which speaks of them as but one 
member of the family of which it collectively discourses. 
As the space occupied by what was really essential to be 
known about them, has exceeded the due dimensions of 



362 BRITISH BEES. 

their share to it, although of paramount interest, in- 
finitely greater than that which attaches to the eco- 
nomy of the whole of the rest of the group combined, it 
will not, I trust, be considered that I terminate abruptly, 
in drawing here to a close. 



The close of the work concurs with the termination 
of the history of its "crowning marvel; and I take leave 
of my readers, with a reiteration of the hope that it 
may stimulate them to undertake a study, wherein, each 
step of their progress, expands the delightful contem- 
plation of the manifestations of the predominance of a 
vast design, emanating from the paternal benevolence 
of an august, supreme, and wisely superintending Pro- 
vidence. 

" To-morrow to fresh woods and pastures new." — Milton. 




363 



GENERAL AND GLOSSARIAL INDEX. 



Abdomen, 25. 

and its differences of form, 47. 

■ causes of differences of cloth- 
ing and form lie in its use, 48. 
■ colour and marking and 

clothing of, characteristic, 47. 
— — elliptical, or lanceolate and 

truncated, 48. 
Acari infest bees, 110. 
Activity of a hive at work, 348. 
Acuminate, terminating gradually 

in a sharp point. 
Affinity, doctrine of, 136. 
Agassiz' 'NomenclatorZoologicus,' 

130. 
Analogies between the stages of 

bees and flowers, 15. 
Analogy, doctrine of, 138. 
Andrena, general observations 

upon, 2C4. 

geography of, 67. 

infested by Stylops and No- 

mada, 208. 

list of native species, 201. 

natural history of, 205. 

scientific description of, 200. 

Andrenidse, abnormal bees, 160. 
diagi'am of mode of folding 

the tongue in repose, 39. 
Animals, domestication of, 5. 
Antennae, 26, 28. 

apparatus for cleaning, 42. 

form and structure in Eucera, 

29. 
possible complex function of, 

57. 



Antennae, sexual differences in 

length, 233. 

their probable use, 55, 57. 

used as means of communi- 
cation, 58. 
Anthidium, general observations 

on, 281. 

geography of, 75. 

native species, 279. 

natural histoi-y of, 282. 

scientific description of, 279. 

Anthocopa, general observatioiia 

on, 292. 

geography of, 76. 

-— native species of, 292. 

natural history of, 293. 

scientific description of, 290. 

Anthophora, general observations 

on, 238. 

geography of, 70. 

infested by Melecta, 240. 

list of native species, 238. 

natural history of, 238. 

scientific description of, 236. 

trophi of, 29. 

Apathus, general observations on, 

304. 

geography of, 77. 

list of nat ive species, 304. 

scientific description of, 302. 

the Bombi they infest, 306. 

Apidse, diagram of the mode of 

folding the tongue in repose, 39. 

= normal bees, 160, 227. 

Apis, general observations on, 321. 
geography of, 79. 



364 



GENERAL AND GLOSSARTAL INDEX. 



Apis, native species, 321. 

natural history of, 322. 

origin of names, 321. 

■ scientific description of, 318. 

see "Bee" and "Bees." 

Appearance of bees intermittent, 

54. 

Appendiculated, when there is a 
small appendage, as in the lip of 
Halictus, and at the end of the 
marginal cell of the wings, etc. 

Arrangement and description of 
British bees, 184. 

Artesian well, peculiar results 
from its soil, 223. 

Articulate, where jointed, or the 
point of attachment. 

Artisan bees = Dasvgasters, 272. 

Aryans, one of the primitive divi- 
sions of the human race, 4. 

Atmosphere, its conditions affect 
bees, 50. 

Aulacus, 287. 

Auriculated, with a small ear-like 
appendage. 

Bee, constructive habits of the, 

early noticed, 93. 

general history of the, 17. 

parasites, 115. 

parasitism limited, 264. 

— probably earlier known to 

man than the silkworm, 6. 
Queen, description of, 322. 

■ see " Apis." 

several species of, 87. 

symbol of royalty with the 

Egyptians, 5. 

The, one of the Suras of the 

Koran, 90. 

why attractive, 1. 

Bee-bread, 347. 

Bees, amount of their suscepti- 
bility of pain, 57. 

construction of cells, 327. 

duties performed in the hive, 

325. 

duties transferable, 336. 

early cultivated, 3, 90, 91. 

economy, early known, 92. 

emit an odour, 52. 



Bees enemies, 51. 

extent of flight, 340. 

flight, modes of, varies, 49. 

found in the Orkneys, 7. 

genera of, determined by an 

artificial mode, 170. 

habits of, in America, 7. 

hairiness of, reason of, 14. 

intimately connected witli 

flowers, 3. 

largely contribute to the im- 
pregnation of plants, 11. 

make about ten journeys a 

day, 351. 

many disclosed in autumn 

for the following year's spring 
flight, 53. 

not early risers, 51. 

number of eyes, 355. 

other than social, also 

known, 8. 

rarely walk, 50. 

sagacity in finding the honey 

of flowers, 13. 

scientific arrangement and 

description of the genera of, 184. 

secretion of wax, 325. 

stages of life of, — egg, 18. 

larva, 19. 

pupa, 22. 

imago, 23. 

swarming, 337. 

their relative perfection, 56. 

voice, a scale of music, 49. 

Beehive represented on a tomb 
at Thebes, 6. 

Beehives moved on rafts, 84. 

Bifid, divided into two parts. 

Binomial system invented by Lin- 
naeus, 129. 

Body of the bee, its structure, 25. 

Bombus, difficulty in determining 
the species of the males, 311. 

general observations on, 310. 

geography of, 78. 

infested by Apathus, 311. 

list of native species, 308. 

natural history of, 312. 

peculiarities in times of ap- 
pearance, 312. 

scientific description of, 307. 



GENERAL AND GLOSSARTAL INDEX. 



365 



Boss of mesothorax, 45. 
Bougie, derivation of, 84. 
British bees, new arrangement of, 
153, 158. 

Carder bees, 316. 

Carelessness of describers of new 

species, 125. 
Carinated, having a longitudinal 

elevated line. 
Carpenter bees, 286. 
Cells of hive, geometrical form of, 

343. 
results from in- 
stinct, 343. 

how constructed, 342. 

of wings characteristic, 44. 

Cenobites = social bees, 167, 302. 
Ceratina, disputed parasitism of, 

247. 

general observations on, 246. 

geography of, 71. 

list of native species, 246. 

natural history of, 247. 

scientific description of, 245. 

Cereal plants early cultivated, 4. 
Clielostoma, general observations 

on, 286. 

geography of, 76. 

infested by Foenus, 287. 

native species of, 285. 

natural history of, 286. 

scientific description of, 283. 

Chrysis infests Clielostoma, 287. 

infests Halictus, 219. 

infests Osmia, 302. 

Ci barial apparatus = trophi = col - 

lective organs of the mouth, 163. 
Cilissa, general obserA^ations on, 
213. 

geography of, 67. 

list of native species, 213. 

scientific description of, 211. 

Clavate, club-shaped. 

antennae, 28. 

Claws, 42. 

reflected, 285. 

Climate inoperative on low forms 

of life, 24. 
Clothing of bees, 60. 
Clvpeus, 26, 28. 



Coadunate, closely united without 

perceptible articulation. 
Coelioxys, difficulty of their specific 

separation, 267. 

general observations on, 267. 

geography of, 74. 

hst of native species, 267. 

parasitical on Megachile and 

Saropoda, 267. 

scientific description of, 265. 

Collar, 41 . 

Colletes, general observations on, 

187. 

geography of, 64. 

• list of native species, 187. 

natural history of, 187. 

parasites upon, 190. 

scientific description of, 185. 

Colour of bees, 60, 

more intense in males than 

females, 52, 
most conspicuous in parasites, 

66, 105. 
Combs, structure of, 345. 
Corbiculum, 319. 
Correlative relations of structure 

and function, 10. 
Cotton, Kev. Chas. Wm., a distin- 
guished af)iarian, 361. 
Coxa, or hip, 41. 
useful as a specific cliaracter, 

42. 
Compound eyes, 26, 27. 
Compressed, when the transverse 

section is shorter than the 

vertical. 
Constricted, with tightened edges. 
Conterminous, where the joints 

follow each other in a straight 

line of succession, 
Crenulated, cut into segments of 

very small circles. 
Cubital cells of wings, 45. 
Cuckoo bees, = Nudipedes, 249. 
' Cui bono ?' answer to, 141. 
Curtis, inferior merit of his system, 

152. 

Dasygasters, artisan bees, 167,269. 
Dasvpoda, general observatiouson, 
225. 



366 



GENERAL AND GLOSSARIAL INDEX. 



Dasypoda, geography of, 69. 

native species, 225. 

. natural history of, 226. 

scientific description of, 224. 

Deflected, when bent downwards. 

Dentate, toothed. 

Depressed, when the vertical sec- 
tion is shorter than the trans- 
verse. 

Describers, duties of, 125. 

Describing, modes of, before Lin- 
naeus, 129. 

Differences of appearance between 
the parasite and the sites, 260. 

Digiti, anterior tarsi, 42. 

Dissimilarity frequent between the 
sexes, 52. 

Domestication of animals, 5. 

Dorylus, 311. 

Drone — male bee, description of, 
323. 

Edentate, without teeth. 

Egg of bees, 18. 

Egyptian hieroglyphics and sculp- 
tures represent the bee, 6. 

Elenchus, habits of, described by 
Dale, 113. 

infests Halictus, 113, 219. 

Elliptical, oval but with the longi- 
tudinal diameter more than 
twice the length of the trans- 
verse. 

Enemies of bees, 51. 

Epeolus, general observations on, 
260. 

geography of, 73. 

native species, 260. 

parasitical on CoUetes, 190- 

260. 

scientific description of, 258. 

Epipharynx, 29, 30. 

Eucera, general observations on, 
232. 

geography of, 70. 

infested by Nomada sex- 

cincta, 235. 

native species, 232. 

■ natural history of, 234. 

scientific description of, 231. 



Eace of bees, 26, 27. 

