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THE 




BRITISH 
COLONIAL LIBRARY, 



R. MONTGOMERY ^ARTIN, F.S.S. 



VOL. II. 



' Fak as the breeze can bear— -the billows foam, 
Survey our Empire!' 



LONDON: 
WHIITAKER & Co. AVE MARIA LANE. 



MDCCCXXXIX. 



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LON DON} 

efLBERT & RIVIirOTON, PRINTERS, 

ST. JOHIl'staOARlK. 






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HISTORY 



AUSTRAL-ASI 




v. [- 



COMPRISING 



NEW SOUTH WALES, VAN DIEMEN'S ISLAND, 
SWAN RIVER, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, &c. 

BY 

"^ R. MONTGOMERY MARTIN, F.S.S. 

GREAT SEAL OF 




MEW SOUTH WALES. 



SECOND EDITION. 



LONDON: 

WHITTAKER & Co. AVE MARIA LANE 



MDCCCXXXIX. 



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CONTENTS. 



BOOK L 

NEW SOUTH WALES. 

PAGE 

Chapter I. — Discovery of New Holland — Geographical 

and Physical Description of the Coast 1 

Chapter II.— Historical Account of the Settlement of 
New South Wales, — its Establishment as a Penal Co- 
lony, &c 20 

Chapter III.— The Geography and Statistics of New 

South Wales. 36 

Chapter IV. — The Geology, Mineralogy, and Soil of 

New South Wales, the Rocks of New Holland, &c. . . 100 

Chapter V. — The Climate of Australia ; — ^its Vegetable 

Productions, Animals, &c 118 

Chapter VI. — Population — White and Coloured — Bond 

and Free, their Numbers and Condition 141 



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VI CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Chapter VII. — Form of Government— Military Defence 

— Religion — Education, and the Press, &c 178 

Chapter VI 1 1.— Religion, Education, and Crime 186 

Chapter IX. — Finances and Monetary System 204 

Chapter X.— Staple Products and Commerce 226 

BOOK II. 

VAN DIEMEN'S ISLAND, OR TASMANIA. 

Chapter I. — Discovery of its Insularity — Locality and 
Area — Formation of the Settlement — and its early 
History 262 

Chapter II. — Physical Aspect — Territorial Divisions — 

Cultivation, &c 258 

Chapter III. — Geology, Mineralogy, Soil, Climate, and 

Seasons, &c 308 

Chapter IV. — The Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms, &c. 318 

Chapter V.— Population — Aborigines — Convict and Free 

— the Treatment of Prisoners 336 

Chapter VI. — Government — Religion — Education and 

Crime 348 

Chapter VII. — Staple Products and Commerce 353 

Chapter VIII. — Finances — Monetary System, &c 359 



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CONTENTS. VU 



BOOK III. 

WESTERN AUSTRALIA, COMPRISING SWAN RIVER, 
AND KING GEORGE'S SOUND. 

PAGE 

Chapter I. — Locality— Physical Aspect 370 

Chapter II. — Geology — Mineralogy — Soil — ^and Climate 380 

Chapter III. — Population — White and Black — Religion, ^ 
Education, &c 396 

Chapter IV. — Goyernment — Finances — Products, &c. .. 403 



BOOK IV. 

SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Colonization — Geography — Condition, &c 411 



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ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Great Seal, New South Waits Title Page. j 

Map of ditto to face p. 1 

Map of Van Diemen's Island p. 252 



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^ 



AUSTRAL-ASIA. 



BOOK I. 
NEW SOUTH WALES. 



CHAPTER I. 

DISCOVERY OF NEW HOLLAND — GEOGRAPHICAL AND PHYSI- 
CAL DESCRIPTION OF THE COAST. 

The vast island of New Holland, is one of those 
recent geographical discoveries which indicate that 
whatever may be the age of the planet on which we 
reside, the civilization of man is but of modem date ; 
and we may also suppose that this great southern 
land has not long emerged from the mighty deep, 
ot been left dry by its receding waters *. Blumen- 
bach, indeed, was so puzzled to account for New 
HoUand, that he considered it to have been originally 
a comet, which happening to fall within the sphere 

^ All the accounts furnished by Major Mitchell, Capt 
Sturt, &c. in their valuable and interesting surveys of the 
colony, corroborate this my early impression when I first 
viewed the coast line of Australia. 



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2 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

of the earth's attraction, lighted upon its surface ; 
and doubtless it is the antipodes of everything Eu- 
ropean, as will be seen in subsequent pages. 

The discovery in the fifteenth century, of a con- 
tinent in the north-western hemisphere, naturally 
gave rise to the supposition of a counter-balancing 
territory in the south-eastern division of the earth ; 
and several expeditions were projected, for the pur- 
pose of investigating this problem, after De Gama 
had succeeded in doubling the Cape of Good Hope. 
To what European nation, the merit of solving the 
mystery is due, it is difficult to determine, as it is 
daimed by the French, English, Dutch, and Spanish. 
The chart of Marco Polo, however, leads to the sup- 
position that the Chinese were aware of the exist- 
ence of a Great South Land, previous to its dis- 
covery by Europeans. The claim of the French to 
the discovery of Terra Australis in 1504, rests upon 
the assertion that Paulmier de Gonneville, a French 
captain, visited it in that year; but as the distin- 
guished navigator Flinders remarks, it was not to 
any part of Terra Australis, but to Madagascar, that 
Gouneville was driven, from whence he conveyed 
Prince Escomerie to Normandy. 

Two manuscript charts (now in the British Mu- 
seum), which were brought to light within the pre- 
sent century, would seem to indicate a knowledge of 
Austral- Asia ; one is in English, with a dedication 
to the King of England, and bearing the date of 
1542; the other is in French, without date, and 
evidently a translation of the foregoing. On these 
charts, an extensive country is marked to the south- 



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THE DISCOYBRT. 3 

ward of the Moluccas, under the name of Great Java: 
it agrees more in position and extent with Terra 
Au^tralis, than with any other land ; and the tracing 
of some parts of the coasts, particularly to the N. 
and N.W., approaches too near the truth to permit 
us to believe that it could have been marked from 
conjecture. 

In 1605, Pedro Fernandez de Quiros sailed with 
three vessels from Callao, in Peru, one of the objects 
of his expedition being to search for the Terra 
Austral, a continent supposed to occupy a consi^ 
derable portion of that part of the southern hemi- 
sphere lying westward of America. Quiros, after 
the discovery of several islands, came to a land 
which he named Australia del Espiritu Santo, sup- 
posing it to be a part of the great southern conti- 
nent; but Quiros' second in command, Luis Vaes 
de Torres, on his separation from the Admiral, found 
that the territory discovered was an island. Torres 
spent two months in the intricate navigation of the 
strait dividing Terra Australis from New Guinea; 
but we know little of the proceedings either of him 
or Quiros, as the accounts were transmitted by Tor- 
res himself to the King of Spain, who kept them 
from the public, and the existence of the strait, now 
called Torres Strait, was generally unknown, until 
re-discovered and passed by Captain Cook in 1770. 
Torres, fortunately for his future fame, lodged a copy 
of his letter to the King of Spain in the Archives of 
Manilla, in which city it was found by Mr. Dalrym- 
ple, after its capture by the British troops in 1762. 
Mr. D., with true generosity, rescued the name of 
b2 



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4 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

the enterprising Spanish navigator 6*001 oblivion, 
and gave it to the strait which he discovered. 

In 1 644, Commodore Abel Janz Tasman was sent 
from Batavia, on his second voyage of discovery; his 
instructions (signed by the Governor-General Antonio 
Van Diemen, and four members of council at Ba- 
tavia), recited in chronological order, the previous 
discoveries of the Dutch in Nova Guinea and the 
Great South Land ; from this document, it appears 
that on the 11th November 1605 (the same year 
that Quiros and Torres sailed from Peru), the Dutch 
yacht Dut/fhen was despatched from Bantam to ex- 
plore the islands of New Guinea, and that she sailed 
along what was thought to be the W. side of that 
country, to 13f of S. lat., but which was really a 
part of Terra Australis; the Duyfhen returned to 
Banda in June 1606, being in want of provisions, &c., 
and thus unconsciously discovered the long sought 
for South Land. The second expedition, mentioned 
in the Dutch recital, sent in search of the ** South 
Land," was in a yacht in 1617, with little success ; 
the journals and remarks could not be found. In 
1623, the yachts Pera and Amham were despatched 
from Amboina, on a similar errand. Carstens, the 
Commander of the expedition, was murdered on the 
coast of New Guinea, together with eight of his 
crew ; but it is stated in the narrative that the sur- 
vivors pursued their voyage, and " discovered the 
great islands of Amhem and the Spult" The Amham 
returned to Amboina ; the Pera proceeded along the 
W. coast to Cape Keer Weer (Cape Turnagain, 
where the Duyfhen had been), and from thence ex- 



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THB DISCOYBRT. 5 

plored the coast further S., as far as 17 lat. ; the 
land was then seen stretching to the westward, and 
the Pera returned to Amboina. Gerrit Tomaz Pool 
was sent in 1636, from Banda, with the yachts Kfyn 
Amsterdam and Wezel, on a similar expedition to that 
of Carstens, whose fate he met on the coast of New 
Guinea; the crews nevertheless pursued their voyage, 
and sailed along the Amhem coast, by which name 
Terra Australis was then called, as also sometimes 
Van Piemen's Land, for 120 miles S. of 1 1 lat. with- 
out seeing any people. 

This appears to have been all that was known, 
when Abel Janz Tasman sailed upon his second voy- 
age in 1644; he was, therefore, instructed after 
passing the coast of ' Amhem,' in 17 S. lat. to ' fol- 
low the coast further as it may run westward or 
southward, endeavouring by all means to proceed, 
that we may be sure whether this land is divided 
from the Great Known South Land or not.' It is 
evident from the latter expression, that the Dutch 
had by this time acquired a knowledge of some part 
of the N. coast of Terra Australis, or as they then 
termed it, " the Great South Land." Unfortunately 
no account of this voyage of ' Tasman's' has ever 
been published ; it appears, however, that he sailed 
round the Gulf of Carpentaria, then westward and 
southward ; and his track is indicated by the names 
applied to different places, namely, those of the 
Governor-general Van Diemen, two of the Council 
who signed his instructions, and Maria, the daughter 
of the Governor-general, to whom he was attached. 
The preceding information regarding AustraUa was 



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6 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

derived 6*0111 expeditions fitted out by the Dutch set- 
tlers in India ; but the outward bound Dutch vessels 
had been long obtaining a knowledge of the west 
coasts of Australia, without knowing for certain that 
the discoveries made by both parties were on the 
shores of one and the same island. In Tasman's 
instructions, dated 1644, which have been already 
adverted to, it is stated that, " in the years 1616, 
1618, 1619 and 1622, the west coasts of the Great 
Unknoum South Land, from 35. to 22. S. lat., were 
di^overed by outward bound ships, and among 
others by the ship " Endraght" and in a manuscript 
chart by £es8el Gerrits, dated 1627, the first authen- 
tic discovery of the west coast is attributed to Dirk 
Hartog, Commander of the Endraght, outward bound 
to India, in 1616, who saw the coast in 26| S. lat., 
and sailed northward to 23., giving the name Landt 
de Endraght to the country so discovered. Flinders, 
a navigator of whom every Englishman ought to 
feel pPQud, says that an important part of this dis- 
covery was Dirk Hartog' s Road, at the entrance of a 
sound, afterwards called Shark's Bay by Dampier, 
S. of 25. Upon one of the islands forming the road- 
stead, there was found first in 1697, and again in 
1801, a plate of tin with an inscription, of which the 
following is a translation : — '* Anno 1616, 25th Oc- 
tober, arrived here the ship Endraght, of Amsterdam, 
first Merchant, Gillis Miebais of Luik, Dirk Hartog, 
of Amsterdam, captain ; they sailed from hence for 
Bantam, the 27th ditto," 

The Mauritius, another outward bound Dutch 
ship, touched at WDlem's River, near the N.W. cape. 



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THE DISCOVERT. 7 

in July 1618. Captain Edel, commanding an out- 
ward bound H(^and ship, touched on the coast in 
July 1619, and called the land from 29 to 26 S. lat. 
after his own name. 

The ship Leuwin, another outward bound vessel, 
fell in with the coast as far S. as 35., and sailed along 
it to the N., giving the name to the Cape, in lat. 34.19, 
long. 115.6. In 1628, the Vianen, one of the "seven 
ships" which returned to Europe under the command 
of General Carpenter, is reported to have seen the 
shore, which circumstance is thus alluded to in the 
Dutch recital; " the coast was seen again, accidentally, 
on the N. side, in 21 S. lat., and coasted 200 miles 
without gaining any knowledge of this Great Coun- 
try, only observing a foul and barren shore, green 
fields, and very wild, black, barbarous inhabitants." 

This part was subsequently called De Witt's Land. 
In Thevenot's collection, th^e is an account of the 
shipwreck of Francisco Pelsert, in the ship Batavia, 
on the 4th June, 1629, upon a reef call&d the AhroU 
hos, or rocks of Frederick Houtman, lying o£F the 
west coast about lat. 28.13 S. Pelsert coasted along 
in his boat to 22.17, when he proceeded to Batavia, 
to procure succour for some of his people left on the 
Abrolhos '• This period brings us to that of Tas- 
man's second voyage in 1644, who, it would appear, 
after exploring the north coast, pursued his course 
westward along the shore as far as N.W. Cape ; but 
did not advance further south along the land of 
Endaght than the tropic of Capricorn, on reaching 

1 See Vol I. p. 320 to 325 of Campbell's edition of Harris's 
Voyages. 



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8 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

which he set out on his return to Batavia. In 1663, 
Thevenot published his chart of the West coast of 
the Great South Land, or Hollandia Nova, (when it 
was first so called I cannot ascertain), and gave a 
connected outline to the shore; In 1688 the west 
coast was visited by our own celebrated navigator 
Dampier, with the Buccaneers, when they careened 
and refitted in about 16 S. latitude ; and the W. and 
N.W. coasts were again visited by Dampier^ in 
his Majesty's ship Roebuck, 

We now come to consider the S. and S.E. coasts. 
The south coast of New Holland is universally al- 
lowed to have been accidentally discovered in January 
1627, by the Dutch ship Guide Zeepaard, outward 
bound from Holland *. It was called Nuyt's Land, 
but whether Pieter, who was afterwards Ambas- 
sador at the Court of Japan and Governor of For- 
mosa,' was at the time Captain of the Guide Zee- 
paard, cannot now be ascertained. The coast was 
said to have* been traced for 1000 miles from Cape 
Leuwin. The Dutch Government at Batavia, being 
extremely anxious to ascertain how far the south 
coast of this great unknown land extended towards 
the Antarctic Circle, despatched Captain Abel Janz 
Tasman from Batavia with two vessels, on the 14th 
August, 1 642 '. Tasman, after touching at Mauritius, 
steered S. and E., and on the 24th November made 
some high land in 40 S. latitude, and 163.50 £. 
of Teneriflfe, which he named in honour of the Gro- 
vemor General, Antony Van Diemen's Land. Tas- 

1 See Voyages, Vol. III. « Dutch recital. 

' For Janz Tasman's second voyage, see p. 5. 



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THE DI8C0YBBT. 9 

man sailed along the south coast of Van Diemen's 
Land, without even, supposing it to be an island, 
anchored in one bay, and then proceeded to the east- 
ward. More than a century elapsed from this period, 
daring which the coast was never visited, until the 
celebrated Captain Cook was sent on his scientific 
and exploring expedition, in 1770, when the S.£. 
coast of New Holland was surveyed, with the ex- 
ception of Van Diemen's Land. Captain Marrion, 
a French officer, with two ships, skirted the coast 
in 1772, in search of the supposed Southern Conti- 
nent. In 1791, the south coast was visited by Cap- 
tain George Vancouver, on his way to the N.W. 
coast of America ; he made the land on the 26th 
September, at Cape Chatham, in 35.3 S. lat. and 
116.35 E. longitude ; then sailed east along the coast 
till the 2dth, when he anchored in a sound, and 
named it after George III. Bad weather prevented 
his doing more than verifying a part of the coast 
laid down in Nuyt's chart of 1627. 

On the 9th March 1773, Captain Tobias, in his 
Britannic Majesty's ship Adventure, made the West 
Cape, and steered east close to the rocks called Moat" 
smoker's by Tasman, afterwards anchoring in what 
he took to be Storm Bay, (which he called Adven- 
ture Bay), so named by Tasman in 1662 ; not how- 
ever the Storm Bay laid down in the present charts, 
but that now termed D'Entrecasteaux's channel, 
which runs inland for ten leagues, and then commu- 
nicates with the true Storm Bay * of Tasman. 

Captain Fumeaux then sailed along the Van 
^ The Author anchored in this spacious and beautifid chan- 



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10 NBW 80UTH WALES. 

Diemen coast to the northward, to discover whether 
it was joined to New Holland, or was a peninsula 
running off from the main land ; but he finally 
steered for New Zealand, giving it as his opinion 
that "there was no strait between Van Diemen's 
Land and New Holland, but only a very deep bay." 
Capt. Cook, with H.M.S. Resohitian and Discovery 
made the S.W. Cape, 24th Jan. 1777, and after 
steering eastward, anchored, as Fumeaux had done, 
in Adventure Bay on the 26th ; but Captain Cook 
proceeded on his voyage, still ignorant of the insu- 
larity of the land. 

In 1792 Bruny D*Entrecasteaux a French rear 
admiral with two ships of war. La Recherche and 
L'Esp&ance, made the coast of Van Diemen's Land, 
to obtain supplies of wood and water; and while 
intending to enter the Storm Bay of Tasman, en- 
tered the Adventure Bay* of Fumeaux, up which 
he sailed 30 miles, and found it to be separated 
by a small island ft'om Storm Bay. The island he 
named Bruny, and the channel DEntrecaateaux, and 
then sailed to the eastward without ascertaining 
that Van Diemen's Land was insulated. 

Captain Bligh in 1788, in the Bounty, and in 
1792 with the Providence and Assistant, and Captain 
John Hayes of the Bombay Marine, with the pri- 
vate ships Duke and Duchess from India, in 1794 
visited D'Entrecasteaux's Channel without adding 

nel in 1825, and recognised it instantly from the faithful de- 
scription given by Tasman, 183 years previously. 

^ A similar mistake was made by the commander of a vessel 
in which the Author sailed ; it was however in the night 



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THB DISCOVERT. 11 

much to our geographical knowledge of the coast : 
mdeed so little of the south coast of the "great 
South Land" was known, even after Capt. Cook's 
surveys, that Port Jackson, the splendid haven on 
whose shores the flourishing town of Sydney is now 
built, was laid down in the charts as a boat harbour, 
and only fully explored by Captain Philip in 1788, 
when founding the penal settlement; Botany Bay 
(three leagues to the southward) being deemed dis- 
advantageous for the establishment of a colony. 

After the formation of the settlement at Port 
Jackson, attention was paid to the eastern and 
southern shores; and Mr. Bass, surgeon of the 
Reliance, and Lieutenant (afterwards Captain) Flin- 
ders in a little boat called Tom Thumb, eight feet 
long, the crew consisting only of those two enter- 
prising characters and a boy, commenced a survey 
of the coast. Mr. Bass was afterwards reinforced 
with a whale boat, six men, and six weeks' pro- 
visions ; in this open boat, and in boisterous wea- 
ther, Mr, Bass explored the coast for 600 miles, 
entered what Fumeaux considered a 'deep bay,' 
and in 1 798, became satisfied that there was a strait 
separating Van Diemen's land from New Holland. 
On his return to Sydney, Governor Hunter was in- 
duced to verify the results of Mr. Bass's observa- 
tions by sending Lieut. Flinders and Mr. Bass in 
the colonial schooner Norfolk, of 25 tons burthen ; 
with this little vessel, they sailed through the strait 
now called Bass's strait, and by circumnavigating 
Van Diemen's Land demonstrated for the first time 
its insularity. 



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12 



NBW SOUTH WALES. 



We have now traced chronologically the progress 
of discovery of the coast of the great South Land, up 
to the commencement of the 19th century. The sub- 
«equent voyages of Flinders have ascertained many 
points which the Dutch had left doubtful ; but inde* 
pendent of our knowing nothing of a great part of 
the interior of the country, we are, after the lapse of 
200 years since the discovery, imperfectly acquainted 
even with the coasts, which in several parts have 
had little more than a bird's-eye survey ; and at the 
dose of Capt. King's able survey in 1822, there were 
still 500 miles (viz. from Dampier's archipelago, in 
22 S. lat. to Cape Hay, in 14) wholly unsurveyed; 
and this too at the very place, where it is most pro* 
bable a great river disembogues the waters flowing 
from the interior of this continent. It is hoped 
th^efore that steps will be taken to explore the in- 
terior, as well as the sea coast boundary of a vast 
territory, which has now become a portion of the 
British Empire. 

Before proceeding to a description of the prin- 
cipal British colony on New Holland, it will pro- 
bably be gratifying to the reader to have an idea of 
the coast line, so far as it has yet been ascertained. 

The vast island of New Holland* may be said 

^ The proportions assigned by Capt. Du Frecinet to the 
principal divisions of the globe are — 

French leagues. Proportion. 

Asia . . . 2,200,000 ... 17 



America 
Africa . 
Europe • 
Australia 



2,100,000 

1,560,000 

501,875 

384,375 



17 

12 

4 

3 



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THE DI8C0T£RT. 13 

to extend between the parallels of 39 and 10.30 
S. lat., and the meridians of 112 and 153.40 E. 
long, with a width from E. to W. of 3000 miles ; 
a breadth from N. to S. of 2000 miles, a super- 
ficial area of more than 3,000,000 square miles, 
and a coast line of 8000 miles, connecting Terra 
Australis with the navigation of the vast Pacific and 
Indian Oceans. 

In shape it is an irregular oval, or it may be 
compared to a horse-shoe ; and, so far as we know, 
appears bounded for the most part, by a ridge of 
steep mountains, of greater or less elevation, which 
extend around the coast, varying in distance from 
the shore, sometimes approaching within 30 miles 
of the ocean, at other times extending back to 
doable and perhaps treble that distance. The coun- 
try behind this range is, with the exception of New 
South Wales territory, a perfect terra incognita; 
and, from what has been observed on the S.E. 
shore, it might be inferred that it is a vast level 
plain ; it is more natural, however, to suppose that 
the country consists of extensive steppes or ter- 
races as in South Africa. Leaving the New South 
Wales colony for subsequent examination, it may 
be observed that the N.E. coast from about 28 S. 
lat. has a direction from S.E. to N.W. and ranges 
of mountains are visible from the sea with little 
interruption as far North as Cape Weymouth, be- 
tween the parallels of 12 and 13 : indeed within Cape 
Palmerston, west of the Northumberland islands, 
a high and rocky range of a very irregular out- 



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14 NBW SOUTH WALB8. 

line apparently composed of primitive rock, is con- 
tinued for more than 150 miles without any break, 
and after a singular opening about the latitude of 
21, is again resumed. Several of the summits 
visible from the sea in front of this range are of 
considerable elevation ; Mount Dryander, on the 
promontory which terminates Cape Gloucester, is 
more than 4,500 feet high; Mount Eliot with a 
peaked sumnut, a little to the south of Cape Cleve- 
land, is visible at 24 leagues distance, and Mount 
Hinchinbrooke, immediately over the shore south 
of Rockingham Bay, is more than 2000 feet in 
elevation. From the south of Cape Grafton to 
Cape Tribulation, precipitous hills, bordered by low 
land, form the coast ; but the latter Cape consists 
of a lofty group with several peaks, the highest of 
which is visible from the sea at 20 leagues distance. 
The height from these towards the north, decline 
gradually as the mountainous ranges approach the 
shore, which they join at Cape Weymouth about 
lat. 12: and from that point northward to Cape 
York, the land in general is comparatively low, nor 
do any detached points of considerable elevation 
appear there; but about midway between Cape 
Grenville and Cape York, on the mainland S. W. of 
Caimcross Island, a flat summit called Pudding 
Panhill, is conspicuous. The high land about Cape 
Melville stands out like a shoulder, more tiian 40 
miles beyond the coast line, between Princess Char- 
lotte's Bay and the N. E. point of Australia. Near 
Cape York, the land is not more than 4 or 500 feet 



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THB DI8C0V£RT. 15 

high, and the islands off that point are of about the 
same elevation^ 

On arriving at the Golf of Carpentaria, which 
extends inland 650 miles, with a breadth of 400 
miles, the land on the £. and S. of the Gulf is so 
low ' that for a space of 600 miles, from Endeavour 
Straits to a range of hills on the main land W. of 
Wellesley Island at the bottom of the Gulf, no part 
of the coast is higher than a ship's mast head : some 
of the land in Wellesley Island is higher than the 
main, but the highest is not more than 150 feet in 
elevation ; and low wooded hills occur on the main 
land from thence to Sir Edward Pellew's group: 
the western shore of the gulf is somewhat higher, 
and from Limmen's Bight to the latitude of Groote 
Island, it is lined by a range of low hills. On the 
ndrth of the latter place, the coast becomes irre- 
gular and broken, consisting chiefly of primitive 
rocks, and the upper part of the hills, of a reddish 
sandstone ; while the shore at the bottom of Mel- 
ville Bay consists, for eight miles, of low diflfe of 
pipe day. 

The g^ieral range of the coast from limmen's 
Bight to Cape Amhem is from S. W. to N. E. and 
three conspicuous ranges of islands on the N. W. 
entrance of the Gulf of Carpentaria have the same 
general direction, the prevailing rock being sand- 

1 It is stated in Capt King's interesting survey (from which 
I derive my knowledge of a great part of the coast line not 
visited by myself), that several bays on the east coast not 
having been explored, it is probable rivers exist there. 

* According to Flinders. 



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16 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Stone. The land from Castlereagh Bay and Goul- 
boum's Island is low, and intersected by one of the 
few rivers (named the Liverpool) yet discovered in 
this part of Australia ; it is four miles wide at its 
mouth, with a tortuous and rather shallow stream, 
which has been traced inland to about 40 miles 
from the coast, through a country not more than 
three feet in general elevation above high water 
mark — the banks low, muddy, and thinly wooded. 
This description is also applicable to the Alligator 
river 1, on the S. E. of Van Piemen's Gulf*, and to 
the surrounding country; the outline of the Wel- 
lington hills, however, on the main land between 
the Alligator and Liverpool rivers is jagged and 
irregular, offering a remarkable contrast to the flat 
summits which appear to be very numerous on the 
N. W. coast. West of Groulboum Island, the 
coast is more broken and the outline irregular; 
but the elevation is inconsiderable, Coburg Penin- 
sula not being in general above 150 feet higher 
than the sea, and the hills not more than from 3 to 
400 feet: several of the latter are remarkable for 
their linear and nearly horizontal outlines, the tops 
resembling at times that of a roof or hayrick, the 
transverse section being angular, and the horizontal 
top an edge. The colour of most of the cli£^ on 
the N. W. and W. coast is of a blood red hue. 

* The largest of the Alligator rivers, was traced upwards, by 
Captain King, for 36 miles, when it was still 150 yards broad, 
wiUi two to three fethoms water. 

* The two large islands of Bathurst and Melville are situate 
here ; the one 200, and the other 120 miles in circumference. 



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PHTSICAL ASPECT. 1 7 

Cape Cuvier, (of tlie French) in lat. 24.13, like an 
enormous bastion, is distinguisliable, at a consi- 
derable distance, by its deeply ensanguined colour. 
In the vicinity of Cambridge Gulf (a swampy and 
narrow arm of the sea extending 80 miles inland 
in a S. direction) the flatness of the country ceases : 
and irregular ranges of detached rocky hills com- 
posed of sandstone, rising abruptly from extensive 
plains of low and level land, supersede the flat and 
woody coast that occupies, almost uninterruptedly 
the space between this inlet and Cape Wessel, a 
distance of more than 600 miles. 

The coast from Cape Londonderry towards the 
south is uniformly of moderate elevation : and from 
that point varying in general from N. E. to S. W. 
with numerous indentations, while the adjoining 
sea is studded with very many sandstone islands. 
York Sound, a very spacious bay receiving two 
rivers, is bounded by precipitous rocks from 1 to 
200 feet in height. The largest inlet discovered 
in this quarter of Australia, is Rrince Regent's River, 
about 30 miles to the S. W. of York Sound ; the 
course of which is almost rectilinear for about 50 
miles in a S. E. direction, and at that distance from 
the sea, 250 yards wide; the banks are lofty and 
abrupt, from 2 to 400 feet in hei^t, consisting of 
dose grained siliceous sandstone of a reddish hue ; 
and the level of the country does not appear to be 
higher in the interior, than near the coast. 

The coast on the south of this remarkable river, 
as far as Cape Lev^que, is still nearly unknown ; it 
is intersected by several inlets of considerable size, 
c 

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] 8 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

to trace which to their sources is still a problem ci 
great interest remaining to be solved in the geography 
of this singular country. The space unexplored from 
the Champagny isles to Cape Lev^ue, is about 100 
miles in a direct line, within which extent, nothing 
but islands and detached portions of land have yet 
been observed ; one large inlet especially *, on the 
S. E. of Cape Lev^que, appears to afford promise 
of a considerable river, while the rise of the tide 
within the Buocaneers' Archipelago (within which 
there is another tmexplored opening) is no less than 
thirty-seven feet. 

The outline of the coast about Cape Lev^ue 
itself is low, waving, and rounded, and the clifl^ of 
a reddish tinge; but on the south of the high 
ground near that point, the rugged stony clife are 
succeeded by a long tract which appears to consist 
of low and sandy land, fronted by extensive shoals ; 
it has only however been seen at a distance, so that 
here a space of more than 300 miles from Point 
Gantheanme to near Cape Lambert, may be said to 
be still unexplored. 

Depuch island (E. of Dampier's Archipelago, 
which is in lat. 20.30) is described by the French 
Naturalists, as consisting chiefly of columnar rocks, 
which they suppose to be volcanic. 

Dampier's Archipelago is imperfectly known ; 
the coast is rugged and broken. On the S. of Cape 



1 According to Dr. Fitton, who has bestowed great pains in 
elucidating, and placing in a connected view Captain King's 
admirable survey. 



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PHT8ICAL ASPECT. 19 

Preston, in Liat. 21, there is an opening fifteen 
miles wide between rocky hills, which has not been 
explored ; so that it will be observed, that the very 
part of the coast of this great south land, which is 
most likely to lead us to the interior by large navi- 
gable rivers, is still almost a dead blank in the 
physical geography of the country. 

From Cape Preston, in 21 ® to the bottom of 
Ezmouth Gulf (150 miles), the coast is low and 
sandy, and does not exhibit any prominences. The 
W. coast of Exmouth Gulf itself is formed by a 
promontory of level land, terminating in the N. W. 
cape ; and from thence to the S. W. as far as Cape 
Cuvier, the general height of the coast is from 400 
to 500 feet; nor are any mountains visible over 
the coast range. Some part of the shore between 
Shark's Bay and Cape Naturaliste has been explored 
by the French ; but a large part remains to be sur- 
veyed. The coast therefrom to the southward will 
be found described in the chapters relative to Western 
and Southern Australia ; the shore is bounded, as on 
the E. coast, from 20 to 50 miles inland, by a lofty 
range of hills, the breadth of which is about 30 
miles ; and high mountains have been seen, the ele- 
vation of which is estimated at 10,000 feet. The 
S. shore, extending from Cape Leuwin through Bass's 
Straits towards New South Wales, will be found de- 
scribed under South Australia ; its features partake 
much of the character of the E. coast. 

The foregoing delineation of New Holland, as 
perfect as our present information affords, will pro- 
c 2 



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20 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

bably enable the reader to accompany me more 
dearly in the description of New South Wales on 
the east coast. 



CHAPTER II. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THE SETTLEMENT OF NEW SOUTH 
WALES, — ITS ESTABLISHMENT AS A PENAL COLONY, &C. 

The British settlement on the E. shore of New Hol- 
land, called New South Wales', originated, strange 

1 The boundary of the New South Wales territory is im- 
perfectly defined : it may be said, however, to extend coast- 
wise between the parallels of 36 and 28 S. lat, or about 500 
miles along the sea shore; while the greatest distance yet 
setded inland can scarcely be said to extend more than 200 
miles. The portion within which land may be selected, was 
fixed by a Government order, dated Sydney, October, 1829, 
and comprised 34,505 square miles, or 22,083,200 acres ; the 
boundaries being, on the east, the sea coast from the mouth of 
the Murroo River (S. of Bateman's Bay), in 36 degrees to the 
mouth of the Manning Rivet in 32 deg. ; on the north, the 
river Manning from the sea coast westward to a range of 
mountains, including all streams, valleys, and ravines which 
descend to the rivers Goulbourn and Hunter ; on the west, a 
line nearly along the meridian of 148 W. long. ; and, on the 
south, from Mount Murray, in the latitude of Bateman's Bay, 
to the Murroo River, in 36 8. latitude. The boundary within 
which Major Mitchell suggests the establishment df the colony 
is — northward to the tropic of Capricorn, westward to the 145° 
of longitude ; the southern boundaries being the rivers Darling 
and Murray and the sea coast 



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SETTLEMBNT. 21 

to say, in the separation oi the North American 
provinces from England. The statute 30th Eliz, 
chap. 4, decreed, for the first time, that banishment 
from their country (without specifying the place) 
should be the punishment of rogues and vagabonds ; 
and in 1619, during the reign of James I. the prac- 
tice of transporting criminals to America was com- 
menced ; but convicts were allowed to transport 
themselves. Transportation was regulated by par- 
liamentary enactment (4th George I.) ; but a shame- 
ful system of contract was adopted for disposing of 
the unfortunate prisoners, who, in fact, were sold 
into slavery at the average rate of 20/. per head ; the 
numbers transported being about 2000 per annum. 
On the separation of the United States from Eng- 
land, this inhuman system was put an end to, and as 
the prisons in the mother country became crowded, 
various devices were resorted to, and, among others, 
that of conveying convicts to the W. coast of Africa, 
there, according to the proposition of some, to be 
turned loose among the unfortunate negroes : the build- 
ing of large penitentiaries was also suggested : but 
both were abandoned, — the one on account of the un- 
healthiness of the climate, the other by reason of the 
expense attending it, and the failure of the system to 
reclaim the delinquents. At this period, Captain Cook 
having returned from his voyage in the S. hemisphere, 
and having given a pleasing description of that part 
of the coast of New Holland which he had discovered 
and ntoied New South Wales, it was resolved to 
form a penal settlement at Botany Bay, with the fol- 
lowing objects : — 1st, To rid the mother country of 



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22 NEW BOUTH WALES. 

the yearly increasing number of prisoners, who were 
accumulating in the gaols ; 2nd, to afford a proper 
place for the safe custody and punishment of the 
criminals, as well as for their progressive and ulti- 
mate reformation ; and, 3rd, to form a free colony 
out of the materials which the reformed prisoners 
would supply, in addition to families of free emi- 
grants who might settle in the country frxim time to 
time. With these laudable objects in view, 1 1 sail 
of ships, consisting of a frigate (the Sirius), an armed 
tender, three store ships, and six transports, assem- 
bled at Portsmouth, in March, 1 787, having on board 
565 male, and 192 female convicts, with a guard 
consisting of a major-commandant, 3 captains, 12 
subalterns, 24 non-commissioned officers, and 168 
privates, all of the Royal Marines, together with 40 
of the marines' wives and their children. Captain 
Arthur Philip, R. N., an experienced officer, was 
appointed Governor of the New colony. Tlie small 
fleet ^, with two years' provisions on board, sailed 
from the Motherbank, on the 13th of May, 1787; 
touched for supplies and stock at Teneriffe, Rio de 
Janeiro, and the Cape of Grood Hope ; and arrived at 
their destination (Botany Bay) on the 18th, 19th, 
and 20th of January, 1788, after a voyage of upwards 
of eight months, of which four weeks were spent at 
the Cape. Captain Philip soon found that the des- 
criptions which had been sent home of Botany Bay 

^ It is generally known in New South Wales by the name 
of the *^ first fleet'" and often, upon asking a convict how 
long he had heen in the colony, T have been answered, not by 
referring to the year, but to the^«^ second, or third fleet. 



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SETTLBMENT. 23 

bad been too flattering ; in tbe first place, tbe bay 
was open to tbe fiiU sweep of tbe E. winds, wbicb 
rolled a tremendous sea on the beacb ; and, in tbe 
second, tbe land, tbougb deligbtful for botanizing, 
was a series of swamps and sterile sand, witbout 
water. Little suspecting tbat one of tbe finest bar- 
bours in tbe world was witbin a few miles' distance 
to tbe nortbward. Captain Fbilip proceeded, with 
tbree boats and some of bis officers, to examine 
wbat Captain Cook bad termed Broken Bay, wbere 
tbe Hawkesbury disembogues ; but wbile pro- 
ceeding tbitber, be resolved to examine an inlet, 
wbicb, in Cook's cbart was marked as a boat bar- 
bour, but apparently so small as not to be wortb 
investigating; Cook bad, tberefore, passed to tbe 
nortbward, and given tbe inlet tbe name of Port 
Jackson, wbicb was tbat of tbe seaman at tbe mast- 
bead, wbo first descried it wbile on tbe look out. 
Capt. Pbilip entered between tbe lofty beadlands to 
examine tbis ' boat barbour,' and bis astonisbment 
may be more easily conceived tban described, wben be 
found, not a boat creek, but one of tbe safest bavens in 
tbe world, wbere tbe wbole of tbe Britisb Navy migbt 
securely ride at ancbor. It is navigable for vessels 
of any burtben 1 5 miles from its entrance, and in- 
dented witb numerous coves, sheltered from every 
wind, and witb tbe finest anchorage. Tbitber tbe 
fleet was immediately removed*; and tbe Britisb 

' As Captain Philip and his party were leaving Botany Bay 
to sail round the headland into Port Jackson, the unfortunate 
La Perouse, with the two French ships Le Bouttole and VAs' 
irolabe, entered the bay to refit Mutual civilities passed be- 



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24 NEW SOUTH WALB8, 

ensign, on the 26tli January, 1788, was hoisted on 
the shores of Sydney Cove, then thinly wooded, and 
ahounding in kangaroos, hut now the infant capital 
of an emhryo empire. The silence and solitude of 
the forest were soon hroken in upon by the resound- 
ing stroke of the woodman's axe ; the ground was 
cleared, tents pitched, the live stock landed S stores 
deposited, and the little colony established, the num- 
ber of individuals amounting to 1030', which, 
within less than half a century, has been augmented 
to one hundred thousand souls. To detail at length 
the progress of the settlement up to the present 
period, would be beyond the limits of this 
work ; it may be sufficient to observe, that great 
difficulties were experienced for several years ; which 
nothing but the most extraordinary perseverance, 

tween the commanders of the two nations ; but it was the last 
time that the gallant Frenchman and his companions were 
seen by Europeans. The reader is doubtless aware that, after 
a lapse of 40 years, Captain Peter Dillon, with a perseverance 
worthy of great commendation, and aided by the munificence 
of the E. I. Company, proceeded in the Hon. Coropan/s vessel 
Reiearchf in search of the remains of the Atirolahe and Boub- 
mle, I had intended to accompany Captain Dillon in the 
Research^ but was prevented by circumstances ; I visited her, 
however, after she returned with Perouse*s relia from the 
Manicolo Islands, and I confess I cannot help feeling doubts 
as to the correctness of the supposition that both the vessels 
struck at the same time on a reef. There is yet more to be 
learnt on the subject. 

^ The public stock consisted of one bull, four cows, one bull 
calf, one stallion, three mares, and three colts. What a con- 
trast to the numerous herds and flocks of the present day I 

* Forty of the convicts had died on their passage. 



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8BTTLBMBNT. 25 

aided by that moral and physical courage which Bri- 
tons possess in so eminent a degree, could have sur- 
mounted. The soil around Sydney Cove was found 
to be extremely sterile, so that the possibility of im- 
mediately raising sufficient grain for the settlement 
was out of the question ; while the conduct of the 
prisoners was, on several occasions, very detrimen- 
tal to the public weal, theft being general, and deser- 
tion into the woods not unfrequent. At one time 
forty persons were absent from the settlement on 
their road to China! These travellers consisted 
principally of Irish convicts, who were convinced 
that China was not far distant to the northward, and 
were always making up parties for the purpose of 
decamping thither. Most of the wanderers perished 
of hunger, or were speared, and probaWy eaten by 
the natives. An anecdote is told of one who, 
after traversing the woods near Sydney for several 
weeks, endeavouring to find out the road to China, 
had not only lost his way, but, as is often the case 
when the traveller is bewildered in a forest, lost also 
his senses. As good luck would have it, Pat, almost 
famishing, reached what he thought a Chinese town ; 
instinct drew him towards one bark hut in particular, 
which he cautiously approached, and was most agree- 
ably astonished to find his wife, whom he hailed with 
joy, exclaiming, " Oh ! Judy dear, how did you find 
your way to China ?" The number of natives who 
then resorted to the shores of Port Jackson 'to fish 
or hunt was considerable, and hostilities soon com- 
menced between them and the new comers, in the 



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26 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

coarse of which many cruelties on both sides were 
committed. 

The loss of the store ship Guardian, commanded 
by Lieutenant Riou, on the 23d December, 1789*, 
when proceeding to the colony with a large supply 
of provisions and stores, was a severe blow to the 
colonists ; and their distress was greatly aggravated 
by the arrival of the Lady Juliana, after a voyage of 
ten months, with 222 female convicts on board; 
which unseasonable event increased the number of 
mouths, without making any addition to the stock of 
provisions. The consequence was that the colonists 
were almost reduced to a state of famine, the weekly 
rations, on the 25th April, 1 790, being two pounds and 
a half of flour ; two pounds of rice ; and two pounds 
of pork ! the Grovemor receiving no more than a 
convict; indeed even this reduced allowance was 
afforded only in consequence of Captain Philip hav- 

^ She struck on an iceberg to the S. and E. of the Cape of 
Good Hope, in 45.54 S. lat. 41.40 £. long. Her brave com- 
mander, Captain Riou, (afterwards killed at Copenhagen) re- 
fused to quit her, resolving to sink with his vessel : most of the 
passengers and crew left her, in five boats, when they thought 
she was on the point of sinking. Riou, if I recollect ri^t, 
gave them despatches to the Admiralty, and entreated that his 
country would protect and provide for his sister ; four of the 
boats were never heard of; the third, after great privation* 
reached the Mauritius ; the Guardian, with the loss of masts 
and rudder, and after being tossed about at the mercy of 
every gale, was (alien in with by a French frigate, near the 
Cape of Good Hope, towed into Table Bay, and Riou was saved 
to perish by a more glorious death. 



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SBTTLEMENT. 27 

ing shipped off upwards of 200 convicts and troops 
to Norfolk Island. This island situate in 29 S. lat. 
and 168. 10 E, long., is about twenty-one miles in 
circumference, and possesses an exceedingly fertile 
soil. Here the settlers would probably have aU 
perished, their rations being reduced to three pounds 
of flour, a pound and half of beef, and one pound of 
rice per week, but for the unlooked-for circumstance 
of a flight of aquatic birds alighting on the island, to 
lay their eggs. Owing to the length of their pinions, 
these birds take wing with difficulty ; and their num- 
bers were so great, that for two months, our settlers 
took at least from 2000 to 3000 every night, and 
an incalculable quantity of eggs; thus these birds 
qf Providence, as they were called, saved the lives of 
the people. Every effort was made to obtain pro- 
visions from China, India, or the Cape of Good 
Hope ; but, at one period, there were not four 
months provisions, on the most reduced scale, in 
store, and several persons had already perished of 
inanition. Farms were established at Rose Hill 
(Parramatta) and other places ; every encouragement 
was held out to raise the means of sustenance from 
the soil, and a few convicts were emancipated, and 
obtained grants of lands as settlers. 

Shortly after, three vessels more arrived with con- 
victs, but, it may be said, fortunately for the infant 
colony, a large number of the unfortunate beings 
who had left England, perished of scurvy and sick- 
ness on the passage^; in fact, for three years the 

1 In the Surprise 42 men; in the Scarborough 68 men ; and 
in the Neptune 151 men, 11 women and two children ; tlie total 



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28 NEW SOUTH WALBS. 

settlers were in daily fear of starvation. Relief was 
afforded by the arrival, in June 1790, of three tran- 
sports from the Cape, with part of the stores saved 
from the Guardian; and in the following year his 
Majesty's ship Gorgon, convoying ten vessels, form- 
ing what is termed, the * second fieet, arrived at Syd- 
ney, with 1695 male and 68 female convicts, after 
losing 198 on the passage. The arrival of this fleet 
dianged the aspect of afiairs, and from this period 
the colonists began to look forward with hope. 
Captain Philip, whose health was declining, em- 
barked for England on the 11th of December, 1792, 
and his memory deserves to be revered by every 
good man, for the noble efforts which he made to 
contend with incredible difficulties. He was suc- 
ceeded in his government by Captain Hunter, R.N., 
who had commanded the Sirius frigate, when the 
settlement was first formed, and who appears to have 
been an honest straight-forward sailor; his admi- 
nistration lasted five years, and during this period 
the colony made considerable progress. Several 

loss being 274 souls. This mortality is strikingly contrasted 
with the present healthiness of convict ships. Mr. Surgeon 
Cunningham has made four voyages to the colony, and carried 
out about 400 male and female convicts, without losing an in- 
dividual ; and it is a rare thing for a convict ship, at the pre- 
sent day, with 100 or 160 prisoners, to have more than one 
or two deaths on the voyage. The superior salubrity on ship- 
board, at the present day, must be ascribed to better provision- 
ing — to improved vessels, as regards dryness and airiness ; to 
a shortening of the voyage nearly one half; and to a lessening 
of that despondency which naturally prevailed on the miser- 
able prospects which the colony at an early period afforded. 



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8BTTLEMBNT. 29 

settlers arrived from England, and the accession of a 
regiment, called the New South Wales corps (after- 
wards the 1 02nd of the line) gave a stimulus to in- 
dustry, while the manners of the officers imparted a 
superior tone to society *. The number of the in- 
habitants, free and bond, was, on Captain Hunter's 
departure in September, 1 800, about 8000 ; of these 
about 2500 were stationed at Sydney, and the re- 
mainder at the agricultural establishments at Parra- 
matta. Prospect, Toongabbee, and Castlehill. Capt. 
King, R.N. who as Lieutenant of the Sirius had 
effected the settlement on Norfolk island, was ap- 
pointed to succeed Captain Hunter : his administra- 
tion lasted for six years, and was distinguished by 
what is termed the * Irish rebellion.* Several hun- 
dred convicts, attached to the establishment at Castle- 
hill, twenty miles from Sydney, struck for theu* liberty; 
but being armed only with pikes, were, after a very 
brief contest, discomfited by the military at Vinegar 

1 I cannot agree with the Rev. Dr. Lang in the censure he 
has passed on the officers of this corps ; if some of them did 
engage in mercantile pursuits, it should be remembered that 
they were compelled to import their own supplies in a great 
measure, and of course to provide a stock ; and unquestion- 
ably, it was more prudent that this should exceed the wants of 
their families, than it should fall short of them. Dr. Lang 
seems to have entirely overlooked the peculiar circumstances 
in which the officers of the New South Wales corps were placed, 
who had nothing but their pay and convict rations to rely on, 
with wheat \2s. a bushel, mutton 2s. a lb., a cow j£80, and so 
on in proportion. This state of things compelled these gentle- 
men to provide for themselves, and it was fortunate for the 
colonists that they did so. 



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30 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Hill, a few miles from Parramatta» on the Hawkes- 
bury road ; a few were shot by the troops, some of 
the leaders taken and hanged immediately, and the 
rest returned quietly to their labour. This is the 
only instance of an insurrection of the convict popu- 
lation, since the settlement of the colony. 

Captain King does not seem to have been ade< 
quate to the magnitude of his trust ; he had several 
opponents, and, during his sway, a circumstance is 
related to have occurred worthy of the peculiar genius 
of Botany Bay. The Governor preferred charges 
against a gentleman in the colony, and despatches 
were prepared to be forwarded to the Secretary of 
State in England : the officer who had charge of them 
imprudently mentioned their contents ; but, when he 
arrived in Downing- street, the box, on being opened 
in presence of the Secretary for the Colonies, was 
found to contain only a bundle of newspapers, the 
criminating despatches having been adroitly ab- 
stracted from the box before it left Sydney. 

Captain Bligh, whose name is handed down with 
infamy to posterity, by reason of his tyrannical 
treatment of Christian and his comrades in his 
Majesty's ship Bounty, when sent to convey the 
bread fruit from the South Sea islands to the West 
Indies, was appointed to succeed Captain King. The 
treatment which he had bestowed on Christian, 
ought to have prevented his being sent out to 
govern a colony like New South Wales, however 
great his abilities as a mariner unquestionably were, 
as evinced by the skilful manner in which he reached 
Timor in an open boat, after being set adrift in the 



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BBTTLRMBNT. 31 

ocean on the north coast of New Holland. A man 
that was unable to rule a small ship's company, 
ought never to have been placed in arbitrary power 
in New South Wales. 

Captain Bligh, however, was mistaken in suppos- 
ing tJiat he had none but convicts with abject 
minds to deal with ; like all tyrants, the moment his 
views were thwarted, he seemed to lose the instinc- 
tive cunning of his race ; and his series of unwar- 
ranted persecutions of one gentleman in particular ', 
led to his deposition by the colonists at Sydney, 
aided by the officers and men of the New South 
Wales corps, after he had been Grovemor for a period 
of eighteen months. The supreme authority was 
vested by the same parties in the hands of Lieut. - 
Colonel Johnson, the senior officer in command of 
the troops. Captain Bligh, like most men of arbitrary 

^ I allude here to the late John M* Arthur, Esq. of New South 
Wales, a gentleman of high and manly spirit, of strong con- 
stitutional principles, and an enterprise and perseverance rarely 
found united in one mind. To this gentleman, New South 
Wales may be said to be mainly indebted for its present pros- 
perity ; he gave the first stimulus to the industry of the colonists ; 
through a long and extraordinarily active life, he never ceased 
to pursue measures calculated to augment the wealth, improve 
the beauty, and benefit the country which he had made his 
home ; while he lived he well deserved the appellation of * Father 
of the Colony;' and I trust justice will be done to his memory, 
by erecting to it a statue, in the square called Macquarie Place, 
at Sydney* Well would it be for the Cape of Good Hope, and 
our other colonies, if a John M' Arthur would arise in each, to 
stimulate their dormant energies by his own example, and aid 
the poor and industrious with wealth honestly and nobly ac- 
quired. 



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32 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

tempers, was not possessed of much moral courage. 
When the soldiers marched up to the Government 
House, with their officers at their head, they searched 
for the Governor, and at last found him concealed 
behind a bed. His person and property were care- 
fully protected, and after some time he embarked 
for Europe on board the Porpoise sloop of war. 

The men in power at home ceased to send any 
more naval men as governors. Lieut. -Colonel (after- 
wards Major- General) Lachlan Macquarie, of the 
73d regiment, was sent from England to take on 
him the government of the colony ; the New South 
Wales regimenal was ordered home ; and the regular 
troops of the hne placed on the '* roster" for ser- 
vice in the colony. During Major- General Mac- 
quarie's administration of 12 years, the settlement 
made great progress ; the population was increased 
by numerous convicts and some emigrants, and by 
the aid of a carte blanche on the British Treasury, 
many public buildings were erected — roads con- 
structed — ^the fine Bathurst country over the Blue 
Mountains explored, and several government farms 
established. The convict population received great 
encouragement from General Macquarie ; his maxim 
was, to make every convict consider his European 
life as a past existence, and his Australian one a new 
era, where he would find honesty to be the best 
policy, and good conduct its own unfailing reward. 
This was his grand principle of government, and 
like all men with one favourite view, he carried it 
sometimes too far ; many convicts, or those who had 
once been convicts, he patronized — made some ma- 



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8BTTLBMBNT. 33 

gistrates, gave others colonial situations, and distrit' 
bated among them large quantities of land. But noble, 
generous, and truly philanthropic as were the motives 
which dictated such conduct, it is perhaps to be re- 
gretted, that General Macquarie was not more dis- 
criminating in his choice of individuals deserving of 
encouragement ; and that he paid too little attention 
to the feelings or prejudices of respectable emigrants, 
who were not so strongly imbued widi the same 
principles. Owing to this circumstance, he raised 
up a class of esclusionists as opposed to the emanci- 
pistSt and formed two parties, who have ever since 
remained in hostility to each other. By the former 
of these terms, those persons are designated who 
object to associate in the intercourse of private life 
with persons who have been transported from Eng- 
land, whether they have expiated their offences by 
serving their full period of bondage, or have been 
reprieved after a short residence in the colony. The 
emancipists are, of course, those who are either free 
by favour of the Government, or after having com- 
pleted their term of servitude. 

Sir Thomas Brisbcme» who succeeded Major-Ge- 
neral Macquarie, was an amiable and scientific man, 
but seems to have been deficient in energy of cha- 
racter; his successor, Lieut. -General Darling, was 
a Governor of no inconsiderable talent, with an ar- 
dent desire to benefit the colony, but too sensitive 
to the strictures of the press. It is not within my 
plan to enter into a discussion of the difficulties and 
embarrassments with which his administration was 
surrounded ; some were of his own creating, others 

D 

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34 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

arose from the intemperate violence of those opposed 
to him. Major- General Bom'ke, who had the aid of 
a Legislative Council, and the experience of his pre- 
decessors to pro£t by, endeavoured to steer a middle 
course between the extremes of party, and conse- 
quently met with much opposition from both parties* 
Sir George Gipps has but recently assumed the go- 
vernment, and we hear little of disputes ; so that it 
id to be hoped that as the fierceness of partizanship 
abates, the task of governing New South Wales will 
become less arduous. 

The progress of the colony may be thus summarily 
stated, in chronological order : — 1789, one year after 
the establishment of the cc^ony, first harvest reaped 
(at Paramatta) ; 1190, first settler (a convict) took 
possession of the land allotted him ; 1 79 1, first brick 
building finished; 1793, first purchase of colonial 
grain (1,200 bushels) by government; 1194, first 
church built ; 1 796, first play performed ; 1 800, first 
copper coin circulated ; 1 ^OZ, first newspaper printed ; 
1804, Fort William built; 1805, first vessel built; 
1810, first census, free school, toll-gates, police, 
naming of the streets, establishment of Sidney mar- 
ket, races, and race ball; 1811, first pounds; 1813, 
first i9k\ iSlb, first steam-engine; 1817, supreme 
court established, and first bank; 1818, benevolent 
society formed; 1819, orphan institution founded; 
1820, first spirits distilled, hnii first colonial tobacco 
sold; 1821, first Wesleyan and Roman Catholic 
chapels built; 1822, freedom of the press granted, 
and first agricultural and reading societies formed ; 
1824, charter of justice granted, legislative council 



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SBTTLBMBNT. 35 

a|>pomted, and first court of quarter sessions held ; 
1 825, ^r^f criminal jury imf^onnelled, first archdeacon 
ordained, first coroner appointed, and first constitu- 
tional county meeting held; 1827, first daily news- 
paper estabU&hed; 1829, first circuit court opened; 
1880, first civil jury impannelled, and first college 
founded: 1831, /r$f colonial steam-boat launched; 
1832, first savings* bank instituted ; 1 833, mechanics* 
school of arts formed, and a monthly magazine esta- 
blished; 1834, land sold in Sydney at 20,000/. per 
acre ! Land in some situations in Sydney is worth 
lOOOZ. per acre. In 1831 Mr. Wentworth sold near 
two acres of land in the main street, Sydney, for 
7,800/, which might have been bought ten years 
iweviously for 350/. Six acres on the Sorry hills, 
(one mile from Sidney), bought by Mr. Unwin in 
1828 for 650/., sold in 1830 for 1800/. In 1828 
Madame Reus bought at auction, in the main street 
of^ydney, a frontage of 150 feet and depth of 80 
feet, for 1200/., and sold half of the same plot to 
Mr. Jones in 1829 for 1800/. Building allotments 
in Sydney, bought in 1825 for 70/. to 150/., sold at 
auction in 1830 from 700/. to 1500/. The intelligent 
reader, in tracing these events, will estimate the pro- 
gressive prosperity of the colony during forty-five 
years. 

List of Gauemors of the Colony of New South Wales 
since itsfoundation c-^Capt. Arthur VM^i^, R.N., from 
26th Jan. 1788 to 10th Dec. 1792 ; Captain Francis 
•rose (Lt.-Gov.), 1 1th Dec. 1 792 to 1 4th Dec. 1 794 ; 
Captain Paterson, N.S.W.C. (Lt.-Gov.), 15th Dec. 
1794 to 6th Aug. 1795 ; Captam Hunter, R.N., 7th 
d2 

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36 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

Aug. 1795 to 27tli Sept. 1800 ; Captain P. G. King, 
R.N., 28th Sept. 1800 to 12tli Aug. 1806; Captain 
Willi^im Bligh, R.N., 18tli Aug. 1806 to his suspen- 
sion on 26th Jan. 1808. — ^During Governor Bligh's 
suspension the Government was successively ad- 
ministered by Lieut.-Col. Johnstone, Lieut.-Col. Fo- 
veaux. Col. William Patterson, N.S.W. Corps, 26th 
Jan. 1808 to 28th Dec. 1809.— Major- Gen. Lachlan 
Macquarie, 1st Jan. 1810 to 1st Dec. 1821 ; Major- 
Gen. Sir T. Brisbane, K.C.B., IstDec. 1821 to 30th 
Nov. 1825; Col. Stewart, 3dregt. (Lieut.- Gov.), 1st 
Dec. 1825 to 18th Dec. 1825; Lieut. -Gen. Ralph 
Darling, 19th Dec. 1825 to 21st Oct. 1831 ; CoL 
Lindesay, C. B. (Lieut.-Gov.) 22d Oct. 1831 to 2d 
Dec. 1831 ; Major-Gen. Richard Bourke, C. B., 3d 
Dec. 1831 ; Sir G. Gipps. 1837. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE GEOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS OF MEW SOUTH WALES. 

Thb general features of the New South Wales ter- 
ritory consist of alternate hills, valleys, mountains, 
and plains ; — the sea coast has a range of lofty and 
steep hills (elevation 3000 to 4000 feet) running 
nearly parallel with the coast, at a distance of from 
40 to 50 miles, and called the Blue Mountains^ 
the intervening space being an undulating plain, 
intersected by several rivers which have their rise 



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QBOGRAPHT. 37 

in the elevations just mentioned ; beyond which » a 
coi^llderable extent of table land stretches in every 
direction, gradually sinking towards the interior, and 
proAibly rising again into a loftier range than the 
Blue Mountains, with successive depressions to the 
northern shores of New Holland. 

The territory is divided into 19 counties, and 
although the boundaries are yet imperfectly laid 
down, an account of each will convey the clearest 
idea of the geography of the colony. 

The first county in point of settlement, is — 
Cumberland, which is an undulating plain, 
bounded on the N. and W. by the rivers Hawkes- 
bury and Nepean ; — on the S.W. and S. by the 
Nepean, llie Cataract River, and a line bearing 
£. 20° S. to Bulli on the sea coast, which forms 
the eastern boundary. The Hawkesbury and Ne- 
pean form seven eighths of the interior boundary 
of the county, which is in length from N. to S. 
about 53 miles, and in extreme breadth from the 
sea to the base of the . Blue Mountains, 46 miles ; 
divided into 31 districts, containing about 900,000 
English acres. The principal towns of New South 
Wales are situate in this county, viz. Sydney the 
capital, Paramatta, Liverpool, Windsor, Richmond, 
Castlereagh, Penrith, &c.« and is the most densely 
inhabited, there being now more than 40,000 inha- 
bitants. The maritime boundary is generally bold 
and rugged, along which the vast Southern Ocean 
rolls its tremendous surge. For the distance of five 
or six miles from the coast, the country wears a 



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38 NBW SOUTH WilLBS. 

bleak and barren aspect, consisting of ridges of stra- 
tified sandstone; the soil poor, in some ffepDes 
swampy, and clothed with a few stunted Eacal3^ti 
and dwarf underwood. 

BejTond this coast girdle the aspect begins to 
improve; an undulating country extends for ten 
miles, and where the hand of ciyilization has not 
been in active operation, a stately forest 0i Emtmm 
lypti varied with the Casaurina torulosa appears, 
diversified here and there with fanns and tenements, 
and intersected by broad and excellent turnpike 
roads ; but the soil in this belt is still poor on the 
surface, as it rests on a sandstone formation. At 
the distance of 20 to 25 miles from the sea shore, 
the scenery becomes more beautiful; the forest is 
lofty but not dense ; there is little or no imderwood, 
and the average number of trees to the acre does 
not exceed fifty ; while a charming variety of hill and 
dale is clothed with luxuriant herbage, covered with 
bleatiAg flocks and lowing herds, and at intervals 
may be seen the spacious mansion or snug farm house 
of civilized man. Throughout the whole of the 
county, from the sea coast to the base of the Blue 
Mountains, the land can scarcely be considered ele- 
vated, but a continued series of undulations, until it 
approach the Nepean and Hawkesbury rivers, when 
extensive plains, the fertility of which is inexhaustible, 
border those noble streams. The county is not well 
watered, but the process of boring now in execution 
will probably supply tius deficiency* The creeks of 
the county are South, Prospect, Cabramatta, and 



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STATISTICS. 39 

East : the rivers Paramatta, Hawkesbury and Ne- 
pean will come under the general description of the 
riyers of the colony. 

Sydney, the capital of New South Wales, is 
situate nearly equidistant from the extreme northern 
and south^n extremities of the cotmty of Cumber- 
land ; it is built partly in a nai^ow ravine or valley, 
and partly on the sides of a gentle slope, extending 
upwards frcwai the shores of one of the coves of Port 
Jackson, and called Sydney Cove on the first founds 
ing of the colony. The streets are long (some one 
mile), wide, and quite English in their appearance ^ ; 
the houses are generally lofty and well constructed, 
interspersed with cottages fronted by small neat 
gardens, which in some quarters of the town are 
attached to every house. 

Along the water side, except that portion occu- 
pfed by the demesne of Government House, there 
are wharfs, stores, ship yards, mills, steam engines, 
^. ; behind these* the houses rise in successive 
terraces, giving variety to the scene, and conveying 
by their neatness and elegance the idea of a pros- 
p^ous community. The shops of Sydney are fre- 
quently laid out with great taste — ^they are not, as 
in America, * stores' where every article may be 
bought under the same roof, but each trade or busi- 
ness has its own distinct warehouse. House rent 
is high at Sydney, as may be inferred from the fact 

* It would have been preferable if they had heen laid out 
wide enough to admit of a row of trees on either side, as at 
Cape Town. 



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40 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

that bnilding land has been recently sold in George 
Street at 20,000/. per acre! and some ground is 
worth 501, per foot ! Several private establishments 
are of considerable size; auction rooms have been 
lately built by one individual at a cost of 5,000/., 
and Mr. R. Cooper has expended nearly 20,000/. 
on his distillery. The firm of Messrs. Daniel Cooper 
and Levy have expended even larger sums in erecting 
steam-engines, mills, &c. ; and Mr. Bamet Levy 
has built an excellent Theatre on speculation. The 
hotels and inns are numerous and excellent, public 
houses abound, affording entertainment for man and 
horse ; I think I counted 50 of these establishments 
in one street (Pitt-street), and there are about 200 
in the whole town. 

The public buildings are neither numerous nor 
elegant; the Government House, though delight- 
fully situate in a charming demesne overlooking 
the harbour, can scarcely be considered more than 
an overgrown cottage ; — ^the hospital is a huge un- 
sightly brick building, as are also the Court and 
Session House; the barracks, nearly in the centre 
of the town, are commodious, but inelegant: St. 
Philip's Church is like an old bam with a sort c^ 
steeple at one end ; the Roman Catholic chapel is 
an immense structure, the apparent size of which . 
is magnified by its standing alone on the verge of 
Hyde Park, and in its design, an attempt at impos- 
ing grandeur seems to have absorbed every other 
idea; St. James's Episcopal Church is a modest 
appropriate edifice ; the Scotch Church is built after 
the neat and pleasing style adopted by the disciples 



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STATISTICS. 41 

of John Knox; and the Melliodist chapel, is an 
humble and lowly structure, m which the true Chris- 
tian will not regret the absence of exterior attractions 
to lure him to admire, love, and worship his Creator. 
A new gaol was building on the south end road when 
I left the colony. Its size was great, its materials 
of hewn stone, and its situation healthy; but 
strength and durabihty seem to have occupied the 
architect's mind, to the exclusion of taste or ele- 
gance ; he apparently forgot that all these qualities 
may be combined in one structure. 

The views from the higher parts of the capital 
of Australia are bold, varied, and picturesque; the 
irregular appearance of Sydney itself, with its nu- 
merous gardens ; the magnificent harbour of Port 
Jackson, studded with islets, and indented by coves 
of singular beauty ; the infinite diversity of hill and 
dale, towering forests, and projecting rocks, give 
an air of wildness and grandeur to the tranquil 
abode of men, which is rarely met with. The situa- 
tion of Sydney adapts it for the capital of a com- 
mercial empire. Port Jackson, as I have before 
observed, is one of the finest harbours in the world ; 
its entrance is three quarters of a mile wide *, it 

* A fine ligbthouee was erected on the lofty S. bead of Port 
Jackson, by Gen. Macquarie ; it is in Lat 33.51. 40. S., Long. 
151. 16. 60. £. ; the tower is admirably built; the height of 
the light (a revqlving one) from the base being 76 feet, and 
above the sea 277 feet, — total 353. The inner S. head bears 
from the lighthouse N. by W. } W. distant a mile and a 
quarter. The outer N. head bears from it N. by £. two miles. 
I1ie inner S. And outer N. heads lie N. £. | E. and S. W. I, of 



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42 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

afterwards expands into a spacious basin, 15 miles 
long, in some places three wide, and navigable for 
ships of any burthen at the distance of 15 miles 
from its entrance — L e. seven miles above Sydney, 
up the Paramatta River, and which for 12 miles 
farther can scarcely be considered more than an 
arm of the sea. Ships come up close to the wharfe 
and stores at Sydney, and the cargoes are hoisted 
from a blip's hold into the Ware-rooms. The town 
is about three miles in length, with two-thirds of 
its circuit environed by the navigable coves of Port 
Jackson. 

The second town in the county of Cumberland 
is Paramatta, and although said to be built on the 
banks of the Paramatta, it is, properly speaking, 
at the head of the harbour of Port Jackson, 
dktant from Sydney 18 miles by water, and 15 by 
land. It was originally called by the first settlers 
Rose Hill, which, with good taste, was afterwards 
changed to the more euphonious appellation of 
ParMtnatta, the name given by the natives to the 
riven The town is situate on eidier side of a small 
fresh* water river, uniting with the sea inlet above 
described, and contains 4,000 inhabitants, prin- 
cipally traders, artificers, and labourers, who find 
employment in the surrounding country seats of 

each other distant a mile and one-tendi. The light can be 
seen from S. by £. to N. by E., and from a ship's deck, on a 
clear night, eight to ten leagues, appearing like a luminous 
star. Bearings magnetic, distances nautical — variations 9 
degrees K— N.B. The N. end of the ' Sow and Pigs ' bears 
from the inner S. head S. W. by W. half a mile. 



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STATISTICS. 4S 

di£^rent ge&tiemen and £armerB. Its main street 
is about one mile long, and extends from the 
country residence of the Governor to the wharf, 
whence the view down the river is extremely in- 
teresting. Several public buildings are in the town 
and neighbourhood ; there is an excellent establish* 
ment for female orphans on the banks of the river, 
and within half a mile of Paramatta is the factory, 
or rather penitentiary for female prisoners, where 
those convicts who have not been assigned as 
servants, or who are returned from service and 
awaiting new masters, or who are remanded for 
punishment, are confined in three separate classes. 
The building is large, massive, and clean, but situate 
in a vale, and enclosed with high walls, which has 
at times rendered its inmates unhealthy. A ludi- 
crous circumstance occunred at this factory when 
I was at Paramatta. The third class of prisoners 
had been denkd the indulgence of tea and sugar, 
as a punishment fcx thdr refractoriness ; they re- 
fused, therefore, to work any longer, and, after 
spending two days in sulkiness, they warned the 
matron that, unless their tea and sugar were re- 
stored, they would leave the factory. Mrs. Falloon 
laughed at their threat. On the third morning, 
200 of these viragos attacked the workmen, took 
from them their hammers and sledges, broke open 
the huge prison doors, and rushed into the town, 
attacking the baker's shops, &c. The troops were 
ordered out, the light company of H. M. 57th re- 
giment in advance; the women beat a retreat to- 
wards the surrounding hills, while the bugles of the 



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44 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

troops sounded a charge ; the object being to pre- 
vent the " factory ladies" taking refuge in the bush, 
which ruse, had it succeeded, would have ren- 
dered it difficult to predict whether Venus or Mars 
would have conquered ; however, after various skir- 
mishes or feints, and divers inarches and counter- 
marches, the drums and bugles announced a parley 
— the battle was considered a drawn fight — and a 
treaty agreed to, in which it was stipulated that the 
fair combatants should march back, with all the 
honours of war, within the walls and gates of the 
factory, all delinquencies forgiven, and the usual 
allowance of tea and sugar restored. This little 
incident will give an idea of the determined cha- 
racter of the female prisoners at New South Wales. 

Paramatta contains several excellent inns ; and 
stage-coaches, and steam-boats pass to and from 
Sydney every day. 

Windsor is about 20 miles from Paramatta, and 
35 from Sydney; it is situate near the confluence 
of the South Creek with the Hawkesbury, which at 
Uiis point is 140 miles distant from the sea, and 
navigable for vessels of 100 tons burthen, four 
miles above Windsor. The town, containing nearly 
2000 inhabitants, is built on a hill, elevated 100 
feet above the level of the Hawkesbury, and com- 
manding a beautiful view of the surrounding country ; 
its population and buildings are similar to those of 
Paramatta. 

The inns, as is the case indeed throughout the co- 
lony, are large and excellent : stage-coaches (cL VAn^ 
glaise) ply every day to and from Sydney, via Para- 



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8TATI6TIC8. 45 

matta, and steam-boats twice a week, the distance 
between Broken Bay, where the Hawkesbury dis- 
embogaes into the sea and the N. head of Port 
Jackson, being about 14 miles. The land in the 
vicinity of Windsor is extremely rich, and being in 
the possession of numerous small farmers, is care- 
fully tilled, so that frequent farm-yards and exten- 
sive fields of grain, with herds of kine, add to the 
natural beauty of a very picturesque country. In 
some parts the broad and placid waters of the 
Hawkesbury have overhanging cliffs of 600 feet in 
height, and the numerous vessels and boats on thid 
noble stream, and the scenery around, render it a 
favourite residence. 

Richmond, with a population of 800, is a small 
but rising inland town, distant from Sydney 36 
miles. 

Liverpool is situate on the banks of the George 
River, which disembogues itself into Botany Bay. 
Many persons, long used to the term of * Botany 
Bay,* believe that the colony is founded on the shores 
of this extensive inlet of the ocean. I have already 
stated that such was the original intention, but it was 
never carried into effect; and the shores aroui^ 
Botany Bay are now as wild — as bleak — as barren, 
and almost as uninhabited as when they were first 
visited by Capt. Cook and Sir Joseph Banks. Bo- 
tany Bay is about 14 miles to the southward oi the 
Heads, as the entrance of Port Jackson is called; 
it is wide, open, and unsheltered for vessels. I 
visited it from curiosity, and in order that I might 
say I had been to ' Botany Bay' — ^the only advantage 



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46 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

derived from my journey, was the opportmiity of con- 
trasting the dreary desolation around its shores, with 
the busy hum of human industry at the contiguous 
harbour of Port Jackson, and of being reminded that 
less than half a c^itury ago, there was no difference in 
Nature's wild waste at either place. A brass plate on 
the cli£& marks the spot where Capt. Cook first landed ; 
which, together with a handsome monument sur- 
mounted by a gilt sphere, erected to the memory of 
La Perouse, contribute to give an intellectual inte- 
rest to the scene. George River is about half the 
size of the Hawkesbury, and is navigable for vessels 
of 50 tons burthen up to Liverpool, which from its 
central position between Sydney and the fertile dis- 
tricts of Airds, Appin, Bunburycurran, Cabramatta, 
Bringelley, the Cow Pastures, Illawarra, and five is- 
lands, &c. (the Great Southern Road from Sydney, 
leading through Liverpool to the counties of Cam- 
den, Argyle, Westmoreland), is rising into eminence. 
The country b flat around, but cleared and culti- 
vated, though the soil is poor : the pubUc buildings 
are the same as in the towns previously described, 

£'th the addition of a male orphan school. There 
3 stage coaches daily between Liverpool and 
Sydney. Campbell Town, situate in Airds district, 
distant 12 miles fr^m Liverpool, requires no parti- 
cular comment. 

We may now proceed to examine the adjoining 
County of Camden, bounded on the N. by a line 
bearing W. 20® N. from BuUi on the sea coast to 
the head of the Cataract River, thence by that river 
and the Nepean to its junction with the Wollondilly, 



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OBOGBAPHT. 47 

there called tlie Warragamba: on the W. by the 
River Wollondilly to the junction of the Uringalla, 
commonly called Paddy's River; and by the Urin« 
galla and Barber's Creek, forming the boundary be- 
tween Camden and Argyle, to the Shoalhaven River : 
on the S. by the Shoalhaven River to the sea coast, 
which forms the Eastern boundary of the colony. 
The length of the county to the SJE. is 66, and the 
breadth about 55 miles; the superficial area being 
2200 square miles. The physical aspect of Cam- 
dA is more than undulating — it is, in fact, a con- 
tinued succession of hill and dale, the former some- 
times rising into mountains, whose steep sides are 
clothed with varieties of lofty timber. The Mitti- 
gong range runs S.E. through the whole length of 
the colony, terminating close to the sea in the Illa- 
warra mountain, 50 miles S. of Sydney. ' 

Although this range occupies so much of the coun- 
try, there are several large tracts throughout the coun- 
try, unsurpassed any where in fertility. Of these the 
principal are the Cow Pastures, so called from large 
herds of cattle recently found there, and which had 
for their original stock three runaway cattle, belong- 
ing to the herd landed from H.M.S. Sirius, soon after 
the founding of the colony. These pastures extend 
northward from the river Bargo to the junction of 
the Warragumba and Nepean rivers, bounded to the 
W. by some of the branches of the latter river, %nd 
the hills of Nattai, and contain an area of 60,000 
acres, the greater part consisting of a fertile light 
sandy loam, resting on a substratum of day. To- 
wards the southern hills of Nattai> the Cow Pastures 



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48 M£W 80UTH WALES. 

are broken into abrupt and hilly ridges ; bat for a 
distance of three miles from the Nepean, they con- 
sist of easy slopes and gentle undulations, from the 
centre of which rises a lofty hill named Mount Hun- 
ter. Camden county is celebrated for containing 
within its boundaries the fertile, beautiful, and I may 
add, romantic district of Illawarra, or the five islands, 
which extends in a N. and S. direction for the space 
of 18 miles along the Eastern coast, commencing at 
a point in which a range of high hills (the Mem- 
gong) terminates in the sea receding gradually S4%- 
wards Shoalhaven, and comprising 150,000 acres. 
The scenery at Illawarra is totally di€Ferent in cha- 
racter from that of the counties of Camden or Cum- 
berland \ tall ferns, umbrageous cedars, graceful 
palm trees, with numerous creeping vines throwing 
around in wild luxuriance their flowery tassels, here 
and there interspersed with flights of red crested 
black cockatoos and purple louries, make the spec- 
tator fancy himself in some tropical region, blest at 
the same time with the exhilarating atmosphere of 
a temperate chme. The Shoalhaven River, whidi 
forms the S. boundary of Illawarra, distant 190 
miles from Sydney, is navigable for about 20 miles 
into the country, for vessels of 80 or 90 tons burthen. 
The soil around is a deep unctuous vegetable mould, 
abounding in large heaps of decayed marine shells. 

Bluragorang, in the same county, is a long nar- 
row valley, hemmed in between the Merrigong range 
and the Blue Mountains, with only one pass into it, 
and that a very precipitous one. It runs N. and S. 
along the banks of the Warragamba, and consists 



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COUNTIES. 49 

of a stripe of rich soil, matted with the finest native 
herbage, and most picturesquely variegated with 
rocky and precipitous mountains, frowningly im- 
pending on either side, their rugged declivities occa- 
sionally adorned with waving shrubs and verdant 
heaths. 

As before observed, the Merrigong range runs 
through the county ; from this range there branch 
off laterally inferior elevations, from which others of 
still smaller dimensions again shoot out ; these 
ridges almost uniformly tower upwards Uke the roof 
of a house, and where the country is mountainous, 
meet so close as to leave only a narrow ravine be- 
twixt them. The reader will form an idea of the 
aspect of Camden county from the foregoing brief 
description, and accompany me to — 

Argyle County — which is bounded on the N. by 
the River Guinecor, from its junction with the Wol- 
londilly, to its source near Burra Burra Lagoon on 
the dividing range : on the W. by the dividing range 
from Burra Burra, by Cullarin to Lake George, in- 
cluding the three Bredalbane Plains : on the S. by 
the Northern margin of Lake George to Kenny's 
Station; from Lake Greorge to the Alianoyonyiga 
Mountain, by a small gulley, descending to the lake ; 
from Alianoyonyiga, by the ridge extending S.E. to 
the hill of Wolowolar ; and from Wolowolar by 
the Boro Creek, to the Shoalhaven River, to the 
junction of the Rivulet from Barber's ; by the Rivu- 
let from Barber's to its source; across a narrow 
neck of land to the head of the Uringalla ; by the 
Uringalla to its junction with the Wollondilly ; and 



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50 MBW SOUTH WALKS. 

by the WoUondilly to the junction of the Guinecor 
above mentioned : the nearest point from the sea 
is twenty-five miles. Argyle is about sixty miles 
long, with an average breadth of thirty miles, and 
a superficial area of 1950 square miles; the f^e 
of the county consists of tolerably high and exten- 
sive ridges, the Mittigong range, ramifying in va- 
rious directions, with swelling hills and irregular 
plains and valleys between them, watered by the 
various branches of the Hawkesbury and Shoalhaven 
rivers, besides a number (^ small rivulets and 
ponds, containing water all the year round. Lake 
Bathurst is situate in this county, 129 miles S.W. 
of Sydney. It is from three to five miles in diame- 
ter, and its size varies with the mountain torrents, 
to which it serves as a reservoir. Its waters are 
pure, but the depth I have not been able to ascertain. 
Although 60 miles inland from Jervis Bay, the 
nearest part of the coast, it contains an animal re- 
sembling a s^, as nepriy as can be discovered at a 
distance, about three feet long, and rising every now 
and then to the surface to breathe. 

