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Full text of "British conchology : or, an account of the Mollusca which now inhabit the British Isles and the surrounding seas"





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BRITISH CONCIIOLOGY, 

OR AN ACCOUNT OF 

THE MOLLUSCA 

WHICH NOW INHABIT THE BRITISH ISLES AND THE 

SURROUNDING SEAS. 



VOLUME III. 

MARINE SHELLS, 

COMPRISING THE REMAINING CONCHIFERA, 
THE SOLENOCONCHIA, AND GASTEROPODA AS FAR AS 

LITTORINA. 



By JOHN GWYN JEFFREYS, F.R.S., F.G.S., &c. 



LONDON: 

JOHN VAN VOORST, PATERNOSTER ROW. 

MDCCCLXY. 
[ The right of Translation is reserved.] 



riUNTEl) BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 




\7 

Family XVI. SOLE'NIDjE, Latreille. ' ^ 

Body elongated in a transverse direction : mantle closed in 
front, with its borders adhering together, open at the anterior 
end for the passage of a foot, and forming at the posterior end 
t\to conical tubes or siphons of different lengths, which are 
more or less enclosed in a common sheath : gills two on each 
side, long and narrow : palps corresponding with the gills in 
number and position, long, slender, and triangular : foot large 
and muscular, adapted for burrowing in sand. 

8hell shaped like the body, equivalve, open or gaping at 
both ends: epidermis strong and persistent, overlapping the 
front or ventral edges of the shell : beetles small : ligament ex- 
ternal : hinge strengthened inside by a ridge : teeth consisting 
of one or two thorn -like cardinals in each valve, which are 
erect, curved, and interlock ; laterals partly recumbent, in 
some cases rudimentary or wanting : muscular scars irregular : 
pallial scar sinuated. 

This and the succeeding families of marine Conchifera 
differ from those described in the second volume in 
having the mantle more or less closed in front. Pro- 
fessor Oken imagined that, in a biological point of view, 
they typify the Nudibranchs and Salpse; but he gave 
no reason for this fanciful analogy. Although the 
SoJeniclce appear at first sight to constitute a natural 
and simple group, it will be found to comprise certain 
forms which connect it with other families. This resem- 
blance has probably misled some systematists, and in- 
duced them to associate with Solen such very dissimilar 
genera as Psammobia, Lutraria, Panopaa, and My a. 
The structure of the hinge, however, will always serve 
to distinguish any one of them from the rest. 

Dr. Carpenter says that the external layer of the 
shells in the present family is composed of cells which 

VOL. III. B 



75034 



"A SOLENIDiE. 

form elongated prisms, with walls as straight and parallel 
as those of Pinna ; but their axes are nearly conformable 
with the surface, cropping out somewhat obliquely upon 
the exterior, where their rounded terminations with 
distinct nuclear spots may sometimes be seen. The 
internal layer is very dense, and nearly homogeneous ; 
but evident traces of cells are occasionally to be met 
with. Most of the Solen tribe are littoral, and live in 
sand which they penetrate for that purpose ; a few are 
found at various and often considerable depths of water, 
and these prefer a more muddy habitat. None of their 
remains have been discovered in any geological formation 
older than the lower tertiaries. 

Genus I. SOLECUR'TUS * De Blainville. PL I. f. 1. 

Body oblong, compressed : mantle capable of being inflated 
in front : tubes partly separated, extended, and occasionally 
strangulated, issuing from a common sheath : foot tongue- 
shaped, of an enormous size. 

Shell resembling in shape a kidney bean, rather solid, nearly 
equilateral, concentrically striated or sculptured diagonally 
with imbricated ribs : teeth, two cardinals in the right valve, 
and one in the left ; laterals short and rudimentary : pallial 
scar having a broad and shallow fold. 

For the reasons which I have given in the last volume 
(pp. 327 and 434), with respect to the systematic value 
of characters derived from the separation or union of 
the pallial tubes, I prefer not placing this genus and 
Ceratisolen in one family, and Solen in another. The 
relations of Ceratisolen to Solen, through S. pellucidus, 
are too close to warrant their being assigned to different 
families, and the transition from the last-named species 
to S. ensis is very slight and gradual. 

* A short Solen. 



SOLECURTUS. 6 

It is the genus Macha of Oken, who described it in 
the c Allgemeine Naturgeschichte ' for 1835, giving the 
Solen strigilatus of Linne as the type. This, however, 
was eleven years after De BlainvihVs publication of Sole- 
cur tus. Herrmannsen at first cited the date of Oken's 
publication as 1815, but corrected the mistake in his 
' Supplement ;' he disapproves of the word Solecurtus, as 
well as of Solenocurtus and Solenocurtis (emendations 
of Sowerby and Swainson), and suggests Cyrtosolen. 
But if we proceed in this way to rectify the nomenclature 
of Natural History, few of the modern names would be 
recognizable in their new dresses. A century ago Linne 
complained of a deterioration in this respect — one of his 
axioms being " Veterum nomina plerumque prsestantis- 
sima, recentiorum pejora fuere." I fear that the lapse 
of time has not brought with it any improvement. The 
present name appears to have been compounded accord- 
ing to a grammatical rule called Syncope, and it has a 
precedent in the word lapicida (for lapidicida) used by 
Livy and Varro. Leach's name of Azor appeared in 
the second edition (1844) of Brown's work on British 
and Irish Conchology; it had S. antiquatus for its type. 

1. Solecurtus can'didus*, Renier. 

Solen candidus, Kenier, Tav. Conch. Adriat. p. 1. Solecurtus candidus, 
F. & H. i. p. 263, pi. xv. f. 1, 2. 

Body of a uniform bright orange-yellow colour : mantle 
somewhat paler towards the margin : tubes united at their 
bases, where the siphonal mass is large and thick, and sepa- 
rated at their extremities ; orifices fringed : foot pale orange 
with a whitish sole. 

Shell elliptical, rather convex, but compressed in the middle, 
solid, opaque, somewhat glossy : sculpture, 40 to 50 oblique and 
imbricated longitudinal striae or slight ribs, of which nearly 

* White. 

b2 



4 solenid^:. 

two-thirds cover the ventral or front part of the shell, and 
radiate from the beak, the rest occupying the whole of the 
posterior side, and diverging- from an angle formed by a junc- 
tion with the first-mentioned set of striae ; this angle varies 
from acute to obtuse, according to the number of striae ; the 
anterior side is not thus striated ; the surface is also covered 
with minute and crowded longitudinal stria) resembling those 
observable in species of Psammobia : colour pale yellowish- 
white : epidermis like oil-skin, yellowish with a brown tint in 
aged specimens : margins slightly incurved in front, obliquely 
truncated with a rounded contour at each end, nearly straight 
behind and parallel with the front, except in the middle, where 
the beak forms a projection equal to the indentation on the 
opposite side : beaks pointed and nearly straight : ligament 
chrysalis- shaped, prominent, dark horncolour : hinge-line 
straight : hinge-plate thick and strong, reflected over the 
ligament and abruptly truncated at the posterior end : hinge 
supported by a strong oblique shelf-like rib : teeth, in the right 
valve two blunt cardinals curving upwards from below the 
beak, the posterior being much larger than the other ; the 
left valve has a similar cardinal on the anterior side, besides a 
short, triangular and oblique lateral on the posterior side : 
inside chalky- white, with a slightly nacreous gloss in some 
parts, incipient pearls being occasionally formed on the 
inner edge of the mantle ; margin blunt : pallial sear well 
defined ; sinus oblong, and extending two-thirds across the 
transverse diameter of the shell : muscrdar scars distinct ; an- 
terior irregularly pear-shaped, posterior triangularly oval. 
L. 0-9. B.l-9. 

Var. oblonga. Shell narrower in proportion to its breadth. 

Habitat : In sand, between low-water mark at spring 
tides (Lukis), and various depths seawards, from 20 
to 85 fathoms, on different parts of the coast from the 
Shetland to the Channel Isles, but local ; more common 
in Bantry Bay than elsewhere. Var. 1. Guernsey 
(Lukis) • Polkernow Cove, Cornwall (Miss Lavars) ; 
Shetland (Barlee) . Believing it to be the Solen multi- 
striatus of Scacchi, I find it recorded as a fossil from the 
neighbourhood of Antwerp, and from Gravina in Apulia. 
Lamarck and Brocchi appear to have mistaken a white 



SOLECURTUS. O 

variety of S. strigilatus for this shell. Its foreign 
distribution comprises the coasts of France, Spain, 
Portugal, Italy, Algeria, the Canary Isles, and Madeira. 
All that is known of the habits of this pretty species, 
we owe to the Rev. R. N. Dennis, who informs me that 
he was greatly surprised, when at Herm, with its 
activity — adding, " A couple of specimens which I had 
in a milk- pan of salt water were on the crawl whenever 
I looked at them, really travelling at a great rate for 
mollusks, and, without the least respect for their neigh- 
bours' comforts, walking over, and upsetting all the 
weaker shell-fish which were with them." 

I have retained the specific name candidus because it 
is now generally accepted; but the Solen candidus of 
Renier may have been only a white variety of Solecurtus 
strigilatus, a rather common Mediterranean shell. His 
description is too scanty for identification, and he does 
not even give the last-named species as an Adriatic 
shell. This variety was noticed by Limie in his ' Mus. 
Ulr. Reg/ Olivi was at first inclined to consider it a 
distinct species, but after finding intermediate specimens 
he reduced it to the rank of a variety ; it was enume- 
rated by Chiereghini also from the Adriatic under the 
name of Solen albicans. The present species is the 
Psammobia scopula of Turton, and Adasius Loscombeus 
of Leach. I have been asked why I notice any of the 
bizarre names given in Leach's ' Synopsis of the Mol- 
lusca of Great Britain/ since they are quite disregarded 
by British naturalists. I cannot, however, forget that 
it is a published work, and has been circulated on the 
Continent. There I know that these volumes have also 
found a place; and if I were to ignore the works of 
Leach, Brown, and other authors on the subject of 
which I treat, I feel that I should stand justly accused 



6 SOLENIDiE. 

of having neglected the writings of my own countrymen, 
and of having thus caused some confusion or inconve- 
nience to those who study the European Mollusca. I 
do not regret the trouble I have taken in making this 
concordance, hoping and believing that it will save the 
labour of my fellow- workmen. Turton must have been 
mistaken in saying that S. strigilatus had been dredged 
in Torbay, and found by General Bingham in Cornwall, 
and by Mrs. Loscombe in the Scilly Isles. The collec- 
tion of that lady was sold by auction about 25 years 
ago, when I purchased, through the late Mr. G. B. 
Sowerby, all the supposed British Shells contained in it. 
Among them were specimens of S. strigilatus and many 
other undoubtedly Mediterranean species, as well as a 
few from the Arctic seas. S. strigilatus is a much 
larger shell than S. candidus, and usually rose-coloured 
with two white rays. 

2. S. antiqua' tus*, Pulteney. 

Solen antiquatus, Pult. Cat. Dors. p. 28, pi. iv. f. 5. Solecurttis coarctatus, 
F. & H. i. p. 259, pi. xv. f. 3, and (animal) pi. I. f. 5. 

Body rather compressed, entirely white : mantle having its 
edges fringed with short cirri : tabes capable of being inflated 
to three times their ordinary diameter, united for a considerable 
distance from their bases, and separate at their extremities ; 
orifice of the branchial tube cirrous, that of the excretory one 
plain : gills partly lodged in the lower portion of the siphonal 
sheath, the upper pair much shorter than the other : palps 
distinctly pectinated within, and less so on the outside : foot 
thick and fleshy. 

Shell elliptical, with an oblique outline, compressed through- 
out, but especially in the middle, solid, opaque, slightly glossy : 
sculpture, numerous and irregular concentric stria?, and minute 
longitudinal lines like those in S. candidus, but much less 
distinct ; the surface is also covered with equally minute and 

* Decayed. 



SOLECURTUS. 7 

close-set oblique striae, which appear to be impressed by the 
persistent epidermis : colour chalky-white : epidermis yellow- 
ish-brown, wrinkled at the sides and composed partly of 
delicate fibres, which are obliquely arranged : margins and all 
other characters as in S. candidus, except that the hinge-plate 
is not so much reflected, the principal or larger cardinal teeth 
are jagged at their crowns, and the pallial sinus is broader 
and not so long. L. 1. B. 2-25. 

Habitat : Sand in 4 to 50 f., on all our coasts, al- 
though sparingly. Fossil in the raised sea-bed at Belfast 
(Grainger), and in the Coralline Crag, as well as the 
Italian upper tertiaries. Bohuslan appears to be its 
most northern limit, and the Canary Isles the most 
southern. It also inhabits the intermediate district 
and both sides of the Mediterranean, the Adriatic, and 
iEgean, at various depths ranging from 4 to 40 f. 

" We have seen it break up its tubes voluntarily into 
fragments, in the manner of the Mediterranean Sole- 
curtus strigilatus" (F. & H.). Clark says that the 
animal, when in confinement, exserts the belly of the 
mantle, inflated by water, beyond the margin of the 
shell j but the instant it is irritated, it can place every 
organ a I'abri. The shell differs from that of S. can- 
didus in being flatter and wanting the divaricating stride 
or ridges. 

The Solen coarctatus of Gmelin (from a figure in 
Chemnitz) is described as inhabiting the Nicobar Isles, 
and does not appear to be the present species. Our 
shell is the S. cultellus of Pennant, but not of Linne. 

I do not believe that Siliquaria bidens, Chemnitz, is 
a native of our seas, the only testimony in favour of it 
being that of Pulteney, Boys, Laskey, and Turton. It 
is the Solen fragilis of the three first-named authorities, 
and Psammobia tceniata of the last, as well as the Solen 
divisus of Spengler. The locality given by Chemnitz is 



8 SOLENID.E. 

the Nicobar Isles. De Gerville included it in his list 
from Brittany under the name of Solen pellucidus ; and 
I was informed bv M. Cailliaud that it had been taken 
alive on that coast. Gould considered that it might be 
the Solen centralis of Sav, a common North- American 
species ; but this is very doubtful. 

Solen gibbus, Spengler, was recorded by Dr. Turton as 
British, under the name of S. declivis, Mrs. Loseombe 
being supposed to have found a specimen in the Scilly 
Isles. It is a West-Indian shell, and known as S. Gui- 
neensis, Chemnitz, and S. caribbceus, Lamarck. This 
species is likewise described by Gould as North- 
American. 

Genus II. CE'RATISO'LEN *, Forbes. PI. I. f. 2. 

Body oblong, flattened : mantle slightly projecting above and 
below on the anterior side : tubes for the most part separated, 
and considerably extended : foot conical, and capable of being 
expanded into a club -like form. 

Shell resembling a bean-pod in shape, thin, nearly equi- 
lateral, sculptured in the middle with extremely fine striae, 
which radiate from the beaks : lunge strengthened inside by a 
short rib, w T hich diverges obliquely from the beak in each valve 
towards the front margin : teeth, one cardinal in the right, and 
two in the left valve, besides short but distinct laterals : 
pallial scar broad, with a shallow fold. 

Ceratisolen is a connecting link between Solecurtus 
and Solen. Its shell has the shape and nearly central 
beaks of the former, and the texture and teeth of the 
latter ; but it differs from both in the hinge being 
strengthened by internal cross ribs. The animal has 
its mantle-tubes separate and extended as in Solecurtus. 
No other species appears to be known except our own, 

* A pod-shaped Solen. 



CE RATI SOLE N. 9 

although the Pharella of Gray is closely allied to Cerati- 
solen. The present genus is considered by some authors 
synonymous with Pharus of Leach, originally a manu- 
script name, and since made to a certain extent intel- 
ligible in consequence of Dr. Gray having cited, in the 
British Museum Catalogue of Mollusca, "Solen legumen" 
as the type or example. But, in a scientific point of 
view, it does not seem to matter much whether the 
name of any group is merely manuscript, or inadequately 
defined. In order to constitute a genus, it is not suffi- 
cient for any naturalist, even if he should be gifted with 
an eagle-eye, to pounce upon a certain species and say, 
" That 's my genus so and so." Something more is 
wanting. He ought to describe its characteristics, or 
at all events point out in what respects it can be distin- 
guished from other genera. I fully concur in the re- 
commendation of the British Association Committee, 
' ' that new genera or species be amply defined ; " and 
one of the grounds of this recommendation seems also 
to be reasonable, viz. that a large proportion of the 
complicated mass of synonyms, which has now become 
the opprobrium of zoology, has originated from the 
slovenly and imperfect manner in which species and 
higher groups have been defined. A name accompanied 
by a sufficient description or diagnosis, and adopted by 
naturalists of recognized authority, supersedes in my 
opinion a prior name which, from the want of such ac- 
companiment, was in fact "vox et prseterea nihil." 
Ceratisolen has also euphony on its side. " Ejusmodi 
vocabula Grseca lingua pulcherrima sunt." (Linnets 
' Philosophia Botanica/ § 222.) 



B D 



10 SOLENID.E. 



Ceratisolen legu'men *, Linne. 

Solen legumen, Linn. S. N. p. 1114. Ceratisolen legumen, F. & H. i. 
p. 256, pi. xiii. f. 2 (as Solen legumen), and (animal) pi. I. f. 4. 

Body compressed,, yellowish -white : mantle suffused with 
red : edges of the open part fringed in front, but not at the 
sides : tubes rather long, for the most part separate and 
diverging, of a reddish hue ; orifices cirrous : foot reddish- 
purple ; when contracted it is oblong and truncated, and when 
extended the extremity becomes club-shaped. 

Shell pod-shaped, smaller at the anterior than at the 
posterior extremity, semitransparent, glossy and partially iri- 
descent : sculpture, numerous and fine but irregular striaB in 
the line of growth, and a few slight and minute longitudinal 
strise in the middle, which radiate from the beaks to the 
front : colour pale yellowish-white ; epidermis like oil-skin, 
yellowish-green or sometimes light orange, puckered by the 
radiating stria? : margins nearly straight in front and behind, 
curved obliquely upwards at the anterior end, and rounded at 
the other end ; the dorsal compartment or area appears to be 
separated from the ventral part in consequence of the epi- 
dermis being thinner and of a paler hue : bealcs blunt, inclin- 
ing a little to the anterior side, which they approach within 
about two-fifths of the whole distance : ligament long, narrow 
at first, and expanding gradually outwards, dark horncolour 
or black : hinge-line nearly straight : hinge-plate thick, and 
short, strengthened in each valve by a slightly curved rib to 
support the ligament, by a long angular rib on the anterior 
side, and by a callous and short rib running nearly at a right 
angle with the beak : teeth, in the right valve an erect and 
wedge-like cardinal, and in the left two similar cardinals, 
which resemble a pair of nippers ; each valve has a lateral at 
no great distance from the cardinal teeth, of an irregular shape 
and bent towards each other, that in the right valve being 
sometimes double : inside chalky-white, but nacreous in some 
parts and occasionally exhibiting minute pearls; margin 
rather sharp : pallial scar indistinct ; the fold is withdrawn 
far into the interior : muscular scars irregular ; the anterior 
elongated and extending to the central rib, the posterior tra- 
pezoidal. L. 0*9. B. 4. 

* A bean-pod. 



SOLEN. 11 

Habitat : Large sandy bays at low-water mark of 
spring tides in the under-mentioned localities : Christ- 
church, Hants (Da Costa) ; Exmouth j Bideford ; North 
and South Wales; south, east, and west of Ireland. It 
is thrown up in the greatest profusion on the sands at 
Pendine in Carmarthenshire. Mr. Grainger found a 
single valve in the Belfast deposit ; and Mr. James Smith 
has included it in the list of Argyleshire fossils. North 
of Great Britain it has only been recorded by Miiller as 
Scandinavian ; but its southern range extends from 
Brittany to Sicily and Algeria. Mr. M f Andrew dredged 
it on the coast of Portugal in 15 to 20 f., and off 
Malaga in 4 f. ; and he obtained it on the shore at 
Mogador. According to Weinkauff it is common at 
Bona in brackish w r ater, 

This elegant shell was first recognized as English by 
Lister. I must venture to dissent from Linne and sub- 
sequent writers, who referred it to e Le Molan' of Adan- 
son. It is the Hypogcea hirudo of Poli. 

Genus III. SOLEN * Linne\ PL I. f. 3. 

Body narrow: mantle thickened in front: tubes for the 
most part united, nearly sessile, or extensile in a limited de- 
gree : foot flexible, when in action conical and pointed, but 
when at rest disk-like. 

Shell cylindrical, very inequilateral, divided into diagonal 
compartments, sculptured only by the lines of growth : teeth, 
one cardinal in the right valve, and mostly two in the left ; 
laterals partly erect, sometimes wanting : pallial scar having 
a narrow sinus at the posterior extremity. 

This kind of shell- fish was well known to the an- 
cients ; and the estimation in which they held it as an 

article of food induced them to observe its habits with 

* 

* Razorfish ; supposed to be the Sw\?)v of Aristotle. 



12 SOLENID.E. 

an accuracy at least equal to that which is shown in 
the accounts given by certain naturalists of our own 
time. According to Aristotle the ScoXfjve? were said to 
withdraw into their holes on a noise being made, and 
to sink deeper when they perceived the motion of the 
iron implements used for their capture. Athenseus in 
his learned gossip of the philosophers at supper (an- 
swering in some particulars to the ' Noctes Ambrosianse' 
of our modern Athens) quotes some verses of Epichar- 
mus, commemorative of Hebe's marriage, in which slen- 
der Solens were enumerated among the dainties at the 
nuptial feast. They are also mentioned by other Greek 
writers. Sophron says that widows were especially 
fond of them ; it does not appear what sort of consola- 
tion they afforded. Diphilus pretended to distinguish 
the male from the female Solen by their shells : that of 
the former was striped, and the fish a good remedy for 
the stone and similar complaints ; while the shell of the 
female was of a uniform hue, and its fish more savoury. 
They were eaten boiled or fried ; but the best way of 
cooking them was to roast them on a wood fire until they 
gaped. In Pennant's time they were brought up to 
table fried in batter. The last-named author had a 
strange notion that the Solens, " when in want of food, 
elevate one end a little above the surface, and protrude 
their bodies far out of the shell ?'. ! This is repeated by 
Montagu and Wood. 

The razorfishes (or " spoutfishes," as they were 
called by Grew and other naturalists of former days) 
usually burrow in sand at the verge of low-water mark, 
not perpendicularly, but in a slanting direction at an angle 
of about 60 degrees. On the retreat of spring tides 
they may be seen nearly half out of their holes, appa- 
rently taking in a supply of oxygen for their gills. They 



SOLEX. 13 

are evidently sensible of vibratory movements in the 
air, as well as on the ground, taking alarm at greater or 
less distances according to the state of the atmosphere 
and direction of the wind. When the Solen is dis- 
turbed it squirts ont water in a strong jet ; and having 
thus compressed the volume of its body, it lengthens 
and darts out its dibble- shaped foot, and rapidly disap- 
pears below the surface to a depth of two or three feet. 
A Solen-hunt requires considerable alertness; for if 
you cannot approach near enough to catch them when 
partly exposed to view — and this is not easy, their muscu- 
lar strength being, in proportion to their size, far greater 
than that of a man — and you delve with your hands after 
them, they will probably beat you in the race. The 
stake is much more important to them than to you, and 
it calls for all their energies. Fishermen entice them 
out of their holes by a pinch of salt, making (as they 
say) the razorfish believe that the tide is coming in. 
Reaumur, however, considered that the salt irritates 
them, and causes a painful pricking sensation in the 
mantle, which induces them to rise to the surface and 
endeavour to get rid of the annoyance by expelling the 
salt backwards. He also noticed the blind instinct 
which the Solen has when taken out of its hole, and 
held between the fingers in the open air, suspended 
vertically : it protrudes its foot several times in suc- 
cession, as if it were in the act of burrowing into its 
native sands. The account given by Poli of Solen-fish- 
ing at Naples is curious. We know that the flow and 
ebb of the tide there are very slight, and different from 
what takes place on our own shores. He tells us that 
the lurking-place of the Solen is betrayed by a hole in 
the sand, agreeing in shape with the apertures of its 
tubes or siphons. "Where the water is shallow the fish- 



14 SOLENID.E. 

erman sprinkles some oil on the surface, in order to see 
these marks more clearly. He then steadies himself by 
leaning on a staff with his left hand, and feels for the 
Solen with his naked right foot. This he catches, and 
holds between his big toe and the next ; but although 
his toes are protected by linen bands, the struggles of 
the Solen to escape are so violent, and the edges of the 
shell so sharp, that very often a severe wound is in- 
flicted by it. Where the sea is five or six feet deep, 
another mode of fishing is adopted. It consists in the 
fisherman diving or swimming under water with his 
eyes open, and, after having found the holes, digging 
with his hands for the razorfish. Sometimes the Solen 
so forcibly resists being taken, that it will suffer its own 
foot to be torn awav, or will even die rather than sur- 
render. Their power of locomotion is not limited to 
burrowing; they can dart from place to place in the 
water as quickly as a scallop, and apparently in the 
same way. Pliny instances the razorfish as a luminous 
mollusk ; but this has not been confirmed by any recent 
observation. The breadth of the shell is very remark- 
able in comparison with that of any other bivalve. In 
the west of France they are called "couteaux" or "cou- 
teliers." Another name (" seringues ") was suggested 
by Reaumur as more appropriate. 

A. Shell somewhat curved, flattened and thin ; hinge near 
one end, and furnished with cardinal and lateral teeth. 
Cidtellus, Schumacher. 

1. Solen pellu'cidus *, Pennant. 

8. pellucidus, Penn. Br. Zool. iv. p. 84, pi. kvi. f. 23 ; F. & H. i. p. 252, 
pi. xiii. f. 3, and (animal) pi. I. f. 2. 

Body compressed, varying in colour from pale yellowish - 

* Transparent. 



SOLEN. 15 

white to brownish-yellow : mantle thick, protruded a little 
beyond the valves of the shell ; edges plain : tubes contiguous 
and nearly sessile ; orifice of each fringed with tentacles or 
cirri of different lengths, which are spotted with yellow or 
flake -white : gills unequal in size, the upper pair not being 
half the depth of the lower pair : palps small, smooth outside 
and pectinated within : foot tongue-shaped and flexible, lying 
when at rest across the shell on the anterior side : liver green. 

Shell usually sabre-shaped, but of various degrees of curva- 
ture, tapering to each extremity, scarcely transparent except 
in young specimens, glossy and partially iridescent : sculpture, 
numerous and fine but irregular striae in the line of growth, 
and a few slight and minute longitudinal striae in the middle, 
which radiate from the beaks to the front : colour yellowish- 
white, with sometimes faint transverse streaks of salmon- 
colour : epidermis like oil-skin, yellowish-green or light 
orange, puckered by the radiating striae : margins gently curved 
in front and almost straight behind, rounded at the anterior 
end, and obliquely truncated at the other end ; dorsal area 
apparently separated from the ventral part, in consequence of 
the epidermis being thinner and of a paler hue behind : beaks 
inconspicuous, inclining a little to the anterior side, which they 
approach within one-fifth of the whole distance : ligament 
lanceolate, yellowish-brown : hinge-line straight : hinge-plate 
short, strengthened in each valve by a slight rib to support 
the ligament, and by a short and thicker rib at the other 
end, which diverges inside towards the front anterior margin : 
teeth somewhat irregular; in the right valve an erect and 
wedge-like cardinal, and in the left two similar cardinals, 
which resemble a pair of nippers ; the posterior cardinal in the 
left valve is often branched or forked ; each valve has a lateral 
at no great distance from the cardinal teeth, of an irregular 
shape, and bent towards each other, that in the right valve 
being occasionally double : inside polished ; margin sharp : 
scars indistinct; pallial sinus short. L. # 4. B. 1*5. 

Habitat : Gregarious in various parts of the British 
seas, in sand (often mixed with mud), at depths of from 
4 to 85 f. In a fossil state it occurs at Belfast and 
in the Coralline Crag; and Philippi appears to have 
recorded it from Palermo *, under the name of S. tennis. 

* In the preceding volume of this work I inadvertently mentioned 



16 SOLENID.E. 

All writers on Scandinavian mollusca have enume- 
rated the present species in their lists, from the Loffo- 
den Isles to Kiel Bay, in 3-50 f.; Collard des Cherres, 
Cailliaud, and Tasle have found it in Brittany ; M'An- 
drew dredged it in the south of Portugal, off Gibraltar, in 
the Gulf of Tunis, and Sicily, in 15-40 f. ; and Wein- 
kauff procured it by the same means at Algiers in 20 f. 

This pretty shell was discovered by the Rev. Hugh 
Davies about the year 1770 on the Carnarvonshire 
coast. Clark savs that on both the mantle- tubes " are 
a few, large, rather long, white filaments, springing 
from the body of the common sheath, just below the 
siphon al orifices." I did not observe them in any of 
the specimens that I examined. The foot is sometimes 
red or pink of various shades. The shells are not unfre- 
quently taken from the stomachs of haddocks. They 
are occasionally distorted. 

It is the S. pygmceus of Lamarck. S. pellucidus, 
Spengler (from Chemnitz) is a tropical species, from 
Nicobar. 

B. Shell more or less curved, tubular, and rather solid ; hinge 
at one end, and furnished with cardinal and lateral teeth. 
Ensis, Schumacher. 

2. S. ensis*, Linne. 

8. ensis, Linn. S. N. p. 1114; F. & H. i. p. 250, pi. xiv. f. 2. 

Body somewhat compressed, pale drab : mantle having <i 
narrow fringed slit in the middle of the anterior side : tubes 

Palermo and Panormi as two places, being misled by Philippi using 
both names, in his work on the Sicilian Testacea, sometimes as different 
habitats of the same species. Panormus or Panormum is the ancient 
name of Palermo. 

* Scimitar. 



SOLEN. 17 

very short, enclosed in a sheath, speckled with brown, and 
encircled near the orifices by two rows of irregular cirri : gills 
narrow, nearly of equal size, and adhering throughout : palps 
pale brown, thin and delicate, smooth outside and striated 
within : foot of a dull reddish hue, obliquely sloping at the 
extremity, which is studded with very minute papilla?, and 
covered with meandering red-brown lines in the interstices : 
liver brown and granular. 

Shell resembling in shape a French bean with the ends 
cut off, of nearly equal diameter, opaque, glossy and partially 
iridescent : sculpture, slight and irregular striae in the line of 
growth, set at two different angles ; those in front are parallel 
with the curve of the shell, while the strise on the dorsal area 
or diagonal compartment run in an opposite direction. : colour 
yellowish-white, with numerous reddish-brown longitudinal 
streaks crossing the dorsal area : epidermis membranous, yel- 
lowish-green, thicker in front than at the back : margins 
equally curved before and behind, truncated at each side, but 
more rounded at the anterior end, which is slightly constricted ; 
dorsal area nearly equal in size to the rest of the shell : bealcs 
inconspicuous, placed close to the anterior side : ligament very 
long and narrow, yellowish-brown : hinge-line straight : hinge- 
plate long, strengthened by a rib in each valve to support the 
ligament, and thickened at the anterior end : teeth, in the 
right valve an erect and wedge-like cardinal, enclosed in the 
left by two much stronger and nipper-like cardinals ; late- 
rals one in either valve, long, rib-like, erect at its extremity, 
and somewhat bent, that of the left valve overlapping the 
other : inside nacreous ; edges thin : pallial scar distinct, 
with a shallow sinus at the posterior end : muscular scars 
of unequal size ; the anterior linear, posterior oval. L. 0*5. 
B. 3-75. 

Habitat : Sandv bays from 3 to 20 f. Fossil in all 
our "upper tertiaries, as well as in Norway and Italy. 
Its European distribution in a living state extends from 
the Faroe Isles (Landt) to Sicily (Maravigna) and the 
Black Sea (Eichwalcl) ; Algeria (Beshayes and TV ein- 
kauff) ; Canada and the United States (Bell, Gould, and 
others) . The range of depth is from 2 to 20 f. in the 
north, and from 4 to 40 f. in the south of Europe. 



18 SOLENID^. 

The locomotion of this species is the same as that of 
8. pellucidus. Its foot is permeated by a series of aqui- 
ferous ducts or canals, causing a great expansibility of 
that organ. Gould says that the animal is " too long 
for the shell ; " but its power of contraction equals that 
of its extension. A distorted specimen, found by Mr. 
Barlee, and now in the University Museum at Oxford, 
is bent in an extraordinary degree. Whether the curve 
of such a crooked generation might in course of ages be 
increased, so as to form a nearly complete circle, would 
be a curious speculation. 

In the time of Aldrovandus it was called by the 
Venetians "cappa longa." Linne doubted whether it 
were not a variety of S. siliqua. The one certainly in- 
habits deeper water than the other, and they are closely 
related in form. The present species is Lister's S. curvus 
(accidentally binominal), the Hypogaa falcata of Poli, 
Ensis magnus of Schumacher, S. ensiformis of S. Wood, 
and Ensatella Europcea of Swainson. 

3. S. si'liqua*, Linne. 

S. siliqua, Linn. S. N. p. 1113 ; F. & H. i. p. 246, pl.xiv. f. 3, and (animal) 
pi. I. f. 1. 

Body similar to that of 8. ensis, except in being rather less 
compressed, and in the foot being yellowish-white, with its 
extremity abruptly truncated, and marked with extremely fine 
close-set and very pale lead-coloured lines. 

Shell so closely resembling that of 8. ensis, except in being 
of a much larger size, that it is sufficient to mention the few 
particulars in which they differ. This is almost straight in- 
stead of curved, much deeper in proportion to its breadth, and 
more solid ; the margins at both ends are abruptly truncated ; 
the cardinal teeth in the left valve are blunter, and sometimes 
cloven ; and the lateral tooth in this valve is often double. 
L. 1. B. 8. 

* A pod. 



SOLEN. 19 

Tar. arcuata. Shell usually smaller, more or less curved, 
but equally deep relatively to the breadth. 

Habitat : Common on all our sandy shores which 
are uncovered at spring tides ; seldom beyond that limit, 
although in the Dredging Report of the British Associ- 
ation in 1850 it is stated to have been taken in the 
Orkneys at a depth of 12 f. The variety is found on 
many parts of our coasts, especially those of Ireland 
and Scotland — I have a specimen from Burra Firth 
in Unst, of unusual dimensions, viz. nearly \\ inch 
long or deep by 7 inches in breadth ; Norway (Sars). 
This variety was noticed by Turton in his ' Concho- 
logical Dictionary;' it is referred by Forbes and Han- 
ley to S. ensis. The late Dr. Lukis found it living 
with that species in Belgrave Bay, Guernsey, and sent 
me specimens of both for comparison. The typical 
form occurs in many of the newer or postpliocene 
deposits, as well as in the Norwich and Bed Crag; 
Uddevalla (Malm) ; Sicily (Philippi). Its foreign range 
comprises Behring's Straits, the North-east coast of 
America, Faroe Isles, and all the intermediate shores to 
the iEgean, including the African side of the Mediter- 
ranean. 

In Lister's days it was called in Yorkshire " Hose- 
fish/' and caught (if the tide was out at night) by 
candle-light. He adds that they make a delicious sauce, 
and have the flavour of shrimps. "In Ireland it is 
much eaten in Lent'" (Da Costa). Fleming says that 
when a little stale they are a tempting bait for cod and 
haddock. The teeth are liable to vary. In a specimen 
from Oxwich Bay near Swansea the laterals are placed 
closer than usual to the hinge ; and that of the left valve 
is branched, as in S. pellucidus, and divided into three. 

S. novacula of Montagu and S. ligula of Turton 



20 solenid^:. 

(judging from a comparison of authentic specimens with 
the descriptions of those authors) are varieties of S. 
siliqua, and only distinguishable by the absence or size 
of some of their teeth. The present species is the Hy- 
pogaea crinita of Poli, S. gladius of Bolten, and S. gla- 
diolus of Gray. 



C. Shell straight, tubular, and rather solid ; hinge at one end, 
and only furnished with a single lateral tooth in each 
valve. 

4. S. vagi'na*, Linne. 

S. vagina, Linn. S. N. p. 1113. 8. margmafus, F. & H. i. p. 242, pi. xiv. 
f. I, and (animal, siphon only) pi. I. f. 3. 

Body cylindrical, pale yellowish-brown : mantle thickened : 
tubes wrinkled across ; each is encircled "by several rows of brown- 
ish spots, and near the extremity by a row of very short 
tentacular cirri ; orifice of the lower tube distinctly scalloped, 
that of the upper one plain : (/ills long, linear, orange-brown : 
palps large, sharp-pointed : foot oblong, yellowish-white. 

Shell exactly cylindrical, and of equal size throughout, 
somewhat glossy, opaque : sculpture as in the preceding two 
species : colour pale yellowish-brown (with an orange tint in 
aged specimens), and marked with streaks of a darker hue in 
the transverse line of growth : epidermis membranous, yel- 
lowish-brown : margins equally straight before and behind, 
obliquely truncated at the anterior end, which is deeply con- 
stricted (as if it had been tied while in a soft and plastic state 
with a string), and transversely truncated or very slightly 
curved at the posterior extremity ; dorsal area or compartment 
not so distinct as in the other species : beaks inconspicuous, 
separated by the constriction from the anterior end : ligament 
very long and narrow, dark homcolour : hinge-line straight : 
hinge-plate long, strengthened by a rib in each valve to support 
the ligament, and thickened at the anterior end : teeth, in each 
valve a single wedge-like cardinal, resembling in shape the 
leaf of a water-lily, and attached to the hinge by an obliquely 
twisted stalk ; the tooth hi the right valve is outermost : inside 

* A sheath. 



SO LEX. 21 

chalky-white ; edges thin : paJlial scar well marked, placed 
far within : sinus deep, but narrow, defined by a broad line on 
each side, like the prongs of a steel fork : muscular scars deep ; 
anterior linear, and parallel with the hinge-line ; posterior 
oblong. L. 0-85. B. 5. 

Habitat : With S. siliqua, but more local. Guernsey 
and Jersey (Hanley) ; Weymouth (Pulteney) ; Exmouth 
(Clark) ; Kingsbridge (Montagu) ; Falmouth (R. L. 
King) \ Laugharne in Carmarthenshire and the adjacent 
coasts (Montagu and others) ; Anglesea (Pennant) ; 
north, east, and south of Ireland (Thompson and others). 
" Alluvial deposits/' Belfast (Hyndman and Grainger) ; 
Italian tertiaries (Menard de la Grove, Brocchi, and 
Philippi). Its exotic range comprises Norway (Loven, 
and Asbjornsen) ; north coast of Holland (Waarden- 
burgh) ; Heligoland (Frey and Leuckart) ; France (De 
Gerville and others) ; Portugal (M f Andrew) ; Italy , 
from Spezzia (Capellini) to Sicily (Maravigna) ; Adriatic 
(Chieregliini) j Black Sea (Kutorga) ; Algeria (Deshayes 
and Weinkauff) ; St. Michael, Azores (Drouet) ; Red 
Sea (Philippi). 

The ancient naturalists had some strange notions as to 
the sexes of the Mollusca. Aristotle, as is well known, 
believed in their spontaneous generation ; but a different 
opinion prevailed about three centuries ago, when Belon 
and Rondelet described S. siliqua as the male, and S. 
vagina as the female of the same species. The reasons 
which they gave for this distinction were not altogether 
uncomplimentary to the fair sex, consisting in S. vagina 
being (although smaller) of a uniform complexion, and 
more sweet-savoured than the other. Reaumur and 
Deshayes have given accounts of the animal tolerably 
agreeing with my own. At Cherbourg, Lisbon, and 
Spezzia it is sold in the fish-markets, but not so much 



22 pandorid^. 

esteemed as S. siliqua. The flavour is said to be pecu- 
liar. Poli mentions its being so acrid, that none but 
the poorest would use this kind for food. The shell 
differs from that of the last-named species in being more 
regularly cylindrical, deeper in proportion to its breadth, 
and of an orange-grey instead of a purplish-green colour ; 
the diagonal compartment is less marked ; the sides are 
more truncated ; the anterior end is constricted ; and it 
has fewer teeth. 

Linne's description of S. vagina in the f Mus. Lud. 
Ulr. Reg/ is peculiarly appropriate to this species, 
although in the 12th edition of the ' Syst. Nat/ he 
appears to have united with it an Indian species which 
has been named S. truncata by W. Wood. Our species 
(as a mollusk) is the Hypogcea tentaculata of Poli, and 
(as a shell) the S. marginatus of Pulteney and Donovan. 
The last-mentioned author said it was not the S. vagina 
of Linne, but he gave no reason for saying so. 



Family XVII. PANDO'RIDiE, Gray. 

Body oval or oblong : mantle having a slit on the anterior 
side for the passage of a foot, and forming on the other side a 
tubular sheath : tubes short, united nearly to their openings, 
which are fringed : gills two on either side, each pair being 
more or less united, long, narrow, and slightly curved : palps 
corresponding in. number with the gills, and triangular : foot 
tongue-shaped. 

Shell oval or oblong, inequivalve, pearly, gaping at the 
posterior side, which is flexuous and elongated, and projects 
upwards : bealcs very small : cartilage at the posterior side, 
wholly internal, long and oblique : hinge strong : teeth, either 
a single cardinal in each valve, or an oblong plate, which is 
attached only to the cartilage and partly covers the hinge : 
pallial scar slight, and narrowly sinuated : muscular scars 
small. 



PANDORA. 23 

The shape of the shell, its nacreous substance, and the 
absence of an external ligament are the chief character- 
istics that distinguish this small family. The two genera 
which compose it have a different hinge- structure, but 
are in other respects so closely allied, that it is more 
convenient to place them together. The Pandorida 
inhabit sand at various depths. 

Genus I. PANDO'RA*, Hwass. PI. I. f. 4. 

Body oval, compressed on one side and rather tumid on the 
other, thin, and gelatinous : gills free, except at their bases, 
where each pair is united, and terminating in the tubular 
sheath : p>alps short : foot small, thick, and swollen at the 
point. 

Shell oval, inequilateral, scaly and smooth ; left valve flat 
and the other convex : epidermis membranous and thin : teeth 
consisting of a plate-like cardinal in each valve : pallicd scar 
pitted at intervals : muscxdar scars well marked, roundish-oval. 

The merit of instituting the genus Pandora is due to 
Hwass, a German justiciary, and not to Bruguiere as is 
commonly supposed. Both gave the same species (Tel- 
Una buequivalvis, Linne) as the type. This is clearly 
shown by the 11th volume of Chemnitz (p. 211), which 
was published between two and three years before the 
? Encyclopedie Methodique/ Carpenter has remarked 
the complete conformity that exists between the shells of 
the present genus and Avicida, — namely, in the regular 
prismatic arrangement of the cellular structure, the axes 
of the prisms being perpendicular to the surface ; in the 
presence of distinct partitions between the cells, forming 
a persistent membrane, which is left after decalcification j 
and in the truly nacreous interior. The genus appears 
to be of comparatively recent origin; for (according to 

* A mythological character. 



24 PANDORID/E. 

Searles Wood) no well determined fossil species have 
been met with in anv formation older than the Paris 
basin. The animal was included by Poli in his genus 
Hypogcsa. For the shell Bolton proposed Calopodium, 
and Brown Trutina. 

Pandora in^quival'vis"*, Linne. 

Tellina in&quivalvis, Linn. S. N. p. 1118. P. rostrata, F. & H. i. p. 207, 
pi. viii. f. 1-4, and (animal, as P. obtusa) pi. G. f. 10. 

Body transparent, with flake- white specks ; mantle thin, 
scarcely (if at all) protruded : tubes short, separate although 
nearly close together, issuing from a very slight, pellucid and 
membranous sheath, which extends beyond the shell at its 
posterior end, and is partly continued round the edges ; orifices 
wide, plain but jagged : gills unequal-sized, the upper being 
twice the size of the lower pair, which are almost rudimentary ; 
they are pectinated by the blood-vessels on both surfaces : 
imlps very short, reddish-brown, striated transversely, and 
often overlapping each other: foot white: liver green: ovary 
red-brown. 

Shell irregularly triangular, right or convex valve consider- 
ably overlapping the other ; it is variable in thickness and opa- 
city, and somewhat glossy : sculpture, slight plait-like marks of 
growth, and sometimes a few imperfect longitudinal wrinkles on 
the flat valve, which are only perceptible in front and appear to 
radiate from the beak : colour pearl-white ; epidermis filmy 
margins rounded or obtusely angular on the anterior side 
forming in front a nearly semicircular but oblique curve 
which is prolonged at the posterior side to a blunt point 
dorsal margin straight or slightly incurved, furnished in the 
right valve with a double furrow, and in the left with a double 
ridge, both of which extend from the beak to the posterior end 
or point : beaks extremely minute and tubercular ; umbones 
not prominent : cartilage horn colour, running inwards on the 
posterior side at an acute angle with the dorsal margin, and 
occupying a groove in each valve, the sides of which are thick- 
ened : hinge-line straight, or more or less incurved : hinge- 
plate long, strengthened by a rib in the left valve, that fits into 
a slight furrow in the opposite valve : teeth, in the right valve 

* Valves unequal in size. 



PANDORA. 25 

an erect cardinal, set at a right angle with the hinge-line, and 
in the left valve a longer and somewhat horizontal cardinal, 
set at an acute angle with the upper margin of the anterior 
side ; the teeth and cartilage are on opposite sides of the beak, 
and diverge from each other: inside highly polished and iri- 
descent, slightly striated in a radiating direction ; edges thin 
and sharp : scars more or less distinct, according to the thick- 
ness of the nacreous lining. L. 0*6. B. 1*25. 

Tar. 1. tenuis. Shell much smaller, and of a delicate tex- 
ture, proportionally broader or more produced at each end, with 
an oblique and ilexuous outline ; dorsal margin straight. 

Yar. 2. obtusa. Shell smaller and thinner, longer in pro- 
portion to its breadth; the posterior side larger, and not so 
much produced or extended ; dorsal margin also straight. 

Monstr. Shell oval, with the sides shorter than usual ; 
dorsal margin projecting a little outwards. 

Habitat : In sand, Channel Isles, at the recess of 
spring tides, and in shallow water ; often among Zoster a 
marina. Var. 1. Between 85 and 100 f. off Unst in 
Shetland. Var. 2. From 7 to 50 f. on all our coasts. 
The monstrosity is from the Hebrides and Shetland. 
In a fossil state the typical form occurs in the Coralline 
Crag, and the variety obtusa in the Red Crag ; both are 
noticed by Philippi from different parts of the tertiary 
formation in Sicily. The first has only a southern range, 
from Guernsey to the iEgean ; while the distribution of 
the other is wider, reaching to the Canaries in the 
same direction, and extending northward to Spitzbergen. 
In the iEgean, Forbes gave 4 f. for P. inaquivalvis, and 
71-10 f. for P. obtusa ; and at Mogador M f Andrew 
recorded the respective depths of 3 f. and 35-40 f. for 
the two forms. The observations made by M. Martin 
in the Gulf of Lyons showed similar results. 
. The animal is shy and easily alarmed. Lacaze-Du- 
thiers, in his valuable essay on the development of the 
gills in LameUibranchiate Conchifera (Ann. Sc. Nat. 4 e 

vol. in. c 



28 pandorid^:. 

ser. Zool. ii.), remarks with respect to this species, that 
the outer gill, which resembles a hood, might at first 
sight be taken for a single leaf, so disproportionately 
small is its size. He considers it a case of arrested 
development. Mr. Jordan says, " Whilst collecting 
specimens at Jersey, I noticed that they have a habit of 
squirting, like Saxicava rugosa and the Pholades when 
first touched ; one individual ejected a fine stream, fully 
sixteen inches high." In Mr. Clark's description of the 
animal of var. obtusa the tubes are stated to be fringed 
at their orifices with fine white short cirri ; the margin 
of the sheath, in some specimens, is marked by a fine 
orange line; and the base of the cirri and margins of 
the orifices are usually encircled by a dead-white narrow 
thread. The ovary is of a reddish-brown colour. I 
found it to contain in Julv an immense mass of vesicular 
ova in different states of growth ; the more forward of 
them resembled in shape some species of Cythere. Adult 
specimens vary in their comparative length and propor- 
tions, as well as in the prominence of the ridges on the 
dorsal side. The difference between the typical shell 
and the variety obtusa apparently arises from the nature 
of their respective habitats — the one being sublittoral, 
and the other belonging to deeper water. An inter- 
mediate form has been taken by Cailliaud on the coast 
of Brittany, and by M' Andrew at Corunna. On a 
superficial view, indeed, it would seem as if a valid 
distinction existed in the length from the beak to the 
front margin being always greater in P. incequivalvis (or 
rostrata), and on the posterior side in P. obtusa; but 
this only shows that varieties, as well as species, have 
some one character of their own. Such may be expected 
when the conditions of life varv. The extension of the 
posterior side in the typical form may be caused by the 



PANDORA. 27 

difference of locality. When the littoral zone is sandy, 
the surface is apt to be disturbed by waves and occasional 
storms, so that the stratum may be of a greater or less 
thickness at one time than at another : now it is covered 
by a deposit of material thrown up by the sea ; in a few 
days this cover may be stript off. In order to prevent its 
tubes being choked by an accumulation of the imported 
material, the Pandora living between tide-marks gradu- 
ally lengthens that end of its shell. The varietv which 
inhabits deeper water is not exposed to fluctuations of 
this kind ; it therefore does not require any such pro- 
vision, and lies undisturbed in its level bed. This mav 
explain the variation in the proportions of length and 
breadth which is exhibited bv the two forms. The dif- 
ference of thickness in the shells of P. iruequivalvis and 
its varieties also depends on habitation. I. am inclined 
to think that, with regard to every species living both in 
the littoral and coralline zones, the shell is thicker in 
the former and thinner in the latter. Examples to 
illustrate this proposition occur in Venus gallina and its 
varieties striatula and laminosa, Mactra solida and its 
variety elHptica, Trochus ziziphinus and its small conical 
varietv, Buccinum undatum and its varietv Zetlandica, 
and in many other species. Experiments made by Dr. 
Davy, Forchhammer, and Bischoff have proved that the 
quantity of carbonate of lime held in solution by sea- 
water, and from which shells are produced, is greater on 
the coast than in the ocean ; it is derived from the land, 
and brought down to the sea by rivers and streams, the 
washings of rain, and the action of waves. This fact 
ought not to be lost sight of in discriminating species 
from varieties of which the comparative solidity and 
size are the sole or chief criteria. 

Lamarck at first named this species P. margaritacea, 

c 2 



28 PANDORIDiE. 

and afterwards P. rostrata ; the young is the P '. flexuosa 
of Philippi, and the animal the Hypogcea gibba of Poli. 
It is also the Trutina solenoides of Brown. The variety 
obtusa was described bv Menschen as Anomia tabacca, 
by Montagu as Solen pinna, and by Leach as P. glaci- 
alis ; the young is the P. oblong a of Philippi. Lamarck 
changed the specific name imposed by Linne, either 
from caprice (as seems to have been his custom), or on 
the ground that it denoted an essential character of the 
genus and therefore was superfluous. I am not satisfied 
with this reason, believing that all designations, whether 
generic or specific, are merely symbols of distinction, 
and that the law of priority in zoological nomenclature 
ought not to be disregarded because the name of one 
species represents a character that is common to others 
of the same genus. I have restored the original name, 
by which this species is well known throughout the 
greater part of Europe. 



Genus II. LYON'SIA*, Turton. PL II. f. 1. 

Body oblong, somewhat compressed, rather thick : gilh 
forming apparently a single leaf on either side, in consequence 
of each pair being doubled upon itself: palps long and narrow : 
foot tongue-shaped, rather large, flattened, and provided with 
a byssal groove. 

Shell oblong, nearly equilateral, finely striated lengthwise : 
right valve more convex than the left : epidermis fibrous : 
hinge furnished with a free plate or ossicle, which covers the 
cartilage : muscular scars slight ; anterior oblong, posterior 
roundish. 

A link connecting the Pandorida with the Anatinidce, 
having the same shape and pearly nature as the former, 
and the peculiar hinge-process or ossicle of the latter 

* Named after the late Mr. W. Lyons, an active British conchologist. 



LYON SI A. ' 29 

family. This relationship has also been remarked by 
Carpenter in his account of the microscopical structure 
of the shell. The mantle-tubes are united in the present 
genus, as well as in Pandora ; they are separate in the 
Anatinidce. Philippi considered Lyonsia to be closely 
allied to Galeomma ; but I cannot see much resemblance 
between them. Mr. W. "Wood was the first to notice 
the curious appendage which coverts the hinge. It was 
conjectured by Clark that it acted like the check- tape of 
a trunk, to prevent its being opened too widely. This 
might be so if it were attached to the shell. I should be 
disposed to attribute to it quite a contrary action, and 
to believe that its use may be to strengthen the hinge, 
and to protect it from being squeezed too closely and 
broken, as is frequently the case with certain species of 
Anatina and Thracia. The ossicle of Lyonsia is of a 
different shape and position from that of the Anatinidce. 
In those it is semiannular, and clasps the hinge crosswise 
with the two ends; in the present genus it is flat, and 
lies over the hinge lengthwise, with one end at the ante- 
rior and the other at the posterior side of it. 

This genus has several synonyms, including Maydala, 
Leach, Osteodesma, Deshayes, and Pandorina, Scacchi. 

Lyonsia Norve'gica*", Chemnitz. 

Mya Norvegica, Chernn. Conch. Cab. x. p. 345,. 1. 170. f. 1647, 8. L. Nor- 
vegica, F. & H. i. p. 214, pi. viii. f. 6-9, and (animal) pi. H. f. 3. 

Body milk-white, sometimes with a tinge of yellow or pale 
brown : mantle thin ; edge studded at the anterior side with 
from 8 to 10 papillce, which are of a darker hue in coloured 
individuals : tubes nearly sessile ; orifice of the lower tube 
fringed with a few short, thick, and close-set cirri ; upper 
tube having a plain bulbous orifice, but furnished with the 

* Norwegian. 



.30 PANDORIDiE. 

usual hyaline protrusile valve; this tube is speckled -with 
minute sand-like points ; each tube is encircled at its base by 
a few cylindrical filaments, which are somewhat longer than 
the tubes, and are occasionally speckled with flake-white : 
gills and palps pale brown : foot flexible, white, cloven at the 
heel, whence byssal filaments are produced. 

Shell irregularly rhomboidal, the left or convex valve some- 
what overlapping the other, of a membranous consistency, 
opaque and lustreless : sculpture, numerous rows of fine gra- 
nulated striae, radiating from the beaks to the outer margins ; 
between each of these striae are five or six rows of minute 
and close-set tubercles or pores, which are connected with the 
tubular structure of the external laver of the shell ; there are 
also occasional lines of growth : colour pale yellowish -white : 
epidermis light-brown, and having an agglutinating property, 
by means of which the surface becomes invested with a coat 
of sand and Foraminifera or other organic remains : margins 
broad and rounded on the anterior side, flexuous or somewhat 
indented in front, curved obliquely upwards to the posterior 
side, which is prolonged into a beak-like form and truncated 
at that end, with a double but indistinct ridge in the left 
valve, and a corresponding furrow in the right ; dorsal margin 
incurved : beaks triangular, inclining to the anterior side ; 
umbones rather prominent : cartilage golden-yellow, lying 
nearly parallel with the hinge-line, and contained in a groove 
in each valve, the sides of which are thickened : liinge-line 
obtusely angular : hinge-plate long, strengthened by a rib in 
the left valve, which fits into a slight furrow in the opposite 
valve : ossicle irregularly quadrangular, with the broader end 
towards the posterior side, where it is notched or forked ; the 
narrower end is truncated and placed immediately under the 
beaks : inside highly polished and iridescent ; edges thin, re- 
flected or folded outwards in the right valve : muscular scars 
often double. L. 0-875. B. 1-7. 

Var. elongate. Shell more slender, and transversely elon- 
gated : Osteodesma elonqata, (Gray) Hanley, Rec. Sh. p. 25, 
pi. 13. f. 27. 

Habitat: All our coasts, in sand, from 4 to 86 f., 
but nowhere common. The variety has been found in 
the Hebrides and Shetland. L. Norvegica has not been 
noticed as a British fossil ; but Philippi has recorded it 



LYONSIA. 31 

from the newer tertiaries of Sicily. Its foreign range 
in a living state comprises the Sea of Ochotsk, and the 
coasts of Iceland, Scandinavia, France, Italy, Algeria, 
Greece, and Madeira, at depths varying from 10 to 70 f. 
in northern, and from 4 to 70 f. in southern latitudes. 

Miss Hutchins is the reputed discoverer of this re- 
markable and interesting shell. According to Clark 
the gills consist of a single leaf on each side j the tubes 
appear to be enclosed in one sheath, which has the 
margin finely dentated ; and each orifice is garnished 
with about eight white simple cirri, and as many black 
equidistant points at their external edges. He has not 
mentioned the filaments at the base of each tube. Such 
discrepancies are extremely perplexing ; and if the iden- 
tification of any species depended solely on characters 
afforded by the soft parts, the study of conchology would 
be almost impracticable. The faculty and means of 
observation, as well as the good faith possessed by Mr. 
Clark, were certainly not inferior to those which I have 
exercised ; and yet how different is the result ! The 
microscopic pustules covering the surface of the shell 
appear to be the ends of the tubes which compose the 
outer layer ; these are open in the young, and closed in 
the adult. The inner layer is entirely nacreous. The 
shells are occasionally found in the stomach of the red 
gurnard. Dr. Lukis supposed that the young disguise 
themselves in their sandy coating more completely than 
the adult; but this is not always the case. The epi- 
dermis is of a gelatinous or viscous nature, and thus 
grains of sand as well as organic particles become 
attached to it. 

It is the My a nitida of Fabricius (but not of M tiller), 
M. striata of Montagu, Amphidesma corbuloides of La- 
marck, My a pellucida and Myatella Montagui of Brown, 



32 ANATINID/E. 

Tellina coruscans of Scacchi, and Pa?idora? (equivalvis 
of Philippi. It likewise appears to be the Mya membra- 
nacea of Gmelin, from Miiller's c Prodromus/ judging 
from the description j although Dr. Morch informs me 
that the shell figured in Olafsen and Povelsen's Voyage 
to Iceland, and referred to by Mliller for this species, 
represents Astarte sulcata, var. elliptica. 



Family XVIII. ANATrNID^E, D'Orbigny. 

Body oval or oblong : mantle very thin : tubes long ; orifices 
fringed : gills one on each side : palps two on each side : foot 
lanceolate or tongue-shaped, small, and compressed. 

Shell oval or oblong, slightly inequivalve, gaping more or 
less on each side, and truncated at the posterior end : beaks 
small, inclining to the posterior side, mostly fissured : epidermic 
slight : ligament sometimes external and situate at the posterior 
side, besides invariably an internal cartilage, which is contained 
in a pit or receptacle under the beak in each valve : hinge fur- 
nished with a free crescentic ossicle, placed across the hinge- 
line at the anterior side of the beaks ; otherwise toothless : 
pallial scar narrowly but deeply sinuated : muscular scars 
small and irregular. 

The typical genus, Anatina, is a native of tropical seas. 
It may be distinguished from Thracia in the tubes being 
united, the pearly nature of the shell, and in having 
inside an oblique falciform rib, proceeding from the car- 
tilage-pit towards the posterior side in each valve. This 
process is formed apparently in consequence of the 
beaks being fissured in that direction, and it serves as 
an upright girder to strengthen the shell. Something 
of the same kind, however, may be observed in most 
species of Thracia. The genus Anatina of Schumacher 
is different from that of Lamarck, and belongs to the 
Mactrida. The Anatinidce usually frequent a sandy or 



THRACIA. 33 

nullipore bottom at various depths ; but a British species 
of Tkracia (T. distorta) prefers a more secluded habitat, 
aud occupies the deserted holes made by Saxicava rugosa 
iu limestone, or other rock- cavities, as well as tufts of 
Corallina officinalis. 

Genus THRA'CIA* Leach. PL II. f. 2. 

Body oval : tubes separate. 

Shell oval, nearly equilateral, rather thin, having a tuber- 
cular or shagreen -like surface : colour sometimes tinged with 
yellow. 

Montagu proposed his genus Ligula chiefly to receive 
the species which we now assign to Thracia ; but, for 
the reasons which I have given in the second volume of 
this work (p. 433), it is inexpedient to retain that name 
in the Mollusca. 

According to Dr. Carpenter the minute elevations or 
points, that roughen the surface of the shell, represent 
numerous isolated cells filled with calcareous matter, 
and forming a superficial coating superposed upon the 
ordinary external layer; the epidermis is extended over 
these points, and sinks down into their interspaces, just 
as the human epidermis covers the papillary surface of 
the true skin. The proper external layer is composed of 
polygonal cells, with sharply defined boundaries, having 
large nuclear spots strongly resembling some of those 
which are exhibited in My a armaria. The total quan- 
tity of animal matter or membrane contained in the 
substance of the shell is extremely small, although the 
cellular structure in all probability results from the cal- 
cification of animal tissue. The structure of the internal 
layer is scarcely distinguishable. The power of tension 

* A Sea-NympL 

c5 



3-1 ANATlNIDiE. 

continually exercised by the strong and elastic cartilage 
exceeds that of the shell ; and the latter being the weaker 
body, gives way and is split in the conflict. Only one 
species ( T. distorta), which is comparatively more solid 
than the others, resists the strain and remains un- 
injured. 

The synonymy of the European species has been 
lamentably perplexed ever since the time of Pennant, 
notwithstanding the pains taken by Loven and the 
authors of the c British Mollusca' to unravel the tangled 
skein. This makes it extremely difficult to define with 
any certainty the geographical distribution of some of 
these species. Geologically Thracia appears to be an 
ancient genus. " Fossils of this form are found in the 
lower Oolites, and doubtfully so in the Carboniferous 
series" (S. Wood). It is the genus Odoncincta of Da 
Costa, and has received other equally barbarous names 
from modern authors- Cochlodesma, Couthouy, does 
not differ in any respect except in the absence of an 
ossicle : all the British species of Thracia possess this 
appendage. 

A. Nearly equilateral. 
1* Thracia PRiETE'NUis*', Pulteney. 

Mya pratenuis, Pult. Cat. Dors. p. 28, pi. iv. f. 7. Coehlodesma prestenue,, 
F.&H. i. p. 235, pLxv. f. 4. 

Body thin, clear white : giUs strongly pectinated, each 
divided by an oblique furrow into two parts, the upper being 
less deep than the lower portion : foot white. 

Shell triangularly oval, compressed, opaque, somewhat 
glossy ; right valve more convex than the left, and slightly 
overlapping it : sculpture (besides the usual marks of growth), 
close-set and microscopical transverse hair-like lines or scratches 

* Very thin. 



THRACIA. 



35 



on every part except the posterior side, which is covered with 
numerous concentric rows of tubercles interspersed with line 
strice that appear to radiate from the tubercles : colour milk- 
white : epidermis membranous, creamcolour : margins semi- 
circular on the anterior side, moderately curved in front, with 
a slight indentation or fiexuosity towards the posterior side, 
which is more rounded than truncated ; posterior dorsal margin 
sloping and straight ; anterior dorsal margin slightly curved : 
beaks projecting, with an abrupt excavation underneath, caused 
by the compression or fracture of the hinge ; this part is de- 
fined by a sharp but irregular ridge in each valve : ligament 
exceedingly small (being only visible in fresh specimens), 
placed close to the hinge on the posterior side; it is dark 
horncolour : cartilage golden-yellow, contained in a triangular 
and shallow cup, which is solid, attached to the hinge-plate 
by a ledge, and projects inwards horizontally and at a right 
angle with the hinge ; from the lower part of this cup or car- 
tilage-pit in each valve runs an oblique and sharp ridge to the 
posterior adductor muscle, and the shell is considerably thick- 
ened in that part : hinge-line obtusely angular : hinge-plate 
narrow and thin : ossicle falciform, clasping the hinge close to 
the beak on the anterior side : inside chalky- white, except the 
muscular scars and below the cartilage-pit, where the surface 
is polished and nacreous ; it is furnished with a slight rib in 
the line of fracture ; edges sharp : pallial and muscular scars 
nearly marginal. L. 085. B. 1*3. 

Yar. curia. Shell more oval, or longer relatively to its 
breadth. 

Habitat : Land's End to Unst, from 4 to 60 f. ; and 
at low w r ater, spring tides, on the coasts of Kerry and 
Galway. The variety is from Shetland and Cork Har- 
bour. Fossil in the Coralline Crag (S. Wood) ; Cliris- 
tiania (Sars) ; Palermo (Philippi). The extra- British 
distribution comprises Iceland, the Faroe Isles, Scandi- 
navia (3-30 f.), the north of France, Adriatic, Naples, 
and Sicily. 

The course of striation, or the arrangement of the 
microscopical grannies, in this shell is the reverse of that 
in Lyonsia Norvegica, viz. transverse instead of longi- 



36 axatinid^e. 

tudinal. Petiver called the present species Chama prcc- 
tenuis, or the " small, white, thin Spoon-hinge" Some 
authors have referred it to Schumacher's genus Peri- 
ploma ; but his description and figure give a different 
and more complicated hinge-structure. Leach carved 
out of it two other genera, Bontia or Bontcea and Ga- 
laxura. It is the Anatina truncata of Lamarck, and A. 
oblonga of Philippi, the former having been identified 
by Collard des Cherres, and the latter by Sars, with 
typical specimens. Collard des Cherres enumerated it 
in his list as Beriploma myalls, and Chiereghini as Tel- 
Una frag Ms sima ; S.Wood described it as Cochlodesma 
prcetenerum. 

2. T. papyra'cea*, Poli. 

Tellina papyracea, Poli, Test. Sic. i. p. 43, t. xv. f. 14, 18. Thraeia pha- 
seolina, F. & H. i. p. 221, pi. xviii. f. 5, 6, and (animal) pi. H. f. 4. 

Eody varying in colour from clear white to pale brown, 
covered with minute and numerous tubercles or papilla?, that 
give the surface a frosted appearance : mantle protruded con- 
siderably at each end ; edges plain : tubes separate, cylindrical, 
but short and wide, capable of being much inflated and un- 
equally distended, sometimes club-shaped at their extremities ; 
the upper tube is marked with eight, and the lower with four 
faint longitudinal lines or streaks, which terminate at the 
orifices in the same relative number of short, thick, and blunt 
cirri : gills forming two large suboval plates, each divided in 
the middle by a deep and oblique furrow ; they are smooth 
within and pectinated without : palps equal-sized, short, and 
triangular : foot flat and expansile, bluish- white. 

Shell thinner than the last species, and more inequivalve, 
more convex (though compressed towards the front and sides), 
and more elongated transversely : sculpture similar, but more 
delicate : epidermis less persistent, and having usually a rusty 
tinge on the posterior side : margins not so much rounded on 
the anterior side, decidedly and more abruptly and obliquely 

* Paper-like. 



THRACIA. 37 

truncated at the posterior end, with a well-defined angle on 
that side ; posterior dorsal margin somewhat recurved, instead 
of sloping ; anterior dorsal margin longer : beaks less promi- 
nent, with a slighter and less distinct excavation below them : 
ligament rather large, but short, yellowish-white or pale brown, 
keeping the valves asunder on the posterior side, and when 
removed leaving a lanceolate gap : cartilage yellowish-brown ; 
pits obliquely elongated sideways, and not projecting so far 
inwards as in T. praztenuis ; connecting ridge at the bottom 
thicker and less distinct : ossicle semiannular, placed as in that 
species : other particulars the same, except that in the present 
species the beaks only (and not the hinge) are fissured, and 
the rib-like mark of repair in the interior is therefore wanting. 
L. 0-6. B. 1-1. 

Yar. 1. gracilis. Shell more slender, and approaching a 
cylindrical shape, thinner, more uniformly convex ; posterior 
end shorter in proportion. 

Yar. 2. viUosiuscula. Thicker, and less elongated trans- 
versely ; posterior angle more rounded, but truncated. Ana- 
tina viUosiuscula, Macgillivray in Edinb. New Phil. Jonrn. 
April 1827, p. 370, pi. i. f. 10,' 11. T. viUosiuscula, F. & H. i. 
p. 224, pi. xvii. f. 4, 7. 

Monstr. Furrowed on the posterior slope, or having mis- 
shapen valves. 

Habitat : Sandy bays in the laminarian zone ; rather 
common. Yar. 1. Bantry Bay, and twenty miles north 
of Unst in 86 f. Var. 2. As widely diffused as the 
typical form, but usually in deeper water, or where the 
supply of calcareous material is more plentiful. Fossil 
at Belfast (Grainger) ; Kyles of Bute, and Lochgilphead 
(Geikie) ; Coralline Crag (S.Wood). Both the typical 
kind and the variety viUosiuscula range from Iceland to 
the iEgean and Canaries, at depths of from 2 to 35 f. ; 
an intermediate form has been taken by Steenstrup in 
Iceland, by Malm on the Swedish coast, and by 
M 'Andrew in Yigo Bay. Mr. Malm's son found the 
variety subfossil at Uddevalla, and Sars in the newer 
part of the glacial formation near Christiania. 



38 anatinid^. 

My finest specimen measures only two lines more in 
length and breadth than the average dimensions given 
in the description; but Lilljeborg obtained some in 
Finmark of a much larger size. I made an inexcusable 
blunder in stating (Ann. Nat. Hist. Sept. 1859) my 
belief that the present species was identical with T. dis- 
torted. 

This is the Tellina fragilis of Pennant (but not of 
Linne) ; and that specific name ought perhaps to be 
retained. It is also the My a punctulata of Renier, 
Ligula pubescens of Montagu ("smaller specimens"), 
Amphidesma phaseolina of Lamarck, and Anatina trun- 
cate/, of Macgillivray (Aberd. Moll.). Chiereghini enu- 
merated it in his list of Adriatic shells as My a truncata, 
according to his learned editor Dr. Nardo : this shows 
the difficulty of ascertaining the limits of geographical 
distribution, if we trust to local catalogues which have 
not been compiled by competent authorities, nor been 
subjected to such revision. The variety villosiuscula is 
the T. ovata of Brown, and Anatina intermedia of Clark. 

3. T. pubes'cens*, Pulteney. 

Mya pubescens, Pult. Cat. Dors. p. 27, pi. iv. f. 6. T. pubescens, F. & H. i. 
p. 22(5, pi. xvi. f. 2, 3. 

Shell of a gigantic size and considerable solidity compared 
with T. papyracea ; it is also more of an oval shape, being 
proportionally longer from the beaks to the front margins, and 
shorter in a transverse direction ; the smaller or left valve is 
flatter, and the inequality of the valves is more observable ; 
the umbonal part is sculptnred by rather strong, but obscure 
concentric ribs or folds ; the whole surface is finely granulated, 
although more strongly at the sides ; the colour is sandy, in- 
stead of white ; it is of a dull hue ; and the epidermis has 
more of a yellowish cast. L. 2. B. 3. 

* Fur.-rrrown. 



THRACIA. 39 

Habitat : Cornwall, Devon, and Dorset ; procured 
by trawling. The reputed Irish localities are doubtful : 
this species has been often mistaken for the adult of 
T. papyracea : the only specimen in Mr. J. D. 
Humphreys's extensive collection of shells from Dublin, 
Cork, and Bantry was marked by him " England." Mr. 
Grainger obtained it in a dead state at Belfast, where 
it is also found in a post-pliocene deposit, as well as in 
the Coralline Crag. The foreign localities of which I 
am assured are Morbihan (Mace and Tasle) ; Provence 
(Martin) ; Gibraltar, 8 f. (M f Andrew) ; and /Egean, 
70 f. (Forbes) . Philippi has recorded it as recent at 
Naples (on the authority of Scacchi) and fossil at 
Palermo. 

My largest specimen is 2^ inches long, and 3| broad. 
The young have the same characters as the adult, and 
are even more unlike T. papyracea. 

The Mya declivis of Pennant, to which it was at one 
time referred, appears to have been the half-grown state 
of M. truncata. The present species is the Anatina 
myalis of Lamarck, and T. Montagui of Leach. 

4. T. convex a*, W.Wood. 

Mya convexa, W. Wood, Gen. Conch, i. p. 92, pi. 18. f. I. T. convexa, 
F. &H. i. p.229, pl.xvi. f. 1,4. 

Shell nearly rectangular, extremely gibbous, except towards 
the front and posterior side, which are compressed to such an 
extent as to give a wedge-like aspect ; it is thinner than T. 
pubescens, opaque, and somewhat glossy : sculpture much finer 
than that of the last species, and consisting of minute papilla\ 
which are equally disposed over the whole surface in transverse 
and undulating lines ; the marks of growth are slight, but 
numerous : colour pale yellowish-brown : epidermis membra- 
nous and thin : margins rounded on the anterior side and in 

* Convex. 



40 ANATINID.E. 

front, with a slight indentation towards the posterior side, 
which is more or less obliquely truncated, and separated by a 
blunt angular ridge in each valve, with an obscwe intermediate 
fold, making this side appear bicarinated ; dorsal margins 
gently curved : beaks very prominent, obliquely inflected to 
the posterior side ; the space below them on each side is deeply 
excavated : ligament short and cylindrical, greyish- horncolour, 
separating the valves by an elliptical gaj} : cartilage yellowish, 
contained in a narrow but solid receptacle, which lies parallel 
with the hinge-line, and does not project far within the shell ; 
the receptacle is supported underneath by the ordinary rib-like 
process : hinge-line obtusely angular : hinge-plate narrow and 
slight : ossicle as in the other species : inside yellowish ; edges 
blunt : scars nearly marginal. L. 2. B. 2'5. 

Habitat : 4-70 f. in suitable parts of the English, 
Irish, Scotch, and Shetland coasts ; difficult to procure 
on account of its habit of burrowing rather deeply in 
muddy sand. Not uncommon in the " alluvial" deposit 
at Belfast (Hyndman and Grainger) ; Wexford (Sir 
Henry James) ; Coralline Crag (S. Wood) ; " glacial" 
formation near Drontheim, 400-500 feet above the 
present sea-level (Sars) j Palermo (Philippi). It has 
been noticed as a Swedish and Norwegian species by 
Loven, Sars, M f Andrew and Barrett, Danielssen, and 
Malm, at various depths between 8 and 100 f. ; 
M f Andrew dredged it off Gibraltar in 45 f. ; and Martin 
obtained it from fishermen on the coast of Provence, 
but smaller in size than northern examples. 

This handsome shell may easily be recognized by its 
almost globular form. The young and fry correspond 
in shape with the adult; but they are white and not 
so convex, and their dorsal margins are quite straight. 
The ligament, as well as the epidermis are wonderfully 
preserved in fossil specimens dug out of the clay-bed at 
Belfast. 

Montagu described it as a large form of T. distorta. 



THRACIA. 41 

It is the T. declivis of Macgillivrav, T. ventricosa of 
Philippic and (apparently) the T. ScheejimaJceri of 
Dunker. 

B. Posterior side usually larger. 
5. T. distor ta*, Montagu. 

My a disforta, Mont. Test. Brit. p. 42, t. i. f. 1. T. distorta, F. & H. i. 
p. 231, pi. xvii. f. 1, 2, 3, 8, and (animal) pi. H. f. 5. 

Body roundish-oval, white : tubes rather short, and some- 
what more united towards their bases than in the other British 
Thracice ; the branchial or lower tube is often extended more 
than half an inch, while the other remains quiescent ; pre- 
viously to the former being withdrawn, it is always globularly 
inflated at its extremity, which inflation increases until it ex- 
tends near the margin of the shell, and the tube then suddenly 
collapses ; during the inflation the terminal cirri disappear, 
and they only become visible when the tube is at rest : gills 
large and brown : palps nearly equal and pectinated : foot 
short and linguiform. 

Shell varying in shape from round to oval, more or less 
distorted and often sinuous, generally convex but sometimes 
flattened, more solid in proportion to its size than the other 
species, opaque and lustreless : sculpture, minute and crowded 
tubercles or granulations of equal size, arranged' in concentric 
although irregular rows ; marks of growth distinct : colour 
milk-white, with occasionally a yellowish tinge : epidermis 
membranous, abraded in front and only to be seen at the 
edges, dingy brown : margins rounded on the anterior side 
and in front, somewhat truncated or wedge-shaped on the 
posterior side, which is in most instances (but not invariably) 
larger or more elongated than the other side, and obscurely 
angulated ; dorsal margins obtuse-angled : beaks sharp and 
entire, slightly inclined to the posterior side ; umbones ra- 
ther prominent : ligament short, of various shades of colour 
from yellowish to dark brown, separating the valves by an 
oval gap : cartilage strong, yellowish -brown or horncolour, 
contained in a thick triangular receptacle, which is set ob- 
liquely and projects considerably within each valve ; fulcral 

* Distorted. 



42 



ANATINIDyE. 



rib indistinct : hinge-line obtusely angular : hinge-plate thick 
and strong : ossicle semilunar, slightly attached, and conse- 
quently often lost in dead specimens: inside creamcolour, some- 
what glossy and nacreous ; edges blunt : scars large and well 
defined L. 0-6. B. 0*8. 

Yar. truncata. Shell oblong ; front margin straight ; pos- 
terior margin abruptly truncated. Anatina truncata, Turton, 
Dith. p. 46, t. 4. f. 6. 

Habitat : From Guernsey to Unst, in crevices of 
rocks and old oyster-shells, between 5 and 35 f ., as well 
as occasionally buried in tufts of Corallina officinalis at 
low water ; local, but widely diffused. The variety is 
from Exmouth, Tenby, and Cork. Fossil in the Coral- 
line Crag (S. Wood); Palermo (Philippi). Foreign 
range : Finmark to the Cattegat, 3-40 f. (Loven and 
others) ; north of France (De Gerville and others) ; 
Provence (Martin) ; Algeria (Desliayes and Weinkauff) . 

This is the smallest British Thracia ; and its habitat 
is different from that of its congeners. It may also be 
known by its irregularly oval shape, its less angular 
outline, uniform granulation, and comparatively large 
cartilage-pit. The young are triangular, and somewhat 
resemble a Mont acuta. A full-grown specimen taken 
from a narrow chink in a piece of limestone well exem- 
plifies the mode in which shells are constructed. Part 
of the left valve had been crushed, apparently by acci- 
dental pressure ; and in order to repair tlie damage, an 
inner layer was formed by exudation from the mantle, 
to which the broken fragments were cemented and still 
adhere. The distorted growth of this species shows 
that it does not excavate the holes in which it lives. 
It sometimes appropriates the labours of other animals, 
but never unjustly or consciously, like a plagiarist. 
The original and short-lived fabricators of the dwellings 
subsequently occupied by the Thracia are beyond the 



CORBULID.E. 43 

power of complaint ; and all that can be said of them is 

Sic tos non vobis saxa forate din. 

It constitutes the type of Fleurian de Bellevue's genus 
Rupicola. Pennant and Donovan described it as Venus 
sinuosa, Lamarck as Anatina rupicola, Philippi as Ery- 
cina anodon, Anatina ? pusilla, T. oralis, T. fabula, and 
T. elongata, Recluz as Rupicola concentrica, and Des- 
hayes as T. brevis. Many other species have been made 
by Reeve from Mr. Cuming's specimens of this ex- 
tremely variable shell. It appears to have been con- 
founded bv Kiener with T. corbuloides, Deshaves, on 
the supposition that it was a smaller form of that 
species. 

Another species of Thracia (Amphidesma truncata, 
Brown, or T. my op sis, Beck) has been found in glacial 
beds, at Greenock by Mr. Stewart Kerr, and at Elie in 
Fifeshire by the Rev. Thomas Brown. To this species 
appears to have also belonged a shell named " Cochlo- 
desma, n. s." by Professor King, which was lately 
brought up from the depth of 1000 f. or thereabouts, 
100 miles west of Cape Clear, by Capt. Hoskyn in 
H.M.S. ' Porcupine ' ; and the fragments of which I 
have examined. T. myopsis now lives only in the 
Arctic seas. 

Family XIX. 
CORBUTID.E, (CORBULAME) Fleming. 

Body oval or globular : tubes short and united ; excretal tube 
furnished with a conspicuous valve : foot long and flexible. 

Shell oval, more or less inequivalve and open at the pos- 
terior end : heals turned towards the posterior side : cartilage 
wholly internal, occupying a horizontal triangular cavity under 
the beak in each valve : hinge strong, furnished in some genera 



44 CORBULID.E. 

with a single erect cardinal tooth in one valve or both, besides 
a long lateral tooth on one or each side in either valve ; in 
species of Necera there is also a free calcareous ossicle : pallial 
scar slight, with a shallow sinus : muscular scars well marked. 

These are of small size, and comprised in few genera : 
the species are numerous and prolific, characters which 
are probably correlative. The British genera are Poro- 
mya, Near a, and Corbula. The first is a box studded 
with tiny pearls. 

" Ne lesse praisworthie faire Necera is." 

Her shell resembles the body of a bird, without 
feet or wings, but having a stretched-out beak; and, 
although this age is not barren of artistic invention, 
it might serve as a graceful model for some work of 
fictile manufacture. The last has also an apposite 
name, and reminds one of a basket with a close-fitting 
lid. The hinge in each genus is constructed somewhat 
on the plan of the Mactridce ; but it does not possess 
an external ligament as well as an internal cartilage. 
The Corbulidce live in mud and sand at various depths, 
but seldom between tide-marks. Lamarck called them 
" Corbulees " Latreille " Corbulsea," and Hinds " Cor- 
bulacea." 

Genus I. POROMY'A* Forbes. PL II. f. 3. 

Body roundish -oval, thin : tubes unequal in size, clothed 
with numerous long filaments : foot narrow and slender. 

Shell roundish-oval, slightly inequivalve and inequilateral, 
thin and pearly, with the outer layer composed of minute 
tubercles ; posterior side angulated : epidermis membranous 
and thin : teeth, in the right valve a short but strong cardinal, 
and in the left a minute triangular cardinal and a ridge-like 
lateral on the posterior side. 

* Passing into the genus My a ; or having, with the shape of that shell, 
a tubular structure. 



, TOROMYA. 45 

The structure of the shell is very remarkable, although 
not differing much from that of Thracia. The external 
layer consists of crowded oblong cells having their ends 
outward, and the inner layer is nacreous ; the cellular 
part is easily rubbed off. The mantle is said to be open 
in front, an unusual character in this group. Further 
particulars of the animal are desirable. 

This genus is the Embla of Loven, and (according to 
Chenu) the Eucharis of Recluz. 

Poromya granula'ta*, Nyst and Westendorp. 

Corhula granv.lata, Nyst & West. Coq. Foss. d' An vers, p. 6, pi. 3. f. 3. P. 
granv.lata, F. & H. i. p. 204, pi. ix. f. 4-6, and (animal) pi. W. f. 2. 

Body crcamcolour : mantle open in front : tubes encircled at 
their bases by a fringe of 18 or 20 tentacular filaments, which 
expand like the petals of a flower, and are sometimes folded 
back on the posterior side of the shell : foot very transparent. 

Shell somewhat quadrangular or rhomboidal (the right 
valve larger than the left and slightly overlapping it), mode- 
rately convex, fragile ; externally it is opaque and of a dark 
hue, but when the superficial or granular coating is removed, 
it is semitransparent and glossy : sculpture, very minute and 
close-set tubercles of nearly equal size, arranged in longitu- 
dinal rows, and occasional but slight marks of growth : colour 
dusky outside, and whitish under the surface-layer : epidermis 
dark brown, visible only at the edges, and especially at the 
back (where it forms a kind of elongated ligament on both 
sides of the beak) : margins] rounded on the anterior side, 
slightly curved in front, indented near the posterior side, which 
is obliquely truncated and has a distinct ridge extending from 
the beak to the posterior angle, with a broad fold on either 
side of it ; posterior dorsal margin longer and straighter than 
the other : beaks blunt and calyciform ; umbones prominent : 
cartilage yellowish -brown, set rather obliquely in an obtusely 
angular receptacle, which does not project far within : hinge- 
line gradually curved : hinge-plate thickened on both sides of 
the beak : teeth, in the right valve an erect, blunt and tuber- 

* Granulated. 



46 corbulidjE. 

cular cardinal ; in the left valve a small, sunken and triangular 
cardinal, besides a long but slight laminar lateral on the pos- 
terior side : inside glossy and nacreous, closely but obscurely 
lineated lengthwise ; edges sharp : muscular scars triangular, 
lying near the dorsal margins. L. 0-325. B. 0-375. 

Habitat : In mud among boulders, 40-45 f., close 
to Croulin Island, and in another part of the Sound of 
Skye ; rare. Mr. Dawson found a worn and imperfect 
valve in shell-sand from Haroldswick Bay in the north 
of Shetland. Coralline Crag (S. Wood) ; newer tertiary 
beds near Antwerp (Nyst and Westendorp). Koren 
got it at Bergen ; M f Andrew and Sars dredged it off the 
coasts of Finmark, the former in 45-90 f. ; Deshayes 
obtained it from Sicily and Bona, and Tiberi at Naples ; 
Forbes in the iEgean between 40 and 150 f . ; and 
M f Andrew at Madeira in 20 f. 

Clark conjectured that this might be the young of 
Thracia convexa, and he said that the present species 
has an ossicle in the hinge ; but he did not see with my 
eyes. I have compared specimens of P. granulata and 
T. convexa of all sizes, from the fifteenth of an inch in 
length. Each exhibits a marked difference of outline : 
one is square, and the other triangular. I have also 
examined perfect examples of the Poromya from Scan- 
dinavia, Skye, and Naples ; and in none of them could 
I detect an ossicle or any space for it. He also stated 
that the siphons of these two mollusca are equally short, 
and ornamented with cirri or filaments ; but neither of 
these characters was noticed by him in his elaborate 
account of the only species of Thracia described in the 
' History of the British Marine Testaceous Mollusca/ 
and he admitted that he had not seen the animal of T. 
convexa or of P. granulata. 

Forbes described the recent shell as P. anatinoides, 



NE.ERA. 47 

Loven as Embla Korenii, Deshayes as Corbula vitrea, 
and Tiberi as Cuminyia parthenopcea. 

Genus II. NE-ER'A*, (NEARA) Gray. PL II. f. 4. 

Body globular, thin : tubes unequal in size, clothed with a 
few long filaments : foot lanceolate. 

Shell fig-shaped, inequilateral, thin ; posterior end twisted 
and extended into a beak-like process : epidermis membranous : 
teeth, sometimes a small cardinal in each valve, of a crest-like 
laminar lateral on the posterior side of one valve or both ; 
certain species have also a free calcareous ossicle. 

The late Capt. Brown first suggested the generic 
separation of the present group of shells, which are 
distinguished no less by the singularity than by the 
elegance of their shape. His services in the cause of 
British conchology would have been greater if his 
attention had not been distracted bv so many other 
branches of zoology. Good results, however, were pro- 
duced by his publications, especially in promoting the 
faculty of observation in young persons. Clark repu- 
diates the genus, and merges it in Anatina, on the 
ground that each has an ossicle. This leads to the 
consideration of the difficult question, what is a genus ? 
Nor can I agree with him that we have but one species 
of Neara. Perhaps in a few centuries hence, or sooner, 
his opinion on the last point may be found correct ; or 
possibly the very notion of species may be classed among 
the vulgar errors of a half- enlightened age. What our 
Poet-laureate savs is true, that 

" Science moves, but slowly slowly. 
Creeping on from point to point:" 

or as Seneca puts it, " Multa hoc primum cognovimus 

* A Sea-Nymph mentioned by Spenser. 



48 CORBULID.E. 

sseculo, multa venientis sevi populus nobis ignota sciet ; f 
but at present my opinion coincides with that of other 
naturalists, both as to the existence of species, and of 
those of Necera in particular. 

This genus is the Cuspidaria of Nardo. It contains 
many exotic species ; the late Mr. Hinds described and 
enumerated seventeen in the ' Proceedings of the Zoo- 
logical Society' for 1843, and Mr. A. Adams several more 
in the f Annals and Magazine of Natural History ' for 
March 1864. The name Near a was originally used for 
a genus of Diptera ; but no one is likely to be misled 
by the subsequent application of it to the Mollusca, 
unless perchance in consulting an index to any work on 
general zoology. Otherwise the name given by Nardo 
is more characteristic. 