Families, characteristics of, differ, 

136. 
Family, 134. 
Feeling of bees, 56. 
Femur, or thigh, 41. 
Fertilization of flowers produced 

by bees, 11, 51. 
Feuds of animals, the occasion of, 

352. 
Filiform, thread-like, of uniform 

thickness. 

antennoe, 28. 

Fimbriated, = fringed. 
Flagellum of antenUcT, 18. 
Fhght of bees, variation of their 

modes, 49. 
Floral clock of Linnaeus, 50. 
Flowers, the, chiefly agreeable to 

bees, 15. 

earliest, sought by the bees,14. 

fertilized by bees, 11, 51. 

Fcenus infests Chelostonia, 287. 
Forcipate, when crossing each 

other. 
Foreign bees, conspicuous genera 

of, 101. 
Form of parasitical bees often 

adapted to that of their sitos, 48. 

determined by function, 48. 

Fossorial Hymenoptera, 45. 
Fruit preserved in honey, 83. 
Fusiform, = spindle-shaped. 

Gense, 26, 28. 

Grenera of bees determined artifi- 
cially, 176. 

that emit scents, 296. 

with and without parasites, 

264. 

Geniculated, bent like a knee or 
angle. 

Genus, 132. 

type of, 133. 

Geography of the British generu 
of bees, 61. 

Gibbous, = irregularly swollen. 

Glabrous, without hair or pubes- 
cence. 

Gregarious, its application to bees, 
57. 



GENERAL AND GLOSSARIAL INDEX. 



367 



Habit, 127. 
Habitat, 127. 
Habits, 127. 

and structure correlative, 

24. 

Halictophagus, 115. 
Halietus, general observations on, 
216. 

geography of, 68. 

its enemies, 220. 

list of native species, 215. 

natural histoi'y of, 217. 

parasites that infest it, 219, 

peculiar autumnal appear- 
ance, 218. 

scientific description of, 214. 

strvicture of labrum, 30, 

Hastate, halberd shaped. 
Head of bees, 26, 
Hedychrura infests Halietus, 219. 
Heriades, general observations on, 

288. 

geography of, 76. 

native species of, 288. 

scientific description of, 288. 

Hindoo Koosh, supposed cradle of 

the human race, 3. 
Hirsute, covered with long stiffish 

hairs, thickly set. 
Hives, darkness of, 355. 

moved on rafts, 85. 

Homer mentions bees, 6. 
Honey, different kinds of, 87, 

• green, 87, 

• its use in the East, 83. 

mode of lapping, described 

by Reaumur, 35. 

mode of storing, 350. 

prescribed by Mahomet, 91, 

quantity in a well-filled hive, 

360, 
sometimes poisonous, 86. 

XTsed in medicine by the 

Egyptians, 90, 

Honev-bee, see "Apis," "Bee," 

"Bees." 
mode of secreting wax, 

330. 
Hypopharynx, 29. 

Imago of bees, 23. 



Inosculation, point of close con- 
tact or attachment. 

Insect-feeding reptiles before gla- 
cial period, 5, 

Inserted, where joined. 

Instinct, its applications, 56, 

occasional divergence of, 

55, 

of bees, 55. 

Job mentions bees, 6. 

Kirby's merits, 144, 
system of bees, 147. 

Labial palpi, 30, 32. 

number of joints invariable, 

32. 

structure in Andrenidse, 32. 

structure in Apidee, 32. 

Labium = lower lip, 30, 31, 

Labrum = upper lip, 28, 30. 

Lacerate, with a roughened irre- 
gular edge. 

Lanceolate, oblong but gradually 
tapering. 

Latreille's classification not 
adopted, 168. 

Leg, diagram of, 42. 

Legs, general description of, 41. 

Length of an insect is taken from 
the front of the head to the apex 
of the abdomen ; the breadth, 
or the expansion of the wings, 
it is not usual to give, except- 
ing under sucli circumstances 
as would be particularly men- 
tioned, viz. in cases of an ex- 
cessive enlargement or diminish- 
ment of the typical size. 

Life, duration of, of bees, 54. 

Line, the twelfth part of an inch ; 
the ordinary measure used in 
entomology for the fractions of 
an inch, unless the insect is much 
more than an inch long. 

Linnaeus, author of the binomial 
system, 129. 

great merits of, 129, 

Lobated, divided into equal 
rounded parts. 



368 



GENERAL AND GLOSSARIAL INDEX. 



Low forms of life unaffected by 

climate, 24. 
Lunate, semicircular. 
Lunulate, crescent-shaped. 

Macropis, general observations on, 
222. 

geography of, 68. 

native species, 221. 

— — scientific description of, 220. 
strong analogy to the Scopu- 

lipedes, 222. 
Macula? indicantes, 13. 
Mahomet prescribes honey, 91. 
Males, liow to be united to their 

partners, 179. 
Mandibles, 30, 40. 

used for boring, 44. 

Marginal cells of wings, 45. 

Margmate, edged with a ridge. 

Mason bees, 296. 

Maxilla;, 30, 31. 

Maxillary palpi, 30, 32. 

number of joints invariable in 

Andrenidse, 32. 
number of joints variable in 

the Apidae, 32. 
Megachile, general observations 

on, 272. 
— — geography of, 74. 

infested by Coelioxys, 275. 

— — list of native species, 271. 

natural history of, 273. 

scientific description of, 269. 

Melecta, general observations on, 

255. 

geography of, 72. 

list of native species, 255. 

— — parasitical on Anthophora, 

240. 

scientific description of 255. 

— — very pugnacious, 258. 
Melittobia, a parasite upon An- 
thophora, 241. 
Meloe proscarabseus, parasitical 

on bees, 110. 

said to infest Andrena, 209. 

Mesothorax, 26, 44. 
Metallic colouring of bees, 248. 
Metathorax, 26. 
Metropolis, 128. 



Miltogramma, parasitical upon 

Colletes, 190. 
Mode of killing coloured insects, 

253. 
Moniliform, bead-like. 

antennae, 129. 

Monodontomerus, parasitical on 

Anthophora and Osmia, 302. 
Moths help to fertilize flowers, 13. 
Motives for new arrangement, 163. 
Mouth, organs of = tropin = ciba- 

rial apparatus, 163. 
Mucronated, having one or more 

short stout processes. 
Mutilla, parasitical on bees, 117. 

Names usually given from a sexual 
peculiarity, 232. 

Natural history, attractions of, 141. 

modes of treating, 140. 

Natural system, 139. 

Nature, its large operations, 8. 

Nectaria of plants indicated to bees 
by a difference of colour, 12. 

Nervures of wings, 44. 

Nomada, general observations on, 
252. 

geography of, 72. 

intermittent appearance of 

N. Fabriciana, 230. 

list of native species, 250. 

scientific description of, 249. 

sexcinnta infests Eucera, 235. 

the bees infested by them, 

253. 

Nomenclature simplified by Lin- 
naeus, 130. 

Nudipedes, = cvickoo-bees or para- 
sites, 116, 167, 249. 

Nylander's mode of determining 
the species of Ccelioxys, 268. 

Obsolete, more or less inapparent. 
Ocelli = simple eyes = stemmata, 

26, 27. 
Oman, no bees in the province of, 

84. 
Osmia, general observations on, 

296. 

geography of, 76. 

list of native species, 295. 



gp:neral and glossarial index, 



369 



Osmia, natural liistory of, 296. 

— parasites of, 302. 

— scientific description of, 294. 
Ovate, oval, but with the ends cir- 
cumscribed by unequal segments 
of circles. 

Ovipositor = egg-depositor, 17. 

Pain, doubtful susceptibihty of, 57. 
Palmae, 41. 

Palmated, spread like a hand. 
Palpi, their probable use, 55. 
Panurgus, general observations on, 
229. 

— geography of, 69. 

— '— infested by Nomada Fabri- 

ciana, 230. 
list of native species, 228. 

— natural history of, 229. 

scientific description of, 227. 

Paraglossse, 33. 

— obsolete in the artisan bees, 
33. 

— where attached, 33. 
Parasites, diflPerent kinds of, 110. 

— of bees, 109. 

Parasitical bees always the most 
highly coloured, 66, 105. 

— unhke the sitos, 116. 

— Cenobites, 302. 
Passions of bees, 56. 

Pecten or comb, a fringe of very 
short stiff hair attached to an 
organ, for various purposes. 

Pectinated, having an edge like a 
comb. 

Pediculus Melittae, 209. 

Petiole, a foot-stalk. 

Pharynx, 29, 30. 

Pile, long loose hair. 

Pilose, with long, distinct, flexible 
hair. 

Plantse, 42, 46. 

structure of, in hive-bee, 46. 

Plants agreeable to bees, 15. 

impregnated by bees, 11. 

Pleasures attending the pursuit of 
natural history, 14. 

Plumose, with long hair, but not 
thick. 

Pollen, collection of, 351. 



Pollen, mode of collecting and 
transferring from limb to limb, 
43. 

probable reasons for the ways 

of carrying, 47. 

quantity usually collected, 

360. 

PoUiniferous, = pollen- collecting. 

Posterior legs, their structure for 
the conveyance of pollen, 46. 

where attached, 46. 

Post-scutellum, 26, 45. 

Priority, law of, the basis of syno- 
nymy, 131. 

Proboscis, 39. 

Process, a protuberance. 

Processes in bees, peculiarities of, 
258. 

Propolis, nature of, 340. 

Prosopis emits an agreeable 
odour, 195. 

general observations upon, 

193. 

geography of, 65. 

list of native species, 192. 

presumed parasitism of, 193. 

scientific description of, 191. 

supposed liable to Stylops, 

195. 

Prothorax, 26, 41. 

Pubescent, covered with short fine 
hair. 

Pubescent, hirsute, setose, pilose, 
plumose, various relative con- 
ditions of hairiness. 

Pulvillus, 42. 

Punctate, impressed with many 
points. 

Punctulate, with fine impressed 
points. 

Punctm'ed, with coarsely im- 
pressed points. 

Pupa of bees, 22. 

Queen-bee, administrative func- 
tion of, 336. 

and worker constitute a 

unity, 331. 

description of, 322. 

etiquette of attendants, 



329. 



2 B 



370 



GENERAL AND GLOSSAllIAL INDEX. 



Queen-bee, great fertility of, 334. 

• loss of, disorganizes the 

hive, 335. 

number of eggs laid by, 



346. 



Ray's merits, 142. 