The N.W. and S.W. sides of Bathurst lake are 
bounded by hills of a moderate size, on the S. 
and S.S.E. by low land termed WeUihgton Plahu, 
Recent accounts state that the lake is rapidly drying 
up, and leaving a rich, smooth, lacustrive plain. 
Some of the old natives say they can remember when 
no lake existed. Lake George, which is in the 
vicinity of Lake Bathurst, has been thus described 
by a recent visitor :— 

" The first part of our day's journey," he says. 



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COUNTISfi, 51 

'* lay through a bush, between M'Farlane's and the 
ranges, of an ordinary character, and along a chain 
of ponds, called the Cavan river. We then entered 
a gap which led through the ranges, and in due time 
descended on the other side ; there emerging from 
the bush, we suddenly came upon the plain of Lake 
Greorge, and I experienced no small degree of sur- 
prise and astonishment at the sight of it ; it was a 
peculiar feature in the country whidi I had never 
seen before, and I could not, for some time, recover 
myself. As far as the eye could reach I beheld a 
level plain, as even as a bowling-green, not a rise nor 
a tree nor an object of any kind to interrupt the view, 
with the exception of ' mobs' of cattle scattered over 
the surface, like flies resting on a billiard- table. This 
was the bed of what was recently a lake, fifteen or 
sixteen miles long, and from three to six wide, but 
instead of water there was grass on it, and instead of 
ftdies homed cattle ; there is now not a drop of water 
in the whole of it, nor a hollow in which water could 
r^Eoain in one part more than in another. The water 
never could have been very deep, and seems to have 
been mere surface water, collected as it fell from the 
heavens and poured down the steep sides of the sur- 
rounding ranges. Around the whole of the (mis- 
called) lake, there are rather lofty ranges. Some 
rising rather abruptly and perpendicularly out of the 
lake, others sloping to it with gradual descent, both 
are picturesque, but the latter are of excellent soil, 
thinly timbered, and form capital grazing land." 

Although Argyle abounds in timber, the land is 
more thinly wooded than in Cumberland, and there 
e2 

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52 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

are plains of great extent, such as Goulboam's plain, 
containing 35,000 acres, without a tree, while in 
Eden Forest, they are so sparingly scattered as to 
resemble more a nobleman's park than a natural 
forest. This county in particular presents excellent 
specimens of a singular phenomenon observed in 
various parts of Australia, namely, what would be 
supposed the most striking evidences of former cul- 
tivation, the land being regularly laid out in ridges 
apparently marked by the plough, and with a regu- 
larity of intervals which would secure a prize from a 
Scottish Agricultural Society. These plough ridges 
occur always on gentle declivities, where there is a 
tenacious subsoil with loose superstrata, and are 
doubtless produced by the action of water ; as there 
are found even on the tops of moimtain ridges, ex- 
tensive beds of water-sand and water -gravel mixed 
with fragments of shells, presenting the indentical 
appearances observed on the banks of rivers, or upon 
sea beaches ; but still the regularity of the distances 
in the plough ridges is unaccountable. In several 
parts there occurs what the Americans call " Salt 
licks," which is the deposition of a saline matter from 
the receded waters, and which cattle depasture on 
with great avidity and benefit. 

Westmoreland County is bounded on the N.E. by 
Cox's River, from its junction with the Wollondilly 
to the station on the road to Mount Blaxland : on 
the N. by that road to the Fish River, and by that 
River to its junction with the River Campbol,! : on 
the W. by the Campbell to its source ; and thence 
by a line of marked treed to fiurra Burra Lagoon : on 



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COUNTIES. 53 

the S. by the Kiver Guinecor, from Burra Burra 
Lagoon to its junction with the Wollondilly : and 
on the E. by the Wollondilly to the junction of Cox's 
River above mentioned. 

This county is in extreme length from N.W. to 
S.E. 59 miles, and in breadth 38 ; with a superficial 
area of 1592 square miles. It partakes' of the ge- 
neral features of Argyle, and contains a part of the 
Blue Mountain range, which towers from 3000 to 
4000 feet above the ocean level. 

Cook* 8 County, adjoining Cumberland, is bounded 
on the N.E, by the Lower branch of the Hawkes- 
bury : on the N. by the rocky dividing range, ex- 
tending E. and W. between the Rivers Hunter and 
Hawkesbury, and forming the S. boundary of the 
county of Hunter : on the W. by the range dividing 
the waters to Honeysuckle Hill ; and hence to where 
the Mount Blaxland Road crosses Cox's River : on 
the S.W. by Cox's River : on the E. by the Warra- 
gumba, Nepean and Hawkesbury, to the junction of 
the Lower Branch, as above mentioned; it is in 
length from N. to S. 56 miles, and in breath 50 ; 
containing 1655 square miles. A great part of 
Cook's county is occupied by the Blue Mountain 
range, across which the fine road from Sydney to 
Bathurst lies. A large part is table land from 2000 
to 3000 feet high, abounding in picturesque scenery. 
Emu Plains and several fertile valleys compensate in 
80me measure for the large quantity of rocky soil 
in this county. 

At King's Table Land (2727 feet above the sea) 
the view is magnificent: for 18 miles from the com- 



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54 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

mencement of the ascent of the Blue Mountains at 
Emu Rains, the slope is gradual ; ft^m thence to 
the 26th mile is a succession of steep and rugged 
hills, some almost so abrupt as to deny a passage 
across them to King's table land, on the S.W. of 
which the mountain terminates in lofty precipices, 
at whose base is seen the beautiful Prince Regent's 
Glen, about 24 miles in length. From Mount York 
(3292 feet high) the view is superbly magnificent 
— ^mountains rising beyond mountains, clothed with 
impenetrable forests, and buttressed with stupendous 
masses of rock in the foreground, llie Vale of 
Clwdd (2496 feet above the sea) runs along the 
foot of Mount York, extending six miles in a Westerly 
direction, its rich soil irrigated by Cox's River, which 
runs Easterly into the Hawkesbury, while eight miles 
further again to the left, the Fish River, rising in 
Clarence Range, runs westerly into the Macquarie, 
forming the boundary line between Westmoreland 
and Roxburgh counties. 

Bathurst County is bounded on the N.E. by the 
River Campbell from Pepper Creek, and the River 
Macquarie to the Currigurra Rivulet : on the N.W. 
by that Rivulet, the Callalia Rivulet, and a line of 
marked trees to the Molong River : on the W. by 
that river and a range of hills, named Panuara 
Range, to the Panuara Rivulet : and by the upper 
part of Limestone Creek from its junction with the 
Belubula; and on the S. by the road to Dunn's 
Plains, and by Pepper Creek to its junction with the 
River Campbell first mentioned. It is in its extreme 
length 72 miles, and in breadth 68, with a superfi- 



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C0UKTIB8. 55 

oial area of 1860 square miles: this transalpine 
country is of recent discovery, being considered in- 
accessible until 1813. It consists in general of 
broken table land, in some places forming extensive 
downs, without a tree, such as Bathurst Plains, which 
indude 50,000 acres. Occasional open downs of 
this description extend along the banks of the Mac- 
^larie for full li20 miles. They are not unlike the 
Brighton Downs; but with this remarkable pecu- 
liarity, that on the summits of some of the elevations 
or knolls, there are found dangerous quagmires or 
bogs> resembling sometimes a pond tiiat has been 
dried, but at other times concealed by a rich verdure. 
' Fairy Rings' are frequent, and on most of them grow 
fungi of a large size. Bathurst county is one of the 
most flourishing districts in the colony ; its society 
exodlent — ^its resources, as a fine-woolled sheep farm- 
ing district, considerate; and so salubrious is the 
climate that the first natural death did not occur 
until 1826 — twelve years ^it&c its settlement. Bar 
tiiurst town is in 33.24.30. S. lat., and 149.29.30. £. 
long., 27| miles N. of Government House, Sydney, 
and 94J W., bearing W. 18.20, N., 83 geographical 
or 95| statute miles, and, by the road, distant 121 
miles. The town is flourishing, and has its literary 
institution, pack of hounds, &c. 

Roxburgh County is bounded on the N.E. by the 
dividing range from the head of the Capertee Rivu- 
let, to that of the Cudjeegong River; and by the 
Cu^eegong River to a point 15 miles above its junc- 
tion with Lawson's Creek : on the N.W. by a line 
thence to the River Macquarie, at the northern angle 



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56 NSW SOUTH WALES. 

of the county of Bathurst : on the S. by the Fish 
River and the Mount Blaxland Road, to the crest of 
the range which separates the waters of the Fish 
River from those of Cox's River, and on the E. by 
that range to the point over Capertee, as above men- 
tioned : in length 53 miles, and in breadth 43 ; with 
a superficial area of 1519 square miles. The county 
is hiUy and broken, but abounding in good pas- 
turage. 

Wellington County, to the N.W. of the preceding, 
is bounded on the N.E. by the River Cudjeegong : 
on the W. by the present boundary of the Colony to 
the Station at Wellmgton Valley : on the S.W. by 
the River Macquarie to the Gurriguarra Rivulet, and 
on the S.E. by the boundary of Roxburgh > it is 70 
miles long by 51 broad, and partakes of the general 
features of the preceding county. One fine dale, 
termed Wellington Valley, is well adapted for the 
grazier or agriculturist. 

Philip County to the Ei^ bounded on the N. by 
the River Goulbum : on the N.W. by a natural line, 
to be surveyed, across the range to the Cudjeegong 
River to its source ;• and on the S.E. by the north- 
western boundary of the county of Hunter : length 
62, breadth 38, and area 1618 square miles. 

Bligh County is bounded on the N. by the range 
of mountains extending from Pandora's Pass, W. 
and forming the present prescribed boundary of the 
colony : on the W. by the western limit of the co- 
lony : on the S. W. by the Cudjeegong River to 
Waldrar Creek ; and from Waldrar Creek by a N.E. 
line across the mountains to the south-western angle 



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COUNTIVS. 57 

of the county of Brisbane : the area it is not possi- 
ble to state accurately. 

Brisbane County is bounded on the E. by the River 
Hunter, and the western boundary of Durham : on 
the N. by the great mountain range, the northern 
boundary of the country at present prescribed for 
location to settlers : on the W. and S. by the River 
Goulburn, which joins the Hunter near the S.W. 
angle of Durham : length 90 miles, by 40 breadth, 
and area 2344 square miles. 

Of these counties little is yet known accurately ; 
they consist of ranges of table land, with occasional 
plains and valleys. Several mountain peaks rise to 
confflderable elevation, and through Philip county 
there is a lofty range running nearly N. and S. 

Hunter County is bounded on the N. by the River 
Hunter, the Goulbum, and a natural boundary, still 
to be surveyed, between it and the county of Philip : 
on the W. by the dividing range which separates it 
from Roxburgh : on the S. by the range which 
separates it from the counties of Cook and Northum-* 
berland, and on the E. by Wollombi Brook, to its 
junction with the Himter. Length 71 miles, breadth 
47, and area 2056 square miles. 

. Northumberland County, which intervenes between 
Hunter county and the sea, is one of the finest in 
the colony : it is bounded on the N. by the River 
Hunter, and on the S. by the Hawkesbury ; its length 
being 61 miles, breadth 50, with an area of 2342 
square miles. Its general aspect is a series of un- 
dulations and elevated plains, intersected by nu- 
merous creeks, streams, and rivulets. The fine 



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58 NEW SOUTH WALKS. 

River Hunter affords a water communication through- 
out its northern boundary, and along its alluvial 
banks, some of the most flourishing fiarms and es- 
tates in the colony are situate. Newcastle, the ma- 
ritime town of the county, is situate on the sea coast, 
and fast rising into eminence, not less by reason of 
its position at the commencement of the navigation 
of the Hunter, than from the locality of the coal 
mines, now actively worked. 

Maitland, on the Hunter, distant 25 miles from 
Newcastle, with 1500 inhabitants, and the seat of 
the county executive, is a neat and flourishing set- 
tlement. 

Gloucester County (comprising the Australian 
Agricultural Company's grant of a million of acres) 
is bounded on the N. by the River Manning: on 
the S. by the sea coast : and on the W. by a line 
due S. to the River Thalaba; and by William's 
River to the sea coast : length 74, breadth 69, and 
area 2701 square miles. This county partakes of 
the general features of the territories bef(»re de- 
scribed; it possesses the fine harbour and rising 
town of Port Stephens, and is well watered. To 
the northward, is the rich county termed Port Mac- 
quarie, now thrown open to settlers. 

West of Gloucester, is the large county of Dur^ 
ham, bounded on the E. by William's River and the 
Church Lands adjoining on the Australian Agrioil- 
tural Company's grant: on the N. by the opp^ 
part of the River Manning, and the range of Mount 
Royal ; and on the W. and S. by the River Hunter, 
to the junction of William's River above mentioned* 



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COUNtlBfl. 59 

Length 60, breadth 40, and area 2117 square 
miles. 

The only other counties yet laid down are situate 
to the S. of Bathurst. 

GeorgiatM County h bounded on the N. by the 
county of Bathnrst : on the W. by a natural line, to 
be surveyed : on the S. by the county of King ; and 
on the E. by the counties of Argyle and Westmore« 
land. Length 55, breadth 50, and area 1924 square 
miles. 

King's County is bounded on the E. by the county 
of Argyle, and the UOTthem portion of the western 
shore of Lake George : on the S. by the county (^ 
Murray, and on the N. and W. by natural boun- 
daries, still to be surveyed. Length 76, breadth 43, 
andarea 1781 miles. 

Murray County is bounded on the N. E. by Boro 
Creek, from its junction with the Shoalhaven River, 
to its source in the hill of Wolowolar ; by the range 
thence to Alianoyonyiga Mountain between liake 
George and Lake Bathurst, and by a watercourse 
descending from that mountain to Lake George; 
by Lake George to the hollow in the bight near the 
middle of its western shore ; and thence by a na^ 
tural line, to be surveyed, extending towards the Pic 
of Fabral: on the W. by the mountains of War- 
ragong : on the S. by a range extending eastward 
from Mount Murray by Tindery or the Twins, and 
a hue east from these Pica to the Shoalhaven Biv^ ; 
and on the E. by the Shoalhaven River to the junc- 
tion of Boro Creek above mentioned. Length 72» 
breadth 56, and area 2247 square miles. 



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60 NEW SOUTH WALKS. 

George Lake is near to the summit of the range 
dividing the E. and W. waters, being about 12 miles 
from the South Fish River, a branch of the Lachlan 
running into the great interior marshes. 

St, Vincent* 8 County, situate along the sea shore 
to the southward of Camden County, bounded on 
the N. and W. by the Shoalhaven Eiver ; is in length 
84 miles, with a breadth of 40, and an area of 2709 
square miles. 

These 19 counties, with the exception of Cum^ 
berland, Argyle, and Bathurst, are but imperfectly 
etplored ; but before quitting this geographical de- 
lineation of the territory, a few words regarding the 
adjacent country may be acceptable. 

To the northward, entering from Moreton Bay, 
in 28. S. lat. and 152. E. long., 77 miles from the 
settlement on the Brisbane River, there are vast 
plains or rising downs of a rich, black, and dry soil, 
timbered and covered with the most luxuriant herb- 
age, interspersed here and there with valleys, open 
woodlands, and even forest ranges, under a genial 
clime, and at an elevation of 1800 feet above the 
level of the sea. Between the parallels of 34. 
and 27. there is a vast area of depressed coun- 
try, the dip of its several rivers being to N.W.W. 
and N.W. ; thus favouring the opinion that some 
vast lake exists in the interior of Australia, which 
has its ultimate discharge upon the N.W. coast. 
Indeed, the natives report that a vast inland sea 
exists. To the W. and S.W. of Sydney a chain of 
plains extends for ISO miles, destitute of trees, and as 
far as the eye extends, the flat surfetce is bounded 



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COUNTIES. 61 

only by the horizon, the elevation of these Australian 
steppes being not more than 250 feet above the 
level of the sea. In these vast plains a mirage is 
observable, before the snn has risen many degrees 
above the horizon. In one direction were observed 
the few straggling trees, the line of which separated 
one plain from another, with their rounded heads 
suspended in the air, being apparently separated 
from their trunks by a watery medium ; whilst, in 
another direction, was distinctly traced, on the 
verge of the distant horizon, an outline of hills, 
with pointed or conical summits, and bluff preci- 
pitous terminations. These, however, had no actual 
existence ; for no sooner had the day advanced, than 
the cone became truncated, the aerial ridge began 
to break and dissolve, until the whole finally dis- 
appeared. Proceeding southerly, we arrive at the 
vast plains called the Brisbane Downs, (Monaroo, in 
the native language), which were discovered by a 
naval officer in 1823. These fine sheep walks lie 
immediately to the eastward of the meridian of 149., 
extending upwards of 40 miles to "the southward of 
the parallel of 36.15, which appears to be the lati- 
tude of their northern skirts. They are further de- 
scribed as being bounded on tiie E. by the coast range 
of hills, which give an interior or westerly direction 
to the coast range of the streams, by which they are 
permanently watered ; and on their western side the 
downs are bounded by the lofty Australian Alps, 
known by the name of the Warragong chain. The 
elevation of these vast natural savannahs above the 



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62 NBW SOUTH WAL£S. 

level of the sea, (which is distant to the eastward 
about 70 miks), cannot be less than 2,000 feet, and 
with a delicious climate, and abundant pasturage, 
they offer means of extending the breed of fine 
wooled sheep, ad wfinitum. 

A new settlement has been recently formed at Port 
Philip, on the S. E. coast. The country in this part 
is Tery fine, and the approach from Mount Macedon, 
25 miles N. W. of the settlement, is thus described 
by Major Mitchell, to whose skill, perseverance^ and 
philanthropy, the colony is much indebted. This 
exc^ent surveyor-general of N. S. Wales says 
" We entered upon a magnificent piece of country, 
and continued on it, fc»- at least a dozen miles, to- 
wards Mount Macedon : through it the Campaspe 
(or a water we take to be the Campaspe) flows, 
sometimes in a (teepish glen, sometimes in an open 
hollow, sometimes in the form of lagoons, without 
perceptible current, sometimes in a trickling small 
stream, through the reeds or grass ; but the country 
itself is superb » the soil very ridb, and well clothed 
with grass, with* very few ^ees, certainly with no 
m(n*e tlmn required for ornament, and they are not 
the gums, but wattles of different kinds, forest oaks, 
honeysuckles, &c., and a great portion is, totally de- 
void of trees. The surface of the ground is also 
beaudfully divermfied by all manner of slopes and 
plains, and vales, also a few hills« beautifully wooded. 
There are thousands of acres ready for the plough, 
and capable of growing any European grain." 

After some forced marches to readi Port PhiHp on 
2 



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COUNTIBS. 63 

the Ist of June, the day on which the buildmg allot* 
ments for the town were to be sold. Major M« pro- 
ceeds: 

" The country we passed through was, if anything, 
finer than any we had seen the day before ; even up 
to the township it was beautiful and good ; plains and 
downs almost clear of timber, and open forest. Here 
are beautiful sites for suburban villas, if (as most 
likely it will) this should ever become a town of im- 
portance. The site of the town is very pretty and 
well chosen; it is on the Yarra Yarra river, just 
where its waters flow over a ' fiedl,' and mingle with 
the salt water from the bar of Pbrt Philip ; follow- 
ing the course of the river, it is about eight miles 
distant from the head of the bay of Fort Philip ; but 
across the land, not more than one and a half : where 
the^vessels generally lie, it is called Hobson's Bay, dis- 
tant by land four or five miles, by water ten or twelve, 
On the westernmost shore of that bay is another 
township, called William's Town, but it is at present 
destitute of water, and no means of supply are at 
present apparent, so that it may have that great 
drawback to contend against. Vessels of greater 
depth of water than seven or dght feet, are prevented 
coming up to this place, called Melbourne, by a bar 
at the entrance of the river ; but, excq)t on this bar, 
there is plenty of water in the river, and steamers 
will doubtless at no distant day come up to the town« 
Though it is upwards of two years since the first 
settlers came over here with their sheep from Van 
Di^nen's Land, and they have continued to come 
ever since, it is only about six or seven months, 

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64 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

since Goverament had any establishments or autho- 
rity here, and within this period its growth has been 
most rapid. It appears by the records kept since 
the arrival of a commandant, comptroller of the 
customs, &c., that 30,353 sheep, 500 head of homed 
cattle, and 80 horses have been imported from Van 
Diemen's Land. During the last three months the 
customs duties have amounted to 500/. (no duty is 
levied on live stock), and it is calculated that there 
is now here a population of 800 souls. The town 
(mfuturo) seems comparatively crowded with inha- 
bitants, but without habitations. They come so fast 
that it is impossible to provide themselves with houses, 
and they are living in tents and huts of all manner of 
shapes. Indeed, no one liked to erect habitations on 
ground not their own, and which might so soon be 
brought to public sale by Government, so that the 
place had a most rude and motley appearance. It 
was high time that the lines of the town and streets 
were fixed, and allotments sold ; and this has been 
done, and 100 half-acre allotments were this day dis- 
posed of by auction. You would scarcely credit the 
competition there has been to secure these allot- 
ments, nor suppose that so many persons could have 
congregated at a sale here. I am sure there were 
200 persons present, and the half- acre allotments 
fetched from 18/. to 95/. each, averaging 38/. each. 
Now I suppose the buyers will immediately com- 
mence to bmld, and in a very short time we shall 
see a great many houses erected. I have not the 
least doubt, that this settlement will rise more rapidly 
than any in this colony was ever known to do, and 



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COUNTISS. 65 

that it will soon become one of the most important 
and flomishing districts, of the colony. With so 
much good land in the neighbourhood of a sea-port 
and with so fine a country Jbr sheep all around it, 
whilst the elder colonies within any reasonable dis- 
tance of the coast, are already overstocked, there is 
nothing can prevent its becoming populated and 
prosperous. I had no idea of the value of this part 
of New Holland until I saw it, but now I am con- 
vinced it must become the most important portion 
of it. It is too fieur more centrical than the elder 
colony to the northward." 

The stock of sheep in the vicinity of Port Philip, 
at present, considerably exceeds 200,000 ; and the 
town has made considerable progress. 

The following description of the country around 
Port Philip is from the papers J. H. Wedge, Esq. of 
the Survey Department, and from the Van Diemen's 
Land Almanack for 1837. 

"The peninsula of Indented ^i?a(^ comprises an area 
of about one hundred thousand acres. It is bounded 
on the west by the Barwum, a river discovered by 
Mr. Wedge, which empties itself into Bass's Strait, 
a few miles to the west of Indented Head, and its 
course passes within about three miles of the western 
extremity of Port Philip. The eastern part of the 
peninsula for about four or five miles from the margin 
of the Port, is a low and flat surface, composed of a 
light sand soil, covered with grass. It is thinly 
clothed with the comtmon species of Banksia, Castui' 
rinUi and Eucalyptus. The surface then gently un- 
dulates into low hills or downs, with a soil of richer 



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66 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

quality and grass more luxuriant than on the plains. 
The altitude of these hills gradually lowers towards 
the west, until they terminate on the Barwum, in 
some places in steep or precipitous banks varying 
from thirty to sixty feet. This river runs at this 
place on a level surface, is generally salt or brackish, 
and is subject to the influence of the tides. It is 
joined about three miles from the western extremity 
of the Port by another river. The scarcity of fresh 
water makes it in some parts ineligible for sheep 
farming. On the peninsula, however, there are many 
small pools, which are occasionally drunk by the 
natives, but the water is brackish and disagreeable 
to drink, though not as far as the experience of the 
settlers has yet gone, of unwholesome quality. 

"At the junction, the river running from the north 
coast is called Yaloak by the natives, the other coming 
from the westward was named the Byron by Mr. 
Wedge. Into this last, about ten or twelve miles up 
another stream falls, named also by Mr. Wedge the 
Leigh. These rivers pass through very extensive 
open plains, reaching much farther than the eye can 
see, and from the information given by Buckley, at 
least one hundred, or a hundred and fifty miles to 
the westward. 

"About fifteen miles in a south west direction from 
the junction of the Byron with the Yaloak, is a lake 
called by the natives Moderwarrie. The intermediate 
country called BorrobuU, consists of grassy hills of 
moderate elevation, thinly covered with she oak, 
(casuarina) and round the lake an undulating grassy 
country thinly wooded, extends to the westward. 



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C0(7NTI£S. 67 

"On approaching the coast towards the soath, the 
country gradually becomes more thickly timbered 
and the soil not so good. From this point the line 
of the coast bears south west to Cape Otway, the 
country being hilly and thickly wooded, unfit from 
appearance for agricultural purposes. / 

" Near the northern extremity of the Port, and about 
three or four miles from it, two rivers form a junction, 
the one flowing from the north, and the other called 
the Yara-yara, or waterfall, from the east. They are 
both navigable for vessels of about 60 tons for fiY^ 
or six miles above the junction. A bar at the mouth 
precludes the entrance of larger vessels. Up to the 
bar vessels of the largest burden, however, can ap- 
proach and find secure anchorage. 

"The country between these rivers extending north- 
ward forty or fifty miles, and to the east about twenty- 
five miles to a chain of mountains, running from the 
back of Western Port in a northern direction, imdulated 
with valleys between. It is moderately wooded ex- 
cept towards the north, where open plains stretch 
along. The soil is a sandy loam of good quality, 
occasionally in the lower parts very rich. It is every 
where closely covered with grass, rib grass, and other 
herbs. The head of the salt water in each river will 
form eUgible sites for townships, as well as the point 
near the anchorage for large vessels, at which last, 
however, it is to be regretted there is no supply of 
fresh water. 

" The river, which flows from the east, is called by 
the natives Yara-yara. The country between the river 
coming from the north and the western extremity of 
F 2 

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68 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

the port, extending about twenty-five miles inland, 
is open, and partakes of the nature of downs, the 
whole being covered with a slender grass, growing 
on a stiff and shallow soil. About midway a stream, 
called the Weiribie, falls into the port. It has a bar 
at its mouth with about three feet at low water. A 
mount called Villanenata by the natives, at a range 
of hills, which bounds the plains on the north west, 
has been fixed by the Company as a station. With 
the exception of the mount, the country in this neigh- 
bourhood is woody. Along the course of the river 
just mentioned, and along the shore of the port the 
plains are quite open, affording in all places valuable 
sheep stations for breeding flocks, although it is not 
improbable they may be sometimes visited with 
drought in dry summers. It is to be remarked, 
however, that the prevailing winds are from the west 
and south, which usually bring rains with them. 
Very heavy dews also are very common. To the 
north and west of these plains, the country is broken 
and hilly, and extensively adapted for pastoral pur- 
poses." 

Mountains. — ^The principal range in the colony 
is that termed the Blue Mountains, which, rising with 
a nearly perpendicular elevation of from 3 to 4000 
feet^ seem like a mighty bastion, to cut oflf all 
communication with the interior. A period of 25 
years elapsed after the settlement of the colony in 
New South Wales, before these mountains were 

* The summjt of a hiU, two miles to the northward of 
SwanEeld, is 4034 feet. 



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MOUNTAINS. 69 

passed ; their summits were considered inaccessible, 
and even the aborigines declared there was no pass 
into the interior. A season of drought, in 1 81 3, com- 
pelled the colonists to search for new pasturage, and, 
by following the course of the Grose River, a pass 
was at last found by Messrs. Blaxland, Wentworth, 
and Lawson, and a road commenced in the following 
year. This range, as before observed, runs nearly N. 
and S., in some places approaching within 30 miles 
of the sea shore, and, in others, receding to 60 or 90 
miles : the country beyond descending to the W. : 
thus shewing a dividing range for the rivers, flowing 
from their lofty summits. Some mountains to the 
northward of 32. are considered to be 6000 feet 
high, (Mount Lindsay, at Moreton Bay, as measured 
by Mr. Cunningham, is 5700 feet above the sea), 
and the Warrangong range, or Australian Alps, in 
36. S. lat., are covered with perpetual snow, and 
appear to extend, without interruption, to Wilson's 
Promontory, the southernmost extremity of Aus- 
tralia. 

A noble range of mountains caUed the Grampians 
discovered in 1836 by Major Mitchell, situated in 
what he aptly terms " Australia Felix" between the 
parallelsof 142. 1 43 E. long., and 37. and 38. S. lat., to 
the north of Portland Bay. One of this range. 
Mount William, is 4500 feet high ; was ascended by 
the above named excellent officer during his survey 
in 1 836, and a night of great danger and suffering 
spent on its summit. The country around is superb. 

Whether there be any volcanic mountains in acti- 
vity in Australia it is difficult to say : there are, in 



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70 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

many places, traces of volcanic action, and a burning 
mountain, without a crater, and devoid of lava, has 
been, within these few years, discovered in the vici- 
nity of Hunter's River, and named Mount Wingen, 
the aboriginal name for fire. Mount Wingen is situ- 
ate on the S.E. side of the dividing range, which 
separates the lands of Hunter's River from Liverpool 
Plains, in lat. 31.54 S., long. 150.56 E., the elevated 
portion, under the process of combustion, being about 
1500 feet above the level of the sea. From innumerable 
cracks and fissures on its surface, a sulphureous flame 
constantly issues, scarcely visible by day, but dis- 
cernible at night, as a steady blaze. The mountain 
has been several times visited * within the last four 
years, and it would appear that the subterraneous 
fire, as it increases, forms several chasms in the super- 
incumbent solid sandstone rock. On looking down 
one of these, to the depth of 15 feet, the sides of the 
rock were perceived to be of a white heat, like that 
of a limekiln, while sulphureous and steamy vapours 
arose from the aperture, amidst sounds and blasts, 
which might be supposed to ascend from the eternal 
forge of Vulcan himself. On hurhng stones down 
the chasm, the noise made in the fall seemed to die 
away in a vast abyss. The area of the mountain over 
which the fire is raging, is at present upwards of 
two acres, and its extent is continually increasing as 
the fury of the vast internal combustion augments ; 
from the numerous chasms are constantly emitted 

* By the intelligent Rev. C. P. N. Wilton, whose scientific 
knowledge and philanthropic pursuits have conferred much 
benefit on Australia. 



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VOLCANO. 71 

sulphureous columns of smoke, accompanied by a 
brilliant flame ; the margins of the ohasms are beau- 
tified with efflorescent crystals of sulphur, varying 
in colour, from the deepest red orange, occasioned 
by ferruginous mixture, to the palest straw colour, 
^where alum predominates. A black, tarry, and lus- 
trous substance, somewhat like bitumen, abounds 
on the edges of these cliffs, specimens of which are 
with difficulty obtained, owing to the intense heat 
under-foot, and the suffocating quality of the vapours 
emitted from the chasms. No lava or trachyte of 
any description is to be met with, nor is there any 
appearance of coal, although it abounds in the vici- 
nity. Moimt Wingen has, evidently, been on fire 
for a great length of time ; several acres of the part 
now under combustion, (on which trees are stand- 
ing, of great age), having, as it were, been steamed ; 
and many of the stones bear the marks of vitrifica- 
tion. When visited in 1829 by Major Mitchell, thin 
blue smoke ascended from rents and fissures, the 
breadth of the widest measuring about a yard : red- 
heat appeared at a depth of four fathoms. Mr. 
"Wilton says, the roar of the famace beneath has 
augmented, after an interval of two years, and that 
the stones, thrown down into the chasms, resounded 
to a greater depth into the interior of the abyss than 
on his former visit. The wide seams of disruption ; 
the rocks of solid sandstone cleft asunder ; the innu- 
merable fractures made on the surface ; the falling in 
of the strata ; the half-consumed prostrate trunks of 
trees ; the pernicious vapours rising around, amidst 
the roaring of the fires, and the white and red heat 



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72 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

of the burning crevices, present an awM appearance. 
It is supposed by some that Mount Wingen owes its 
burning character to the same cause as that of 
Holworth, in the neighboiu'hood of Weymouth: 
namely that rain water acting on iron pyrites has set 
fire to the bituminous shale; ignition having once 
commenced, combustion, smouldering or active, is car- 
ried on according to circumstances. 

Rivers. — Australia has long been considered as 
presenting an exception to other great territorial 
portions of the earth, in being destitute of large na- 
vigable rivers. This opinion, however, has, I think, 
been too hastily formed : we should, first, tho- 
roughly explore the north and west shores, before 
deciding conclusively on the subject ; and expe- 
rience is daily convincing us, that new streams and 
rivers are now being discovered, where, formerly, it 
was believed none existed. To commence with 
those streams which are, properly speaking, within 
the present boundaries of the colony ; — Paramatta * 
River may almost be considered a narrow continua- 

* I have already observed, that the native names of places 
in New South Wales are more musical than those which Eu- 
ropeans have bestowed. Paramatta is an aboriginal term, and 
given, as all the other cognomens are, in reference to some 
peculiar appearance or quality of the place named. Dr. Lang 
has thus expressed himself on t)ie subject, in mentioning dif- 
ferent well-known places : — * I like the native names, as Para- 
matta; Illawarra, and WooUoomooloo ; — Nandowra, Wooga- 
rora, Bulkomatta ; — Tomah, Toongabbee, Mittagong, Murroo ; 
— Buckobble, Cumleroy, and Coolingatta ; the Warragumby, 
Bargo, Monaroo; — Cookbundoon, Carrabaiga, Wingycarrib- 
bee ; the Wollondilly, Yurombon, Bungarribbee.' 



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RIVERS. 73 

tion of Port Jackson, rather than a river ; the dis- 
tance between Sydney and Paramatta is about 18 
miles, and the navigation, in two places, rather 
shallow. A steam-boat communication is now es- 
tablished between the capital and second town in 
the colony; and the lovers of picturesque scenery 
may be amply gratified by a trip up this long arm 
of the sea. 

The Hawkesbury, which is a continuation of the 
Nepean River, after the junction of the latter with 
a considerable stream, called the Grose, issues from 
a remarkable cleft in the' Blue Mountains, in the 
vicinity of the beautiful town of Richmond, about 
40 iniles from Sydney. Along the base of these 
mountains, the Hawkesbury flows in a northerly di- 
rection, fed by numerous tributary mountain torrents 
descending from narrow gorges, which, after heavy 
rains, cause the Hawkesbury to rise, and overflow 
its banks as it approaches the sea ; in one instance 
it rose, near the town of Windsor, 97 feet above its 
ordinary level. The Hawkesbury disembogues into 
an excellent harbour, about 14 miles to the north- 
ward of Port Jackson, called Broken Bay. As the 
river is traced inland, it becomes extremely tortuous, 
the distance of Windsor (which is built on the 
Hawkesbury) from the sea, in a direct line, being not 
more than 35 miles, but, by the windings of the 
river, 140 miles ; the rise of tide is about four feet, 
and the water fresh 40 miles below Windsor. As ob- 
served in another place, the Hawkesbury is navigable 
for vessels of 100 tons, for four miles above Wind- 
sor, but its navigation is impeded by some shallows. 



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74 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

after beiog joined by the Nepean ; a few portages 
would, however, considerably extend the navigation 
for boats of large burden. The scenery along the 
Nepean is magnificent ; for immediately above the 
river, the Blue Mountains rise in frowning majesty, 
to a perpendicular height of nearly 3000 feet, while 
along the fertile borders of the placid stream are 
fields of wheat, barley, maize, beans, pease, clover, 
&c. to the extent of several thousand acres. The 
point where I first saw the Nepean river, was at the 
estate of Mr. S. Terry, a very wealthy emancipist. 
As far as the eye could reach, nothing was to be 
seen but the yeUow waving cord, save where the 
view was bounded by the gigantic buttresses of the 
stupendous Blue Mountains. I never beheld a finer 
farm in Europe than Mr. Terry's; and, while de- 
lighted with the cheerful scene, I could not help 
feeling proud of my country, that had thus extracted 
from the stubborn soil of a distant land, and the 
errors of her children, such admirable results. 

Hunter's River, about 70 miles to the northward 
of Port Jackson, disembogues into the sea at the 
harbour of Newcastle : so called on account of the 
coal mines discovered in its neighbourhood. It is 
safe and sufficiently capacious for vessels of 300 
tons burden. The town is situate on the slope of a 
hill, presenting an abrupt front of sandstone rock 
towards the sea. The river, which has its rise from 
several streams in the Blue Mountains, is navigable 
for 50 miles from Newcastle, by small craft of 30 or 
40 tons burden ; beyond this distance there are 
several shallows, which only admit the passage of 



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RIVBRS. 75 

boats over them. There are three branches to the 
Hunter, called the upper, the lower, and the middle ; 
the two former are navigable for boats for about 120 
miles, and the latter for upwards of 200 miles, but 
the branches are all liable to sudden and terrific in- 
undations, owing to the rapid descent of torrents 
from the Blue Mountains. In consequence of the 
fertiUty of the soil along the Hunter, and the estent 
of water communicatiom which exists, this district is 
one of the finest in the colony. A large number of 
respectable farms belonging to emigrants are situate 
along the river, and the country wears an aspect 
similar to that of the richest pastoral scenery in 
Devonshire. The valley of WoUombi extends in a 
northerly direction towards Hunter's River, for about 
30 miles. It is bounded on either side by mountain 
ranges, covered with timber to their summits. Nu- 
merous valleys, or, as the settlers call them, arms, 
branch oflf on either side ; some extending 20 or 30 
miles among the mountains, all abounding in excel- 
lent pasture, and affording sustenance to numerous 
flocks of sheeps, and herds of cattle that pasture 
amidst this wild and beautiful scenery. 

Port Stephens, 20 miles to the northward of New- 
castle, and the chief settlement of the Australian 
Agricultural Company, is a good haven ; but the 
river Karuah, communicating with the interior, is 
small. The river Myall, which disembogues into 
Port Stephens, opens into some extensive lakes, 
situate along the coast, separated only by a narrow 
strip of land from the ocean. 

Manning River, forming the northern boundary of 



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76 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

the county of Gloucester, disembogues by several 
mouths, and without offering any harbour except 
for boats, to which, indeed, the navigation of the 
river is confined. There is good soil on the Man- 
ning, which, together with the beauty of the scenery, 
has tempted several settlers to locate themselves 
there. The Manning has a long course westerly to 
the dividing range of hills, from the opposite side 
of which the Peel river is given off to flow towards 
the unknown interior. 

Hastings River, the sea entrance to which is the 
large harbour of Port Macquarie, about 220 miles 
N.E. of Port Jackson, (lat. 31.25.45. S., long. 
152.53.54. E.,) rises in the parallel of 33|. S. and 
under the meridian of 150 E., having a course of 
2045 statute miles, throughout which, the elevation 
of its source being 3500 feet above the level of the 
sea, would give its waters an average descent of 20 
inches in each mile, supposing the bed of the river 
to be an inclined plane *. Port Macquarie is a bar 
harbour, with at least nine feet at low water spring 
tides. The bar, which is of soft sand, extends for 
200 yards; beyond which the water immediately 
deepens to two and three fathoms ; within the port, 
the soundings are five and six fathoms, which depth 
continues for nearly ten miles, when shoals confine 
the navigation to craft drawing six or eight feet. 
That depth continues for eight miles, where the ra- 

* The beds of rivers are not thus generally formed ; their 
declination being, more usually, a succession of inclined chan- 
nels, whose slopes diminish gradually as the river approaches 
the sea. 



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RIVERS i 77 

pids commence. The cotmtry bordering ou the 
Hastmgs is a pleasing undulation of hill and dale, 
richly clothed with timber : to the N.E. the river 
opens into reaches of great width and beauty, and 
extending to the sea, while a few miles to the N. 
and to the S.E. are some extensive lakes or lagoons, 
which have a communication with the ocean. The 
fine country around this port and river, long kept as 
a penal settlement, is now thrown open for the re- 
ception of emigrants, who are fast locating them- 
selves in different directions. 

Brisbane River, which disembogues into Moreton 
Bay, (lat. 27.1. S., long, 153.26. E.) was discovered 
so recently as 1823; its source is in the mountain 
ranges to the N. (the principal branch is in 26.52 
N. lat.) but it receives several considerable streams 
in its course, which, together with the main river, 
traverse a large extent of beautiful country, capable 
of supporting a numerous population, and of pro- 
ducing, in abundance, the tropical products of sugar, 
cotton, coffee, silk, tobacco, &c. The Bay is said to 
be 60 miles in extent ; it is sheltered by an island, 
and, on the bar there is a depth of 18 feet. Mr. 
Oxley, the late Surveyor-General of New South 
Wales, who discovered the river, says, ' at sunset we 
had proceeded about 20 miles up the river : the sce- 
nery was peculiarly beautiful ; the country along the 
banks alternately hilly and level, but not flooded; 
the soil of the finest description of brushwood land, 
on which grew timber of great magnitude ; in par- 
ticular, a magnificent species of pine was in abund- 
ance. At this point, the river was navigable for 
2 



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78 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

vessels drawing 16 feet water, and for 30 miles 
farther, no diminution had taken place in the breadth 
or depth of the river, excepting in one place, for the 
extent of about 30 yards, where a ridge of detached 
rocks extended across, having not more than 12 feet 
on them at high water. The tide ascends daily 50 
miles above the Brisbane's mouth, flowing also up 
the Bremer, the depth of whose channd it augments 
by eight or more feet.' 

The country, so far as it has been explored, is of 
a very superior description, and equally well adapted 
for cultivation or grazing. Some of the pine trees 
measure upwards of 30 inches in diameter, and from 
50 to 80 feet without a branch. This fine territory 
is not yet included within the space where land may 
be occupied by emigrants, there being a penal settle- 
ment on the Brisbane River, at Moreton Bay ; but 
the time is not far distant when the land will be 
thrown open to settlers from the mother country. 

Darling River is supposed to be formed by the 
junction of numerous streams in the interior, to the 
westward of Moreton Bay, draining a tract of moun- 
tainous country, lying between fhe parallels of 27. 
and 33|., and which, pursuing a southerly course, is 
conjectured to be the same river, which unites its 
waters with those of the Murray and Morrumbidgee, 
finally disemboguing into Lake Alexandrina at En- 
counter Bay, on the southern coast. It was disco- 
vered by Captain Sturt in 1829, and traced for 40 
miles through a level country to the S.W., as far as 
30.16. S. lat., 144.50. E. long., the breadth being 
about 60 yards, and its boundary banks 30 to 40 



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RIYBRB. 79 

feet in height. The water of the Darling, according 
to Capt. Sturt, was found perfectly salt, and becom- 
ing more saline to the S.W. ; in one part, brine 
springs were observed, and the banks throughout 
were encrusted with salt. The want of fresh water 
in its neighbourhood prevented the Darling from 
being further explored. It was crowded with pehcans 
and other large aquatic birds. 

Major Mitchell was sent by Government to ex- 
plore the Darling River in 1835. He set out from 
Buree on the 5th April, along the high ground be- 
tween the rivers Lachlan and Macquarie. 

" By this line," he says, " we reached the river 
Darling, near the junction of New Year's Creek, in 
thirty-one days' travelling from Buree ; having found 
the country so favourable that it was never necessary 
to unload a dray or cut a way through scrub,. or to 
pass a night without water. On my right I had the 
waters of the Bogan, and on my left a connected 
chain of heights, whereof New Year's Range is the 
last. 

" We found the interior country parched by such 
excessive drought, that the swamp under Oxley's 
Table Land, mentioned by Captain Sturt, was com- 
pletely dry, and only a few ponds remained in the 
river Bogan (which is New Year's Creek of that tra- 
veller). Indeed, for three hundred miles below that 
creek, we drank no other water than that of the 
Darling. In this river there was a shght current, 
the quantity flowing in rapids being about as much 
as might be required to turn a mill. The water was 
in all parts as transparent as that of the purest 



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80 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

spring well, and it entirely lost all brackish taste 
below an extreme point of Dunlop's Range, where a 
hill consisting of a very hard breccia closes on the 
river so as to separate the plains above it from those 
lower down. The taste of the water was worst 
where the river is nearest to D'Urban's Group- 
above that, at the junction of New Year's Creek, and 
for seventeen miles from thence downwards, it was 
excellent. 

" "When the party first arrived on the Darling, I 
was induced, from the favourable appearance of the 
reaches, to try at what rate I might proceed on the 
river with the boats. It was necessary to rest and 
refresh the cattle after so long a journey, even had 
I possessed no other means of proceeding further. 
That part of the river bank which I fixed on for the 
dep6t, is situated about twelve miles below the junc- 
tion of New Year's Creek ; the position was natu- 
rally good, overhanging the river, and commanding 
a good run for the cattle ; but I strengthened it as a 
place of defence against the Natives, by cutting 
down the few trees on it, and erecting a block-house 
large enough to contain all our stores and equip- 
ment. It was called Fort Bourke. 

" On the Ist of June (the sixth day after our 
arrival) I proceeded down the river in the boats, 
with the greater portion of the party ; and on the 
following day we returned to the fort, having found 
too many shallow and rocky places in the river to 
admit of our making such progress as was neces- 
sary to enable us to accomplish the object of the ex- 
pedition. 



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BITERS. 81 

" Having next ascertained, by a reconnoissance I 
made as Har as Dunlop's Range, with a party on 
horseback, that the water below was good, and the 
country not nnfayourable to our further journey by 
land, we evacuated the dep6t on the 8th of June 
(the cattle having then rested two weeks) and pro- 
ceeded along the left bank of the Darling. 
^ " As the cattle became weaker, the country, as 
we descended became much more difficult for them 
to travel upon. It consisted chiefly of plains of naked 
earth too soft to retain roots, yet just tenacious enough 
to open in deep cracks, across which it was not al- 
ways safe to ride. Impassable hollows (covered with 
polygonum juncium) at length skuted'the river so ex- 
tensively, that we could seldom encamp within a 
mile of it, and sometimes not within three. Still we 
could not have existed there without the river, which 
contained the only water, and had on its banks the 
only grass for our cattle ; consequently it was neces- 
sary to send a separate party to remain with the cattle 
at the river, generally in the presence of natives, and 
it required the utmost vigilance on the part of these 
men every night, to prevent cattle getting bogged in 
the soft mud of the banks. 

." The interior coimtry westward of the Darling is 
diversified with detached groups of hills, and low 
ranges broken into portions resembling islands, but 
the general aspect thereof aflforded no indication of 
its having then any water on its surface. From two 
diflferent hills, each about twelve miles west of the 
Darling, and distant from each other about seventy 
miles, I obtained extensive views across the country, 

G 

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82 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

but 6*0111 neither of these heights could I perceive 
any smoke, or even any appearance of trees, the whole 
country being covered with one kind of bush, forming 
a thick scrub, with intervals rather more open, but 
strewed with smaller bushes. During the four 
winter months just past, no clouds gathered to any 
particular point of that horizon : no rain has fallen, 
neither has there been any dew, and the winds from 
the west and north-west, hot and parching, seemed 
to blow over a region in which no humidity re- 
mained. 

" The Darling did not, in a course of three hun- 
dred miles, receive a single river or chain of ponds 
from either side. Such was the extent of the plains 
on its banks, and the depth and absorbent quality of 
the soil, that much of the waters of high floods ap- 
pear to be retained therein, besides all the drainage 
from the back country. Thus the springs appear to 
be supplied, by which the river is sustained during 
the present season of drought. These absorbent 
plains extend to about five miles, on an average, 
from the river on each side, hills of soft red sand 
bound them, and recede about three miles further. 
Undulations of diluvial gravel (of a very hard sili- 
cious breccia) succeed, and skirt the base of the 
heights, which generally consist of primary sand- 
stone. 

" The country eastward of the river rises gradually 
backwards towards the hills, by which I advanced to 
the Darling. There the higher grounds are more 
connected, and send down chains of ponds, which 
appear to be absorbed in the plains. The same kind 



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RIVBR8. 83 

of bush however covers the first region of high ground 
back from the Darling on both sides, and the cha- 
racter of features, and direction of valleys were not 
very apparent from heights near this river. 

*' The general course of the Darling, as far as I 
had explored it (which was to the latitude of the 
head of Spencer's Gulf), is somewhat to the west of 
south-west (variation 8.27). This would tend to 
the westward of the head of Gulf St. Vincent, if 
the longitude of the Upper Darling were correct ; 
but I make the longitude of that river, on the pa- 
rallel of 30. south, nearly a degree more to the east- 
ward, and from that longitude, the general course 
tends much more nearly towards the supposed junc- 
tion below, although still considerably to the west of 
that point as laid down on maps. 

** Having measured the whole of our route, and 
surveyed the country as I proceeded, in continuation 
of my general survey of the Colony, I had thereby 
the means of ascertaining the longitude of points 
connected therewith. Thus I place, 



New Year's Range (clear hill), in 

longitude 146^53' 00"E. ' 

The latitude (by several observa- 
tions) being 39 27 45 S. 

Oxley's Table Land (south side) 
in longitude 146 

Latitude 30 

D* Urban' s Group (high south 

hill) longitude 145 43 30 E. 

Latitude 30 34 40 S. 

Fort Bourke, in longitude .... 145 52 12 E. 1 

Latitude 30 7 4 S. J 

g2 



:} 

16 9 E. I 
11 15 S.J 



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84 NEW SOUTH WALES 

The last mentioned, being an important station, 
accessible at all seasons by the line of the Bogan, 
and available for canying the sorvey into the more 
remote country, I have taken the liberty to distin- 
guish with the name of His Excellency the Go- 
vernor, under whose orders the survey of the co- 
lony has been connected with the geography of the 
interior. 

" From Fort Bourke I continued the survey of the 
Darling, by actual measurement, corrected by inter- 
secting distant points, and also by observations of 
latitude, to the termination of my journey in latitude 
32.24.20 S., and I make the longitude of that point, 
as deduced from this survey, 142.24.^6 E." 

Macquarie River, which is formed by the junction 
of the Fish and Campbell Rivers, after they issue 
from the Blue Mountains, near Bathurst and West- 
moreland counties, is like the former river, one of 
those large inland streams which have their origin in 
the tbrrents which descend from the western ridges 
of the dividing range of mountains that skirt the 
east coast of Australia. The Macqaarie takes a 
winding course through the plains to the N.W. ; in 
some places it is deep, broad, and navigable for large 
boats ; in others rapid, and obstructed by falls. In 
about 32J. S. lat. it is still from 20 to 60 yards wide, 
and 20 feet deep, with a current of 1| mile per hour. 
Thirty miles beyond this, the Macquarie begins to 
expand over the surrounding country, which declines 
rapidly towards the N.W., the whole area becoming, 
at last, a perfect sea, or, aftei* a dry season, covered 
with reeds. For 24 miles ftirther, the course, as 



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RIVERS. 85 

observed by Mr. Oxley, in 1818, was through a si- 
milar country ; he had lost sight of land and trees, 
the channel of the Macquarie winding through reeds, 
among which the water was about three feet deep ; 
suddenly, however, without any previous change in 
the breadth, depth, or rapidity of the stream, the 
Macquarie eluded all further pursuit, by spreading, 
at all points, from N.W. to N.E., over the plain; 
the river decreasing in depth from 20 to less than 
five feet, flowing over a bottom of tenacious mud 
day, the current still running with the same rapidity 
as when the water was confined within narrow banks. 
This point of junction with what Mr. Oxley sup- 
posed to be interior waters, or, rather, where the 
Macquarie ceased to be a river, was in 30.45. S. lat. 
147.10. E. long. These vast marshes, which Mr. 
Oxley found completely submerged in 1818, were, 
when visited by Captain Sturt in 1829, after the con- 
tinuance of a three years' drought, completely dried 
up, and exhibited an interminable expanse of arid 
soil. Major Mitchell also in a subsequent expedition 
found the same dry beds of former torrents. The 
country, for 100 miles distance to the N.W., 
was traversed, in 1829, by Captain Sturt, who at 
length reached a mountain, the height of which he 
estimated at 1300 feet; from the summit he had a 
view of other high lands to the N.W. On this 
slightly elevated table land are several detached coni- 
cal hills, covered for the most part with verdure; 
the positions of two of these isolated cones were 
ascertained to be as follows ; — Oxley's Table Land, 



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86 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

lat. 29.57.30. S.. long. 145.43.30. E. ; New Year's 
Range, lat. 30.21.00. S.,long. 146.33.30. E. 

The river Bell, or Molong, is one of the tributaries 
of the Macquarie, near Wellington Valley, about 170 
miles W. of Newcastle. The Cudgeegong, distant 50 
miles N. of Bathurst, is another tributary of the 
Macquarie ; and through this fine tract of country, a 
well-defined route for graziers, from Bathurst to the 
vast Liverpool plains, has been discovered by Mr. 
Allan Cunningham, who has devoted ten years of 
the prime of his life, and an energy and intelligence 
rarely equalled, to devdoping the geography of Aus- 
traha, as well as its botany and other branches of 
natural history. 

Lachlan River, having its origin in the Cullarin 
range of mountains, on the borders of Argyle 
county, after running a north-westerly course, 
loses itself in a marsh like the Macquarie, in nearly 
33. S. lat. but after passing through this marsh it 
is said to join the Morrumbidgee in 34|. S. lat. and 
143^. E. long. : in the parallel of 148. the Lachlan 
at 200 yards above the level of the sea is 40 yards 
wide, and navigable for large boats. 

The Morrumbidgee River has its origin in the 
western ridge of the dividing range of mountains in 
Murray county, about 200 miles S.W. of Sydney, in 
the parallel of 35. S., and under the meridian of 
149. E., at a distance of about 80 miles from the 
sea : after joining the Yass River, and other minor 
streams to the northward of 35. and in ]48|. E. 
long., the Morrumbidgee pursues a long and tor- 



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RIVERS. 87 

tuons course for upwards of 300 statute miles, 
widiout deriving the sli^test increase from the 
country it waters : as its course extends to the W. 
of the meridian of 147. the Morrumbidgee falls on 
a low level, the hills of sandstone rock, which 
give a picturesque appearance to the land on its 
banks, disappear higher up the stream, and flats of 
alluvial deposit occupy their place. The Morrum- 
bidgee expands itself in the marshes of the Lachlan, 
the two rivers uniting in about 34.20. S. lat. 143.57. 
E. long., flowing to the westward. These rivers 
traverse a great extent of fine country, adapted for 
the abode of man, offering to millions of the human 
race all the comforts that civilization and plenty 
can confer. 

The Murray River. Where this river rises (which 
is £ar superior in size to the Morrumbidgee and 
Lachlan united) we know not for certain ; Mr. 
Allan Cunningham thinks it formed by the junction 
of the Hume and Owens streams, which have their 
rise m the great Warragong chain, and were crossed 
by Messrs. Howell and Hume in their enterprising 
excursion to Port Philip in 1824, 250 statute 
miles nearer their source. Captain Sturt, at the 
dose of 1829, set out with a party to explore 
lliis country; after tracing, in a boat, the united 
waters of the Morrumbidgee and Lachlan for 90 
miles to the westward, through a level and mono- 
tonous country, the channel of the Morrumbidgee 
became much narrowed, and partially choked by 
drift-wood; when suddenly our adventurous coun- 
trymen found that the Morrumbidgee delivered its 



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8d NEW SOUTH WALBS. 

waters (as before stated) into the Murray — a broad 
and noble river, the current of which was setting 
to the westward, at the rate of 2| miles per hour, 
with a medium width from bank to bank of from 
300 to 400 feet. 

The Murray is found by the Darling (a large river 
from the N.E.) in about 34.40. S.lat.,and 142.3.26. 
E. long. The country then begins to rise to the 
N.W. for the first time during a course of 200 miles. 
The Murray, after receiving the Darling River, con- 
tinues its course upwards of a degree farther to the 
W., and in that space receives a second considerable 
stream, which disembogues on its left bank from the 
S.E *. The banks of the Murray here began to be 
elevated; and along its northern shore there ex- 
tended a range of cliffs, which appeared to the party, 
as they passed beneath them, to be of ' partial vol- 
canic origin.* These cliflfe were succeeded by banks 
of limestone on either side of the river, which forced 
its way through a glen of similar formation ; in its 
passage, frequently striking bases of precipices of the 
same formation, which rose to a perpendicular height 
of 200 feet, and in which ' coral and fossil remains 
were remarked to be plentifully imbedded. At this 
place the long ranges of forest hills, which extend 
along the E. shore of the Gulf of St. Vincent's, were 
discernible. At the meridian of 139|. the disposi- 

' Captain Sturt named this the Lindesay; but Mr. Cun- 
ningham thinks it the Goulhourriy discovered by Messrs Howell 
and Hume, in 1824, who forded the river, where its channel 
presented a breadth of eighty yards, and left it winding its 
coarse to the N.W. 



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RIVERS. 89 

tibn of the cMs gave the Murray a bend to the 
southward, through a continuation of the limestone 
glen, opening at length into a spacious valley. The 
river, which, throughout its long course from the 
eastward, had preserved a sandy bottom, now became 
* deep, still, and turbid ;* its course to the southward 
being in reaches of from two to four miles in length : 
upon passing the parallel of 35. a more open country 
appeared, the cliflfe partially giving place to pictu- 
resque hills and undulating plains, with thousands 
of acres of rich alluvial land. On the 32nd day 
of the voyage, from the dep6t formed near the 
junction of the Morrumbidgee and Lachlan, our 
persevering countr3nQaen entered upon a large lake, 
stretching far away to the S.W., estimated at from 
50 to 60 miles in length — 30 to 40 in breadth, 
with, however, but a medium depth of four feet. 
The waters of this large but shallow lake, now called 
Aleaandrina, were found to be brackish at seven miles 
distance from the mouth of the Murray, and at 21 
miles across perfectly salt, the influence of the tide 
being there felt. On the S. shore of Alexandrina, 
the navigation of the boats was interrupted by tiie 
mudflats, and their further progress finally stopped 
by banks of sand, at the outlet of the lake near 
Encounter Bay on the S. coast ; the passage being 
at all periods of the tide, rather more than a quarter 
of a mile wide, with sufficient water for boats over a 
dangerous bar^ A better channel has since been 

> Mr. Allan Cunningham's remarks on Captain Start's ex- 
pedition, so far as they relate to the passage from the sea into 



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90 NEW SOUTH WALKS. 

discovered. Major Mitchell, to whose talents and 
zeal I have before adverted, details to Government 
at considerable length his examination of the Murray 
and Darling Rivers in 1836. The following is a por- 
tion of his official report : — He says, " I found the 
River Darling of considerable width, at, and for 
above six miles above, its jmiction with the Murray, 
from which the back water extended fifteen miles up. 
But, above that point, the channel seemed scarcely 
so wide as it was where I had explored it above. It 
contained so little water, that at my last camp I 
stepped across its bed dry shod ; a little water only 
dropping over the smooth bottom, seemed the effect 
of the rain fallen just before. This river exactly 
resembled the Lachlan in its woods, course, and in 
the character of its banks — ^the latter being peculiar 
to those two rivers only. The sole difference is, that 
the Darling is on a rather larger scale. The country, 
on both banks, was of the same barren description 
as that I had seen above, or, if possible, worse, for 
the arid red sands and thick scrubs approached the 
banks of the river, leaving little room for grass. 

" We had proceeded far up the Murray before the 
country on its banks appeared much better than any 
we had seen lower down. Grassy plains extended 
some way from the river, but were limited by sand 
hills covered with cypress-trees and scrubs. We 
crossed various broad lagoons, apparently the beds 



Lake Alexandrina, published in the Journal of the Geogra- 
phical Society, are -by no means conclusive. We do not, as 
yet, know sufficient of the coast at this part 



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RIVERS. 91 

of ana braiiclies of the river in seasons of high flood. 
After several days' travelling (nearly southward) 
reeds appeared in extensive flats along the river; 
and in longitude 143.40. E., the course of the river 
being from the S.E., the reeds extended eastward to 
the horizon. The mean distance of the bergs of 
sand hills covered with pine, which limited the reedy 
flat, was there about eight miles across. We soon 
passed the region of weeds, which, gradually disap- 
pearing as we ascended, were replaced by grassy 
plains. 

" We reached the junction of a river which I took 
to be that of the Twisden (or Goulbum) of Mr. 
Hume, in latitude 35.19.43. S., longitude 143.41.15. 
E. A clear grassy hill, which I named Swan Hill, 
marks this junction, which takes place close under it. 
The banks of this river were so soft and steep, and 
wood was so scarce there, that the cattle could not 
be watered without danger, nor could firewood be 
procured; on one frosty night in particular, when 
this river unexpectedly brought us to a stop, when 
we had nearly reached the larger one beyond, whose 
whole course was distinguished by lines of lofty trees, 
as on most other rivers. These, so distinctly dif- 
ferent, flowed for many miles very near each other, 
each river preserving the same character throughout. 

** In this vicinity, we came upon, a very singular 
formation, consisting of numerous lakes of salt or 
brackish water, and which were enclosed by semi- 
circular ridges on their eastern shores. The largest 
of these lakes was named Boga, and was six miles in 
circumference. The river floods having reached thia 



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92 NBW SOUTH WALBS. 

by a small channel, the water in it was sweet, and it 
was peopled by a very savage tribe, who refused to 
give us any information, throwing their spears at 
Piper, (a native black,) who shot one of them. 

" Beyond Boga Lake we crossed some very fine 
plains, but the main channel of the river we were 
endeavouring to explore, was no longer accessible, 
nor even visible, from the numerous branches and 
still reaches which intersected the alluvial margin, 
which appeared to be very broad. 

" Following the general course of the river, we 
next entered on a tract remarkable for extensive 
forests of box, with occasional intervals of open 
grassy plains. It was watered by chains of ponds 
in deep channels, whose meandering course, through 
a perfectly level country, seemed to pursue no parti- 
cular direction. From what I afterwards observed 
on higher plains, I conclude that these waters are 
derived from the floods of the river, and that these, 
spreading into branches of minor depth, thus water 
the level country. 

" Turning more towards the river, we passed alter- 
nately over grassy plains, and through belts of lofty 
gum trees — ^the beds of broad lagoons. Near the 
river, deep reaches of still water cut off all access to 
it, so that we could only trace its general course. 
The highest point at which we found it accessible 
before turning south, being in latitude 35.55.35. S., 
longitude 144.35.38. E. 

" The extreme western point of a range then ap-^ 
pearing in the southern horizon, I proceeded towards 
it, anxious to know more of the country back from 



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RIVERS. 93 

the river. The view I ohtained from that summit 
induced me to direct our course southward, with the 
intention of returning across the heads of the Murray- 
further to the eastward, where I hoped the hills 
might afford me the means of extending the survey 
across the adjacent country; I perceived from the 
height a distant line of lofty trees, which seemed to 
mark the course of another river ; heyond were the 
summits of very distant hills, verdant plains varie- 
gated with clumps and lines of trees extending west- 
ward to the horizon ; the whole seeming good pas- 
ture land. 

" At about thirty miles from the hiU, and on the 
144th degree of longitude, we reached a deep but 
narrow stream, flowing between high and grassy 
banks to the westward, at the rate of one mile and a 
half per hour. Its mean depth was nine feet; in 
one night, however, it suddenly rose fourteen feet 
higher, carrying away a rough bridge we had just 
completed. The aboriginal name of this river is the 
' Yarrayne* ; the plains beyond it were five miles in 
breadth, and of the best description. Forests of 
black-butted gum, and casuarinse, then extended 
back to the mountains and forest hills; in these 
forests, instead of novelty, we found the Blue Moun- 
tain Parrot, and other birds common near Sidney ; 
many of the plants also which grow in Cumberland. 

" ' Barrabungale,' a lofty mountain of granite, 
was the chief point of that range, but, on ascending 
it, the weather was unfavourable for my observations ; 
a group of open forest hills were connected with 



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94 NEW SOCTTH WALES. 

Barrabungale, they enclosed valleys richly covered 
with grass, and all well watered. We passed over 
many fine tracts, sheltered by open forest hills, and 
crossed various fine streams, all flowing westward. 
At length, on the 11th July, I discovered the sum- 
mits of a noble mountain range of broken and pic- 
turesque outline, and by subsequent survey I found 
that this was the predominant feature of that vast 
territory, Ijring between the River Murray and the 
southern coast, giving birth to numerous streams of 
convenient width and constant current, by which the 
surrounding country is watered abundantly. These 
Grampians of the south are situated between 36.52. 
and 37.38. of south latitude, and between 141.55. 
and 142.47. of east longitude ; the latter being the 
longitude of Mount William, the highest and most 
eastern summit, and on which I passed a night, 
vainly hoping that the clouds would rise above it. 

" Situated thus centrically, this lofty mass, so es- 
sential to water the lower country, presents no impe- 
diment, like the coast ranges of the settled district, to 
the formation of roads, and the progress of coloni- 
zation. 

" The principal river flowing under the north side 
of these mountains is the ' Wimmera,' which has no 
steep banks, and appears to be a very constant 
stream. I explored its course to 142, of longi- 
tude, when it turned to the north-west, leaving me 
in a country covered with circular lakes, in all of 
which the water was salt or brackish. These had 
semicircular ridges on the eastern side, as in those 



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RIVERS. ^5 

of Boga, on the Murray, and the land about them 
was in general very good and grassy, its mean eleva- 
tion above the sea being about 580 feet. 

" From the continued rainy weather the earth 
was in a very soft state, and this at length became a 
most serious impediment to the progress of the expe- 
dition, the party being unable, even with the greatest 
exertion, to proceed through the mud above three 
miles a day. But for this, I might have returned at 
least two months ago. 

" When we gained the head of a small ravine 
falling towards the principal river rising in the Gram- 
pians, we found firmer ground, and our progress was 
much better, although still occasionally impeded by 
the soft and boggy state of the earth. 

" The river, which I named the ' Glenelg,' flows 
first westward, and then southward, entering the sea 
at the deepest part of the bay, between Cape North- 
umberland and Cape Bridgewater. I explored the 
last fifty miles of its course in the boats, having left 
Mr. Stapylton with a dep6t, for I had great reason 
to hope that it led to some important estuary ; the 
average width was one hundred yards, the mean 
depth four fathoms. In this I was, however, disap- 
pointed, for the river terminated in a shallow basin 
within the sand hummocks of the coast, the outlet 
being between two low rocky heads, but choked up 
with the sands of the beach. 

" In the higher part of the Glenelg, the rock over 

which it flows is granite, but after it passes through 

a ridge of primitive sandstone, covered with forests 

of iron bark (and which forms there a kind of coast 

7 

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96 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

range), the banks consist wholly of a secondary 
limestone. The soft state of the earth had rendered 
our progress by land almost hopeless, when I launched 
the boats on the Glenelg, but on quitting that river 
with the party, I succeeded in re-crossing the Iron- 
bark range with the drays, by following up a tribu- 
tary flowing to the Glenelg from the eastward. The 
difficulty of this movement was much increased, by 
numerous swampy creeks and swamps which we had 
to cross. The eastern part of that range is highest, 
and on the higher parts, where the basis of the soil 
is trap-rock) the enormous growth and thickness of 
the trees presented a new impediment to the progress 
of our drays, the fallen timber covering so much of 
the surface. The trees, consisting of Stringy-bark 
and Blue Gum, were many of them six feet, and 
some as much as eight feet in diameter. 

" Beyond this range, which terminates in Cape 
Bridge water, I expected to have found some consi- 
derable river entering the sea at Portland Bay; I 
found only, however, three small rivers, which I 
named the * Turry,' the ' Fitzroy,* and the * Shaw,* 
entering the bay at different points east of the an- 
chorage. 

" On approaching this bay, situated on what I 
considered an unexplored coast, the unwonted sight 
of houses drew my attention, and a vessel at anchor. 
I soon ascertained that Messrs. Henty, from Swan 
Riva*, had formed a whaling and farming establish- 
ment there. These gentlemen accommodated me 
with a small supply of flour, although the supply for 
their own establishment was nearly exhausted. 



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RIVBRS. 97 

" Portland Bay appeared to be a good anchorage 
in all winds, save those from the S.S.E. It is much 
better sheltered from the prevailing winds by the 
lofty promontory of Capes Bridgewater and Nelson, 
than any part of Port Philip is, (which harbour I 
reconnoitred from Mount Macedon on the 1st inst.,) 
and the position of two reefs seems favourable to the 
formation of a small harbour. 

" I still entertained hopes of finding a good port 
on the coast, and should have thoroughly examined 
it, for an object so desirable to the valuable and ex- 
tensive territory I had explored ; but the almost im- 
passable state of the ground, and our very limited 
stock of provisions, confined me to the direct line 
homewards from Portland Bay, by which I travelled 
completely round the Grampians, crossed all the 
rivers, and determined the position of the principal 
heights. I wished much to have examined ' Cadong,' 
which, according to the natives, is a large piece of 
water on the coast, westward of Cape Otway. This 
receives, as they said, several small rivers which I 
saw flowing southward over the plains from the 
Australian Pyrenees, a group of very fine forest hills 
of considerable height, eastward of the Grampians. 
From one of these I observed the eastern shore of a 
piece of water, in the direction indicated by the na- 
tives. 

" The country on that coast generally is low, and 
almost swampy, but the soil is rich, and the climate 
being sufficiently moist, and water abundant, it ap- 
pears better adapted for agriculture on an extensive 

scale, than any other part of New South Wales. 

/ 

H 

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98 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

The soil consists chiefly of decomposed trap or x 
limestone, these being the rocks immediately below 
it. The whole of the coast country eastward of Cape 
Nelson is of volcanic formation, as many interesting 
geological phenomena attest : amongst others, an 
extinct volcano (which I named * Mount Napier/) is 
not the least remarkable, having an open crater, and 
being surrounded with ashes and scoriae to the distance 
of two miles around its base. From the fresh ap- 
pearance of the lava at the summit, I thought it 
might have been in activity within the memory of 
man, but I could not find any allusion to fire in the 
aboriginal name (Murrowan). 

" We encountered much soft ground near mount 
Napier, and, by the time the party attained the 
southern extremity of the Grampians, most of the 
cattle were exhausted — one poor animal died in the 
shafts. Some weeks of repose were absolutely neoes* 
sary, and this our stock would not admit of; on the 
contrary, I could only hope that they would last to 
the end of the journey, by allowing the men a very 
reduced ration. 

" Having some spare cattle, I decided on proceed- 
ing in advance .with a light party and a month's pro- 
visions, leaving the rest to refresh for two weeks, 
with a party under Mr. Stapylton, whom I provided 
with two months' provisions, that he might, at the 
end of two weeks, follow my track at leisure, through 
Australia Felix. I hoped, by proceeding faster, to 
survey and reconnoitre the country at more freedom, 
and also to reach the Colony in time to send back a 



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RIVIRS. 99 

supply of provisions to meet Mr. Stapylton on the 
banks of the Hume. 

" My route homeward, from the vicinity of the 
Australian P3rrenee8, passed through a country of 
the most varied and fascinating description. At in- 
tervals of fifty or sixty miles, we crossed ranges of 
granite, through all of which I found passes for the 
carts across the very lowest parts, reconnoitring the 
ranges as far as possible in advance. The districts 
between the different ranges consisted of excellent 
land, thickly covered with the Danthonia grass, and 
well watered." 

The necessity I am under of economising space 
compels me here to bring this chapter to a close; 
in which I have endeavoured to lay before the 
reader a connected outline of the physical geography 
of New South "Wales ; two-thirds of which form 
still a terra incognita, to say nothing of the other 
unknown divisions of this vast island. We require 
to know more of the Darling River, as to its source 
and termination, and to have the country explored 
to the N. and W. of Moreton Bay. As population 
extends, and the desire for new pasture grounds in- 
creases, self-interest wiU stimulate to further geo- 
graphical discoveries, for the promotion of which 
the colonial government ought to offer rewards an- 
nually, in the substantial shape of grants of land, 
and pecuniary reimbursement, to a reasonable extent. 
I have myself no doubt that a large navigable river 
wiU yet be discovered, communicating with the inte- 
rior of Australia. 

H 2 I : :'\ 



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100 NBW SOUTH WALBS. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE OEOLOOT, MINERALOGY, AND SOIL OF NEW SOUTH 
WALES, THE ROC&S OF NEW HOLLAND, &C. 

It cannot of course be expected that in a country 
so imperfectly known as New South Wales, we 
should have a complete account of its geological 
strata ; the most that can be done is to furnish indica- 
tions of the parts already explored, leaving to future 
enquirers the task of exploring the interesting field 
which is opened to them. The line of coast through- 
out the territory of New South "Wales presents in 
general ah aspect of bold perpendicular cliffs of sand- 
stone, lying in horizontal strata. These chffs are oc- 
casionally interrupted by sandy beaches, behind which 
the country is low and flat, the high land retiring 
to a considerable distance. These spaces are sup«> 
posed by Mr. Berry to have formed, at no very re- 
mote period, the entrances of bays and arms of the 
sea; indeed, in many places they are even now 
occupied by sandy beaches, extensive salt water 
lagoons being separated from the ocean only by a 
bank of sand, through which the ocean even yet 
occasionally forces a passage ; as at Reid's Mistake, 
or at Lake Macquarie, near Newcastle, and at Lake 
Alexandrina, at Encounter Bay. 

The strata of sandstone consists of beds lying one 
upon the other in the most regular manner, so that 
their original relative situation has evidently never 



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GEOLOGY. 101 

undergone any change. Mr. Berry, while admitting 
that the heds are not invariably strictly horizontal, 
contends that this may arise from a gentle yielding 
of the substrata. Some of these beds, though per- 
fectly horizontal and of regular thickness, consist 
of thin laminae, which incline at a considerable 
angle to the N.E. This sandstone is principally 
siliceous; sometimes indeed it is argillaceous, and 
in this state it is generally found over coal, in which 
situation it is soft and very decomposable. 

Among the coal measures are occasionally met 
with thin beds of what may be called calcareous 
sandstone. In fact, the E. coast of Australia, from 
Bass's Straits to 19. S. Lat., presents ranges of 
mountains rising parallel with the coast, and con- 
sisting, with few exceptions, of vast conglomera- 
tions of sandstone. Mr. Berry asserts, that there 
is no granite to be found in masses near the coast, 
for an extent of 1900 geographical miles. At the 
19th parallel, a chain of lofty granitic or primitive 
mountains appears, of various elevations, forming 
die barrier towards the ocean for about 300 geo- 
graphical miles, or to the parallel of 14 S. latitude. 
Here the sandstone again predominates, the land 
gradually dipping till it loses itself in the sea to the 
N., when coral reefs extend as for as the eye can 
reach. There is, in fact, an unbroken reef of coral 
850 miles in length on the E. coast of New Hol- 
land ; and Captain King found the coral formations 
to extend throughout a distance of 700 miles, in- 
terrupted by no intervals exceeding 30 miles in 



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102 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

length. What an extraordinary work for a minute 
and apparently almost inanimate insect to prodaoe ^ ! 

Dr. Fitton, in his analysis of Captain King's 
valaahle survey, says» that, between the parallds 
of 28. and 12. or 13., on the E. coast, granite is 
found ; at Capes Cleveland and Grafton, Endeavour 
River, Lizard Island, and at Clark's Island, on the 
N.W.^of the rocky mass which forms Cape Mel- 
ville ; while rocks of the trap formations have been 
noticed, in three detached points, among the islands 
off the shore; in the Percy Isles, about 21. 40. S. 
lat. Sunday Island, N. of Cape Grenville about 12., 
and in Good's Island, on the N.W. of Cape York, 
in 10.34. S. lat. 

Along the N. and W. shores, the prevailing stra* 
turn is a reddish sandstone, agreemg so much in 
character with that of the W. of England and 
Wales, that specimens from the two countries can 
scarcely be distinguished from each other. An 
arenaceous cement in the calcareous breccia of the 
W. coast is precisely the same with that found in 
Sicily; and the jasper, caloedony, and green quartz ap- 
proaching to heliotrope found at the entrance of Prince 
Regent's River, resemble those of the Tyrol, both 
in their characters and formation . Lime«stone occurs 
not among the specimens from Ihe north and western 
shores ; but it is remarkable, that recent calcareous 
breccia was found by Commodore Baudin to exist 

* The zoophytes engaged in the building up of coral banks 
are of numerous species ; the most common belong to the 
genera meandrina, earyophyUia, and ustrea, but especially the 
last. 



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GB0I«0OY. 103 

through a span of not less than 25^ of latitude, and 
an equal extent of longitude on the south-western 
and north-western coasts, and according to Mr* 
Browne's specimens, on the shores of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria. 

This breccia would appear to be a very recent 
limestone, full of marine shells, similar to that which 
exists on the shores of the Mediterranean and West 
Indies; and it would be an interesting geological 
fiEU^t, were it ascertained that a distinct line can really 
be drawn between those concretions of modem for- 
mation, which occur on the sea shore, and other 
calcareous formations very nearly resembling them, 
both in the fossils they contain, and in the character 
ci the cementing substances, that are found in seve- 
ral countries, at considerable heights above the sea. 
An illustration of this rem€u*k, indicating likewise 
the ^rata of the transalpine country of New South 
Wales, occurs at the limestone caves at Wellington 
Valley, 170 miles W. of Newcastle, and 2000 feet 
above the sea. Major Mitchell, the able surveyor- 
general of New South Wales, who discovered the 
cave in Wellington Valley, sent the following inter- 
esting account of it to the Geological Society, which 
that learned body has, with its usual liberality, per- 
mitted me to embody in these pages. 

" The rock, through which the valley has been ex- 
cavated, is limestone, much resembling in external 
characters that of the carboniferous series of Eu- 
rope. This appears on both sides of the valley, 
above the ijjjavial deposits in the bottom, and ex- 
tends on the E. to the height of about 100 feet 



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104 NBW SOUTH WALBS. 

above the stream. On the W. of the valley, hills of 
greater height run parallel to the limestone, con- 
sisting of a red sandstone and conglomerate ; and a 
range of heights on the E. of it is composed of 
trap rocks. The basis of a tract, still further east- 
ward, which divides the waters of the interior, from 
that which sends its streams to the sea, is granite. 