1. NeyEra abbrevia'ta*, Forbes. 

Ni abbreviata, Forbes in Zool. Soc. Proc. 1843, p. 75: F. & H. i. p. 201, 
pi. vii. f. 7. 

Shell triangularly oval, obliquely twisted to the posterior 
side, nearly equivalve, extremely gibbous, fragile, sernitrans- 
parent, slightly glossy and iridescent : sculpture, about a dozen 
concentric plaits or folds, besides numerous fine but irregular 
intermediate striae ; the surface is also marked by a few obscure 
longitudinal lines, and the posterior side by a sharp rib which 
runs outwards from behind the beak in a curved or flexuous 
direction : colour greyish- white : epidermis yellowish-brown, 
visible only at the edges and back : margins rounded on the 
anterior side and in front, indented or nexuous on the posterior 
side, which is short, wedge-like, and considerably compressed ; 
dorsal margins nearly equal in length, and straight : beaks 
blunt, much inflected, somewhat inclined to the anterior side ; 
umbones prominent ; the dorsal area is deeply excavated : 
cartilage small, yellowish-brown, occupying an elliptical cavity 
in a parallel line with the hinge : hinge-line obtusely angular : 
hinge-plate narrow : teeth, a minute thorn-like cardinal in each 

* Shortened. 



NE.ERA. 49 

valve, and a slight lateral on the posterior side of the right 
valve : inside glossy and nacreous ; posterior side separated by 
a sharp rib : scars indistinct. L. 0*8. B. 0-4. 

Habitat : Loch Fyne (M' Andrew and Barlee) ; Skye 
and Shetland (Barlee) ; in 40-75 f., on a muddy 
ground. Fossil in the Belgian tertiaries (Nyst). Its 
known distribution elsewhere in a recent state is as 
follows : — Bohuslan (Loven) ; Christiania, 40-100 f. 
(Asbjornsen) ; Bergen, 40-50 f. (Danielssen) ; Fin- 
mark (Sars and Lilljeborg) ; dead valves in the iEgean, 
75-105 f. (Forbes) . 

It is the N. vitrea of Loven. 

2. N. costella'ta*, Deshayes. 

Corbala costellata, Desh. Exp. Scient. Mor. (Geologie) p. 86, t. vii. f. 1-3. 
N. costellata, F. & H. i. p. 199, pi. vii. f. 8, 9, and (animal) pi. G. f. 8, 9. 

Body gelatinous, clear white : mantle so transparent as to 
allow the pink gills and dark brown liver to be seen through 
it : tubes cylindrical, sometimes yellow with reddish or orange 
markings, and tinged with brown at their extremities; ex- 
cretal tube much the smaller of the two ; tentacular cirri white 
and plain, extending beyond the tubes ; orifices fringed : foot 
narrow. 

Shell more slender than N. abbreviate, more ineqnivalve, 
much less ventricose and even somewhat compressed, equally 
fragile, semitransparent, glossy and iridescent : sculpture. 
20-30 longitudinally radiating ribs, which are slighter and 
more like striae on the anterior side and in front, but stronger 
and more distant towards the posterior side, especially the last 
two or three ; these ribs vary in size and fineness ; the pro- 
longed part on the posterior side is also marked with two or 
three slight ribs, which are parallel with the dorsal line and 
extend to the rostral point : colour and epidermis as in the 
species last described : margins also similar, except behind, 
where the anterior dorsal margin is raised and appears high- 
shouldered, and the posterior dorsal margin is inflected and 

* Fine-ribbed. 
VOL. III. D 



50 corbulid^e. 

curved ; rostral prolongation considerable, much more attenu- 
ated than in the other species : beaks small and mammillary ; 
unibones by no means prominent ; dorsal area narrowly exca- 
vated on the posterior side : cartilage orangecolour, contained 
in a triangular receptacle which shelves outwards : hinge-line 
straight : hinge-plate narrow and slight : teeth, an extremely 
minute tubercular cardinal in the left valve, and a strong 
erect and triangular lateral in the right valve on the posterior 
side : inside glossy, with a rib on the posterior side : muscular 
scars well marked ; anterior irregularly oblong, posterior tri- 
angular. L. 0-25. B. 0-415. 

Var. lactea. Shell milk-white, more glossy, transparent, 
and delicate, having only two ribs on the posterior angle, 
besides those on the rostral process. 

Habitat : Loch Fyne, 40-70 f., with the last species 
(M f Andrew and Barlee) ; Cumbrae, Firth of Clyde 
(Robertson) ; Skye and Shetland (Barlee and J. G. J.) . 
The variety was dredged by me on a sandy bottom, in 
78 f., from 40 to 50 miles east of the Whalsey Skerries, 
Shetland. Upper tertiaries of Greece (Deshayes) ; 
Antwerp (Nyst) ; Guise-Lainotte, France (De Koninck) ; 
Calabria (Philippi). It inhabits the coasts of Scandi- 
navia at depths ranging between 10 and 100 f. (Loven 
and others) ; Carthagena, in 30 f., and Gibraltar, in 45 f. 
(M ( Andrew) ; Provence, in 60 f. (Martin) ; Gulf of 
Genoa, in 25 f. (J. G. J.) ; Adriatic (Chiereghini) ; 
Naples (v. Martens) ; iEgean, in 20-185 f. (Forbes) ; 
Malta, in 40 f., Gulf of Tunis, in 35 f., Madeira, in 
18-24 f., and Teneriffe, in 20-35 f. (M'Andrew). 
Specimens dredged by the late Professor Barrett in 
deep water at Jamaica are scarcely distinguishable from 
those of the North Atlantic. 

This exquisite shell cannot well be mistaken for 
N. abhreviata ; their shape, sculpture, and dentition are 
very different. 

Nvst seems to have been the earliest describer of it, 



NE.ERA. 51 

as Corbula Waelii ; and the figures which he also gave 
are very exact. This was in 1843. The great French 
work on the expedition to the Morea was published 
eight years previously. Bory St. Vincent contributed 
the geological portion of this work, which contains a 
good representation of the shell ; the only other notice 
of it appears in the index to the plates, where it is 
entered as " C. costellata, Deshayes/' It is the N. sul- 
cata of Loven, C. rostrato-costellata of Acton, and Tel- 
Una naticuta of Chiereghini. The figures in Philippi's 
work on the Sicilian Testacea are not satisfactory ; they 
were probably made up or " restored/' for he says that 
all his specimens were " paullulum lsesas." 

3. N. rostra ta*, Spengler. 

My a rostrata, Spengl. in Skrivt, Selsk. iii. p. 42, t. 2. f. 16. 

Shell resembling a fig with a broad stalk, nearly equivalve 
except in the young, convex, more solid than the preceding 
species, opaque and almost lustreless : sculpture, numerous 
but slight concentric raised striae or wrinkles, becoming more 
crowded and flexuous towards the posterior side; the upper 
angle on that side (which forms a long and diagonal crest or 
ridge, extending from behind the beak in each valve to the 
rostral point, and defined by an oblique rib) is crossed by 
close- set and somewhat curved striae at a right angle to the 
transverse markings on the body of the shell : colour whitish : 
epidermis more persistent than in the other two species, pale 
yellowish- white : margins rounded on the anterior side and 
immediately in front, bending upwards and nearly in a straight 
course to the deep sinus or indentation caused by the exten- 
sion of the posterior side ; this part is remarkably twisted and 
elongated, being about two-fifths of the entire breadth of the 
shell ; posterior dorsal margin curved inwards ; anterior dorsal 
margin high-shouldered : beetles inflected ; umbones rather 
prominent ; dorsal excavation deep, wide on the anterior and 
narrow on the posterior side : cartilage small, golden-yellow, 

* Beaked. 

d2 



52 . CORBULIDiE. 

contained in an oval pit, which projects obliquely inwards ; 
the cartilage is held together by a calcareous band or ossicle, 
placed as in Lyonsia, which is easily split and broken in two 
when the valves are separated ; it then curls up, so that each 
half resembles the shelly appendage peculiar to Thracia : 
hinge-line straight : hinge-plate moderately broad : teeth, a 
lateral in each valve, which is triangular, erect, and rather 
long in the right valve, ridge-like and slight in the left : inside 
glossy and nacreous, obscurely striated lengthwise : scars in- 
distinct. L. 0-45. B. 0-8. 

Habitat : East coast of Shetland, 40 miles off the 
land, in 76 f., soft and muddy sand ; a right valve only, 
with living specimens of the common kind, N. cuspidata. 
The foreign localities are, Bergen, among Oculina pro- 
lifer a (Spengler) ; other parts of Norway, at various 
depths from 10 to 130 f. (Loven, Asbjornsen, Danielssen, 
and Sars) ; Sweden, 20-60 f. (Loven and Malm) ; 
Gulf of Lyons, 80-100 f. (Martin) ; Toulon (Thor- 
rent) ; Genoa (J. G. J.) ; Naples, 30-40 f. (Tiberi) ; 
Sicily (Philippi) ; and iEgean, 110-150 f. (Forbes). 
The N. Chinensis of Gray, from Mr. Hinds's explorations 
in the East Pacific, is closely allied to this species, if not 
identical with it. 

This is a larger and stronger shell than N. costellata, 
much more elongated in proportion, and has a different 
kind of sculpture. 

It is apparently the Anatina longirostris of Lamarck, 
and Corbula cuspidata of Brown, as it is certainly the 
N. attenuata of Forbes, and N. renovata of Tiberi. I 
have examined the types of these last two, as well as of 
Spengler's species. Of the two figures given by Philippi 
(vol. i. tab. i. f. 19) that on the left hand represents the 
present species, and the other (which is drawn partly 
from imagination) JV. cuspidata. 



4. N. cuspida'ta*, Olivi. 

Tellina cuspidata, Olivi, Zool. Adr. p. 101, tab. iv. f. 3. N. cuspkkita. 
F. & H. i. p. 195, pi. vii. f. 4-0, and (animal) pi. Gr. f. 4-7. 

Body greyish, or dirty white : mantle rather thin : tubes 
nearly sessile, sometimes mottled with pink ; orifice of lower- 
one fringed with 5 or 6 short cirri ; the base of each tube is 
encircled by 6 rather long and slender filaments, which have 
cup-shaped extremities, like the polypidoms of many zoophytes ; 
these filaments occasionally are knotted or studded at intervals 
with bulbs of an azure hue ; the orifice of the upper or excreta! 
tube is plain, but provided with the usual hyaline valve : foot 
long, flexible, and white. 

Shell obliquely triangular (left valve sensibly larger than 
the right), extremely gibbous and tumid, moderately solid, 
opaque, and almost lustreless : sculpture, numerous slight and 
irregular concentric striae or wrinkles, becoming closer and 
JlexuQUs towards the posterior side ; the upper angle on that 
side is crest-like and striated as in N. rostrata, but it is not 
so distinctly defined, nor elongated to anything like the same 
extent : colour whitish under the epidermis, which is light 
chestnut or reddish-brown, thick (especially at the dorsal edges, 
where it has somewhat the appearance of a ligament), some- 
times coated with sand or mud : margins rounded on the an- 
terior side as well as in front, with an abrupt and deep sinus 
on the posterior side, which is somewhat twisted and compa- 
ratively short, being about one-half of the entire breadth of 
the shell ; posterior dorsal margin incurved ; anterior dorsal 
margin forming a rounded slope, but not projecting as in the 
last species : beaks inflected, and interlocking, or placed one 
on each side instead of opposite ; umbones extremely promi- 
nent ; dorsal excavation deep, heart-shaped on the anterior 
side, and trench-like on the posterior : cartilage and ossicle as 
in N. rostrata, but the former is horncolour, and the pit does 
not project so far inwards : hinge-line obtusely angular : hinge- 
plate thick : teeth, a strong recurved and rather short trian- 
gular lateral in the right valve, and only an obscure and blunt 
laminar lateral in the other valve : inside glossy, porcellanous, 
and nacreous, indistinctly striated lengthwise ; it is furnished 
on the posterior side in each valve with a thick rib, extending 
from below the beak half-way across to the indentation that 

* Pointed. 



54 CORBULID.E. 

defines the snout-like process : pallial scar well marked, with 
a semicircular sinus : muscular scars rather deep ; anterior 
irregular, posterior triangularly oval. L. 0-55. B. 0-8* 

Var. 1. curia. Rostral or snout-like process shorter. 

Var. 2. cinerea. Shell ashcolour, and thinner. 

Habitat: Land's End (M' Andrew) ; Northumberland 
and Durham (Brown, Thomas, Alder, and Mennell) ; 
Aberdeen (MacgilliA^ray) ; Firth of Forth (Gerard and 
Thomas) ; throughout the west of Scotland (Smith and 
others) ; Shetland (M' Andrew and others) ; off Cape 
Clear (M f Andrew) ; Arran Isle, Galway (Barlee) ; in 
muddy sand, at depths varying from 12 to 82 f. Var. 
1 and 2. Hebrides (Barlee). Searles Wood has recorded 
this species as fossil in the Coralline Crag, Risso from 
Nice, and Philippi from Sicily ; upper miocene bed near 
Antibes (Mace). Its foreign distribution in a recent 
state comprises Spitzbergen and South Greenland 
(Torell) ; Scandinavia, 22-180 f. (Loven and others) ; 
Carthagena and Gibraltar, 45 f. (M f Andrew) ; Provence, 
in a gurnard's stomach (Martin) ; Italian coasts of the 
Mediterranean (Maravigna and others) ; Adriatic (Olivi 
and Chiereghini) j Malta, 40 f. (M f Andrew) ; iEgean, 
12-185 f. (Forbes) ; Algeria (Deshayes and others) ; 
Madeira, in 18-24 f., and Teneriffe, in 20-35 f. 
(M f Andrew). Mr. Hinds, after giving some European 
localities, remarks, " Nor can I perceive any difference 
in the valve of a shell obtained from 84 f. in the China 
Sea ; the temperature below being 66°, and at the sur- 
face 83°/' 

It is much more globular and obliquely twisted than 
N. rostrata, and it is more finely striated ; the snout in 
all specimens is considerably shorter ; the front or ven- 
tral margin is more curved; and the posterior dorsal 
side is abruptly truncated, and not so rounded and pro- 



CORBULA. 55 

minent as in that species. The young of Loch Fyne 
specimens are proportionally more slender than the 
adult, and more elongated in the line of the major axis ; 
but they essentially differ from N. rostrata of the same 
age or size. A valve which I dredged in deep water off 
the east coast of Shetland is nearly an inch broad, and 
coarsely wrinkled : it agrees with specimens which I 
examined in the Museum at Christiania, described bv 
Sars as N. arctica, as well as with some dredged by 
Torell in the Arctic Sea. 

Brown called the present species Anatina brevirostris 
and Thracia brevirostris, and Nardo Cuspidaria typica. 

Genus III. COB/BULA*, Bruguiere. PL II. f. 5. 

Body oval, rather thick : tubes seldom protruded ; orifices 
fringed : gills 2 on each side, unequal-sized : palps corre- 
sponding with the gills in number and position, but equal in 
size : foot tongue -shaped and thick. 

Shell oval, nearly equilateral, rather solid ; posterior side 
wedge-shaped : teeth, a short and strong cardinal in each valve, 
and a ridge-like lateral on both sides of the right valve. 

The structure of the shell is like that of the Anati- 
nidce : according to Carpenter " the outer layer is com- 
posed of large fusiform cells, whilst the inner is nearly 
homogeneous." Searles Wood informs us that fossil 
species have been found as early as in the lower Oolite. 

Miihlfeldt called this genus Aloides ; and modern 
systematists have invented for it other equally ill- 
compounded names, such as Spenser, in his ' Teares of 
the Muses/" designates 

"Heapes of huge words uphoorded hideously. 
With horrid sound though having little sence." 

* A little basket. 



56 



CORBULID.^. 



CoRBULA GIBBA"*, Olivi. 



Tellina gibba, Olivi, Zool. Adr. p. 101. C. nucleus, F. & H. i. p. 180, pi. ix. 
f. 7-12, and (animal) pi. G. f. 3. 

Body whitish, with often a tinge of yellow : mantle thick ; 
its edges minutely ciliated : tubes contiguous, very short, and 
scarcely protruded beyond the valves, edged with narrow lines 
of pink or orange a little below the extremities ; orifices fringed 
with conical and rather slender cirri or tentacles (from 8 to 12 
round each), having truncated points ; these cirri are trans- 
parent, and spotted with a few flake- white marks, and each is 
encircled at its base by a line of red dots ; hyaline apparatus 
of the upper tube bell-shaped, retractile, and in frequent 
action : gills very unequal, hanging obliquely, the upper one 
narrow, and the lower one larger and more triangular ; they 
are brown, smooth outside and finely striated within : palps 
long, narrow, pointed, pendulous, and brown, pectinated 
strongly on both surfaces : foot large and thick, very fleshy, 
bent near its junction with the rest of the body, sometimes 
forming an elongated cone and byssiferous : liver dark green. 

Shell triangularly oval ; right valve much larger and more 
gibbous than the left, which it overlaps to a considerable ex- 
tent ; left valve compressed towards the front and sides ; the 
substance is thick and opaque, and the surface of the right or 
deeper valve is more glossy than that of the other, and occa- 
sionally iridescent : sculpture, numerous concentric stria?, which 
in the smaller valve are slight and irregular, and are often 
crossed by a few raised lines radiating from the beaks, but in 
the larger valve these stria? usually become cord-like and close- 
set ribs : colour white, with more or less of a yellowish or 
reddish-brown tinge, sometimes varied by longitudinal rays or 
streaks of the latter hue on the larger valve : epidermis brown, 
thick, and somewhat fibrous, mostly abraded and wanting on 
the larger valve : margins rounded on the anterior side and in 
front, truncated on the posterior side (which is depressed and 
diagonally separated in the smaller valve, and twisted in the 
other valve), with a slight groove or fold proceeding from below 
the beak ; dorsal margins straight : beaks calyciform, obliquely 
incurved to the anterior side ; umbones prominent and conti- 
guous ; dorsal excavation generally deep, but not distinctly 
defined : cartilage small, narrow, and triangular, composed of 
several leaflets, which represent the successive accretions of 

* Gibbous. 



CORBULA. 57 

growth ; it is contained in a cavity or depression of the car- 
dinal tooth in the left valve : hinge-line obtusely angular : 
hinge-plate rather broad and strong : teeth, in the right valve a 
thick, pyramidal, and recurved cardinal, besides a long ridge- 
like lateral on each side ; in the left valve a thick cardinal, 
which resembles in shape the bowl of a spoon, and may be 
considered the cartilage-pit, although it is not horizontal and 
it slopes upwards from the beak ; close to it on the anterior 
side of the same valve is a cavity for the reception of the oppo- 
site tooth : inside porcellanous and glossy, microscopically and 
closely wrinkled, more or less stained with coffeecolour ; edges 
somewhat bevelled : pallial scar slight, with an extremely 
shallow sinus : muscular scars distinct ; anterior oval, posterior 
nearlv circular. L. 0-5. B. 0-6. 

Var. rosea. Shell rather more oval and glossy, with a 
purplish streak on either side of the beak in each valve, and 
the rays on the larger valve of a more vivid hue. C rosea, 
Brown, 111. Conch, p. 105, pi. xlii. f . 6 ; F. & H. i. p. 185, 
pi. ix. f. 13, 14. 

Habitat : Gregarious in sand, mud, and gravel on 
every part of our coasts. I once found live specimens 
burrowing in the sand at Oxwich Bay, Glamorganshire, 
on the recess of an unusually high spring tide ; and it 
occurs as deep as 72 f. in Shetland. It usually frequents 
the laminarian zone. The variety is equally diffused in 
the British seas, and ranges from Norway to the Medi- 
terranean ; Weinkauff has taken it at Algiers in brackish 
water. C. gibba is not uncommon in post-pliocene and 
pliocene deposits, e. y. at Belfast (Grainger) ; raised 
beach at Moel Tryfaen (Darbishire) ; Scotch and Irish 
glacial beds (Smith) ; Norwich Crag at Bramerton 
(Woodward) ; Red and Coralline Crag (Wood) ; " gla- 
cial }} formation near Christiania (Sars) ; Nice (Risso) ; 
Belgian tertiaries (Nyst) ; Sicily (Philippi) ; and I no- 
ticed it in M. Mace's collection of upper miocene fossils 
from Antibes. In a recent state it is universally distri- 
buted throughout the North Atlantic, from the Loftbden 

D O 



58 CORBULID^. 

Isles to the iEgean and Canaries, at depths of from 4 to 
80 f. 

Our northern shores seem to produce the largest 
specimens, those from the Channel Isles being more 
brightly coloured. The fry have a squarish outline, 
and are highly polished. This species varies both in 
shape and sculpture, from oval to round, and from 
ribbed to smooth. The shell is subject to the attacks 
of predatory mollusks, which do not always succeed in 
perforating it : in such cases the white outside layer 
only is removed, exposing the succeeding layers, which 
are of a firmer texture and coffeecoloured. Aucapitaine 
states that he found specimens of a smaller size and 
paler colour than usual, living abundantly in brackish 
water at Rochelle, often floating on grasses half covered 
with water, and sometimes buried in mud to the depth 
of their siphons. 

It is the Cardmm striatum, &c, of Walker, My a in- 
(squivalvis of Montagu, Corbula nucleus of Lamarck, and 
C. olympica of Costa ; several other specific names have 
been given to it by palaeontologists. 

Among the shells collected by Mr. J. D. Humphreys 
at Cork were a few specimens of C. mediterranea, Costa, 
mixed with C. gibba. Philippi referred this species to 
the Tellina parthenopma of an unpublished work by 
Delle Chiaje; and it appears to be also the C. physoides 
of Deshayes's ' Mollusques d'Algerie/ The Irish speci- 
mens may have been imported (as well as Petricola 
lithophaga) in ballast, and I therefore merely indicate 
the possibility of its being indigenous ; but this species 
is interesting in connexion with another shell, which I 
have now to mention. In the ' Malacologia Monensis ' 
of Forbes will be found a short description, but charac- 
teristic figure, of a species named by him C. ovata. It 



CORBULA. 59 

was established on a single specimen " taken from the 
root of a fucus cast ashore at Ballaugh. ' Dr. Morch 
gave me the same species, which he had procured from 
Greenland. It is undistingnishable from C. mediter- 
ranea, except in its much larger size and the absence of 
coloured streaks ; in shape, sculpture, and peculiar den- 
tition it corresponds exactly with the Irish specimens, 
and with some from the Gulf of Lyons, for which I am 
indebted to the kindness of M. Martin. I cannot help 
conjecturing that the Manx shell might have been 
brought to this country with others from the Arctic 
seas, and have afterwards become accidentally mixed in 
Forbes' s collection; especially when I remember that 
he sent me about the time of his publishing the 
' Malacologia/ and when he was almost a tyro in British 
conchology, another shell for my opinion. This was 
Venus fluctuosa, a native of the North- American seas. 
The memorandum accompanying the last-mentioned 
shell stated that it had been received by Forbes, as 
picked up on the shore at Leith, but not by himself. 
The difference of size between Greenland and Mediter- 
ranean specimens of the same species further exemplifies 
my remarks in the first volume on this subject. 

The late Dr. Lukis sent me specimens of C. labiata, 
a handsome South-American species, with which the 
tide-mark in a small bay in Guernsey had been strewn 
in November 1859, immediately after the wreck of a 
ship in ballast from Buenos Ay res. Along with this 
Corbula were found a small Melania and other tropical 
shells. This shows the importance of carefully studying 
the geographical distribution of the Mollusca, in order 
to avoid errors likely to result from accidents of the 
above kind. Otherwise all these shells might be de- 
scribed or enumerated as British. 



(30 myidjE. 

Family XX. MY'ID^E, (MYAD.E) Fleming. 

Body oval : mantle rather thin, except at the edges : tubes 
united, and wholly enclosed in a tough, leathery, brown sheath ; 
orifices fringed : gills of moderate length, unequal on each side, 
and striated : 'palps triangular, striated like the gills : foot 
tongue-shaped, furnished with a byssal groove. 

Shell oval or oblong, somewhat inequivalve, usually gaping 
at both ends, but more widely on the posterior side : epidermis 
membranous : beaks more or less contiguous, not prominent, 
turned towards the anterior side : cartilage internal, contained 
between a perpendicular spoon-shaped and fixed receptacle, 
lying under the beak in the right valve, and a cavity of the 
cardinal tooth or process in the left valve : hinge strong, fur- 
nished with a small cardinal in the right valve, and with an 
erect triangular tooth in the left valve, which latter tooth is 
strengthened by an inside flange on the posterior side ; this 
tooth is not inserted into the hinge of the right valve, but is 
merely attached by the cartilage to the sunken receptacle 
above mentioned : pallial scar broad and deeply sinuated : 
muscular scars large and strongly impressed ; anterior elon- 
gated, posterior triangular. 

The typical genus My a is the only one that I con- 
sider British. There seems to be no valid reason for 
separating Sphenia (Turton) from it, either in respect 
of the animal or of the shell. The so-called Panopea 
Norvagica has a very different kind of hinge, besides 
an external ligament : it belongs to Saxicava. So far 
as is at present known, the My a or " gaper " family is 
restricted to the northern hemisphere. They inhabit 
sand and mud, usually in the lowest part of the littoral 
zone. 

Genus MYA* Linne. PL III. f. 1. 

The characters have been already given in the description 
of the family. 

* So named from a supposition that it was the fiv$ of ancient writers. 



MYA. 61 

It is impossible to say what were the fives of Aristotle, 
except that they were not our shells ; nor is it probable 
that the latter could have come within the scope of his 
observation, inasmuch as thev are not natives of the 
Archipelago. The fives w r ere included by him with the 
xreves (or Pectens) among the bivalves, but they were 
said to produce spawn-capsules, like the 7rop<f)vpa or 
Murex trunculus. iEschylus, Atlienseus and other Greek 
writers also mention fives, but only in such a way as to 
show that thev were an eatable kind of shell-fish. The 
Myes of Pliny, that indefatigable naturalist with so 
little originality, were described by him as " run ac 
parvi." They may have been Mytilus edulis. The hinge 
in the present genus resembles that of Thracia in struc- 
ture, but not in position. In the last-named genus the 
process in each valve is horizontal, and projects inwards • 
but in My a it is perpendicular or erect in one valve, 
and depressed in the other. In each case the office is the 
same, namely to contain the cartilage. Messrs. Alder 
and Hancock have carefully investigated the nature of 
the "branchial currents'''' in My a as well as Pkolas, 
produced by the action of cilia, and admitted and dis- 
charged by different apertures ; and the following extract 
from their excellent paper on the subject, which ap- 
peared in the 'Annals and Magazine of Natural History' 
for November 1851, will explain to those who have not 
studied the economy of the Bivalve Mollusca how this 
operation is performed, ff We lately had an opportunity 
of observing Mya arenaria in its native haunts, and 
watched the play of its siphonal currents under very 
favourable circumstances. This species, at the mouth 
of the Tyne, buries itself to a depth of 6 or 8 inches in 
a stiffish clay, mixed with shingle ; and in shallow r pools 
left by the tide, the siphonal tubes may be seen just 



62 MYlDiE. 

level with the surface of the muddy bottom in full action. 
The mud lies closely packed against the walls of the 
tubes, so that nothing is to be seen but the internal 
surface of the expanded lips of the siphonal orifices 
fringed with numerous tentacles. When it happens 
that the surface of the water is only a little above these 
orifices, a strong current can be distinctly seen to boil 
up from the anal siphon, and another, with a constant, 
steady flow, to set into the branchial one. These cur- 
rents were quite visible to the naked eye without the 
aid of a glass, so long as the mollusk remained undis- 
turbed. We watched one individual for nearly a quar- 
ter of an hour, and no interruption of them took place, 
and it was not until the siphon was touched, that the 
tubes were withdrawn and the current ceased to play. 
.But the siphon soon made its appearance again at the 
surface, and the orifices once more expanding, the cur- 
rents commenced to play as strongly as ever 

On removing these animals from their concealed abodes, 
and placing them in a vessel of fresh sea-water, the two 
siphonal currents were generally found in action when 
the individuals were undisturbed. And further, on 
placing the shell with its back downwards and the pedal 
gape raised above the surface of the water, these currents 
still continued to play ; the excurrent and incurrent 
being as distinctly observed as before." The authors 
of this paper also ascertained that the currents commu- 
nicate through minute openings in the laminae of the 
gill-plates, which are sieve-like, filtering and collecting 
all the nutritious particles imbibed through the inhalant 
tube, in order that they may be carried to the mouth 
by the labial palps. Mr. Clark opposed the above view 
of the case, and endeavoured to prove that the water 
was mainly, if not altogether, introduced through the 



MYA. 63 

pedal opening ; but although this mode of introduction 
may take place to a certain extent when the My a or 
Pholas is removed from its hole, and placed in a vessel 
of water (after having ejected the greater part of its 
fluid contents, so as to create a vacuum) , it is difficult 
to conceive how the requisite supply of food and 
water can be thus procured while the Mya is imbedded 
several inches in impervious clay or the Pholas is en- 
closed in its stony cell, or what in either of the above 
cases would be the use of the larger tube. I have 
repeatedly witnessed in many kinds of Bivalve Mollusca 
a current charged with animalcula or molecules being 
absorbed by this tube in a continuous stream, and a 
limpid current discharged at the same time by the 
smaller tube, occasionally together with pellets of faecal 
matter or other rejectamenta. The structure of the 
shell has been investigated by Dr. Carpenter, and found 
to consist of variously formed cells : in the tooth or 
hinge-process is seen a group of large cells, the calcareous 
contents of which are arranged on a very regularly radi- 
ating plan, like that of the mineral called Arragonite 
or Wavellite. Neither in the shell nor in the tooth is 
there animal matter enough to give anything more than 
a delicate membranous residuum, in which no vestige 
of cell-walls can be detected. 

This genus is modern in a geological sense, and does 
not occur in any formation older than the upper terti- 
aries. Only three species live in the European seas, 
the larger two of which are edible. 



64 MYIDJE. 

1. Mya arena'ria"*, Linne. 

M. armaria, Linn. S. N. p. 1112 ; F. &H. i. p. 168, pi. x. f. 4-6. 

Body fleshy, yellowish-white ; tubular sheath covered by 
an extension of the epidermis of the shell ; orifices of the tubes 
tinged with red, and fringed with tentacles of different sizes. 

Shell oblong (the right valve a trifle larger than the left, 
the inequality being more observable in young specimens), 
equilateral, gaping considerably at both ends, compressed, 
rather solid, opaque, usually lustreless : sculpture, coarse and 
irregular concentric striae, diversified by stronger marks of 
growth : colour ashy-grey, with often a ferruginous tinge, or 
variegated by radiating lines of a brownish hue, which are 
caused by slight longitudinal folds of the epidermis : the latter 
is thin, yellowish brown, fibrous at the sides and in front, and 
imparting an oblique striation to the surface of the shell : 
margins rounded on the anterior side, slightly curved in front, 
and wedge-like on the posterior side ; dorsal margins sloping 
more on the posterior than anterior side ; posterior side ob- 
scurely keeled : beaks small, inflected, placed close together, 
that of the left valve being worn away or broken by continual 
pressure : cartilage triangular, strong, horncolour : hinge-line 
almost straight : hinge-plate broad and thick : teeth, in the 
right valve a slight and oblique cardinal on the anterior side 
of the cartilage-pit ; the left valve has the complicated process 
described as one of the characters of the family, which in this 
species is very large, and irregularly shaped, convex within 
and concave without; the spur-like flange on the posterior 
side is placed obliquely, and there is a deep groove next to the 
hinge-plate for the reception of a blunt tooth-like fold on the 
same side in the opposite valve : inside chalky-white : scars 
distinct and deep. L. 2-5. B. 4. 

Var. lata. Shell dwarfed, more oval and solid. M. lata, 
J. Sowerby, Min. Conch, t. 81. 

Monstr. Furnished inside with foliaceous plates, showing 
a laminated structure. 

Habitat : Common on many parts of the coast, at 
low-water mark ; chiefly in estuaries, where there is an 
admixture of fresh water with the sea. The variety is 

* Inhabiting sand. 



MYA. 65 

from the Firth of Forth and Oban, and the abnormal 
form from Exmouth. Fossil in all our newer tertiaries 
up to the Red Crag; inclusive ; Nieuwerdiep, Friesland, 
in excavating the Royal naval dock (J. G. J.) ; newer 
beds of the " glacial formation " at Christiania, 50- 
.200 feet above the level of the sea (Sars) ; Belgium 
(Nyst) . In a living state M. arenaria is universally 
spread over the shores of the western hemisphere as far 
south as New York (de Kay), and the eastern hemi- 
sphere as far south as Rochelle (D'Orbigny, pere), and 
between the 30th and 40th degrees of latitude in China 
(Debeaux) . Dr. Walker records it from South Green- 
land at depths of from 10 to 120 f. ; and on the coast 
of Norway it is enumerated by Danielssen as taken in 
2-15 f., and bv M f Andrew and Barrett in 20-40 f. 
It is, however, in the main a sublittoral species. 

M . arenaria received its name from Baster, and its 
habits are well described in his ' Opuscula subseciva/ 
He says that the foot, with which it penetrates the sand 
or mud, is wonderfully flexible, and assumes various 
shapes — now a trepan or pointed graving-tool, then a 
sharp wedge, a bent hook, or else a spade or dibble — 
each shape being adapted to some mode or other of 
boring, displacing, or removing the material in which 
this mollusk makes its abode. It is eaten and relished 
by man and fish in Europe, Asia, and America. At 
Southampton the fishermen used to call it " old maid" 
according to Montagu ; and at Belfast it has the equally 
strange name of f f Cockle-briilion." It forms one of the 
numerous articles of Chinese diet, being brought to mar- 
ket after having been boiled for a long time, and cooked 
with a seasoning of which onion is the base ; the people 
call it " Tse ga." The occurrence of this circumpolar 
shell-fish so near the tropic of Cancer probably indicates 



66 MY1D.E. 

the most southern limit in space of the glacial epoch. 
In the United States it goes by the general name of 
" clam " ; and Gould informs us that it is more import- 
ant, in an economical point of view, than the oyster. 
About 5000 bushels are annually brought to Boston 
market alone as food for man; and much more than 
ten times that quantity is salted and used as bait for 
fish. Its capability of living in brackish and even fresh 
water is well known. Lindstrom has given the following 
list of Mollusca associated with it in the Baltic : Neri- 
tina fluviatilis, Bythinia tentaculata, Physa fontinalis, 
Limncea st agnails, L. auricularia, L. peregra, Tergipes 
lacinulatus, Limapontia nigra, Mytilus edulis, Cardium 
edule, and Tellina balthica. To these may be added 
several kinds of Crustacea and Hydrozoa. Multitudes 
of young M. arenaria may be seen in the Loch of S tennis, 
about 5 miles from Stromness in the Orkneys, attached 
bv bvssal threads to the under side of loose stones : 
Neritina fluviatilis lives with them and deposits its 
spawn on the same stones. Full-grown individuals of 
the Mya are found (with Littorina obtusata) in the 
lower part of the loch, which is open to the sea. The 
fry are squarish-oval, decidedly inequivalve, and not 
unlike Corbulae. My finest specimen is 3 inches by 5. 
Lapland seems to produce much larger. 

Gould considers the M. mercenaria and M. acuta of 
Say synonyms of the present species. 

2. M. trunca'ta*, Linne. 

St. truncata, Linn. S. N. p. 1112 ; P. & H. i. p. 163, pi. x. f. 1-3, and (ani- 
mal) pi. H. f. 1. 

Body somewhat elongated and compressed, pale brown : 
tubes very long ; tentacular filaments alternately large and 

* Lopped. 



MYA. 67 

small, marked with a brown spot at the base of each ; valve 
of excurrent tube conspicuous : gills pale brown, their points 
entering the lower tube : palps large, excessively thin, and 
rather sharp- pointed : foot narrow and straight, yellowish- 
white. 

Shell oval, less inequivalve than M. arenaria, nearly equi- 
lateral, gaping widely at the posterior end but very little at 
the anterior end, rather convex (especially towards the beaks), 
solid, opaque, and lustreless : sculpture as in the last species : 
colour greyish- white, with often a yellow or ochreous tinge: 
epidermis rather thick, irregularly wrinkled or puckered, and 
minutely striated in a transverse direction : margins rounded 
on the anterior side, nearly straight in front, and truncated 
on the posterior side ; dorsal margins sloping equally on both 
sides : beaks small, sharp -pointed and inflected, more or less 
contiguous, and sometimes abraded by mutual pressure : car- 
tilage, hinge-line, and hinge-plate as in M. arenaria ; but the 
hinge-plate is narrower : teeth, in the right valve an oblique 
spur-like cardinal, which is more conspicuous in young and 
immature specimens ; in the left valve a nearly upright trian- 
gular plate, with a central cavity for the cartilage and a ridge- 
like process or wall on the posterior side ; this plate is not so 
large as in M. arenaria, compared with the size of the shell : 
inside chalky-white, but occasionally nacreous and exhibiting 
a few minute pearls within the pallial line : scars strongly 
marked. L. 2. B. 2-65. 

Yar. abbreviata. Shell not so broad, abruptly truncated at 
the posterior end. 

Habitat : Littoral in muddy gravel and sand ; but 
frequenting more the open sea than M. arenaria. 
It is sometimes found at considerable depths : I 
dredged a young live specimen of the variety on the 
Antrim coast in 80 f. about 10 miles from land. This 
variety has also been taken by Professor King on the 
Dogger bank, and by Mr. Barlee in Shetland. M. 
truncata occurs in every upper pliocene bed, including 
Moel Tryfaen (Darbishire) ; boulder-clay at Wick, 
Whitby, and Scarborough (Peach, J. G. J., and Leck- 
enby) ; Sussex raised beach (Godwin-Austen) ; Norwich, 



68 MYID.E. 

Red and Coralline Crag (Wood) . It is dug up in suck 
quantities on a farm near the Crinan Canal, as to 
be carted and used for manure. " At Lochgilphead the 
syphon is preserved in the clay filling the interior 
of the shell "■ (Geikie) . I have also seen specimens in 
situ at Tufvoe near Gottenburg, about 200 feet above 
the present level of the sea. In clay near Palermo 
(Philippi) ; glacial deposits throughout Scandinavia; 
"aldre leer" at Christiania, 90-470 feet (Sars) ; 
Hudson's Bay (Drexler) ; Canada (Bell). Its foreign 
range in a living state extends from Spitzbergen 
(Phipps) and Kamtschatka (Steller), to the Black Sea 
(Siemascho) , but probably subfossil in the last locality, 
as Middendorff believed ; Misquer in lower Brittany 
(Cailliaud) ; Quiberon (Hemon) ; Bay of Biscay (Au- 
capitaine), in the old world : from Greenland (Scoresby 
and others) to Massachusetts (Gould) , and Vancouver's 
Island (P. Carpenter) in the new world. It is possible 
that M. truncata may serve as a link in the chain of 
evidence to support the hypothesis of Professor linger, 
that Europe was once connected with North America 
through the space now represented by the Atlantic 
Isles. Olivi enumerated it as an Adriatic species, and 
even gave a short description which leaves no doubt of 
its being our shell ; but he may not have had recent 
specimens. The same remark applies also to Brocchi's 
statement, repeated by Bisso, that it is found on the 
shores of Tuscany. The M. truncata of Chiereghini 
from the Adriatic has been identified by Nardo with 
Thracia papyracea. On the Scandinavian coast its ba- 
thymetrical limits lie between low-water mark and 100 f. 
Its vernacular name is "smyrsling" in Iceland, 
" smirslingur " in the Faroe Isles, and "smirslin" in 
Shetland and the west of Scotland, all these being evi- 



MYA. 69 

dently derived from the Danish word " smor," or butter, 
which is expressive of the rich flavour of the animal. It 
is eaten and much esteemed not only by the natives of 
all northern countries, but by the walrus, arctic fox, and 
the grey-headed duck or King Eider in Greenland ; and 
there, according to Fabricius, the shell is sometimes used 
as a spoon. Torell informs me that when he was last 
at Spitzbergen he took from the stomach of a walrus, 
that had been recently killed, a great number of the 
feet of M. truncate, the other parts having been appa- 
rently digested or got rid of. He is of opinion that the 
walrus rakes up the My a from the mud by means of its 
long tusks, and that, after crushing the shell between 
its molar teeth, it spits out the fragments, as well as the 
leathery tube. The cod on the North-American fishing"- 
banks seem to be equally fond of this mollusk ; but it is 
not so easy to say how they procure it. M. truncata is 
often buried from 8 to 10 inches below the sea-bottom • 
and it does not seem to be capable of changing its habi- 
tation. The young occasionally occupy the deserted 
holes of Saxicavae. They are more active than their 
parents, and exhibit a remarkable precocity of instinct. 
In Mr. Osier's well-known paper " On Burrowing and 
Boring Marine Animals" (Phil. Trans. 1826) he says, 
"On examining a My a truncata, dug up on the pre- 
ceding day, and which, when grown, will not attempt 
to burrow, I found two young ones, entangled in the 
cuticle at the extremity of the syphon, scarcely more 
than a line in length, and apparently but just excluded. 
Being placed on sand in a glass of sea-water they buried 
themselves immediately." In this and a later stage of 
growth the shell has a distinct keel on the posterior 
angle ; the beaks are calyciform and resemble a Kellia, 
so that the fry must be of that shape. The half-grown 



70 MYID.E. 

shell is wedge-like on the longer side, with the terminal 
edges reflected outwards : until it arrives at maturity 
the truncation is incomplete. This alteration of shape 
is not caused by absorption, but by the formation of 
additional layers in front, which make the shell propor- 
tionally longer or deeper than it previously was. The 
Arctic variety, to which Forbes gave the name of Udde- 
vallensis, is the usual form in glacial deposits ; it is 
more depressed in the middle, obliquely truncated in- 
wards, and excavated at the posterior end, frequently 
to so great an extent, and in such a fashion, as if there 
were cut 

"A huge half-moon, a monstrous cantle out." 

The internal structure of the shell is distinctly seen in 
fossil specimens of this variety which have been perfo- 
rated by the Cliona. A section thus exposed shows at 
least 18 layers, and is unequally eroded, so as to re- 
semble in miniature a perpendicular rock of oolite with 
caverns at its base. A specimen of an intermediate 
form, which I lately dredged in Dourie voe, Shetland, 
measures 3| inches in breadth, and is of proportionate 
length. 

Petiver called this shell " The broad Pholade-muscle"; 
when half-grown it is the M. ovalis of Turton, and M. 
pullus of S. Wood; the young is the Sphenia Sivainsoni 
of Turton, and M. Swainsonii of Loven. 

3. M. Binghami"*, Turton. 

Schema Binghami. Turt. Dith. p. 36, t. 3. f. 4, 5, and 1. 19. f. 3. Sphamia 
Binghami, F. & II. i. p. 190, pi. is. f. 1-3, and (animal) pi. T. f. 3. 

Body elongated and compressed, pale yellowish-white : tubes 
short, especially the incurrent one ; mouth of each encircled 
by 5-10 rough white cirri ; valve of excretal tube large and 

* Named after the late Lieut. -General Bingham, an assiduous collector 
of British shells. 



MYA. 71 

very long, subhyaline, and delicately frosted : gills pale brown ; 
lower one of each pair much larger than the other, lying hori- 
zontally, and obliquely overlapped by the upper one : palps 
somewhat triangular and pointed : foot small, narrow, subcy- 
lindrical, of a bluish transparent hue ; it produces a byssus of 
a few coarse filaments. 

Shell wedge-shaped, decidedly inequivalve and inequi- 
lateral, gaping at the posterior end, but not to the same extent 
as the young of M. truncata, compressed, rather solid, opaque, 
and somewhat glossy : sculpture, numerous fine but irregular 
concentric strise, and occasional stronger marks of growth : 
colour milk-white under the epidermis, which has a brownish- 
yellow cast, and is often strongly wrinkled on the posterior 
side, and extends over part of the pallial sheath : margins 
obliquely truncated on the anterior side, usually straight in 
front, and narrowing to an abrupt and straight edge on the 
posterior side; this latter part has in each valve a blunt angle 
or keel running diagonally from the beak to the lower point 
of the posterior extremity ; dorsal margins extremely short on 
the anterior side, long and mostly straight (although sloping) 
on the opposite side : beaks small, incurved, not contiguous : 
cartilage yellowish-brown : hinge-line slightly curved : hinge- 
plate narrow : teeth, in the right valve a small and blunt but 
distinct cardinal, besides the cartilage -pit, which is placed as 
usual in this genus ; in the left valve the erect triangular tooth 
is flatter and less elevated than in the preceding two species, 
and considerably elongated on the posterior side : inside por- 
cellanous : muscular scars extremely large, and placed near the 
edges of the shell. L. 0-25. B. 0-5. 

Yar. elongata. Shell considerably broader in proportion to 
its length, which is nearly equal throughout and gives a cylin- 
drical appearance ; posterior dorsal margin sometimes concave 
and turned up at the extremity. 

Habitat : In the cavities of limestone rocks and old 
oyster-shells perforated by Saxicava rugosa and Cliona 
celata, as well as among the roots or bases of Laminaria 
saccharina, and in other places of shelter and conceal- 
ment ; Channel Isles northward to Scarborough (Bean) 
and Skye (Barlee), and all the coast of Ireland, in 
5-25 f. The variety is found in the deserted cases of 



72 SAXICAVID.E. 

Serpula triquetra at Guernsey, Lulworth, and other 
places. Coralline Crag (coll. S. Wood). Its extra- 
British localities are the Boulonnais (Bouchard-Chan - 
tereanx) ; Croisic in lower Brittany (Cailliaud) ; coast 
of Spain (M' Andrew) ; Gulf of Lyons (Martin) ; 
Cannes (Mace) ; Spezzia (J. G. J.) ; and Tunis, in 25 f. 
(M 'Andrew) . 

M. Binghami does not appear to have the power of 
excavating stones or shells, because specimens thus en- 
closed are frequently distorted or constricted, so as to 
fit the holes which they occupy. Its habits in this 
respect are the same as those of Tapes pullastra var. 
perforans, Thracia distorta, and some other bivalves. 
My largest specimen is scarcely three-quarters of an 
inch in breadth • but the late Dr. Lukis obtained much 
larger ones from the cavities left by Saxicava at 
Guernsey. It differs from M. truncata of the same 
size in being more inequivalve, inequilateral, and com- 
pressed; in the anterior side being invariably and ab- 
ruptly truncated, instead of rounded ; in the posterior 
extremity being more straight, and having a smaller 
gape; in that side being distinctly angulated, espe- 
cially in the left valve ; and the tooth in the left valve 
is less raised. It, however, belongs unquestionably to 
the same genus. 



Family XXI. SAXICA'VID.E, Swainson. 

Body oval or oblong: mantle thick: tubes more or less 
united ; orifices fringed with cirri : gills unequal on each side : 
palps triangular : foot finger-shaped, occasionally byssiferous. 

Shell rhomboidal, more or less inequilateral, and in the 
genus Saxicava sometimes inequivalve, always gaping at the 
posterior end (where it is obliquely truncated), and sometimes 



SAXICAVIDjE. id 

also towards the other end : epidermis membranous : beaks 
usually separate, not projecting, turned towards the anterior 
side : ligament external : hinge strong, furnished with cardinal 
teeth, which are in some cases small, indistinct, or obliterated, 
and an upright ledge to support the ligament: pallial scar 
placed far inside, and having a broad sinus : muscular scars 
large and conspicuous. 

A family having close affinities with the last, but 
different in possessing an external ligament instead of an 
internal cartilage, and in the consequent structure and 
apparatus of the hinge. Some burrow in sand or mud 
like Myce ; others perforate certain rocks and hard 
substances, to a depth equal to the breadth of the shell 
and length of the tubes when fully extended. The 
mode by which these various objects are effected appears 
to be the same in every case, viz. by the propulsion or 
attrition of the muscular foot, which is always placed 
near the posterior end of the shell, assuming when in 
action the form of a cone or disk, and occupying the 
space to be excavated. Having already discussed at 
some length the latter part of the subject in the intro- 
duction to the first volume, I will not here say more 
than that occasional notices of this remarkable operation 
will be found in subsequent pages, while treating of par- 
ticular genera and species comprised in the Lamarckian 
group of " Lithophages," as well as of the Teredines. 
Most of the Suxicavidce pass their lives in a hermit-like 
seclusion, each immured in its own cell, content with the 
food brought by the waves or minute currents produced 
by the siphonal cilia, as well as with a certain degree of 
immunity from outward foes. Having no means of mutual 
intercourse, the nature of their sexual organization maybe 
easily inferred ; and the analogy in this respect between 
them and many flowering plants, which are rooted to the 
soil, cannot be very remote. Individuals of the same 

VOL. III. E 



74 saxxcavid^:. 

species of Saocicava which excavates holes in calcareous 
rocks or sandstone will, failing such materials, or for 
other reasons which are at present unknown to us, spin 
a bvssus and thus fix themselves in the chinks and cran- 
nies of harder rocks, or now and then inside old bivalve 
shells. 

Genus I. PANOPE'A*, Menard de la Groye. 

PL III. f. 2. 

Body oval, fleshy : tubes very long, united nearly through- 
out, and enclosed in a tough leathery sheath : gills long : foot 
short, stout and muscular. 

Shell equivalve, wrinkled transversely, gaping widely at 
both ends but much more so at the posterior end : epidermis 
thin: ligament short, prominent, attached to a process of the 
hinge-plate, which extends as the shell increases in size, and 
is sometimes triangular or represents the arc of a circle : tooth, 
a small conical cardinal in the right valve fitting into a cavity 
in the left valve : pattial scar entire, not deeply sinuated. 

Most British conchologists are better acquainted with 
the large and scarce shell usually known as "Panopcea 
Norvegica " (but which, as I have before remarked, is a 
species of Saxicava), than with the small shell which I 
consider a true Panopea. Although the animal of this 
latter species is as yet unknown, the peculiar form of 
the shell, the structure of the hinge, and the pallial scar 
present the same characters which belong to P. glyci- 
meris (or Aldrovandi) and its numerous congeners. 
The animal of P. australis was described by Valen- 
ciennes in the ' Archives du Museum d'Histoire natu- 
relle ' for 1839, and that of P. glycimeris by Woodward 
in the i Proceedings of the Zoological Society ■ for 1855. 
The former likened it to that of My a arenaria, and was 
of opinion that the labial palps are olfactory organs. 

* A Sea-Nymph. 



PANOPEA. / .) 

But neither of these zoologists appears to have seen it 
alive. A great many species are known, both recent 
and fossil, some of the latter being Oolitic, and others 
(according to D'Orbigny) Permian. 

The name of this genus has been spelt in various ways. 
Besides the original and correct one which I have given, 
Goldfuss and others called it Panopcea, Swainson Pano- 
pia, and Nyst Panopcea. P. glycymeris is the type of 
Klein's genus Glicimeris, which name has precedence 
of Panopea by more than half a century ; but Glycimeris 
is now used for another well known genus. 

Panopea plica'ta*, Montagu. 

Mytihisplicatus, Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl, p. 70. Saxicava rugosa, young?. 
F. & H. i. p. 149, pi. vi. f. 1-3, and app. iv. p. 248. 

Shell rhomboidal, considerably dilated towards the posterior 
end (where the gape is very long, although not much wider 
than that of the anterior side), compressed, especially in front. 
thin, of a nacreous texture, semitransparent, and somewhat 
glossy : sculpture, numerons fine but irregular concentric stria? 
or plaits, and the surface in perfect specimens is minutely and 
partially granulated : colour milk-white : epidermis extremely 
thin, pale yellowish-white : margins rounded on the anterior 
side, nearly straight in front, expanding and arched (although 
obliquely truncated) on the posterior side, and forming a high 
shoulder at the back, with a distinct but blunt keel or ridge 
from the beak to the lower angle ; anterior dorsal margin very 
short : beaks small, slightly inflected and calyciform as in 
My a Binghami : ligament yellowish-brown: hinge-line nearlv 
straight : hinge-plate rather narrow but reflected, and forming 
in the left valve a slight groove on the outside ; it is furnished 
with a triangular process for the ligament, which slants a little 
inwards obliquely, like the tooth or cartilage-pit in Mya ; this 
process varies in position, as well as in shape and size : tooth 
very minute, and not always present : inside porcellanous, and 
somewhat iridescent : pallial scar very distinct, with a shallow 
sinus: muscular scars irregularly triangular. L. 0*25. B. 0-4. 

Habitat : Skye (Laskey) ; among trawl refuse from 

* Plaited. 

E 2 



76 SAXICAVID^E. 

Plymouth, and dredged in muddy sand off Skye, and in 
the voes of Deal, Dourie, and Basta, Shetland, at depths 
ranging from 5 to 40 f. (J. G. J.) ; small living speci- 
mens were also dredged by Mr. Barlee in Loch Fyne, 
and single valves by Mr. Hanley near the pier at Hyde 
in the Isle of Wight; Moray firth (Dawson) ; Stone- 
haven (Macgillivray) ; Walton-on-the-Naze (S. Wood). 
It is a common shell in the Coralline Crag at Sutton ; 
and Nyst found it in the corresponding formation near 
Antwerp. M f Andrew dredged it in 40 f. off Gibraltar 
and in Vigo Bay, Lilljeborg in 70 f. at Bergen; and it 
has also been found at Hellebsek in Zealand. 

I hope the animal will at some future time be made 
known. The shell may be distinguished from My a 
Binahami bv its nacreous texture, the extreme dilatation 
of the posterior side, and having a ligament instead of 
a cartilage, with a different hinge. Some specimens 
are partially incrusted by a mineral or faecal deposit, 
showing the sedentary or inactive habits of the animal. 
The largest in my cabinet is nearly half an inch broad. 
Fossil specimens are rather more oblong, and the pos- 
terior dorsal margin is straighter and less arched than 
in recent specimens. 

If the present species, or my description of it, is com- 
pared with Montagu's account, and with the figure 
given by the original discoverer, Laskey, in the ' Me- 
moirs of the Wernerian Society' (vol. i. pi. viii. f. 2), 
their identity will, I think, be found undeniable. It is the 
Sphenia cylindrica of S. Wood, and Saxicava fragilis? 
of Nyst. The Mytilus carinatus of Brocchi may possibly 
be a variety. Philippi proposed for this last and another 
species the generic name Arcinella, which had been 
previously used by Oken and Schumacher for two other 
kinds of bivalve shells. 



SAXICAVA. 77 

The evidence that P. glycimeris has been found in 
our seas is not satisfactory; this species inhabits the 
Lusitanian and Mediterranean coasts. 

Genus II. SAXI'CAVA*, Fleurian de Bellevue. 

PI. III. f. 3. 

Body muscular : tubes extensile, diverging at their extremi- 
ties, and covered by a leathery or membranous sheath : gills 
prolonged into the cavity of the branchial tube : foot furnished 
with a byssal groove. 

Shell often inequivalve, wrinkled transversely, gaping at 
the posterior end, and sometimes also in front (or what may 
be termed the antico -ventral part) : epidermis thick : ligament 
short, prominent, attached to an elongated process of the 
hinge-plate : teeth, a small conical cardinal in the right valve, 
locking between two similar ones in the left, but frequently 
obsolete or wanting : pallial sear interrupted or broken up 
into separate spots, not deeply sinuated. 

The doubtful position which this genus formerly occu- 
pied among bivalve shells appears from the circumstance 
that Linne called the typical species (S. rugosa) and its 
variety arctica respectively Mytilus and Solen, Fabricius 
Mya, Strom Chama, Poli Donax, Solancler Venus, Bru- 
guiere Cardita, and Turton Anatina ; and that the variety 
constituted the genera Hiatella of Daudin, Clot ho of Faujas 
St. Fond, Byssomya of Cuvier, Byssonia, Rhombus, and 
Rhomboides of De Blainville, Didonta of Schumacher, 
Biapholius, Coramya, and Pholeobia of Leach, and Agina 
of Turton. Grav makes Hiatella and Saxicava distinct 
genera. The former name was published in 1799, and 
the latter in 1802 ; but Daudin did not sufficiently 
characterize his genus, and Saxicava may be considered 
as now established by general usage. According to 
Chenu the geological age of the present genus dates from 

* Rock-perforator. 



78 SAXICAVID.E. 

the Jurassic epoch; Searles Wood, however, believes 
that it was not born before the tertiary formation. 

1. Saxicava Norve'gica*, Spengler. 

My a norvegica, Spengl. Skrivt. Nat. Selsk. iii. (1). p. 46, t. ii. f. 18. 
Panopcsa Norvegica, F. & H. i. p. 174, and app. iv. p. 249, pi. xi. and 
(animal) pi. W. f. 1. 

Body oblong, pale pinkish drab : mantle covered with a black 
skin : tubes protected by a dark-brown leathery sbeath, some- 
what unequal in length, the upper or excretal tube being the 
shorter and smaller of the two ; orifice of the larger tube 
encircled by 30-40 short tentacular cirri, of a brick-red 
colour, alternately large and small, and sometimes folded back 
on the edges of that tube ; the smaller tube is also fringed, but 
much less distinctly : gills irregularly pectinated : palps long, 
delicate, slender and pointed, united around the mouth : foot 
very small when contracted : liver green. 

Shell oval with a somewhat oblique and irregular outline, 
the right valve a trifle larger than the left, moderately convex; 
it has a broad furrow in the middle gradually enlarging towards 
the front, a considerable gape between that part and the 
anterior side, and a remarkably large and wide opening at the 
posterior end ; it is thick, opaque, and lustreless : sculpture, 
coarse, distant, and irregular concentric wrinkles: colour whitish, 
occasionally stained with a ferruginous tinge : epidermis pale 
yellowish -white, puckered in every direction, not continued 
over the tubular sheath, which is of a fibrous nature : margins 
rounded or obtusely angular on the anterior side, nearly straight 
or slightly incurved in front, obliquely truncated on the pos- 
terior side, and a little reflected outwards in adult examples ; 
dorsal edges sloping gradually on each side, the posterior one 
being usually more than twice the length of the other : beaks 
blunt and much inflected: ligament large, horncolour : hinge- 
line almost straight : hinge-plate broad and thick, excavated 
for the reception of the teeth, and furnished with a short but 
solid process for the ligament, which is reflected outwards and 
callous in younger shells : teeth, in the right valve a compara- 
tively minute cardinal, and in the left valve two others of even 
a smaller size, which are placed so near together as scarcely 
to allow space for receiving between them the opposite tooth : 

* Norwegian. 



SAXICAVA. 79 

inside whitish, with a faint iridescent hue in certain parts : 
pallia! scar exhibiting about a dozen spots of different sizes : 
muscular scars deep ; anterior triangular or semioval, posterior 
elongated. L. 2. B. 3. 

Habitat : The Dogger bank, off the coasts of York- 
shire, Northumberland, and Durham, deeply imbedded 
in muddy ground at about 30 f. j and Mr. M' Andrew 
dredged a valve in 82 f. east of Shetland. It is very 
difficult to procure, and is consequently scarce. Fossil 
in most of our newer tertiaries up to the Red Crag : at 
Chillesford it is found in pairs (Woodward), and at 
Wick in a fragmentary state in the boulder-clay (Peach) j 
raised beach at Moel Tryfaen (W. Drury Lowe) ; tole- 
rably common in the Clyde district; Palermo, in clay 
(Philippi) ; near Christiania in the older part of the 
glacial formation at 460 feet, and in the younger or 
post-glacial group at 60-100 feet above the sea-level 
(Sars) ; Greenland (Rink) . Recent in Iceland (Steen- 
strup) ; Finmark, 68° 45' (Blix) ; Drontheim (Spengler) ; 
Cattegat (Loven) ; Bohuslan (Malm) ; Hellebsek in 
Zealand (Mus. Copenhagen); White Sea (Lamarck); 
Coasts of Russian Lapland (Baer and Middendorff) ; Sea 
of Ochotsk (Middendorff) ; Newfoundland fishing-banks 
(Gould) ; Labrador (Mighels) ; New England (Stimpson) . 

This is probably the strange shell which Donovan in 
1802 noticed as having been "fished up between the 
Dogger bank and the eastern coast of England''; but 
his knowledge of it appears to have been derived from 
hearsay, and he mistook Panopea glycimeris for the pre- 
sent species, The first reliable announcement of its 
being British was made by Doctor Turton in the ' Zoolo- 
gical Journal' for 1826 on Mr. Bean's authority, with 
the addition that a single valve had also been found on 
Aberlady sands in the south of Scotland. Mr. Bean's 



80 SAXICAVID.E. 

relation of the circumstances connected with his dis- 
covery is amusing. He says, " To some of the fishermen 
of our coast it is well known by the name of the ' bacca- 
box/ from a fancied resemblance to one of their most 
useful household gods. All the specimens [which he ob- 
tained] were rescued from destruction in a singular 
manner. The first was destined for a tobacco-box ; the 
second had the honour of holding the grease belonging 
to the boat establishment ; and the third — ' Tell it not 
in Gath, publish it not in the streets of Askalon ' — was 
inspected alive for several days by the officers and mem- 
bers of a modern philosophical Society (all of them 
unconscious of its value), and after amusing them by 
squirting water to the ceiling, was at last seen by a 
learned friend, purchased for a trifle, and generously 
placed in our cabinet.- The long-line fishermen, every 
now and then, capture living specimens, by means of 
their hooks becoming fixed in the tough leathery sheaths 
of these enormous Saxicavce ; and thev thus increase 
not a little their precarious earnings. The shell is much 
sought after by collectors, and is never likely to be so 
plentiful in their repositories as it evidently is in that 
of Nature — unless some adventurous zoologist, like 
Milne-Edwards or the unfortunate Barrett, should be 
tempted and able to explore, with the aid of a diving 
helmet or dress, the comparatively deep sea-bottom in- 
habited by these mollusks. Dr. Mighels says that the 
specimens which he obtained were taken from the sto- 
machs of cod fishes. S. Norvegica is gregarious, and 
lives in company with Mytilus modiolus, whose byssal 
fibres may be occasionally seen adhering to the shell of 
the present species. Sessile Foraminifera {Truncatulina 
lobatula) may also be detected on the outside of the 
tubular sheath, even at its base, showing that this part 



SAXICAVA. 



81 



is habitually left exposed, and not merely protruded at 
rare intervals. No portion of this appendage can be 
withdrawn into the shell; and the same is often the 
case also with S. rugosa. The structure of the shell 
must be cellular, because in fossil specimens the surface 
when abraded or worn appears under the microscope to 
be studded with circular pits. As Spengler well re- 
marked, the shell is not unlike My a truncata, especially 
in the large opening at the posterior end. Clark pointed 
out its close relation to Saxicava, and Woodward has 
satisfactorily ascertained and shown its generic place. 

It is the Glycimeris arctica of Lamarck, Panopcea 
Spengleri of Valenciennes, P. Bivonae of Philippi, and 
P. Middendorffii of A. Adams. 

2. S. rugo'sa*, Linne. 

Mytilus rugosus, Linn. S. N. p. 1156. S. rugosa, F.&H. i. p. 14G, pi. vi. 
f. 7, 8, and (animal) pi. F. f. 6. 

Body varying in shape from oval to cylindrical, greyish- 
white more or less tinged with yellow, sometimes brownish- 
vellow or orange : mantle very thick, coarsely and deeply 
wrinkled : tubes very extensile, enclosed in a brown membra- 
nous sheath to within a short distance from their extremities, 
where they separate and slightly diverge ; orifices often pinkish, 
fringed with a double row of short whitish cirri with trun- 
cated points ; each tube has from 16 to 20; those in the outer 
row are much smaller than the inside ones ; excretal valve 
bell-shaped, widely open : gills very narrow : palps small : foot 
finger-shaped, rather long, extremely flexible and muscular. 

Shell oblong, usually somewhat inequivalve but especially 
in its free and younger state, slightly compressed except 
towards the beaks, frequently gaping in the front or on the 
antico- ventral side, as well as at the posterior end, thick, 
opaque and lustreless : sculpture, coarse, distant, and irregular 
concentric wrinkles ; the posterior side is marked in young 
and free specimens by a double ridge, which is usually spinous 
or imbricated, and diverges from the beak in each valve 

* Wrinkled. 

E 5 



82 saxicavid^e. 

towards the siphonal extremity : colour whitish : epidermis 
light brownish-yellow, more or less puckered : margins rounded 
on the anterior side, nearly straight in front, either curved or 
bluntly truncated on the posterior side ; dorsal edges gently 
sloping on each side, the posterior one being three or four 
times as long as the other : beaks small and blunt, inflected, 
and inclining considerably to the anterior side : ligament yel- 
lowish-brown, proportionally longer than in the last species : 
hinge-line slightly curved : hinge-plate broad and thick, exca- 
vated externally to receive the ligament, so as to form in some 
specimens an elongated ledge or process, which is reflected 
outwards and callous in younger shells ; it is occasionally also 
excavated (but slightly) internally : teeth often wanting ; but 
when they occur, the right valve has a very small erect car- 
dinal, closely interlocking between two others in the left valve : 
inside porcelain- white and glossy : pallial scar exhibiting in 
dead and fossil specimens a few spots of different sizes, which 
are indistinct in fresh specimens : muscular scar's more con- 
spicuous, triangular. L. 0*6. B. 1-4. 

Var. 1. arctica. Shell more angular, and having distinct 
ridges ; beaks less worn ; teeth usually more developed : this 
variety never burrows in stone, but is attached by a byssus. 
My a arctica, Linn. S. N. p. 1113. S. arctica, F. & H. i. p. 141, 
pi. vi. f. 4-6. 

Var. 2. minuta. Shell smaller, and having prickly ridges : 
this is the younger or immature state of the first variety. 
Solen minutus, Linn. S. N. p. 1115. 

Var. 3. prmcisa. Shell smaller, abruptly truncated close to 
the beaks at the anterior end. Mytilus prcecisus, Mont. Test. 
Brit. p. 165, t. 4. f. 2. 

Var. 4. pholadis. Shell gaping widely in front, and wedge- 
shaped. Mytilus pholadis, Linn. Mant. Plant, p. 548. 

Habitat : On every part of our coast, from the Shet- 
land to the Channel Isles, where there is limestone, 
chalk, or new-red sandstone, all of which this species 
excavates. It usually inhabits the lowest verge of spring- 
tides, and the Laminarian zone; but Mr. Peach pro- 
cured live specimens from a rock perforated by them in 



SA XI CAVA. 83 

30 fathoms, 4 or 5 miles off the Deadman in Cornwall ; 
and a piece of primitive limestone similarly excavated 
was brought to me by a fisherman, having been hooked 
up from more than twice that depth about 30 miles 
eastward of the Whalsev Skerries in Shetland. Vars. 
1 and 2. Universallv diffused from low-water mark to 
145 f. (Beechey) . Var. 3. Confined in narrow crevices 
of rocks, and beneath the hinges of old bivalves. Var. 
4. In siliceous limestone. This very common species 
is found everywhere in upper tertiary strata, as far back 
in time as the Coralline Crag, and it frequently denotes 
arctic conditions. Glacial formation at Christiania, 
50-470 feet (Sars) ; Subapennine and Sicilian beds 
(Brocchi and Philippi); Antwerp (Nyst); newer mio- 
cene near Antibes (Mace). The extent of its geogra- 
phical range is almost unparalleled in the history of the 
Mollnsca. It appears to have spread over the greater 
part of the globe, from one pole to the other. I cannot 
distinguish Australian from Greenland specimens by 
any character except that of size, those from the north 
being much larger. 

The animal was well described by Fabricius. He said 
that it was cooked and eaten bv the Greenlanders, and 
that on being touched or alarmed it squirts out water 
and contracts itself like an Ascidia. He found the 
variety pholadis with other shell-fish from deepish water 
in the crop of the King Eider-duck. The fact of its 
being byssiferous of course did not escape his notice, 
and it has been since mentioned by Mr. Osier and Mr. 
West. It is equally notorious that trias or new-red 
sandstone (which is not calcareous) as well as limestone, 
is perforated by the typical form. I can fully corrobo- 
rate Mr. Clark's observations on this point. Lister 
noticed nearly two centuries ago that the holes are con- 



84 SAX1CAVID.E. 

siderably larger than these shell-fish require in order 
that they may freely open their valves. This gives 
room for the foot to expand and work. The side 
of the shell in all such cases is often more or less 
rubbed or worn, in the same way as the spinous 
fringes of Pholas dactylus, in which the last-formed 
rows are uninjured; and the epidermis is seldom pre- 
served on that part. In specimens of the typical form 
of S. rugosa, excavating limestone in Shetland, the 
ventral and exposed border of the mantle has sometimes 
delicate sessile Foraminifera (Truncatulina lobatula and 
Discorbina globularis) living on it, which proves that the 
mantle is not the organ of attrition. If an acid were em- 
ployed by the Saxicava in dissolving calcareous rocks, it 
would assuredly destroy that portion of the shell from 
which the epidermis had been removed, as well as the 
shells of the Foraminifera. The edges of the excavation 
are sharply defined, and present an appearance very un- 
like that which would be produced by a solvent action. 
Therefore, either the shell or the foot must be the opera- 
tive agent. Were it the former, the epidermis in front 
would be entirely abraded; and such is never the case. The 
Saxicava do not work, if they can meet with ready-made 
holes. The late Dr. Lukis, in one of his letters to me, 
said, " Successive generations will occupy the same hole. 
The last inhabits the space between the valves of its 
predecessor. In this way four or five pairs of shells may 
be frequently seen nested one within the other, and not 
unusually a Sphenia Binghami in the centre of all. v 
Cailliaud observed a Saxicava within a specimen of Vene- 
rupis Irus, which it had perforated. Malm found a cylin- 
drical variety in the burrows of Limnoria lignorum. The 
form of the shell is so variable and dependent on habitat, 
that (as the late M. Bouchard-Chantereaux remarked) 



VEXERUPIS. 85 

it is possible to discover almost as many species as indi- 
viduals. I am sorry to differ from Turton and the 
authors of the ' British Mollusca'; but I do not believe 
S. arctica to be a distinct species. The characters given, 
in the same terms, by these writers, are equally applica- 
ble to both forms. The " lunule-like excavation in front 
of the beaks " arises from the anterior side being more 
contracted than the other. Specimens enclosed in stone 
are generally symmetrical, and less angular than those 
which are free or attached by a byssus. The present 
species differs from S. Norvegica in being oblong instead 
of oval, not having a wide furrow in front, gaping much 
less at the posterior end, and in being furnished with a 
double ridge, which is often serrated in young individuals. 
It is, besides, comparatively a dwarf. 

It would be tedious and unnecessary to particularize 
all the synonyms. I have collated seventeen, the spe- 
cific names of which are different, in addition to those 
quoted above in describing the principal varieties. 

Genus III. VENERU'PIS* Lamarck. PL III. f. 4. 

Body oblong, thick : mantle bilobed : tubes united for about 
two-thirds of their length, naked ; longer cirri pinnate : gills 
and palps small: foot compressed, byssiferous. 

Shell eqnivalve, cancellated : ligament elongated, and sunk 
within the dorsal margins : teeth, 3 in one valve, and 2 or 3 in 
the other : pallial scar rather deeply sinuated. 

Although the shell described by Lamarck as the type 
of Venerupis is Tapes pullastra var. perforans, the cha- 
racters by which he defined the genus are sufficiently 
comprehensive to apply also to V. Irus, which he in- 
cluded in it. There is undoubtedly a great similarity 

* Koek-Venus ; per syncopen for Venerirupis. 



86 SAXICAVID^K. 

of shape between this genus and Tapes; but the shell 
of Venerupis is regularly cancellated, while that of Tapes 
is nearly smooth or marked only by concentric flattened 
ribs and obscure or microscopical longitudinal striae. 
Perhaps Venerupis is here scarcely in its place. It is 
impossible to make a linear or graduating arrangement. 
An oak tree in the course of its growth will have many 
interlacing boughs, and will spread out : so with the 
system of natural history in passing through successive 
stages of development. The Venerupes occupy holes 
made by Saxicava, or attach themselves by byssal 
threads to rocks and other substances. The genus does 
not claim a greater antiquity than the miocene period. 

Venerupis Irus*, Linne. 

Donax Irus, Linn. S. N. p. 1128. V. irus, F. & H. i. p. 156, pi. vii. f. 1-3, 
and (animal) pi. G. f. 2. 

Body white with a pinkish tinge : tubes slender, unequal in 
length, pellucid, speckled with flake-white, diverging near the 
extremities, which are of a pink colour ; longer cirri of the 
orifice erect and feathered, shorter ones reflected and plain ; 
retractile valve of excretal tube conspicuous. 

Shell oblong, compressed, slightly gaping at the posterior 
end but in no other part, solid, opaque, and usually lustre- 
less : sculpture, 15-20 thin laminar concentric ridges, which 
become broader and foliaceous towards each end of the shell ; 
these ridges and their interstices are crossed by numerous fine 
longitudinal striae, radiating from the beaks ; the surface is 
also covered with minute close-set transverse striae : colour 
pale yellowish-white, with sometimes (especially in the young) 
a stain of reddish-brown or purple on the umbonal area and 
posterior side : epidermis thin and seldom visible : margins 
rounded or obtusely angular on the anterior side, usually 
straight in front, truncated or wedge-shaped on the posterior 
side, which is at least twice as large as the opposite side, more 
or less straight behind, with an abrupt slope from the beaks 

* The name of a beggar in the Odyssey. 



VENERUPIS. 87 

to the anterior end, so that the posterior dorsal margin occupies 
nearly one side of a parallelogram : beaks small, inflected, and 
inclining considerably to the anterior side : ligament yellowish- 
brown or homcolour, contained in a groove or excavation 
with shelving sides, which extends for some distance from the 
beaks : hinge-line obtuse-angled : hinge-plate thick and broad : 
teeth erect, placed on the anterior dorsal line, the outermost 
and innermost diverging ; in the right valve 3, of which the 
outside one is much smaller than the other two, and these are 
cloven ; in the left valve are also 3 similarly arranged, the 
innermost being the smallest : inside porcellanous, often par- 
tially stained with reddish-brown, particularly the hinge-plate 
and posterior side : pallia! scar uneven, with a tongue-shaped 
sinus : muscular scars deep ; anterior roundish, posterior oval 
and situate close to the margin at the lower angle. L. Oo. 
B. 1. 

Habitat : Laminarian zone on the coasts of Dorset, 
Devon, Cornwall, Glamorgan, Pembroke, and Ireland 
(west, sonth, and east). Red Crag (S.Wood); and 
Philippi has recorded it from the South-Italian tertiaries. 
It has not been noticed in Scotland or further north; 
its southern distribution extends from Brittany to the 
Adriatic, Black Sea, and yEgean, both sides of the 
Mediterranean, and the Canary Isles, at depths ranging 
from the shore to 20 f. 

It is attached by a byssns to gneissic rocks in Con- 
nemara (Parran), and to the roots of Laminar i a bulhosa 
in the west of Ireland (Harvey) ; it occupies holes made 
by Saxicava rugosa in new-red sandstone at Exmouth 
(Clark), in limestone at Tenby (J. G. J.), and Cannes 
(Mace) ; and it inhabits crevices of rocks (but never 
perforates them) on the coast of Sicily (Philippi) . The 
shell being frequently distorted shows that the Venerupis 
is not a borer, but accommodates itself to any place of 
shelter : when thus enclosed it is occasionally incrusted 
with nullipore and Spirorbis granulatus. The very 
young are square, and the fry nearly circular. In perfect 



88 SAXICAVID.E. 

specimens the laminar ridges are fringed and resemble 
those of the lovely Venus lamellata. We learn from the 
interesting experiments made by M. Beudant, as to the 
capability of marine mollnsks living in fresh water, that 
out of 20 individuals of V. Irus 16 remained alive at the 
end of 22 days after the sea-water in which they were 
placed had been gradually mixed with fresh, so as to 
render the proportions equal, and that all the survivors 
were instantly killed on being immersed in quite fresh 
water. Of Mytilus edulis 30 individuals lived for 5 
months in the admixture, and for 15 davs in fresh 
water. 

Its specific name may have been derived from the 
ragged look of the shell, compared with that of its 
original congeners, the Donaces. Irus was a common 
beggar and messenger at Ithaca, who insulted Ulysses 
in his own palace upon his return home incognito, and 
was knocked down by him with a blow of his fist. 
Among the Roman poets the name symbolized wretched 
poverty and that reverse of fortune which Ovid expressed 
in the following line, 

" Irus et est subito, qui modo Croesus erat." 

This characteristic shell is the Tellina Comubiensis of 
Pennant, Cuneus foliatus of Da Costa, Venus cancellata 
of Olivi (but not of Linne), and Venus Bottarii of 
Renier. 

I have a specimen of Venerupis Lajonkairii, Payrau- 
deau ( V. decussata, Philippi) , which came from the col- 
lection of Mr. George Humphreys, with the undermen- 
tioned name and note of its locality, " Venus striata, H. 
Rrighthelmstone W. H. 1768." It is a native of the 
Mediterranean, and resembles the young of Tapes de- 
cussatus ; but, besides the difference of hinge-structure, 



GASTROCH.EXID.E. 89 

it is beaded lengthwise, and has a more square outline 
with rounded angles. Philippi calls it " rotundato- 
quadrangula," a definition at which mathematicians 
might be inclined to smile. 



Family XXII. GASTKOCEUE'NIDjE, Gray. 

Body oblong : mantle large and thick : tubes long, united 
throughout ; orifices cirrous : gills unequal, prolonged into the 
branchial tube : palps small, somewhat triangular and thick : 
foot finger-shaped, sometimes byssiferous. 

Shell enclosed in a testaceous flask-like case with a narrow 
bipartite or divided neck ; it is oblong, equivalve, very inequi- 
lateral, wedge-shaped and widely gaping in front ; anterior 
end pointed : epidermis membranous : beaks nearly terminal : 
ligament long, external : hinge straight, toothless but furnished 
with a horizontal plate or shelf- like process : pallial scar broad, 
and deeply sinuated : muscular scars strong. 

This family connects the Saccicavida? and Pholadida. 
Its smooth shell is not unlike that of S. rugosa var. 
pholadis, which has also a ventral gape, and is most 
frequently toothless ; although its reflected hinge-plate 
and pointed anterior extremity remind us of P kolas 
crispata. The foot is more characteristic of the first- 
named family, and the pallial tubes of the latter. But 
its distinctive and peculiar feature is the outer case or 
covering, in which all the Gastrochamidce enwrap them- 
selves on arriving at maturity. The body of this case 
appears to be formed, like the shell, by a secretion of 
the mantle ; and the enormous opening in front, between 
the valves, must greatly facilitate the work. The animal 
probably uses its flexible foot, turning it round on every 
side, to mould the walls of the case. There can be no 
doubt that the neck is elaborated by the siphons, 



90 GASTROCH^NID.E. 

in the same way that the Teredo makes the outer points 
of its testaceous sheath. In Clavagella and Aspergillum 
the valves are united with the case, being apparently 
soldered to it. Mr. Try on has lately published a careful 
monograph on the Order ' Pholadacea/ comprising the 
present family, Pholadidce, and Teredinidce. 

Genus GASTROCILE'NA* Spengler. PI. III. f. 5. 

See the description of the family for that of the solitary 
genus which inhabits the British seas. 

Placed by Lamarck in his family Pholadaires. It 
was included in the genus Uperotus of Guettard, Chama 
of Retz, Fistulana of Bruguiere, and Trapezium of von 
Miihlfeldt. Swainson erroneously spelt the name Gas- 
trochina. Morch, H. and A. Adams, and Tryon con- 
sider the G. mumia of Spengler (a tropical shell) the 
type of the present genus, and refer the European 
species to Fleurian de Bellevue's genus Rocellaria. The 
only species which we possess excavates and encases 
itself in limestone, new-red sandstone, and old shells ; 
sometimes the case is found free, and incrusted with 
fragments of shells and grains of sand. There can be 
no question as to its perforating powers. The case is 
occasionally lodged in the valve of a large Pecten maxi- 
mus or Lutraria elliptica, half of it on one side of the 
valve and half on the other. If an acid or chemical 
menstruum were necessary for this operation, it would 
either dissolve the calcareous matter of the envelope, or 
not act on the uncalcareous sandstone. The shell is 
invested by a delicate epidermis, which is more perfect 
on the posterior or outer end, but is sometimes worn 

* Gaping in the ventral part. 



GASTROCH.ENA. 91 

away in the line of excavation. Several exotic kinds 
are known. One of these excavates coral, and when 
full- grown encases itself; but the coral soon outgrows, 
smothers, and completely envelopes the G astro chama. 
Instinct seems in this case to be at fault. The Jurassic, 
cretaceous, and tertiary formations contain many species. 

Gastroch^ena dtj'bia*, Pennant. 

Mya duhia, Penn. Br. Zool. iv. p. 82, t. 44. f. 19. 67. modiolina, F. & H. i. 
p. 132, pi. ii. f. 5-8, and (animal) pi. F. f. 5. 

Body club-shaped, pale brown with a reddish tinge : mantle 
corrugated : tubes slender and transparent, capable of being 
extended to three times the length of the shell ; terminal cirri 
short, dark purplish -brown : gills narrow, and of a thin tex- 
ture, finely pectinated on both surfaces : palps smooth without 
and striated within : foot very expansible, conical when at 
rest. 

Shell elongated and obliquely twisted from the beaks to 
the posterior end, so that its proportions and course of growth 
are those of a Mytilus, convex, rather thin, opaque, and lustre- 
less : sculpture, distinct but irregular concentric strise, which 
are slightly imbricated in front : colour whitish : epidermis 
yellowish- brown : margins narrow and acutely angular at the 
anterior end, largely excavated in front (exhibiting an oval 
gape), with a bold sweep towards the posterior side, which is 
broad and obtusely angular ; dorsal margin on the latter side 
long and high-shouldered or raised; anterior dorsal margin 
extremely short and truncated : beaks blunt and inflected : 
ligament semicylindrical, somewhat prominent, yellowish- 
brown ; posterior end attenuated : hinge-line nearly straight : 
hinge-plate rather broad, thin, and reflected outwards ; it is 
thickened within, where it projects downwards, occasionally 
resembling a large and blunt triangular tooth ; the anterior 
edge is also callous : inside porcelain-white, glossy, and faintly 
iridescent : pallial scar usually indistinct : muscular scars irre- 
gular on the anterior side ; the posterior one is large and 
triangular. L. 0*8. B. 0-35. 

Var. ovalis. Shell shorter, broader, and thinner. 

* Doubtful. 



92 GASTRGCH^NID.*:. 

Habitat : Southern coasts of England, the Channel 
Isles, South Wales, Barmouth, and the south and west 
of Ireland, in 8-20 f. The variety was found by Mr. 
Clark at Exmouth. Red and Coralline Crag (S.Wood) ; 
Italian tertiaries (Brocchi and Philip pi). It does not 
appear to be a northern shell ; but it is tolerably 
common on the coasts of France, Spain, Italy, Greece, 
Algeria, Madeira, and the Canary Isles, at depths 
between 2 and 60 f. 

This remarkable shell, as well as its animal and case, 
Avere described by Montagu with his wonted accuracy. 
He states that he had specimens not only in limestone, 
but in granite ; and he modestly observes, " How the 
siliceous part of this last is destroyed, we do not pretend 
to determine." Cailliaud has ascertained that all the 
lithophagous bivalves secrete a corrosive liquid, at least 
in the months of May and June ; and, not content with 
the usual test of litmus-paper, he tasted some of the 
animals — thus exemplifying the saying of Seneca (' De 
vita beata'), " curiosum nobis natura ingenium dedit." 
We are told by the French philosopher that the G astro - 
chana affects the throat with an insufferably acrid flavour, 
like that of a bitter cucumber. But the oyster, which 
is not lithophagous, and Pholas are equally provided 
with the same acid. This fact seems to militate against 
the chemical theory. I have a cluster of a dozen 
G. duhia in a single oyster-shell. The case or crypt is 
thick and composed of a great many layers. The ex- 
posed part of it is formed of tubercular concretions of 
different shapes and sizes ; its neck resembles a double 
cylinder joined together but open on the inner side, 
and it is frequently curved. The anterior part of the 
shell is evidently subject to much friction during the 
process of excavation, and is invariably divested of the 



PH0LADIDJ2. 93 

epidermis : it does not show the slightest indication of 
any corrosive action j and the inside is highly polished, 
although in close contact with the mantle. 

It is the Chama parva of Da Costa, Pholas pusilla of 
Poli and Olivi (but not of Linne), P.faba of Pulteney, 
My a Pholadia of Montagu, P. Mans of Brocchi (but not 
of Chemnitz), G. modiolina of Lamarck, Mytilus amb'i- 
guus of Dillwyn, G. pelagica of Risso, G. cuneiformis of 
Philippi (but not of Lamarck), as well as his G. Polii 
and G. Poliana, G.fulva of Leach, and G. tarentlna of 
Costa. 

Family XXIII. PHOLA'DIME, Gray. 

Body conico-cylindrical : mantle thickened at its outer edges, 
and reflected behind, where it covers the hinge of the shell : 
tubes large, extensile ; orifices of both or of one of the tubes more 
or less cirrous : gills, a pair on each side, narrow, for the most 
part adherent on one of their sides, and prolonged into the 
branchial tube : palps also two on each side, coarsely pectinated 
as well as the gills : foot short and sucker-like, never bys- 
siferous. 

Shell wedge-shaped, convex, equivalve, inequilateral, widely 
gaping in front (except in the adult Pholadidea and allied 
genera, which have the gape closed by a shelly layer), and at 
the posterior end in all the genera but Xylophaga : epidermis 
membranous, thin : beaks not prominent : hinge connected by 
the anterior adductor muscle, which supplies the place of a 
ligament; it is covered by a thickened fold of the mantle, 
which is to a greater or less extent protected externally by 
one or more testaceous shields or plates ; the hinge is inar- 
ticulated, but sometimes furnished with laminar or tubercular 
processes : apophyses, as in Terebratula, falciform, springing 
forwards from beneath the hinge, one in each valve : pallial 
and muscular scars indistinct. 

These burrow in stone, clay, mud, sand, wood, peat, 
and other mineral and vegetable substances. In the 
holes thus excavated thev dwell at ease, never of their 



94 PHOLADIDiE. 

own accord removing from one place to another, in this 
respect unlike the Solen and other bivalves which make 
only a temporary sojourn in sand or mud. The extensor 
muscle, aided by the prickly surface of the shell, serves 
to keep the Pholas fixed in its case when it rises to the 
surface in search of food. The depth of the hole exca- 
vated by P. Candida is between 5 and 6 inches ; its shell 
and tubes, the latter being fully extended, measure only 
4 inches. The ascent must be effected by stretching 
out the foot ; and by contracting it the Pholas can 
descend to the bottom and retreat for shelter. I have 
observed the latter fact ; and I believe the above to be 
the correct explanation of it. The Pholas gets rid of 
the excavated material by closing the valves of its shell, 
and forcibly expelling the detritus by a spasmodic action, 
through the larger or incurrent tube, together with the 
water contained in the body. The detritus is not re- 
moved to any distance ; and some of the finer particles 
are occasionally washed by the waves into the hole, and 
line its sides. Mr. Osier and M. Cailliaud account in 
other and different ways for this phenomenon. Accord- 
ing to the latter naturalist, the maternal care of the 
Pholas for its young is very peculiar. He says that, 
like the Gastrochcena, it makes with its acidulated 
siphons small oval holes in the surface of the calcareous 
rock which it inhabits, and inserts in these holes a 
portion of its brood ! This remarkable instinct has its 
parallel in the case of Teredo, if we place equal confi- 
dence in everything that Sellius wrote on that subject. 
Most of the Pholadidce can entirely withdraw into their 
shells : Pholas crispata is an exception among the 
British kinds. If a layer of peat, mud, or shale in- 
habited by Pholades is too thin to contain them, they 
will either perish or their growth will become stunted. 