Reaumur's description of the mode 

of lapping honey, 35. 
description of the structure 

of the tongue, 35. 
Recurrent nervures of wings, 45. 
Retuse, with an obtuse cavity. 
Ridged, with a slight projecting 

margin. 
Rugose, rough or irregularly 

wrinkled. 

St. Fargeau's merits, 151. 
Sanskrit notice of bees and honey, 

92. 
Saropoda, general observations, 

243. 

geography of, 71. 

native species of, 243. 

rapidity of flight, 245. 

scientific description of, 242. 

vivacity of its eyes, 244. 

Scape of antennae, 28. 
Scent emitted by bees, 52. 
Scientific arrangement and de- 
scription of the genera, 184. 

principles of, 118. 

cultivation of British bees, 

142. 
Scopulipedes = brush -legged bees, 

163, 227. 
Sculpture, 60. 
Scutellum, 26, 45. 
Senses of bees, 56. 
Sensorium of Idccs, 55. 
Serrate, edged like a saw. 
Serratulate, edged like a fine saw. 
Setse, slightish bristles. 
Setiform, like bristles. 
Setose, bristled. 
Shakespeare on the polity of the 

bee, 1. 
Shemitic branch of the human 

race, 4. 
Sight of bees, 56. 



Simple eyes = ocelli = stemmata, 

26, 27. 
Sinus, a cavity. 
Sitos, the supporter of a parasitical 

bee. 
Sizes, difierences of, what caused 

by, 41. 
Smell of bees, 56. 
Social bees, = Cenobites, 302. 
Species, 122. 

name of, 128. 

the basis of natural science, 

121. 
vary in number of indivi- 
duals, 123. 
Specific character, 124. 

descriptions, 125. 

differences, 123. 

Sphecodes, difficulty of specific 

distinction in, 198. 
doubts as to its parasitism, 

199. 

general observations on, 197. 

geography of, 66. 

list of native species, 197. 

scientific description of, 196. 

Spines at apex of abdomen of bees, 

268. 
Spinose, with minute spiny pro- 



Spinulose, with fine spiny pro- 
cesses. 

Spiral hair of the scopa, 226, 229. 

Spurs, 42. 

Squamulse = epaulettes = wing- 
scales, 26, 44. 

State of Grreat Britain before the 
glacial period, 5. 

Stelis, general observations on, 
263. 

geography of, 73. 

infests Osmia, 302. 

list of native species, 263. 

scientific description of, 262. 

Stemmata = simple eyes = ocelli, 
26, 27. 

Stephens, inferior merit of his sys- 
tem, 152. 

Strepsiptera parasitical on bees, 
111. 

Strigilis, 42. 



GENERAL AND GLOSSARIAL INDEX. 



371 



Structure and habits correlative, 
24. 

of the body of the bee, 25. 

similarity of, caused by di- 
rect and proximate affinities, 48. 

Stylops infests Andrena, 208. 

infests Halictus, 219. 

Kirby's description of, 112. 

manners of, described by 

Thwaites, 114. 

some particulars of its his- 
tory, 208. 

Sub, a prefix indicating the di- 
minution of a condition, as sub- 
hastate, subovate, subtruncate, 
etc. etc. 

Submarginal cells of wings, 45. 

Swarming, 358. 

Synonymy, 130. 

System, value of, 119. 

Tarsus of fore legs in some males 
greatly dilated, 43. 

or foot, 41. 

Taste of bees, 56. 

Thorax, 26, 41. 

Tibia, or shank, 41. 

Tomb at Thebes with representa- 
tion of a beehive, 6. 

Tongue improperly called labium, 
34. 

of Andrenidse folded in re- 
pose, 39. 

of Apidse folded in repose, 

39. 

once thought tubular, 34. 

where situated, description 

of it, 33. 

Topical geography of British bees, 
96. 

Tooth, a long sharp process. 

Toothed, spinose, spinulose, tu- 
berculated, mucronated, den- 
tate, the various conditions of 
extraneous prominences or pro- 



Transformations of worker bee, 347. 

of the drone, 356. 

of the Queen, 357. 

Transverso-cubital nervures of 
wings, 45. 



Travellers, suggestions to, 64, 95. 

Trifid, divided into three parts. 

Trivial name, 128. 

Trochanter, 41. 

Tropin = organs of the mouth, 26, 
29. 

diagram of, 30. 

Truncated, abruptly terminated. 

Tuberculated, with small pro- 
cesses. 

Turonian branch of the human 
race, 4. 

Uses of bees in the impregnation 
of plants, 11. 

Vedas mention bees, 6. 
Yelum, 42. 

Ventilation of the hives, 328. 
Ventral segments, pecidiarities of 

structure of, 234. 
Vernacular names of insects, 9. 
Vertex, 26. 
Vertigo of bees, 87. 
Voice of bees, 49. 

Wagtails destroy fossorial Ilyme- 
noptera, 306. 

Wax, secretion of, 325. 

Wax used by the Eomans, 85. 

Westwood's classification not 
adopted, 168. 

Wild bees, 8. 

come forth earlyin the spring, 

10. 

Will of bees, 56. 

Willughby's merits, 143. 

Wing, treatise on the, 45. 

Wing-hooklets for uniting the 
upper and lower wings, 45. 

Wing-scales = squamulse, 26. 

Wings, 44. 

— — diagram of, 45. 

Worker-bee, description of, 324. 

• duties performed by, 325. 

peculiarities of struc- 
ture, 330. 

secretion of wax, 325. 

Xenophon's description of poison- 
ous honey, 86. 



« 



i 



PLATE I. 

1 c^ . Colletes Daviesiana, male. 

1 ? . „ „ female. 

2 S • Prosopis dilatata, male. 

2 ? . Prosopis signata, female. 

3 c^ . Sphecodes gibbus, male. 

3 ? . „ „ female. 




,PUte. 








, E .W, Robinson . DtL*- 8t 5<*.I366 . 



PLATE II. 

1 c? . Andrena fulva, male. 

1 ? . „ yj female. 

2 ^ . Andrena cineraria, male. 

2 ? . „ . „ female. 

3 ^ . Andrena nitida, male. 

3 ? . i, „ female. 



PLATE III. 

1 c? . Andrena Rosse, male. 

1 ? . „ „ female. 

2 S ' Andrena longipcs, male. 

2 ? . „ ,, female. 

3 (^ . Andrena cingulata, male. 
3?. „ ,, female. 



PUte III 




PLATE IV. 

1 c? . Halictus xanthopus, male. 

1 ? . „ „ female. 

2 S ' Halictus flavipes, male. 

2 ? . „ „ female. 

3 c? . Halictus minutissimus, male. 
3 $ . „ ,, female. 



,PUte.I\^ 




.E .W.Rol>m...n . J3d<:etS''.\&bt, 



PIATE V. 

1 c? . Cilissa tricincta, male. 

1 $ . ,, „ female, 
3 S ' Macropis labiata, male. 

2 $ . ^, „ female, 

3 (^ . Dasypoda hirtipes, male. 
3 ? . „ „ female. 



.fUt^.Y 




.E.W.Robkson.MetScM 



PLATE VI. 

1 S ' Panargus Banksianus, mule. 

1 ? . „ „ female. 

2 (^ . Eucera longicornis, male. 

2 ? . „ „ female. 

3 c? . Anthophora retusa, male. 
3 ? . „ ,, fe^nale. 



,Pla.te.VI. 




.Ey:Rol.n.<,n.I)d'.rtSr. 



PLATE VII. 

1 c^ . Anthophora furcata, male. 

1 ? • « 3, female. 

2 S • Saropoda bimaculata, male. 

2 ? • » „ female. 

3 S • Ceratina caerulea, male. 
3 $ . „ _,, female. 



PUteVlI, 




. I.W Robinson . M' etS^aeC, 



PLATE VIII. 

1 ^ . Nomada Goodeniana, male. 

1 ? . „ „ female. 

2 (^ . Nomada Lathburiana, male. 

2 ? . „ „ female. 

3 c? . Nomada sextasciata, male. 
3 ? . „ „ female. 



PUteVlil 




.EW.RoUsor.. W^eLSM866, 



PLATE IX. 

1 ^ . Nomada signata, male. 

1 ? • „ „ female. 

2 ^ . Nomada Fabriciana, male. 

2 ? . „ „ female. 

3 ^ . Nomada flavoguttata, male. 

'^ ? • ,j „ female. 



Plate, IX. 







Id 






1 


^ 


■ 
T 


J 


f \ 


s 


J 


1 


39 




1 1 








.E.W.Rofcinson .W'.ef. Sep. 1860. 



PLATE X. 

1 c? . Nomada Jacobsese, male. 

1 ? • „ „ female. 

2 c^ . Nomada Solidaginis, male. 

2 (^^ (should be ?). ,, female. 

3 c?. Nomada lateralis, male. 
3 ? • n „ female. 



.Plate. X 




EWRobinw.. M^etSP. 1566. 



PLATE XI. 

1 cT • Melecta punctata, male, 

1 ? . y, „ female. 

2 (^ . Epeolus variegatus, male. 

2 ? . „ „ female. 

3 (^ . Stelis phseoptera, male. 
3 ? . _,, jj female. 



PIdte XI 




.E.W.Robi«on.Dal';et5 



PLATE XII. 

1 S . Coelioxys Vectis, male. 

1 ? . „ „ female. 

2 (^ . Megachile maritima, male. 

2 ? . „ „ female. 

3 (^ . Megachile argentata, male. 
3 ? . „ „ female. 



.PUte.XIi. 




PLATE XIII. 

1 c? . Anthidium raanicatum_, male. 

1 ? . „ „ female. 

2 S ' Chelostoraa florisomne, male. 

2 ? . „ „ female. 

3 ^ . Heriades truncorum, male. 

3 ? . „ „ female. 



Pldle.Xlll 




EW.Kol»n3on.Del'.er,So?l366. 



I 



PLATE XIV. 

1 c^ . Osmia bicolor, male. 

1 ? . „ ,i female. 

2 S ' Anthocopa Papaveris, male. 

2 ? . „ „ female. 

3 (J . Osmia leucomelana, male. 
3 ? . „ „ female. 



.Plate.AIV. 




. E .W. Ratmson . W. et,5c?. ISOC , 



PLATE XV. 

1 cT • Apathus rupestrisj male. 

1 ? . „ „ female. 