" The rugged surface of the limestone tract, in se- 
veral parts of which the bare rocks are exposed, ap- 
pears to abound in cavities, the orifices of caves and 
fissures ; two of which, the more immediate subject 
of this communication, are about 80 feet above the 
stream of the Bell, on its eastern side; the first 
being a cave about 300 feet in extent ; the second 
apparently a wide fissure in the limestone, partially 
filled up. 

" The cave agrees in structure with many of those 
well known from the descriptions of Dr. Buckland 
and other writers : it descends, at first, with a mo- 
derate inclination; and about 125 feet from the 
mouth, the floor is thickly covered with a fine dry 
reddish dust, in which a few fi-agments of bones, 
apparently of Kangaroos, occur. The cavern, in dif- 
ferent places, afifords beautiful stalactites and stalag->> 
mitic incrustations. Irregular cavities in the roof 
seem to lead towards the surface of the hill ; and at 
the remotest part, the floor is covered with a heap 
of dry white dust, so loose and light, that one of the 
exploring party sunk into it up to the waist. This 
dust, when chemically examined by Dr. Turner, was 
found to consist principally of carboSUte of Hme, 
with some phosphate of lime and animal matter. 



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OBOftOOT. 105 

In fine, the cave appeared to terminate in a fissure 
nearly vertical, with water at its bottom, about 30 feet 
below the lowest part of the cavern, and nearly on a 
kvel with the waters of the river Bell. This fissure 
also extends upwards towards the surface. 
' *' About 80 feet to the west of the cave above de- 
scribed, is the mouth of another cavity of a dif- 
ferent description, first examined by Mr. Rankin. 
At this place, the surface itself consists of a breccia 
full of fragments of bones ; and a similar compoimd, 
confusedly mixed with large rude blocks of lime- 
stone, forms the sides of the cavity, which is a nearly 
vertical, wide, and irregular sort of weU, accessible 
only by the aid of ladders and ropes. This breccia 
consists of an earthy red calcareous stone, having 
small fragments of the grey limestone of the valley 
dispersed through it, and in some parts, })ossesses 
considerable hardness. Near the lower part of the 
fissure (the whole extent of whch was not explored) 
were three layers of stalagmitic concretion, about two 
inches in thickness and three inches apart, the spaces 
being occupied with a red ochreous matter, with 
bones in abundance, imbedded both in stalagmite, 
and between the layers of it. 

" The bones found in the fissure just described, of 
which specimens have been sent to England, be- 
long, with only two exceptions, to animals at pre- 
sent known to exist in the adjacent country ; and 
their dimensions also are very nearly the same with 
those of the existing quadrupeds. The species, 
from the report of Mr. Clifi^, to whose examination 
the bones were submitted, appear to be as follow : 



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106 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Kangaroo, Wombat, Dasyuros, Koala, Phalan^ta, 
— ^the most abundant being those of the Kangaroo. 
Along with the remains just mentioned were found 
two bones, not agreeing with those of any of the 
animals at present known to exist in New South 
Wales. The first and larger is supposed to bebng 
to the Elephant : the second bone is also obscure 
and imperfect, but seems to be a part of one of the 
superior maxillary bones of an animal resembling 
the Dugong ; it contains a portion of a straight tusk* 
pointing directly forward." 

A pit was dug, by Major Mitchell's direction, in 
the surface of the ground about 25 feet from the 
mouth of the fissure, at a place where no rocks pro* 
jected: and the hill was there found to be com^ 
posed of a hard and compact breccia, such as that 
before described, and abounding likewise in orga&ie 
remains. 

Other caverns, containing a similar breccia, occur 
in the limestone on the north bank of the Macquane, 
eight miles N. E. of those at Wellington ; and about 
50 miles to the S.E. at Buree, are several caves like 
the first described above, which communicate with 
fissures partially occupied with breccia containing 
bones. At Molong, 36 miles to the E. of Welling- 
ton, a small quantity of concreted matter has been 
found, containing numerous bones, of which no spe- 
cimens have been sent to Europe ; but from then: size* 
they would appear to have belonged to species larger 
than those which at present occupy the country. 

As regards the general geological features of New 
South Wales, it may be observed, that the sandstone 



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6B0L0GT. 107 

strata extend from the sea coast to the river Nepean 
on the W. Throughout this extent of country, the 
sandstone seems to spread like a level platform, and 
although the country rises into hills and ridges, 
these seem to consist of a mass of clay, the surface 
of which has heen worn into inequalities by the ac- 
tion of the water. This circumstance will account 
for the singular fact, that in New South Wales the 
tops of the hills, which contain most of the original 
day, are generally more fertile than the valleys, un- 
less the latter contain alluvial deposits : and it is 
probably owing to a similar cause, that the valleys are 
oold and bleak, while the tops of the hills are warm 
and verdant. This clay is generally at the surface 
red and impregnated with iron; in some places, 
however, it is white and saponaceous, appearing 
under the form of beautiful pipe clay, containing 
frequently calcareous stones resembling stalactites, 
evidently formed by aqueous deposition ; at the depth 
of a few feet, it generally assumes the appearance of 
schistus, impregnated with sulphate of alumina, and 
sulphate of iron. In the ravines are found coal- 
field schistus, with vegetable impressions, and also 
argillaceous iron ore. 

Westward, or beyond the Nepean River, the sand- 
stone strata are forced upwards, and extend from 
N. to S., forming the lofty ridge of the Blue Moun- 
tains ; towards the N. these mountains are sterile 
and rugged ; towards the S. however, the sandstone 
is in many places covered or displaced by whinstone, 
which sometimes assumes the form of common, at 



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108 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

other times of porpliyritic-trap. In the latter state, 
it shews itself through the well-watered pastoral 
county of Argyle. 

On advancing further to the S. and W. g^ranite 
and limestone are abundant, perforated in all direc- 
tions with extensive subterraneous caverns, exactly 
similar, both in character and stalactite decoration, 
to those uniformly found in regions of a similar for- 
mation in Europe and in America. But both are 
frequently met with in detached quantities in the N. 
and £. parts of the colony ; and a fine limestone for- 
mation occurs also to the north-westward of Sydney, 
at the head of William's River, In some parts of 
the territory (as in Argyle) the limestone passes into 
a beautiful close-grained marble, affording materials 
to several skilful artizans in Sydney. There are 
varieties of different minerals found in various places ; 
Hunter's River flows for a considerable distance 
over rocks of jasper, and beautiful agates, opal and 
chalcedony ; innumerable petrifactions, besides, are 
found on its banks. 

Near the burning mountain of Wingen, amor- 
phous specimens of cornelian, white, pinkish and 
blue, have been found ; also angular fragments of 
ribbon and fortification agates, and balls of agate, 
some of them filled with crystals, varying from the 
size of a pea to that of a hen's egg ; and others of 
a blueish white and clouded colour, having spots of 
white dispersed throughout them. Several of the 
agates collected from Mount Wingen had their sur- 
faces crested over with iron ; some of those found 



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OEOLOGT. 109 

at Mount Agate were crested with native copper, 
while others from the same locality presented a most 
beautiful auriferous appearance. 

As it is desirable to throw every possible light on 
the geology of this interesting country, I give the 
following observations of the strata seen to the N. 
andE^ 

At the Wingen or Burning Mountain, the summit 
of the south-eastern side of the dividing range con- 
sists of greenstone slate, and the base of a quartzose 
conglomerate : the low hills, which form the eastern 
side of Liverpool Plains, consist of a similar conglo- 
merate : while the hills to the north of the Plains 
are composed of a very finely grained granite. Be- 
tween the latitudes of 31 and 30 degrees, the country 
gradually ascends from the level of the Liverpool 
Plains, or 840 feet, to nearly 2000 feet above the 
level of the sea, and presents a broken irregular 
surface, often traversed by low ridges of clay slate. 
To the north of 30 lat. the base of the ridges by 
which Stoddart's Valley is bounded consists of ser- 
pentine, their flanks and summit of homstone, and 
the hills at the head of the valley, of clay slate. In 
the bed of Peel's River, which crosses the northern 
extremity of the valley, a thin horizontal bed of 
calcareous sandstone was noticed, between strata of 
indurated clay or shale. The country for 50 miles 
to the north of Peel's River exhibits a moderately 
undulating surface, covered in some parts with frag- 
ments of cellular trap ; and the hills which bound 

^ By Mr. Allan Cunningham. 



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1 10 NBW BOUTH WALES. 

the route on the westward, as far as the parallel of 
29.10, consist of a reddish coarse-grained sand- 
stone, in nearly horizontal strata. Beyond this point, 
towards the north-east, and a little to the north of 
29. lat., the banks of Mogo Creek were found to be 
composed of a coarse friable sandstone. Pursuing 
the same direction, the country for 40 miles pre- 
sented a rugged surface, and the prevailing rocks 
were sandstone and clay slate ; but occasionally, the 
tops of the hills formed low terraces, composed of a 
quartzose conglomerate. In the bed of a creek in 
lat. 28.26., and in the meridian of Paramatta, (151. 
£. long.) a hard slaty rock was noticed ; and the 
country beyond it was found to be composed, where 
it could be examined in the dry water-courses, of 
flinty slate. In lat. 28.13. a fertile district com- 
mences, extending for 18 miles, or to the foot of the 
Dividipg Range, in the parallel of 28 degrees. At 
the base of these mountains were procured speci- 
mens of basalt containing olivine : at the height of 
1877 feet above the level of the sea, the rock con- 
sisted of amygdaloid ; and the extreme summit, 
4100 feet above Moreton Bay, of a brick-red cellu- 
lar trap, the cells having an elongated form and 
parallel position. 

In lat. 29. a deep gorge is composed of clayslate, 
and traversed by a rapid stream, in the bed of which 
were noticed large boulders of the gray granite. Dur- 
ing the next 40 miles, the only rocks noticed were 
reddish granite, and fragments of basalt. In lat. 
29.26. large masses of a fine quartzose conglomerate 
occurred, and they were afterwards found to be very 



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GEOLOGY. Ill 

generally scattered over the adjacent country. The 
boundary hills of Wilmott Valley are stated to be a 
fine-grained gray granite : and those which form the 
head of it, in lat. 30.11. of brownish porphyry, con- 
taining grains of quartz. 

The Geology of the country farther N. is equally 
striking. The western shores of Moreton Bay, from 
the entrance of Pumicestone River to Red Cliff 
Point, are faced by a reef of considerable breadth, 
which at low water is stated * to exhibit a ledge of 
chalcedony. 

In tracing the Brisbane River, which falls into 
Moreton Bay, the first rock observed was talc slate 
or chlorite; and opposite the settlement, 16 miles 
from the mout^ of the river, is a quarry of pinkii^ 
daystone porphyry, used for building. In the ra- 
vines further up serpentine occurs, traversed by 
veins of asbestos and magnetic iron. Sixty miles 
from Moreton Bay, ledges of homstone crop out in 
the banks ; and in the same part of the river, a 
considerable seam of coal appears in its channel. A 
portion of the stem of a fossil plant, presenting 
" poncentric fibrous bands, and a longitudinal foliated 
structure at right angles to the bands," was found in 
the vicinity of the seam of coal. At " the limestone 
station" on Bremer River, which falls into the Bris- 
bane, were procured a series oi specimens, which 
consisted of yellowish homstone, indurated white 
marl, resembling some of the harder varieties of 
chalk, and containing immense masses of black 

> By Mr. Cunningham. 

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112 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

flint, bluish grey chalcedony passing into chert, and 
a gritty yellowish limestone. A bed of coal has 
likewise been noticed in the Bremer, and traced 
from it to the Brisbane. To the south of the lime- 
stone station is a remarkable hill, consisting of trap, 
called Mount Forbes ; and 50 miles to the south of 
the penal settlement on the Brisbane is the Birman 
range, from which were obtained specimens of com- 
pact quartz rock ; and from Mount Lindsay, like- 
wise south of the Brisbane, specimens of granite. 

The geology and natural vegetation of a country 
are intimately connected. In New South Wales, the 
rock which forms the basis of the country, may be 
known from the kind of tree or herbage that flou- 
rishes on the soil above. For instance, the eucalyp^ 
tus pulv,, a dwarfish tree, with glaucus -coloured 
leaves, growing mostly in scrub, indicates the sand- 
stone formation; while those open, grassy, and 
park-like tracts, affording good pasturage, and 
thinly interspersed with the eucalyptus mannifera, 
characterise the secondary ranges of granite and 
porphyry : the limestone formation has on its super- 
incumbent soil trees of lofty growth and vast size, 
while large umbrageous shrubs, the cupressus calytris 
and casuarina, occupy sandy ridges. From many 
facts adduced by the intelligent Captain Sturt, it 
may be inferred that the trees of New South Wales 
are gregarious, and that the strong line that occa- 
sionally separates different species, and the sudden 
manner in which several species are lost at one 
point, to reappear at another more distant, may be 
ascribed to the geological strata of the country. 



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MINERALS. 113 

As a general remark* it may be observed, that in 
New HoUandi wherever the soil lies upon sandstone, 
we find it consisting of the common Australian clay ; 
but over whinstone, it is invariably a light black 
mould. English farmers are, however, quite puzzled 
in endeavouring to form an estimate of the soils in 
Australia; land apparently the most barren yield- 
ing, when well ploughed and cropped, the finest 
harvests — the fertihty continuing to increase, in- 
stead of diminishing, by frequent cropping. This 
circumstance may be accounted for by the reputed 
fertility of decomposed sandstone. 

Before remarking on the minerals of New South 
Wales, it may be proper to observe, that it has 
a remarkable feature in common with South Africa, 
namely, immense beds of marine shells, at various 
elevations above the level of the sea. At Hunter's 
River, close to the banks, oyster shells are found in 
prodigious abundance, the layers being of unexplored 
depth, and which have long served the inhabitants 
for the manufacture of lime. In some parts of the 
colony, they are found on the tops of hills, and in 
other places, imbedded in sandstone. 

The most valuable mineral yet worked in New 
South Wales is coaP, which is found in several 
districts, but especially in the country to the south 
of Hunter's River, which is an extensive coal-field ; 
the cliffs on the sea-shore presenting a most 
interesting section of this stratum. The seams of 

* Owing to the coal mines of Australia, steam navigation 
has been introduced into the colony, and will effect great 
changes in the southern hemisphere. 
I 



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114 NBW SOUTH WALB8. 

coal are distinctly visible on the abrupt face of the 
cliffs, forming the south headland of the harbour of 
Newcastle, and may be traced for nine miles, when 
they abruptly terminate, by suddenly bending down* 
wards, and sinking below the level of the sea. From 
this place a long sandy beach and low land extend 
to the ^itrance of Lake Macquarie (Reid's Mistake)^ 
the south head of which rises into high chfk, in 
which the coal strata again present themselves. Be* 
tween the coal beds are strata of sandstone, and beds 
of clay slate, with vegetable impressions — some- 
times, but more rarely, indurated claystone. Em- 
bedded in these strata, there is abundance of argilla- 
ceous iron ore ; this is occasionally cellular and in 
layers, but for the most part it appears in the form 
of petrifactions of trees and branches, irregularly 
dispersed. The coal is decidedly of vegetable origin ^, 
the fibre of the wood being often quite distinct, while 
the vegetable impressions in the clayslate, under and 
over the coal, are singularly beautiful ; some of these 
subterraneous plants appear to have been in full 
flower, so that a skilful botanist might ascertain even 
their species ; and Mr. Berry thought he could dis- 
tinctly ascertain the leaf of the lamia spiralis. 

About three miles along the south coast of New- 
castle, in an upright position at high-water mark, 
under the cliff and beneath a bed of coal, there was 
recently found the butt of a petrified tree, which, on 

* These coal mines are now in full work by the Australian 
Agricultural Company, who have obtained a grant of them from 
government During the year 1836, the Company sold at 
the pit's mouth 12,646 tons for &,^4^l, 



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MINERALS. 115 

being broken, presented a deep black appearance, as 
if passing into the state of jet ; and on the top of 
the cliff at Newcastle, embedded at about a foot be- 
neath the surface, lying in a horizontal position, and 
nearly at right angles to the strata of the cliff, the 
trunk of another tree was found, fuiely grained, both 
specimens being traversed by thin veins of chalce- 
dony. In the alternating strata of the coal, which runs 
generally in three parallel horizontal beds, are found 
nodules of day, ironstone, and trunks and stems of 
arundinaceous plants in ironstone; in one place a 
narrow bed of ironstone, bearing impressions of 
leaves, is remarkable ; while thin laminae of the 
same mineral, the surface of which is traversed by 
square and variously shaped sections of the same, 
are seen on several parts of the shore, both in the 
face of the cliff parallel with the beds of coal, and 
extending into the sea, forming the strand at low 
water. Nor are these indications confined to the 
district of the sea shore at Newcastle ; thin beds of 
coal and iron may be seen -along the banks of the 
Paramatta River, and in other places. Coal abounds 
in the vicinity of the Burning Mount Wingeu, and 
near the Kingdon Chain of Ponds, forming one of 
the sources of the Hunter. A few miles N. by W. 
of the Mount Wingeu, are stumps of trees standing 
upright in the ground, apparently petrified on the 
spot where they formerly grew, and strongly im- 
pregnated with iron, which mineral gives a ferrugi- 
nous taste to most of the smaller streams in the 
colony, particularly in Cumberland county. 

It may be gathered from the foregoing facts, that 
i2 

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116 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

although coal alone is now worked, yet the day is 
not far distant when iron will also hecome one of 
the staple products of Australia. Copper and other 
metals have heen found, hut as yet their indications 
are of secondary importance. The rocks of which 
specimens occur in the collections of Captain King 
and Mr. Brown, are the following : — 

Granite. — Cape Cleveland; Cape Grafton; En- 
deavour River ; Lizard Island ; Round Hill, near 
Cape Grindall; Mount Caledon; Island near Cape 
Arnhem ; Melville Bay ; Bald- Head, King George's 
Sound. 

Various Slaty Rocks, — Mica Slate, Mallison's 
Island. Talc Slate, Endeavour River. Slaty Clay, 
Inglis's Island, Crack Island, Percy Island. Home^ 
blende Rock, Pohassoo's Island, Half-way Bay, Prince 
Regent's River. Granular Quartz, Endeavour River, 
Montagu Sound, N.W. coast. Epidote, Cape Clin- 
ton, Port Warrender, Careening Bay. Quartzose 
Conglomerates and Ancient Sandstones, Rod's Bay, 
Islands of the N. and N.W. coasts, Cambridge Gulf, 
York Sound, Prince Regent's River. Pipe Clay, 
Melville Bay, Goulbourn Island, Lethbridge Bay. 

Rocks of the Trap Formation. — Serpentine, Port 
Macquarie, Percy Isles. Sienite, Rod's Bay. Por^ 
phyry. Cape Cleveland. Porphyritic Conglomerate, 
Cape Clinton, Percy Isles, Good's Island. Compact 
Feltspar, Percy Isle, Repulse Bay, Sunday Island. 
Greenstone, YwisittBTt Bay, Bat Island, Careening 
Bay, Main's Isle, Clinkstone, Morgan's Island, Po- 
bassoo's Island. Amygdaloid, with Chalcedony, Port 
Warrender, Half-way Bay, Bat Island, Main's Island. 



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ORIGIN. 117 

Wacke, Bat Island. Recent Calcarious Breccia, 
Sweer's Island, N. coast ; Dirk Hartog's and Rott- 
nest Island, &c., W. coast ; King George's Sound, 
S. coast. Limestone, resembling, in the character of 
its organic remains, Mountain Limestone of England, 
Interior of New Holland, near the E. coast ; Van 
Diemen's land (Buckland, Prevost MSS., Scott.) 
The Coal Formation, E. coast of New Holland, Van 
Diemen's Land (Buckland, Scott.) Indications of 
the New Red Sandstone (Red Marl) afforded by the 
occurrence of Salt, Van Diemen's Land (Scott.) Oolite, 
Van Diemen's Land (Scott). 

On a general review of this section, it may, I thinks 
be confidently stated, that Australia is of diluvian, 
as contra-distinguished from what Geologists under- 
stand by volcanic origin ; but there arises the ques- 
tion, whether the land has been left dry by the re- 
ceding of the mighty deep, or whether, as in Chili, 
and other parts of America, some powerful sub- 
n^rine action has raised the earth above the ocean 
level, either at one shock, or by a series of succes- 
sive shocks. In our present ignorance of the actual 
geography, to say nothing of the geology, of New 
Holland, conjecture is aU that can be offered ; I in- 
cline to the opinion that Australia, like other parts 
of this earth, has experienced the effect of an uni- 
versal (or at least nearly universal) deluge, previous 
to which it was tenanted by a different, and also by 
a more numerous class of animals than are now 
found on its surface * ; and it would, moreover, ap- 
pear that the receding waters of the great ocean, in 

* Professor Cuvier pronounced one of the fossil bones found 
in a cave near Bathurst, as described at p. 103, to have been 

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118 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

their progress to the South Pole, had rested for a 
longer period on New Holland, than on the northern 
hemisphere. An examination of these speculative 
points would he wide of my suhject, which relates 
to facts, not to theories, and to practical information 
rather than to hypothetical discussions. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE CLIMATE OF AUSTRALIA ; — IT8 VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS, 
ANIMALS, &C. 

The seasons of New South Wales are the opposite 
of those of England — ^January heing the middle of 
Summer, and July of Winter. The Summer extends 
from the Ist of November to the 1st of March; the 
Spring and Autumn are brief, but well defined ; the 
Winter of a bracing coolness, with occasional frosts 
at Sydney, and snow in the interior. The Spring 
months are September, October, and November; 
the Summer, December, January, and February ; 
Autumn, March, April, and May ; Winter, June, July, 
and August. March, April, and August are generally 
considered the rainy months. The average tempera- 
ture of Spring is 65.5., of Summer 72., of Autumn 
66., and of Winter 55. The barometrical pressure 
is about 29.94319 inches, and the average of the 
thermometer 64 F. In Sydney the thermometer is 
rarely below 40 ; in Paramatta, it is frequently down 

the thigh-bone of a young elephant. Whether these huge 
creatures still exist in New Holland, it is impossible to say : 
the aborigines of the coast yet explored, or visited, have no idea 
of such an animal. 



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CLIMATX. 



119 



to 27. in winter. Of course, as the land rises above 
the level of the ocean, a difference of temperature 
is felt ; the winter at Bathurst, where the lozory of 
snow is in its season enjoyed, being much colder 
tium on the sea shore ; while the difference c^ lat. 
between, for instance, Sydney in 34., and the parallel 
of Moreton Bay in that of 28., is considerable. In 
fact, every variety of climate may be obtained ; that 
of Sydney may be in some measure judged of by the 
following Meteorological Table '. 





Barometer*, 

62 Ibet above 

the ten. 


SB 


•* 


•* 


Therm*. 


Winds. 


Weather. 




i 

1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


t 

CO 




t3 


January ... 
February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

S^tember 
October... 
November 
December. 


/Max. 30.300 
\Min. 29.430 
/Max. 30.300 
\Min. 29.680 
/Max. 80.490 
\Min. 29.580 
/Max. 30.468 
\Min. 29.772 
/Max. 30.442 
\Min. 29.602 
/Max. 30.350 
\Min. 29.290 
/Max. 30.315 
\Min. 29.840 
/Max. 30.248 
IMin. 29.488 
/Max. 30.380 
\Min. 29.620 
/Max. 30.200 
IMin. 29.300 
/Max. 30.220 
\Min. 29.860 
/Max. 30.110 
\Min. 29.530 


68 
9 
75 
35 
74 
10 
78 
40 
79 
26 
78 
25 
76 
27 
78 
29 
79 
18 
80 
20 
76 
40 
72 
30 


101 
63 
94 
48 
83 
42 
87 
53 
66 
35 
67 
32 
59 
26 
67 
31 
83 
34 
86 
42 
84 
51 
96 
59 


105\ 
52/ 

102) 
49/ 

97 \ 
44/ 

98 \ 
40/ 
74 \ 
85/ 
70 \ 
33/ 
66 \ 
28/ 
70 \ 
82/ 
86 \ 
87/ 
91 \ 
42/ 
891 
45/ 

ion 

58." 


91 
90 
83 
83 
73 
62 
60 
66 
67 
82 
91 
87 


74 

7H 

70 

61i 

52 

54 

55 

6»i 

74 

75 


60 
58 
60 
57 
50 
42 
48 
44 
42 
57 
57 
63 


8.S.E. 
E.S.E. 
E. 
W. 
W. 
S.W. 
S.W. 

s.w. 

N.E. 

N.B. 

E.&W. 

N.E. 


15 
20 
19 
21 
23 
20 
17 
14 
20 
21 
31 
20 


4 
4 
10 
6 
3 
1 
8 
9 

3 


12 
9 
2 

... 

5 
7 
8 
5 

10 


3 

5 
9 


1 

2 

2 

1 


WholeYear 


/Max. 30.490 
\Min. 29.290 


80 
9 


101 
26 


105 > 
28} 



















^ The obtervations thuf marked (*) vrtxt made in 1824, die 
others in 1832. 



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120 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

During the summer months, a regular sea breeze 
sets in daily, and refreshes much the inhabitants along 
the coast, who besides are not so much exposed to 
the hot winds as those residing in the interior. These 
winds have never yet been satisfactorily accounted 
for. They blow from the N.W. three or four times 
every summer, like a strong current of air from a 
heated furnace, raising the thermometer to 100 F. 
in the shade, and 125 when exposed to their influ- 
ence. They seldom last more than a few days, and 
are cleared off by a thunder storm. But the rise of 
the mercury in the thermometer does not indicate 
the effects of the weather on the animal frame ; the 
humidity of the atmosphere is of far more importance 
in this respect, for I have felt a much greater degree 
of oppression in Calcutta with the thermometer at 80., 
and the atmosphere surcharged with moisture, than 
in New South Wales, when the mercury was at 125., 
and the air of a parching dryness. Indeed in the 
latter country I have ridden 50 miles a day with but 
slight fatigue, while under the temperature of Ben- 
gal I found the slightest motion exhausting. With 
respect to the origin of these hot winds, some sup- 
pose they arise from vast burning forests in the in- 
terior; but they are more likely to owe their ex- 
treme heat and siccidity to passing over a great extent 
of arid and heated country, which deprives them of 
all moisture. The salubrity of New South Wales 
is proverbial : of a community of 1200 persons, 
only five or six have been known to be sick at a 
time, and at some of the military stations, seven 
years have elapsed without the loss of a man. As 



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121 



an illustration of the climate, I may here remark 
that, in my garden at Paramatta, I have, on a winter's 
morning, eaten frozen milk beneath an orange tree, 
from which I have gathered the ripe and ripening 
fruit. Old people arriving in the colony from Europe, 
have suddenly found themselves restored to much of 
the hilarity of youth, and I have seen several persons 
upwards of 100 years of age. One was an old wo- 
man living as a servant at a public house, near Mr* 
Blaxland's, on the Sydney and Paramatta road ; she 
was said to be 125 years of age, and yet did her 
daily work. Although New South Wales is not 
subject to the periodical showers of the tropics, a 
large quantity of rain falls throughout the year; 
hitherto the colony has been visited by a drought 
about every twelve years; the last one continuing 
from 1826* to 1829, during which period, little or 
no rain fell, in the county of Cumberland in parti- 
cular. It is, however, more than probable, that as 
the country becomes cleared and cultivated, such 
lamentable visitations will be less frequent. 

The prevailing directions of the winds at Syd- 
ney are thus indicated : — 





4 

7 

23 


c4 


p4 




(^ 




e4 

QQ 


xn 


p4 


n 


QQ 


Morning 


ii 
u 


12 
129 
109 


ii 

5 


4 
3 
8 


1 
2 

5 


9 
45 
70 


8 

27 
IS 


1 

5 

4 


29 
81 
15 


3 
2 

4 


Noon 


Evening 





1 May not the comet which appeared in the southern hemi- 
sphere in 1826, have had some influence in causing this 
<h:ought ? 



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122 



NEW SOUTH WALKS. 







CO 


so 


00 


^ 


525 




^ 

^ 


55 


55 




If orninff 


8 
11 

8 


109 
35 
45 


42 
5 
3 


4 
2 

1 


118 
10 
8 


2 


6 
2 
3 


4 
16 
19 


1 
8 
5 


*2 




Noon 


Evening 





As Australia is in eveiy thing regarding climate 
the opposite of England, it may be observed that the 
north is the hot wind, and south the cool; the 
westerly the most unhealthy, and the east the most 
salubrious ; it is summer with the colonists when it 
is winter at home, and the barometer is considered 
to rise before bad weather, and to fedl before good. 
To these diversities it may be added, that the swans 
are black, and the eagles are white, the mole (orm- 
thorhyncus paradoxus) lays eggs, and has a dude's 
bill ; the kangaroo (an animal between the deer and 
the squirrel) has five claws on its fore paws, three 
talons on its hind legs, like a bird, and yet hops on 
its tail; there is a bird (Melliphaga) which has a 
broom in its mouth, instead of a tongue ; a fish, one 
half belonging to the genus Rata, and the other to 
that of Sqwdus; the cod is found in the rivers, 
and the perch in the sea ; the valleys are cold and 
barren, and the mountain tops warm and fertile ; the 
nettle is a lofty tree, and the poplar a dwarfish 
shrub; the pears are of wood {Xylomelum pyri- 
forme), with the stalks at the broad end ; the cherry 
(JSxocarpus cupressiformis) grows with the stone 
outside ; the fields are fenced with mahogany (Eu" 
calyptus robusta) ; the humblest house fitted up with 



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YBGSTABLB KINGDOM. 123 

eedar (Cedrela Toona) ; and the myrtle plants 
(Myrtacea) are burnt for fuel : the trees are without 
fruit, the flowers without scent, and the birds with- 
out song; finally, honesty is the best policy, (in 
which, we trust, it presents no contrast to the mother 
country,) and the greatest rogue may be converted 
into the most usefal citizen : such is Terra Australis. 
VxoBTABLB KiNODOM. — ^Tbc Australian Flora 
was estimated in 1814 at 4,000 species, but since 
that time many more have been discovered. So far 
as botanical observation has yet reached, the great 
mass of vegetation in New Holland belongs to the 
natural orders Proteacea, Upacridea, Myrtacea, Le- 
gummosa and Composite; but the most common 
genera in Australia are the Eucalyptus and Acacia, 
which if taken together, and estimated with respect 
to the mass of vegetable matter they contain (calcu- 
lated from the size as well as the number of indivi- 
duals), nearly equal all the other plants of the coun- 
try. Of th§ former above 100 species have been 
discovered, most of them trees remarkable either for 
their vast height or enormous dimensions. The 
Eucalyptus Globulus of La Billardi^re (principally 
found in Van Diemen's Land) has been observed to 
attain a height of 150 feet, with a girth near the 
base of 25 to 40 feet. Lieutenant Breton mentions 
one which he saw, of a triangular form, the S.E. 
fece of which was 18 feet in length, that to the N. 
19 J, and to the W. 22|— total, 60 feet in gvrth; 
and at Illawarra, there is a resting place for travel- 
lers, half way up the mountain, called the big tree, 
which, although the greater part has been consumed 



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124 NEW SOUTH WALBS. 

by fire, is still 100 feet high. Three men on horse- 
back may ride into the hollow of the tree, without 
dismounting, and there take shelter. Of the Acacia, 
nearly 100 of the leafless species have been observed, 
diffused over different parts of the country. The 
dilated foliaceous footstalk performs the functions 
of the true compound leaf, which is produced only 
in the seedling plant, or occasionally in the more 
advanced state, where plants have been injured. 

The Epacridem, with its allied genera, are almost 
as numerous, and hold the same rank in Australia* 
as the Erica, or heaths, do at the Cape of Good 
Hope. The OrcMdea are in great variety, highly 
curious in the intertropical parts of the country, and 
chiefly terrestrial. Of Palms only six species have 
yet been discovered ; of the genus Casaurina (which 
have branches that appear jointed like the stem of 
an Equisetum), 13 Australian species have been found. 
The Com/era are few in number, but very fine ; in 
particular, the celebrated Norfolk Island pine (Ara»* 
caria exceha) occupies an extent of 900 miles of the 
coast of New Holland. Among the Aspodelea, the ge- 
nus Xanthorrhea is the most remarkable. The Xarbo- 
rea attains the size of a walnut tree, growing pretty 
straight for about 14 or 1 6 feet, after which it branches 
out in long spiral leaves, which hang down on all 
sides, resembling those of the larger kinds of grass 
or sedge ; from the centre of the leaves springs a 
foot stalk 20 feet long, resembling the sugar cane, 
and terminating in a spiral spike, not unlike an ear 
of wheat. This stem is used by the natives for 
spears, the end being hardened by fire. The tree 



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VBOBTABLE KINGDOM. 125 

yields a fragrant scented yellow resin, which has 
been found extremely balsamic. Indeed all the spe- 
cies yield a gum. 

My limits prevent me ^om entering into a detail 
of the whole vegetable kingdom of the colonies, 
and I must therefore content myself with general 
observations ; previous, however, to closing this sec- 
tion, two or three plants require especial notice. 
The New Holland Lily {Doryanthes excelsa) is one 
of the most stately of the nohiles of the vegetable 
kingdom, as Linnaeus called the order AmaryllidetB, 
It grows to the height of 20 or 25 feet, bearing on 
its crown blossoms of the richest crimson, each six 
inches in diameter, from which beautiful birds sip a 
delicious honey. The leaves are very numerous, 
sword-shaped, and sometimes six feet long. 

The Pitcher plant (Cephelottis follicularis) is re- 
markable for having among its leaves ascidia, or 
pitcher- shaped vessels, holding several ounces of a 
watery fluid, of a slightly sweet taste; the lid of 
the pitcher is sometimes found accurately closed; 
at other times it has an erect position, leaving the 
vessel quite open, probably to receive rain or dew 
for the nourishment of the plant. A singular and 
interesting plant has lately been discovered, produc- 
ing a fruit larger than a Spanish chestnut, and with 
a similar taste ; the pods are large, solitary, and pen- 
dent, containing from three to five large seeds, which 
are eaten by the natives. The foliage is beautifully 
green and pinnated, affording a good shade, and a 
striking contrast to the dark and varied foliage of the 
Australian forests, which exhibit a sombre and me- 



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126 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

lancholy appearance. The harsh and unsightly 
colour of the eucalyptus leaf is probably owing to 
its margin being presented towards the stem, both 
surfaces having the same relation to light. Of the 
genus Vrtica, there are numerous species ; one plant 
in the neighbourhood of Illawarra is remarkable for 
its gigantic and arborescent growth ; several speci- 
mens of the extraordinary nettle tree being 20 feet in 
height, of proportional robust habit, and its leaves 
80 highly stimulating as to Mister severely on the 
slightest touch. 

The leguminoacR and composites comprehend one- 
fourth of all the dicoteledonous plants, while the 
grasses form an equal part of the monocoiyledonous, 
of which one-tenth only has been observed in other 
parts of the world. Of the cryptogamic plants, the 
greater number are to be found in Europe ; some, 
however, are peculiar to Australia. Among the moss- 
es, Dawsonia polytrichoides has the leaves of a Poly^ 
trickum, and the inclined capsule of a Buxhaumia, but 
is terminated by a beautiful tuft of white silvery hairs 
for a peristome ; and among the lichens, the Cenomyce 
retispora has o. frond perforated like the most delicate 
lace. The Banksia, which are so generally distri- 
bated throughout the S. and E. coasts, are wanting 
on the N.W. so far as it has yet been examined. At 
Illawarra, the fern shoots up its rough stem to the 
height of 15 or 20 feet, as thick as a boat oar; it 
then suddenly throws out a number of leaves in 
every direction, each four or five feet in length, and 
exactly similar in appearance to the common fern. 

The following is a list of plants common to the 



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VBGETABLB KINGDOM. 127 

E. and N.W. coasts of Terra Australis, in and about 
the parallel of 15° S., where the breadth of the con* 
tinent exceeds 1800 miles : — Gleichenia hermanni, 
Br. ; eriocaulon fistulosum, Br, ; philydrum lanugino* 
sum, Gdsrtn.; flagellaria indica, L, ; diascorea bulbifera, 
L, ; pandanus pedunculatus, Br, ; cycas angulata, Br, ; 
santalum oblongatum, Br, ; exocarpus latifolia, Br. ; 
persoonia falcata, Br, ; grevillea mimosoides, Br. ; 
hakea arhorescens, Br,; bucknera ramosissima, Br.; 
adenosma ccerulea, Br. ;ortho8temon erectum, Br. ; ta^ 
bemamont ana orient al%8, Br,; carissaovata,Br.; strych- 
nos lucida, Br, ; alyxia obtusifolia, Br, ; ipomcea longu 
flora, Br. ; ipomcsa denticulata, Br. ; ipomoea maritima, 
Br. ; evolvulus villosus, R, et Pav. ; cuscuta carinata, 
Br, ; cordia orientalis, Br. ; clerodendrum inenne, Br. ; 
avicennia tomentosa, L, ; chionanthus axillaris, Br. ; 
oiea paniculata, Br, ; maba laurina, Br, ; sersalisia 
obovata, Br. ; mimtisops parvifolia, Br. ; terminalia (sp. 
aUied to catappa), Lam, ; cleome viscosa, L. ; capparis 
sepiaria, L, ; hibiscus liliaceus, L, ; abroma fastuosa, 
Br. ; bombax australis ; jacksonia thesioides ; bonhinuB 
sp.; aesalpinicdsp.; cassia occidentalis,L,; guilandina 
bonduc, L, ; morinda citrifolia, L. ; carapa molluccen- 
sis. Lam. ; zizyphus melastomoides ; bruguiera gym- 
norhiza. Lam, ; casuarina equisetifolia. Lam, 

The following is a list of Plants observed, during 
the voyages of Captain King, on the shores of Terra 
Australis, that are common to India and South 
America : — Acrostichum alcicome, 8w. ; polypodium 
acrostichoides, Sw,; nephrodium exaltatum, Br,; ne- 
phrodium unitum, Br. ; vittaria elongata, Sw, ; asple- 
nium nidus, L,; davallia flaccida, Br, ; gleichenia her- 
7 

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128 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

manni, Br. ; flagellaria indica, L. ; dioscorea hulbifera, 
L, ; cdlladium macrorhizon, Willd, ; aristolochia in- 
dica, L, ; daphne indica, L, ; salicomia indica, WiUd, ; 
deeringia celosioides, Br,; plumbago zeylanica, L, ; 
dischidia nummularifolia, Br. ; acanthus ilici/olius, L, ; 
acanthus ebracteatus, L. ; ipomea turpethum, Br. ; ipo- 
mea denticulata, Br. ; ipomea maritima, Br. : evolvulus 
vUhsus, R. et Pav. ; trichodesma zeylanica, Br. ; 
toumefortia argentea, L. ; cordia orientalis, Br. ; pleC' 
tranthus scutellarioides, Br. ; clerodendrum inerme, 
Br. ; vitex ovata, L. ; vitex trifolia, L. ; avicennia to- 
mentosa, L. ; mimusops kauki, L. ; (Bgiceras fragrans, 
C. Koenig ; sccevola koenigii, Vaht. / cleome viscosa, L. ; 
cappdris sepiaria, L. ; calophyllum inophyllum, L. ; 
morinda citrifolia, L. ; sophora tomentosa, L. ; cassia 
occidentalism L. ; guilandina bonduc. L. ; abrus preca* 
tortus, L.; acacia scandens, Willd. ; suriana maritima, 
Jacqu. ; pemphis acida, Forst. ; rhizophora mangle, L. ; 
bruguiera gymnorhiza. Lam. ; sotmeratia acida, L. ; 
ahroma fastuosa, Br. ; casuarina equiseti/olia, Forst. 

The trees used in the colony for domestic purposes 
are — iron bark (eucalyptus resini/era) for building, 
but generally for fencing; blue gum (eucalyptus 
piperita), for ship building, and by wheelwrights ; 
blackbutted gum, do. ; grey gum, fencing, building, 
&c. ; string bark, for boards, building, &c. ; box, for 
wheels, ploughs, &c. ; forest oak (casuarina toru^ 
losa), swamp oak (casuarina paludosa), for cabinet 
work, shingles; cedar (cedrela australisy cabinet 
work; turpentine (tristania albicans), for boats, &c. ; 
sassafras, for flooring; mountain ash, for carriage 
work; sallow, for gig shafts; pear (xylomelum 



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VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 129 

pyriforme), for gun stocks, &c. ; apple (angaphora 
lanceolata), building, boards, &c. ; white cedar (me- 
lia azederach), do. and boats, &c. ; Norfolk Island 
pine (aracauria excelsa) for cabinet work, &c. ; Cur- 
ragong hark, for cordage. Some of these trees rise 
to an astonishing height. I have seen a vast forest 
with scarcely a tree of which the height was not 
50 to 80 feet without a branch, while the entire ele- 
vation was nearly 150 feet; each giant stem seems 
endeavouring to out top its neighbour, in order to 
gain light and air. Several trees yield gum arabic, 
kino, and manna, the latter being generally found 
about Bathurst. 

The culinary vegetables and fruits of Australia 
are numerous, and of a dehcious flavour; among 
the former may be noticed — potatoes, cabbages, car- 
rots, parsneps, turnips, cauliflowers, onions, asparagus, 
peas and beans, cucumbers, radishes, lettuces, spinage, 
brocoli, capsicums, artichokes, chardoons, celery, knohl 
brengall (egg plant), vegetable marrow, sweet pota- 
toes, sea kale, SfC, and of the latter I may enumerate 
— strawberries, raspberries, grapes of every variety, 
pine apples, oranges, lemons, citrons, guavas, rose 
apple, and mango; English and Brazilian cherries, 
pears, apples, peaches, apricots, and plums, ; figs, mul- 
berries, loquats, grcTiadillas (great flowering passion 
flower), pomegranates, chersonalia (or Peru), melons 
(sweet and water) bananas and plantains, quinces, 
litchis, olives, chesnuts, filberts, S(C, An idea may be 
formed of the abundance of fruit, when I state that 
during part of the year, swine are fed on peaches 
and apricots. 



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130 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Animal Kingdom. — Like North America, Aus- 
tralia possesses no large animals, and few Varie- 
ties ; there is not onlj a total absence of such ani- 
mals as elephants, lions, tigers, bears, deer, &c., 
but nearly all the quadrupeds belong, or are inti- 
mately related to the glires of Linnaeus ; two-thirds 
of the New Holland quadrupeds making their way 
by springing in the air. There ai*e more than 40 
species of the Marsupial family in New Holland, of 
which scarcely any congeners occur elsewhere ; ex- 
cept a few species in some of the islands of the In- 
dian Archipelago, and the opossums of America. 

The following are the only genera and subgenera 
of quadrupeds belonging to this part of the world. 
DidelpMs, Auct. ; Dasyurus, Ctw. ; Perameles, Shaw ; 
Thyladnus, Tern, ; Phalangista, Cuv. ; Balentia, III. ; 
Petaurista, Cuv, ; Hypisprimus, III. ; HalmaturUs; 
III. ; Pkascolarctos, III. ; Phascolomys, Geoff. ; 
Echidna, Cuv. ; Ornithorhyncus, Blum. 

Of the Kangaroo there are many varieties, from 
the ' kangaroo rat' to the 'forester,' which stands 
from four to five feet high. The bound of the kan- 
garoo is prodigious, sometimes exceeding 20 paces, 
and this can be kept up for some time, so as to 
outstrip the fleetest greyhound.. The abdominal 
pouch, which this singular animal possesses, is well 
known, but it is not as yet a settled point how the 
young are placed there. I have found them adhering 
to the mother's nipple, when totally devoid of hair 
— scarcely indeed formed, and without sign of life. 
Nature seems to have designed the marsupial pouch 
as a substitute for a burrow or nest ; and within its 



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ANIMAL KINGDOM. 131 

precincts, the careful mother shdters her helpless 
young, letting them out by day to graze on the 
tender herbage, or carefdlly conveying them across 
rivers, and through forests, when pursued by her 
enemies, until they are able to provide for their own 
sustenance and safety. The kangaroo has rarely 
more than two at a birth, is extremely timid, unless 
when hard pressed for life, when it will set its back 
against a tree — ^boldly await the dogs — and rip them 
up with its hind claws, or give them a formidable 
squeeze with its fore arms, until the blood gushes 
from the hound's nostrils ; sometimes the poor 
creature will take to the water, and drown every 
dog that comes near it. They are extremely docile ; 
I had one for sometime as a pet, which followed me 
about the house and garden like a dog, ate out of 
my hand, sat behind my chair at meals, giving me 
an occasional kick when I forgot to help him as 
well as myself. This beautiful animal, which may 
be considered peculiar to Australia, is, I regret to 
say, fast disappearing before the abodes of civilized 
man ; or, as the aborigines say, ** where white man 
sit down, kangaroo go away." 

The opossum tribe (which are very numerous, and 
similar to those found in America) usually take up 
their residence in the hollows of decayed gum trees ; 
and it is curious to observe the manner in which the 
natives will ascend the tallest eucalypti, notching the 
bark, in steps, with a small stone hatchet, so as to 
admit the great toe, and chase out the animal from 
its lofty and apparently safe hiding place. 

The native dog is, next to the kangaroo and opos- 

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132 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

sum, the quadruped most frequently met with ; it is 
somewhat like the Indijgi jackall, about two feet 
high, 2J long, with a head like the fox, and erect 
ears, the colour being generally a reddish brown. 
It does not bark, but sometimes yelps like the com- 
mon dog, and utters a most dismal howl. It is ex- 
tremely tenacious of life, very destructive to sheep 
and poultry, and consequently hunted without mercy 
by the settlers, who are fast thinning its numbers. 

The Wombat (phascomolys), a kind of bear or 
badger, weighing 401b., from its being good eating, 
is fast disappearing ; as is also a species of sloth. 

The Porcupine Anteater (ornithorhyncus hystrix) is 
a singular animal. A specimen, in the possession of 
Lieut. Breton, measured from the snout 13 inches; 
the circumference of the body, while the quills were 
not erected, was 20 inches, length of the quills two 
inches, tongue (narrow) 2J inches, long claw of the 
hind foot two inches : its natural food is ant eggs. 
There are varieties of the flying animals — such as 
the flying-squirrel, fox, and mouse. 

It is difficult to say whether the platypus (orni- 
thorhyncus paradoxus) should be classed' as an animal 
or a bird ; it has four legs like a quadruped, and a 
bill like a duck, and, according to very general be- 
lief, lays eggs, and suckles its young. Its length 
from beak to tail is about 14 inches, the circum- 
ference of the body 11 inches, beak 2|, tail 4|, 
breadth of the upper mandible 1-/^ ; it resembles 
the otter, though of inferior size, is covered with a 
very thick, soft, and beaver-like fur, the head is flat 
and rather small, the legs short, terminating in a 



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ANIMAL KINGDOM. 133 

broad web, which on the fore feet extends some way 
beyond the claws, the number of which is five, and 
on the hind feet, five ; and in the male, with a per- 
forated spur, through which is discharged a poison- 
ous secretion ; the mandible is serrated as in a duck's 
bill ; the colour of the back is dark grey, the belly 
lighter, and the tail is flat, obtuse, and furry. The 
Platypus burrows in the earth, on the banks of 
rivers, like a mole, and lives on shrimps and animal- 
culae of various kinds ^ 

Of domestic animals I need only observe, that all 
those of England have been introduced into the 
colony, and thrive well : the breed of horses is now 
excellent, and, owing to the perseverance of the late 
J. M'Arthur, Esq., a trade in this noble animal is 
now opened between India and Sydney, for the pur- 
pose of remounting the East India Company's ca- 
valry and artillery. The horned cattle are, in many 
instances, of a gigantic size, and the climate and 
pasture evidently produce sheep of improved fleece, 
and of a delicious flavour. Goats are not numerous; 
swine are abundant ; asses or mules are seldom 
reared, though a fine breed of the former has been 
introduced from South America. It is to be hoped 
that the camel may soon be imported, as its capa- 
bility of enduring thirst and fatigue during long 
journeys, would render it extremely valuable in ex- 
ploring the interior of the colony. 

Birds are numerous, of great variety, and often 
of a beautiful plumage. The Emu, or Cassowary, is 

* ^ee a further description under Van Diemen*s Land. 

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134 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

one of the most singular ; its covering is more like 
hair than feathers, and from its being confined to the 
earth, the creature partakes little of the character of 
birds ; it is extremely fleet, outstripping the swiftest 
dog, and kicking with such violence as to break a 
man's leg : it is, however, easily tamed, and becomes 
as domestic as a dog. From 6 to 18 eggs have been 
found in the same nest, which are of stronger flavour 
than those of the ostrich. One portion of the emu 
is considered good eating, its flesh tasting Hke beef, 
but the other parts are very oily. The emu is also 
fast disappearing. 

The gigantic crane or native companion is a very 
stately bird, about six feet high, of a pale ash colour, 
with a reddish tinge on the head : it is gregarious 
and carnivorous, easily domesticated, and seen fre- 
quently on the borders of rivers or lakes, where 
also the black swan is found. The bustard, or native 
turkey, weighs from 15 to 181bs, and is good eating. 
Eagles and hawks are every where to be met with, 
some white and very large, the eagle-hawk measur- 
ing nine feet from wing to wing, and feathered to the 
toes. There are about 30 varieties oi pigeon, among 
which is the crested bronze-winged, of which only 
one specimen is known in Europe. Among the 
perching tribes, the beautiful parrots, parrakeets, 
and cockatoos deserve notice, from their variety and 
brilliancy of plumage, as also from the facility with 
which the latter, in particular, are domesticated, 
and learn to imitate sounds. Some of the cockatoos 
are of a milk-white, others black, richly variegated, 
on the tail with r^, and with superb crests. The 



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ANIMAL KINGDOM. 135 

lories, green, red, crimson, and purple are numerous, 
and the varieties of parrots are countless. There are 
numerous birds whose ornithological characters are 
not yet fixed : the Spotted Grosbeak (Amandina La- 
thami) is a splendid bird, of a light slate colour 
above, bill and tail deep crimson, throat black, and 
the sides are marked with snow-spots on a dark 
ground. The rifle bird (Ptiloris paradiseus) is nearly 
the size of a jay, its bill long and sickle shaped, and 
colour of a rich dark greenlike velvet. The Ring 
Oriole is of two colours only, a golden yellow, and 
the deepest black, the feathers on the head resembling 
the softest velvet. 

The doves, for variety and beauty of plumage, are 
unequalled in any part of the world. The general 
tint of the plumage is a rich green, variegated with 
red, purple, or yellow about the head and breast ; 
others occur of a brown colour, relieved by spots on 
the wings, of the richest and most changeable co- 
lours, equal in brilliancy to the finest gems. That 
singular and beautiful bird, the Lyre tail, {Menara 
superba) belongs to the gallinaceous order. 

The spur winged plover frequents the open parts 
of the country, and is chiefly remarkable for having 
a large spur upon the shoulder of each wing, with 
which it fights fiercely. Of pheasants there are 
two kinds, and of magpies three. The common 
crow, of which one species lives solitarily, and the 
swallow, are everywhere found ; the Australian spar* 
row is a very pretty bird, with varied plumage, in 
which a red or scarlet tinge is intermixed. Among 
the other specimens of the feathered race is, a 



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136 NKW SOUTH WALES. 

butcher bird, called the ' laughing jackass/ so termed, 
from its note resembling the coarse and boisterous 
laugh of a man, but louder and more dissonant ; it 
destroys snakes and other reptiles. The coach whip 
is a small bird, whose note is similar to the crack of 
a short whip. Snipes, (two kinds) (quails, (three 
kinds) kingfishers, and coots, are abundant. The 
insectivorous birds are comparatively .few, but the 
suctorial, comprising the honey-suckers (Mellipha- 
gida "F.) are numerous. The scansorial creepers are 
of only two species, and no birds have, I believe, 
yet been discovered similar to the woodpecker. 
The Toucans find their representative in the Austra- 
lian channel bill (Scythrops III.), the flycatchers and 
warblers resemble those of Africa ; there are two or 
three smdJl finches of Indian genera, and the cuckoos 
and orioles are not much unlike those of Africa, 
Asia, and Europe. 

The Aquatic tribes are nearly similar to those 
found in other countries, such as the pelican, penguin, 
goose, duck, teal, widgeon, frigate-bird, noddy, peterel, 
gull, and other ocean birds. The genus Cereopsis 
occurs, however, only in New South Wales ; it is (^ a 
light grey colour, and as big as a goose. The musk 
duck is a curious bird, and has such short wings that 
it cannot fly. 

The peculiar genera of birds, with the sections of 
sub-genera, are all comprised in the following list : — 
Podargus, Cuv. ; cegotheles, H. et V, ; steatomis, H. et 
F. ; dacela. Leach ; falcunculus, Vieil, ; vanga, Buf. ; 
malurus, Vieil. ; aconthiza, H. et V. ; pardalotus, Vieil.; 
pachycephala, Sw. ; grallina, Vieil. ; sericulus, Sw. ; 



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ANIMAL KINGDOM. 137 

^troica, Sw,; ptilonorhynchus, Kuhl,; scythrops, 
Latham ; plyctoiopha, Vieil, ; calyptorhynchus, H. et 
v.; psittacarus, Briss. ; nanodes, H, et V, ; leptolophus, 
8w.; platycercus, H, et V. ; pezoporus, III. ; pekeomis, 
H. et V. ; lorius, Briss, ; trichoglossus, H. et V,; clu 
macteris. Tern, ; orthonyx, Tern, ; sittella, Sw, ; di- 
cceum, Cuv.; philedon, Cuv.; melliphaga, Lewin ; pti- 
loris, Sw, ; ptilonopus, Sw, ; dromiceius, Vieil, ; me- 
nura. Lath, ; megapodius,Tem,; chionis, Forst, ; cere- 
opsis, Lath, 

The following genera and sub-genera of birds 
occur also in India or Africa, or in both : — 
Merops, Lin,; chcetura, Stev,; collaris, Cuv, ; halcyon, 
Sw,; ocypterus, CwO.; edolius, Cuv.; cehlepyris, Cuv.; 
pitta, Vieil, ; oriolus, Lin. gryllivora, Sw, ; campicola, 
Sw, ; estrelda, Sw, ; amadina, Sw, ; glaucopis, Forst. ; 
ptilinopus, Sw, ; mycteria ? Lin, ; porphyrio, Briss. ; 
burrhinus, III. ; aptenodytes ? Forst, ; phaeton, Lin. 

Insects are very numerous, and of every variety, 
and have long afforded to the entomologist a wide 
field for examination. The lepidoptera approximate 
to those of Africa and Asia, without having yet ex- 
hibited a single American species ; the coleopterous 
tribes have a more insulated character. Locusts 
are common in some parts of the colony. Butter^ 
flies are neither plentiful nor beautiful; of bees, 
there are three kinds, the principal of which is not 
larger than a common sized winged ant, and all are 
without stings; these careful providers form their 
hives in the hollows of trees and rocks, and produce 
a great deal of delicious wild honey. English bees, . 
which have been recently introduced, multiply fast. 



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138 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

Ants exhibit several varieties ; of which the * gi" 
gantic* are nearly one inch in length. Their 
mounds are not raised so high as those of AMca 
(which have been known to tower to 15 feet, with 
a base of eight feet), but they are more soUd and 
compact. Some species are, at one period, pro^ 
vided with wings, and may be seen (as is the case in 
India) issuing from a hole in the earth, flying about 
in every direction, and then suddenly disappearing, 
after strewing the ground with their wings. 

Flies are a great nuisance in summer ; one species 
in particular, called the blow fly, taints and putrifies 
every thing it touches. Mosquitoes are disappear- 
ing before civilization, and those domestic annoy- 
ances which accompany want of cleanliness in 
England, are in like circumstances equally un- 
pleasant in Australia. Spiders are very large ; one 
species, in particular, makes its nest in the earth five 
or six inches in depth, and with a door over it, but 
which is always left open, when he is at home and 
** on hospitable cares intent." Caterpillars, at intervals 
of several years, swarm in incredible numbers, 
blighting the finest wheat fields in a few hours; 
measures have, however, been taken to moderate, if 
not entirely stop, their ravages where they appear : 
whence they come in such myriads, and almost in a 
night, is unknown. 

Reptiles are not at all in such numbers as are to 
be found in marshy countries. Of snakes there are 
several varieties, a few of which are poisonous. 
The diamond snake reaches 12 to 15 feet in length* 
and is not poisonous. Among other varieties, there 



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ANIMAL KINGDOM. 139 

is a small hazel-coloured snake, with two litUe 
flaps at its sides, like fins ; it darts along with great 
rapidity, and is termed the winged snake. A native 
brought to me one day, at Paramatta, a serpent, 
resembling, in several respects, the hoa constrictor 
of Ceylon ; it was 14 feet long, and its coat c^ a 
bright hue, but changing as the animal became 
irritated. I tried on it various violent poisons, 
which produced little or no effect, but large doses of 
calomel speedily destroyed life. Several vmter 
snakes have been found, and some seen at a good 
distance at sea. Scorpions, centipedes, and taran- 
tulas are found, but I never heard of their injuring 
any person. Lizards are numerous, but without 
the varied hues of the East ; the guana is of a dirty 
brown colour, and reaches four feet in length ; the 
frogs are of a beautiful duU green hue, with yellow 
stripes, and black dots down the back ; they climb 
trees, and even up the very walls, adhering to the 
ceiling with their web-Uke feet. The deaf-adder 
(which is poisonous) resembles in appearance the 
puff adder of America ; it is thick, short, swelling 
out in the middle, with a flat head, and a cleft tail, 
which opens and shuts like a pair of forceps ; the 
back is beautifully variegated, with rows of red and 
white specks, and when teased it seizes a stick as 
tenaciously as a cur dog. 

Fish are plentiful along the coast, but few are 
found in the rivers, especially in those on the E. side 
of the Blue Mountains, owing to the rapidity of 
their currents. The whale frequently comes into 
the bays to calve, and the seal is found in diflerent 



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140 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

coves, especially to the southward. The cod fish (so 
called from its resemblance to the taste of the sea 
cod) is taken in the fresh water rivers W. of the 
Blue Mountains, in great quantities, and of a large 
seize, some weighing 701bs., 301bs. being very com- 
mon. They are delicious eating, as are also the 
eeU, whicb are caught of the weight of 121bs. to 
201bs. Perch (covered with scales and prickly fins) 
abound on the eastern coast rivers, and in flavour 
and juiciness bear a resemblance to the sole. There 
are many varieties of other fish, with which the 
markets are well supplied. Large sharks have been 
recently caught in Sydney cove. 

The shells of the southern ocean are highly 
prized ; in particular, the family of the Volutes ; of 
these the snow spot volute, the cymhiola magnifica, the 
lineated volute, are extremely valuable. The pha- 
sianella, or beauty snails, are particularly admired. 
The fluviatile species are limited to a few plain 
coloured bivalves and nerites, while the land shells 
are few and rare. Fresh water muscles, of which 
some have been found at Bathurst, six inches long 
and three-and-a-half broad, and shrimps are obtained 
in great numbers. The oysters around the Austra- 
lian shores are extremely plentiful, and though gene- 
rally small, are of a delicate flavour. Every rock is 
covered with them ; and in the coves of Port Jack- 
son, I have often seen parties of young ladies, armed 
with small hammers, seated on a large rock, and 
feasting with great goUt, on those Apician dainties. 



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POPULATION. 141 



CHAPTER VI. 

POPULATION — WHITE AND COLOURED — BOND AND FREE, 
THEIR NUMBERS AND CONDITION. 

Among the peculiarities of Australia, its aboriginal 
population is not the least extraordinary. They ap- 
pear to form a distinct race, to which the term 
Papuas or oriental negroes has been assigned ; and 
whether on the northern and tropical, or southern 
and temperate shores of Australia, they possess 
the thick prominent lips, sunken eyes, high cheek 
bones, and calveless legs of the African, diflPering, 
however, in the hair, which (except in Van Die- 
men's Land, and the adjacent equally cold coast of 
Australia, where the heads of the natives are woolly) 
is long and coarse. The nose, though large, is not 
so flat as that of the Africanders ; indeed it is some- 
times of a Roman form ; and the forehead is high, 
narrow, and at the crown, formed somewhat after 
the manner of the roof of a house. Desirous of 
ascertaining the osteological measurement of this 
extraordinary race of human beings, I procured, 
after considerable difficulty, a male and female body. 
The first was that of a native called, I think. Black 
Tommy, who was hanged for murder at Sydney, in 
1827. The circumstances connected with this 
man's execution were in my mind very singular, and 
deserve publicity. From the statement previously 
made to me, I believed the prisoner to be innocent ; 
and I therefore attended at his trial, to aid in the 
defence of a man who knew not a word of our 



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142 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

language and owed no obedience to our laws. 
The evidence elicited at the trial was to the 
following effect: — Two shepherds were tending 
their master's flocks, at a distance from fiathurst, 
and when evening came, returned each to his 
respective hut. On the following day, a dog, 
belonging to one of the shepherds, came running 
to the other, and leaping up, caught the shepherd 
by the collar, who beat the animal away; the 
dog with great anxiety, again caught the man by 
the coat, and endeavoured to pull him towards 
his master's hut, and by his exertions at last in- 
duced the shepherd to follow him : on arriving at 
the hut belonging to the master of the dog, it 
was found to be on fire, and on entering it, the body 
of the shepherd was seen stretched on the floor, the 
head resting on the ashes, and the base of the scull 
separated from the other portions of the head. As 
military expeditions had been recently out against 
the blacks, another was instantly set on foot; a 
party of the aborigines were descried on the brow 
of a mountain, and of course fled the moment they 
saw our mounted police; this was deemed prima 
facie evidence of their guilt, and one man, who ap- 
peared a chief, after seeing his wife, children, and 
friends safe, almost suffered himself to be taken. 
The circumstantial evidence arising from his run- 
ning away, was supposed to be strengthened by his 
having been recently seen at the shepherd's hut 
with a party of natives, bartering with the Euro- 
peans. This was the only evidence against him ; 
the arguments I adduced in his favour were chiefly 
anatomical: there was no mark of a blow on the 

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POPULATION. 143 

scoll or body of the deceased ; the natives were not 
possessed of any instrument which could carve out 
the occipital bone in the manner it was done in the 
scull of the deceased shepherd, and which had evi- 
dently been caused by the action of fire, loosening 
the sutures and bursting the bones asunder : more- 
over, the fire might have been accidental in a bark 
hut. The poor native was, however, placed in the 
dock, he smiled at the scene around, the meaning 
of which he could not in the slightest degree com- 
prehend, (none of the Sydney blacks speaking his 
language,) the forms of a trial were gone through, 
and he was executed. I applied to the sheriflP, and 
obtained his body, dissected it, and prepared a skele- 
ton therefrom, which I took with me to India. The 
female I obtained with great difficulty. She was an 
old woman long known about Sydney, Hearing of 
her death and burial in the forest, about 25 miles 
from my residence, I went thither, and aided by 
some stock-keepers, found the grave — a slightly 
elevated and nearly circular tumulus. The body was 
buried six feet deep, wrapped in several sheets of 
bark, the inner one being of a fine silvery texture. 
Several things which the deceased possessed in life, 
together with her favourite dog, were buried with 
her — all apparently for use in another world. I 
brought the old woman home in my cabriolet, and 
her skeleton is also in India. The scull was fuU of 
indentations, as if a tin vessel had been struck by a 
hammer; they were quite diaphonous, and were 
caused by blows of waddies (hard sticks) when she 
was young, and made love to by her intended spouse, 
such being the most approved manner of proceeding 

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144 



NEW SOUTH WALES. 



to choose a wife\ I regret much not having brought 
the scull with me to England', as I could not myself 
have believed it possible to make such extraordinary- 
indentations in the human scull without fracturing 
it, except, indeed, before the infant be bom. 

The following measurement of the New Hollanders* 
Skeletons, was made by me in New South Wales : — 



NEW HOLLANDERS' SKELETONS. 



Male. 



Female. 



S 



The Scull and Face. 

Length of the sagittal suture 

Transverse nasal suture over frontal bone to the"! 

posterior edge of the foramen magnum of the y 

occipital bone ) 

From meatus audit, ext. of one side, to meatus! 

audit, ext. of the other, over the parietal bones... / 
From one zygomatic suture to the other across) 

maxillary superior j 

From the Junction of the sagittal and lambdoidal) 

sutures to the posterior edge of occipital fo-> 

ramen magnum ) 

Circumference of scull from the frontal sinuses) 

round the great occipital ridge / 

From the transverse suture at the external can- ) 

thus of orbit to the other, across the os nasi / 

From the posterior edge of the occipital foramen ^ 

to the transverse nasal suture, over the sphe- > 

noid, superior maxillary, and nasal bones J 

Circiunference of the scull, at the Junction of the^ 

coronal and sagittal suture, and anterior to the V 

styloid processes J 

From the one mastoid process to the other across \ 

the superior alveolar ridge / 

Lower Jaw, 

Depth of lower Jaw at the symphysis menti 

From the coronoid process to inferior angle 

From one coronoid process to the other 

From one angle to the other across the symphysis'! 
menti / 



* It is extraordinary to observe two of the Aborigines fight- 
ing ; each holds out his head to receive a tremendous blow of a 
club from the other, and they thus continue giving blow for blow 
until one or the other, or perhaps both, fall senseless together. 

' It is in the Asiatic Society's Museum, at Calcutta. 



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P0PULA.TION. 



145 



NEW HOLLANDERS' SKELETONS. 



Male. Female 



Clavicle. 
Length from scapular end to sternal, atlantan\ 

aspect ..^ / 

Scapula. 
From the glenoid cavity to the inferior or sacral \ 

angle along the superior or atlantal costa / 

From the superior or atlantal angle to the inferior S 

or sacral angle along the base / 

Superior Extremity. — Humerus. 

From proximal to distal extremity 

Circumference at the centre 

Ulna. 
Vxata the proximal extremity of the olecranon to \ 

the styliform process or distal extremity / 

Diameter where the medullary artery enters 

Radiui. 

From proximal to distal extremity 

Circumference at the centre 

Pelvia. 
Distance between the anterior superior fpinousi 

processes J 

Difference between the tuberosities of the ischia ... 
Distance between the symphysis pubis and os\ 

coccygis / 

Distance between the spines of the ischium 

Conjugate or Antero -posterior Diameter. 
Distance between the promontory of the sacrum) 

and symphysis pubis J 

Crista of one os ilium to the other, at the most) 

distant parts .'. / 

Oblique diameter between the right sacro iliac syn-) 
chroid and linea innominata opposite the nearest > 

point of left acetabulum ) 

Transverse diameter between the brims of the\ 

pelvis / 

Femur. 
From the proximal extremity to the distal tibial \ 

extremity / 

Circumference at the centre ^ 

Tibia. 
From the proximal extremity to the distal or mal-\ 

leolus internus j 

Circumference at the centre 

Fibula. 

From the proximal to the distal extremity 

Circumference at the centre 

N.B. Ten lines to an inch. 



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146 NBW SOOTH WALES. 

The New Hollanders are of the middle height, 
few being of lofty stature; the women are small 
and well made, as indeed is generally the case 
with the male sex ; the hands and feet small, the 
shoulders finely rounded, but the abdomen fre- 
quently protuberant and the arms long; the fea- 
tures are not unpleasing in youth : in some women, 
the smile may be considered fascinating, which, 
added to an easiness of manner and a harmonious 
voice (especially in the pronunciation of English), 
has rendered several of the unfortunate Aborigines 
favourites with the white men. The colour of the 
skin and hair is in general black, but some tribes 
have been seen of a lighter colour, approaching that 
of a Malay, with hair of a reddish cast. Some pos- 
sess large beards, but many pluck out the hair by 
the root. As is the c€ise with all savages, the head 
is the principal part for decoration ; some divide the 
hair into small parcels, each of which is matted to- 
gether with gum, and formed into lengths like the 
thrums of a mop ; others, by means of yellow gum, 
fasten on the head the front teeth of a kangaroo, the 
jaw bones of a fish, human teeth, feathers, pieces of 
wood, tails of dogs, &c. Oil of any quality is used 
with avidity for preserving the skin from mosqui- 
toes, &c., and the breasts, arms, back. Sac. are 
covered at an early age with scars or wealed cica- 
trices of every variety of form. The males of most 
tribes have the front tooth struck out on attaining 
puberty, and the women are frequently observed with 
a joint of the little finger cut off. When going to 
war, or grieving for a deceased friend, or occasion- 



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POPULATION. 147 

ally even for ornament, white and yellow pigments 
are applied in streaks over the whole body, accord- 
ing to the taste of the decorator, such as a large 
white circle round each eye, waving lines down and 
across the thighs and legs. In general it may be 
said, that the whole of the aborigines of this vast 
island are of the same stock, though it is not a little 
singular that their language differs so much, that 
tribes within short distances of each other, unless 
inhabiting the bank of the same river, are quite 
strangers to each other, while almost every large 
community, or family as they may be termed, has 
its own peculiar dialect. Of their numbers it is 
difficult to form a correct idea; depending, how- 
ever, as they do, entirely on the chace or fishing, or 
on gum or bulbous roots, and subject to the effects 
of long droughts, the country is very thinly peopled. 
In some places, as in Cumberland County, no houses 
are constructed ; an overhanging rock, or a slip of 
bark placed upright against a tree, serving for tem- 
porary shelter. To the N.W. and S.W. houses have 
been found rudely constructed of bark, but without 
any kind of furniture or ornament. In many places 
a log of wood, or a wide shp of bark, tied at either 
end, and stuffed with clay, is the only mode invented 
for crossing a river or arm of the sea, while in other 
parts, a large tree, roughly hollowed by fire, forms 
the canoe. The nearest approximation to ingenuity 
is the fishing net, prepared by the women from 
fibres or grassy filaments. Their only cutting im- 
plements are made of stone, sometimes of jasper, 
fastened between a cleft stick with a hard gum. 
L 2 

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148 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

Their arms of offence and defence consist solely of 
the spear, boomerang, several kinds of waddies or 
nullah-nullah, a small stone tomahawk and bark- 
shield; I do not think bows and arrows have ever 
been seen. The spear is about 10 feet long, as 
thick as a man's finger, tapering to a point, some- 
times jagged or barbed, and hardened in the fire ; 
this they can throw from 50 to 60 feet with great 
precision, the impetas being greatly increased by 
the use of the womera or throwing stick which is a 
piece of wood about three feet in length, three 
inches broad at one end, and going off to a point at 
the other, to which a sort of hook is fastened ; the 
hook is inserted into a small hole at the extremity 
of the spear, and the womera being grasped at the 
broad part acts somewhat pn the principle of the 
sling, enabling a powerful man to send the spear, 
some say to the distance of 100 yards. The boome- 
rang is still more curious, — it is of a curved form, 
made of a piece of hard wood, 30 to 40 inches in 
length, two and a half to three inches wide at the 
broadest part, and tapering away at each end nearly 
to a point ; the concave part is from one-eighth to 
one-fourth of an inch thick, and the convex quite 
sharp. A native can throw this simple instrument 
40 or 50 yards, horizontally skimming along the 
sarface not more than three or four feet from the 
ground, without touching which it will suddenly 
dart into the air to the height of 50 or 60 yards, de- 
scribing a considerable curve, and finally fall at his 
feet ! During the whole of this evolution the boome- 
rang keeps turning with great rapidity, like a piece 



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POPULATION. 149 

of wood revolving on a pivot, and with a whizzing 
noise. Lieut. Breton (who has paid mach attention 
to the Ahorigines) justly observes that it is not easy 
to comprehend by what law of projection the boome- 
rang is made to take the singular direction it does. 
In the hands of an European it is a ticklish imple- 
ment, as it may return and strike himself, but the 
Aborigine can inflict with it the most deadly wounds 
on others. The waddie and nullah-nullah are clubs 
of different sizes and solidity; the tomahawk is a 
piece of sharpened stone, frequently quartz, fixed 
in a cleft stick with gum ; with this they cut notches 
in the trees, and ascend them to the height of 60 
feet, though without a branch, and far too thick to 
be grasped. Their form of government is patri- 
archal ; each tribe consists of 30 to 50 men, women 
and children (sometimes more), and has its own 
territory of about 20 or 30 square miles, on which 
no other tribe is permitted to encroach. It is pro- 
bable that trespassing on each other's grounds is 
one of the main causes of their frequent quarrels, 
war being the occupation in which they seem to 
delight. No laws or reg^ulations for the government 
of the country have been discovered ; polygamy is 
practised ; women are treated in the most inhuman 
manner, wives being procured from adjacent tribes 
by stealing on the encampment during the night, 
beating a young g^l on the head till she falls sense- 
less, when h^ future spouse drags her off through 
the bushes, as a tiger would its prey. 

Too many instances have occurred to permit us 
to doubt that cannibalism is practised among many 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



150 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

of the Australian tribes, and in a manner the most 
revolting ; not only are their enemies slain in war 
eaten, or those unfortunate Europeans who have 
fallen into their power ; but examples have occurred 
of the father killing and eating his own ofispring ! 
Hunger, long continued, intense, ravening hunger is 
the excuse made for such barbarism ; th^y have been 
seen to bleed themselves, make a sort of cake with 
the blood, and then greedily devour it. Of religion, 
no form, no ceremonial, no idol has ever been dis- 
covered, but they possess many superstitions j when 
one of their own tribe pays the debt of nature, they 
invariably destroy a native of another tribe, why or 
wherefore is not known. They have strange ideas 
of futurity, and the whites are considered reanimated 
beings who had formerly been their ancestors. The 
dead are buried generally in grave-yards of consider- 
able extent, the earth elevated in an oval shape : 
sometimes they are burned. 

In an afiray that took place on the Wollombi be- 
tween two tribes, four men and two women of the 
Comleroy tribe were slain ; Lieut. Breton describes 
the ceremony of their interment at a very pretty 
spot, in the following manner. The bodies of the 
men were placed on their backs in the form of a 
cross, head to head, each bound to a pole by ban- 
dages round the neck, middle, knees, and ancles, the 
pole being behind the body; the two women had 
their knees bent up and tied to the neck, while their 
hands were bound to their knees ; they were then 
placed so as to have their faces downwards : in 
fact, they were literally packed up in two heaps of 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



POPULATION. 151 

earth, each of the form of a cone, about three feet 
high, and rather removed from the cross ; for the 
supposed inferiority of the women forbids their 
being interred with the men. The neatness and 
precision observed with respect to the cross and 
cones are very remarkable, both being raised to the 
same height, and so smoothly raked down, that it 
would puzzle the nicest observer to discover the 
slightest inequality in the form. The trees for 
some distance around to the height of 15 or 20 feet, 
are carved over with grotesque figures, meant to 
represent kangaroos, emus, opossums, snakes, &c. 
with rude representations also of the difierent wea* 
pons they use. Round the cross they made a circle, 
about 30 feet in diameter, from which all rubbish 
was carefully removed, and another was made out- 
side the first, so as to leave a narrow interval be- 
tween them; within this interval, there were laid 
pieces of bark, each piece touching the rest, in the 
same way that tiles do. The devil, they say, will 
not leap over the bark, and cannot walk under it ? 

They will not pass a grave or grave-yard at night, 
and the name of the deceased is not again mentioned 
by his tribe. Their corrabaries, or nightly meetings 
at the full moon, have some resemblance to the 
devil-worship prevalent among the mountain tribes 
in Ceylon. The condition of the people about Port 
Philip is thus interestingly given by Mr. Wedge and 
o&ers: 

** These people are, we regret to say decided can- 
nibals. Iliey do not, however, indulge in this horrible 
propensity, except in two cases, the one in consuming 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



152 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

the bodies of hostile tribes killed in battle, and the 
other, we shudder to relate it, on their own offspring. 
The women are accustomed to nurse and suckle their 
children, until three or four years old, and in order to 
get rid of the trouble and inconvenience of finding 
sustenance for two, should a second be born, before 
the eldest is weaned, they destroy the youngest 
immediately after its birth. There are some mothers 
also among them who destroy their otifepring from 
mere wantonness, and one female, the wife of Nullum' 
bord, was pointed out to Mr. Wedge as having de- 
stroyed ten out of eleven of her children. 

** The increase of the tribes is of course by this 
murderous means, materially kept down. Polygamy 
however, is common, few of the men having less 
than two wives, and some four or more. The women 
are the slaves of the men, and they are severely chas- 
tised by their husbands on the least fault or neglect 
of duty, even on the occasion of want of success in 
hunting or procuring food. To do this the unfeeling 
males take the burning brands from the fire, and 
cast with force, and too sure an aim, at their oppressed 
victims. Surely the work of colonization, and the 
possession of this beautiful territory, by civilized 
Christians is to be accounted a human benefit, and 
not an unjustifiable encroachment. 

" On the death of a husband, his wives, whatever 
be their number, become the property of the eldest 
of his brothers, or of the next of kin. The men are 
jealous of their wives, and when any culpable intrigue 
is discovered, it very generally leads to the death ©£• 
the offender, unless the latter be powerful or wealthy. 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



POPULATION. 153 

and gives in return some weighty compensation. 
Infidelity is however uncommon amongst them. In 
bestowing daughters for wives, they are promised as 
soon as they are bom, and on these occasions, the 
parents receive presents of food, opossum or kangaroo 
skin rugs, spears, &c. from the person to whom she 
is betrothed, and these arrangements are considered 
as binding as the marriage knot among us. The 
men are prohibited from looking at the mother of 
the girl given to them in marriage, which singtdar 
custom is observed with the strictest caution. 

" The fights which occasionally take place between 
the difierent tribes are not often fatal, though the 
weapons of war are very dangerous. But they are 
remarkably expert in avoiding a blow, and very ge- 
nerally escape unhurt. Their skill in tracing the 
path of a kangaroo or other animal would be almost 
incredible to an European. The slightest disarrange- 
ment of the grass, a broken twig, or the smaUest 
thing that indicates the passing of an object is per- 
ceived, and serves to guide pursuit. Their percep- 
tions of seeing, hearing, and smelling are remarkably 
acute, and their patient perseverance in watching for 
game is equally wonderful. 

" Theii food consists principally of kangaroo flesh, 
and other animals, fish, roots of various kinds, black 
swans, ducks, and many other birds as well as rep- 
tiles. In their appetites they are quite voracious, 
and the quantity they devour at one meal, as Mr. 
Wedge says, 'would astonish a London alderman, 
although not so fastidious in the quality of the 
viands.' 