PHOLADID.E. 95 

They usually burrow in a slanting direction. When 
several individuals occupy the same layer, one of them 
seldom interferes with another by breaking into the 
hole of its neighbour ; but it pursues a parallel course. 
Cases, however, now and then occur in which no such 
forbearance is shown. The avoidance of each other's 
burrow is probably owing to the extreme sensitiveness 
of the foot or perforating organ, which is always pushed 
out in advance to feel its way. The structure of this 
organ is similar to that of the foot in Teredo and 
Patella, being thinner and of finer texture in the middle 
than at the circumference ; it is nearly circular and 
truncated. Dr. Fischer believes that the foot in Phola- 
didea, when it has ceased to perforate, becomes atro- 
phied. It is then hindered from further action by the 
shelly wrapper which closes the front gape of the shell, 
and is therefore useless. As far as has been hitherto 
observed, all the members of this family possess the 
hyaline ? style " or cuspidated process, which is found 
in many of the other Conchifera. The use of this 
curious internal apparatus is unknown. Some phy- 
siologists consider it a digestive appendage of the 
stomach ; but Cailliaud is of opinion that it is connected 
with the fecundation of the eggs, in consequence of 
these mollusks being hermaphrodite. Lacaze-Duthiers, 
however, regards them as of distinct sexes. The splen- 
did work of M. Emile-Blanchard, now in course of publi- 
cation, and entitled " 1/ organisation du Regne Animal," 
ought to be consulted with respect to the internal 
structure of the Pholadidce. He has shown that each 
lobe of the mantle on the anterior side is extended, and 
reflected behind, where they are united and form a long 
and muscular expansion apart from the rest of the body. 
Siebold thought that at the base of the siphonal tentacles 



96 PHOLADID.E. 

in Pholas there were eyes analogous to those with which 
the scallop is furnished ; but Blanchard could not detect 
any such organ, although he had traced all the nerves in 
this part of the body to their extremities. Born's view, 
that the hinge is connected by a ligament, was adopted by 
Clark. It is incorrect. Pholas has no ligament, concho- 
logically speaking ; and its proper function, that of open- 
ing and closing the valves, is performed by the anterior 
adductor muscle. The shells are white or colourless, 
owing to their confined position. Their composition is ex- 
ceedingly firm, and partakes of the nature of arragonite. 
This is sometimes necessary, in order to sustain the 
almost constant pressure of the shell against hard rocks. 
Adanson seems to have mistaken the nature of the 
dorsal shields (or " accessory valves," as they have been 
also called) when he used the same word, " palettes," to 
designate these appendages and the opercular bars of 
Teredo. The falchion- shaped shelly processes which 
issue from the hinge were first observed by Lister, 
and called " apophyses." Klein afterwards applied the 
same term to the dorsal shields. The true apophyses 
were regarded by Deshayes as cardinal teeth. But it 
seems to me that they have nothing to do with the 
hinge, and that they are formed by a different part of 
the mantle. They are probably of service in keeping 
the viscera in their proper place, and protecting them 
from the strain caused bv the muscular exertions of the 

at 

animal in the act of boring. 

The notion that the shell is the instrument of perfo- 
ration originated with Bonanni, in 1684. It was adopted 
in the last century by Adanson, Born, and others ; and 
in the present century most zoologists of note and expe- 
rience have favourably entertained it. No one, however, 
can be compared to M. Cailliaud of Nantes in respect 



PHOLADID.E. 97 

of the zeal, ability, and conscientious labour with which he 
has investigated the subject; and he may be justly termed 
the apostle of this theory. His researches have been 
carried on, with scarcely any intermission, for more than 
twenty years ; and although I have ventured to disagree 
with him in the present instance, I still entertain a pro- 
found respect for his opinion. Were I to become con- 
verted, it would be solely by his arguments. The careful 
and precise experiments made by him leave no doubt 
that the shell can be used by man as an instrument of 
perforation ; it by no means follows that it is so used 
by the mollusk. It is easy to scrape with the edge of a 
limpet-shell a cavity in chalk or shale, such as Patella oc- 
cupies ; but can it be imagined that in this case the shell, 
instead of the foot, is naturally employed for that pur- 
pose? I believe that all the phenomena which have 
been attributed by Cailliaud to the mechanical action of 
the shell may be accounted for by the theory of Sellius, 
or rather of his predecessor Reaumur. For instance, 
the fine and regular strise, which are observable on the 
sides of the cell of a Pholas, are unquestionably caused 
by the friction of the spinous ridges that ornament the 
shell. These strire are wanting at the bottom of the 
cell, and are replaced there by a far more delicate elabo- 
ration, which I am of opinion is produced by the sucker- 
like motion of the foot. Assuming the latter to be the 
instrument of perforation, the shell would partake of its 
motion, and would rasp the walls of the cell while the 
foot was doing the work of excavation. The prickly 
surface of the shell, stretched to its full extent by the 
adductor muscle, is pressed against the sides or walls of 
the cell, and acts as a fulcrum. Born's idea, repeated 
by Cailliaud, viz. that the foot acts as the fulcrum or point 
of leverage, is exactly the reverse of mine. Besides, let 

VOL. III. f 



98 PH0LADID.E. 

us not lose sight of the fact that the shells of many mol- 
lusca which are not borers have also prickles or spines 
like those which cover the shell of a Pholas. Anomia, 
Pecten, Lima, Area, Cardium, Venus, and Psammohia 
offer examples among the British shells of this sort of 
ornamentation. Such asperities appear to result from 
a superfluous secretion of shelly matter, which it is con- 
venient to dispose of in this way ; they strengthen the 
fabric of the shell, but are of no further service to its 
constructor. To my desire of doing justice to the inves- 
tigation of M. Cailliaud must be added an apology for 
having, in the introduction to the first volume of this 
work, misinterpreted his views as to the mode in which 
the Pholades excavate rocks. The mistake was partici- 
pated by Dr. Fischer, and arose from the following pas- 
sage in M. Cailliaud' s ' Memoire sur les Mollusques 
perforants' (1856) — "les siphons des pholades, coupes 
en pieces et morceaux, attestent (dans les temps voulus) 
la presence de cette liqueur acidulee. Elle est done 
faible puisqu'elle ne parait sous aucun rapport nuire k 
Forganisation de ces animaux, et cependant elle dissout 
des test de coquilles tres-durs, les calcaires les plus com- 
pacts." (p. 27.) I certainly understood by this, that 
M. Cailliaud was of opinion that the Pholades employ 
an acid or corrosive solvent in excavating calcareous 
rocks ; but he has since distinctly asserted that they 
make use of their shells only. It had been generally 
supposed that Pholas does not secrete an acid. M. 
Thorrent, however, in the i Journal de Conchyliologie ' 
for 1850, proved that an acid exists in P. crispata ; 
and this important discovery has since been confirmed 
by M. Cailliaud as to other species of Pholas. But how 
do the fry perforate ? Are Ave to suppose, with M. Cail- 
liaud, that the parent makes with its acidulated siphons 



PHOLADID-E. 99 

minute holes in the rock for the reception of its progeny? 
It does not appear that he has ever witnessed so extra- 
ordinary a proceeding ; and even if it is offered as a pro- 
bable explanation of the method by which the fry effects 
its entrance into the stone, this would only apply to the 
case of chalk or limestone, which being calcareous can be 
dissolved by an acid, and not to that of gneiss, sandstone, 
peat, or wood, which are not liable to be thus acted upon, 
and in which the Pholades more frequently take up their 
abode. If the foot is to be considered merely as a point 
d'appui, the motive power would be altogether wanting 
while the young Pholas, encased in its tender shell, 
remains outside the much harder material which it has 
to penetrate. The same remark holds good with regard 
to other mollusca which excavate stone and wood. I 
am more than ever convinced that the modus operandi 
is similar in all these cases, and that the laws of Nature 
are more simple and uniform than those which direct 
human actions ; nor do I infer from the case now before 
us, 

"That many things, having full reference 
To one consent, may work contrariously." 

When the Pholas has to make its habitation in clav 
or sand, instead of in stone, no great amount of force 
seems requisite. Reaumur in 1712 stated, from his own 
observation, that P. Candida uses its lozenge-shaped and 
comparatively large foot for this purpose. He took 
several of them out of their holes, and placed them on 
a clay as soft as mud ; each soon put out its foot, and 
in a few hours made a fresh hole deep enough to contain 
the Pholas, w r hich met with so little resistance and was 
evidently anxious to conceal and shelter itself without 
delay. Is it likely that the Pholas uses its foot or shell 
according to the nature of the material w r hich it seeks 

p2 



100 PHOLADIDzE. 

to inhabit ? Even where it has to erode the solid rock, 
the quantity of water it takes in, and with which all its 
tissues are saturated, cannot fail to render the process 
more easy. On the importance of this latter agent Valen- 
ciennes lays considerable stress in advocating the theory 
that the rock is worn away by the continual friction of 
the foot. The work of perforating gneiss, in which M. 
Cailliaud discovered living Pholades, must be extremely 
slow and gradual. It takes probably a year and a half 
before a Pholas arrives at maturity ; by that time it has 
made a hole 5 or 6 inches deep. One hundredth part of 
an inch may therefore be reckoned its daily task. Time 
is of course a necessary element in all operations ; and 
it serves no less to advance the labours of the persevering 
and patient shell-fish, than to scoop out valleys by the 
agency of running waters and yielding glaciers, 

" And waste huge stones with little water-drops." 

The PholadidcB are distributed over the greater part 
of the globe ; but the species, although prolific, are not 
numerous. According to Searles Wood " Pholades have 
been found fossil as early as the Lias"; and Chenu 
says that they occur in the Jurassic, cretaceous, and 
tertiary formations. 

They comprise with the Teredinidce the multivalves 
of Adanson and other writers of a later date ; but neither 
the dorsal shields possessed by some species of Pholas, 
as well as by Pholadidea and Xylophaga, nor the sheath 
and pallets of Teredo are u valves " in a conchological 
sense, any more than the opercula of many univalves. 
Nor are any of these appendages homologous, or formed 
by similar organs. Linne also considered Pholas a 
multivalve, and placed it with Chiton and Lepas. Pul- 
teney was not so far from the mark when he conjectured 



PHOLAS. 101 

that the Tmiicata were shell-less Pholades. Schumacher 
ranged Pholas with the pedunculated Cirripeds, and 
Teredo in another division of his medley collection 
of Monothalami. In BlancharcVs system the present 
family is regarded as closely allied to the Myida?. The 
number and position of the dorsal shields are useful 
characters to distinguish sections of genera, but they do 
not appear to be of any greater value. Ever since the 
groups called families were instituted in classifying the 
animal kingdom, conchologists have been busy in framing 
svnonvms for the one of which we now treat. These 
synonyms, with the exception of two (Adesmacea, De 
Blainville, and Cladopoda, Gray), were compounded out 
of the generic name Pholas ; and the ingenuity of the 
svstematists mav well excite our admiration, or some 
other feeling of perhaps not a laudatory kind, when we 
find no less than fourteen of such compositions. 

Genus I. PHOLAS*, Lister. PI. IV. f. 1. 

Body oblong or oval, usually incapable of being altogether 
contained within the shell : tubes united except at their ex- 
tremities, and enveloped in a membranous retractile sheath, 
as in Mya ; both orifices cirrous : gills nearly equal : palps 
large and broad : foot truncated, but expansible to a certain 
extent. 

Shell shaped like the body, nearly opaque and lustreless, 
more or less covered with rows of prickles : beaks concealed 
by a fold of the hinge-plate in each valve : apophyses long and 
partly concealed within the hinge : pallia! scar narrow and 
deeply sinuated : muscular scars w r idely separated ; anterior 
elongated, posterior short : dorsal shields usually present, and 
varying in number, size, and position ; when absent, their 
place is supplied by a tough integument of the mantle. 

The present genus is not so ancient as has been gene- 

* Lurking in dens. 



102 PHOLADID^. 

rally supposed. The cpcoXU of Aristotle was a kind of 
fish, which he classes with the mullet ; and the (£&>\a? 
of other Greek writers appears to have been Litliophaga 
dactylus, which is certainly the Pholas of Rondeletius 
and Aldrovandus. Our species of Pholas are the " Pid- 
docks " of old English naturalists, and the " Pitaux '* or 
" Dails " of the French. Mr. W. Wood remarks that 
on the coast of Normandy they are eaten in abundance, 
well seasoned and cooked with bread-crumbs and fine 
herbs. They are also reckoned a delicacy when pickled 
in vinegar. In the neighbourhood of Dieppe a great 
many women and children, each provided with an iron 
pick, are employed in collecting them, either to sell in 
the market, or for fishermen's bait. They are almost 
entirely littoral, 

" Entomb' d upon the very hem o' the sea." 

The property which they possess of shining in the dark 
is very remarkable. It was mentioned by Reaumur in 
the Mem. de l'Acad. Roy. for 1723; and his communi- 
cation, "Des Merveilles des Dails, ou de la lumiere 
qu'ils repandent," shows his power of accurate observa- 
tion. He says that this property is not confined to the 
skin or outer membrane of the Pholas, but that every 
part of the body is imbued with it, and when the Pholas 
is cut into pieces, each portion is luminous. Much of 
the water that drops from them sparkles brilliantly. 
The phenomenon is visible only when the Pholas is in a 
moist state. He dried several specimens, and after four or 
five days moistened some with common or fresh water, 
and others with water in which sea-salt had been dis- 
solved. In every case the phosphoric light reappeared, 
but with less intensity than at first. When the Pholas 
was put into brandy, the luminosity almost instantly 
disappeared. No light is emitted by them in a dead or 



PHOLAS. 



103 



putrid state. He attributed the phenomenon (which he 
considered a ' ' vrai phosphorus naturel ") to a fermen- 
tation, resulting from the breeding-season ; and he 
supposed that it was analogous to the cases of the male 
glowworm and centipede. These experiments were 
made in autumn, and at other times of the year when 
the weather was not very warm. Dr. J. M. Davis 
examined P. dactylus at Tenby in the autumn of 1840 ; 
but although he kept it alive and in a vigorous state for 
many weeks, it never was luminous or phosphorescent. 
Out of fifteen living individuals of this species obtained 
by M. Cailliaud at the end of April and in December 
1854, ten or tw r elve shone in the dark. In none of these 
did the foot exhibit any light; only the mantle and 
siphons, which when rubbed with the finger were ex- 
tremely phosphorescent, and shone even through the 
shells. The siphons were furnished with it in such 
quantity, that he w r as able to trace with them bright 
marks on a table. He endeavoured, but in vain, to find 
the same property in other perforating mollusks. I 
am disposed to believe that this luminosity is caused 
not by the Pholas, but by extraneous microscopic 
organisms. The subject ought to be further investi- 
gated. M. Necker has show r n that the shell of Pholas, 
as well as of several other mollusca, is formed of arra- 
gonite ; and inasmuch as that mineral slightly exceeds 
calc spar in specific gravity (the proportion being 2 - 9 to 
2'7 or 2*8), he came to the conclusion that Pholas 
excavates calcareous rocks by means of the prickles 
with which the shell is furnished, aided by an acid. 
But he placed Helix nemoralis and Mytilus edulis in the 
same mineralogical category with Pholas, and ascribed 
a still greater density to the common oyster. It is also 
important to notice that the impurity of most calcareous 



104 pholadidjE. 

rocks increases their hardness, and that the admixture 
of organic matter with the mineral ingredient in the 
shell diminishes the specific gravity of the latter. 

The animal is partly the Hypogcea of Poli. Three or 
four genera have been proposed by Leach and Gray for 
the shells of certain species. Pholas, being derived from 
the Greek, is feminine. 

A. Shell oblong : hinge-plate furnished behind with a layer 
of cells : dorsal shields 4, viz. 2 anterior, placed side by 
side ; 1 cardinal, and complicated ; 1 posterior, and 
elongated. Dactylina, Gray. 

1. Pholas dac'tylus"*, Linne. 

P. dactylus, Linn. S. N. p. 1110; F. & H. i. p. 108, pi. iii. 

Body oblong, whitish, sometimes tinged with blue or yellow : 
tubes more or less covered with short papillae ; orifice of longer 
tube margined with about a dozen fringed tentacles, besides as 
many intermediate smaller ones which are ciliated on the 
sides ; the excurrent tube has its orifice either j>lain or mar- 
gined with a few short cirri ; the points of the siphonal ten- 
tacles or cirri are brownish ; outer sheath brown or of a 
pepper-and-salt colour : foot rather obliquely fixed to the rest 
of the body by a long, cylindrical, thick, fleshy, white stalk. 

Shell elongated, somewhat obliquely twisted on the anterior 
side, moderately solid : sculpture, 40-50 longitudinal rows of 
small prickles or vaulted scales, which are formed by the in- 
tersection of slight longitudinal ribs and wavy transverse 
striae ; these prickles extend over the greater part of the shell, 
but they are much stronger and more crowded on the anterior 
side, and less so in front, and, especially, towards the posterior 
side, where they are altogether Wanting ; this latter part is 
often coarsely and irregularly granular, as if from an imperfect 
consolidation of the shell; the whole surface also is closely 
puckered: colour whitish: epidermis pale yellowish -brown, 
more persistent at the edges : margins narrow, angular, and 
more or less attenuated or beaked at the anterior end, widelv 

* Shaped like a finger; formerly, but erroneously, supposed to be the 
S&ktvXos or dactylus of the ancients. 



PHOLAS. 105 

open and exhibiting an oval gape towards the front, whence 
there is a regular slope both above and below to form the 
posterior end, which is rounded, and has a sharp edge, with a 
decided gape ; dorsal margin on the anterior side short and 
obliquely convex: beaks very near the anterior end: hinge- 
line flexuous : hinge-plate extremely broad ; it forms a double 
fold, one of which has a free cutting edge and projects out- 
side in the middle of the hinge-plate, and the other adheres 
for the most part to the anterior side, its outer edge being 
likewise free ; the interspace between these folds is fitted with 
about a dozen transverse plates, besides occasionally a few 
short intermediate processes in the opposite direction ; the 
hinge-plate is sometimes crossed in its thickest part by two or 
three oblique tooth-like ridges : apophyses strong, broad, and 
curved, concave and expanding outwards : dorsal shields, two 
on the anterior side, large, irregularly lance-shaped, broader 
in the line of the beaks, and often cracked in a direction 
radiating from outside ; another in the middle is morticed into 
the two anterior shields, and is of an irregularly triangular 
shape, twisted, and very solid, lying perpendicularly across the 
valves; the fourth or posterior shield is long, narrow, and 
slightly bent, so as to fit the slope of the shell on that side. 
L. 1-75. B. 5. 

Yar. 1. gracilis. Shell smaller, more slender, and of a 
finer and thinner texture. 

Yar. 2. decurtata. Shell stunted or truncated at the pos- 
terior end, and of a coarser and more solid texture ; sculpture 
closer and usually effaced. 



Habitat : Slate rocks, coal-shale, new-red sandstone, 
chalk, marl, peat, and submarine wood in Guernsey, 
the south of England, and Bristol Channel ; Seacombe, 
Lancashire (Dr. Walker) ; north, east, and south of 
Ireland. Var. 1. At extremely low tides below the 
Warren, Exmouth, in pure sand (Clark). Var. 2. Oc- 
casionally met with in hard rocks. Fossil at Belfast 
(Grainger) ; Sussex (Godwin- Austen) ; in the Scotch 
glacial beds at Ayr and Stevenston (J. Smith and 
Landsborough) ; Tarento (Philippi) : and the variety 

F O 



106 pholadiDjE. 

gracilis was found by M. Cailliaud on tlie faluns of 
Touraine. Its exotic range in a recent state extends 
from Norway to Sicily and Algeria. M f Andrew describes 
his Spanish specimens as being of small size. Cailliaud 
has noticed it as perforating micaceous schist at Croisic 
in Lower Brittany. 

The " Pierce- Stone " of Petiver. In Da Costa's time 
it was reckoned "a very excellent and dainty food." 
Philippi says that it is esteemed in Sicily by all classes ; 
and at Rocheile it is sold in the market and served at 
the best tables. I am not aware,, however, that it is now 
eaten in Great Britain ; although it is often dragged out 
of its hole by our fishermen to entice and capture their 
finny prey. It buries itself eight, ten, or even twelve 
inches ; and its tubes, when fully extended, are three 
times the breadth of the shell. Like all its congeners 
this species is very prolific. In a spot three feet 
square at Saundersfoot near Tenby, Mr. Jordan dug up 
100 living specimens. He calculated, that owing to the 
removal by the waves of a foot in depth of mud during 
the autumn equinox of 1863, no less than 15,000 in- 
dividuals perished ; their empty shells remained below 
the surface. Some of them might also have been choked 
and destroyed by a silting up, as well as by the mud 
being disturbed in the course of its removal. The 
late Dr. Lukis took a P. dactylus out of peat, and kept 
it alive in clear sea water for four or five days. At the 
end of that time it died. The shell had become so thin 
from excessive absorption of its calcareous substance, 
that he was unable to lift it with the animal out of the 
water in a perfect state. Another intelligent and inde- 
fatigable naturalist, Mr. Peach, endeavoured to discover 
the way in which this Pholas makes its cell. He 
carefully and patiently watched 15 or 16 of them in a 



PHOLAS. 107 

slab of clay-slate, and placed marks iu order to see if 
they had any rotatory motion ; but he fonnd that they 
all invariably retained the same lateral position, and 
that the movement was vertical onlv. When the shell 
has been abraded or worn by rubbing against the sides 
of its stone cell, the new layers formed in front have of 
course their prickles, when they exist, quite perfect and 
sharp. Specimens now and then occur which measure 
about 6 inches in breadth. 

The synonyms are antiquated ; and two only are post- 
Linnean, viz. P. muricatus of Da Costa, and P. Mans 
of Pulteney. The animal is the Hypogcea verrucosa of 
Poli. 



B. Shell oblong : dorsal shield single, posterior, and elongated. 

Bar tiea, Leach. 

2. P. can'dida*, Linne. 

P. candidus, Linn. S. N. p. 1111. P. Candida, F. & H. i. p. 117, pi. iv. 
f. 1, 2. 

Body oblong, dirty white with a faint tinge of brown : tubes 
more narrow, slender, and elongated than in P. dactylus ; 
larger tube funnel-shaped, grooved inside lengthwise like 
the barrel of a rifle, and appearing as if marked with white 
or light-brown stripes ; its orifice is surrounded by about a 
dozen papillae which terminate the grooves ; smaller tube 
cylindrical, and contracted or bell-shaped at the top, with its 
orifice either plain or surrounded by a few papillae ; sheath 
minutely tuberculated : foot small, oval, attached by a com- 
pressed stalk. 

Shell elongated, tumid, and thin: sculpture, 25-30 longi- 
tudinal rows of sharp thorn-like prickles, which cover all the 
surface except at each end, and radiate from the hinge out- 
wards ; on the anterior side the prickles are stronger but not 
crowded : colour chalky- white : epidermis light-brown, some- 
what fibrous on the posterior side, and forming delicate thread- 
like lines to connect the rows of prickles : margins rounded 

* White. 



108 PHOLADID.E. 

or slightly angular at the anterior end, exhibiting a long and 
rather narrow gape towards the front, whence there is a re- 
gular slope (less above than below) to the posterior end, 
which is rounded and has a sharp edge, with a moderate gape ; 
dorsal margin on the anterior side short, concave, and smooth: 
beetles very near the anterior end: hinge-line nexuous: hinge- 
plate extremely broad, and forming a single fold on the um- 
bonal area, to which it adheres, the outer edge being free ; 
the centre is marked across by a few indistinct furrows, re- 
sembling the walls of the cells in P. dactylus, as sometimes 
seen in that part of the shell ; and it is furnished with a 
sharp ridge, that winds obliquely from above the apophysis 
to the posterior side, and ends in a projecting spur-like pro- 
cess ; this is more prominent in the right than left valve : 
apophyses strong, narrow, curved, and concave at the point : 
dorsal shield slightly bent, and shaped like a lance-head with 
the point outwards ; it has a small boss near the broader end, 
from which a shallow groove runs in the middle to the other 
end, with a slope on each side ; the lines of growth are dis- 
tant, diagonally arranged, and numerous. L. 1. B. 2-75. 

Var. subovata. Shell smaller, and somewhat oval, in con- 
sequence of the posterior end being shortened or less de- 
veloped. 

Habitat : Coal-shale, Great Oolite, and Oxford 
clay, chalk, marl, peat, submarine wood, and sand, from 
Guernsey to Oban and the Moray Frith, as well as 
throughout Ireland. Fossil at Belfast (Grainger, who 
has recorded a specimen from that deposit measuring 
3 inches by 1^) j Bracklesham (Dixon) ; Christiania 
district in the newer beds, 100-120 feet above the 
present level of the sea, and at Drontheim, 30—10 feet 
(Sars). Abroad, it ranges from Iceland (Olafsen and 
Povelsen, t /7V/e Miiller) and Norway (Loven) to the Black 
Sea (Nordmann, fide, Middendorff) ; Sicily (Philippi) ; 
and Algeria (Deshayes and others). 

Mr. Clark found it living in sand at Exmouth, and 
M. Cailliaud in gneiss at Croisic. It occurs in com- 
pany with P. dactylus and P.parva at Guernsey. This 



FHOLAS. 109 

species differs from P. dactylus in its more convex 
shape and thinner texture ; the front gape being much 
narrower ; not having any dorsal cells, nor more than 
a single shield; and in possessing a strong and remark- 
able fold on the hinge-plate. 

The specific name was given by Lister. Spengler 
described aud figured the present species as the P. 
papyraceus of Solander ; but his description, quoted by 
Spengler, is more like that of a young P. crispata. It 
is also the P, dacty hides of Delle Chiaje, and Barnea 
spinosa of Risso. The P. cylindrica of J. Sowerby, 
from the Red and Coralline Crag, appears to be inter- 
mediate between the present species and the next. 

3. P. parva*, Pennant. 

P. parvus, Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. p. 77, pi. xL f. 13? P. parva, F. & H. 
i. p. Ill, pi. iv. f. 1,2, pi. ii. f. 2, and (animal) pi. F. f. 3 & 3 A. 

Body oval, milk-white : mantle invested at its edges by a 
thin membrane : tubes marked inside lengthwise with alternate 
brown and white stripes ; orifices scalloped, but neither are 
cirrous ; sheath thick, reddish-brown, covered with nume- 
rous granular papillae ; these become larger towards the ex- 
tremity of the sheath, which is encircled by a fine pile or 
fringe : foot oval when at rest, rounded in front and pointed 
behind when protruded, and attached by a long cylindrical 
fleshy stalk. 

Shell oblong, somewhat compressed, rather solid : sculpture, 
very numerous transverse rows of imbricated and flexuous 
ridges, which are puckered or flounce-like on the crests formed 
by the intersection of slight and less numerous longitudinal 
ribs ; these markings are more crowded on the anterior side, 
and in the adult gradually disappear towards the posterior 
side, which is smooth or only exhibits some irregular lines 
of growth ; there are seldom prominent and sharp prickles as 
in the preceding two species : colour white, sometimes slightly 
stained with brick-red from the matrix in which the shell is 
imbedded : epidermis light-yellowish and irregularly fibrous, 

* Small. 



110 PHOLADID.E. 

more persistent on the posterior side : margins acutely an- 
gular or beaked at the anterior end, with a wide oval gape 
towards the front, whence there is a regular slope above and 
below to the posterior end, which is broad and rounded, with 
sharp edges and a moderate gape ; dorsal margin longer than 
in P. Candida, concave and sculptured like the rest of that 
side : beaks placed at a distance of about |-ths from the 
anterior end : hinge-line flexuous : hinge-plate extremely 
broad, folded over the umbonal area but not adhering to any 
part of it; the centre is marked as in the last species, and 
furnished with a thick knob or tubercle, which apparently 
serves by its intervention to prevent the valves from being 
squeezed too closely together; the crown of this tubercle is 
consequently more or less worn by continual pressure, and it 
is connected with the dorsal posterior margin by a sharp ridge, 
so as to give it additional strength : apophyses of moderate 
breadth, not much curved, and nearly flat : dorsal shield some- 
what curved, and lanceolate with the point outwards ; it has a 
small boss close to the broader end, which is bent inward ; 
there is a slight depression down the middle, and the lines of 
growth are distinct, diagonally arranged, and numerous : in- 
side polished and occasionally iridescent, usually showing the 
external sculpture, and having the edges notched on the an- 
terior side. L. 0*8. B. 1*85. 

Var. quadrangida. Shell smaller and more contracted 
at each end, with closer and finer sculpture. 

Monstr. tubercidata. Shell divided into two nearly equal 
parts by a longitudinal irregular furrow. P. tuberculata, Turt. 
Conch. Dith. p. 5, t. 1. f. 7, 8. 

Habitat : New-red sandstone, marl, clay, and sub- 
marine peat, at Guernsey and on the southern coasts of 
England; Oxwich Bay near Swansea (J. G. J.) ; Aber- 
gelly, Denbighshire (Pennant) ; Dublin Bay (Warren) ; 
near Belfast (Hyndman) ; St. Cyrus, Kincardineshire 
(Brown). The North Welsh and Scotch localities are 
doubtful ; because Pennant's shell was probably the 
young of P. crispata, and the single specimen said to 
have been found at St. Cyrus may have been from 
ballast. The variety is from indurated clay, and the 



PHOLAS. Ill 

monstrosity from the same material as well as from 
sandstone. The furrow or groove in the latter case is 
quite accidental, and does not even extend to the beaks. 
It was probably caused by an injury or obstruction of 
the mantle in front. I have already noticed similar 
cases in other conchiferous mollusks ; and the uni- 
valves are also subject to this kind of partial deformity. 
P. parva has been observed by De Gerville and many 
other conchologists in the north of France, by M f Andrew 
at Malaga (of small size), and by Weinkauff at Algiers. 

On a fine living specimen, which I took out of its 
burrow in sandstone at Exmouth, was a Truncatulina, 
full of sarcode. It still adheres to the crest of 
one of the ridges on the most exposed part of the 
anterior side of the Pholas. Is it possible that this 
part of the shell could have been employed in grinding 
the stone, and that the delicate Foraminifer remained 
uncrushed ? In the instance just mentioned the pos- 
terior side of the Pholas was more worn than the 
other. Sometimes the entire sculpture of the shell is 
quite perfect, and appears not to have suffered the 
slightest attrition. The oval shape, smaller size, close 
and delicate sculpture, wide gape in front, large tubercle 
on the hinge-plate, and more central position of the 
hinge will readily serve to distinguish P. parva from P. 
Candida. My largest specimen is 2 \ inches in breadth. 

Da Costa, Boys, and Donovan mistook the young of 
P. crispata for the present species ; and it is not un- 
likely that they were misled by Pennant, judging from 
his ambiguous description and figure. The last-named 
author confounded his species with Martesia striata. 
Our shell may have been known to Lister, who says, 
with reference to P. crispata, that sometimes it has a 
third small shell at the hinge. Solander called it P. 



112 PHOLADID.E. 

crenulatus. Perhaps it is the P. callosa of Lamarck 
from the neighbourhood of Bayonne. His diagnosis, 
and especially the words " valvarum callo cardinali pro- 
minnlo globoso/'' are more applicable to P. parva than 
to P. dactylus. It certainly is his P. dactyloides. Al- 
though the very specimens which he thus described 
were received by him from Dr. Leach as the P. parva 
of Montagu, he capriciously rejected that name, and 
substituted an inappropriate one of his own. It is 
the P. ligamentina of one of the earlier works of 
Deshayes, and Anchomasa Pennantiana of Leach. 



C. Shell oval; valves furrowed lengthwise: dorsal shield single, 
placed centrally, extremely small and triangular. Zir- 
phcea, Leach. 

4. P. crispa'ta"*, Linne. 

P. crispata, Linn. S. N. p. 1111 ; F. & H. i. p. 114, pi. iv. f. 3-5. 

Body very thick, reddish-brown : tubes long, encircled with 
branched papillae : sheath velvety : palps much smaller than in 
the other species : foot oval. 

Shell convex with a slight depression in the middle, solid, 
and of a coarse and rugged aspect ; it is divided into two 
nearly equal parts by a rather broad furrow, which runs 
obliquely from the beak in each valve to the front margin : 
sculpture, about 20 longitudinal rows of imbricated prickles, 
formed by the intersection of the ribs with numerous trans- 
verse scalloped ridges ; these markings are on the anterior 
side only, and do not extend to the separating furrow ; the 
rest of the surface is nearly smooth, or exhibits the usual 
irregular lines of growth: colour dull white with a slight 
tint of yellow : epidermis whitish, becoming brown towards 
the edges, wrinkled obliquely, and leaving its impress on the 
surface of the shell : margins acutely angular or beaked at 
the anterior end, with a very wide heart-shaped gape towards 

* Curled. 



PHOLAS. 113 

the front, where there is an upward curve to the posterior end, 
which is broad and rounded, with sharp edges and a large 
gape ; dorsal margins sloping almost equally on each side, the 
posterior being the larger of the two : beaks placed at a dis- 
tance of about fths from the anterior end : hinge-line flexuous : 
hinge-plate extremely broad, folded over the umbonal area, 
and adhering to the greater part of it ; it has no protuberance 
or other process, and is consequently more or less worn away 
in the centre by continual contact : apophyses curved, some- 
what dilated, and concave at the points : dorsal shield trian- 
gular, with the apex downwards and the sides turned in ; it 
is almost rudimentary, and covers only the angle formed by 
the meeting of the hinge-plate in each valve on the posterior 
side ; the lines of growth are strong : inside marked with a 
ridge, which corresponds to the outside furrow, and termi- 
nates in a blunt tubercle : pallial scar narrow, very deeply 
sinuated, and extending far within the shell : muscular scars 
conspicuous ; posterior pear-shaped, lying near the edge of 
the dorsal slope. L. 1*6. B. 2*8. 

Habitat : Mica-schist, coal-shale, Great Oolite, Ox- 
ford clay, gypsum, and peat, on various parts of the 
coast from Unst in Shetland (Edmondston and Dawson) 
to Weymouth (Metcalfe), and throughout the greater 
part of Ireland. Da Costa gives Cornwall also as a 
locality. It is found in all our upper tertiaries from 
the Belfast bed to the Coralline Crag, and especially in 
boulder-clay and other deposits of the glacial period. 
Uddevalla (Malm) ; Christiania, in newer deposits, 
100 feet above the sea-level (Sars) ; Monteleone in 
Calabria, as P. vibonensis (Philippi). Its extra- British 
range in a recent state is chiefly northern. Iceland 
(Mohr and Spengler); Scandinavia (Muller and others); 
Heligoland (Frey and Leuckart) ; coasts of Holland 
(Waardenburgh) ; north of France (De Gerville and 
others) ; Charente-Inferieure (Aucapitaine) ; Marseilles 
(Matheron, fide Philbert); it is also extensively distri- 
buted in the New "World, e. g. Canada and the United 



114 PHOLADIDiE. 

States (Bell, Gould, and others); N.W. America, Van- 
converts Island, and California (P. Carpenter) . 

Captain Bedford informs me that it is eaten by the 
poor at Oban. Inside the mantle of several specimens 
Sars found a large parasite, about an inch long, which 
he believed to be the Malacobdella grossa of Miiller. 
The shells imbedded in stone are often stunted and 
much rubbed ; but some which Bouchard-Chantereaux 
took from the trunk of a tree entangled in a fisherman's 
net at sea, and others noticed by Mr. Wright from turf 
at low-water mark, were in a remarkably fine state of 
preservation, as well as more convex. They seldom 
exceed on our coasts 3 inches in breadth. Mighels, 
however, mentions a specimen brought up on the fluke 
of an anchor in Portland Harbour, U. S., that was 
4^ inches ; and Grainger found valves in the Belfast 
deposit of the same size. 

Lister suspected that it might have been the Peloris 
of the ancients. Was not that the Lithophaga dactylus 
of modern naturalists ? Petiver gave our shell the name 
of " Furrow-riVd Pholade-Muscle," and Da Costa 
that of Pholas bifrons ; Gmelin called it Solen crispus. 
In the tenth edition of the ' Systema Naturse ' it was 
placed in the genus My a. 

The hulls of ships returning from South America, off 
which the copper has been accidentally stripped, and 
pieces of mahogany drifted to these shores by the Gulf 
Stream are occasionally drilled by Martesia striata. 
This is more nearlv allied to Pholadidea than to Pholas, 
and rej oices in the following synonyms : Pholas lignorum, 
Eumphius, P. conoides, Parsons, P. nanus, Solander 
(fide Pulteney) , and P. clavata, Lamarck, besides P. pu- 
silla, Linne, which is the young state. 

The P. sulcata of Brown, from Dunbar, appears to 



PHOLADIDEA. 115 

be an exotic species of Parapholas, perhaps the ovoideus 
of Gould. That genus is distinguished by having two 
furrows. 



Genus II. PHOLADI'DEA*, Goodall. PI. IV. f. 2. 

Body oblong, rather thin, capable of being contained within 
the shell : tubes united throughout and terminating in a disk, 
enveloped in a fine membranous retractile sheath ; the orifice 
of the larger tube is cirrous, that of the smaller one plain : 
gills very unequal : palps long and narrow : foot, in the young 
and half-grown state very large, truncated, and sprioging 
from a long stalk in the centre of the body ; in the full-grown 
state it becomes atrophied, and is reduced to a mere point. 

Shell oval, semitransparent but lustreless ; anterior part 
covered with prickly ridges ; in the adult the front gape is 
closed by a shelly dome or convex plate, and the posterior end 
is furnished with a cup-shaped appendage, which has a texture 
between shell and membrane : beaks much inflected, and con- 
cealed (but not covered) by a fold of the hinge-plate : teeth 
conspicuous, triangular : apophyses long, and partly concealed 
within the hinge: dorsal shields two, formed in the adult only; 
they are very small and triangular, placed close to the hinge on 
the anterior side, and in a line with the fold of the hinge-plate. 

The distinctive characters of this genus are rather 
physiological and conchological than malacological ; 
they are not developed until the Pholadidea has attained 
its full growth. In the young and immature state it 
does not differ from Pholas. The same peculiarity is 
found in Martesia, Jouannetia, and other allied genera. 
Mr. Berkeley has suggested to me that the cup-shaped 
appendage may be the homologue of the pallets in 
Teredo. It certainly occupies the same place in the 
animal ; and both serve to protect the entrance of the 
hole, although less efficaciously in Pholadidea than in 

* Having the shape of a Pholas. 



116 PHOLADID.E. 

Teredo. This hypothesis seems preferable, in a bio- 
logical point of view, to that of Deshayes, who likened 
the appendage in question to the sheath of Teredo. 
Very few species of Pholadidea are known ; and only 
the typical species (P. papyracea) is fossil. 

Pholadidea papyra'cea*, Turton. 

Pholas papyracea, Turt. Conch. Dith. p. 2, t. i. f. 1-4. Pholadidea pa- 
pyracea, F. & H. i. p. 123, pi. v. f. 3-6, pi. ii. f. 1, and (animal) pi. F. 
f.4. 

Body somewhat conical, bluish-white, mottled in the centre 
with white roundish spots : tubes, when fully extended, often 
twice as long as the shell is broad, at other times more or less 
strongly wrinkled across ; orifice of larger tube encircled by 
about 20 white cirri of different lengths ; sheath of a pale 
reddish-brown hue, terminated by a fringe of short white 
cirri : foot clear white or almost transparent : liver green. 

Shell convex, thin, and of a delicate texture, depressed in 
the middle, and divided into two nearly equal parts by a rather 
narrow groove or constriction, which runs obliquely from the 
beak in each valve to the front margin : sculpture, numerous 
transverse scalloped ridges on the upper half of the anterior 
side of the groove, the lower half being nearly smooth, much 
thinner, and forming an oval-shaped dome ; the crests of the 
ridges are sometimes prickly but not much raised ; the pos- 
terior half is marked only by irregular lines of growth : colour 
dirty white : epidermis very thin, partly fibrous at the pos- 
terior end, light yellowish-brown : margins rounded (in the 
young obtusely angular) on the anterior side, straight (in the 
young widely gaping) in front, squarish (in the young rounded) 
at the posterior end ; anterior dorsal margin upturned, doubled, 
and folded back ; posterior one pinched up and nearly straight 
(in the young sloping, so as to give a wedge-like appearance 
to that part of the shell) : beaks placed at a distance of about 
-|ths from the anterior end : hinge-line flexuous : hinge- 
plate extremely broad, folded over the anterior side, and form- 
ing a free angular projection above that part of the hinge ; 
from the posterior part of the hinge issues an oblique triangu- 

* Paper-like. 



PHOLADIDEA. 117 

lar plate in each valve (somewhat longer in the right), which 
interlock and seem analogous to cardinal teeth in other bivalves : 
apophyses curved, frequently twisted, narrow, and rather short : 
dorsal shields often united, so as to form a single plate only, 
which in that state is not unlike the shield in Pholas erispata ; 
it is also deeply scored by the lines of growth : inside porcel- 
lanous and glossy, showing on the anterior side the impres- 
sions of the outside sculpture, and marked with a strong ridge, 
which corresponds to the outside groove and terminates in a 
blunt tubercle : scars as in Pholas crispata : the calj/cifortn 
appendageis capacious, expanding considerably outwards, with 
the edges slightly reflected ; it is divisible into two parts, one 
belonging to each valve. L. 0-75. B. 1-5. 

Var. aborta. Shell stunted and sometimes distorted, vary- 
ing in size from 4-th to -Jths of an inch, exclusive of the 
terminal process. 

Habitat : New red sandstone or trias, at low-water 
mark on the South Devon coast (Turton and others) ; 
Hayle (Miss Hockin) ; peat, at Ballycotton, co. Cork 
(Wright) ; submarine forest, Clonea near Dungarvan 
(Farran) ; Dublin Bay ? (Thompson) ; sandstone at low 
water, Castle Chichester near Belfast (Hyndman). The 
variety has been taken from lumps of hard clay dredged 
in deep water off Exmouth (Clark) ; in a piece of reddish 
sandstone from deep water on the Cornish coast, drawn 
up by a fisherman's line (Couch) ; in soft sandstone 
dredged in 80 f. off the coast of Antrim (J. G. J.) ; in 
indurated clay from 25 f. near Lismore in the west of 
Scotland, with Nucula sulcata (Bedford) . Mr. Searles 
Wood detected some shelly fragments which he referred 
to P. papyracea in the Coralline Crag at Sutton ; other- 
wise it appears to be unknown as a fossil. No foreign 
locality has been recorded. 

The burrows are occasionally flexuous. One of these 
in sandstone has near its opening a piece of silex much 
larger than the rest, which the animal appears to have 



118 PHOLADID.E. 

been unable to remove, and the passage is partially ob- 
structed by it. The immature shell (which Turton 
described and figured as Pholas lamellata) is not unlike 
the young of Pholas crispata ; but it is more expanded 
breadthwise, and the sculpture is much finer. This form 
can always be traced in the earlier lines of growth of 
every adult specimen. 

The Pholas papyraceus of Solander is only known to 
us by Spengler's quotation ; it probably was the young 
of P. crispata. Turton, in his ' Conchological Diction- 
ary/ first indicated the present species, and stated that 
Dr. Goodall had given it the name of Pholadidea Los- 
combiana ; but in his ' Conchylia Dithyra ' he retained 
it in Pholas, and altered the specific name to papyracea, 
on the authority of the sale catalogue of the Portland 
Museum. In this catalogue occurs " Pholas pypyraceus 
S/ J without any further particulars. I think the name 
proposed by Dr. Goodall ought therefore to stand ; but 
I hesitate to restore it, because the other name, papy- 
racea, is generally recognized. Blainville called the 
present species Pholadidea Goodallii; and in Griffith 
and Pidgeon's edition of Cuvier's ' Regne Animal 9 it 
bears the fearful name of Pholadidoides Anglicanus, 
which, however, is matched by one in Leach's ' Mollusca 
of Great Britain/ viz. Cadmusia Solanderia. 



Genus III. XYLO'PHAGA*, Turton. PL IV. f. 3. 

Body globular, all but the tubes, which, according to Dr. 
Landsborough, are not included within the shell : mantle 
puckered around the sides of the foot : tubes slender, covered 
by a single sheath, very extensile, marked lengthwise with 

* Wood -eating. 



XYLOPHAGA. 119 

crested ridges, which are pectinated at the edges, and separate 
at the extremities : foot large, pillar- shaped, capable of being 
protruded to some length. 

Shell globular, semitransparent, and somewhat glossy, 
divided lengthwise by a double ridge and furrow, which latter 
is terminated inside by a small knob or tubercle in the middle 
of the front edge ; anterior part triangular and sculptured by 
numerous fine transverse striae ; middle area or strip narrow 
and covered with oblique, finer and more crowded stria? ; 
posterior part on the other side of the ridge nearly smooth, 
and having the end closed : beetles as in the last genus : apo- 
physes short and prominent : dorsal shields two, similar to 
those in Pholadidea, but proportionally much larger and more 
conspicuous as well as more complicated in structure. 

Although Xylophaga resembles Teredo in the shape 
and sculpture of its valves, and forms a connecting link 
between the Pholadida? and Teredinidce, it is more 
nearly related to the former than to the latter family. 
Its habits are those of Pholas, in never perforating wood 
or vegetable matter (its only habitat) to a much greater 
depth than is necessary for the reception of its shell. 
It has no testaceous sheath or pallets like Teredo ; but, 
instead of these processes, its shell is provided with 
dorsal shields or plates, similar to those possessed by 
other members of its own family. In fact it is a short 
Pholas, and not a long Teredo. More information as 
to the animal is desirable : I believe it can be entirely 
contained in the shell. The epidermis is conspicuous, 
and closely invests the anterior side of the shell ; this 
affords an additional proof that the valves in the present 
case cannot be the instrument of excavation, otherwise 
the epidermis would be the first thing to be removed, 
from the continual friction to which that part must be 
subjected. Only two species have been described, one 
inhabiting the North Atlantic, and the other South 
America ; both are recent. 



120 PHOLADID.^. 

Xylophaga dorsa'lis^ Turton. 

Teredo dorsalis, Turt. Conch. Diet. p. 185. X. dorsalis, F. & H. i. p. 90. 
pi. ii. f. 3, 4. 

Body white, with the exception of the foot, which is tinged 
with buff at its extremity. 

Shell helmet-shaped, convex, thin, parted in the middle 
(but not equally, owing to the wide anterior gape) by a broad 
longitudinal groove, which is margined on each side by a sharp 
narrow ridge : sculpture as described in the generic characters ; 
the striae which cover the anterior and middle areas, as well 
as their interspaces, are exquisitely crenulated or crossed 
obliquely by still more numerous and microscopical striae 
(giving the edges of the main striae an exquisitely beaded ap- 
pearance) ; these main striae become more crowded or close-set 
as the growth of the shell increases, being at first comparatively 
few and remote ; there is a distinct line of demarcation between 
the two sets of main striae ; the marks of growth on the pos- 
terior area are concentric and tolerably regular : colour white : 
epidermis yellowish-brown, more persistent on the anterior 
side of the separating groove : margins obtusely angular on 
the upper part of the anterior side, with a large triangular 
excision on the lower part, so that when the valves are united 
the opening is broadly heart-shaped ; they are curved in front 
with a notch for the groove, and rounded at the posterior end ; 
dorsal margins sloping abruptly and equally on each side : beaks 
much incurved, somewhat nearer to the anterior end : hinge- 
line projecting and pointed in the middle, by reason of the 
abrupt inflexion of the beaks, with a deep curve on either side : 
hinge-plate very broad on the anterior side, over which it is 
folded, adhering to the umbonal area but free towards the 
extremity, where the edges are turned up ; it is narrow in the 
middle and on the posterior side : apophyses curved and pro- 
jecting outwards ; that of the right valve is larger than the 
other ; in aged individuals they are thick and tusk-like : 
dorsal shields not unlike the opercula of Neritina Jluviatilis, 
but having a less decided spire and doubled underneath at 
the wider end ; they lie close to the beaks, on the outside of 
the dorsal anterior margin : inside glossy, marked with a broad 
and strong rib, which corresponds to the external groove, and 
sometimes also with a slight and indistinct ridge, which is 

* From its being furnished with plates on the back. 



XYLOPHAGA. ].21 

impressed by the line of demarcation between the striae on the 
anterior side : pallial scar narrow, withdrawn and deeply 
sinuated on the posterior side : muscular scars well marked ; 
posterior oval and large ; anterior covering the fold of the 
hinge-plate on that side. L. 0-375. B. 0-4. 

Habitat : Oak, pine, and birch wood, submerged 
between tide-marks or floating in the sea, on different 
parts of the coast from Unst to Torbay. Although its 
distribution is extensive, it has not been noticed in 
many localities. I will therefore enumerate them. Tor- 
bay (Turton) ; Exmouth (Clark) ; Gravesend (Crouch) ; 
Scarborough (Bean and J. G. J.); Northumberland 
and Durham coast (Backhouse and Abbes, fide Alder) ; 
Marsden Bay on the Northumberland coast (Howse) ; 
Bantry Bay and Waterford (Humphreys) ; Skerrie 
Islands in the south of Ireland (Walpole) ; Dublin Bay 
(Harvey and Warren) ; Loch Fyne (M f Andrew) ; 
in dock gates at Ardrossan, Ayrshire (Martin) ; Moray 
Firth (Macdonald) ; in a wooden shipping- stage at the 
Whalsey Skerries, Shetland, and a single valve dredged 
in 80 f., 30 miles north of Balta Sound (J. G. J.) . It 
has also been taken at Drontheim in 30-40 f. by M f An- 
drew and Barrett; at Drobak in 10-15 f. by Asb- 
jornsen; at Bergen and Christiansund by Lilljeborg; 
in other parts of Norway by Loven; on the coast of 
Bohuslan in 22 f. by Malm ; in the Cattegat by Morch ; 
at Brest by Dr. Daniel; in the Gulf of Lyons by H. 
Martin ; and Professor Huxley gave me young speci- 
mens which had penetrated the outer coating (tarred 
hemp) of the Mediterranean electric telegraph cable on 
the coast of Spain at a depth of from 60 to 70 f. ; some 
of these last were about to attack the gutta-percha tube, 
that formed the inner case or covering of the wire. 
when the cable was taken up. 

VOL. III. G 



122 TEREDINID^. 

This curious little mollusk attacks and injures sub- 
marine timber, but not to anything like the extent that 
Teredo does. Its burrow only extends \\ inch in 
depth. The course of its perforation is diagonal or 
slanting, and therefore is partly against the grain of 
the wood. Its cell is flask-shaped with occasional con- 
cavities, the edges of which are sometimes sharp to 

receive the sides of the shell during the progress of the 
animal. 

It is the Pholas xylojihaga of Deshayes. 
Family XXIV. TEREDI'NIDJE, Fleming. 

Body worm-shaped and almost gelatinous, more or less 
enclosed in a testaceous sheath, which is usually flexuous: 
mantle very thin and cylindrical, enveloping the whole body, 
open only for the passage of the foot at the anterior end, and 
for the orifices of the tubes or siphons at the posterior end ; 
it is folded back over the hinge of the shelly valves at the 
anterior end, as in the Pholadidce ; and it adheres to the sides 
of the sheath at the base of the pallial tubes, by means of a 
muscular ring : these tubes are short in proportion to the 
length of the body, but extensile ; they are united near their 
origin, and forked towards their extremities ; orifices fringed 
with short cirri : gills, a pair on each side, long, ribbon-like, 
and distinctly laminated ; they are separate in front, adherent 
for the greater part in the middle, and prolonged behind to 
the base of the larger tube : palps consisting of two pairs, 
short and pectinated : foot large, truncated, muscular and 
expansile, not byssiferous ; it is attached to the rest of the 
body by a thick and powerful cylindrical stalk. 

Shell or principal valves placed at the anterior extremity of the 
animal, helmet-shaped, equivalve, the valves touching each other 
only at the hinge and in front, but elsewhere widely gaping : 
each is divided and sculptured as mXylophaga: epidermis mem- 
branous and thin : beaks not prominent, when viewed in front, 
owing to their being inflected : hinge connected by the anterior 
adductor muscle, which supplies the place of a cardinal liga- 
ment ; it is covered by a thickened fold of the mantle, but 
there arc no shelly plates or shields, such as the Pholadidce 



TEREDO. 123 

have ; the hinge is in articulated or jointress, although some- 
times furnished with tubercular processes : apophyses falci- 
form, springing outwards from beneath the hinge, one in 
each valve : scars seldom distinct ; the posterior is large and 
fixed to an ear-shaped expansion of the valve at that end : 
pallets or bars (set in the muscular ring at the base of the 
pallial tubes) paddle -shaped, with a narrow stalk ; the blades 
are covered with an epidermis, and are either simple or com- 
pound: sheath tubular, often nexuous, usually open at both 
ends, and always at the posterior or outer end, which is 
conical and has the throat lined with a series of slight con- 
centric plates. 

Nearly all these burrow in hard vegetable substances ; 
none in stone. A species allied to Teredo (Kuphus 
arenarius) , which inhabits tropical seas, lives in sand ; 
its sheath is closed at the anterior or broader end when 
the animal has attained its full growth. Deshayes, 
Quatrefages, and Emile Blanch ard (all eminent physio- 
logists) consider the Teredinidce a distinct family, on 
account of their peculiar organization ; according to 
Gray and the authors of the ' British Mollusca ' thev 
ought to be comprised in the Pholadidm. The ex- 
tremely elongated shape of the body, and its being en- 
veloped in a testaceous sheath or cylinder, as well as 
possessing a pair of paddle-shaped bars to protect the 
tubes of the mantle, seem to be characters not less 
important than those which distinguish any other two 
allied families of the Conchifera. 



Genus TERE'DO* Sellius. PL IV. f. 4. 

Characters included in those of the family. All our native 
species have simple pallets. 

1. General remarks. — The "shipworm" of British 

* A borer, from repeat 

G 2 



124 TEREDINID.E. 

sailors, " taret " of Aclanson and the French, " zee- 
worm '■' or " paalworm " of the Dutch, " see-wurm M of 
the Germans, " troemark " of the Norwegian fishermen, 
and formerly the " bysa " or " brnma " of the Italians, 
and " broma " of Peter Martyr and the Spaniards. I 
do not know any conchological study more interesting 
and important, and at the same time more difficult, than 
that of the Teredo. Although I have investigated its 
natural history for many years, have carefully examined 
a multitude of specimens, alive and dead, in order to 
learn something of their habits and forms, and have 
consulted perhaps every book or treatise published on 
the subject, I feel as if I still knew but little of this 
wonderful creature. Its biographers have been by no 
means wanting for the last century and a half; so, like 
the complete traveller in one of Bacon's essays, I " shall 
suck the experience of many." The information I have 
thus acquired, and the result of my own investigations 
will be embodied in the following remarks ; and I hope 
that other observers will take up the thread of my dis- 
course, and make it more complete. The Teredo is an 
anomaly. It consists of a long and nearly gelatinous 
worm-like body, without rings or segments, termi- 
nating at one end in a pair of hemispherical valves, 
that somewhat resemble the two halves of a split nut- 
shell which has had a large slice cut off at each side, 
and at the other end in a pair of symmetrical shelly 
paddles with handles of different lengths, which close 
this extremity at the will of the animal. The open part 
of the bivalve shell is placed at the further end, and 
receives a circular disk, of a fleshy or rather muscular 
nature, which mav be termed the foot : this is the 
broadest or widest part. Inside each valve is seen a 
curved process, like a bill-hook, that projects from the 



TEREDO. 125 

hinge at a right angle. The shell eovers and protects 
the mouth, palps, liver, and other delicate organs. The 
body tapers gradually to the outer or nearer end, where 
it becomes quite small and attenuated ; it contains the 
gullet, intestine, and gills, and is enveloped in a thin 
membrane or mantle, which forms at the outward point 
two cylindrical tubes, mostly of unequal length. The 
larger tube takes in infusoria or similar animalcules, 
which constitute the food of the Teredo, as well as im- 
bibes water charged with air for the purpose of respira- 
tion and keeping the whole fabric moist; while the 
smaller tube is employed in the ejection of the water 
which has been exhausted or deprived of its aeriferous 
qualities, and also serves to get rid of the woody pulp that 
is excavated bv the Teredo. Both tubes form a kind of 
hydraulic machine. At the base of each lies one of the 
paddles, often termed " pallets/' and which may be 
translated into scientific language as " claustra."" When 
the Teredo is alarmed, or not feeding, it withdraws its 
tubes into the neck of its sheath or shelly cylinder ; 
and the pallets, which had been previously kept pressed 
against the sides, then spring forward and close the open- 
ing, so as to form an efficacious barrier against all foes, 
whether Crustacea or annelids. This complicated animal 
mechanism is entirely enclosed in the sheath or cylinder 
above mentioned, which is secreted by the mantle and 
varies considerably in thickness and extent. The inside 
of the sheath is at its outer or narrower end divided into 
short strips or ledges, arranged in an imbricated fashion ; 
the last-formed of these ledges serves as a point d'appui 
for the blades of the paddles, and it greatly assists the 
Teredo in closely shutting its doors. The whole of 
what I have above endeavoured to describe is found only 
within some hard vegetable substance, either the hull of 



126 TEREDINID^E. 

a vessel or boat, a harbour-pile, a shipping- stage, a float- 
ing tree or the roots of one growing on the banks of an 
estuarine river, a piece of balk timber, a fisherman's cork, 
a cocoa-nut, a bamboo rod, a walking-stick, a beacon 
or buoy, a mast, rudder, oar, plank, cask, hencoop, 
or other ligneous waif or stray of the ocean. These 
the Teredo perforates, like a rabbit or mole in the earth, 
for the purpose of making its burrow and protecting 
its soft and sluggish frame. It is never free, nor found 
living anywhere except in its wooden gallery ; and it may 
be cited as a teleological example. Without entering 
much into the doctrine of final causes, I consider that 
the Teredo shows an exact adaptation of means to the 
end or object, viz. its existence. If it were not endued 
with this or a similar power of self-preservation, it would 
fall an easy and dainty prey to fish, crabs, and sea- 
worms; and the race would be soon exterminated. Such 
is the general aspect of the Teredo. 

2. History. — The ancient history of this mollusk is 
involved in much obscurity. Homer did not mention 
in any of his works the word r€p7]Scov. It occurs for 
the first time in the Knights of Aristophanes, where 
the chorus reports a conversation that is said to have 
taken place among some triremes, in which the eldest 
of them declared to her companions that, sooner than 
be engaged in a rumoured expedition, she would remain 
where she was, grow old, and be consumed by Teredines. 
Now as it was the custom of the Greeks, as well as of 
the Romans, to lay up their vessels high and dry on 
the beach, until they were wanted for service, the word 
T€pr)8cbv, used by the great comedian, may have signified 
the wood-boring grub of a beetle or moth, and not a 
shipworm. Nor does it appear that Aristotle was ac- 
quainted with it. The word is only to be met with once 



TEREDO. 



1:27 



in his history of animals, when he describes the r€pi]ba)v 
as a grub, which is bred in bee-hives. Possibly he 
meant a young honey-bee. His TevOprjBcov (which 
Casaubon incorrectly rendered teredo) is another kind 
of bee. However, his friend Theophrastus, who suc- 
ceeded him in the Lvceum at Athens, mentioned the 
Tep;S&>v in such precise terms as to leave no doubt of 
its being the mollusk in question. In the history of 
plants, written by this great naturalist and philosopher 
about 350 b.c, he restricted the name to a marine 
destroyer of wood, distinguishing the terrestrial kinds 
as o-fcwXrjfces and Opines, which may be designated 
worms and grubs. His observations were made in his 
native island of Lesbos ; and he says that the TeprjBcav 
lives in the sea onlv, and is of small size but has a 
large head and teeth. This description was probably 
taken from Teredo minima. He remarked that wood 
attacked by grubs might be easily restored and made 
useful, by dipping it into the sea ; but there was no re- 
medy for wood infested by the Teredo. In the same 
restricted sense the word " teredo " was mentioned by 
Ovid; and in his first epistle from Pontus occur the 
well-known lines which were quoted by Sellius, and 
were considered by Forbes and Hanley applicable to his 
own sad case. The kind alluded to by Ovid was in all 
probability the T. navalis of Linne, because after the 
Crimean war I received specimens of this species, 
which had been extracted from one of the Russian ves- 
sels sunk at the entrance of Sebastopol. Pliny gave no 
information of his own on the subject ; and even the 
meagre account which he gleaned from Theophrastus 
and others was very confused. Natural history was 
at a considerable discount during the "dark ages;" 
and the Teredo does not appear to have attracted the 



128 teredinidtE. 

attention of our remote ancestors. They were perhaps 
too much engaged in waging open war with their neigh- 
hour s, to notice the secret and insidious attacks which 
the shipworm made on the few vessels which then tra- 
versed the ocean. Literature of everv kind was con- 

t/ 

fined to the cloisters of the monks, who had few oppor- 
tunities, if any, of studying marine animals. A curious 
piece of information, however, has accidentally fallen in 
my way on reading one of the poems in the " Black 
hook of Carmarthen," which, according to Mr. Skene, 
a learned antiquary, was compiled or written in the 
twelfth century, and is of unquestionable authenticity. 
It seems to show that the Teredo was at that time in- 
digenous to our seas. Yscolan, a monk and scholar, 
gives an account in poetical and of course hyperbolical 
terms, of a penance which he endured for some ecclesi- 
astical offence ; and the following is a literal translation 
of the lines : — 

A full year I was placed 

At Bangor, on the pole of a weir. 

Consider thou my sufferings from sea-worms. 

One kind of Teredo (T. Norvegica) is still found in 
the stakes of fishing weirs on the Welsh coasts. After 
the revival of letters Hooft, a Dutch historian, appears 
to have been the first to notice the Teredo. He says 
the dykes in Zealand had been destroyed by these 
vermin before the close of the 16th century. We 
learn from Johnston's ' Thaumatographia (Historise na- 
turalis de Insectis/ 1653), that Drake's flag-ship was 
found on his return from circumnavigating the globe to 
be completely riddled by it. In the ' Ephemerides ' for 
1666, Nitzschius recorded its appearance at Amsterdam 
in ships which had been in the Indies, where it was 
supposed to have originated. He describes the method 



TEREDO. 129 

adopted by the Portuguese to get rid of it. This was 
to scorch their vessels, so as to form a crust of charcoal 
an inch thick ; but he observes that the process was not 
" sine periculo/' for it not unfrequently happened that 
the fire would spread and the whole of the vessel be 
burnt down. In the same century Bonanni and Daropier 
briefly alluded to it ; but it seems to have escaped the at- 
tention of Aldrovandus and Lister. In 1715 Yallisnieri, 
and in 1720 Deslandes published some observations on 
the subject ; those of the first-named writer were made at 
Venice, of the other at Brest. In each case more fancy 
than philosophy is exhibited. The " ver de mer " of 
Deslandes w r as a fabulous production, compounded of the 
Teredo and a well-known annelid which accompanies and 
preys on it. He believed that some of these " vers de 
mer " lived in wood, and others in the sea, and that the 
latter copulated in the water and afterwards entered into 
the wood, where the reproductive power ceased. One 
remark of Deslandes is more correct, and at all events 
is quaint. He says that it is difficult to imagine how 
an insect, which has such a phlegmatic air, can be so 
wonderfully active in its malice. In consequence of the 
excessive devastations which Holland suffered from this 
cause in the last century, and especially in 1730, 1731, 
and 1732, the history of the " Zee-worm " w r as then assi- 
duously investigated by a crowd of native writers, who 
would seem to have been actuated by their patriotic 
feelings ; and innumerable remedies were invented to 
stop the plague. In 1733 eight different treatises, of 
more or less merit, appeared. Preeminent among these 
was a monograph by Godfrey Sellius, a celebrated 
lawyer of Utrecht, and a fellow of our Ptoval Societv. 
His ' Historia Naturalis Teredinis seu Xylophagi marini/ 
in quarto, contains 366 pages, besides two well executed 

g5 



130 TEREDINID.E. 

plates. It is written in Latin. The work is a master- 
piece of learned research, and replete with classical 
allusions ; and it evinces far greater knowledge of the 
organization of the mollusca than that shown by any 
of his predecessors with the exception of Reaumur. 
He describes the external shape of the Teredo, then its 
internal structure, its peculiar habitat, the method of 
its perforating wood, the arrangement and uses of its 
different parts, its sexual nature and propagation, its 
teleological relations, its history, name, and definition, 
together with an explanation of its sudden appearance 
on the coasts of Holland ; and lastly he details all the 
recipes which were known in his time to prevent its 
destructive operations, and he suggested others in addi- 
tion. Nor did he share the erroneous notions enter- 
tained by most of his contemporaries as to its place in 
the animal kingdom. He proved that it was a true 
mollusk, and closely related to Pholas ; and he insisted 
on the advantage, if not the necessity, of studying the 
animal as well as the shell — thus anticipating, by nearly 
a quarter of a century, the much lauded views of Adan- 
son in both these respects. He distinguished no less than 
three European species, viz. his T. marina (which was 
perhaps the T. navalis of Linne) , T. navium of Vallisnieri 
(T. Norvagica, Spengler), and T. oceani of the same 
author or T. megotara, Hanley. The subject appears 
to have fascinated him, much in the same way as a 
capricious mistress does her lover, who now deprecates 
the cruelty of his fair tormentor, and then extols to the 
skies her beauty and gentleness. He calls the Teredo 
a wicked beast, the worst plague that angry Nature 
could inflict on man ; but he defends it against the 
calumnies of certain anonymous writers who had pre- 
ceded him, and he expresses in enthusiastic terms his 



TEREDO. 131 

admiration of its symmetry, economy, ingenuity, social 
harmony (especially in avoiding controversy and liti- 
gation!), and its wonderful perfection in every par- 
ticular. His account would almost persuade us that its 
dwelling is a model for the architect, and its mode of life 
a rule for the Christian. The observations of Sellius 
with respect to T. navalis are so interesting, and on the 
whole so correct, that I trust I may be here permitted 
to republish some of them, although they are antiquated, 
with such comments and explanations as I may deem 
necessary. If the perusal should occasionally provoke 
a smile, may it be one of charity ; and let the disadvan- 
tages under which the Dutch naturalist laboured at the 
time of his writing be fully taken into account. He 
says that the Teredo varies greatly in dimensions, from 
the minutest point to a foot or more in length, and that 
specimens had been recorded which were even a foot 
and a half and two feet long. The pallets (which he 
styles iC pinnae ") are likewise of unequal size in dif- 
ferent individuals, the larger ones being more soft, and 
of a chalky consistency and dull aspect, not unlike 
morsels of old yellow cheese; they are frequently 
mutilated or distorted. The Teredo, when taken out of 
the wood, soon dies, although it be immediately placed 
in clear sea-water. This observation does not agree 
with those made bv Professor Laurent in 1845 and 
1847 with respect to T. Norvegica; and M. Eydoux 
ascertained that the last-named species, after having 
been taken out of the wood and kept in sea-water, 
actually secreted and formed a new calcareous sheath, 
although very thin and more or less incomplete, into 
which the animal retreated, closing the larger end with 
an hemispherical epiphragm (like those made by indivi- 
duals in wood), and constructing at the smaller end two 



13.2 TEREDINID.f:. 

distinct apertures, for the passage of the siphons. 
Quatrefages, too, extracted specimens of T. pedicellata 
from their cases, and kept them alive in sea-water for 
more than fifteen days. Experiments tried by Selliu 
in putting Teredines into rain-water, beer, milk, and 
similar fluids resulted (as might have been expected) in 
their becoming feeble, and ultimately in their death. 
The fecundity of the Teredo next attracted the atten- 
tion of its biographer. He computed that the eggs 
contained in a portion of one ovary were 1,874,000 (a 
number exceeding the then population of the eight 
chief cities of Christendom, namely London, Paris, 
Amsterdam, Venice, Rome, Dublin, Bristol, and Rouen) , 
and that the entire ovary contained nearly seven times 
as many, and considerably exceeded the population of 
the seven United Provinces and all Great Britain to 
boot. He minutely described the ova and fry, which 
latter he found in different parts of the body. But 
Quatrefages has recently investigated this branch of the 
subject with very great care, aided by the light of 
modern science ; and the result of these investigations 
will be given in the proper place. The knowledge of 
comparative anatomy possessed by Sellius was of course 
somewhat imperfect. Perhaps the phrase which he 
used in describing the ovary, " materia formatrix 
ovulorum," is not recognized by physiologists of the 
present day ; at any rate it is intelligible. Deshayes 
has pointed out two or three more errors of this kind ; 
but certain modern naturalists, whose opportunities 
were far greater than those which Sellius enjoyed, have 
committed mistakes of a not less grave character. I 
need only allude to the published accounts of the 
organization of Dentalium, as an instance of such inac- 
curacies. Sellius goes on to say that the sheath is 



TEREDO. 133 

testaceous, and annulated or divided into ring-like 
segments ; it is highly polished inside. The larger or 
inner extremity is concave ; the other extremity is 
conical. Adanson considered this appendage to be a 
part of the shell. The Teredo is gregarious, although 
not of a sociable habit ; and, in the prosecution of its 
burrowing operations, it is actuated by a conscientious 
anxiety not to infringe on its neighbour. When a 
collision is imminent, it secretes a cup-shaped dome or 
plug in front, of a thinner texture than the rest of the 
sheath; and it shuts itself up. Sometimes it makes 
several of these outer walls, one after another. Young 
and old equally do this. It then, being unable to eat 
its way through the w r ood and thus procure a supply of 
food, dies of starvation, preferring suicide to the alter- 
native of invading and injuring its companions ! This 
sacred duty, he assures us, is performed with almost a 
reverential care. He evidentlv considered his " hero " 
(as he called the Teredo) the pink of chivalry and 
honour. The wood is often so completely honeycombed, 
that the party-walls which separate the burrows of the 
Teredines consist of mere films. Rousset compared 
the wood in this state to an extremely light and porous 
kind of rusk or biscuit. Sellius stated truly the object 
and mode of the curious dome-like fabrication which I 
have above described ; but there was no foundation for 
the consequences pictured by him, except in his fertile 
imagination. The progress and further growth of the 
Teredo would necessarily be arrested by the barrier 
which it had interposed in front. But that was all. 
The food of the Teredo consists entirelv of minute or- 
ganisms, that are introduced with the water into the 
incurrent or branchial tube ; and it does not consume 
the wood as any part of its nutriment. Nor do I be- 



134 TEREDINID.E. 

lieve that the eroded material undergoes any chemical 
change, either in the stomach of the Teredo or in the 
passage outwards through its intestine, although in the 
latter receptacle it is closely compressed. When it is 
voided or expelled by the excurrent tube, and separated 
in the water, it becomes a flocculent mass or pulp, like 
that of paper, composed of extremely minute and fine 
particles of an irregular size and shape, but still retain- 
ing its fibrous structure. It does not exhibit any 
appearance of having been digested. The notion that 
the Teredo feeds on the wood which it excavates ori- 
ginated in the lignivorous habit of the grubs of certain 
insects. It was lately revived by Laurent to a qualified 
extent. He tells us that the water, imbibed by the larger 
siphon, holds constantly in suspension particles arising 
from the decomposition of organic matter, as well as 
living animal and vegetable bodies, and that these 
particles, coming from outside, are united with the lig- 
neous molecules which are produced by the wood being 
rasped and continually softened or macerated by the 
water, in order to form the usual food of the Teredines. 
But, independently of what I have above stated with re- 
ference to this question, the cases of Saxicava and the 
Pholades must be considered. It can hardly be ima- 
gined that these are stone-eaters. Sellius found that 
the Teredo did not attack a pile below fourteen feet. 
Further information is desirable as to the depth at 
which it is capable of living. He observed that it 
commonly follows the grain of the wood ; and that con- 
sequently its tunnellings in fir and alder are straighter 
and longer than in oak, which is tougher and more knotty. 
It usually works round knots in a curved direction ; 
but occasionally it drives right through them. The 
odour emitted by the Teredo is different from that of 



TEREDO. 135 

the ovster and other shell-fish, and is derived from the 
kind of wood in which it lives. I can answer for its 
being very disgusting and almost insupportable. The 
valves of the shell found in fir- and alder-wood are 
white, almost pearly, and marked with pale ash-coloured 
strise and dots; whereas those taken out of oak are almost 
entirely yellow, sometimes of the darkest shade of black 
with striae and dots of the latter hue. This remark 
applies to the external surface only, and not to the 
inside, which is uniformly pure white and pearly. The 
pallets or " pinnae " have a yellowish tint, and their stalks 
are invariably of the same colour and lustre as the inside 
of the valves. The colour of the sheath varies in like 
manner according to the kind of wood. The outside tints 
appear to be extraneous, and not inherent in the Teredo 
or secreted by it. Rousset having succeeded in keeping 
Teredines alive in his own house, Sellius thought that 
oysters, mussels, and other kinds of eatable testacea might 
be profitably cultivated in tanks or reservoirs. A small 
crustacean, called " Springertje " or " Snel >} (Limnoria 
lignorum, Rathke), is generally seen in company with the 
Teredo, and with its horny mandibles gnaws away the sur- 
face of the wood. With regard to the mode of perforation 
by Teredo, I have already stated the views of Sellius in the 
f Introduction ' to the first volume of the present work. 
I would, however, add that I am now inclined to differ 
from him in the supposition that the adult shell is not 
strong enough or adapted to rasp the wood. Cailliaud 
has shown practically that this can be done ; and I have 
lately repeated, with success, the same experiment. But 
the improbability of the young or newly born shell being 
able to effect a lodgment in this way seems to me as 
great as ever. By examining the Teredo in situ, it will 
be manifest that the foot is closely applied to the larger 



136 TEREDINID.E. 

end of the tunnel, and that it occupies the whole of the 
front or hemispherical cavity. That part of each valve 
which may be supposed to have a rasping power is 
placed at the side, and not at the bottom. I believe 
that the valves, instead of the foot, serve as a fulcrum, 
and that they are pressed equally against both sides, 
while the tissue of the foot is employed in absorbing 
and detaching, slowly but gradually, minute par- 
ticles of the moistened wood. If the shell were 
the instrument of perforation, it would be applied to 
the bottom, and not to the sides of the tunnel ; and no 
muscle has yet been detected which could effect such a 
change in the relative positions of the valves and foot. 
Mr. Osier strongly advocated the theory that the wood 
is rasped away by the shell ; yet he admitted that, 
owing to the shortness of the lateral muscles in Teredo, 
it was not probable that this mollusk could bore, like 
the P kolas, by the action of these muscles alone. 
Quatrefages agrees with Deshayes in considering the 
muscular apparatus by no means adapted for putting 
the valves in action as perforating-instruments, by either 
a rotatory or a twisting movement. Pie attributes this 
agency to the anterior fold of the mantle, especially 
that part which lines the back or beaks of the shell 
(called by him the ' ' capuchon cephalique ") aided by 
continual soaking of the water, and perhaps also by 
some secretion of the animal, as well as possibly by the 
siliceous particles observed by Hancock in the mantle of 
certain other perforating mollusks, and by Deshayes in 
the integuments of the Teredo. But no part of the 
mantle is placed in contact with the excavated end of 
the tunnel or canal, which is entirely occupied by the 
foot. In a memorandum which I received from the 
late Dr. Lukis on this subject, he says (after summarily 



TEREDO. 137 

dismissing the chemical theory) , " Mechanical force 
seems also scarcely probable or even possible ; for it is 
not very evident how this can be employed whenever a 
lateral opening is to be made in the side of the tunnel. 
This opening is usually at some distance from the inner 
or further end, and its edges are often very sharply 
defined. If force were required to be exerted, these 
sharp edges would be a serious inconvenience to the 
Teredo, whose body is bent at this point into often con- 
siderably less than a right angle ; such angles occur 
more than once in the same specimen ." The marks at 
the extremity of the tunnel, when examined under a 
microscope, resemble in miniature those which are left 
in mowing a grass lawn with a scythe ; but they are 
arranged in a circular manner, and are continuous. 
These marks are very numerous and narrow ; they do 
not correspond with the anterior and striated part of 
the valves, which (although rounded) are never bent at 
such an angle as would produce the sharp lines exhibited 
on the eroded cavity of the wood. The notorious fact 
that the valves are covered with an epidermis is evi- 
dently a stumbling-block in the way of M. Cailliaud; 
because it would be difficult to understand why this slight 
film is not rubbed oft", if the valves are used in scraping 
the wood. He endeavours, with considerable ingenuity, 
to dispose of the difficulty by assuming that the epi- 
dermis is only formed temporarily and provisionally, to 
protect the valves from the effect of the acid which the 
Teredo employs in dissolving its sheath or outer case, 
in order to make a new one. I am not aware that any 
part of this assumption has been verified by observation. 
M. Cailliaud was even unable to detect the presence of 
any acid in Teredo, although he has given us a long list 
of other mollusks which secrete it, including not only 



138 TEREDINID.E. 

Saxicava, Gastrochana, and P ho las, but also tlie common 
oyster. I now take leave of this curious subject, be- 
lieving that it has been sufficiently discussed or venti- 
lated (" soaked " is the term which an English statesman 
lately invented) ; and all naturalists, who take an inter- 
est in it, may adopt whichever theory they prefer, be 
it chemical, conchological, or malacological — in other 
words, that the excavation is caused by the solvent 
power of an acid, the rasping action of the shell, or the 
sucker-like application of the foot. This is a very long 
commentary, and I am afraid it will terribly "bore^ many 
of my readers ; so I will resume the analysis of Sellius's 
monograph. The quantity of water taken in and re- 
tained by the Teredo is prodigious : Sellius not inaptly 
compared the animal to an hydraulic machine. I feel 
the same admiration that he avowed of the wonderful 
sagacity shown by the Teredo in making its way through 
a piece of wood, so as to avoid the tubes of other indi- 
viduals. Every one pursues its own course with unerring 
instinct ; and it must be gifted with some organ of sense 
or apprehension, more delicate than we can conceive, 
in order that it may be aware when it approaches an- 
other Teredo. The sheaths are never contiguous, but 
in every instance separated by an intervening layer of 
wood. The Teredo uses its pallets as a means of defence 
against its enemies, by closing the opening of the canal, 

thus 

" . . . . omnem aditum custode coronans." 

He rightly described them as inserted in a sphincter- 
like ligament at the base of the siphons. The function 
of these processes is identical with that of the operculum 
in many univalves — although they are not homologous, 
or produced by similar organs. He next considered the 
sexuality of the Teredo. His assertion that it is her- 



TEREDO. 139 

maphrodite (in which he followed Fontenel and Massuet) 
has been within the last few years maintained by 
Laurent, in opposition to the opinion of Quatrefages 
that it is bisexual. The last-named author, indeed, 
stated not only that the sexes are separate, but .that the 
proportion of males was 5 or 6 out of 100 individuals 
of T. pedicellata which he examined, the rest being 
females. Baster had fancied, more than a century 
before this, that coition took place between the Teredines 
by means of their siphons ! Laurent informs us that he 
found in an hermaphrodite gland of T. Norvegica eggs 
and spermatic capsules at the same time, and that the 
internal organization of the animal did not offer any 
character to distinguish one sex from the other. I will 
not pretend to decide such a controversy, which in all 
probability concerns the whole of the Conchiferous 
mollusca; but I have already (vol. i. introd. p. xxv) 
given my reasons for concurring with Milne-EdAvards 
in the belief that all the members of this class are 
monoecious. The period of propagation, according to 
Sellius, extends over the greater part of the year, even 
as late as December, although the summer would seem 
to be the most favourable season. In the month of 
February he found the ovaries flaccid and emptv. 
Sellius states that the eggs are never produced inside 
the wood, but excluded by one of the siphons. He 
suggested that the latter might have a peculiar (we 
may say strange) function, namely that of moistening 
the outside of the wood, and agglutinating the eggs to 
its surface, or even excavating minute holes in it for the 
purpose of assisting the fry in effecting an entrance. 
He was also mistaken in supposing that the fry were 
hatched only when the eggs adhered to the wood. It 
has since been ascertained that this process takes place 



140 TEREDINID.E. 

inside the mantle of the Teredo, and that the fry are 
ejected into the water in a larval or metamorphic state. 
He was not aware that the fry have eyes and can there- 
fore select their own habitat ; ,or he would not have 
attributed their position in the wood to the maternal 
care of their parents, under the idea that they are at 
the mercy of the winds and waves. Massuet, moreover, 
had previously put forth a notion that the fry crept 
about the surface of the wood, and sought out convenient 
spots where they could burrow. Our author observed 
that the Teredo, in its earliest stage, underwent a kind 
of metamorphosis by the method called "epigenesis/' 
which is now recognized by most physiologists. This 
remark is followed by an inquiry into the mystery of 
Creation, in which he discusses the common opinion of 
certain neoteric writers of his time that all living beings 
had descended from original forms or types. The soli- 
tary nature of the Teredo was not overlooked bv him. 
Although surrounded on every side by companions, it 
has no means of communication with them. Each lives 
alone in a crowd. Nevertheless Sellius gives his fa- 
vourite credit for a generous and unselfish disposition, 
which its fellow creature, man, might well endeavour to 
emulate. Nor did the Dutch philosopher exhibit less in- 
dustry in his examination of the nomenclature of Teredo. 
He ransacked the works of manv a classical author and 
naturalist, from Plato and Aristotle to Oppian and Reau- 
mur, with a view to elucidate its history; but he appears 
to have got rather bewildered by the gossip of Pliny, who 
confounded the Teredo with the grub of an insect. Sellius 
did not share the credulity of some of his contemporaries 
in supposing that T. navalis was introduced into Holland 
by vessels (or in any other way) from foreign parts ; for he 
unquestionably knew that the European species are diffe- 



TEREDO. 141 

rent from those which inhabit tropical seas. Although 
the Dutch shipworm also infests the coasts of the Crimea, 
there is just as much reason for believing that it had been 
imported from the German Ocean into the Black Sea, 
as that it had been exported in the opposite direction. 
Linnets assertion, made seventeen years after the publi- 
cation of the work now under consideration, that the Te- 
redo was " ex Indiis propagata," had no other foundation 
than common rumour. He ought to have known bet- 
ter. Sellius, however, was inclined to suspect the recent 
origin of Teredo, as a native of the German Ocean, and 
to agree with his pious countrymen that it was a scourge 
in the hand of an offended Deitv, and inflicted on them 
for their sins. It is mentioned bv Smollett, in his 
chronological medlev of home and foreign news, called 
a ' History of England/ that in 1732 " the Dutch 
were greatly alarmed by an apprehension of being over- 
whelmed by an inundation occasioned by worms, which 
were said to have consumed the piles of timber work 
that supported their dykes. They prayed and fasted 
with uncommon zeal in terror of this calamitv, which 
thev did not know how to avert in anv other manner. 
At length thev were delivered from their fears bv a 
hard frost, which effectuallv destroved these dangerous 
animals." Among the enemies of the Teredo, which 
serve to check its increase, Sellius enumerates the 
smaller fishes, which prey upon the fry in their free 
state, and many insects (annelids and Crustacea) which 
attack and devour the adult. Foremost among the 
latter class of natural foes he ranks the Nereilepas (or 
Lycoris) fucata, which he calls a marine Scolopendra. 
This is frequently found in the empty canal of the 
Teredo, of which it has taken possession, after insinua- 
ting itself and clearing out the original occupant. His 



142 TEREDINID.-E. 

account of the voracity of N. fucata is confirmed by a 
most valuable and instructive report presented to the 
Academy of Sciences at Amsterdam, in I860, by Pro- 
fessor Vrolik, the Secretarv of a Commission which 
was appointed to inquire into the natural history of the 
Teredo and the best mode of preventing its ravages on 
the coasts of Holland. It was there stated that the 
larvse of the Nereilepas and Teredo live together ; and 
it is probable that, instead of the annelid entering in 
an adult state the canal of the shipworm, as Sellius con- 
jectured, it deposits its eggs in the open siphons of the 
latter, whence they afterwards find their way into the 
body and are developed. The larvae of some dipterous 
insects have been also observed by Dr. Verloren, as well 
as Sellius, to prey on the Dutch shipworm. Cochleo- 
c tonus vorax disposes in nearly a similar way of cer- 
tain snails. I have seen shells of Helix strigella and 
H. incarnata, each of which was occupied by a grub of 
that beetle, coiled round in a spiral shape like the 
snail which it had supplanted. The name of the artifi- 
cial remedies which were known at the time when 
Sellius wrote was legion. He reckoned about 600 
kinds of ointment, or preparations of an oily nature; 
and he proposed one, which we now call creosote, to 
penetrate the pores of wood by some hydrostatic power, 
and which would have the effect of hardening and pre- 
serving the timber. He had no faith in the efficacy of 
any poison, being fully impressed with the idea that the 
Teredo feeds on wood only; nor did he believe that, 
even if this were not the case, the wood could be sa- 
turated or imbued with poison by the most expensive 
process that it was possible to discover. A thick and 
durable coat of varnish, applied to the surface of the 
wood, was in his judgment the best preventive, because 



TEREDO. 143 

it would keep out the fry. He especially noticed a 
balsam of wonderful virtue, and kept a secret, which was 
patronized by Peter the Great. Possibly this was the 
resin now extracted by the Cochin Chinese from a gi- 
gantic tree called "cav-dan" and lately noticed bv 
M. Mariot, a lieutenant in the French navv. Native 
canoes, hollowed out from the trunks of this kind of 
tree, are said never to be worm-eaten. Among other 
means of protection that had been long in use and 
were still in vogue in his day, were the following : — for 
ships, an inner layer of calf-skins, cow-hair, pounded 
glass, ashes, glue, chalk, moss, or charcoal; for piles, 
large iron nails driven in close together ; and for both, 
hard and close-grained woods. By the first of these 
methods, however (which is still partially made use of 
by the Turks and Arabs in the Mediterranean), the 
ship's course was apt to be retarded; and the latter 
remedy was expensive and not always efficacious. He 
said that the application of pitch or coal tar to the sur- 
face of the wood had been recommended bv a Londoner 
of some repute. We find in the ' Philosophical Trans- 
actions ' for 1666 an announcement by an anonymous 
writer that " a very worthy person in London suggests 
the pitch, drawn out of sea- coals, for a good remedy to 
scare away these noisome insects." The late Lord 
Dundonald little suspected that the boasted discovery 
of his father had been so long forestalled. Nor did 
Sellius overlook the patent, granted by Act of Parlia- 
ment in the reign of Charles II. (1671) to Sir Philip 
Howard and Major Watson for preserving the hulls of 
ships from worms by a sheathing of lead mixed with 
some other metal, a composition now superseded by 
copper. The conclusion arrived at by Sellius was 
that the surest remedy consisted in trying to propitiate 



1-44 TEREDINID.E. 

the wrath of the Almighty by constant prayer and 
praise. Many succeeded Sellius in investigating the 
natural history of the Teredo ; but Adanson, Home, 
Montagu, Deshayes, Quatrefages, Laurent, Clark, Fis- 
cher, and Harting are perhaps all whose observations 
are worthy of being noticed. If I have omitted the 
name of any other writer, I offer by anticipation the 
most ample apology for my neglect. 