2 (^ (should be ? ). Apathus cami^estns, female. 

2 ? . Apathus yestsiWs, female. 

3 ? . Bombus fragrans, female. 

4 c^ . „ Soroensis (var. Burrellanus), male. 



PUteXV 




2d" 



l6 







NCM>^ 




,EW,Bobmso^.Del"'^.3cI',186'i. 



PLATE XVI. 

1 ? . Bombus HaxriseWus, female, 

2 ? . J, Lapponicus, female. 

3 ? . „ sylvarum, female, 

4 S . Apis mellifica, male, 
4 ? . „ „ female, 
4 ? . ,, ,, neuter. 



Plate XVL 




.E.W.Rr^tinsor. .Ptl':€L^MS66. 



LOVELL REEVE & CO.'S 

rUBLICATIONS IN 
CHEMISTRY, TRAVELS, ANTIQUITIES, 

ETC. 



' None can express Thy works but he that knows them; 
And none can know Thy works, which are so many 
And so complete, but only he that owes them." 

Oeorge Herbert. 




LONDON : 
OVELL REEVE AND CO.. 5, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN. 

1866. 



CONTENTS. 





PAGE 


BOTANY 


3 


FERNS AND MOSSP^S 


9 


SEAWEEDS 


... 10 


FUNGI 


11 


SHELLS AND MOLLUSKS 


12 


INSECTS 


14 


TRAVELS 


15 


ANTIQUARIAN 


16 


MISCELLANEOUS 


18 


WORKS IN PREPARATION 


19 



All Books sent post-free to any part of the United Kingdom on receipt of a remittance for 

the published price. 

Post-Office Orders to he made payable at KiwG Strkkt, Covbnt GABDEir. 



LIST OF WORKS 

PUBLISHED BY 

LOVELL REEVE & CO. 

BOTANY. 

HANDBOOK OF THE BRITISH ELOEA; a Descrip- 

tion of the Mowering Plants and Ferns indigenous to, or naturalized in, the 
British Isles. For the Use of Beginners and Amateurs. By George 
Bkntham, F.R.S., President of the Linnean Society. Crown 8vo, 680 pp., 
12.V. 

Distinguished for its terse and clear style of description ; for the introduction 
of a system of Analytical Keys, which enable the student to determine the family 
and genus of a plant at once by the observation of its more striking characters ; 
and for the valuable information here given for the first time of the geographical 
range of each species in foreign countries. 



HANDBOOK OF THE BEITISH ELOKA, Illusteated 

Edition ; a Description (with a Wood- Engraving, including dissections, of 
each species) of the Flowering Plants and Ferns indigenous to, or natu- 
ralized in, the British Isles. By George Bentham, F.R.S., President of 
the Linnean Society. Demy 8vo, 2 vols., 1 154, pp. 1295 Wood-Engravings, 
from Original Drawings by W. Fitch. £3. 10^. 

An illustrated edition of the foregoing Work, in which every species is ac- 
companied by an elaborate Wood-Engraving of the Plant, with dissections of its 
leading structural peculiarities. 



THE FIELD BOTANIST'S COMPANION; a Familiar 

Account, in the Four Seasons, of the most common of the Wild Flowering 
Plants of the British Isles. By Thomas Moore, F.L.S. One volume. 
Demy 8vo, 424 pp.. With 24 Coloured Plates, by W. Fitch, 21^. 

An elegantly-illustrated volume, intended for Beginners, describing the plants 
most readily gathered in our fields and hedge-rows, with the progress of the sea- 
sons. Dissections of the parts of the flowers are introduced among the Figures, 
so that an insight may be readily obtained not only of the Species and name of 
each plant, but of its structure and characters of classification. 



4 LOVELL REEVE AND CO.'s PUBLICATIONS. 

CUHTIS'S BOTANICAL MAGAZINE, comprising the 

Plants of the Royal Gardeus of Kew, and of other Botaaical ESablish- 
n.ents. By Dr. J. D. Hookkk, F.R.S, Director of the Royal Gardeus. 
Royal 8vo. Pubhshed Monthly, with 6 Plates, 3^. 6d. coloured. Vol. XXII 
of the Third Series (being Vol. XCII. of the entire work) in course of pub- 
lication. A Complete Set from the commencement may be had. 
Descriptions and Drawings, beautifully coloured b^ hand, of newly-discovered 
plants suitable for cultivation in the Garden, Hothouse, or Conservatoiy. 



THE ELOEAL MAGAZINE, containing Figures and De- 

scnptions of New Popular Garden Flowers. By the Rev. H. Honywood 
DoMBRAiN A B. Imperial 8vo. Published Monthly, with 4 Plates 2^ 6d 
coloured. Vol. I. to lY., each with 64 plates, £2. 2*. 

Descriptions and Drawings, beautifully coloured by hand, of new varieties of 
llovvers raised by the nurserymen for cultivation in the Garden, Hothouse or 
Conservatory. ' 



THE TOURIST'S ELORA; a Descriptive Catalogue of the 

Ilowenng Plants and Ferns of the British Islands, France. Germanv, 
Switzerland, Italy, and the Italian Islands. By Joseph Woods F L S 
Demy 8vo, 504 pp., 18^. ' ' 

Designed to enable the lover of botany to determine the names of any wild 
plants he may meet with while journeying in our own country and the countries 
of the Continent most frequented by tourists. The author's aim has been to 
make the descriptions clear and distinct, and to comprise them within a volume 
of not inconvenient bulk. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FLORA OE MENTONE 

By J Traherne Moggridge. Royal Svo. Parts I. and II., each, 25 Co- 
loured Plates, 15*. 

In this work a full page is devoted to the illustration of each Species, the 

TiH^! ^""f."!"^^^y/'^^«'^^^«r from specimens collected by him on the pot, 

and they exhibit in vivid colours the beautiful aspect which many of our wild 

flowers assume south of the Alps. ^ uui wuu 



A ELORA OE ULSTER, AND BOTANISTS GUIDE 

TO THE NORTH OF IRELAND. By G. DickTe M.D^ RL S 

pp 17r3. '"^ '"^ *^' University of Aberdeen. A pocket volume! 

v«lir'" r^""l'' ''°' f ^.I'^^^'^^ly of local ii'terest, containing, as it does, much 
Spedes' '"'^"™'^'"" ''^^^''' *" ^^' geographical and altitudinal range of the 



LOVELL KEEVE AND CO. S PUBLICATIONS. 5 

A SECOND CENTURY OF ORCHIDACEOUS PLANTS, 

selected from the subjects published in Curtis' 'Botauical Magazine' since 
the issue of the ' First Centuiy.' Edited by James Bateman, Esq., F.R.S. 
Royal 4to. Parts I. to III., each with 10 Coloured Plates, 10.?. 6d., now- 
ready. 

During the fifteen years that have elapsed since the publication of the ' Cen- 
tury of Orchidaceous Plants,' now out of print, the ' Botanical Magazine ' has 
been the means of introducing to the public nearly two hundred of this favourite 
tribe of plants not hitherto described and figured, or very imperfectly so. It is 
intended from these to select " a Second Century," and the descriptions, written 
at the time of publication by Sir W. J. Hooker, will be edited, and in many 
cases re-written, agreeably with the present more advanced state of our know- 
ledge and experience in the cultivation of Orchidaceous plants, by Mr. Bateman, 
the acknowledged successor of Dr. Lindley as the leading authority in this de- 
partment of botany and horticulture. 



MONOGRAPH OF ODONTOGLOSSUM, a Genus of the 

Vandeous Section of Orchidaceous Plauts. By James Bateman, Esq., 
F.R.S. Imperial folio. Parts I. to III., each with 5 Coloured Plates, and 
occasional Wood Engravings, 21j. 

Designed for the illustration, on an unusually magnificent scale, of the new 
and beautiful plants of this favoured genus of Orc/ddacea, which are being now 
imported from the mountain-chains of Mexico, Central America, New Granada, 
and Peru. 



SELECT ORCHIDACEOUS PLANTS. By Robert 

Warxver, F.R.H.S. With Notes on Culture by B. S. Williams. In 
Ten Parts, folio, each, with 4 Coloured Plates, 12s. Qd.; or, complete in 
one vol., cloth gilt, £6. 6.?. 

Second Series, Part I., 3 Coloured Plates, 10*. 6c?. 



PESCATOREA. Figures of Orchidaceous Plants, chie% 

from the Collection of M. Pescatore. Edited by M. Linden, with the 
assistance of MM. G. Luddeman, J. E. Planchon, and M. G. Reichen- 
BACH. Folio, 48 Coloured Plates, cloth, with morocco back, £5. 5*., or 
whole morocco, elegant, £6. 6s. 



THE RHODODENDRONS OF SIKKIM- HIMALAYA; 

being an Account, Botanical and Geographical, of the Rhododendrons re- 
cently discovered in the Mountains of Eastern Himalaya, from Drawings 
and Descriptions made on the spot, by Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S. By Sir 
W. J. Hooker, F.R.S. Folio, 30 Coloured Plates, £3. IQs. 

Illustrations on a superb scale of the new Sikkim Rhododendrons, now being 
cultivated in England, accompanied by copious observations on their distribution 
and habits. 



6 LOVELL EEEVE AND CO.'s PUBLICATIONS. 

GENERA. PLANTAUUM, ad Exemplaria imprimis in Her- 

bariis Kewensibus servata defiuita. By George Bentham, F.R.S., Pre- 
sident of the Linaeau Society, and Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S., A.ssistaut- 
Director of the Koyal Gardens, Kew. Vol. I. Part I. pp. 454. Royal 8vo, 
21^. Part II., Us. 

This important work comprehends an entire revision and reconstruction of the 
Genera of Plants. Unlike the famous Genera Plautarum of Eudlicher, which is 
uow out of print, it is founded on a personal study of every genus by one or 
both authors. The First Part contains 56 Natural Orders and 1287 Genera. The 
Second, uow printing, will contain as many more. The whole will be completed 
iu Four or Five Parts. 



rLORA OF THE ANTARCTIC ISLANDS; being Part 

I. of the Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of H.M. Discovery Ships 'Ere- 
bus' and 'Terror,' iu the years 1839-1843. By Dr. J. 1). Hooker, P.R.S. 
Royal 4to. 2 vols., 574 pp., 200 Plates, £10. 15.y. coloured. Published 
under the authority of the Lords Commissiouers of the Admiralty. 