Digitized by CjOOQiC 



154 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

'* They appear to be without any religious obser- 
vance, although tiiey evidently believe in a future 
state. They are, however, docile, and many of them 
assisted the first settlers in erecting their huts, being 
repaid for their services in bread or blankets. Their 
habitations are of the readiest construction, being 
composed of branches of trees, laid with tolerable 
compactness, inclining to an apex at an angle of 
about 45 degrees, forming in shape a segment of a 
circle or hemisphere. 

" They are of a cheerful and happy disposition, 
and in the evenings dance and sing for amusement. 
Before their entertainments, they paint and decorate 
themselves, tying dead boughs to their legs, and the 
women beating time with two sticks. Their dress 
consists of an opossum or kangaroo skin rug, very 
neatly sewed together with the sinews of the tail of 
the latter. Their whole body is commonly enveloped 
in this rug. The men are always armed with spears, 
and the women with a stick about five feet in length, 
and with which they dig up the roots. In a family 
all those capable to assist in procuring food, are fur- 
nished with blankets and nets. They live in small 
groups, each family having a separate mess, the 
father presiding at the repast, and distributing the 
food. They have only two meals a-day, breakfast 
and supper. 

" They wear shields of two kinds— one as a pro- 
tection against spears, and the other to ward off the 
blows of clubs. The last one is about 2J feet long, 
with a round knob at the end, which is used as a 
missile, the other is about the same length, with a 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



POPULATION. 155 

pointed hook at one end, which in its turn is shaped 
to an edge. When used they direct the face of the 
weapon to the adversary's head, but when the point 
of the stick is the means of attack, it is pointed to 
the ribs. * It is,' says Mr. Wedge, * a fearful instru- 
ment in the hands of a savage, whose dexterity in 
the use of this and all other weapons is truly great.' 

"They wear the small bone of the leg of the kan- 
garoo about 5 or 6 inches long, through the cartilage 
of the nose, the teeth of the kangaroo and other 
animals fastened in the hair, and folds of string made 
from the sinews of the emus' legs, round their necks. 
These decorations serve much to heighten their 
savage appearance. They appear to be very healthy, 
and free from cutaneous disorders, but Mr. Wedge 
observed some of them with scars on their faces, not 
unlike the marks occasioned by small pox. 

*' Their language is not harsh, and when the ear 
is accustomed to it, it becomes pleasing. The liquids 
and vowels preponderate. The following are speci- 
mens — Villamanata, station mount. Bellarine, hills 
on Indented Head, Barrabull, hills near Bungawillock, 
or Buckley's falls — Modewarrie, the lake Noondeit, a 
a small pool on Indented Head, Curwee, a chain of 
lands a little west of Port Philip. 

** They bum their dead who die a natural death, 
but the bodies of women and girls after death are 
frequently thrown across the branches of trees, and 
suffered to be eaten by beasts and birds of prey. 
On the death of a husband or child, or an accident 
to either, they wound, lacerate and disfigure their 
faces." 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



156 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

The reader will probably be of opinion that I have 
dwelt long enough on this singular people; but 
before passing to the next class of the population, 
the question naturally arises, — are the New Hol- 
landers likely to continue, in conjunction with the 
white race ? I fear not ; in the interior, their num- 
bers seem to be diminishing from famine and war, 
and at Sydney and other towns, where they exist 
chiefly by begging, vice and disease are fast de- 
stroying them. They have an instinctive aversion to 
labour, very few instances having been known of 
their continuing for any length of time as agricul- 
tural servants. As constables in aid of the police 
they are sometimes employed, and from their being 
excellent shots, and possessing a keen scent and 
sight for tracing runaway prisoners in the forest, 
their services, when they can be induced to remain, 
are found very useful. An instance of their keen 
sight and scent occurred when I was in New South 
Wales. A settler on the great western road was 
missing from his small farm. His convict overseer 
gave out that he had gone off privately to England, 
and left the property in his care. This was thought 
extraordinary, as the settler was not in difficulties, 
and was a steady prudent man ; the affair, however, 
was almost forgotten, when one Saturday night, 
another settler, was returning with his horse and 
cart from market. On arriving at a part of the fence 
on the road side, near the farm of his absent neigh- 
bour, he thought he saw him sitting on the fence ; 
immediately the farmer pulled up his mare, hailed 
his friend, and, receiving no answer, got out of the 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



POPULATION. 157 

cart and went towards the fence ; his neighbour (as 
he plainly appeared to be) quitted the fence, and 
crossed the field towards a pond in the direction of 
his home, which it was supposed he had deserted. 
The farmer thought it strange, remounted his cart, 
and proceeded home. The next morning he went 
to his neighbour's cottage, expecting to see him ; 
but saw only the overseer, who laughed at the story, 
and said that his master was by that time near the 
shores of England. The circumstance was so inexpli- 
cable that the farmer went to the nearest justice of 
the peace (I think it was to the Penrith bench) related 
the preceding circumstances, and added that he 
feared foul play had taken place. A native black, 
(who was and I believe still is) attached to the 
station as a constable, was sent with some of the 
mounted police, and accompanied the farmer to the 
rails where the latter thought he saw, the evening 
before, his deceased friend. The spot was pointed 
out to the black, without showing him the direction 
which the lost person apparently took after quitting the 
fence. On close inspection, a part of the upper rail 
was observed to be discoloured ; it was scraped with 
a knife by the black, who next smelt at it and tasted 
it. Immediately after, he crossed the fence, and took a 
straight direction for the pond near the cottage ; on 
its surface was a scum, which he took up in a leaf, 
and, after tasting and smelling, he declared it to be 
" white matCs fat" Several times, somewhat after 
the manner of a blood-hound, he coursed round the 
lake ; at last he darted into the neighbouring thicket, 
and halted at a place containing some loose and de- 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



158 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

cayed brushwood. On removing this, he thrust 
down the ramrod of his musket into the earth, smelt 
at it, and then desired the spectators to dig there. In- 
stantly spades were brought from the cottage, and 
the body of the settler was found, with his skull 
fractured, and presenting every indication of having 
been some time immersed in water. The overseer, 
who was in possession of the property of the de- 
ceased, and who had mvented the story of his de- 
parture for England, was committed to gaol, and 
tried for murder. The foregoing circumstantial 
evidence formed the main proofs. He was found 
guilty, sentenced to death, and proceeded to the 
scaffold, protesting his innocence. Here, however, 
his hardihood forsook him: he acknowledged the 
murder of his late master ; that he came behind him 
when he was crossing the identical rail on wliich the 
farmer fancied he saw the deceased, and, with one 
blow on the head, killed him — dragged the body 
to the pond, and threw it in; but. after some 
days, took it out again, and buried it where it was 
found. The sagacity of the native black was re- 
markable ; but the unaccountable manner in which 
the murder was discovered, is one of the inscrutable 
dispensations of Providence. 

That the aboriginal race is fast disappearing is 
too true. Governor Macquarie, and other humane 
individuals, took every possible pains to accustom 
them to the comforts of civilized life, but in vain. 
During one of my last rides towards Richmond, I 
saw standing the deserted huts of a place called 
Black Town, which were built and provided with 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



POPULATION. 159 

every necessary for the aborigines, but who conld 
not be induced to remain fixed either there or any 
where else ; and it may be remembered that Beni- 
long, who was carried to England, after two years 
absence returned to his home, threw off his clothes, 
and again repaired, in a state of nudity, to the 
forest. Notwithstanding these unfavourable signs, 
I think we ought to persevere in our endeavours 
to save the wild and untutored savages from perish- 
ing ; self-interest, humanity, Christianity call on us 
so to do ; we have occupied their hunting and fishing 
grounds; the kangaroo and the emu have disap- 
peared before the plough and the reaping hook, and 
the subsistence of those children of Nature has 
vanished. There may not be much in the appearance, 
still less in the manners of the New Hollander, to 
excite our sympathy, for assuredly if Rousseau had 
visited the aborigines of New South Wales, the 
last link of the human race, with the exception 
of the Bosjesman of South Africa and the Veddah 
of Ceylon, he would not have hesitated as to whe- 
ther savage or social life is to be preferred. But 
although this unfortunate race were ten-fold more 
hideous, more revolting, more barbarous than they 
are, we ought to — we must — continue our efforts^ 
and enjoy at least the satisfaction of knowing that 
nothing was left undone to civilize them. When I 
left the colony, some of the aboriginal children were 
being brought up in the male and female orphan 
school, a project which, as regards the rising genera- 
tion, will I trust be successful. The offspring of 
the European convicts and native women are seldom 
7 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



160 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

seen; the husband of the mother destroys them, 
tinder the idea, it is said, that if permitted to survive, 
they would be wiser than the blacks among whom 
they livedo Of the number of aboriginal inhabi- 
tants in the colony it is difficult to form any estimate; 
I do not think that they amount to 5000. I pass 
now from a subject fraught with painful thoughts 
and melancholy reflections, to describe the white 
population of the colony. 

The British colony, when established at Sydney 
Cove, on the shores of Port Jackson, 26th January, 
1788, consisted of only 1030 individuals, of whom 
upwards of 700 were convicts. Emigration was 
for many years studiously discouraged by some of 
the authorities, notwithstanding which, owing to 
the number of convicts sent out, and the fineness of 
the climate, the population rapidly increased. Four 
censuses have been taken, and the augmentation since 
1788, is thus shown:— 1788, 1030; 1810, 8293; 
1821,29,783; 1828,36,598; 1833,71,070. 

These enumerations are considered very inaccu- 
rate by those who know the colony well, especially 
that of 1828, when the settlers were apprehensive 
of the establishment of a poll tax; that of 1833 is 
thus given for each county, as also for the principal 
towns in the colony, as the male and female pri- 
soners are distinguished. 

' If they were formed into native military corps of police, 
under humane European officers, I think they would be found 
very serviceable for the prevention of crime and the tracing 
out of Bushrangers : by this means the lives of many might 
be saved. 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



POPULATION. 



161 



Population of New South Wales in 1833, 


by Counties. 








fenom on the Katubtiihrni-aE. 


1 


KflU^ii. 












MalL 


FiBSBlB. 




1 




COLTfTlES* 








fl 


^ 






• 




* 1 




k 1 




i 


i 

-3 


1 


1 


'lii 


1 


1 


i, 


1 


1 


!, 


Arg^iB ««« H^„. 


TCWfl 


1411^ 


t^ 25S 


e& 434 


2&50 


175S llffi 


7 




10.^1 


mtti 


SS31 4M 


119' 523 


34i4 


®*fl4 


Ki.^ 


y 


fi 


4 




firt 


mi 


3S«' 5 


I 7 


^m 


147 


»2 


To 








w,"* 


3iS) 


21*4 435 


6t) 501 


4!*j4« 


Ififlil 


^m 


?, H 




66£ 


,S27 


995 444 


^ 4?0 


l*i& 


1079 


3S3 


fl 


1'- 


Camhvrrmi „».,.,•• 


IfraWI 


315 


43397, I04P5 


206-2 125*7 ;35B** 


36-049 


JMPO 


s« 


i^fia 




(iria 


£iqH 


g»*9, 2&5 


es 36fl. 330.^ 


93m 


c)e7 


7 


I , 




123 


5J74 


4S2 ii*> 


G: Sl< 583 


462 


,117 


4 




aiscqiHulo ...-, — 


m 




63? 1 73 


45 m 7U 500 


fiffii 


jLi 


-. 


>itirf*j?^.- , — 


im 


IrtTHj 


47 SI 33 


2 35 5101 32r 


1S3 


-^ 


1*^ 




IIBB 


1123 


mm ?&7 


193 9H0, 46061 3174 


1411 


15 


'«! i 


Saint Viikcent 


13S 


<» 


412 SS 


5 a M5 365 


tiO 


„. 




JU^a Erantli, in- 






1 


1, 










Cludljl^-StOtkildlM 


17 


l«7Lt 


im6\ 7 


7i 1903 


>)3i 


ftatj 


33 


^- 3 




iS 


iri8 


Ud6| LI 


39 sa l^lfl 


1001 


214' 3 




ColcinJa! Veis«^i at 
















$i^ ^.„.., 


yw: 


- 


Ft^2| - 


„. 1 _. S9S Doa; „. 1 ...' 




Total — 


la^iii 


ais^s 


4Mto 21-a^!i 269B llJl51,607Li* «WS 17£38| 345 
1 ' 1 ^ ■ i 1 


56^ 



Population of the principal Towns in New South Wales in 1833. 



TOWNS. 



Sydney .... 
Paramatta 
Liverpool.. 
Windsor.... 
Richmond 
Newcastle 
Macquarie 
Maitland... 



Persons on the Establishment 



Male. 



6958 
1090 
199 
454 
371 
160 
52 
560 



1855 
407 
237 
187 
189 
226 
394 
614 



Female. 



9813 5534 
1497 1004 
436 139 
6411 155 
490 120 
386 79 
4461 62 
1078 553 
I 



6419 
1140 
183 
357 
272 
150 
90 
378 



16232 
2637 
619 
998 
762 
536 
536 
1456 



Religion. 



477 
787 
659 
415 
346 
892 



3922 
395 
140 
208 
102 
120 
176 
556 



* The prisoners in prirate service on December 31st» 1834* amounted to 18)304 ; since 
wtiicli period 1903 had been assigned, making a total of 20,207, the saving of whose main- 
tenance, at 10{. per annum each, was 202,076Z. per annum to the Government. The 
prisoners maintained by the Executive were 982 in the road gang, 1191 in the chain gang, 
646 in gaols, and 1250 in penal settlements, making a total of 4069, at an annual expense 
of 43,4191. The whole population of the colony is 70,000 persons, out of which 24276 are 
in bondage. 

M 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



162 



NEW SOUTH WALKS. 



II- 

Co 



CO 

1^ 



3^ 
O "S 



4 



:e>»F^eo : :^« tcif^o 






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II 

ill 



'ill 



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•s **- 



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li 

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«C« 



III 

ill 

<2o 









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'^t^eoeoMO(^e^w)»oo*oeot^oe4a>icie«QAe>ico-<e4 



Nco »<a» 00 



^eSS ^ t^ t^ 5 «o « ^ w -• w c« •«♦« « — « 



jt ::; ;:, M t^ a> <» ««. CO lo A M >o 00 o SmMvso '-• :-* 









li; 



A^eoe>4^«e>4>oe>le4QOoo^ 



tf) ooeo ^(x oo ^ o o a> >o 9ke>i co><)e>i >-< ot^n eo*« to 
^•-i M eo 00 e>« •<»• « -« 



oo»>.e*io«ooT»«oo*oooOT»«>*F-^-»»<iooeoc>»«oo»«^«ftoo 
coeo'-e^ot>.e>i-^Aeo>oo>t>.eo«okQo>o<ooo>o-Mr«t^t« 

«0 ♦ ^ 0«» 0> «0 **-■ «^ «-«•-* W r^ »- lO eo tO>«.-iF«e>l ^rm 



0.2 g 



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i 






Digitized by CjOOQIC 



POPULATION. 



163 



Population of the Principal Towns in New South Wales, in 1836. 



Feraons on the EttaUlshment. 



IS 



Sydney, aportlon of the 1 
parish of Alexandria} 



Farainatta, including] 

Female Factory .~.~ j 

Lirerpool >m.^...^.^..> 

Windior^.....^^..^.^. 



Rid 

Newcastle < 

Maittand, East and West 



2205 2932 12111 



387 1766 

185! 406 

252. 746 

171 615 

361! 517 

296 782 

626 710 



125 



201 1 145 

65| 57 

198 132 

431 26 



7618 19729 

1834 3600 

191 597 

399 1145 

367 982 

187 704 



14391 



4942 



2686: 900 

429 167 

910' 228 

811' 171 

5091 191 



381' 1163 788 365 
110 820! 5421 253 



Return of the Number of Baptisms and Burials in New South 
Wales. [From Blue Books, Colonial Office.] 





IVrttflitjuiii* 


Hflinwi C 


ktfaa 


Uct 




nurials. 






udaJi. 


1 


itaptHins. 




Baiitumt. 


1 


Mile, 


remalf. 


1 


MMle. JFBtiule. 


1 


M. 1 F. ' T&L 


SL 


C7h. 


W. 


let. 


M> 


F. |;*«t. 


M. 1 Ch.) W, f Ch. 


fJS 


»j3 317 eSO 


1^ 


7S 


\m 


6% 


aib 


1 


f ( '\'"'\ 1 


^ 


WW 


m 


33t» eta 


S)7 


lOrf 


^ 


m 


570 S- 1 


Hflturiu noE retidered^ 




J^i 


4i^ 


453 b79 


:m 


m 


u^ 


¥f 


B»iS 


1 












IIGK 


4B>i 


Vie m!> 


SHI 


m 


m 


fw 


t©fi i^ 


l^ Sl9 


S7 


,W 


nn 


sa 


w 


LEQ 




mBmj\ 453 


153 


111^1 IM 


Ml MT 


ass, &33 


1^ 


m 


■W 


&j' sool 


1S» 




QB3 ms\ 515 


VM 


145 lOCf 


Nfl4 31: 


ml 


t3l2 


1^ 


«3 


111 


sg £&o 


mi, 




Bsn lenji w[i 


•m 


IH7 m* 


1151 g^ii 


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^ soz: 


1S38| 73S 


raa i*.u' im' ic^ 


US ihi 


Ilti3 ?H» 


SMF 


l-K,¥i 


23ti 


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[B. B. 1836.]— Church of England. Births, 1263 ; 
Marriages, 472; Deaths, 1105. Kirk of Scotland, 
Births, 180; Marriages, 133; Deaths, 43. Penal 
Settlements, Births, 18; Deaths, 15. Roman Catholics, 
Births, 659; Marriages, 169; Deaths, 465. Total, 
Births, 2120: Marriages, 774; Deaths, 1628. 
M 2 



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NEW SOUTH WALES. 










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166 



NEW SOUTH WALES. 



Return of the Number of Persons arrived in New South 
Wales, since the year 1825. 



Year. 


Convicts. 


Emigrants. 


Grand 
Total 


i 


a 


1 


S 


a 

a 

1 


i 


^ 


1825 


1665 


251 


1916 










1916 


1826 


1723 


100 


1823 


, , 


, , 


., 


, , 


1823 


1827 


2105 


499 


2604 


, , 


, , 


, , 


, , 


2604 


1828 


2341 


371 


2712 


200 


122 


274 


696 


3308 


1829 


3171 


493 


3664 


306 


113 


145 


564 


4228 


1830 


2782 


444 


3226 


166 


70 


73 


309 


3535 


1831 


2331 


506 


2837 


185 


98 


174 


457 


3294 


1832 


2887 


381 


3268 


819 


706 


481 


2006 


5274 


1833 


3498 


638 


4136 


838 


1146 


701 


2685 


6821 


1834 


2704 


457 


3161 


571 


596 


397 


1564 


4725 


1835 


3423 


179 


3602 


551 


644 


233 


1428 


5030 


1836 .. 




•• 


524 


807 


290 


1621 





Return of Convicts arrived in New South Wales. [B. B.] 



Year. 


British. 


Irish. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


1828 


1582 


nd 


752 


192 


2712 


1829 


2008 


319 


1163 


174 


3664 


1830 


2096 


128 


685 


316 


3225 


1831 


1437 


206 


692 


298 


2633 


1832 


1810 


248 


928 


133 


3119 


1833 


2719 


377 


794 


261 


4151 


1834 


1923 


284 


781 


173 


3161 


1835 


2099 


179 


1324 




3602 


1836 

Total- 


2195 


274 


960 


394 


3823 


17876 


2194 


8079 


1941 


30090 



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POPULATION. 



167 



Number of Convicts arrived in the Colony of New South 
Wales from 1830 to 1834, as shown by the Volumes of 
Indents printed by order of Government for the information 
of the magistrates *. 



MALES. 


Year. 


From 
England. 


From 
Ireland. 


From India, 


TotaL 


Ships 


Pris. 


Ships 


Pris. 


Ships 


Pris. 


Ships. 


Pris. 


1830 
1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 

Total... 


11 

7 

9 

12 

7 


2081 
1414 
1793 
2685 
1877 


4 

5 
5 
4 

4 


685 
890 
928 
794 
781 


4 
5 

7 
8 
9 


15 
25 
32 
19 
46 


19 
17 
21 
24 
20 


2781 
2329 
2753 
3498 
2704 


46 


9850 


22 


4078 


33 


137 


101 


14065 


FEMALES. 


1830 
1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 

Total... 


1 
2 
2 
3 
2 


128 
206 
248 
376 
282 


2 
2 

1 
2 

1 


316 
298 
133 
261 
174 


2 

i 

1 


2 
2 


3 
6 
3 
6 
4 


444 
506 
381 
638 
458 


10 


1240 


8 


1182 


4 


5 


1 22 


2427 



Return of the Number of Convicts in New South 
Wales on Slat December, 1836, [B. B.^— Penal set- 
tlements, Norfolk Island, 1247 ; Moreton Bay, 337 ; 
Port Macquarie, 541 ; Hulk " Phoenix," 166 ; Goat 
Island, 209; On the roads in irons, 1152; 2nd class 
convicts, Dlawarra, 123 ; Sydney Gaol, 79 ; on the 
roads and Surveyor Greneral's Department, 392 ; Mi- 

^ The prisoners by ships from England are 10 per cent 
Catholics ; Ireland 5 ditto, Protestants ; in 1835, there were 
6 ships from Ireland, 9 from England, with male convicts, I 
ditto with female, in addition to the prisoners by the Hive 
wrecked at Jervis Bay. 



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168 



NEW SOUTH WALES. 



neral Surveyor's Department, 112; Medical Depart- 
ment, 98 ; Commissariat Department, 58 ; Hyde Park 
Barrack, 680; Female Factory, Paramatta, 578; 
Holding tickets of leave, 4480 ; For private service, 
20,934; Total, 31,186. 

Return of the Number of Persons free by servitude, absolutely, 
and conditionally pardoned from 1829 to 1&36. [B. B. 1836.] 



rear. 


Free by Servitude. 


Absolutely 
Pardoned. 


Conditionally 
Pardoned. 


M. 


P. 


Total. 


M. 


P. 


Total 


M. 


P. 


Total 


1829 
1830 
1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1836 
1836 

Total- 


897 

711 

967 
849 
1044 
1313 
1012 
1006 


79 
106 
122 
163 
202 
236 
246 
220 


976 
816 
1079 
1002 
1246 
1649 
1268 
1226 


6 

2 

8 

10 

40 


1 


6 

3 

8 

10 

40 


27 

68 

46 

2 

244 

166 


4 

ii 

7 


31 

68 

46 

2 

266 

172 


7788 


1363 


9161 


66 


2 


68 


643 


22 


566 



The three great divisions of the white population 
are, — Ist, those who have arrived in the colony free, 
and their descendants ; 2nd, those who are free by 
servitude, or by pardon, and their descendants ; and 
3rd, those who are still in bondage. 

As the British public are naturally desirous of 
knowing what becomes of the unfortunate criminals 
who are transported to a distant land, I will, as far as 
is necessary, enter into some details on this subject. 

On the arrival of a ship at Sydney, with male or 
female convicts, the latter are conveyed by water to 
the female factory, or penitentiary, at Paramatta; 
and the former, if adults, placed in the prisoners' 
barracks, and, if boys, in the Carter's barracks at 



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POPULATION. 169 

Sydney. These are, like soldiers' barracks, sur- 
rounded by a high wall, and protected by a military 
guard, and several constables. The male prisoners 
are classified according to their respective trades, 
and clothed in a coarse linsey-woolsey yellow dress, 
with P. B. or C. B. (Prisoners or Carter's bar- 
racks) marked on different parts, back and front. 
Estimating that the number of prisoners is 25,000, 
it is evident that it would be a heavy tax on the 
mother country to support such a number of people 
in idleness ; this expense has, to a great extent, been 
avoided, ever since the formation of the colony, by 
assigning the convicts out as servants to farmers 
and townspeople, either as agricultural, manufac- 
turing, or domestic labourers. The system under 
which this is carried on will be best seen by the fol- 
lowing summary of the regulations, for the assign- 
ment of convict servants, which were published for 
general information, at Sydney, 17th Nov. 1832. 
For male convicts not mechanics. Ist, In regard to 
applications: All applications are to be addressed 
to ** The Board for the Assignment of Servants, Syd- 
ney** in the established form. All the blanks are 
correctly filled up ; and, if the applicsmt be not 
resident in Sydney, it must specify the name and 
abode of the applicant's agent there. All applica- 
tions must be transmitted to the Assignment Board 
through the bench of magistrates nearest to the 
applicant. Justices of the peace required to cer- 
tify, upon honour, the correctness of their own state- 
ments, and those of all other persons must be ac- 
companied by a certificate from the bench. If the 
1 

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170 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

party applying actually possesses 320 acres of land, 
it is sufficient that the magistrates certify that they 
know his statement to he correct. But if not pos- 
sessed of 320 acres, it is necessary that the certifi- 
cate state that the appHcant, or, if a married female, 
the applicant's hushand, is free, honest, and indus- 
trious, and possesses the means of maintaining, and 
constantly employing, the servant applied for. 

2d, In regard to Assignments, The principal super- 
intendent of convicts lays daily before the Assign- 
ment Board, separate lists of all mechanics or trades- 
men, and other convicts eligible for assignment, 
classed according to their trades or callings — taking 
care that no more than the authorized numbers are 
retained in any of the public departments or estab- 
lishments ; and on the 1st and 15th of every 
month the Board submits, for the Governor's 
approval, the distribution which they recommend, 
in accordance with the rules undermentioned. 

Convicts returned to Grovemment, without com- 
plaint, and otherwise unobjectionable, may be imme- 
diately reassigned. But those returned by their 
respective masters with complaints touching their 
conduct, are considered as probationary, and not 
assignable to any other individual for six months. 
They are, therefore, sent to the surveyor of roads 
and bridges, and the principal superintendent of 
convicts to be apprised accordingly. 

Of the men so employed on Uie roads, those who 
are of notoriously bad character are removed from 
party to party at least once a quarter, to break up 
their connexions ; of the remainder, the names of 



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POPULATION. 171 

those who have been represented to the surveyor 
of roads as having conducted themselves well, and 
are considered by him to deserve the indulgence of 
being assigned to private service, are forwarded, 
once a fortnight, to the principal superintendent of 
convicts, compared with the records in his office, 
and such other tests as may be within his reach ; the 
men continuing with their parties until assigned. 

Being sent to the roads is invariably considered 
as the consequence of ill behaviour ; and no con- 
vict, therefore, who has subjected himself to it, is 
exempted, until he has served there for at least six 
months. Convicts sentenced to the roads, or other 
punishment, are returned to their former masters at 
the expiration of such sentence, if any order to that 
effect be inserted in the original committal or war- 
rant, but not otherwise. 

At every movement, convicts are accompanied by 
a specification of the ships and dates on which they 
arrived, their sentences, standing numbers (if arrived 
since 1st January, 1827), and characters; together 
'with their last employers, and trades or callings. 
In the warrants and committals it is stated, whether 
each was bom in the colony, came free, or arrived 
as a convict. 

3d, In regard to Conditions, It is distinctly 
understood, that whenever the word ' Assignment' 
is used by the Government, with reference to con- 
vict servants, it is intended to imply merely a tem- 
porary appropriation of their services ; such convicts 
being liable to be withdrawn, and such appropria- 
tion resumed at any time at the pleasure of the 



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172 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

Governor. Nor are such convicts to be re-assigned 
from one individual to another, without the Gover- 
nor's written sanction. 

In assigning convicts, especially labourers appli- 
cable to husbandry, preference is given to new 
settlers ; to persons residing in the country, and 
those of good moral character, who pay due atten- 
tion to the conduct of their servants. 

No convict is assigned to any non-resident settler, 
that does not employ a free or idcket-of-leave over- 
seer, of good character, who resides on the property, 
and whose name and condition are recorded with 
the nearest bench of magistrates ; to masters who 
return their servants frequently to Government, 
especially for trifling offences, and without making 
any endeavours to reform them ; to such as cannot 
give them constant emplo3naQent, or are known to 
have let them out for hire, or have permitted them 
to work on their own account ; or to those who are 
known to treat them with inhumanity, or who do not 
supply them with proper food and clothing. 

No convict is assigned to his or her wife or hus- 
band on arrival; or to another convict, although 
holding a ticket-of-leave ; or to any married couple, 
in which the party of the same sex as the servant 
applied for is not actually ftree. 

When convicts are returned to Government, this 
must be done through a magistrate, and the reasons 
must be stated, in order that they may be entered 
on the warrant. The persons to whom they are 
assigned or lent are also required to de^y all eX" 
penses attending such return, excepting only in cases 



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POPULATION. 173 

where they may be committed for trial, or sentenced 
to punishment. 

Assignees of convict servants are allowed to lend 
them to free and respectable individuals in their 
vicinage, for periods not exceeding one month, under 
the written sanction of the nearest bench of magis- 
trates, or superintendent of police, to whom appli- 
cation for sucji permission is to be made in writing, 
setting forth the motive of the application, and whe- 
ther a servant of another description is to be had in 
exchange. But every convict found without sanc- 
tion out of the assignee's immediate service, will be 
returned to Government, and the names taken of 
such assignee, and of the unauthorized actual em- 
ployer reported, in order that neither may obtain 
servants hereafter. 

With regard to Female Convicts. Ist, In reference 
to Applications, — Applications for female convict 
• servants in the factory at Paramatta, are to be ad- 
dressed to the Committee of Management of that 
establishment, specifying the district in which the 
applicant resides, or the nearest bench of magis- 
trates thereto. For females not yet landed, or else- 
where, not in the factory, applications in the same 
form are to be addressed to the principal superin- 
tendent of convicts, accompanied by a certificate of 
the consent of the employer, if previously in private 
service, and in every case, by a recommendation 
from a clergyman and a magistrate, if the applicant 
be not sufficiently known. 

Assignment and conditions, — His Excellency's ap- 
proval of the assignments recommended wiU be 



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174 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

obtained in the usual way through the Colonial 
Secretary. But before receiving the servants, the 
applicants will be required to enter into engage- 
ments, under a penalty of forty shillings each, that 
they will keep them for one month in their service, 
unless removed th^efrom by due course of law : 
and that, if desirous of returning them after the expi- 
ration of that period, they will give a written notice 
of fourteen days to the principal superintendent of 
convicts, if residing within the county of Cumber- 
land, of one month to the clerk of the bench of 
magistrates nearest to their residence, if without that 
county. 

Every female servant not sent for within seven 
days after notice of her assignment has been given, 
if the applicant resides within 30 miles of Paramatta, 
and within one month, if beyond that distance, will 
be immediately considered assignable to some other 
person, and a note will be kept of the name of the ' 
individual so failing to send for her. 

No female servant from the factory is allowed 
to leave Paramatta by a stage coach or other 
public conveyance in the afternoon, unless a care- 
ful person be particularly sent to take charge of 
her. Female convicts are assigned under the same 
conditions, in other respects, as above detailed with 
regard to males, except as specified in the Assign- 
ment and Conditions. 

The maintenance and treatment of assigned con- 
vict servants is regulated by a government order, 
dated " Colonial Secretary's Office, Sydney, 29th 
June, 1831." 



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POPULATION. 1 75 

The master pays at the rate of one shilling a-day, 
for the time his servant is in the Government hospi- 
tal, to the extent of thirty days. Should the ser- 
vant continue under treatment for any longer period, 
the master is not required to make any further pay- 
ment. The persons who send their servants into 
any of the hospitals, appoint an agent on the spot to 
take them away as soon as they are recovered, and 
unless they are so taken away, they are considered 
as immediately assignable to other parties, in order 
to prevent the hospital from being improperly bur- 
thened with men who do not require treatment. 

As all convicts who are assigned immediately on 
their arrival from England and Ireland, are supplied 
with a complete suit of new clothing, and as it is 
only reasonable that the person having the benefit 
of the convicts' services should be at the expense of 
this clothing, the assignees of all such convicts are 
required to pay twenty shillings for the clothing so 
furnished, at the time of receiving the men. 

The Government, as well with a view of protect- 
ing those masters who act with liberality towards 
their servants, from the complaints of the discon- 
tented and ill-disposed, as to insure to all assigned 
servants a due proportion of food and clothing, lay 
down the following regulations for the supply of 
those necessaries : — 

Rations. — ^The weekly rations is to consist as 
follows, viz. : Twelve pounds of wheat, or nine 
pounds of seconds flour ; or in lieu thereof, at the 
discretion of the master, three and a half pounds of 
maize meal, and nine pounds of wheat, or seven 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



176 NEW SOUTH WALKS. 

pounds seconds flour ; and seven pounds beef or 
mutton, or four and a half pounds of salt pork ; two 
oz. of salt, and two oz. of soap. 

Any articles which the master may supply, beyond 
those above specified, are considered as indulgences, 
which he is at liberty to discontinue whenever he 
may think proper. Masters almost invariably add 
tea, sugar, and tobacco, and frequently other extras. 

Clothing. — ^The clothing which assigned ser- 
vants are entitled to annually, consists of two frocks 
or jackets, three shirts, of strong linen or cotton, 
two pair of trowsers, three pair of shoes of stout 
and durable leather, one hat or cap ; and is issued 
as follows, viz. : — 

On the 1st of May in each year, — One woollen 
jacket, one pair of woollen trowsers, one shirt, one 
pair of shoes, one hat or cap. 

On the ist of August, — One shirt, one pair of 
shoes ; and 

On the \st of November, — One woollen or duck 
jacket *, one pair of woollen or duck trowsers *, one 
shirt, and one pair of shoes. 

Each man to be kept constantly supplied with, at 
least, one good blanket and palliasse or wool mattrass, 
which are considered the property of the master. 

According to the foregoing regulations, upwards 
of three-fifths of all the prisoners in the colony are 
provided for, by the capital and industry of the free 
population. After serving a certain time, with an 

' As may best suit the age and state of health of the servant 
during the summer season. 



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POPULATION. 177 

unblemished chaacter, in this new stage of his 
existence, the conTict is entitled to what is termed 
a * ticket of leave ; the advantage of which is, that 
the holder thereof becomes, to all intents and pur- 
poses a free person throughout the district over 
which his * ticket of leave ' extends ; but should any 
crimes be committed, this ticket is withdrawn, and 
the probationary period must be recommenced. 
Should the * ticket* be held for a certain number of 
years, the holder is entitled to a * conditional pardon^* 
which is not liable to be forfeited at the will of the 
executive, but is limited in its sphere of operation 
to the colony ; differing in this only from an ' abso- 
lute pardon,* which restores the convict to all the 
rights and privileges of a British subject. 

The second class in society consists of those who 
have once been prisoners, and are now free ; they are 
termed emancipists. Individually and in aggregate, 
they are possessed of great wealth in land, houses, 
ships, merchandise, &c. ; some of them being worth 
several hundred thousand pounds, and remarkable 
for their probity in dealing, their charitable feelings, 
and enterprising spirit. They are associated with the 
next class in society above them, in various public 
undertakings and institutions; and the colony is 
much indebted to their talents and honestly acquired 
wealth for its present prosperity. 

The next and highest class consists of those who 
have arrived free in the colony, either as emigrant far- 
mers and settlers, whether shopkeepers, merchants, or 
government officers and functionaries, &c. Some in- 
dividuals of this class refuse to associate in private. 



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178 NBW SOUTH WALKS. 

and actually do associate as seldom as possible in 
public, with the preceding class ; they hold that a man 
having once committed a fault against society, is to 
be for ever shut out beyond the pale of that station 
in which they move — no regard being paid to his 
having legally atoned for his offence, by undergoing 
the punishment ordered by the law, and morally ex- 
piated his crime by the unblemished life he may 
have subsequently led. 



CHAPTER VII. 

FORM OP GOVERNMENT MILITARY DEFENCE — RELIGION — 

EDUCATION, AND THE PRESS, &C. 

Form of government. — ^When the colony of New 
South Wales was first established, the whole execu- 
tive powers were vested in the governor alone ; in 
1824, a council was appointed to assist and control 
the Governor ; and at present the chief authority is 
vested in — 1st a Governor of the territory * of New 
South Wales, and Governor- in-Chief 'of Van Die- 
men's island; — 2nd an Executive Council, consist- 
ing of the Governor, the Colonial Secretary and 
Treasurer, the Bishop, and Lieutenant-Governor*; 

> The territory extends from Cape York, on the E. coast, in 
10.37. S. Lat., to the shores of Bass's Straits ; the westward, 
as far as 135. £. Long. Norfolk Island is included in the New 
South Wales government 

^ I believe the office has been recently abolished. 



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FORM or GOVBRNMBNT. 179 

— 3rd a Legislative Coancil, consisting of the mem- 
bers of the above-mentioned court, with the addition 
of the Chief Justice, the Attorney-general, the Chief 
Officer of the customs, the Auditor General, and 
seven private gentlemen of the colony S who are 
appointed by the Crpwn for life. 

In case of the death, absence, removal^ or resig- 
nation of a member of the Legislative Council, the 
Governor may appoint another to act in his stead, 
until her Majesty's pleasure be known. With the 
concurrence of at least two- thirds of the members, 
the Grovemor makes laws for the colony, if not re» 
pugnant to the Act 9 Geo. IV. c. 83, or to the char- 
ter, or letters patent, or orders in council, or to the 
laws of England. The Governor has the initiative 
of all laws to be submitted to discussion in the coun- 
cil, provided he gives eight clear days' notice in the 
public journals, or by public advertisement (if there 
be no newspapers), of the general objects of the 
act proposed to be brought under consideration, 
unless in case of emergency, when such notice may 
be dispensed with. 

Any member of the council may request the Go- 

* Table of Precedency in New South Wales, as directed hy 
her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the colonies — 
The Governor ; the Chief Justice of the Colony ; all persons 
having the rank of Privy Counsellors, or any higher rank in 
England, according to their respective ranks ; the Members of 
the Executive Council ; the Puisne or Assistant Judges of the 
Supreme Court ; persons of the degree of Knighthood, or any 
higher degree under that of Privy Counsellor ; the Attorney 
General ; the Solicitor General ; the Members of the Legislative 
Council ; all other persons under the degree of Knights, ac- 
cording to the order of precedency in England. 
n2 

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180 NBW SOUTH WALB8. 

vernor to introdace a bill for the consideration of 
the council. If the Governor declines, he most lay 
his reasons in writing, together with a copy of the 
bill, before the council, and any member, disapproving 
of such refusal, may enter upon the minutes the 
grounds of his disapprobation. If a majority of the 
members dissent ^m any bill, and enter the grounds 
of their dissent on the minutes of council, the biU 
cannot become law. Every biU passed by the 
council must be transmitted within seven days to 
the supreme court to be enrolled, and after 14 days 
from the date of such enrollment, it comes into 
operation. If the Judges represent that such biU is 
repugnant to statutes or other public deeds before 
cited, it is again brought under the consideration of 
the council, and if again passed, proceeds into opera- 
tion, until the pleasure of her Majesty be known, to 
whom are transmitted the opinions of the Judges, 
&c. The votes and proceedings of the Legislative 
Council are officially published in the newspapers. 
The Governor and council have the power to impose 
taxes for local purposes. By 3rd Geo. IV., c. 96, 
continued by 9th Geo. IV., c. 83, s. 26, the Governor 
is authorized to impose, on importation into the co- 
lony, duties not exceeding 10^. a gallon on British or 
West India spirits, and 15^. on all other spirits : not 
exceeding 4s. per lb. on tobacco, nor 15*. per cent. 
upon goods, wares, &c., not being the growth, pro- 
duce, or manufacture of the United Kingdom ; and, 
by 9th Geo. IV., c. 83, s. 26, the Governor is also 
empowered to levy a duty upon colonial spirits, not 
exceeding that levied on imported spirits. 



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LAWS AND COURTS. 181 

Many of the colonists, emigrants, as well as 
emancipists, are desirous of obtaining a Represen- 
tative Le^slative Assembly. 

Laws and Courts. — ^The statute laws of England 
are in force in the colony, aided by Acts of Parlia- 
ment, and local enactments by the Governor and 
Legislative Council : and an Insolvent Debtor's Act 
is in operation, the benefit of which may be obtained 
by a defendant a second or third time, if he pay 15^. 
in the pound *. The execution of the laws devolves 
upon a Supreme Court, presided over by a chief and 
two puisne judges, whose powers are as extensive 
as those of the Courts of King's Bench, Common 
Pleas, and exchequer, at Westminster. The Su- 
preme Court is a court of oyer and terminer and gaol 
delivery — it is also a court of equity , with all the 
power, within its jurisdiction, of the Lord High 
Chancellor of England ; and it is a court of admiralty 
for criminal offences, within certain limits ; it is em- 
powered to grant letters of administration, and it is 
an insolvent debtor's court. From the Supreme 
Cotirt an appeal lies in all actions, when the sum or 
matter at issue exceeds the value of 500/., to the 
Governor or Acting-Governor, who is directed to 
hold a court of appeals, from which a final appeal 
lies to the Queen in council. The Supreme Court is 
provided with an Attorney and Solicitor- General. 
There are 9 barristers, and 33 solicitors practising 
in the court. The Sheriff exercises by his deputies 

1 Any public officer taking advantage of the provisions of 
.the Insolvent Act, is, by an order of the Secretary of State, 
dismissed the service. 



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182 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

the duties of his office over the whole territory. 
Circuit courts are held in different parts of the 
colony ; they are courts of record, and stand in the 
same relation to the Supreme Court as courts of 
oyer and terminer, and of assize and nisi priua, in 
England do to the King's superior courts of record 
at Westminster. 

Courts of General and Quarter Sessions, have the 
same powers as those of England, and also may 
take cognizance, in a summary way, of all crimes 
not punishable by death, committed by convicts 
whose sentences have not expired, or have not been 
remitted. 

A Vice-Admiralty Court, presided over by the 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, takes cognizance 
of civil cases only, such as seaman's wages, &c. 
There is an Ardideacon's Court for clerical matters ; 
but this court has no jurisdiction in testamentary 
afiairs, the charter of justice having empowered the 
Supreme Court to grant letters of administration, 
and direct the distribution of testators' effects. 
Courts of Requests have been established under 
authority 9 Geo. IV. c. 83, for summarily deter- 
mining claims not exceeding 10/. sterling, except 
the matter in question relates to the tide of any 
lands, tenements, or hereditaments, or to the taking 
or demanding of any duty payable to her Majesty, 
or to any fee of office, annual rents, or other sudi 
matter, where rights in future would be bound, or to 
a general right or duty, and to award costs \ The 

* These powers are so laid down by Mr. H. W. Parker, in 
* Mr. Clark's Summary of Colonial Law." 



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POST OFFICE DBPARTMBNT. 183 

decision of the court is final and summary, us in 
Englcmd. One Commissioner, appointed by the 
Crown, presides in all the Courts of Requests 
throughout the colony. Juries now sit in civil and 
criminal cases; until lately, military and naval 
officers formed the criminal jury ; and civil causes 
were determined by a judge and two sworn asses- 
sors. Law suits are frequent in New South Wales, 
and large fortunes have been made by barristers and 
solicitors. In the year 1834, the number of the un- 
paid magistracy throughout the territory was 136. 

PoLicB.-^This important branch of civil life is 
well managed in New South Wales. There are 
Benches of stipendiary as well as unpaid magistrates 
in Sydney, and at the principal towns throughout 
the colony, aided by head constables, and a civil 
and military police force at each station. 

Post Officb, Roads, and Mail and Stagb 
Coaches. — ^A notion of the actual condition of a 
distant place is generally best conveyed by giving 
an outline of what may appear trifling domestic 
matters, but which really indicate in the most strik- 
ing manner the progress of a young community. 
In placing this section before my readers, I do so 
with a view to impress the fact on the minds of 
those who have never visited New South Wales, 
that, although less than half a century ago its 
territory was a pathless forest, and its denizens 
the wild and roving savages before described, yet at 
present its surface is covered with excellent roads 
and bridges, (the former, in some places, crossing 
Ufty mountains, and rivalling the £ar-&ined Swi- 



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184 KBW SOUTH WALB8. 

plon) along which there is a daily increasiDg traf- 
fic, bringing into close intercourse the remotest 
parts of the colony, while the introduction of loco- 
motive power, by sea and land, will tend to accele- 
rate the progress of a civilization of which every 
Brition ought to feel proud. 

The rates of postage for a single letter vary from 
4d, to I2d,i viz. from Sydney to Paramatta, 15 
miles distance, 4d,, and from Sydney to Bathurst, 
121 miles distance, I2d. Newspapers printed in 
the colony, Id, each; if received from England or 
elsewhere, 2d» Between New South Wales and 
Van Diemen's Land there is a sea postage of Sd, (in 
addition to the inland postage), and from other places 
4d, sea postage. There are only six toll or turnpike 
gates in the colony; viz. one at Sydney, three at 
Paramatta, one at Liverpool, and one at Windsor ; 
and there are three ferries, or fords, where dues 
are levied; viz. Paramatta River, Emuford, and 
the Hawkesbury. The tolls are for a sheep, pig» 
or goat, ^d.; head of cattle. Id.; horse, 2d,i cart, 
two wheels and with one horse, Sd. ; two ditto, 4d. ; 
three ditto, 5d. ; four ditto, 6d, ; carriage and pair, 
la. Double tolls exacted on Sundays. The Sydney 
gate is rented at several thousand pounds sterling 
per annum. 

General Two-pbnny Post Office. — Tn Sydney, 
there are two deliveries daily. The letter carriers 
start with the first, or forenoon delivery, imme- 
diately after the arrival of the country mails, or at 
11, A.M. precisely; and with the second delivery at 
a quarter past 4, p.m. every day, Sundays exceptciL 



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MILITARY DEFENCE. 185 

Throughout the colony, stage coaches and other 
vehicles are now being introduced ; and the day is 
not far distant when steam carriages, as well as 
steam vessels, will be found connecting the distant 
parts of Australia. 

Military Defence. — ^The whole of the Austra- 
lian colonies, viz. New South Wales, Van Diemen's 
Land, Swan River, &c., are protected by three regi- 
ments of infantry, who take their turn on the 
roster for duty in these settlements, and after five 
or six years' service proceed to India, for which 
climate they are in some measure prepared. 

The commissariat consists of a deputy-comm. 
general, two assistant do., and fifteen deputy-assist- 
ant do., independent of the accountant department, 
which consists of an assistant-comm. general, and 
two deputy assistant do. Of Commissariat clerks 
in charge there are three, viz. at Norfolk Island, 
Moreton Bay, and Bong Bong. 

There are no militia corps in the colony ; but in 
the event of war, it would be expedient to embody a 
force of this nature, for which the high-spirited 
colonial youth would be admirably adapted. The 
anchorage at Sydney is protected by Fort Philip, 
(which telegraphs to the south head, respecting all 
vessels entering or departing from Port Jackson) 
and two other batteries ; I think, however, that it 
would be advisable to cause a small fort, with guns 
of large calibre and long range, to be erected on 
either of the heads at the entrance of Port Jackson, 
which are not three-quarters of a mile distant from 
each other. Sometimes a small vessel of war is on 



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186 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

this station, belonging to the Admiral's squadron in 
India ; but I think oar Australasian colonies ought 
to have a small squadron with a commodore's flag 
stationed in the southern hemisphere. The local 
government has one or two small armed vessels 
under its control. 



CHAPTER VIIT. 

RELIGION, EDUCATION, AND CRIME. 

Religion. — Here, as in the mother country, there is 
a variety of forms of religion ; the number of each 
creed is shown in the population table. The mi- 
nisters are provided for by the government ; and 
the decree giving to the Episcopal Church one- 
seventh of the whole territory has been revoked, that 
portion still remaining as church and school lands, 
but applicable to the general purposes of religion 
and education, without reference to sects. The 
Episcopalian Church of Australasia ^ was until very 
recently in the diocese of Calcutta, but is now presided 
over by a Bishop of its own. The number of chap- 
lains of the established church is fifteen ; of whom 
two are stationed at Sydney, one at Paramatta, one at 
Liverpool, one at Windsor, one at Castlereagh, one 
at Port Macquarie, one at Campbell Town, one at 
niawarra, one at Narellan, one at Pitt Town, one at 

1 By Australasia is understood all the settlements in this 
quarter ; the term Justralia signifies New Holland aloae^ 



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&BLIGION. 187 

Bathnrst, one at Newcastle^ one at Field of Mars, 
and one at Sutton Forest; there are also three 
catechists, a clergyman, as head master of the King's 
school, and the Rev. L. E. Threlkeld, at Lake Mac- 
quarie, as missionary to the aborigines. 

Of the Presbyterian clergy there are four minis- 
ters of the Established Church of Scotland, paid by 
the government ; and of the Roman Catholic clergy, 
a vicar-general and six chaplains. The Wesleyan 
Missionary Society has four principal stations, 
Sydney, Paramatta, Windsor, Bathurst, and up- 
wards of 60 chapels, besides preaching places, and 
five ordained Missionaries, under whose direction 
several subordinate agents are employed; there 
are also five Sunday schools, with 300 boys and 
250 girls. 



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188 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

Episcopalian Churches and Livings, &c. of New 



Name of the Parish, 

and in what 
County or District. 


Value of 
Livings. 


Parsonage 
House 


1 


Church 

where 

situated. 


No. of 
Persons 

itwiU 
contain. 




County of Cumberland : 
Parish of St. Philip ... 


£. 

460* 


Parsonage 


Acres. 
40 


Sydney. ... 


800 




St. James ... 
.. St. John 


460» 

edergrmen* 
1 receiving 
560/., and 
the other 
100/. 


120/. per 
annum in 

lieu. 
Parsonage 


40 
40 


Ditto ... 
Panonatte^. 


1800 
900 




Field of Mars 


250 


... 


40 


... 


... 




St. Matthewt 


250 


Parsonage 


40 


Windsor 


450 




Lower Hawkesbury ... 


182 


... 










Parish of Pitt Town ... 


250 


... 


40 


... 


... 




„ Ditto 






... 


... 


... 




M Castlereagh ... 


250 


... 


40 


... 


... 




St. LukeJ ... 
„ St. Peter ... 


200 
250 j 


Parsonage 

60/. per 

annum in 

Ueu. 


40 


Liverpool 

Campbell 
Town 


400 




Narellan ... 


250 




... 


... 


... 




County of Camden: 
District of Illawarra, 
town of Wollengong. 
District of Sutton Forest . 


I 250 
250 




40 


... 


... 




County of Bathurst: 
Parish of Bathurst ... 

County of Northumber- 
land : Christ Church ... 


250 
250 


Parsonage 
Parsonage 


40 


Bathurst, 
Trinity 
Church. 

Newcastle 


■ 800 
500 




Parish of Maitland ... 


200 


... 


40 


... 






County of Macquarie : 
Parish of St. Thomas ... 


850* 


Parsonage 


40 


Port Mac- 
quarie... 


700 





The clergy of the Establishment perform divine service periodically at the 
gangs, &c., male and female orphan schools, and at divers places in the in- 
or at which they severally reside, are specified in the proper colunm of this 

* Each includes 100/. per annum in lieu of a glebe of 400 acres. 

t A B^man Catholic chapel in course of erection to contain 1000 persons. 

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BBLIGION. 



189 



South Wales in 1836 


[Blue Book 


, Colonial Office.; 




>»bo 






>»bbt 


|| 




^11 

Is 


Chapel where 
situated. 


No. of 
Persons 


ill 


Protestant 
or Roman 


Dissenting 
Places of 


it will 
contain. 


Catholic 


\^ 


Worship. 


roo, 


S Ditto, parish of 


too 


500 


Presbyter. 


none ... 


1 Weslcyan. 


2 ser- 












vices. 


est. Andrew. ... 


500 


300 


ditto ... 


none ... 


1 Baptist. 


1200, 


Sydney ... \.. 


2000 


1500 


R. Cath. 


none ... 


1 Wesleyan 
bndl Inde- 


3 ser- 












vices. 












pendent. 
1 Wesleyan. 


600 


Paramatta 


500 


250 


ditto ... 


none ... 


2 ser- 














vices. 








( 


60/. per 


) 


... 


Paramatta 


300 


75 


Protest, -j 


annum 
in lieu. 


\ none. 


300 


/Windsor 

(.Richmond ... 


... 


250 
100 


R. Cath.) 

Protest. / 

{ 


50/. per 


1 Wesleyan. 


... 


Lo. Hawkesbury 


P*' 




ditto \ 


annum 


none. 




("Windsor (Pitt 






I 


in Ueu. 






3 Town) 


150 


50^ 
60 ^ 
40J 




40/. per 




... 


jWilberforce ... 


120 


ditto 


annum 






CSackviUe reach 


90 




in lieu. 






Portland Head ... 






Presbyter. 


none. 




... 


/Castlereagh ... 
t Penrith 


120 
60 


50| 
40/ 


Protest. 






200 
















r Glenalpine ... 


80 


601 
40/ 


ditto. 






120 


-JAppin 


46 








Campbell Town 


450 


250 


R. Cath. 








(NareUan (He- 

ber chapel) ... 

ICabramatta ... 


120 
80 


100\ 
40/ 


Protest. 1 


60/. per 
annum 
in lieu. 
60/. per 




... 


lUawarra 


... 


35 


ditto X 


annum 
in lieu. 






Sutton Forest (All 


100 


50 


ditto ... 


ditto. 






Saints chapel) 












200 


Bathurst 


... 


... 


Presbyter. 






250 




t 120 
\ 450 


100 


Protestant 


60/. per 












annum 




... 


MaiUand 






in lieu. 








200 


R. Cath. 


none. 










Presbyter. 


none. 




300 










1 



gaols, hulk, hospitals, factories, prisoners' barracks, stockades for ironed 
terior. The principal stations only to which the clergymw are appointed, 
return. 
X A Roman Catholic clergyman is stationed here. 



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190 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

Education, — Considerable efforts have been for 
some time making to promote in Australia the edu- 
cation of the poor as well as of the rich. For the 
former, there are two noble establishments, called 
the male and female orphan schools, each containing 
125 destitute children, who are reared from infancy, 
educated and apprenticed out, and the females por- 
tioned when married. Of infant schools, there are 
four at Sydney, one at Paramatta, and one at Wind- 
sor ; of primary or parochial schools, 33 in different 
parts of the colony; and there are two King's 
schools — one at Sydney, and the other at Paramatta, 
with clerical teachers. Private establishments for 
education are numerous. The Sydney College was 
instituted 26th January, 1830; it was established 
in shares of 50/. each, and upwards of 3000/. has 
been expended in erecting the college ; it is under 
the control of a President (the Chief Justice) and a 
Committee of Management composed of emigrants 
and emancipists. 

The Australian College at Sydney, which I believe 
owes its existence to the active philanthropy of the 
Rev. Dr. Lang, was instituted in the year 1831. It 
has a council and senate, after the Scotch form, on 
which indeed it is modelled. There is a principal 
(Rev. J. D. Lang, D.D.) minister of the Scotch 
Church, Sydney : a professor of English and Enghsh 
literature ; a professor of the Latin and Greek lan- 
guages, and of mathematics and natural philosophy, 
with under masters for the elementary English 
classes — writing, arithmetic, book-keeping, draw- 
ing, &c. The Australian college combines a series 
of schools for the elementary, with a gradually ex- 
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EDUCATION. 191 

tending provision for the higher branches of educa- 
tion. Its capital is 7000/., one half to be contri- 
buted by the colonial government, by order of Lord 
Goderich, when Secretary for the Colonies, on con- 
dition that a similar amount shall be contributed by 
the friends of the undertaking. Of that amount, 
about 100 shares of 25/. each had been subscribed 
in January, 1 834 ; and a suite of buildings, consist- 
ing of four houses (each of which contains a class- 
room, a residence for one of the four superior 
masters or professors, and accommodation for ten 
or twelve boarders) was then nearly completed. 
The fees for elementary education are as follows : 
— for beginners, 61. per annum ; English, writing, 
arithmetic, geography, and the elements of mathe- 
matics, 10/. per annum ; Latin and Greek, including 
the inferior branches, 12/. ditto. Courses of lectures 
are delivered on natural philosophy, on political 
economy, &c. From the well known salubrity of 
the climate of New South Wales, and the very 
moderate terms on which education is aflForded in 
these colleges, it is hoped that they may very shortly 
become the resort of many of the sons of European 
officers and other gentlemen residing in India. 



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192 



NBW SOUTH WALES. 



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EDUCATION. 



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194 



NBW 80UTH WALKS. 



Return of Roman Catholic Schools. [B. B.] 1836. 



Name of the Parish, 

and in what 
County or District 


Salary of 
Schoolmaster 
or School- 
mistress. 


Number 
of Scholars. 


In what 
manner sup- 
ported. 


III 

WOOQ 


Ml. 


Fin. 


TU. 


County of Cumberland : 
/-Parish of 
% St. James 

^*°«y <St Andrew 

(st. PhiUp... 

Paramatta St. John ... 

CampbeU \ St. Peter... 
Town SAppin 

CSt.Matthew 
County of 
Northumberland : 

Maitland 

Erecting a school-house, 
Paramatta 

Repairs to school-house, 
Kent-street, Sydney 

Total 


/Master 20/. 
t Ditto 20/. 
/Ditto 20/. 
I Ditto 20/. 

Mistress 20/. 
/Ditto 10/. 
\ Master 20/. 
/Ditto 20/. 
\ Mistress 10/. 

Master IS/. 

Ditto 20/. 

/Ditto 20/. 
\ Mistress 10/. 


155 
12 

46 
128 

61 

}^ 

588 


109 
23 

"ir 

54 
56 

"41 
30 

390 


155 
121 

69 
123 

77 

125 

119 

25 
102 

62 

978 


By gOTemmt. 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 
ditto 

ditto 


£107 
97 
82 
115 
23 

86 

89 

17 

83 

86 

340 
13 


£1138 



Each master of these schools receiyes a ^. per diem for every child in actual 
attendance, in addition to his salary. 

A mecbanics' school of arts was instituted on the 
22nd of March, 1833; the Governor is patron, and 
there is an efficient management consisting of a pre- 
sident, vice president, and committee. There is a 
female school of industry, which owes its origin to 
the active benevolence of Mrs. General Darling, 
when her husband was Grovemor of the colony. 
The Australian subscription library was founded 
under the auspices of General !Darling, and the Pre- 
sident (the Hon. Alex. M*Leay) has in this, as in 
very many other instances, contributed to promote 
education and science. 

The other societies connected with religion, hu- 



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THE FRB88. 195 

manity, literature, or science, are the societies for 
' Promoting Christian Knowledge/ an * Auxiliai^y 
Bible Society/ ' Wesleyan Auxiliary Missionary So- 
ciety/ ' Australian Tract Society/ a * Benevolent 
Society/ a * Dispensary/ an ' Emigrant's Friend 
Society/ and an ' Agricultural and Horticultural 
Society/ &c. 

The Press, although in its infancy, is making con- 
siderable progress, and will doubtless increase, as it 
is unshackled by stamps, advertisement taxes, or 
paper excise. Newspapers are at present confined to 
Sydney; they are conducted with a good deal of 
talent, but with too much party acerbity : regarded 
as commercial speculations, they pay well. The 
following are their titles — Sydney Gazette, and New 
South Wales Advertiser, published three times a week; 
terms per annum, 41, The Government Gazette, pub- 
lished every Wednesday ; price 6d. per sheet. The 
Australian, published twice a week; to town sub- 
scribers, 1/. 12*.; country ditto, 21. 2s, The Sydney 
Monitor, published twice a week ; 1/. 14^. 8d., post- 
age not paid. Sydney Herald, published twice a 
week; to town subscribers, 1/. 12^.; country ditto, 
21, 2s,, postage included. The New South Wales 
Magazine, published every month, price 2^. 6d, a 
number. The Post-office Directory, published by 
Stevens and Stokes. The Australian Almanack, pub- 
lished by Ann Howe. 

The Medical Department for convicts is ably super- 
intended by an inspector of hospitals, four surgeons, 
and the assistant-surgeon, dispersed over the colony 
o 2 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



196 



NBW SOUTH WALBS. 



at the principal stations, to which there are also 
attached eight coroners. 

The Roads are under the management of a sur^ 
veyor general, a deputy ditto, 15 assistant ditto, and 
a superintendent of bridges, streets, roads, &c. : six 
draftsmen are attached to the surveying-general's 
office, and there are a colonial architect and assistant 
engineer for the public works. 

The state of crime in the colony is intimately con- 
nected with its social state. The following returns 
are very complete on this important subject. 

Convictions in the Supreme Court and Courts of Quarter 
Sessions since 1828. 



i 

>- 


Supreme 


Courts. 


Quarter Sessions. 


Felonies. 


Misdm. 


Felonies. 


Misdm. 


1828 


197 


20 


Returns not called 


1829 


244 


29 


for for the B.B. 


1830 


269 


6 


for these years. 


1831 


205 


2 


100 


64 


1832 


225 


10 


128 


62 


1833 


219 


11 


225 


110 


1834 


272 


11 


325 


77 


1835 


231 


1 


442 


97 


1836 


168 


4 







On the 1st August, 1833, the punishment of death 
ceased for cattle stealing, and stealing in a dwelling* 
house above 51,, and forgery, by Acts of Parliament 
2 & 3, Gul. IV. caps. 63 and 123. A great portion 
of such offences thereafter, were tried by the Courts 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



.CRIMB AND OAOL8. 



197 



of Quarter Session. At the close of May sessions, 
1836, 155 prisoners remained in gaol for trial. 

Return of the Number of Civil Cases fixed in the 
Supreme Court of New South Wales during 1836. 
[B. B.] — Before Juries ; Common, 9, Special, 14. 
Before two Magistrates assessors ; undefended cases, 
177, defended cases, 98, total, 298. 

Return of the Number of Prisoners sentenced to trans^ 
portation from the colony of New South Wales, 
by the Supreme Court, Courts of Quarter Sessions, 
and Pohce Courts. 



t 


Supreme 


Quarter 


Police 


Total. 


^ 


Court 


Sessions. 


Courts. 


1831 


140 


30 


245 


415 


1832 


157 


6 


99 


262 


1833 


149 


38 


, , 


187 


1834 


168 


146 


. , 


314 


1835 


168 


266 


, , 


434 


\83fi 


31 


61 


•• 


92 



In October 1832, the power to transport was with- 
drawn from the Magistrates in summary jurisdiction, 
by the Act of Council, 3 Gul. IV. No. 3. 

Many cases are now adjudged by the Petty Sessions, 
that heretofore were decided by the Superior Courts 
only. 

This return includes prisoners whose sentence of 
death has been commuted by the Grovemor and Exe- 
cutive Council, to transportation. On the 6th July, 
1837, tenders were called for in the Official Gazette, 
for the conveyance of 120 persons to Norfolk Island. 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



198 



NSW 8O0¥H WALBS. 



As the state of crime in oar penal settlements is 
deserving of the most serious attention, I have given 
every public document under this section which 
would convey information on the subject. 

Return of Criminals executed in New South Wales in the 
year 1836. [B.B.] 



Religion. 


Offences. 


1 


2 . 

li 

< 


6 


^1 

30$ 


il 
5" 


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i 


5 
3 


i 


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1 
1 


i 


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2 


1 

i 


6 

4 

9 


1 


1 


2 
3 

d 


1 

14 

7 

21 


H 

16 
10 

26 


Protestants 

Roman Catholics ... 


2 
2 


Total.... 


4 


8 



Return of the Number of Offenders convicted in 
the Supreme Court of Criminal Jurisdiction at Syd- 
ney, New South Wales, in 1836 ; distinguishing the 
offences of which convicted, and showing the number 
of capital convictions : — 

Felonies, — Offences against the person : — murder^ 
16; manslaughter, 11 ; rape, 2; shooting, stabbing, 
&c., 13 ; highway robbery, 23 ; total, Q5. 

Offences against property : — Cattle stealii^, 20 ; 
horse stealing, 10; burglary, 10 ; stealing in dwelling 
houses and puttmg in fear, 8 ; house-breaking, 3 ; 
stealing in dwelling houses above 5/., 2 ; kroeny, 22; 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



CRIMB AMD GAOLS. 



199 



receiving, &c., 13; obtaining money under false 
pretences, 1 ; total, 89. 

Miscellaneous: — ^Forgery and uttering, 6 ; bigamy, 
1 ; unnatural crime, 3 ; permitting the escape of a 
person charged with felony, 1 ; accessories to felonies^ 
3; total, J 4. 

Total number of felonies, 168. 

Misdemeanours: — Assault, 2; conspiracy, 2 ; total, 
4 ; capital convictions, 79. 



Criminals executed 1829 to 1836. [B. B.] 



1829 1 

1830 j 

1831 •{ 
1832! 
1833 1 

1834 j 

1835-1 
1836 



Religion. 



Protestants 

Roman Catholics. . . 

Protestants 

Roman Catholics. . . 

Pagans 

Protestants 

Roman Catholics. . . 

Protestants 

Roman Catholics. . . 

Protestants. 

Roman Catholics. . . 

Protestants 

Roman Catholics. . . 

Uncertain 

Protestants 

Roman Catholics. • . 
Pagan (aborigines) . 

Protestants 

Roman Catholics . . 



Total. 



Total 
of each 



24 
22 
27 

1 
13 
19 

2 
10 
10 
21 
22 
20 

2 
17 
22 

1 
16 
10 

287 



Total. 



52 



V 50 
\ ^ 

l« 



40 



287 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



200 



NBW SOUTH WALES. 



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1275 
809 

890 
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1197 
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Name of the 

Prisons and where 

situated. 


Gaol, Sydney 

Debtors' Prison, 
Carters' Barrack. 

Hulk Phoenix 

•Paramatta 

Liverpool 

^ Campbell- 
's <r town 


S Windsor 

Bathurst 

^Newcastle 

Total 



n 

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Digitized by CjOOQIC 



CRIMB AND GAOLS. 



201 



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Digitized by CjOOQIC 



202 



NBW SOUTH WALBS. 



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Digitized by CjOOQIC 



CRIME AND GAOLS. 



208 



Return of the Number of Convicts maintained by 
Government in road and chain gangs, gaols, and 
penal settlements, witli the average yearly cost of 
each ; and also of the number of convicts in private 
service : — 

Number of prisoners maintained in road gangs, 
982; average yearly cost of each, including every 
charge, 9L 98, lO^d. ; ditto chain gangs, 1191; ditto, 
10/. Ss, eld, ; ditto, gaols, 646 ; ditto, 13/. 48. G^d. ; 
ditto penal settlements, 1250; ditto, 10/. 16^. 6|</. 
Total number of prisoners, 4069. 

Prisoners in private s^vice on 31st December, 1834, 
18,304 ; assigned since, tip to 13th July, 1835, 1903 ; 
total 20,207. [Council papers, 1835.^ 

Return of the average Number of Convict Women ^ in 
the female factory, in each week of the years 1 832 
to 1836, inclusive, together with number of their 
children, under three years of age. 









y.i 


^ 




i 




. 








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3 . 
11 


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^l 


1 


g 
•1 


^ 


a 


go ge 


1 


a 


o' 




S 




11 


& 


® 


1 




^ 


% 


5Z5 


% 


1832 


162 




2 


84 


7 


14 


15 


52 


100 


441 


112 


1838 


172 




2 


74 


10 


19 


17 


115 


35 


455 


112 


1834 


198 




2 


69 


29 


22 


19 


60 


23 


427 


111 


1835 


242 




1 


92 


26 


21 


21 


60 


34 


505 


134 


1836 


247 




1 


95 


26 


22 


28 


85 


65 


574 


136 



* About thirty of the women nursing children are those 
emfdoyed for that purpose ; the remainder are mothers nnrnng 
the children bom to them in the factory. 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



204 JIBW SOUTH WALES. 

N. B. — ^As the children in the factory attain the 
age of three years, they are removed to the Male 
and Female Orphan Schools respectively. 



CHAPTER IX. 

FINANCES AND MONETARY SYSTEM. 

SiNCB the colony was established in 1 788, a revenue 
has been derived from the importation of spirits, 
tobacco, and manufactures, &c. as also from licenses ; 
as the population and commerce of the settlement 
increased, so did the revenuf. The increase which 
has taken place in the Custom duties at Sydney is 
remarkable ; they now amount to upwards of 
150,000/. ; in 1822 they did not reach 10,000/. 

The rate of duties levied is, on spirits distilled from 
grain the produce of the colony, Ss. per gallon im- 
perial measure (until 1834 it was 2^. 6d,), ditto 
British, West India, or North American, if imported 
from the United Kingdom 7^. 9d, 6-tenths (formerly 
6s, 6d,) ; all other spirits, whether made within the 
colony or imported, 9^. 2d. 4-tenths (formerly 85. 6d.) ; 
tobacco, manufactured, 2^. 6d, per lb., unmanu- 
factured. Is, 6d. ditto; British manufactures, /ree ; 
all others goods 5 per cent ad val. Register fees, if 
under 40 tons, 2/. each register ; over 40 tons, 1«. 
per ton. Permits for the removal of spirits, 6d, each. 

Licenses to distil spirituous liquors, 25/. per ann., 
to sell ditto, 25/. per annum. Goods sold by auction 
pay l|per cent, duty, and an auctioneer for his 
license, 2/. per annum. Butchers, carters and carts, 
boatmen and boats, and porters, are licensed: dogs 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



FINANCBS. 205 

are taxed at Is, for one, 5s. for two, 155. for three, 
and 105. for every additional dog. The number of 
auctioneers in the colony is 18, of whom 10 are in 
Sydney. 

Each head of cattle in Sydney, Paramatta, and 
Liverpool must be examined by a public inspector 
before it be slaughtered, for which a charge of Sd. is 
paid. Quit rents are levied on land, at the following 
rate — ^if granted prior to the 5th November 1823, 
2s, per 100 acres; prior to 18th May 1825, 15*. 
per ditto; subsequent to 18th May 1825, 16*. Sd, 
per 100 acres. Town allotments in Sydney 6d, per 
perch ; at seaport towns, 5d. ; in towns at the head 
of navigable waters, 4d, ; and in inland towns, 2d, 
There are also a variety of fees legal, territorial, and 
clerical. 

The progress of New South Wales in revenue is 
equally remarkable with the advance which the colony 
has made in other matters. 

Amount of revenue in the year 1826, 72,230/. 

1827,79,309/.; 1828, 94,862/.; 1829, 102,784/. 

1830,104,729/.; 1831,122,854/.; 1832,136,777/. 

1833,165,058/.; 1834,205,535/.; 1835,273,744/. 

1836, 330,579/. 

Amount received in sterling money for lands sold, 
leased> &c. during the following years: — 1829, none; 

1830, 88/.; 1831, 1220/.; 1832, 5657/.; 1833, 

26,272/.; 1834, 43,504/.; 1835, 89,475/.; 1836, 

123,396/. 
Amount of expenditure in the year 1828, 40,912/. ; 

1829, 55,544/.; 1830, 55,980/.; 1831, 87,046/.; 

1832, 110,524/.; 1833, 123,817/.; 1834, 136,651/. 

1835, 171,020/.; 1836, 234,210/. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



206 



NEW SOUTH WALBS. 







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Digitized by CjOOQIC 



FINANCB8. 



207 



The following shows the Land Revenue of New South Wales 
since the Sale of Land commenced. 



Arrears 

Quit-rents 

Redemption of Quit-rents 

Fees on the delivery of Deeds. 

Proceeds of Lands sold 

Proceeds of Lands temporarily 
leased 

Total 



1831. 


1832. 


1833. 


1834. 


1835. 


1836. 


£. 


£. 


£. 


£. 


£. 


£. 






13115 


14042 


10371 


23839 


58 


310 


326 


190 


396 


576 


11 


2 


... 


„ 


4364 


484 


212 


209 


172 


267 


429 


1029 


698 


5135 


12528 


28589 


73314 


105464 


240 




129 


413 


599 


1004 


1220 


5657 


26272 


4S504 


89475 


132396 



Abstract of the Amounts paid from the Colonial Treasury of 
New South Wales, on Account of Emigrants, 1832 to 1836. 
[B. B.] 



Head of Expenditure. 


Amounts paid in 


the Years. 


Total. 


1832. 


1833. 


1834. 


1835. 


1836. 


Advances to Free Mechanics, 
Labourers, &c. on account 
of the passage money of 
themselves and famihes 

Passage Money, Bounties, and 
Advances. 


£. 

2619 
2457 

101 


£, 

3591 
5234 

100 
94 


£. 

600 

6870 

896 


£. 

1120 
8043 

10 
1591 


£. 

10894 

250 
629 


£. 

7930 
33498 

360 
1832 


Allowances to Surgeons, Su- 
perintendants, Matron, Cap- 
tains and Mates... 


Expenses incurred after ar- 
rival 


Arrears 

Total 


5177 


9019 
1 


7866 
118 


10764 
... 


11773 

21 


43620 
136 


5177 


9020 


7979 


10764 


11794 


44756 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



208 



NEW SOUTH WALBS. 



Statement of Expenses paid out of the Colonial Treasury in 
1836. [B. B.] 



-2 2 



Department. 



S^ 






Is 



Survey ' 

Roads and Bridges ' 

Colonial Architect ^ 

Customs * 

Mineral Surveyor * 

Colonial Botanist * 

Domain Paramatta ^ 

Harbour Master : 
The Governor's boat's crew 
and Harbour and master's 
boat's crew * 

Light House, South Head » . . 

Telegraph Stations ^» 

Beacon Light, Newcastle**.. 

Total " . . . . 



73 

not stated 
21 
10 
110 
39 
28 



12 
5 
9 
3 



£. 
95 
1967 

i40 
258 
112 
110 



48 



2320 
785 
234 
302 

2409 
437 
377 



172 
83 
95 
49 



£. 
241 
2752; 

2341 

442| 



5491 
487 



172 
83! 

143 
49 



2731 



7265 



9996) 



• The total expense of this department includes gratuities 
to convict overseers, cost of rations for surveying parties, 
clothing, tents, cooking utensils, and all other articles of 
equipment. 

' The salaries of the assistant surveyors are not included. 
Rations and provisions of clothing, furnished by the com- 
missariat. 

• Cost of rations. 

^ Gratuities, rations, &c. for boatmen. 

» The salary of the mineral surveyor is not included. 

6 The salary of the colonial botanist is not included. 
. ^ Salary to superintendant, gratuity to overseer, and expense 
of rations. 

• Superintendant of boats, paid from the military chest 

• Salary of superintendant not included. 

><* Gratuities to telegraph masters, and cost of rations. 

** Cost of rations. 

*' Exclusive of the amount expended for tools. 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



FINANCES. 



209 



An account of the pecuniary allowances granted to 
His Majesty's troops, serving in New South Wales 
during the year 1836, and forming a charge on the 
Colony, [B.B.] — Commandants of Districts, allow- 
ance in lieu of forage to the respective commandants, 
50/. 17*. 6d. Jurors, allowance of I5s, per diem each 
to officers for serving as jurors, in the Court of 
Quarter Sessions, 310/. lOs. ; allowance of 15^. per 
day each, to officers for serving as jurors on criminal 
prosecution in the Supreme Court, 231/. : Travelling 
expenses to ditto in proceeding to and from the re- 
spective courts of quarter sessions in the interior, 
628/.; Total, 1169/. 17 s. Police— amount of the 
salaries of officers employed, in the police establish- 
ment of the Colony, 620/. ; Grand Total, 1840/. 17^. 
Statement of Expenses paid out of the Military Chest by the 
Commissariat Department in 1836. — [B. B.] 



Department 






Police 

Hulk 

Dock-yard 

Government Vessels 

Principal Superintendant of Con- 
victs and Hyde Park Barracks . . , 

House of Correction (Carter's Bar- 
racks) 

Ironed-gangs 

Female Factories 

Medical • 

Norfolk Island 

Moreton Bay 

Total 

P 



£. 

2471 
581 
329 

1423 

2523 

301 
2604 

782 
5171 
1434 
1035 



£. 
3212 
46 

726 

37 



432 

36i 
27 



£. 

5683 
627 
329 

2149 

2560 

391 
3036 

782 
5532 
1461 
1035 



18746 



4843 



23590 



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210 NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Police pensions, 160/. ; pension to a retired master 
of a government colonial vessel, 76/. ; gratuity to 
matron of female factory, Paramatta (on retirement) 
150/. ; expense of criminal court at Norfolk Mand, 
376/.; rations of provisions and forage, 101,273/. ; 
fdel and light, 1727/. ; means of transport, 2526/. ; 
various articles and building contracted for in 1835, 
784/. ; donations to the benevolent asylum, 1724/. ; 
indents of convicts arrived in the colony, paper, 
printing, and binding, 620/. ; for the service of the 
schooner ** Edward," in bringing up stc»*es toSydn^, 
from the wreck of the convict ship " Hyde," 1 00/. ; 
subsistence of officers proceeding to and from the 
wreck, 5/.; books for prisoners on Croat Island, 10/.; 
commission of inquiry at Port Macquarie, 79/. ; salary 
of superintendant of government, observatory Para- 
matta, 300/. ; Miscellaneous, 11/. ; expenses paid by 
the ordnance storekeeper, buildings and repairs of 
buildings for the accommodation of convicts, 656/. ; 
clothing and stores, 3905/. ; buildings and repairs of 
buildings for mounted pohce, 31/.; stores, 51/.; total 
amount expended, chargeable under the head, convict 
service in 1836, 138,157/. 

Commissariat Department. [B. B. 1836.] — Regi- 
mental and Staff Pay, H. M. 4th regiment of foot, 
11,696/. ; H. M. 17th do., 5372/. ; H. M. 28th do., 
11,102/. : H. M. 50th do., 9270/. ; H. M. 80th do., 
610/. ; detachments of various regiments, 684/. ; staff 
officers, 805/. ; total, 39,53^/. Allowances to staff 
and regimental officers, forage aDowance, 1721/. ; 
lodging allowances, 1325/.; total, 3046/. Pay of clerks 
to staff offices, &c., clerks in office of major of bri- 



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PINANCBS. 211 

gade and assistant military secretary, 229/. ; dispen- 
sers army medical department, 18/. ; total, 247/. ; 
Commissariat of stores, pay of officers, 31 85/. ; do. 
of clerks, messengers, &c. 2796/. ; Commissariat of 
accounts, pay of officers, 984/* ; do. of clerks, messen- 
gers, &c., 496/.; Commissariat of stores, forage allow- 
ance, 324/. ; lodging allowance, 375/.; Commissariat 
of accounts, forage allowance, 63/. ; lodging allow- 
ance, 308/. ; total, 8532/. Department of Clerk of 
Works, arrears of 1835, 57/. Provisions, stores, &c., 
purchase of rations, 41,259/. ; ditto of fuel and light, 
1868/. ; ditto of various articles contracted for in 
1835, 579/. ; means of transport, 848/. ; contingen- 
cies, 2201/.; total, 46,756/.; grand total, 98,lf9/. 