3. Habits and organization. — The opportunities which 
I have had of examining this villanous animal (as Massuet 
calls it) , and of observing its habits, were not so many as I 
wished ; but I will relate faithfully what I have witnessed. 
On my return in 1860 from the Continent, through 
Holland, I had the pleasure of meeting Dr. Verloren at 
Utrecht, and of carefully inspecting at his house living 
specimens of T. navalis, enclosed in pieces of the dyke- 
piles, which he had kept in long glass jars for about ten 
months. They appeared to have become habituated to 
the loudest noise ; and even when the jar was moved, or 
the light suddenly obstructed, they did not withdraw their 
terminal tubes or siphons. The longer (or alimentary 
and incurrent) tube was in frequent motion, and bent in 
various directions, as if in search of food, while a current 
of water, full of animalcula, continually passed into it. 
The shorter (or feecal and excurrent) tube performed its 
functions at intervals, expelling the woody pulp by a spas- 
modic action, and occasionally withdrawing, in order the 
better to effect its purpose when any stoppage occurred. 
Each tube was transparent, and fringed with cilia at its 
orifice. The Teredines seemed to prefer the sunny side of 
the jar; they are said to be very sensitive to cold. But 
the most interesting peculiarity which I observed, and to 
which my attention was directed by Dr. Verloren, was 
that each of the tubes was protected or enveloped exter- 



TEREDO. 145 

nally by a very thin, pellucid, and film-like membrane 
or sheath. These tube-sheaths are irregularly annular, 
like the testaceous sheath or case which lines the exca- 
vation in the wood ; and thev bear a considerable re- 
semblance in shape to the stem of Tubularia indivisa, 
though differing from it in texture and colour. The 
sheath of the alimentary tube is about an inch long, 
and the other is half that length. Their annular struc- 
ture evidently arises from successive accretions of growth. 
The use of these membranous sheaths may be either to 
prevent the delicate tubes, which they cover for about 
half their length, being choked or obstructed by the 
accumulation of the flocculent pulp lying outside, or 
else to protect them from the attacks of minute preda- 
cious animals. Thev are renewed from time to time : 
and in one of the specimens two separate pairs of these 
membranous sheaths were attached to the outer opening 
of the testaceous sheath in the Avood, one pair having 
been apparently disused and a new set formed. The 
Teredines grow and multiply with astonishing ra- 
pidity. Quatrefages has given us an instance. A ferry- 
boat plying between two villages on the opposite sides 
of the mouth of Guibuscoa harbour in the Bay of Pas- 
sages, on the north coast of Spain, was accidentally 
sunk in the beginning of spring. Tour months after- 
wards some fishermen raised the boat, hoping to make 
use of the materials. But in this short space of time 
the Teredo (T. pedicellatd) had made such ravages, that 
the planks and beams were quite worm-eaten and de- 
stroyed. Sailors have given me some interesting ac- 
counts of hair-breadth escapes which they had, while 
engaged in boat duty for a few weeks at a time on 
foreign stations, in consequence of the paint having been 
rubbed off the sides of the boat below the water-line : 

VOL. III. H 



146 teredinidjE. 

wherever this was the case the ship-worm got in, and 
speedily reduced the thickness or strength of the plank 
to little more than that of an egg-shell. I have not un- 
frequently noticed crowds of very young individuals in 
a small and thin strip of deal, which could not accom- 
modate any one of them if it grew larger : in fact each 
had gone to the very end of its tether; and another step 
would have laid bare its foot, and thus have exposed the 
most vulnerable part of the body to its rapacious enemies. 
Not having room to grow, or the power of removing to 
a larger piece of wood, all these individuals must neces- 
sarily perish without arriving at maturity. This fact 
apparently illustrates a law of nature, which might be 
termed blind ; but it may also be regarded as one of the 
numerous methods by which various races of animals 
and plants are kept under, so as to prevent an excessive 
multiplication of any of them to the exclusion or detri- 
ment of the rest. If no such checks were imposed, all 
the wood on the face of the earth, if placed in the sea, 
would probably not suffice to contain the Teredines 
produced in a single year. The natural span of life 
allotted to the Teredo is unknown to us : perhaps it may 
be ascertained by means of the aquarium. It is supposed 
that they attain their full growth in the course of a 
few months. Extreme cold is fatal to them. Accord- 
ing to the observations of Quatrefages on the north 
coast of Spain, nearly all appear to perish in the winter ; 
a few only survive to continue the breed. Vrolik be- 
lieved that they hybemate on the Dutch coast. Warm 
and drv seasons are favourable to them. In Holland, 
where their proceedings have been watched with so 
much anxiety, it was noticed that the greatest ravages 
are made in July and August, and that the most de- 
structive years during the last and present centuries were 



TEREDO. 147 

1731, 1770, 1827, 1858, and 1859. Very little rain fell 
in those years. Laurent showed that thev are suffocated 
and destroyed by oil being poured on the water in a 
vessel containing Teredines in a piece of wood. He also 
proved that they could not live in the " Salines ■' at 
Hieres, too much salt being as injurious to them as 
fresh water. But it appears that certain species 
live in brackish or even fresh water. The T. Sene- 
galensis of De Blainville was discovered by Adanson 
in the roots of the mangrove and another kind 
of tree lining the banks of the Niger, Gambier, and 
other rivers on the west coast of Africa, which were 
only subject to an influx of sea- water for a few months 
in each year. According to Adanson the water of these 
rivers is quite fresh or sweet during the remaining 
months ; and T. Senegalensis not only exists, but re- 
tains its full vigour throughout the whole year. This 
statement, however, must be received with some quali- 
fication. I am told by Dr. Welwitsch, the great botani- 
cal traveller, that in the tidal rivers of South Africa the 
water in the middle of the stream is fresh, while that 
on the sides is brackish, and that no kind of mangrove 
has been known to live in fresh water. Another sort of 
shipworm [Nausitora Dunlopei of Perceval Wright) 
has been lately found in India, inhabiting the river 
Comer, one of the branches of the Ganges, and a per- 
fectly freshwater stream, that returns to the main river 
at a distance of about 70 miles from the sea. Dr. Kirk, 
the friend and companion of Livingstone, informs me 
that he picked up a piece of ebony (Dalbergia me- 
lanoxylori) on a sandbank in the Zambesi river, the 
water of which was there always fresh and drink- 
able, 100 miles from the sea — very far beyond the in- 
fluence of the tide, which never comes above 10 miles 

h2 



148 TEREDINID.E. 

up the creeks of the delta. This piece of ebony was 
pierced in all directions by a species of Teredo having a 
calcareous sheath. The kind of wood mentioned by 
Dr. Kirk resembles the ebony of commerce, but is 
utterly worthless, except as fire- wood ; and therefore it is 
not at all likely that the piece in question could have 
been accidentally brought inland, after being perforated 
in the sea by the Teredo. It sinks in water, is rather 
brittle, much harder and far more compact than either 
mahogany or teak, and is full of some mineral matter 
that quickly deadens the edge of any tool. It does not 
grow on the coast, nor within 50 miles of it on the 
Zambesi. Dr. Kirk adds that in the bottom planks of 
the pinnace belonging to the expedition the shipworm 
was also found, with its soft parts attached to the finely 
sculptured valves. The boat was so riddled that the 
quartermaster pushed a paint-brush through her double 
planks. This was at Tete, 250 miles from the sea, after 
the pinnace had remained there six months at anchor. 
I regret not having space to give in extenso Dr. Kirk's 
interesting account of all the circumstances connected 
with this discovery. Unfortunately the specimens were 
lost on the way home ; but not the slightest doubt can 
be entertained that the Teredo observed by him inhabits 
water which is at all times perfectly fresh and sweet. 
The habits of the Teredo are littoral. When they are 
met with far from land, the piece of wood which contains 
them has been accidentally detached and carried out to sea 
by some marine current. Dr. Lukis noticed that, at Sark, 
T. Norvegica and T. pedicellata pass more than half 
their time out of water, during the recess of each tide, 
when the shipping-stages in which they live are left 
high and dry. Sir Everard Home confirmed the obser- 
vation of Sellius, by saying that " the worm appears 



TEREDO. 149 

commonly to bore in the direction of the grain of the 
wood, but occasionally it bores across the grain, to avoid 
the track of any of the others." Although this is the 
direction which it usually takes, it is bv no means un- 
common to see perforations inclined at various angles, 
and sometimes even made right through a tough knot 
in a piece of oak. Montagu also remarked, with his 
usual acuteness, that " the Teredo bores across the 
grain of the wood as seldom as possible ; for after it 
has penetrated a little way, it turns and continues with 
the grain, tolerably straight, until it meets with another 
shell, or perhaps a knot which produces a flexure ; its 
course then depends on the nature of the obstruction ; 
if considerable, it makes a short turn back in form of a 
syphon, rather than continue any distance across the 
grain." The same kind of siphonal bend takes place 
when the piece of wood, being shorter than the average 
length of the Teredo, is nevertheless broad enough to 
admit of its abruptly turning and doubling like a coursed 
hare. If the space is not sufficient for its complete 
development, the Teredo shuts itself up and closes the 
front with a cap-shaped epiphragm; it never pene- 
trates that end of the wood, so as to make the canal 
pervious. The Teredo possesses the same cartilaginous 
styliform process which I noticed in the account of 
P ho las. The imbricated plates, or septa, that line the 
neck of the sheath in probably every species, serve as 
ledges to support or strengthen the pallets, which are 
withdrawn further into the sheath as the Teredo increases 
in length and bulk ; the last formed plate is consequently 
innermost. Fischer counted twenty-five of these plates 
in a sheath of T. Norvegica. I do not agree with him 
in believing that the Teredo goes on perforating the 
wood beyond what is required for its habitation, nor 



150 TEREDINID^. 

that it abandons by slow degrees the narrower end of 
the canal. The pallets of course increase in size rela- 
tively to the growth of the body ; and as the sheath 
enlarges inwards, new plates are formed in that direc- 
tion to accommodate the increased size of the pallets. 
Although the body is contractile to a certain extent (as 
we see in dead specimens), it is fixed to the sheath by 
the muscular ring which contains the pallets, and there- 
fore cannot be withdrawn into the canal beyond that 
line; the other extremity is employed in excavation, 
until the canal has been completed. When a Teredo 
has ceased to excavate before attaining its full growth, 
and has interposed a barrier in front, its valves become 
stunted and somewhat altered in shape, although their 
sculpture is similar to that of ordinary specimens. The 
same fact is observable in many other bivalves that in- 
habit cavities or confined spaces, whether they are of a 
boring or of a free nature. The cap-shaped plug, often 
formed in front of the valves by individuals of every 
age, serves as a partition wall between adjoining canals, 
as well as indicates that the animal has ceased working; it 
is formed like the sheath, but its substance is thinner. 
Sometimes two or more of these plugs may be seen, one 
after another, at various distances apart, as if the animal 
had withdrawn and thus strengthened its inner line of 
fortifications. Fischer Avas disposed to regard this secre- 
tion as analogous to the epiphragm of land shells. That, 
however, is only constructed for a temporary or occa- 
sional purpose, and can be dissolved by the snail at 
pleasure. It does not appear that the Teredo can do 
this and resume its work of perforation. Laurent be- 
lieved that the plugs or caps of the Teredo are made for 
hybernation, an idea that is open to the same objection 
as that of Fischer. The tubes or siphons, when in 



TEREDO. 151 

action and extended, diverge considerably ; so that the 
excreta! tube discharges the exhausted water, faeces, 
and woody pulp backwards, or in such a direction as 
not to interfere with the current which passes into the 
branchial and alimentary tube. Clark insists that the 
anterior adductor muscle in Teredo, as well as in Pholas, 
is a " genuine cartilage, which is a secretion from 
glands." This notion is opposed to that of other phy- 
siologists; and I merely mention it to show how difficult 
it is for one not conversant with such matters to decide 
the question, or even to understand how a cartilage or 
ligament can be secreted in the manner suggested by 
my late friend. He also stated that the pallets act as a 
sort of force-pump, to facilitate the flow of water through 
the long canal. M. Cailliaud supposes, on the other 
hand, that the use of those appendages is to macerate 
such food as is too bulkv to enter the tube. I cannot 
accept either view. The one is hypothetical, and does 
not accord with our knowledge of the nature of 
the animal. The other assumes that the pallets lie 
inside the alimentary tube, or at its orifice, neither 
of which is the case ; they are placed at the outer 
base of that tube, when it is protruded in search 
of food. Valenciennes and Quatrefages consider the 
posterior muscle to be that which attaches the pallet- 
supporting ring to the sheath. Clark " perceived in the 
centre of each plate a decided muscular impression/'' 
This I have not seen; but the posterior lobe or " auricle" 
of each valve exhibits a scar, precisely similar to that 
with which the corresponding portion of other bivalve 
shells is marked ; and the muscle itself, connecting this 
part in Teredo, is very strong and conspicuous. I 
should be disposed to regard the muscle, which supports 
the pallets and is attached to that part of the sheath, as 



152 TEREDINID.E. 

the homologue of tlie sinuated portion of the pallial mus- 
cle in Pholas. In both cases it is placed at the base of 
the tubes or siphons. 

4. Embryology. — Nearly all our knowledge of this 
part of the natural history of Teredo is derived from an 
elaborate memoir by Quatrefages in the ' Annales des 
Sciences Naturelles • for 1849. The process of oviposi- 
tion is successive and of long duration. During a 
period which varies according to the species, the female 
emits her eggs, which are arrested and lodged in the 
folds of the respiratory organs. In this singular nest 
they are fertilized by the spermatozoa of a male, 
disseminated through the mass of the surrounding 
water, some of which find their way into the bran- 
chial tube of the female, where they meet with the 
eggs and vivify them by contact. The same me- 
thod of impregnation takes place in Anodonta or the 
freshwater mussel. The egg, while in the ovary, 
consists at first of an extremely minute globule, which 
is simple, homogeneous, transparent, and quite colour- 
less. This is called " the vesicle of Purkinje." Some 
very fine granules soon appear in the substance of this 
globule ; and in a short time may be seen developed in 
its interior a second globule called " the germinative 
spot of Wagner." The two globules increase together 
for some time before the formation of the yelk- mem- 
brane which covers the whole. In this state the egg is 
exactly spherical. Its volume then becomes enlarged ; 
and after passing through other phases, it assumes 
the shape of a tear, and when emitted the sphere is 
converted into an irregular oval. The spermatozoa 
now attach themselves to the egg, and certain internal 
movements and changes ensue. These last for about 
two hours ; the yelk- granules are distributed through- 



TEREDO. 153 

out the substance of the egg, and ultimately separate 
into two nearly equal parts, one of which encroaches 
by degrees on the other and at last completely enve- 
lopes it. Towards the eleventh hour the yelk is trans- 
formed into an agglomerative mass, composed of two 
well-defined portions, and covered by a more or less 
folded membrane. One of these portions now separates 
into three lobes ; and vibratory cilia make their appear- 
ance, at first short, thick, and few in number, after- 
wards longer, finer, and much more numerous. The 
cilia surround the entire body of the frv, which soon 
swims with great rapidity, like one of the Infusoria. 
This state lasts till nearlv the forty-eighth hour: then the 
number of the cilia diminishes, and the fry falls to the 
bottom of the vessel, where it moves rather slowly. 
At the same time the yelk- membrane is divided into 
two equal parts. These are the rudiments of the shell, 
which at first is quite membranous, flexible, and irre- 
gularly oval, with a salient angle at the point cor- 
responding with the hinge. In a short time this form 
is altered ; the salient angle is effaced, and superseded 
by a re-entering angle. The shell is then symmetrical 
and heart-shaped, and at the same time is encrusted 
by calcareous salts and solidified. During the forma- 
tion of the shell the mantle is developed, with delicately 
ciliated edges, which are destined to replace the original 
ciliary apparatus. The new cilia are extensible and re- 
tractile, and consist of a single row. The fry can 
withdraw entirely into their shells. At this stage they 
appear not to be sensible of noises, nor even of an 
agitation of the water in which they are placed. It 
constitutes a critical period of their lives ; and a largo 
proportion of the infantile community then perish. 
About the sixty-eighth hour from the production of the 

H 



154 TERED1NID/E. 

egg the cilia commence growing, and become stronger. 
The duration of the last period of growth is miknown. 
Some of the fry survived for 130 hours. The perfect 
larva swims rapidly, like a Rotifer, and has a long, nar- 
row, and strap-shaped foot — very flexible and resembling 
that of a young mussel — by means of which it creeps 
with apparent ease along the bottom of the vessel. It 
remains for a long time suspended in the water by a 
transparent filament from the sides of the vessel. The 
shell then becomes nearly globular, instead of irregu- 
larly oval ; a pair of red eyes are seen in the middle of 
the body ; and otolites, or ear-stones, and other organs 
are formed. The eyes afterwards disappear, the body is 
elongated, and the animal assumes its complete form. I 
have given the above description of Quatrefages nearly 
in full, because it explains the embryogeny of the Con- 
chiferous Mollusca in general. This eminent zoologist 
is of opinion that the Teredo undergoes a true or complete 
metamorphosis. In the first state of growth its integu- 
ments are membranous ; it has no distinct organs ; its 
sole mode of locomotion is by means of cilia, which cover 
the body : it is a larva. In the second state it has acquired 
a shell ; it possesses distinct organs of sense, besides a 
special apparatus for swimming and a foot for creeping : 
it is then a chrysalis or pupa. The third and last state 
represents an imago ; the transformation has been com- 
pleted, and the animal thus developed enters upon a 
new phase of life, with appliances peculiarly adapted 
to its altered conditions. In reality, however, the evo- 
lution from a simple globule into a shell-fish endowed 
^with a comparatively high degree of organization, and 
of a complicated structure, is not the result of sudden 
changes, but is effected by a series of successive growths, 
or epigenesis. The outer membrane of the egg becomes 



TEREDO. 155 

a mantle, which, at first forms the shell and afterwards 
the pallets and sheath ; the cilia, which invest most (if 
not all) embryonic forms are absorbed, and a foot is 
produced out of the firmer tissues of the body, and 
substituted for the ciba; the eyes, mouth, palps, 
stomach, intestine, liver, heart, gills, muscles, nerves, 
reproductive and other organs come upon the stage 
and play their several parts. " Instinct " does duty as 
prompter. This, the inventive faculty of every creature 
but man, provides for its necessities of food and de- 
fence, and dictates the nature of its habits bv an in- 
scrutable kind of prescience, that is little less than 
divine. Laurent, Lukis, and others have also noticed 
the great activity of the fry in their intermediate state ; 
and M. Kater observed them swimming freely about 
the piles in the dykes of Holland, and after a while 
attaching themselves to the wood. Like the oyster-fry, 
they seem capable, to a certain extent, of selecting their 
habitat, and they probably use their eyes for that pur- 
pose ; but this can only be the case when the sea is 
unusually calm, their puny force being quite un- 
equal to contend with any agitation of the water. I 
have just re-examined a piece of wood to which some of 
the fry of T. navalis still adhere. Each is no bigger 
than the smallest pin's head, and is enclosed in a pair of 
somewhat oval, close-fitting, semimembranous, and yel- 
lowish valves, the only opening in which serves as a 
passage for the foot or point of attachment. It bears 
some resemblance to a minute Cy there or crustacean of 
the Entomostracan kind, as well as to the pupa or last 
larval state of a Cirripede. The original or rudimentary 
valves are persistent, and form the umbonal portion of 
the perfect ones ; they are easily recognizable in young 
specimens by their different shape, consistency, and co- 



156 TEREDINIDjE. 

lour. A similar retention of embryonic parts occurs in 
the case of beetles, the grubs of which do not part with 
their horny jaws when they attain an adult state. It is 
otherwise with the Lepidoptera, which exchange their 
larval mandibles for a suctorial proboscis. The meta- 
morphosis of Teredo is not less wonderful than that 
which takes place in the frog, insect, or polype. 

5. Structure of Shell. — The sculpture of the shell is 
excessively complicated and delicate. Harting counted 
4000 denticles in the anterior portion, and nearly 10,000 
in the middle division of a single valve of T. navalis. 
Dr. Carpenter kindly examined, at my request, the 
microscopical structure of the valves and sheath of T. 
Stutchburii. He informs me that the valves are ex- 
tremely hard in texture, and that their substance has a 
very peculiar arrangement, corresponding generally with 
that of the shells of the bivalves most nearlv allied to it, 
but having so special an adaptation to produce a fine 
file-like disposition of the surface, that he cannot help 
surmising there is more in the mechanical theory than 
I am disposed to admit. The sheath is destitute of any- 
thing like true structure, but has all the characters of a 
mere exudation shell, formed of minute calcareous 
particles, agglutinated together, very much like some 
egg-shells. He adds that the difference in texture 
between the two is nearly the same as that between the 
half chalky substance of a crab's carapace, and the 
almost ivory-like consistence of the black tips of its 
claws. I would observe that the sheath of Kuphus 
arenarius is remarkably solid and compact, with a 
radiating structure, and that the surface of the shells in 
some of the Pholadidce, and even in species of Tellina 
and other genera, exhibit a file-like arrangement. 

6. Origin. — An erroneous notion was formerly preva- 



TEREDO. 157 

lent that the Teredo had been originally introduced into 
Europe from foreign parts — " calamitas naviuni ex In- 
diis in Europam propagata," Linne, — which seemed to 
be in some measure confirmed by its sudden appearance 
in particular years. Even Mr. Osier, so late as 1826, 
took for granted that T. Norvegica was not a native of 
the British seas ; and he expressed his belief that, until 
the general use of copper sheathing, it was probably 
preserved only by occasional importations. But we now 
find that each kind of Teredo has its own special area of 
habitat. Tropical species will not live in the temperate 
zone, and vice versa. That the Teredo is not of modern 
origin in Europe is evident from the fact that T. Nor- 
vegica, which at present is distributed over the North 
Atlantic from Einmark to Sicily and Algiers, is also 
found in both old and new deposits of our upper Tertiary 
formation. T. megotara inhabits the coasts of Shetland, 
and more northern latitudes in both hemispheres ; and 
it occurs in a fossil state at Belfast and Uddevalla. 
Deshayes first noticed the same fact with regard to T. 
Norvegica being a fossil of the Italian tertiaries, as well 
as of the Crag ; and it appears to be conclusive. 

7. Distribution in the British seas. — Its distribution 
along the British coast appears to be somewhat capri- 
cious. Seaports, in which the admixture of fresh water 
is considerable, such as Hull and Liverpool, are exempt 
from the Teredo. But this rule has its exceptions. 
The Medway is infested with the Dutch ship worm (T. 
navalis), especially the upper reaches of the river, where 
the water becomes less salt. I extracted living speci- 
mens from the keel of a " watch boat/' kept at anchor 
off Queensborough in that river for the purposes of the 
lobster trade in the Billingsgate market. Milford 
Haven has the Norway shipworm (T. Norvegica) 



158 TERED1NID.E. 

plentiful and of a large size. None of the other ports 
in the Bristol Channel are troubled with that or any- 
other species. The dispersion of mollusca is so wonder- 
fully rapid, that in all probability a vessel wrecked any- 
where on our coast, but not driven ashore, or a newly 
erected submarine woodwork, will sooner or later attract 
the wandering fry of some Teredo, which must have a 
suitable nidus or prematurely perish. Or, as the whole 
ocean teems with life in various states of development, 
the germs of invertebrate animals (like the seeds of some 
plants) may remain dormant for a long period, and only 
become vivified when placed in favourable circumstances. 
8. Economical relations to man. — The new Salvage 
Act has somewhat interfered with the liberty of con- 
chologists in searching the shore for Teredines. Mr. 
Dennis was more than once baulked in his hopes of 
examining a promising piece of driftwood, seen floating 
towards Beachy Head, by the coastguard marking it 
with the broad arrow directly it reached the shore. A 
douceur is consequently necessary to secure the prize of 
a honeycombed log. If Crabbe were a living poet, he 
could not now say of the naturalist, 

" His is untaxed and undisputed game." 

The destructive nature of the Teredo is notorious ; 
but we can hardly realize the extent of the damage 
which these obscure miners perpetrate, by their stealthy 
and incessant operations, when they attack our piers 
and other submarine wooden structures. Quatrefages 
asks us to imagine what would become of our trees and 
furniture, and of the beams, joists, and rafters of our 
houses, if they were to be gnawed by grubs measuring 
a foot or more in length. However, no evil is unmixed 
or without compensation. Smeathman, in his "Ac- 



TEREDO. 159 

count of the Termites" (Phil. Trans. 1781), remarked 
that the seaworms appear to have the same scavenger 
office allotted to them in the waters which the white 
ants have on the land. It was also suggested by 
Laurent and others that the Teredo might be occasion- 
ally serviceable to us bv assisting in the removal of 
wrecks, sunk at the entrance of harbours, which would 
otherwise obstruct navigation. The celebrated Redi 
describes it, in a letter to his friend Megalotti, as being 
not only eatable, but excelling all shell-fish, the 
oyster not excepted, in its exquisite flavour. Nardo 
likewise praises the Teredo, although in less rapturous 
terms : he wonders why the Venetians, who call it 
u bisse del legno," do not eat it. I should, for my own 
part, be surprised that any person having a stomach 
could venture to try the experiment ; for the smell of 
even a fresh shipworm is almost enough to turn one 
sick. Ducks, however, seem to relish it, and not less 
when it is in a half putrid state. As regards man, its 
chief mission mav be 

"To fill with worm-holes stately monuments" 

of his workmanship. Perhaps it is one of the creatures 
made not so much for our use as for our punishment. 
Southey tells us that Bellarmine allowed mosquitos and 
other small deer free right of pasture upon his corporal 
domains, being more indulgent to them than to heretics. 
He thought they were created to afford exercise for our 
patience, and moreover that it is unjust for us to inter- 
rupt them in their enjoyment here, when we consider 
that they have no other paradise to expect. Yet when 
the cardinal controversialist gave breakfast, dinner, or 
supper of this kind, he was far from partaking any 
sympathetic pleasure in the happiness which he im- 



160 TEKEDINIDJE. 

parted ; for it is related of him that at one time he was 
so terribly bitten "a bestiolis quibusdam nequam ae 
damnificis " (it is not necessary to inquire of what 
species), as earnestly to pray that if there were any 
torments in Hell itself so dreadful as what he was then 
enduring, the Lord would be pleased not to send him 
there, for he should not be able to bear it. Patience, 
however, is not one of the cardinal virtues that we 
practise ; and we therefore feel no compunction such 
as Bellarmine had, but wage an incessant war of exter- 
mination against the poor, not harmless Teredines. 

9. Remedies. — Although our good neighbours the 
Dutch have been the principal sufferers from this ma- 
ritime plague, we have not been spared. In 1826 
Mr. Osier believed that the Teredo, as a British animal, 
was nearly and probably quite extinct. We should not 
be sorry to find that this case of " dying out " had a 
better foundation than many of those which have been 
assumed by theoretical naturalists with respect to cer- 
tain harmless mollusca. Unfortunately the ravages still 
committed by this noxious mollusk in our harbours and 
naval arsenals tell a different tale. In 1860 it was pro- 
posed by a Committee of the British Association (of 
which Committee I was chairman) to have certain 
experiments made in the dockyard at Plymouth, 
with a view to prevent the further destruction by the 
Teredo of Government timber, which had cost the country 
a considerable sum every year. A small grant had been 
voted by the Association for such purposes. We find in 
f Household Words } for 1857 the following statement: 
" It has been estimated that at Plymouth and Devon- 
port alone the boring worms have in one year destroyed 
Government works to the amount of £8000." Per- 
mission to have these experiments made was asked 



TEREDO. 161 

through the Port- Admiral, Sir Thomas Pasley, who ex- 
pressed his entire approval, but forwarded the application 
to the Admiralty. It is scarcely credible that no answer 
was received for nearly a month, and that then came a 
simple refusal without any reason given for it ! In 
France and Holland special commissions have been issued 
in the hope of discovering an efficacious remedy against 
the attacks of the shipworm ; and experiments on an ex- 
tensive scale are still being carried on in the last men- 
tioned country. The preliminary reports which have ap- 
peared (especially those of the Dutch Commission in 1860, 
1861, 1862, and 1864) show the great pains taken to 
ascertain as well the extent of the injury as the various 
modes already devised to prevent it. Great Britain, 
unlike other States, does not count a single naturalist 
in her national assembly ; and the Government will not, 
unless urged by popular pressure, take the initiative, or 
even forward any plan of public improvement which is 
out of the regular groove of routine. Few persons know 
what a Teredo is ; and the general ignorance of such 
subjects is too great for any except zoologists to distin- 
guish this animal from wood-gnawing crustaceans, the 
Limnoria and Chelura. We therefore ought not to 
laugh at the ancients for confounding the shipworm 
with the grub of an insect. With all of us the material 
predominates over the intellectual. Wealth and its 
companion luxury constitute our summum bonum ; and 
knowledge is ignored. 

" The world is too much with us ; late and soon, 
Getting and spending we lav waste our powers ; 
Little we see in nature that is ours ; 
We have given our hearts away, a sordid boon ! " 

It will of course be answered that there are other 
things to be learnt besides the history of ship worms. 



162 TERED1NID/E. 

But is anything learnt now-a-days, save only the arts of 
money-making and pleasure-seeking ? 

In all probability the constitution of a shipworm is 
poison-proof. Most of the remedies proposed in the 
last century were of this nature, and they signally failed. 
Quatrefages, indeed, has suggested that the production of 
the Teredo might be checked by dissolving in the water 
at the proper season a trifling quantity of corrosive 
sublimate or acetate of lead, so as to destroy the sper- 
matozoa or fertilizing agent. He tried some experi- 
ments of this kind on a small scale in the harbour of 
St. Sebastian. Quatrefages is an excellent naturalist, 
and especially conversant with the natural history of 
the Teredo ; but I fear his plan is not a practical one. 
The Teredo attacks wood in the open sea, or in harbours 
which the tide enters twice a day, and never in floating 
harbours or wet docks, to which the tide has only 
occasional access. Now, in order to prevent the birth 
of the Teredo, which is always going on during the 
summer months, it would be necessary that the tidal 
harbour should be enclosed ; otherwise the poison must 
be continually applied in prodigious quantities, and at 
an enormous expense, or else it would be diluted to such 
an extent by the action of the tide and waves (to say 
nothing of the river which is generally indispensable as 
a scouring power, and therefore flows through nearly 
all such harbours) , that it would become too weak to 
produce the desired effect. An eminent civil engineer, 
Mr. Hartley, of Liverpool, recommended green-heart 
timber to be used in harbours ; the costliness, however, 
of that kind of wood is a serious objection to this re- 
medy. Copper-sheathing and scupper-nailing are often 
and successfully employed to protect piles in exposed 
situations. The former is also expensive; and the crust 



TEREDO. 163 

of iron formed by the nails in the interstices between 
them (unless they are very closely driven in so as to 
completely cover the piles) is superficial and liable to 
scale off*. I have known the Teredo bore through a 
pile which was supposed to be protected by large broad- 
headed nails in the usual way. At Christiania, in April 
1863, I found that Teredo navalis was very destructive 
to the woodwork in the harbour, and to boats lying at 
anchor in the fiord. The chief engineer told me that 
all the piles had been thoroughly creosoted (10 lbs. 
to the square foot) before they were driven in, but not 
to much purpose. Some were taken up while I was 
there, and proved the correctness of his statement. 
They had evidently been well saturated with creosote, 
and yet were full of the ship worm. It seems that 
these piles had been fixed only two years preAdously. 
Another remedy that had been tried at Christiania con- 
sisted in covering the outside face of the piles with 
fascines of brushwood. This may partially succeed, by 
excluding the light and warmth of the sun, and con- 
sequently preventing the production or development of 
the organisms on which the Teredo feeds. It certainly 
does not love the cold shade. The maxim " obsta 
principiis " is particularly applicable to the present case. 
If we can succeed in preventing the young Teredo from 
commencing its burrow, the wood is impregnable to its 
attack. It is not difficult to bar its entrance when the 
whole body is not the size of the smallest pin's head, 
the foot almost microscopical, and the shell a mere film. 
In this state it insinuates itself between the fibres of the 
wood on the outside ; and having once gained a footing, 
it works its way, slowly but surely, into the interior, 
where it becomes snugly lodged and irremovable. It 
is indeed a most troublesome guest ; and a line from 



164 TEREDINID^E. 

Ovid's l Tristium/ with the alteration of a single word, 
will tersely express the difficulty of getting rid of it. 

" iEgrius ejicitur, quam non admittitur hospes." 

A very slight coating of any kind, applied to the sur- 
face of the wood, will suffice to keep out the infant 
burglar. Tar would answer the purpose ; but this 
is liable to be accidentally rubbed off, or removed by 
the continued agitation of the waves. Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson informs us that the ancient Egyptians glazed 
some of their inscriptions on stone, by covering them 
with a vitrifiable composition, which was exposed to a 
certain degree of heat, until properly melted and diffused 
over the surface. Perhaps wood cannot be treated in 
the same way ; but a liquid mixture, containing the re- 
quisite ingredients, and capable of penetrating its pores 
or fibrous texture, might be invented and applied to a 
pile or the hull of a vessel. Any mineral preparation 
that shall adhere firmly and permanently to the wood, 
and not be subject to external influences, must be effi- 
cacious. Such may be the silicate of lime, invented by 
the late Mr. Ransome, and used for coating stone-work. 
Every chemist knows that this is a manifest improve- 
ment on Kuhlniamr's process, which consists of liquid 
silicate of potash or " water-glass." Szerelmey pro- 
posed an additional wash of a soluble bitumen, and 
called the preparation " Silicat-Zopissa " ; but his ex- 
periment has not yet been adequately tested. Zopissa 
appears to have been a mixture of pitch and wax, first 
used by the Phoenicians and Egyptians, and afterwards 
by the Greeks and Romans, to preserve their merchant 
vessels and men of war. The preparations of Ransome 
and Szerelmey were tried in 1860 on part of the stone 
facing of our Houses of Parliament, which had suffered 



TEREDO. 165 

considerable decay from being exposed to the corrosive 
action of the London atmosphere, as well as from an 
inherent defect in the material ; and time will show 
which of these preparations is the best preventive. I 
recommended Ransomed process in the discussion of the 
Teredo question at the Oxford Meeting of the British 
Association in 1880. Messrs. Peacock and Buchan 
abont the same time invented and patented a composi- 
tion for protecting wood-bottomed vessels from injury 
bv marine animals. This is said to form by a chemical 
combination with sea-water an unctuous or slimy pellicle, 
and to succeed admirably in preventing the growth of bar- 
nacles and similar incrustations by which ships become 
fouled j but I am not aware of its utility with regard to 
the present question. The popular notion is that the 
barnacle and shipworm are the same animal, the one 
being the part outside, and the other that which is in- 
side the wood. Another remedy which has been pro- 
posed, is to infiltrate the wood with silicate of lime ; but 
I fear this would be too expensive for harbour piles. 
Mr. William Hutton, of Hartlepool, has taken out a 
patent of this nature. Although it was principally in- 
tended to prevent the ravages of Limnoria lignoriim (a 
small crustacean belonging to the class Isopoda, which 
I have before mentioned) , it would also serve as a safe- 
guard against the Teredo. Mr. Hutton's plan is to 
harden the wood bv forcing it into a solution of silex 
with muriate of lime. Perhaps the cost of his process, 
but not its efficacy, might be lessened by applying the 
solution in the form of a wash with a brush, instead of 
infiltrating the wood by means of mechanical power. 
The pores of the outer layer would probably be thus 
penetrated to a sufficient depth, and the remedy be 
equally complete. 



166 teredinid^e. 

10. Classification. — The mistakes made by some of the 
older naturalists, and even by Linne, as to the organi- 
zation and zoological position of Teredo, are scarcely 
less remarkable than the object of which they treated. 
In the first edition of the * Fauna Suecica/ published 
in 1746, it was placed in Dentalium, along with that 
shell and Serpula, the tube only being regarded. In the 
tenth edition of the ( Systema Nature (1760), it was 
correctly named Teredo ; but it was classed among the 
"Vermes. Intestina," and described as having a mouth 
with two jaws, inside which was a ciliated foreskin ("prse- 
putium"), a siphon within the latter, and tubercles round 
the mouth. In the twelfth and perfected edition (1767) 
it is called a Terebella, and arranged between Serpula 
and Sabella. These were unpardonable blunders on the 
part of the great systematist, because in all his works 
above cited he especially referred to the celebrated 
monograph of Sellius, who had clearly shown the 
affinity of Teredo and Pholas as testaceous mollusks. 
Nearly a quarter of a century after the appearance of 
that monograph, Adanson made the same observation ; 
and his ' Histoire naturelle du Senegal * bears date 
three years before the tenth, and ten years before the 
twelfth edition of the ' Systema/ It is possible that 
Linne had no opportunity of becoming acquainted with 
Adanson's work on Senegal for many years after it was 
published. The communication between Sweden and 
France in their time could not have been so intimate as 
it afterwards became. No such excuse however can be 
offered for Lamarck's ignorance of the writings of his 
distinguished countryman, seeing also that, at the date 
of the ' Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertebres/ 
more than half a century had elapsed since the publica- 
tion of Adanson's second memoir on Teredo in the 



TEREDO. 167 

1 Memoires de PAcademie Royale.' Lamarck described 
the valves as containing a muscle which is protruded at 
the posterior end, and the pallets as apparently bran- 
chial ! Both O. F. Miiller and Fabricius had long pre- 
viouslv adopted the views entertained bv Sellius and 
Adanson as to the natural position of this mollusk ; 
each in fact gave the only species known to him the 
name of Pholas teredo. The familiar and appropriate 
name of this genus has not escaped the experimental 
handling of systematists. It is the Siphonium of Browne, 
Xylophagus of Gronovius, and Teredarius of Dumeril ; 
and it has been divided by other writers into minor and 
more or less equivalent genera. 

11. Indigenous species. — I propose to admit into the 
list of British Mollusca only such species as inhabit 
fixed and submerged wood on our coasts, and which of 
course are really indigenous ; but I consider those found 
in floating wood, and brought from distant parts of the 
world, as no more entitled to be classed with native 
productions than Hyalcea (Cavolina) trident ata, seve- 
ral species of Ianthina, or Spirula australis, none of 
which live in the British seas, although they are 
occasionally drifted hither by the Gulf stream. Some 
of the Teredines which pay us a visit in this way, reach 
our shores in a fresher state than others ; T. megotara 
frequently, and T. malleolus, T. eoccavata, T. bipinnata, 
and T. cucullata now and then, have the animal entire, 
although dead or scarcely alive, according to the length 
of the voyage. 



168 TEREDINIDiE. 



Teredo Norve'gica*, Spengler. 

T, norvagicus, Spengl. Skr. Nat. Selsk. ii. (1) p. 102, t. ii. f. 4-6 B, & 7. 
T. norvagica, F. & H. i. p. 66, pi. iv. f. 1-5. 

Body whitish, or of a light-greyish tint, seniitransparent : 
tubes separated for about one half of their extent; orifices 
encircled with fine cirri, which are longer and more numerous 
in the incurrent or alimentary tube than in the other, and are 
often of various colours, or edged with brown, red, rose, or 
yellow. 

Shell convex, solid and opaque, scarcely glossy ; it is 
parted in the middle by a slight longitudinal crest, with a 
broad but shallow furrow on the posterior side: sculpture 
divided into three distinct portions, viz. anterior, middle, and 
posterior: the anterior consists of sharp, narrow, and fine 
transverse plates, from 60 to 80 in number, which are more 
remote at first, and become closer in subsequent stages of 
growth ; the edges of these plates are microscopically notched 
across in an oblique direction ; this portion represents a triangle 
having an acute apex at the beak of the valve, and a broad 
and somewhat curved base : the middle portion extends the 
whole length of the shell, and is strap-like ; the upper part 
lies between the inner line of the anterior area and the crest 
which separates one side from the other ; the lower part is 
open outside, and bounded by the crest on the inner side ; the 
broadest part is at the point of the angle where the anterior 
and middle portions join ; this middle portion consists of 
numerous extremely delicate and nearly equal stria?, the edges 
of which are exquisitely beaded ; these stria? are longitudinal, 
with an oblique tendency towards the posterior end, and they 
diverge from the transverse plates at a right angle : the pos- 
terior portion is always smooth, or only marked with concentric 
and slightly raised lines of growth : colour whitish, with often 
a tinge or stain of brown on the anterior side, especially the 
separating line : epidermis membranous, yellowish-brown, 
sometimes of a very dark hue : margins obtusely angular on 
the upper part of the anterior side, with a large triangular 
excision on the lower part, so that when the valves are united 
in their natural position, the opening or gape is broadly heart- 
shaped ; bluntly pointed or rounded in front ; and incurved on 

* Inhabiting Norway. 



TEREDO. 169 

the posterior side, which, is terminated by a semicircular ex- 
pansion, usually termed an " auricle ; ' in younger specimens 
this auricle is entire, and has a high shoulder above, on a level 
with the umbo, but in aged specimens the shoulder is worn 
down by the continual attrition of that part, and a notch is 
formed above ; dorsal margins sloping abruptly and equally 
on each side : heals much incurved, situate near the anterior 
end, at about one-third the length of the dorsal line ; umbones 
or rostral portion prominent: hinge-line angular and irregular, 
considerably projecting in the middle : hinge-plate very broad, 
and extremely thick, folded over the anterior dorsal area, and 
abruptly truncated and flattened, or occasionally excavated, 
on the other side ; the centre is furnished with a callous 
protuberance, as well as with a short peg-like tooth or 
process, which is stronger and more conspicuous in the right 
than in the left valve: apophyses very broad, and often jagged 
at the edges : inside glossy, furnished in front with a rather 
large and solid pear-shaped excrescence, and having the pos- 
terior auricle separated by a strong ridge, which forms a 
shelf or ledge in aged specimens : muscular scars large but not 
strongly marked: pallets large; blades oval, wedge-shaped 
and truncated or squarish in front, somewhat convex outside 
and concave inside, of a laminated structure, and more or less 
covered (especially at the outer end) with the same kind of 
epidermis as invests the shell; stalks cylindrical, of a much 
more solid substance than the blades, varying in length, being 
usually about one-third the length of the blades ; the stalk 
occasionallv extends into the blade at its narrower or inner 
end, and appears like the midrib or nerve of a leaf: sheath 
thick, sometimes indistinctly annulated ; septa or plates in the 
neck of the sheath broad and imbricated outwards ; they are 
divided near the opening of the sheath by a sharp ridge on 
each side, which separates the branchial and excreta! tubes of 
the animal, and is continuous in perfect specimens, so as to 
form two distinct holes. Valves, L. 0*6, B. 0-65; pallets, 
L. 0-8, B. 0-3 ; sheath, L. 12, B. 0-75. 

Yar. divaricata. Shell stunted, distorted, and thicker, having 
the anterior area much more developed than usual, and scarcely 
any posterior auricle. T. divaricata (Deshayes, MS.), Fischer, 
in Journ. Conch, v. p. 137, pi. vii. f. 7-9. 

Habitat : In oak, fir, and birch wood composing the 
timbers of sunken vessels, piers, shipping-stages, and 

VOL. III. I 



170 TEREDINID^. 

gates of harbours and docks, as well as occasionally the 
stakes of fishing- weirs, and submerged trees, all around 
our coasts from Alder ney (Lukis) to Shetland (J. G. J.) . 
It is, however, a local species. The variety is sometimes 
met with. Fossil valves have been found in blue clav at 
Belfast (Hyndman) , and in an oak tree dug up in exca- 
vating a deep sewer there (Thompson) ; in a piece of wood, 
more than twenty feet below the surface, at Ayr (Lands- 
borough) : and sheaths in a fossil state have been found by 
Mr. Grainger in the Belfast clay-beds, by Mr. Maw at 
Strethill, and by Mr. S. Wood in the Red and Coralline 
Crag. Newer Italian tertiaries (Soldani and Brocchi) . 
The foreign distribution of this species extends from 
Finmark (Sars, M'AndreAV, and Danielssen) to Algiers 
(Deshayes) . It inhabits the boughs of trees laid down 
in Kiel bay for the mussel-fishing (Meyer); and the 
variety destroys, in conjunction with T. minima, the 
fixed stages for shipping marble from the quarries at 
Marola on the coast of Piedmont (Capellini) . 

Olaf Worm first recorded it, in his ' Museum Wormi- 
anum ; (1655), from Bergen. The pallets bear some 
resemblance to battledores or to the bats of French 
washerwomen; they are not unfrequently distorted. 
Montagu fancied that the imbricated plates which line 
the neck of the sheath might be intended to ensnare 
the animalcula on which this Teredo feeds. He does 
not say what kind of a trap they make. According to 
Deshayes, Algerian specimens are much smaller than 
those of Europe. Some sheaths at Port Patrick were 
said by Mr. Thompson to have attained the extraordinary 
length of 2| feet. I am not aware that this species has 
ever been found in floating wood ; the specimens men- 
tioned in the ' British Mollusca ' from this source, as if 
on my authority, were the young of T. megotara. 



TEREDO. 171 

It is the T. navium of Sellius, T. navalis of Gmelin 
and of almost every subsequent writer until Loven 
identified that species with the T. marina of the first- 
named author ? T. nigra of De Blainville, T. communis of 
Osier, T. Bruguierii of Delle Chiaje, T. fatalis and T. 
Deshaii of Quatrefages, and T. Senegalensis of Laurent 
but not of De Blainville. The sheath appears to be the 
Fistulana corniformis of Lamarck ; and I suspect that, 
in one of the earliest stages of growth, it is the Denta- 
lium bifissum of Searles Wood from the Coralline Crag, 
the smaller opening of which exhibits the same internal 
ridge or partition between the pallial tubes that is so 
characteristic of this part of the sheath in T. Norvegica. 
No Dentalium has any such process. 

2. T. nava'lis*, Linne. 

T. navalis, Linn. S. N. p. 1267; F. & II. i. p. 74, pi. iv. f. 7, 8, and 
xviii. f. 3, 4. 

Shell resembling that of T. Norvegica, except in being of a 
much smaller size, and having a thinner texture and liner sculp- 
ture : the posterior auricle in the present species is proportion- 
ately larger, not placed so high up, more compressed, and better 
defined both outside and inside (especially the latter) by means 
of a thin overlapping plate, which separates the auricle from the 
rest of the valve ; the colour also is fresh, although occasion- 
ally deepened by an extraneous stain ; and the epidermis is 
slighter : the pallets, however, exhibit the most remarkable and 
characteristic difference ; the blade is oval and forked or 
deeply indented and excavated in the middle at its outer edge : 
the outside is slightly gibbous and glossy or prismatic, and the 
inside is flat and of a dull chalky hue and cellular substance : 
the stalk never extends into the blade ; and the pallets hi 
this species are altogether more compact, and not laminar 
as in the other species : sheath usually less solid in pro- 
portion to its size, and more tortuous ; it is irregularly annu- 
lated in young specimens ; septa or internal plates arranged 

* Infesting ships. 

i 2 



172 TEREDINID.E. 

close together, slight, and scarcely raised, but existing in all 
perfect specimens ; siphonal or longitudinal ridge perceptible 
only in the young ; aperture obliquely truncated in front, and 
sometimes also at the back, making that part similar to the 
slit end of a Dentalium. Valves, L. 0*3, B. 0*3 ; pallets, 
L. 0-2, B. 0-1 : sheath, L. 6-0, B. 0-3. 

Var. occlusa. Shell like the analogous variety of T. Nor- 
vegica. 

Habitat : (both the typical form and variety) in fir 
wood or deal, composing the harbour piles at Sheerness 
(Sir Everard Home), Heme Bay (Hanley), Yarmouth 
pier or jetty (Rev. H. R. Nevill), Ramsgate pier 
(Rev. Sir Charles Macgregor, Bart.); in elm stakes used 
by fishermen for fastening their nets at Broadstairs 
(Metcalfe); boats left long at anchor, and shipping- 
stages in the lower reaches of the Thames and Medway 
(Baxter) . It swarms along the European coasts from 
Christiania (Asbjornsen) to Sicily (Delle Chiaje and 
Philippi), as well as in the Black Sea (Pallas and Hein- 
rich) and Oran in Algeria (coll. Deshayes); with T. 
Norvegica in the boughs of trees, placed in Kiel bay to 
collect the fry of the common mussel (Meyer); "Hell- 
gate, New York, in a British frigate sunk during the 
revolutionary war " (Tryon) . 

This is the Dutchman's pest ; and he does not seem 
to be troubled with any other kind, at least of the mol- 
lusk tribe. It is extraordinary that the animal of such 
a common species has never been described by any 
author, except in a general way by Home and Vrolik. 
Mr. Hanley procured some remarkably fine sheaths 
from the pier at Heme Bay (supposed by him to belong 
to T. megotara), which measure upwards of a foot in 
length : for a couple of them I am indebted to his kind- 
ness. They are much more solid than those taken from 



TEREDO. 173 

honeycombed pieces of wood, and have almost the po- 
lish of ivory. Sometimes the pallets are distorted, and 
the stalks are now and then double. The stalk passes 
through the pallet ; but the upper part of it is seldom 
visible, being covered by an accretion of the less com- 
pact substance which forms the plate or main body of 
this appendage. 

It was first identified by Loven, and afterwards recog- 
nized by Thompson and the authors of the ' British 
Mollusca/ as the T. navalis of Linne. His description 
was taken from the sheath only, and is so vague that 
it may fit any species. Hanley remarked, in his 
' Ipsa Linnaei Conchy lia/ as follows : " It is impossible 
to determine, from the language of Linne, to what par- 
ticular species of shipworm the very comprehensive 
term navalis should be restricted. Our author has not 
indicated the possession of examples ; consequently his 
cabinet affords no assistance in the investigation." I 
was inclined at one time to adopt the specific name 
marina, given by Sellius, which is prior to navalis ; but 
I now believe that the word " marina" was used by him 
only as an epithet, in an opposite sense to " terrestris." 
Linne, in the first edition of his ' Fauna Suecica/ de- 
scribed the sheath as a Dentalium (in the index as Teredo 
navis) ; and he adds that it is the T. navalis of Sellius, 
and inhabits ships and submarine piles or stakes. In the 
last edition of the ' Svstema Naturae ' the ' Fauna Sue- 
cica' is quoted, and then Yallisnieri, Sellius, and Plancus. 
The first and last of these authors intended T. Norvegica. 
That species, as well as the present, still inhabits the 
coasts of Sweden, as they probably did in Linnets time ; 
and since the name Norvegica is free from any doubt, 
and it is therefore advisable to retain it under the cir- 
cumstances, there seems to be no alternative between 



174 TEREDINID.E. 

rejecting* altogether the time-honoured name navalis, 
and applying it to the species now described. Da Costa 
called it Seipula Teredo, Spengler T. batavus, Lamarck 
T. vulgaris, and Van der Hoeven T. Sellii. 

3. T. pe'dicella'ta*, Quatrefages. 

T. pedicellatus, Quatref. in Ann. Sc. Nat. 3 e ser. (Zool.) t. xi. p. 26, 
pi. i. f. 2. 

Body not so long as that of T. navalis, and of a thinner 
texture : tubes rather short, separated half way (Quatrefages). 

Shell scarcely distinguishable from that of T. navalis. It is 
always smaller ; the striae which cover the anterior area are 
usually fewer, and consequently more remote, and the auricle 
of the posterior area (especially in the young) is placed 
somewhat higher up. The pallets however are unmistakeably 
distinct. They are to a certain extent compound, and consist 
of three separate portions. The stalk is very long and cylin- 
drical : the blade or middle portion is roundish-oval, not much 
raised, and flat below ; the upper part of the blade on each 
side is dark brown or chocolate, and forms a strongly marked 
band; it is laminated on the under side : the third or outer 
portion is square, and is often notched or bifurcated like the 
outer part of the pallet-blade in T. navalis, but never so 
deeply nor excavated ; this third portion is sometimes ivory- 
like, as well as the stalk and blade, and at other times yellow- 
ish-brown, or of a horny substance. The sheath is thinner 
and more decidedly jointed; and it is always shorter and 
narrower than in T. navalis, showing that the animal 
of the present species does not burrow so deeply. Valves, 
L. 0.2, B. 0-2 ; pallets, L. 0-175, B. 0-05 ; sheath, L. 0-25, 
B. 0-2. 

Var. truncata. Corresponding with the varieties of the 
preceding two species. 

Habitat : Fir and oak used in submarine and fixed 
woodwork at Guernsey, Alderney, and Sark (Lukis). 
It was originally discovered by Quatrefages in the Bay 

* From the long pallet-stalks. 



TEREDO. 175 

of Passages (province of Guipuscoa) on the north coast 
of Spain; Tonlon (Eydoux and Gay); Provence (Martin, 
fide Petit) ; Algeria (coll. Deshayes) . 

Some valves which I received from the late Dr. Lukis 
are of a greenish-brown colonr; these he found in oak. 
He also sent me a piece of a deal plank, which had 
formed part of a shipping- stage at Alderney, and had 
been under water for twenty years : the outside was 
fretted by Chelura terebrans ; the interior was full of 
T. pedicellata ; and through their crowded galleries a 
huge T. Norvegica pursued its solitary course, but with- 
out interference on either side. The present species 
produces at an early age. Its sheath is a beautiful 
object, the points being imbricated like the segments of 
the stalk of an Equisetum ; the orifice in very young 
specimens resembles a key -hole. Dr. Lukis assured me 
that this kind caused great destruction in the Govern- 
ment works and new pier at Alderney : no endeavour 
was made to prevent or stop it. 

This is not a satisfactory species, because its sole dis- 
tinction depends on size and the pallets, and it has 
never been seen in company with T. navalis. The last 
reason has, of course, a limited value, although it is by 
no means unimportant when considered in connexion 
with other circumstances and analogous cases. The 
pallets are hoe-shaped, with a long handle, and a sepa- 
rate shelly process or membranous fringe at the other 
extremity. Fischer conjectured that T. pedicellata 
might be the young of T. Norvegica or of T. navalis ; but 
the pallets of each species, when first formed, exhibit 
exactly the same relative characters as in subsequent 
stages of growth. 



176 TEREDINID.E. 

4. T. mego'tara *, Hanley. 

T. megoiara F. & H. i. p. 77, pi. iv. f. 6, and xvii. f. 1,2. 

Bodv pale bluish- white : mantle not very thin : foot mus- 
cular and coriaceous, attached by a thick and powerful cylin- 
drical stalk (Clark). 

Shell convex, solid, opaque, and rather glossy, parted in 
the middle by a slight longitudinal crest, with a very broad 
but shallow furrow on the posterior side : sculpture divided 
into four distinct portions, viz. anterior, middle, furrowed, 
and posterior : the anterior consists of sharp, narrow, and fine 
transverse plates from 25 to 30 in number, which are more 
remote at first and become closer at advanced periods of 
growth ; the edges of these plates are microscopically notched 
across; this portion represents a triangle having an acute 
apex at the back of the valve and a broad and nearly straight 
base : the middle portion extends the whole length of the shell 
and is strip -like, the upper part lying between the inner line 
of the anterior area and the crest which separates one side 
from the other, and the lower part being open outside and 
bounded by the crest on the inner side ; the broadest part is 
at the point of the angle where the anterior and middle por- 
tions join ; this middle portion consists of 15-20 extremely 
delicate and nearly equal striae, the outermost of which are 
exquisitely beaded, and the inner rows strongly but closely 
notched across ; these striae are longitudinal, with an oblique 
tendency towards the posterior side, and they diverge from the 
transverse striae at a right angle : the furrowed portion is 
marked with curved but not much raised transverse steps, 
which gradually widen as they approach the front or ventral 
edge : and the posterior portion is almost smooth or only 
marked near the furrow by indistinct lines which form a con- 
tinuation of the steps above mentioned : colour milk-white : 
epidermis membranous, creamcolour, more persistent on the 
anterior area : margins acutely angular on the upper part of 
the anterior side, with a large triangular excision on the lower 
part, so that when the valves are united the opening or gape 
is broadly heart-shaped ; they are bluntly pointed or rounded 
in front, and incurved on the posterior side, which is termi- 
nated by a large compressed and rounded ear- shaped expan- 

* Great-eared. 



TEREDO. 177 

sion, occupying at least one-half of that side, and raised above 
the rest of the shell : beaks much incurved, situate near the 
anterior end, at about one -third the length of the dorsal line ; 
umbones prominent: hinge-line very irregular: hinge-plate 
very broad and extremely solid, folded over the anterior dorsal 
area, which represents a thickened sinuosity ; it is deeply 
notched on the other side, in consequence of which the auricle 
rises more abruptly; the centre is furnished with a large 
callous protuberance or knob, as well as with a short peg-like 
tooth or prong, which is stronger and more conspicuous in the 
right than in the left valve: apophyses rather narrow and regu- 
lar, not much curved, but occasionally twisted ; inside glossy, 
furnished in front with a rather large and solid pear-shaped 
excrescence ; the auricle is separated by a slight and indistinct 
rib, but there is no shelf or ledge such as is observable in all 
the other species before described: muscular scars distinct; 
the muscles themselves adhere very closely, and can be easily 
seen in living specimens ; anterior narrow and placed ob- 
liquely across the centre of the hinge-plate ; posterior broad 
and large, occupying about one-half of the auricle : pallets 
large and leaf-like ; blade oval, squarish in front, slightly 
convex outside and concave inside, covered with a glossy white 
epidermis ; the outside front is wedge-like and partly ex- 
cavated by a semicircular impression (exposing the laminated 
structure of the blade), which extends inwards over one -third 
or more of the blade ; stalk short, stake-like, more solid than 
the blade ; it is continued on both sides far into the blade, 
and on the under side may be traced the whole way from one 
end to the other, like a midrib ; the upper surface of the 
blade near the insertion of the stalk is sharply excavated on 
each side, but not to any great distance : sheath usually thin, 
except at the neck, which is lined with imbricated plates, and 
these latter are crossed by a sharp siphonal ridge on either 
side. Valves, L. 0-4, B. 0-4; pallets, L. 0-4, B. 0-15; 
sheath, L. 3-6, B. 0*45. 

Yar. 1. excisa. Shell similar to the stunted variety of each 
of the foregoing species. 

Var. 2. striatior. Shell more convex and not so solid ; an- 
terior area larger, and more closely and finely striated ; hinge 
callosity not so prominent. 

Yar. 3. mionota. Shell smaller, with the auricle less de- 
veloped and not reaching so far down ; pallets shorter, having 
the semicircular part in front more deeply excavated. 

i 5 



178 TEREDINID^. 

Habitat : Submerged woodwork at Wick (Peach); 
fir wood at Lerwick and the Whalsev Skerries, Shet- 
land;, in the first case composing the timbers of a sunken 
vessel, in the other the supports of a shipping-stage 
used in one of the fishing-stations there ; and also in 
the hull of a small craft , lying at anchor in the Sker- 
ries Sound, and employed by the Commissioners of 
Northern Lighthouses on service between that place 
and Lerwick (J. G. J.). These are the only cases in 
which, to my knowledge, the present species of Teredo 
can be said to be a true native of the British seas. It 
is not unfrequently found in floating trees and pieces 
of fir cast ashore on the east and north of the Shetland 
Isles, after a continuance of easterly winds (having 
been drifted from the opposite coasts of Norway); 
in pieces of Canada timber, which apparently have 
been transported by the Gulf-stream, aided by a succes- 
sion of westerly gales, especially during each equinox, 
on various parts of our shores including the Channel 
Isles, Sussex, Devon, Dorset, Cornwall, Bristol Channel, 
Galway, Waterford, Dublin, Antrim, Arran (in Scot- 
land) , Scarborough, and Aberdeenshire ; in a piece of 
oak thrown ashore in Cornwall (Couch) ; in the knee- 
timber of a vessel stranded at Lulworth (J. G. J.) ; and 
in teak, as well as in deal, at Guernsey (Lukis) . The first 
variety only occurs in drift wood; Mr. Dennis found 
some of a much smaller size than usual in a bamboo on 
the Sussex coast. The second variety is also imported 
from distant shores, and can scarcely be considered 
British. The third may be referred to the same cate- 
gory. Dr. Lukis noticed it at Guernsey, and Mr. 
Dennis on the Sussex coast, in fir timber ; and a re- 
markably stunted and minute form, in pieces of cork 
(having been evidently once the net-floats of fishermen) , 



TEREDO. 



179 



has been taken at Plymouth by Mr. Webster, at Fal- 
mouth by Mr. Norman, in Swansea and Carmarthen 
Bays by myself, and at Aberdeen by Professor Macgil- 
livray. This last variety was described by me as T. 
subericola in the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History } for August 1860, under the impression that it 
was a distinct species. The typical form and first two 
varieties were detected by Mr. Hyndman in pieces of 
drift wood, that were dug up in making a public sewer 
at Belfast — thus showing the existence, at a period 
antecedent to our own, of oceanic currents and other 
conditions similar to those which still prevail. Malm 
discovered a valve in the Udde valla deposits. This 
species is widely distributed over the North Atlantic. 
Torell found it on the west coast of Spitzbergen in drift 
fir wood of two kinds, one from Norway or Siberia, and 
the other probably from Canada ; Fahricius has recorded 
it from Greenland, Mohr from Iceland (spoiling 
valuable pieces of drift timber) , and Miiller from Norway 
and Denmark; Lilljeborg found it at Mangesund, 
Upper Norway, in the timbers of a sunken vessel, and 
also at Bergen ; Deyenburg at Lysekihl, Bolmslau 
(about 12 Swedish miles north of Gottenburg), with 
T. Norvegica and T. navalis ; D'Orbigny (pere) at 
Rochelle, Cailliaud at Croisic, and M f Andrew (var. 
mionota) in the North Atlantic, in floating timber ; 
Stimpson has described it (under the name of T. dilatata) 
as infesting harbour buoys and fixed woodwork at Lynn, 
New England; and Try on states that the range of this 
species extends from Massachusetts to South Carolina. 
The last-named locality affords some clue to a fact 
which puzzled me not a little, viz. the occurrence in 
drift wood of T. malleolus (a native of the West Indies) 
together with the present species, which I received 



180 TEREDINID.E. 

from Dr. Lukis and Mr. Dennis. The proximity of 
South Carolina to the Gulf of Mexico, and the course 
of the great " river in the ocean " along the Atlantic 
coasts of North America, indicated by Captain Maury 
in his ' Physical Geography of the Sea/ may account 
for this commixture of different kinds of Teredo in the 
same piece of floating timber. 

T. megotara is intermediate in size between T. Nor- 
vegica and T. navalis, from both of which it may easily 
be known by the large auricle on the posterior side and 
by the strong and projecting hinge ; the pallets are more 
like those of T. Norvegica, but they are flatter and of a 
more delicate texture, with a semicircular impression in 
front, and shorter stalks ; the sheath is of variable thick- 
ness, and is sometimes altogether wanting, except at the 
neck, which is regularly laminated with a siphonal ridge 
down the middle of each side. The mouth of the sheath 
in very young specimens is crossed by a slight and 
curved rib, that separates the tube and resembles the 
handle of a basket. A specimen which I took out of a 
piece of Canada pine measured 21 inches from the 
valves to the pallets. 

I concur with the authors of the ' British Mollusca ' 
in rejecting the specific name nana, given by Dr. 
Turton to this species; not only because it is inap- 
plicable, but also because his description was insuffi- 
cient and taken from immature and imperfect speci- 
mens. At the same time I regret that the name which 
they substituted for it is open to objection as pleonas- 
tic or redundant, being compounded of two Greek 
words signifying greatly and large-eared; megalota 
would be more correct. It is the Bruma delV oceano 
of Vallisnieri, T. oceani of Sellius, Pholas Teredo of 
Miiller and Fabricius, T. navalis of Moller, T. dilatata 



TEREDO. 181 

of Stimpson, and (according to Fischer) T. denticulata 
of Gray ; the young is probably P hoi as Teredula of 
Pallas, from the coasts of Belgium. 

Among the species brought hither by the Gulf-stream 
from the shores of Northern and Central America, those 
most commonly met with are 

T. MALLEOLUS, TurtOll. 

Valves white, elongated, and tapering towards the front ; the 
auricle is narrow and wing-like, higher than the beak, and 
projecting from the upper part of the posterior side : pallets 
short, with a broad blade, which in the young is transversely 
oval, giving a mallet- shaped appearance to these appendages : 
sheath not long, but rapidly increasing in size ; it is thin, and 
has delicately imbricated plates. Size of the valves nearly the 
same as in T. Norvegica. 

Habitat : Drift wood, Guernsey (Lukis) ; Torbay 
(Turton); Exmouth (Clark); Sussex (Dennis); Swansea 
and Carmarthen bays (J. G. J.); Miitown-Malbay 
(Harvey); Belfast (Thompson); young, in cork, Ply- 
mouth (Webster); Falmouth (Norman): Caiiliaud 
found it also in drift wood at Croisic, Loire- Inferieure. 
Specimens sent to me by Dr. Philip Carpenter for exa- 
mination came from St. Vincents. I therefore infer 
that the West Indies (and not Sumatra, as stated by 
Forbes and Hanley) is its native place. 

The valves (but not the pallets) of T. bipinnata, Turton, 
apparently belong to the present species. As more 
than one kind of Teredo often inhabit the same piece of 
wood, mistakes are liable to be made in extracting the 
valves and pallets ; such may account in a great measure 
for the confusion that exists in public and private collec- 
tions, and which has found its way into systematic 
works. A specimen in the British Museum, named 



182 TEREDINID.E. 

" T. carinaia, Gray," is composed of the valves of 
T. malleolus and the pallets of T. Stutchburii, De Blain- 
ville. 

T. bipinnata, (bipemiata) Turton. 

Valves resembling those of T. mcgotara, but more convex 
and of a thinner texture ; the striated strip is longer ; the 
furrow is reddish-brown, delicately and closely marked across 
with curved lines, and divided down the middle by a slight 
groove ; the auricle is equally large and prominent, but does 
not reach quite so far down as in that species, and it is sepa- 
rated inside by a well defined shelf or ledge : pallets five times 
the length of the valves ; blades composed of from 40 to 50 
narrow funnel-shaped joints, set one within another, with 
feathered edges which are fringed on each side ; stalk varying 
in length (being sometimes only as long as the blade, and at 
other times three times as long), quill-shaped, cylindrical, and 
slender, minutely tuberculated, and often closely annular or 
tracheiform towards the blade : sheath thick and solid, increas- 
ing rapidly ; neck finely and closely wrinkled but not lami- 
nated. Size of the valves about the same as in T. megotara. 

Habitat : Drift wood at Guernsey (Lukis) ; Exmouth 
(Turton); Beachy Head (Dennis); British Channel 
(Bulwer); Scarborough (Bean); Roundstone, Conne- 
mara (Walpole); Miltown-Malbay, Clare (Harvey); 
Youghal (Ball); Waterford (Humphreys). On the 
French coast it has been noticed at Cherbourg and in 
the Gulf of Gascony by Fischer, at Pouiiquen by Petit, 
and at Croisic by Cailiiaud. Dr. Philip Carpenter has 
also recorded it from Vancouver's Isle and C, viiomia, 
and I received specimens from him as West- Indian : 
there seems to be no good reason for considering it 
Sumatran. It occurs with T. cucullata. 

Dr. Turton stated that the feathered pallets could be 
ejected and retracted at pleasure, and that they were pro- 
bably " instruments of absorption, as the animal is fur- 



TEREDO. 183 

nislied with a single terminal tube, whose office may per- 
haps be the discharge or deposit of its eggs or spat ! " He 
may have been, like Bellario, " a learned doctor/' each in 
his own profession ; and we will charitably think that 
the physician understood the constitution of his patients 
better than that of the Teredo. 

This species is the T. navalis of Spengler, T. bipinnata 
of Fleming, and T. pennatifera of De Blainville. The 
type examples of Spengler in the Royal Museum of 
Copenhagen are composed of the valves of T. bipinnata 
and the pallets of T. Stutchburii. 

It is very difficult to say what the T. palmulatus of 
Lamarck may have been. He described the pallets 
only, which are • apparently the same as those of the 
" Taret de Pondicheri/' figured by Adanson in the 
' Mem. de FAcad. Roy/ for 1759. The habitat given 
by Lamarck is " L'ocean de grandes Indes, les mers des 
pays chauds/' 

The less-known visitants are T. excavata from drift 
fir, Guernsey (Lukis) and Sussex (Dennis); T. bipariita 
from West-Indian cedar, Guernsey (Lukis); T. spat/ia, 
with the last ; T. fusticulus from the same kind of wood, 
at Leith (J. G. J.) These have simple pallets. T. cu- 
cullata from drift fir, Guernsey (Lukis), and Sussex 
(Dennis), and from teak, with the next species, Belfast 
(Thompson); and T. fimbriata (T. palmulata, F. & H. i. 
p. 86, pi. ii. f. 9-11, but not of Lamarck or Philippi) 
from teak ship-timber, Belfast (Thompson); Exmouth 
(Clark); and Leith (J. G. J.) . These last have compound 
pallets. All the above (except T. fimbriata) were fully 
described by me in the 'Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History'' for August 1860. T. spat ha and T. cucuUata 
are probably West-Indian, because I received from Dr. 
Philip Carpenter for identification specimens of both, 



184 TEREDINID.E. 

which were found by the late Professor Adams at 
Jamaica. T. fimbriata is said by Dr. P. Carpenter to 
be a native of Vancouver's Isle. 

T. minima of De Blainville is common in the Mediter- 
ranean, but has not been noticed on our shores. It has 
rather long and large close-jointed pallets with plain 
edges; the valves are very much smaller than those 
of any British species, and somewhat resemble the 
stunted form of T. navalis. The pallets of this species 
and T. fimbriata may be taken for miniature ears of 
barley with long stalks. T. minima is the T. bipalmata 
and T. bipalmulata of Delle Chiaje, T. palmulata of 
Philippi, T. Philippii of Fischer, and T. serratus of 
Deshayes's MS. 



Having disposed of the headless mollusks, which are 
represented by the classes Brachiopoda and Conchifera, 
we next proceed to consider such as have a head. These 
exhibit a greater diversity of shape and a more compli- 
cated structure ; their organs and functions are more 
specialized. Thus creation moves, step by step, higher 
and higher, until at length that mental pinnacle is 
reached, which is attainable only by the chiefest among 
our own kind. In the suggestive language of Tennyson, 

"All nature widens upward. Evermore 
The simpler essence lower lies ; 
More complex is more perfect, owning more 
Discourse, more widely wise." 

The first in order among the Cephalic Mollusks is a 
peculiar class, partaking somewhat of the nature of the 
Acephala, and forming a link between the two. It is the 



SOLENOCONCHIA. 185 



SOLE'NOCONCHIA*, (SOLE NO- 
CONCHES) Lacaze-Duthiers. 



Body cylindrical, gradually tapering to a rather fine point : 
mantle sheath-like, contractile, thickened in front, where it 
forms a circular collar, thin and membranous in the middle, 
constricted behind and terminating in a short tubular process : 
head small and indistinct, not visible outside, furnished with 
a pair of horny jaws and a spinous tongue : mouth internal, 
surrounded by labial palps : tentacles thread-shaped, long and 
numerous, arranged in two bunches, one on each side of the 
mouth; they are contractile and ciliated: gills rudimentary 
and obscure, placed above the liver : foot remarkably flexible, 
and divided into three lobes, the middle one of which is conical 
and extensile ; it occupies the front and issues from the collar 
of the mantle : posterior tube serving the purposes of a branchial 
and excretory duct, as well as assisting in the work of repro- 
duction. 

Shell tubular and resembling an elongated funnel, more or 
less curved, and open throughout, with the broader end in 
front ; the narrower or posterior end is channelled and some- 
times slit. 



This small eccentric class comprises the "tooth shells/'' 
so called from their resemblance to the tusks or canine 
teeth of some animals. Their nature in a zoological 
point of view was but little understood until of late 
years. Linne placed them in his " Vermes. Testacea ; ,} 
Lamarck and Cuvier considered them Annelids ; De 
Blainville and Deshaves restored them to the rank of 
Mollusca. But the skilful and patient investigations of 
Lacaze-Duthiers have at last solved a problem the interest 

* From the tube-like shell. 



186 SOLENOCONCHIA. 

of which, in the estimation of a conchologist, surpasses 
that of the still sought-for discovery of the sources of the 
Nile. His "Histoire de F Organisation et duDeveloppe- 
ment du Dentale " appeared in the ' Annales des Sciences 
Naturelles ' for 1856 and 185 7, and is worthy of his 
academical fame. His researches were prosecuted at 
St. Malo; D. Tarentinum was the subject. He killed 
and prepared the animals for anatomical dissection, 
either with prussic acid, or by drowning them in sea- 
water, particularly in that which contained the putrid 
corpses of their late companions. In the delightful 
' Sea-side Studies ' of G. H. Lewes will be found a 
thoughtful discussion of the very difficult question 
whether the simpler animals feel pain. He answers it 
in the negative; and I agree with him to a certain 
extent. A predaceous beetle with a pin through it will 
eat up other insects confined in the same collecting-box • 
and every part of a polype cut in pieces will flourish. 
At all events the Invertebrata appear to be exempt from 
that sense of apprehension, or anticipation, which we 
regard as the worst pain. The Dentalium burrows in 
sand by means of its conical foot in a slanting direction ; 
the narrow end is of course uppermost, and is kept in 
communication with the water or air for the purpose of 
respiration. It feeds on Foraminifera and other minute 
organisms, which it catches with its thread-like tentacles. 
These are of all lengths and sizes, and are insinuated 
among the grains of sand on every side; they are 
covered with cilia, especially at the points, which resem- 
ble suckers. They are thrown off by the Dentalium 
under certain conditions, and may occasionally be seen 
detached and wriggling like taper hair-worms. Tere- 
hella and other tubular annelids have similar organs. 
Being highly contractile, these tentacles convey the food 



SOLENOCONCHIA. 187 

to the funnel-shaped mouth, in which, by the aid of 
labial and ciliated palps, the animalcula are quickly en- 
gulfed : then the masticatory apparatus comes into 
play. This consists of a tongue or lingual riband, armed 
with five rows of sharp spines, one in the middle, and 
two on each side. The central tooth is usually called 
a " rachis/' and the side teeth " pleurae ; " they are ar- 
ranged thus, 2.1.2. The front set of pleurae are armed 
with crochets or " uncini." The apparatus now described 
seems to have an office analogous to that of the tongue 
in many cephalophorous mollusks, and it is certainly not 
a gizzard as Mr. Clark supposed. The shelled Forami- 
nifera found in the stomach of a Dentalium are perfect, 
and the sarcode must be extracted from them bv some 
secretion answering to the gastric juice of the Verte- 
brata. Dentalium has no eyes ; they would be useless 
to an animal always buried in sand. They have otolites 
or ear-stones, which serve as organs of hearing ; these 
are extremely numerous, calcareous and globular, and 
are enclosed in two nearly spherical pouches lined with 
vibratile cilia, which are in constant action, and agitate 
the otolites by an incessant tremulous movement. The 
organs of circulation and respiration are of a rudimen- 
tary kind ; there is no heart. The sexes are separate. 
There are no external organs of generation; but im- 
pregnation is effected by the male emitting his sperma- 
tozoa, and the female her eggs at the same time, in the 
water. The process may be partly compared to the 
chance shedding of pollen in the air by dioecious plants. 
Lacaze-Duthiers noticed that the spermatozoa lived 
six hours after performing the act of fecundation. 
The egg is at first oval, afterwards pear- shaped, and 
ultimately divided into segments like those of an Annelid. 
Such eggs as do not arrive at maturity speedily decom- 



188 SOLENOCONCHIA. 

pose, and are cleared out by swarms of Infusoria, which 
appear to be generated from the corruption. In the first 
stage of development the germ is motionless ; in the 
second stage it is propelled by vibratile cilia, which are 
set round a large lobe in front, similar to that observ- 
able in the larvse of many mollusca, and it swims 
rapidly; in the third stage it crawls by means of a disk- 
like foot. In swimming it does not come to the surface 
of the water, as do the fry of the oyster and other 
mollusca. The shell is formed during the third period, 
but is only detected by its iridescent lustre, being 
exceedingly thin and transparent, a mere film. This state 
continues till the fifth and occasionally the sixth day after 
birth. The embryonic period lasts from thirty-five to 
forty days. If any of the fry die, Paramecia and Ploes- 
conm (Infusoria) are bred from the decaying matter, 
and, entering into the shells of living individuals, soon 
destrov them. Lacaze-Duthiers observed a current of 
water passing through the shell from the opening at the 
smaller end. He discovered the Dentalium at low-water 
mark, where its presence was betrayed by a small groove 
in the sand ; and he seems to have got a knack of find- 
ing them, for he says he easily procured 200 live speci- 
mens at the recess of a single high spring tide. They pre- 
fer certain spots, especially patches of coarse sand mixed 
with broken shells and interspersed with Zoster a. In this 
part of his researches he derived much assistance from the 
hydrographical survey of France, the minute accuracy 
of which he greatly praises, not merely as regards 
zoology, but as subservient to the navigation of the 
coast. I fear we cannot say so much for ourselves on 
this side of the Channel, when we reflect on the shame- 
ful delay that takes place in the publication of our charts, 
and even now find that the hydrographical survey on 



SOLENOCONCHIA. 189 

the west of Scotland has been stopped. All we can 
boast of is a long annual list of wrecks. We are a 
people that have had losses ; like Dogberry, we can 
afford them : but a superabundance of wealth will not 
restore drowned mariners to life. The Dentalium is 
hardy, and apparently abstemious. Lacaze-Duthiers 
kept some alive in a flask of sea-water with a little sand 
for more than eighteen months. It is much more active 
at night, and sensible of light. A ray of the sun or the 
flame of a candle will cause it to withdraw its foot. 
This organ acts as a piston in expelling at the other end 
the eggs and seminal fluid, as well as perhaps the fseces 
and exhausted water. The point of the young shell is 
pear-shaped, and bears some resemblance to a baby's 
feeding-bottle with the hole at one end instead of in the 
middle. It is broken off when too small to contain the 
terminal tube or process of the mantle ; and this part of 
the shell is continually rubbed away as the animal in- 
creases in size, until at last it becomes truncated, and a 
short pipe is formed with an oblique slit in front to 
accommodate the terminal tube. The slit is extended 
in certain species, although this distinctive character is 
confined to adult specimens. The inside of the shell is 
white as porcelain, and brilliant as varnish. The epider- 
mis is slight and easily abraded. The microscopical 
texture of the shell is scarcely different from that of 
Patella. It is most complicated, being composed in a 
great measure of prisms, interlacing fibres, and anasto- 
mosing canals — not of cellular elements. The quantity 
of animal matter which it contains is next to nothing. 
From the above account, which I have mainly derived 
from the memoirs of Professor Lacaze-Duthiers, it is 
evident that Dentalium is an object well deserving the 
study of conchologists. Thanks to him, its position 



190 SOLENOCONCHIA. 

among the Mollusca may now be considered settled. 
Its symmetrical organization and habits connect it with 
the Acephala ; its spinous tongue, indicative of a head, 
allies it to the Gasteropoda. Its shell, although univalve, 
is tubular and pervious, never corneal or spiral ; in all 
these respects it differs from the shell of Patella, which 
is never tubular or pervious, but always conical and 
when young exhibits a distinct spire. Its relation to 
the adult Fissurella is merely one of analogy. For 
all these reasons I see no alternative but to adopt the 
opinion of the learned French academician by making 
it the type of a separate class. Argenville, in his 
' Zoomorphose ; (1757), gave the first idea of the ani- 
mal. De Blainville called them ' Cirrobranches/ mis- 
taking the tentacles for gills. Deshayes and Clark un- 
fortunately tripped after him ; and both appear to have 
made several mistakes, although of a contradictory 
nature, with regard to the anatomy of the animal. 

" Velut silvis, ubi passim 
Palantes error certo de tramite pellit ; 
Ille sinistrorsum, hie dextrorsum abit ; unus utrique 
Error, sed variis illudit partibus." 

It is unnecessary to notice the attempts of other syste- 
matists, who, so far from contributing anything to our 
former minimum of knowledge, did their little best to 
lead us also astray. I may add that the views of Lacaze- 
Duthiers have been most satisfactorily confirmed by an 
elaborate essay of Sars on his Siphonodentalium vitreum, 
which is perhaps the type of a new family of the present 
class. 



DENTALIUM. 191 



Family DENTALI'ID^E, H. & A. Adams. 
Genus DENTA'LIUM* Linne. PL V. f. I. 

See the account of the class for the characters of the family and genus. 

We find in Aldrovandus that, according to Brasavolus, 
the generic name was anciently " antale " or " dentale," 
the two names signifying a difference of size only. They 
were not considered Conchse, being neither bivalves nor 
univalves. Valerius Cordus called the larger sort an 
" Enthalium," and the smaller a " Dentalium. v Some 
persons ate them raw as well as cooked ; and druggists 
sold the shells for medicinal purposes, believing them 
to be of a mineral nature. Nicodemus Myropous put 
the names into a Greek dress, viz. avraXi and rivraXc. 
Martini distinguishes the " Antales \ 3 as being smooth, 
and the " Dentales " as fluted and angular. 

1. Dentalium en'talist, Linne. 

D. entalis, Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1263 ; F. & H. ii. p. 449, pi. lyii. f. 11. 

Body milk-white : tentacles slender and extensile, with oval 
tips : foot flanked on each side by an irregularly scalloped 
lobe. 

Shell tapering, not much curved, often irregularly divided 
into segments by the successive accretions of growth ; it is 
solid, opaque, and glossy : sculpture, slight concentric lines of 
growth, and occasionally a few indistinct and extremely fine 
longitudinal stria? towards the narrower end ; these strias, when 
they occur, are not very numerous, and are only visible 
with the aid of a magnifier: colour ivory-white, with some- 
times an ochreous stain on the narrower part, caused by 

* Tooth shell. 

t Corrupted from Enthalium, an ancient name of the genus. 



19.2 DENTALIID.E. 

an admixture of mud with the sand in which this species 
burrows : margin at the anterior or broader end more or 
less jagged, owing to that part of the shell being newly 
formed and consequently much thinner than other parts ; at 
the posterior or narrower end it is usually truncated in adult 
specimens, and furnished with a very short sloping and oblique 
pipe or tubular appendage having a pear-shaped orifice ; there 
is also occasionally at the point on the convex side a notch or 
groove, in a line with the front or smaller part of the tubular 
appendage, and this notch is rarely extended into a short and 
narrow slit or channel. L. 1*5. B. 0485. 

Var. anulata. Narrower and more regularly cylindrical, 
ornamented with white ring-like marks of growth. 

Habitat : Gregarious in sand, from 3 f. to the 
greatest depth explored on our coasts. Captain Beechey 
dredged it alive in 145 f. off the Mull of Galloway. It 
is much more common in the north than in the south. 
The variety occurs in Shetland at a depth of from 85 
to 90 f. Its annulated appearance reminds one of the 
testaceous sheath in certain species of Teredo. As an 
upper tertiary fossil, D. entails is generally diffused both 
in time and space, from the glacial " drift " to the red 
Crag at home, and from the newer deposits in the 
Christiania district, at a height of 100-150 feet above 
the sea-level (Sars) to the miocene formation in the 
Vienna basin (Homes). Its foreign distribution in a 
recent state is also very extensive, although it is pro- 
bable that D. Tarentinum has been mistaken for it in 
compiling many local lists. Steenstrup collected it in 
Iceland; Loven, Sars, and others in Scandinavia (4-200 
f.); Mace at Cherbourg; Cailliaud in the Loire-Infe- 
rieure; and H. Martin in the Gulf of Lyons; Olivi has 
recorded it from the Adriatic, Maravigna and Scacchi 
from Naples, Forbes from the iEgean, Mighels from 
the State of Maine, and P. Carpenter from North- 
west America. 



DENTALIUM. 193 

This Dentalium, if placed in a vessel of sea-water 
without sand, is evidently uneasy : it contrives to jerk 
about slowly and clumsily, by attaching the central point 
of its foot like the sucker of a leech ; and then, spread- 
ing out the side lobes to their full extent triangle-wise 3 
it doubles up the foot, and twists itself round with a 
sort of napping movement. If placed in a bed of sand^ 
deep enough to cover the shell at a moderately inclined 
angle, the foot becomes conical and elongated, and soon 
effects a passage for the whole body, leaving only the 
top uncovered, to keep the gills supplied with water 
or air. The ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society • for 
1864 contain some interesting particulars of the use 
and mode of capture in Vancouver's Isle and British 
Columbia of D. pretiosum (Nuttall), which appears to be 
identical with our species. Mr. Lord says that these 
shells were employed as money by the Indians of North- 
west America before the introduction, bv the Hudson's 
Bay Company, of blankets, which to a great extent 
superseded the tooth-shells as a medium of purchase. 
u A slave, a canoe, or a squaw, is worth in these days as 
many blankets ; but it used to be so many strings of 
Dentalia." The value of a Dentalium depends upon its 
length. Twenty-five long shells, strung together end to 
end, make a fathom, and are called a " Hi- qua/' At one 
time such a string would have been worth about £50 ster- 
ling. The shells inhabit the soft sand, in the snug bays 
and harbours that abound along the west coast of Van- 
couver's Island, at a depth of from 3 to 5 f. The habit 
of the Dentalium is to bury itself in the sand, one end of 
the shell being invariably downwards, and the other end 
close to the surface. " This position the wily savage 
turns to good account, and has adopted a most ingenious 
mode of capturing the much-prized shell. He arms 

VOL. III. k 



194 DENTALIID.E. 

himself with a long spear, the haft made of light deal, 
to the end of which is fastened a strip of wood placed 
transversely, but driven full of teeth made of bone, 
resembling exactly a long comb with the teeth very wide 
apart. A squaw sits in the stern of the canoe, and 
paddles it slowly along, whilst the Indian with the spear 
stands in the bow. He now stabs the comb-like im- 
plement into the sand at the bottom of the water, and 
after giving two or three such stabs draws it up to look 
at it; if he has been successful, perhaps four or five 
Dent alia have heen impaled on the teeth of the spear ." 
At one period, perhaps a remote one in the history of 
the inland tribes of Indians, Dentalia were worn as 
ornaments; they are found in old graves, quite 1000 
miles from the sea, mixed with stone beads and small 
bits of the nacre of Haliotis, of an irregular shape, but 
with a small hole drilled through each piece. Rows of 
these tooth-shells may be seen in the ethnological cases 
at the British Museum. Sometimes the top of the 
shell is excavated instead of truncated, and in such case 
the pipe does not project beyond the edge. The lip of 
the pipe is expanded and reflected in some of my speci- 
mens. The fry are very slender, and are marked with 
a few slight concentric ribs ; the point forms an oval 
bulb, and has a minute circular orifice. 

It is the Tubulus antalis of Martini, and D. India- 
novum of P. Carpenter. In Gmelin's compilation the 
description is made up of this species and D. Taren- 
tinum. The same confusion exists in works of the 
older writers on European and British shells. 



DENTALIUM. 195 

2. D. Tarenti'num *, Lamarck. 

D. tarentinum. Lam. An. sans Vert. v. p. 345. D. Tarentinum, F. & H. 
ii. p. 451, pi. lvii. f. 12. 

Body yellowish-white : tentacles very long, ringed like worms, 
with sucker- shaped tips : palps usually eight in number, four 
on each side of the mouth, but difficult to make out ; they are 
of different sizes, and covered with vibratile cilia : foot flanked 
on either side by a sinuated symmetrical lobe or flap. 

Shell less slender and rather more curved than D. entails, 
not so apt to be segmented, very solid and opaque, mostly dull 
and lustreless : sculpture, fine and regular longitudinal striae 
towards the point; and the entire surface appears, under a good 
magnifying power, covered with extremely numerous and de- 
licate impressed lines in the same direction ; there are also 
the usual marks of growth : colour creamy, with sometimes a 
reddish-brown tinge, or clouded rings denoting the periodical 
lines of growth, and occasionally a pinkish hue near the point : 
margin at the anterior end jagged, as in the other species ; at 
the posterior end it is abruptly truncated, and furnished with 
a very short and small straight pipe, placed in the middle and 
having a circular orifice ; it has no notch, groove, slit, or 
channel. L. 1-3. B. 02. 

Habitat : From low-water mark at spring tides 
(Oxwich Bay, near Swansea, J. G. J.) to 25 f., in the 
Channel Isles, Sonth of England, Bristol Channel, Car- 
digan Bay (J. G. J.), Bantry Bay (Mrs. Puxley and 
J. D. Humphreys), and Arran Isle, co. Galway (Barlee). 
At the latter place it was dredged with D. entalis, but 
in a larger numerical proportion. Fossil in the Sub- 
apennine tertiaries (Brocehi), and Sicily (Philippi, as 
D. entalis) . The present species has a southern range 
from the north of France to Gibraltar, both sides of the 
Mediterranean, and the Adriatic, in 3-40 f. It has 
usually been regarded as D. entalis. 

* From it* having been found at Tarento, in Italy. 

k2 



196 dentaliidjE. 

The present species does not generally attain the 
same size as the last, although I received from Lady 
Wilkinson a specimen two inches long and only half- 
grown, which she picked up on the sands in Oxwich Bay. 
The shell differs from D. entails in being shorter, 
broader, thicker, not glossy, and having distinct and regu- 
lar striae ; in the posterior end being abruptly cut off, and 
the terminal pipe being round with a circular orifice, and 
in never having any notch or slit ; it is also sometimes 
of a pinkish hue at the point. In the adult the striae 
cover the whole surface, and not merely the narrower 
part ; in the young these are fine ribs. 