The ' Flora Antarctica' illustrates the Botany of the southern districts of South 
America and the various Antarctic Islands, as the Falklauds, Kerguelen's Land, 
Lord Auckland and Campbell's Island, and 1370 species are enumerated and 
described. The plates, which are executed by Mr. Fitch, and beautifully coloured, 
illustrate 370 species, including a vast number of exquisite forms of Mosses and 
Seaweeds. 



FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND; being Part 11. of the 

Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of H.M. Discovery Ships 'Erebus' and 
' Terror,' in the years 1839-1843. By Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S. Royal 
4to, 2 vols., 73^ pp., 130 Plates. JB16. 16*. coloured. Published under 
the authority of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 

The * Flora of New Zealand ' contains detailed descriptions of all the plants, 
flowering and flowerless, of that group of Islands, collected by the Author during 
Sir James Ross' Antarctic Expedition ; including also the collections of Cook's 
three voyages, Vancouver's voyages, etc., and most of them previously unpub- 
lished. The species described amount to 1767; and of the Plates, which illus- 
trate 313 Species, many are devoted to the Mosses, FerUs, and Algse, in which 
these Islands abound. 



FLORA OF TASMANIA ; being Part III. of the Botany 

of the Antarctic Voyage of H.M. Discovery Ships 'Erebus' and 'Terror,' 
in the years 1839-1843. By Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S. Royal 4to, 2 
vols., 9*72 pp., 200 Plates, £17. 10s., coloured. Published under the 
authority of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 

The 'I'lora of Tasmania' describes all the Plants, flowering and flowerless, of 
that Island, consisting of 2203 Species, collected by the Author and others. 
The Plates, of which there are 200, illustrate 412 Species. 



LOVELL REEVE AND CO.'s PUBLICATIONS. 7 

HANDBOOK OF THE NEW ZEALAND ELORA; a 

Systematic Description of the Native Plants of New Zealand, and the Chat- 
ham, Kermadec's, Lord Auckland's, Campbell's, and Macquarrie's Islands. 
By Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S. Demy 8vo, Part I., 475 pp., 16*. Pub- 
lished under the auspices of the Governmeut of that colony. 

\_Fart II. in the Fress. 

A compendious account of the plants of New Zealand and outlying islands, 
published under the authority of the Government of that colony. The present 
Part contains the Flowering Plants, Ferns, and I^ycopods ; the Second Part, con- 
taining the remaining Orders of Cryptogamia^ or Flowerless Plants, with Index 
and Catalogues of Native Names and of Naturalized Plants, will appear shortly. 



ELOEA AUSTRALIENSIS; a Description of the Plants of 

the Australian Territory. By George Bentham, P.R.S., President of the 
Liuneau Society, assisted by Ferdinand Mueller, F.R.S., Governmeut 
Botanist, Melbourne, Victoria. Demy 8vo. Vol. I. 566 pp., and vol. II. 
530 pp., 20s. each. Published under the auspices of the several Govern- 
ments of Australia. [Vol. III. nearly ready. 
Of this great undertaking, the present volumes, of more than a thousand 
closely-printed pages, comprise about one-fourth. The materials are derived 
not only from the vast collections of Australian plants brought to this country 
by various botanical travellers, and preserved in the herbaria of Kew and of the 
British Museum, including those hitherto unpublished of Banks and Solander, 
of Captain Cook's first Voyage, and of Brown in Flinders', but from the very 
extensive and more recently collected specimens preserved in the Governmeut 
Herbarium of Melbourne, under the superintendence of Dr. Ferdinand Mueller. 
The descriptions are written in plain English, and are masterpieces of accuracy 
and clearness. 



ELOEA HONGKONGENSIS; a Description of the Elow- 

ering Plants and Ferns of the Island of Hongkong. By George Ben- 
tham, P.L.S. "With a Map of the Island. Demy 8vo, 550 pp., 16*. 
Published under the authority of Her Majesty's Secretary of State for the 
Colonies. 
The Island of Hongkong, though occupying an area of scarcely thirty square 
miles, is characterized by an extraordinarily varied Flora, partaking, however, of 
that of South Continental China, of which comparatively little is known. The 
number of Species enumerated in the present volume is 1056, derived chiefly 
from materials collected by Mr. Hinds, Col. Champion, Dr. Hauce, Dr. Harlaud, 
Mr. Wright, and Mr. Wilford. 



ELOEA OE THE BEITISH WEST INDIAN ISLANDS. 

By Dr. Grisebach, F.L.S. Demy 8vo, 806 pp., 37*. ^d. Published 
under the auspices of the Secretary of State for the Colonies. 
Containing complete systematic descriptions of the Flowering Plants and 

Ferns of the British West Indian Islands, accompanied by au elaborate index of 

reference, and a list of Colonial names. 



8 LOVELL REEVE AND CO.'s PUBLICATIONS. 

ELOEA VITIENSIS ; a Description of the Plants of the 

Viti or Fiji Islauds, with aa Accouut of iheir History, Uses, and Pro- 
perties. By Dr. Bebthold Seemann, F.L.S. Royal 4to, Parts I. to 
IV. each, 10 Coloured Plates, 15.y. To be completed ia 10 Parts. 

This work owes its origiu to the Government Mission to Viti, to which the 
author was attached as naturalist. In addition to the specimens collected, the 
author has investigated all the Polynesian collections of Plants brought to this 
country by various botanical explorei s since the voyage of Captain Cook. 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE NUEVA QUINOLOGIA 

OF PAVON, with Observations on the Barks described. By J. E. Howard, 
r.L.S. With 27 Coloured Plates by W. Fitch. Imperial folio, hall- 
morocco, gilt edges, £6. 6*. 

A superbly-coloured volume, illustrative of the most recent researches of Pa- 
von and h's associates among the Cinchona Earks of Peru. 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF SIKKIM-HIMALAYAN PLANTS, 

chiefly selected from Drawings made in Sikkim, under the superintendence 
of the late J. F. Cathcart, Esq., Bengal Civil Service. The Botanical 
Descriptions and Analyses by Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S. Imperial folio, 
24 Coloured Plates and an Illuminated Title-page by W. Fitch, £5. bs. 



YICTORIA REGIA; or. Illustrations of the Royal Water 

Lily, in a series of Figures chiefly made from Specimens flowering at Syon 
and at Kew, by W. Fitch, with Descriptions by Sir W. J. Hooker, F.Il.S. 
Elephant folio, 21*. 



THE LONDON JOURNAL OF BOTANY. Original 

Papers by eminent Botanists, Letters from Botanical Travellers, etc. Vol. 
^IL, completing the Series. Demy 8vo, 23 Plates, 30*. 



JOURNAL OF BOTANY AND KEW MISCELLANY. 

Original Papers by eminent Botanists, Letters from Botanical Travellers, 
etc. Edited by Sir W. J. Hooker, F.R.S. Vols. IV. to IX., Demy 8vo, 
12 Plates, £1. 4*. A Complete Set of 9 vols., half-calf, scarce, £10. 16*. 



ICONES PLANTARUM. Figures, with brief Descriptive 

Characters and Remarks, of New^ and Rare Plants, selected from the 
Author's Herbarium. By Sir W. J. Hooker, F.R.S. New Series, Vol. V., 
Royal 8vo, 100 plates, 31*. 6d. 



LOVELL REEVE AND CO. S PUBLICATIONS. 



FERNS AND MOSSES. 



THE BRITISH EERNS; or. Coloured Eigures and De- 

scriptions, with the needful Analyses of the Fructification and Venation, of 
the Ferns of Great Britain and Ireland, systematically arranged. By Sir 
W. J. Hooker, F.R.S. Royal 8vo, 66 Plates, £2. 2*. 

The British Ferns and their allies are illustrated in this work, from the 
pencil of Mr. Fitch. Each Species has a Plate to itself, so that there is ample 
room for the details, on a magnified scale, of Fructification and Venation. The 
whole are delicately coloured by hand. In the letterpress an interesting account 
is given with each species of its geographical distribution in other countries. 



GARDEN EERNS ; or. Coloured Eigures and Descriptions, 

with the needful Analyses of the Fructification and Venation, of a Selection 
of Exotic Ferns, adapted for Cultivation in the Garden, Hothouse, and Con- 
servatory. By Sir W. J. Hooker, F.R.S. Royal 8vo, 64 Plates, £2. 2*. 

A companion volume to the preceding, for the use of those who take an in- 
terest in the cultivation of some of the more beautiful and remarkable varieties 
of Exotic Ferns. Here also each Species has a Plate to itself, and the details of 
Fructification and Venation are given on a magnified scale, the Drawings being 
from the pencil of Mr. Fitch. 



EILICES EXOTICuE ; or. Coloured Eigures and Description 

of Exotic Ferns, chiefly of such as are cultivated in the Royal Gardens of 
Kew. By Sir W. J. Hookek, F.R.S. Royal 4to, 100 Plates, £6. 11*. 

One of the most superbly illustrated books of Foreign Ferns that has been 
hitherto produced. The Species are selected both on account of their beauty of 
form, singular structure, and their suitableness for cultivation. 



EERNY COMBES; a Ramble after Eerns in the Glens and 

Valleys of Devonshire. By Charlottte Chanter. Second Edition. 
Fcp. 8vo, 8 coloured plates by Fitch, and a Map of the County, 5*. 



HANDBOOK OE BRITISH MOSSES, containing all that 

are known to be Natives of the British Isles. By the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, 
M.A., F.L.S. Demy 8vo, pp. 360, 24 Coloured Plates, 21s. 

A very complete Manual, comprising characters of all the species, with the 
circumstances of habitation of each; with special chapters on development and 
structure, propagation, fructification, geographical distribution, uses, and modes 
of collecting and preserving, followed by an extensive series of coloured illustra- 
lions, in which the essential portions of the plant are repeated, in every case on 
a magnified scale. 



10 LOVELL REEVE AND CO.'s PUBLICATIONS. 

SEAWEEDS. 



PHYCOLOGIA BRITANNIC A; or. History of British 

Seaweeds, containinq; Coloured Figures, Generic and Specific Characters, 
Synonyms and Descriptions of all the Species of Alga; inhabiting the 
Shores of the British Islands. By Dr. W. H. Harvey, F.R.S. Royal 
8vo, 4 vols., 765 pp., 360 Coloured Plates, JB6. 6*. Reissue in Monthly 
Parts, each 2.y. 6«?. 