Ordnance Department, [B. B.] — Ordnance pay, 
&c., storekeeper, 506/. : derks, 475/. ; foremen, arti- 
ficers, and labourers, 500/. ; buildings and repairs of 
same, 59/. ; purchase of stores, 387/. ; total, 1928/.; 
deduct amoimtpaid in England, 400/.; total, 1528/.; 
Engineers pay allowances, officers, 874/. ; clerks of 
works, clerks, foremen, &c., 1679/. ; incidental ex- 
penses, 60/.; total, 2613/.; deduct amount paid in 
England, 140/. ; total, 2473/. Barracks' pay, &c., 
barrack master sergeant, &c., 412/.; rent of buildings 
for officers' quarters, 281/. ; buildings and repairs of 
same, 1169/.; furniture, 308/.; total, 2170/. Com- 
missariat, buildings and repairs of same, 349/. ; 
stores purchased, 151/. ; total, 500/. ; total ordnance^ 
6672/.; total commissariat, 98,179/.; grand total, 
104,851/. 

Recapitulation of the Establishment, [B.B. 1836.]— 
Paid by Great Britain in sterling money. Civil Esta- 
p 2 



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212 NBW ^OUTH WALES. 

f 

blishment, 16,144/.; Contingent Expenditure, 1585/.: 
Contingent Expenditure, 376/. (Expense of criminal 
court at Norfolk Island) ; Police Establishment, 
2471/.; Contingent Expenditure, 3212/.; Gaol 
Establishments, 581/. (Hulk Establishment) ; Con- 
tingent Expenditure, 46/. ; Miscellaneous Expendi- 
ture, 108,830/. (includes provisions for convicts and 
others in the service of the government) ; Pensions, 
236/. ; General Service, 1002/. ; grand total, 1 34,485/. ; 
Paid by the Colony in sterling money. Civil Establish- 
ment, 41,593/. ; Contingent Expenditure, 32,195/. ; 
Judicial Estabhshment, 16,100/.; Contingent Expen- 
diture, 2644/. ; Police Establishment, 25,765/. ; 
Conflngent Expenditure, 4440/. ; Ecclesiastical Es- 
tablishment and Schools, 13,572/. ; Contingent Ex- 
penditure, 11,946/.; Graol Establishments, 2452/.; 
Contingent Expenditure, 6879/. ; Miscellaneous Ex- 
penditure, 74,264/. ; Pensions, 579/. ; grand total, 
232,431/. 

The following is an estimate of the sum that may 
be required in the year ending 31st March, 1839, to 
defray the charge of maintaining convicts at New 
South Wales and Van Diemen's Land, as printed in 
the parhamentary estimates of 1838 : — Estimated 
amount of the bills which will be drawn from New 
SouthWales and Van Diemen's Land, payable between 
1st April, 1838, and 31st March, 1839, to defray the 
undermentioned charges for convict services at those 
settlements, viz. : Rations of provisions for 11,200 
male convicts, and 1100 female convicts and children, 
at prices averaging about 7f (/. per ration in New South 
Wales, and Sfl, per ration for men, and 5d, for women 



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FINANCED. 213 

and children, at Van Diemen's Land, 143,580/. ; hos- 
pital diet and medical comforts, 11,680/.; fiiel and 
light, 3480/. ; forage and forage allowances, 4720/. ; 
transport and conveyance of provisions and stores for 
convicts, and contingent charges, including part of 
the e3q[>ense of government vessels, 6180/.; mainte- 
nance and repair of convict harracks and other build- 
ings occupied for convict services, 15,000/. ; salaries 
and allowances of persons employed in the superin- 
tendence of the convicts, 9460/. ; salaries and allow- 
ances of commandants and other persons employed in 
the superintendence and management of convicts at 
the penal stations, and expense of apprehending run- 
away convicts, 9020/. ; medical establishments, pay 
and allowances of medical officers and attendants at 
the general hospitals, medicines, and other hospital 
charges, 9080/. ; benevolent asylum and observatory. 
New South Wales, 2800/.; clothing, bedding, and 
other stores and tools, for the convicts and convict 
establishments, 20,000/. Total, 235,000/. 

The harbour duties, wharfage and pilotage, are 
thus shown : 

Pilotage Rates payable to licensed pilots in ships and 
vessels from and to a distance of. two leagues out to sea, into 
and out of any port or harbour in New South Wales, for which 
a pilot shall be appointed ; vessels registered in Sydney, not 
exceeding 50 tons, or whUe employed in the coasting trade 
from one port of New South Wales to another, and steam 
vessel while so empbyed, excepted,, unless the assistance of 
a pilot be required and received : — 

For every vessel drawing 7 feet or under, 41. ; 8 feet, and 
under 9 feet, 4/. 6*. ; 9 feet, and under 10 feet, 4/. 10*. ; 10 
feet, and under 1 1 feet, 5/. ; 11 feet, and under 12 feet, 51. 10<. ; 



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214 NEW «OUTH WALES. 

12 feet, and under 13 feet, 6/. ; 13 feet, and under U feet, 
$L lOs,; 14 feet, and under 15 feet, 7L; 16 feet, and under 
16 feet, 7L lOs. ; 16 feet, and under 17 feet, 8/. ; 17 feet, and 
under 18 feet, 8/. 10«.: 18 feet, and under 19 feet, 9/.; 19 
feet, and under 20 feet, 9/. 10*. ; 20 feet, and under 21 feet, 
10/. ; 21 feet, and under 22 feet, IR ; 22 feet, and under 23 
feet, \2L And so on, K for every additional fbot 

Haeboue Dues awd Charges payable to the harbour 
master, for repairing on board and appointing the place of 
anchorage of ships and vessels entering any port or harbour 
in New South Wales ; or for the removal of the same from 
one place of anchorage or mooring to another, not being for 
the purpose of leaving the port ; vessels registered in Sydney, 
under 50 tons, or while employed in the coasting trade from 
one port of New South Wales to another, excepted : — 

For every vessel under 100 tons, 5«. ; 100 tons, and under 
200 tons, lOs. ; 200 tons, and under 300 tons, 15s. ; 300 tons, 
and under 400 tons, IL ; 400 tons, and under 500 tons, H 5«. ; 
500 tons and upwards, IL 10*. 

Customs, Charobs payable to the collector or other officer 
of customs, for the entry inwards, or clearance outwards, of 
ships and vessels at any port or harbour of New South Wales, 
where an officer of customs is stationed; vessels under 50 
tons, registered in Sydney, excepted ; viz. — 

Entrance. Clearance. 
£, s, d. £. *. d. 
For every steam vessel employed in the 

coasting trade, from one port of New 

South Wales to another 1 3 1 3 

For every vessel registered in Sydney, 

and so employed, if above 50 and not 

exceeding 100 tons 4 4 

For every such vessel so employed, if 

abovelOOtons 10 10 

For every other ship or vessel 15 15 

Lighthouse Dues payable to the collector of customs^ 
Sydney, on ships and vessels above 50 tons, arriving at Port 



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FINANCSS. 215 

Jackson, towards the maintenance of the lighthouse, at the 
entrance thereof; viz. — 

On every ship or vessel above 60, and not exceeding 100 
tons, employed in the coasting trade from one port of New 
South Wales, to another, 2s. ; on every steam vessel the ton 
register measurement. Id, ; on every other ship or vessel the 
t^ register measurement, 2d, 

Wharfage Rates payable to the collector of customs on 
articles landed at the King's Wharf, Sydney : — 

For every ton butt, 2*.; pipe or puncheon, 1«. ; hogshead, 
9d. ; barrel, 6d. ; cask or keg of smaller size, Zd, ; crate, cask, 
or case of hardware, earthenware, or ironmongery, 9d, ; bale, 
cask, or box not exceeding half a ton measurement, 6d, ; ditto, 
exceeding half a ton, 1«. ; chest of tea, 3d. ; half chest or boK 
of tea, l^d,; bag of sugar, l^d, ; bag of coffee, 1|J.; package 
of rice, l^d. ; basket of tobacco, *dd. ; bag of hops. Is. ; pocket 
of hops, 6d. ; bushel of grain, Id. ; dozen of oars, 2d. : one 
hundred of deals, 2s. 6d. ; one hundred of staves, Is. ; dozen 
of spades and shovels. Id. ; ton of iron, steel, lead, or other 
metal, including shot, 28. 6d, ; ton of salt. Is. 6d, ; ton of flax, 
U. i ton of cordage, 2s. 6d, ; ton of potatoes, Is. 6d, ; bottle 
of paint, oil, or turpentine, 2d, ; mill-stone, 2s. ; four-wheeled 
carriage, 5s. ; two- wheeled carriage, 3s. ; small package not 
otherwise enumerated, 3d. ; ton of heavy goods not otherwise 
enumerated, 2s, 6d, 

The observing mind will be able to deduce just 
conclusions from such statements as the following: — 

Leases of the various Tolls, Ferries and Market Dues 
put up for Rent by the Colonial Treasurer^ and com- 
paratiue Rents obtained for the years 1837 and 1838. 
— -ToU-bar near Grose Farm, let for 1837 at the rent 
of 1735/. ; leased for the ensuing year at 1659/. ; 
decr^fie 85/. Toll-bar at Becket's Bridge, 1837, for 
216/.; 1838, for 250/.; increase 34/. Lansdowne 
Bridge Gate, 1837, for 484/. ; 1838, for 550/. ; in- 



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2)6 NSW SOUTH WALES. 

crease 66/. Toll-gate at Howe's Bridge, near Wind- 
sor, 1837, for 195/.; 1838, for 215/.; increase 20/. 
Broken Back Bridge, 1837, for 270/.; 1838, for 330/. ; 
increase 60/. The Pitt Row Gate, Paramatta, on the 
western road to Emu Ferry, 1837, for 195/. ; 1838, 
for 445/. ; increase 250/. Bedlam Ferry, Paramatta 
River, 1838, for 30/.; Ferry over the Nepean at 
Emu Plains, 1838, for 160/. ; Wiseman's Ferry over 
the Hawkesbury, 1838, for 55/.* 

Markets, — Sydney Market Place, George-street, 
rented for the ensuing year at 510/.; 1837, at 537/. ; 
decrease 27/. Hay and Com Markets, Brickfield Hill, 
1837, at 127/.; 1838, at 95/. Paramatta Market 
rented for 1837 at 1/. 1^., was leased for the ensuing 
year at 14/. lOs. ; increase 13/. 9*. 

Monetary System. Previous to 1817, the cir- 
culating medium of the colony consisted principally 
of the private notes of merchants, traders, shop- 
keepers and publicans, the amount being sometimes 
so low as 6(/. To remedy the evils attendant on such 
a state of things. 

The Bank of New South Wales was in 1817 incor- 
porated by a charter under the seal of the colony, 
with a capital stock of 20,000/. sterling, raised in 
shares of 100/. each. The amount (^ shares sub- 
scribed was 12,600/., and notes were issued by the 
bank for 2^. 6c/., 5^., 10^., 1/., and 5/. In the first 
year of its incorporation, the bills discounted by the 
bank amounted to only 12,193/. ; in 1818 they rose 
to 81,672/.; in 1819to 107,256/., demonstrating fully 

1 Many of these documents are given in order to demon- 
strate the social state and progress of the colony* 



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MONETARY SYSTEM. 217 

the necessity that existed for such an establishment, 
and the advantages that result from it. Interest was 
not uncommon at the rate of 10 per cent, per annum ^ 
The dividends declared in 1818 were at the rate of 12 
percent.; for 1819, 21 percent. ; for 1820 and 1821, 
12 per cent. ; and for 1822, 15 per cent. The charter 
was granted for seven years, which was of course 
renewed. Each shareholder is responsible for the 
whole of the proceedings of the bank, thus giving 
greater stability to the institution, and securing a 
more careful management of its transactions. 

The Bank seldom advances money upon real se- 
curities of any description, nor does it grant cash 
credits, or a]low any interest upon current accounts, 
or permanent lodgments of cash. The nominal capital 
of the Bank of New South Wales is about 150,000/., 
divided into one thousand ^ve hundred 100/. shares. 
The amoimt of capital paid up is about 35,000/. 

The affairs of the institution are managed by a pre- 
sident and eleven directors, who are elected by the 
shareholders from their own number, on account of 
their influence and respectability. Every 50/. paid up 
gives a votes. 

Almost from its first establishment, it has yielded 
the shareholders a dividend of from 15 to 20 per cent. ; 
a rate of profit which, considering that its transac- 
tions are restricted to the discounting of three months' 
bills, must be highly satisfactory to its shareholders ; 
and it is a remarkable fact, that the establishment has 
never sustained any actual losses through the non- 
payment of the paper which it has discounted. Up 
to the year 1824, the bank discounted at the rate of 



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218 NBW SOUTH WALBS. 

8 per cent., after which the rate of discount was in- 
creased to 10 per cent., at which it has ever since 
continued. The colonial government pays and re- 
ceives in specie only ; and in consequence of its 
receipts* from the customs, duties, sales, and leases 
oi land, and other sources of revenue, having consi- 
derably exceeded the amount of its disbursements, it 
has from time to time gradually withdrawn from cir« 
culation nearly all the specie in the colony. In con- 
sequence of this and the remittances occasionally 
made of specie to Canton and other places with which 
a trade is carried on by the colonists, the bank of 
New South Wales, though far more than solvent, has 
more than once been under the necessity of suspend- 
ing the payment of specie on demand. It is a fact 
highly crecQtable to the bank and to the colonists in 
general, that owing to the last severe drought during 
the panic which occurred in 1 826, and which continued 
for three years with little intermission, there were 
bills to the amount of 18,000/. over due to the bank, 
while the whole capital did not at that time exceed 
22,000/. ; the confidence of the public, however, was 
so great, that by prudent management, not a sixpence 
of the over due bilk was lost, and the bank continued 
to pay a dividend all the time of from 15 to 20 per 
cent. Such, however, was the confidence of the 
colonists in the stability and integrity oi the establish- 
ment, that in no case has such an occurrence occa- 
sioned any run upon the bank ; but, on the contrary, 
the inhabitants, with one accord, poured into its 
coffers all the specie they could collect, and by re- 
fraining from demanding it as much as possible, soon 



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MONBTAKY SYBTBMv 219 

enabled the bank to resume cash payments, and to 
carry on its usual transactions. 

The notes issued by this establishment amount to 
about 20,000/., divided into 1/., 2/., 5/., lOZ., 20/. and 
30/., the greater proportion being 1/. notes. Since 
the year 1826, -^hen dollars and rupees were current, 
all the money business of New South Wales has been 
transacted in sterling, British coin only h&ng used. 

Statement of afSsdrs, 30th June, 1836. 



Stock £92,955 

Notes out 32,222 

Deposits 169,131 

Profit 7,946 

Unclaimed dividends 292 



Bills discounted ... £214,893 

Coin 74,751 

Mortgages 2,5S^ 

Furniture, &c 300 



Total.... £292,468 



Total.... £292,468 
Dividend, 30th June 1836, 9 per cent. 

The Bank of Australia was instituted in 1826, with 
a capital of 220,000/., divided into several shares, of 
which, 45,000/. is paid up. It is managed by a chair- 
man, deputy-chairman, and eight directors, with the 
necessary assistants. like the bank of New SoutU 
Wales, it is one of issue and deposit ; and its trans- 
actions are limited to discounting bills which have 
not more than three months to run. It affords no 
facilities for remittances to Europe or elsewhere, nor 
does it make any advances on real securities of any 
kind. 

The bank of Australia discounts from 10,000/. to 
12,000/. weekly, at 10 per cent., which is the current 
rate of interest in New South Wales. 
1 

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220 NBW SOUTH WALKS. 

The establishment has been highly prosperous ever 
since its commencement, and has hitherto paid the 
shareholders an annual dividend of 12 to 15 per cent, 
upon the capital paid up. The notes issued by this 
bank are for 1/. 2/. 5/. 10/. 20/. and 50/. ; its circu- 
lation being about 25,000/. 

In the year 1 826, a gang of thieves, having ob- 
tained access to its strong room from a drain which 
passed beneath it, robbed the bank of nearly 5000/. 
in cash and notes, but a portion of this was recovered, 
and the actual loss sustained was not more perhaps 
than 2000/. One fifth of the nett profits of this 
bank is reserved for a sinking fund or " rest/' 

Statement of affairs, 30th June, 1836. 



Stock £92,956 

Notes out 37,103 

Deposits 147,501 

Accumulating fund.. 2,000 
Profit 8,865 



Total.... £281,646 



Bills discounted .. ..£223,130 

Coin 54,602 

Mortgages 3,400 

Bonds 613 



Total.... £281,646 



Dividend, 8 per cent., with 2J per cent, from the accumu- 
lating fund, making the dividend for the half year 10 J per cent. 

The flourishing state of these two banks may be 
judged of from the fact that 10 shares of the New 
South Wales bank were recently sold at 95 premium, 
and 28 of the bank of Australia at 75 to 80. 

The Commercial Banking Compamr of Sydney, was 
instituted November, 1834, capital 300,000/., in 3000 
shares : — 



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MONBTART SYSTEM. 221 



Statement of affairs, 30th June, 1 836. 



Stock ieil6,667 

Notes out 30,320 

Deposits 99,036 

Profits by discount. . 9,864 

Expenses, salaries . . 803 

Interest on deposits 1,081 

Loss by a forgery . . 9 

Total.... £256,680 



Bills discounted .. ..£201,587 

Coin 40,645 

Bonds 6,234 

Balances due by 

other banks 4,973 

Real estate 2,325 

Furniture, &c 876 



Total.... £266,680 



Dividend, ^^ per cent, for that half year. Interest at the 
rate 4 of per cent, per annum allowed on balances of current 
accounts. 

A London company, established March 1834, has 
been incorporated by royal charter, called the Bank 
of Australasia, with a capital of 200,000/., for the 
purpose of establishing banks of issue and deposit in 
New South Wales, Van Diemen's J^and, and other 
settlements in Australasia. One half of the com- 
pany's capital paid up before the commencement of 
business, and the entire capital within two years. 
The stock is divided into 5000 shares of 401. each 
(500 of which were reserved for allotment in the 
colonies), to be paid up as follows : — 10/. per share 
at the time of subscribing, 7/. at three months from 
that date, 6/. at six months, 3/. at nine months, 4/. 
at twelve months, 5/. at fifteen months, and 5/. at 
eighteen months. ^ 

The management of the company's affairs is vested 
in the London Board of Directors, appointed by the 
proprietors, and the banks in the colonies are con- 



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222 NBW SOUTH WALBt. 

ducted by local directors and other persons duly- 
qualified, appointed by the directors in London. 

The proprietors are entitled to vote at the annual 
meeting, according to the number of shares held by 
them respectively, in the following proportions — 
five shares and under 10, one vote ; 10 shares and 
under 20, two votes ; 20 shares and under 50, three 
votes ; 50 and upwards, four votes, and not more. 
The following shows the progress and the prosperity 
of the establishment. 

The bank of Australasia commenced business in 
the colony 14th December, 1835. Capital, 200,000/., 
paid up. Interest allowed on current accounts at the 
rate of 4 per cent, per annum. 

Return of the Aggregate Average Amount of the 
Liabilities and Assets of the Bank of Australasia, 
as well in England, as in the Australasian Colonies, 
from the 11th day of October, 1836, to the 10th 
day of April, 1837, (pubhshed pursuant to the 
Royal Charter of Incorporation.) 

£ s. d. 

Bills in circulation not bearing interest... ... . 107)879 13 6 

Notes in circulation not bearing interest 29,994 18 6 

Bills and notes in circulation bearing interest. 

Balances due to other banks 

Cash deposited not bearing interest 42,252 10 2 

Cash deposited bearing interest 127,594 19 

Total liabilities of the Corporation.. 307J22 1 2 

G. R. Griffiths, 

Secretary and Cashier. 



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KONBTA&T SYSTEM. 223 

£ 9. d. 

Coin and bullion 71,159 8 10 

Landed property of the Corporation 2,000 

BiRs of other banks 

Balances due from other banks 

Debt due to the Corporation, including notes, 

bills and government securities 450,768 19 8 

Total assets of the Corporation 523,928 8 6 
W. Brown, Chairman. 

Realized profits to the 31st December, 1836, form- 
ing the " dividend or dividing fund," 14,728/. The 
profits of the year terminating the 31st December 
1837,after deducting the wholeof the annual expenses, 
both in the colonies and in London, for that year ; 
and also a further sum in part liquidation of the pre- 
liminary expenses, according to the principle laid 
down in the previous reports, are 21,908/. ; making a 
total of 36,636/. Out of which have been paid to the 
proprietors — ^Midsummer dividend for 1837, 8000/. ; 
Christmas ditto, 8000/. ; total 16,000/. Leaving the 
sum of 20,636/. 12*. lOd. as the amount of divisible 
fund on the 31st December 1837. The directors 
therefore announced their intention of declaring a 
dividend upon the original shares of 4 per cent, for 
the first half year of 1838, being after the rate of 8 
per cent, per annum. 

In addition to the above assets, the average amount 
of the paid up capitals of the corporation in hands of 
the court of directors in London, for the use of the 
colonial establishment, was 98,630/. 

Australian Marine Assurance Company, established 
January, 1831, capital 140,000/., 14,000/. paid up; 



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224 NBW SOUTH WALB8. 

dividend, 30th July, 1836, 8^ per cent, for that half 
year. 

Union Assurance Company of Sydney, established 
January, 1836, capital 250,000/., in 5000 shares ; 
capital paid up, 2/. per share — 12,500/. Profits not 
to be divided for three years. Capital increased to 
16,659/. 30th June, 1836. 

Coin in circulation. [B. B. 1836.] The whole 
amount of British coin in the colony is estimated at 
about 445,000/., and of this sum there was, on the 
3 1st December, 1836, in the Colonial treasury, 
218,630/.; in the bank ofNew South Wales, 73,342/.; 
in the bank of Australia, 44,048/. ; in the bank of 
Australasia, 50,005/.; in the Commercial bank, 
39,234/. ; total, 425,259/. 

The amount of coin in the bank of Australasia is 
taken from the half yearly average of the weekly 
liabilities and assets of that bank in New South Wales, 
from 12th April to 10th October, 1836, published in 
conformity with the charter of the bank ; the board 
of directors having refused to supply the local go- 
vernment with any other information than that which 
the charter prescribes. 

Amount of paper currency in circulation. [B. B. 
1836.] The paper currency in circulation consists of 
notes of the bank of New South Wales, bank of 
Australia, bank of Australasia, and Commercial bank. 
The amount of these notes in circulation on 3l8t 
December, 1836, was notes of the bank of New South 
Wales, 25,665/. : bank of Australia, 29,245/. ; bank 
of Australasia, 11,846/.; Commercial bank, 32,731/.; 
total, 99,487/. [The information respecting the notes 



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MONBTARr SYSTEM. 225 

in the bank of Australasia has been derived from the 
same source as that relating to coin, explained in the 
note under that head.] 

The bank of New South Wales, the bank of Aus- 
tralia, and the Commercial bank, are Joint Stock 
companies, the shares in which are transferable. The 
bemk of Australasia is a chartered bank. The notes 
are all of sterling denomination, and are convertible 
into British money on demand. 

The great portion of the circulation in this colony 
is carried on by drafts or cheques on one of the four 
banks ; the mass of pecuniary transactions centering 
in Sydney, and almost every individual of property 
having an account with one or other of the banks, in 
which for security a large portion of their cash is 
lodged. 

Course of exchange. [B. B. 1836.] Bills on the 
Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's treasury are 
drawn at par, under a notice issued by the Deputy 
Commissary General, dated 28th February, 1835. 
Bills of private individuals are negotiated at a dis- 
count varying from 2^ to 5 per cent. Few if any 
bills are negotiated on foreign countries, and no rate 
of exchange on such bills can therefore be quoted. 

Rate of interest, [B. B. 1836.] Eight per cent, per 
annum is allowed in cases before the courts of law or 
equity when no rate has previously been agreed upon, 
under authority of the act of council, 5 W. 4 sec. 10. 
The Ijank of New South Wales, bank of Austraha, 
bank of Australasia, Commercial bank, and Savings* 
bank charge discount upon bills at the rate of 10 per 
cent, per annum. The Savings' bank allows, for 
Q 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



226 NBW SOUTH WALBf. 

money deposited therein, interest at the rate of 5 per 
cent, per annum. The other banks allow 4 per cent, 
per annum on all current accounts. 

Rates of Insurance at Sydney, N. S. W., March 17, 
1838. — ^London and Liverpool, 2^ to 3 per cent. ; 
HobartTown, 1 percent. ; Launceston, 1^ per cent. ; 
Swan River, 4 per cent. ; New Zealand, 1 per cent. ; 
South Sea Islands, 2 per cent. 

The value of property annually created in New 
South Wales is estimated at 2,366,664/. ; moveable, 
3,703,000/.; immoveable, 19,150,000/. 

[B. B. means " Blue Book," Colonial Office Returns.] 



CHAPTER X. 

STAPLE PRODUCTS AND COMMERCE. 

The staple products of New South Wales are 
wool, whale oil, cattle, and provisions. The first is 
the most valuable, and promises at no distant day to 
bring great wealth to the colony. At present the 
Australian colonies furnish nearly one-tenth of the 
entire importation of foreign wool into the ports of 
London and Liverpool. 

As the trade in wool has an important bearing on 
our stifle manufactures, a few remarks on the sub- 
ject will be necessary. Previous to the year 1800, 
our average imports of wool did not much exceed 
3,000,000 lbs., and chiefly from Spain ; the Elector 
of Saxony at this time introduced the Merino sheep 



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STAPLK PRODUCTS AND COMMBRCB. 227 

into his dominions, where it was found to thrive 
better than in Spain, the docks in the latter country 
having suffered much during the wars consequent on 
the French Revolution. The importations into Eng- 
land, from New South Wales and Van Piemen's 
Land, at six intervals since 1810, are as follows : In 
1810, 167 lbs.; in 1815, 73,171 lbs.; in 1820, 
99,416lb8. ; in 1825, 323,995 lbs. ; in 1830, 1,967,309 
lbs.; in 1833, 3,516,869 lbs. It will be observed 
from the foregoing, what an augmentation has taken 
place in the supply of wool from Australasia ; and as 
the fineness of the climate in the colony renders win- 
ter foddering for sheep unnecessary, and the grasses 
seem peculiarly adapted to the purer blood of the 
animal, we see what a field is open for the extension 
of this staple commodity, not only for the supply of 
England, but of France, America, &c., the latter 
country now importing wool direct from Sydney. 

The introduction of fine wooled sheep into the co- 
lony was owing to the late John M'Arthur, Esq. So 
long back as 1 793, that enterprising gentleman be- 
came convinced that the grasses and climate of New 
South Wales were adapted to Merino sheep, and 
about two years after he obtained a ram and two 
ewes from Captain Kent, R. N., who had brought 
them, with some other stock, for the supply of the 
settlement, from the Cape of Good Hope, to which 
place some of the pure breed had been sent by the 
Dutch Government. Mr. M* Arthur immediately 
began to cross his coarse-fleeced sheep with the Me- 
rino, and in ten years his flock, which consisted 
originally of 70 Bengal animals, was increased to 
ci2 

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228 NBW SOUTH WALS8. 

4,000, although the wethers were slaughtered as 
they hecame fit for food. In 1803, Mr. M'Arthur 
revisited England, and exhibited samples of his wool 
to a committee of manufacturers who happened to be 
then in London, and it was so much approved, that 
Mr. M'Arthur appeared before the Privy Council, 
and laid before them his plans for rendering England 
independent of foreign countries for a supply of the 
best wools. The Privy Council adopted Mr. M*Ar- 
thur's views, and with their encouragement he pur- 
chased from the Merino flock of his Majesty George 
the Third, two ewes and three rams, with which he 
returned to New South Wales in 1806, appropri- 
ately caUing the vessel in which his golden fleece 
was embarked, the * Argo* Such was the origin of 
the rapidly increasing flocks of New South Wales, 
whose numbers are now upwards of a million, and 
whose wool has brought as high as 10^. Ad, per lb. 
in the London market ! The following Table was 
prepared by the Agricultural Association of Western 
Australia : — 



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STAPLB PRODUCTS AND COMMERCB. 



229 



Origin and Progress of the Flocks, and Production of Wool, 
of New South Wales and Van Diemen*s Land ; the Data 
being collected from the several Publications referred to at 
the end of the Report. 



Names of 
Ships. 



Whence. 



Number of 

Sheep 
imported. 



Number of 
Sheep ex- 
isting in the 
Colony. 



1790^ 
1791) 
Sept. J 
1792 
1793 



None. . 

Gorgon . 

Atlantic 
Humaner 



Cape . . . 

Calcutta . 
Ditto. .. 



1794 
1795 
1796^ 
1797 
1^1 J 



NootkaSound. 



Daedalus 

None. .. 

Britannia Cape 

In this interval the 
number of sheep im- 
ported was less than 

Total number of sheep 
imported not ex- 
ceeding • • • • • 

From this date there 
showing the number 



None. 

68 

20 
About 100, 
having em- 
barked 220, 
more than 
halfofwhich 
were lost. 
4 



None. 
57 in Nov. 
105 in Oct. 



12 



} ■""{ 



•^ S 

3 



626^ 

isaij " 

2457 I 

6757 5 •• 






304 

is no record available 
imported. 



70 

34 do. 
allow- 
ing fdr 
impor- 
tations. 



Return of the Quantity of Sheep's Wool shipped from New South Wales 
since the year 1807. 



Year. 


lbs. 


Year. 


lbs. 


Year. 


lbs. 


Year. 


lbs. 


1807... 


.. 245 


1819... 


.. 74284 


1826... 


...552960 


1833.. 


1734203 


1808... 


.. 562 


1820... 


... 90415 


1827... 


...407116 


1834.. 


2246933 


1811.... 


.. 167 


1821... 


..175433 


1828... 


...834343 


1835.. 


3893927 


1815... 


.. 32971 


1822* 


..172880 


1829 . 


.1005333 


1836.. 


3693241 


1816.... 


.. 73171 


1823... 


..198240 


1830+. 


.. 899760 






1817.... 


.. 13616 


1824... 


..275560 


1831... 


1401284 






1818.... 


.. 86525 


1825... 


..411600 


1832... 


1515156 







* The weights previous to the year 1822 are taken from the English 
Custom House return, there being no record in the colony ; from 1822 to 
1835, they are derived from the books of the Sydney Custom House. 

t Where the weight is greater in preceding than in subsequent years, 
it does not arise from a cessation of increase in the weight shorn, but from 
variation in the time of shipment. 



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230 



NBW SOUTH WALB8. 



Year. 



1801 
1803 

1806' 
1807 
1809 
1810 

]8;3 
1814 
1815 
1816 
1817 

1818 
1819 
1820 
1821 



;z eg 



6787 



1 = 



119777* 






Total in 

both 
Colonies. 



127883 

172128* 

182468 



6757 
10157 



33250 
34450 

65121 



170420 



290168 fi 



Annual 
Rate of 
Increaae 
percent. 



25 



Quantity 
of Wool 
imported 

into 
England. 



245 lbs. 
562 

167 

32971 
73171 
13611 

No return. 

86525 
74285 
994156 
175443 



The following data relative to the progress of the 
wool trade in Australasia, are taken from a report of 
the Committee appointed by the Agricultural Society 
of Western Australia to investigate the subject : — 

All the publications on the Australian colonies, 
which embrace the topics of agriculture and general 

^ About this period an importation of sheep from Bengal, 
Sydney, and Norfolk Island, formed the basis of the flocks of 
Van Diemen's Land. 

* Treatise on Sheep. 

' Commissioner Bigge's Report. 

* Quarterly Review, xii. p. 38. 

» Wentworth, p. 464 and 481.— The wool is from the Par- 
liamentary Tables. ' Parliamentary Tables. 



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STAPLE PRODUCTS AND COMMERCE. 



231 





Year. 


No. of Sheep 

in New 
South Wales. 


No. of Sheep 

in Van 

Diemen's 

Land. 


Total in 

both 
Colonies. 


Annual 
Rate of 
Increase 
per cent 


Quantity 
of Wool 
imported 

into 
England. 




1822 

1823 

1824 

1825 

1826 

1827 

1828 » 

1829 

1830 

1831 

1832 

1833 

1834 

1835 

1836 


536391 
604775 

1000000 


680740 
664i72 


• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 

536775 
11855i5 


-\ r 

- 17 < 

V 

J L 

19762 bales, 
at23<Hbs. 

22783 ditto 
at230lbs 


138498 

477261 

382907 

323995 

1106302 

512758 

1574186 

1838642 

1967309 

249.3337 

2688817 

3516896* 

4069750 3 

4548260 « 

per bale. 

52400906 

per bale. 



statistics, have noticed the ameliorating influence of 
the climate on the fleeces of the native or imported 
sheep, independently of the improvement effected by 
the system of crossing, generally adopted of late 
years, by the flock-holders. 

* The value of the wool exported from Sydney for this yeari 
is estimated by General Darling at 24,308/. (see his Report 
to the Colonial Office, April, 1838), and applies to the exports 
of 1827. 

' From Treatise on Sheep — Society for the Diffusion of 
Useful Knowiedge. 

* Martin. 

* Parliamentary Return. 

* Parliamentary Return. — This quantity includes Swan 
River. 



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232 NBW SOUTH WALES. 

It was, in fact, this peculiarity of the climate or 
pasturage, or probably the influence of both com- 
bined, which, as early as the year 1797, attracted the 
attention of the late Capt. J. M' Arthur, and induced 
him to commence a series of experiments for the fur- 
ther refinement of the fleece, by the introduction of 
a few Spanish sheep. The rapid improvement which 
followed in the course of three or four years was no 
less gratifying than surprising; and, convinced by 
these successful experiments, he pursued the object 
until a late period of his life with unceasing perse- 
verance, and with results at once beneficial to him- 
self and to his adopted country. 

In the statement presented by Captain M'Arthra" 
to Lord Hobart in 1803, he adverts in strong terms 
to this point : — ^that his flock, then consisting of 4,000 
sheep, was derived from 30 Indian sheep purchased 
in 1 793 from a ship which arrived at Sydney from 
Calcutta, to which he had added about ten of the 
Spanish and Irish breeds, and subsequently the flock 
belonging to another officer, originating from the 
same number and from the same vessel. 

The rapid improvement of the fleece in Australia 
by the influence of the climate only, is further con- 
firmed by the evidence of several witnesses, wool- 
staplers, and others, examined before the ** Select 
Committee of the House of Lords, appointed to take 
into consideration the state of the British Wool 
Trade," in 1828. Mr. Henry Hughes, an eminent 
Blackwell Hall factor, gave his evidence in the fol- 
lowing terms : — 

" TTie quality of the wool was originally very bad> 



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STAPLE PRODUCTS AND COMMERCE. 233 

but the climate has a most extraordinary effect on the 
fleece :" and again, *' the fleeces of sheep imported 
into those colonies have improved in a wonderful 
degree, which cannot be accounted for by the best 
judges, except from the climate." '* I have from 
New South Wales some fleeces shorn off German 
sheep, after they had been in the colony about sixteen 
months, and the improvement was so extraordinary, 
that I have had most of the German merchants now 
in London to see them ; and, if I may use the phrase, 
they were astonished at the great improvement the 
cUmate had made in the fleece." Mr. S. Donaldson 
and several other witnesses attest to the same effect. 
The Committee constructed the Table (p. 229), show- 
ing, in separate columns, in every instance where 
they have been able to collect the required data, the 
date of arrival, the number of sheep imported, their 
annual accumulation, the quantity of wool exported, 
&c., commencing from the year 1 791, when the foun- 
dation of the present flocks in the colony of New 
South Wales was laid, by the arrival of the Gorgon, 
in the month of September, from the Cape of Good 
Hope, having on board 68 sheep. 

The previous efforts of the colonists for the pur* 
pose of obtaining live stock, and their total failure, 
may be first briefly stated. 

The first expedition landed on the 20th January, 
1 788, and in the following month a census of the live 
stock, imported with it, was taken, consisting of four 
cows, one bull, one stallion, three mares, and one 
colt, besides some pigs and poultry. Between this 
date and the month of April, it appears that some 

1 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



234 NBW SOUTH WALB8. 

sheep had been mtroduced, it being remarked by Capt . 
Watkin Tench, that a great diminution in their num- 
ber had taken place, by bad pasturage and other 
causes. In May there were 29 sheep ; and in June 
the misfortune occurred of all the homed cattle, con- 
sisting of two bulls and five cows, straying away into 
the bush ; where they remained, undiscovered, until 
the year 1 795, when they, with their progeny, amount- 
ing in all to about 60 head, were found in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Nepean River. In June, 1790, 
H. M. S. Guardian arrived from the Cape of Good 
Hope, where had been embarked a quantity of live 
stock, including sheep, but the whole were destroyed 
during the voyage ; and the disastrous history of this 
first stock of sheep and cattle is summed up, in the 
month of November, 1790, by the author before 
quoted, with the remark, " They have not, at this 
time, either horse, cow, or sheep here." 

Such are the great improvements in navigation, 
that the expense of sending the fleece to London 
from Australia, a distance of 15,000 miles, is not 
more than Z\d, per lb., including freight, insurance, 
brokerage, commission, dock and landing charges, 
wliile the expense of transmitting German or Spanish 
wools to England, is from ^d. to 4|(^. per lb. 

The rate of increase in Western Australia has been 
nearly 40 per oent. per aimum ; and the number of 
sheep in the colony in 1837, about 12,000, of whom 
10,000 were ewes or ewe lambs. 

The progress of cultivation and of live stock in 
New South Wales, since its settlement in 1788, will 
be seen by the following statement. 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



STAPLE PRODUCTS AND COMMERCE. 



285 



Land. 


Live Stock. 




Total No. 
granted 
or sold. 


Cleared 

or 
Pasture. 


Culti- 
vated. 


o 


14 
^6 


Sheep. 


s 

1 




Acres. 


Acres. 


Acres. 


No. 


No. 


No. 




1788 


, , 


^ ^ 


, , 


7 


7 


29 




1810 


95637 


81937 


13700 


1114 


11276 


34550 


a 


1820 


381466 


349195 


32271 


4014 


68149 


119777 


^ 


1925 


673699 


127878 


45514 


6142 


134619 


237622 


S 


1828 


2906346 


231673 


71623 


12479 


262868 


536391 


o 


1833 


4044117 




No returns. 






^ 



In April, 1788, three months after the formation 
of the settlement, the whole of the live stock in the 
colony consisted of — 1 stallion, 3 mares, 3 colts, 2 
bulls, 5 cows, 29 sheep, 19 goats, 49 hogs, 25 pigs, 
5 rabbits, 18 turkeys, 29 geese, 35 ducks, 142 fowls, 
and 87 chickens. 



Digitized by VjOOQiC 



236 



NEW SOUTH WALES. 



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STAPLE PRODUCTS AND COMMERCE. 



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Digitized by VjjOOQIC 



238 



NBW SOUTH WALES. 



Number of Cattle slaughtered in Sydney from 1828 
to 1836:— 1830, from Ist June, 4,772; 1831, 10,308; 
1832, 13,109; 1833, 13,568; 1834, 15,476; 1835, 
13,162; 1836, 13,095: total, 83,490. 

Number of Cattle slaughtered in Sydney during 
each month of the year 1 836 : — ^January, 905 ; Fe- 
bruary, 1,068; March, 1,105; April, 1,074; May, 
1,129; June, 1,102; Total first six months, 6.383; 
July, 1,406 ; August, 1,643 ; September, 950; Octo- 
ber, 852 ; November, 922 ; December, 939 ; Total 
last six months, 7,712. 

It is not possible to state with exactness the quan- 
tity of grain raised, but its prices since the great 
drought in 1827, are thus shown : — 



21 




Flour, 

first 

quality. 


Flour, 
second 
quality. 


Maize. 


Barley. 


Oats. 


1 


1 

03 




per 


per 


per 


per 


per 


per 


per 


per 




bushel. 


peck. 


peck. 


bushel. 


bushel. 


bushel. 


ton. 


load. 




8. d. 


8. d. 


*. d. 


*. d. 


*. d. 


«. d. 


«. 


s. d. 


1828 


1 9 


, , 


, , 


8 


4 


3 6 


200 


36 


1829 


6 6 


22 


18 6 


5 


6 


, , 


60 


20 


1830 


6 10 


19 11 


16 10 


3 1 


3 4 


3 2 


122 


17 7 


]831 


5 6 


16 6 


14 


3 


2 6 


2 6 


150 


12 6 


1834 


10 


•• 


•• 


5 6 


4 


•• 


220 


•• 



The prices of horses, cattle, and sheep, which a 
few years since had fallen considerably, are now on 
the increase ; and as provisions are becoming a staple 
export, we may soon see flour one of the imports 
from Australia. 

After wool, whale oil is the chief staple of the 



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FI8HBRIBS. 



239 



colony. This article of commerce is also of recent 
creation, and its progress is thus indicated : 



Years. 


Vessels 
employed 
in Fishing. 


-1 


Sea 
Elephant's 




§ 
eg 


Total yalue 

of Oil and 

Skins. 




No. of 
ships. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


No. 


£. 


1828 




348 


118 


50 


7647 


, , 


1829 


27 


886 


84 


, , 


12350 


94101 


1830 


32 


1282 


27 


518 


5460 


115780 


1831 


31 


1914 




1004 


4972 


• • 


1832 


, , 


^ , 


, , 


, , 




, , 


1833 


27 


3483 


, , 


420 


2465 


169278 


1836 


40 


1700 


•• 


1178 


386 


126085 



The black whale is found in abimdance along the 
coast of New South Wales ; but the mariners prefer 
cruizing off New Zealand, and among the beautiful 
islands in the Pacific. 

The sperm fishing is the most valuable ; and the 
extent to which it is prosecuted may be estimated 
from the number of vessels engaged in it, and which 
sailed out of the port of Sydney in 1834 : — namely, 
40 vessels, 9,655 tons, 1179 men. 

Vessels registered from 1828 to 1836 : — 1828, 18 
vessels, 478 tons ; 1829, 15 vessels, 512 tons; 1830, 
30 vessels, 1,809 tons ; 1831, 38 vessels, 3,224 tons ; 
1832, 21 vessels, 2,143 tons ; 1833, 29 vessels, 2,655 
tons ; 1834, 19 vessels, 1,852 tons ; 1835, 21 vessels, 
2,267 tons; 1836, 39 vessels, 4,560 tons. 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



240 



NBW SOUTH WALBS. 



Return of Fisheries, carried on in Vessels belonging to, or 



Name of Vessel. 



Description. 



Date of 
Clearance. 



Governor Bourke 

Nimrod 

Lady Wellington 

Persian 

Australian 

Carnarvon 

Success 

Elizabeth 

Caroline 

Denmark HiU 

Genii 

Jolly Rambler 

Juno 

Sydney Packet 

Cape Packet 

Fame 

Lynx 

Proteus 

Scamander 

Bee 

Martha 

Sydney Packet 

Lady Leith 

William Stoveld 

Nereus. 

Denmark Hill 

Governor Bourke 

Lynx 

Hind 

Sydney Packet 

Harriet 

Genii „ 

Dublin Packet 

Nimrod 

Mediterranean Packet. ... 

Luna. 

Tigress 

Siren 

William 

Bee 



Barque 
Ditto ... 
Brig .... 
Ship ... 
Barque 
Ditto ... 
Schooner 
Ship ... 
Barque 
Ship ... 
Brig ... 
Cutter... 
Barque 
Schooner 
Barque 
Brig ... 
Barque 
Ditto ... 
Brig ... 
Ditto ... 
Ditto ... 
Schooner 
Brig ... 
Ditto ... 
Ditto ... 
Barque 
Ditto ... 
Ditto ... 
Brig ... 
Schooner 
Barque 
Brig ... 
Schooner 
Barque 
Brig ... 
Ditto ... 
Ditto ... 
Ditto ... 
Barque 
Brig ... 



Total Tonnage and Men , 



2U 25 
2,1 1 1 30 
23 
21 
31 
30 
7 
33 
32 
25 
20 
6 
28 



an 

It".:;' 

in 

vnl 
m} 



30 
32 
1 

24 

26 

24 

7 

7 

1.11! 25 

29 



1 October 1834 
24 June 1835 

8 Novem. 
7 Decem. 
15 Novem. 

7 February 1834 

21 Decem. 1835 

8 July 1834 
7 January 1835 
4 Decem. 1835 

22 Decem. 
24 October 
26 May 

19 March 

2 April 
30 August 

9 March 

20 May 

22 October 1833 

21 Novem. 1835 

24 March 

25 June 
17 January 1835 

2 February 1835 
14 March 1835 

8AprU 
13 May 

9 March 

23 April 
25 June 



1834 
1835 
1834 



18.H 
1835 
1835 
1836 
1835 
1834 
1836 
1835 



22 AprU 
7 May 
25 June 
16 April 
9 July 



1836 
1836 
1836 
1836 
1836 
1836 
1836 
1836 
1836 
1836 



11 February 1884 
3 July 1835 

1 Novem. 1836 
27 February 1835 
21 Novem. 1835 



7664 838 



Total 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



FISHBRIBS. 



241 





sailing from, the Colony of New South Wales, in 1836. [B. B.] 






!i 


Fishery in which 
engaged. 


Produce of 


Fishery in 


1886. 


^8 






mS 


Whale- 




1 




i 




-1 


bone. 


aS 

G 














Tons and 








1836. 




Tons. 


Tons. 


Cwt 


No. 


£. 




16 Jan. - 


Sperm - - - 


90 


... 






4940 




23 ... 


Ditto 


115 




... 


... 


6315 




25 ... 


Ditto 


73 


... 






4015 




28 ... 


Black - - - 




150 


... 


... 


3000 




9 Feb. - 


Sperm - - - 


ioo 




... 




5500 




5 ... 


Ditto 


74 




••• 




4050 




5 March - 


Black - - - 


... 


"20 


2 




570 




7 ... 


Sperm - - . 


315 








17225 




11 ... 


Sperm and Black - 


35 


120 


... 




1315 




14 ... 


Sperm - - . 


12 


... 


... 


... 


650 




24 ... 


Ditto 


60 




•»• 




3250 




5 April - 


Black - - - 




... 


10 


*"8 


910 




2 June - 


Sperm - - . 
Black - - - 


ioo 








5470 




17 ... 


... 




r"io 


295 


508 




17 ... 


Sperm - 


105 


... 






5695 




11 July - 


Ditto 


25 








1240 




28 ... 


Black - - - 


... 


'"5 


0"' 5 


"9 


135 




4 August 


Ditto 




184 


5 




4120' 




9 ... 


Sperm ... 


102 


... 


... 




5600 




10 ... 


Sperm and Black - 
Black - - . 


7 


66 


4 




2055 




16 ... 




1 


1 5 


"is 


194 




2 Sept. - 


Ditto 




10 


2 


26 


414 




5 ... 


Sperm - - . 


"62 








3400 




22 ... 


Ditto 


95 








5219 




26 ... 


Sperm and Black . 


37 


"20 


0"'l5 




2502 




2 Nov. . 


Sperm - 


60 








3260 




15 ... 


Black - . 




*46 


io"*io 




1855 




17 ... 


Ditto 




30 


10 


... 


1670 




18 ... 


Ditto 


... 


80 


11 5 




3095 




19 ... 


Ditto 




25 


10 




1380 




20 ... 


Sperm and Black - 


"*4 


180 


7 5 




4458 




24 ... 


Ditto - - - 


5 


115 


2 




2835 




25 ... 


Black - - 


... 


50 


6 15 




1587 




28 ... 


Ditto 




25 


10 




1108 




30 ... 


Ditto 




26 


2 6 




725 




30 ... 


Sperm - . , 


*75 






... 


4125 




30 ... 


Ditto 


107 


... 






5885 




9 Dec. - 


Black - - - 




"25 






500 




19 ... 


Sperm - - . 


22 








1210 




23 ... 


Ditto - w . 
Fisheries in 1836 


20 


... 


... 




1100 




Produce of 


1700 


1178 


96 6 


386 


126085 



Digitized'by CjOOQIC 



242 



NBW SOUTH WALES. 



Vessels Built and 


Registered in 1836.— 


-[R 


.B.] 




Vessels Built. 


Vessels Registered. 


Description. 


No. 


Tons 


Description. 


No. 


Tons 


Schooners 

Cutters. . •••••••• 


2 
2 
2 
2 

1 

9 


102 
33 
52 

102 
12 

301 


Barques. ••••••.. 


10 
4 

13 
3 

4 
2 
2 

1 


2600 

663 

928 

448 

88 

35 

102 

96 


Brigs . •••••••••. 


Sloops 


Schooners. 


Smacks . .•.-•••• 


Cutters. • • . 


Ketch 


Sloops 


Total - . 


Ketches 


Smacks 


Brigan tines .,.--. 


Total - 




39 


4560 



As the land in New South Wales and in our other 
colonies is one of the most valuable sources of colonial 
and imperial wealth, the following details are given of 
the sales of land, and timber cut off it. Not long since 
an acre of land in Sydney was sold for 10,000/. 

Return of the Total Quantity of Land Sold in the Colony of 
New South Wales, under the Regulations of August 1831, 
Town Allotments included. 



Land Sold. 


Amount of 
Remission Money 
allowed to Officers. 


Year. 


Acres. 


Amount 


1832 
1833 
18.34 
1835 
1836 


20860 

29001 

91399 

271945 

389546 


14133 

36814 

87097 

123049 


£1260 

600 

1075 

2880 

2419 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



LANDS. 



243 



Return of Lands sold during the Year 1836. [B. B.] 



COUNTIBS. 









Hill 



«a le 



|l 



ill 






g 'is 

3fiS.s 



Aigyle 

Bathurst 

Bligh 

Brisbane 

Camden , 

Cook 

Cumberland ., 

Durham 

Georgiana.... 
Gloucester...., 

King. 

Macquarie.... 

Murray , 

Northumberld. 

PhUip , 

Roxburgh 

St. Vincent 
Wellington. 
Westmoreland 
Hunter 



1209 
230 

1835 
1162 
3793 
2430 
240 
476 
1202 
3496 
2490 
2853 

1450 
155 
137 
100 
370 



£. . 
31999 
28377 
16109 
49579 

3529 



58055 

24134 

3510 

9757 

26056 

60858 

8240 

2472 

6530 

7965 

15452 

5007 

5640 



No 

133 
59 
19 
55 
65 
39 
94 

114 

34 

9 

14 



Acres. 

32638 

29586 

16339 

49579 

5364 

1162 

3793 

60485 

24374 

5986 

10959 

29552 

63348 

11093 

2472 

7980 

8120 

15589 

5107 

6018 



18319 
8071 
4035 

12690 
2113 
1257 
5756 

18721 
7190 
1496 
2763 
9734 

16918 
6673 
810 
2057 
2363 
3942 
1568 
1621 



£. 

12377 
7112 
2098 
6761 
5243 
1257 
5243 

16476 
6840 
954 
1203 
9384 

14798 
6519 
810 
1841 
2363 
3473 
1568 
1545 



Total... 



493 24269 



441 



365277 



389546 



123049 



104158 



Total amount of purchase-money, £123,0492. Deduct, Remissions to 
officers of the Army and Navy, and discharged soldiers, 2,4192. ; amount 
to be received in 1837, 16,4732. =18, 892/. Total amount of proceeds of 
lands in 1836, under regulations of 1st August 1831, received up to 31st 
December 1836, 104,157/.: add deposits forfeited, 992/.; Interest, 181. 
=x 1,005/. Total revenue from land sales in 1836, 105,163^. 

The Phormium Tenax, or New ZeaJand flax, is an- 
other article of export, yearly increasing in amount ; 
it is similar in appearance to the English flax, and is 
chiefly dressed by the native women of New Zealand, 
who scrape ofi^ the outer part of the leaf with muscle 
shells : the inner fibres or filaments, resembling 
dressed flax, are then exported to Sydney, where it is 
valued at from 15/. to 20/. per ton. 
r2 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



244 



NBW SOUTH WALES. 



Timber, particularly cedar plank, has been for some 
time exported. Coals also were proving a valuable 
staple of the colony. 

Mills for Grinding and Dressing Grain. 



District 



s 



Sydney 

Parramatta 

Windsor and Richmond .... 

Liverpool. ••.. 

Campbell Town 

Evan 

Illawarra 

fierrima 

Goulburn 

Bathurst 

Newcastle 

Maitland 

Paterson and Raymond Terrace 

Patrick's Plains 

Port Stephens 



Manufactories. — Sydney : 2 Distilleries, 7 Brew- 
eries ; 1 Hat Manufacturer ; 2 Coarse Woollen ; 2 
Snuff and Cigar ; 6 Soap and Candles ; 2 Rope ; 7 
Tanneries ; 1 Pottery ; 6 Iron and Brass Founderies ; 
14 Printing Presses ; 2 Sawmills ; 1 Marble ; 1 Pa- 
tent Slip for repairing vessels ; 5 Steam vessels ; 2 
Coaches. — Paramatta : 1 Salt Manufacturer on the 
Paramatta river. — Windsor: 2 Breweries; 3 Tan- 
neries. — Campbell Town, 2 Tanneries. — Berrima, 2 
Breweries ; 2 Tanneries. — Bathurst : 2 Coarse Wool- 
len manufactories. — Maitland : 1 Pottery. 

There is a coal mine at Newcastle, the property of 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



COAL MINB, AND IMPORTED GRAIN. 



245 



the Australian Agricultural Company. The quantity 
produced annually is 1264 tons, value 5,748/. 



To whom sold. 


Tons. 


Rate 
percent 


Amount 


To Government 

To British Individuals 
To Ditto 

Total - - 


1702 
8103 
2841 


8,. 

9s. 

lOs. 


£680 16 
3646 7 
1420 10 


12646 


•' 


5747 13 



There are two treadmills at Carter's Barracks, for 
the punishment of prisoners. 

The whole of the preceding statements demonstrate 
the rapid progress which New South Wales has made 
in population, wealth, and civilization. 

Commerce. — The trade of the colony has, like 
every thing else, increased in a surprising degree- 
Its value for the last few years is thus shown : 
Grain imported from 1828 to 1836. [B. B.] 



Year. 


Wheat 


Barley, 

Oats, and 

Peas. 


Flour 

and 

Bread. 


Rice. 


Po- 
tatoes. 


1828.. 
1829.. 
1830.. 
1831.. 
1832.. 
1833.. 
1834.. 
1835.. 
1836.. 


hush. 

85716 

107929 

70904 

71892 

44908 

19507 

15568 

122908 

263956 


busho 

868^ 

2575 

183 

758 

977 

7O8I 

6818 

12031 

27567 


lbs. 

320640 

42076 

2226 

358154 

30072 

14272 

345896 

1377018 

4385550 


lbs. 

401578 

183703 
29898 
54161 
88052 
39200 

407680 
1139551 

474358 


tons. 
369 
548 
190 
142 
93 
422 
408 
520 

1304 


803288 


66679 


6875904 


2818181 


3996 



Digitized by CjOOQiC 



246 



NBW SOUTH WALBS« 






O 

I 
Z 



a 






I 



I 
II 



£1 



43 

J! 

I 



1 

n 

I 

o 



■4 « ■» OQ ef »« »« : 



•9 •* *> ^ «» M» M» 4D «D 



^iii 



o o ^ ^ «• o> o» * 5» 

•o «•«••■<« «o *^ Ok — e« 






:::::: :|S 
:::::: :^o» 



iSS^ 






^ ^ A »«■<«• M a> r« n 



: :SS 









a JO g ^ "g 52 p '#. 'f 
04 00 «o «o <^ «e e) 2 ^ 






^ 10 M O wOtD 



^»oooc»iooo5««S 
e« •« c*^ •<«• $ ^ S« 



a»oe Aio^ 






f-^^eoeoeoiotot^ 



'^^ 



H 

^ * • ' * ^ ' '2S 

P >^ 00 :a»io :t^S^ 

Q *eta :<ook :ooAo 

an ^ '^^ W05C0 



^ <oc« :ooo :w»oe<o 
^ •-••»• .o»oo •e'4«e« 

j2j ""'^ 






9 94 eooe 
«»4to^e 






SiSSlSS :«SS 



3; Oft e> lA ^ 9 ^ e a 

^ ^ to O 00 »« 00 CO « 



^ (O ^ MO ao * 00 w oa 



OMi^A«p !«o»«e 



•8«»i 



MctP^MOi :e40Qeo 
ooeooootpooooioeo 

111111111 iffttiiff- 






Digitized by ^ OOQ l^ 



IMPORTS AND SXPORTS. 



247 



The imports of the adony consist chiefly of 
British property; of 602,032/. worth imported in 
the year ending January 1833, 409,344/. was from 
the United Kingdom; the large items being — 
woollens, 20,000/. ; stationery and books, 10,000/. ; 
spirits, 40,000/.; linens, 5000/.; iron (steel and 
hoop), 13,701/.; hardware, 26,701/.; kats, caps, 
and bonnets, 13,547/.; haberdashery, 21,680/.; 
glass, 5167/.; flre-arms, 9101/.; earthenware, 
7,106/.; cottons, 42,756/.; cordage, 5,493/.; cop- 
per, 7,840/. ; casks and staves, 16,331/. ; canvas and 
^siggii^> 11,068/. ; beer sale, 23,109/. ; and apparel 
slops, 28,1 12/. The small items are very numerous. 
The toM value of sugar imported was 30,373/. (tons 
2084); of tea, 3,125/. (lbs. 106,849); of coffee and 
cocoa, 191/. (lbs. 5,795); of wine, 19,077/. (gdils. 
161,410) ; and of rum, 37,469/. (galls. 335,134). 



Return of the principal Articles imported into N. S. 


Wales since 1828. 


Year. 


SplriU. 


Wines. 


Beer 
and 

Ale. 


Tea. 


Sugar. 


Coflfee. 


l| 




gallons. 


gallons. 


gaUons. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


1828». 


339978 


197360 


194750 


129404 


4412800 


15708 


710376 


1829... 


288198 


227987 


238418 


355236 


1987897 


6346 


586482 


183(^.. 


99459 


52671 


214956 


338825 


4746560 


8622 


413817 


1881... 


130976 


78751 


76067 


60S700 


8119648 


17380 


94268 


1882... 


873599 


161410 


244490 


106849 


4668578 


5795 


1841812 


1833... 


204089 


65975 


198193 


407624 


3778880 


55188 


307440 


1834... 


852721 


221057 


226756 


789945 


7446781 


23189 


3147159 


1835.„ 


601282 


288284 


874798 1272853 5402196 


200002 


388458 



(eonUuu^d} 



Digitized by CjOOQiC 



248 NEW 80VTH WALBS. 

Return of the princ^ Artidet imported, &e.~-eonUmud. 



Year. 


Tobacco, 


Cottons. 


Linens. 


SOkB. 


• 
1 


Soap and 
TaUowand 
Caudles. 




Ibe. 


yards. 


yards. 


yards. 


£. 


lbs. 


1828... 


384067 


659463 


351752 


31048 


20849 


/ 31 0738 
\ 43183 


1829... 


230404 


498212 


156103 


23940 


... 


/1 32270 
1161857 c 


1830... 


42471 


891444 


66166 


17725 


... 


/ 11296 
I 68419 


1831... 


/about! 
1165000/ 


781226 


76235 


7200 


... 


/234579 
\ 16501 c 


1882... 


84241 


120663 


126318 


28867 


... 


/ 291200 
1 9858 c 


1833... 


812419 


878625 


200694 


28365 


139500 


/ 246308 
\ 12978 c 
5470675 
1 14349 c 


1834... 


289828 


1447839 


283358 


38962 


305795 


1835... 


249851 


I 1642390 


140770 


88415 


313656* 





Exports of Timber from New South Wales. — [B. B.] 



Year. 


Cedar. 


Blue Gum 
and other 
Timber. 


Number of 
Trenails. 


Total 
Value. 




Super Feet 


Super. Feet. 




£. 


1828 


847805 


216547 


65837 


11428 


1829 


940486 


608647 


181817 


16293 


1830 


368830 


179403 


23959 


5218 


1831 


580393 


233653 


24316 


8401 


1832 


418930 


416857 


186831 


6132 


1833 


1086437 


147170 


328503 


13153 


1834 


899492 


30065 


212467 


7941 


1835 


907921 


145628 


178969 


10489 


1836 


I 1409467 


3778 


35094 


14385 



The quantities of principal articles exported since 
1828 *, were, according to the returns I have derived 
from the Plantation Office, London Custom-house, 
as follows : — 

> Exclusive of 18071 pairs of blankets, &c &c. 
' Intermediate years are omitted for the sake of space t—^ 
full details are to be found in the large edition. 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



EXPORTS. 



249 



Staple Articles exported from New South Wales, the produce 
of the Colony, its Fisheries, and the adjacent Island, for 
the years ending 5th January. 



Articles. 


1828. 


1830. 


1832. 


1834. 


The Produce of the 

Colony. 

Wood Iha 










216566 


1005332 


1401284 


1734203 


TT WFU, lUB* ••••••••• 

Cedar, feet 


603486 


940486 


580393 


1086437 


Blue Gum Wood.... 


138245 


608647 


302410 


147170 


Other Timber 


16050 


— 


— 




Trenails. ....••••.. 


68615 
1554 


181817 
8771 


24316 
14320 


328503 
12117 


Hides, number. .... 


Horns or bones .... 


4128 


8363 


V.£.273 


£.420 


Horses. . .......... 


771 


22 
218 


338 
196 


1339 


Coals, tons 


Cattle» horned 




88 


71 


298 


Lime, bushels 


3000 


9578 


37I8 





Flour & biscuits, lbs. 


• • 


135832 


tons, 222 


664 


Maize, bushels 


, , 


1815 


7280 


6347 


Butter, cwt 

Cheese, cwt........ 


•• 


i 
314 


} 1173 


1344 


Provisions, salt, cwt. . 


, , 


160 


3230 


10020 


Sheep, number 


, , 


244 


489 


249 


SoaD. cwt. 




226 


387 


783 


Cordage, cwt. 


, , 


4 


43 


523 


Bark, Mimosa, tons . 


, , 


58 


2 


— 


Shingles, No. 


.. 


.. 


10000 


107000 


South Sea Islands, 










Cocoa Nut Oil, gall.. 


11922 


tons, 51 


58 


,.^ 


Arrow Root, lbs 


26798 


11246 


5316 


_ 


Sandal Wood, feet . . 


60 


, , 





— 


Flax, lbs 


107154 


tons, 270 


762 


211 


Fisheries. 










Sperm Whale Oil,) 
gallons. . .... 1 


96757 


232092 
or 


^~ 


""" 




tons, 45 


1571 


3048 


Sea Elephants' ditto. 


12867 


nil. 


nil. 


— 


( 




11340 


~-. 


418 


Black Whale, ditto^ 


.. 


or 


, 




I 




tons, 45 


tons, 505 


— 


Seal Skins, No 


12473 


11362 


4424 


1890 


Bechle Mer, lbs 


3990 


3360 


3766 





Whalebone 


5715 


ton, 1 


28 


27 



Digitized 



by google 



250 NEW 80CTH W/ILBS. 

There are several other items of a less important 
natm-e, which it is' not necessary to particularize. 

The Colony possesses a goo(J deal of shipping, 
owned and belonging to the port of Sydney; and 
the quantity building is on the increase. 

The total number of vessels belonging t6 Sydney 
is 94, with a tonnage of 13,890 tons; the number 
engaged in the whaling being 40, and the tonnage 
9655. The shipping is the growth of a few years, 
and a comparison with that of our other colcHiies will 
show how large it is. 

The vessels built in Australia are found very ser- 
viceable, and the colonial youth * being fond of the 
sea, a fine maritime population is arising. An In- 
surance Company has been recently formed, and the 
following are the rates of insurance on vessels and 
merchandize, charged by the Australian Marine As- 
surance Company. 

Sperm fishery, for 12 months, 8 to 10 guineas per 
cent. ; ditto for a voyage, 8 to 14 per cent. ; Hobart 
Town, to or from, 1 per cent.; Launceston, to or 
from, IJ per cent.; New Zealand and South Sea 
Islands, 1 per cent, per month ; Manilla and China 
to, 2| per cent. ; ditto ditto from, 3 per cent. ; Ma- 
dras, Bombay, and Calcutta, to or from, 3 per cent., 
not including risk through Torres' Straits; Mauri- 
tius, to or from, 2 to 4 per cent., ditto ; Cape of 



' They are generally distinguished from the British horn 
by heing termed * currency* lads or lasses ; while the latter are 
denominated * sterling.* Whatever may have been the case 
formerly, currency is now quite on a par with sterling. 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



RATES OF INSURANCE. 251 

Good Hope, to or from, 2j per cent., ditto ; United 
Kingdom, to or from, 2^ to 3^ per cent., exclusive 
of war risk ; Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, 2| per cent., 
ditto. 



Digitized by VjOOQiC 



BOOK II. 



VAN DIEMEN'S ISLAND, OR TASMANIA. 



CHAPTER I. 

DISCOVERY OP ITS INSULARITY — LOCALITY AND AREA — POE- 
MATION OF THE SETTLEMENT — AND ITS EARLY HISTORY. 

For a long period, as stated in the preceding Book, 
this large and interesting island was thought to form 
a peninsula of the vast territory of New Holland, its 
insularity being ascertained so recently as 1798 by 
Mr. Surgeon Bass and Lieutenant Flinders. 

Locality and Arba. — ^Van Diemen's island is 
situate on the S. E. coast of New Holland, from 
which it is separated by Bass's Straits, between the 
parallels of 41.20. and 43.40. S., and the meridians 
of 144.40. and 148.20. E. It is of an irregular 
heart-shape : and its greatest extent from N. to S. 
is estimated at about 210 miles, and (from E. to W. 
150 miles (calculating the degrees of longitude in 
that parallel at the average of about 50 miles each), 
and covering an extent of surface of about 24,000 
square miles, or 15,000,000 of acres ; being nearly 
the size of Ireland. 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 




Digitized by VjOOQIC 



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EARLY HISTORY. 253 

Early History. — It cannot be expected that 
this colony should present many features of interest 
to the historian, although it ranks among the disco- 
veries of the seventeenth century, having been first 
visited by Tasman in 1642, in the course of an east- 
ward voyage from Mauritius ; but it was upwards 
of 120 years before the knowledge of its existence 
was followed by any event of the slightest im- 
portance to its annals. Captain Cook, as well as 
his companion Captain Fumeauz, in the course of 
their voyage of circumnavigation in 1773, and again 
in 1777, visited the shores of Van Diemen's Iiand 
without discovering its insularity. 

In 1803 it was formally taken possession of by 
the English ; a small detachment under the com- 
mand of Lieut. Bowen, having arrived from Sydney, 
with a view of forming a penal settlement for con- 
victs transported from that colony. Risdon or Rest- 
down, as it is sometimes called, on the eastern bank 
of the Derwent, a few miles up the river, was the 
spot selected for the settlement; but beyond this, 
little was effected at that time. 

Early in 1804, Lieutenant-Governor Collins, who 
had recently left England with a considerable expe- 
dition, having in view the formation of a settlement 
at Port Philip, on the southern coast of New Hol- 
land, altered his destination by reason of the insur- 
mountable difficulties which then appeared to attend 
the establishment of a colony at that place, and arrived 
in the river Derwent, when the island was formally 
taken possession of in the name of his Britannic Ma- 
jesty ; and after various surveys of the Derwent, the 



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254 VAN DIEMBN*8 ISLAND. 

present site of Hobart Town was decided upon for 
head-quarters ^ Lieutenant-Governor Collins was 
accompanied by several verj respectable gentlemen* 
to fill the various sitoations of his in&nt Govern- 
ment, and had about 400 prisoners under him, wilii 
about 50 marines. 

In the course of the same year» a settlement was 
farmed on the other side of the island, under liie 
command of Colonel Paterson, of the 102nd, who ar- 
rived from Sydney, and in the first instance, made 
choice of a spot beyond Ge(H*ge Town, calling it York 
Town, but which was afterwards abandoned. 

The colony being thus planted, continued to take 
root, although at times sufiering great hardships. 
Indeed, those who recollect them, and see what the 
place has since become, will be of opinion that few 
difficulties at the outset of colonisation are so for- 
midable as ought to deter adventurers from steadily 
pursuing their object. For the first three years, the 
inhabitants being wholly dependent upon foreign 
supplies for the most common articles of food, were 
occasionally reduced to great straits ; so much so, 
that we hear of eighteen-p^nce per pound having 
been given for kangaroo flesh, and that sea weed, or 
any other vegetable substance fit for food, was pur- 
chased at an equally high rate. 

After the island had been settled about three years, 
the first sheep and cattle were imported. Fresh ar- 
rivals of prisoners were constantly taking place 
from Sydney, and the colony continued to inorease, 

^ The name was bestowed in compliment to Lord Hobart, at 
that time Secretary for the Colonies. 
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BISTORT. 255 

although still preserving its original character of 
being a place of punishment for the convicted felons 
of New South Walea. 

In 1810, Lieutenant-Governor Collins died, and 
was succeeded, pro tempore, by the officer next in 
command. This occasioned three changes in ad- 
ministering the Govemm»[it, severally introducing 
as Commandants, Lieutenant Edward Lord, R.M. 
(since well known as a great landed proprietor). 
Captain Murray, and Lieutenant-Colonel Geib, 
both of the 73rd regiment. In 1813, lieutenant- 
Colonel Davey arrived as Lieutenant-Governor ; and 
it was about this time too, that the embryo im- 
portance and value of the ccdony began to be 
developed. Until this period, all communication 
between Vai^ Diemen's Land and other places, 
excepting England and New South Wales, had been 
interdicted by certain penalties upon merchant 
vessels that might attempt to enter the ports ; but 
these were now done away with, and the colony 
placed precisely on the same footing with respect to 
commerce, as New South Wales. The consequence 
of this, and of other measures that were adopted 
about the same time, soon became obvious. The 
colony began to wear the appearance of an abode of 
Englishmen; and although emigrants from the 
mother country had not yet directed their steps 
hither, what with the officers of different regiments 
who remained in the colony — ^with the number of 
individuals who had been brought here by Govern- 
ment upon the evacuation of Norfolk Island, with 
occasional arrivals from New South Wales — and the 



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256 VAN dibmbn's island. 

Crown prisoners who had become free either by 
servitude or indulgence> the population of the place 
increased rapidly. Land was also more and more 
cultivated, houses were erected, farms enclosed; 
every thing in short assumed an improving aspect. 

Colonel Davey's administration lasted four years 
and a few days, bringing down the history of* the 
colony to 1817. In many respects, he appears to 
have been a popular and useful Governor, and cer- 
tainly, during the time he held the reins of Govern- 
ment, the advances made in building, tillage. &c. 
were considerable. Upon his retirement in 1817, he 
was succeeded by Colonel Sorell, the third Lieutenant- 
Governor of the island, the energies of whose active 
mind were directed to the improvement of the in- 
ternal condition of the colony ; and one of his first 
and most important public measures was, the for- 
mation of a road between Hobart Town and Laun- 
ceston. 

During the first year of his administration, a cen- 
sus was taken of all the live stock in the colony, the 
land under cultivation, and every other particular 
calculated to illustrate its progress. 

Next to the formation of roads. Colonel Sorell's 
attention was directed to the establishment of 
schools, the erection of bridges, and other measures 
of a similar nature ; extending, so far as his limited 
powers enabled him, the utmost countenance and 
support to enterprising individuals of all descrip- 
tions, without regard to rank, station or condition. 

About the year 1821, the tide of emigration set in 
from England towards Tasmania; and the natural 



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HISTORY. 257 

consequence of the capital introduced, was an exten- 
sion of the colony within itself, in every shape. 
Trade began to assume regularity; distilleries and 
breweries were erected ; the Van Diemen's Iiand 
Bank was established; St. David's Church at Ho- 
bart Town completed and opened ; and many other 
steps taken, equally indicative of the progress the 
place was making. Still it laboured under the dis- 
advantage of having no regular civil or criminal 
court ; suitors in the one, above 50/. and all prose- 
cutors in the other, having to wait the uncertain ar- 
rival of the Judges from New South Wales, to hold 
an occasional sessions, or else they were compelled 
to sustain all the inconvenience and expense of re- 
pairing to Sydney. 

In 1821, when the census was taken, the number 
of inhabitants was found to be 7185 ; acres in cul- 
tivation, 14,940; sheep, 170,000; cattle, 35,000; 
horses, 350. > 

In 1825, Van Diemen's Land was declared by the 
King in Council, independent of the colony of New 
South Wales, the chief authority being vested in. a 
Lieut. -Governor and Council ^ : civil and criminal 
courts of law, with a Chief Justice presiding, were 
established in the island, instead of compelling the 
settlers as heretofore to proceed to Sydney ; and the 
affairs of the colony were in future to be regulated 
as a settlement dependent solely on the mother 
country. Prosperity followed this measure, although 

' By the 9th Geo. IV., c. 83, the number of the members of 
the Legislative Council was increased to fifteen. 
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256 VAN dijbmbn's island. 

for some years the colonists were much harassed by 
tiie bushrangers, or run-away convicts, and also by 
the natives; but within the last few years, botb 
tiiese evils have been removed, and full scope given 
to the energy and intelligence of the inhabitants, 
whose progress in the arts and comforts of civilized 
life, will be found detailed in subsequent chapters. 



CHAPTER II. 

PHYSICAL ASPECT — TERRITORIAL DIVISIONS — CULTIVATION, 
&C. 

The aspect of Van Diemen's island is certainly a 
delightM mixture of the wild and the beautiful. I 
first saw the land to the southward, off the Eddy- 
stone and Mewstone rocks, and the shore appeared 
extremely wild and rugged ; but on entering D'Entre- 
casteaux's channel, the view was exceedingly ro- 
mantic — the vessjel sailing close under lofty cliffs 
fringed with forests and verdure to the water's edge, 
while on reaching the basin of the magnificent 
river Derwent, near Hobart Town, the scenery was 
changed into a softer and sweeter landscape. 

The general face of the interior is very diversified, 
but decidedly mountainous, not however in ranges, 
but rather in isolated peaks, varied by lofty table 
land, aud extensive fertile valleys or plains. To a 
Briton, however, all this variety is gratifying, as it 
tends every moment to remind him of his own much 
loved land ; there are many parts of Van Diemen's 



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PHYSICAL A8PSCT. 259 

island which required no efifort of imagination to 
make me fancy myself at hcnne, instead of at the 
most distant extremity of the earth. 

Commencing with the country on the S. nothing 
can he more rude or hold than the general appear- 
ance of the landscape; hills rising upon hills, all 
thickly covered with trees, save here and there a 
majestic and towering rocky eminence, f(»ining 
nearly, if not altogether, the only prospect. It 
seems like one impervious forest crowned hy the 
heavens. Proceeding, however, more inwards, the 
country loses much of its stem and forhidding 
aspect, and the eye of the traveller is greeted with 
many fine open spots, very lightly timbered, and ex^ 
tending for miles ; still, however, the bac^ ground 
almost uniformly consists of some high mountains. 
After travelling about half way between Hobart 
Town and Launceston, there are beautiful plains, in- 
tersected by streams, and terminated only by the 
horizon ; and as the journey towards the N. coast is 
pursued, every diversity of hill and dale, woodland 
and plain, forest and tillage, that can be desired, as 
forming the x>erfection of rural landscape, enlivens 
the scene. ITie western parts of the island have as 
yet been imperfectiy explored ; but they are repre- 
sented as bold and mountainous, although possess- 
ing well watered and fertile spots. Much of the 
land in this direction, as well as that towards the 
eastern coast, lies high, and consequentiy is more 
exposed in winter, tiian the districts which are in- 
habited. 

RiVBKs ANn Bays. — Around the coast are nnrne'' 

82 



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260 VAN dibmbn's island. 

rous bays and harbours, that afford secure anchorage. 
The entrance from the ocean to the Derwent, 
on the banks of which Hobart Town is built, 
presents two lines of continuous bays or anchorage, 
of nnrivalled excellence; the one most commonly 
used leads through Storm Bay, and the other throiigh 
D'£ntrecasteaux*s channel, which is one string of 
little bays or anchorages for nearly 40 miles. The 
passage up the Derwent, presents to the eye one of 
the most beautiful and interesting scenes imaginable ; 
the river being skirted on each of its banks with 
small settlements or farms, in the highest state of 
cultivation. It is a noble and magnificent stream, 
varying in width from its entrance up to Hobart 
Town from six to twelve miles, having every where 
deep water, without rocks or ^and banks, and navi- 
gable at all seasons, even by a stranger, with the 
most pefect ease and safety. The mouth of the 
Derwent is formed on the right by Brun6 island and 
D'Entrecasteaux's channel, and on the left by Iron 
Pot Island and the South Arm ; the latter present- 
ing, for an extent of six miles, a river frontage, of 
a highly luxuriant appearance, and then abruptly 
terminating in the centre of the Derwent, where the 
river, uniting with the waters of Double Bay, extends 
its width to nearly twelve miles. The South Arm 
is a peninsida : and is considered by many as one of 
the most valuable tracts in the colony. Pursuing 
the eastern coast of the island, we have Oyster Bay 
and Great Swan Port ; on the N. are Port Dalrym- 
pie or the mouth of the Tamar, Port Sordl, and 
Circular Head ; the latter of which belongs to the 



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RIYBRS AND BATS. 261 

Van Diemen's Land Company. Westward, are 
Macquarie Harbour and Port Davey. Besides these 
are many of smaller note, capable of affording secure 
shelter to craft of light burthen. The rivers of chief 
importance are the Derwent, the Huon, and th^ 
Tamar, all of which are navigable. The Derwent 
takes its rise in a lake to the westward, and flows 
with tolerable rapidity, receiving many tributary 
streams on its way, until it reaches New Norfolk, 
where it is about as wide as the Thames at Batter- 
sea, whence it pursues its course towards the ocean, 
widening as it goes, and passing a line of scenery on 
each bank of the most beautiful description. The 
water continues fresh for about six miles below 
New Norfolk. 

The Huon is nearly of equal magnitude with the 
Derwent, and runs westerly until it falls into the 
sea, in one of its arms or creeks, not many miles 
from Hobart Town. Its navigable properties how- 
ever, are of little value to the colony, because 
the land upon its banks is so heavily timbered, that 
it can be applied neither to cultivation nor pasturage. 
Occasionally, vessek of considerable burthen resort 
thither, for the purpose of taking in timber for dead 
weight. 