Lister first noticed this shell as British, from Barn- 
staple Bay. Da Costa described and figured it as D. 
vulgare, a name which ought in justice to be preferred, 
because that given by Lamarck was not only long sub- 
sequent in point of date, but unsupported by a proper 
description. He says D. Tarentinum is slender, some- 
what curved, and smooth, with a reddish base. How- 
ever, I suppose we must accept the proposition made by 
the late Mr. G. B. Sowerby in the ( Zoological Journal ' 
for 1829, and use the latter name as the one best 
known to conchologists. It is not the D. dent alls of 
Linne, as supposed by Montagu and his followers. 
The young is the D. striatum of the last-named author, 
although not of his predecessor, Bom. In a worn state 
it is Turton's D. labiatum, and D. politum, afterwards 
changed to D. laeve. 

The collection of Mr. J. D. Humphreys contains a 
specimen of D. dentalis, from Bantry, mixed with the last 
species. D. dentalis is common on the western shores of 
France, from the mouth of the Loire southwards, as well 
as in Portugal and Spain, the Mediterranean, Adriatic, 
iEgean, Madeira, and Canary Isles. Fossil in the 



DEXTALIITM. 197 

Red and Coralline Crag (S.Wood). It has nine lon- 
gitudinal ribs, besides frequently a stria between each 
rib, but no fine impressed lines as in D. Tarentinum ; and 
it is more angulated. This may have been the shell 
of which Miss Pocock found several specimens " on the 
sandy coast of Cornwall, near Lelant, in the year 1802/' 
but which Donovan mistook for another species and 
named D. octangulatum. Perhaps D. dent alls may 
hereafter be discovered on our southern or Irish coasts. 
It is the D. novemcostatum of Lamarck, and D. vulgare 
of H. and A. Adams. 

D. abyssorum of Sars once lived, and possibly sur- 
vives, in our northern seas, I dredged two or three 
young specimens in Shetland on different occasions; 
but they had a semifossilized look. This species in- 
habits the western coasts of Sweden and Norway, at 
depths varying from 40 to 150 f. Sars has identified it 
with D. striolatum of Stimpson from the east coast of 
North America ; and it is most likely the D. attenuatum 
of Say from Massachusetts. D. abyssorum is one of 
our glacial relics ; it occurs in the boulder- clay at Brid- 
lington (S. Wood, as " D. entale") and Wick (Peach) ; 
Moel Tryfaen (Darbishire) ; Banff (Forbes, as D. den- 
talis); Preston (J. Smith, as D. striatum); newer and 
older deposits at Chris tiania (Sars), in the former 
at 100-120 feet, and in the latter at 460 feet above the 
sea-level. It is longer and thinner than D. dent alia, 
and has more ribs : it is not so finely striated as D. 
Tarentinum, and wants the impressed lines. The ter- 
minal process is like that of D. entails. 

D. striatum of Born (D. octangulatum, Donovan, D. 
octogonum, Lamarck, and D. striatulum, Turton) is a 
tropical shell, and has been wrongly considered British 
on very suspicious authority. Turton' s collection con- 



198 dentaliidjE. 

tained specimens ; and I have likewise one which Dr. 
Leach sent to Mr. Dillwyn, under the name of D. octo- 
hedra, as found in Kent. 

D. eburneum, afterwards D. album of Tnrton (D. vari- 
abile, Deshayes), is another un-English or spurious 
species; its native country is said to be the East Indies. 

D. semistriatum of Turton must be, provisionally at 
least, placed in the same category, although specimens 
were taken by Mr. Humphreys from the stomach of a 
red gurnard at Cork. I believe Turton' s specimens 
came from the same quarter, notwithstanding that 
Dublin Bay is the locality given by him. It may be 
the D. semipolitum of Broderip and Sowerby, or D. 
semistriolatum of Guilding : if the former, the habitat is 
unknown ; if the latter, it is West-Indian. 

D. clausum of Turton is certainly not a Dentalium, 
nor even a shell ; it seems to be the lower part of the 
quill of a sea-bird's wing feather. 

The cases of British species of Ditrupa (a genus of 
testaceous Annelids) may easily be distinguished from 
the shells of any species of Dentalium by their being 
constricted near the front, and never having the tubular 
appendage at the smaller end. They are thicker, and 
of a crystalline structure. Such are Ditrupa arietina, 
Miiller (Dentalium subulatum, Deshayes), and Ditrupa 
gadus, Montagu (Dentalium coarctatum, Desh.). 



GASTEROPODA. 199 

Class GASTEROPODA. 

(See Vol. I. p. 51.) 

In considering the natural distribution of this group, it 
will be found that the systems of classification which 
have been propounded by naturalists since the post- 
Linnean revolution are so numerous, that the student 
is apt to be lost in the perplexing labyrinth into which 
they lead him. That of the great Cuvier, however, 
seems to have stood its ground better than any other, 
and is commended by its greater simplicity. It is 
founded on differences in the nature and position of the 
gills or respiratory organs. Some modification has 
been rendered necessary by the investigations of later 
physiologists ; and I will submit a scheme, which 
appears to me sufficient to classify the Gasteropoda, 
without making any pretence to novelty or perfection. 
I would adopt the following eight orders. 

1. Cyclobranchiata, (Cyclobranches) Cuvier. 

Gills arranged in two separate rows, one on each side of 
the body, and covered by the mantle. Chitonidce. 

2. Pectinibranchiata, (Pectinibranches) Cuvier. 

Gills consisting of one or two plumes (usually a single 
plume), placed above the head, or on either side of it, and 
covered by the mantle. Patellidce, Trochidce, and many other 
families, having (invariably in the young state) a spiral or 
turbinated shell with an entire mouth. 

3. SlPHONOBRANCHIATA, GoldftlSS. 

Gills consisting of one or two plumes, placed obliquely on 
the anterior part of the back, and contained in a cavity of the 
mantle, which is prolonged into a tubular canal. Mv.ricidce, 



200 GASTEROPODA. 

Cyprceiclce, and other families, having a spiral shell with a 
channelled mouth. 

4. Pulmonobranchiata, Sowerby. 

Respiratory apparatus consisting principally of an internal 
cavity or pouch, formed by a fold of the mantle, and lined 
with a network of vessels. Limacidce, Helicidce, and other 
land and freshwater univalves, besides a few marine kinds, 
some of which are naked and others provided with shells. 

5. Pleurobranchiata, Gray. 

Gills forming a single row, placed on the right side of the 
body, and covered by the mantle. Bullulce. 

6. Nudibranchiata, [Nudibranches] Cuvier. 

• Gills exposed, and forming a tuft on the back. Doridklce 
and most Sea- slugs. 

7. Pellibranchiata, Alder & Hancock. 

Respiratory apparatus consisting of a net-work of vessels 
diffused over the outer surface of the mantle. LimapontiidcB, 
and small Sea-slugs of an inferior type. 

8. Nucleobranchiata, De Blainville. 

Respiratory apparatus consisting of symmetrical filaments 
associated with the digestive organs in a nucleus placed on 
the back. Carinaria and a few other pelagic mollusca of a 
peculiar kind (Heteropoda), none of which are British. 

In the Prosobranches of Milne-Edwards (which con- 
stitute the first three orders) the gills are almost always 
enclosed in a vaulted chamber or cavity, which is placed 
on the front part of the body; the sexes are separate ; and 
the shell is complete in all stages of growth. In his 
Opisthobranch.es (which constitute the fifth and sixth 
orders) the gills are never enclosed in a special cavity or 



GASTEROPODA. 201 

receptacle, but are more or less exposed at the back or 
sides on the hinder part of the body ; they are herma- 
phrodite ; and the shell is completely formed in the fry, 
but often disappears in the adult or is incomplete. 
According to Lacaze-Duthiers the Gasteropoda are 
formed on an unsymmetrical plan ; the organs of diges- 
tion are placed on one side, instead of in the middle as 
in the Acephala ; and the organs of sense are more deve- 
loped, and usually lodged in a head. 

Our knowledge of the plan of arrangement, so far as 
regards the teeth on the lingual membrane of such 
Gasteropoda as possess this curious apparatus, is too 
imperfect to make it form part of any scheme of classi- 
cation. Loven, Troschel, Gray, and Macdonald have to 
a certain extent pursued the subject, and attach much 
importance to it. Dr. Gray separated on this ground 
his Ctenobranchiata into two suborders — Proboscidifera 
and Rostrifera — treating the one as zoophagous, and 
the other as phytophagous : but we find in the latter 
division Conus, Cypraa, Aporrhais, Fusus, Vermetus, 
Ccecanij Capulus, Calyptr&a, and many other genera 
which are not vegetable-eaters, Pleurotomatida placed 
among the Proboscidifera, and Conidce among the 
Rostrifera (both of these families having precisely the 
same kind and disposition of teeth) , besides many other 
like incongruities. At the same time it is evident that 
this spinous organ of deglutition affords a useful cha- 
racter to distinguish certain genera and even higher 
groups ; and I trust that a further examination of the 
subject will enable us to make it available for that pur- 
pose. 

The embryology, or history of the development of the 
Gasteropoda, has been carefully investigated by a host of 
able physiologists from the time of Stiebel (1815) to this 

K O 



202 GASTEROPODA. 

day. Grant, Quatrefages, Dumortier, Leuckart, F. 
M tiller, Laurent, Sars, Van Beneden, Rathke, Loven, 
Milne-Edwards, Nordmann, Kolliker, Gegenbaur, 
Krohn, Clarapede, Vogt, and Lacaze-Duthiers are some 
of those who have distinguished themselves by such 
researches. All their observations show that the Gas- 
teropoda pass through a series of metamorphoses before 
attaining their perfect state, and that the duration of 
the larval state is often considerable, compared with the 
whole period of their existence. 

Their shells appear to have a more uniform structure 
than those of the Acephala. Dr. Carpenter says " There 
is not by any means the same amount of diversity in 
the structure of the shell in the different subdivisions of 
this group as that which we have met with among the 
Conchiferous Acephala. There is a certain typical plan 
of construction that seems common to by far the greater 
number of them ; and any considerable departures from 
it are uncommon. The small proportion of animal 
matter contained in most of these shells is a very marked 
feature in their character, and it serves to render other 
features indistinct." A univalve shell consists of three 
layers of cellular plates, each of the upper two layers 
lying unconformably on the one immediately below it, 
and every plate being composed of a single series of 
elongated prismatic cells, which cohere lengthwise. He 
dissents from the idea of Dr. Gray that the structural 
arrangement is the result of crystalline action. The shells 
of mollusca were formerly regarded as a mere exuda- 
tion of calcareous matter, the particles of which were 
held together by a sort of animal glue. Carpenter 
is of opinion that the appearance of prismatic crystal- 
lization in certain shells is entirely due to the moulding 
of the calcareous matter within their cells. He agrees 



GHITONIDiE. 203 

with Dr. Bowerbank in his account of the composition 
of univalve shells, as evincing a definite organic arrange- 
ment and not a simple crystallization. 



Order I. CYCLOBHANCHIATA. 
Family CHITO'NIME, Guilding. 

Body oval, oblong, or elongated, semicylindrical, rounded at 
each end : mantle thick, covering the back, and encircling the 
sides with a girdle which is free at its edges : head sessile, 
surmounted by a membranous veil or hood, and containing a 
pair of horny jaws and the front of a long and slender tongue 
bristling with numerous teeth, which extends into the interior 
of the body, and is folded up within it : no tentacles or ei/es : 
gills forming a row of small pyramids on each side, which 
meet behind the head, lying between the mantle and the foot, 
and extending from behind to the front : foot muscular, occu- 
pying the whole of the under surface : vent or excretory duct 
placed opposite to the head at the end of the foot. 

Shell composed of separate arched plates, which are inserted 
in the mantle along the back breadthwise ; they are usually 
external. 

I am not surprised at Lamarck calling this a singular 
and strange group, nor that there has been such difficulty 
in assigning to it a definite place among the Inverte- 
brata. In the larval state they resemble Isopodous 
Crustaceans, or they might even be mistaken for tiny 
Trilobites ; and the adult may be compared to Onisci de- 
prived of antennse, eyes, and feet. They are also not unlike 
species of Aphrodita. When a boy I was cruelly deceived 
in thinking that I had found a huge and new Chiton, 
having got hold of a Sea-mouse in the sand at low water. 
De Blainville believed that their natural affinities lie 
with the Annelids, and he raised them to a tribal rank 
under the name of Polyplaxiphora. The circulatory 



204 chitonid^e. 

system is complicated; Cuvier ascertained that each 
auricle opened into the heart by two distinct orifices, a 
disposition of which he had not detected another instance 
in the animal kingdom. Milne-Edwards considered 
them a satellite group of the Mollusca, fancifully com- 
paring the Organization of the Invertebrata to the side- 
real system. But the general plan of their structure 
is that of the limpet ; the only differences of any import- 
ance consist in the latter having tentacles and eyes, which 
are wanting in the Chitonidce, and in the shell of the one 
being a single piece, while the other is composed of 
several pieces which form together an elongated buckler. 
In the genus Cylichna we find one species (C. truncata) 
with tentacles, and another (C. cylindracea) without ten- 
tacles ; and in each of the genera Eulima, Mangelia, and 
Amphisphyra, similar discrepancies occur with respect to 
the presence or absence of eyes in certain species. The 
most obvious distinction between Chiton and Patella con- 
sists in the arrangement of the gills and the multivalve or 
univalve character of the shell. It seems sufficient to 
group them in two families, separate but not widely 
apart. Adanson and Strom pointed out the affinity of 
Chiton to Patella ; and Poli showed that their spinous 
tongues were exactly similar. The Rev. Lansdown 
Guilding, in a valuable monograph of the present family 
(Zool. Journ. 1830), called this apparatus "trachy- 
derma/' 

Genus CHITON*, Linne. PI. V. f. 2. 

Body oval or oblong : girdle scaly, bristly, tufted, or mem- 
branous, and fringed with short spines. 

Shell usually boat-like, composed of eight plates, which are 

* Coat of mail. 



CHITON. 205 

external and overlap one another in an imbricated or tile-like 
fashion ; the last or hindmost plate has a small overhanging 
boss in the middle. 

These " punaises de mer," as Vallisnieri calls them — 
Petiver has a prettier name, " Oscabrions " — move very 
slowly, creeping or rather gliding, onwards, backwards, 
or sideways, with an imperceptible and stealthy pace. 
Mr. Guilding says of the West-Indian kinds (and his re- 
marks will in most particulars apply to the British spe- 
cies) , "They seem to feed entirely by night. Though they 
remain stationary during the day, when disturbed they 
will often creep away with a slow and equal pace, often 
sliding sideways, and creeping under the rocks and stones 
for concealment. If accidentally reversed, they soon re- 
cover their position by violently contorting and undula- 
ting the zone ; and for defence they sometimes (when de- 
tached) roll themselves up like wood-lice. Some of the 
larger kinds, especially of Ac anthopleur a, are eagerly de- 
voured by the lower orders in the West Indies, who 
have the folly to call them { beef ; ' the thick fleshy 
foot is cut away from the living animal and swallowed 
raw, while the viscera are rejected. We have here a 
large pale Chiton, which is said to be poisonous." Ladies 
who are not good sailors, and are fond of trying new 
preventives against sea-sickness, may (if they can) swal- 
low raw Chitons, and so imitate the Iceland fishermen, 
who pretend that the " hav-bceggeluus " (sea-bugs) are 
an effectual remedy against this malady, and also that 
they quench thirst. One kind is easily procured at low 
water on most of our beaches by turning over loose 
stones. Such an occupation just before encountering a 
voyage might beguile the tedious interval — or perchance 
the deglutition of these strange boluses might by anti- 
cipating the evil rob the passage of its horrors. 



206 CHITONID^. 

Poli called the animal Lophyrus, and he has given some 
particulars of its anatomy. Neither Cuvier nor Leach 
found any male organ in the individuals they examined ; 
and little seems to be known of their sexual relations. 
Their embryogeny, however, is no longer a mystery. In 
the ( Transactions of the Royal Academy of Sciences at 
Stockholm/ for 1855 will be found a most interesting ac- 
count by Professor Loven of his observations on the de- 
velopment of C. marginatus. He says that some indivi- 
duals, kept in confinement, laid their eggs, loosely united 
in clusters of from 7 to 16, upon small stones. Each e^ 
has a thick envelope. The embryo, which is exactly of 
an oval shape, and without any trace of shell, is divided 
by a circular indentation into two nearly equal parts. 
The upper half is fringed with cirri, by means of which 
the embryo swims ; and each side of the line of inden- 
tation is furnished with a tuft of very fine filaments. 
Close to this line on either side are perceptible two dark 
points, which are the eyes. "When freed from the egg } 
the embryo assumes a more lengthened shape ; the lower 
half soon afterwards exhibits transverse furrows and 
joints, of which seven (besides the front lobe) are dis- 
tinguishable ; and some granulations now make their 
appearance as the first rudiments of the shell. The 
animal bends itself frequently ; it is still quite soft, and 
can only swim. Subsequently it begins to crawl. The 
eyes are then more conspicuous; the joints become 
separated, and acquire a shelly consistence; the cirri 
and tufts disappear; and the head is perfectly formed 
with its membranous hood. The embryo at this stage 
sometimes swims and sometimes crawls. The eyes are 
placed on distinct protuberances, and consist of pigment- 
spots and lenses ; and the foot is rather enlarged, 
although some time elapses before this part attains its 



CHITON. 207 

full size in proportion to the head. Loven justly re- 
marks that, if we compare the development of Chiton 
with that of other Mollusca, it is evident that the circle 
of cirri, bv means of which the animal moves in its first 
or swimming stage, corresponds with the cirri of the 
front lobe in the young of other Gasteropoda and of the 
Acephala. Mr. Clark recorded some important remarks 
on the reproduction of C. marginatus in the f Annals 
and Magazine of Natural History' for December 1855, 
being the same year as that in which LoveVs were pub- 
lished. One of several individuals, placed in a vessel 
of sea- water on the 23rd July 1855, poured out for 
several minutes a continuous stream of flaky-white vis- 
cous matter, like a fleecy cloud, and then discharged 
ova — not in volleys, but one or two at every second for at 
least fifteen minutes, forming a batch of from 1300 to 
1500 ; a thousand or more remained in the ovary, per- 
haps not sufficiently matured for parturition. The fluid 
and ova were emitted " from under the centre of 
the coriaceous integument of the posterior terminal 
valve/' in the same way as the author had described it 
to take place from the posterior extremity of Denta- 
lium. Each egg was enveloped in a pale yellow mem- 
brane, and was of a somewhat globular shape, being a 
little compressed or oblate at what may be termed the 
axis; it appeared to be about the 100th of an inch in 
diameter. The ova were entangled in the tenacious 
fluid which had been previously poured out — this being 
seemingly a provision for preventing their being washed 
away until the fry were prepared to emerge. In about 
24 hours afterwards the fry became disengaged from 
their common nidus, and swam about with great viva- 
city in every direction, crossing a large breakfast saucer 
in 30 or 40 seconds. They had by that time lost the 



208 CHITONIDiE. 

subglobular figure, and taken that of a subelongated 
oval, approaching the shape of an adult Chiton. When 
the swimming-action commenced, only half the animal 
was liberated from the capsule or membranous integu- 
ment, the other half being still enclosed, with the empty 
portion of the capsule folded over it. With a power of 
300 linear Mr. Clark saw the elements of the four an- 
terior valves, as well as the buccal depression and head ; 
at this stage of development he could not perceive any 
metamorphosis. In the course of the next five days 
the animal had altogether cast off the embrvonic cover- 
ing, when it exhibited the complete form of a Chiton, 
and adhered to the bottom of the vessel. He apparently 
did not at any period detect the eyes w-hich Loven had 
noticed. Mr. Clark further remarked that the fry 
during its phase of rapid movement often rolled itself 
into a ball. The slight discrepancy between these ob- 
servations of the Swedish, and English naturalists may 
be accounted for bv those of the former being more 
complete, and perhaps having been made under more 
favourable circumstances. Twenty years ago Milne- 
Edwards published, in conjunction with Quatrefages 
and Blanchard, the result of anatomical and zoological 
researches made on the shores of Sicily and France. 
Chiton was one of the subjects of their investigation ; 
but I am not aware that any details were given. Milne- 
Edwards was induced, however, by these researches to 
declare that he had arrived at a different conclusion 
from that which w 7 as hazarded in the ' Vestiges of Crea- 
tion/ viz. that the embryo of the higher animals, in- 
cluding man himself, presented in succession modes of 
organization analogous to the permanent state of the 
principal lower types of the animal kingdom. On the 
contrary, he was of opinion that the embryos of the Mol- 



CHITON. 209 

lusca and the Mammalia had their own respective modes 
of organization, and that the theory above mentioned was 
by no means justified by the facts. Each plate of a Chiton 
has its sides diagonally parted, and is divided into three 
triangular areas. The base of the central area is covered 
by the edges of the preceding plate, and the base of each 
lateral area is inserted in the girdle or marginal band of 
the mantle. The front plate, being that which protects 
the head, is semicircular ; the hindmost plate is oval, 
and is furnished with a boss or point, which overhangs 
the rear and corresponds with the apex of the cone in the 
shell of Patella. In many species the plates are inserted 
more firmly in the girdle by means of marginal notches. 
These were first noticed by Fabricius in his description 
of C. marmoreus. They vary in number and fineness 
according to the species. The spines and valves which 
cover the girdle in most species are calcareous. The 
structure of the shell agrees with that of Patella, 
although the details are somewhat different. Carpenter 
says, C( The external layer, which is usually impregnated 
by colouring matter, does not exhibit the laminations 
which are seen in Patella, but in their stead presents 
everywhere a delicate fibrous structure, the fibres being 
arranged parallel to the surface. The superficial part of 
this layer is perforated by large canals, which pass down 
obliquely into its substance, without penetrating so far 
as the middle layer. The purpose of these canals, which 
remind us of the perforations of Terebratula, is by no 
means apparent. In the deeper part of this coloured 
external layer, which is of great toughness, there is a 
layer of minute cells which seem to lie between the 
fibres; and below this, again, is a layer entirely com- 
posed of large flat pavement-like cells, as in Patella. 
The internal layer seems to have the same nearly homo- 



210 chitonid,e. 

geneous texture as the external." The tubular structure 
of the outer layer appears to be accompanied by the ab- 
sence of an epidermis, respecting which I offered an 
explanation in my account of the Brachiopoda at p. 6 
of Vol. II. The second volume of the ' Zoological Jour- 
nal ■ (1825) contains an accurate description, by the 
Rev. R. T. Lowe, of some Scotch Chitons-, and Baron 
Middendorff has given an elaborate essay on the Russian 
kinds, with details of their anatomy. The genus abounds 
in species, which are all more or less gregarious. Reeve 
has lately enumerated 189, and this list is not complete. 
The British Chitons live attached to rocks, stones, and 
old shells ; they inhabit various depths of water, and 
many live between tide-marks. Some of their shelly 
plates occur in upper tertiary strata ; others of extinct 
form have been found in older and even ancient forma- 
tions. Gray has made twenty genera out of the one so 
familiar to us by name. I do not consider it necessary 
to apply this rate of multiplication to our native species : 
the following conspectus may suffice to distinguish 
them : — 

A. Girdle covered with spines, and having also tufts of bristles. 

(Acanthochites, Leach, Jide Risso.) 1. C. fascicularis. 

2. C. discrepans. 

B. Girdle spinous, without tufts. (Acanthopleura, Guilding). 

3. C. Hanleyi. 

C. Girdle covered with scales or granules. (Lepidopleurus, 

Leach, fide Risso.) 4. C. cancellatus. 5. C. albus. 
6. C. cinereus. 7. 0. marginatus. 8. C. ruber. 

D. Girdle apparently reticulated. 9. C. l&vis. 

E. Girdle membranous. 10. C. marmoreus. 



CHITON. 211 



1. Chiton fas'cicula'ris*, Linne. 
C. fascicular^, Linn. S. N. p. 1106 ; F. & H. ii. p. 393, pi. lix. f. 5. 

Body oblong, yellowish with often a tinge of brown : man- 
tle fleshy, bordered by a narrow hem of a paler and almost 
transparent hue : girdle moderately broad, more or less closely 
covered with short spines, which are usually tawny or greyish ; 
besides this armature there is a thick tuft of 14 longer spines, or 
rather bristles, of a paler or whitish colour (occasionally green- 
ish or golden), between each plate of the shell at the point 
of junction on both sides, and 4 more, close to the front 
or head-plate, making in all 18 ; margin fringed with 
spines of an intermediate length, and finely ciliated at its outer 
edges : head representing an arc of |rds of a circle : mouth 
large, of a purplish colour, and star-shaped, being divided into 
a dozen lobes, each of which radiates from the centre and is 
defined by a black line : gills visible throughout, larger towards 
the tail, and diminishing in size towards the head : foot oblong, 
of an orange tint, broader in front, and bluntly pointed behind, 
thicker towards the sides than in the middle of the sole : vent 
conical and short, projecting above the tail or hinder extremity 
of the foot, and placed in a channel or notch. 

Shell formed of the usual number of plates, which are 
shield-like and somewhat compressed, solid, opaque, and of 
rather a dull hue ; they occupy |-ths of the entire breadth ; 
when separated, the notch in front of each is very large and 
deep, and is flanked on either side by a broad shoulder : sculp- 
ture, rather fine but not very numerous oval granules, like 
those of shagreen, on each side of a broadish central ridge or 
keel, which extends along the back ; they are arranged length- 
wise in lines converging towards the beak or point of the 
ridge ; their tops are flattened and sometimes slightly concave ; 
the central or dorsal ridge is closely striated longitudinally or 
divided by lines, and sometimes punctured, exposing the tu- 
bular structure ; it has usually a rubbed and somewhat po- 
lished appearance : colour brown, chocolate, orange, yellow, 
pinkish, or red, now and then mottled or streaked with 
white, pale green, or brown : beaks small and rather promi- 

* Covered with small bundles or tufts. 



212 CHITONID^. 

nent : inside smooth and polished, of a greenish cast : notches 
slight, 5 on the head-plate, 1 on each side of every middle 
plate, and 2 on the tail-plate, making altogether 19. L. 0-75. 

B. 0-375. 

Yar. 1. attenuata. Much longer and narrower in proportion 
to the breadth. 

Yar. 2. gracilis. Longer than usual, with finer sculpture : 
oirdle broader and membranous, sparsely set with spines, and 
mostly having an extra tuft (occasionally two) at the tail. 

C. gracilis, Jeffreys, in Ann. Nat. Hist. Feb. 1859, p. 106. 

Habitat : Rocks, stones, and oyster- shells, on every 
part of our coast from low-water mark to 25 f. ; off Mull 
of Galloway in 145 f., as C. discrepans (Beecliey) . Var. 
1. Oban (Barlee). Var. 2. Weymouth (Metcalfe and 
Damon) ; Lul worth (J. G. J.) ; Gronville Bay, Jersey, 
with C. discrepans (Norman); Milford Haven (M c An- 
drew and Jordan) ; Lough Strangford (Adair) . A speci- 
men from the last mentioned locality measures nearly an 
inch and a half in length, while the largest that I have of 
the typical form (from Unst) is scarcely an inch long. 
Fossil in the Coralline Crag, Sutton (S. Wood) ; South 
Italian tertiarie s (Philippi) . The foreign distribution of 
this species extends from Finmark (Sars) to the iEgean 
(Forbes), Barbary (Brander, fide Linne), Morocco 
(M f Andrew), Algeria (Weinkauff), and Canary Isles 
(M f Andrew), at depths ranging to 20 f. ; but some of 
the southern localities which have been published pro- 
bably belong to C. discrepans. Malm found it attached 
to Laminaria saccharina on the coast of Bohuslan at a 
depth of 12 f. The variety gracilis occurs at Etretat, in 
Normandy (J. G. J.), and in the Loire-Inferieure 
(Cailliaud). 

This handsome species crawls backwards as well as 
forwards. Mr. Jordan remarks that it appears much 



CHITON. 213 

more sensible of cold than the Littorina, and that even 
about the middle of November it was difficult for him 
to find two or three specimens in an hour's search at 
Tenby, in a spot where he could during the month of 
August get more than as many dozen in the same time. 
The fleshy part of the girdle must be porous or vascular, 
because it becomes swollen and puffed up if confined 
by a ligature ; it is often raised in folds or puckered, to 
admit water to the gills. The dorsal ridge is formed 
by the wearing away of the granulated surface, showing 
that this part of the shell is never renewed. The plates 
are frequently encrusted by small spiral Serpula and 
Foraminifera, In young shells the triangular compart- 
ments are to be seen, as in other species of Chiton. 

It may be the u Kalison " of Adanson. The short 
description by Linne of C. fascicularis, and the 
habitat (Barbary), are rather more applicable to C. 
discrepans than to the present species. Writers on the 
[Mediterranean shells have evidently mistaken one for 
the other. Pennant says his C. crinitus has only seven 
valves; but his figure shows eight and the usual number 
of tufts. I am also disposed to refer to C. fascicularis 
the Acanthochites ceneus of Kisso, and certainly the 
AcanthocJuetes vulgaris of Leach. I cannot maintain 
the distinction which at first seemed to exist between 
the typical form and the variety gracilis, and which in- 
duced me to describe the latter as a separate species. 
Both have every character in common, except the ad- 
ditional tuft ; and that is not constant. 



214 chitonid,e. 

2. C. dis'crepans *, Brown. 

C. discrepans, Brown, 111. Conch, p. 65, pi. xxi. f. 20 ; F. & H. ii. p. 396, 
pi. lviii. f. 4. 

Body oblong : girdle broad, covered with a thick pile, like 
velvet, which is usually of a greyish tint ; tufts similar in 
number and arrangement to those of Q. fasciculaHs, but not 
so large ; they are whitish or tawny, with sometimes a 
greenish hue ; spines of marginal fringe not longer than those 
which form the pile. 

Shell more convex in the middle than the last species, 
occupying only one-half of the entire breadth : plates similar 
in shape : sculpture, very fine and numerous round granules, 
arranged in rows which converge in a curved direction towards 
the beak in each plate ; their tips are flattened in adult speci- 
mens, but seldom concave ; ridge prominent and rather sharp, 
separated from the granulated portion on each side of it y 
closely striated or lineated lengthwise, and having a rubbed 
or polished appearance : colour greyish, mottled with dull 
reddish-brown ; the ridge is generally darker and sometimes 
marked by a black cuneiform streak : beaks sharp and pro- 
jecting : inside smooth and polished, of a greenish cast : 
notches as in C. fascieularis, but sharper. L. 1-25. B. 0*6. 

Habitat : Not uncommon on rocks and stones in the 
Channel Isles, from low-water mark to 25 f.; sometimes 
associated with C. fascieularis, which is much less fre- 
quently met with in this outlying part of Great Britain. 
The only other British locality that I am aware of is 
Coomb, in Lantivet Bay, Cornwall, as C. crinitus 
(Couch) : I have not seen the specimens. It occurs on 
the coast of France from the Boulonnais to Nice; 
Corsica (Payraudeau) ; Sicily, as C. fascieularis, var. 
major (Philippi) ; Balearic Isles and Mogador (M' An- 
drew) ; and Loven has enumerated it among the Scan- 
dinavian mollusca as C. crinitus (" Boh-Norv. v ) ; but 
I fear he mistook a variety of C. fascieularis for the 
present species. 

* Different, i.e., from C. fascieularis. 



CHITON. 215 

Mr. Dermis, as well as Mr. Jordan, observed that 
specimens found between tide-marks in Herm and 
Jersey were very much finer than those dredged 
in deep water off the last-mentioned island. This 
species differs from C. fascicularis in being larger, 
and usually longer in proportion to the breadth ; the 
central ridge is more prominent ; the granules are much 
smaller and more numerous, and they are invariably 
round instead of oval ; the girdle is broader, and clothed 
with a thick pile ; the tufts are not so large or con- 
spicuous ; and the notches are deeper. The young have 
a remarkably elongated shape. 

The locality (Tenby) assigned by Brown to C. dis- 
crepans belongs to C. fascicularis ; but his statement 
that the " papillae" are round can only apply to the 
former species. Sowerby considered it (but erroneously) 
the C. crinitus of Pennant, which is nothing more than 
C. fascicularis. I believe Acanthochites communis and 
A. carinatus of Risso may be referred to C. discrepans. 

3. C. Hanle'yi*, Bean. 

C. Hanleyi (Bean), Suppl. Thorpe's Brit. Mar. Conch, p. 263 ; F. &. H. 
ii. p. 398, pi. lxii. f. 2. 

Body oblong: girdle rather narrow, tough, covered with 
numerous short whitish spines ; those at the posterior side of 
each plate, issuing from the corner where it overlaps the next 
plate, are a little longer than the rest, and assume a some- 
what tufted form. 

Shell convex : plates shield-like, with a wide and deep 
notch in front, moderately solid and opaque, not glossy : sculp- 
ture, numerous but not crowded bead-like tubercles, arranged 
in longitudinal rows, which appear in some specimens chain- 
like ; these tubercles are smaller, finer, and closer on the crest 
or back of each plate, and become coarser and irregular at the 

* Named in honour of Mr. Silvanus Hanley, one of the authors of 
' British Mollusca ' and other works on conchology. 



216 CHITONID^E. 

sides ; there is no distinct ridge : colour dirty brown or ashy : 
beaks small and moderately pointed : inside porcellanons ; the 
margin has no notches, but is indistinctly and microscopically 
crenulated. L. 0*4. B. 0-2. 



Habitat : Stones and old shells, from 20 to 80 f., in 
the following localities : — Plymouth, in trawl refuse, with 
Odostomia truncatula and other south of England shells 
(Jordan) ; Scarborough (Bean) ; Cullercoats (Alder) ; 
Co. Galway (Barlee) ; Co. Antrim (J. G. J.) ; Oban'and 
Hebrides (Barlee, M f Andrew, and J. G. J.) ; Moray 
Firth (Gordon) ; Shetland (Barlee and J. G. J.) : it is 
not common. Coralline Crag, Sutton (S. Wood). It 
inhabits every part of the Scandinavian coast, from the 
south of Sweden to Finmark, at depths varying from 
35 to 120 f. ; Malm noticed it on Lophelia (Oculina) 
prolifera. T dredged in the Gulf of Spezzia a young 
shell which I considered to be the present species ; and 
M. Petit states that Mr. Shuttleworth found two speci- 
mens on a Car dium peculiar to- the Caribbean Sea, which 
he received among some West-Indian shells. These 
southern localities, however, want confirmation. 

The lingual membrane is armed with numerous teeth 
arranged in rows, two of which are more prominent than 
the rest and are furnished with black hooks. Specimens 
from the North Sea attain a considerable size. I have 
one from Shetland fully three-quarters of an inch long, 
and a plate which must have belonged to a specimen 
twice that size. 

It is the C. strigillatus of S. Wood. The C. Nag elf ar 
of Loven is C. Hanleyi of an extraordinary large size ; 
and so is the C. abyssorum of Sars. 



CHITON. 21 



4. C. cancella'tus * (Leach?), G. B. Sowerby, Jun. 

C. canccllahts, Sow. Deser. Cat. Brit. Chit. p. 4, f. 104, 104 a. b, and 105 ; 
F. & H. ii. p. 410, pi. lix. f. 3. 

Body oblong : girdle narrow, irregularly coated with small 
rather shiny yellowish- white granules; margin closely fringed 
with short spines. 

Shell semicylindrical, very convex : plates transversely ob- 
long and narrow, moderately solid and opaque, and slightly 
glossy ; each of the middle plates is divided into three distinct 
compartments (as described in the account of the genus), the 
lateral compartments in this species being elevated consider- 
ably above the middle portion, but together scarcely equalling 
it in superficial area : sculpture, extremely minute round, 
compressed, and close-set granules, arranged in numerous 
chain-like rows, which are longitudinal on the first and last 
plates and on the middle compartment of the other six, and 
converge to the centre or apex of the triangle in the side com- 
partments, so as to present a somewhat divaricating appear- 
ance ; there is no central ridge : colour yellowish-white : beaks 
inconspicuous, except on the tail-plate : inside glossy, exhibit- 
ing some of the chain-like sculpture, beside sharp semicircular 
leaves at each side of all but the head-plate, which form the 
shoulders of those plates ; margin not notched, but indis- 
tinctly and microscopically crenulated. L. 0*225. B. 0-125. 

Habitat : Stones, old shells, and occasionally Ulva? 
and small sea-weeds in the laminarian zone, Channel 
Isles, south of England, Isle of Man, north and west of 
Ireland, Hebrides, and Shetland, at depths between 5 and 
40 f. ; it is rather local, but not uncommon. Its foreign 
distribution is wide, and embraces the Norwegian and 
Swedish coasts from 50 to 150 f., and those of France 
from E tret at to the Gulf of Lvons. 

Malm found it on Lophelia prolifera. The links of 
the chain-like rows of granules on this small and pretty 

* Latticed. 
VOL. III. L 



218 CHITONID/E. 

species resemble punctures, and produce a latticed ap- 
pearance. 

It is the C. albus of Pulteney and Montagu (but not 

of Linne), C. alveolus of Sars, and probably C. tuber cu- 

latus of Leach's l Mollusca of Great Britain/ 

5. C. cine'reus"*, Linne. 

C. cinerea, Linn. S. N. p. 1107. C. asettus, F. & H. ii. p. 407, pi. lix. 
f. 1, 2, and (animal) pi. A A. f. 5. 

Body broadly oval, brownish-yellow, orange, or of a some- 
what tawny fleshcolour : mantle thin : girdle rather narrow, 
covered with small oval, rather shiny, yellowish-white or 
darker-colonred granules, which lie one upon another in a thick 
heap ; margin closely fringed with sharp whitish spines : head 
semicircular, surrounded by a narrow hood : mouth forming 
when at rest a transverse and concentrically wrinkled slit ; but 
when open and showing the teeth, it becomes circular : gills 
pale brownish-yellow ; only from 6 to 10 of the plumes or 
leaflets nearest the tail, on either side are visible, the others 
being convoluted and withdrawn : foot oval, broader in front, 
and margined by a pinkish line : vent short and tubular. 

Shell compressed : plates as in C. cancellatus, but less solid 
in proportion to the size ; lateral compartments indistinct : 
sculpture similar to that of the last species, although much 
finer and never exhibiting a punctured or cancellated appear- 
ance : ridge slight, more or less conspicuous : colour pale yel- 
lowish, often irregularly streaked lengthwise with dark lines, 
and sometimes having a transverse mark of the same hue on 
the lateral compartment near the beak in each plate : beahs 
small: inside porcellanous, streaked in the middle like the 
outside, displaying the leaf-like shoulders described in C. can- 
cellatus ; margin not notched, but crenulated in the same way 
as in the last two species. L. 0-5. B. 0*35. 

Var. Hissoi. Shell of a uniform pale yellowish colour. 
C. Hissoi, Payraudeau, Moll. Cors. p. 87, pi. iii. f. 3, 4. 

Habitat : Stones, and old shells (especially oysters) , 
everywhere in the laminarian, coralline, and deep-sea 

* Ash-coloured. 



CHITON. 219 

zones ; occasionally between tide -marks at high springs ; 
off Mull of Galloway, 145 f. (Beechey). Macgillivray 
savs he found it at Aberdeen on a starfish ! The 
variety is from the west of Scotland in deep water. 
"Glacial" bed at Fort William (J. G. J.); Coralline 
Crag, Sutton (S. Wood). Greenland (Fabricius and 
Eschricht) ; Iceland (Steenstrup and Torell) ; Scandi- 
navia, 1-130 f. (Miiller and others) ; north of France 
(De Gerville) ; Vigo Bay (M f Andrew) ; and along the 
coasts of the Mediterranean to the iEgean, 5-10 f. 
(Forbes, as C. Rissoi). 

Chemnitz called the specimens in Spengler's cabinet 
" the negress/' owing to their swarthy complexion. 
When this Chiton opens its mouth and shows its teeth, 
a double row of black glistening points, separated by a 
central column, is suddenly unfolded, and as rapidly 
withdrawn ; this operation is repeated several times in 
the course of a minute. Is it caused by the blind 
cravings of hunger, or is it a process like that of rumi- 
nation, or merely for the purpose of keeping the teeth 
clean ? Mr. Dennis says that all the specimens which 
he dredged in 17 f., seven or eight miles off Blatching- 
ton, on the Sussex coast, are small and light-coloured in 
comparison with those procured by him at low water. 
The largest specimen I have came from Oban, and 
measures T 8 oths of an inch in length by \ an inch in 
breadth ; the smallest is not much more than ^oth of an 
inch long. The fry are broader than the adult, and their 
granules are tubercular, few in number, and apparently 
analogous to the external bulbs of the tubular perfora- 
tions in shells of Brachiopoda. C. cinereus may be dis- 
tinguished from C. cancellatus by its larger size, ex- 
panded and compressed shape, finer sculpture, the lateral 
compartments being inconspicuous, and by its central 

l2 



220 chitonidjE. 

ridge, beaks, and thicker coating of grannies on the 
girdle, which is broader than in that species. 

It is the C. asellus in Spengler's monograph of the 
genus (Skr. Nat. Selsk. 1797), C.iskindicus of Gmelin 
(from Schroter's 'Einleitung } ) , C. fuscatus of Leach (but 
not of Brown) , and C. Scoticus of the same author ; the 
variety is C. onyx of Spengler. 

6. C. ALBUs % Lmne. 

C. albus, Linn. S. N. p. 1107 ; F. & H. ii. p. 405, pi. kii. f. 2. 

Body narrowly oval, brownish yellow : girdle rather broad, 
regularly and closely beaded with glittering equal-sized oval 
granules, which have their smaller points towards the beaks 
of the shell ; margin fringed with short spines. 

Shell rather convex : plates narrowish, solid and opaque, 
somewhat glossy ; lateral compartments slightly raised : sculp- 
ture, numerous and small granules, arranged in irregular and 
wavy lines which converge towards the beaks ; there are also 
in adult specimens a few darker marks of growth in each 
plate : ridge sharp and conspicuous : colour yellowish-white : 
beaks small, prominent : inside porcellanous, with sometimes 
a bluish tinge, displaying broad leaf-like shoulders on all the 
plates except that which covers the head : notches slight but 
distinct, 13 on the head-plate, 11 on the tail-plate, and 2 on 
each of the other plates (one on either side), making altogether 
36. L. 0-35. B. 0-2. 

Habitat : Stones, old shells, and sea- weeds, from 
low-water mark to 30 f.; Ballaugh, Isle of Man (Forbes, 
from whom I received a specimen in 1841, with a note 
of this locality, and named "Chiton, new sp."); west 
coast of Scotland (R. T. Lowe and others) ; Burghead, 
Moray Firth (Murray, fide Gordon); Buchan, Aberdeen- 
shire (Dawson); Wick (Peach); Orkneys (Thomas); 
Lerwick and other parts of Shetland (J. G. J.): it is a 

* White. 



CHITON. 221 

local species. Fossil at Fort William (J. G. J.). Its 
foreign distribution is entirely northern, viz. Spitz- 
bergen, Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Isles, Norway, 
Sweden, and Denmark, in 10-150 f. (Torell, Konig, and 
others) ; the coast of Russian Lapland, on the White 
Sea (Middendorff) ; Massachusetts (Gould) ; New Eng- 
land (Stimpson) ; and State of Maine, in the stomachs 
of fishes caught in Casco Bay (Mighels) . 

This approaches C. cinereus nearer than any other 
species : but it is narrower and higher, and of a uniform 
yellowish-white colour ; it has a rather prominent ridge 
and beaks ; the sculpture is finer, and not chain-like, but 
irregularly disposed in a radiating and wavy manner; 
its margin is notched ; and the granulation of the girdle 
resembles bead-work. Spiral Foraminifera (Discorbina 
rosacea and Truncatulina lobatula) seem fond of attach- 
ing themselves to the girdle. The fry have dispro- 
portionately large beaks. My finest specimen is from 
Scalloway, and measures j^ths of an inch in length, and 
half as much in breadth. 

It is the C. oryza of Spengler, C. aselloides of Lowe, 
and C. sagrinatus of Couthouy. 

7. C. margina'tus * 3 Pennant. 

C. marginatum. Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. p. 71, tab. xxxvi. f. 2. C. cinereus, 
F. & H. ii. p. 402, pi. lviii. f. 1 (as C. marginatum). 

Body oval, pale fleshcolour : mantle thin, edged with a 
narrow border of light brown : girdle of moderate breadth, 
usually puckered on the inner side (owing to the contraction 
of the mantle), covered with minute close-set roundish 
granules, which lie evenly on the surface ; it is of different 
colours, and often variegated by alternate patches of reddish- 
brown and yellow ; margin thickly fringed with short but con- 
spicuous spines of a yellowish tint : head thick, transversely 
oval : mouth round and plaited : gills from 15 to 20 on each 
side, triangular, apparently not continued behind the head : 

* Bordered. 



222 chitonid^:. 

foot lanceolate, truncated in front, and broader towards the 
tail, which is bluntly pointed. 

Shell somewhat convex: plates broad, rather solid and 
opaque, without lustre ; lateral compartments scarcely (if at all) 
raised, but marked by a slight ridge which extends on each 
side from the beak to the front corner : sculpture like shagreen, 
composed of not very small oval flattened granules, which are 
arranged in two indistinct sets of rows, one length-wise on the 
middle compartment, and the other nearly at a right angle on 
the lateral compartments from each side to the beak : ridge 
distinct and prominent: colour various, forming different 
combinations of yellow, reddish-brown, and green, often mot- 
tled, or the plates are party-coloured, seldom of the same 
hue throughout : beaks strong, prominent, and conspicuous : 
inside porcellanous, with frequently a greenish tinge in the 
middle, displaying broad leaf-like shoulders on all the plates 
except that which covers the head ; the terminal plates often 
exhibit white lines which radiate outwards, and represent so 
many segments : notches deep, 8 on the head-plate, 10 on the 
tail-plate, and 2 on each of the other plates, making altogether 
30, besides occasionally an intermediate and slighter notch. 
L. 0-6. B. 0-4. 

Habitat : Under stones below high water of neap tides 
on all our coasts ; common. It is diffused everywhere 
throughout the North Atlantic from Faroe (Landt) and 
the Loffoden Isles (Sars) to Mogador (M* Andrew) . In 
the North Sea it seems to frequent deeper water ; Asb- 
jornsen and other writers on the Scandinavian Mollusca 
give depths varying from 2 to 40 f. According to Gould, 
a single specimen was found on the coast of Massa- 
chusetts ; and the C. dentiens of that author, from 
Vancouver's Island, appears to be undistinguishable 
from our shell. 

This Chiton uses the under side of the head, as 
well as the foot, in crawling. From one specimen that 
I was observing on the 3rd of June 1864, a thin 
stream of milky fluid issued, immediately beneath the 
anal tube, at short intervals for about two minutes ; the 



CHITON. 223 

discharge was so copious that the water in the vessel 
became turbid. This was probably a seminal secretion. 
The colour of the shell is extremely variable. Out of 
more than five hundred specimens Bouchard-Chan- 
tereaux was unable to find two marked exactly in the 
same way. He describes the tongue as horny, bristling 
with six longitudinal rows of small tricuspid teeth, those 
of the two central rows being blackish and much 
stronger than the others. C. marginatus differs from 
C. cinereus in being usually of a larger size, narrower, 
and more convex or arched; the plates are broader; 
the colour is variegated, not streaked ; the sculpture is 
much coarser, and not chain-like; the granulation of 
the girdle is finer, more minute, and even ; the marginal 
spines are stronger and more conspicuous; and the 
edges of the plates are deeply notched, instead of being 
slightly and indistinctly crenulated. The habitat of the 
two species is also different ; this is littoral, while the 
other prefers deeper water. In the fry of the present 
species the front of each plate is curved. 

Two specimens of C. marginatus in Turton's collection, 
affixed to separate cards, are named in the Doctor's 
handwriting " Chiton ruber" " ; one from u Dublin Bay/' 
and the other from a Portmarnock." They correspond 
with his description of C. punctatus. Both have been 
painted red ! A daughter of Dr. Turton told me that 
when her father went out shell-hunting, some young 
ladies would occasionally go before him on the beach, 
and drop here and there shells which they had taken 
with them, in order to play him a merry trick. Let us 
suppose that these were the artists who so ingeniously 
beautified the specimens above noticed, finding such 
perhaps an easy feat compared with that which Shen- 
stone's Laura could not accomplish — 

" With fresh vermilion paint the rose." 



224 CHITONID.E. 

A specimen was described by Captain Brown as having 
only five plates, nnder the name of C. quinquevalvis. 
Other synonyms of the ordinary form appear to be 
C. cimex, Chemnitz, C. cimicinus, Landt, C. cinereus, 
Laskey and Lowe (bnt not of Linne), C. fuscatus, Brown 
and Macgillivray, C. variegatus, Leach (but not of Phi - 
lippi), and Lepidopleurus carinatus of the same author. 
It may be partly the C. punctatus of Linne. 

8. C. ruber"* (Linne), Lowe. 

C. richer, Lowe, in Zool. Journ. ii. p. 101, pi. v. f. 2 ; F. & H. ii. p. 309, 
pi. lix. f. G, and (animal) pi. A A. f. 6. 

Body oval, inclining to oblong, yellow or creanicolour, and ap- 
parently of a granular texture: mantle thin : girdle rather broad, 
of a mealy aspect, covered with numerous minute spherical 
granules which lie evenly on the surface, as in C. marginatum ; 
it is chequered with alternate patches of red and white ; margin 
thickly fringed with very short spines of the same colour as 
the patch to which they belong : head semioval, edged with a 
narrow band of brown, which is surmounted by a line of 
darker hue : mouth when closed forming an arched slit, also 
surrounded by a darker line, and concentrically wrinkled : 
gills more exposed than in C. cinereus : foot elliptical, bordered 
by a light-brown band, which is much narrower than the one 
round the head, and likewise surmounted by a dark line : 
vent or excretal duct broad and wedge-shaped. 

Shell convex : plates broad, solid, opaque, and glossy ; 
lateral compartments indistinct : sculpture, parallel lines of 
growth, which are sometimes remarkably strong and con- 
spicuous ; with a lens of moderate power it appears otherwise 
to be quite smooth ; but if a Coddington or Stanhope be used, 
the whole surface is found to be very finely and closely reticu- 
lated : ridge more or less prominent, but seldom distinct : 
colour reddish-brown of different shades, mottled or streaked 
with white or pale yellow: beaks strong and projecting : inside 
rosecolour in the middle of each plate, with a greenish hue 
on the edges and sides, shouldered as in the foregoing species : 

* Ked. 



CHITON. 225 

notches deep, 9 on the head-plate, 8 on the tail-plate, and 2 
on each of the other plates, making altogether 29. L. 0*5. 
B. 0-275. 

Yar. oblonga. Larger, longer, and more arched. L. 0*65, 
B. 0-35. 

Habitat : On rocks, stones, old shells, and the 
" roots " of Laminaria saccharina, between low-water 
mark and 20 f., from South Devon to Shetland ; it is 
common in the Avest of Scotland and Lerwick Sound, 
where also the variety occurs. Fossil at Fort William 
(J. G. J.) . The only southern locality that I can find 
recorded is the Adriatic, according to Olivi ; but its 
northern range is very extensive, and comprises Spitz- 
bergen (Phipps, fide Scoresby); Godhaab, E. Green- 
land, 50-150 f. (Wallich); S. Greenland (Eschricht); 
Iceland (Mohr, Steenstrup, and Torell); Norway, 
Sweden, and Denmark, 1-150 f. (Spengler and many 
others); White Sea (Baer, fide Middendorff); North- 
east America, from Cape Cod northwards (Gould, 
Mighels, and Stimpson). 

This pretty species was first noticed as British by 
Professor Jamieson, in the first volume of the ' Memoirs 
of the Wernerian Society ' (1811), from rocks in the 
island of Unst, and almost simultaneously, in the same 
volume, by Captain Laskey, from Dunbar. It may 
always be distinguished from C. marginatus by its • red- 
dish-brown colour, narrower and more arched shape, 
broader girdle, and especially by its smooth and glossy 
appearance. Young shells are longitudinally veined, 
showing the internal tubular structure. 

It is extremely probable that the C. ruber of Linne 
may have been the species which Fabricius afterwards 
described with greater precision as C. marmoreus ; and 
there can be no doubt that the C. Icevis of Pennant was 

l 5 



226 CHITQNID/E. 

the species which we are accustomed to call C. ruber. 
But although Loven and his scientific countrymen have 
adopted the correct names, I must confess a want of 
moral courage in not following their example, believing 
that the perpetuation of such trifling errors may cause 
less inconvenience to conchologists in general than the 
changes necessary to rectify the nomenclature of so 
many species. Spengler described this Chiton as mini- 
mus, and Leach (but not Lowe) as latus. 

9. C. LiEvis"^ (Pennant), Montagu. 

C. Icsvis, Mont, Test, Brit. p. 2; F. & H. ii. p. 411, pi. lviii. f. 3. 

Body oval, inclining to oblong, reddish brown: girdle broad, 
resembling hair- cloth, covered with numerous minute and 
closely packed lozenge-shaped scales or spines, which are set 
horizontally with their points towards the outer margin ; it is 
of a dark brick- colour irregularly flecked with white ; margin 
fringed with a few scattered and caducous short pinkish spines, 
which are apparently a continuation of those which cover the 
girdle. 

Shell convex : plates broad, solid, opaque, and glossy ; la- 
teral compartments more or less distinct : sculpture smooth to 
the naked eye or examined with a lens, but exhibiting under a 
higher magnifying-power a series of extremely delicate striae, 
running lengthwise on the middle compartment of each plate, 
and towards the beak on the side compartments ; the surface 
is also covered (especially the terminal plates and the side 
compartments of the other plates) with small tubercles, which 
are very little raised and scarcely perceptible ; these are the 
bulbs or extremities of the canals that permeate the fabric of 
the shell, like the tubular apparatus observable in most of the 
Brachiopoda ; in young specimens the tubercles are perforated 
or open ; there are likewise slight parallel lines of growth : 
ridge more or less prominent, but seldom conspicuous : colour 
reddish-brown, marbled or veined with white, and sometimes 
variegated with green, red, pink, or brown, rarely of a uni- 
form dark brick- colour : beaks strong and projecting: inside 

* Smooth. 



CHITON. 227 

fleshcolour, more or less tinged with green, slightly shouldered: 
notches deep, 16-20 on the head-plate, 15 on the tail-plate, 
and 2 on each of the other plates, being altogether about 45. 
L. 0-75. B. 0-4. 

Yar. navicula. Smaller, narrower, and more arched. 

Habitat : On rocks, stones, and old shells, from Unst 
to Sark, between low- water mark of spring tides and 
70 f. ; apparently not gregarious, nor so common as 
some other species. The variety inhabits the west of 
Scotland. C. Icevis has been noticed by foreign writers 
as far north as Vadsoe, East Finmark, in 30-60 f. 
(Danielssen), southward to the iEgean, in 31-80 f. 
(Forbes), and Algeria (M f Andrew and Weinkauff), and 
also in various intermediate places, at depths varying 
from 8 to 50 f. 

According to Philippi, Sicilian specimens are much 
smaller than the British. The largest in my collection 
came from Oban, and are upwards of an inch and a 
quarter long. The proportion of length to breadth is 
variable. 

It is the C. corallinus of Risso, C. achatinus of Brown, 
C. Cranchianus and Lepidopleurus punctulatus of Leach, 
and C. DoricB of Capellini. Montagu described a seven- 
plated specimen as C. septemvalvis, a name which Maton 
and Rackett changed to C. discors. 

10. C. marmo'reus*, Fabricius. 

C. marmorens, Fabr. Faun. Grcenl. p. 420; F. & H. ii. p. 414, pi. lviii. 
f. 2, and lis. f. 4. 

Body oval, inclining to oblong, yellowish or reddish-brown : 
girdle rather broad, membranous and thin, apparently smooth, 
but microscopically pustulated ; it is dusky-brown, sometimes 

* Marbled. 



228 CHITONID.E. 

barred with dark orange ; margin fringed with extremely 
short yellowish spines. 

Shell convex : plates broad, solid and opaque, somewhat 
glossy ; lateral compartments distinct, not much raised, but 
defined by a blunt ridge which extends from the beak on 
either side to the front corner of each plate : sculpture nearly 
smooth to the naked eye, exhibiting under a magnifying-power 
numerous minute and slight tubercles, which usually are more 
conspicuous on the terminal plates and side compartments, as 
in 0. Icevis ; the parallel lines of growth are strongly marked 
in adult specimens: ridge indistinct: colour reddish -brown, 
variegated or speckled with white or yellow, sometimes in a 
zigzag or lightning fashion : beaks very strong and prominent : 
inside yellowish, tinged with pink, showing the under side or 
hollow of the ridge to be striated across ; shoulders long and 
narrow : notches deep, 8 on the head-plate, 9 on the tail-plate, 
and 2 on each of the other plates, making 29 in all, besides 
some intermediate denticles. L. 1. B. 0*6. 

Habitat : Stones, shells, and sea-weed in the Lami- 
narian zone, from Shetland to Scarborough (Bean) ; 
eastern shores of Ireland, as far south as Dublin Bay 
(Kinaghan). Fossil at Fort William (J. Gr. J.); Udde- 
valla (Malm) . It inhabits every part of the Atlantic, 
north of Great Britain, from Spitzbergen to Zealand, 
and the coasts of North-east America, at depths of 
from 7 to* 100 f. M f Andrew has recorded it as dredged 
at Carthagena in 5-10 f. ; this appears to be the only 
instance of a southern locality. 

According to Brown, Mr. Hancock discovered this 
king of the British Chitons below Tynemouth Castle 
in 1809. Laskey indicated it from Dunbar in 1811. 
Fabricius says that it is often found in the crops of the 
Eider-Duck and Anas spectabilis. His description of 
the animal and shell is most admirable; and he particu- 
larly noticed the notches on the margin of each plate 
or valve, as characteristic of this and other species of 
Chiton. It is stated by Middendorff that the epider- 



patellid^:. 229 

mis of the girdle in C. marmoreus displays under the 
microscrope a coverlet ornamented with erect spinules. 
I have not succeeded in detecting any such armature in 
British specimens ; the margin of the girdle is fringed 
in this way, but the surface is merely pustulated. Spe- 
cimens taken by Captain Bedford in Mull are more than 
an inch and a half long. 

It is the C. punctatus of Strom, who nearly a cen- 
tury ago showed the resemblance between the animal 
of Chiton and that of Patella ; perhaps in strictness the 
specific name given by him, being the more ancient, 
ought to be preferred to marmoreus. Fleming called it 
C. Icevigatus, Lowe C. latus, Bean C. pictus, Couthouy 
C '. fulminatus , and Leach C. Flemingius. 

* 

Order II. PEC TINIBBA 'NCHIA TA. 

Family I. PATEL'LID.E, (Patelladce) Guilding. 

Body seinioval, more or less raised above and flat beneath : 
mantle thin, covering the back and sides : head snout-like, 
furnished with a pair of horny jaws and a long and slender 
tongue, which bristles with numerous teeth and is folded up 
within the body : tentacles spike-shaped : eyes on protuber- 
ances at the outer bases of the tentacles, wanting in cer- 
tain kinds : r/ills forming a single row or plume of leaf-like 
plates, which issue from behind the neck on the right-hand 
side : foot very large and rounded, occupying the whole of the 
under side. 

Shell conical or cap-shaped ; apex turned towards one end, 
spiral, and slightly twisted on one side, or curved, in the young 
state : mouth extremely wide, forming the entire base of the 
cone : central scar inside shaped like an amphora. 

This family constitutes the vanguard of the innumer- 
able limpet tribe. Their shells are never symmetrical, 



230 PATELLID.E. 

as has been stated by some writers. When first formed 
they are either spiral or else eccentrically twisted ; the 
spire or twist is worn away in the course of growth. 
There being no communication between the mantle and 
the apex of the shell, the latter cannot be absorbed by the 
animal. The sexes are separate. Those kinds which inha- 
bit the littoral and laminarian zones are phytophagous ; 
and the others, which inhabit the coralline and deep-sea 
zones, are probably zoophagous. In Loven's scheme of 
the dentition in univalve mollusca the rhachis or central 
plate in Patella and Helcion has six teeth, and each of 
the pleurse or side plates three teeth ; in Tectura the 
rhachis has from four to six teeth, and the pleurae have 
none ; in Lepeta the rhachis has only a single tooth, 
and each of the pleurse two. Such differences may in- 
dicate the nature of the food ; the first three genera are 
known to live on sea-weeds, while the last (as well as 
Propilidium) cannot derive their subsistence from any 
vegetable matter except diatoms. 

Genus I. PATE'LLA* Lister. PL V. f. 3. 

Body convex : mantle fringed at its edge with cirri of irre- 
gular lengths : tentacles rather short : eyes prominent : gills 
numerous and closely packed, lying between the mantle and 
the foot, and only interrupted on the right-hand side : foot 
thick and muscular. 

Shell conical, more or less convex, furnished with ribs that 
radiate from the crown, having in its embryonic state a com- 
pletely spiral apex ; crown prominent, eccentric but not 
very much on one side ; the attachment of the mantle to the 
shell is exhibited in the middle (between the crown and the 
margin) as a ring-like scar. 

The \67ras of the Greeks, with whom it appears to 
have been rather a favourite article of food. In the 

* A small pan. 



PATELLA. 231 

' AeiTTvoa o(f) car aV of Atheii8eus,Icesius says that it is even 
more appetizing than the oyster, although not so diges- 
tible; Diphilus does not hold it in such esteem. The 
tenacity with which it adheres to the rock was well 
known to ancient writers. This is compared by Aristo- 
phanes with the attachment of an old woman to a youth ; 
and iElian remarks that, when touched, it is as difficult 
to remove as a pomegranate was from the fist of Milo. 
In one of the odes of Alcseus it is apostrophized as the 
child of the rock and hoary sea ; and Cicero refers to it 
(although not by name) as an example of the sedentary 
nature of some marine animals, " partim ad saxa nativis 
testis inhserentiuin.'" With his usual power of observa- 
tion, exceeding that of many subsequent naturalists, 
Aristotle described the habits of the limpet, and showed 
that it leaves its place on the rock and goes out to feed. 
This was confirmed by Reaumur, although Borelli and 
others asserted that the limpet remained all its life 
fixed to the same spot. It uses its foot like a snail, but 
travels more slowlv. Bouchard-Chantereaux savs that he 
had often seen limpets crawling, especially just after the 
tide had gone out. The young limpet moves freely about, 
and shifts its quarters ; but after attaining a growth of 
probably a few days, it affixes itself to a particular spot, 
which it only quits, when covered by the sea, on the 
return of each tide. If it settles on a hard and rugged 
rock, the circumference of the shell is moulded to fit 
the irregular surface of its abode ; the base of attach- 
ment is then bleached. Should the rock be soft, it 
scoops out by degrees with its muscular foot a cavity of 
a greater or less depth. Mr. Anderson of Wick (the 
highly intelligent editor of the ' John O' Groat Journal 3 ) 
gave me some pieces of Old Red sandstone from that 
coast, in which the pits made and inhabited by P. vul- 



232 patellidjE. 

gata were so deep, that little more than the crown of 
the shell was visible ontside. On the Dorsetshire coast 
the chalk-rocks are also excavated in the same manner, 
but not so deeply. Specimens are not unfrequently 
found on impure limestone, which are constricted or 
indented at the edges, in consequence of the excavation 
having been hindered by the greater hardness of one 
side of the spot occupied by these limpets. The animal 
feeds on small delicate sea- weeds of a foliaceous kind, as 
well as on Melobesia polymorpha, that encrust the rocks 
at low water, by means of its long tongue, which is coiled 
spirally, like the mainspring of a watch set round with 
spring- cogs. This instrument is thrust out from side 
to side ; and when charged with food, it is withdrawn 
into the stomach, unloaded, and again put forth. The 
mark left on the face of a rock, coated with a film of 
the fine sea-weed mentioned above, by a limpet after 
grazing resembles the track of a sea-worm : indeed a 
late eminent geologist had a large slab thus marked cut 
out of the rock, and sent to him with great care, in 
order to publish the supposed discovery of a new Anne- 
lidan ichnolite in the old red sandstone; fortunately 
the mistake was pointed out to him before proceeding 
further. Each limpet appears to have its own feeding- 
ground or pasturage ; its tracks are sometimes numerous, 
and deviate in different directions. Mr. Peach has 
ascertained that it does not retire in the winter to deeper 
water on the coast of Caithness, and that it always 
returns home before the ebbing tide leaves it dry. Its 
firm adhesion to the rock is extraordinary. In order to 
test the strength of its tenacity, Reaumur suspended a 
weight of from 28 to 30 lbs. from the shell of a limpet 
attached to a stone ; this weight it sustained for some 
seconds : less weights failed to overcome its resist- 



PATELLA. 233 

ance. He attributed the adhesive force not to muscular 
action, but to an invisible glue which exudes from the 
granulated base or sole of the foot. It may be also 
caused by an adaptation of the surface of this part of 
the animal to the frequent, although often minute, 
inequalities of the stone; although the glutinous and 
viscous fluid, which is secreted by numerous glands in 
the foot, appears to be the principal agent. It is said 
that death does not destroy the cohesion ; but I do not 
see how such an experiment could be tried. Dr. John- 
ston, in his ' Introduction to Conchology/ likewise states 
that if, after having detached a Patella, one's finger be 
applied to the foot of the animal, or to the spot on which 
it rested, the finger will be held there bv a very sensible 
attraction ; and that if the spot be then moistened with 
a little water, no further adhesion will occur, the glue 
having become dissolved or weakened. When the 
limpet wishes to leave its abode, it has only to raise 
gently the edges of the foot to admit the sea and loosen 
the cement. Adanson believed that the adhesion was 
owing to the action of numerous hemispherical suckers 
on the under surface of the foot, aided by a viscous 
secretion ; he observed that when the animal was de- 
tached from the rock, those suckers expanded or assumed 
a globular form. The foot is undoubtedly capable of 
considerable dilatation and contraction, and has a vas- 
cular structure ; it is often much distended with water. 
This great French naturalist does not seem to have 
known the branchial organization of Patella; for he 
describes the gills as an appendage of the mantle. It 
was supposed by Cuvier that the common limpet was 
hermaphrodite. Adanson and Milne-Edwards, however, 
established the fact of its bisexuality ; and Lebert and 
Robin published in the ' Annales des Sciences Naturelles ' 



234 PATELLID.E. 

for 1846 further particulars of its reproductive organs. 
The last-named physiologists noticed that at the end of 
April these organs (which in each sex are placed at the 
left-hand side of the body) were wanting in nearly one- 
half of the individuals dissected by them, and that of 
the remainder the males were in the proportion of 3 to 
8 or 10 of the females. Fischer has given us some 
information as to the mode of its oviposition. This 
takes place in the months of March and April, when all 
the rocks at low water, as well as the shells of old 
limpets, are covered with an immense quantity of the 
fry. He is of opinion that immediately on the eggs 
being excluded from the ovary, they are developed and 
attach themselves. Gray suspected the sexes to be 
distinct in the limpet ; although he could not discover 
any external difference in the animals, except a slight 
variation of colour. He says that in autumn he found 
a white, milky, glairy fluid in some individuals, and ova 
in others. My late friend Dr. Lukis noticed, in taking 
up a limpet while in the act of crawling, that young 
ones were attached to the under side of the foot ; and he 
inferred that it carried its offspring about with it for 
protection. But it is more probable that the fry became 
accidentally entangled in the gelatinous fluid which 
exudes from the foot, than that the phenomenon which 
he observed was an instance of molluscan aropyi]. 
The shell represents part of a cone whose section is an 
irregular ellipse. It is composed of three layers, as in 
many other univalves. According to Carpenter the 
inner and outer layers in Patella are rather less compact 
than usual; the middle layer is'" composed of tolerably 
regular polygonal cells, which form only a thin layer in 
some parts, whilst in others they are elongated into 
prisms." 



PATELLA. 235 

Gaza, a Byzantine philologist who flourished in 
the 15th century, appears to have been the first to 
give this shell the name of Patella. It was, notwith- 
standing, called by the ancient name Lepas by other 
writers, and even as late as 1616 bv Colonna. Al- 
drovandus included the genus with Balanus : Lister 
had the merit of separating and distinguishing them. 
Nor have all modern zoologists been uniformly success- 
ful in recognizing the natural position of Patella among 
the Mollusca. In the opinion of Lamarck it belongs to 
the same family as Phyllidia ; but the gap between the 
Pectinibranchs and Nudibranchs seems much too wide 
to be bridged over by even his engineering. Most of 
his followers placed Patella alongside of Chiton in the 
order Cyclobranchiata. The present genus was for some 
time the receptacle of miscellaneous and incongruous 
organisms. Among these were Patella unguis, Linne 
{Lingula), P. anomala, Miiller {Crania), P. orbiculata, 
Walker (according to Mr. Norm an " the calcareous disk 
of the termination of a tentacle of Echinus "), P. extinc- 
torium and P. tricornis, Turton (opercula of species of 
Serpula) : Ancylus fluviatilis and A. lacustris were also 
placed in the same genus. Patella, as now restricted, is 
very rich in species, although their tendency to vary is 
so great that the number of those described by authors 
is evidentlv excessive. All of them inhabit rocks and 
shingly beaches, and are strictly littoral. The distri- 
bution of the genus is world-wide. As to its fossil 
ancestry, Searles Wood says, " Shells of this form have 
early made their appearance, and several have been 
figured from the secondary formations/' De Montfort, 
perhaps for the sake of variety, changed the generic 
name to Patellus. 



236 patellid^e. 

Patella vulgata*, Limie. 

R vulgata, Linn. S. N. p. 1258; F. & H. ii. p. 421, pi. lxi. f. 5, 6. 

Body brownish-yellow or dusky, with a bluish tinge : mantle 
fringed with slender cirri or filaments of different lengths and 
sizes, which correspond with the ribs and striae of the shell ; 
some of these cirri above the head are much longer than the 
rest, and are in the proportion of 1 to 4 or 5 of the latter ; 
the mantle is often edged with a narrow band of a darker 
colour: head short, bulging, and strong: mouth provided with 
two lips, which are placed laterally : tentacles awl-shaped, not 
retractile, darker at their tips ; they curl towards each other 
and lie flat on the head, when the animal is at rest: eyes 
small, on slight eminences outside the swollen bases of the 
tentacles : gills of a drab or yellowish colour ; branchial artery 
transparent, thicker, and funnel-shaped at its origin, and 
having smaller veins issuing from it during its course, at a 
right angle : foot attached to the rest of the body by a series 
of powerful but short interlacing muscles ; the sole is lead- 
coloured, or more or less deeply tinged with yellow ; margin 
thin with a pale border. 

Shell forming usually a regular and somewhat raised cone, 
solid, opaque, and of a dull hue : sculpture, numerous ribs, 
which radiate from the apex and become stronger and broader 
at the lower part or margin ; between each rib are 2 or 3 (some- 
times more) parallel striae or finer ribs ; in some specimens the 
ribs are irregularly granulated or studded with knob-like 
tubercles ; the surface is also covered in fresh and less rubbed 
specimens with close-set microscopical longitudinal lines, and 
with numerous but irregular concentric lines of growth : 
colour greyish or pale brownish-yellow, with often purplish 
longitudinal rays arranged in duplicate ; it is rarely speckled 
with white, or of a uniform dusky hue : beak or apex blunt, 
often worn so as to expose the crown, which is of a reddish or 
orange tint ; it is sometimes nearly central : mouth or aper- 
ture roundish-oval, with the broader part behind : margin 
scalloped or indented by the ribs and intermediate striae : in- 
side nacreous and glossy, often yellow or exhibiting the coloured 
rays (especially at the margin) ; it is minutely but irregularly 
lineated in a concentric direction from the margin to that part 
which is always covered by the edge of the mantle, and micro- 

* Common. 



PATELLA. 237 

scopically fretted in the last mentioned part ; margin bevelled : 
annular scar broad : central scar of every colour from white to 
dark brown. L. 1-75. B. 1*5. 

Var. 1. elevata. Shell much smaller, rounder, and higher. 

Yar. 2. picta. Shell smaller and thinner; with alternate 
rays of reddish and dark blue. 

Yar. 3. intermedia. "Animal black or dark-coloured" 
(Knapp). Shell rather smaller, natter, and oval, with finer 
ribs, and an orange crown ; inside golden-yellow, or tinged 
with neshcolour (occasionally creamcolour) in the centre, and 
beautifully rayed towards the margin. 

Yar. 4. depressa. Body creamcolour ; mantle fringed with 
yellowish- white or pale drab cirri ; foot light oraugecolour. 
Shell usually much depressed., and more oblong than the ordi- 
nary form ; ribs finer but sharp ; beak nearer to the anterior 
end; inside porcellanous, with a pale orange head-scar or 
spatula. P. depressa, Pennant, Brit. Zool. iv. p. 142, tab. 
lxxxix. f. 146 (not P. depressa of Gmelin) ; P. athletica, F. & H. 
ii. p. 425, pi. lxi. f. 7, 8. 

Yar. 5. ca'mdea. Shell depressed, roundish-oval; ribs 
more delicate, and less regular : inside dark blue. P. ccerulea, 
Linne, S. N. p. 1259. 

Habitat : Between tide-marks, on rocks and stones, 
everywhere, most plentiful. The first variety occurs 
in North Devon, the opposite coasts of South Wales, and 
at Sark. The second is not uncommon in the Channel 
Isles. The third is also from the Channel Isles, where 
the late Dr. Knapp first noticed it ; and Mr. J. D. 
Humphreys found it at Cork. The fourth frequents 
rocks onlv at low water : it is the P. Tarentina of 
Lamarck, P. Bonnardi of Payraudeau, and P. athletica 
of Bean. It is in most cases easy to separate this from 
the ordinary form ; but the variety intermedia connects 
the two, and I cannot find a single permanent character 
which will serve to distinguish any of them. The colour 
of the animal is of every hue and shade ; nor is the 
shell less variable, taking into account the shape, height, 



238 PATELLIDJL 

position of the apex, sculpture, and inside lining. I 
once considered myself an adept at picking out the 
variety depressa (or " China limpet/' as it has been 
called) by merely seeing the outside ; but I have since 
failed, and a recent examination and comparison of a 
great many living individuals of each form has quite 
convinced me that they are not separate species. The 
fifth variety inhabits flat stones and slabs of rock at low 
water, often in places where streams empty themselves 
into the sea ; in its younger state it is the P. aspera 
of Philippi. The common limpet is fossil in raised 
beaches, including that near Macclesfield at a height of 
500-600 ft. (Darbishire), Moel Tryfaen, 1300-1400 ft. 
(Capt. Lowe), Fort William 10 ft.(J.G.J-), and the Red 
Crag (S. Wood); Uddevalla (Hisinger and Malm); newer 
glacial formation near Christiania, 120 ft. (Sars); Palermo 
(Philippi) . Its distribution in a recent state comprises 
every coast between the Loffoden Isles (Sars) and the 
iEgean (Forbes); and Weinkauff has enumerated it as 
an Algerian species. The variety intermedia has been 
found in Brittany by Cailliaud, and in Spain by 
M f Andrew. Philippi noticed the variety depressa as 
fossil in an ossiferous cavern at Mardolce, in Sicily ; and 
it inhabits the shores of France, Spain, Italy, Greece, 
and North Africa. 

The limpet appears to have formed a considerable part 
of the food of the primitive inhabitants of North Britain, 
where heaps of their shells are continually being turned 
up. In the ruins of a so-called Pictish fort near Ler- 
wick the shells are partially calcined; and those of 
the common periwinkle, which are also found there, 
must have been subjected to the action of fire in order 
to extract the animals. Roasted limpets are capital 
eating. A few years ago I was a guest at a dinner- 



PATELLA. 239 

party in the little island of Herm. The hour was un- 
fashionable, one o' clock ; and the meal was served on 
the turf in the open air. This consisted of fine limpets, 
laid in their usual position, and cooked by being covered 
with a heap of straw, which had been set on fire about 
twenty minutes before dinner ; there was also bread and 
butter. The company were a farmer, two labourers, a 
sheep-dog, the late Dr. Lukis, and myself. We squatted 
round the smouldering heap, and left on the board a 
couple of hundred empty shells. The limpet used to 
be eaten by the Faroese ; and in Ireland and the north 
of England the consumption was prodigious between 
twentv and thirtv years ago, according to the accounts 
furnished by Mr. Patterson and the late Dr. Johnston. 
The former estimated that 11 5 tons of boiled limpets 
were sold in one season about Larne, co. Antrim ; 
and the latter states that nearly twelve millions had 
been collected yearly on the coast of Berwickshire, until 
the supply was almost exhausted. These quantities were 
exclusive of what were collected to feed the pigs and 
poultry. The Shetlanders are either more fastidious, 
or prefer real fish ; they will not even eat an oyster. 
Some of the Orkneymen seem to be imbued with a 
similar prejudice ; for we find in the life of Sir Walter 
Scott, that " the inhabitants of the rest of the Orcades 
despise t those of Swona for eating limpets, as being the 
last of human meannesses/'' The limpet is not omitted 
in the old pharmacopoeia ; and Rondeletius prescribes it 
eaten raw as a gentle purgative. It is a most taking 
bait for coal-fish. In Shetland it is chewed by the 
fishermen, and spat into the sea to attract a shoal ; this 
they call " sowing/'' The yellow or " ware-limpet " 
(var. depressa) is preferred by them as bait ; but 
according to Bean and Alder it is rejected by the fisher- 



210 PATELLXDJL 

men in the north, of England. Sea-fowl of all kinds 
are also fond of the limpet. The bill of the oyster- 
catcher is said to be admirably adapted for forcing it 
from the rock ; and the pions Derham tells ns that 
ff the Author of Nature seems to have framed it purely 
for that use/' Something must now be said for the limpet 
itself, as well as about its persecutors. It appears from 
the experiments of Beudant to have an unusual capa- 
bility of living in fresh water. This may be accounted 
for by its littoral habit, which exposes it to rain and 
the efflux of streams into the sea, as well as to the con- 
tinual percolation of fresh water which takes place on 
shingly beaches. The animal is occasionally monstrous. 
Fischer noticed a limpet on the French coast which had 
the left tentacle branched or double, with two eyes at 
its base. The shell is as much entitled to the name 
potymorpha as to that of vulgata. In the ' Zoologist'' 
for October 1860 will be found an excellent remark by 
Mr. Norman, as to the variation of its form resulting 
from habitat ; and I cannot do better than give it in 
his own words. " It will be found to be a general rule 
with regard to the limpet, that the nearer high-water 
mark the shell is taken, the higher- spired, more strongly 
ribbed, and smaller it will be ; and that the lower down 
it lives, the natter, less ribbed, and larger it becomes/'' 
In the intermediate space, and under local conditions, 
other forms of course occur, which partake of some of 
the above characteristics in a modified degree. Speci- 
mens which I found in a particular spot at Lerwick 
were excessively thin, and as if they were exfoliated, 
probably owing to a deficiency of calcareous material. 
One shell from Balta Sound is of an extraordinary 
thickness and weight : it had been inhabited by a 
colony of the burrowing cirriped, Alcippe lampas; and 



PATELLA. 241 

the poor limpet must have spent much of its time, as 
well as all its substance, in adding layer after layer to 
provide a roomy lodging for its troublesome parasites. 
In some specimens the crown is depressed, the rest of the 
cone being considerably raised. The inside of old shells 
is often garnished with irregular pearly excrescences. 
My largest specimens were taken at Lulworth, and on 
Uyea Island; they measure £| inches by 2J. The va- 
riety depressa is very pretty, and especially when the 
interior is streaked with violet-brown rays on a porce- 
lain ground. So is the variety picta. In Da Costa's 
time such shells were called by the English " Auriculas " 
and by the French " Soucis "• or marigolds, from their 
resemblance to those flowers. The spire of the very 
young shell is slightly twisted on one side, with an in- 
clination to the posterior or broader end ; it has one 
whorl and a half. The tongue is rather longer than the 
shell ; and, according to Forbes and Hanley, it is armed 
with 160 transverse bands of teeth, each band having 12 
teeth, or 1920 in all. Mr. Spence Bate has examined 
the lingual ribbon in the variety depressa. This is 
broader and shorter than in the common kind, but offers 
no other distinction than that the teeth are perhaps 
somewhat larger. 

It is the P. vidgaris of Belon, Petiver, Da Costa, Landt, 
and others. Gmelin divided it into a great many species, 
chiefly from the descriptions of Schroter. The local 
names are innumerable. De Montfort reckons no less 
than fifty-two. I will cite a very few only — " flither" 
of the English, " flia " of the Faroese, ' f *flie " of the 
Normans, " ceil de bouc " of the French, and " lapa " 
of the Portuguese. 

VOL. III. M 



242 PATELLID^E. 

Genus II. HEL'CION * De Montfort. PL V. f. 4. 

Body convex : mantle fringed at its edge with cirri, which 
are alternately long and short : tentacles rather long : eyes pro- 
minent : tongue shorter than in Patella : gills not so numerous 
as in that genus, and forming a shorter plume, which is in- 
terrupted over the head : foot thick, of a cellular texture. 

Shell cap-shaped, having in its embryonic state a slightly 
twisted apex ; crown never prominent, but inflected towards 
the anterior end, and placed near the margin — especially in the 
young, where it is almost terminal : scars slight and indistinct. 

Besides the differences in the arrangement of the 
pallial cirri, and in the shorter branchial plume, the 
shell may always be known from that of Patella by its 
shape being semioval instead of resembling a peaked 
hat ; the crown is incurved, and the apex nearly ter- 
minal in the present genus. The fry is not spiral, as 
in Patella. The shell of Helcion is also usually a 
thinner shell, with an opalescent hue ; and in the only 
species that we possess the surface is smooth, or never 
distinctlv ribbed. Helcion is found on Laminarias and 
sea-weeds of a similar kind, which constitute its food ; 
and it is therefore sublittoral in its habits. The species 
are few, but have an extensive range, including Europe, 
West and South Africa, Cape Horn, and Australia. 

It is the genus Nacella of Schumacher, Patina of 
Leach, and partly Calyptra of Klein. 

Helcion pellu'cidum f, Linne. 

Patella pellucida, Linn. S. N. p. 1260; F. & H. ii. p. 429, pi. ki. f. 3, 4, 
and (animal) pi. A A. f. 1. 

Body creamcolour, with a slight tinge of brown in front : 
mantle often bordered by a grey or leadcoloured line, and 
fringed with from 30 to 65 fine white cirri, half of which are 
more than twice as long as the intermediate ones : head trans- 

* A breast-collar. f Transparent. 



HELCIOX. 243 

verselv triangular : mouth minutely scalloped or puckered : 
tentacles slender : eyes small : gills of a whitish colour : foot 
oval, equally broad at both ends ; sole yellowish-white, edged 
with a narrow brown line. 

Shell resembling the " cap of liberty," convex, semitrans- 
parent, and glossy : sculpture, sometimes very slight and in- 
distinct angular lines, which radiate on all sides from the beak, 
and vary in number and regularity ; the surface, however, is 
frequently quite smooth ; it is covered with numerous and 
close- set microscopical concentric striae, which in old shells are 
raised into distinct marks of growth : colour yellowish-brown of 
different shades passing into horncolour, and adorned with 
from 25 to 40 narrow bright blue streaks on a brown ground ; 
these streaks radiate from the beak, and are more or less in- 
terrupted ; crown marked with a dusky spot and occasionally 
with a short linear ray of the same colour : heal: sunk below the 
level of the crown and inconspicuous : mouth oval : margin 
compressed at the sides, even and smooth : inside shining and 
polished, as if highly glazed, opalescent or lilac in adult shells. 
L. 0-8. B. 0-6. 

Yar. laevis. Shell more or less solid, opaque, compressed, and 
expanded. Patella l&vis, Pennant, Brit. Zool. iv. p. 144, 
pi. xc. f. 151. 

Habitat : On Laminariae at low water (and as deep 
as 15 f., Forbes and M f Andrew), on all onr coasts ; the 
young are sometimes also found on the under side of 
large stones which are uncovered at spring tides. 
Mr. James Smith has enumerated it as fossil from Dal- 
rnuir, Ayr, Banff, and Ireland ; and Sars, from the newer 
glacial formation near Christiania, at a height of 100 ft. 
Living in the Faroe Isles (Morch) ; North Cape 
(Danielssen) ; Scandinavia, from the shore to 20 f. 
(Brander, Loven, and others) ; Heligoland (Frey and 
Leuckart); coasts of France (De Gerville and others); 
Vigo, 8 f., and Cascaes Bay, 15-20 f. (M' Andrew); 
Mediterranean (Linne); Sicily (Maravigna); Mogador, 
littoral to 3 f. (M'Andrew and R. T. Lowe) . The variety 

m 2 



244 PATELLID.E. 

seems to have an equally wide distribution, although 
Loven says that he had not met with it. 

Lister figured both forms of the " blue-rayed limpet/' 
or "peacock's feathers/' The young attach themselves to 
the upper side of the fronds of the smooth tangle (Lami- 
naria saccharina) , and sometimes of L. digitata, (accord- 
ing to Mace, Halymenia palmata also,) which supply them 
with succulent and abundant pasturage : when it grows 
older, it attacks the stalks, and afterwards gets to the 
base of the plant, into which it eats its way until it be- 
comes almost buried in a cup-shaped cavity; it is then fat 
and lazy. The best way of procuring such last mentioned 
specimens is to tear up by its roots the large tangle, which 
girdles the rocks at low water, and waves forwards and 
backwards like a field of ripe corn in a summer breeze. 
As, however, it is not an easy matter for a lady collector 
to do this, she may avail herself of the next storm, and 
hunt for the pretty prize among the sea-weeds thrown 
up on the beach. This remarkable habitat was first 
noticed by M. le Gentil, in the ' Memoires de TAca- 
demie ■ for 1788. If it had been known to English na- 
turalists, so many of them would not have persisted 
in considering the ordinary form on the leaves and the 
variety imbedded in the roots as different species. The 
crown is the same in each. The animal crawls with an 
undulating motion. Some individuals, which I observed 
in a glass vessel of sea-water, now and then protruded 
their jaws and the front of their tongues, apparently for 
the purpose of cleaning their teeth; and after doing 
this, they ejected from the mouth a thick fluid of a 
brownish colour — possibly the scrapings of the lingual 
ribbon. The beak is almost terminal in young shells. 
Specimens taken from the stalks of Laminaria at Dover 
and in North Wales are fully an inch long, although 



TECTURA. 245 

very convex, thin, and beautiful. They evidently would 
never have assumed the shape of the variety. 

It is the Patella intorta of Pennant, P. minor ox 
Wallace, P. cceruleata of Da Costa, P. ccerulea of Mon- 
tagu (but not of Linne), and P. cornea of Michaud. 
The very young is Montagu's P. bimaculata. Couch's 
shell of the last name was apparently a simple Ascidian, 
perhaps a species of Cynthia. 

H. pectinatum [Patella pectinata, Linne) was wrongly 
admitted into British catalogues on the authoritv of 
Laskey. Linne gives as its habitat the Mediterranean ; 
Payraudeau, Corsica; and R. T. Lowe, Mogador and 
Senegal. 

Genus III. TECTU'RA* [Tecture) Cuvier. PLY. f. 5. 

Body more or less depressed : mantle fringed at or near its 
edge : tentacles variable in length : eyes prominent, wanting 
in some species : gills forming a short plnme, which is free, 
and contained in a cavity over the neck on the right-hand side 
of the head ; it is extensile, and sometimes protruded beyond 
the shell : foot of moderate thickness. 

Shell conical, usually depressed, furnished with striae which 
radiate from the crown, having in its embryonic state a curved 
or semispiral apex ; crown not prominent, but projecting hori- 
zontally, and placed near the front margin : pallia! scar nearly 
marginal. 

I do not see any reason for placing this genus in a 
separate family from that which includes the last two 
genera. The difference in the length of the branchial 
apparatus, on which so much stress has been laid by 
some conchologists, is comparatively unimportant. In 
each of these three genera the gills compose a single 
row or plume, which is elongated and attached through- 
out in Patella, and less so in Helcion ; while in Tectura 

* A covering over. 