This work, originally published in 1851, at the price of £7. 10*., is still the 
standard work on the subject of which it treats. Each Species, excepting the 
minute ones, has a Plate to itself, with magnified portions of structure and fruc- 
tification, the whole being printed in their natural colours, finished by hand. 



SYNOPSIS OF BRITISH SEAWEEDS, compiled from 

Dr. Harvey's 'Phycologia Britannica.' Small 8vo, 220 pp., 5j. 

A Descriptive Catalogue of all the British Seaweeds, condensed from the 
' Phycologia Britannica.' It comprises the characters, synonyms, habitats, and 
general observations, forming an extremely useful pocket volume of reference. 



PHYCOLOGIA AUSTRALICA; a History of Australian 

Seaweeds, comprising Coloured Figures and Descriptions of the more cha- 
racteristic Marine Algae of New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South 
Australia and Western Australia, and a Synopsis of all known Australian 
Algffi. By Dr. Harvey, F.R.S. Royal 8vo, 5 vols., 300 Coloured Plates, 
£7. 13*. 
This beautiful work, the result of an arduous personal exploration of the 
shores of the Australian continent, is got up in the style of the ' Phycologia 
Britannica ' by the same author. Each Species has a Plate to itself, with ample 
magnified delineations of fructification and structure, embodying a variety of 
most curious and remarkable forms. 



NEREIS AUSTRALIS; or, Alg^ of the Southern Ocean, 

being Figures and Descriptions of Marine Plants collected on the Shores 
of the Cape of Good Hope, the extra-tropical Australian Colonies, Tas- 
mania, New Zealand, and the Antarctic Regions. By Dr. Hakvey, F.R.S. 
Imperial 8vo, 50 Coloured Plates, £2. 2^. 

A selection of Fifty Species of remarkable forms of Seaweed, not included in 
the ' Phycologia Australica,' collected over a wider area. 



LOVELL REEVE AND CO.'s PUBLICATIONS. 11 



FUNG 



OUTLINES OF BRITISH EUNGOLOGY, containing 

Characters of above a Thousaud Species of Fungi, and a Complete List of 
all that have been described as Natives of the British Isles. By the Rev. 
M. J. Berkeley, M.A., T.L.S. Demy Svo, 484 pp., 24 Coloured Plates, 

Although entitled simply 'Outlines,' this is a good-sized volume, of nearly 500 
pages, illustrated with more than 200 Figures of British Fungi, all carefully 
coloured by hand. Of above a thousand Species the characters are given, and 
a complete list of the names of all the rest. 



THE ESCULENT EUNGUSES OE ENGLAND. Con- 

taiuiug an Accouut of their Classical History, Uses, Characters, Develop- 
ment, Structure, Nutritious Properties, Modes of Cooking and Preserving, 
etc. Bv C. D. Badham, M.D. Second Edition. Edited by F. Currey, 
F.R.S. Demy Svo, 152 pp., 12 Coloured Plates, 12.s. 

A lively classical treatise, written with considerable epigrammatic humour, 
with the view of showing that we have upwards of 30 Species of Fungi abounding 
in our woods capable of aflfordiug nutritious and savoury food, but which, from 
ignorance or prejudice, are left to perish ungathered. " I have indeed grieved," 
says the Author, " when reflecting on the straitened condition of the lower 
orders, to see pounds of extempore beefsteaks growing on our oaks, in the shape 
of Fistulina hepatica; Puff-balls, which some have not inaptly compared to 
sweetbread ; Hydna, as good as oysters ; and Agaricus deliciosas, reminding us of 
tender lamb-kidney." Superior coloured Figures of the Species are given from 
the pencil of Mr. Fitch. 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF BRITISH MYCOLOGY, com- 

prising Figures and Descriptions of the Funguses of interest and novelty 
indigenous to Britain. By Mrs. T. J. Hussey. Royal 4to ; First Series, 
90 Coloured Plates, £7. *12*. Baf.; Second Series, '50 Coloured Plates, 
£4. 10^. 

This beautifully-illustrated work is the production of a lady who, being an 
accomplished artist, occupied the leisure of many years in accumulating a port- 
folio of exquisite drawings of the more attractive forms and varieties of British 
Fungi. The publication was brought to an encT with the 140th Plate by her 
sudden decease. The Figures are mostly of the natural size, carefully coloured 
by hand. 



12 LOVELL KEEVE AND CO. S PUBLICATIONS. 



SHELLS AND MOLLUSKS. 



ELEMENTS OE CONCHOLOGY; an Introduction to the 

Natural History of Shells, and of the Animals which form them. By 
LovELL Reeve, F.L.S. Royal 8vo, 2 vols,, 478 pp., 62 Coloured Plates, 
£2. 16^. 

Intended as a guide to the collector of shells in arranging and naming his 
specimens, while at the same time inducing him to study them with reference 
to their once living existence, geographical distribution, and habits. Forty- 
six of the plates are devoted to the illustration of the genera of shells, and 
sixteen to shells with the living animal, all beautifully coloured by hand. 



THE LAND AND EEESHWATER MOLLUSKS indi- 

genous to, or naturalized in, the British Isles. By Lovell Reeve, F.L.S. 
Crown Svo, 295 pp.. Map, and 160 Wood-Engravings, 10,y. ^d. 

A complete history of the British Land and Freshwater Shells, and of the 
Animals which form them, illustrated by Wood-Engravings of all the Species. 
Other features of the work are an Analytical Key, showing at a glance the na- 
tural groups of families and genera, copious Tables and a Map illustrative of 
geographical distribution and habits, and a chapter on the Distribution and 
Origin of Species. 



CONCHOLOGIA ICONICA; or, Eigures and Descriptions 

of the Shells of MoUusks, with remarks on their Affinities, Synonymy, and 
Geographical Distribution. By Lovell Reeve, F.L.S. Demy 4to, pub- 
lished monthly in Parts, 8 Plates, carefully coloured by hand, 10*. 

Of this work, comprising illustrations of Shells of the natural size, nearly 
2000 Plates are published, but the plan of publication admits of the collector 
purchasing it at his option in portions, each of which is complete in itself. Each 
genus, as the work progresses, is issued separately, with Title and Index ; and an 
Alphabetical List of the published genera, with the prices annexed, may be pro- 
cured of the publishers on application. The system of nomenclature adopted 
is that of Lamarck, modified to meet the exigencies of later discoveries. With the 
name of each species is given a summary of its leading specific characters in 
Latin and English ; then the authority for the name is quoted, accompanied 
by a reference to its original description ; and next in order are its Synonyms. 
The habitat of the species is next given, accompanied, where possible, by par- 
ticulars of soil, depth, or vegetation. Finally, a few general remarks are offered, 
calling attention to the most obvious distinguishing peculiarities of the species, 
with criticisms, where necessary, on the views of other writers. At the com- 
mencement of the genus some notice is taken of the animal, and the habitats 
of the species are worked up into a general summary of the geographical distri- 
bution of the genus. 



LOVELL REEVE AND CO. S PUBLICATIONS, 



13 



CONCHOLOGIA ICOlsriCA IN MONOGRAPHS. 



Genera. Plates. £. ». 

ACHATINA 23 1 9 

ACHATINELLA 6 8 

Adamsiella 2 3 

Amphidesma 7 9 

Ampullaria 28 1 15 

Ahastoma 1 1 

Anatina 4 5 

Ancillakia 12 15 

Anculotus 6 8 

Anomia 8 10 

Arca 17 1 1 

Argonauta 4 5 

Artemis 10 13 

aspeegillum 4 5 

AvicuLA 18 1 3 

BucciNUM 14 18 

BuLiMus 89 5 12 

BULLIA 4 5 

Caltptr^a 8 10 

Cancellaria 18 1 3 

Capsa 1 1 

Capsella 2 3 

Cahdita 9 11 

Cardium 22 1 8 

Caeinaria 1 1 

Cassidabia 1 1 

Cassis 12 15 

Cebithium 20 1 5 

Chama 9 11 

Chamostrea 1 1 

Chiton 33 2 2 

Chitonellus 1 1 

Chondeopoma 11 14 

CiKCE 10 13 

COLUMBELLA 37 2 7 

CONCHOLEPAS 2 3 

CoNus 56 3 11 

CORBULA 5 6 

Crania 1 1 

CrassateIiLA 3 4 

Crenatula 2 3 

Crkpidula 5 6 

Cedcibulum 7 9 

cyclophob.u8 ... 20 1 5 

Ctclcstoma 23 1 9 

Cyclotus 9 11 

Cymbium 26 1 13 

Cypr^a 27 1 14 

Cypricardia 2 3 

Cytherea 10 13 

Delphinula 5 6 

DioNE 12 15 

DoLiuM 8 10 

DONAX 9 11 

Ebuena 1 1 

Erato 3 4 

EULIMA 6 8 

Fasciolaria 7 9 

FiCULA 1 1 

FiSSUEELLA 16 1 

Fusus 21 1 6 

Glauconome 1 1 

Hama 1 1 

Haliotis 17 1 1 

PIarpa 4 5 

Helix 210 13 5 

Hemipecten 1 1 

Hemisincs 6 8 

HiNNITES 1 1 

Hippopus 1 1 

Ianthisa 5 6 



Genera. Plates. £. ». d. 

lo 3 4 

isocardia 1 16 

Leptopoma 8 10 6 

LiNGULA 2 3 

LiTHODOMUS 5 6 6 

LiTTORINA 18 13 

LuciNA 11 14 

LUTRARIA 5 6 6 

Mactra 21 16 6 

Malleus 3 4 

Mangelia 8 10 6 

Marginella 27 1 14 6 

Melania 59 3 14 6 

Melanopsis 3 4 

Melatoma 3 4 

Merge 8 4 

Mesalia & Eglisia.,. 1 16 

Mesodesma 4 5 6 

Meta 1 1 6 

Mitea 39 2 9 6 

MODIOLA 11 14 

Monoceros 4 5 6 

Murex 37 2 7 

Myadoea 1 16 

Myochama 1 16 

Mytilus il 14 

Nassa 29 1 17 

Natica 30 1 18 

Nautilus 6 8 

Naticella & Latia ... 8 10 6 

Neeita 19 14 

Neritina 87 2 7 

Oliva 30 1 18 

Oniscia 1 16 

Orbicula 1 16 

OvuLUM 14 18 

Paludina 11 14 

Paludomus 3 4 

Partula 4 5 6 

Patella 42 2 13 

Pecten 35 2 4 6 

Pectunculus 9 11 6 

Pedum 1 16 

Perna 6 8 

Phasianella 6 8 

Phorus 3 4 

Pinna 34 2 3 

PiRENA 2 3 

Placunanomia 3 4 

Pleurotoma 40 2 10 6 

Psammobia 8 10 6 

Psammotella 1 16 

Pteeoceea 6 8 

Pterocyclos 5 6 6 

Purpura 13 16 6 

Pykamidllla 6 8 

Pyrula 9 11 6 

Eanella 8 10 6 

EiciNULA 6 8 

Eostellaeia 3 4 6 

Sanguinolaria 1 16 

scarabus 3 4 

SlGARETUS 5 6 6 

SiMPULOPSis 2 3 

SiPHONARIA 7 9 

Solarium 3 4 

SOLETELLINA 4 5 6 

Spondylus .,.. 18 13 

Strombus 19 14 

Stbuthiolaria 1 16 

Tapes 13 16 6 



14 



LOVELL KEEVE AND CO. S PUBLICATIONS. 