The Tamar, formed by two other rivers (the North 
and South Esk), may be said to be navigable for 
its whole course, although great skill and manage- 
ment are required on the part of the pilot, to take 
up or down large vessels with safety, on account of 
a bar, and other intricacies of navigation. Among 
the second class rivers or streams that water fine 



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262 TAN dismen's island. 

districts, and are extremely useful for all purposes 
except navigation, may be enumerated the Shannon, 
the Clyde, and the Jordan, all which fall into the 
Derwent, either singly, or, having previously united, 
above New Norfolk; the Coal River, which fells 
into the sea near Richmond; and the two Esks, 
which join and form the Tamar at Launceston, as 
before mentioned. In the third class may be placed 
a long list which have an abundant supply of water 
all the year round, for mills, cattle, and domestic 
use, but whidi scarcely deserve to be enumerated 
by name. I may advert, however, to the Thames, 
(or Lachlan) at New Norfolk; the Plenty, the 
Styx, Jones's River, and Russell's Falls, which are 
also tributaries of the Derwent ; the Macquarie and 
Elizabeth Rivers, more in the interior, and which 
afterwards serve to augment the Esk ; Blackman's 
River, also in the heart of the colony. Further 
north, there are the Lake River, passing through 
Norfolk Plains, the Western River, the Isis, and 
several others. More to the westward are the Mer- 
sey, the Meander, the Forth, the Iris, the Leven, 
the ^laxm, the Cam, the In^is, and many others all 
over the colony, of a similar description. 

Around the coast of the island, numerous streams 
fell into the ocean, having previously enriched the 
districts through which they have passed, without 
however possessing any particular claim to be 
noticed ; others again, are to be found in situations, 
where the hand of man has yet made little progress 
in the way of cultivation. Among tiiose of the first 
class are the Carlton, Prosser's River, Great Swan 



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MOUNTAINS. 26S 

Port River, Piper's River, &c. ; also, the Nortii 
West Bay River, a few miles from Hobart Town, 

Van Diemen's Land has several lakes, and some 
of them of considerable extent. They are generally 
to be met with in the heart of the island, frequently 
in high regions, and abound with water-fowl of all 
descriptions. Many of the rivers of the colony 
such as the Shannon, the Clyde, the Jordan, and the 
Lake River, take their rise in lakes. 

Mountains. — Of these, there are several of great 
elevation. Mount Wellington, (or as it is some- 
times called the Table Mountain, from its resem- 
.^>)ance to that at the Cape), rises 4000 feet above 
the level of the sea, immediately to the westward of 
Hobart Town. Its bold and rugged sides, with 
occasional spots of sombre fdiage, have an im- 
posing, and even magnificent appearance ; and its 
top or surface, which is flat, and of considerable 
extent, seems like the landing place, as it were, of j« 
long chain of progressive steps or elevations, those 
nearest the level of the sea being at a remote dis- 
tance. It amply repays the researches of the bota- 
nist and the mineralogist; and being only a few 
miles distant from Hobart Town, it has frequent 
visitors in summer, particularly as its ascent may 
be accomplished without difficulty. During eight 
months of the year, its summit is covered with 
snow ; but so pure and clear is the atmosphere, that 
it is very sddom indeed that clouds obscure even its 
highest points. Several small streams spring from 
it, and join the Derwent. 

The southern mountains, near Fort Davy, are 



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264 TAN dibmen's island. 

even higher than Mount Wellington, and daring a 
great part of the year are covered with snow. They 
form a long tier, which stretches inwards for several 
miles, and in some places rises 6000 feet above the 
sea. The hilly character of the country on the 
southern side of the island, suffers little interruption ; 
the general face of the island being a never ending 
succession of hill and dale, so that the traveUer no 
sooner arrives at the bottom of one hiU, than he has 
to ascend another, often three or four times in the 
space of one mile, while at other times the land 
swells up into greater heights, reaching along seve- 
ral miles of ascent. The level parts, marshes, or 
plains, as they are called in the colony, that give 
reUef to this fatiguing surface, are comparatively 
few. Among the first of these, beginning at the 
S. and on the opposite side of the Derwent, to the 
E. of Hobart Town, may be mentioned the rich and 
highly cultivated country round Pittwater — ^the as 
yet little cultivated tracts of Brushy and Prosser's 
Plains, towards Oyster Bay — the level tract around 
the spot where the town of Brighton is now build- 
ing, originally called Stony Plains, and extending 
with little interruption to the bottom of Constitution 
Hill, a distance of about six miles in length, and 
from two to three in width — the very fertile and 
valuable farms at the Green Ponds and Cross 
Marsh : and further to the W. on the banks of the 
Derwent and River Ouse,- the beautiful tract of 
country called Sorell Plains; and higher up, the 
extensive district of the Clyde — St. Patrick's Plains 
on the banks of the Shannon, and other extensive 
7 



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. PHTSXCAL ASPECT. 265 

tracts of level country round the lakes ; on the E. 
of the road to Lauriceston, York, Salt Pan, St. 
Paid's, and Break o* Day Plains — the fine country 
round Ross, and along the banks of the Macquarie 
and Elizabeth Rivers; and, lastly, the noble tract 
of rich land on the banks of the South Esk, the Lake 
River, Norfolk Plains, as far as the eye can reach, 
bounded on the E. by the picturesque heights of 
Benlomond, and on the W. by the no less romantic 
range of the Western Mountains, and extending to 
the N. as far as Launceston, forming a tract of near 
40 miles in width, already in a great measure 
covered with valuable and extensive farms, many of 
them in a high state of cultivation. 

The other principal mountains in the colony are 
— Benlomond, distant about 100 miles from Hobart 
Town, and rising 4900 feet; the Table Mountain 
near Jericho, 3800 feet; Peak of TeneriflFe, or 
Wylde's Craig, 4500; Quamby's BluflF, 3500; 
Mount Field, 3000 ; St. Paul's Dome, 2500 ; and 
several from one to two thousand feet in elevation. 

Among the capes or headlands, are South West 
Cape, which is generally the first point of land seen 
on the approach to the island from the westward ; 
South Cape, which juts some considerable distance 
into the ocean, and is about 30 miles S.S.E. of 
South West Cape ; Tasman's Head, still more east- 
ward, and commanding the immediate entrance of 
the Derwent; Cape Pillar, a point of land on the 
south-eastern comer of the island, and which has to 
be doubled by vessels to and from Sydney ; Cape 
Portland, on its N.E. extremity, and Cape Grim on 



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266 VAN dibmen's island. 

its N.W. The jnincipal island on the south shore 
of the colony, is Bron^ Island, a tract of some con- 
siderable extent, having Storm Bay on its E. and 
D'Entrecasteanx on its W., the ocean on its S., and 
the river Derwent on its N., where the two entrances 
to that river join, and form one stream towards Ho- 
bart Town. There are besicbs several small islands 
in the bays or inlets around the coast, particularly 
in Bass's Straits, but few of them require especial 
notice *. 

In order to exhibit the features of the country, it 
will be expedient to follow the plan I have hereto- 
fore pursued of detailing its territorial divisions. 

Divisions, — Originally Van Diemen's Land was 
divided into two counties only, Buckinghamshire 
and Cornwall. Indeed these continue to be its 
only counties, although in 1826 it was subdivided 
into several police districts; at which time, too, 
orders were received from the home government for 
its being formed into counties, hundreds, and pa- 
rishes, in the same manner as England. These 
police districts are as follow : — 

1. — Hohart Toum, bounded on the E. by the 
Rivor D^went, including Brun^ Island, on the S. 
and W. by the River Huon, on the N. by New Nor- 
folk and Richmond districts. It comprises an area 
of about 400 square miles, or 250,000 acres, of 
which not more than about 2000 have as yet been 

^ Betsey Island, at the mouth of the Derwent, has been 
granted to an individual for the purpose of forming a large 
rabbit warren, with the view of creating an exportable article 
of the skins of that animal. 



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POLICE DISTRICTS. 267 

cultivated. Its chief settlement is Hobart Town, 
the capital of the colony. 

2. — Richmond, bounded on the S. and E. by the 
sea, on the N. by Oatlands, and on the W. by New 
Norfolk and the entrance to the Derwent. Its towns 
are Richmond, Sordl, and Brighton ; besides which 
it has several large agricultural settlements, such as 
Bagdad, Clarence Plains, the Tea-tree Brush, &c. 
It contains about 1050 square miles, or 672,000 
acres, of which about 17,000 are under culti- 
vation. 

3. — New Norfolk is bounded on three sides by the 
Hobart Town, Clyde, and Richmond districts, and 
on the W. and S. W. by crown lands not yet set- 
tled. Its towns are Elizabeth Town, or, as it is 
commonly called. New Norfolk, and Hamilton. It 
contains about 1 500 square miles, or 960,000 acres, 
but a great portion of them consists of barren rocky 
hills, and not more than about 4200 have yet been 
brought under cultivation. 

4. — The Clyde is bounded on the W. by unlo- 
cated crown lands, and on the other three sides by 
Norfolk Plains, Campbell Town, and Oatlands dis- 
tricts : its only town is Bothwell. This district com- 
prises 1700 square miles, or 1,088,000 acres; but 
only a small proportion has been disposed of to set* 
tiers, and not more than about 3200 have been 
cultivated. 

5. — Oatlands, bounded on the S. by Richmond, 
E. by Oyster Bay, W. by the Clyde district, and N. 
by Campbell Town. It contains 900 square miles, 
or about 576,000 acres. Oatlands and Jericho are 



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268 TAN dibmbn's island. 

its towns. There about 3100 acres in this district 
that have been cultivated. 

6. — Campbell Town, bounded on the S. by Oat- 
lands, E. by unlocated crown lands, extending to the 
sea, W. by the Clyde and Norfolk Plains, and N. by 
Launceston district. It contains about 1200 square 
miles. Its towns are Campbell Town, Ross, Lincoln, 
and Fingal, but none of them has as yet attained 
any great importance. The country round Campbell 
Town is rich and fertile, well watered, and abound- 
ing with excellent pasturage, but its distance from 
sea-ports is unfavourable to it ; and although a con- 
derable portion of the land has been allotted to settlers 
for some years, not more than 6400 acres have been 
cultivated. 

7. — Norfolk Plains, bounded on the S. by the 
Clyde, E. by Campbell Town and Launceston dis- 
tricts, W. by the territories of the Van Diemen's 
Land company, and N. by Bass's Straits. This dis- 
trict is of great extent, comprising 2250 square 
miles, or rather more than 1 ,500,000 acres ; but a 
very large proportion of this is rugged, inaccessible 
land, not likely ever to be rendered serviceable to 
man. Latour and Westbury are the towns, or rather 
•townships, of this district. About 6,200 acres are 
at present under cultivation. 

8. — Launceston, bounded on the S. by Campbell 
Town, on the W. by Norfolk Plains districts, and on 
the N. and E. by the ocean. Launceston, the second 
town in the colony, is its principal place; besides 
which it has Perth and George Town. It is an ex- 
tensive district, covering 3800 square miles, or 



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FOLICB DISTRICTS. 269 

about 2,500,000 acres ; but not more than between 
7 and 8,000 of these have been cultivated. 

9. — Oyster Bay is bounded on the S. by Rich- 
mond, W. and N. by Oatlands and Campbell Town 
districts, and E. by the ocean. It does not yet pos* 
sess any town. It is one of the smallest districts in 
the colony, containing about 900 square miles only, 
or about 576,000 acres. About 1700 of these are 
at present under cultivation. 

These are all the police districts ; but among the 
divisions of the island may be further enumerated : 

1st. — ^The penal settlement of Macquarie Island 
and Port Arthur, upon Tasman's peninsula. 

2dly. — Numerous islands in the Straits of Bass, 
that separate Van Diemen's Island from Australia, 
and Maria Island, formerly a penal settlement, but 
lately dismembered, and now occupied by a private 
individual, at an annual rent paid to Government. 

3dly. — ^The territories of the Van Diemen's Land 
Company, comprehending nearly half a million of 
acres on the N. W. comer of the island, bounded on 
two sides by the sea, on the others by crown lands, 
and the settled districts of the Norfolk Plains. 

The Hohart Town district, though nearly the 
smallest in extent, is the most important in the 
colony. It comprises an area, including Brun^ 
Island, of about 400 square miles, or 25,000 acres ; 
round more than three sides of which, independent 
of Brun^, it enjoys the advantage of water carriage, 
affording an extent of coast, with convenient access 
and anchorage for vessels of any burden, for more 
than 150 miles, following the course of the Derwent, 



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270 VAN DIBMSN's ISIiAND. 

throngH all its ^findings, inlets, and beautiful bays, 
from the Black Snake to the mouth of the Huon, 
and thence a considerable way up that river. 

Tliroughout the whole extent there is scarcely one 
level part, the surface of the district being an un* 
ceasing succession of hill and dale ; and those farms 
which have been formed, many of them now in a 
high state of cultivation, have been cleared and 
brought under the plough, at a considerable expense. 
Even round the beautiful village of New Town, with 
its neat villas, smiling and fertile gardens, regular 
and productive corn-fields, and rich tracks of pas- 
ture from Ekiglish grasses, if the original cost of 
bringing it to its present state were calcxdated, it 
would more than double the amount which even the 
best of the farms would now fetch at a sale. Below 
Hobart Town also, as far as Brown's River, there 
are many fine though moderately-sized farms. 

The total number of acres in this district actually 
under the plough and spade, and bearing orops, did 
not much exceed, in 1830 *, 1600 acres. The crops 
which they yielded were in the following propcw- 
tions: — Wheat, 700 acres; barley, 125 do.; oats, 
100 do. ; peas, 50 do. ; beans, 5 do. ; potatoes, 300 
do. ; turnips, 70 do. ; English grasses, iOO do. : 
gardens, 50 do. 

The value of agricultural produce in the Hobart 
Town district, during the year 1830, was as follows : 

^ The statistics of each district were compiled in 1830 by 
Dr. Ross, to whose excellent almanac I am indebted for much 
vahiabie information. I regret that no similar returns can be 
obtaiaed of a later date. 

11 



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HOBART TOWN DISTRICT. 271 

—10,500 bushels of wheat, at 7*. 6d., 3937/.; 
2500 do. of barley, at 5*., 625/. ; 2500 do. of oats, 
at 5s. 6(/., 676/. ; 1000 do. of peas, at 10«., 500/. ; 
1050 tons of potatoes, at 120^., 6300/.; 430 do. 
of turnips, at 40^., 980/. ; 200 acres of English 
grass, at 200^., 2000/.; 50 do. of gardens, at 25/., 
1250/.; total produce, 16,329/. To this must be 
added the value of native grass consumed by the 
stock on the hills round the various feurms, and 
the fire-wood brought in carts or boats to Ho- 
bart Town, and sold to the inhabitants. Althou^ 
the natural pasturage throughout the district is not 
very abundant, nor of a very luxuriant kind, yet it is 
so sweet, especially in spring, and so much relished 
by the stock, as to be preferred to any other ; and 
cattle and horses may be seen grazing on the com- 
paratively thin and dry grass of the hilb, in prefer- 
ence to a fine field of clover and rye-g^rass, contigu- 
ous and open to their use. This natural produce, 
then, may fairly be estimated to be worth, cdlec- 
tively, to the farmers in the district, 2000/. annually. 
As to the fire- wood, if we take the consuming popu- 
lation of Hobart Town at 5500, including the mili- 
tary, and allow a cart-load a- week, at the average 
value of 6s., to a family of ten persons, we shall 
have a weekly consumption of 550 cart-loads, value 
165/., or 8580/. a year. 

The number of live stock in this district consisted, 
in the beginning of 1§31, of 400 horses, 2000 
homed cattle, 1200 sheep, and 250 goats. During 
the last four or ^ye years, the breed of horses has 
been very much improved by ^e introduction of 



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272 VAN dibmbn's island. 

valuable pedigrees from England. The value of live 
stock in the district was, therefore, in 1831 — 400 
horses, at 40/. each, 16,000/. ; 2000 cattle at 50s. 
each, 5000/.; 1200 sheep, at 10^. each, 600/. 

The average size of the farms in this district does 
not exceed 50 acres each ; and though many of them 
were originally of a thin soil, or very heavily en- 
cumbered with trees, they have been so cleared and 
cultivated by manual labour, and enriched by ma- 
nure brought from Hobart Town, that, generally 
speaking, they are now productive and fertile. At 
the average value at which several have been sold or 
let within the last two or three years, the value of 
the land in cultivation, including buildings, agricul- 
tural implements, gardens, &c., may be reasonably 
taken at 25/. an acre, giving for the whole 1600 
acres a sum total of 40,000/. The rental derived 
from this, on the average, is 5000/. ; that is, allow- 
ing about eight years* purchase of the property, or 
an interest for money invested of 12| per cent. 
The total value of agricultural property within the 
district is then as follows : — land, 40,000/. ; live 
stock, 21,600/.; annual produce, 26,909/. Total, 
88,569/.' 

The total number of inhabitants resident upon 
this extent, exclusive of Hobart Town, did not ex- 
ceed, in the year 1830, 800 sods, of whom 580 were 

> I give these statistical miniitis of each district to demon- 
strate to the people of England, that our penal settlements in 
the Southern hemisphere are not the barren and desolate ter- 
ritories they have been described to be. 



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HOBART TOWN. 273 

free persons, and the remaining 220 convicts sent 
out from England, in the following proportions : — 
male adults, free, 300 ; do. under age, 150; female 
adults, free, 90 ; do. under age, 40 ; male prisoners, 
180; female do. 40. Total, 800. 

Before proceeding to notice the other districts, we 
may glance at the principal towns and settlements. 
Hobart Town, the capital of the island, and the seat 
of government, is an extensive, well laid out, and 
neatly built town on the River Derwent, about 20 
mile» from its mouth; although the place where 
Hobart Town stands might perhaps with more pro- 
priety be termed an arm or creek of the sea, it 
being of considerable width, the water salt, and 
possessing scarcely any characteristics of a river 
until the town is passed. The cove, or bay, upon 
the banks of which Hobart Town is built, affords 
one of the best and most secure anchorages in the 
world, for any number of vessels, and of any 
burthen. 

An amphitheatre of gently rising hills, beautifrdly 
clothed with trees, and having Mount Wellington as 
the highest, defends it from the westerly winds, and 
bounds the horizon on that quarter ; while the mag- 
nificent estuary of the Derwent (with its boats and 
shipping, and picturesque points of land along its 
winding banks, forming beautiful bays and lakes), 
skirts it on the E. 

The town itself stands upon a gently rising ground, 
and covers rather more than one square mile. Its 
streets are wide and long, intersecting each other at 
right angles ; and those that have been levelled and 



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274 VAN dibmbn's isi^nd. 

macadamized S of which there are several, present 
an imposmg appearance^ owing to the number of 
large and handsome shops and houses^ a circum- 
stance little to be expected, considering that, only a 
few years ago, the site of Hobart Town was a mere 
scrub or forest. Nearly through the centre of the 
town runs a rivulet, which, besides turning timber 
and corn-mills, affords the inhabitants at certain sea- 
sons a good supply of water. The town, however, 
is chiefly watered by means of pipes, which convey 
water to the houses of many of the inhabitants, as 
well; as to several puUic pumps in various parts of 
the. streets. The number of houses in the different 
streets was estimated, 1st January, 1835, as follows : 
Macquarie Street^ 80 ; Davey Street, 60 ; Elizabeth 
Street, 140 ; Liverpool Street, 148 ; Campbell Street, 
63; Argylc Street, 100; Murray Street 91 ; Har- 
ringtcm Street, 50 ; Barrack Street, 31 ; Molle 
Street, 25 ; Antil Street, 2 ; Collins, Street, 54 ; 
Goulboum Street, 79; Bathurst Street, 110; Mel- 
ville Street, 98 ; Brisbane Street, 65 ; St. Patrick's 
Street, 32 ; Warwick Street, 31 ; King Street, 2 ; 
Veteran Row» 20 ; High Street, 4. Total number of 
houses, 1 281 . These houses yield a rental of from 
12 to 100/., and some few, of large dimensions and 
in favourable situations, as high as 150/, to 200/. a 
year. The average of the rental of the whole may, 
on a moderate estimate, be taken at 50/. each, or 
72,000/. a year, with an aggregate value of 500,000/. 

^ When I was at Hobart Town, in 1825, the streets were 
knee-deep in mud. I am glad to learn they have since been 
paved or macadamized. 



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HOBART TOWN. 275 

Some spots of land without town are worth from 
2000/. to 3000/. per annam ; and land contignons 
to the town, which was not worth 5/. an acre five 
years ago, is now worth 50/. 

The pnhlic buildings are numerous, and some 
of them commodious and handsome. Among these 
may be reckoned the Church, which is a large, re- 
gular, and (with the exception of the steeple) well 
built brick edifice, having its interior fitted up with 
an organ, a handsome pulpit and desk, made of the 
pencil cedar tree of the colony, and aisles and pews, 
in the same manner as the well*finished churdies of 
the English metropolis. Next, perhaps, in size and 
importance, comes the Court-house, which is of 
stone, and contains various apartments, or divisions, 
adapted for the civil and criminal business of the 
colony. 

The Government-house, where the lieutenant- 
Govemor resides, is a large rambling pile of build- 
ings, originally planned upon an inconsiderable scale, 
but much enlarged and improved within the last few 
years. It stands well, in the midst of tastefuUy laid 
out shrubberies, which slope gradually towards the 
water's edge, but possesses nothing, either in its 
architecture or fitting up, that merits any particular 
notice. The military barracks have a fine command- 
ing situation, upon a piece of elevated ground on the 
S.W. part of the town. The prisoners' barracks 
stand in the opposite quarter, and form an extensive 
commodious range of brick buildings, well secured* 
by a high wall. 

T 2 



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276 VAN dibmen's island. 

The Colonial Hospital is capable of accommodat- 
ing a considerable number of patients. The Police 
Office is a plain substantial edifice. The female 
House of Correction, or the Factory, as it is com« 
monly called, is situate in a westerly direction, and 
stands close to the stream by which the town is wa- 
tered. The construction of this building, which is 
quite new, is admirably suited for the purposes of 
classification and employment, — ^two objects which 
deservedly occupy the attention of the advocates for 
confinement of the present day ; although, how far 
confinement at all answers any good end with the 
many, who are for months and months shut up 
within the walls of this house of correction, is alto- 
gether another consideration, the discussion of which 
is foreign to our present subject. 

The male and female Orphan Schools are each of 
them temporary buildings only, until a commodious 
and handsome edifice, now in progress, about two 
miles from the town, is completed. The commissa- 
riat stores are a range of stuccoed buildings, opposite 
the treasury and commissariat, which both occupy 
the same building, close to the water's edge, at the 
bottom of Macquarie Street. Strength and security, 
not elegance, mark this edifice. 

The Gaol, in respect to its insecurity, its incon- 
venience, and its thorough inaptitude for its pur- 
poses, is a disgrace to the town. 

Besides the Church, there are several places of 
public worship, such as the Scotch church, the 
Wesley an and Independent chapels, and the Roman 



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HOB ART TOWN. 277 

Catholic chapel. The three former are convenient 
substantial edifices, and sufficiently large to accom^- 
modate numerous congregations. 

The Old Bank was once admired as a specimen of 
the architecture of Van Diemen's Land, but it is now 
surpassed by many other buildings. 

In the number of private buildings which embel- 
lish the town may be classed the Commercial and 
Derwent banks in Macquarie Street; some hand- 
some stone buildings, near Wellington Bridge, the 
residence of the Chief Justice, the Surveyor- General, 
&c. &c. There are many lofty, well-built stone 
warehouses on the wharf ; and several excellent inns 
and other houses of entertainment, particularly the 
Derwent Hotel, the Waterloo Tavern, the Macquarie 
Hotel, the Ship, the Dallas Arms, the Commercial 
Tavern, and many other establishments of a similar 
description. A club-house has also been formed on 
the London principle. 

It has three public banks ; an excellent well-ar- 
ranged circulating library; a theatre; a book so- 
ciety, supported by private subscription; a public 
school for poor children, which is maintained at the 
expense of government ; three Sunday schools, esta- 
blished by the Wesleyans and Presbyterians ; several 
private seminaries of great respectability, for the 
youth of both sexes, and three printing establish- 
ments. In the list of its manufactories may be enu- 
merated a distillery, breweries, tanneries, ship and 
boat building yards, two timber mills, flour mills 
worked by steam and water, and two or three esta- 
blishments where excellent soap and candles are 



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278 VAN dismbn's island. 

made. Several stage-coaches leave Hobart Town 
daily for Richmond, New Norfolk, &c., and a steam- 
boat plies every two hours between Hobart Town 
and Kangaroo Point, across the Derwent river and 
harbour. 

The total number of the mhabitants, induding 
those of its immediate suburbs, and ihe prisoners 
and military, is about 13,000. 

TTie suburbs of Hobart Town have lately under- 
gone considerable improvement; handsome villas 
and enclosures occupying ground in every direction, 
which in some places would have been supposed to 
bid defiance to the hand of art. A noble wharf has 
been constructed, so as to allow vessels of tiie largest 
burthen to lade or unlade close alongside the shore, 
without the assistance of boats. 

Next in rank and commercial importance is 
Launceston, on the N. side of the island, distant, by 
a good road, 121 miles from Hobart Town. It is 
the richest land in the island, backed by gently ris- 
ing hills, at the confluence of the N. and S. Esk 
Rivers, which there form the Tamar, flowing about 
45 miles, when it disembogues into the ocean at 
Bass's Straits. The town is thriving greatly, owing 
to its being the maritime key of a large and fertile 
country, and affordmg sufficient water for vessels 
upwards of 400 tons burthen, to load, as in Sydney, 
alQugside the wharfs. There are about 4000 inha- 
bitknts in Launceston ; many of them spirited mer- 
chants and industrious traders. The town is uncter 
the control of a Civil Commandant, acting under 
orders from Hobart Town: it contains an degaat 



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NBW NORFOLK DISTRICT. 279 

and spacious church, govenunent house, military 
barracks, gaol, court house, puhHc school, hank, 
post-office, two newspaper establishments, &c.— * 
Launceston is running a race of prosperity with 
Hobart Town, and the formation of colonies on the 
southern and western shores of Australia will mate- 
rially aid its progress. 

Hobart Town district, from the quality of its soil, 
is perhaps more barren of settlements of this nature 
than any other ; but in some instances the contiguity 
to head-quarters has compensated what has been 
denied by nature. On the left bank of the Derwent^ 
on approaching the town from the sea, is a long 
straggling settlement, called Sandy Bay, where 
there are several cottages and neat residences, with 
well-cultivated farms and gardens. At a distance 
of three miles from the town is New Town, a very 
beautiful village, where many gentlemen of great 
rei^ectability reside. The houses are generally lai^ 
and well finished ; and the neatly inclosed fields and 
paddocks every where around, the highly cultivated 
gardens and orchards with which it abounds, and 
the handsome well kept shrubberies attached to some 
of the dwellings, give it quite an English appear- 
ance. 

2. New Norfolk District, about four times the 
size of that of Hobart Town, has a medium extent 
of about 50 miles from E. to W., and about 30 N. 
to S., containing about 1500 square miles, or 
960,000 acres. The whole district is divided by 
nature into two parts, the one being an extensive vale 
^ng both banks of the Derwent, and the otha: the 



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280 VAN dibmsn's island. 

fertile tract including the Black Brash, along the W. 
side of the Jordan. A chain of snowy mountains 
extends from Mount Wellington in a semicircular, 
north-westerly direction, through the whole of the 
district to the peak of Teneriffe. From these moun- 
tains numerous streams fall into the Derwent on the 
one side, and into the Huon on the other. Although 
this lofty tract is beyond the reach of cultivation, it 
abounds with timber of the most magnificent kind. 
A secondary range of mountains, called the Abys- 
sinia Tier, extends from the Dromedary a consider- 
able way into the Clyde district, as far as the Den- 
hill. Below New Norfolk the banks of the river are 
high and steep ; but higher up, the country becomes 
more open, affording a large extent of rich pasture 
for sheep and cattle, for nearly 40 miles along bodi 
banks of the Derwent. 

Of the whole extent of 960,000 acres in this dis- 
trict, not above 90,000 had been granted to settlers 
in 1830, of which number about 3,000 acres have 
been cleared, brought under the plough, and laid 
down in crops. 

Owing to the advantage which the lower part of 
the district enjoys, from its vicinity to Hobart Town, 
and the facility of water carriage, a greater quantity 
of agricultural produce for that market is raised, 
such as com, potatoes, and hay, than in the interior 
parts of the island. The total value of agricultural 
produce in the district during the year 1833, may 
be computed as follows : — 32,000 bushels of wheat 
(1600 acres) at 7*., 11.200/.; 7660 ditto barley 
(270 acres) at 5s., 1890/.; 3000 ditto oata (100 



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NEW NORFOLK DISTRICT. 281 

acres) at 5s*, 750/.; 2100 ditto peas (105 acres) 
at 88., 840/. ; 70 ditto beans (5 acres) at 10«., 35/. ; 
660 tons potatoes (250 acres) at 80^., 2540/. ; 2100 
diUo turnips (303 acres) at 30^., 3150/. ; 400 acres 
English grass, at 10/., 4000/. Total produce, 
24,000/. 

Live Stock. — Horses, 250 ; homed cattle, 6400 ; 
sheep, 60,000 ; 250 horses, at 40/. each, 10,000/. ; 
6400 cattle, at 25*. each, 8000/. ; 60,000 sheep, at 
5*. each, 15,000/. Total value of live stock, 33,000/. 

The farms in this district are much larger than 
those round Hobart Town, amounting often to 
2000, and in two or three instances to 5000 or 
6000 acres. The average of the whole district is 
about 15*. an acre, which, on the land granted of 
90,000 acres, gives a totEd value of landed property, 
67,500/. The total value of agricultural property in 
the district is, land, 67,500/. ; live stock, 33,000/. ; 
annual produce, 24,405/. Total, 124,905/. It must 
be remembered, that since these calculations were 
made, the value has increased. 

The only establishments of a manufacturing nature 
that are yet worthy of mention in this district, are 
the three flour-mills driven by water. The total po- 
pulation resident upon this extent does not exceed 
1200 souls, of whom 750 are free, and the remain- 
ing 450 convicts, in the following proportions : 
Male adults, free, 280; female do. do. 170; males 
under age, do. 150 ; female do. do. 150 : male con- 
victs, 400; female do., 50. Total, 1200. 

New Norfolk, or Elizabeth Town, the principal 
settlement in the district, is about 22 miles from Ho- 



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282 VAN dixmsm's island. 

bart Town, on the banks of the Derwent, which is 
navigable to the falls above the town. Tlie public 
buildings are a church, gaol, police-office, post-office, 
public school, and invalid hospital ; and, in addition 
to these, the Lieutenant-Governor has a cottage, a 
very neat brick building, having a suite of apart- 
ments for his family, with rooms for servants, and 
various domestic offices. The view from it is ex- 
tremely beautiful, comprising the scenery up the 
river for a course of several miles, and induding 
many cottages and houses, which are scattered over 
a delightfid valley, about two miles in width, and in a 
high state of cultivation. The residences of several 
private individuals are built in a becoming style; 
and there are four or five inns, which are commo- 
dious and well conducted. On the banks of a brook 
called the Thames, which joins the Derwent here, a 
water power flour mill has been erected. Two four- 
horse stage coaches, and a steam boat |dy daily 
between New Norfolk and Hobart Town. Hamilton 
is the only other township in the district. 

3. The Richmond District contains about 1060 
square miles, or 672,000 acres. The country along 
the eastern side consists of a broad ridge of lofty, 
unproductive, but heavily timbered hills, extending 
from Prosser's river on the N. to Tasman's penin- 
sula on the S. The side next the Derwent, though 
also hilly, is interspersed with numerous fertile 
vales, of which the principal are the fine agricultu- 
ral and level tract of Pittwater, the vales of the Coal 
Biver, imd Bagdad and Clarence plains. 

On Speotade Island, which is situated near the 



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RICHMOND DISTRICT. 283 

coast of Frederick Hendrick bay, (so named by Tas- 
man in memory of a Dutch prince of that name), 
below the Carlton and Fittwater, is a stratum of 
beautiful red granite. This island is so named from 
its shape resembling that of a pair of spectacles, 
with an anchway through the centre. 

I^and to the amount of 140,000 acres, has been 
granted to settlers throughout the district, the dif* 
ference of 128,000 being either pasture, or rough, 
thickly wooded, uncukiyated land. The relative 
value of the produce, according to the last official 
returns, cannot be taken during the last year at 
more than 12 bushels an acre of wheat, of barley 14 
bushels, of oats 20 do., of peas 10 do., of beans 10 
do., potatoes d| tons, and turnips 8 tons per acrev 
From these data we have therefore the following 
results, viz. : — 102,000 (8600 acres) bushels wheat 
at 78, 35,700/. ; 13,400 (1100 acres) do. barley, at 
58. 3350/. ; 7800 (340 acres) do. oats at 5^. 1950/. ; 
3000 (300 acres) do. peas at Ss. 1200/.; 1950 
(600 acres) tons potatoes, at SOs. 7800/. ; 6410 
(480 acres) do. turnips, at 309. 8169/. ; 675 acres 
English grasses, at 10/. 6750/. Total produce, 
64,910/. 

The live stock value is 420 horses at 40/. 8,400/. ; 
14,000 cattle at 25«. 17,750/. ; 95,000 sheep at 58. 
23,750/. Total, 49,900/. 

If the whole of the granted land be estimated, as 
in the New Norf<A district, at 158. per acre, it will 
give a total on the 140,000 acres of landed property 
of 105,000/. We thus arrive at the total value of 
agricultoral property in the whole district, viz. : — 



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284 VAN diemen's island, 

landed property, 105,000/.; live stock, 49,900/.; 
annual produce, 64,910/. Total, 219,810/. 

Of flour mills, there are seven, four driven by 
water, and three by wind. During the fishing sea- 
son, there are several establishments on Slopen 
Islands, and at the Schoutens, for boiling the blubber 
of the whales that are caught upon the coast, and 
extracting the oil. 

Excellent coal and very rich iron ore have been 
discovered in several parts of this district, but 
none has yet been worked ; common rock salt as 
well as sulphate of magnesia has been found in a 
hill near Richmond, and on the left bank of the 
Coal River ; and plumbago has been dug up in great 
quantities on the S.E. coast, near the Sandspit river. 

The population of the district of Richmond, ex- 
clusive of Maria Island and Port Arthur, amounted 
in 1830, to 2800 souls, of whom 1700 were free, 
and 1100 convicts, in the following proportions, 
viz. : — male adults, free, 900 ; female do. do. 400 ; 
males under age do. 200 ; females do. do. 200 ; 
male convicts, 980; female do. 120. Total, 4800. 

The townships are Richmond, Sorell or Pittwater, 
and Brighton, and in addition to these, there is a 
small village at Kangaroo Point. Richmond is 
situate on the banks of the Coal River, four miles 
from the coast, and fourteen miles from Hobart 
Town, and is the head-quarters of the district police. 
Among its public buildings are reckoned a bridge of 
stone, (the best in the colony), a gaol, a court-house, 
which, together with two large and commodious inns, 
a windmill with a stone tower, and the residence of 



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RICHMOND DISTRICT. 285 

a police magistrate, make it a place of some con- 
sideration. 

Sorell, or Fittwater, is a township, near the iron 
Creek, which flows into the bay called Pittwater ; 
it contains a church which can accommodate six . 
hundred persons ; there are also a school-house, and 
two inns. This part of the country, from the rich- 
ness of its soil and its high state of cultivation, has 
been called the garden of the island. 

Brighton stands on the main road from Hobart 
Town to Launceston, a little below the junction of 
Strathallan Creek and Jordan River; it has a go- 
vernment cottage, a barracks, and an inn or ale- 
house. A few miles to the northward, the road 
passes over a hill called Constitution Hill, the view 
from the summit of which is, perhaps, the most 
extensive the island aflbrds. Mount Wellington, 
near Hobart Town, 25 miles distant. Mount Ndson, 
Mount Direction, and Mount Dromedary, form pro- 
minent and bold features in the landscape ; while in 
the back ground, at a distance of sixty miles, is 
seen the range of white-topped mountains near Port 
Davy. The land in the neighbourhood is of good 
quality, and is extensively tilled. 

At Kangaroo Point, immediately facing Hobart 
Town, there is a small village, rising into note from 
the circumstance of its being the principal route 
from Sorell and Richmond to the capital, now that 
a steam-boat runs between it and Hobart Town six 
times a day. 
. The rivers of this district are the Derwent, sepa- 



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286 TAN dibmsn'b island. 

rating it from Hobart Town» the Jordan, Btratli- 
allan Creek, Iron, Carlton, Coal, White Kangaroo, 
Sandspit and Prosser rivers ; the Derwent alone is 
navigable, but on some of the others there are 
erected flour mills. The shores of the Derwent, and 
the sea coasts are indented by numerous bays and 
coves, among which (beginning at the highest point 
of the district on the Derwent) are Herdsman's 
Cove, Risdon Cove, Ralphs and Double Bay, (formed 
by a tongue of land called the South Arm), Pitt- 
water, North, East, and Norfolk Bays, Safety Cove, 
Port Arthur, Fortescue, Monge or Pirates', Frede- 
rick Hendrick, Marian, and Prosser Bays; and 
Oyster and Biedle Bays and Maria Island. The 
principal islands on the coast of this district are 
Betsy, Maria, Slopen, and Spectacle islands. 

Port Arthur, one of the finest harbours in Van 
Diem^i's Land, is about 55 miles from Hobart 
Town. Its entrance (lat. 43.13. S., Long. 148. E.) 
is just half way between Cape Pillar and Cape Raoul, 
on the southern coast of Tasman's Peninsula. 

These two remarkable capes have a grand ap- 
pearance on approaching the harbour. Tlie former 
consists of basaltic columns, built up to an enormous 
height, and from the regularity with which they are 
raised or piled, would almost seem to have been 
effected by human hands. 

Cape Raoul, (so called from the pilot of the 
' ResearcK) or Basalt^s, consisting of the same ma- 
terial, has the singular appearance of a stupendous 
Gothic ruin, projecting abruptly into the ocean. 



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KICHMOND DISTRICT. 287 

with its massy pillars, rising up like minarets or 
tm'rets, while the tremendous waves dash against its 
dark and rugged walls below. 

The coast between these two capes, which are ten 
miles asunder, falls back so as to form a bay, of a 
crescent shape, termed by the French Mainjoin bale. 
All its sides are rugged and inaccessible. 

At the middle of this crescent, the passage of the 
harbour opens. It is about a mile wide, and runs 
up in a N.N.W. direction for four miles and a half. 
At the distance of three miles and a half, it expands 
to the westward to form a large bay, the safest part 
of the harbour. 

The water is deep on both sides close to the 
shores. The western head is f(»ined by a hill of 
between four and five hundred feet in height, with 
a clear round top and perpendicular sides towards 
the sea; the eastern, by a bold rocky point, sur- 
mounted by a conical hill 800 feet high, with ano- 
ther still loftier behind it. From this point, the 
eastaii shore runs up in nearly a straight unbroken 
line to the end of the harbour. It also is formed by 
a perpendicular wall of basaltic columns and iron- 
stone rock, with a long line of hills above them 
sloping backwards, having the appearance of an 
immense battery or embankment. These hills are 
covered lightly with trees, of a stunted growth. 
There are three or four rocky gullies, and fresh 
water streams on this side, where a landing may be 
eflfected, when the wind is easterly. 

The left, or western side of the channel, presents 
a very different aspect. Its rocky line is broken by 



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288 VAN dibmen's island. 

bays and sandy beaches. There is also an open 
plain, with an undulating surface, covered with heath 
and small shrubs, and backed by a lofty range of 
hills, which run directly up from Cape Raoul to- 
wards the N. and S., and a branch range across the 
centre of the peninsula. This meets with the line of 
hills on the eastern side, and thus completely sur- 
rounds the port. 

On sailing up the harbour, within the clear lull at 
the western head, is seen a small sandy beach, where 
the surf is generally too great to allow of boats 
landing. Half a mile higher up, and beyond an 
inner rocky head, is Safety Cove, a fine large bay 
with a sandy beach, into which vessels often run for 
shelter from the stormy winds and heavy seas so 
frequent upon this coast. It is open to the S.E., 
but by lying well round into the S.W. comer of the 
cove, a ship may be sheltered from the S.E. winds. 
Sailing past Safety Cove, on the left, there is a range 
of perpendicular rocks, a mile and a half in length, 
which runs along a tongue of land, (all that sepa- 
rates the channel from the bay inside), and close to 
the point of which is a small and picturesque island. 
Here the harbour expands, or rather doubles round 
the tongue of land, and forms a beautiful bay or 
basin, in which a large fleet might ride at anchor, 
undisturbed by any wind. And from hence, looking 
directly across the bay, is first seen the point upon 
which the settlement is now forming, lying half a 
mile due W. from the island. 

There are besides, three smaller bays from the main 
sheet of water, which aflbrd excellent anchorage. 



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RICHMOND DISTRICt. 289 

' The setdement is prettily stationed on the sloping 
side of a point, which is the southern boundary of 
the inlet, and stands out into the large bay. The 
buildings front to the N. There are already built, 
a mihtary barracks^ with a neat cottage for the offi- 
cers, a store, and substantial huts for the prisoners, 
and all the necessary buildings are in progress. 

The country around presents one unvaried aspect 
of thickly timbered hills, but scrubby and stony. 
Tlie soil, though not bad, is so stony that it would 
never repay the trouble of clearing. There are a 
few patches of clear swampy ground. The scrub 
ia many places renders the country impassable, and 
in all parts extremely difficult to the traveller. 

The timber, which is of primary consideration, as 
relates to the new settlement, is of fine quality, par- 
ticidarly on that range of hills already mentioned, 
running both N. and S. It. consists principally of 
stringy bark and gum trees, growing to a very large 
size, both on the sides of the hills and in the valleys. 
But in addition to these, the banks of the streams 
which run along the vales are thickly planted with 
other trees of a most useful description. 

There is no part of the colony which yields a 
greater quantity or variety of excellent fish than Port 
Arthur. The delicious trumpeter is in plenty, salmon, 
perch, skate, and sting-ray (the two last may be 
easily speared or harpooned on the flats) ; rock-cod, 
flat-heads, and cray-fish are all in abundance. Be- 
sides, the numerous streams which flow into the 
port abound with the small but delicate mountain 
trout 9iid fresh water lobster, 
u 

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990 VAN DIBMBn's I8L4ND. 

4. The Clyde District containing from 1500. to 
1700 square miles, or upwards of one million acres, 
consists, like the other districts of the colony, of 9. 
continued succession of hill and dale; but, being 
situated in a more central part of the island, it 
stands on proportionally higher ground. It is wdl 
watered by the rivers Dee, Ouse, Shannon, Clyde, 
and Jordan. Round the township of Bothwell, is a 
large tract of level ground, extending several miles 
each way ; but lower down on the Clyde, the coon-^ 
try again becomes hilly, though in general over- 
spread with rich pasturage. 

The land granted to settlers in this disMct did 
not, in 1830, exceed one- tenth of its whole extent, 
amounting altogether to 115,000 acres; of this 
quantity not more than 2600 had then been brought 
under the plough, the remainder being occupied as 
pasturage for the large numbers of sheep and cattle 
that belong to the district. 

The average return from wheat sown during 1830 
ia this district was 16 bushels per acre, of barley 
and oats 17 bushels, of peas 20 bushels, of potatoes 
two tons and a half, of turnips 8 tons per acre : the 
value was — 21,440 bushels wheat (1340 acres) at 
69. ^d., 6968/. ; 5440 ditto barley (320 a.) at 4«., 
1083/. ; 1530 ditto oats (90 a.) at 4«. 306/. ; 2200 
ditto peas (1100 a.) and Ss. 880/. ; 225 tons potatoes 
(90 a.) at 60^. 675/. ; 1700 ditto turnips (250 a.) 
at 30^. 2550/.; 400 acres English grass, at 8/. 
3200/.— total produce 15,667/. 

Value of live stock in the district : — 230 horses, 
at 30/. each, 6900/.; 11,000 cattle, at 20^. each. 



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CLTDB DISTRICT. 291 

11,000/. ; 82,000 sheep, at 5*. each, 20,500/. ; 600 
goats, at U. each, 30/. ;— Total 38,430/. 

The total average value of land was 109. per acre 
on the whole- extent of granted land of 1 15,000 acres. 
The total value of agricultural property m the dis- 
trict appears to he, of land 58,000/. ; live stock, 
38,430/. ; annual produce, 15,667/.— total, 112,097/. 

There are two excellent flour mills at Bothwell, 
on the Clyde, belonging to Mr. Axford and Mr. 
Nicholas. About five tons of excellent fresh water 
eels are annually caught in the river, and sold to 
advantage in Hobart Town. 

A large part of this extensive district being occu- 
pied in grazing farms, its population is proportionably 
small. At the commencement of the year, 1831, 
the total number of inhabitants amounted to 760, 
of whom 360 were free persons, and the remaining 
400 convicts, in the following proportions, viz. — 
male adults, free, 195; female ditto, ditto, 65: 
males, under age ditto, 50 : female ditto, ditto, 50 ; 
male convicts, 350; female ditto, 50; total 760. 

The township of Bothwell, the only one in the 
district, is situated in the centre of a level cbuntry, 
on the E. bank of the Clyde. It is a thriving little 
township, possessing already a very neat and com- 
modious church, of whidi the Rev. Mr. Garrett is 
clergyman, an excellent inn, and many cottages and 
workshops. The town of Bothwell has the addi- 
tional advantage of a resident clergyman of the 
church of Scotland, to which persuasion a large 
proportion of the inhabitants belong. 
V 2 



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292 VAN dibmbn's island. 

5. Oatlands, is a small district', compared with 
some of the others, forming nearly a square of 
30 miles each side : that is, containing 900 square 
miles, or ahout 576,000 acres; hut it is one of 
the first in importance, from its central position 
in the island, possessing hesides a great extent 
of fine open upland downs, which afford excel- 
lent pasture for stock, with the high road from 
Hobart-Town to Launceston passing through the 
' centre. 

By the last official statements, the returns from 
wheat sown in this district averaged 20 bushels an 
acre, barley 22 bushels, oats 25 bushels, potatoes 3 
tons, and turnips 6 tons per acre. The total agri- 
cultural produce of the district appears to be as 
follows, viz. — 

30,000 bushels of wheat (1500 a.) at 6s, 6d, 
9750/.; 5500 ditto barley (250 a.) at 4^. 1100/.; 
3500 ditto oats (140 a.) at 4*. 700/. ; 600 ditto peas 
(30 a.) at Ss. 240/. ; 210 tons potatoes (60 a.) at 
60^. 630/. ; 630 ditto turnips (100 a.) at 30*. 900/. ; 
150 acres English grass, at 10/. 1500/. — total pro- 
duce 14,820/. 

The live stock at present in Oatlands district, 

* Henry Walter Parker, Esq., of Gray's Inn, who has written 
,a small, but valuable work on Van Diemen's Land, compiled 
chiefly from Dr. Ross's Almanac (to which I am also much 
indebted), thinks the surveyors have made a mistake in es- 
timating the ^rea of this district Mr. Parker has conferred a 
benefit on the island, by having brought into view its beauties 
and advantages in a very interesting manner. 



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OATLAND8 DISTRICT. 293 

consists of 250 horses, at 30/. each, 7500/. ; 10,000 
cattle, at 20^. each, 10,000/. ; 90,000 sheep, at 5^. 
each, 22,500/. ; 240 goats, at Is, each, 12/. ;— total 
value of live stock, 40,012/. 

The total quantity of agricultural property in the 
year 1830 was, of land, 60,000/. ; live stock, 22,500/ ; 
annual produce, 14,820/. ;— total 97,320. 

The principsd rivers are the Jordan, Clyde, Shan- 
non, and Blackman ; the lakes are numerous, seve- 
ral heing many miles in extent. 

Excellent free stone ahounds in this district, as in 
most other parts of the island. A very useful kind 
of whetstone, for setting razors and other fine tools, 
has heen found in Dysart parish. The coal disco- 
vered on the borders of the Wallaby creek in Jeru- 
salem, though of excellent quality, is in too remote 
a situation to make it as yet worth the attention of 
any one to work it. As however the descent is easy 
to the Coal river bridge at Richmond, where the 
river becomes navigable, and as the consumption of 
firewood in Hobart Town increases, and this species 
of fuel becomes more expensive, it is not improbable 
that at no distant period, unless a coal mine be 
opened in the vicinity of the town, a rail-road may 
be constructed from the mouth of this very easily 
worked and accessible mine to Richmond, whence 
it will be taken up in boats to Hobart Town. 

Salt is collected on the Salt Pan Plains from three 
of the salt lakes, situated in the division of Methvin, 
in this district. It is sold to the settlers at 10s. a 
hundred weight, though not equal to English salt. 
A very good kiln for burning lime, which is retailed 



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294 VAN dikmen's island. 

to the neighbours at Is, a bushel, has been con- 
structed in Gibbs' parish. 

The total population of Oatlands district in 1830 
amounted to 930, of whom 450 were free persons 
and the remaining 480 convicts, in the followmg 
proportions, viz. — Male adults, free, 230; female 
ditto, ditto, 80 ; males, under age, ditto, 70 , female 
ditto, 70; male convicts, 460; female ditto, 20; 
—total 930. 

A commodious little church has lately been erected 
at Green Ponds, where there is already a thriving 
and populous village. 

6. Oyster Bay District contains an area of the same 
extent as Oatlands, viz. about 900 square miles, or 
576,000 acres. It includes all the settlement of 
Great Swan Port, as far as Prosser's River, on the 
eastern coast of the island. A lofty chain dt hills 
runs along from north to south, on the western or 
interior side of the district, separating it from the 
Oatlands and Campbell Town districts. The com- 
paratively low and level tract between this chain and 
the coast, is watered with streams which take thdr 
rise in these hiUs. Here the land spreads out in 
many parts into fine undulating downs of rich pas- 
turage, especially in the direction oi Great Swan 
Port. Oyster Bay ;tself affords good and safe an- 
chorage along the west or inner coast of the Schou- 
tens Island, but is too shallow higher up to admit 
large vessels, except along the shore of Freycinet's 
Peninsula, where ships loading for £^land m1ay 
safely lie at anchor, and take on board oil, wool, 
and bark, collected in that part of the district. 



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OT8TER BAT DISTRICT. 295 

The military station at Waterloo Point is situated 
on the north-west comer of the bay, upon a pro- 
jecting point of land, where the police magistrate of 
the district resides. There is also a military post at 
Spring Bay, at the sonthem extremity of the dis- 
trict. This beautiful bay affords one of the finest 
harbours in the island, having seven fathoms water 
all along up the entrance. The Schoutens Island 
presents a singular appearance to the spectator on 
the opposite side of the bay, owing to the lofty 
points of the hills standing up like needles. Oyste' 
Bay is a resort of whales in the season ; but the in- 
lets both of Great and Uttle Swan Port are mere 
sheets of shallow water, navigable only for boats or 
flat bottomed vessels*^ Numerous seals still frequent 
the White Rock in the centre of the bay. 

The quantity of land located in 1830 was 36,000 
acres, of which number 1200 had been cleared and 
brought to a rich productive state. The crops 
occupying this extent were in the following pro- 
portions, viz.: — 12,000 bushels of wheat (600 a.) 
at 6s. ed. 3900/.; 1760 ditto barley (80 a.) at 4«. 
352/.; 120 ditto oats, at 4^. 24/.; 100 ditto peas, 
at 8s. 40/. ; 210 tons potatoes (60 a.) at 60s. 630/.: 
840 tons turnips (140 a.) at 30^. 1260/. ; 310 acres 
English grasses, at 10/. 310/. — ^total produce 9306/. 

Live stodc, 25 horses, at 30/. 750/. : 2500 cattle, 
at 20s. 2500/. ; 17,000 sheep, at 5*. 4250/. ;— total 
value 7500/. 

Total value of agricultural property; — of land 
18,000/. ; live stock 7500/. ; annual produce 9306/. ; 
total 34,806/. 



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296 VAN DIKMEN*8 ISLAND. 

The inhabitants of this fine district are as yet but 
few, compared with the population of the other 
divisions of the island. The number of free persons 
at the beginning of 1830 did not exceed 150, and .of 
convicts 170, in all 320 souls, in the foUowing pro^ 
portions, viz. : — ^male adults, free, 80 : female ditto, 
30 ; males, under age, 20 ; female ditto, 20 ; male 
convicts, 1 65 ; female ditto, 5 ; total 320. 

In this district the whale fishery, and the manu* 
facture. of the blubber into oil are carried on exten- 
sively. 

7. Campbell Town District is almost wholly an 
inland division, having but a very small frontage on 
the coast. It contains an area of about 1260 square 
miles, or 850,000 acres. Nature has divided this 
fine tract of country into a number of beautiful 
valleys, each watered by fine streams of water, 
flowing for the most part to the north-west. 

Beginning on the west side of the district is the 
Lake River, after which are the Isis, the Black- 
man's River, the Macquarie (formerly called the 
Relief), the Kizabeth, the South Esk, the St. Paul's, 
and the Break-o'day Rivers. 

At Campbell Town, on the Elizabeth River, are 
the court hpuse, and residence of the police magis- 
trate; and Ross is the station of a commissariat 
officer, and a party of military. 

Nearly one-third of this valuable district has 
already been occupied by settlers; 260,000 acres 
being granted and allotted off in 1830; of this 
extent 6800 acres had been cleared and brought 
under the plough. 



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CAMPBBLL TOWN DISTBICT. 297 

The extent of land in a high state of cultivation, 
and laid down in English grasses, is a striking fea- 
ture of this district ; one gentleman alone possess^ 
600 acres of rich pasturage from English grasses. 

The returns of the wheat sown, averaged, by last 
accounts, 20 bushels ^ The land in this quarter 
appears to be singularly favourable to the growth 
of .barley, the average returns being 40 bushels per 
acre ; of oats 28 bushels ; peas and beans 1 1 bushels ; 
pota1x>es 2| tons; turnips 6 tons per acre. The 
value of English grasses may be fairly estimated at 
7/. per acre. These data furnish us with the means 
of ascertaining, the total value of agricultural pro- 
duce thrdughout this valuable district, viz : — 62,000 
bushels of wheat (3100 a.) at 6^. per bushel, 18,600/. 
18,000 ditto barley (450 a.) at 4*. per ditto, 3600/. 
8400 ditto oats (300. a.) at 4s. per ditto, 1680/. 
340 ditto peas, (30 a.) at Ss. ditto, 136/. ; 300 tons 
potatoes (120 a.) at 605. per ton, 900/. ; 1920 ditto 
turnips (320 a.) at 30*. per ditto, 2880/. ; 1480 acrep 
English grasses, at 71. per acre, 10,300/. ; total pro- 
duce, 38,156/. 

The number of live stbck in Campbell-town dis- 
trict maintains its relative proportion to the great 
value of annual produce : — 450 horses, at 30/. each> 

* Few samples of wheat in Van Diemen's Island yield less 
than from 62 to 64 lbs. per bushel, the average standard of 
60 lbs. at which it is purchased by the Government being in* 
variably found in favour of the grower, and when it comes to 
the meal tub, although it does not absorb so much water as 
the American flour, yet it is found to be rather above the best 
wheat of English growth in the comparative quantity of bread 
produced from the same quantity of flour. 



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298 TAN diemxn'i island. 

18^00/.; 13,500 cattle, at 258. ditto, 16,875/.; 
180,000 sheep, at 68. ditto, 54,000/. ; total yalue of 
Hve stock, 84,375/. 

Many of the farms in this quarter are in a high 
state of cultivation, possessing fine offices, and ex- 
tensive lines of substantial fencing. Total value 
of agricultural property: — of land 130,000/.; live 
stock, 84,375/.; annual produce, 38,156/.; total, 
252,531/. 

Campbell-town is exclusively an agricultural dis- 
trict, the only manufacturing establishments being 
those essential to the existence of the inhabitants 
themselves, namely, three flour mills. Of the whole 
population of 1200 souls, 120 are employed as shoe^ 
makers, blacksmiths, sawyers, and carpenters. The 
thinness of the population, compared to the extent 
and importance of the district, indicates the wealth 
and respectability of its inhabitants. There are 650 
free persons, and 550 convicts, in the foUowii^ 
proportions, viz : — ^male adults, free, 290 ; female 
ditto, ditto, 180; males under age, ditto, 90; fe- 
male ditto, ditto, 90; male convicts, 510; female 
ditto, 40: total, 1200. 

A few years ago, the settlera about the Macquarie 
River, a large proportion of whom belong to the 
Presb3rterian church, addressed a memorial to the 
Fresbytery of Edinburgh, stating the prospects that 
awaited a clergyman of that church, were he to settle 
amongst them as their pastor. His dependence was 
chiefly to be on the voluntary subscriptions of the 
parishioners, aided by a stipend from Government. 



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NORFOLK PLAINS DISTRICT. 299 

A clergyman accordingly was ordained and proceeded 
thither, aad a manse has lately been bnilt for him. 

8. Norfolk Plains District contains an area of 
2250 square miles, or about a million and a half of 
acres, but not above one-fourth of this large extent 
can be properly said to belong to it ; and a very 
large portion of it is rugged, mountainous, and bad 
land. It is watered by the Mersey and Rubicon, 
Which fall into Bass's Strait ; by the Western River 
and Lifiy (formerly the Pennyroyal Creek) which 
flow into the South Esk, and by Brumby's Creek 
falling into the Lake River. 

In addition to the rivers and lakes mentioned as 
forming the boundaries of Norfolk Plains or district, 
there are the Mersey, Philip's *, Moleside, Meander, 
or Quand>y*s or Western, Monow, and Dasher rivers 
Pennyroyal Creek, and Don River, Great Lake, Lake 
Arthur, and Western Lagoon, besides two extensive 
lagoons between Port Sorell and Port Frederic, and 
half a dozen lagoons at Norfolk Plains, near Perth. 
The Mersey rises in the Western Mountains, and 
falls into Port Frederica, where there is a commo- 
dious harbour, affording a safe resort for shipping. 
The Moleside springs from the same range of moun- 
tain, and debouches in the Mersey. The country 
between these two rivers appears to be undermined 
by numerous subterranean streams, which flow in 

* The Forth, Philip's, and Meander rivers, have several 
beautiful cascades and cataracts, falling from 500 to 200 feet 
in perpendicular height The water at Philip's cataract is petri- 
fic, and there are large trees in the neighbourhood petretcent.. 



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300 y^N oibmsn's island. 

different directions, at various depths below the sur- 
face. The superincumbent soil, deprived of its 
foundation by the action of the water, has given way 
in many parts, forming pits or basins of various 
depths, from 20 to 200 feet, shaped like funnels, 
broad at the top, and becoming gradually less, usually 
terminating, if the pit be deep, in a small circular 
pond. It is supposed that when the pits are only a 
yard or so in diameter and depth (of which there* 
are many), that the substrata have only begun to 
give way, and that the pits will increase ip. both these 
respects as the action of the water further under- 
mines the ground. Two or three of the party who 
accompanied the Lieutenant-Governor on an excrff- 
sion to the western districts of the island, descended 
one of the deepest of these pits, and endeavoured 
to fathom the small circular pond of water at the 
bottom, but did not succeed in ascertaining its depth. 
At the bottom of another pit there was found a 
cavern extending right and left ; on entering it, they 
discovered a large body of water rushing from a 
height, and flowing away, as it were, beneath their 
feet. The country between the Moleside and the 
Mersey has a substratum of limestone, which fre- 
quently rises above the surface. The Monow and 
Dasher are small rivers flowing into the Mersey. 
The land in the neighbourhood of the Forth is not 
much known, but as far as investigation has been 
carried, it does not appear to be of very good quality. 
The Rubicon is a small river, flowing into Port 
SoreU, a harbour which only vessels of small draught 
can enter. 



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NORFOLK PLAINS DISTRICT. 301 

. Great Lake, about 90 miles N. W. of Hobart 
Town, and .80 feet above the level of the sea, is 
situated within the limits of this district. The coun- 
try in the neighbourhood is alternate marsh and hill, 
well, but not superabundantly, wooded, and adapted 
for sheep and cattle runs. The lake itself is about 
20 miles long, and 10 broad, with deep bays and in- 
dentations, and having many promontories and penin- 
sulas extending into it. This formation, of course, 
makes a greater extent of shore than if the coast 
were even, and adds greatly to the beauty of the 
scenery, which has been compared to that of the 
entrance to the river Derwent. In. the lake, are five 
inlands covered with a species of cedar (the foliage 
resembling the Huon pine) and numerous beautiful 
shrubs. The reader. perhaps will imagine that the 
depth is proportionate to the extent of surface, but 
in this he will be mistaken, for its greatest depth 
does not, exceed three fathoms \ and frequently a 
yard measure would reach the bottom. It discharges 
its waters by the Shannon, which uniting with the 
Clyde, fall into the Derwent. 

The mountains are numerous, and form a bold 
feature of the district. The western range (3500 
feet in height, and covered with snow many months 
in the year), runs E. and W. through the centre ; 
it consists chiefly of basaltic rocks, presenting, at a 
distance of ten miles, the appearance of a stupen- 
dous wall; and clothed about three-fourths of its 

* The waters of the lake are high or low according to the 
state of the weather. 



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302 VAN dismsn's island. 

altitude by trees of the most stately descriptioD, 
while the summit is naked and sterile. Near this 
range, there is a remarkable detached round moun- 
tain, called Quamby's Bluff; it appears as if a tre- 
mendous convulsion of nature had, at some remote 
period, thrown it off from the parent chain of moun- 
tains, leaving a chasm or gap of about three miles 
intervening. Two other ranges of mountains run 
directly S. and N., the one joining the western moun-* 
tains at the western extremity, and the other at the 
eastern. There are also two remarkable mountains 
between the western mountains and the sea, called 
Gog and Magog. 

Land to the extent of 12,000 acres has been al- 
lotted to settlers in this district, of which 5500 have 
been brought under cultivation. 

According to the last official returns, the wheat 
yielded an average of 18 bushels per acre, barley 32 
bushels, oats 33 bushels, peas 30 bushels, potatoes 
6 tons, and turnips 6 tons. The annual produce of 
this district accordingly appears to be as follows : — 

73,800 bushels wheat (4100 acres) at 6*. 6d, per 
bushel 23.985/. ; 9160 do. barley (280 a.) at 4«, 
do. 1792/: 9900 do. oats (300 a.) at 4^. do. 1980/. ; 
1050 do. peas (35 a.) at 8s, do. 420/. ; 480 tons 
potatoes (80 a.) at 608. per ton, 1440/. ; 720 do. 
turnips (120 a.) at 30^. do. 1080/. ; 585 acres c^ 
English grasses at 10/., 5850/. Total produce 
36.547/. 

Live Stock; 400 horses at 30/., 12,000/.; 23,000 
cattle at 25^.. 28,7509r. ; 75,000 sheep at 6s., 22,500/. 
Total value of live stock, 63,250/. 

11 



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LAUNOBSTON DISTRICT. 303 

The average of the land in this district cannot be 
reckoned worth more than lOs. an acre, or 62,500/. 
on the whole 125,000 acres granted. We arrive 
then at the total result as follows : — ^Land, 62,500/. ; 
live stock, 63,250/. ; annual produce, 36,547/. Total 
162,297/. 

The population of Norfolk Plains, in 1830, con- 
sisted of 580 free persons, and 420 convicts, in the 
following proportions, viz. : — Male adults free, 290 ; 
female do. 80 ; males under age do. 105 ; females 
do. do. 105 ; male convicts, 400; females do. 20; 
total 1000. 

Wbstbury ^, the township of this district, is 
situated on a small stream, called Quamby's Brook, 
which falls into Quamby's, Western, or Meander 
river, and is on the line of road from Launceston to 
Circular Head ; it has, however, not yet attained im- 
portance enough to be designated even by the name 
of village. 

Latour, now called Longford, is situate in Nor- 
folk Plains, and consists of about 30 small houses, 
occupied chiefly by mechanics. 

9. Launceston District, comprising the N. E. 
comer of the island, contains 3800 square miles, or 
2,352,000 acres. The rivers, besides those forming 
its boundaries, are Curriers, Piper's, Ringarooma, 
George's, and North Esk, besides many others fall** 
ing into the Tamar and the sea. The Tamar, pro- 

' The natural grasses {^rowing in the neighbourhood of 
Westbury, on Norfolk Plains, are of such a very succulent and 
nutritiye kind, that cows fed upon them give milk of so rich a 
quality, that the cream produced may be cut with a knife. — 
Account of one of the Governor* s Excursions, 



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304 VAN di£Msn's island. 

p^rly speaking, is not a river, but an arm of the sea. 
It is nearly 50 miles in length, and is navigable for 
ships of large burden to Launceston, which stands 
at its extreme inland point. The mountains are the 
Asbestos Hills, a range between the Rubicon and 
Tamar, running N. and S., and a tier from which 
Benlomond rises, extending from the source of 
Piper's River to Tasman Peak, in Campbell Town 
district ; their direction is, therefore, nearly parallel 
with the Tamar. Benlomond is about 4200 feet 
above the level of the sea, and is visible many miles 
distant. The scenery in its vicinity is extremely 
grand and romantic. 

Mr. Parker states with truth that the mountains sel- 
dom assimilate in character ; they are almost as va- 
rious as numerous : here rising gradually to the sum- 
mit, there springing, as it were, perpendicularly* from 
the surface : here of a conical shape, there round ; 
some with dark brows, others snow-capped; such 
are the mountains of this southern Switzerland. 
. The greater part of thisi extensive district may be 
said to be inarable land, as much of it is almost inac- 
cessible mountain, and hungry sand : the flats, how- 
ever, on the banks of the North and South Esk and 
Break-o'-Day Rivers, and the land in the vicinity of 
Launceston are rich and fertile, yielding good aver- 
age crops of com. 

In 1830, the whole extent of land in this exten- 
sive tract granted to settlers amounted to no more 
than 63,000 acres, of which 7000 were brought 
under the plough. 

' Basahic. 



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LAUNCBSTON DISTRICT. 305 

The banks of the Tamar, and the valley of the 
South Esk are of a Quality so rich and fertile that the 
average return may be safely taken, for wheat at 20 
bushels per acre, barley and oats, 30 ditto, peas and 
beans 20 bushels, potatoes, 3^, and turnips six tons 
per acre, yielding produce as follows : — 

80,000 bushels of wheat, (400 a.) at 6^. per bushel, 
24,000/. ; 9000 do. barley (300 a.) at 4^. per do., 
1800/.; 30,000 do. oats, (1000 a.) at 4^. per do., 
6000/. ; 500 do. peas (25 a.) at 8^. per do., 200/. ; 
100 do. beans, (5 a.) at 85. per do. 40/. : 1220 tons 
potatoes, (320 a.) at 60^. per ton, 3360/. ; 450 do. 
turnips, (75 a.) at 30^. per ton, 675/. ; 1275 acres 
English grasses at 10/., 12,750/.; total produce, 
48,825/. 

Live stock: — 380 horses at 30/. each, 11,400/.; 
30,000 cattle at 25*. each, 37,500/. ; 65,000 sheep, 
at Ss, each, 19,500/. Total value of live stock, 
68,400/. 

The average value of the whole land granted in 
the district maybe taken at 15^. an acre, which gives 
upon the whole 85,000 acres granted, a total of 
63,750/. The whole value then of agricultural pro- 
perty in the district appears to be as follows, viz. : — 
Land, 63,750/.; live stock, 68,400/.; annual pro- 
duce, 48,825/. Total, 180,975/. 

Pbrth, 109 miles from Hobart Town, and 12 
from Launceston, is a beautiful village, pleasantly 
situated on the banks of the South Esk*, which is 

» The township is built on both sides of the river, and 
therefore it is partly in Launceston, and partly in Campbell 
Town districts. 



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306 VAN diembm's island. 

crossed in a Government punt. The public Imild- 
ings are a gaol, and quarters for an officer and a 
detachment of soldiers ; the private buildings consist 
chiefly of cottages for mechanics and labourers. 

Gborob Town, 32 miles N. of Launceston, and 
152 miles from Hobart Town, is situated on the 
eastern bank of the Tamar, and within four miles o^ 
its opening to Bass's Straits. 

A new township, to be called Falmouth, has been 
recently marked out : it is situated at the head of 
George's Bay, a safe and convenient harbour on the 
eastern coast for vessels not drawing more than 15 
feet, that being the depth over the bar at high 
water ; but at ebb tide there is only nine feet. The 
land in the neighbourhood is reported to be very 
favourable for the finest woolled sheep. 

There is a large extent of unlocated territory to 
the westward of the Hobart Town district, through 
which the Huon river flows, and which is now being 
explored. 

The Van Diemen's Land Company district is 
situated at Circular Head, a narrow peninsula 5^ 
miles long, on the N. coast of the island. The 
territory belonging to this company is — 100,000 
acres, Woolnorth, in one continuous tract ; 20,000 
acres at Circular Head and the coast adjoining; 
10,000 acres, Hampshire Hills, in one continuous 
tract ; 10,000 acres, Middlesex Plains, in one^ con- 
tinuous traqt ; 150,000 acres, Surrey Hills, in one 
continuous tract; 10,000 acres, the estimated quantity 
of good land in Trefoil, Walker, and Robin Islands ; 
50,000 acres. Emu Bay ; — total, 350,000 acres, upon 



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MACQUARIB HARBOUR. 307 

the tenns stipulated in the charter ; viz. that 240,000 
acres are to he valaed at 2^. 6d, per acre ; and 
five years after it has heen surveyed, and the boun- 
daries defined, a rent is to commence, at the rate of 
30*. per dent, on that value, redeemable by twenty 
years' purchase. The rent, therefore, will be 450/. 
per annum, to commence five years after it shall 
have been ceded to the company ; or it may, after 
that period, become freehold by the payment of 
9000/. 

Macquarib Harbour is a large bay on the west- 
em coast of the island, extending inland in a south- 
westerly direction about 20 miles to where Gordon- 
river debouches, and diverging right and left into 
two extensive bays or creeks. The settlement is 
formed at Sarah's Island, a small island within the 
harbour, whence every morning the convicts, usually 
amounting to between two and three hundred, are 
removed to the banks of the Gordon to perform 
their laborious tasks. The Gordon, though barred, 
is navigable for nearly 40 miles, and is in most parts 
very deep, and never less than 100 yards wide. Its 
banks, though generally precipitous, are clothed 
with timber and shrubs, and exhibit beautiful 
scenery. The land is mostly of a rich quality, but 
the timber is too dense to allow the agriculturist to 
occupy it with advantage. On Philip's Island, on 
the northern side of the harbour, a small garden has 
been formed, and a few acres have been broken up 
for cultivation ; and at Coal Head, which is adjoin- 
ing, excellent coal has been found, but not yet dug 
for use. The timber procured by the convicts is the 
x2 

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308 VAN DIBMEN's I3LAND. 

Huon pine, the trunk of which is generally 60 feet 
in length and five feet in diameter ; the celery tep 
pine, fifty feet long and two and a half feet in dia- 
meter; and the myrtle, the pinkwood, and light- 
wood trees, all of which grow to a good size, afford- 
ing excellent timber for ship building, furniture, 
and house carpentering. 



CHAPTER III. 

GEOLOGY, MINERALOGY, SOIL, CLIMATE, AND SEASONS, &C. 

The island has not as yet been sufficiently explored 
to enable us to ascertain its geological characters. 
Basalt is supposed to be the principal substratum; 
but the geology of the island is very varied. Lime- 
stone is almost the only mineral that has yet been 
brought into general use. This requisite of civilized 
life has been found in abundance in most parts of the 
island, with the exception of the neighbourhood of 
Launceston, to which place it is usually imported 
from Sydney, as a return cargo, in the vessels that 
carry up wheat to that port. A very fine species of 
lime, used in the better sort of plastering and stuc- 
coing, is made in considerable quantities, by burning 
the oyster-shells that are found in beds along various 
parts of the coast. Other species of the calcareous 
genus also occur in different parts of the island. 
Marble of a white mixed grey colour, susceptible of 
a good polish, has frequently been found, though 



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GEOLOGY AND MINBRAL06Y. 309- 

never jret dug up or applied to use. Around Hobart 
Town, where, in the progress of improvement, the 
soil is frequently exposed to the depth of two or 
three yards, strata of soft clayey marl occur, which 
has been found very useful as a manure. Much of 
the common limestone is of a yellowish or reddish 
colour, no doubt derived from the quantity of oxide 
of iron with which it is mixed, and which is so 
generally scattered throughout the island. Iron ore 
is very frequent, both of a red, brown, and black 
colour. In one or two instances it has been ana- 
lysed, and found to contain eighty per cent, of the 
perfect mineral. It also occurs, though more rarely, 
and in smaller quantities, under the form of red 
chalk, with which, mixed with grease, the Abo- 
rigines besmear their heads and bodies. Indications 
of coal have been found aU across the island, com- 
mencing at South Cape, and showing themselves in 
various parts; at Satellite Island, in D'Entrecas- 
teaux's channel, on the banks of the Huon, at Hobart 
Town, New Norfolk, the Coal River, Jerusalem, 
Jericho, and other places. The stratum at the South 
Gape is situated on the N, side of the bay, and ex- 
tends about two miles along the coast. Messrs. 
Maudsley, Son, and Field, London, analysed some 
specimens of the coal sent home by Mr. Waghom of 
the Bengal pilot service, which they declared to be 
equal to the Elgin Wall's End, and superior to New- 
castle coal, for raising steam. „ 

Of the various species of the argillaceous genus, 
basalt, as before observed, is by far the most 
abundant. Indeed, it would appear to be the 



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310 VAN dixmbn's island. 

predpminant snbstratam of tiie island. All along 
tiie coast, it presents itself in rocky precipitous 
heights, standing on beautifdl columnar pedestals. 
Of these, Fluted Cape, at Adventure Bay, is, perhaps, 
the most remarkable, so called from the circular 
columns standing up close together, in the form of 
the barrels of an organ. Circular Head, which gives 
its name to the Van Diemeh's Land Company's es- 
tablishment, is another remarkable instance of the 
singular appearance which this species of rocks puts 
on, resembling different artificial productions of man. 
That curious rock stands out into the sea, exactly 
like a huge round tower or fortress, built by human 
hands. Mount Wellington, the great western Table 
Mountain, and the rocky banks of many of the moun- 
tain riv^^, as the Shannon, are composed of this 
rock. 

In some parts, both on the coast and in the in- 
terior, the columns stand up in insulated positions, 
springing up from the grass or the ocean like obe- 
lisks or huge needles, and presenting a singular ap- 
pearance to the eye. On the sou^ end of Brun€ 
Island, which is composed of this rock, there are 
several of this descriptiom 4 and those upon the land 
stand erect upon their several blocks, gradually 
diminishing as they rise, till the force of a well aimed 
stone would be sufficient to drive the uppermost 
from its seat. As this rock has the power of acting 
on the magnetic needlp, and since it occurs in sndi 
large masses in the island, it may account, in some 
measure, for the variations which traveller^ in the 
bush sometimes experience, who depend on the gui- 



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GBOLOGT AND MIKERALOOT. 311 

dance of the pocket compass. Jrpl appears in the 
form of excellent roof-slate at a certain spot hetween 
liaunceston and George Town. In the form of mica, 
it is found in large masses on the rocks romid Port 
Davey, on the southern comer of the island, where, 
being nmch exposed to the winds and waves of the 
Southern ocean, they have become so much worn by 
the weather as to put on the appearance of snow. 
Excellent sofidstone for building is obtained in almost 
every part of the island, and most of the houses in 
HoWt Town fire now built with it, instead of badly 
made bricks, as formerly; it is brought from dif- 
ferent parts within half a mile or a mile of the town. 
A quarry of that kind has recently been discovered 
at Port Arthur, where the manufacture of filtering- 
stones, it is probable, will be found a profitable em- 
ployment. Flints are scattered in great plenty upon 
the hills, especially in neighbourhoods where basalt 
abounds. They generally occur in the globular 
form, covered with a white indurated crust of chalk. 
Other rarer species of the siliceous genus have been 
found in different parts of the island, especially in 
those which i^ppear to have been washed in former 
times by the ocean, and which have been deposited 
in certain ranges or linear positions by the lashing of 
the waves, and the subsiding of the waters. Of these 
may be mentioned, though found generally in small 
pieces, homstone, schistus, wood-opal, bloodstone, 
jasper, and that singular species called the cafs eye, 
reflecting different rays of light, according to its 
position. 

Of the metallic ores, besides iron, which is most 



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312 , VAN dibmsn's island. 

abundant, specimens of red and green copper ore, 
lead, zinc, manganese, and. as some say, of silver and 
gold, have occasionally been met with. 

Petrified remains of wood, and other vegetable 
productions, entirely converted into siHceous matter, 
and capable of the finest polish, are occasionally 
met with in different parts of the island, especially 
in the Macquarie district, at Allenvale, and Mr. 
Barker's estate, where whole trunks and branches 
of trees have been found, some in horizontal, and 
others in a vertical position, exhibiting the fibres 
and structure of the leaves and wood, the distribu- 
tion of the vessels, and the annual growth, as 
distinctly, and in as perfect a state as in the living 
plant. 

The soil is very varied ; in some places a rich 
black alluvial mould, in others sandy or argilla- 
ceous : its fertihty is shown by the excellent crops 
produced, the land being cultivated for years without 
refreshment. 

Climatb. — Allowing for the higher southern lati- 
tude, and the coldness and humidity attending 
on its insularity, the seasons and weather at Van 
Diemen's Land may be estimated from the data 
given in the preceding chapter respecting New 
South Wales. 

Grenerally speaking, throughout the summer 
months there are alternate land and sea breezes, 
every 24 hours, the influence of the latter being felt 
many miles from the shore, and tending greatly to 
cool the atmosphere, even in the hottest days of 
summer. The wind blows from the land, from sun- 



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CLIMATE. 313 

set till 10 or 11 o'clock the following" day ; when 
the sea breeze sets in, and continues tiU evening. 
The average of the thermometer is about 70^ ; al- 
though there are times when the mercury is subject 
to sudden elevations, even to 100® to 110**. When 
this happens, a hot wind blows from the N. or N.W., 
the effects of which sometimes show themselves upon 
growing crops, by producing blight, and similar 
injurious consequences; but it seldom lasts long; 
and the rain, which is almost certain to follow 
within a few hours, again so cools the atmosphere, 
that its previous sultriness is little regarded. Thun- 
der storms are seldom experienced; nor are they 
ever of a violent nature. 