246 PATELLID^E. 

it is short and free, except at the base. Loven, who is 
certainly not inferior to any one in his knowledge of 
the organization of the Mollusca, reunites all in the old 
genus Patella. Certain species are eyeless ; but the 
genera Eulima, Mangelia, Cylichna, and Amphisphyra 
offer analogous cases of such a deficiency of the so- 
called visual organs. 

The name Tectura has the precedence of Acmcea 
(Eschscholtz) by three years. It was originally Tecture ; 
and although the termination is not Latin, I am inclined 
to adopt it as now spelt, in justice to Audouin and 
Milne-Edwards, the distinguished French zoologists, 
who first indicated the genus, as well as to Cuvier, who 
afterwards named it and defined the characters in his 
report to the Academy of Sciences in 1830 on their 
account of the Invertebrata of the French coasts. The 
name A cmcea, besides, is objectionable, being derived from 
an adjective. Quoy and Gaimard called this genus 
Patelloidea, and Gray Lottia. Forbes proposed to form 
another genus, with the name of Iothia (afterwards 
changed by him and Hanley to Pilidium), for one of 
the species. The Tectura? inhabit both the Atlantic and 
Pacific Oceans ; and some have been found in the newer 
tertiary strata. Their bathymetrical range is extensive. 
The littoral species have eyes, while those living in deep 
water have none. 

1. Tectura tes'tudina'lis *, Miiller. 

Patella testudinalis, Mull. Prodr. Zool. Dan. p. 237. AcnicBa testudinalis, 
F. & H. ii. p. 434, pi. lxii. f. 8, 9, and (animal) pi. A A. f. 2. 

Body white : mantle covered with vibratile cilia ; margin 
fringed with minute white cirri : head large, somewhat rounded 
and convex : tentacles awl-shaped, long, and slender : eyes 
small : gills whitish, lanceolate, and ciliated : foot oval and 
very broad, with plain and nearly level sides. 

* Like tortoiseshell. 



TECTURA. 247 

Shell depressed, rather thin, opaque, and devoid of lustre : 
sculpture, numerous very fine and sharp longitudinal striae, 
which radiate from the beak ; they are not visible by the naked 
eye ; the surface is also covered with close-set and almost mi- 
croscopical concentric striae, varied by occasional lines of 
growth that are more conspicuous : colour greyish with dark 
reddish-brown longitudinal streaks, which often are confluent 
and forked, giving a tessellated or clouded appearance like that 
of tortoiseshell ; sometimes the colour is reddish-brown varied 
by broad rays or spots of white : beak rather sharp, placed 
usually about one-third nearer the anterior end: mouth roundish - 
oval : margin expanded, even and smooth : inside shining and 
polished, except at the margin, chocolate-colour in the centre 
or dorsal scar, porcelain-white and highly glazed in the 
middle, and of a dull hue at the margin, which is rather 
broad and bevelled to a sharp edge. L. 0-85. B. 0*7. 

Habitat : On the under side of stones, at low water 
and as deep as 20 f. in the laminarian zone, Shetland 
Isles (Barlee); Orkneys (M f Andrew and Thomas); 
Caithness (Peach); Sutherlandshire (J. G. J.); Aber- 
deenshire (Macgillivray) ; Moray Firth (Gordon and 
others); west of Scotland (Brown and others); Belfast 
(Hyndman) ; Lough Strangford (Dickie); Bangor, co. 
Down (Clealand); Dublin Bay (Lloyd and others); Isle 
of Man (Forbes) ; Berwick Bay (Howse) ; Northumber- 
land and Durham, as far south as Hartlepool (Hancock 
and others), and living in 40 f. (Alder). It is also 
common and widelv distributed throughout the Arctic 
and North Seas from Greenland to Iceland, and. from 
Nova Zembla to the South of Sweden, as well as 
Canada and the north-eastern coasts of the United 
States. 

Forbes noticed the migratory habit of this remarkable 
species, in his account of a shell-bank in the Irish Sea ; 
and the Tyneside Naturalists' Field-Club have given 
some curious details of its southward march. Speci- 
mens collected by Captain Bedford at Oban are nearly 



248 PATELLID^. 

1| incli long, and one found by Mr. Macdonald in the 
Moray Firth is a trifle longer ; in North America it 
even exceeds these dimensions. Dr. Wallich procured 
bright-coloured specimens at depths of from 50-150 f. 
off Godhaab in East Greenland. 

A less distinctly striated form is the Patella testudi- 
naria of Miiller, although not of Linne; and the young 
is the P. tessulata or tessellata of the first-named author. 
It is likewise the P. Clealandi of Sowerby, P. clypeus 
of Brown, P. amama of Say, and P. Clealandiana of 
Leach. The P. Clealandi of Couch, from Gorran, in 
Cornwall, appears to have been only a white variety of 
T. virginea. 

2. T. virgi'nea*, Miiller. 

Patella virginea, Mull. Prodi*. Z. D. p. 237. Jcmcsa virginea, F. & H. 
ii. p. 437, pi. lxi. 1'. 1, 2. 

Body milk-white or pale yellowish-white, faintly suffused 
with piuk : mantle thick, fringed with unequal filaments 
a little within the margin, where it is banded with pink 
at intervals corresponding to the coloured rays on the shell : 
head having a rosecolour tinge, very short, broad, and semi- 
circular, furnished with a lappet on each side : tentacles rather 
long, contractile, and ciliated : eyes small : gill-plume falciform, 
of the palest drab, coarsely pectinated, also contractile and 
ciliated : foot roundish-oval, smooth, delicately veined with 
white. 

Shell most commonly depressed, more or less solid, according 
to habitat (specimens from the laminarian zone being thinner 
than those found between tide-marks), opaque, somewhat 
glossy : sculpture, numerous fine thread-like strise which ra- 
diate from the beak ; these, however, are often indistinct and 
apparently wanting ; concentric stria? and marks of growth 
as in T. testudinalis : colour yellowish-white, with a pinkish 
tinge and from 16 to 20 pink or brownish longitudinal rays, 
which are rather broad, and are occasionally interrupted or 
spotted with white, so as to give an appearance of coloured 

* Maidenly, or graceful. 



TECTURA. 24'j 

chainwork : beak rather sharp, placed near the anterior end, 
which it sometimes overhangs : mouth usually more round 
than oval, but variable in this respect: margin even and 
smooth : inside highly polished, porcelain-white or pinkish, 
and frequently exhibiting in tlie young near the crown two 
of the outside rays, which are darker than the others and 
assume the shape of a reversed V ; margin rather broad, and 
bevelled to a sharp edge : paUial scar marked on the inner 
line with a row of several white dots, that probably corre- 
spond with the fringe of cirri on the mantle. L. 0*4. B. 0-3. 

Yar. 1. conica. Shell much smaller, more conical, and higher, 
with the crown nearly central. 

Yar. 2. lactea. Shell milk-white. 

Habitat : Common on shells and stones in the lami- 
narian zone, and occasionally at low water, throughout 
the British Isles. Var. 1. occurs in deeper water. Yar. 2. 
Scarborough (Bean). Fossil in the Scotch and Irish 
newer pliocene beds (J. Smith, Forbes, Janiieson, 
Crosskey, and J. G. J.) ; Uddevalla (Malm) ; Chris- 
tiania, 120-200 ft. (Sars) ; Calabria and Tarento 
(Philippi) ; Red Crag (S. Wood). It is found living in 
every part of the North Atlantic, from Iceland (Torell) 
to the Canary Isles (M f Andrew) and Azores (Drouet), 
as well as on both sides of the Mediterranean, and in 
the iEgean (Forbes) ; perhaps also at Sitka Island as 
Patella pileolus or P. Asmi of Middendorff. The range 
of depth varies in these foreign localities from 3 to 60 f. 

Specimens taken by Mr. Jordan on the shore at 
Guernsey are larger and thicker than any other which 
I have seen ; their diameter exceeds half an inch. The 
apex of the fry is white, and has an incomplete 
whorl. 

The little pink-rayed limpet ;has had many hard 
names given to it, besides those of Middendorff. It is 
the Patella minima of Gmelin (from Schroter), P. parva 
of Da Costa, P. cequalis of J. Sowerby, Ancylus Gussonii 

M 5 



250 



PATELLID.E. 



of Costa, Patelloides vitrea of Cantraine, Patellapellu- 
cida of Philippi, and P. pulchella of Forbes. 

3. T. FULf a * Miiller. 

Patella fulva, Mull. Prodr. Z. D. p. 237. Pilidium fulvum, F. & H. ii. 
p. 441, pi. lxii. f. 6, 7, and (animal) pi. A A. f. 3. 

Body whitish : mantle fringed at the margin with fine short 
transparent cilia : head prominent, furnished beneath with two 
triangular lappets, one on each side : tentacles conical and 
short, not bearing any tubercle or eye-stalk : eyes none : foot 
oval, thick, occupying a space equal to about two-thirds of the 
mouth or base of the shell. 

Shell cap-shaped or semioval, rather thin, semitransparent, 
lustreless : sculpture, numerous line and sharpish ribs which 
radiate from the beak ; their crests are minutely beaded ; the 
concentric striae are as close-set as in other species, but are 
much stronger and somewhat imbricated; the shell appears 
under the microscope to be permeated by exceedingly fine 
longitudinal lines : colour orange, bright reddish-brown, or 
yellow, sometimes diversified by white rays of various widths : 
beak sharp, placed very near the anterior end : mouth oval : 
margin very thin, slightly scalloped by the ribs : inside highly 
glossy, coloured like the outside : central scar forming a semi- 
circular lobe in front and an oval one behind: pallial scar 
too faint to be perceptible. L. 0-25. B. 0*185. 

Yar. 1. albula. Shell white. 

Var. 2. expansa. Shell larger, more depressed, and broader 
in proportion to the length. 

Habitat ; Common on stony ground in 10-40 f., in 
many parts of the west of Scotland; Moray Firth 
(Dawson) ; twenty miles off Kinnaird's Head, Aberdeen- 
shire, in 30 f. (Thomas) ; Shetland, 40-90 f. (M<An- 
drew and others) ; Cork Harbour, on Pinna rudis 
(Humphreys) ; Youghal, with Crania anomala (Miss 
M. Ball); off Cape Clear and Mizen Head in 50-60 f. 
(M f Andrew) ; west of Ireland, 100 f. (Hoskyns, fide 
King). The 1st variety is found occasionally with 

* Deep yellow. 



LEPETA. 



251 



coloured specimens ; and the 2nd is Zetlandic. I am 
not aware that T. fulva has been found fossil in this 
country. Mr. Searles Wood's specimens from the 
Coralline Crag, which he described as this species, ap- 
pear to belong to Lepeta cceca. Sars has enumerated it 
among the shells from the older and newer glacial for- 
mations near Christiania ; in the former at a height of 
400-440 ft., and in the latter at 120 ft. Its foreign 
habitat is entirely Scandinavian, and comprises all that 
coast between Finmark and Bohuslan, its bathymetrical 
range extending from 10 to 160 f. 

The animal swims or floats in an inverted posture, 
but slowly. Its lingual apparatus does not seem to 
differ materially from that of T. testudinalis or T. vir- 
ginea. In all of them the central teeth are square, and 
the laterals elongated and hooked. T. fulva, however, 
has but a single row, while each of the other two 
species has a double row of central teeth. The shell is 
often encrusted by zoophytes and sessile Foraminifera. 
It differs from T. virginea in texture, colour, and 
sculpture. It is never so large as that shell ; my finest 
specimen is y^ths of an inch long. 

This is the Patella Forbesii of James Smith. 

Genus IV. LE'PETA * Gray. PL Y. f. 6. 

Body depressed : mantle thick-edged : tentacles short : eyes 
wanting : foot thin. 

Shell conical, somewhat depressed, furnished with tuber- 
culated striae, which radiate from the crown, and are crossed 
by concentric lines : beak in the embryonic state curved, and 
always inclining towards the rear ; crown nearly central : 
joallial scar placed within the margin. 

Indicated and named by Gray; defined by H. and 

* Possibly derived from Lepas, the ancient name of the limpet. 



ZO.Z PATELLID.E. 

A. Adams. It depends on conchologieal characters. 
The apex of the shell turns backwards, instead of for- 
wards or towards the head, which latter is the case with 
Tectum and the other preceding genera of the same 
family. The animal is blind, an infirmity that it shares 
with T.fulva and the succeeding genus Propilidium. 

Lepeta ceca*, Miiller. 

Patella caca, Mull. Prod. Z. D. p 237. 

Body whitish : tentacles setose : foot large : liver green 
(Miiller and Sthnpson). 

Shell having an oval outline, moderately solid, opaque, 
slightly glossy : sculpture, very numerous and close-set fine 
striae, which radiate from the beak, and are crossed by slighter 
concentric and imbricated striae, the intersection of which 
causes the longitudinal striae to be granular or nodidous, 
especially towards the margin ; marks of growth distinct : 
colour milk-white : beetle blunt, much worn in full-grown 
specimens: mouth oval: margin thin and even, minutely 
tuberculated in immature specimens : inside porcelain-white, 
and partly iridescent : central scar large and conspicuous : 
pallia! scar rather broad and glossy, placed between the central 
scar and the margin. L. 0"5. B. 035. 

Habitat : Off Unst, in Shetland, at a depth of from 
80 to 90 f., — Mr. Dawson having found a fine and 
fresh but somewhat broken specimen in sand which I 
dredged there last summer. I should not be so well 
satisfied of this evidence that it is British, if it had not 
been confirmed by my discovering a smaller specimen 
(having the dried remains of the animal in it) among 
some of Tectura fulva which Mr. Barlee dredged on the 
west coast of Scotland in 1846. He was never, as I 
believe, acquainted with this species, nor had any shells 
from Scandinavia, where it is rather common. I may 

* Blind. 



PROPILIDIUM. 253 

also mention that Mr. Dawson dredged several speci- 
mens in the Moray Firth, bnt in apparently a semi- 
fossilized state. L. cceca occurs in the Red and Coral- 
line Crag ; Uddevalla (Lyell) ; Christiania district, in 
the older portion of the post-pliocene or glacial forma- 
tion, 400-440 ft. (Sars) ; Antwerp Crag (coll. Nyst) . It 
inhabits the Arctic and North Seas, from Spitzbergen 
(Goodsir) and sea of Okhotsk (Middendorff) to Gotten- 
burgh (Malm), as well as the eastern and western 
coasts of North America (Couthony, Stimpson, Bell, 
and P. Carpenter) ; the depths in these localities vary 
from 20 to 100 f. 

According to Loven its dentition agrees with that 
of Tectura fulva. 

The present species is the P. Candida of Couthony 
and P. cerea of Moller. 

Genus V. PRO'PILI'DIUM * Forbes and Hanley. 

PL VI. f. 1. 

Body compressed: mantle finely ciliated at its edge: tentacles 
rather long and slender : eyes wanting : gills, according to 
Forbes and Hanley, apparently forming two short triangular 
plumes, which are furnished with large cilia : foot thick. 

Shell conical and much raised, cancellated, having in all 
states of growth a minute spiral apex, which is inflected to- 
wards the rear ; crown central : inside furnished in the middle 
with a shelf-like triangular plate, ~>Iiich covers about one-half 
of the crown : central scar indistinct : pallid scar situate 
within the margin. 

A singular genus, agreeing with Lepeta in the retro- 
gressive inclination of the beak, but differing from that 
and every other genus of the Patella family in always 

* From its affinity to the genus Pilidium proposed by the same 

authors. 



254 PATELLID.E. 

having a distinctly spiral apex and a plate or septum 
inside the crown. The use of this last-mentioned pro- 
cess is not known. It is too small to contain or support 
the viscera, as in Calyptraa and allied genera ; but it 
may be homologous with the internal process of Punc- 
ture lla. 

Propiliditjm ancyloi'de *, Forbes. 

Patella ? Ancyloides, Forbes, in Ann. Nat. Hist. v. p. 108, pi. ii. f. 16. 
Propilidium Ancyloide, F. & H. ii. p. 443, pi. lxii. f. 3, 5, and (animal) 
pi. A A. f. 4. 

Body whitish with a faint tinge of yellow : mantle fringed 
at its edge with close-set but distinct cilia, which correspond 
with the striae of the shell : head semicircular, margined with 
light brown : mantle scalloped or puckered : tentacles tapering 
to a fine point, delicately ciliated, destitute of eye -stalks : 
foot oval, broader in front than behind. 

Shell having an oval outline, compressed at the sides, 
rather thin, semitransparent, glossy at the apex, but else- 
where of a dull hue : sculpture, very numerous and close-set 
fine stria?, which radiate from the beak and are exquisitely 
granulated in consequence of their being intersected or decus- 
sated by equal-sized concentric striae : colour dirty white, 
occasionally diversified by a few clear longitudinal rays or 
lines : beak smooth and highly polished, styliform and slender, 
pinched up into a minute spire of between one and two whorls, 
which curls downwards at the posterior end : mouth oval, of 
nearly the same breadth throughout : margin thin and even, 
minutely tubereulated in immature specimens : inside nacreous, 
furnished in the centre with a thin laminar partition, like the 
half deck of a vessel, which has its opening towards the 
head or anterior part ; pallial scar broad. L. 0-15. B. 0-115. 

Habitat : Not uncommon on stones and among 
nullipores, in co. Galway (Barlee); Strangford Lough on 
oysters, and on the Antrim Coast in 18-100 f. (Hynd- 
man and others) ; Ballantrae, Ayrshire (Getty) ; Lam- 
lash Bay (Smith, Forbes, and others) ; Oban, 20 f. 

* Having the aspect of an Ancylus. 



FISSURELLID.E. 255 

(J. G. J.) ; Mull and Skye, 30-90 f. (Forbes, M< An- 
drew, and Barlee) ; Moray Firth (Dawson) ; Shetland, 
75-80 f. (Barlee and J. G. J.) . It has not yet been 
noticed as fossil; and the only foreign locality is the 
coast of Sweden, at a depth of only 12 f., with Mytilus 
Adriaticus and Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Malm) . 

The animal is active for its size. Forbes and Hanley 
remarked that the tongue is very long, and the brown 
central spines conspicuous under the microscope, re- 
sembling bramble-thorns in miniature. 

It was named by the late Mr. W. Thompson "Patella? 
exigua, Forbes." 



Family II. FISSURE'LLID^, {Fissurelladce) 

Fleming. 

Body conical or semioval : mantle folded in front, so as to 
form a tubular process, which occupies a slit in the margin or 
near the summit at that end of the shell or else a hole in the 
crown : head prominent, with a short muzzle, furnished (as in 
the Patellidce) with jaws and a spinous tongue, which latter is 
shorter than in that family and scarcely convoluted : tentacles 
spike-shaped : eyes seated on short tubercles, one at the outer 
base of each tentacle : gills forming two symmetrical and 
somewhat triangular plumes, one on each side of the neck : 
foot thick, studded at the upper side or covered entirely with 
papillae : vent anterior, placed in the middle between the gill- 
plumes. 

Shell cap-shaped or ovately conical, with a slit in front or 
near the crown on that side, or else a hole in the centre ; it is 
ribbed lengthwise and often cancellated by concentric or trans- 
verse striae : beak tinned towards the hinder part, where it 
forms a short and complete excentric spire, always in the young 
and mostly in the adult : mouth extremely wide and occupying 
the entire base. 

The fissure or perforation of the shell indicates a cor- 
responding formation of the animal, a fact which to this 



256 fissurellid^:. 

extent enables us to dispense with the so-called science 
of malacology. The fewer technical words that are 
used, the more easv it will be for students to learn the 
language of this or any other branch of natural history. 
The tubular process of the mantle apparently serves for 
the admission of aerated water to the gills, as in the 
Siphonobranchiata ; it has been also, but without reason, 
supposed to have a faecal office. The outer layer of the 
shell is laminated, the middle one cellular, and the 
inner nacreous. None of the Fissurellidae can properly 
be called littoral, although some of them are occasionally 
found under stones at low- water mark. They are spread 
over all parts of the world. 

Genus I. PUNCTUREL'LA * R. T. Lowe. 

PL VI. f. 2. 

Body conical : mantle protruded through a slit near the 
top of the shell on the anterior side, outside of which it forms 
a short tubular process : foot crested with a row of papillae. 

Shell cap-shaped, with a slit in front of the crown : beak 
always spiral: inside furnished with a short funnel-shaped 
process having its exit in the hole abovementioned. 

The name Cemoria, proposed by Dr. Leach, was not 
published before Mr. Lowe described the present genus ; 
the type of the first-named genus is the fry of Fissurella 
Gr<2ca. The Cemoria of Risso (from Leach's MS.) is a 
fossil, and apparently a species of Calyptr&a. Some 
conchologists have associated Defrance's genus Rimula 
with that of which we are now treating : the latter has 
an internal process, and the perforation is placed close to 
the crown ; while the other has no such process, and the 
perforation is placed midway between the crown and the 
posterior margin. Rimula bears the same relation to 
* Having a small prick or puncture in the shell. 



PUNCTURELLA. 257 

Emarginula as Schismope does to Scissurella. Other 
synonyms of Puncturella are Diodora, Gray (according 
to De Blainville), and Sipho, Brown. 

Puncturella Noachi'na *, Liime. 

Patella Noachina. Linn. Mant. Plant, p. 551. Puncturella Noachina, 
F. & H. ii. p. 474, pi. brii. f. 10-12, and (animal) pi. B B. f. 4-6. 

Body milk-white with a faint tinge of brown : mantle thick ; 
tubular fold conical and short, furnished with six small papilla) 
in front and four behind : head large and broad, bilobed : 
tentacles conical and pointed, rather short, greatly diverging, 
and ciliated : eyes large and prominent : foot oval, broader and 
somewhat truncated in front, bluntly pointed behind ; upper 
side forming a ridge, which is studded with short white conical 
points (ten on each side) corresponding with the ribs of the 
shell ; those in front, especially the penultimate ones near the 
tail, are larger than the rest. 

Shell more or less raised, slightly compressed at the sides, 
rather thin, semitransparent, not glossy : sculpture, 25-30 
sharpish but not much elevated ribs, which radiate from the 
beak to the margin, and as many smaller intermediate ones ; 
the surface is also covered with microscopical and close-set 
longitudinal stria), and with minute white and glistening dots, 
which are arranged lengthwise in rows, and seem to indicate 
an internal tubular structure ; lines of growth slight and 
irregular : colour whitish : beak small, ribless, incurved, and 
twisted to the left, forming a spire of one whorl and a half: 
slit lanceolate, extending from the crown some distance down 
the front, and passing obliquely in that direction : mouth oval, 
somewhat broader behind : margin thin, scalloped or indented 
by the ribs : inside nacreous, marked with fine concentric 
lines ; from the centre or crown towards the front runs a 
rather large vaulted sheath, occupying more than one-fourth 
of that side ; it covers the slit, which is continued in front of 
the sheath in the form of a narrow groove with thickened 
sides, nearly to the margin ; the sheath is strengthened at 
each side by a rather solid buttress. L. 0*4. B. 0*3. 

Yar. princeps. Shell higher and much narrower from being 
pinched up at the sides, with the mouth consequently oblong. 
Cemoria princeps, Mighels and Adams. 

* So named (as a fossil) from its supposed diluvian origin. 



258 fissurellidjl. 

Habitat : Hard ground, from 25 to 90 f., in Shet- 
land and the west of Scotland, being rather plentiful 
in the latter district ; Aberdeen (Macgillivray) ; Nor- 
thumberland and Durham (Alder, King, and others) ; 
Scarborough (Bean) ; co. Antrim (Hyndman, Waller, 
and J. G. J.) . The specimens, however, from the last- 
mentioned locality are probably relics of the glacial 
epoch, and not recent. The variety is rare; it oc- 
curred in my Shetland deep-water dredgings. T. Noa- 
china is tolerably common as a fossil in the Clyde beds ; 
also at Fort William (J. G. J.); Bridlington (S. Wood); 
Kelsey Hill, Yorkshire (Darbishire) ; Uddevalla (Hi- 
singer); older glacial formation at Christiania, 400—440 
ft. (Sars) . It inhabits every part of the sea north of 
Great Britain, from Gottenburgh (Malm) to Spitzbergen 
and North Greenland (Torell), at depths of from 4 to 
150 f . ; Canada (Bell) ; Maine (Mighels); Massachusetts, 
frequently in the stomachs of fishes (Gould) ; New Eng- 
land, 20-30 f. (Stimpson) ; and the variety has been 
taken also from the stomachs of fishes caught in 40-75 f., 
nearly 100 miles seaward from Casco bay. 

Fabricius noticed the difficulty of keeping this mol- 
lusk alive when taken from its native habitat. In the 
young shell the slit is almost marginal, but recedes 
further from the edge in the course of growth. 

The synonyms are somewhat numerous, viz. Patella 
fissurella, M tiller ; Sipho striata, Brown ; and Rimula 
Flemingii, Macgillivray, who gives the following reason 
for that cognomen : — " One malacologist has named it 
after Noah, another after Dr. Fleming. I am unable to 
determine the priority, and therefore take the living 
godfather. - " Leach had called it Cemoria Flemingiana, 
The fry is the Patella Zetlandica of Fleming. 



EMARGINULA. 259 

Genus II. EMARGFNULA * Lamarck. PL VI. f. 3. 

Body conical : mantle protruded from the slit in front of 
the shell, outside which it forms a short tubular process : foot 
studded at the upper side with papillae : verge cirriform, on 
the right-hand side. 

Shell cap-shaped, with a vertical slit in front, which is 
partly filled up as the shell increases in size, so as to leave a 
furrow : beak always spiral : inside thickened on each side of 
the slit. 

These pretty shells, commonly called " slit-limpets/'' 
inhabit Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and Australia. 
The very young resembles a Scissurella ; it has a regular 
Trochoidal spire, and the outer edges of the slit are 
inflected : the fry has no slit. 

1. Emarginula Fiss'uRAt, Linne. 

Patella fissura, Linn. S. N. p. 1261. E. reticulata, F. & H. ii. p. 477» 
pi. lxiii. f. 1 (as E. Millleri). 

Body white, sometimes faintly tinged with yellow or light 
brown : mantle open in front; margin finely ciliated; tubular fold 
forming an entrance into the branchial cavity, fringed outside 
with minute papillae : head large and broad, usually protruded 
beyond the foot : tentacles contractile and therefore varying in 
length, flattened at the sides : eyes oval, placed on round pe- 
duncles one-third of the way up from the outer base of the 
tentacles : foot oval, crested above on each side ; round the 
upper edge of this crest, and near its junction with the rest of 
the body, is a row of small milk-white papillae or tentacular 
processes. 

Shell usually raised, so as to give a height in proportion 
to the length as 2 to 3, solid, opaque, not glossy : scidjoture, 
25-35 strong but narrow and cord-like ribs, which radiate 
from the beak to the margin, and as many smaller interme- 
diate ones ; sometimes these ribs are equal in size ; they are 
crossed by from 20 to 30 somewhat slighter concentric ribs, 

* Haying a little notch in the margin. t A cleft. 



260 FISSURELLID^E. 

imparting a regularly and deeply cancellated or punctured 
appearance, and forming slight nodules at the points of junc- 
tion ; the surface is also covered with microscopical and 
close-set longitudinal striae, and in the young may be ob- 
served the same white dots that have been described with 
reference to Pitncturella Noacliina : colour white, often more 
or less stained by extraneous matter : beak very small, rib- 
less, incurved and slightly twisted to the left, forming a 
spire of two whorls : slit of equal width, extending from the 
margin in front about one-third of the way up, where it is 
closed by a subsequent formation of shell, and becomes as 
far as the crown a rather deep groove, which is somewhat 
closely laminated across : mouth roundish-oval, distinctly 
scalloped and notched by the indentation of the longitudinal 
ribs : inside nacreous, finely lineated in a concentric direc- 
tion, and usually exhibiting the external larger ribs : the 
sides of the slit are thickened, and the outside groove is 
represented by a white ridge. L. 0-45. B. 0-35. 

Var. 1. subdepressa. Somewhat larger, more depressed, 
and expanded at the sides. 

Var. 2. data. Also larger than usual, much higher, and 
more solid. 

Yar. 3. incurva. Smaller, more raised, and compressed at 
the sides, with the beak almost overhanging the posterior 
margin ; sometimes of a pinkish colour inside. 



Habitat : Everywhere on shells and stones, from 
low-water mark at spring tides to 90 f. ; off the Mull of 
Galloway, in 110-145 f. (Beechey) . Var. 1. Shetland, in 
deep water. Var. 2. Fishguard, and Larne near Belfast 
(J. G. J.). This variety also occurs in the Red Crag; 
it is nearly as high as long. Var. 3. Oban, Skye, and 
Shetland (Barlee and J. G. J.). E.fissura is fossil in 
Ireland, according to Mr. James Smith ; and it is rather 
common in the Red and Coralline Crag ; Antwerp ter- 
tiaries (Nyst) ; Christiania, in the newer glacial forma- 
tion, 150-200 ft. (Sars) . Living in the North Atlantic, 
from Finmark and the Faroe Isles to the Canaries (where 



EMARGINULA. 261 

Mr. M f Andrew noticed that it decreased in size), at 
various depths between 1 and 80 f. 

Curious old Petiver called this shell the " cracked 
Barnstaple Limpet/' in consequence of Lister having 
figured it as found in that place. According to De 
Gerville it bears the name of " Tentaille " in the north 
of France. The inside is sometimes greenish or rose- 
colour, being probably stained by algse or nullipores. 

The first locality given by Linne for Patella fissura 
is England, on Lister's authority ; his description an- 
swers to the present species, as well as to E. rosea. It 
is the E. reticulata of J. Sowerby, who however does 
not say that it is distinct from E. fissura, but gave 
it a new name because of the then prevalent opinion 
that no fossil was the same as any recent species : his 
reflection on the subject is somewhat hazy, though 
pious. It is also the E. conica of Sars (but not of 
Schumacher), E. Miilleri of Forbes, E. leevis and E. 
fissurata of Recluz, whose E. tenuis appears to be the 
young. 



2. E. ro'sea*, Bell. 

E. rosea, Bell, in Zool. Journ. i. p. 52, pi. 4. f. 1 ; F. & H. ii. p. 479, 
pi. lxiii. f. 3. 

Body white : mantle not projecting beyond the shell, and 
having a scalloped margin ; it is notched in front to form the 
tubular fold, which is bordered on each side by an angulated 
prominent lobe : tentacles of moderate length, and stout : eyes 
rather large, placed on distinct, although short, pedicles or 
stalks : foot large, strong, and very steep-sided. At its junc- 
tion with the rest of the body is a circle of about 20 very 
short papillary cirri (F. & H.). 

Shell smaller and much narrower than E. fissura, and 
otherwise distinguishable in the following particulars : — it is 
proportionally broader in front than behind, and pinched up 

* Rosecoloured. 



262 FISSURELLIDiE. 

at the sides ; the front is more arched or convex, and the back 
more concave ; the longitudinal ribs are more closely set, and 
mostly equal- sized; the cancellation is smaller, and exhibits 
round holes instead of square lattice-work ; the colour is 
often pinkish ; the beak quite overhangs the front margin in 
full-grown specimens, and it is invariably longer, and greatly 
incurved ; the slit is much shorter ; the mouth is smaller ; 
and the inside is frequently reddish-brown, and the cancelli 
are marked by white spots. L. 0*225. B. 0-185. 

Habitat : Common in 7-25 f. on the coast of Dorset 
(Bell and others); Exmouth (Clark); Plymouth (J.G.J.); 
Cornwall (Peach and others) ; Scilly Isles (Lord Vernon) ; 
Channel Isles (Hanley and others) . Coralline Crag at 
Sutton (coll. S. Wood); Palermo (Philippi). Its extra- 
British distribution in a recent state is entirely southern, 
but extensive; it embraces the coasts of France, Italy, 
Algeria, and the Hellespont, at depths varying from 
8 to 95 f. 

I have taken this living with E. fissura ; other- 
wise I should have been disposed to consider it an 
aberrant form of that species. Mr. Alder lately com- 
pared the tongue of E. rosea with a drawing which he 
had previously made of the same organ in E. fissura ; 
and he notices the following small points of difference. 
u The uncini or lateral spines are of three kinds. The 
large inner one appears to be longer and more produced 
at the point than in E. reticulata [E. fissura] ; and the 
spines of the second kind, which are denticulated at the 
points, are four in number in E. rosea, while (if my 
drawing is correct) there are only three in E. reticulata 
[E. fissura] . Their tips appear to be more slender." 
The present species must be very prolific, judging from 
the extraordinary number of the ova produced in April ; 
each is enclosed in a cartilaginous case. Specimens of 
a larger size than usual are only 3| lines long. Their 



EMARGINULA. 263 

height often exceeds the breadth. Those from the 
Mediterranean are mnch smaller than oivrs. The late 
Chevalier Verany found one in the stomach of a flamingo 
that was killed in the neighbourhood of Nice. 

It is the E. conica of Schumacher and Risso ; but 
the description given by the former is generic only, and 
that by the latter is (as usual) almost enigmatical. 
Lamarck's E. rubra is probably also the same species. 
The Mediterranean or dwarf form is E.pileolus, Michaud, 
E. capuliformis , Philippi, E. curvirostris, Deshayes, and 
E. Costce, Tiberi. We have here a goodly choice of 
specific names. I would have adopted the first and 
earliest (conica) , if any modern conchologist of repute 
had set the example ; it is besides more characteristic 
and appropriate than rosea. Montagu must have known 
the present shell, but considered it a variety of E. fissara ; 
he sent a specimen with the latter specific name to Mr. 
Dillwyn. 

3. E. crassa*", J. Sowerby. 

E. crassa, Sow. Min. Conch, p. 73, t. 33, upper figures ; F. & H. ii. p. 481, 
pi. lxiii. f. 2, and (animal) pi. C C. f. 2. 

Body white : mantle rather thick at its edge : tentacles thick 
and cylindrical: eyes apparently smaller in proportion than 
those of our other species : foot having narrow sides, which, at 
their junction with the rest of the body, are studded with 
about 30 short somewhat unequal cirri (Alder). 

Shell usually more depressed than that of cither of the two 
former species, moderately solid, opaque, slightly glossy : 
sculpture, 40-50 broad and compressed longitudinal ribs (each 
of which is sometimes divided into three), with as many 
smaller intermediate ones ; all these ribs are crossed by fine, 
equally numerous, and wavy concentric striae or wrinkles, pro- 
ducing a delicately granulated appearance ; the surface is like- 
wise covered with minute white glistening dots arranged in 
longitudinal rows : colour white : beak small and somewhat 

* Solid. 



264 FISSURELLIDiE. 

angular, usually less excentric than in the other species ; it is 
twisted a little to the left, and forms a spire of between one and 
two whorls : slit rather narrower above than below, extending 
(in adult specimens) from the middle of the front margin 
between one-fourth and one-fifth of the way up, being closed 
in the line of its previous passage, and becoming a rather 
broad and shallow groove which is closely laminated trans- 
versely : mouth varying in shape from oval to roundish -oval, 
delicately scalloped and notched by the impression of the ribs : 
hiside porcelain-white and nacreous, exquisitely and closely 
but irregularly lineated in a concentric direction ; the edges 
of the slit and groove are thickened. L. 1.25. B. 1. 

Habitat : West coast of Scotland, and Shetland, in 
20-75 f. (J. G. J., Barlee, and others); " at Oban it is 
found alive nnder loose stones, which are uncovered at the 
fall of high spring-tides, as well as by dredging ; the tide 
sometimes retreats fourteen feet " (Bedford) ; co. Antrim, 
off the Copeland Isles, in 20-60 f. (Hyndman) ; Dublin 
coast (Thompson). Red and Coralline Crag (Wood) ; 
Opslo, near Christiania (Lyell); Belgian tertiaries (Nyst); 
Lamato, in Calabria (Philippi). The correctness of this 
last locality in some measure depends on the probabi- 
lity of E. crassa being identical with E. decussata of 
Philippi. Its foreign distribution, as a recent species, 
is entirely Scandinavian. Loven, Malm, M f Andrew 
and Barrett, Asbjornsen, and Koren have dredged it at 
different points between Bohuslan and Drontheim, in 
from 10 to 60 f. 

This noble shell is never likely to become common in 
collections, until some plan is discovered for dredging 
in rocky ground. The young differs from E. fissura 
of the same size in being more depressed, and in its 
peculiar sculpture. In that species the ribs are strong, 
and the surface is coarsely cancellated ; in this the ribs 
are fine and more numerous, and the surface is delicately 
granulated. The rows of small white dots are always 



FISSURELLA. 265 

visible in E. crassa ; and the slit is shorter relatively to 
the size of the shell. 



Genus III. FISSUREL'LA*, Bruguiere. PL VI. f. 4. 

Body senrioval : mantle protruded in front through a hole or 
slit in the crown of the shell : foot covered with papilla?. 

Shell ovately conical, perforated on the anterior side of the 
crown : beak spiral in the young only : inside thickened around 
the terminal perforation. 

This is one of the genera of mollusks which Cuvier 
illustrated in his celebrated Memoires on their ana- 
tomv. He considered it to be allied to Haliotis. Al- 
though the animal in its normal state extends beyond 
the shell, it can be entirely withdrawn into it, like 
Vitrina. Woodward has well remarked that its organi- 
zation has certain homological affinities with that of the 
Lamellibranchiate bivalves, in the number and position 
of the gills, as well as in the pallial tube. According to 
Beudant, it is equally incapable with Capulus of existing 
in fresh water. The opening in the summit of the shell 
resembles a keyhole ; in the young it is placed on the 
anterior side of the beak, which is distinctly spiral at 
that period of growth. The fry might be mistaken for 
that of Puncturella, if it had also an internal sheath 
or process. Fissurella is represented in all seas, scantily 
in the North Atlantic, but amply in southern latitudes, 
whence many fine and gaily painted species have been 
brought by collectors. The number of genera into 
which this has been divided by Gray and other English 
conchologists was noticed by Philippi as one of the 
curiosities of science. 



* Having a small cleft in the shell, 
VOL. III. X 



266 FISSURELLID.E. 



Fissurella Gr^eca"*, Linne. 

Patella grceca, Linn. S. N. p. 1262. F. reticulata, F. & H. ii. p. 469, 
pi. Isiii. f. 4, 5, and (animal) pi. B B. f. 7. 

Body cream colour or yellowish, passing into deep orange : 
mantle ample, extending beyond the sides of the shell, and 
expanded over the head as a hood or veil ; margin fringed with 
a row of very small and short but stout cirri, which correspond 
with the longitudinal ribs of the shell : head tumid and strong : 
tentacles extensile : eyes black and rather small : gills very 
thick, brownish : foot yellowish, dilated, with broad sides ; 
the upper part is studded with a row of from 30 to 40 pa- 
pillae, which are usually by turns larger and smaller. 

Shell forming a cone of variable height, small and appa- 
rently stunted specimens being more raised than younger ones 
of a regular growth ; it is solid, opaque, nearly lustreless : 
sculpture, generally about 25 strong and cord-like, but not 
much raised, longitudinal ribs, and an equal number of smaller 
intermediate ones ; all these are crossed by about 30 narrower 
and imbricated concentric ribs, which by the decussation 
make the crests of the other ribs nodulous or vaulted ; the 
surface of living, and especially immature specimens is covered 
with microscopical longitudinal striae ; in the fry are observ- 
able a few white dots, arranged in lines as in Puncturella and 
Emargbiula : colour pale yellowish- white with a few broad 
rays of reddish-, greenish-, or dark-brown,which are sometimes 
intermingled or variegated : beak very small, only persistent 
in the young, inflected and twisted a very little to the left, 
and forming a spire of between one and two whorls : slit oblong, 
broader above than below, contracted at the outer sides, which 
project in the middle like the teeth of a saw: mouth oval, 
finely scalloped by the ribs and toothed within ; these teeth 
are often double ; when the shell is placed on its base, the 
outline of the mouth is more or less arched on each side, and 
resembles the sole of a human foot: inside porcellanous, ex- 
hibiting the coloured rays in young specimens ; it is delicately 
lineated around the margin, as in the interior of all shells 
belonging to other genera of the same family: pallial scar 
wide and irregular, having a large central impression analogous 
to that of Patella. L. 1-25. B. 0-75. 

* Inhabiting the Archipelago. 



FISSURELLA. 267 

Habitat : South-e astern , southern, and western coasts 
of England (including- the Channel Isles), Bristol Chan- 
nel, Isle of Man, Angiesea, all around Ireland, and the 
west of Scotland ; not uncommon in oyster beds and 
on old shells and rocks, from low-water mark to 50 f. : 
Caithness coast (Gordon); Orkneys (Thomas); and 
Forbes gives it, in his report to the British Association 
for 1850, as living at 10 f. in Shetland. It occurs fossil 
at Moel Tryfaen (Darbishire); Bed and Coralline Crag 
(S. Wood) ; as well as in the Belgian, French, and Italian 
tertiaries. South of Great Britain it has a wide distri- 
bution in a recent state, as far as the iEgean and 
Canaries, at depths ranging from the shore-line to 95 f. 
I am not aware of any northern locality. 

Petiver called this the " thimble limpet," possibly 
from its being open at the top, like a tailor's thimble. 
The number of longitudinal ribs, and consequent com- 
pactness of the cancellation, vary greatly; in a specimen 
from Guernsey I counted no less than seventy-two of 
these ribs. 

The only habitat assigned by Linne to his Patella 
grceca was the Mediterranean. His description, al- 
though short, suits our shell ; and his references, with 
the exception of Adanson (and perhaps also of Gualtieri 
and Begenfuss), are quite appropriate. Our shell is the 
P. larva, reticulata (in the index P. reticulata) of Da 
Costa, F. cancellata, Gray (but not of G. B. Sowerby), 
F. Europaa, Sowerby, F. occitanica, Becluz, and F. Lis- 
ten, Woodward ; the fry is P. apertura, Montagu, Sipho 
radiata, Brown, F. striata, Becluz, and Cemoria Monta- 
guana, Leach. 

I have a worn specimen of F. nubecula, Linne, in 
Turtoms collection, which, he states (in his c Concho- 
logical Dictionary ') , had been dredged off the Land's 

n 2 



268 CAPULID.E. 

End. Couch gives the same habitat ; and Peach noticed 
this species as found by him at Gorran, in Cornwall ; but 
he appears to have mistaken for it the young of F. Grceca. 
Better evidence is wanting of F nubecula being British ; 
it is not uncommon in the Mediterranean. This is the 
F. nimbosa, afterwards F. rosea, of Philippi (but appa- 
rently neither of Lamarck's species bearing these names) , 
and F. Philippii of Requiem 

Family III. CAPU'LID^E, Fleming. 

Body conical or cap-shaped : mantle entire : head snout- 
like, furnished with jaws and a stout spinous tongue : tentacles 
awl-shaped, widely separated : eyes placed on slight bulgings 
or tubercles, about halfway up the tentacles at their outer 
bases : gills forming a single plume or row of slender elongated 
leaflets, and seated in a large cavity behind the head : foot 
fleshy and rounded. 

Suell cap-shaped and tumid : epidermis velvety : beak 
spiral, turned towards the posterior side, curling downwards, 
and twisted to the left : mouth round or transversely oval, with 
an irregularly sinuated margin. 

The beak or apex of the shell is turned to the rear 
and always spiral, as in the last family ; in the Patellidce 
it is turned to the front, and only spiral or curved in the 
very young state. In Gray's system the present family 
and the next are arranged in a different group from that 
which contains the Patellidce, and the latter family is 
separated by Dentalium from the Fissurellida?. 

Genus CA'PULUS* De Montfort. PI. VI. f. 5. 

Generic characters the same as those of the family. 

These mollusks adhere to stones and old shells in the 
coralline and deep-water zones. They probably never 

* A receptacle. 



capulus. 269 

willingly change their places of abode, bnt subsist on 
animal or vegetable food brought by marine currents 
within reach of their extensile snouts. The female 
carries her egg-cases under the neck in front of the foot 
until the fry are hatched. According to Loven the 
dental apparatus is nearly the same in C. Hungaricus 
and Calyptrcea Chinensis ; so that these genera must be 
closely allied. But the internal appendage in Calyptr&a 
and other genera belonging to the same family indicates 
a peculiar structure of the animal which is wanting in 
Capulus. 

D'Argenville called it Cabochon. It is the genus 
Mitra Hungarica of Klein, and Pileopsis of Lamarck. 
About a dozen other synonyms have been cited by 
Herrmannsen. 

Capulus Hungaricus"*, Linne. 

Patella ungarica, Linn. S. N. p. 1259. Pileopsis Hungaricus. F. & H. 
p. 459, pi. lx. f. 1, 2 (as C. Hungaricus), and (animal) pi. C C. f. 3. 

Body whitish, with a yellowish or brown tint : mantle either 
the same colour as the rest of the body, and thickly covered 
with minute milk-white specks, or else pinkish-white or red 
with a border of bright yellow or orange ; margin thickened, 
and fringed with fine filaments : head broad and thick, with 
produced lips so as to make the extremity of the muzzle appear 
cloven : tentacles variable in length, sometimes of a white or 
yellowish colour : eyes small : foot bordered in front by a 
puckered ruff or membrane. 

Shell not unlike a cornucopia, or an ancient fool's or 
jester's cap, with a roundish base, the height of the cone 
depending on the comparative dilatation of this latter part ; it is 
rather thin, semitransparent, and of a dull hue beneath the 
epidermis : sculpture, numerous fine ribs which radiate from 
the beak towards the margin, near which they almost disap- 
pear, besides very slight and close-set minute transverse striae 
between the ribs ; marks of growth conspicuous but irregular : 

* Hungarian. 



270 CAPULIDiE. 

colour varying from pale yellowish -white to dull reddish- 
brown, rarely milk-white : epidermis arranged in concentric 
layers, which are often fringed by a row of leaf-like or tri- 
angular points ; it is easily rubbed off, and seldom remains on 
the upper part: beak in adult specimens overhanging the 
posterior side, and gradually becoming spiral with from two 
to three whorls, which are placed sideways, and separated by 
a distinct and rather deep suture : mouth extremely open, in 
consequence of the expansion of the base : inside lustrous, 
either porcelain-white or having a rosy and sometimes lovely 
pink tinge ; it is concentrically and microscopically lineated 
from the middle to within a short distance of the margin (as 
in the Fissurellidce); and the border of the margin is marked 
lengthwise with longitudinal lines, which run at a right angle 
to the other set of lines ; margin in young specimens finely 
notched or scalloped : muscular scar horseshoe-shaped, with the 
opening in front and the broad ends on each side of the neck. 
L. 1-5. B. 1-75. 

Habitat : Attached to rocks and large shells, and 
especially frequenting oyster- and scallop -beds, from 
7 to 85 f. on all our coasts ; low-water mark to 20 f. in 
the Clyde district (Norman); 110-145 f. off the Mull of 
Galloway (Beechey). Norwich Crag at Bramerton 
(Woodward, fide coll. Wigham); Red and Coralline 
Crag (Wood); newer tertiaries of Belgium and France 
(Nyst); upper miocene bed at Antibes (Mace); Parma 
(Menard de la Groye); North Italy (Brocchi); Sicily 
(Philippi). Its existing distribution comprises the 
North Atlantic sea-bed lying between Oxfjord in North 
Finmark (Sars), south coast of Iceland (Wallich), and 
Gibraltar (M' Andrew), also both sides of the Mediter- 
ranean, the Adriatic, and JEgean ; the depths given by 
different observers range from 5 to 105 f. 

Dr. Turton mentions, in the ' Zoological Journal ' 
(ii. 566), "a thin laminar under valve/' which he 
noticed on removing a live specimen of C. Hungaricus 
from an oyster ; and he therefore conjectured that the 



CAPULUS. 271 

present species might belong to the genus Hipponxjx 
[Hlpponice] of Defrance. I think the Doctor must 
have mistaken a lamina of the ovster shell for such 
under valve, since no one else appears to have made the 
same discovery. The supposed valve was not in his col- 
lection when purchased by Mr. Clark. This, in com- 
mon with other univalve mollusks, when taken from 
the deeper parts of the sea, has a habit of getting out of 
the water in which it is kept. It is of a sedentary and 
inactive nature ; and its power of adhesion is consider- 
able. Mr. Bretherton says, in the ' Zoologist ' for 
1858, that it " could move for a few inches even on the 
smooth sides of a glass jar. The proboscis or rostrum 
(like that of Cyprtea, it appears to be of an intermediate 
character) is capable of extension, and can be produced 
beyond the shell." With respect to the embryology of 
the present species, Mr. Clark observes that " the 
matrix, or part thereof, is sometimes, perhaps always, 
detached, and deposited on the neck of the foot, for 
further development of the ova, for some time previous 
to their being committed to take care of themselves/'' 
The shell is frequently distorted. A specimen now 
before me has its sides so much compressed that they 
are nearly flat, and its mouth is narrowly elliptical ; it 
had probably squeezed itself into the crevice of a rock. 
The spire is occasionally broken off or decollated, and 
replaced by a shelly convex plate. 

This species is the Patella Pileus Morionis major of 
Da Costa ; and the young is the C. militaris of Macgilli- 
vray and S . Wood, but not Linnets species of that name. 
Hungaria is cited in the dictionaries of Facciolati and 
Bayle as the country supposed to have been peopled by 
the Huns; and the adjective must of course be spelt 
accordingly. 



272 CALYPTR.EID.E. 

C. militaris and Cochlolepas antiquata are West- 
Indian; Lister figured them as from Barbadoes. 
The reported British localities are incorrect, and depend 
chiefly on the authority of Bryer and Laskey. The 
latter goes so far as to say that he procured both in 
the Frith of Forth " by deep dredging." Weinkauff 
enumerates C. militaris as an Algerian shell : possibly 
he fell into the same error as Macgillivray and Wood. 

Piliscus commodus of Middendorft' has been dredged 
by Mr. Dawson in the Moray Firth, but apparently in 
a semifossil state. It is known living only in the sea 
of Okhotsk, although occurring in the older or glacial 
strata at Uddevalla, and (under S. Wood's name of 
Capulus fallax) in the Coralline Crag. Possibly C. ob- 
liquus of the last named author, from the Red Crag, 
may be the same species. 



Family IV. CALYPTKiEID^E, Broderip. 

Body round or oval, more or less depressed : mantle entire : 
head not very prominent, terminating in a short but extensile 
muzzle: tentacles, eyes, and gills as in the Capulidce: foot 
separate from the lower part of the body, and expanded. 

Shell shaped like a cap or slipper and depressed, partly 
spiral : beak turned towards the rear, and twisted to the left : 
mouth round and oval : inside furnished with a partition or 
diaphragm, the outer edge of which forms an incipient or 
rudimentary pillar. 

The CalyptrmdtB have the same habits as the Capu- 
lidce ; each family has only a solitary representative in 
our seas, although their members are numerous in 
warmer latitudes. Chenu says that the present family 
first made its appearance in the upper part of the Chalk 
formation. 



CALYPTR.EA. 273 

Genus CALYPTILE'A*, Lamarck. PL VI. f. 6. 

Body round : mantle very thin : head large, cloven at the 
extremity : foot circular, somewhat thickened, especially in 
front. 

Shell conical, with a wide base : beak central : mouth cir- 
cular : diaphragm incompletely spiral. 

The only species we possess was included by Lamarck 
in the present genus ; Crucibulum extinctorium (or the 
" cup and saucer limpet ") being the first named species. 
Calyptrcea, or rather Calyptra, is now represented by the 
Patella equestris of Linne, according to the Messrs. 
Adams. These authors place our species in Galerus, 
a genus which was named, but not described, by 
Humphreys. P. equestris is the type of Schumacher s 
genus Mitrularia. Under all the circumstances I prefer 
retaining Calyptrcea in the British list, leaving Schu- 
macher's genus Crucibulum to stand as above, and re- 
jecting Galerus. If any change were necessary, it ought 
in my opinion to be the adoption of Trochita, as pro- 
posed by the same learned Danish naturalist (Schu- 
macher) for the Patella Chinensis of Linne, upon which 
that genus was founded. 

Calyptr.ea Chinen'sis f, Linne. 

Patella chinensis, Linn. S. N. p. 1257. C. Sinensis, F. & H. ii. p. 4G3, 
pi. lx. f. 3-5, and (animal) pi. B B. f. 8-13. 

Body yellowish or whitish, minutely speckled with flake- 
white : mantle transparent, broader on one side than the 
other : head short, terminating in a cloven orbilobed muzzle; 
there is a slightly developed, semicircular plain-edged fleshy 
lobe on each side of the neck : tentacles thick, cylindrical, and 
rather short ; eyes small, seated on tubercles : foot somewhat 
angulated in front. 



* From KaKvTVTpa, a woman's cap. 
t Like a Chinese Mandarin's hat. 



N O 



274 calyptrjeidjE. 

Shell usually much depressed and spread out (higher and 
more conical when attached to a pebble), thin, semitransparent, 
glossy at the point, but else of a dull and scabrous aspect : 
ssulpture, numerous and fine minute striae, which encircle the 
surface in a spiral direction, and are usually raised, so as to 
form irregular rows of short vaulted scales ; marks of growth 
indistinctly spiral : colour white, with frequently a yellowish 
tinge at the point : becifc small, nipple-shaped, nearly erect, 
representing the apex of the spire in turbinated univalves : 
suture slight : mouth greatly expanded : inside porcelain-white, 
rarely of a yellowish colour, highly glossy ; margin extremely 
thin : diaphragm or rudimentary pillar occupying nearly one- 
half of the posterior side ; its outline is obliquely triangular, 
with rounded sides and a spirally incurved nucleus ; it is con- 
cave, marked with delicate and close-set flexuous lines parallel 
with the base, and has its inner margin double and con- 
sequently thickened. L, 0-75. B. 0-75. 

Habitat : Local but gregarious, in shelly and pebbly 
ground, on many parts of the Devon and Cornish coasts, 
and in the Channel Isles, from low-water mark to a 
few fathoms' depth ; Weymouth (Thompson) ; Milford 
Haven, 10-12 f. (M 'Andrew and Jordan); "Dublin 
Bay 9i (Turton) ; " a solitary small specimen has been 
found near Dunbar }> (Laskey) ; " in Caledoniae Borealis 
mari profimdo " (Leach) . The last two localities, and 
probably the Irish one also, are erroneous : such state- 
ments have considerably retarded our knowledge of the 
distribution of the British Mollusca. It has been re- 
corded as fossil from the Norwich Crag (S. P. Wood- 
ward) \ Bed and Coralline Crag (S. Wood) ; Antwerp 
(Nyst) ; faluns of Touraine (Cailliaud) ; Bordeaux 
(Grateloup) ; Subapennine tertiaries (Brocchi) ; South 
Italy and Sicily (Philippi) . Recent : — Coasts of France, 
Portugal, Spain, Italy, islands in the Mediterranean, 
Crimea, Morea, North Africa, Madeira, and Canaries, 
from the shore to 55 f. 

It would seem that this mollusk seldom, if ever, leaves 



CALYPTR.EA. 275 

its place of abode. I found some at Sark, living 
attached to small pebbles, each, pebble having scarcely 
a broader surface than the circumference of the shell, 
which closelv fitted the sinuosities of the stone. Both 
shell and pebble were encrusted by nullipore, and had 
the same appearance. The mark of adhesion is glossy, 
but does not show any excavation. The animal must be 
occasionally zoophagous ; for the authors of the ' British 
Mollusca ; say, " A Calyptrcea, which we kept in con- 
finement, swallowed a Goniodoris nodosa preserved in 
the same vessel." Mediterranean specimens are smaller 
than ours; one taken by Mr. Jordan at Milford 
measured an inch in diameter. The fry resembles 
that of Velutina laevigata in shape and sculpture ; and 
the animal at this stage of growth has large ciliated 
neck-lobes, as in other Gasteropoda. According to 
Auclouin and Milne-Edwards (Hist. litt. de la France, 
i. p. 133), the female C. Chinensis hatches her eggs, and 
keeps the fry between her foot and the foreign body to 
which she adheres ; her patelloid shell thus serves not 
only to cover and protect herself, but is also a 
shield for her offspring. The eggs are yellow, and 
enclosed in membranous capsules, which are flattened, 
transparent, and filled with an albuminous matter. 
These little sacs are from six to ten in number, connected 
one with another by a pedicle, and arranged like the 
petals of a rose ; each capsule contains ten to twelve 
eggs. 

China does not seem to have been known to the 
Romans ; and Linne was quite as good a classic as his 
emendator Gmelin, who altered the name Chinensis into 
Sinensis. The synonyms are numerous, and comprise 
Calyptra canaria, Bonanni, Patella albida, Donovan, 
P. squamulata, Renier, P. muricata, Brocchi, C. Icevigata, 



276 HALIOTID.E. 

Lamarck, C. succinea, Risso, C.Polii, Sc&cchijC. vulgaris } 
Philippic and C. mamma, Krynicki fide Middendorff. 

Crepidula sinuosa of Turton was included by him in 
the catalogue of British shells, in consequence of Mr. 
Bean having taken specimens at Scarborough, " from 
the bottom of a ship just arrived from North America." 
It is the C. plana of Say ; but I question its being iden- 
tical with the Patella crepidula of Linne or C. ungui- 
formis of Lamarck, as was supposed by Sowerby and 
Gould. 



Family V. HALIO'TIDiE, Fleming. 

Body oblong, depressed, partly spiral : mantle puckered in 
small folds at intervals on the right hand : head broad, with 
a short snout : tentacles filiform, long and tapering, separated 
by a fringed lobe or membrane, which forms a head-veil : eyes 
placed on cylindrical, but short, stalks at the outer bases of the 
tentacles : gills two, unequal in size : foot extremely large, 
thick and fleshy, encircled by a double row of festoons. 

Shell ear-shaped, nacreous, pierced on the right side by 
a series of holes, which are closed in the course of growth, 
after ceasing to be of use in containing the pallial folds ; the 
hole last formed commences as an open notch : spire very short, 
placed on the left side, although almost terminal : mouth ex- 
tremely large and open, occupying nearly the whole of the 
base ; borders curved, that on the right being thick, and 
the other thin : inside highly iridescent. 

This family has several points of relationship to the 
Fissurellidce ; but the shape is different, the orifices are 
numerous, and the shell is remarkably nacreous. There 
appears to be a homogeneity between all the genera or 
members of the Haliotidce, making it difficult to dis- 
tinguish one from another. We have only the typical 
genus. 



HALIOTIS. 277 

Genus HALIO'TIS * Linne. PL VII. f. 1. 
Characters corresponding with those of the family. 

Aristotle called it \e7ra? aypla, adding that it was the 
QakaTiiov ov<z of others. It is mentioned bv Athenseus 
as exceedingly nutritions, but indigestible. The Eolians 
gave it the pretty name of Venus's ear. It is the 
" Mother of Pearl " or " Norman shell '? of old English 
writers, " ormier " (contracted from oreille de mer) of the 
French, "lapa burra" of the Portuguese, "orecchiale" 
of the Italians, and " patella reale " of the Sicilians. It 
adheres to rocks like the limpet. Its food appears, how- 
ever, to be different from that of the Patella, according 
to the observations of Mr. Daniel, which will be given 
in the account of H. tuber culata. This inhabits the littoral 
zone ; but a Japanese species lies deeper under water, 
and is procured only by diving. Cuvier found every indi- 
vidual which he examined to have an ovary; and he 
therefore concluded that the Haliotides were hermaphro- 
dites. His view was adopted by Feiderin his essay 'De 
Halyotidum structural Half a century has since 
elapsed ; and it is full time to have more definite infor- 
mation on a subject which is so easy for any physiologist 
to determine. The arrangement of teeth on the lingual 
ribbon agrees generally with that of Fissurella ; it is more 
complicated than the Trochidan form. According to 
Adanson, the maritime negroes of Senegal esteemed 
one species of Haliotis a great delicacy ; other kinds 
are said to constitute part of the multifarious food of 
the Japanese and Chinese ; and H. tuber culata is habi- 
tually eaten by the poor in the north of France and our 
Channel Isles, where it is occasionally cooked and served 

* Sea-ear. 



278 HALIOTID^. 

at the tables of the rich. It requires a good deal of 
beating and stewing to make it tender. The inside of 
the shell displays " all the colours i' the rainbow/' or 
at least 

" Orange and azure, deepening into gold." 

Perhaps the latter description is not pictorially correct; 
but it poetically suggests the vivid hues which are so 
exquisitely blended in the Haliotis. The cause of this 
iridescence has been explained by Sir David Brewster, 
Dr. Carpenter, Professor Van der Hoeven, and very lately 
by Mr. C. Stewart. The hypothesis propounded by the 
first of these observers was that the peculiar appearance 
is owing to minute striae or grooves on the surface of 
the nacre, which alternate with others of animal mem- 
brane. Mr. Stewart is of opinion that the colour is 
produced by the nature of the laminae, which decompose 
the light in consequence of the interference caused by 
the reflection from the two sides of each film, as may be 
seen in soap-bubbles and the iridescent surfaces of many 
natural and artificial productions. He further believes 
that the nacreous or inner layer is only a modification 
of the previously formed prismatic layer, each layer 
being composed of particles or prisms mostly presenting 
an hexagonal outline. The microscopical structure of 
the shell has been investigated by Carpenter. He says 
that " calcified laminae alternate with plates of a brown 
horny substance, much resembling tortoiseshell in its 
appearance ; and when the calcareous matter has been 
dissolved away by dilute acid, these horny plates may 
be easily detached from each other, the basement mem- 
brane of the adjoining calcified lamina remaining ad- 
herent to one side of each of them. In immediate con- 
tact with the horny plates is a thin layer of large cells 
of a very peculiar aspect. The nacreous laminae, when 



HALIOTIS. 279 

examined with a sufficiently high magnifying power, 
indicate a minute cellular structure, such as I have not 
observed in the nacre of bivalves. The cells are of a 
long oval form, and their short diameter is not above 
yoff o^ °f an mcn - Their boundaries in many parts 
are very indistinct or even disappear altogether ; so that 
every gradation can be traced, from the obviously cel- 
lular arrangement to the homogeneous appearance pre- 
sented by the nacre of bivalve shells. Hence I should 
be disposed to draw the same inference, with respect to 
the nacreous structure, as in regard to other forms of 
apparently homogeneous shell-substance — namely, that 
like them, it was originally formed upon a cellular plan, 
but that the cells subsequently coalesced, their bound- 
aries disappearing/'' Woodward gives seventy-five as the 
number of recent species, and four for the fossil 
(miocene) species. The distribution of this genus com- 
prises every part of the ocean, from Great Britain 
southwards. 

It is the genus Auris of Klein. 

Haliotis tubercula'ta *, Linne. 

H. tuberculata, Linn. S. N. p. 1256 ; F. & H. ii. p. 485, pi. lxiv. and 
(animal) pi. C C. f. 3. 

Body mottled with brown, green, and white, blending agree- 
ably together : foot ornamented with two rows of most deli- 
cate thorn-like processes, which alternate with green filaments; 
the interspaces between these rows are covered with greenish 
tubercles ; sole of a salmon -colour. 

Shell much depressed, solid, opaque, and of a dull aspect : 
sculpture, numerous narrow longitudinal grooves or striae, 
which are more or less close-set and occasionally undulating ; 
the surface exhibits also the edges of extremely minute trans- 
verse plates, that compose the structure of the shell ; marks 
of growth sometimes fold-like : colour reddish-brown, mottled 

* Tuberculated. 



.280 HALIOTID^. 

with, pale green, and occasionally speckled with brown, pink, or 
white : epidermis fibrous, thin, of a light yellowish hue : spire 
small, somewhat raised : whorls three or four, rapidly increas- 
ing, and becoming less convex as they recede from the apex : ori- 
fices from six to eight, roundish ; their sides are raised so as to 
resemble tubercles : mouth oval : outer lip bevelled to a sharp 
edge : inner (or pillar) lip broad, flattened, somewhat notched 
or emarginate at the base in front, and bordered outside by a 
pink line : inside dark towards the margin, although in other 
parts splendidly lustrous. L. 4. B. 3. 

Habitat : Rocks and large stones at low water in the 
Channel Isles ; common. The Devonshire, Sussex, 
Scotch, and Irish localities mentioned by Pennant, Da 
Costa, Laskey, Turton, and Brown must have been 
from hearsay, and are manifestly wrong. Linne intro- 
duced this handsome and familiar shell into his ' Fauna 
Suecica/ on apparently no better grounds. The prin- 
ciple of geographical distribution was not then known, 
and a long time elapsed before it was made a law. Fos- 
sil in the Sicilian tertiaries (Philippi) . It inhabits the 
North Atlantic, from St. Malo to the Canary Isles and 
Azores, the Adriatic, and every part of the Mediter- 
ranean. 

I include this among our Mollusca, because the 
Channel Isles are as much an integral part of Great 
Britain as are the Shetland Isles. The animal rivals 
the shell in beauty. From Beudant's experiments it 
appears that H. tuberculata cannot exist in fresh water. 
Mr. Daniel detected in its stomach different species of 
diatoms in considerable quantities, besides many crys- 
talline substances of the same prismatic hue as its own 
shell. These last mentioned organisms may have been 
the spicula of sponges. The number of open orifices in 
the shell corresponds with that of the tubular folds of 
the mantle. As the animal grows, the orifices that 



HALIOTIS. 281 

were first formed become disused, and are filled up by 
successive layers of sbell ; the last or outermost pallial 
fold forms and occupies a notch or semicircular slit in 
front, which is subsequently converted into an eyelet- 
hole. Very young specimens are imperforate, and in that 
state resemble the shells of Stomatia and allied genera^ 
which are placed by Messrs. Adams in the Trochus 
family. One in Mrs. Collings's collection has no ori- 
fice, although it is about an inch and a quarter in 
length ; this, however, is an exception as regards size. 
Such young shells are finely striated in a longitudinal 
or spiral direction, and are adorned with two narrow 
rows of blue spots ; in a more advanced stage they 
are spirally ridged and delicately cancellated. The 
Cherbourg fishwomen call it "si ieu" (six yeux), 
from an idea that the orifices in the shell are real eyelets 
or peepholes. The importation of Meleagrince, or true 
mother-of-pearl shells, from the South seas, has inter- 
fered with the sale of the " ormer ** (or Haliotis) at 
Guernsey for button-making and inlaying, although, 
as Dr. Lukis informed me in 1859, one merchant at 
St. Peter's purchased every season from four to nine 
tons. At sorting-time every shell was separately ex- 
amined ; the best lots fetched on the spot seven shillings 
and sixpence per cwt. I found that in some parts of 
Guernsey the ormer was put to rather a novel use, viz. 
to frighten away small birds from the standing corn. 
Three or four shells are strung loosely together, and 
suspended from the top of a pole, so as to make a 
clatter when moved bv the wind and knocking one 
against another. In Montagu's time they ornamented 
cottages there, the plaster on the outside being studded 
Tvith them. 

It is the Auris vulgaris of Klein and Da Costa. 



282 SCISSURELLID.E. 

Family VI. SCISSURE'LLID^E, Gray. 

Body more globular than conical, spiral : tentacles long, 
ciliated: eyes at the outer bases of the tentacles: foot furnished 
with pointed lappets on each side, besides tentacular append- 
ages. 

Shell corresponding in shape with the body or animal, 
white, nacreous, and thin : mouth somewhat angulated : outer 
lip vertically fissured at the edge, or having an orifice a little 
behind it : umbilicus narrow, but conspicuous : operculum 
horny, thin, circular, and multispiral, with a central nucleus. 

The recent genera [Scissurella and Schismope) which 
constitute this family have their analogues in the fossil 
genera [Pleurotomaria and Trochotoma) , if indeed the 
two last named are not the same as the two first. 
Living species of Pleurotomaria have been lately de- 
scribed and figured in the ' Journal de Conchyliologie ' ; 
they do not seem to differ from those of Scissurella, 
except in their greater size and coloured markings. 
The nacreous inner layer of S. crispata is very evident 
when the shell is broken or has been accidentally exfo- 
liated. The absence of nacre in Scissurella was regarded 
by Fischer and Bernardi as a distinctive character of 
Pleurotomaria. The slit or fissure probably serves the 
same purpose as that of Emarginula, Puncturella, or 
Fissurella, and the orifices in Haliotis, by admitting 
water to the branchial cavity. The conformation and 
habits of the animal may require this additional pro- 
vision for aerating the gills. In most other respects 
the Scissurellidce resemble the Trochidce ; in every one 
of them the foot has tentacular appendages, the shell is 
spirally conical, and the operculum is concentrically 
spiral. Too little, however, is known with regard to 
the animals of the present family to pursue the compa- 
rison to anything like a complete or satisfactory extent. 



SCISSURELLA. 283 

Genus SCISSUREL'LA* D'Orbigny. PL VII. f. 2. 

Shell having a more or less depressed spire, and an open slit 
in the outer lip which is closed behind in the course of growth. 

In the ( Zoological Journal ' for June 1824, Mr. G. B. 
Sowerby suggested the possibility of this " proving to 
be either an Haliotis or a Fissurella, just emerged from 
the egg ; " he supposed that the slit or notch existed 
only in young specimens. He was apparently led to 
form this strange conception by having mistaken for 
adult Scissurella shells belonging to the genus lately 
described by me as Schismope, which have an orifice 
behind the front margin, instead of an open slit at the 
edge. D'Orbigny especially notices this open slit as a 
generic character of Scissurella ; and he compares it 
with that of Pleurotoma, Emarginula, and Siliquaria, 
placing Scissurella among his Trochoidea. Some con- 
chologists have referred the present genus to Anatomus 
of De Montfort ; but his description and illustrative 
figure (the latter copied from Soldani) show a flat-spired 
or discoidal shell, having a circular mouth with a slit on 
the lower side — certainly not the position of the slit in 
Scissurella. He evidently considered his Anatomus one 
of the Polythalamous or chambered Foraminifera, and 
he associated w r ith it the fry of some mollusk which he 
found adhering to the " Sargasso " or Gulf- weed. I 
am therefore not inclined to substitute Anatomus for 
Scissurella. 

Scissurella crispa'ta t, Fleming. 

S. crispafa, Flem. Mem. Wern. Soc. vi. p. 385, pi. 6. f. 3 ; F. & H. ii. 
p. 544, pi. lxiii. f. 6. 

Body greyish-white : head prominent, with the mouth 
* From a small slit in the shell. t Curled. 



284 scissurellidjE. 

placed underneath : foot oblong, rather elongated, rounded at 
each end, and somewhat broader in front, furnished with two 
pointed lappets on either side of the anterior part : appendages 
or pedal filaments two on each side behind the lappets, one in 
the middle, and the other close to the tail ; these are long, 
slender, and serrated or cirrous. 

Shell somewhat globular, with a slope towards the middle 
or periphery, of a delicate texture, semitransparent, and 
glossy : sculpture, numerous extremely fine and curved longi- 
tudinal ribs, which are interrupted in the middle or circum- 
ference of each whorl by the encircling slit and canal ; they are 
more close-set on the under than on the upper surface of the last 
whorl, and are to a greater or less extent decussated in the 
interstices by minute spiral striae : colour pearl-white : epi- 
dermis thin and caducous, pale yellowish-brown : spire usually 
rather dejDressed, but variable in that respect : whorls 4, 
flattened above, and rapidly enlarging ; the last is three 
or four times the size of all the others put together : slit long 
and narrow, nearly central ; canal or groove (formed in 
consequence of the closure or partial filling up of the slit 
from time to time) deep and striated across ; the edges of the 
slit and canal are somewhat thickened, sharp, and prominent : 
mouth roundish, placed obliquely, ending in a small corner 
at the upper part of the columella or pillar ; peristome con- 
tinuous : outer lip thin : inner Up folded back on the colu- 
mella: umbilicus deep, but exposing only the under side of 
the last or body whorl : operculum filmy, having many ap- 
parently concentric volutions in the central part, the last 
being very large in proportion. L. 0-075. B. 0-1. 

Var. paucicostata. Spire more raised, and the ribs on the 
upper side much fewer than usual. 



Habitat: Stony ground in Shetland, 18-75 f. ; not un- 
common. It has also been taken by Captain Thomas abun- 
dantly in 7 f. at Sanda Sound in the Orkney Isles ; more 
sparingly by Mr. Peach at Wick, and in Dunnet Bay, 
Caithness ; by Mr. Barlee at Skye and in other parts 
of the west of Scotland ; by Mr. Hyndman in 27 f. on 
the Antrim coast ; and by Captain Hoskyns in about 
100 f. on a fishing-bank off the west of Ireland. The 



SCISSURELLA. 285 

variety was found by Mr. Waller in Shetland. Believing 
the S. aspera of Philippi to be the same species as 
S. angulata of Loven, and that the latter is merely a 
large form of S. crispata, I will venture to give the 
Calabrian tertiaries as the only known locality for this 
shell as fossil. Loven and others have dredged the 
present species on the Norwegian coasts, at depths 
varying from 30 to 100 f., Moller and Torell in Green- 
land, and the latter at Spitzbergen also ; Martin ob- 
tained it in the Gulf of Lyons, and Benoit in Sicily. 

Dr. Fleming discovered in 1809 this remarkable little 
shell on the shore at Noss Island in Shetland after a 
storm; he sent specimens to Colonel Montagu, who 
pronounced them to be the fry of a Trochus. It was 
procured in a living state by Mr. Barlee on several 
occasions ; but, unfortunately, he never observed the 
animal. This deficiency has been in some measure 
supplied by Professor Barrett, who in company with 
Mr. M f Andrew dredged a live specimen at Hammerfest. 
His description and figure in the ' Annals of Natural 
History* for February 1856, aided by the dried remains 
of the animal in specimens received from Mr. Barlee, 
have enabled me to give a short, though meagre, account 
of the soft parts. Barrett remarked that " no part of 
the animal was external to the shell. When it was 
placed in a glass of sea-water, it crawled up the side, 
and scraped the glass with its tongue. After immersion 
in spirit it became inky-black." Apparently the fry 
have no slit, a condition similar to that which exists in 
the Fissurellida and Haliotida. 

S. angulata probably bears the same relation to 
S. crispata, as Chiton nagelfar or C. abyssorum does to 
C. Hanleyi. Sowerby named our shell (perhaps from 
inadvertence, or a typographical error) S. crispa. 



286 trochiDjE. 



Family VII. TRO'CHID^E, D'Orbigny. 

Body spirally twisted into a cone : mantle forming on each 
side of the head a distinct lobe or lappet : head proboscidiform, 
furnished with a dentate tongue, the extremity of which is 
convoluted within the visceral cavity : tentacles long and 
ciliated : eyes placed on short stalks or tubercles at the outer 
bases of the tentacles : gills composing a single plume : foot 
furnished on each side with from 3 to 6 vibracula or ap- 
pendages resembling tentacles ; operculigerous lobe occu- 
pying the middle of the upper part of the foot. 

Shell orbicular or conical, and spiral, more or less nacreous : 
mouth rounded : umbilicus depending in a great measure on 
the height of the cone, sometimes wanting : operculum horny, 
thin, circular, and multispiral, with a central nucleus. 

The Trochidce probably live on minute animal and 
vegetable organisms. From Loven's account of the 
tongue it seems that the rachis is armed with many 
teeth, and that each of the pleurse has extremely 
numerous regularly arranged uncini, which become 
gradually more slender and simple as they recede 
from the centre. In Trochus cinerarius there is a 
large heart-shaped tooth in the middle, and on each 
side of it five principal or front teeth and about ninety 
uncini. The sexes are separate. Many of the shells of 
the typical genus Trochus are extremely ornamental ; 
and the animals of all are adorned with plumed fila- 
ments, and with flounces often of resplendent hues. 

Genus I. CYCLOSTKE'MA *, Marryat. PL VII. f. 3. 

Body compressed: head bilobed at its extremity: foot 
expanded at each of the front corners into a short triangular 

process. 

* Having a circular twist. 



CYCLOSTREMA. 287 

Shell orbicular, white or of a uniform colour : spire more 
or less depressed, of few whorls : mouth nearly circular, with 
a free and continuous peristome : umbilicus distinct and deep. 

All the British species are minute. They appear to 
be ovoviviparous, producing their spawn inside, and de- 
positing it on extraneous substances to be developed ; the 
spawn contains fry perfectly formed and having com- 
plete shells. The genus was founded by the celebrated 
novelist, Captain Marry at, by whom its characters 
were thus briefly described in the 12th volume of the 
'Transactions of the Linnean Society' (1818) : "Testa 
depressa, perspectivo umbilicata; apertura circularis." 
He referred the Helix depressa and H. serpuloides of 
Montagu to this genus : but the animal of the former 
resembles that of a Rissoa, and is the type of Fleming's 
genus Skenea; the other is correctly assigned to the 
present genus. Delphinula of De Roissy or Lamarck 
has rough and angular whorls — although perhaps 
Philippi was right in adopting it for some of the species 
now under consideration. Fleming's genus Cyclostrema 
is very different, being represented by Rissoa Zetlandica. 
It is unnecessary to say of the genus Delphionoidea or 
Delphinoidea of Brown, which has been suggested by 
the Messrs. Adams, more than that it is both superfluous 
and heterogeneous. 



1. Cyclostrema Cutleria'num * Clark. 

Skenea CutJeriana, Clark, in Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, new ser. vol. iv. 
p. 424. 8. ? Cutleriana, F. & H. iii. p. 164, pi. lxxviii. f. 3, 4. 

Bout clear-white : pallial lobes or neck-lappets distinct : 
head rather long, broad, and finely wrinkled across : tentacles 
rlattish, liueated down the middle, exquisitely but rather 

* Named in honour of Miss Cutler, a lady of scientific taste and 
acquirements. 



288 TROCHIDJE. 

sparsely ciliated: eyes proportionally large, black, placed on 
very short pedicles : foot somewhat rounded at each end ; front 
corners curved, ear-shaped, broad and flat : appendages 3 
or 4 on each side, filiform, and finely ciliated like the ten- 
tacles. (Clark). 

Shell globular, thin, transparent and glossy: sculpture, 
numerous line spiral or revolving striae, and occasional scratch- 
like and more minute lines of growth : colour clear white : 
spire raised, but blunt: whorls 3, very tumid, rapidly en- 
larging : suture deep : mouth slightly angular above ; peristome 
somewhat reflected on the inner or columellar side : umbilicus 
narrow, oblique, exposing only the base of the last whorl : 
operculum having from six to eight volutions, microscopically 
and irregularly striated across in an oblique direction. L. O04. 
B. 0-04. 

Habitat : Coralline zone, 15-40 f. at Guernsey and 
Lulworth (J. G. J.); Falmouth (Webster and Hockin); 
Fowey, abundant (Barlee) ; Exmouth (Clark andBarlee); 
Skye, a single but characteristic specimen (J. G. J.). 
I noticed this exquisite little gem in Mr. M 'Andrew's 
collection, from his Mediterranean dredgings ; and Pro- 
fessor Lilljeborg gave me at Upsalatwo specimens of an 
extraordinary size (about a tenth of an inch in length 
and diameter) which he had dredged at Bergen and 
Christiansund. 

The animal is described by its discoverer, Clark, 
as exceedingly active and rapid in its movements. 
Occasionally the shells of this and the next tiny species 
are found pierced by some of the smaller canaliferous 
mollusks. 

I at one time believed that the present species was 
the Trochus exilis of Philippi ; but I now doubt it. 
The peristome of that shell is represented in his figure 
as disconnected ; in ours it is continuous. The two 
species are alike in other respects. 



CYCLOSTREMA. 289 

2. C. nitens *, Philippi. 

Delphinula nitens, Phil. Moll. Sic. ii. p. 146, tab. xxv. f. 4. Trochus 
pusillus, F. & H. ii. p. 534, pi. lxxiii. f. 3, 4. 

Body closely resembling that of C. Cutler ianum. The ten- 
tacles and lateral appendages of the foot, however, are not 
quite so long ; the foot is shorter, broader, and more rounded 
at each end, with the front corners detached to a greater ex- 
tent ; and there are four tentacular appendages on each side. 

Shell not so globular, thin, or transparent as C. Cutleri- 
anum, but somewhat depressed above and below, more glossy 
and almost iridescent : sculpture consisting of only a few in- 
distinct grooves on the upper part of the umbilicus ; the sur- 
face is otherwise quite smooth and polished, even under the 
microscope : colour whitish, with a faint tinge of yellow : 
spire not much raised, and blunt : whorls 3, convex, ra- 
pidly enlarging : suture rather deep : mouth as in the first- 
described species ; peristome thickened and slightly reflected 
on the columellar side : umbilicus narrow, placed obliquely, 
not exposing any part of the middle whorl : operculum having 
6-8 volutions, which are continued to the centre. L. 0-035. 
B. 0-03. 

Var. Alderi. Shell thinner and more transparent. Skenea? 
Icevis, F. & H. iii. p. 165, pi. lxxxviii. f. 5, 6. 

Habitat : Coralline zone on the coasts of Guernsey, 
Devon, Cornwall, Ireland (north, east, west, and 
south), west of Scotland and the Hebrides, Moray 
Firth, and Shetland. Mr. Cocks has taken it " attached 
to Algae in the pools on rocks, Gwyllyn vase," near 
Falmouth. The variety was obtained by Mr. Barlee in 
Skye. A single fossil specimen of the typical form 
was found by Philippi in Calabria; and M f Andrew 
dredged this species alive in the Mediterranean. 

It was described by me in the ' Annals of Natural 
History ' for 1848 as Margarita pusilla. The name 
given by Philippi has precedence by four years ; and it 

* Shining. 
VOL. III. O 



290 TROCHID^E. 

is more correct than mine, which implies a comparison 
with species of a different genus. 

3. C. serpuloi'des *, Montagu. 

Helix Serpuloides, Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 147, tab. 21 . f. 3. SJcenea ? 
divisa, F. & H. iii. p. 161, pi. lxxiv. i. 4-6. 

Body pure hyaline-white : pcdlial lobes or neck-lappets of 
different shapes ; that on the right hand is narrowish, flat, 
and partially serrated ; the other is shorter, somewhat oval, 
and plain-edged : head rather long, broad, and finely wrinkled 
across, having a pale-red or pink disk [the colour of which is 
perceptible even in the dried animal] : tentacles flattish, marked 
lengthwise by a white line, symmetrically and elegantly 
clothed with long transparent close-set cilia : eyes very large 
and black, seated on small bulbs : foot somewhat truncated 
or bluntly rounded in front, having at each of the front cor- 
ners a long curved linear ear-shaped process : appendages 3 
or 4 on each side, equidistant, filiform, flattish, shorter and 
less slender than the tentacles, although equally ciliated; 
these filaments also issue from bulbs or tubercles : verge flat, 
pointed, and lying horizontally, not projecting beyond the 
mouth of the shell ; sole not fringed at the edge (Clark). 

vShell depressed, rather thin, transparent, and glossy : 
sculpture, numerous fine spiral striae on the under side ; 
the upper part is quite smooth or very rarely marked 
with a few indistinct and almost microscopical spiral lines : 
colour clear- white, with sometimes a light-yellowish tint, 
which is perhaps derived from a filmy epidermis that is not 
otherwise perceptible : spire scarcely raised : whorls 3-4, 
cylindrical, rapidly increasing in size ; the last extremely 
large in proportion to the rest : suture rather deep : mouth 
slightly angular or forming a small corner above, in conse- 
quence of the last whorl impinging on that part of the circle ; 
it is furnished inside with a narrow ledge in order to receive 
the operculum ; peristome simple : umbilicus not large, but 
exposing the whole of the spire : operculum having 6-8 whorls 
and slightly iridescent. L. 0*02. B. 0-05. 

Habitat : In the laminarian and coralline zones on 
* Having the aspect of a Serpula. 



CYCLOSTREMA. 291 

all our coasts, from low-water mark to 25 f. Raised 
sea-bed at Fort William (J. G. J.); Calabria (Philippi); 
Vaderoarna, in the south-west of Sweden, 12 f. (Malm); 
Croisic, Loire- Inferieure (Cailliaud); Gulf of Lyons 
(Martin); Mediterranean (coll. M f Andrew); Magnisi in 
Sicily (Philippi); State of Maine, "littoral, found occa- 
sionally clinging to the under side of wet stones, above 
low-water mark " (Mighels) . 

Clark says, " it is active, marches with quickness, not 
at all shy, and gave me good opportunities of observing 
its peculiarities." In Shetland it deposits its spawn in 
thick irregular clusters on some of the finer and mem- 
branous sea-weeds ; each cluster contains a great num- 
ber of fiy, having their shells completely formed, and 
enveloped in a glairy matter. 

It is the Skenea divisa of Fleming, and Delphinula 
lavis of Philippi. The authors of the ' British Mol- 
lusca' do not appear to have given a sufficient reason 
for preferring the later name " divisa " to that by which 
Montagu published this species. Philippics specimens 
(only three in number, two recent and one fossil) may 
have been accidentally discoloured, as is sometimes the 
case. 

C. ? costulatum {Margarita ? costulata, Moller) has 
been dredged by Mr. Barlee in Loch Fyne, by Mr. 
Waller on the Turbot Bank near Lame in Antrim, bv 
Mr. Dawson in the Moray Firth, and by myself in 
Shetland ; and Mr. Bean found a specimen in sand 
dredged at Lamlash in the Isle of Arran. I do not, 
however, consider any of the specimens thus procured 
recent. It occurs in a fossil state at Fort William 
(J. G. J.) ; Paisley (Crosskey) ; and at Uddevalla. 
The most southern point where it has been observed in 
a living state is Ireland ; it inhabits the Arctic seas of 

o 2 



>> 



92 TROCHID^. 



botli hemispheres. The operculum is calcareous, and 
of the same consistence as that of Cyclostoma ; but this 
is multispiral and has a central nucleus. C. ? costida- 
tum may therefore belong to the Turbinidce. The shell 
is remarkably solid for its size (three-fourths of a line in 
breadth) , and has strong and partly dichotomous trans- 
verse ribs ; the peristome is continuous. The very little 
that we know of the animal is derived from Moller, who 
states that it is allied to that of Margarita, but differs 
in the foot of this mollusk being furnished in front with 
filaments. Mblleria would be a suitable name for the 
genus to which the shell in question may hereafter be 
assigned. Moller was the Danish governor of East or 
old Greenland ; and, without neglecting his duties, he 
did much to elucidate the history of the glacial epoch, 
by investigating the existing mollusca of the far north. 

Genus II. TROCHUS * Rondeletius. PI. VII. f. 4. 

Body of various sizes, but not minute : head prominent and 
stout : foot ridged on the upper part of each side by a digi- 
tated or fringed membrane. 

Shell conical, with an angular periphery, highly nacreous : 
spire more or less raised : mouth placed obliquely ; lips or 
edges disunited on the columellar side : umbilicus (if present) 
variable in extent, even in the same species. 

Rondeletius called this kind of shell a Trochus, because 
of its similarity to a Roman boy's plaything of that name. 
His comparison would be correct if " trochus " meant a 
top; but the word (derived from the Greek rpo^o^) is ren- 
dered in all the best dictionaries " a trundling-hoop for 
children." u Turbo f is the ancient name of a playing- 
top. The shells now about to be described were (and per- 

* Top-shell. 



TROCHUS. 293 

haps are still) called in some parts of the north of Italy 
" trottola," by the fishermen at Spezzia " narnai," and 
by the French " culs-de-lampe." Adanson's species of 
Trochus belong to Littorina. Dr. Leach's posthumous 
' Synopsis of the Mollusca of Great Britain ' contains 
an extremely inaccurate account of the anatomical 
structure of the animal. The following are extracts : 
" The eggs (ova) are pedunculated ; the peduncle is 
situated at the sides of the tentacles of the young 
animal : " we are also told that Trochus has " four 
tentacles." Surely the publication of such a work was 
not "an act of justice" to the memory of this once 
celebrated zoologist. In the 'Zoologia Adriatica' of 
Olivi will be found some curious lucubrations as to the 
cause of the internal lustre, resembling silver or mother 
of pearl, which decorates the shells of this genus. 
Finding that the shell of Trochus was composed of 
different layers, he at first supposed that the iridescence 
could only be the effect of light reflected or refracted at 
different angles from the distinct surfaces which resulted 
from the relative superposition of these layers. In con- 
sequence, however, of the experiments made by Herissant 
with respect to the heterogeneous nature of shell-matter, 
and of Bouvier having detected by analysis a consider- 
able proportion of magnesium in Corallina officinalis, 
Olivi hazarded another conjecture, viz. that the irides- 
cence might arise from the admixture of some other 
mineral with carbonate of lime, such as is seen in mica 
schist. Nacre composes the inner layer of every 
species, and the entire substance of some; and Car- 
penter was able to distinguish in this nacreous composi- 
tion the same minutely cellular arrangement which he 
had described as presenting itself so distinctly in Haliotis. 
The genus comprises a multitude of species, recent and 



294 TROCHID.E. 

fossil. It is evidently of great antiquity, although 
palaeontologists are not agreed as to its origin. Sowerby 
assigns this probably to the Lias, Woodward to the 
Devonian formation, and Searles Wood to the Protozoic 
rocks. The distribution of existing species corresponds 
in extent with their number ; none of the typical form 
appear to inhabit North-east America — only those of 
the section Margarita. 