Genera. Plates. 

Telescopium 1 

Tehebea 27 

Tekebellum 1 

Terebeatula & EYIf- 

CHONKLLA 11 

Thkacia 3 

TORNATELLA 4 

Tkidacna 8 

Teigonia 1 

Tritok 20 

Tbochita 3 

Trochus 16 



5. £. s. 

1 

... 1 14 


d. 
6 
6 
6 



6 
6 
6 
6 

6 


Genera. 

TUGOKTIA 

TURBINELLA 

Turbo 

TURRITELLA 

Umbrella 

Venus 

Vebtagus 

VlTRINA 

VoLUTA 

Vulsella 

ZlZYPHINUS 


Plates 

1 . 

. 13 . 


1 

14 


13 . 

11 . 

1 . 


4 

5 

10 


26 . 

5 . 

. . 10 


1 

1 5 

4 

1 


22 . 

2 

8 . 



A'. g. d. 
16 
16 6 
16 6 
14 

16 

1 13 
6 6 
13 
18 
3 
10 6 



CONCHOLOGIA SYSTEMATICA; or, Complete System of 

Conchology. By Lovell Reeve, F.L.S. Demy 4to, 2 vols. pp. 537, 
300 Plates, £8. 8*. coloured. 

Of this work only a few copies remain. It is a useful companion to the 
collector of shells, on account of the very large number of specimens figured, as 
many as six plates being devoted in some instances to the illustration of a single 
genus. 



INSECTS. 



CUETIS' BKITISH ENTOMOLOGY. Illustrations and 

Descriptions of the Genera of Insects found in Great Britain and Ireland, 
containing Coloured Figures, from nature, of the most rare and beautiful 
species, and, in many instances, upon the plants on which they are found. 
Royal 8vo, 8 vols., 770 Plates, coloured, £21. 

Or in separate Monograplis. 



Orders. 


Plates. 
2 ... 


^e s. 

2 
8 
1 

1 
3 5 

1 1 
14 


d. 









Orders. 

Htmenoptera 

Lepidoptera 

Neuroptera 

Omalopteka 

Orthoptera 


Plates. 

125 . 

193 . 

13 . 

6 . 

5 . 


£. 

. 4 
. 6 
, 
. 
. 
. 
. 


«. 


9 
4 
4 
2 
6 


d. 




Coleoptera 


256 .. 







1 .. 





DlCTYOPTKRA 


1 .. 

103 .. 

32 .. 

21 .. 


6 




Hemiptera 

HOMOPTERA 


Strepsiptera 

Trichoptera 


3 . 

9 . 


6 
6 



' Curtis' Entomology,' which Cuvier pronounced to have " reached the ulti- 
matum of perfection," is still the standard work on the Genera of British In- 
sects. The Figures executed by the author himself, with wonderful minuteness 
and accuracy, have never been surpassed, even if equalled. The price at which 
the work was originally published was £43. 16s. 



INSECTA BRITANNICA; Yols. II. and III., Diptera. By 

F'jiANCis Walker, F.L.S. 8vo, each, with 10 plates, 25<y. 



LOVELL KEEVK AND CO.'s PUBLICATIONS. 15 

TRAVELS. 



THREE CITIES IN KUSSIA. By Professor C. Piazzi 

Smyth, 1\K,.S. Post 8vo, 2 Vols., 1016 pp. Maps and Wood-Engravings, 
26;y. 

The narrative of a tour made in the summer of 1859 by the Astronomer 
Royal of Scotland, to the cities of St. Petersbm-g, Moscow, and Novgorod. 



THE GATE OE THE PACIEIC. By Commander Bed- 
ford PiM, R.N. Demy 8vo, 430 pp., with 7 Maps and 8 Tinted Chromo- 
lithographs, 18*. 
A spirited narrative of Commander Pirn's explorations in Central America, 
made with the view of establishing a new overland route from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific Oceans, through English enterprise, by way of Nicaragua. 



TRAYELS ON THE AMAZON AND EIO NEGEO; 

with an Account of the Native Tribes, and Observations on the Climate, 

Geology, and Natural History of the Amazon Valley. By Alfked R. 

"Wallace. Demy 8vo, 541 pp., with Map and Tinted Frontispiece, 18.y. 

A lively narrative of travels in one of the most interesting districts of the 

Southern Hemisphere, accompanied by Remarks on the Vocabularies of the 

Iianguages, by Dr. R. G. Latham. 



WESTERN HIMALAYA AND TIBET; a Narrative of a 

Journey through the Mountains of Northern India, during the Years 1847- 
1848. By Dr. Thomson, E.R.S. Demy 8vo, 500 pp., with Map and 
Tinted Erontispiece, 15^;. 

A summary of the physical features, chiefly botanical and geological, of the 
country travelled over in a mission undertaken for the Indian Government, from 
Simla across the Himalayan Mountains into Tibet, and to the summit of the 
Karakoram Mountains ; including also an excellent description of Kashmir. 



TRAVELS IN THE INTERIOR OF BRAZIL, princi- 

pally through the Northern Provinces and the Gold and Diamond Dis- 
tricts, during the years 1836-1841. By Dr. George Gardnek, F.L.S. 
Second Edition. Demy 8vo, 428 pp., with Map and Tinted Erontispiece, 
\2s. 

The narrative of an arduous journey, undertaken by an enthusiastic naturalist, 
through Brazil Proper, Bahia, Maranham, and Peruambuco, written in a lively 
style, with glowing descriptions of the grandeur of the vegetation. 



16 LOVELL REEVE AND CO.'s PUBLICATIONS. 



ANTIQUARIAN. 



MAN'S AGE IN THE WORLD ACCORDING TO 

HOLY SCRIPTURE AND SCIENCE. By an Essex Rector. Demy 
8vo, 264 pp., Ss. 6d. 

The Authi)r, recognizing the established facts and inevitable deductions of 
Science, and believing all attempts to reconcile them with the commonly re- 
ceived, but erroneous, literal interpretation of Scripture, not only futile, but detri- 
mental to the cause of Truth, seeks an interpretation of the Sacred Writings on 
general principles, consistent alike with their authenticity, when rightly under- 
stood, and with the exigencies of Science. He treats in successive chapters of 
The Flint Weapons of the Drift, — The Creation, — The Paradisiacal State, — The 
Genealogies,— The Deluge,— Babel and the Dispersion ; and adds an Appendix 
of valuable information from various sources. 



THE ANTIQUITY OF MAN. An Examination of Sir 

Charles Lyell's recent Work. By S. R. Pattison, F.G.S. Second Edi- 
tion. 8vo, l.y. 



HORiE FERALES ; or, Studies in the Archseology of the 

Northern Nations. By the late John M. Kemble, M.A. Edited by 
Dr. R. G. Latham, F.R.S., and A. W. Franks, M.A. Royal 4to, 263 pp , 
34 Plates, many coloured, £3. 3.y. 

The principal material left by the late Mr. Kembla for this work was an ex- 
tensive and interesting series of drawings ; and the thirty-four Plates consist of 
a selection from these, with some important additions, described and figured 
under the superintendence of the Director of the Society of Antiquaries. The 
objects delineated comprise Stone Implements and Weapons, Axes and Hammers, 
Bronze Implements, Arrow-Heads, Spears, Daggers, Swords, Shields, Helmets 
and Trumpets, Iron Daggers and Swords, Enamelled Horse-Trappings, Bronze 
Horse-Trappings, Fibulae, Armlets, Diadems, Collars and Personal Ornaments, 
Teutonic Swords, Weapons, and Brooches, and a variety of Urns and other sepul- 
chral objects. 



A MANUAL OF BRITISH ARCHAEOLOGY. By 

Charles Boutell, M.A. Royal 16mo, 398 pp., 20 coloured plates, 
105. 6d. 

A treatise on general subjects of antiquity, written especially for the student 
of archseology, as a preparation for more elaborate works. Architecture, Se- 
pulchral Monuments, Heraldry, Seals, Coins, Illuminated Manuscripts and In- 
scriptions, Arms and Armour, Costume and Personal Ornaments, Pottery, Por- 
celain and Glass, Clocks, Locks, Carvings, Mosaics, Embroidery, etc., are treated 
of in succession, the whole being illustrated by 20 attractive Plates of Coloured 
Figures of the various objects. . 



LOVELL REEVE AND CO.'s PUBLICATIONS. 17 

THE BEWICK COLLECTOE. A Descriptive Catalogue 

of the Works of Thomas and John Bewick, including Cuts, iu various 
states, for Books and Pamphlets, Private Gentlemen, Public Companies, 
Exhibitions, Races, Newspapers, Shop Cards, Invoice Heads, Bar Bills, 
Coal Certificates, Broadsides, and other miscellaneous purposes, and Wood 
Blocks. With an Appendix of Portraits, Autographs, Works of Pupils, etc. 
The whole described from the Originals contained in the Largest and most 
Perfect Collection ever formed, and illustrated wdth a Hundred and Twelve 
Cuts from Bewick's own Blocks, By the Rev. Thomas Hugo, M.A., P.S.A., 
the Possessor of the Collection. L^emy 8vo, pp. 562, price 21.y. ; im- 
perial 8vo (limited to 100 copies), with a fine Steel Engraving of Thomas 
Bewick, £3. 2s. The Portrait may be had separately, on imperial folio, 
price 7-s. 6flf. 