September, October, and November are the Spring 
months, when the weather is usually bright and 
clear, with occasional rain and high winds. The 
average of the thermometer for these months is 
from 50 to 60 degrees. 

December, January, and February, constitute the 
Summer. In general, very little rain falls during 
these three months. The productions of the earth, 
such as grass, corn, and vegetables, arrive at matu- 
rity about one month earlier than the same kinds 
would in England; that is, in December, which 
answers to the June of the northern hemisphere, 
products are gathered which, in England, ripen 
in July. 

March, April, and May are the Autumn of Van 
Diemen's Land, and form by far its pleasantest 
season. The air is then clear and bright — the sky 
free from clouds and vapours — ^the medium heat of 



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314 TAN dibmsm'b island. 

the day is about 65 ; and the nights u% cool and 
refreshing. It may be noticed here, that even in 
the height of sommer, the evenings and nights are 
generally cool. 

June, Jnly, and Angost are the Winter. In the 
interior, particularly upon high and exposed situa- 
tions, frosts are sometimes severe, and at times a 
good deal of snow falls ; but it is seldom that the sun 
so wholly loses its power, as to suffer an appearance 
of either frost or snow to last throughout the day ; 
and the winter of Van Diemen's Land is rather con- 
templated by the inhabitants as a season of moderate 
and genial rain, sufficient to replenish the store- 
houses of the earth against the ensuing spring, and 
to facilitate the labours of the husbandman, than as 
the cold and dismal period of the higher latitudes. 
The average range of the thermometer is from 40 to 
48 degrees ; now and then, however, for a day or 
two, some degrees lower. The longest day in Van 
Diemen's Land is 15 hours 12 minutes ; the shortest, 
8 hours 48 minutes. 

The following meteorolo^cal remarks are the re- 
sult of careful observations ^. Against rain, the clouds 
increase much in size, and become formed like 
fleeces, but dense in the middle. When bright to- 
wards the edges, with the sky bright, they are signs 
of frost, with rain afterwards. When clouds breed 
high in air, in thin white trains, like flocks of wool, 
they portend wind, and most probably rain. When 

^ I am indebted for them to the excellent almanac of Van 
Diemen's Land for 1338, before referred to. 



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CLIMATB. 3ifi 

a general cloudiness OTerhangs the sky, and small 
black fragments of clouds are seen flying underneath, 
they are a certain sign of lasting rain. Two currents 
of clouds always portend rain, and in summer, thun* 
der. Clouds that are long and scattered, having 
a greenish cast, always show rain. When dews lie 
plentifully after a fine day, another of the same kind 
may be expected. If there is no dew nor wind, rain 
will soon follow. A red sky that spreads upwards 
from the horizon, generally denotes wind or rain, or 
both ; but a still red evening foretells fine weather. 

A haziness in the air, which fades the sun's light, 
and makes the orb look whitish — or a dimness 
around the moon and stars, with a ring encircling 
the former, denote rain. If t^e sun's rays look 
white at setting, or if it be shorn of its rays, or if it 
goes down into a bank of clouds in the horizon, bad 
weather may be expected. If the moon looks pale 
and dim, we may expect rain — ^if red, wind; but 
when of her natural colour, with a clear sky, fair 
weather. When the wind veers about much, a 
good deal of rain may be expected. When the wind 
follows the course of the sun, it brings a continuance 
of fair weather. 



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816 



VAN DIBMBN S ISLAND. 
Weather Table according to the Moon. 



Quarter of the Moon. 


Summer. 


Winter. 


If the moon enters 


The weather will be 


The weather wiU be 


either of her quarters 






at 12 at noon. 


Very rainy 


Snow and rain 


If between the hours of 






12 and 2, p.m. ... 


Changeable 


Changeable 


2 and i, p.m. ... 


Ditto 


Fair and mild 


4 and 6, p.m. ... 


Fair 


Fair 


6 and 8, p.m. ... . 


Fair.ifwindatN.N.W. 


Fair.ifwindatN.N.W. 




or N.E. 


or N.E. 




Rainy, if wind at W. 
S.W. or S. 


R'ain, ifW., S.W.orS. 






■ 8 and 10, p.m. ... 


Ditto 


Ditto 


10 and 12, night... 


Fair 


Fair 


12 and 2, a.m. ... 


Ditto 


Fair, with Arosts 


2 and 4, a.m. ... 


Cold and showery 


Rain 


4 and 6, a.m. ... 


Rain 


Ditto 


6 and 8, a.m. ... 


SquaUy 


Stormy weather 


8 and 10, a.m. ... 


Changeable 


Changeable 


10 and 12, noon ... 


Showery, with wind 


Cold and rain 



Dr. Kirwan, who framed the foregoing tahle, 
(which has been proved correct in Van Diemen's 
Land,) adds the following observations : — 

1st. — When there has been no particular storm 
about the time of the spring equinox, if a storm 
arise on or before the day of the sun's passing, or if 
there be a storm from any point of the compass, 
about 'a week after the equinox, then, in either of 
these cases, the spring and summer will be dry, four 
times in five. 

2nd. — But if a storm arise from the S.W. or 
W.S.W. on or just before the spring equinox, the 
following spring and summer will be wet, five times 
in six. 

It appears from a meteorological table published 
in the krge edition of this work, that the proportion 



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CLIMATE. 



317 



of winds from different quarters was as follows, in 

the course of a year : — 

N.W. .. 266 S.E. .. 102 

N. .. 179 W. .. 72 

S. .. 166 S.W. .. 78 

E. .. 106 N.E. .. 28 

The seasons appear to undergo a variation every 
nine or ten years, varying, however, in intensity 
every third series or thirty years. But, as a general 
truth, it may be affirmed that the atmosphere is ex- 
tremely dry and elastic, and contains a larger pro- 
portion of oxygen than that of most countries in the 
Old World; the effect of which is to fortify and 
render more fecund both animal and vegetable life, 
the effect of this g^s on the lungs being to strengthen 
the powers of digestion and assimilation. 

Rain Table, showing the number of Wet Days, and the quan- 
tity of Rain by inches, that fell in each Month of 1832, and 
a comparison of the same with 1831. 





1832. 




1831. 




Months. 


Wet 
Days. 


Inches. 


Months. 


Wet 
Days. 


Inches. 


January . 


6 


1 128 


January . 


10 


2 30-40th». 


February 


7 


I 512 


February 


6 


1 21—40 


March . . 


7 


1 668 


March . . 


3 


1 


April.... 


5 


605 


April.... 


4 


23—40 


May.... 


14 


3 159 


May.... 


5 


1 6—40 


June.. .. 


11 


4 942 


June.... 


8 


1 16—40 


July .... 


16 


4 358 


July.... 


10 


1 2-40 


August.. 


12 


1 839 


August . . 


4 


1 10-40 


Sept.. . . 


11 


1 289 


Sept 


7 


1 24—40 


October. . 


16 


2 392 


October. . 


10 


2 5—40 


.Nov 


14 


2 770 


Nov..... 


10 


1 7—40 


Dec 


9 


1 117 


Dec 


13 


3 5—40 


128 


26 779 


90 


18 27— 40ths. 



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818 VAN dismbn's island. 

Noie. — According to a register pubUshed in the < East India 
Gazette/ the fall of rain at Arracan, in the month of July, 1830, 
was nearly 60 inches ; in August, it was rather more than 43| 
inches. A great deal had fallen previously, in the months of 
April, May, and June. The rainy season in most parts of the 
tropics yields from 100 to 116 inches of water; at Bombay, 
106 inches. In the west of England, the mean quantity of 
rain that falls annually is only 67 inches. 

The following is the quantity for one year, at the under- 
mentioned places: — London, 20,686; Manchester, 36,140; 
Liverpool, 34,121; Lancaster, 39,714; Kendal, 63,994; 
Glasgow, 21,331 ; Dumfries, 36,919. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL KINGDOMS, &C. 

The Vegetable Kingdom of Van Diemen's Island 
is similar to that of the contiguous territory of New 
South Wales. In many places there is no under- 
wood, the ground being covered with tall, ungainly 
trees, standing at some distance from each other, 
and running up to a great height, before they shoot 
out their branches. Much of the timber is extremely 
serviceable for building purposes, particularly stringy 
bark, which has been not inaptly termed tb« oak of 
Van Diemen's Island, as well on account of the ap- 
pearance and durability of the wood, as of the uses 
to which it is applied. Gum wood, of several sorts, 
is almost equal to stringy bark. Peppermint is 
another wood of the same description, but particu- 
larly used where facility of splitting is required. 
Among the ornamental woods are light wood, ske-ouk 



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SOBTABLB KINGDOM. 819 

or beef tree, honeysuckle, myrtle, and tlie cherry-tree. 
The woods that are most esteemed for the fitting up 
of houses, and by cabmet-makers and others, are 
Huon pine, black and silver mimosas, pencil cedars 
and sassafras. 

All the trees are evergreens, and some of them, 
particularly the mimosa, put forth very rich blos- 
soms in spring ; but the colour of nearly all of this 
description has been remarked to partake more or 
less of yellow. The foliage is generally dark green ; 
and the eye wanders over the wide expanse of dense 
forest everywhere presented, searching in vain for 
the relief that is afforded by the many varying hues 
of the deciduous family. The varieties of shrubs 
are many, and extremely beautiful ; and several of 
them have very elegant flowers. It is difficult, 
however, to transplant them, particularly the native 
cherry and the fern, both of which far surpass in 
beauty the whole tribe of native forest trees ; in- 
deed, the only way of doing this, with a chance of 
success, is to raise along with the root a solid ball of 
earth, not less than a foot square : and provided this 
be well attended to, the season or period of the year, 
is of less consequence than some imagine. The 
winter months are, however, generally thought pre- 
ferable to any others for the operation of transi- 
planting. 

Among the most vahiable plants yet discovered, 
may be classed the pepper tree — ^the bark of which 
contains many important medicinal properties. The 
tea tree too should not pass unnoticed; the leaves 
serving at times as a substitute for those of the Chir 



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320 VAN DniMBN's ISLAND. 

11686 plant; and although the beverage cannot be 
pronounced equally good, it has at least the recom- 
mendation of being much cheaper. 

The following are a few of the principal flora, as 
yet noticed ^ : 

Solatium laciniatum. — Jagged leaved nightshade, 
or kangaroo apple, pentandria monogynia, natural 
order Solanea. This is a spreading plant of some 
beauty, grows in warm sheltered situations, to the 
height of four or five feet. Leaves pinnatified with 
lanceolate acute segments ; the dark purple flowers 
grow in clusters, at the end of the branches. The 
berries, when ripe, are the size of a potatoe apple, of 
a yellowish green hue ; their pulp is sweet, in some 
degree resembling the flavour of a fig. 

Corraa virens, — Green flowered corraa, octandria 
monogynia, nat. ord. Rulaca, A pretty shrub, grow- 
ing to the height of seven or eight feet, along the 
rivulets in the neighbourhood of Hobart Town; 
leaves heart-shaped, opposite, hanging down, they 
are hairy and whitish beneath, the flowers are green- 
ish, solitary, and issue out beneath two small oval 
leaves t towards the middle of the stalk are two leaf- 
like appendages. 

Cornea alba, — White flowered corraa. This is a 
lower and more bushy shrub than the last, growing 
on the banks of the Derwent at Ralph's Bay^ &c. ; 
the leaves are inclined to oval, opposite, and downy 
beneath ; the flowers are white, solitary, and grow- 
ing out from the base of the leaves. 

* It is to Dr. Ross we are indebted for tliis catalogue of the 
fiora of the island. 



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VEGBTABLB KINGDOM. 321 

Leptospermum lanigerum. — Hoary tea tree, Icosan- 
dria monogynia, nat. ord. Myrtacem. This is one of 
the most common plants, growing on the banks of 
most of the rivers and rivulets in the island ; it is a 
bushy shrub about five feet high, covered with small 
oblong leaves ; the flowers are white, and soon fall 
off; the flower cup is covered with down, and re- 
mains after the flowers are fallen ; the whole plant 
has a hoary appearance. 

Prostanthera lasianthos, — Didynamia gymnosper- 
ma, nat. ord. Labiata, This most beautiful shrub 
grows to the height of 20 feet, on the banks of the 
rivulets near Hobart Town; the stems that grow 
straight from the root are but little branched, co- 
vered with a dark red bark, having a strong smell ; 
the leaves are long, narrow and pointed, jagged at 
the edges, and of a dark green ; the flowers are hel- 
met-shaped, white with purple spots, downy, and 
soon fall off; they grow in open clusters at the 
end of the branches ; it flowers in the middle of 
December. 

Ranunculus, — Butter cups, Polyandria polygynia, 
nat. ord. Ranunculacea, It resembles the British 
butter-cup in every thing but the root, which in the 
British species is bulbous, in this plant fibrous; it 
is common in the marshes and plains during No- 
vember ; the leaves are cut into three lobes nearly 
to the base, each lobe being subdivided into three ; 
the leaves and flower-stalks are thickly covered 
with hairs : the flower is elevated on a long flower- 
stalk, and is composed of five shining yellow leaves. 

Pater sonia glahrata. — Monodelphia triandria, nat. 



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322 VAN dibmbn's island. 

ord. Jridee. A very common plant on the poor land 
near Hobart Town ; it flowen early in ^ring, and 
grows to the height of two feet ; the leaves grow 
from the root, and are long, narrow, sharp on the 
edges, and sword-shaped ; the flowers consist of six 
petals or leaves, three of which are large, broad, 
and rounded at the edge and exterior, the interior 
being much smaller than the exterior, and narrow ; 
the flowers quickly fade, but are as quickly followed 
by new ones ; colour white, variegated with purjde. 

Kermedia frostrata. Scarlet Glycine. — Diadelpkki 
decandria, nat. ord. Legmninosa, This is a shrubby 
trailing plant, whidi, if supported, will grow to some 
height ; it is common in hght soils, and flowers in 
October ; the leaves grow in threes, like clover, and 
are nearly round and orumpled at the edges, on the 
upper surface dark green and smooth, and hairy 
below ; the blossoms are pea-shaped, of a bright 
scarlet cdour, and the broad petal, or flower-leaf, 
has a blotch of yellowish green near the base. 

Richea Glauca, — Syngenesia polygamia tequalis, 
nat. ord. Cinerocephake. This plant is common on 
the plains about October, and grows mostly in the 
same situations as the butter-cup ; the leaves grow 
from the root, are about three inches long, narrow, 
and pointed, the outer ones being the broadest, and 
are beset with short downy hairs ; the plant, in this 
state, has a great resemblance to a rib grass ; the 
flower-stalk is about 18 inches in length, proceeding 
from the centre, and throwing out leaves during the 
whole of its length ; the flower is composite, or 
composed of numerous small florets on a common 



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VBOBTABLB KINGDOM. 323 

receptacle, forming a head in the shape of a semi- 
drde, of a brimstone yellow colour. The plant 
when gathered has a strong smdl. 

Aster argophyllus, muak^scented starwart, or rmtsk 
plant, — Syngeneiia polygumia superfiua, nat. oird« 
Ckimposit^. This is an elegant shrub, growing, in 
elevated situations, to the height of seven or eight 
feet ; the leaves are about two inches long, on foot 
stalks, broad, pointed, and toothed at the edges, 
above, a fine dark green, beneath, silky and finely 
veined : the branches have a white silky appearance ; 
the flowers are not very ornamental, resembling 
little stars, white and in loose spikes ; it blossoms in 
November ; the whole plant has a strong smell of 
musk, particularly when first gathered. 

CasuartMa e^diettfoUa, horseiail oastiarina, or he 
and she oak. — Moncecia monandria, nat. ord. Casua^ 
rmea. A large spreading tree, growing on most 
stony rises, with leaves, or rather branchlets, hanging 
down in bundles, from 12 to 18 inches in length, like 
a long load of hair or horse's-tail, all jointed from 
top to bottom ; the male and female flowers are on 
different trees — ^the male blossom is a cluster of 
small red grains at the end of the branchlets — the 
female blossom is a small red globe, scattered over 
the tree on foot-stalks, and ripening into a cone, or 
apple, similar to a fir apple. The wood is brittle, 
but is made into very handsome furniture. 

Esocarpus cupressiformis, cypress-like exocarpos, — 
Monacia pentandria, A tree well known in this 
country by the name of the native cherry-tree, al- 
though resembhng the dierry-tree in no particular ; 
r 2 

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324 VAN dibmbn'b island. 

it grows to about the height of 15 feet, in the form 
of a cone, and is of a bright green colour; it is 
destitute of leaves, the branches being divided into 
small pendant branchlets ; the flowers are very mi- 
nute, of the same colour as the branches ; the nut 
is situated upon a fleshy receptacle, or berry, hang- 
ing at the end of the branches; the berry has a 
sweetish insipid taste; the wood is hard, and the 
tree attains no great size. 

Acacia verticiUata, whorl-leaved acacia, — Poly- 
gamia motuecia, nat. ord. Leguminosa. The leaves 
of this plant are a strong thorn, placed six or seven 
together, in whorls round the stem ; it grows to the 
height of 10 feet, mostly on the banks of rivulets ; 
the flowers are yellow, placed in single cylindrical 
spikes ; with a little care, it forms a beautiful as 
well as an impenetrable hedge. 

Acacia suaveolens. — Sweet-scented acacia, &c. This 
shrub grows to the height of six feet, and inhabits 
with acacia vorticillata, but is introduced into many 
g^dens in Hobart Town, for the delightful odour it 
di£fuses when in blossom ; the leaves are long, nar- 
row, and pointed, having two strong nerves running 
up the centre ; the flowers are yellow, in globular 
spikes, scattered over the plant, or footstalks. 

Acacia myrtifolia, myrtlc'leaved Acacia. — ^A low 
open growing plant, about three feet high, com- 
mon on the New Town rivulet, above Roseway 
Lodge ; leaves broad, pointed, and having a strong 
nerve up the centre, like the broad-leaved myrtle : 
colour light green, with a reddish brown edge; 
flowers yellow ; spikes globular and in bunch&. 



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VBGBTABLE KINGDOM. 325 

Acacia melanoxylon, blackwood, Kghtwood. — ^A tree 
attaining the height of 20 feet and upwards ; grows 
mostly by the sides of rivers ; leaves large, broad, 
rounded at the ends ; blossoms yellow ; spikes 
globular, dispersed among the leaves or footstalks ; 
wood hard, dark colour, and finely veined — ^in re-' 
quest by the cabinet-maker. 

Acacia decurrens, black wattle, — This picturesque 
tree is universally difiused over t^e island ; it de- 
lights mostly in light soils: the leaves are very 
beautiful, being of a dark green colour, and doubly 
pinnate, t. e, are divided into numerous leaflets, 
which are again subdivided into numerous smaller 
ones: flowers yellow; spikes globular, in large 
bunches ; in blossom early in September ; the wood 
is hard, and useful to the cabinet-maker. 

Acacia mollis, silver wattle, — This tree nearly re- 
sembles the black wattle, except that it has a silvery 
and downy appearance, which the other has not, and 
seems to delight in a higher altitude. 

Acacia decipiens, triangular leaved acacia, — A 
small straggling shrub, about two feet high ; leaves 
triangular, outer angle terminating in a spine; 
flowers yellow ; spikes solitary, globular, and placed 
on long footstalks ; not very common. 

The following is a summary of the most common 
vegetable productions of Van Diemen's Island : 

Blue gum tree (Eucalyptus piperita) ; white gum 
tree {Eucalyptus robusta) ; grass tree (Xanthorrhoea 
hostile) ; beef wood — she oak tree (Casuarina stricta) ; 
swamp oak tree {Casuarina paludosa) ; forest oak tree 



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326 VAN dixmbn'b island. 

(CMSum'ina tarulosa) ; Jumeytuekle tree {Banksia in- 
tegri/olia); white cedar, or common head tree of 
India {Melia azedarach) ; red cedar tree (allied to 
Flindersia, Cnnnmghnni, Cedrela toona. Brown); 
light wood tree (CeratopetaluM gummi/erum) ; black 
wattle tree (Acacia melanoxylon) \ green wattle tree 
(Acacia decurrens) ; Norfolk Island pine (Arauoaria 
exceUa) ; cypress tree (Callitris pyramidalis) ; rose- 
wood tree (Triehilia glandulosa) ; sassafras tree 
(Cryptocarya glaucescens) ; tea tree (Melaleuca lina- 
riifolia) ; currijong, or native's cordage tree (MUnscas 
heterophyllus) ; cabbage palm tree (Corypha aus- 
traUs) ! arborescent fern tree (AlsopMlia australis 
and Dicksoma antarctica) ; fern root (Pteris escu- 
lento) ; cherry tree (Exocarpus cupressiformis) ; Ctgfe 
gooseberry bush (Physalis, edulis ? pubescens ?) ; gi- 
gantic lily (Doryanthes excelsa) ; waratah, or tulip 
tree (Tahpea speciosissima) ; Huon River pine (Da- 
crydium) ; Adventure Bay pine tree (Podocarus as- 
fleniifolia, according to Labillardih'e — DacrydiumP 
Brown.) 

The delicious oranges, lemons, grapes, pome- 
granates, and a long list of others, that abound in 
latitudes nearer the equator, are unknown here; 
but, oh the other hand, every sort of fruit, herb, or 
vegetable that grows in England, thrives equally 
well in Van Diemen's Island. 

The Animal Kingdom is also pretty similar to 
that of New South Wales ; it comprises kangaroos 
of three difierent species, viz. : tlie forest, the brush, 
and the walliby ; the chief difference, however, be- 



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ANIMAL KINGDOM. 327 

tween them is the size. The fwesi kangaroo is a 
large animal, its hind quarters weighing from 80 to 
90 lbs. and it stands the full height of a man ^ 

The hjfona opossum, or tiger, is very destructive 
among flocks, and sometimes measures six feet 
from the snout to the tail. It is beautifully striped 
with black and white on the back, and the belly and 
sides are of a grey colour. Its mouth resembles 
that of a wolf, with huge jaws, opening almost to 
the ears. The legs are short in proportion to the 
body, and it has a sluggish appearance ; but in run- 
ning, it bounds like a kangaroo, though not with 
such speed. The female carries its young in a 
pouch, like most of the other quadrupeds of the 
country. 

The dasyurus ursinus, popularly called the devil, is 
another animal of the same species. It is extremely 
ugly, with a head somewhat resembling an otter's, 
but disproportionate to the size of the body; the 
mouth is supplied with three rows of teeth; the 
legs short, with feet like the feline race; the tail 
short and thick, and the skin of a sable colour. 
When provoked, it gnashes its teeth with great 
violence, making at the same time a noise not unlike^ 
that of a bear; it can exist a long time without 
food, and is the only untameable quadruped yet 
found in these colonies. It frequents rocky hills, 
whence it issues at night in search of its prey, and 
b very destructive to the flocks. 

^ The kangatoos thrive well in England ; and I am informed, 
that, in one gentleman's park, there are several hundred feeding 
in common with the deer. 



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328 VAX diembn's island. 

The native porcupine (omithorynchue hystrix), in 
size resembles the common hedgehog, but the spines 
are ranged in patches, having one longer than the 
others protruding from each of the centres ' ; it is 
perfectly harmless : the flesh equals that of a fowl. 

The wombat is a very singular animal, and when 
fall grown weighs nearly 4dlbs. The largest is 
about 32 inches in length, and 26 in circumference. 
The head is large, flattish, and forms an equilateral 
triangle, about seven inches long ; the neck is thick 
and short, and the back arches to the loins ; the cir- 
cumference behind the fore legs is 27 inches, and 
across the thickest part of the belly 31 inches. 
The fur is thick, very strong, and of a light sandy 
or dark grey colour, lying upon the face in regular 
order, as if combed, with the ends upwards in radii 
from the nose. The legs are extremely short, the 
ears sharp, erect, and 2-^ inches long ; eyes small 
and sunken, but lively ; the feet formed like those 
of a badger ; the tail -^ of an inch in length ; the 
mouth resembles that of a rabbit, with Ave long 
grass-cutting teeth in front of each jaw, like a kan- 
garoo, with two canine and eight grinders. The 
flesh has the flavour of that of a kangaroo, but is 
more delicate. The food of the wombat consists 
principally of leaves and grass ; its movements are 
awkward, hobbling or shuffling like a deer : it bur- 
rows, is mild and gentle in disposition, but bites hard 
when provoked, and, in common with many qua- 
drupeds of this island, is a night animal. 

^ Dr. Henderson says, he heard it had the marmpial pouch. 



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ANIMAL KINGDOM. 329 

The platypus (omithorynckus paradoxus) is found 
here as well as in New South Wales. Dr. Hender- 
son supposes it to be allied to the beaver. It swims 
low in the water, frequently in company with the 
musk duck, and dives very rapidly. The body is 
about 10 inches long, and about as many in circum- 
ference ; the bill is about two inches and a quarter 
in length ; and the nostrils are about three-quarters 
of an inch from the end. The eyes are small, and 
the eyelids are scarcely visible, from being concealed 
in the hair ; the ears are two slits behind the eyes, 
and larger than the orifices of the eyelids ; the teeth, 
four in number, one on each side of the upper and 
under jaw, and are all grinders; they differ from 
common teeth materially, having neither enamel nor 
bone, being composed of a horny substance only, 
connected by an irregular surface in the place of 
fangs *. When cut through, which is readily done, 

1 Mr. £. S. P. Bedford, in a recent No. of the Van Diemen's 
Land Annual, thus comments on the teeth of this singfular 
animal : — The description usually given of the teeth of the 
platypus is correct as to the existence and nature of those 
described, namely, " There is one on each side of the two jaws; 
it is oblong, flattened on its surface, and consists of a horny 
. substance adhering to the gum," but not quite accurate as to 
the form of the surface of these teeth, for the two on the lower 
jaw have shallow cavities, into which are received corresponding 
projecting portions of the teeth in the upper. 

And in addition to these there are other and much larger 
teeth, of bony structure, not adhering to the gum only, but 
placed in large depressions or sockets in the jaws. 

At the distance of three angles from the lower jaw there is 
on the side an oval-shaped socket, pierced at the base to its 



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330 VAN dikmbk's island. 

the intonal stractiire is like the human nail. Be- 
tween the dieek and the jaw, on eadi side of the 

several holes for the passage of nutritious vessels and nerves ; 
It measures seven lines in length, and three and a half in 
widdi ; into this cavity is &stened a tooth, adhering also by 
fibro-cartilage to the gum. The base or parts analogous to 
£uigs occupying the cavity and the crown, surrounded by fibro- 
cartilage, projecting into the mouth ; from the shape of the 
jaw the back parts of the teeth are farthest separated from each 
other. This is necessary to accommodate them to the position 
of tkoee in the upper jaw, as there are two teeth in the upper 
jaw corresponding to those in the lower, which are placed 
obliquely with regard to each other. 

On looking at these teeth in the animal, and particularly 
when of a large size, they appear like two grinding teeth grown 
together ; when removed from the jaws, it may bp seen that 
the upper surftice is hollowed, and surrounded by a slightly 
elevated edge, projecting inwards ; and from one side to the 
other there are two slight elevations or ridges, apparently 
dividing the general cavity into smaller ones, the anterior very 
minute; the other two nearly of equal size, and measuring 
three lines in length. 

The inferior sur&ce of the teeth has still the appearance of 
the divisions of three portions, which are marked by prcgec* 
tions corresponding to the depressions in the upper surfiice ; 
the two larger very much resemble the crowns of children's 
molar teeth. The only difference in the teeth of the two jaws 
is, those of the upper have the depressions and elevations 
more strongly marked dian those in the lower. 

The shape of these teeth, their situation, the form of the 
articulating turface of the lower jaw, the fossae for the musciet 
which move the lower jaw laterally, prove that this animal 
does not live by suction. 

The teeth in the bill-like portion are cutting, and the large 
back teeth are evidently for grinding. 

The reasons why these teeth are not generally known are, 
that the mouth of the plat3rpuB is not, when preserved in the 



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ANIMAL KINeDOM. 331 

mouth, there is a pouch, as in the monkey trihe; 
and upbn the projecting part of the posterior por« 
tion of the tongue, there are two small pointed hcumy 
exorescences. The fore legs are short, and the feet 
wehhed ; each foot has five toes, united hy the weh, 
which is very hroad, and is continued heyood the 
points of the toes neariy an inch ; on each toe, there 
is a rounded straight nail, which lies loose upon the 
memhrane forming the weh. The hind legs are 
nearly of the same length as the fore, hut stronger ; 
each foot has five toes, with daws, and is wehhed. 
The male has a strong crooked spur on the heel, 
with a sharp point, which has a joint hetween it and 
the foot, and is csqpahle of motion in two directions : 
the animal, when irritated, ejects a poison through 
this spur. When the point of it is brought dose to 
the leg, the spur is concealed in the hair ; but when 
directed outwards, it projects considerably, and is 
conspicuous. The tail is about five inches long, and 
shaped like that of the beaver. The colour of the 
male is dark brown on the back, legs, bill, and tail ; 
the under part of the neck and belly is of a silver 

usual manner in which it is done, fully opened so that the 
teeth behind the bill-like portion of the jaws can be seen, 
except a very careful examination is made, and in making a pre- 
paration of the bones of the head, they are soon separated, and 
may thus be overlooked. 

It is not considered necessary here to advert more to the 
position of the grinding teeth in the upper jaw, the only inten- 
tion being to point out the existence of such teeth in this sin- 
gular animal. 



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832 VAN dibmbn's island. 

grey. The hair is of two kinds ; one, a very fine 
thick fur, half an inch long, and the other a curious 
kind of hair, nearly an inch long. The part nearest 
the root has the appearance of hair, but for a quar- 
ter of an inch towards iJie point it becomes flat, 
with a glossy brightness, which gives it the appear- 
ance of feathers. The fur or hair on the back is 
shorter than that on the belly. It is very shy, and 
only found in unfrequented places ; it suckles its 
young at first, and afterwards feeds them on commi- 
nuted insects, until they are capable of taking the 
water. 

There are several sorts of wild cats in the woods, 
one of which is called the tiger cat, from its general 
resemblance to that animal; others partake of the 
character of the English weasel; they are all great 
enemies to the poultry yard, and occasionally also to 
young lambs. 

The kangaroo rat and kangaroo mouse should not 
be omitted ; the latter in particular being one of the 
greatest curiosities in the colony ; it is a mouse pos- 
sessing, as near as possible, the distinguishing cha- 
racteristics of the kangaroo. 

Opossums are of two or three sorts. They are 
perfectly harmless and inoffensive, living like squir- 
rels, chiefly in holes of trees, and eating the leaves 
or branches. Their skins are of little value, and 
yet they serve as a pretext for much wanton cruelty 
on the part of some, who take advantage of moon- 
light evenings to shoot and worry great numbers of 
them. 



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BIRDS AND PISHBS. 333 

The bandicoot is a mischievous little visiter to po- 
tato grounds, using its snout to turn up the root, 
which it devours. 

Birds are of numerous species, and many of them 
of beautiful plumage. Emus, black, wMte, and satin 
cockatoos, parrots, and parroquets of great variet}', 
large black magpies, the white or whistling ditto, the ' 
laughing jackass, so called from its singular noise, 
with many others of smaller size, but far more beau- 
tiful appearance, serve to make up the ornithology 
of Van Diemen's Island, in the class that belongs 
neither to birds of prey nor to waterfowl. 

Among the first, ^ are eagles, hawks of all sorts, 
kites, ravens, and the common carrion crow. In the 
other, many varieties of the gull, pelican, the king- 
fisher, black swans of very majestic appearance, wild 
ducks ; also, the musk duck, teal, widgeon, and many 
others. 

Quails, snipe, and a species of pigeon, of a splendid 
bronze colour, in flavour resembling a partridge, and 
scarcely inferior to it, are the chief birds that, in ad- 
dition to waterfowl, attract the attention of sports- 
men. 

Ichthyology. — ^The inlets and bays around the 
coast abound with fish. The trumpeter is one of the 
most admired ; the other kinds, which may be pur- 
chased at Hobart Town, are salmon (so called in the 
colony, but in reality a very poor fish), perch, rock- 
cod, bream, mullet, whitings, flat-heads, leather-jackets, 
taylors, parrots, guard-fish, cray-fish (nearly as good 
as lobsters), oysters (good and plentiinl), eels, skate, 
and shrimps. Some years ago mackarel of a very 



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334 TAN dieubn's island. 

small species were caught, but latterly they have 
not been known to approach the island. Black fish 
are plentiful in the Mersey, and generally weigh from 
five to fifteen pounds ; they have no scales. 

The rivers and lakes in the interior abound with 
very fine eeh; but the other fi-esh- water fish are 
worth little, exc^t the mullet, of which a consider- 
able quayitity is annually caught near the falls at New 
Norfolk. They are in greatest perfection from No- 
vember to March, and afibrd sport to the angkr, as 
they will readily rise to the fly. 

A fish found in the bays and on the shores of the 
island, and supposed to be a species of toad-fish, is 
a strong poison. In the year 1831, the lady and 
two children of a respectable merchant partook of 
part of one of these fish, which was served up at 
dinner, and in the course of three hours they were 
all corpses. At the coroner's inquest, the effect of 
the poison was satisfactorily proved by giving part 
of the fish left by the unfortunate individuals, to two 
cats, which soon become affected. When both were 
in a dying state, one had 25 drops of the solution 
of arsenic introduced into the stomach, and rapidly 
recovered, while the other, which was allowed to 
take its chance, quickly died. About 12 hours after 
death, the bodies of the unf(»^unate sufferers became 
livid, swollen, with bloody serum issuing from all 
tjie external parts, intolerably fetid, and passed ra- 
pidly into decomposition. The poison is of a power- 
ful sedative nature, producing stupor, and acting 
upon the nervous system. This fish seldom exceeds 
^ve inches in length, which is disproportionate to 



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FISHSS, SNAKES, AND INSECTS. 335 

its thickness ; the back is spotted like tortoise-shell, 
and of the same colour; the belly is white, resem- 
bling kid-skin. 

The black whale resorts, during the breeding sea- 
son, to the deep estuaries of rivers, and to the bays 
and inlets around the island. The whalers at that 
season are on the alert, and the instant a fish is seen, 
it is pursued by them in boats.' The smallest fishery 
generally consists of two boats, suppHed with eight 
hands each ; and an estabUshment is fixed on some 
convenient spot on the shore for * rendering down' 
(melting) the blubber. The proprietor supplies 
rations, including spirits (which, as an encourage- 
ment to the trade, are not charged with duty) ; and 
instead of wages, the men participate in the profits. 
The cost of the whale boats (which are colonial 
built, and considered of a superior make), gear, pro- 
visions, &c., for each establishment during the sea- 
son, amounts to about SOOl. 

The quantity of oil exported will be found under 
the head of Cemmerce ; the progress of the trade is 
indicated by the fact, that in 1824 no whale oil was 
exported ; in 1825, to the value of 1400/. ; in 1826, 
2855/. ; in 1827, 9670/ ; in 1829, 12,313/. ; in 
1830, 18,277/.; and in 1834, from Hobart Town 
alone, the oil exported was in value 45,513/. ; and 
the whalebone 8217/. 

There are several kinds of snakes, some of them 
extremely venomous. The most common are a 
large black snake, the diamond smike, and a smaller 
brown sort. In the reptile family may be classed 
guanas and lizards, said to be perfectly innoxious : 



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336 VAN DIBMBN 8 ISLAND. 

centipedes of two sorts, scorpions and tarantulas; the 
latter may be often met with in rotten wood. There 
are also many curious and beautiful varieties of the 
beetle ; three or four sorts of ants, some of which are 
an inch long, and sting sharp]y ; a variety of spiders 
and wild bee. European^domestic animals all thrive 
and increase in size. 



CHAPTER V. 

POPULATION — ABORIGINES — CONVICT AND FREE — THE 
TREATMENT OP PRISONERS. 

The Population here, as in New South Wales, is 
composed of three classes, viz. : the Aborigines, the 
convicts, and the white free inhabitants. The Ab- 
origines, or primitive possessors of the soil, have 
been utterly extirpated by the white race. Here, as 
elsewhere, the European settlers have been the de- 
struction of those whom policy, humanity, and Christ- 
ianity ought to have prompted them to preserve. The 
history of the Aborigines in the colonies of all Euro- 
pean nations is a melancholy tale. 

The following shows the progress hi the white 
population since the settlement of the colony in 
1804:— 



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POPULATION. 



337 





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338 



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5 — "3 "S 

•a o « M 



lirppsi^sisfiifH 



There is a veiy small proportion of females to males among tlie conyict 
population. The births are to t^e deaths nearly as two to one. 



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POPULATION. 



339 



8-5 



s S 

la 

<» S 
^1 

G ^ 

OS a> 

$-^ 

CO O 

•si 

u a 

I.S.S 



Free and Condi- 
tional Pardons 
issued per cent, to 


1 
1 




1 


^0 


Free and 
Conditional Par- 
dons issued to 


si 


: : : : :»S8SSJ2S 


i 

"a 


HllgmisSaS 


Tickets of leave 

issued 

per cent to 


i 

-5 


Mi-(i-(i-(i-(eieieokoceo«o 


i 
1 


OOOOOOOOOOAO^iOiO 


Tickets 

of 

Leave issued to 


i 

•a 

1 




DO 

1 


584 
600 
496 
660 
697 
751 
786 
981 
1192 
1448 
705 
888 


Convicts 

in 

the Colony. 


Ph 


ieEiiiiiiiii 


1 


5700 

6082 

6061 

6373 

6801 

7334 

8877 

10391 

11062 

13126 

13664 

14903 


Years 
ending 




iiigiiis§§gi 





z 2 



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340 VAN dibmbn's island. 

The aborigines, or blacks, differ but little from 
those of the adjacent territory of New Holland, ex- 
cept that the hair of the former is woolly, their 
complexion quite black, and their coxmtenance and 
appearance more nearly resemble the African negro 
than is the case with the aborigines of New South 
Wales, althoughVan Diemen's Land is so much colder. 
In appearance and ingenuity, the aborigines of this 
island are inferior to those of New South Wales ; and 
Monsieur Peron, who tried them with an instrument 
called the dynamometer , is of opinion that they are a 
weaker race. The dynamometer employed by M, 
Peron (that of Regnier) consisted of an elliptical 
spring, one foot long and rather narrow. It was 
covered with leather, that it might not injure the 
hand that compressed it. The strength of the spring 
was such as to exceed that of any animal to which it 
might be applied; and it contained a mechanism 
with an index which indicated the quantity of the power 
by which the spring was compressed. M, Peron 
was the first to whom the idea occurred of employ- 
ing this instrument for the purpose of comparing the 
strength of the savage with that of civilized man ; 
and in the voyage to the southern hemisphere, un- 
dertaken by order of Buonaparte, the following 
results were obtained. The manual power, expressed 
in French, kilogrammes, was — natives of Van Die- 
men's Land, 50*6; of New Holland, 51*8; of 
Timor, 58*7; French, 69*2; English, 71*4. M. 
Peron could never induce the natives of VanDiemen's 
Land to try the strength of their loins ; but the re- 
sult in respect to the others, expressed in French 



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POPULATION. 341 

myriogrammes, was — ^New Holland, 14' 8; Timor, 
16-2; French, 22-1 ; EngUsh, 23-8. 

For several years past, a system of desultory war- 
fare has heen carrying on between the aborigines 
and the colonists, arising oat of a spirit of revenge 
on either side. The retaliatory attacks of the abo- 
rigines on the distant and defenceless stock-keepers 
and farmers, aroused the spirit of the whole country ; 
and all the military, and people capable of bearing 
arms, who could be spared from the defence of the 
stores, formed a cordon round the aborigines, so as 
to drive them into a peninsula, called Tasman's Head, 
where it was intended to confine them, supply all 
their wants, and endeavour to civilize them. Great 
trouble and expense were incurred, and the abori- 
gines broke through the cordon as so many hunted 
beasts from a lair ; but by the humane exertions of 
Mr. Robinson, aided by some of the more civilized 
Sydney blacks (sent from New South Wales for the 
purpose), the aborigines have removed themselves 
to Flinders' island,' in Bass's Straits, where they are 
clothed, fed, and endeavours made to civilize them. 
The total number of the aborigines probably does not 
exceed 300 ; and in a few years (owing partly to the 
small numbier of males in proportion to females), 
these also will have entirely passed away. 

Convicts, — ^The number of transported felons in 
the country in 1836 was nearly 20,000. 

There is a penal settlement at Port Arthur, where 
prisoners are transferred from the colony, on convic- 
tion. 

The female prisoners are in number about 2000, 



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342 VAN dibmbn's island. 

and assigned as servants to the settlers, in the same 
manner as the men. As the subject of prison disci- 
pline is deservedly es citing considerable attention, 
I subjoin the following particulars, relative to the 
treatment of convicts in Van Diemen's Island, which, 
together with the details given under the head of 
New South Wales, will enable the reader to under- 
stand the manner in which the prisoners are dis- 
posed of. 

All persons who are transported to Van Diemen's 
Land, without reference to any previous circum- 
stances whatever, are either placed in the public ser- 
vice, or are assigned to private individuals, imme- 
diately upon landing, according to their several 
qualifications. Those who belong to the first class, 
are compeDed to devote the whole of their time to 
such occupations as are allotted to them; and in 
return, are fed, clothed, and lodged at the expense 
of the Crown. All mechanics and labourers reside 
in barracks built expressly for the purpose; but 
those who are employed as clerks in any of the pub- 
lic offices are permitted to live elsewhere, and receive 
a small pittance varying from 10/. to 18/. per an- 
num, together with 5/. for clothing. The regula- 
tions in force with respect to the whole body, effec- 
tually render their condition one of unvarying pu- 
nishment. They are not allowed the exercise of 
either their time or talents for their own advantage, 
nor are they suffered to possess property, even if 
they had friends who would place such at their dis- 
posal. Those who are engaged to private individuals 
must be bond fide in the service of their masters. 



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CLASSIFICATION OF CONVICTS. 343 

They are not allowed to lire from under hk roof — 
miiftt not be paid wages, nor may they work for 
themselves — can go no where without a pass — id 
fiact, altho«i^ possessing a sort of comparative 
liberty, are still under the closest control imagin- 
able. The colomal laws against harbouring priscmers 
are extremely severe, visiting all transgressors with 
heavy fines ; to whidi persons may very innocently 
render themselves liable, so various and comprehen* 
sive are the enactments. 

The following clas«fication, so far as it is found 
practicable, is in force throughout the colony, llius 
while the industrious and well-behaved receive due 
encouragement, those of irregular habits are com- 
pelled to labour, without intermission, through the 
several gradations, until, by the expiation of their 
offences, and by their improved demeanour, they ar^ 
considered worthy of the privileges annexed to the 
second and first classes, or to the still higher privi- 
lege of being placed in the service of respectable 
settlers. 

First Class, — Consists of such men, whether me- 
chanics or labourers, as on account of especial good 
conduct are permitted to sleep out of the barracks, and 
to woik for themselves the whole of each Saturday. 

Second Class. — ^Those for whom barrack accom- 
modation is provided, and who, on condition of 
uniform good behaviour, are allowed to work for 
themselves the whole of each Saturday. 

Third Class, —Men employed on the public works^ 
who are released from work every Saturday at noon, 
subject, however, to the condition of good behaviour. 



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344 VAN dibmbn's island. 

Fourth Class, — Refractory or disorderly characters 
worked in irons, either in the towns or on the roads, 
under the sentence of a Magistrate. 

Fifth Class, — Men of the most degraded and in- 
corrigible character, who are worked in irons under 
the sentence of a Magistrate, and kept entirely sepa- 
* rate from other prisoners. 

Sixth Class, — ^Men removed to penal settlements, 
subject to the classification of the Commandant 
there. These are distant stations under the Govern- 
ments of New South Wales and Van Diemen's 
Island, where none but prisoners and their guards 
are allowed to remain; and where the former are 
kept to unremitting labour. 

In order that no excuse for the non-performance 
of labour may be alleged by the convict, it is impe- 
rative on his master to furnish him with the follow- 
ing weekly rations * : — 

Meat, lOj lbs. ; ^our, 10^ lbs. ; sugar, 7 oz. ; 
soap, 3| do.; and salt, 2 do. Each servant is 
ordered to receive of woollen slop clothing, two 
suits; stock-keeper's boots, three pairs; shirts, 
four ; cap, or hat, one per annum. Bedding to 
consist of a palliass stufied with wool, two blankets 
and a rug, to be considered the property of the 
master, and retained by him on the discharge of the 
servant. In quality they are required to be equal to 
those issued from the pubHc stores. No payment of 
wages is permitted to be made to the convict. If a 

* On reference to this subject in the preceding chapter, it 
will be perceived that the rations are better for prisoners in 
Van Diemen's Island than in New South Wales. 



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TRBATMBNT OF CONVICTS. 345 

conyict refuse to work, or neglect his orders, he is, 
on conviction, punished by a Bench of Magistrates ; 
and if such conduct be persisted in, he is sent to 
work on the road in chains, and finally to a penal 
settlement. At Macguarie Harbour, one of the 
penal settlements, the convicts' punishment is ren- 
dered as severe as any circumstances on earth can 
make it. Shut up at night within a wretched hovel, 
on a rock in the ocean, where the only symptom of 
comfort is that which security presents ; as soon as 
the prisoners are called from rest in the morning, 
they are fed with a dish of porridge, composed of 
flour and water, with a little salt. They then em- 
bark in boats, and row several miles to the wood- 
cutting stations, where they continue to work until 
their return at night, when they are supplied with 
the only substantial meal they receive in the twenty- 
four hours. Their labour consists in cutting up the 
trees growing near the coast, into heavy logs, which 
they carry on their shoulders, or slide to the water's 
edge, and form into rafts. During the greater part 
of this duty, the convict has to work up to his middle 
in water; and even in the woods, from the moist 
and swampy nature of the country, his employment 
is of the most disagreeable and harassing kind. 
The prospect of being rewarded for good conduct, 
by being allowed to return to the parent colony, 
under the judicious management and humane encou- 
ragement of the Commandant, often sows the seeds 
of reformation, which are more effectually nourished 
when he is entrusted to the settler. But so dreadful 
is the punishment, that murder has not unfrequently 



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346^ VAN dibmbn's island. 

been committed, in order tbat the prisoner might be 
remanded to Hobart Town gaol for the brief period 
]mor to his trial and execution. 

Tlie weekly rations to females consist of 8| lbs. of 
flour, 5^ lbs. of meat, 2 oz. of tea, ^ lb. of sugar, 

2 oz. of soap, 1| oz. of salt. 

The wearing apparel famished, per annnm, is 1 
cotton gown ; 2 bed gowns, or jackets ; 3 slufts ; 2 
flannel petticoats ; 2 stuff ditto ; 3 pairs of shoes ; 

3 calico caps ; 3 pairs of stockings ; 2 neck handker- 
chiefs ; 3 check aprons ; 1 bonnet. 

The above articles of dress are required to be of 
a plain and neat description, not exceeding the cost 
of 7/. per annum : beyond this allowance the Lien- 
tenant Governor strongly recommends that no female 
be remunerated. 

Each assigned female servant is also provided 
with bedding, consisting of a palliass, stuffed with 
wool, two blankets, and a rug, which are the pro- 
perty of the master, and retained by him on the dis- 
charge of the servant. 

The indulgences that are open to prisoners of the 
Crown, as a reward for good conduct, consist, as in 
New South "Wales, principally of tickets of lettve, by 
which the holder is exempted from compulsory labour 
— and emancipations, which restore freedom, so £ar as 
r^ards the colony, but do not permit the individual 
to leave it. But there are other intermediate steps, 
which may be considered to partake of the natm« oi 
indulgences^ such as situations in the police, post- 
office, &c., that are confnred only upon persons of 
good character, but which pave the way, at the end 



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FRBB POPULATION. 34? 

of a given period, fo certain and eonsiderable ad- 
Tontages. The indispensable pre-requisites to in^ 
dalgence are, undeviating good conduct, and length 
of service. Persons who are transported for seven 
years, most have rended four years in the colony, 
before they can become entitled to a ticket of leave ; 
for fourteen, six; for life, eight. Emancipations 
may be hoped for, by men transported for fourteen 
years, at the end of two-thirds of their sentence ; by 
those men who are sentenced for life, after having 
been in the island twelve years ; but one single act 
that shall have brought the individual before a 
magistrate, so as to have a record of misbehaviour 
against his name, no matter how slight its nature, 
throws him back for an indefinite period, and the 
ddm he had, according to the rule now laid down, 
is forfeited. Let those in England who fancy that 
transportation is a state of ease and advantage, only 
reside in Van Diemen's Island for one twelvemonth, 
and their opinions will be changed. In it, as in all 
other conditions of life, those who behave well are 
better off, in many respects, than others who show 
no signs of reformation. 

Free Population, — ^The third class, amounting to 
about 26,000 is similar to that described in the 
preceding chapter; there are not, however, such 
strong party feelings in Van Diemen's Island be- 
tween the Emancipists and the Emigrants; and 
although there may not be so much wealth centred 
in individuals as in the sister colony, there is cer- 
tainly a great deal of comfort and prosperity. 

Although the colony was founded so recently as 



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348 VAN DIBMBN*S ISLAND. 

1804, as a penal settlement of New South Wales, 
and continued as sach until 1813, it has nevertheless 
made considerable progress in population. The 
descendants of English parents are a fine race, with- 
out perhaps as much bone and muscle as the Austra- 
lian youths, but with equal intelligence, energy, and 
industry. 



CHAPTER VI. 

GOVERNMENT —RELIGION— EDUCATION AND CRIME. 

Van Dibmsn's Land is a Lieutenant Government of 
New South Wales, but in local matters since 1825, 
the Lieutenant-Governor with the aid of an Execu- 
tive and Legislative Council, administers the affairs 
of the island after the same manner as they are 
carried on in New South Wales, and independent of 
that government. 

The Executive Council consists of the Ldeut.-Go- 
vemor, Chief Justice, Colonial Secretary, Colonial 
Treasurer, and the officer in command of the troops. 
The Legislative Council consists of not more than 
fifteen members, nor less than ten, appointed by the 
King's warrant. Several members of the gov^nment, 
such as the Chief Justice, Colonial Secretary, Colonial 
Chaplain, Attorney General, Treasurer, &c., are ex- 
officio members of this council, on whom devolves the 
making of laws and the issuing of ordinances for the 
good government of the colony, subject to the approval 
of the King or Queen in Council. The Lieut.-Gover- 



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60VBRNMBNT. 349 

nor has the mitiative m all laws brought before the 
council ; drafts of such laws to be inserted in one or 
more of the colonial newspapers eight clear days be- 
fore their enactment, unless in cases of special emer- 
gency. Two-thirds of the council must be present ; 
if a majority dissent from the Governor, they may 
minute the grounds of their dissent, and then the 
law cannot be passed. Laws passing the Legislative 
Council, must within seven days be enrolled in the 
Supreme Court, and fourteen days from such enrol- 
ment they come into operation, unless the judges of 
the Supreme Court declare them to be repugnant to 
the laws of England, or the charter or letters patent 
of the colony. The Lieut.- Governor and Council, in 
such an event, reconsider the laws and the judge's 
objections ; and if they see fit, may cause the laws to 
be put in force and transmit to England the whole of 
the proceedings connected therewith. The laws of 
England, so far as they can be applied, are recognized 
in the administration of justice. All laws made in 
the colony, and all orders by the Crown in pursuance 
of the 9th Geo. 4, c. 83, to be laid before Parliament 
within six weeks after the commencement of each 
session. Criminal offences are tried by seven naval 
or military officers as a jury, and civil cases by a 
judge and two assessors, magistrates of the colony, 
appointed by the Lieut.-Govemor, open to challenge 
by the parties, but the challenge to be determined by 
the judge ; if the assessors do not agree, the judge 
has a casting vote. The Supreme Court may, on the 
application (^ either a plaintiff or defendant, summon 
a jury to try an action. 



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350 VAN SIBMBM'i I8ftAND. 

It k a Court of Ckancery, King's Bench, Common 
Fleas, Exchequer, Oyer and Terminer Gaol deliyery, 
and Admiralty Session ; its ecclesiastical jurisdiction 
extends only to proving wills and granting letters of 
administration. Appeals can be made from tiiis 
Court only when the matter exceeds 1000/. in value, 
aad then direct to the Queen in council. Ilie Qiief 
or the Foifine Judge may hold a Court of Circuit in 
different parts of the colony, for the trial of offences, 
and of issues in any action in the Supreme Court, 
in fact, for the transaction of the same species of 
business with the assizes in England. Ses»ons of 
the Peace and Courts of Requests, with the jurisdie- 
tion of the like courts in New South Wales, are held 
in various districts of Van Diemen's Island. Tlie 
whole colony is divided into police iMstricts, ea<^ 
under the charge of a police magistrate (who is of 
coarse a stipendiary officer), and a chief and other 
omstables, to whose exactions the good order of the 
colony is mainly attributable. The Sheriffs, Coroners, 
Chairmen of the Sessions, and Commissioner of the 
Courts of Request, and indeed most public officers 
in Van Diemen's Island are recompensed for their 
services by salaries, tiie fees recdvable being paid 
over to the public account. 

Hie Governor of New South Wales is eX'Cffido 
general of the district, which includes Van Diemen's 
Island; the Lieut.-Govemor oi the colony being 
only Colonel, and in that capacity, commanding the 
troops staticmed in the island. 

Return of Troops serving in Van Diemen's Land, 
with the number of Women and Children of each 



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BBUaiON ^BPUCATION. 851 

CorpE, and Dei^hs duriog the year ending dlst 
December, 1836.— Regiments 17tli, 21»t, 50th, 68rd, 
fioot ; Officers present, 31 ; Non-com. Offieers and 
Privates, 67S : ditto sick and absent, 41 ; total, 750, 
Women, 156: Children male, 141, females 155. 
Deaths smce last return 10 men and 6 children. 

Religion. — ^Van DieiAen's Island is included in 
the dbcese of Australia. The Establi^ed Chorch 
clergy consists of a rural Dean« one Senior, and 
seven Junior Chaplains; there are three Presbyterian 
Ministers, ooie Independent, one Wesleyan, and one 
Roman Catholic Priest, all paid by government. 
Hie stipend of the senior Chapleun at Hobart Town 
is estimated at 1000/. per annum : this arises from 
fees, the glebe, &c. The salary of all the chapdains 
is the same, viz. 250/. per annum. In sev^-al 
places, where the congregation is not num^mis, the 
service of the diurch is performed by lecturers, a 
sort of lay clerg3n3Qen, whose utility in oin: colonies 
as catechists, &c. is unquestionable. 

Education — Is well attended to. The " King's 
Orphan Sdiools," and seventeen elementary schools 
throii^hont the colony, are supported by the local 
government. The ** King's Orphan Schools" are two 
in number, one for male, and the other for female 
^ildren. Those who are admitted are of four classes, 
viz. : — 1. Those who are entirely destitute. 2. Those 
who have one parent living. 3. Those who have both 
parents living, but totally incompetent to aflPord them 
t^e means of education. 4. Children, whose parents 
are to contribute the moderate sum required for the 
6 



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352 VAN dibmbn's island. 

maintenance and education of cMldren in the '* King's 
Schools/' viz. 12/. per annum. 

The care of these children is entrusted to com- 
petent persons, who are themselves closely looked 
after by a committee named by the Lieutenant-Go- 
vernor ; and already have the good effects of these 
institutions been felt in numerous instances, where 
children would otherwise have been left in a state of 
miserable destitution. 

The other government elementary schools admit 
all applicants, upon the payment of a small weekly 
sum. The pupils are taught reading, writing, spell- 
ing, and the other rudiments of education. They 
are under the immediate charge or superintendence 
of the clergyman who resides nearest the place 
where they are severally estabUshed. 

Of private seminaries, there are six male and nine 
female at Hobart Town ; and in various parts of the 
island six male and six female schools, well con- 
ducted, and where a good elementary education is 
afforded on reasonable terms. 

Thb Press is unshackled by stamps, paper excise, 
advertisement duty, or censorship ; the result is thus 
shown : — ^At Hobart Town, Colonial Times, published 
on Tuesday; Tasmanian, on Friday; Hobart Town 
Courier, on Friday ; True Colonist, on Tuesday ; Go- 
vemment Gazette, on Friday ; Trumpeter, on Tuesday 
and Friday ; Trumpeter General, ditto ; the Morning 
Star, ditto ; at Launceston, the Launceston Adver- 
tizer, and also the Cornwall Chronicle ; there are also 
Monthly Magazines, Annuals, and Almanacks. These 
newspapers are not inferior in size and appearance 



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8TAPLB PRODUCTS. 353 

to their brethren of the English press. Estimating 
the number of free inhabitants at 15,000, there is a 
journal for every 1666 persons : while in the United 
Kingdom, with a population of 25,000,000, and 
reckoning the whole of the journals at 400, there 
is only one newspaper for ever 62,500 persons. 
Such is the difference between a heavily taxed and 
an untaxed press. 

There are several religious, benevolent, and 
literary institutions ; namely, an Auxiliary Bible 
Society, Van Diemen's Missionary ditto, Wesleyan 
Missionary ditto, Presbyterian Tract ditto. Benevo- 
lent ditto, Stranger's Friend ditto, Sunday School 
Union, Independent ditto ditto. Mechanics' Insti- 
tution, Wesleyan Library, Hobart Town Circulating 
ditto, Hobart Town Book Society, Infant School 
ditto. 

The Mbdical Department for prisoners con- 
sists of a cdonial, six assistant, and twelve district 
surgeons. The hospital at Hobart Town is large, 
airy, and well superintended. [For details of educa- 
tion, crime, &c. see " Statistics of the British 
Colonies," published in 1839.] 



CHAPTER VII. 

STAPLE PRODUCTS AND COMMERCE. 

Van Diemen's Island is still an agricultural country, 
and the produce of the soil its chief resource. The 
extent and nature of the crops, their progress and 



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354 



VAN DIBMBN 8 ISLAND. 



value, the fisheries, &c. will all be best understood 
by an examination of the accompanying tables. 

Number 'of Acres in Crop, and Nature of each Crop in Van 
Diemen's Land, from 1828 to 1836, both inclusive. 



[Tetn. 


Whet. 


BKley. 


Oats. 


FWS. 


Beam. 


"^*^ Turnips. S'**"* 
toe*. *^^»P»- Gnuws. 


t 


1 1828 


20357 , 


3864 


1573 1 646 


' 35 


1292 


1269 4970 


„. 34033 j 


1829 


24423^ 


2886k 


2231 600k 


20 


1751^ 


1667 1 4792 


429 38801UI 
1576 55976G; 


1830 31155k 


20«l||2395i< 611^ 






1920k 12797U 
4589f P092'' 


1831 1 31007^ 


4010 I4166¥' 877 


1842W 


621 54219 


1832 


2o346i$ 


5471%' 5690y 


152k 


68^ 


18'>4V 


6224k 10773^ 


43 156628 i 


1 1833 


ej268k 
29973^ 


5464lJ 


80025^- 


1672 


103 


f36ki^ 


6559k 11209 ^ 


- ,61399J6, 


1834 


5413^ 


7348 




53Vr 




8t)04U I3d73* 


380 : 69041^ 


1835 


33931* 


7697 


7410 


1259 


9ii 


4585 20018', Il8d6 ' 


424 87283 ! 


1836 


40388 


7499 


9178 


1637 


127 


4068 1 9378 17348 


4&4 j 90941 j 



Number of Horses, Cattle, Sheep, and Goats in Van Piemen's 
Land, in each year from 1828 to 1836. 



Horses.. 


1828. 


1829. 


1830. 


1831. 


1832. 


1833. 


1834. 


1835. 


1836. 


2034 

84476 

55S698 

708 


2514 

109101 

637141 

815 


8387 

85942 

680740 

562 


4217 

97088 

682128 

673 


5020 

80939 

756202 

737 


5483 

79517 

719729 

1071 


7115 

74075 

765552 

1070 


6449 

82217 

744625 

1548 


^ 8243 

74500 

906813 

1964 


Homed Cattle 
Sheep 


Goats 





Return of the Produce in Van Diemen's Land from 1820 to 
1836, inclusive. 



Tears. 


Wheat 


Barley. 


Oats. 


Peas. 


Beans. 


Pota- 
toes. 


Tur- 
nips. 


Hay. 




Bushels. 


Bushels. 


Bushels. 


Bushels. 


Bushels. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


1S29 


318641 


60664 


84166 


8776 


235 


5192 


11055 


2098 


1830 


511000 


57000 


70000 


10000 


500 


5900 


10000 


5500 


1831 


850000 


79945 


68000 


9000 


600 


5500 


8000 


6000 


1832 


890000 


74000 


75000 


10000 


600 


6000 


9500 


6000 


1833 


232543 


65031 


87106 


10062 


980 


7070 


10485 


6604 


1834 


218348 


89487 


120247 


11483 


545^ 


7114 


16301 


7823 


1835 


508965 


153940 


160000 


13000 


870 


12000 


35000 


7000 


1836 


485969 


89429 


121526 


9819 


1480 


11936 


69009 


8560 



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STAPLE PRODUCTS. 355 

Property annually created and consumed or con- 
verted into Moveable or Immoveable Property. — ^Ani- 
mal food for 50,000 mouths, at 2201bs. each per ann., 
1 1 ,000,000 lbs. at 2d, per lb., 9 1 fiQQl ; fish for 50,000 
ditto at 60 lbs. each per annum, 3,000,000 lbs. at \\d. 
per lb., 18,750/.; bread, vegetables, and fruit for 
50,000 ditto at 2rf. per day for 365 days, 76,041/. ; 
butter, eggs, milk, cheese, and poultry for 50,000, 
at 1(/. per day for 365 days, 152,083/. ; Condiments, 
viz, salt, pepper, and spices for 50,000, at Id. per 
week for 52 weeks, 15,883/. ; Luxuries, viz. tea, 
sugar, coffee, wine, beer, spirits, tobacco, &c. for 
50,000, at2</. each for 365 days, 152,983/.; food 
raised for horses, cattle, sheep, swine, &c. 60,000/. ; 
wool exported. 1,500,000 lbs. at 1^. Sd. per lb., 
125,000/.; whale oil and whalebone, 30,000/.; 
other articles of export, 30,000/. ; wearing apparel 
renewed for 50,000 persons at 1/. each, 50,000/. ; 
furniture for 5000 houses renewed, at 5/. each, 
25,000/. ; increase of agricultural stock per annum, 
100,000/. ; surplus income from trades, professions, 
&c. and converted into moveable and immoveable 
property, 5000 heads of families at 25/. each, 
125,000/. ; created and lost by fire, storm, accident, 
&c., 5000/. ; total annually created, 1,056,506/. 

Moveable Property. — 3400 horses at 15/. each 
51,000/.; 100,000 homed cattle at 3/., 300,000/.; 
800,000 sheep at 12*., 480,000/.; 20,000 swine at 
10*., 10,000/. ; poultry, value 8000/. ; furniture in 
5000 houses at 30/. each, 150,000/.; clothing be- 
longing to 50,000 persons at 5/., 250,000/. ; farming 
A a 2 



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356 VAN dismbn's island. 

implements, machinery, &c. 30,000/. ; ships, boats 
And gear, 60,000/.; merchandize on hand, 200,000/. ; 
bullion and coin, 100,000/. : total moveable property, 
1,639,000/. 

Immoveable Property. — 5000 houses at 30/. each, 
150,000/. ; land cultivated, 80,000 acres at 10/. per 
acre, 800,000/. ; land granted, and partly cleared and 
fenced, 1,000,000 acres at 1/. per acre. 1,000.000/. ; 
land not granted, but fit for sale and culture, 
5,000,000 acres at 5$. per acre, 1,250,000/. ; private 
stcH-es, buildings, &c., value 80,000/.; gaols, churches, 
forts, stores, and other public buildings, value 
100,000/.; roads, bridges, wharfs, &c. value 500,000/- 
Total immoveable property, 3,880,000/. 

Manufactures, mines, and fisheries, SfC. in Van Die- 
men's Land in 1836. [B. B.] Hobart Totm— Two 
saw-mills ; 4 shipwrights ; 1 mast, block, and pump 
maker; 3 sail makers; 1 rope maker; 1 steam^mill; 
10 water mills ; 2 windmills ; 7 engineers ; 3 found- 
deries ; 8 cart and plough manufactories ; 2 coach 
makers ; 3 cooperages ; 2 distilleries ; 1 pottery ; 1 
soap-boiler ; 4 candle manufactories ; 1 hat manufac- 
tory ; 1 dyer ; 3 wool staplers ; 4 felt-mongers ; 8 
breweries; 1 furrier; 1 parchment and glue maker; 1 
snuff manufactory; 8 tanneries; 4 printing-offices; 
1 comb maker ; 1 agricultural implement maker. In 
this district lime abounds, the quantity produced this 
year was 47,600 bushels, value 968/. 6s. 8d.— Fish- 
eries. — ^There are 2 ships ; 2 brigs ; 5 sloops and 
54 boats employed here in the whale fishery, and 
the quantity produced this year was : — ^wbale black 



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8TAPLB PRODUCTS. 357 

oil, 424 fish, valae 36,800/. ; bone, 123 tons, vake 
11,564/. ; sperm, 26 fish of 129 tons, value 7200/. ; 
total, 55,564/. 

Launceston, — 1 wind mill ; 3 water mills ; 3 
breweries; 1 distillery; 3 tanneries; 1 tobacco 
manufactory ; 4 quarries of free and lime stone ; 
Fisheries, — 3 ships and 10 boats employed in the 
fisheries. In 1836, black and sperm whale, 96 fish 
were caught ; value of oil and bone, 15,100/. George 
Toum, — 1 wind mill ; 2 quarries of carbonate of lime ; 
9 boats employed in the fisheries, viz., oysters, value 
100/. ; salmon trout and rock cod, &c., 300/. West-^ 
bury, — 6 quarries of lime stone and pipe clay, worth 
Is. 6d. per bushel. Norfolk Plains, — 1 tannery ; 1 
wind mill, and 1 water mill. Campbell Toum, — 5 
flour mills; 13 quarries of lime and free stone. 
Oatlands, — 2 flour mills ; 2 salt pans. Bothwett, — 

2 flour mills ; 1 brewery ; 3 quarries of lime and free 
stone ; 2 boats on the lakes employed fishing for eels, 
of which there are great quantities in the Clyde. Ha- 
milton, — 2 flour mills and 3 quarries of lime stone. 
New Norfolk, — 3 flour mills and 2 quarries of lime 
worth 9d, per bushel ; 7 boats employed fishing. 
Brighton, — 3 water mills; 1 wind mill; 1 brewery, 
and 3 lime kilns; several quarries. Richmond, — 

3 wind mills and 3 water mills ; several quarries of 
lime and free stone. Four schooners ; 3 sloops, and 
32 boats employed trading and fishing for salmon, 
rock cod, eels, &c. Gt. Swan Port,-^l salt manufac- 
tory and 2 flour mills ; 3 ships and 13 boats employed 
fishing. This year 69 whales caught, value' 7760/. 
Circular Head, Horton District,^-'! flour mill. 



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358 



VAN DIBMSN S ISLAND. 



Rates of Wages per day in Van Piemen's Land to 
Bricklayers, Carpenters, Masons, and Plumbers, since 
1824. — Bricklayers, Carpenters, and Masons, 1824, 
12*.; 1826, lU.; 1828.105.; 1831, 8*. 4rf.; 1834, 
Is, 6(f. Plumbers, 1828. 8*. ; 1831, Is, 6d, ; 1834, 
6s, 6d, The years omitted are similar to the preceding 
year given. 

CoMMBRCB. — ^The trade of the colony has of late 
years increased with great rapidity. Its progress in 
value, and the shipping employed therein, will be 
seen by the annexed table. The articles of export 
and import are similar to those of New South Wales. 







IMPORTS AND SHIPPING OF 


VA> 

ed 

!1. 


r DIEMKN*S ISIULND . 


t 


Grmt Britain. 


Britteh Coloniet. 


Unit 
StaU 


Foreign State*. 


Itotal. 










1 


1 

20 
22 
59 
60 


1 




1 


H 


'Ills 1 1 

I III 1 3 'i 

~. \J -. 2000 1 
.„ I...i ... 9810 5 
3368 5 1217(26735 12 
2002 3 684' 6625 7 


1 


3 


i 

33 
52 
234 
292 


III 

11116 ... 

13455 ... 
55833 3657 
58142 3702 


18S4 
1825 
1835 
1836 


50000 
59935 
403879 
386142 


7246 10000 
8286 > 18416 
21013 149664 
19700 163471 


12 
25 
154 
222 


3637 

3999 

30031 

, 35712 


235 
1170 
3572 
2046 


62000 
88161 
583646 
558240 


EXPORTS AND SHIPPING OP VAN DIEMEN9 ISLAND. | 


|824| 10000 
18351218754 


3 933 

1 271 

25 7331 

23 6880 


4500 

14613 
101716 
185193 


30 
52 
189 
244 


10195; ... 

11697' .„ 
427351 61 
43676 1210 

1 


"i 

7 


257 
224 


... 21 4761 14500 35 
... 1 467 23837 54 
148 10 3237 320679 125 


116041 .» 
12435 .„ 
53560(3236 
52780 3312 



The increasing trade of this colony may be judged 
of by the preceding table ; with Great Britain it has 
increased sevenfold in 12 years, and the whole im- 
ports of the settlement have been augmented nearly 
tenfold. The exports have been augmented from 
14,000/. to 420,000/. per annum, and the tonnage has 
been extended in the proportion of 5 to 1. The 
value of land and cattle has increased during the 
same period 400 per cent. The progress of the po- 



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FINANCBS. 359 

polation and revenne will be seen under their respec- 
tive heads. The principal exports of the colony are 
wool, whale and seal oil, whalebone and bark, to 
EIngland ; and provisions and live stock to the neigh- 
bouring colonies. The quantity of wool exported in 
1827, was 192,075 lbs. in 1835, 1,942,800 lbs., price 
U. 6d. to 28. 6d. per lb. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

FINANCES—MONETARY SYSTEM, &C. 

Thb revenue is derived from custom duties, excise 
fees, sales of land, and quit rents, &c. Goods of 
British manufacture are importable, duty free; foreign 
ditto, five per cent, ad valorem. Spirits are charged 
with a duty of 10^. per gallon on brandy, hollands, 
or geneva ; West India rum or British gin, 75. 6d. ; 
tobacco. Is. 6d. per lb. ; a licence to distil or seU 
spirits, costs 257. per annum ; to bake or sell bread, 
5s. ; to slaughter cattle or sheep, 5$. ; to keep a dog 
on the chain, 5s. ; off ditto, lOs. ; and a bitch ditto, 
1/. ; to keep a cart for hire, 5s. ; auctioneer's licence, 
3/. 35. ; marriage licence, 41. 48. There are fees on 
grants of lands, &c. equivalent to stamp duties. 



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360 



VAN DIISMEN's I6LAND. 



Net Revenue of Van^Dieraen's Island for 1827-28 and 
1885-36. 



Btvenue: 

Arrears 

Customs 

Duties on spirits distilled in the colony 

Post office 

Licences and Auction Duties 

Rents of Government property 

Fees of public offices 

Fines collected by Chief Police Magis- 
trates 



Total fixed Revenue.. 

Incidental 

Land Revenue 

Balance in hand 



Total Revenue.. 
Expenditure : 

Civil Establishment 

Contingent Expenditure 

Judicial Establishment 

Contingent Expenditure 

Ecclesiastical Establishment 

Contingent Expenditure 

Schools 

Contingent Expenditure 

Miscellaneous 

Pensions 



MiUtanr 

Contingent Expenditure.. 



1827. 


1828. 


1835. 


1836. 


£. 

28817 
466 

2312 

795 

3284 

87 


£. 

33118 
173 

2672 
1045 
3805 

930 


£. 

3651 
71671 
1124 
2412 
8080 
725 
6437 

869 


£. 

70718 
1409 
8387 
7287 
1280 
6489 

1424 


30765* 
21719 


41755* 

23315 

2418 


91320 

3233 

15319 

34481 


91949 
3223 

} 32965 


52484 


C7489 


148097 


128187 


18798 { 
10510 { 
2647 { 

662 { 

14830 
1575 

1335 { 


15372 
8653 
8973 
2038 
1258 
938 
668 
1268 
21600 
1801 
389 
1307 


81196 

28102 

11013 

4161 

4807 

2424 

2728 

4721 

12451 

845 

298 

. 176 


} 62485 

\ 13837 

} 10826 

\ 8978 
16150 

. 26604 
j 


55360 


65171 


103029 


138380 



Recapitulation of the Est.— [B.B. 1836.] Civil 
establishment, 49,614/.; Contingent expenditure, 
29,288/.; Judicial establishment, 1 ,921/.; Contin- 
gent expenditure, 4789/. ; Ecclesiastical establish- 
ment and schools, 7948/. ; Contingent expenditure, 

« In these years are included Loans from the Commissariat of respec- 
tively 8610/.; 9SiZl.; 19,217/.; 19,369/. and 11,500/. 



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MONBTART 8T6TEM. 361 

6102/.; Miscellaneous expenditure, 20,038/.; Pen- 
sions, 877/. : total, 129.577/. 

The total charge on the Imperial Revenue of the 
j[]!olony cannot now he considered so high as 
100,000/. per annum; hecause economy has heen 
enforced in many departments, and the local revenue 
now verges towards that sum. If Van Diemen's 
Island were not a penal settlement, it is fully capable 
of supporting its own government and establish- 
ments ; it cannot, therefore, be considered as a drain 
on the mother country ; on the contrary, like New 
South Wales, it is a material aid to the home ex- 
chequer, by contributing largely to the support of 
the prison population of England, who, if kept in 
Great Britain, would be a heavy tax on the industry 
of society — to say nothing of the free labour they 
would displace if worked for profit sake — or of the 
pernicious moral influence which they would exercise 
on the unconvicted population. 

Monetary System. — ^The currency is that of the 
mother country, in respect to value and denomi- 
nation, although dollars, rupees, and other foreign 
coins are in circulation. British silver is chiefly 
used as a means of procuring treasury bills from the 
commissariat, for the purposes of remittances, and is 
consequently hoarded up by the merchants and 
bankers, until they have occasion to remit. By a 
standing treasury regulation, extending to all our 
colonies where there is a commissariat, any party 
can obtain a bill on the lords commissioners^ at the 
rate of 1/. lO*. per cent, exchange, provided it be 
British silver. The money that thus reaches the 



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362 TAN dibmbn'b island. 

commissariat from time to time, is again issued by 
it, in payment of supplies furnished under the source 
of the third branch of revenue akeady npticed — ^so 
that, it will at once appear, whatever proportion this 
latter bears to the sum remitted annually for im- 
ported commodities, regulates, in a great measure, 
this part of the currency, and either increases or 
diminishes the real value of treasury bills, and, con- 
sequently, British silver, just in the same manner that 
any other articles are influenced by their relative pro- 
portions of supply and demand. Hence, there are 
times, when treasury bills reach a premium of five, 
six, or seven per cent. Generally speaking, how- 
ever, they are easily procurable at about the one and 
a half per cent, fixed by the British treasury. 

There are three banks at Hobart Town, viz. 
the Bank of Van Diemen's Ltand, the Derweni Bank, 
and the Commercial Bank, and one at Launceston, 
called the Cornwall Bank, With reference to this sub- 
ject it may be observed, that few colonies have risen 
with such rapidity from poverty to wealth — from 
nothing to importance — as Van Piemen's Island. So 
recently as 1820, it began to assume the character of 
a British settlement; for previously it had been 
merely a receptacle for the worst of felons, banished 
from the great convict dep6t of New South Wales. 
In 1823, the establishment of the first bank was 
effected by a joint stock company, and its issues were 
made in Spanish dollars at 5s, currency, as it was 
termed. Up to that time, such was the scarcity of 
money, that any person circulated at will his pro- 
missory notes for dollars, and the parts of a dollar. 



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MONBTART SYSTEM. 363 

even so low as three-pence, and the consequent in- 
convenience, confusion, and loss to the holder cannot 
be described. 

The bank issues, however, superseded instantly 
those of individuals, except for the smallest denomi- 
nations, and they were gradually displaced by the 
introduction of British copper coin. In 1825 a Trea- 
sury Order fixed the value of the Spanish dollar at 
4s. 4d^ sterling in the King's possessions, where that 
coin was current for military purposes; and, in 
1826, one of the first acts of the newly constituted 
Legislative Council of Van Diemen's Island was, to 
abolish the denominations of currency and dollars, 
and declare* that all money transactions should 
thenceforward be expressed in pounds, shillings, and 
pence, sterling : at the same time, with obvious jus- 
tice, as well as policy, retaining the Spanish dollar 
as a portion of the circulating medium, and making 
it a legal tender at 4s. 4d. sterling. The result has 
been highly advantageous to the community ; for 
this useful and almost universal coin, instead of 
being repudiated and left to find its way out of the 
island as mere silver merchandise (which was the 
case in New South Wales), has ever since formed 
the chief bulk of the currency, and amply supplied 
the deficiency of British specie, of which there has 
always been considerable scarcity, owing to its being 
alone exchangeable with the Commissariat for bills ' 
on the Home Treasury. In 1827, the increase of 
commercial and agricultural business demanded 
larger banking accommodation, and another joint 
stock company was constituted in Hobart Town, 



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364 TAN dibmen's island. 

called the Derwent Bank ; it is a Joint Stock Com- 
pany, each shareholder heing responsihle to the 
whole extent of his property ; the capital is 100,000/. 
divided into 1000 shares of 100/. each, of which 
60,000/. is paid up, and the halance is in coarse of 
payment ; the hank is one of circulation, deposit, 
and discount; and the depositary of 10,000/. of the 
Colonial funds. 

Remittances from India may be made by Govern- 
ment bills drawn on London, or in Spanish dollars. 
The latter usually afford the most advantageous me- 
dium of exchange. The dollars of North and South 
America are current, but not at any fixed value. 