For the same reasons which I gave in the preceding 
volume for not dismembering Venus as regards the 
British species, I will preserve Trochus in its integrity, 
at the same time dividing it into as many sections as 
the gradual nature of the differences between the species 
may seem to warrant. It is true that all the species 
comprised in the so-called genus Margarita are quite 
pearly and that some of them are low-spired and umbi- 
licate; but it must be observed that Trochus occiden- 
talis (which is placed by Loven in that genus) , although 
pearly, is high-spired and has no umbilicus, and that 
T. Vahlii and T. amabilis are decidedly conical. The 
shells of Gibbula are usually low-spired and deeply um- 
bilicate; but varieties of T. tumidus, T. umbilicatus, 
and T. cinerarius (referred to this genus by the Messrs. 
Adams) have the spire raised, and the base is not even 
perforated. Searles Wood says that in Crag specimens 
of T. tumidus (which connects Gibbula with Margarita) 
the umbilicus is very variable ; " in some it is open, 
while in others it is quite covered, depending upon the 
elevation or depression of the spire, and also on the 
extension of the left lip." Again, T. lineatus is our only 
representative of Klein's genus Trochocochlea, in which 
the spire is raised, the base imperforate, and the pillar 
lip furnished with a blunt tubercle or notch ; the last 
two characters are common, however, to several species 



TROCHUS. 295 

of Gibbula and the typical section Ziziphinus, which 
last has a pyramidal spire. It is also not generally 
known, bnt not less the fact, that young shells of T. 
lineatus (the type of Trochocochlea) are always deeply 
umbilicate. 



A. Small, pearly, and uinbilicate. Margarita, Leach. 
1. Trochus helici'nus * 3 Fabricius. 

T. kelicinus, Fabr. Fn. G-rcenl. p. 393; F. & H. ii. p. 531, pi. lxviii. 
f. 4, 5, lxxiv. f. 10, and (animal) pi. C C. f. 4. 

Body orangecolour, the upper part marked with close-set 
longitudinal purple lines or streaks : jpalUal lappets oval, small, 
purplish-grey : head short and rounded, semicircular in front, 
and divided into 12-15 lobes, which form a sort of fringe ; 
some of these lobes in front are cloven : tentacles slender, 
flexible and contractile, ringed or annulated, and thickly 
covered with short cilia giving a bristly appearance ; tips 
blunt : eyes rather large, and there is a supplementary pair of a 
smaller size on the inner base of the tentacles : foot thick and 
gibbous, lanceolate, rounded in front and bluntly pointed 
behind, with a pale line in the middle at the posterior end 
towards the tail ; sole plain-edged when fully expanded, at 
other times minutely and irregularly scalloped or jagged at 
the edges : appendages 6 on each side, annulated and setose 
like the tentacles ; each filament has a dark eye-like tubercle 
at its base ; there are sometimes two of these filaments be- 
tween each of the penultimate and caudal pairs. 

Shell somewhat globular, rather thin, semitransparent and 
lustrous : ' sculpture, several slight spiral striae on the under 
side, and occasionally some faint and indistinct spiral lines on 
the upper side, and a few puckers near the suture ; otherwise 
the surface is quite smooth and highly polished : colour orange 
or reddish-brown, sometimes variegated by purplish or azure 
tints on the upper parts : spire more raised in female than 
in male individuals ; apex blunt : ivlwrls 5, convex and gra- 
dually enlarging in the former, compressed and rapidly in- 
creasing in the other sex: suture distinct but not deep : mouth 

* Like a Helix. 



296 trochiDjE. 

inclined to be angular above : outer lip plain in the female, 
and spread outwards in the male : inner Up folded back a 
little on the umbilical cavity : umbilicus narrow but deep, 
exposing the base of the penultimate whorl : inside iridescent : 
operculum having about a dozen volutions, becoming slightly 
concave towards the centre ; the nucleus forms a boss or pro- 
jecting point on the under side. L. 0425. B. 0*25. 

Yar. fasciata. Smaller, light-yellowish or creamcolour, 
with a spiral band of reddish-brown between the suture of 
the last whorl and the periphery. 

Habitat : Abundant on the fronds of Laminaria 
saccharina, and under loose stones, throughout the 
laminarian and lower part of the littoral zones, in Shet- 
land, the Orkneys, both sides of Scotland, and the coasts 
of Berwickshire, Northumberland, Durham, and York- 
shire ; Belfast (Hyndman); Dublin Bay (Warren and 
Kinahan) ; and Connemara (Farren). Brown says 
" also on the south coast of Devonshire," and Leach 
endorsed the statement; but this must have been a 
mistake. The variety was found by Mr. Bean at 
Scarborough, by Mr. Hyndman in the north of Ireland, 
and by myself in the west of Scotland. T. helicinus 
is fossil at Fort William (J. G. J.); Oban (Geikie); 
Clyde beds (Crosskey); and at Uddevalla. It inhabits 
the shores of Scandinavia, Iceland, Spitzbergen, the 
White Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, Greenland, Behring's Straits, 
Labrador, Canada, and the north-eastern coasts of the 
United States, at depths ranging from low-water mark 
to 40 f. 

The animal is active and bold. It appears fond of 
crawling out of water. When floating with the shell 
downward, the tongue is seen to be continually pro- 
truded, as if in search of some microscopic food. The 
gill is visible through the opening on the left-hand side 
of the head, and resembles a miniature Plumularia fal~ 



TROCHUS. 297 

cata. The spawn is deposited on sea-weed and the 
under side of stones ; each egg is enclosed in a yellow 
membranous capsule, all of which are agglutinated 
together at their sides and form an irregular glairy 
mass. I counted above 100 eggs in one of these spawn- 
masses. The fry are clear white, and not unlike the 
young of Cyclostrema serpuloides. The shells of the 
two sexes are different, as will appear from my descrip- 
tion. The globular form of the female, with the outer 
circumference of each whorl embellished not only by the 
invariable lustre, but occasionally by a variety of 
glowing tints, reminds us of the vision of Panthea in 
' Prometheus Unbound/ in which were displayed 

" Purple and azure, white, green and golden, 
Sphere within sphere." 

The shell is sometimes twisted or otherwise distorted. 
Zetlandic are much larger than English or Irish speci- 
mens ; those from the Arctic Sea are comparatively 
giants. I dredged a specimen empty, but having the 
operculum in it, about 25 miles north of Unst in 80 
fathoms ; it was pierced, apparently, by some animal 
which had probably carried it off and dropped it in 
the far deep, after extracting the mollusk through the 
hole. 

According to Fabricius this is the Turbo neritoideus 
of Olafsen. The Trochus helicinus of Gmelin (from 
Knorr and Chemnitz) is a large West-Indian shell, but 
still undetermined. Our species is the Helix margarita 
of Laskey, Turbo inflatus of Totten, Trochus margaritus 
of Gray, Margarita vulgaris of Leach [fide Sowerby) 
and certainly his Margarites diaphana, Margarita heli- 
coides of Beck (fide Sowerby), and M. arctica of Gould. 
It is difficult to guess what was the M. arctica of Leach, 
described in the "Appendix No. II." to Sir John Ross's 

o 5 



298 trochiDjE. 

Voyage. It may have been the present species; but 
the operculum is stated to be testaceous. 

2. T. Gucenlan'dicus*, Chemnitz. 

T. gronlandicus, Chemn. Conch. Cab. v. p. 108, t, 171. t 1671. T. un- 
dulatus, F. & H. ii. p. 528, pi. lxviii. f. 1,2, and pi. lxxiii. f. 5, 6. 

Body creamcolour with a few light-purplish-brown streaks 
along the back and sides : pallial lappets small and thin : head 
broad, notched or divided into lobes at the front edge (as in 
T. helicinus), and furnished with a thin veil or hood in front : 
tentacles extremely slender, and continually in motion ; tips 
blunt : eyes on short but prominent stalks : foot large, broad 
and somewhat truncated in front, bluntly pointed behind ; tail 
keeled and having an eye-like tubercle at its extremity : ap- 
pendages from 5 to 7 on each side, with an equal number of 
ocelli, one at the base of each filamental appendage. Every 
part of the body, except the snout, is ciliated in the most 
exquisite manner. 

Shell having a rounded contour, rather solid, opaque, 
somewhat glossy : sculpture, several narrow thread-like but 
not much raised spiral ribs, or occasionally a few impressed 
striae on the upper side, and more numerous and fine stria? on 
the under side ; the surface is also covered with microscopical 
and close-set transverse stria?, and below the suture of each 
(especially the last) whorl it is puckered or marked with short 
and curved folds in the same direction : colour yellowish-red 
or fleshcolour : spire moderately raised : whorls 6, rather 
tumid, gradually increasing in size : suture rather deep : mouth 
slightly angular above : outer lip thin and flexuous : inner lip 
thickened and angulated below, folded back over the pillar 
and umbilical cavity above : inside purplish and iridescent : 
umbilicus narrow, deep and obliquely angulated outside, ex- 
posing all the spire : operculum having from 10 to 12 volu- 
tions, which are separated from each other by a slight ridge. 
L. 0-2. B. 0-25. 

Var. 1. albida. Shell of a whitish colour. 

Var. 2. dilatata. More depressed and expanded at the 
sides, encircled on the upper part by only a few spiral strice 
or impressed lines. 

* Inhabiting the seas of Greenland. 



TROCHUS. 299 



Yar. 3. Icevior. Smaller, more conical, solid and glossy, 
quite smooth with the exception of one or two slight spiral 
ribs on the uppermost whorls, fleshcolour. 



Habitat : At the roots of Laminarics and on stones, 
from low-water mark to 40 f., in the west of Scotland, 
the Orkneys, and Shetland ; local but not uncommon. 
The Rev. Mr. Whyte, according to Dr. Gordon, found 
it in Dunnet bav, Caithness, and Mr. Hvncirnan has 
dredged dead specimens in Belfast Bay ; but the latter 
are suspiciously like fossils from a submarine post- 
tertiary deposit in that locality. Yar. 1 is occasionally 
met with. Yar. 2 was taken by Mr. Barlee at Skve, 
and by myself at Loch Carron. For the other variety 
I am also indebted to the same friend. T. Grcenlandi- 
cus occurs in the Clyde beds (Smith and others), Fort 
William (J. G. J.), Norwich Crag (Woodward), and 
at Uddevalla. It lives in every part of the Arctic 
Ocean, and on the coasts of the White Sea, Scandi- 
navia, Iceland, Canada, and the States of Maine and 
Massachusetts. 

Its habits are much the same as those of the last 
species. Their shells may be distinguished by this 
having a more conical form and greater solidity, by the 
spiral ribs and striae on the upper surface, the deeper 
suture, and also by the deeper and angulated umbilicus. 
The size of some specimens considerably exceeds the 
average dimensions which I have given. The largest 
I have seen were obtained by Dr. Otto Torell in Iceland. 
The frv are white, and striated like the adult. 

It is perhaps the Turbo fuscus of Mullens l Prodro- 
muV (" testa fulva striis elevatis transversis^), and Tro- 
chus cinerarius of Fabricius but not of Linne. The 
Rev. R. T. Lowe described it as Turbo carneus, G. B. 



300 TROCHID^. 

Sowerby as Margarita undulata, Couthouy as Turbo 
incarnatus, and Brown as Trochus inflatus. 



3. T. ama'bilis *, Jeffreys. 

Body of a creaniy-white hue, faintly speckled or tinged 
with yellowish-brown : pallial lappets small : head prominent 
and wedge-shaped at its extremity, which is finely and deeply 
fringed by about 20 digitations or points of different 
lengths and sizes, those in front being the largest ; it is semi- 
circular in front, and expansile like the foot of Nucida or Lcda : 
mouth lobed : tentacles filiform, remarkably long, and tapering 
to a fine point ; they are flexible and exquisitely setose : eyes 
conspicuous, set on short offsets : foot lanceolate, squarish in 
front, on each side of which it is furnished with two long 
conical processes, which project at a right angle to the tenta- 
cles ; it is sharp-pointed behind, and has a prominent trian- 
gular ridge, extending from the posterior edge of the opercular 
lobe to the tail : appendages 3 on each side, issuing from 
beneath the opercular lobe, and between these are a few small 
papillae ; the two lateral filaments in front are ciliated, and 
resemble a second pair of shorter tentacles ; the foot is capa- 
ble of being expanded to a size double that of the shell, so as 
to form a broad and solid fulcrum. 

Shell pyramidal, moderately solid, semitransparent, of a 
pearly and partially iridescent lustre: sculpture, two spiral ridges 
or keels on the upper part of each of the last three or four 
whorls, and one on the upper part of the next or smaller 
whorl, besides several finer but irregular ridges on the base of 
the last or largest whorl, and numerous minute spiral striae 
between all the ridges ; the principal ridges are placed near 
the suture of each whorl, both above and below, leaving a 
broad flattened space in the middle and a narrow excavated 
space below the suture, thus imparting a tower-like appear- 
ance to the shell ; the upper whorls are also marked with nu- 
merous short and fine longitudinal ribs, which cross the ridges 
and make them crenellated : colour pure pearl-white : spire 
elevated ; apex semiglobose, prominent and slightly twisted : 
whorls 7, gradually increasing in size : suture very distinct : 
mouth nearly circular, but angulated or somewhat notched 

* Lovely. 



TROCHUS. 301 

below by the umbilical ridge : outer lip thin and slightly ex- 
panded : inner lij) folded a little back on the umbilicus, and ad- 
hering to the pillar : inside more or less iridescent : umbilicus 
large but not wide, funnel-shaped, and completely exposing 
the whole of the inner spire ; it is encircled outside by a 
strong spiral ridge, which is often beaded, and winds like a 
staircase into the interior : operculum forming a spire of about 
a dozen whorls, the edges of which are imbricated and over- 
lap one another in succession. L. 0-333. B. 0*275. 

Habitat : Fine sand, mixed with gravel, in 85- 
95 f., about 25 miles N.N.W. of Bnrra Firth light- 
house, Unst. The area in which it occurs appears to 
be limited to a few square miles. I discovered this new 
and beautiful species in 1861, while in company with 
my friend Mr. Waller; and we obtained specimens 
again in 1864 by dredging on the same ground. Living 
together with it were Limopsis aurita, Cylichna alba, 
Buccinopsis Dalei var. eburnea, and other treasures. I 
do not know any other place, at home or abroad, where 
it has been found. 

The animal is active and crawls rapidly ; if laid on its 
back, it twists its foot from side to side, until part of 
the sole touches the bottom of the vessel, when it re- 
gains its usual position. Mr. Alder has examined the 
tongue, and observes that it shows rather a departure 
from the generic character in the want of the nume- 
rous slender uncini which other species possess. When I 
mentioned the unique habitat of this species, it would 
probably not convey to the minds of my readers in gene- 
ral what is meant by dredging in Shetland, nor how 
many difficulties and disappointments beset the natu- 
ralist who ventures thus to explore that remote and wild 
tract of the North Sea. The weather is so uncertain, and 
the winds often so boisterous, even in the summer and 
autumn months, that, although provided with every ap- 



•■> 



02 TROCHID.E. 



pliance, and having plenty of time at his disposal, he 
will frequently be unable to leave harbour for many days 
together, or to remain any time out at sea. Hence 
arise continual disappointments, rarely alleviated by 
such a discovery as I have just described. In one of 
these periods of despondence there was a lull between a 
past and coming storm, when this loveable pearly shell 
made its appearance and gladdened our longing eyes : 
we realized the thought in ' Endymion ' — 

" in spite of all, 

Some shape of beauty moves away the pall 
From our dark spirits." 

We were the first of human race that beheld it ; 
although, for ages uncountable, generation after gener- 
ation of it must have lived and died, 

" Full many a fathom deep, 
On thy wild and stormy steep," 

Hialtland ! 

Perhaps with our joy was not unmingled a secret 
feeling of pride in the discovery, against which, as 
little short of a sin, Professor Kingsley cautions us in 
his pleasant little book ' Glaucus.' Our " pearl of the 
deep " might have served to bedeck the mermaid in the 
lay of the c Queen's Wake ' ; Burns would certainly have 
called it " a bonie gem." The eastern seas do not sur- 
pass our own in furnishing such a marvel of Nature's 
workmanship, although the oriental pearl and the nor- 
thern shell are alike perfect in opaline lustre and purity. 
Their production, however, is a plain sphere. Ours is a 
pyramidal cone, encircled by a winding gallery, and more 
elegantly sculptured than the finest rood-screen; its 
base is hollow and exhibits a spiral staircase. The door 
or operculum is circular and transparent ; it may be 



TROCHUS. 303 

compared to a rose-window in its exquisite tracery. 
But the shell has also an inner life of beauty. The 
builder is not less graceful than the edifice. A feathery 
hood surmounts its arched head ; two tapering horns, 
clothed with most delicate hairs, project in front, and 
three similar but shorter ones on each side of the bodv, 
all of which wave and curl independently of each other, 
and are apparently endued with the most exquisite sen- 
sibility ; the whole is supported by a slender foot, whose 
softly gliding motion effects an almost imperceptible 
progress. The sentient will is evidently not wanting 
in our living pearl. Before I part with the subject, let 
me have full vent for my enthusiastic admiration by 
scattering a very few more flowers of poetry by way of 
illustration : — 

" Framed in the prodigality of Nature." — Richard III. 

" Crown'd the nonpareil of beauty." — Twelfth Night. 

" Like a pearl 

Dropt from the opening eyelids of the morn 

Upon the bashful rose." — Middleton's ' Game at Chesse.' 

" These were tears by Naiads wept 

For the loss of Marinel." — Uridal of Triermain. 

When I first saw this shell, its sculpture appeared so 
like that of Margarita (?) maculata, S. Wood, that I 
considered them to be the same species. I have since 
had reason to alter my opinion. A careful comparison 
of the recent species with that of our Coralline Crag, 
and with typical specimens of Turbo moniliferus or 
Solarium turbinoides of Nyst (w T hich Mr. Wood con- 
sidered, and, as I believe, rightly, identical with his 
species) , has convinced me that, according to the modern 
acceptation of the term species, the living and fossil 
forms are distinct. The one is pyramidal and angulated, 



304 



TROCHID.E. 



with a rather narrow umbilicus, and is pure nacre ; the 
other has a somewhat depressed spire and rounded 
periphery, with a very wide and open umbilicus, and is 
creamcolour with occasionally dark blotches. Possibly 
these markings were caused by fossilization or mineral 
action, and the prototype may have been as stainless as 
its modern representative : — 

" But no perfection is so absolute, 
That some impurity doth not pollute." 

I am by no means prepared to assert that T. amabilis is 
or is not a descendant of the fossil and so-called extinct 
species, changed in the course of ages to a greater extent 
than Terebratula caput-serpentis and other persistent 
species ; our knowledge of such infinitesimally small or 
differential gradations is at present too imperfect to 
justify an assumption that "descent by modification" has 
been the invariable or even the ordinary law of nature. It 
would be inconvenient to retain the name (elegantulus) 
which I once proposed for the present species, because 
there is already a Trochus elegantulus, belonging to the 
section Ziziphinus, as well as T. elegantissimus of the sec- 
tion Margarita. A figure of the shell will be given in 
the supplementary volume of plates. 

T. cinereus, Couthouy (Margarita striata, Broderip and 
Sowerby, but not T. striatus of Linne) has been dredged 
by Mr. Waller on the Antrim coast, by Mr. Barlee in 
Shetland, by Mr. Dawson in the Moray Firth, and by 
Mr. Mennell in Berwick Bay ; but it is a submarine 
fossil. It also occurs in the Clyde beds and at Uddevalla, 
and inhabits the Norwegian and North American coasts. 
This species differs from T. amabilis in its larger size, 
greater solidity, dull grey colour, coarser and cancellated 
sculpture, close-set and fine longitudinal striae, flattened 
apex, and much smaller umbilicus. . 



TROCHUS. 305 

Another Clyde fossil, the Margarita olivacea of Brown, 
appears to be the M. glauca of Moller's Catalogue of 
Greenland Mollusca. 

Margarita elegantissima of Bean, from the glacial de- 
posit at Bridlington, also lives in the Arctic Ocean ; it 
is the M. plicata of Sars, and M. polaris of Danielssen. 

The M. aurea of Brown (described as " destitute of 
an umbilicus") has been identified by Forbes and 
Hanley with Turbo sanguineus of Linne, a Mediterra- 
nean shell. 

B. Low-spired and umbilicate. Gibbula, Leach. 

4. T. magus % Linne. 

7. magus, Linn. S. N. p. 1228; F. & H. p. 522, pi. lxr. f. 6, 7, and 
(animal) pi. D D. f. 3. 

Body yellowish, mottled with purple and brown, or speckled 
with reddish-brown and white, and closely covered with short 
papillae : mantle sometimes forming an incomplete branchial 
fold on the right side ; pallial lappets large and broad, some- 
times orange bordered with yellow, left fringed, right plain : 
head broad, but not prominent, ornamented in front with a 
veil or hood, the centre of which is brown and its ends 
yellow ; this veil is divided into two lappets with white fringed 
edges, which often hang over the head ; the extremity of the 
snout is also fringed or setose: tentacles very long and slender, 
more or less annulated with black : eyes very large, turquoise 
or black in the centre, encircled with a bluish line ; stalks 
short and somewhat angular : foot broad in front and bluntly 
pointed behind : appendages 3 on each side, springing from 
short sheaths, of a lighter colour than the tentacles, and with 
a white tubercle at the base of each. 

Shell forming a depressed cone, somewhat scalariform, 
solid, opaque, of a rough and rather dull aspect : sculpture, 
numerous but irregular spiral ridges crossed obliquely by 
minute and close-set stria), which are laminar or imbricated 

* From its supposed resemblance to the turban of a magician. 



306 trochidjE. 

in the interstices of the ridges ; the base of the shell is en- 
circled by a much stronger and more prominent ridge, giving 
that part a keeled or angulated appearance, and the upper 
part of each whorl is frequently puckered lengthwise : colour 
pale yellowish-white, beautifully variegated or painted by 
short longitudinal streaks of pinkish-red or (rarely) purple : 
spire not much raised ; apex small and pointed : whorls 8, 
regularly enlarging : suture deep and channelled : mouth very 
oblique, in consequence of the upper lip being placed far in 
advance of the lower: outer lip often broken and jagged: 
inner Up very thick, folded above over that part of the umbi- 
lical cavity, and furnished in the middle with a slight tooth - 
like projection : inside nacreous : umbilicus rather wide and 
bordered by a smooth broad ridge ; it is very deep and shows 
all the inner spire : operculum having from 12 to 15 volutions, 
becoming somewhat concave towards the centre, the under 
side of which has a minute boss or point ; each volution is 
microscopically striated in an oblique and somewhat curved 
direction. L. 0*85. JB. 1-15. 

Var. alba. Shell of a uniform white. 



Habitat : Rather common, from low-water mark to 
40 f., in the southern and western counties of England, 
the Channel Isles, Bristol Channel, Ireland, west of 
Scotland, and the Orkneys and Shetland; Anglesea 
(Pennant) j Isle of Man (Forbes) . It does not appear 
to be a native of our eastern or north-eastern coasts, 
although Mr. Bean found a dead specimen at Scar- 
borough. Sir Cuthbert Sharpe included it in his list 
of Hartlepool shells ; and Miss Backhouse is said to 
have met with it at Seaton Carew, Durham. I agree 
with Mr. Alder in believing that these specimens may 
have been introduced in ballast. The variety occurs at 
Oban, Skye, Ullapool, and Lerwick. T. magus is fossil 
in the u post-pleistocene beds" at Belfast (Grainger), 
Clyde beds and Ireland (Smith), Strethill (Maw); higher 
and older deposits, 400-440 feet, in the Christiania 
district (Sars); Antibes (Mace); Subapennine tertiaries 



TROCHUS. 307 

(Brocchi); Sicily (Philippi). Loven discovered it living 
in the south-west of Sweden after the publication of 
his c Index ' : else all the foreign localities are southern, 
and comprise the coasts of France, Spain, Portugal, 
Italy, Greece, North Africa, Madeira, the Canaries, and 
Azores, at depths of from 4 to 40 f., besides the Red Sea 
(Forskal) . 

The animal is beautifully and variously coloured, and 
is tolerably active. Its prettily painted shell was the 
"Sorcierc" of D'Argenville. Under a rude and dull 
exterior it has a thick layer of bright pearl, which is 
brought out by the process called " cleaning.'" Such 
improvements of Nature's work were placed by Scopoli 
foremost in the Catalogue of his " calamitates nobilis 
scientiaB." Mr. Barlee used to be proud of showing his 
fine collection of British shells, especially to young ladies, 
until one of them innocently asked him if he picked them 
up in the summer and polished them in the winter ! Yery 
young shells are equally convex on each side of the peri- 
pheral keel, and the umbilicus is then very small. They 
exhibit numerous fine longitudinal striae, which are 
curved and not less conspicuous than the few spiral ribs 
formed at that period of growth. A cancellated appear- 
ance is the result ; and the sculpture is not unlike that 
of Margarita cinerea, Couthouy. 

This is the T. tuberculatus of Da Costa. 

5. T. tu'midus"*, Montagu. 

T. tumidus, Mont. Test. Brit. p. 280, tab. 10. f. 4. 4; P. & H. ii. p. 513, 
pi. lxv. f. 8, 9, and (animal) pi. D D. f. 2. 

Body pale yellowish -white, transversely streaked with 
brown or fine dark-purplish lines, which are sometimes 

* Swollen. 



308 trochid^:. 

arranged diagonally (so as to give the upper surface a par- 
tially granulated appearance), and minutely but irregularly 
speckled with flake-white : pallial lappets large and unequal 
in size, the left one being the smaller and slightly scalloped, 
the other plain-edged : head semicircular, lineated or wrinkled 
transversely, closely scalloped at its edge ; front lobes small 
and white : tentacles white, filiform, very long, slender, flexible, 
somewhat contractile, and finely setose ; tips blunt : eyes pro- 
portionally large, seated on angular bulbs or short tubercles 
(" capable of twisting about in various directions," Montagu): 
foot lanceolate, thick, rounded at each end, with small angular 
points at the corners ; edges delicately scalloped ; top fringe or 
ridge on each side thin and wavy ; sole flake-white : appen- 
dages 3 on each side, white, issuing from beneath the dorsal 
ridge ; they resemble the tentacles, and are nearly as long and 
more pointed ; each of the filamental appendages or vibracula 
has at its base a small cup-shaped tubercle. The animal is 
exquisitely ciliated all over. 

Shell turreted but not much elevated, solid, opaque, of 
rather a dull hue : sculpture, numerous fine spiral ribs, which 
are often alternately larger and smaller, and vary in size and 
their relative proximity ; the surface is crossed by minute and 
close-set oblique strise ; the base of the shell, and usually the 
upper part of each whorl, are encircled by a more or less dis- 
tinct keel, giving an angulated appearance : colour varying from 
white to citron, closely spotted or speckled with reddish-brown 
(the spots being arranged in spiral lines), and often marked with 
more or less irregular dark longitudinal blotches or streaks : 
spire moderately raised : whorls 6 or 7, their convexity being 
in an inverse ratio to the height of the spire ; they gradually 
increase in size : suture frequently slight, deeper in more 
turreted specimens : mouth oblique, in consequence of the 
upper lip advancing considerably beyond the lower ; it is 
notched in the middle of the outer lip, and channelled below 
the pillar : outer lip thin and plain : inner lip thick, folded 
back on the umbilicus, and furnished in the middle with a 
slight tooth-like tubercle : inside beautifully iridescent : um- 
bilicus large but not wide, obliquely excavated, and exposing 
a considerable part of the inner spire : operculum having from 
10 to 12 whorls, and mostly becoming concave towards the 
centre. L. 0-333. B. 0-333. 

Habitat : Oozy ground in the laminarian zone, and 



TROCHUS. 309 

on a stony or shelly bottom in deeper water, in every 
part of our seas from 4 to 95 f. ; off the Mull of Gallo- 
way in 50-145 f. (Beeehey). It occurs in all our upper 
tertiary strata, from Fort William (J. G. J.) to the Red 
Crag (S. Wood); Christiania district, in the higher and 
older deposits, at a height of 400-440 feet above the 
sea-level (Sars). Its distribution in a recent or living 
state extends from Iceland (Steenstrup and Torell) to 
the iEgean (Forbes), at depths varying from 4 to 60 f. 
M f Andrew and Barrett found it living on the shore in 
Upper Norway. 

The animal of this rather common species is active 
and restless. Northern greatly exceed southern speci- 
mens in size ; but those from deep water in every 
locality are invariably dwarfed. Some have no umbi- 
licus; in others the spire is either pyramidal or depressed. 
The fry are often marked with spiral pink lines. 

It is the T. Racketti of Payraudeau, and probably the 
T. Nassaviensis of Chemnitz and T.patholatus of Gmelin. 
The fry was figured by Walker as T. fuscus, and de- 
scribed by Macgillivray as Skenea Serpaloides. 

6. T. cinera'rius*, Linne. 

T. cinerarius, Linn. S. N. p. 1229 ; F. & H. ii. p. 516, pi. lxv. f. 1-3, and 
(animal) pi. D D. f. 1 & la. 

Body purplish-grey minutely speckled with yellow, or 
yellowish speckled with flake-white, and marked with purplish- 
brown lines or streaks in front and blotches of the same hue 
at the sides (in southern examples barred with violet and 
white) : mantle rather thick, yellowish ; lappets thin, leaf-like 
and folded, that on the left being split into branched pectina- 
tions, the other plain : head semicircular, finely scalloped at 
the edges ; veil forming two fringed lobes above the tentacles, 

* For cinereus, ash-coloured. 



31 Q TROCIIIDjE. 

one on the inner side of each ; the veil is a continuation of the 
foot-crest and " when erected has the appearance of an awning 
or semipavilion hanging over the disk of the muzzle " (Clark): 
tentacles filiform, long and tapering, marked across with pur- 
plish-brown (in southern examples alternately violet and 
white) rings, and sometimes down the middle with a dark 
line ; they are covered with whitish cilia, and contractile : eyes 
placed on short angular stalks which are white in southern 
examples : foot thick, broader and rounded in front, and 
bluntly pointed behind, with finely and closely ciliated edges ; 
sole yellow ; the ridge or crest on the upper part of each side 
is irregularly fringed ; lateral appendages 3 on each side, with 
frequently several shorter intermediate ones ; the principal 
filaments resemble the tentacles, but are usually shorter and 
slighter (white in southern examples) ; each is sheathed, and 
has sometimes at its base a small tubercle on each side, which 
are occasionally of a darker colour and might be taken for 
ocelli or eye-specks. 

Shell varying in height, according to the nature of habitat 
(being more depressed when living among Laminarice than 
among stones between tide-marks or in the coralline zone), 
solid, opaque, and of a rather dull hue : sculpture, 1 or 8 thread- 
like spiral ridges on the upper part of the body whorl, with 
often one or two finer striae between each ridge, and about a 
dozen fine ridge-like striae on the under side ; the intermediate 
surface is covered with numerous very minute longitudinal 
hair-like striae, which are set obliquely; the basal keel is 
blunt, but distinct : colour light grey or pale yellowish, varie- 
gated by close-set narrow and oblique streaks of dark purplish- 
brown, the continuity of which is mostly interrupted by the 
spiral ridges, so as to give a somewhat speckled appearance : 
spire more or less raised, with a blunt apex :' vjhorls 6 or 7 ; 
the lower ones are flattened and expanded, and the top ones 
rounded and moderately convex : suture narrow, although 
rather deep and sometimes channelled : mouth large, squarish 
and oblique, as in other species : outer lip bevelled to a thin 
edge : inner lip thick, somewhat reflected, especially over the 
upper part of the umbilicus, and usually furnished in the 
middle with a slight tubercular projection : inside highly na- 
creous except near the edge of the mouth, which is white and 
dull: umbilicus rather small and narrow, obliquely funnel- 
shaped and colourless, not exposing the spire of the penulti- 
mate whorl : operculum having from 10 to 12 volutions, which 



TROCHUS. 311 

appear a little imbricated, and each is marked by a raised line 
or ridge ; they are microscopically striated across in a radiating 
direction. L. 0*5. B. Ooo. 

Tar. 1. electissima. Smaller and more regularly conical, 
T. electissimus (Bean), Thorpe, Brit. Mar. Conch, p. 264. 

Var. 2. variegata. Also smaller, and ornamented by a few 
short and broad dark reddish-brown rays on the upper part of 
each whorl, besides the ordinary coloured streaks. 

Habitat : Abundant everywhere, on stones and sea- 
weed at low-water mark and in the laminarian zone. 
Var. 1 inhabits deep water ; the other variety is found 
in the Channel Isles, as well as in the Mediterranean. 
This species frequently occurs in our latest tertiary 
strata, including the Clyde, Belfast, and Sussex beds, 
and the Red Crag ; Christiania, in lower and younger 
deposits, 100-150 feet (Sars); Piedmont (Brocchi). 
Living in Iceland (Mohr); Scandinavia (Linne and 
others); Heligoland (Frey and Leuckart); North of 
France (De Gerville and others); Vigo and the North 
Spanish coast (M f Andrew); Mediterranean (Linne and 
others); Adriatic (Chiereghini) ; Mogador (M 'Andrew); 
Black Sea (Krynicki and others). The bathymetrical 
range given in these foreign localities extends from low- 
water mark to 60 f. 

When crawling it moves each side of its foot by 
turns. The left-hand pallial lappet serves for aerating 
the gill, like the semitubular fold in the Muricidae and 
other Siphonobranchiata. According to Loven the 
eggs are yellowish and numerous, not enclosed in cap- 
sules, but laid indiscriminately. M. Lespes detected 
one of the Trematode parasites (Cercaria brachiura) in 
the animal of this species at Arcachon. Its strong 
shell does not protect it from also becoming the prey 
of creatures larger than itself. Fishes devour it whole- 
sale ; and Macgillivray tells us that on the shores of the 



312 TROCHIDiE. 

Hebrides the throstle feeds on this kind of Trochus, as 
well as on the common periwinkle, holding one in its 
beak and breaking the shell by sharp and repeated strokes 
against a stone. A small living specimen which I 
dredged in Loch Alsh was thin, pearly, and lustrous, 
owing to the greater part of the outer layer having been 
removed by some natural cause. Some have no um- 
bilicus or perforation. Those on Laminaria saccharina 
in Shetland are remarkably large, nearly an inch in 
breadth. The fry are not angulated at the base. 

T. cinerarius of Born is an Indian shell, and that of 
Olivi appears to be a variety of T. varius. The present 
species is the Trochus (not Turbo) lineatus of Da Costa, 
and Gibbula striata of Leach. T littoralis of Brown is 
scarcely a variety ; and his T. perforatus was probably a 
specimen encrusted with a zoophytic growth, which he 
mistook for an epidermis. The variety variegata cor- 
responds with the description and figure of Payraudeau's 
T. agyptiaca ; but it is not Lamarck's species of that 
name. This variety was described by Recluz as T. 
Philberti. 

T. cinereus of Da Costa has the inner or pillar lip 
plaited, and is a species of Clanculus. It is " said to be 
from the South Seas " (Donovan) and " a native of the 
West Indies" (Forbes and Hanley); but assuredly it is 
not British. Mr. Dillwyn possessed and gave me one 
of the original specimens. 

7. T. umbilica'tus"*, Montagu. 

N. umbilicatus, Mont. Test. Brit. p. 286 ; F. & H. ii. p. 519, pi. kvi. f. 1-4 
(as T. umbilicalis). 

Body light yellowish-brown, marked transversely with 
purplish lines, and tinged in front with fleshcolour: mantle 
thin, edged with short purplish streaks ; lappets leaf-like, the 

* Umbilicate. 



TROCHUS. 313 

inner one on the left irregularly pectinated or fringed, and the 
other plain but folded; each of these lappets is continued 
along the upper part of the foot, where it forms a jagged crest : 
head semicylindrical and short, wedge-like at the extremity, 
streaked across, and notched at the front edge ; veil composed 
of two membranous and fringed lobes or expansions above the 
tentacles, one on each side of the intermediate space : tentacles 
slender and bluntly pointed; they are thickly covered with 
short cilia, and marked with purplish rings, which are alter- 
nately large and small, and often interrupted or broken as well 
as scalloped ; these rings somewhat resemble the joints of an 
Equisetum : eyes rather large ; stalks angular and yellow : foot 
rather oval than oblong, sparingly granulated on the upper 
part and sides ; edges fringed with minute cirri ; sole slightly 
furrowed down the middle : appendages 3 on each side, the 
hinder two being rather close together, and the other in the 
middle of the lateral space ; they are indistinctly ammlated 
and slightly setose; each is encircled at its base by a jagged 
sheath, and provided with a small whitish and raised tubercle 
on each side, which issues out of the foot-crest. 

Shell more depressed than T. cinerarius, and (although the 
base is natter) never inclined to a pyramidal form ; the spiral 
ridges are sharper and fewer, especially in the young : the 
colouring is different ; both have a similar kind of marking, 
but in the present species the longitudinal rays or streaks are 
red, besides being broader and not half so many as in the other 
species; and they are sometimes zigzag, instead of being 
broken into spots or interrupted by the sculpture; this is 
striped and the other lineated ; just within the outer lip are 
two borders, one of yellow and the other of green, variegated 
by red spots ; this edging is minutely tubercled, like shagreen. 
L. 0-55. B. 0-7. 

Var. 1. atro-purpurea. Always depressed and of a dark- 
purplish hue. 

Var. 2. decorata. More conical, and speckled like the 
variety variegata of the last species. 

Var. 3. Agathensis. Smaller, with the spire more raised, 
less angular, and somewhat glossy on the underside ; colouring 
purple instead of red ; base usually not umbilicate (except in 
the young), but occasionally perforated. T. Agathensis, Recluz. 
in Rev. de Zool. for 1843. 

VOL. III. P 



814 trochidjE. 

Habitat : Gregarious among stones, and on Fucus 
serratus, just below the brink of high-water mark at 
neap tides, on our southern coasts, in the Bristol Chan- 
nel, Isle of Man, all around Ireland, and west of 
Scotland as far north as Loch Alsh. The following 
localities are doubtful : — " North Britain " (Laskey) ; 
Aberdeenshire, Banff, and Kincardine (Macgilli- 
vray). The variety atro-purpurea was found by Mr. 
Clark at Exmouth ; decorata by myself at Wey- 
mouth ; and Agathensis is not uncommon in the Channel 
Isles, and remarkably plentiful in Fermain bay, Guern- 
sey. This last variety frequents a lower part of the 
littoral zone than the typical form ; the young are 
distinctly umbilicate, and resemble in shape and sculp- 
ture those of T. cinerarius. It is the variety lata of 
the Bev. B. T. Lowe. The fossil localities for the 
present species are questionable. Mr. J. Smith enu- 
merates Ireland, and Mr. Maw Strethill ; but possibly 
the latter geologist was deceived by the " navvies " who 
brought him specimens. The case of the Macclesfield 
deposit has served as a useful warning not to place too 
much reliance on the discoveries of those ingenious 
workmen. T. umbilicatus inhabits the north and north- 
west of France ; Vigo, and Faro in Algarve, on Zoster a 
(M 'Andrew) ; Gulf of Lyons (Martin) ; Toulon (Gay) ; 
south coast of the Crimea, in the Black Sea (Midden- 
dorff). I found the variety Iceta at Bochelle, Mr. 
M 'Andrew at Corunna, and the Bev. B. T. Lowe at 
Mogador. 

This littoral species lives in company with T. cinera- 
rius, but alwavs retains its distinctive character : their 
mode of locomotion is the same. If either is taken 
from the shore, and immersed in sea-water, it will expel 
bubbles of air through the right-hand lappet or fold of 



TROCHUS. 315 

the mantle. The fry of T. umbilicatus is white, nearly 
flat, and has only two or three prominent ribs. 

It is the T. obliquatus of Gmelin, T. umbilicaris of 
Pennant, T. cinerarius of Pultenev and Lamarck 
(though neither of the two latter are Linnets species so 
named), and Gibbula lineata of Leach. 

C. Very small, circular, nearly flat-spired, with an exceedingly 
wide and open umbilicus. Cir cuius. 

8. T. Dumi'nyi *, Requiem 

Ddphinula Dummy i, Req. Cat. Cors. p. 64. 

Animal not known. 

Shell orbicular, rather solid, but semitransparent and 
somewhat glossy : sculpture, 8-10 sharp and narrow spiral 
ridges on the upper part of the last whorl, half that number 
on the penultimate whorl, and two or three on the next, the 
upper two whorls being smooth ; the lowest ridge is placed just 
under the periphery, and is usually stronger and more pro- 
minent than any of the rest (from which it is frequently 
separated), and it encloses the umbilical area ; sometimes 
this part is also ridged ; the furrow between each ridge is 
crossed by curved microscopical striae : colour white : spire 
scarcely raised, but the apex is well defined : tvhorls 5, cylin- 
drical and gradually enlarging : suture distinct, although not 
deep : mouth squarish, obliquely truncated as in other species 
of Trochus belonging to the last section : outer lip flexuous, 
with a sharp edge, strengthened a short distance within by 
a slight rib : inner Ivp somewhat thickened and reflected 
towards the umbilicus, and adhering to a considerable part of 
the periphery of the penultimate whorl : inside porcellanous 
and polished (not nacreous), exhibiting the outside ridges as 
dark lines : umbilicus extending more or less over the base of 
the shell ; it shows nearly as much of the internal spire as is 
seen of the spire outside ; in some specimens the inner whorls 
are concentrically striated : operculum circular, with about a 
dozen volutions, which wind spirally and gradually, and con- 
verge to the centre. L. 0*035. B. 0*1. 

* Named in honour of Professor Duminy of Ajaccio. 

r 2 



316 TROCHIDiE. 

Habitat : Bundoran, in Donegal Bay, where it was 
first found by Mr. Waller. As yet only about a dozen 
specimens have been met with. Searles Wood dis- 
covered this characteristic and interesting species in the 
Coralline Crag at Gedgrave and Sutton; and Philippi 
recorded a single specimen from clay at Cefali near 
Catania. Requien briefly described it as recent from 
Ajaccio, on the authority of M. Brice and Professor 
Duminy ; Weinkauff has enumerated it as an Algerian 
species ; and M. Honor e Martin procured a few speci- 
mens from the Gulf of Lyons. The kindness of this last- 
named excellent conchologist has enabled me to describe 
the operculum. 

It differs from the fry of T. umbilicatus (which also 
inhabits Donegal Bay) in being equally convex on both 
sides, the whorls being cylindrical and never angulated 
as in that species, having twice as many and much finer 
spiral ridges, the periphery being rounded and not 
keeled, the suture not so deeply channelled, and in its 
remarkably wide and open umbilicus. The two species 
cannot well be confounded. Being anxious to confirm 
and extend the discovery of my friend, Mr. Waller, I 
made a purpose-journey to Bundoran, a few years ago 
when I was last in Ireland, in the hope of procuring more 
specimens of this rare shell. I had but a single day, 
which turned out to be about the worst ever known in 
that rainy climate ; but by leaving Enniskillen at four 
in the morning, I got two or three hours at Bundoran, 
and attained my object. Should you see any one acting 
in a manner apparently so eccentric, do not straightway 
set him down as out of his senses, but suppose that he 
may be devoted to an uncommon pursuit. Perhaps 
your ideas with regard to his conduct may even be 
more charitable if you consider that such pursuits ad- 



TROCHUS. 317 

vance knowledge of some kind ; you might then do more 
than excuse him, and, with no feeling of disparagement, 

" You would say, it hath been all in all bis study." 

Philippi described this species in 1836 as Valvata? 
striata, in consequence of its occurring in the same 
deposit with Corbicula fluminalis. He afterwards, how- 
ever, suspected its being a Delphinula. Wood placed it 
in his genus Adeorbis ; but the typical species (A. sub- 
carinatus) has a paucispiral and horny operculum, with 
a lateral nucleus, and is probably allied to Solarium. The 
specific name striatus is preoccupied by a well-known 
Linnean species. A. supranitida and A. tricarinata 
of Wood appear to be fossil varieties of the present 
species. Requien's Catalogue and Wood's Monograph 
were published in the same year, 1848. 

D. Spire moderately raised ; base slightly nmbilicate in the 
adult, and perforated in the young : pillar-lip furnished 
with a strong tubercular tooth. Trochocochlea, Klein. 

9. T. linea'tus *, Da Costa. 

Turbo lineatiis, Da Costa, Brit. Conch, p. 100, t. xi. f. 7. Troches lineatus 
F. & H. ii. p. 525, pi. lxv. f. 4, 5 (as T. crassus.) 

Body dark-ashcolour, with a greenish tint: mantle thin, 
yellowish-brown ; lappets leaf-like, the left unequally pecti- 
nated, and the right plain and usually folded: head semi- 
cylindrical, rather long, transversely streaked, notched at the 
front edge ; veil above the tentacles membranous, and ir- 
regularly digitated or fringed: tentacles slender, bluntly 
pointed ; they are annulated with purple lines variable in the 
intensity of their colour, and alternately large and small, some- 
times interrupted or partly zigzag ; they are clothed with fine 
short cilia : eyes large, placed on angular stalks or processes, 
which are more or less tinged with orange : foot oval, with a 
bluntly pointed tail, closely and finely granulated at the sides ; 
margin purplish and thickly fringed with short cilia ; dorsal 
crest jagged ; sole divided down the middle by a whitish line, 

* Decked out. 



318 



TROCHID^. 



and when at rest showing on each side similar lines of dif- 
ferent lengths, which are rather less numerous and more irre- 
gularly disposed towards the tail ; these lateral lines represent 
folds or creases that disappear when the foot is in action : 
appendages 3 on each side (sometimes 4 on one side and 3 
on the other, Clark), tapering, ringed and setose, like the 
tentacles ; there is frequently at the base of each appendage 
a white or yellow tubercle on either side of it. 

Shell regularly conical, very thick, opaque, and of a dull 
hue : sculpture, none in the adult ; but the young have spiral 
ridges and minute cross striae, as in T. cinerarius and other 
species of the same section : colour yellowish or light-grey, 
with a greenish tinge, variegated by numerous and close-set 
zigzag purplish markings, arranged in longitudinal rows or 
streaks, giving the surface an obscurely tessellated appearance ; 
apex (which is always eroded) of a yellowish hue, and some- 
times partly exposing the inner layer of nacre : spire more or 1 
less raised, and bluntly pointed : whorls 6, rather quickly 
enlarging, and convex ; the upper part of the last whorl is 
compressed or somewhat flattened : suture slight: mo utli large, 
obliquely oval: outer lip rounded, and sharp-edged, with a 
slight notch or angular point at the upper corner : inner lip 
extremely thick and broad, reflected a little over the umbilicus ; 
it is furnished below the middle with a remarkably strong 
tubercular prominence, which is nacreous and apparent in all 
states of growth : inside beautifully iridescent, except at the 
margin, the outer zone of which is mottled with black and 
green, and is microscopically pustulated, and the inner is white 
and almost pearly : umbilicus rather large but shallow, partly 
covered by the inner lip ; the base of the shell is more or less 
worn away by the continual friction of the upper part of the 
foot : operculum yellowish-horncolour, with about 15 volutions, 
each of which is obliquely and minutely striated in the line 
of growth. L. nearly 1. B. 1. 

Var. minor. Smaller, and eroded. 

Habitat : Local, but not uncommon, on rocks and 
stones just below high- water mark at neap tides in the 
counties of Dorset, Devon, and Cornwall; Channel 
Isles (Hanley) ; bays near Swansea (J. G. J.) ; Pwll- 
heli, Carnarvonshire (Da Costa) ; Anglesea (Donovan) ; 
Ireland, as far north as Donegal Bay (Waller and 



TROCHUS. 319 

J. G. J.) ; Dunbar, where " one specimen of this shell 
was taken by the dredge from deep water " (Laskey) ; 
Peterhead (Macgillivray) ; Cumbrae, Clyde district 
(J. Smith). Da Costa also gives Hampshire and 
Norfolk ; but these and the Scotch localities want con- 
firmation. With similar hesitation I must cite my 
friend Mr. Smith as the authority for considering this 
species fossil in the Paisley beds. The variety is from 
Ins tow, North Devon (J. G. J.) , and Arran Isles, co. Gal- 
way (Barlee). The typical form inhabits the north of 
France (De Gerville and others) ; Rochelle (J. G. J.) ; 
Vigo, and Faro in Algarve (M f Andrew) ; Santander, in 
the north of Spain (E. J. Lowe) ; Hyeres (Sir W. C. 
Trevelyan, Bart.) ; Mogador (M f Andrew and R. T. 
Lowe) . 

The motion of the foot is wave-like, each side alter- 
nately. On leaving the water this Trochus takes in a 
supply of air, which (if the animal be again immersed) 
is expelled or escapes in bubbles by the right-hand 
lappet of the mouth. The erosion of the shell, which 
is not unfrequent, seems to be caused, and is certainly 
increased, by the perforations of a minute kind of sea- 
weed or its spores ; water enters the orifices thus formed, 
and gradually effects a disintegration of the outer layers, 
one after another. The whole fabric not being of a 
homogeneous nature, or equally compact, some parts 
are more easily acted on than others. Mr. Clark found 
that every specimen in a particular spot near Exmouth 
had a distorted operculum ; this was irregularly pauci- 
spiral, and sometimes ear-shaped, but always had a 
central nucleus. He accounts for it in the following 
way. " The animal either sheds the operculum, or is 
deprived of it by the attacks of enemies, perhaps from 
its own pulli, white masses of which, in the genial sea- 



320 trochid^:. 

son, I have seen deposited on the foot, and they may 
possibly feed on and destroy it." I shonld be disposed 
to attribute the malformation to an epidemic disease of 
the operculigerous lobe. It also occurs in Buccinum un- 
datum, the fry of which are separately enclosed in 
capsules, and are therefore incapable of feeding on the 
maternal operculum. Besides, all the specimens, male 
and female, are affected in the same manner. T. lineatus 
may be known from its congeners by its size, colour, 
tooth, and peculiar umbilicus; and the periphery is 
never angulated. 

Pulteney described it as T. crassus, and the young as 
T. lineatus. Monodonta articulata of Lamarck and M. 
Draparnaudi of Payraudeau are closely allied to the pre- 
sent species, if all of them are not the same. T. lineatus 
of Lamarck is a New Holland shell. According to 
Bouchard-Chantereaux, ours is the T. punctulatus of De 
Blainville. T. (Monodonta) sitis of Recluz appears to be 
the young of the European shell. 

E. Spire pyramidal ; base imperforate ; pillar-lip notched or 
angulated at the lower part. Ziziphinus, Leach. 

10. T. Montacu'ti*, (Montagui) W. Wood. 

T. Montagui, Wood, Ind. Test. Suppl. pi. 6. f. 43; F. & H. ii. p. 511, 
pl.lxv. f. 10, 11. 

Body yellowish-white, speckled with purplish-brown and 
milk-white flakes : mantle thin and semitransparent, marked 
with greenish spots ; lappets large in proportion, forming two 
saucer- shaped lobes, one on each side of the tentacles ; both 
these lobes appear plain, although of different sizes: head 
semicylindrical, with the front edge minutely notched; veil 
bilobed, scarcely perceptible: tentacles slender, sometimes 
finely pointed, in other examples having club-shaped tips: 
eyes rather large, on short hairy tubercles : foot lanceolate and 
thick, rounded in front, with somewhat angular corners, and 

* Another tribute to the memory of Col. Montagu. 



TROCHUS. 321 

bluntly pointed behind ; sides granulated ; margin fringed ; 
dorsal ridge serrated ; tail keeled : appendages 3 on each 
side, filiform, with an eye-like tubercle at the hinder base of 
every filament, besides an extra or supernumerary eye-spot in 
front between the outer base of each tentacle and the filament 
next to it. 

Shell narrow at the base in proportion to the height, 
somewhat convex on the underside, with a bluntlv ansrulated 
periphery, moderately solid, opaque, and slightly glossy: 
sculpture, fine spiral ridges, of which there are six or seven on 
each whorl except those forming the apex, and about the same 
number encircle the base ; the space between each ridge (and 
sometimes the ridges also) is crossed by minute close-set 
imbricated stria?, which are curved or lie obliquely in the line 
of growth, and are occasionally finer and less distinct on the 
last whorl : colour yellowish-white, with a row of small dark 
reddish-brown spots on each ridge, or with longitudinal streaks 
of that colour on the last whorl and rarely on the others ; now 
and then may be seen a greenish or partially iridescent hue : 
spire bluntly pointed: whorls 7, gradually enlarging, com- 
pressed but not flattened ; those forming the apex of the spire 
are rather convex : suture slight but distinct : mouth obliquely 
squarish : outer lip rather thin : inner lip thick, reflected on 
the pillar, which is angulated below, and furnished with a 
scarcely prominent tubercle that seems to form a slight notch 
at the base : inside silvery and iridescent, except towards the 
margin, where it is either whitish or coloured like the outside : 
umbilicus none in the adult, but deep in the young, and ob- 
liquely margined by a whitish ridge : operculum having from 
twelve to fifteen volutions, which are defined by raised lines, 
and indistinctly striated across. L. 03. B. 0-25. 

Monstr. Scalariform; whorls somewhat angular, and sepa- 
rated by a deep suture. 

Habitat: All our coasts, chieflvin the coralline zone, 
from 7 to 95 f. ; local, but tolerably common in Guernsey 
and the west of Scotland. A specimen of the monstrous 
variety (which is very elegant) was dredged by Mr. 
Waller and myself at Larne, co. Antrim ; and another, 
less symmetrical in its irregularity, was taken by Dr. 
Lukis in deep water at Guernsey. T. Montacuti occurs, 

p 5 



322 trochid^e. 

according to S. Wood, in the Red and Coralline Crag. 
It inhabits the north of France (Mace, Cailliaud, and 
J. G. J.) ; Portugal and Spain (M f Andrew) ; Gulf of 
Lyons (Martin); Ajaccio (Requien); Malta and Sicily 
(M f Andrew); Algiers (Weinkauff); and M f Andrew ob- 
tained a dwarf variety at Tunis. Its range of depth in 
the Mediterranean is from 12 to 50 f. 

When placed on its back, with the shell underneath, 
it twists about actively, in order to regain a footing. 
The edges of the foot in this and other species of Trochus 
are occasionally folded inwards and brought together, 
so as entirely to conceal the disk or sole. I put a live 
specimen of T. Montacuti into fresh water for three 
minutes ; it withdrew into the shell, and by keeping its 
door shut suffered no inconvenience, as soon appeared 
upon its being restored to its native element. The spiral 
ridges in the fry are frequently marked with reddish- 
brown lines. 

This species is the T. Cyrnceus of Requien, and 
Montagua Danmoniensis of Leach. 

11. T. stria'tus"*, Linne. 

T. striatus, Linn. S. N. p. 1230 ? ; F. & H. ii. p. 508, pi: lxvi. f. 5, 6. 

Shell proportionally narrow at the base, more or less flat- 
tened on the underside, with a rather sharply keeled periphery, 
solid, opaque, and somewhat glossy : sculpture, fine spiral ridges, 
of which there are eight or nine on the last and next two 
whorls, the number decreasing towards the apex ; the lowest 
ridge is the largest, and forms the basal keel ; there are also 
from ten to twelve similar ridges on the base ; the whole sur- 
face is covered with delicate and numerous imbricated striae, 
which obliquely cross the ridges, but are stronger in their 
interstices ; sometimes the ridges are partly nodulous in con- 
sequence of this decussation: colour pale yellowish, or white 
with oblique streaks of dull red or very dark brown (nearly 

* Striated or grooved. 



TROCHUS. 323 

black) in the line of growth ; in some specimens the streaks 
are interrupted and give a speckled appearance, or there is a 
greenish tint, and in others the apex is reddish : spire bluntly 
pointed : whorls 7, gradually enlarging, flattened, all but 
the two apical ones, which are rounded: suture very .slight and 
inconspicuous : mouth obliquely squarish : outer lip rather thin : 
inner Up short, broad and thick, undistinguishable from the 
pillar ; it is slightly reflected above, and notched below by a 
small blunt tubercular tooth, as in the last species : inside 
silvery and iridescent, except towards the margin, where it is 
frosty- white and thickened by an indistinct angulated rib ; 
the young are slightly umbilicate : operculum as in T. Monta- 
cutC L. 0-35. B. 0-3. 

Monstr. Scalariform ; whorls convex, each having a keel- 
like ridge in the middle, and separated from the one next to 
it by a deep suture ; base rounded. 

Habitat : Laminarian zone (especially on Zostera 
marina), from low-water mark to 15 f., in the Channel 
Isles, Dorset, Devon, Cornwall, Cork, Baltimore, and 
Bantry. Dublin Bay (Turton). The monstrosity was 
found by Mr. Hockin at Falmouth, and by him kindly 
presented to me ; it is similar to that of T. Montacuti. 
The present species has only been noticed as fossil in 
the Sicilian tertiaries (Philippi). Recent on the coasts 
of France, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Algeria, the Adriatic, 
Madeira, and the Canaries, from the shore to 20 f. 

The animal of this rather common species does not 
appear to be known. The shell differs from T. Monta- 
cuti in its larger size, remarkably flattened whorls and 
base, and in having a greater number of spiral ridges. 

In all probability the T. striatus of Linne was in- 
tended for the next species — if indeed that is not a 
variety of the one which I have now described. Gmelin 
and his followers named the present species T. erythro- 
leucos, Da Costa T. parvus, Donovan T. conicus, and 
Deshayes T. delictus. 



324 TROCHID^E. 



12. T. exaspera'tus*", Pennant. 

T. exa&peratus, Penn. Brit. Zool. iv. p. 126. T. exiguus, F. & H. ii. p. 505, 
pi. kvi. f. 11, 12. 

" The animal has the sides of the foot, the tentacles, and 
lateral cirrhi tinged with madder red. The eye-peduncles are 
white, as is also the disk of the foot " (Forbes and Hanley). 

Shell of the same size and general shape as T. striatus. It 
is rather more pyramidal, and decidedly more solid ; the sculp- 
ture is much coarser, and the basal ridge is longer and stronger, 
and encircles each whorl ; it has only half as many ridges and 
cross striae, and the former are frequently nodulous ; the colour 
is different, having usually a good deal of red or pink in it, and 
is sometimes prettily decorated by occasional concentric rows 
of rose-red and white spots, or it is now and then of an ashy 
or olive hue ; the apex is mostly, but not always, red or pink. 

Habitat : Channel Isles, among loose stones at low- 
water mark (Lister and others); Lulworth, 7-12 f. 
(J. G. J.); Weymouth (Pulteney and others); Land's 
End (Maton and others) . The following localities are 
doubtful, or some of them belong to T. striatus : — 
Margate (Hanley); Hants (Forbes); Sussex and Devon- 
shire (Da Costa); Torquay (Hanley); Bantry Bay 
(Dillwyn); Cork (Humphreys); Dublin Bay (Turton, 
Warren, and Walpole); north of Ireland (Thompson); 
Ayr and Firth of Clyde (J. Smith). Further informa- 
tion is also desirable as to the only British locality 
where the present species has been recorded as fossil, 
viz. Wexford (Col. Sir H. James, fide Forbes) . Brocchi 
noticed it from the tertiary strata in the Isle of Ischia, 
and Philippi from those of Sicily. It inhabits the coasts 
of France, Portugal and Spain, every part of the Medi- 
terranean, the iEgean, Madeira, and the Canaries, at 

* Roughened. 



TROCHUS. 325 

depths ranging from 3 to 105 f. ; Black Sea (Kutorga, 
fide Middendorff ); Azores (Drouet). 

At Lulworth this little Trochus enters the lobster- 
pots, along with T. cinerarius var. conica, Buccinum un- 
datum, Nassa reticulata, N. incrassata, and Murex eri- 
naceus — all of them apparently being attracted by the 
bait, which consists of soft crabs or pieces of fish. It is 
therefore highly probable that the Trochi are sarcopha- 
gous. It may turn out that this so-called species is 
only a variety of T. striatus, owing to a difference of 
habitat — although the young and fry of each are distin- 
guishable, and exhibit the same relative characters as 
the adult. 

The present species is the T. conulus of Da Costa (but 
not of Linne), T. exiguus of Pulteney, T. crenulatus of 
Brocchi (not of Lamarck) , T. pyramidatus of the last 
named author, and T. Matonii of Payraudeau, 

13. T. millegra'nus*, Philippi. 

T. milkgranus, Phil. Moll. Sic. i. p. 183, t x. f. 25 ; F. & H. p. 502. 
pi. lxvi f. 9, 10. 

Body yellowish-white, streaked or spotted with purplish- 
brown, and sometimes faintly tinged with green, covered all 
over with short prickly points, so as to appear pustulated: 
mantle-lappets large and expanded : head wrinkled, finely 
scalloped at its edges ; veil small, bilobed, and serrated : ten- 
tacles filiform, long and slender, with blunt tips, marked 
lengthwise with three purplish-brown lines, one in front and 
another on each side : eyes large, on the underside of whitish 
tubercles at the external bases of the tentacles: foot thick, 
oblong, truncated, slightly angulated at the corners in front, 
and rounded behind ; the upper part is flat and edged with a 
serrated ridge, the operculum resting on the posterior ex- 
tremity of this level space ; sole pale lemoncolour : appendages 
3 on each side of the foot, issuing from beneath the top 

* Covered with numerous granules. 



326 trochid^:. 

ridge ; they closely resemble the tentacles in every particular, 
except in being more slender ; each has a brownish eye-speck 
at its hinder base, and there is an extra pair of such ocelli 
between the tentacles and front pair of appendages. Every 
part of the animal is exquisitely and closely ciliated. 

Shell broad and flattened at its base, and regularly taper- 
ing to a rather fine point, solid, opaque, not glossy : sculpture, 
six or seven concentric rows of granules and as many inter- 
mediate rows of a smaller size on the upper part of the last 
whorl, nearly as many on the next four whorls, and fewer on the 
apical or top whorls, the first two of which are ridged instead 
of granulated; the lowest row in each whorl is much the largest 
and most prominent, and it forms a consjncuous keel on the 
basal circumference of the bodv-whorl, and at the suture of 
the next two whorls ; the granulation arises from the inter- 
section of spiral ridges by fine and obliquely longitudinal striae ; 
the base of the last whorl is encircled by about a dozen ridges, 
which are imbricated, and alternately large and small, as well 
as decussated by the oblique stria? ; these basal ridges are 
seldom, or but slightly, granulated : colour whitish, with a 
very faint tinge of yellow, usually more or less spotted or 
speckled with reddish-brown or light purple : spire considerably 
raised, but not elevated, except in the variety ; apex somewhat 
pointed : whorls 8, flat, and gradually enlarging : suture 
very slight, only marked by the ridge at the base of each 
whorl : mouth obliquely squarish : outer lip thin and mostly 
broken : inner lip white, and folded over the pillar, which is 
extremely thick and short, with an obscure tubercular excres- 
cence near the base : inside nacreous, except towards the 
margin : operculum rather concave, having from twelve to 
fifteen volutions ; it is membranous, and microscopically reticu- 
lated, like the scales of certain fishes. L. 0*6. B. 0-6. 

Yar. pyramidata. Smaller, and narrower at the base. 

Habitat : Hard ground, and among Tunicata, from 
2 to 70 f., on the coasts of Northumberland and Durham, 
Aberdeen, Orkneys, Shetland, west coast of Scotland, 
Mull of Galloway (50-145 f., Beechey), and all Ireland. 
The variety occurs in Hants (Forbes); Shetland, Fish- 
guard, and Guernsey (J. G. J.); Plymouth (Barlee); 
west bay of Portland (Forbes and M f Andrew); Corn- 



TROCHUS. 327 

wall (Hockin); Scilly Isles (Lord Vernon) . This species 
has been found by me fossil at Fort William, and by 
S. Wood in the Coralline Crag; Antibes (Mace); Sicily 
(Philippi) . It is Swedish and Norwegian (with a range 
of from 15 to 50 f.); bnt the extent of its distribution 
south of Great Britain is not well ascertained. M' An- 
drew has taken it off Lisbon in 7-12 f., and between 
Cadiz and Cape Trafalgar in 30 f. ; Gay obtained it at 
Toulon ; and Forbes dredged it in the iEgean, from 41 
to 110 f. All the southern specimens that I have seen 
belong to the variety. 

It is rather plentiful in the west of Scotland, but 
apparently not so much at home elsewhere. If it had 
not been for the far and wide researches of my friend 
Mr. M f Andrew, our knowledge of the geographical dis- 
tribution of this species would be very scanty. His 
experience, as a dredger, surpasses that of the Shipman 
(in the c Canterbury Tales ') as a mariner, who had ex- 
plored what was then reckoned the greater part of the 
European seas — 

" Fro Scotland to the Cape of Fynystere, 
And every creek in Brittain and in Spain." 

The fry of T. millegranus has an umbilical perforation. 

This is probably the T. miliaris of Brocchi, and cer- 
tainly T. Clelandi of W. Wood, T. Martini of Smith, 
my T. elegans, and T. Clelandiana of Leach. 

14. T. granula'tus*, Born. 

T. granv.latus, Born, Ind. Mus. Caes. Vind. p. 343 ; F. & H. ii. p. 499, 
pi. kvii. f. 7, pi. lxyiii. f. 3, and (animal) pi. D D. f. 4. 

Body pale yellowish or whitish, speckled with reddish- 
brown : mantle-lappets very large, white, pendent, and slightly 
scalloped : head strong and thick, finely fringed at the ex- 

* Granulated. 



328 TROCHID.E. 

tremity ; veil slight, and bilobed : tentacles marked with a 
broad red-brown line down the middle : eyes dark-blue with 
black pupils, placed on short, but stout, white stalks: foot very- 
large, truncated in front, and lobed or angulated at each cor- 
ner, granulated at the sides, and pointed behind ; sole fringed ; 
crest white and puckered : appendages 3 on each side, white, 
shorter than the tentacles, but equally flexible. 

Shell exceedingly dilated and rounded at the base, with a 
slight incurvation towards the apex, moderately solid, opaque, 
and scarcely glossy : sculpture, from six to eight concentric 
ridges, and about as many smaller intermediate ones, on the 
upper part of the last whorl, besides an equal number on the 
lower part ; the next whorl has nearly the same number and 
alternate disposition of ridges as are visible on the upper half 
of the last whorl, the ridges on the succeeding whorls becoming 
gradually fewer ; the larger ridges, or some of them, are usually 
granulated, and invariably those at the apex ; the whole sur- 
face is covered with very minute and close-set oblique longi- 
tudinal striae ; in younger specimens the periphery is encircled 
by a stronger ridge, which gives a keeled or angulated appear- 
ance to that part, and forms a kind of crest on the top of each 
of the upper whorls : colour yeliowish-white, with a faint 
tinge of reddish-brown, and speckled with the latter colour 
on all or most of the principal ridges, or else irregularly 
marked lengthwise by blotches of the same hue ; the larger 
ridges on the base are always prettily spotted : spire moderately 
raised, and tapering somewhat abruptly to a fine point : wTwrts 
10, rather flattened ; the last considerably exceeds all the 
others put together : suture slight, defined by a shallow furrow 
or level space between the uppermost ridge of each whorl and 
the lowest ridge of the preceding one : mouth obliquely trun- 
cated, slightly effuse or spread out below, rounded without, 
and angulated within : outer lip thin : inner Up white, and 
reflected on the pillar, which is extremely thick and somewhat 
curved, with occasionally an obscure tubercle near the base ; 
behind the pillar is a slight depression, like a rudimentary 
umbilicus : inside highly nacreous : operculum rather concave, 
with a small cup-shaped pit in the centre, and having from 
fifteen to eighteen volutions ; it is microscopically, but indis- 
tinctly, striated in a radiating direction. L. 1*5. B. 1-5. 

Yar. 1. lactea. Milk-white and spotless. 

Var. 2. conoidea. More regularly conical and solid, with 



TROCHUS. 329 

the last whorl not so broad or large in proportion to the 
rest. 

Monstr. Outer lip irregularly notched at its junction with 
the penultimate whorl, like a Pleurotoma. 

Habitat : Coralline zone, in Cornwall, Devon, Dor- 
set, and the Channel Isles ; Isle of Man (Forbes and 
Walpole) ; south and east of Ireland (Turton and others) ; 
Belfast Bay, " two broken specimens, but probably in- 
troduced accidentally w (Hyndman) ; 50 f. off the Mull 
of Galloway, and living at a depth of 145 f. in Beau- 
fort's Dyke, the species having been determined by the 
late Mr. William Thompson of Belfast (Beechey) . The 
varieties and monstrosity are from Exmouth. Lamarck 
says it is found fossil in England; but he was pro- 
bably misinformed. I do not agree with Mr. Wood 
in considering the Bed Crag shell, which he named in 
his catalogue T. granosus, to be a variety of our recent 
species. Whether it was the progenitor of T. granula- 
tus is another question. The fossil species is much 
smaller and more solid ; it never has an incurved out- 
line towards the apex, or a prominent tuberculated 
ridge on each whorl ; and the spire is more depressed. 
Mr. James Smith has enumerated the present species 
as an Irish fossil, Mr. Woodward as occurring at Bra- 
merton and Thorpe in the Norwich Crag, and Brocchi 
from Piacentino. It is not uncommon on the coasts of 
France, Spain, Italy, Algeria, Madeira, and the Cana- 
ries, at various depths ranging from 4 to 60 f. 

This handsome shell is frequently procured by trawl- 
ing. The fry has the first whorl smooth, and the 
second regularly and strongly cancellated ; and it ex- 
hibits a conspicuous and rather deep umbilicus. The 
lingual ribbon is comparatively short; its outer ex- 
tremity is covered by two large, oval, horny jaws. 



330 TROCHID^. 

It is the T. papillosus of Da Costa, T. fragilis of 
Pulteney (but not of G-melin), and T. tenuis of Montagu. 
Born's publication bears the same date (1778) as that 
of Da Costa ; the name given by the former is generally 
preferred or best known. 

15. T. zizy'phinus*, Linne. 

T. zizyphinus, Linn. S. N. p. 1231 ; F. & II. ii. p. 491, pi. lxvii. f. 1-6. 

Body yellowish, tinged with purple or crimson, and streaked 
or mottled with reddish-brown : mantle plain-edged ; lappets 
as in T. granulatus, but not scalloped : head large, prominent, 
and flexible, wrinkled transversely ; veil bilobed, but so small 
as to be almost rudimentary: tentacles sometimes pinkish, 
more or less distinctly streaked with a brown line down the 
middle : eyes rather large and prominent, with black pupils ; 
stalks short, stout, and often white : foot thick and rather 
broad, slightly cloven in front and angulated at the corners, 
pointed behind ; sole neshcolour ; crest fringed : appendages 
4 on each side, and in some specimens several short inter- 
mediate ones ; they are mostly white. 

Shell regularly pyramidal, with a level outline and a some- 
what flattened or compressed base, solid, opaque, slightly 
glossy : sculpture, from six to eight concentric and imbricated 
ridges, besides as many smaller intermediate ones, on the upper 
part of the last whorl, and about a dozen grooves or impressed 
lines on the base ; the preceding whorls have similar ridges, 
which gradually decrease in number towards the apex; the 
ridge which girds the base of each whorl is larger and broader 
than the rest, and gives the periphery an angulated appear- 
ance ; the ridges on the upper whorls are granulated ; the 
entire surface is covered with very minute and close- set, but 
obscure, oblique longitudinal striae : colour pale yellow with 
a reddish tint, or neshcolour (sometimes purple, flecked with 
white), with longitudinal streaks of reddish-brown, which 
are mostly interrupted or zigzag, and frequently mark each of 
the basal ridges with a line of spots ; the underside of the 
shell is not thus decorated, except at the periphery; the apex or 
point is usually purplish : spire more or less raised, and tapering 

* From the resemblance of its colour to that of the jujube. 



TROCHUS. 



331 



to a rather sharp point : whorls 10-12, flattened, gradually 
diminishing in size towards the apex : suture slight, defined 
by the basal ridge of each whorl : mouth rhomboidal, spread 
out a little at the base of the pillar : outer lip thin : inner lip 
pearly, and reflected on the pillar, which is extremely thick, 
curved, and now and then furnished with a blunt tubercle ; 
behind the pillar is an oblique and shallow excavation : inside 
nacreous : operculum slightly concave, with a small central 
pit, having from fifteen to eighteen turns, and microscopically 
striated in the line of growth. L. 1. B. 1. 

Var. 1. Lyonsii. White, with occasionally a purplish tip. 
"T. Lyonsii" (Leach), Fleming, Brit. An. p. 323. 

Var. 2. humilior. Spire depressed. 

Yar. 3. laevigata. Smooth and polished, with strong sutural 
ridges, considerably expanded towards the base, and having a 
depressed spire. T. laevigata, J. Sowerby,Min. Conch, t.181. f. 1. 

Var. 4. granulifera. White, with the ridges granulated. 

Var. 5. elata. Dwarf, having the spire elevated, a narrow 
base, and the longitudinal striae flexuous. 

Monstr. Scalariform, with a rounded periphery and convex 
base. T. discrepaiis, Brown, in Mem. Wern. Soc. ii. p. 519, 
pi. xxiv. f. 4. 

Habitat : Rocks and stony ground, from low-water 
mark to 85 f. ; common everywhere, especially in the 
laminarian zone. The 1st variety is equally diffused, 
although not so generally abundant ; the other varieties 
are also occasionally white. Var. 2. Exniouth (Clark); 
Bantry Bay (Humphreys); Oban (Barlee). Var. 3. 
Anglesea (M 'Andrew and Mrs. Hanmer Griffith); Loch 
Carron (Barlee and J. G. J.). Var. 4. West coast of 
Scotland; a single specimen (Barlee). Var. 5. Deep 
water on the coasts of Antrim and Shetland (J. G. J.). 
The monstrosity occurs with the ordinary form, but is 
rare. Fossil in the Caithness boulder-clay (Peach); 
Ireland (J. Smith); Norwich Crag (Woodward); Red 
and Coralline Crag (S. Wood); Antwerp Crag (Nyst). 
Its foreign distribution in a living state comprises all 



332 TROCHID.E. 

the North Atlantic from Finmark and the Faroe Isles 
to the Canaries, the Mediterranean, Adriatic, and 
^Egean, at depths ranging between the shore and 60 f. 

The shell is subject to much variation in the height 
of the cone, as well as in the number and size of the 
ridges. Specimens procured by trawling on the Devon 
coast are more than an inch and a half in length and 
breadth; the smallest are from Guernsey. The fry 
are slightly umbilicate, and the topmost whorl is reti- 
culated. 

The spelling of the specific name has partaken of the 
variability of the object designated. Zezyphinus, Zyzi- 
phinus, Ziziphinus, and Sisyphinus are the readings pro- 
posed by Chemnitz, Born, Montagu, and Macgillivray. 
The last of these writers imagined that the name was 
derived from the rolling stone of Sisyphus, and not 
from Zizyphum, the fruit of the jujube-tree. 

This species is the T. conuloides of Lamarck, T. Cran- 
chianus and T. irregularis of Leach, and Ziziphinus 
vulgaris of Gray. Risso seems to have manufactured 
half a dozen species out of it or of T. conulus. Cantraine 
comprehended both, with a number of allied species, 
under the name of T. polymorphus. The fry is probably 
the T. parvus of Adams. 

Whether Philippi was right or wrong in uniting 
T. zizyphinus with T. conulus is a moot question ; but 
there is not, in my opinion, sufficient evidence of the 
latter species or form being British. Mr. Bean says 
that many years ago his son took a living specimen 
of it, attached to the sounding-lead, off the Lin- 
colnshire coast, during his voyage in a collier from 
Newcastle to London. It appears that the discoverer 
had not long previously been in the Mediterranean, 
where T. conulus is common on the shore at low water. 



TROCHUS. 333 

It resembles the variety data of T. zizyphinus in size, 
shape, and every other particular, except in having a 
bright polish, and darker or more vivid hues. Linne 
noticed that T. conulus was so very much like T. zizy- 
phinus as to be almost a dwarf variety of it, but that 
the former had a prominent ridge or line between each 
whorl. Pennant figured a small-sized T. zizyphinus as 
T. conulus. The one may be the northern, and the 
other the southern form of the same species ; and some 
of my references in respect of the geographical distri- 
bution of T. zizyphinus may be applicable to T. conulus 
only. 

16. T. oc'cidenta'lis*, Mighels. 

T. occidentals, Migh. in Proc. Boston Soc. Nat Hist. i. p. 49. T. ala- 
bastrum, F. & H. ii. p. 497, pi. Jxvi. f. 7, 8 (as T. formosus). 

Body creamcolour or white, with irregular streaks and 
specks of purplish-brown, or tinged with yellowish -brown : 
mantle slightly projecting beyond the shell, and finely ciliated 
at its edge ; lappets roundish-oval and thin, one between each 
eye and the foot : head conical, thick, flexible (like the trunk 
of an elephant), closely fringed or scalloped in front ; no veil 
was perceptible in any of the specimens examined by me, 
although Forbes says that " the capital lobes are minute and 
imperfectly developed : " tentacles filiform and slender, finely 
setose, with often a brown line down the front, and another 
on each side : eyes large, on short stalks : foot thick and broad, 
truncated in front, with a triangular expansion or lobe (like 
an auricle) on each side of this part, and bluntly pointed be- 
hind ; the posterior half is raised into a long triangular ridge, 
whence there is a gradual slope to each side, with a depression 
in the middle ; the upper edges are irregularly fringed or studded 
with short papillae, between which issue the lateral filaments or 
appendages; sole exquisitely fringed : appendages 3 (sometimes 
4) on each side, resembling the tentacles in every respect 
except in being smaller. The whole body is covered with 
cilia. 

Shell pyramidal, with a somewhat turreted outline and a 

* Belonging to the west. 



334 TROCHID.E. 

rounded base, rather thin, semitransparent and glossy : sculp- 
ture, four or five concentric, prominent, and sharp ridges on 
the upper part of the last whorl ; on the base are three ridges 
immediately below the periphery, and three or four more (se- 
parate from the last) on the umbilical area ; the penultimate 
and preceding whorls have similar ridges, which gradually de- 
crease in number upwards ; those on the three or four smaller 
whorls, and occasionally some of the other ridges, are granu- 
lated or beaded ; the apex is rounded, and pitted like the top 
of a thimble ; the furrow or space between each ridge on the 
larger whorls is flat, three or four times as broad as the ridge, 
and indistinctly lineated in a spiral or concentric direction ; 
the whole surface is covered with very minute close-set and 
oblique longitudinal strise : colour opaline, with the ridges of 
a pale golden or light yellowish-brown hue : spire gradually 
raised, and terminating in a sharp point : ivliorls 7-8, some- 
what convex ; the last is proportionally much larger than the 
next, and the same as to each of the rest in succession : 
suture slight, but well defined in consequence of the convexity 
of the whorls : mouth roundish, angulated above, and spread 
out below : outer Up thin, indented or scalloped by the ridges : 
inner lip nacreous and reflected on the pillar, which is thick 
and curved, with an oblique but slight excavation behind it : 
inside iridescent : operculum very thin, slightly concave, with 
a small central pit, having from 15 to 18 turns, and micro- 
scopically striated in the line of growth. L. 0*5. B. 04. 

Yar. pura. Altogether pearl-white. 

Habitat : Stony or iC hard " ground on the fishing- 
banks of Shetland, in 40-90 f. ; not uncommon in some 
places. Also from 40 to 80 f. on both sides of the 
Orkneys, and in 60 f. off Troup Head, Aberdeenshire 
(Thomas) ; among the refuse of a long-line fishing-boat 
at Peterhead (Peach) . Two other British localities have 
been published ; but the first has since been admitted 
to be erroneous, and the second is very questionable. 
These are Moray Firth (Gordon), and Lamlash Bay in 
the Clyde district (Eyton) . The variety is Zetlandic, 
and occurs with specimens of the usual colour. Bed 
and Coralline Crag (S. Wood) ; Lillo, on the banks of 



TROCHUS. 335 

the Scheld near Antwerp (De Wael). It has been 
taken on many parts of the Scandinavian coast, as far 
north as Havosund, at depths varying from 25 to 150 f. 
(Loven and others) ; and off Grand Manan and Casco 
Bay, in Maine, at 30 f. and more (Mighels and 
Stimpson) . 

Although an inhabitant of the deep-sea zone, its first 
impulse, when taken from it and placed in a vessel of 
water, is to crawl out into the open air, or to float with 
the sole of the foot uppermost and the shell downwards. 
The eagerness thus shown to get to the surface, appa- 
rently for the purpose of respiration, does not accord 
with the general notion that the water at the bottom of 
the sea is less aerated or oxvgenated than that on the 
shore. However, exactlv the reverse has been ascer- 
tained by means of some experiments conducted on 
board the French surveying-ship ' Bonite * ; and it is 
now a recognized fact that the quantity of atmospheric 
air increases with the depth of water. According to 
Dr. Wallich (< North Atlantic Sea-bed/ p. 120), "hy- 
drogen and oxygen, both of which gases in their separate 
state resist all pressure that has been applied to them, 
when combined to form water continue liquid under a 
pressure considerably below that of a single atmo- 
sphere." We do not yet exactly understand the mode 
in which the solution of atmospheric air in sea-water is 
brought about ; but the tendency of fluids to absorb 
gaseous matter is constant under all circumstances, and 
their capability of appropriating it is facilitated by the 
pressure of the overlying stratum. This may account 
for deep-sea mollusks not finding in water drawn from 
the surface of the ocean a supply of oxygen equal to that 
which they had been accustomed to enjoy, and for their 
escaping into the open air to avoid a sensation which 



336 TROCHID.E. 

we should call stifling or suffocating. Another peculiar 
habit of such mollusks is worthy of notice, and is one 
which I cannot pretend to explain. It is the faculty of 
floating. Now it is very certain that in their native 
habitat, at a depth of from 150 to 540 feet, these shell- 
fish, being ground-dwellers and having no organ or 
means by which they can rise to the surface, could never 
exercise this faculty. Is it instinct that teaches them to 
float after having been forcibly dragged from the bottom 
of the sea and put into a shallow vessel of water ? and if 
so, when was it implanted? Two living specimens, 
which I took in the same spot, differed in the colour of 
the animal, although the shells were undistinguishable. 
One was of a uniform yellowish-white, while the other 
was milk-white and had the sides of the foot streaked 
with brown. Mr. Alder says that the tongue is very 
beautiful and of a complicated structure, and that the 
uncini on each side are extremely numerous. It agrees 
in general character with that of T. zizyphinus : indeed 
the animals of both are much alike. The first whorl of 
the fry is exquisitely reticulated, like Lagena squamosa. 
The present species is the T. alabastrum of Beck (ac- 
cording to Loven), T. quadricinctus of S. Wood, and 
Ziziphinus alabastrites of Gray. No wonder that 
Forbes, who described this shell as a new species, gave 
it the name of formosus. It is truly beautiful ; and we 
offer but faint praise in saying of such splendid prizes 
of the dredger — 

" There's not a gem, 

Wrought by man's hand to be compared to them." 



PHASIANELLA. 337 

Family VIII. TURBI'NID^, {Turbonidce) 

Fleming. 

Bodt resembling that of the Trochidce. 

Shell conical or oval, and spiral : operculum calcareous and 
solid, convex on the outer side, flat or concave and paucispiral 
on the inner side. 

For the mere purpose of classification, it is immate- 
rial whether the characters which serve to distinguish 
one family or group from another allied to it are many or 
(as in the present instance) consist of a single feature. 
In the Trochidce the operculum is horny, thin, and mul- 
tispiral. The Turbinida have their home in southern 
climes ; a single straggler, and that a very small one, 
inhabits the British seas. 

Although the founder of the family was a good na- 
turalist, the breed was at first decidedly mongrel, and 
included Turritella, Odostomia, Scalaria, Skenea, and 
Paludina, with other equally incongruous genera, which 
agreed only in being holostomatous univalves. The 
family circle is now more restricted and select. 

Genus PHASIANELLA*, Lamarck. PL VIII. f. 1. 

Body elongated. 

Shell oval or oblong, rather solid, polished, and beautifully 
variegated in colour, imperforate at the base : mouth having 
its lips or edges disunited : operculum ear-shaped, concave on 
the inner side, with a short excentric spire. 

It appears from Woodward's excellent ' Manual of 
the Mollusca ' that the number of recent species belong- 
ing to this genus is 25, and of fossil species 70. 

George Humphreys gave it the name of Eutropiu 
and Risso described it as Tricolia. 

* Speckled like a hen-pheasant. 
VOL. III. Q 



338 TURBINID.E. 

Phasianella pulla"*, Linne. 

Turbo pulhcs, Linn. S. N. p. 1233. P. pullus, F. & H. ii. p. 538, pi. kix. 
f. 1-3, and (animal) pi. D D. f. 5. 

Body yellowish-white, marked transversely with pink or 
purplish-brown lines, and tinged with green : mantle thick, 
emerald-green ; margin plain ; lappets placed between the 
eyes and front pair of the pedal filaments, fan-shaped and di- 
gitated or frilled ; the pectinations are delicately ciliated, those 
of the right-hand lappet being deeply divided, and those of the 
other lappet slighter or less distinct : head reddish-brown, 
terminating in a semicylindrical snout, which is short and does 
not project beyond the foot ; it is sometimes lineated length- 
wise ; front edge scalloped : tentacles rather flattened, long, 
slender, and tapering to a blunt point, frequently edged with 
a brown line, thickly clothed with fine and short cilia : eyes 
raised on short, yellow, white, or green tubercles or stalks, one 
at the outer base of each tentacle : foot oblong, folding inwards 
towards the front, tapering at each end, and divided down the 
middle by a narrow groove ; margin double-edged : appendages 
3 on each side (the middle one being usually very short and 
sometimes inconspicuous), equidistant from each other, about 
half the length and size of the tentacles, and likewise setose. 

Shell conic-oval and somewhat pointed at each end, semi- 
transparent, and glossy : sculpture none when examined with 
an ordinary lens of a one-inch focus ; but under a stronger mi- 
croscopical power the surface appears covered with close-set 
but irregular longitudinal striae and with a few very slight and 
indistinct spiral lines : colour various, usually yellowish with 
reddish or purple flame-like and obliquely longitudinal streaks 
of different widths, which are frequently broken or zigzag, 
interspersed with spots, sometimes altogether spotted with red ; 
the ground-colour is occasionally white ; and rarely the colour 
is uniform chocolate : spire short and rather abrupt : whorls 
5-6, convex, but slightly compressed towards the suture ; 
the last exceeds in size all the others put together : suture 
well defined : mouth roundish-oval, spread out at the base : 
outer Up thin, incurved above : inner lip flat and white, re- 
flected on the pillar, which is thick and curved : inside partially 
nacreous but not iridescent : operculum porcelain-white, gib- 
bous outside, somewhat flexuous on the other side, and having 
on the lower side of the mouth a small spire of a few rapidly 

* Dark-coloured. 



PHASIANELLA. 339 

increasing turns, the outer edges of which are raised and keel- 
like. L. 0-35. B. 0-25. 

Yar. oblonga. Narrower, with the spire more protruded. 