WHITNEY^S ^^CHOICE OE EMBLEMS;" a Eacsimile 

Reprint by Photo-lithography. With an Introductory Dissertation, Essays 
Literary and Bibliographical, and Explanatory Notes. By Henry Green, 
M.A. Post 4to, pp. Ixxxviii., 468. 72 Eacsimile Plates, 425. 

A beautiful and interesting reproduction by Photo-lithography of one of the 
best specimens of this curious class of literature of the sixteenth century. An 
Introductory Dissertation of eighty-eight pages traces the history of Emblematic 
Literature from the earliest times, and gives an Account of the Life and Writings 
of Geofi^rey Whitney, followed by an Index to the Mottoes, with Translations, 
and some Proverbial Expressions. The facsimile reproduction of the 'Emblems,' 
with their quaint pictorial Illustrations, occupies 230 pages. Then follow 
Essays on the Subjects and Sources of the Mottoes and Devices, on Obsolete 
Words in Whitney, with parallels, chiefly from Chaucer, Spenser, and Shake- 
speare ; Biographical Notices of some other emblem- writers to whom Whitney 
was indebted ; Shakespeare's references to emblem-books, and to Whitney's em- 
blems in particular ; Literary and Biographical Notes explanatory of some of 
Whitney's emblems, and of the persons to whom they are dedicated. Seventy- 
two exceedingly curious plates, reproduced in facsimile, illustrate this portion of 
the work, and a copious General Index concludes the volume. 



SHAKESPEARE'S SONNETS, Facsimile, by Photo-Zinco- 

graphy, of the Eirst Printed edition of 1609. From the Copy in the 
Library of Bridgewater House, by permission of the Right Hon. the Earl 
ofEllesmere. IOj. 6^. 



A SURVEY OF THE EARLY GEOGRAPHY OF 

WESTERN EUROPE, as connected with the First Inhabitants of Britain, 
their Origin, Language, Religious Rites, and Edifices. By Henry Lawes 
Long, Esq. Svo, 6s. 



LOVELL REEVE AND CO. S PUBLICATIONS. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



MANUAL OP CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, Qualitative and 

Quautitative ; for the Use of Students. By Dr. Henry M. Noad, F.R.S. 
Crown 8vo, pp. 663, 109 Wood Engravings, 16.y. Or, separately, Part I., 
' QUALITATIVE,' 6^. ; Part II., ' QUANTITATIVE,' 10^. M. 

A Copiously-illustrated, Useful, Practical Manual of Chemical Analysis, pre- 
pared for the Use of Students by the Lecturer on Chemistry at St. George's 
Hospital. The illustrations consist of a series of highly-finished Wood-Engra- 
vings, chiefly of the most approved forms and varieties of apparatus. 



PHOSPHOKESCENCE ; or, the Emission of Light by Mine- 
rals, Plants, and Animals. By Dr. T. L. Phipson, F.C.S. Small 8vo, 
225 pp., 30 Wood Engravings and Coloured Prontispiece, 5*. 

An interesting summary of the various phosphoric phenomena that have been 
observed in nature, — in the mineral, in the vegetable, and in the animal world. 



DICTIONARY OE NATUEAL HISTORY TERMS, with 

their Derivatives, including the various Orders, Genera, and Species. By 
David H. M'Nicoll, M.D. Crown 8vo, 584 pp., 12*. M. 

An attempt to furnish what has long been a desideratum in natural history, — 
a dictionary of technical terras, with their meanings and derivatives. 



THE ZOOLOGY OE THE YOYAGE OE H.M.S. SA- 

MARANG, under the command of Captain Sir Edward Belcher, C.B., during 
the Years 1843-46. By Professor Owen, Dr. J. E. Gray, Sir J. Richard- 
son, A. Adams, L. Reeve, and A. White. Edited by Arthur Adams, 
F.L.S. Royal 4to, 257 pp., 55 Plates, mostly coloured, £3. \0s. 

In this work, illustrative of the new species of animals collected during the 
surveying e-xpedition of H.M.S. Samarang iu the Eastern Seas in the years 1843- 
1846, there are 7 Plates of Quadrupeds, 1 of Reptiles, 10 of Fishes, 24 of Mol- 
lusca and Shells, and 13 of Crustacea. The Mollusca, which are particularly in- 
teresting, include the anatomy of Spirula by Professor Owen, and a number of 
beautiful Figures of the living animals by Mr. Arthur Adams. 



LITERARY PAPERS ON SCIENTIEIC SUBJECTS. 

By the late Professor Edward Forbes, F.R.S., selected from his Writings 
in the * Literary Gazette.' With a Portrait and Memoir. Small 8vo, 6.y. 



THE PLANETARY AND STELLAR UNIVERSE. A 

Sptirr of Lectures. With Tllnstratinns. Bv R. .T. Matstm. 1 9.mn ^s 



LOVELL REEVE AND CO.'S PUBLICATIONS. 19 

THE GEOLOGIST. A Magazine of Geology, Paleontology, 

and Mineralogy. Illustrated with highly finished Wood - Engravings. 
Edited by S. J. Mackie, F.G.S., E.S.A. Vols. V. and VI., each, with nu- 
merous Wood-Engravings, 18.y. Vol. VII., 9*. 



OUTLINES OE ELEMENTARY BOTANY, as Intro- 
ductory to Local Floras. By Geokge Bentham, F.R.S., President of the 
Linnean Society, Demy 8vo, pp. 45, 2^. 6d. 



ON THE ELORA OF AUSTRALIA, its Origin, Affini- 

ties, and Distribution ; being an Introductory Essay to the ' Flora of Tas- 
mania.' By Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S. 128 pp., quarto, 10*. 



GUIDE TO COOL-ORCHID GROWING. By James 

Bateman, Esq., F.R.S., Author of ' The Orchidacese of Mexico and Gua- 
temala.' Woodcuts, 1*. 



A TREATISE ON THE GROWTH AND FUTURE 

TREATMENT OF TIMBER TREES. By G. W. Newton, of Oiler- 
sett, J.P. Half-bound calf, 10,y. 6d. 



PARKS AND PLEASURE GROUNDS; or. Practical 

Notes on Country Residences, ViUas, Public Parks, and Gardens. By 
Charles H. J. Smith, Landscape Gardener. Crown 8vo, 6*. 



THE STEREOSCOPIC MAGAZINE. A Gallery for the 

stereoscope of Landscape Scenery, Architecture, Antiquities, Natural His- 
tory, Rustic Character, etc. With Descriptions. 5 vols,, each complete 
in itself and containing 50 Stereographs, £2. 2s. 



THE CONWAY. Narrative of a Walking Tour in North 

Wales ; accompanied by Descriptive and Historical Notes. By J, B. 
Davidson, Esq., M.A. Extra gilt, 20 stereographs of Welsh Scenery, 21*. 



THE ARTIEICIAL PRODUCTION OE PISH. By Pis- 

carius. Third Edition. Is. 



20 LOVELL REEVE AND CO. S PUBLICATIONS. 



Commencement of a New Series of Natural History 
for Beginners. 



BRITISH BEETLES ; an Introduction to the study of our 

Indigenous Colroptera. By E. C. Rye. Crown 8vo, 16 Coloured 
Steel Plates, comprisiug Figures of nearly 100 Species, engraved from Na- 
tural Specimens, expressly for the work, by E. W. Robinson, and 11 
"Wood-Engravings of Dissections by the Author, 10.^ 6<^. [Ready. 

BRITISH SPIDERS ; an Introduction to the study of the 

Araneid^ of Great Britain and Ireland. By E. E. Staveley. Crown 
8vo, 16 Coloured Plates and Wood-Engravings, 16*. &d. \Ready. 

BRITISH BEES; an Introduction to the study of the Na- 
tural History and Economy of the Bees indigenous to the British Isles. 
By W. E, ScHUCKARD. Crown 8vo, 16 Coloured Plates, and "Wood-En- 
gravings, lO*. 6^. {Ready. 

BRITISH BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS; an Introduc- 

tion to the study of our Native Lepidoptera. By H. T. Stainton. Crown 
Svo, 16 Coloured Plates, and Wood-Engravings, 10*. ^d. \_ln preparation. 

BRITISH FERNS : an Introduction to the study of the Ferns, 

Lycopods, and Equiseta indigenous to the British Isles. With Chapters 

on the Structure, Propagation, Cultivation, Diseases, Uses, Preservation, 

/ and Distribution of Ferns. ByMAROAREX Plues. Crown Svo, 16 Coloured 

Plates, and Wood-Engravings, 10*. 6^. \_Ready. 

BRITISH SEAWEEDS; an Introduction to the study of 

our Native Marine Alg.e. By S. 0. Gray. Crown Svo, 16 Coloured 
Plates, and Wood-Engravings, 10*. ^d. \In preparation. 



*^* A good introductory series of books on British Natural Historj' for the 
use of students and amateurs is still a desideratum. Those at present in use 
have been too much compiled from antiquated sources ; while the figures, copied 
in many instances from sources equally antiquated, are far from accurate, the 
colouring of them having become degenerated through the adoption, for the 
sake of cheapness, of mechanical processes. 

The present series will be entirely the result of original research carried to its 
most advanced point ; and the figures, which will be chiefly engraved on steel, by 
the artist most highly renowned in each department for his technical knowledge 
of the subjects, will in all cases be drawn fi-om actual specimens, and coloured 
separately by hand. 



16 828062-, 

LONDON: Av^ o^ 



t/" X 




.^^^^ 



aV "^ 




%. .> 



'% V' 



%. 



% 



\ /^ 



THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ 

SCIENCE LIBRARY 



This book Is due on the last DATE stamped below. 

To renew by phone, call 459-2050. 

Books not returned or renewed within 14 days 

after due date are subject to billing. 




Series 2477 




"V 



\. 



i^^ -^^ 



I 









U&SMirA CHUZ 



i. 



1 






3 2106 00650 0000 



% ^ .tj>^ ► 1^