From England, remittances may be effected in 
British gold or silver coin ; in Spanish dollars ; by 
bills drawn on the colony ; or by a deposit of the 
amount with the agents of the Derwent Bank, 
Messrs. Bamett, Hoares, and Co., Bankers, 62, 
Lombard Street, London. 

The Rates of Commission charged by the Derwent 
Bank are on receipts, one half per cent. ; payments, 
ditto ; investments on mortgage, two and a half per 
cent. ; effecting remittances from the colony, one 
half per cent. ; drawing or purchasing bills of ex- 
change, ditto ; sale of bills of exchange, ditto ; col- 
lecting debts without legal process, two per cent. ; 
recovering money by legal process, ^ve per cent. 

The Rate of Interest allowed by the Bank in ac* 
count current, to non-residents, from the dates at 
which the several remittances may be realized in 
the colony, five per cent, per annum. 

In 1828 a similar establishment was formed at 



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MONBTART SYSTEM. 365 

Launceston, and designated the Cornwall Bank ; and 
in 1833 the private bank of an individual in Hobart 
Town assumed the same popular character (though 
its operations are comparatively limited), and is 
called the Commercial Bank. Thus there are three 
great companies for banking purposes only, existing 
in that infant country. The capital of the bank of 
Van Diemen's Land is 40,000/. ; that of the Der- 
went has recently been raised from 40,000/. to 
100,000/. ; and that of the Cornwall is 20,000/. 
The ordinary mode of accommodation is by discount 
of bills of exchange, payable at three months' date ; 
but the Derwent bank grants loans on the security 
of promissory notes and the deposit of title deeds ; 
and it has of late adopted the Scotch principle of 
allowing cash credits. The joint capital of the four 
banks paid up may be stated at 130,000/., their paper 
circulation at 45,000/., their deposits at 1 60,000/., 
and their discounts at 250,000/, Two of the banks 
have 10,000/. each of the public money in their 
chests, for which they pay the crown five per cent^ 
This was arranged to obviate the difficulties which 
occasionally arose to the community from the Bri- 
tish money lying long unappropriated with the com- 
missariat, when it was wanted to exchange for 
traders' bills, to make remittance home, the balance 
of trade having, as is natural in a new country, been 
constantly against the colony. In no part of the 
world have banking speculations been more success- 
ful. The rate of discount is ten per cent, per an- 
num ; and yet so prudent has been the management 
of the two first-formed establishments, that they 



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366 VAN dibmsn's island. 

have not lost 100/. each, from bad bills, fraud, rob- 
bery, or other cause. The gross amount of specie 
may be pretty correctly estimated at 35,000/. Bri- 
tish, and 65,000/. Spanish,— total 100,000/. The 
rate of interest on the first mortgages of land is ten 
per cent. ; but there are still some overstanding 
mortgages at 12 and 15 per cent. The Chartered 
Company, called the ** Royal Bank of Australia," 
which has been formed for operations in New South 
Wales and Van Diemen's Island, is now preparing to 
send out its officers. The influx of so much addi- 
tional money will have the eflect of reducing the 
rate of interest : but, if cautiously managed, it must 
be of material service in a country where nature has 
been so bountiful, that capital and industry alone 
are sufiicient for the accumulation of wealth, inde- 
pendence, and happiness. 

Bank of Van Piemen's Land, capital 40,000/., in 
shares of 50/. each, all paid up. Derwent Bank, 
capital 100,000/., in shares of 100/. each. 60,000/., 
paid up. Cornwall Bank, capital 20,000/. in shares 
of 50/. each, all paid up. Commercial Bank (un- 
known). The dividends heretofore paid on the stock 
of the two first-named banks has varied between 15 
and 12 per cent, for some time. 

The amount of specie in the colony cannot be ac- 
curately ascertained ; it /may, however, be estimated 
at about 130,000/., which sum comprises British gold, 
silver, and copper money, and dollars of the South 
American States, as well as sicca rupees ; which 
specie is distributed as follows: — In the military 
chest, 38,638/. 17*.; Colonial treasury, 328/. 7^. ; 



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MONBTART SYSTEM. 367 

Derwent bank, 13,276/. 28. ; Van Diemen'sLand bank, 
18,392/. 9^.; Commercial bank, 10,500/.; Austral- 
asian bank, 30,486/. ; Tamar bank, 13, 526/. ; in 
circulation throughout the colony, 4852/. ; total, 
130,000/. 5s, 

Notes of the undermentioned banks of sterling 
denomination of 1/. and upwards are in circulation to 
the amount of 54,116/. The circulation of bills of 
exchange and promissory notes of less value than 1/. 
is prohibited, by an Act of Council, No. 3, passed the 
22nd September, 1826. Derwent bank, 11,274/.; 
Van Piemen's Land bank, 11,232/.; Commercial 
bank, 7021/. ; Australasian bank, 15,643/. ; Tamar 
bank, 8946/. Total, 54,1 1 6/. The rate of bank in- 
terest is about 8 per cent. ; premium on treasury 
bills 1 J per cent. 

By an Act of the Legislative Council, No. 3, 7th 
Geo. IV., the Spanish dollar passes current in this 
colony at 4^. 4d, ; the Spanish dollar having a piece 
out of its centre, called the " king dollar," at 3«. 8c/. ; 
and the piece so struck out, called a " dump," at 
U. Id. 

Lieutenant-Governor Arthur, by direction of the 
Secretary of State, issued a proclamation, bearing 
date 1st November, 1834, notifying, that from the 
1 St December of the said year, all dollars whatsoever 
of the South American States will be received and 
issued in this colony in the Departments of the Com- 
missariat and Colonial Treasury, and shall otherwise 
pass current as money, at the sum of 4s. 4d. each (the 
current value of the old Spanish or pillared dollar), 



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368 VAN PIEMBN's IBhAJMD. 

and the said several fractional parts thereof^ at sums 
respectively in due proportion thereto. 

By an Act of the Legislative council. No. 5, 6th 
Wm. IV., the Calcutta or sicca rupee passes current 
in this colony at 2s. 

The value of property annually created, and 
moveable and immoveable, in the Island, is thus 
estimated: — Total annually created, 1,056,506/.; 
total moveable property, 4,639,000/. ; total immove- 
able property. 3,880,000/.' 

Future Prospects. — The extraordinary progress 
which a mere handful of Britons have made in this 
fine island in little more than a quarter of a century , 
is sufficiently indicated by the facts contained in the 
preceding pages. The prosperity of the inhabitants 
has been chiefly owing to their agricultural industry ; 
the production of fine wool will, doubtless, increase 
to a considerable extent, and the wheat of the island, 
by its superior quality and weight, (60 to 64 lbs. to 
the bushel,) and not being liable to the weevil, will 
preserve that commanding price in the London mar- 
ket which it has already attained. The introduction 
of steam engines for grinding corn will enable the 
colonists to compete, in various countries, with the 
American flour; and with a rich, juicy beef, and 
abundance of salt, there is no natural impediment to 
a lucrative export of cured provisions. Whale oil 
will, doubtless, continue to be an important staple ; 

^ The details of each item on which these totals are founded, 
may be seen in the larger edition. 
11 



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PROSPECTS OP THB COLONY. 369 

and as it has been recently found in England superior 
to bones for turnip and other cultivation, a better 
price will, probably, be obtained. As population 
and civilization increase, other articles of export will 
be added ; the introduction of steam navigation on 
the Derwent will lead to the mining of coal in the 
island, which will be the precursor to the smelting of 
iron. On the whole, I think the prospects of the 
island are ver^ good. I have visited few places 
which, as an emigrant, 1 would prefer to Van Die- 
men's Island ; its romantic, and yet pastoral scenery, 
pleased me much; its salubrious clime helped to 
dissipate the pestilential miasma which my frame 
imbibed on the noisome shores of Eastern Africa ; 
and its industrious and enterprizing farmers with aU 
the sterling qualities of the bold English yeoman, 
gave a charm to nature's rich and rare gifts. I trust 
that the spirit of faction will not be permitted to 
rear itself into maturity in so favoured a land. 

I am aware that Van Diemen's Island, as well as 
other colonies, has its grievances ; but let those who 
possess property in the island, or have any interest 
in its prosperity, beware how they sanction the old 
custom of magnifying mole-hills into mountains; 
let them remember that respectable emigrants with 
their capital will proceed only to peaceful shores, 
where the jarring din of politics gives place to the 
pleasing and profitable hum of industry ; and where 
strife and enmity are suppressed by the pacific prin- 
ciples of Christianity. 



Bb 

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BOOK III. 

WESTERN AUSTRALIA, COMPRISING SWAN 
RIVER, AND KING GEORGE'S SOUND. 



CHAPTER I. 

LOCALITY— PHYSICAL ASPECT. 

In a national point of view, it had long been de- 
sirable that the Western Coast of Australia should 
be occupied by Great Britain; the fine colony we 
had succeeded in establishing on the Eastern Coast of 
this immense island, under the most adverse circum- 
stances, was a stimulus to the undertaking ; and the 
favourable report of Captain Stirling, R.N., who ex- 
plored the coast in H.M.S. Success, led, in 1829, to 
a proposition, on the part of Thos. Peel, Esq., Sir 
Francis Vincent, E. W. Schenley, T. P. Macqueen, 
Esqrs., and other gentlemen, to further the views of 
Government in founding a colony, at little or no ex- 
pense to the mother country. These gentlemen of- 
fered to provide shipping to carry 10,000 British sub- 
jects (within four years), from the United Kingdom 



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ORIGINAL 8VTTLEMENT. 371 

to the Swan River, to find them in provisions and 
every other necessary, and to have three small ves- 
seb running to and from Sydney as occasion might * 
require. They estimated the cost of convejring 
these emigrants at 30/. per head, making a total of 
300,000/. ; and they required in return that an equi- 
valent should be granted them in land equal to that 
amount, and at the rate of 1^. 6d. per acre, making 
4,000,000 acres ; out of which they engaged to 
provide every male emigrant with no less than 200 
acres of land, free of all rent. 

This arrangement was not carried into effect, and 
a project for the formation of the new colony (with- 
out making it a penal settlement) was issued from 
the Colonial Office in 1829. 

By this project his Majesty's Government did not 
intend to incur any expense in conveying settlers to 
tjhe new colony on the Swan River ; nor to supply 
them with provisions, or other necessaries, after ar- 
rival there. Such persons as were to arrive in the 
settlement, before the end of the year 1 830, were to 
receive, in the order of their arrival, allotments of 
land, free of quit-rent, proportioned to the capital 
which they were prepared to invest in the improve- 
ment of land, and of which capital they were to pro- 
duce satisfactory proofs to the Lieutenant-Governor, 
at the rate of 40 acres for every sum of 3/. which 
they were prepared so to invest. Those who incur-^ 
red the expense of taking out labouring persons, 
were to be entitled to an allotment of land, at the 
rate of 15/., that is, of 200 acres of land, for the 
passage of every such labouring person, over and 
Bb2 

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372 WESTERN AU81RAL1A. 

above any other investment of capital. In the class 
of ' labouring persons' were induded women, and 
children above ten years old. With respect to the 
children of labouring people under that age, it was 
proposed to allow 40 acres for every such child, 
above three years old ; 80 acres for every such child, 
above six years old; and 120 for every such child, 
above nine, and under ten years old. 

The title to the land was not to be granted in fee 
simple, until the settler had proved, to the satisfac- 
tion of the Lieutenant Crovernor, that the sum re- 
quired (viz. 1^. 6d. per acre) had been actually 
expended in some investment, or in the cultivation of 
the land, or in soUd improvements,— such as build- 
ings, roads, or other works of that kind. 

Any land, thus allotted, of which a fair proportion, 
at least one fourth, should not have been brought 
into cultivation, or otherwise improved, to the satis- 
fiaction of the local Government, within three years 
from the date of license of occupation, was to be liable 
to one further payment of 6d. per acre for all the land 
not so cultivated or improved, into the public chest 
of the settlement ; and, at the expiration of seven 
years more, so much of the whole grant as should 
remain in an uncultivated or unimproved state was 
to revert absolutely to the Crown. And in every grant 
there was to be contained a condition, that, at any 
time within ten years from the date thereof, the Go- 
vernment mig^t resume, without compensation, any 
land not then actually cultivated, or improved, as 
before-mentioned, which might be required for roads, 
canals, or quays, or for the site of public buildings. 



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QRIQINAL SETTLEMENT. 373 

After the year 1830, land was to be disposed of 
to those settlers who might resort to the colony, on 
such conditions as his Majesty's Crovemment should 
determine. 

Captain Stirling was appointed Lieutenant- Go* 
vemor of the intended settlement, with a grant of 
100,000 acres ; and Mr. Peel was to receive 250,000 
acres, on condition of taking out 400 emigrants, 
with liberty to extend the grant to 1,000,000 acres, 
previous to the year 1840, by receiving 40 acres for 
every child above three years, 80 for every child 
above six, up to ten years 120, and exceeding that 
age and upwards 200 acres for each person con- 
veyed to the colony. The terms requisite to ob- 
tain 500,000 acres have been complied with. Un- 
der these circumstances, early in 1829, a number of 
settlers left England for Swan River, in Western 
Australia, where they began to arrive in August, and 
to locate themselves along the banks of the Swan 
and Canning Rivers, so that by the end of that year 
there \7ere in the new colony residents 850 ; non- 
residents 440 ; value of property, giving claims to 
grants of land, 41,550/. ; lands actually allotted, 
525,000 acres ; locations actually effected, 39 ; 
pumber of cattle, 204 ; of horses, 57 ; of sheep, 
1096; of hogs, 106; and 25 sMps had arrived at 
the settlement between the months of June and 
December. Such was the commencement of our 
new colony on the shores of Western AustraUa. 
The settlers met at first, as must be expected in all 
new countries, with many difficulties, and great 
hardships had to be surmounted ; the land near the 



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374 WV8TBRN AUSTRALIA. 

coast, as is -the case generally in New Holland, was 
found poor and sandy ; but subsequently, on explor- 
ing the interior, fine pastoral and agricultural tracts 
have been discovered. A portion of the settlers have 
been located at King George's Sound (lat. 35.6.20 
S.. long. 118.1 E.) near the S.W. extremity of Aus- 
tralia. 

After this introduction to explain the origin of the 
settlement, which is dated fix)m the 1st June, 1829, 
and which, through good report and evil report, has 
proceeded in the path of energy and industry, we 
may now examine the geographical features of the 
country. 

Western Australia, lying between the parallels of 
32 and 35, and the meridians of 115 and 118 
comprises a fine extent of territory, of which the 
distinguishing features are three distinct parallel 
ranges of primitive mountains, bordering on the 
sea-coast, in a N. and S. direction. The highest 
and easternmost has its termination near King 
George's Sound, in 35 S. lat. and 118 E. long. — 
The second, denominated the Darling Range, passes 
behind the Swan River, and meets the sea at Cape 
Chatham in 34.40 S. lat., and 115.20 E. long. ; the 
thin ridge, which is inferior in altitude and extent, 
has its southern boundary at Cape Leuwin, in 34.20 
S. lat., and 115 E. long. ; disappearing at Cape iVa- 
turaliste, in the same meridian in 33.30 S. lat. ; and 
on showing itself again at Moresby's Flat-topped 
Range, about half way between Swan River and 
Shark's Bay, or about 300 miles to the N. of Cape 
Leuwin. 



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OBOGRAPHICAL FBATURBS. 375 

These dividing ranges give off several rivers, 
which flow E. or W., according to the dip of the 
land at either side — ^the principal on the sea shore 
being the Swan and Canning, in 32 S. lat. ; the Mur- 
ray, in 32.30. S. lat. ; the Collie, the Preston, and a 
smaller stream into Port Leschenault, in 33.12 S. 
lat. ; the Blackwood, to the eastward of Cape Leu- 
win, and disembogaing into Flinders* Bay ; the Den- 
mark, Kent, Hay, and Steeman, on the S. coast, in 
35 lat. and nearly 117 long. ; and King's River, 
fiEdling* into King George's Sound, in 35.6.20 S. lat., 
118.1 E. "When the coast is farther explored, 
other rivers will most probably be found. 

On each of those rivers, locations have been formed 
by our hardy settlers ; the town of Freemantle has 
been founded at the entrance of the Swan River ; 
Perth, about nine miles inland, on its right or 
northern bank ; and Guildford, about seven miles 
further E. at the junction of the stream ; a town 
called Augusta was founded at Blackwood's River, 
near Cape Leuwin ; and King George's Sound, which 
had been occupied by a detachment of troops and 
convicts from Sydney in 1826, has been given over 
by the New South Wales Government, and attached 
to the Swan River Colony. 

Along the ocean boundary are several good har- 
bours ; the last mentioned was discovered by Van- 
couver in 1 792, and subsequently visited by Captain 
Flinders, Commodore Baudin, and Captain King. 
It is much frequented by sealing vessels on account 
of the situation and excellence of the harbour ; for 
besides the outer sound, there are two inner basins 



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376 WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

or harbours, which are perfectly land-locked, and 
offering every security for ships. The north one. 
Oyster Harbour, however, is, rather shoal, and 
fronted by a bar of sand, with not more than 13 feet 
on it at high water ; but at Princess Royal Harbour, 
situate at the back or W, side of the Sound, vessels 
of a considerable size may enter and ride at their 
anchors close to the shore in perfect security. 

Further W. in 116.55 there is a secure harbour, 
with eight feet on the bar at low water; at Port 
Augusta, near Cape Leuwin, the anchorage is spa- 
cious, and sheltered from the usuaT winter winds 
from the N. and W. but open to those which blow 
between S. and S.E. The inlet is of considerable 
extent, and leads to the Blackwood River, which has a 
southerly direction for 15 miles, and a westerly one 
10, before it ceases to be navigable for boats. 
Doubling Cape Leuwin, and passing to the north- 
ward, we arrive at the spacious Bay de G^ographe, 
its W. side formed by Cape Naturaliste, Here there 
is good anchorage, sheltered from all winds except 
those from the N. and N.W. To the N.E. of this 
bay is the littie harbour of Port Leschenault, Cock- 
hum Sound, in 32.10 formed by an inlet of the sea, 
between Garden Island and the main land, is a safi^ 
and extensive anchorage, and has been made easy of 
access by buoying off the channel leading into it; 
It would contain 1000 ships out of mortar range 
either from the sea or land side, and, in the hands of 
an enemy, would be most injurious to our maritime 
interests, especially in the Indian Ocean. 

Gage's Roads, at the entrance (tf Swm River, are 



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BATS AND HARBOURS. 377 

•hdtered by Garden, Rotteneat, and Peel's Comae 
Islands, exposed however to the N.W. winds. The 
Swan and Canning discharge themselves into an 
estuary nine miles long, and from three to four 
broad, called Melville Water, The entrance to this 
estuary is over a bar of rocks, with a depth of only 
six feet at low water ; the bar extends about three 
quarters of a mile, when the water deepens four to 
six fathoms near the shore, and upwards of eight 
towards the centre, continuing thus for some miles, 
making a fine harbour, if a canal were cut so as to 
admit large vessels. The Swan is navigable for 
boats as far as the tide flows, viz. 40 miles. At 
Perth, situate on a rising ground, affording som^ 
highly interesting views, the river is half a mile 
wide, but shallow. As you sail up the river, the 
scenery improves, and the country is in many parts 
extremely picturesque, consisting of fine upland 
downs and park-like tracts ; such as I have alluded 
to under the head of New South Wales. 

lieut.-Govemor Stirling, in an official account 
of the Colony, addressed to the Secretary of State 
for the Colonies, enters into considerable detail rela- 
tive to its condition and prospects. Under the head 
of Geography, I find the following remarks. 

It appears from King's surveys, that the coast of 
the Colony, within the tropic, is fronted by indenta-^ 
tions, bays, straits, and islands, and abounds in the 
finest harbours imaginable. The rise and fall of tide 
in some places amounts to 35 feet, affording oppor* 
tunities thereby for building docks, or for laying 
ships on shore, without considerable expense. Th^ 



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378 WESTBRN AUSTRALIA. 

existence of an interior sea, or of great rivers, con- 
nected with some of the inlets which were not fully 
explored by King, remains a problem as yet unde- 
termined. 

The principal ports in the south-western parts of 
the Colony are those in Cockbum Sound and in 
King George's Sound. The first of these is an ex- 
cellent port, but its entrance is encumbered by rocks, 
and it is not accessible with safety to large vessels, 
while there is not an effective establishment of pilots 
and beacons. The open anchorage at the mouth of 
the Swan River is therefore in general use at present. 
King Greorge*8 Sound possesses all the qualities which 
constitute a good harbour ; its position being, how- 
ever, to the eastward, and to leeward of Cape Leuwin, 
in the vicinity of which strong westerly gales prevail, 
this circumstance detracts from the value of its other 
qualifications. Shark's Bay abounds in safe anchor- 
ages, and affords, as well as Doubtful Island Bay, 
secure access to the districts in their immediate vici- 
nity. Harbours for boats and small coasting vessels 
exist near the entrance of Peel's Inlet, Port Leshe- 
nault, Augusta, Nomalup, Torbay, Collingwood Bay, 
and Cape Riche. 

One of the most remarkable peculiarities on the 
south-western coast of the settlement, is the frequent 
occurrence of estuaries or inlets of the sea, having 
narrow and shallow entrances. Between King 
George's Sound and Swan River, there are no less 
than 10 of these ; they are usually from five to ten 
miles in length, and from two to three in breadth ; 
they serve as the receptacles of the streams in their 



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PHYSICAL ASPECT. 379 

vicinity, and will afford hereafter water communica- 
tion to the inhabitants. In the sammer season, the 
water in them is salt, but becomes fresh after the 
return of the rains. 

In the interior, no lakes of any extent have been 
as yet discovered, but salt marshes, and salt pools of 
small diameter, are not unfrequent. 

The absence of considerable mountain ranges for- 
bids the chance of finding any considerable rivers of 
a perennial character ; and it is somewhat remarka- 
ble, that one of the largest rivers known, whose 
course is not less than 200 miles, disappears entirely 
as a stream, and ceases to run, long before the end 
of the dry season. In the country situated to the 
south of Swan River, there are, however, streams 
which continue to run throughout the year, as may 
be instanced in the cases of the Murray, Harvey, 
Brunswick, Preston, Capel, and Donelly ; and on the 
douth coast, where the country is more hilly, and the 
rains later, mill-streams exist in great numbers, and, 
fortunately, those districts contain an inexhaustible 
supply of the finest timber. 

Th^ chance of discovering a river of great magni- 
tude on the north-west coast, appears to be strength- 
ened by the non-occurrence of any considerable 
stream in those other parts which have been as yet 
explored. , 

As is the case along the E. coast of Australia, 
there is an extensive tract of country, varying in 
width from 30 to 50 miles, between the sea-shore 
and the Darling Mountains, from 1200 to 1500 feet 
in elevation ; one of the peaks of which. Mount 



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380 WS8TBRN AUSTRALIA. 

Wiiliam, rises to the height of 3000 feet ahove the 
ocean level, and the distance across the range is from 
25 to 30 miles. The land heyond is found of good 
quality. 



CHAPTER II. 

GEOLOGY — MINERALOGY — SOIL — AND CLIMATE. 

It cannot he expected that much should he as yet 
known on this head ; — as far, however, as the coun- 
try has heen examined, it appears to he of a more 
primitive formation than that of New South Wales. 
Archdeacon Scott descrihes a line of coast, of more 
than 30 miles in length, as composed of a highly 
calcareous sandstone, presenting very similar minera- 
logical characters throughout its whole extent. At 
a promontory, ahout five miles north of the river 
Sunm, the calcareous sandstone exhihits a surface in 
which are numerous concretions having the appear- 
ance of inclosing vegetable matter. This character is 
by no means confined to that spot, but is very com- 
monly observed ; and near the town of Freemantle, 
the sandstone assumes the appearance of a thick 
fdrest cut down, about two or three feet from the 
surface, so that it is extremely difficult and even dan- 
gerous to walk on it. 

At Mount Eliza, which rises above Perth, the cal- 
careous sandstone attains the height of about 300 
feet, and is observed to be based upon a ferruginous 
sandstone fitted for the purposes of building. From 



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oBOLonr. S81 

Perth to the foot of Darling's Range, red clay and 
white marl are found, after passing the Helena 
River. Darling's Range is composed of greenstone 
and sienite ; clay slate has been discovered more to 
the southward in the same range. 

The mountains consist chiefly of various kinds of 
granite, with what is supposed to be trap, at their 
basis, a dark, green, and black speckled, dull, heavy^ 
hard rock. Abundance of pure quartz is found 
every where, — colours various. At the top of the 
hills iron stone predominates. 

In Governor Stirling's report it is stated that the 
whole of the occupied portion of the territory ap- 
pears to rest upon a granitic base ; rocks of that 
description having been found to exist in every dis- 
trict which has been as yet explored. In the neighr 
bourhood of Doubtful Island Bay, the granite assumes 
the stratified form of gneiss, and as red sandstone is 
found on the north-west coast, and tertiary forma- 
tions on the shore of the Australian Bight, it is pro- 
bable that the general dip of the country is in a 
direction a little to the north of east. To the south 
of the 31st degree of latitude there are no mountain 
ranges of any great altitude ; the highest as yet 
known being that of Koikyeunreuff, near King 
George's Sound, which attains to the height of 3500 
feet. On the primitive base of the country, none of 
the secondary formations have been found to exist ; 
basaltic rocks are not, however, unfrequent in almost 
every district in the country ; and in one position in 
G6ographe Bay, there is a columnar formation, re- 
sembling in its character that which exists on the 



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382 WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

north coast of Ireland. The principal range of hills 
extends in a northerly direction ^m the soath coast, 
near Cape Chatham, for at least 300 miles. The 
only varieties of rock which have been found on this 
granite range, are occasional portions of roofing slate 
and of indurated clay ; but extending from the west- 
em base of these hills towards the sea, upon an aver- 
age breadth of about 20 miles, there is a low and 
tolerably level plain of diluvial origin, which bears 
the marks of having been covered by the sea at some 
remote period. The portion of this plain nearest to 
the sea presents limestone hills, which have a slight 
covering of meagre sandy soil ; the remainder varies 
from sand to clay, with exception of the lands in the 
immediate vicinity of rivers, which have been af- 
fected, and rendered rich, by the overflowing of the 
streams. 

The mineral substances heretofore discovered, are 
Mme, marl, selenite, slate, siliceous and calcareous 
petrifactions, magnetic iron ore, peacock iron ore, 
chromate of lead, and crystals of quartz. The very 
small portion of the territory which has been in- 
spected being almost entirely of a primitive descrip- 
tion, a larger list of minerals could not be expected ; 
but when time shall permit the further examination 
of the northern districts, of the red sand-stone for- 
mation, it is not unlikely that important mineralogi- 
cal discoveries may be effected. The discovery of 
copper ore by Captain King in the vicinity of Cam- 
den Bay, corroborates this expectation. 

The surface of the country generally is covered 
•with those substances which are technically called 
6 

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CtBOLOGT. 383 

earths, in contradistinction to soils. Of the latter, 
as far at least as relates to those of a vegetahle ori- 
gin, a very small portion exists, and that only on 
moist grounds. The extreme drought of the climate, 
and the summer conflagrations, appear to prevent the 
growth of succulent plants, as well as any great 
accumulation of soil from decayed vegetation. But 
although the country is not remarkable for richness 
of soil, it is favourable in other respects to farming 
purposes. In its natural state there is scarcely any 
part which does not produce some description of 
plant. 

Limestone is found on or near the s^ coast. It 
produces lime of the purest white ; and much of it 
appears to be trunks, roots, and branches of an ex- 
tensive forest of large trees ; in some, even the 
bark and annual ring are visible. One trunk, or 
pillar, of limestone, stands about 40 feet high, per- 
fectly isolated and upright, without branches, but 
showing the beginning of the bole. It is about two 
feet diameter in the smallest part. In all the Ume- 
stone, are found imbedded small samples of com- 
pact j9orce/aneo«9 limestone, about the bigness of a 
small hand ; the rest is either chalky or gritty. 

In all the streams of the colony is found in abun- 
dance a minute, ponderous, black sand, strongly 
attractable by the magnet*. In the island of 12o^- 
tenest is also a fruitful mine of rock salt, which is 
used at table in its crude state ; but judging from 

* I found extensive beds of a similar sand at Oibo, in East- 
ern Africa ; it formed the banks of rivers, aad was nearly all 
capable of being taken up by the magnet. 



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384 WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

its taste, apparently containing more salts than mtfrt- 
ate of soda. Water holding iron in solution is com- 
mon among the small springs : and iron stone is fre- 
quently met with. One spring is loaded with a sort 
of sweetish tasted ahan. 

Clay of all sorts is abundant, brick, fire, pot, pipe, 
or china clay, it is not certain which. 

A gentleman settled in the colony, who has for- 
warded some of the above statements to the Athe- 
nteum, says he has discovered on the banks of the Sumn, 
above Perth, the finest plaster stone in the world. 
It is transparent as glass, rhomboidal, in plates, with 
many internal fractures and flaws ; some of it is of 
the most beautiful satin kind. It bums in the heat 
of the bread oven, and when ground fine, and mixed 
vnth water, sets into a firm hard plaster of pure 
white ; but, unlike plaster of Paris, it takes twenty 
minutes to set, and does not form a milk or cream 
with water. It is found in lumps, from the size of 
a nut to that of an egg, bright and clean, imbedded 
in a white clay marl, mixed with reddish clay and 
sand. If they were all burnt together and ground* 
would they not form a Roman or water cement ? 

The same authority adds that for the purpose of 
establishing a flour mill on the river Swan, he got 
mill-stones of the full size (four feet diameter, and 
ten inches thick) from the Blue Hills, about thirty- 
five miles off, which answered beautifully — quite 
equal to French burrs. They were of granite forma- 
tion, both equally hard, but of very different quali- 
ties. Every part of them gave showers of sparkles 
when struck with a hard steel ; their colours partly 



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OBOLOGT. 385 

transparent, beautifully crystallized in plates, part 
pure opaque white ; with reddish, grey, black, and 
purple spots. The lower stone was, to all appear- 
ance, a grey granite, with no soft particles, except 
here and there inconsiderable portions of a mica- 
ceous substance in plates ; and though equally hard, 
it was dull, and had not that lively cutting quality 
so necessary for the upper or running-stone, and 
which the lower stone ought not to possess. The 
running- stone was veined, the lower not so; bat 
both, if polished as slabs, would be exceedingly 
beautiful ; small specimens would not show their 
beauty. 

I do not know that coal has yet been seen, but 
from the formation of the country it is doubtless 
abundant, as in New South Wales and Van Die- 
men's Island; thus affording another point for our 
establishment of steam navigation over the world. 

The Soil is various ; large tracts are sandy, but 
the sand is not barren ; it carries a luxuriant 
vegetation, and, if well treated, bears wheat, oats, 
barley, vegetables, &c. ; indeed, any thing, if well 
manured, and watered in the summer. Clay lands, 
of course, as in England, require a laborious culti- 
vation to make them produce. They are too cold 
and wet in winter, and too dry and hard in summer, 
without much judicious work. 

In some places, the soil is a red and brown loam 
and clay ; in others, a rich dark vegetable earth, and 
as the country has been examined inland, or to the 
E. and N. it has been found to improve. The tract, 
which lies between the Darling, and the parallel 
c c 



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386 WBSTBRN AUSTRALIA. 

range from the coast, is fit for every purpose ; and 
it is a farther advantage that, throughout the aoun- 
try, there are numerous irrigating streams, while it 
is not prohable, from its being open to the westerly 
winds, that long droughts occur here as on the E. 
coast: the pasturage also is so sweet and nourish- 
ing, that cattle of every kind thrive rapidly, and 
crops of all sorts 3deld abundantly. A farmer, 
writing from his settlement on the Swan River, 
to his brother in England, under date June 4th, 
1833, says — "Crops in general, last harvest, were 
very abundant : wheat, on the best soils, averaged, 
in several instances, I have no doubt, from three to 
four quarters per acre, on land that had been only 
once ploughed, and without manure. Our average 
weight is, I believe, about 65 lbs. per bushel. 
Messrs. C. had about four quarters of barley per 
acre, 45 lb. per acre bushel ; and I should think 
oats, on their best land, would average five or six 
quarters per acre : they are a beautiful sample, and 
weigh about 12 stone per sack. I have grown some 
as fine potatoes, I think, as I ever saw, on a small 
spot of land, without any manure : the land was only 
once dug, which was in August ; the latter part of 
November it was trenched, and the potatoes planted. 
I took them up about a month ago; one potatoe 
weighed Ij lb. ; the produce of two single sets 
to-day weigh between 7 and 8 lbs., though they 
have been in the same house, in a dry situation, 
about a month.*' 

The Lieutenant-Governor, in his dispatches under 
date Swan River, 2nd April, 1832, says. 



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OBOLOOT. 387 

* The coast from Gantheaume Bay on the W. to 
Doubtful Island Bay on the S., including the several 
islets and rocks, presents the remarkahle calcareous 
suhstance which has heen supposed to exist in no 
other place than on the shores of New Holland and 
on those of Sicily. Although it serves in general as 
a kind of edging to this part of the continent, it is 
occasionally interrupted by the protrusion of granite 
and trap ; and it is in some places covered by sand. 
The open downs which it forms sometimes afford 
good sheep-keep, and it bums into very fine lime^ 
but in general the soil upon it is of little value. 
Behind this sea range of hills, which are sometimes 
800 feet in height, and two or three miles in breadth, 
there is a low sandy district which appears to have 
had a diluvial origin, as it exhibits occasionally peb- 
bles and detached pieces of the older rocks, and 
varies from mere sand to red loam and clay. In 
some parts this sandy district presents considerable 
portions of very fine soil, and in no ps^ is it abso- 
lutely sterile. 

* The banks of the rivers which flow through it 
are of the richest description of soil ; and although 
a large portion would not pay for cultivation at the 
present price of labour, it is not unfit for grazing. 
Out of this sandy plain there occasionally rise ranges 
and detached hills of primitive formation, the most 
extensive of which is the range which bounds the 
plain on the E. or landward side, and extends from 
the S. coast between Cape D*Entrecasteaux and 
Wilson's Inlet, northward to the 30th degree of 
latitude. The highest altitude attained by these 

c c 2 



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388 WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

primitive mountains is aboat 3000 feet, which is 
supposed to be the height of Rot Kyncriff, behind 
King George's Sound ; but the average may be 
stated at 1000 feet. To the westward of the prin- 
cipal of these ranges, is an interior country of a 
different formation from that on the coast, being of 
a red loamy character. It appears to have the lowest 
portion of its surface about 500 feet above the level 
of the sea, and discharges all its waters westwardly, 
or southwardly through the range aforesaid. Some 
of these streams have a constant current, and would 
afford a supply of water in the dryest months ; and, 
in general, neither the interior nor the country near 
the coast can be said to be badly watered.' 

Climate. — ^The temperature of /Strait River is 
somewhat like that of Naples, warm and dry. As 
the country is ascended or traversed S. its heat, &c. 
of course varies ; but everywhere the climate is 
exceedingly healthy, disease being not only less fre- 
quent, but when it does occur, less severe than in 
other places. Snow is never seen, but hail of a 
large size (sometimes as big as marbles), falls occa- 
sionally. 

The strongest winds are from the N.W., those 
next in force from the S.W. Off Cape Leuwin the 
N.W. wind occasionally blows with great violence, 
as it does off the Cape of Good Hope in squalls '. 

1 In March, 1828, I was upwards of three weeks off Cape 
Leuwin in a N.W. gale, and scarcely ever out of the meridian 
of 115. E., trying to double this headland, and pass to the E. ; 
we were sometimes close in with the coast, and it is for from 
being a pleasant shore to be cast adrift on. 



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CLIMATB. 389 

The hot winds that blow from the N. are very sultry, 
and if long continued (^hich rarely happens), they 
shrivel up the leaves and vegetables, and destroy the 
tender shoots of plants. The S. and S.W. winds are 
the coolest and most refreshing. During the sum- 
mer months, there is a regular land and sea breeze, 
the former in the morning from the E. and N.E., 
the latter at noon from W. and S.W. 

The wet season commences with light showers in 
April, which continue to increase in number and 
force throughout May, June, and July, and from that 
period to decrease, until they cease altogether in the 
month of November, when the dry weather begins. 
These two seasons, with an intermediate spring fol- 
lowing the conclusion of each, embrace the circle of 
the year. It is usual to call the wet season the win- 
ter, and the dry season the summer, but neither of 
them has the character of the corresponding season 
in Europe. The extreme drought and heat of an 
Australian summer renders it the least agreeable por- 
tion of the year, while the winter, with the exception 
of intervals of stormy weather, is only sufficiently 
cold to be pleasant. 

The prevailing wind, in the seas adjacent to Cape 
Leuwin, is from the westward throughout the year ; 
on the coasts, however, land and sea breezes take 
place with great regularity in the summer. In the 
winter season gales of wind from the north-west and 
south-west are very frequent, and are usually accom- 
panied by heavy falls of rain. At such periods the 
atmosphere is charged with moisture to a considera- 
ble degree, and the quantity of rain that has been 



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390 WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

ascertained to fall at King George's Sound, in the 
course of the six winter months, equals the quantity 
experienced in the western counties of England. 
The atmosphere in the summer season retains so 
little moisture, that none but hardy and fibrous plants 
can withstand the drought. The air is so clear, and 
the reflection of solar heat so great, that the thermo- 
meter occasionally reaches, in the shade near the 
ground, 105°, but the effect at those times upon the 
European constitution is not injurious ; this can only 
be accounted for, under so great a heat, by the pecu- 
liar dryness of the air, and the regular succession of 
cool nights after the warmest days. The experience 
of the last eight years has established in the minds 
of the colonists the full belief, that the climate of the 
settlement is, in a remarkable degree, conducive to 
health and to comfort : but it certainly is not equally 
suitable to the growth of those vegetable products 
which flomish to great advantage in moister cli- 
mates. With reference to this point of difference 
between England and this new colony, it is perhaps 
fortunate for it that it does not resemble the former 
country, but may rather be considered in temperature 
as a supplement to the southern districts of the 
United Kingdom, and as affording every range of 
temperature between the Land's End and the equa- 
torial regions, for the production of commodities 
which cannot be raised in the colder atmosphere of 
the mother country. 

The subjoined communications on climate, mete- 
orology, rain, &c. have been drawn up by John 
Harris, Esq., Colonial Surgeon : — 



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CLIMATB. 391 

In compliance with your desire, I give you such 
information as my experience in the colony has ena- 
bled me to collect, on the following subjects : 

1st. On the cUmate, seasons, scale of thermo- 
meter, quantity of rain, &c. 2d. Diseases, endemic or 
imported, influence of the climate on the health of 
men and animals, and a general state of health of the 
inhabitants. 3d. Diseases incidental to cattle. 

On the climate, I beg to remark, that the concur- 
rent testimony of every individual who has spent a 
round of the seasons in this country, has given to it 
a celebrity which increases as we become better ac- 
quainted with the steady and uniform changes which 
those seasons bring. The hottest months are Janu- 
ary, February, and March ; but, although the ther- 
mometer has stood in the shade at 90, and in one 
instance, in March of the present year, at 105, the 
mornings, evenings, and nights are generally cool 
and pleasant, and the mid- day heats are tempered by 
a refreshing sea breeze from the south-west, which 
sets in with considerable regularity about noon. 
Through the whole summer, a land breeze trom the 
east prevails in the morning ; the sky is beautifully 
clear, and the air pure. Slight fogs occasionally 
hang along the course of the river, early in the 
morning ; a refreshing dew faUs during the night ; 
but as there are no considerable marshes, the coun- 
try is free from malaria or noxious vapours. The 
winter months are June, July, and August ; the two 
latter the most rainy. There are sometimes smart 
frosts, and now and then a httle ice, all traces of 
which disappear on the rising of the sun. Snow is 



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392 WBSTBRN AUSTRALIA. 

unknown. Hailstones, of very large size, occasion- 
ally fall* A fire is agreeable during these winter 
months, mornings and evenings. The rains seldom 
continue more than three or four days, falling chiefly 
in heavy showers, with squaUs, and sometimes storms 
of thunder and lightning, and now and then severe 
gales from the north-west. The intervals of fine 
weather are from ^ve to ten days. During the 
other quarters of the year, nothing can be more de- 
lightful than the climate generally, and its invigorat- 
ing influence on the human constitution, especially 
of the Europeans, renders it more fit for invalids 
than any other in the world. During the winter 
months, the greater part of which are remarkably 
temperate and fine, the changes of temperature are 
often sudden ; but by ordinary care and avoiding im- 
necessary exposure, no ill consequences ensue to the 
invalid. Several persons arrived in the colony, suf- 
fering from pulmonary and bronchial afilections, asth- 
ma, phthisis, hsemoptysis, or spitting of blood, hope- 
less of recovery in Europe, are now perfectly reco- 
vered, or Uving in comparative health. 

The principal diseases met with in this colony, are 
rheumatism, dysentery, scurvy, and catarrh, during 
the winter months ; and during the summer, and be- 
ginning of autumn, a kind of subacute purulent 
ophthalmia, which is endemic, and is the only dis- 
ease that can strictly be so considered.^ Hooping 
cough was imported in 1 833, but has disappeared 
since 1834. Gonorrhoea has been also introduced. 
Small-pox and measles are unknown. Vaccination 
has not hitherto succeeded. Cases of fever are sel- 



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CLIMATB. 393 

dom. met with ; and the diseases enumerated as most 
common are never of obstinate character, if attended 
to promptly. Very few cases of ophthahnia have 
occurred during the past season, owing to the care 
taken when the first symptoms appeared. Scurvy 
has nearly disappeared; indeed, nine cases out of 
ten, reported of this, and most of the diseases 
named, occurred during the early days of the settle- 
ment, when the people, especially the labouring 
classes, were badly sheltered, and badly fed, without 
vegetables, suffering from fatigue, exposure in wet 
weather, or to a hot sun, alternately, privations of 
every kind, and consequent despondency. Intem- 
perance was also a primary cause, in a great many 
cases, especially of dysentery. The higher classes, 
being better provided with food and shelter, were 
generally healthy. Many of the causes no longer 
operate. Few of the labouring classes are now 
without comfortable dwellings ; food is plentiful, and 
vegetables of every kind are raised in great abund- 
ance, with a fine climate, therefore obnoxious to no 
particular diathesis : the average mean temperature 
being from 60 to 64, the inhabitants of Western 
Australia are as healthy a community as any in the 
world. My range of practice includes a population 
of about 1000 persons, and it may be well to ob- 
serve, that at this moment I have not a single sick 
person on my list. 

The experience of seven years has brought us to 
rely on a steady and uniform return of the seasons ; 
the agriculturist is enabled to carry on his opera- 
tions in the field, both in seed time and harvest, with 



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394 WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

less intermption from inconstancy of weather, than 
ih any other part of the world yet known. No 
excess of rains, or long continued droughts, occur to 
mar the fair prospects which cheer his labour ; he 
may safely calculate on the result. The stock owner 
sees, in the condition of his sheep, goats, cattle, and 
horses, in those districts suited for grazing, a reason- 
able expectation of profitable return. All descrip- 
tions of animals and domestic fowls thrive well. 
Sheep and cattle, however, have been attacked by a 
disease, the symptoms of which, in both, are very 
similar ; and although considerable attention has been 
given to this disorder, the remote cause has not yet 
been clearly ascertained; no particular diathesis is 
observable. It has chiefly appeared in flocks recently 
imported and in feeble condition, and in cattle en- 
gaged in long journeys in the bush, where the food 
is scrubby and coarse. Flocks kept on low damp 
ground near the coast, or in high scrubby ground, 
destitute of healthy grass, or in driving them across 
the Darling range of hiUs into the interior, through 
scrubby country, have, too, been principally affected, 
owing, probably, to a deficiency of a requisite bitter 
stimulative quality in this kind of food, of difficult 
digestion in stomachs so peculiarly fc^rmed as those 
of ruminating animals. Horses are fed on the same 
ground, without the least injury. The disorder 
seems the most frequent at the commencement of the 
wet season, the immediate cause being the condition 
of the stomachs, overloaded with hard indigestible 
food, in a state of fermentation, from food eaten 
after rain, and consequent pressure on the heart and 



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CLIMATB. 



395 



lungs. The mode of treatment is urgently indicated, 
namely, — bleeding and stimulants, spirits of turpen- 
tine, and afterwards a little salt ; but as death ensues 
a few minutes after the attack, which affects many at 
the same time, the utmost activity is required. 

Meteorological Journal for 1834. 



Thermometer. 


Barometer. 


Winds. 


Weather. 


Months. 


1 


e 

3 

57 

58 

54 

54 

45 
45 
43 

43 

42 
44 
46 
70 


1 


1 


E. or land 
breezes 
night and 
morning. 


January ... 
February. 

March 

April 

May 


99 
95 

102 

90 

80 
75 
66 

72 

78 
80 
82 
95 


30.20 
30.15 

30.18 

30.31 

30.35 
30.28 
30.35 

30.36 

30.36 
30.28 
30.31 
30.32 


29.75 
29.75 

29.80 

29.85 

29.90 
29.43 
29.49 

29.59 

21.95 
29.62 
29.85 
29.69 


p. M. 
8. W. & 
S. 8. W. 

S.W. 
S. 8. W. 

S.W. 
S.8. W. 
8. E. 

• 

S. w. 

S. S. w. 

S.W. 

E. 
N. W. 

N. N. W. 

N. E. &• 

8. E. 

N.E. 

N. N. W. 

W. 8. 8. E. 

8. E. 

E. by N. 

W. by 8. 

N. W. 

E. 8. 8. W. 

S.W. 

S.W. 

S.W. 


Clear sultry oppressive; on the 31 st 
rain, lightning and thunder. 

Qear, sultry, oppressive; on the 
1st and 25th lain, lightning and 
thunder. 

1 St part, cool, clear; lat. half, sultry, 
oppressive; showery, 27th. Three 
days' lightning and thunder. The 
native fires, which occur during 
these months, add considerably 
to the temperature of the atmos- 
phere. 

Ist part, cloudy, cool; remainder, 
variable ; squalls of rain and hail 
on the 2nd; four days' rain, one 
thunder. 

Cool, fine ; six days' squalls ofrain, 
and generally during the night. 

Variable. Eleven days' squalls of 
rain. Hail on 26th. 

Cool, fine; ten days' rain and gales, 
with lightning and thunder. 

Cool; rain and gales five days, 
lightning and thunder two. 

Cool, squally, sultry, gales ; very 

variable ; a few showers, 
aear, fine, showery; on the 10th and 

llth,rain,lightning, and thunder. 
Variable; four days' rain ; sultry and 

oppressive towards the end. 
Grenerally cool; three days' rain, 

one day lightnin}!: and thunder. 


June 

July 

August .... 

October.... 
November. 
December. 



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396 WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

Fogs are extremely rare ; a haze overhanging the 
lagoons and rivers, not unfrequent in the summer 
season, and speedily dispelled by the sun's rays at 
an early hour ; malaria or noxious exhalations un- 
known. 



CHAPTER III. 

POPULATION— WHITE AND BLACK — RELIGION— EDUCATION, 
&C. 

As in the following return, as compared with a 
similar document drawn up in 1 832, it appears that 
the population has increased since the latter period 
from 1510 to 2032. The increase has been prin- 
cipally owing to the excess of births over deaths ; 
the number of persons who have settled in the colony, 
since that period, having exceeded only by a few 
those who have quitted it. 

On examming the return, it will be perceived, that 
the male adult population is limited to 788, a number 
by far too few to accomplish, in a short time, the 
establishment of anew colony; and scarcely sufficient, 
with the aid of the small military force employed, to 
protect themselves, and their property, from the de- 
predations of the natives. It is satisfactory, however, 
to observe so large a proportion of females, and of 
births, and that the deaths in the preceding 12 
months did not amount to more than 1 in 200 of 
the whole population. In 1836 the births were 61 ; 
deaths, 9 ; and marriages, 12. 



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POPULATION. 



397 



The Numbers and Description of the Colonists are comprised 
in the following tabular view : — 



District. 


Males. 


Females. 


S 


i 


1 


Over 
14. 


Under 
14. 


Over 
14. 


Under 
14. 


Perth 


228 
138 
241 
20 
41 
95 
7 

18 
10 

126 


110 

84 

104 

9 

10 

25 

4 

5 

1 

21 


150 
88 
108 
8 
9 
35 
4 
8 
6 

18 


112 
82 
70 
4 
5 
15 
2 
6 
4 

20 


190 

110 

128 

8 

10 

46 

4 

6 

4 


400 
277 
396 
33 
55 
124 
13 
26 
17 


590 
387 
524 
41 
65 
170 
17 
32 
21 

185 


Fremantle 

Swan River 


Canning River 

York 


Plantagenet 

Murray 

Augusta 

Vasse 

Military, including 
women and chil- 
dren 


Total 


914 


368 


430 


320 


506 


1341 


2082 



The proportion of the sexes is, adults, male and 
female, 1 to 0*607 ; Between 14 and 21, 1 to 0*820; 
Under 14 years, 4 to 0*902 ; Total, 5 to 3, or 1 to 
0*605. 

This list is exclusive of the military stationed in 
the above districts, consisting of 

Officers and privates, 86; Women, 18; Children, 
29; Total, 133. 

There were bom, during the year 1835, in the 
above district, 64 ; Marriages, 4; Burials, 24; Popu- 
lation of King George's Sound, exclusive of military, 
1st Jan. 1836, 160; Ditto of Augusta (no returns) 
estimated at 40; Total, 200. 

Governor Stirling furnishes the following informa- 
tion relative to the Aborigines : 

In this part of New Holland the food of the 



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398 WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

natives embraces a great variety of articles. In the 
estuaries and rivers, and on the coast, there is abun- 
dance of fish at certain periods of the year, and 
kangaroo of various sorts, together with opossums, 
dalgerts, and other small animals, are obtained in 
considerable numbers ; roots and gums of several 
kinds are also used by them, and birds' eggs, lizards, 
frogs, grubs, and cray-fish from the swamps, are 
resorted to as varieties, or used in cases of urgent 
want. They do not appear to be reduced at any time 
to very great difficulties in procuring subsistence, but 
their habits preclude the possibility of keeping any 
accumidated stock of the necessary articles, and 
therefore their time and attention are almost con- 
stantly occupied in the pursuit of their daily food. 
As they have no fixed habitation, and do not practise 
any art tending to increase the supply which nature 
has provided, it is probable that their numbers are 
strictly limited by this circumstance, and that they 
have been long stationary at their present amount. 

The law which thus forbids any farther increase, 
is the cause, moreover, of their dispersion throughout 
the territory, and prevents them from entering into 
any larger confederacies than those which are neces- 
sary for rendering most successful their hunting and 
fishing occupations. The tribes, as they are called, 
usually comprise about 120 persons, of all ages and 
both sexes ; these are connected for the most part by 
relationship of blood, although it is by no means 
uncommon to procure wives or to adopt strangers 
from neighbouring tribes. The only species of control 
or government under which they Uve is founded on 



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POPtJLATlON. 399 

the influence of the strong over the weak, and the 
deference which is shown to the aged, and to the 
pretended powers of the magician or doctor. Certain 
usages estahlished hy custom are frequently appealed 
to as rules of conduct. Of these, the principal relate 
to the right of individuals to certain portions of 
hunting ground, derived by inheritance from their 
immediate ancestors ; to the practice of boring the 
cartilage of the nose of the young men on their ad- 
mission to the rights of manhood : and to retahation 
for injuries received, which all are enjoined as well as 
entitled to seek, whether the offender belong to the 
same or to a neighbouring community. It has been 
found very difficult to ascertain the exact locality or 
tribe to which individuals belong, in consequence of 
alliances which are very frequent amongst individuals 
of different tribes; this species of brotherhood by 
adoption, carries with it the obligation of becoming 
parties to each other's quarrels, and although it 
appears to be followed by the advantage of mutual 
protection, as far as such individuals are concerned, 
it gives rise at the same time to many hostilities. 
The intercourse between tribes is seldom of a friendly 
character ; but it is remarkable that their conflicts 
seldom extend to the loss of lives. Almost continu- 
ally engaged as they are in feuds arising out of the 
invasion of each other's territory, or the abduction of 
each other's women, it might be expected, that when 
they met to fight, the weaker party would be exter- 
minated, whereas these contests, after a great deal of 
clamour, and a few unimportant wounds, generally 
end in the murder of a child or of a female, by mutual 

11 



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400 WBSTBRN AUSTRALIA. 

consent admitted as an atonement for the offence or 
ground of quarrel. Independent of these occasional 
warlike meetings of tribes, almost every native is 
under an engagement to avenge at a convenient op- 
portunity, the death of some departed friend, or an in- 
sult previously offered to himself; this purpose, which 
he cannot forego without discredit, gives rise to acts 
of the greatest treachery, and not unfrequently ends 
in the surprise and sudden death of some individual 
belonging to the same tribe with the avenger, or of 
some of his neighbours. They rarely, therefore, sleep 
a second night in the same place ; the spear seldom 
quits the hand of the man from boyhood till death ; 
and they become accustomed to witness, endure, and 
practise the greatest outrages. 

The personal quahties of some members of this 
peculiar race are superior to the condition in which 
they live ; a few of them are remarkable for symmetry 
of form and countenance, and the natural intelligence 
of many appears to be in the highest degree acute. 
The greater part, however, are, from hardship of life, 
and bodily injuries, disgusting specimens of the human 
race ; and the deformity of old age, whether in the 
men or women, is usually accompanied by a concen- 
tration of all the vicious propensities to which their 
usages give rise. 

In their intercourse with the whites, they accom- 
modate themselves with astonishing readiness to the 
language, the habits, and even the weaknesses of 
their new friends. They are remarkably cheerful, and 
make themselves very useful in many employments ; 
but they are not to be relied upon, for in a great 



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POPULATION. 401 

many instances it has been found, that after living for 
months in the houses of a settler, they have been all 
along employed by the rest of the tribe as spies, for 
the purpose of conveying intelligence as to the best 
point of attack on life or property. Living in a 
constant state of warfare, they are bold, crafty, and 
persevering, and lay their plans with judgment, equal 
to the vigour with which they put them into execu- 
tion. With such qualities as these, they would be 
too powerful as a nation for the present number of 
colonists, if it were not for their mistrust of each 
other. They cannot combine their efforts, nor act on 
a concerted plan ; for if they were to do so, there are 
many of them who would readily betray the rest, 
and voluntarily lead the whites to their retreat for the 
sake of a few pounds of flour. 

It is impossible to give any accurate account of 
their numbers ; 750 have been known to visit Perth 
from the districts surrounding it to the extent of 40 
miles each way. The nearest estimate of the popula- 
tion appears to be that which assigns one native to 
each portion of ground of two square miles. 

[B. B. 1837.] The parochial divisions of the 
Colony cannot be ascertained. 

There are no churches, but divine service is per- 
formed every Sunday in the Court House, Perth, which 
will contain about 200 persons ; the general attend- 
ance is about 150. The Colonial Chaplain who 
preaches here has a salary of 250/. per annum and an 
allowance of 50/. per annum in lieu of a parsonage 
house ; of dissenting places of worship there is one 
at Perth belonging to the Wesleyan methodists, 
Dd 

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402 WBSTBRN AUSTRALIA. 

lately enlarged, and will contain about 100 persons* 
and one at Guildford, under the patronage of the 
Western Australian Missionary Society, capable of 
containing about 100 persons. 

In the year 1835 an association was formed in 
London for promoting religion according to the rites 
of the Church of England, under the designation of 
the ** Western Australian Missionary Society." An 
Italian gentleman of the name of Giustiniani was se- 
lected as their first minister ; he arrived here in July 
last year, and has erected a chapel and schoolhouse 
at Guildford, and has commenced the formation of a 
farm on the Swan River, at which it is understood 
to be the intention of the society to collect natives, 
with a view to their instruction and future civiliza- 
tion. 

[B. B. 1837.] There are two public schools, one 
at Perth containing 20 male, and 12 female scholars : 
and one at Fremantle containing 22 male and 1 1 
female scholars. The master of each school is allowed 
50/. per annum by government. 

At " Albany Plantagenet" there is also one private 
school. 

There are published in the colony at present, two 
weekly newspapers, independent of the Government 
Gazette. The oldest of these has existed under the 
name of the " Perth Gazette" for six or seven years ; 
the other, under the title of the ** Swan River 
Guardian," commenced its pubHcation in last year, 
as the friend of the people and the corrector of 
abuses. 

If we return from the colony down to a later 



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OOVBRNMBNT. 403 

period, its progress in population, civilization, &c. 
would be more fuUy shown : the Secretary of State 
for the Colonies, has expressed himself perfectly 
satisfied with the improvement that has of late taken 
place, and looks forward confidiugly to the ultimate 
flourishing state of the settlement, which has now 
surmounted its primary difficulties. 

Few subjects deserve more serious consideration, 
than the moral condition of a population. 

The annual returns of persons charged with crime 
were — 1830, July to Dec, felony, 5 : 1831, felony, 
21 ; misdemeanour, 6 : 1832, felony, 39; misdemean- 
our, 5 : 1833, felony, 25 ; misdemeanour, 5 : 1834, 
felony, 39; misdemeanour, 4: 1835, felony, 38; 
misdemeanour, 2. The number indicted from July 
1830 to 1836 were — ^for felony, 170; misdemeanour, 
25; total, 195; convicted of felony, 101 ; acquitted, 
39. Drunkenness, and its usual attendants, assaults 
and afirays, have been the most frequent offences 
within the jurisdiction of the magistrates. 



^ CHAPTER IV. 

GOVERNMENT — FINANCES— PRODUCTS, &C. 

The local administration is provided for by the Royal 
Commission, and instructions, and by Act of Parlia- 
ment, and an order in Council dated 1st November, 
1830. 

The legislative power conferred on the Governor 
and the members of the Legislative Council, has been 
Dd2 



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404 WBSTBRN AUSTRALIA. 

hitherto exercised only in the adoption of certain re- 
cent Acts of Parliament of a . general tendency, and 
in the passing of a few ordinances connected with 
matters of local interest. 

The state of the law in this colony is, therefore, as 
yet in strict accordance with the letter and spirit of 
the law of England, as far as it is applicable to the 
circumstances of this comitry. In the absence of 
every institution foreign to the practice of the mother 
country, as well as the non-existence of foreign cus- 
toms, language, and blood in this settlement, it pos- 
sesses an attraction for free emigrants in a great 
degree peculiar to itself. 

Comparative yearly statement of the revenue 
of Swan River, [B. B.] — Separate tax or duty, re- 
gular revenue, 1835, 3308/., casual revenue, 946/. 
total, 4254/.; 1836, regular revenue, 3062/., casual 
revenue, 799/., total, 3861/. ; 1837, regular revenue, 
3313/., casual revenue, 1273/., total, 4568/. 

Comparative yearly statement of the expenditure 
of Swan River. — Separate head of expenditure, 1835, 
salaries of public officers, 1062/., contingencies, 
3779/., total, 4841/. ; 1836, salaries of public offi- 
cers, 842/., contingencies, 3614/., total, 4456^ ; 
1837, salaries of public officers, 869/., contingencies, 
3043/.. total, 3912/. 

Estimate of the charge of defraying the expenses 
of the settlement of Western Australia, from the 1st 
April, 1838, to the 3l8t March, 1839.— Salary to 
the governor, 800/.; ditto colonial secretary and 
clerk of the councils, 400/. ; do. first derk to do., 
150/. ; second clerk to do., 75/. ; do. messengers to 



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FINANCES PRODUCTS . 



405 



councils and secretary, 50/. ; do. surveyor-general, 
400/. ; do. draftsmen and office-keeper, 150/. ; do. 
clerk to surveyor-general, 50/. ; do. colonial chap- 
lain, 250/. ; do. colonial surgeon, 273/. ; do. com- 
missioner of civil court, and chairman of quarter 
sessions acting as civil and criminal judge, 300/. ; do. 
advocate-general, 300/. ; do. clerk of the peace and 
registrar of civil court (in lieu of fees in Crown 
cases), 100/. ; do. sheriff (in lieu of fees in Crown 
cases), 100/. ; do. six residents, or resident magis- 
trates, at 100/. each, 600/. ; allowance to officer 
commanding the troops, 182/. ; total salaries, 4181/. 
Contingencies, &c. — House-rent for colonial chap- 
lain, 50/. ; stationary for public departments, 150/. ; 
maintenance of government vessel, 708/. ; hire of 
surveyor-general's office, 70/. ; sum required towards 
the erection of pubUc offices, 989/. ; total contingen- 
cies, 1967/. ; total charges, 6149/. 

Imports, Exports, and Shipping of Swan River. 



IMPORTS. 


EXPORTS. 


Years. 


VaL£. 


No. 


Tons. 


Men 


Val.£. 


No. 


Tons. 


Men 


1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 


50000 
50636 
39283 
45401 


20 
24 
34 
14 


3120 
4048 
5587 
3013 


263 
533 
513 
214 


1020 
1740 
2850 
6906 


U 


3013 


2i4 



Agricultural and pastoral pursuits are the leading 
occupations in this country. The following table 
contains an accurate return of the cultivation and 
stock, at the close of last year. The rate of increase 



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406 WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

which was foand to exist between December, 1835> 
and December, 1836, has been taken as the guide in 
estimating the increase up to the date of this report, 
as shown in the last column. 

A statement of the stock, crops, &c., in the York, 
Canning, Murray, and Swan River Districts, taken 
12th November, 1836 : — Wheat (number of acres), 
1363; barley, 209 J ; oats, 128| ; rye, 7| ; pota- 
toes, 32; green crop, 35 ; gardens, 112; artificial 
and oat hay (tons), 185; fallow (number of acres 
not estimated), 98 ; total acres in crop, 2055. Na- 
tural hay (tons), 231; sheep (number of), 8119; 
goats, 1231 ; homed cattle, 728 ; horses, 191 ; 
swine, 764. 

Statement of the stock and crops at King George's 
Sound, the Vasse, and Port Augusta, taken Decem- 
ber, 1836: — ^Wheat, barley, and oats (acres), 18j; 
gardens and potatoe crop, 32^ ; sheep (head), 409 ; 
goats, 55 ; homed cattle, 101 ; horses, 25 ; swine, 55, 

Amount of coins in circulation, about 15,000/. 
Amount of paper currency in circulation, about 
400,000/., consisting of 1/. notes issued by the Com- 
missariat on account of Government, and not yet 
brought in to be exchanged for British silver money. 
-[B.B.] 

Manufactories, Mines, and Fisheries. — Brewery at 
Perth. Two boat builders ; 1 at Perth and 1 at 
Freemantle. Three lime burners ; 2 at Perth and 1 
at Freemantle. Three brick makers at Perth. Three 
Flourmills by water ; 2 at Perth and 1 at Upper 
Swan River. Two windmills at Perth ; and 4 horse- 



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FINANCES. 407 

mills at Perth, used for various purposes. Two boats 
employed at seal fishing; 10 ditto recently esta- 
blished for whaling. 

There are at present four establishments of this 
description ; the first at Freemantle, consisting of 30 
subscribers, at the rate of 50/. each; the second, 
called the ** Perth Fishing Company," is divided into 
60 shares at 15/. each. The fishing ground of these 
two companies is near the entrance of the Swan 
River. The two other establishments occupy sta- 
tions in Doabtfal Island Bay, on the south coast ; 
one of these is the property of a gentleman named 
Cheyne, the other belongs to a Mr. Sherratt ; the 
latter was established last year, and found abundance 
of employment. It is supposed that the aggregate 
produce of the fisheries in the present season will 
amount to 4200/. in oil, whalebone, and seal skins. 

The following statements will afford information 
as to the actual population, and to the value of build- 
ings and improvements effected in the towns. 

Estimated valuation of improvements in Perth : — 
Number of allotments granted, 422 ; ditto suburban 
ditto, 15 ; ditto miles of fencing, about 35, value, 
about 5600/. ; ditto houses, about 350 ; value, about 
30,000/. ; value of suburban improvements, about 
4000/. ; ditto gardens ditto, 2000/. ; mills, 3000/. ; 
ditto public works, 15,000/. Total value, say about 
50,000/. 

In Freemantle: — ^Number of allotments granted, 
430 ; ditto miles of fencing, about 20, value, about 
3200/. ; ditto houses, about 300, value, about 25,000/. ; 
gardens, 500/. ; private works of public utility, 500/. ; 



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408 WSSTBRN AUSTRALIA. 

works undertaken by companies, 800/. ; public works, 
2300/. Total value, say about, 28,000/. 

Perth, 50,000/. ; Freemantle, 28,000/. ; Guildford, 
5000/. ; Albany, 5000/. ; Augusta, 2000/. ; Kelms- 
cott, York, Peel Town, 1750/.; Busselton, 800/.; 
King's Town, 500/. Total value of improvements in 
aU the towns, say about, 93,050/. 

The aggregate value of property appertaining to 
the colonists in land granted at Is, per acre, and on 
rural improvements, building in towns, implements, 
clothes and furniture, value of crop and live stock, 
and in boats, vessels and fishing gear, may be esti- 
mated in the gross at 360,000/., producing, with the 
labour of the community, after deducting its subsist- 
ence, a clear annual accumulation of capital to the 
extent of 72,000/. 

The following table has been prepared at Swan 
River in conformity as stated with the plan laid 
down in my first colonial work. 

(A.) — Moveable property existing. — Sheep, 5300, at 
50s, each, 1 3,250/. ; horses, 1 70, at 35/. each, 6950/. ; 
homed cattle, 540, at 12/. each, 6480/. ; goats, 500, 
at SOs. each, 750/. : swine, 550, at 20^. each, 550/. ; 
dogs, 500/. ; crafts, boats, and gear, 3000/. ; furni- 
ture in houses, 10,000/. ; clothing for 1683 persons* 
at 5/. each, 8415/. ; farming implements, machinery, 
&c., 5000/. ; merchandize on hand, 15,000/. ; bul- 
lion, coin, &c., 5000/. 

(B.) — Houses, 375 in Perth and Freemantle, 
30,000/. ; land cultivated, 1579 acres, at 15/. per 
acre, including farm, 23,685/. ; land granted, and 
wholly or in part occupied, as sheep or stock runs. 



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VALUB OP PBOPBRTY. 409 

160,000 acres, at 5*. per acre, 40,000/. ; land grant- 
ed, remaining unoccupied, 1,379,616 acres, at 28. 
per acre, 137,961/.; public buildings, jails, &c., 
13,000/. ; roads, bridges, and wharfis, 2000/. ; grand 
total, 321,541/. 

[These tables are exclusive of a considerable pro- 
perty existing at King Greorge's Sound, in four ves- 
sels of considerable tonnage, houses, &c. &c.] 

Estimated value of property created, or con- 
sumed, whether of colonial production, or imported 
during the year 1835. Animal food for 1892 per- 
sons, at lOOlbs. per annum each, 189,2001bs., at Is. 
per lb., 9460/. ; salted meat, imported beef, pork, 
and tongues, for 1892 persons, at 1501bs. per annum 
each, 283,8001bs., at 5«/., 5912/. ; fish for 1000 per- 
sons, lOOlbs. each per annum, 100,0001bs., at l^d. 
per lb., 625/. ; bread (colonial) for 1892 persons, at 
1501bs. each per annum, 283,8001bs., at Sd. per lb., 
estimated for the year 1835, at half the total con- 
sumption, 3547/. ; condiments — viz., salt, pepper, 
and spices, at 0|(/. per week each person, 204/. ; 
bread from imported flour, for 1892 persons, at 
1501bs. each per annum, 283,8001bs., at 3d. per lb., 
for the year 1835, estimated at half the total con- 
sumption, 3547/. ; butter, eggs, and poultry, 2000/. ; 
luxuries — viz., tea, sugar, coflPee, beer, spirits, wine, 
and tobacco, 4d. per day each person, 11,509/.; 
food for horses, cattle, swine, &c., 3000/. ; wool ex- 
ported, 80001bs., at Is. Sd. per lb., 600/.; 661 acres 
brought into cultivation, at 10/. per acre, 6610/.; 
wearing apparel, renewed for each person, at 2/. each, 
1749 persons, exclusive of military, 3498/. ; furniture. 



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410 WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

renewed or made, at £1 7^. for each house, 500/. ; 
increase of sheep during the year, 2000 head, at 2/. 
per head, 4000/. ; increase of horses, homed cattle, 
swine, and goats, 2000/. ; value of private houses 
and buildings erected during the year 1835, 2000/. ; 
value of public buildings, roads, and bridges, and 
ferries, constructed or made during the year 1835, 
2000/. ; total, 58,965/. 

The vegetable productions are pretty similar to 
those of the E. coast ; the forest trees are principally 
eucalypti (called the white/ blue, and red gum tree) ; 
banksia (honeysuckle) casuarinas (shee and swamp oaks), 
and mimosas (wattles) are abundant. A very fine 
wood discovered by the settlers is called mahogany, 
and the sandal wood is large and well scented. 
There is in fact abundaiice of excellent timber fit for 
any purpose. All sorts of European grain have 
now been introduced, and yield an ample return; 
maize and Ca^e com thrive luxuriantly. Vegetables 
are of all kinds : turnips, radishes, onions, eschalots, 
garlic, peas, beet-root, mangel-wurzel, celery, cabbages, 
cauliflowers, spinach, beans, potatoes, sugar cane (stand- 
ing fifteen feet high), bananas, salad herbs, water- 
cress (introduced from Europe), chillis, artichokes, 
almonds, peaches, apples, vines, pine-apples, all the 
melon tribe, water-melons, cucumbers, vegetable mar- 
row, vegetable bottles. Thirty tons of potatoes have 
been exported on trial to India. 

The Animal Kingdom requires no separate notice 
from the description given under New South Wales. 



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BOOK IV. 

SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



COLONIZATION — OEOGRAPHT — CONDITION, &C. 

Another portion of the vast island of New Hol- 
land has been recently erected into a British colony 
termed South Australia. The conditions under which 
it was established, will be best seen by the following 
abstract of the Act of Parliament framed and passed 
for the formation of the new settlement. 

' The colony to be erected into a province under 
the name of South Australia, extending from the 
132nd to the 141st degree of east longitude, and 
from the south coast, including the adjacent isluids, 
northwards to the tropic of Capricorn. 

'The whole of this territory within the above 
limits to be open to settlement by British subjects. 

' Not to be governed by laws applying to other 
parts of Australia, but by those only expressly 
enacted for this colony. 

*The colony in no case to be employed as the 
place of confinement of transported convicts. 

' No waste or public lands to become private pro- 
perty, save by one means only; viz. by purchase 



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412 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

at a fixed minimmn price, or as much above that 
price as the competition of public auction may de- 
termine. 

' Subject to the above restriction, and to the ne- 
cessity of previous surveys, all persons, whether re- 
siding in the colony or Great Britain, to be free to 
acquire property in waste or public land, in fee, and 
without limit, either as to quantity or situation. 

* The whole of the purchase money of waste or 
pubHc land to be employed in conveying labourers, 
natives of the British isles', to the colony. 

* The emigrants conveyed to the colony with the 
purchase money of waste land to be of the two 
sexes in equal numbers ; a preference amongst the 
applicants for a passage, cost-free, being given to 
young married persons not having children ; so that 
for any given outlay of their money, the purchasers 
of land may obtain the greatest amount of labour 
wherewith to cultivate the land, and of population 
to enhance its value. 

* Commissioners to be appointed by his Majesty 
to manage the disposal of pubhc lands, the expendi- 
ture of the purchase-money thereof as an emigration 
fund, and to discharge some other duties relative to 
the colony. 

* Until the colony be settled, and the sales of waste 
or pubhc lands shall have produced a fund adequate 
to the want of labour in the colony, the commis- 
sioners to have authority to raise money on loan, by 
the issue of bonds or otherwise, bearing colonial in- 
terest, for the purpose of conveying selected labour- 
ers to the colony : so that the first body of emi- 



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COLONIZATION. 413 

grating capitalists going out to buy land may from 
the first be supplied with labour. The commission- 
ers being empowered, until such loan or loans be 
repaid, with interest, to apply all the proceeds of the 
sales of land in repa3rment of such loans. 

' For defraying (provisionally) the necessary ex- 
penses of the commission and of the colonial govern- 
ment, the commissioners to have authority to raise 
money on loan, by the issue of bonds or otherwise, 
and provided such expenditure do not exceed 200,000/. 
in the whole, the amount thereof to be deemed a 
colonial debt, and secured upon the entire revenue of 
the colony. 

* The authority of the commissioners to continue 
until the colony having attained a certain population, 
shall, through the means of a representative assembly, 
to be called by his Majesty, undertake to discharge 
the colonial debt, and to, defray the cost of future 
government ; when the polony is to receive such a 
constitution of local government as his Majesty, with 
the advice of his Privy Council, and with the autho- 
rity of Parliament, may deem most desirable. The 
population of the province must amount to at least 
50,000 before it be lawful for the Crown to frame a 
constitution of local government for tte colony.' 

The province contains an area of nearly 300,000 
square miles, or 192,000,000 acres. It was taken 
possession of by Captain Hindmarsh, R. N., as 
governor on the 25th May 1837. 

The capital of the province of South Australia is 
situated on the eastern side of Gulf St. Vincent, in 
latitude 34. 57. south, and longitude 138. 43, east. 
All the accounts which have been received from the 

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414 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

colony concur in extoUing the salubrity of the climate 
and the fertility of the soil, and go to confirm the 
opinion expressed by Captain Sturt in the report of 
his survey of this district of country, that between 
the eastern coast of Gulf St. Vincent and Lake Alex- 
andrina, from Cape Jervis to the head of the Gulf, 
there are several millions of acres of highly fertile 
and beautiful land. 

The country from Cape Jervis upwards is very 
picturesque, and generally well timbered, but in the 
disposition of the trees more like an English park 
than what we could have imagined to be the character 
of untrodden wilds ; it is, therefore, well suited for 
depasturing sheep, and in many places, under present 
circumstances, quite open enough for the plough. 

A range of hills, with valleys opening through to 
the back, runs down it at an average distance of 10 
or 12 miles. Most of these hills are good soil to the 
top, and all would furnish excellent feed during the 
winter. The country between there and the sea is 
very diversified, in some places undulating, in others 
level, with plains both open and elegantly wooded. 
There are many streams running into the sea, with 
very deep channels. These in summer are low, and 
a few of them dry ; but the entire range of hiUs in 
which these have their sources abounds in gullies and 
ravines, aflfording the greatest facilities for damming, 
whereby an immense quantity of water might be 
retained from the winter rains. This is important, 
as a system of irrigation might be applied here with 
great advantage. The soil is generally excellent ; a 
fine rich mould, with a substratum of clay. 

The site fixed on by the Surveyor-general for the 

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PHYSICAL APPEARANCE. 415 

capital of the colony is in about 34.57 south. It is 
situated on gently rising ground on both banks of a 
pretty stream, commanding a view of an extensive 
plain, reaching down to the sea, over which the 
S. W. breezes blow nine months out of the twelve, 
with invigorating freshness. As the back is a beau- 
tifully wooded country, which extends for about six 
miles to the base of the first range of hills, which are 
capped by a high wooded one, called, by Sturt, Moant 
Lofty, 2400 feet above the level of the sea. To the 
left the hills gently curve round, and trend down to 
the coast at about nine mDes from the town, enclosing 
a plain country, in some places open, in others 
wooded, having a few small streams and fresh water 
lakes. To the right the hills run in a northerly and 
easterly direction continuing for 30 or 40 miles, 
where they appear to sink into a plain. The country 
along their base is well timbered : nearer the coast it 
is open and levels 

At the distance of six miles from the town is the 
head of a creek, from 300 to 400 yards wide, com- 
municating with the sea, in which vessels not drawing 
more than 18 feet water may be moored as easily and 
safely as in the London Docks. 

We have no accurate census as yet of the colony; it 
probably numbers nearly 5000 European inhabitants, but 
the females are in larger proportion to the males than is 
usually the case with infant settlements. The commissioners 
in their last report state that the total of the sums received 
for the sale of land up to the present time (December 22, 
1837) has amounted to 43,221/. for 63,796 acres. Of this 
sum, 36,427/. were received before the date of the first annual 
report, and subsequently to that report 3200/. have been paid 
for land in this country, and 3594/. have been paid in the 



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416 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

colony on account of the 563 town sections sold by auction, 
after the first 437 town sections had been appropriated to the 
original purchasers of land orders in this country. 

No expense has been defrayed from the revenues of this 
country on account of the colony of South Australia, except 
the sum of 4801/., paid by the naval department on account of 
Her Majesty's ship ' Bufialo/ employed in the formation of 
the settlement Of this, 1843/. has been repaid from the funds 
chargeable with the cost of conveying emigrants, and the re- 
mainder is to be repaid by the commissioners. 

A return of all moneys received by the sale of Public Lands 
in Southern Australia, in each year, from the 1st of April 
1835, to the latest period for which it can be prepared. — From 
1 April 1835 to 81 March 1836, both inclusive, 36,377/- (in- 
cluding the preliminary sales, amounting to 35,000/., required 
by the Act 4 & 5 WUl. IV., c. 95). 1 April 1836 to 31 March 
1837, both inclusive, 4092/. (including 3594/. 4«., received in 
the colony from the sale of town sections ; a return of sub- 
sequent sales there has not been received in England). 1 
April 1837 to 31 March 1838, both inclusive, 4820/. 1 April 
1838 to 27 July 1838, both inclusive, 12,640/. Total, 57,929/. 

A return of the Annual Charge to be provided for by the 
Local Government of South Australia ; viz. — Interest on debts 
contracted on the credit of the Colonial Revenue, viz. Bonds 
for security fund, 20,000/., interest, 2000/.; other Bonds 
to this date, 35,000/. interest, 3540/. Total, 5540/.— Ex- 
penses of the Local Establishment and Contingencies from 
January to December 1838 ; viz. Salaries, 8250/. ; Contingen- 
cies, 1750/. Total, 10,000/.— Expenses of the Establishment of 
the Colonization Commissions in this Country, and Contingen- 
cies, from January to Dec. 1838: viz. Salaries, 1600/.; Con- 
tingencies, 1000/. Total, 2600/. Grand total, 18,140/1 

By the 20th section of the South Australian Act, the public 
lands, and the moneys arising from the sale thereof, are made 
available for the payment of the principal and interest of the 
colonial debt. 

THE END. 
GiLBXRT ft RiYiNOTow, Printers, St. John't Square, London. 



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