Habitat : Common in the lower part of the littoral 
and npper part of the laminarian zones, in the Channel 
Isles, sonth and west of England, Bristol Channel, St. 
George's Channel, and on the coasts of Ireland ; Oban 
and Mull (J. G. J. and Bedford) ; Stonehaven, Aber- 
deen, and Crnden (Macgillivray); Dunnet bay, Caith- 
ness (Gordon). I found the variety at Lulworth; it 
may be the male. This species has been noticed by Mr. 
James Smith as fossil in Ireland, and by Philippi as 
occurring in the Sicilian tertiaries. It has essentially 
a southern range, extending on the east to the iEgean 
and on the west to the Canaries ; Black Sea (Midden- 
dorff) . Forbes records it as living in the Archipelago 
from 2 to no less than 80 f., and M' Andrew has enu- 
merated different depths from 3 to 60 f. 

P. pull a is usually found on Chondrus crispas ; Mr. 
Templer says that it feeds on C. mammillosus. Mr. 
Clark, however, found in the stomachs of all the 
individuals examined by him a number of minute 
Foraminifera, including Truncatulina lobatula and 
Textularia variabilis, which were entire, and did not 
appear to have been acted on by the tongue of the 
Phasianetta. He has observed that the animal " is 
sometimes infested with a longish, strong, cylindrical, 
dark -brown parasite with a clavate termination, which 
hangs to the side of the opercular lobe, and may be 
mistaken for a vibraculum." Its mode of locomotion is 
like the amble of a horse. The foot being divided in the 
middle, each side advances in its turn, the stationary half 
serving as a point d'appui. This shows its affinity to the 
Littorina family, many of which have the same peculiarity 

q 2 



340 TURBINID^. 

of gait. The fry of the present species is globular and 
distinctly nmbilicate ; it might almost be mistaken for 
that of a Lacuna. The shell and animal are equally 
pretty. Now and then the former is pearl-white ; and 
both may have sat for their portraits when Tennyson 
sketched the 23rd Canto of ' Maud/ 

' ' Stanza 1. 

" See what a lovelv shell, 
Small and pure as a pearl, 
Lying close to my foot, 
Frail, but a work divine, 
Made so fairily well 
With delicate spire and whorl, 
How exquisitely minute, 
A miracle of design ! 



" What is it ? a learned man 
Could give it a clumsy name. 
Let him name it who can, 
The beauty would be the same. 

3. 

" The tiny cell is forlorn, 
Void of the little living will 
That made it stir on the shore. 
Did he stand at the diamond door 
Of his house in a rainbow frill ? 
Did he push, when he was uncurled, 
A golden foot or a fairy horn 
Through his dim water-world ? 

4. 

" Slight, to be crush'd with a tap 
Of my finger-nail on the sand, 
Small, but a work divine, 
Frail, but of force to withstand, 
Year upon year, the shock 
Of cataract seas that snap 
The three-decker's oaken spine 
Athwart the ledges of rock, 
Here on the Breton strand ! " 



LITTORINID.E. 341 

The presumed subject of these exquisite lines is the 
Turbo pictus of Da Costa, P. pulchella of Recluz, 
and Eudora varians of Leach. Lamarck placed it in 
the old genus Turbo, and not in Phasianella. 

Turbo rugosus of Linne (T. calcar, Montagu) was 
said to have been taken by Captain Laskey in Iona, one 
of the Western Islands. It is a rather common Medi- 
terranean shell, but not British. Turbo castanea of 
Gmelin (T. mammillatus, Donovan) is West-Indian, and 
supposed to have been picked up by a Mr. Piatt on the 
Scillv rocks. 

■F 

Family IX. LITTORI'NID^, Gray. 

Body spiral: mantle plain: head snout- shaped ; lingual 
ribbon armed with numerous hook-like teeth, as in the pre- 
ceding families of the same order : tentacles long, one on each 
side of the head : eyes placed on very short stalks or tubercles 
at the outer bases of the tentacles : gills forming a single 
plume, which is composed of several flat laminar plates : foot 
having the usual operculigerous lobe, from the hinder part of 
which in certain genera issue one or two tentacular processes 
or filaments. 

Shell conical, never nacreous : mouth obliquely squarish or 
oval: operculum horny, thin, ear-shaped, and few-whorled, 
with a lateral nucleus. 

This family, as their name imports, are for the most 
part littoral : — 

" Huge ocean shows, within his yellow strand, 
A habitation marvellously planned 
For life to occupy." 

The Littorina, which live on the beach, exposed to 
frost and cold, snow and rain, do not hibernate, but 
appear to pass the dreary season of winter without dis- 
comfort. The equal temperature of the sea and the 
thickness of their shells protect them from the vicissi- 



34.2 LITTORINIDiE. 

tudes of climate ; and (what is of more consequence to 
them) they are supplied all the year round with an 
abundance of food. It is otherwise with some of their 
small cousins, the Rissoa, which depend for their sub- 
sistence on the Zoster a marina or sea-grass. These 
must either perish, like the greater number of the insect 
tribe, or remain in a torpid state until 

* To mute and to material things 
New life revolving summer brings." 

The former supposition is more probable. Homer, 
with his tendency to view all nature in relation to our- 
selves, illustrated the idea of such annual reappearance 
of life by some well known lines, which I will venture 
to paraphrase. 

Men are like the race of falling leaves, 
That winds in autumn whirl and sweep away : 
Yet spring, with joy and freshness ever rife, 
Nature will soon restore to former life. 
Each year the same unvaried tissue weaves 
Of birth and death, of verdure and decay. 

Several species of Littorina abound on every stony 
part of our coast ; and the seaweeds swarm with different 
kinds of Lacuna and Rissoa. All live together in perfect 
harmony ; there is here no " struggle for existence/' nor 
intermixture of races. Similar conditions may reason- 
ably be presumed to have continued ever since the for- 
mation of the Crag — a period of incalculable antiquity — 
because we find associated in this formation certain 
species of Littorina and Rissoa unquestionably identical 
with those which still inhabit the same area, and even 
exhibiting a variability of form precisely analogous to 
what is observable at the present time. The prevalent 
hue of the animals in the present family (which indeed 
may be said of the Gasteropoda in general) is yellowish, 



LACUNA. 343 

with frequently a tinge of purplish brown. The sexes are 
separate. The males are distinguishable from the fe- 
males by being of a smaller size. This is notoriously 
also the case with the Crustacea and most of the insect 
tribe, as well as with many other animals, including our 
own race. The food of the Littorinidce consists of vege- 
table matter, either fresh or in various states of putridity. 
They crawl in a peculiar fashion, moving first one and 
then the other side of the foot bv turns : the line of such 
division is marked in the middle of the sole. 

Genus I. LACU'NA* Turton. PL VIII. f. 2. 

Body stout : head short : tentacles flattened and smooth : 
eyes nearly sessile, owing to the smallness of the stalks : foot 
oval and rounded at each end, with a sharp pointed tail : oper- 
cular appendages two, one at each side or corner of the tail. 

Shell more or less channelled or grooved at the base, and 
slantingly umbilicate : mouth obliquely squarish : pillar rather 
broad and flattened, so as to receive the channel or groove 
above mentioned : operculum furnished on the under side with 
a cartilaginous rib which nearly follows the direction of the 
spire. 

Da Costa was the first to notice the peculiar charac- 
ter of the channelled pillar in the shell of Lacuna, 
finding it difficult to assign his Cochlea parva [Lacuna 
puteolus of Turton) to any Linnean genus. The only 
species knosvn to us (four in number) were placed by 
their respective discoverers in as many different genera, 
viz. Turbo, Trochus, Cochlea, and Nerita. They are 
phytophagous According to Loven, those which live 
on brown seaveeds have green bodies, while others 
found on red seaweeds are rosecolour. They occasion- 
ally secrete slimy threads (like the Limax arborum), by 
which they suspend themselves from the frond or stalk 

* From the excavation of the pillar. 



344 littorinid^:. 

of a seaweed; and they may sometimes be observed 
floating in a reversed position, the sole of the foot being 
on a level with the surface of the water. The spawn 
forms a gelatinous but firm cylindrical mass, and is 
curved in a semicircle. As soon as the fry emerge from 
their receptacle they swim about freely by means of a 
ciliated and vibratile bilobed veil, which occupies the 
front of the body. The otolites are circular and simple. 
Clark proposed to merge this apparently natural genus 
in Littorina ; Leach, on the other hand, divided it into 
Temina, Epheria, and Medoria. The principle of classi- 
fication advocated by the one was synthetical ; he re- 
duced genera to species. The other pushed the ana- 
lytical system to an opposite extreme ; consequently in 
his hands species became raised to genera. 

1. Lacuna cras'sior - *, Montagu. 

Turbo crassior, Mont. Test. Brit. p. 309, t. 20. f. 1. L. crassior, F.& H. 
iii. p. 67, pi. lxxii. f. 5, 6. 

Body yello wish-white, or pale yellow, with an oraDge tint 
on the upper part ; there is sometimes a dark brown triangular 
spot a little behind the point of the muzzle : mantle thijk : head 
produced into a rather long, narrow, and compressed square- 
pointed muzzle, having an oval disk in front, whici contains 
the mouth : tentacles slender, tapering gradually to a rather 
sharp point : eyes black, seated on short tubercles, one at the 
outer base of each tentacle : foot broader and slightly curved 
in front, with small lobe-like corners, occasionally sinuated in 
the middle on one side or the other, and roundec behind ; sole 
double-edged, apparently slit in three or four places behind : 
appendages curved and white, very much shorter than the 
tentacles, which they resemble in shape. 

Shell tnrreted, bluntly angulated at the base, solid, opaque, 
lustreless when covered with the epidermis, under which it is 
somewhat glossy : sculpture, numerous slight md sinuous spiral 
impressed lines or wrinkles, which are to a great extent con- 

* More solid than other specie. 



LACUNA. 345 

cealed by the epidermis : colour yellowish with a faint tinge 
of brown ; the apex is sometimes of a darker hue : epidermis 
membranous ; it is usually puckered lengthwise into irregular 
folds, and it is most commonly rubbed off or absent on the 
top of the shell : spire more or less raised, terminating in a 
blunt point : whorls 6-7, rather convex but compressed, some- 
what angular above, and gradually increasing in size : suture 
deeply excavated : month rather large, considerably expanded 
below and angulated at the base: outer lip very thin and 
fringed by the epidermis, incurved above on the pillar side : 
inner lip filmy, spread over the lower part of the body-whorl, 
and partly covering the canal when present ; it is not united 
with the outer lip : pillar white, sometimes faintly tinged with 
pink ; canal or groove more frequently wanting, but when 
existing it is rather wide, oblique, and ends in a small but 
deep perforation: inside porcelain- white and polished: oper- 
culum having 5 or 6 whorls, the outermost of which occupies 
nearly the whole area, the others being disproportionately 
small : it is marked across with curved lines of growth, and 
lengthwise with microscopical and close-set striae, which last 
radiate from the nucleus. L 05. B. 0-3. 

Habitat : Among stones and old shells in sandy 
ground mixed with mud, from low- water mark to con- 
siderable depths, on all our coasts, including the Chan- 
nel Isles and Shetland ; it is rather local. Mr. Grainger 
has recorded it as fossil from a deposit at Belfast. I 
found it at Etretat, in Normandy ; and what I consider 
a variety of L. crassior, connecting it with L. divaricata, 
has been described by Moller as a Greenland shell under 
the name of L. glacialis. Middendorff gives the AVhite 
Sea, coasts of Russian Lapland, Sea of Okhotsk, and 
Sitka Island as habitats of the present species and of 
the variety glacialis. 

The animal is active, hardy, and seemingly fond of 
ffettins: out of the water. Mr. Dawson has observed 
that it moves at the rate of about two inches per minute ; 
as it progresses the shell is carried along at a slow 
swinging pace. This arises from the peculiar action of 

Q o 



346 LITTORINID/E. 

tlie foot, which jerks forwards, first on one side and then 
on the other. 

It is in all probability the Turbo pallidus of Donovan ; 
and if his description (part of which is, ' ' whorls very 
slightly bicarinated ,} ) were recognizable with sufficient 
certainty, that name ought to have precedence of the 
one proposed by Montagu. I willingly avail myself of 
the doubt, in order not to alter the name by which this 
shell is now generally known. Leach called it Medoria 
Walkeri and M. Danmoniensis. 

2. L. divarica'ta*, Fabricius. 

Trochus divaricatus, Fabr. Fn. Groenl. p. 392. L. vincta, F. & H. iii. 
p. 62, pi. lxxii. f. 10-12, lxxiv. f. 7, 8, lxxxvi. f. 6-8, and (animal) 
pi. G G. f. 4. 

Body yellowish-brown faintly streaked with purple or tinged 
with pink: head fleshcolour, large, broad, prominent, and 
becoming wedge-shaped towards the extremity : tentacles ta- 
pering, with blunt tips ; owing to their contractility they are 
sometimes finely, but irregularly, scalloped at the edges : eyes 
raised on short stalks : foot angulated at each of the front 
corners, behind which it is contracted ; sole edged with a broad 
white border : appendages short and ribbon-like. 

Shell obliquely conical, expanded and more or less bluntly 
angulated at the base, usually thin, semitransparent, and 
somewhat glossy : sculpture, numerous slight and sinuous 
spiral impressed fines or striae, as in L. crassior, but always 
perceptible and more regular: colour varying from white to 
yellowish-brown, and often diversified by reddish-brown spiral 
bands of different widths ; there are generally four of these 
bands on the largest whorl (viz. two above the peripheral 
keel and two below it), two on the penultimate, and one on 
the antepenultimate whorl ; the bands are sometimes confluent, 
and so disposed as to exhibit a white or yellowish -white zone 
just below the suture of the last three whorls ; the apex is 
often reddish-brown or horncolour : epidermis membranous 
and thin : spire considerably raised and terminating in a blunt 
point : whorls 6, compressed, the last occupying about two- 
thirds of the spire : suture distinct, but not excavated : mouth 

* Spread out. 



LACUNA. 347 

wide, expanded outwards and below, slightly angular at the 
base: outer lip very thin, occasionally strengthened a little 
way inside by a slight white rib or callus : inner lip also thin, 
united with the outer lip, and partly covering the canal : 
pillar white ; canal wide, oblique, funnel-shaped, and exposing 
a considerable part of the spire : inside polished, of the same 
colour as the outside : operculum as in L. crassior and similarly 
sculptured. L. 0-45. JB. 0-3. 

Yar. 1. canalis. Without coloured bands, and usually of a 
thinner texture. Turbo canalis, Mont. Test. Brit. p. 309, 
t. xii. f. 11. 

Yar. 2. quadrifasciata. Smaller, more conical and solid, 
with a keeled periphery j outer lip thickened within its edge 
by an inside rib. Turbo quadrifasciatus, Mont. 1. c. p. 328, 
t. xx. f. 7. 

Yar. 3. gracilior, Metcalfe. Smaller and much elongated. 

Habitat : Seaweeds and Zoster a, at low-water mark 
and in the lamiuarian zone throughout the British seas ; 
abundant. The first two varieties are also everywhere 
common; the third was found by Mr. Metcalfe in 
Guernsey, and by me in Langland bay near Swansea. 
Fossil in the Clyde beds (Smith and others); Fort 
William (J. G. J.) ; Aberdeenshire ( Jamieson) ; Moel 
Tryfaen (Darbishire) ; Norwich or Mammalian Crag 
(S. Wood); Uddevalla (J. G. J.), and 40 feet above the 
sea (Malm); Christiania district, newer deposits, 100 
feet (Sars). Its distribution in a living state is mainly 
northern, and comprises Greenland, the White Sea, 
Russian Lapland, Iceland, the Faroe Isles, Scandinavia, 
Heligoland, Normandy, Brittany, and Gulf of Gascony, 
besides the eastern and western coasts of North America. 

It appears to be the favourite food of many sea-birds. 
Dr. Saxby took specimens from the stomach of a Black 
Guillemot at Unst, each of which had the operculum in 
its usual position, although nearly all the soft parts had 
disappeared. This is a shy but restless mollusk ; and 



348 littoriniDjE. 

it has a very shambling and awkward gait. In some 
specimens the canal does not exist, and in others it is 
very slight and scarcely perceptible. Those from Shet- 
land are considerably larger than the average dimensions 
I have given. The fry are nearly globular and widely 
nmbilicate. The shell differs from L. crassior in neither 
being turriculate nor having a thick epidermis ; and the 
last whorl in the present species is always very much 
larger in proportion to the rest. Its texture also is 
usually thinner ; but this last character varies, and can- 
not be depended on as a ground of distinction. 

Fabricius was right in suspecting that his Trochus 
divaricatus was not that of Linne. This great clerical 
zoologist described the present species with such accu- 
rate minuteness as fully to justify my following Loven 
and other northern writers in preferring that name to 
the subsequent one (vincta) given by Montagu. Accord- 
ing to Gould it is the L. pertusa of Conrad. Brown 
described some of the variously coloured specimens as 
Phasianella fasciata, P. bifasciata, P. cornea, and P. 
striata ; and I cannot distinguish, in a specific sense, 
the L. solidula, L. labiosa, or L. frigida of Loven. The 
L. albella of the last named author is intermediate be- 
tween the present species and L. jmteolus ; it is different 
from the thickened slender specimen of L. divaricata 
found by Mr. Alder at Cullercoats and doubtfully re- 
ferred by him to Loven' s species. Leach called the 
variety canalis Epheria Bulweriana ; the variety quadri~ 
fasciata is his E. Goodaliii. 

3. L. pute'olus*, Turton. 

Turbo imteolus, Tuft. Conch. Diet. p. 193, f. 90, 91. L. pufeohts, F. & 
H. iii. p. 58, pi. lxxii. f. 7-9, and lxxiv. f. 9. 

Body yellowish -white faintly tinged with pink (sometimes 

* A little pit. 



LACUNA. 349 

with purplish-brown), or uniform pale yellow : mantle thick, 
fleshcolour : head broad, projecting beyond the foot, pale red 
or edged with greenish-brown : tentacles white, ribbon-like, 
with blunt tips and jagged edges : eyes rather large : foot 
thickened, opaque, of a dusky hue towards the sides, double- 
edged in front, narrower or contracted in the middle, and end- 
ing in a minute bluntly pointed tail ; sole irregularly bor- 
dered with white, and divided down the middle by a slight 
groove : append a yes small and flattened, like miniature ten- 
tacles. 

Shell globular, slightly expanded at the base, with an an- 
gulated periphery, rather solid, opaque and glossy : sculpture 
similar to that of the two foregoing species, usually not so con- 
spicuous or regular as in L. divarieata ; the present species has 
frequently also numerous slight striae in the line of growth : 
colour yellowish- white with the upper whorl sometimes pur- 
plish, dull reddish-brown, or whitish with three rufous bands 
on the body-whorl, the middle one of which is much broader 
than either of those which encircle the upper and lower part 
of that whorl ; the colour when uniform, and the bands when 
present, are of various shades and degrees of intensity ; occa- 
sionally the uppermost band is continued on the penultimate 
whorl : epidermis membranous and thin : spire scarcely raised, 
but prominent, terminating in a blunt point : whorls 3-4, 
convex, the last occupying about four-fifths of the spire : suture 
rather deep : mouth slightly expanded outwards and below, and 
more or less angular at the base : outer Up very thin, incurved 
towards the pillar : inner lip slight, not united with the outer 
lip, but spread over the base above the canal, which it partly 
covers : pillar white ; canal generally wide and forming a deep 
excavation in the base of the shell, so as to expose nearly all 
the interior of the spire : inside polished, of the same colour 
as the outside : operculum resembling in every respect those of 
L. crassior and L. divarieata. L. 0*2. B. 1*5. 

Yar. 1. conica. Banded, rather thin, and having the spire 
longer than usual. 

Yar. 2. auriculans. Light horncolour or dirty white, 
thin and transparent. Turbo auricularis, Mont. Test. Brit, 
p. 308. 

Yar. 3. lactea. Milk-white and solid. 

Yar. 4. clausa. Base of the shell pointed ; pillar not exhi- 
biting any canal or excavation. 



350 littorinid,e. 

Var. 5. expansa. Of various colours ; last whorl extended 
and partly separated from the rest. 

Habitat : Small seaweeds (chiefly Chondrus crispus 
and Nitophyllum laciniatum) at low-water mark, in the 
Channel Isles, south and west of England, and Bristol 
Channel; local and gregarious. Isle of Man (Forbes); 
Filey (J. G. J.); Northumberland and Durham (Alder); 
north, east, and west of Ireland (Turton and others); 
west coast of Scotland (Barlee and others); Dunbar 
(Laskey); Dunnet bay, Pentland Firth (Gordon and 
Peach) ; Nordwick bay, Unst (Dawson) . Var. 1 . Exmouth 
(Clark); Manorbeer, Pembrokeshire (J. G. J.); Scar- 
borough (Bean); co. Antrim (Hyndman); Skye (Barlee). 
Var. 2. Southampton (Montagu and J. G. J.). Var. 3. 
Guernsey and the Hebrides (Barlee). Var. 4. Sark (Bar- 
lee). Var. 5. Exmouth (Clark); Torbay (Mrs. Wyatt). 
This species occurs in the newer pliocene, " Ireland" 
(Forbes); Clyde beds (Crosskey and Robertson); Fort 
William (J. G. J.); Norwich Crag (Woodward). Its 
foreign distribution comprises the Scandinavian coasts, 
from Bohuslan to Finmark (Loven, as L. Montagui, and 
Malm); Normandy (J. G. J.); Brittany (Mace, De- 
launay fide Tasle, and Cailliaud); Rochelle (D'Orbigny 
pere); Corunna and Vigo (M f Andrew). The variety 
auricularis has been dredged in Kiel Bay by Meyer and 
Mobius. 

Mr. Spence Bate watched some spawn which he pro- 
cured on the 24th of January. He could distinguish 
the eyes on the 10th of February ; and ten days after- 
wards the fry were fully developed, and crawled out of 
their gelatinous covering. His note refers to L. palli- 
dula\ but the fry evidently belong to the present 
species. 

It is the Cochlea parva of Da Costa, Helix fasciata of 



LACUNA. 351 

Adams, Helix lacuna and Nerita rufa (young) of Mon- 
tagu, L. Montacuti (without bands) of Turton, L. Mon- 
tagui of Brown, Temina Turtoniana, T. rufa, and T. va- 
riabilis of Leach; L. sulcata of Macgillivray is the 
young shell. Neither of the two earliest specific names 
(parva and fasciata) appears to have been used by any 
writer except those who respectively proposed them ; 
and they may therefore be regarded as obsolete. These 
being disposed of, the name ought in strictness to be 
Montacuti, which was given by Turton in the ' Zoological 
Journal'' (vol. iii. p. 191) to the typical form; his Turbo 
or L. puteolus is the variety which I have noticed as 
expansa. But it does not seem necessary, or desirable, to 
change the name adopted by the authors of the l British 
Mollusca/ 

4. L. palli'dula"*, Da Costa. 

Merita pallidulus, Da Costa, Brit. Conch, p. 51, t. iv. f. 4, 5. L. palli- 
dula, F. & H. iii. p. 56, pi. lxii. f. 1,2, and (as L. patula) f. 3, 4. 

Body whitish : mantle tumid at the margin : head nearly 
cylindrical, projecting a little beyond the foot [" the upper 
part of the neck has two short flake-white diverging lines im- 
bedded in the ground-colour." — Clark] : tentacles resembling 
in miniature the leaves of the water-flag : eyes rather small : 
foot double-edged in front, behind which it is somewhat con- 
tracted, thickened and opaque towards the edges, and ending 
in an extremely short pointed tail ; sole grooved lengthwise : 
appendages nearly of the same shape as the tentacles, but 
smaller and very much shorter, although extending beyond 
the foot. 

Shell somewhat triangular, largely and obliquely expanded 
in front, rather thin, opaque, and glossy : sculpture, fine but 
irregular striae in the line of growth, which are for the most 
part concealed by the epidermis, and are more conspicuous 
just below the suture; there are also a few remote and scratch- 
like lines in a spiral direction : colour pale yellowish -green : 
epidermis not very thin, resembling oilskin : spire very small 

* Palish. 



352 LITTORINID^. 

and depressed, sunk within the upper margin, the base of the 
shell or lower part of the mouth being placed in front of the 
observer : whorls 3-4, convex, the last disproportionately large 
and occupying nearly the whole of the spire : suture well de- 
fined : mouth exceedingly large and capacious, equal in size to 
the closed part of the shell ; the base is somewhat angular, 
especially in immature specimens : outer Up thin, incurved 
towards the pillar : inner Up thickened or callous above the 
canal, over the upper part of which it is folded, not united 
with the outer lip : pillar white ; canal very wide and extend- 
ing funnel-wise into the interior of the spire, so as to expose 
the greater part of it : inside polished, and coloured like the 
outside : operculum having from three to four whorls, wrinkled 
across, and indistinctly marked with very minute and close- 
set spiral lines. L. 0*45. B. 0-35. 

Var. 1. neritoidea. Grass-green, much smaller, and less 
expanded, resembling in shape Neritina fiuviatilis, and having 
a rather prominent but short and eccentric spire. L. neritoidea , 
Gould, Inv. Mass. p. 263, f. 170. 

Var. 2. patula. Olive-green, rather more solid, with a flat 
spire and the expansion outwards being not so much in front 
as above and below, making the outline that of an equal-sided 
triangle ; canal nearly closed in the adult. " Variety ? Pa- 
tula" Thorpe, Brit. Mar. Conch, p. 37, f. 83. 

Var. 3. albescens. Of a paler hue or white, smaller but 
shaped like the last variety. 

Habitat : On Laminarice and other sea-weeds having 
flat and smooth fronds, at low-water mark and in a few 
fathoms seawards, chiefly on our southern and western 
coasts, but also in St. George's Channel, all round Ire- 
land, the Clyde district, and Frith of Forth ; Kent (Da 
Costa and Boys) ; Northumberland and Durham (Al- 
der); Aberdeenshire (Macgillivray); Orkneys (Forbes). 
Var. 1. West of Scotland and Shetland. Var. 2. Tor- 
quay and Sunderland (Hanley); Guernsey, Langland 
bay near Swansea, and Barmouth (J. G. J.); Bantry 
bay (Barlee). This variety seems to connect the present 
species with Littor'ma obtusata. Var. 3. Skye and the 



LACUNA. 353 

Hebrides (Barlee). In a fossil state L. pallidula, var. 
neritoidea, was found by me at Fort William ; and the 
ordinary form is enumerated in God win- Austen's list of 
shells from an upper tertiary deposit in Sussex. In a 
recent state the latter has been recorded from the Bou- 
lonnais (Bouchard-Chantereaux), Quiberon and Belle- 
ile in Brittany (Tasle), and Loire-Inferieure (Cailliaud); 
and the former ranges from Heligoland northward to 
Iceland, Greenland, Spitzbergen, New England, and 
Massachusetts. 

Mr. Clark says that the opercular lobe has occasion- 
ally four caudal filaments. I never saw more than two 
in the numerous specimens which I have examined of 
the typical form and principal varieties. He also de- 
scribes the tentacles as " setose." This character I 
have likewise failed to detect, although I used the 
same optical aids for observation that he did. The edges 
of the tentacles are more or less uneven and sometimes 
serrated, arising (as I believe) from the contractility of 
these organs ; possibly such appearances may have mis- 
led Mr. Clark, and induced him to consider them as in- 
dicating hairs or setae. A specimen in my cabinet of 
the variety neritoidea is distorted by having a rather 
deep and irregular indentation down the front. The 
fry of this variety are of a light horncolour ; the colour 
of the animal in the adult state is greyish, with a faint 
tinge of purple. Perhaps this may be a distinct species ; 
but as I am not satisfied on this point, I prefer leaving 
it to the judgment of my brother conchologists. To 
add another species to the list of any local fauna or 
flora, unless on conclusive grounds, would indeed be 
unworthy of a naturalist. 

L. retusa of Brown appears to have been described and 
figured from a half-grown shell of the present species. 



354 LITTORINID^. 



Genus II. LITTORI'NA* Ferussac. PL VIII. f. 3. 

Body stout, twisted into a short cone : head strong : ten- 
tacles conico-cylindrical and smooth : eyes placed on globular 
expansions of the tentacles at their outer bases, or sessile : 
foot oval, rounded at each end, plain-edged : opercular lobe 
smaller than the operculum, and destitute of appendages. 

Shell rather solid, not umbilicate : spire short : mouth 
oval, with the lips usually disunited : pillar even, never chan- 
nelled or grooved : operculum having underneath a process of 
attachment on or near the nucleus of the spire. 

The presence of these shells in a fossil state affords a 
useful criterion to the geologist, and invariably indicates 
littoral conditions. They inhabit only 

" The beachy girdle of the ocean," 

and are seldom found at a greater depth than low-water 
mark of spring-tides. L. neritoides and some of the 
varieties of L. rudis take up their abodes above high- 
water mark, where they probably subsist on Lichina 
pygmcea and other minute sea-weeds, which cover the 
rocks in such situations. They have never been ob- 
served to go down to the sea when the tide comes in. 
This peculiar habit of truly marine mollusks frequent- 
ing places beyond the reach of the tide induced Dr. 
Johnston to make the following quaint remarks on a 
subject which has of late much engaged the attention 
of naturalists. After mentioning the case of certain 
Gasteropods, furnished with gills, that pass so large a 
portion of their term of life completely out of the 
water as almost to be amphibious, he says, ' ' The Pfl- 
tella and Littorina are also good examples. Our com- 
mon species of the latter genus seem, indeed, to prefer 

* From littus, the sea-shore. 



LITTORINA. 355 

spots where they can be covered only at high water, 
and I have seen myriads of them, when young, clus- 
tered in hollows of rocks that were many feet above 
the highest tides. Still, their respiratory organs are, 
as they have ever been, branchial; nor does it seem 
easy, on the Lamarckian hypothesis, to account for 
their non-improvability ; why these shell-fish, so fond 
of air, have not acquired, by their residence in it, the 
lungs of the snail, and betaken themselves to the land ; 
why their shells have not become lighter to enable them 
to move with more alacrity ; and why their eyes have 
not risen to a higher elevation than the base of the ten- 
tacula, that they might scan the landscape and avoid its 
perils/' The gill-plume is composed of from 45 to 60 
strands or pectinations, which are very long, slender, 
and close-set. Adanson appears to have considered the 
IAttorince hermaphrodite ; but, on his return home from 
Senegal, he was undeceived in this respect by the great 
botanist, Jussieu, who showed him that the sexes were 
certainly distinct in the common European periwinkle. 
Most of the species are oviparous, and deposit their 
spawn on seaweeds, rocks, or stones; the eggs are 
enveloped in a glairy mass, which is just firm enough 
to retain its shape in the water, and adheres to the 
nidus with considerable tenacity. Each egg has its 
own globule of jelly, and is contained within an ex- 
tremely thin and transparent membrane, so as to be 
separated from the rest. They are hatched after a short 
exposure to the water, air, and sun, and soon exhibit 
the shells completely formed and occupied by the 
ciliated fry. Some species are ovo viviparous or vivipa- 
rous, and develope their spawn in the branchial cavity. 
We find, therefore, in this genus, examples of both kinds 
of propagation. The same fact has been observed with 



356 LITTORINID.E. 

respect to species of Helix and Pupa among the Pulmo- 
nobranchiata*. The Littorince are extremely prolific, and 
found in all parts of the world. According to Nyst, out 
of the 59 species known in 1843 (when he published his 
excellent catalogue of the fossil shells and polypes of 
Belgium) 37 were recent, 8 from tertiary, 10 from cre- 
taceous, and 1 from carboniferous strata. The Messrs. 
Adams have lately enumerated 56 recent species ; but 
some of these are only recognized by other conchologists 
as varieties. 

Menke changed the spelling of the generic name to 
Litorina — a pedantic and unnecessary innovation. Lit- 
tus and Litus were used indifferently by the best Latin 
writers. Cicero seems to have preferred the former 
mode of spelling ; Ovid has both. 

1. Littorina obtu'sata f, Linne. 

Turbo obtusatus, Linn. S. N. p. 1232. L. litoralis, F. & H. iii. p. 45, 
pi. lxxiv. f. 3-7, and p. 49, pi. lxxxvi. f. 2, 3. 

Body yellowish-white, lemon or orange-yellow, often tinged 
with purple or violet, rarely sootcolour, and marked across 
by lines of a paler hue : mantle sometimes edged with orange 
or black : head narrow, occasionally reddish or fleshcolour on 
the upper part or neck : tentacles tapering, with blunt whitish 
tips ; their sides are in some specimens bordered by fine lead- 
coloured lines : eyes small, with pearl-white hides and black 
pupils: foot broader in front, and bluntly pointed behind, 
somewhat contracted at about one-third of the way down ; 
sole pale yellow, yellowish -white, or whitish, divided length- 
wise in the middle by a slight line, which resembles a crack 
in the glaze of an earthenware dish : opercular lobe now and 
then sinuated or finely cloven. 

Shell nut-shaped, thick, opaque and lustreless : sculpture, 
numerous minute fine, but irregular, spiral wavy striae, which 
are mostly observable on young and immature specimens ; the 
crossing of these stri»3 by the lines of growth causes a slight 

* See vol. i. pp. 222 and 248. t Blunted. 



, LITTORIXA. 357 

decussation : colour most variable, yellow, brown, red, green, 
and purple of all shades, diversified by bands, streaks, tessel- 
lated or reticulated and zigzag markings of every conceivable 
kind ; the predominant hues are yellow and brown ; it is 
rarely milk-white : epidermis membranous, yellowish or horn- 
colour, usually thin : spire very blunt and sometimes flattened: 
whorls 5-6, convex, but somewhat compressed or squeezed 
together ; the last embraces nearly the whole spire : suture 
narrow although distinct : mouth large, occupying nearly half 
the lower portion of the shell, sharply angulated below in young 
specimens : outer Up thick, a little incurved above, and form- 
ing with the inner lip an acute angle in that part : inner lip 
thin, spread like glaze over that side of the mouth, and in- 
dented in the middle : pillar curved, sloping outwards, white 
and thick : inside polished, coloured like the outside ; edges 
often stained with purple : operculum having 4 or 5 whorls, 
the outermost of which occupies nearly the entire area ; it 
is marked across with microscopical and close-set curved 
striae or wrinkles, which are not quite regular, but frequently 
anastomose or interlace. L. 0*65. B. 0*5. 

Var. 1. neritiformis. Shell squeezed together at the sides, 
so as to make it longer and the periphery angulated. L. neri- 
tiforma, Brown, 111. Conch. G. B. & I. p. 17, pi. x. f. 24. 

Yar. 2. ornata. Smaller and rather more convex, having 
the spire somewhat more produced, and ornamented with broad 
reddish-brown bands on a white or yellowish-white ground. 
L. palliata, F. & H. iii. p. 51, pi. lxxxiv. f. 8-10. 

Yar. 3. fabalis. Dwarfed or young, inclined to a globular 
shape. Turbo fabalis, Turton, in Zool. Journ. ii. p. 366, tab. 
xiii. f. 10. 

Yar. 4. compacta. Smaller, thick set, and also subglobular. 

Monstr. Scalariform, with a very broad base and a keel en- 
circling the upper part of each whorl, or having the suture 
deeply and widely excavated. 

Habitat : Among stones and Fuci on all beaches be- 
low high-water mark of neap tides. The 1st variety is 
not uncommon in the west and north of Scotland, and in 
Shetland; and Captain Brown has given Downpatrick as 
an Irish locality. The 2nd abounds in the Isle of Wight 



358 LITTORINIDiE. 

and at Southampton ; it appears to have been mistaken 
by the authors of the ( British Mollusca ' for the L. pal- 
Hat a of Say, which I shall presently have occasion to 
notice. The 3rd was discovered by Mr. Bean at Filey ; 
and I also found it not only there, but plentifully at 
Larne in the north of Ireland, and in Shetland. Lilljeborg 
has taken the last in Norway. I believe it represents the 
young males of the ordinary form. The body of this 
variety is dark grey and lineated, with a tinge of purple 
on the upper part, and whitish underneath ; the head is 
thick, edged with yellow above ; tentacles marked across 
with dark rings ; eyes proportionally large, each sur- 
rounded by a pale yellow circle; foot oval, with a 
creamcolour sole ; verge falciform. The fanciful name 
fabalis (derived from that of the well-known con- 
chologist at Scarborough) may be matched with the 
punning mottoes in heraldry. Geologists have also 
their little weaknesses of this kind, — for example the 
" Genista " cave at Gibraltar, which was so designated, 
not from its mouth being concealed by the shrub of 
that name, but from its discoverer or explorer, Captain 
Broome. Macgillivray with greater sobriety, but less 
attention to the rules of nomenclature, changed the 
name of this variety to Beanii. The 4th variety inha- 
bits Loch Torridon and other parts of the Boss-shire 
coast ; Meyer and Mobius found it in Kiel Bay. Ex- 
amples of the monstrosity were in Mr. Clark's collec- 
tion of Exmouth shells, and occurred to me on the coast 
of Antrim. Another malformation, from Unst, has the 
outer lip remarkably flexuous, and the upper angle of 
the mouth converted into a long and narrow notch. In 
a fossil state this species has been enumerated by Mr. 
J. Smith from the Clyde beds, by Mr. Rose from the 
brick-earth of the Nar in Norfolk, by Mr. Grainger 



LITTORINA. 359 

from Belfast, by Mr. Darbishire from Macclesfield, by 
Captain Drury Lowe from Moel Tryfaen, by Sars from 
older and younger glacial deposits in the Christiania dis- 
trict (at heights varying from 100 to 440 feet above the 
present level of the sea), and by myself from Lilleherste- 
hagen, near Uddevalla. I have particularized these 
localities, in order that the range of L. litoralis 
(or L. palliata), which is a peculiarly arctic fossil, may 
be ascertained. In consequence of the doubt which I 
entertain with regard both to the identity of that with 
the present species, and to the correct assignment of 
each of these so-called species to the recorded localities, 
I give the range of northern distribution provisionally 
and subject to future correction. Iceland (Mohr and 
Steenstrup); Faroe Isles (Landt); White Sea (Midden- 
dorff); Scandinavia (Miiller and others); Heligoland 
(Frey and Leuckart); Holland ( Waardenburg) ; North 
of France (Lamarck and others); Rochelle (D'Orbigny 
pere, Aucapitaine, and J. Gr. J.); Santander (E. J. 
Lowe); Vigo (M f Andrew); ? Toulon (Gay); ? Adriatic 
(Olivi); ? Sicily (Philippi, fide Bivona, Gemellari, and 
others). The habitat of L. palliata is the North- 
American sea-board from the St. Lawrence and Cape 
Cod. 

Lister noticed the habit of this species (as well as of 
L. litorea) of copulating on the dry part of the shore. 
Individuals of L. obtusata were found by Mr. William 
Thompson at Weymouth in union with others of L. 
rudis ; and Dr. Battersby tells me that he has seen the 
same in Ireland. It does not appear that any hybrid 
form resulted from the coition in any of these cases. 
The 'Opuscula subseciva' of Baster (1769) contain 
excellent figures of the spawn and fry of the present 
species. Newly born shells have a small umbilicus, 



360 LlTTORINIDiE. 

which is closed in the course of growth, and concealed 
by the broad pillar-lip. The males are invariably smaller 
than the females, and have the spire more pro- 
duced. Clark described the tentacles as " setose." 
May not this have been a lapsus typographicus for 
" slender " ? Our remote ancestors appear to have 
used the shells as personal ornaments. They made 
necklaces of them, probably by rubbing the points on a 
stone, and stringing them together, when thus perfo- 
rated, with a fibre or sinew. An account is given in 
Wilson's f Prehistoric Annals of Scotland ' of the re- 
mains of such necklaces having been found underneath 
a Cromlech, which was discovered on levelling a tumulus 
in the Phoenix Park at Dublin in 1837; this disclosed 
two male skeletons, and beside the skull of each lay 
perforated shells of L. obtusata in such a position that 
they must have been placed around the necks of the 
buried chieftains. A portion of the vegetable fibre with 
which they had been strung together remained through 
some of the shells. The only other relics found in the 
sepulchre were a small fibula of bone and a knife or 
lance-head of flint. Our patriotic poet, old Michael 
Drayton, in the 20th song of his ' Polyolbion/ gave 
these shell- ornaments a mythological air, when he de- 
scribed the fair Norfolcean 

" Nymphs trick' d up in tyers, the sea gods to delight." 

" With many sundry shells, the scallop large and fair, 
The cockle small and round, the periwinkle spare, 
The oyster wherein oft the pearl is found to breed, 
The mussel which retains that dainty orient seed : 
In chains and bracelets made, with links of sundry twists, 
Some worn about their waists, their necks, some on the wrists." 

I believe that the Nerita littoralis of Linne and Fa- 
bricius is a Scandinavian, Arctic, and North- American 



LITTORINA. 361 

species, known as the Turbo pall iatus of Say, T. expan- 
sus of Brown, L. arctica of Moller, and L. limata of 
Loven. Both Linne and Fabricins say that the animal 
has cirrons excrescences from the foot ; and their de- 
scriptions of the shell accord much better with those 
given by Say and the other writers, and with typical 
specimens of L. palliata, than with the present species. 
The other species is common in the Clyde beds, and I 
found it fossil also at Fort William ; it does not now 
inhabit our seas. Middendorff considered it a variety 
of the Turbo tenebrosus of Montagu. I am inclined to 
regard it as intermediate between that variety (or rather 
the variety patula) of L. rudis and L. obtusata. 

For the reasons above stated, and following Deshayes, 
Menke, Loven, Philippi, and Middendorff in their adop- 
tion of the name obtusata, we avoid the confusion ne- 
cessarily incident to so many declensions of the word 
" littus " or * litus " in this genus and its species. 
Pulteney, Lamarck, and other authors called this species 
Turbo neritoides ; but it is not Linne' s species of that 
name. Lamarck described it as T. retusus. 

2. L. neritoi'des*, Linne. 

Turbo neritoides, Linn. S. N. p. 1232. L. neritoides, F. & H. iii. p. 26, 
pi. lxxxiv. f. 1, 2. 

Body dark-grey above with a tinge of purplish-brown 
[dusky marked with white, especially about the eyes, Philippi] : 
head extensile and projecting beyond the foot : tentacles awl- 
shaped and slender, very broad and bulbous at the base, light- 
grey and lineated above with two dusky streaks : eyes rather 
large, sessile, one on the middle of the thickened base of each 
tentacle : foot broad, with the front corners very slightly 
auricled; sole whitish and partly furrowed in the middle. 

Shell forming a pointed cone, rather solid, opaque, glossy 
in the young and half-grown state, but of a dull hue when 

* Having the aspect of a Nerita. 
VOL. III. R 



362 littorinid^:. 

adult : sculpture, only the usual lines of growth, when viewed 
by the naked eye or an ordinary lens, but if examined with a 
high microscopical power the surface is seen to be indistinctly 
and slightly striated in a spiral direction ; these striae are 
wanting in full-grown specimens, which are always more or 
less eroded in consequence of their exposure to the atmosphere 
and sea-spray : colour chocolate or dark reddish-brown, usu- 
ally paler or variegated by a yellowish zone at the base, some- 
times of a greyish or lighter hue at the top of each whorl or 
in other parts of the shell : epidermis very slight, horncolour : 
spire rather short, sharp-pointed: whorls b-Q, somewhat 
convex, but compressed towards the suture, so as to make that 
part of each whorl considerably overlap the one next above it ; 
the last occupies about two-thirds of the spire : suture narrow 
and slight: mouth equal to nearly two-fifths of the lower 
portion of the shell; it is acute-angled above, somewhat 
expanded outwardly, and strengthened inside by a rim or 
ledge; the base is more or less angulated, and in young spe- 
cimens sharply peaked : outer lip thin : inner lip forming a 
glazed coating over that side of the mouth : pillar thick, 
reddish-brown or dirty white, sloping downwards in a direct 
line for nearly its whole length, and bevelled outwards from 
the above described rim or ledge : inside glossy, chocolate- 
coloured or dark-brown : opermlum having three or four 
whorls, proportionally more solid than in other species of Lit- 
torina, horncolour, rather strongly but irregularly striated in 
the line of growth ; the inside edge is surmounted by a rim 
which is partly continued round the spire. L. 0*275. B. 0-225. 

Habitat : Rocks above high-water mark, on all our 
coasts from Jersey to Shetland; local but abundant. 
Godwin- Austen included it in his list of newer pliocene 
shells from Sussex. Geikie has lately quoted it as fossil 
in the undermentioned places — C( Paisley ; Kyles of 
Bute ; Lochgilphead (common) " I suspect that there 
has been some error here with regard either to the de- 
termination of the species, or to this being a glacial 
fossil; it inhabits at present the Clyde district. Ac- 
cording to Loven, it occurs in a living state on the 
Scandinavian coast from Kullen to Norway ; and various 



LITTORINA. 363 

writers have described or enumerated it as ranging from 
Heligoland to the iEgean, along the sea-board of the 
Atlantic, Mediterranean (including Algeria), Adriatic, 
and Black Sea, westward to Madeira and the Canary 
Isles. 

This is probably the only kind of Littorina common to 
the north and extreme south of Europe. It congregates 
in families or clusters, and in dry weather adheres to the 
rock by means of a membranous film or epiphragm in 
front of the operculum, of the same nature as that 
which is secreted by some of the herbivorous Helices 
and Bidimi. This state of aestivation sometimes lasts 
many days, during which the little periwinkle appears to 
fast. The foot is all this time kept withdrawn, in order 
to prevent any evaporation of the water by which the 
gill-plume is kept moist and fit for action. The smaller 
varieties and young of L. rudis are frequently attached 
in the same manner to rocks beyond the reach of the 
tide. Bouchard- Chant ereaux noticed this singular habit 
about thirty years ago. Some individuals, which I im- 
mersed in fresh water for eighteen hours, crawled about 
vigorously after being restored to the open air. My 
largest specimens were collected by Mr. Barlee in Arran 
Isle on the coast of Galway ; they are four lines long. 
The shell is frequently eroded or fretted, like the lime- 
stone on which it is commonly found ; for this reason 
it often appears distorted. The outermost layer of the 
shell (owing probably to its constant exposure) occa- 
sionally exhibits in certain parts a ramified or efflores- 
cent appearance, as if it were permeated by an extra- 
neous tubular organism. I submitted specimens to the 
examination of Mr. Berkeley and Dr. Bowerbank. The 
former thought this appearance might be a condition of 
some parasitic sponge ; but the latter considered it " a 

u 2 



364 littorinid^:. 

nacreous deposit of carbonate of lime natural to the 
shell/' The tongue is remarkably long and slender in 
proportion to the size of the body — more than three 
times its length. The operculum, resting on a ledge, is 
never sunk within the shell. 

It is the Turbo petr&us of Montagu, T. carulescens of 
Lamarck, L. Basterotii of Payraudeau, Helix neritoidea 
and T. Lemani of Delle Chiaje, T. petreus of Fleming, 
L. melanostoma of Krynicki, and T. petricola of Leach. 



3. L. ru'dis*, Maton. 

Turbo rudis, Maton, Nat. Hist, and Antiq. West. Count, i. p. 277. L. 
rudis, F. & H. iii. p. 32, pi. lsxxiii. f. 1-7, & lxxxvi. f. 1. 

Body of various hues, white, yellow, brown, or fleshcolour, 
usually more or less clouded or streaked across with dark 
purple : head thick, wrinkled transversely, often tinged with 
violet on the upper part and neck : tentacles rather slender, 
with blunt tips, frequently marked with a pale-yellowish or 
black stripe in front down the middle, and with another of a 
similar colour on the under side : eyes globular and prominent, 
on short and thick stalks, which are amalgamated with the 
tentacles at their outer bases ; pupils black, within gelatinous 
and transparent irides : foot double-edged in front ; sole light- 
yellow or whitish, bordered by a clear hem at the sides and 
behind, and divided down the middle by a slight fold. 

Shell forming a short cone, solid, opaque, and lustreless : 
sculpture, several flattened spiral ribs, crossed obliquely by 
slight, irregular and laminar marks of growth ; the surface is 
covered with close-set minute spiral wavy striae or wrinkles, 
which are always discernible in every form of this extremely 
variable species : colour most diversified, consisting chiefly of 
yellow, brown, red, orange, and purple, sometimes jet-black 
or pure white, and usually variegated by zones or spiral bands 
of different hues and widths : epidermis not observable, and (if 
formed) probably a mere film and caducous : spire moderately 
pointed : whorls 6-9, convex, somewhat flattened or compressed 
just below the suture; the last whorl occupies in the female 

* Rough. 



LITTORIXA. 



365 



at least two- thirds, and in the male not much more than one- 
half of the spire : suture more or less deep, and always distinct : 
mouth equal to about one-third of the lower portion of the 
shell in females, but proportionally much smaller in males, 
angulated and slightly channelled above, and considerably ex- 
panded as well as angulated below: outer Up thin, a little 
reflected, incurved towards the pillar: inner lip united with 
the outer lip, and forming a thin glaze on the upper part of 
the mouth : pillar short, but thick and very broad, especially 
at the base ; it shelves inwards, and is white or light-coloured : 
inside of a darker hue in coloured specimens : operculum horn- 
colour, having four or five volutions, which are crossed by 
curved and rather numerous stria) in the line of growth : the 
under side has an irregular boss in the centre of the spire, 
but no rim as in the last species. L. 0-65. B. 0-5. 

Yar. 1. saxatilis. Stunted, nearly globular, usually smooth 
or finely ribbed ; colour greyish with a white base. L. saxaillis, 
Johnston, in Proc. Berw. Nat. Club, i. p. 268 ; P. & H. iii. p. 43, 
pi. lxxxvi. f. 4, 5. 

Var. 2. sulcata. Ribs flattened ; colour yellow, with pur- 
plish-brown furrows. Turbo sulcatus, Leach, Syn. Moll. G. B. 
p. 187, tab. ix. f. 6. 

Yar. 3. jugosa. Smaller than usual, having strong and 
sharp spiral ridges, which are variable in number, and some- 
times alternately larger and smaller. T. jugosus, Mont. Test. 
Brit. pt. ii. p. 586, tab. xx. f. 2. 

Yar. 4. patula. Ear-shaped and expanded, thinner ; spire 
not prominent, placed somewhat obliquely ; mouth wide. L. 
patula, Jeffreys (erroneously), Thorpe's Brit. Mar. Conch. 
p. 259 ; P. & H. iii. p. 36, pi. lxxxv. f. 6-10, and (animal) 
pi. G G. f. 2. 

Yar. 5. globosa. Larger, globular, thick, and nearly smooth. 

Yar. 6. tenebrosa. Smaller, thinner, smoother, more tur- 
reted, and having a deeper suture, dusky and often tessellated 
or chequered. T. tenebrosus, Mont. Test. Brit. pt. ii. p. 303, 
tab. xx. f. 4. L. tenebrosa, P. & H. iii. p. 39, pi. lxxxiv. f. 11, 
12, and lxxxv. f. 1-5. 

Yar. 7. similis. Resembling the last variety in size and 
shape, but more distinctly ribbed. 

Yar. 8. lewis. Oval, solid, and smooth. 



366 littorinidjE. 

Var. 9. compressa. Oval, compressed or squeezed together ; 
ribs flattened, denned by impressed lines instead of furrows ; 
last whorl extended lengthwise and disproportionately large, 
with the base consequently more angular than in the ordinary 
form. 

Monstr. Keeled on the upper part of each whorl (especially 
the last), or else in the middle or lower part. 

Habitat : Stony beaches everywhere ; plentiful. Var. 
1. Nestling in the crevices of rocks above high-water 
mark.=.L. sewatilis, Brown, and L. neglecta, Bean. The 
Turbo saxatilis of Olivi is L. neritoides. Var. 2. Land's 
End (Turton) ; Channel and Scilly Isles (Barlee, and 
Cranch fide Leach) ; St. David's (J. G. J.) Another 
prettily marked variety from the Scilly Isles is grey 
with white ridges and black furrows. Var. 3. Exposed 
and high rocks ; my largest specimens are from Shet- 
land. Var. 4. Eddystone lighthouse (Mrs. Barbor); 
Penzance (Bingham, fide Brown) ; Unst, three times 
the usual size of this variety (J. G. J.) . I never called 
or considered it a distinct species. This appears to be 
the Turbo labiatus of Brown and L. Sitchana of Philippi. 
Var. 5. Dublin Bay (Branscombe, fide Clark) ; Oban 
(J. G. J.). I have specimens nearly an inch long. 
Var. 6. Mud-banks and salt-marshes in estuaries, with 
Hydrobia ulvce. It is the T. ventricosus of Brown, T. 
obligatus and T. vestitus of Say, and L. marmorata of 
Pfeiffer. Var. 7. Occasionally on rocks in Cornwall, 
South Wales, Aberdeenshire, and Shetland. Var. 8. 
Sark and Shetland, on sheltered rocks. Var. 9. Not 
uncommon on various parts of our shores. I have now 
and then met with the monstrosity. This very common 
species or some of the varieties have been found in most 
of the English, Irish, and Scotch quaternary and newer 
pliocene strata, from Moel Tryfaen to the Norwich Crag ; 



LITTORINA. 367 

Uddevalla (J. Gr. J.) . They inhabit both sides of the 
Atlantic, from Spitzbergen (Torell) to Lisbon (M f An- 
drew) in the eastern hemisphere, and from Hamilton's 
Inlet (Wallich) to Massachusetts (Say) in the western 
hemisphere. Kutorga has enumerated L. rudis as a 
South-Crimean species, and Mr. Lord has brought home 
speoimens from Vancouver's Isle. 

Lister distinguished this from the common eatable 
periwinkle by the name of Nerita reticulatas, &c. ; it 
was figured by Chemnitz as a variety of the former 
species. Schroter seems to have mistaken it for a fresh- 
water shell. I have taken it in places overflowed by 
streams during the recess of the tide, together with the 
common mussel and limpet. There are three distinct 
forms, resulting from a difference of habitat. One of 
them lives among loose stones and pebbles on the beach ; 
another on mud ; and the third on rocks, 

" And all along the indented coast 
Bespattered with the salt sea foam." 

These forms have given birth to a multiplication of 
species, the details of which fill, but do not improve 
every book and treatise on our native mollusca. " 'Tis 
sixty years since " the viviparous habit of L. rudis was 
noticed by Boys*. It seems to breed throughout the 
whole of the summer. Mr. Bate observed couples en- 
gaged in procreation while the females contained not 
only eggs in every stage of development, but perfectly 
formed young, which were about to enter on their own 
separate errand of life. According to Dr. Johnston this 
function is continued far on in November, both in the 
present species and L. obtusata. The male is, as usual, 
smaller, and has a longer spire. It may be presumed 

* Mr. Rich has enabled me to add Clausilia biplicata, and probably 
C. rugosa and Balia perversa, to the list of viviparous mollusca. 



3G8 littorinidjE. 

that tlie reason for the female having a larger body is 
that she requires more space to develope the fry within 
it than if she had merely to produce eggs. The shells 
of the fry are not umbilicate. A section of the spire in 
the adult shows that the apex is solidified, in conse- 
quence of the first two whorls (which had become too 
small to contain the upper fold of the liver, and were 
therefore useless) being filled up with new shelly matter. 
The shell, when injured, can be repaired to a great 
extent. A specimen which I picked up in Shetland had 
been cracked and broken in two, probably by some bird, 
which may have been interrupted in its meal : the frac- 
ture appeared to be too extensive to admit of a complete 
renewal of the severed portion, but it was patched up, 
so that the remnant of the shell served the purpose of 
the surviving and lucky periwinkle. 

I consider the present species to have been the Nerita 
littorea of Fabricius, L. grcenlandica of Menke and 
others, and L. sulcata also of the last-named author. 
L. zonaria and L. rudissima of Bean can hardly be 
called varieties (much less distinct forms) of this protei- 
form species. 

4. L. lito'rea*, Linne. 

Turbo littoreus, Linn. S. N. p, 1232. L. littorea, F. & H. iii. p. 29, 
pi. lxxxiii. f. 7, 8, and (animal) pi. G Gr. f. 3. 

Body sootcolour, or pale-yellowish, marked with close -set 
transverse stripes of purplish-black, and irregularly cross barred 
with lines of the latter colour : mantle thick, yellowish-white, 
lining the inside of the mouth or opening of the shell : head 
semicircular and projecting : tentacles annulated or streaked 
across with black ; they are contractile or compressible to such 
an extent as to be sometimes flattened ; tips blunt : eyes pro- 

* Living on the shore. 



LITTORIXA. 



369 



minent, on short, thick, and somewhat angular stalks : pupils 
black, within yellowish or dull pearly hides : foot large, double- 
edged in front, .striped like the rest of the body ; sole light 
yellowish-brown or pale fleshcolour, diyided lengthwise in the 
middle by a transparent line. 

Shell forming a cone of moderate height, thick, opaque, 
and mostly of a dull hue : sculpture, numerous fine spiral flat- 
tened ridges, crossed obliquely by slight irregular striae or 
lines of growth ; the surface is also covered with close-set 
minute spiral wrinkles, as in L. rudis, but these are in the 
present species more strongly marked, and are slightly decus- 
sated or eyen punctured by the intersection of the longitudinal 
striae: colour not so various as in the last species, commonly bis- 
tre, yellowish with dark-brown zones or rings, or greyish-yel- 
low, occasionally reddish-orange, and very rarely white : epider- 
mis light yellowish-brown, usually obscure or not visible, some- 
times thick and velvety: spire sharp -pointed: ivlwrls 7-8, more 
convex in female than in male individuals, compressed upwards 
towards the suture, so that the top of each lower whorl over- 
laps the periphery of the one above it ; the proportional 
difference between the size of the last whorl in the two 
sexes is not so great as in L. rudis, although in the present 
species each sex is also distinguishable by its shape : suture 
slight and indistinct : mouth equal to nearly one-third of the 
lower portion of the shell in females, but rather smaller in 
males, narrowly angulated above, and considerably expanded 
as well as bluntly angulated below : outer lip rather thin, 
somewhat reflected in full-grown males, flexuous, but not in- 
curved, towards the pillar: inner lip forming a white glaze on 
the upper part of the mouth : pillar short but thick ; it is 
always white, and shelves inwards : inside or throat usually 
chocolate-colour, now and then of a pale hue or whitish ; 
margin exhibiting the coloured bands when present ; inter- 
mediate space white : operculum dark-horncolour, having the 
same number of volutions and lineated in the same manner as 
L. rudis; the under side is likewise similar. L. 1*25. B. 1. 

Yar. 1. paupemda . Somewhat dwarfed, with the whorls 
more convex, of a dusky hue. 

Yar. 2. brevicula. Smaller and ventricose, with a short 
spire. 

Yar. 3. turrita. Spire turreted, the whorls being divided 
by a deep and channelled suture. 

r 5 



370 LITTORINID.E. 

Yar. 4. sinistrorsa. Spire of the shell turned to the left ; 
that of the operculum dextrorsal or regular. 

Monstr. Keeled as in L. nidis — the body-whorl furrowed, or 
irregularly puckered lengthwise below the suture — the spire 
much elongated — a new mouth thrown out or formed at the 
side, and twisted backwards — or distorted in other ways. 

Habitat : Among stones and Fuci, and on rocks, be- 
low high- water mark of neap tides ; extremely common. 
The 1st variety freqnents mud-flats in estuaries and tidal 
inlets of the sea ; the 2nd was found by me on Llan- 
rhidian salt-marsh near Swansea, at Southend, and in 
Christiania fiord ; the 3rd occurred rather plentifully to 
Mr. Barlee and myself in Loch Carron, and I have 
solitary examples from other places ; of the 4th I pro- 
cured two specimens at Billingsgate, and Mr. Rich ob- 
tained a third which is now in Mr. Leckenby's collec- 
tion. It is rather surprising that, considering the 
enormous number of periwinkles brought every year to 
this market, the reversed kind should be so excessively 
rare. I was assured by all the dealers in shell-fish that 
only these three specimens had ever been heard of. 3 
and 4 are perhaps monstrous rather than varietal 
forms. The distortions above noticed are found now 
and then with the ordinary sort. Mr. S. Wood has 
figured many of these monsters in his ' Monograph of 
the Crag Mollusca.* L. litorea finds a place in almost 
every list of our upper tertiary fossils, from Moel Try- 
faen to the Red Crag; Sars has recorded it from the 
Christiania district, in both older and newer deposits, 
at heights varying from 100 to 460 feet ; and I observed 
it at Uddevalla. The limits of its extra-British distri- 
bution are comprised within Greenland (Morch) , White 
Sea (Baer and Middendorff ) , and Lisbon (M f Andrew); 
and Stimpson gives it as a New England shell. The 



LITTORINA. 371 

undermentioned localities are suspicious : — Nice (Kisso, 
and "subfossile"); Palermo (Philippi, who however 
doubted this species being indigenous to Sicily); and 
Algiers (Weinkauff). 

The old English name of " periwincle " is supposed 
to have been a corruption of petty winkle or wilk. 
Lister savs that the Scarborough fishermen called them 
cc couvins " ; and he adds that they were much sought 
after by the Flemings. According to Dale, they were 
called in Suffolk " pinpatches/'' The ancient vernacular 
names for them were in Swedish a kupunge," in French 
" bigourneau," " vignot," or " vignette/'' and in the Bre- 
ton dialect " vrelin " or u brelin." Throughout Shet- 
land they are known as " wilks.'" In Strom's time th 
Scandinavian peasants used to believe that, whenever 
these shell-fish crept far up the rocks, it indicated a 
storm from the south. The habits and anatomy of the 
common periwinkle, and of some other marine testa- 
ceous mollusca, were carefully described by the late 
Mr. Osier in the ' Philosophical Transactions ' for 1832. 
With respect to the phytophagous kinds, he states that 
they have three distinct modes of feeding. " They 
browse with opposite horizontal jaws — they rasp their 
food with an armed tongue, stretched over an elastic 
and moveable support — or they gorge it entire. Tro- 
chus crassus [T. lineatus] is a convenient example of 
the first, Turbo littoreus [L. litorea] of the second, and 
Patella vulgata of the third/' With respect to the 
tongue of L. litorea (" a flat strap-shaped organ and 
more than two inches long") he observes, " It presents 
three longitudinal ranges of teeth, which recline back- 
wards, and are set like scales, with very little elevation 
of their edges. In the two outer rows the teeth are 
single, irregularly crescentic in shape, and set by their 



3 



72 L1TT0RINID.E. 



convexity; in the middle one eacli transverse range 
contains several, which are small and nearly square. 
All are too minute to be distinguished, except under a 
high magnifying power. The magnified lingual mem- 
brane appears beautifully reticulated." And he further 
remarks that the periwinkle " feeds upon the softest 
algse. I have observed it devouring a minute filament, 
which entered the mouth by a succession of jerks, re- 
peated at very short intervals. In this case it is pro- 
bable that the filament passes undivided into the 
stomach. When browsing upon larger fragments, the 
portions cut away are so very small that the impressions 
left can be seen only by a close inspection." M. Beu- 
dant's celebrated experiments show that the present 
species has a greater capability than L. obtusata of 
living in fresh water. There was probably some mistake 
in the assertion of Bouchard-Chantereaux that the pre- 
sent species is viviparous, like L. rudis. Although this 
peculiarity may have been wrongly attributed by him to 
L. litorea, instead of to a variety of the last-named spe- 
cies, the particulars which he gives are sufficiently in- 
teresting to justify their being transferred to these 
pages, and they are as follows. The female produces 
about 600 young ones, which are clustered in a vascular 
ovary j, situate on the upper part of the body, and ex- 
tending from the liver to the right tentacle where the 
orifice or duct lies ; the fry are expelled one by one 
during a period of many hours in succession, so that 
about six or seven months elapse before- the entire birth 
is completed ; the growth of the year's brood is there- 
fore very unequal, the first born being eight or ten times 
the size of the last. This statement that the common 
periwinkle is viviparous seems to be disproved by the 
fact that it is eatable at all seasons of the year and is 



LITTORIXA. 373 

never gritty, which last would certainly be tlie ease if it 
contained testaceous fry. It is sometimes striped like 
the zebra. In one individual which I examined the 
right-hand tentacle was branched like a stag's antler; 
and Dr. Johnston mentions a specimen " in which the 
tentacula were divided into two branches." In another 
individual the left-hand tentacle had been mutilated, 
and appeared not to be of more use to the periwinkle 
than the stump of an arm would be to a crippled soldier, 
who had lost that limb on the field of battle. Besides 
the monstrosities or malformations above specified, and 
which appear to have resulted from some injury sus- 
tained bv the mantle, the shell is liable to be affected 
by chemical action and other causes. On one part of 
the shore of the Thames at Southend I found almost 
every specimen of L. litorea more or less eroded, some 
of them to so great an extent as to be distorted. This 
could not have been owing to the admixture of fresh 
and salt water, because on another part of the same 
shore, where a stream flowed into the sea, none of 
the specimens which I found were eroded. In many 
places on the open coast, where there is no fresh water, 
all the shells, as well as the limestone rocks, are fretted. 
An explanation of this curious phenomenon was offered 
in the Introduction (pp. 1-liv) to the first volume of 
this work. Shells thicker than usual are often attacked 
and penetrated, sometimes by minute Alga, and at other 
times by a species of Cliona, or by a small cylindrical 
annelid ; the latter frequently destroys the upper whorls. 
One specimen in my collection is so encrusted with 
bleached nullipore as to be easily mistaken for a small 
lump of chalk. I have a pearl which was extracted from 
the common periwinkle ; it is round and white, the tenth 
of an inch in diameter. Petiver noticed the large size of 



374 LITTORINID.E. 

the " periwincles '* on our northern coasts ; he figured 
a specimen in his Natural history patchwork the 
" Gazophylaciuni,'" with a note that it came from the 
Orkneys, and "resembles onr Scarborow covins, but 
four times bigger." Many from Shetland are an inch 
and three-quarters long. Males are narrower and 
smoother than the females, and have a contracted 
mouth. The operculum is often irregularly laminated. 
Mr. Rich found one that was double, the original oper- 
culum only being spiral. The animal is sometimes in- 
fested by Trematode parasites. M. Lespes detected 
Cercaria proximo, in the liver, and C. linearis in the 
kidney of L. litorea at Arcachon. Man has utilized peri- 
winkles as well as everything else in creation. They are 
employed by some of the Essex oyster merchants to keep 
the grounds clear of seaweeds ; Mr. Smith of Burnham 
informs me that he lays down every year scores of 
bushels for that purpose. They are also very serviceable 
in the same way for cleaning an aquarium. The peri- 
winkle is a favourite delicacy of the poor. Drayton, of 
course, did not omit it in his catalogue of our edible 
mollusca. According to Swammerdam, it was eaten in 
Holland during the months of April and May only ; it 
was said to excite thirst. In Mr. Hyndman's Report 
to the British Association on the operations of the 
Dredging Committee at Belfast (1857) we find that at 
that place " the periwinkles are gathered and exported 
in large quantities to London. Mr. Getty, Secretary 
to the Harbour Commissioners, informs me that this 
trade has been carried on for the last twenty-five years 
by one person, who employs three horses and a mule to 
draw them, besides employing boats, &c, paying about 
£60 weekly in wages during the season. The peri- 
winkles are assorted and put into sacks, of which one 



LITTORINA. 375 

hundred are often shipped by one steamer weekly. The 
quantity exported in 1854 amounted to 400 tons, and 
in 1855 to 459 tons. During this long period there 
appears to have been no diminution in the supply until 
this last season [1856] , when it is stated that they are 
not so plentiful as formerly." I was lately told at 
Kirkwall and Stromness that more than 1000 bushels 
are exported weekly, every spring and autumn, from 
those ports to London. At Lerwick, also, vast quanti- 
ties are shipped by the steamer, and sent to Leith. 
The bags are occasionally soused with sea-water during 
the passage, in order to keep the stock alive and fresh. 
Messrs. Baxter & Son of Billingsgate have kindly 
furnished me with particulars of the home periwinkle 
trade. The supply is about 2000 bushels per week for 
six months, from March until August inclusive, and 
about 500 bushels per week for the remaining six 
months. The number of persons employed in gather- 
ing is at least 1000 (chiefly women and children), and 
quite as many more in selling. The best gathering- 
grounds are the coasts of Scotland, Orkneys, Shetland, 
and Ireland. The trade-price varies from two to eight 
shillings per bushel of eight gallons heaped measure ; the 
larger the " winkles " are, the higher the price. Those 
gathered from rocks keep a fortnight in summer and a 
month in winter ; mud- winkles will not live much more 
than half that time. When the supply is greater than 
the demand, Messrs. Baxter now and then send their 
surplus stock to Southend, and have it laid on some 
ground of theirs between tide-marks ; but the cost of car- 
riage, and of gathering the stock and bringing it again 
to market, is considerable, and it is often cheaper to 
throw away what is unsaleable. My informants send 
large quantities to about thirty provincial towns, and 



376 littorixiBjE. 

give credit to retail dealers to the amount of from £50 to 
£60 a week during the season. L. litorea may be always 
known from L. rudis or any of its varieties in every 
state of growth by being at least twice the size, having 
natter whorls, a much slighter suture, a more elongated 
and sharply pointed spire, and a straight outer lip. The 
two species are frequently found together. 

It is the Turbo littoralis of Baster, Castanea tosta or 
" marron roti " of D'Argenville, L. vulgaris of Sowerby 
and Reeve, and L. communis of Thompson. 

The following two species of Littorina have been 
erroneouslv introduced into the list of British mollusca : 
both are West-Indian. 

1. L. ziczak (Trochus ziczak, Chemnitz), said to 
have been found by Miss Hutchings in Bantry Bay. 
I agree with Mr. Alder in assigning the supposed small 
variety of this species, without the dark zigzag lines, 
which was found by Lady Wilson near Sunderland, 
and mentioned by Maton and Rackett, to L. neritoides. 

2. L. dispar {Turbo dispar, Montagu). " Poole " 
(Rev. Mr. Bingley); " Portmarnock and Teignmouth " 
(Turton) . 



Inest in explicatione Naturae inaatiabilis quredam e cognoscendis 
rebus voluptas, in qua una, eonfectis rebus necessariis, vacui negotiis, 
honeste ac liberaliter possumus vivere. — Cicero deFinibus, Lib. IV. c. 5. 



ERRATA. 

Page 254, line 6 from top, for " ancyloide," read " ajtcyloides." 
„ 258, line 9 from top, for " T. Noachina," read " P. Noachina." 
,, 312, line 16 from bottom, for " T. cegyptiaca" read " Monodonta 
(Bgy^tincaP 



TABLE OF DISTRIBUTION. 



377 



Table of geographical and geological distribution. 
(See Vol. I. pp. 314-316, and Vol. II. p. 448.) 



Species. 


S 

U 

o 


a 

u 
A 

o 




Extra-European localities. 


Conchifera (continued 
from vol. ii. p. 451). 

Solecurtus candidus .... 










North Africa, Canary Isles, 

and Madeira. 
North Africa and Canaries. 
North Africa. 
North Africa. 
North Africa and North-east 

America. 
NorthAfrica,Behring's Straits, 

and North-east America. 
North Africa, Bed Sea, and 

Azores. 
North Africa and Canaries. 
Sea of Okhotsk, North Africa, 

and Madeira. 

Canaries. 

North Africa. 

North Africa and Madeira. 

North Africa. Madeira, and 
Azores. 

North Africa, Madeira, 
Azores, and Greenland. 

Canaries. 

China, Greenland, and North- 
east America. 

Kamtschatka, Greenland, 
and both sides of North 
America. 

North Africa. 

Sea of Okhotsk. Newfound- 
land, and North-east Ame- 
rica. 

Asia, Africa, America, and 
Australia. 


Ceratisolen legumen 




Pandora incequivalvis .... 
papvracea 




convexa 






cuspidata 








Binghami 







378 



TABLE OF DISTRIBUTION. 



Species. 



c 

Pm 



- 

o 



Conchifera {continued). 

Venerupis Irus 

Gastrochama dubia 

Pholas dactylus 

Candida 

parva 

crispata 

Pholadidea papyracea . . . 

Xylophaga dorsalis 

Teredo Norvegica 

navalis 

pedicellata 

megotara 

38 



Solenoconchia. 

Dentaliuni entalis 
Tarentinuni 



2 



Gasteropoda. 

Chiton fascicular is . . 

discrepans 

Hanleyi 

cancellatus 

cinereus 

albus 

marginatus 

ruber 

leevis 

marmoreus 

Patella vulgata 

Helcion pellucidum . . 
Tectura testudinalis . . 

virginea 



36 



2 



a 
u 
<a 

X 
-u 
S 

o 



35 



9 



U 8 
B 



29 



Extra-European localities. 



North Africa and Canaries. 
North Africa, Madeira, and 

Canaries. 
North Africa. 
North Africa. 
North Africa. 
Both sides of North America, 



North Africa. 

North Africa and North-east 

America. 
North Africa. 
Greenland and North-east 

America. 



Both sides of North America. 
North Africa. 



North Africa and Canaries. 
North Africa. 
West Indies ? 

North Africa and Greenland. 
Greenland and North-east 

America. 
North Africa and both sides 

of North America. 
Greenland and North-east 

America. 
North Africa. 
North-east America, 
North Africa. 
North Africa. 
Nova Zembla, Greenland, and 

North-east America. 
North Africa, Canaries, and 

Azores. Sitka I. ? 



TABLE OF DISTRIBUTION. 



379 



Species. 



Gasteropoda {continued) 

Tectura fulva 

Lepeta caeca 



Propilidium ancyloides 
Puncturella Noachina . 

Emarginula fissura . . . 



rosea 

crassa 

Fissurella Graeca . . . 
Capulus Hungaricus 
Calyptrtea Chinensis 

Haliotis tuberculata . 



Scissurella crispata 

Cyclostrema Cutlerianum 

nitens 

serpuloid.es 

Trochus helicinus 



a 

J-c 



o 



c 

3 
o 



Groenlandicus 
arnabilis .... 
magus 



tumidus 
cinerarius . 
umbilicatus 
Duruinyi . 
lineatus . . . 
Montacuti . 
striatus . . . 



exasperatus 

millegranus 
granulatus 



zizyphinus . 

occidentals 
Pbasianella pulla 
Lacuna crassior 

divaricata . . 






_? 



9 



__9 



Extra-European localities. 



Sea of Okbotsk and botb sides 
of North America. 

Greenland and North-east 

America. 
Canaries. 
North Africa. 

Canaries. 

North Africa. 

North Africa, Madeira, and 

Canaries. 
North Africa, Canaries, and 

Azores. 
Greenland. 



North-east America. 

Sea of Okhotsk, Behring's 
Straits, Greenland, and 
North-east America. 

North-east America. 

Red Sea, North Africa, Ma- 
deira, Canaries, and Azores. 



North Africa. 
North Africa. 

North Africa. 
North Africa. 
North Africa, 

Canaries. 
North Africa, 



Madeira, and 
Madeira, Ca- 



naries, and Azores. 



and 



North Africa, Madeira 

Canaries. 
Canaries. 

North-east America. 
North Africa and Canaries. 
Sea of Okhotsk and Sitka I 
Greenland and both sides of 

North America. 



380 



TABLE OF DISTRIBUTION. 



Species. 



Gasteropoda {continued) 

Lacuna puteolus 

pallidula 

Littorina obtusata 

neritoides 

rudis 

litorea 



54 
Total 94 



a 

u 
o 



a 


f- h 


<u 


a fe 


*d 


ft.S 


o 


tss 


a. 


H 



51 



89 



9 



37 



74 



34 



64 



Extra-European localities. 



Greenland and North-east 
America. 

North Africa, Madeira, and 

Canaries. 
Both sides of North America, 
Greenland and North-east 

America. 



Of the above species (not taking into account doubt- 
ful cases of distribution) 71 may be considered north- 
ern as well as southern, 19 peculiarly northern, and 3 
peculiarly southern; this distribution is, of course, 
irrespective of their British habitat. One species (Pho- 
ladidea papyracea) has not yet been noticed on any 
foreign coast. Eight other species (viz. Thracia trim- 
cat a, Dentalium abyssorum, Piliscus commodus, Cyclo- 
strema costulatum, Trochus cinereus, T. olivaceas, T. 
elegantissimus, and Littorina UtoraJis or L. palliata) 
have been noticed in the present volume as occurring 
only in our newer tertiaries; all these still exist in high 
northern latitudes. Such recent species as are also 
enumerated as fossil in the list now given, comprise 15 
peculiarly northern, and but one peculiarly southern; 
the rest are common to both divisions. 



INDEX to VOL. III. 



The synonyms, as well as the names of spurious species, and of specie?, 
genera, and other groups winch are not described in this volume, are in 
italics. — The figures in smaller type refer to the page in which the description 
of species, genera, and higher groups will be found. 



Acanthochcetes vulgaris, Leach, 213. 
Acanthochites, Leach, 210. 

mieus, Risso, 213. 

carinatv.s, Eisso, 215. 

communis, Kisso, 215. 
Acanthophvra, Guild., 205, 210. 
Acephala, 201, 202. 
Acmcea, Esch., 246. 

testudinalis, F. & H., 246. 

virginea, F. & PL, 248. 
Adasius Loscombeus, Leach, 5. 
Adeorbis, Wood, 317. 

subcarinatus, 317. 

supranitida, Wood, 317. 

tricarinata, Wood, 317. 
Adesmacea, De Bl., 101. 
Agina, Turt., 77. 
Aloides, Muhlf., 55. 
Amphidesma corbuloides, Lam., 31. 

pkascolina. Lam., 38. 

truncata, Brown, 43. 
Amphisphyra, 204. 246. 
Anatina, Lam., 29, 32, 47. 
Anatina, Sch., 32. 

brevirostris, Brown, 55. 

intermedia, Clark, 38. 

longirostris, Lam., 52. 

myalis, Lam., 39. 

oblonga, Ph., 36. 

rupicola, Lam., 43, 

truncata, Lam., 36. 

truncata, Macg., 38. 

villosiuscula, Macg., 37. 
Anatina ? pusilla, Ph., 43. 
Anatinice, D'Orb., 28, 29, 32, 55. 
Anatomus, De Montf., 283. 
Anchomasa Pennantiana, Leach, 112. 
Ancylus, 254. 

fluviatilis, 235. 



Ancylus (continued). 

Qussonii, Costa, 249. 

lacustris, 235. 
Anodonta, 152. 
Anomia, 98. 

tabacca, Meusch., 28. 
Aporrhais, 201. 
Area, 98. 

Arcinella, Ok., 76. 
ArcineUa, Ph., 76. 
Arcinella, Sch., 76. 
Aspergillum, 90. 

Astarte sulcata, Tar. elliptica, 32. 
Auris, KL, 279. 

vulgaris, Kl., 281. 
Avicula, 23. 
Azor, Leach, 3. 

Balia perversa, 367. 
Barnea, Leach, 107. 

spinosa, Risso, 109. 
Biapholius, Leach, 77. 
Bontcea, Leach, 36. 
Bontia, Leach, 36. 
Brachiopoda, 184. 
Brunia delV oceano, Yall., 180. 
Buccinopsis Dalei, var. eburnea, 301. 
Buccinum un datum, 320, 325. 
Buccinum undatum, var. Zetlandica, 

27. 
Bulimi, 363. 
Bullidce, 200. 
Byssomya, Cuv., 77. 
Byssonia, De BL, 77. 
Bythinia tentaculata, 66. 

Cadmusia Solanderia, Leach, 118. 
Ccecum, 201. 
Calopodium, Bolt., 24. 



382 



INDEX. 



Cdhfptra, KX, 242, 273. 

canaria, Bon., 275. 
Calyptr^ea, Lam., 201, 254, 256, 
269, 273, 276. 

Chinensis. 269, 273, 275, 379. 

laevigata, Lam., 275. 

mamma, Ki\, 276. 

Polii, Sc, 276. 

Sinensis, F. & H., 273. 

succinea, Bisso, 276. 

vulgaris, Ph., 276. 
Calyptil£id;e, Brod., 272. 
Capulid^e Fl., 268, 272. 
Capulus, De Montf., 201, 265, 268, 
269. 

faUax] S. Wood, 272. 

Hungaricus, 269, 270, 379. 

militaris, 27 J, 272. 

militaris, Macg., 271. 

obliquus, S. Wood, 272. 
Cardita, 77. 
Cardium, 98, 216. 

edule, 66. 

striatum, fyc, Walk., 58. 
Carinaria, 200. 
Castanea tosta, D'Arg., 376. 
Cemoria, Leach., 256. 
Cemoria, Bisso, 256. 

Flemingiana, Leach, 258. 

Montaguana, Leach., 267. 

princeps, Migh. & Ad., 257. 
Ceratisolen, Forb., 2, 8, 9. 

legumen, 10, 376. 
Chesna, Betz, 90. 
Chama, 77. 

parva, Da Costa, 93. 

prcetennis, Petiver, 36. 
Chiton, L, 100, 203, 204, 205, 208, 
209, 213, 219, 222, 226, 229, 
235. 

abyssorum, Sars, 216, 285. 

achatinus, Brown, 227. 

albus, L., 210, 220, 378. 

albus, Pult,, 218. 

alveolus, Sars, 218. 

aselloides, Lowe, 221. 

ascttus, Sp., 218, 220. 

cancellatus, Leach?, 210, 217, 218, 
219, 378. 

cimex, Ch., 224. 

cimicinus, Landt., 224. 

cinerea, L., 218. 

cinereus, 210, 218, 219, 221, 224, 
378. 



Chiton {continued), 
cinereus, Laskey, 221. 
corallinus, Bisso, 227. 
Cranckianus, Leach, 227. 
crinitus, Penn., 213, 214, 215. 
dentiens, Gould, 222. 
discors, Mat. & Back., 227. 
discrepans, Brown, 210, 212, 213, 

214, 215, 378. 
Doria, Cap., 227. 
fascicularis, L., 210, 211, 213, 214. 

215, 378. 
Flemingms, Leach, 229. 
fulminatus, Couth., 229. 
fuscatu-s, Brown, 220, 224. 
focscatus, Leach, 220. 
gracilis, Jeffr, 212. 

Hanleyi, Bean, 210, 215, 216, 

285, 378. 
islandicus, 6m., 220. 
Icevigatus, FL, 229. 
lsevis. Penn., 210, 225, 226, 227, 

378. 
latus, Leach, 226. 
latus, Lowe, 226, 229. 
marginatum Penn., 206, 207, 210, 

221, 223, 224, 225, 378. 
marmoreus, Fabr., 209, 210, 225, 

227, 229, 378. 
minimus, Sp., 226. 
Nagelfar, Lov., 216, 285. 
nucUus, Lam., 56, 58. 
onyx, Sp., 220. 
oryza, Sp., 221. 
pieties, Bean, 229. 
punctatus, L., 224. 
punctatus, Turt., 223. 
punctatus, Str., 229. 
quinquevalvis, Brown, 224. 
Rissoi, Payr., 218, 219. 
ruber, L., 210, 224, 225, 226, 378. 
ruber, Turt., 223. 
sagrinatus, Couth., 221. 
Scotic2is, Leach, 220. 
septemvalvis, Mont., 227. 
strigillatus, S. Wood, 216. 
tuberculatus, Leach, 218. 
variegatus, Leach, 224. 
variegates, Ph., 224. 
Chitonid/e, Guild., 199, 203, 204. 
Chitons, 205, 210, 228. 
Cladopoda, Gr., 101. 
Clanculics, 312. 
Clausilia, 367. 



INDEX. 



383 



Clausilia (continued). 

biplicata, 367. 

rugosa, 367. 
Clavagella, 90. 
Clotho, Fauj., 77. 
Cochlea, 343. 

parva, Da Costa, 343, 350. 
Cochloclcsma, Couth., 34, 43. 

prcetenerum, S. Wood, 36. 

prcetenue, F. & H. 34. 
Cocklolepas antiquata, 272. 
Conchifera, 1, 123, ]84. 
ConidcB, 201. 
Conns, 201. 
Coramya, Leach, 77. 
Corbicula fluminalis, 317. 
Corbula, Brug., 44, 55, 59. 

costellata, Desh., 49, 51. 

cuspidata. Brown, 52. 

gibba, 56, 57, 58, 376. 

gramdata, Nyst & West, 45. 

labiata, 59. 

mediterranea, Costa, 58, 59. 

olympica, Costa, 58. 

ovata, Forb., dS. 

physoides, Desh., 58. 

rosea, Brown, 57. 

vitrea, Desh., 47. 

Waelii, Nyst, 51. 
Corbulacea, Hinds, 44. 
Corbulada, Flem., 43. 
Corbulre, 66. 
Corbulcsa, Latr., 44. 
Corbulees, Lam., 44. 
Corbulice, 43, 44. 
Crania anomala, 250. 
Crepidula plana, Say, 276. 

sinuosa, Turt., 276. 

unguiformis, Lam., 276. 
Crucibulum, Sch., 273. 

extinctorhim, 273. 
Ctenobranchiata, Gr., 201. 
Cultellus, Sch., 14. 
Cumingia parthenopcea, Tib.. 47. 
Cunens foliatus, Da Costa, 88. 
Cuspidaria, JSardo, 48. 

typica, Nardo, 55. 
Cyclobranchiata.Cuv.,199,zo3,235. 
Cyclostoma, 292. 
Cyclostrema, Fl., 287. 
Cyclostrema, Marr., 286. 
Cutlerianum, 287, 289, 379. 
nitens, Ph., 289, 379. 
serpuloides, 290, 297, 379. 



Cyclostrema (continued). 

costulatum. Mull., 291, 292, 380. 
Cylichna, 204, 246. 

alba, 301. 

cylindracea, 204. 

truacafa, 204. 
Cyprcea, 201, 271. 
Cyprcei'dce, 200. 
Cyrtosolen, Herrm., 3. 

Dactylina, Gr., 104. 
Belphinoidea, Brown, 287. 
Delphinula, De Roissj, 287, 317. 

Duminyi, Req., 315. 

tevis, Ph., 291. 

nitens, Ph., 289. 
Dclphionoidea, Brown, 287. 
Dextalia, 193, 194. 
Dextaliice. H. & A. Ad., 191. 
Dentalium. L., 132, 166, 171, 172, 
173, 186, 189, 191, 193, 198, 
207, 268. 

abyssorum, Sars, 197, 379. 

album, Turt., 198. 

attenuatum, Say, 197. 

bifissum, S. Wood, 171. 

clausum, Turt., 198. 

dent alls, Forb., 197. 

dental™, L., 196, 197. 

eburnewn, Turt., 198. 

entale, S. Wood, 197. 

entalis, L, 191, 192, 195, 196, 197, 
378. 

gadus, Mont., 198. 

Indianorum, P. Carp., 194. 

labiatum, Turt., 196. 

IcBve, Turt. 196. 

novemcostatum, Lam., 197. 

octangidatum, Don., 197. 

octogonum, Lam., 197. 

octokedra, Leach, 198. 

politum, Turt., 196. 

pretiosum, Nutt., 193. 

semipolitum, Brod. and Sow., 198. 

semistriatum, Turt., 198. 

semistriolatum, Guild., 198. 

striatulum, Turt., 197. 

striatum, Born, 196, 197. 

striatum, Mont., 196. 

striatum, J. Sm., 197. 

striolatum, St., 197. 

subidatum, Desh., 198. 

Tarentinum, Lam., 186, 192, 194, 
195, 196, 197, 378. 



381 



INDEX. 



Dentalium [continued). 

variabile, Desh., 198. 

vulgare, Da Costa, 196. 

vulgare, H. and A. Ad., 197. 
Didonta, Sch., 77. 
Diodora, Gr., 257. 
Bounces, 88. 
Doncuc, 77. 

Irus, L., 86. 
Borididce, 200. 

Emarginula, Lam., 257, 259, 266, 
282, 283. 

capuliformis, Ph., 263. 

conica, Sars, 261. 

conica, Sch., 261, 263. 

Cosfe, Tib., 263. 

crassa, J. Sow., 263, 264, 265, 379. 

curvirostris, Desh., 263. 

decussata, Ph., 264. 

fissura. 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 
264, 379. 

fissurata, Reel., 261. 

kevis, Reel., 261. 

Mulleri, Forb., 261. 

Miller ii, F. & H., 259. 

pilcolus, Mich., 263. 

reticulata, J. Sow., 259, 261, 262. 

rosea, Bell, 261, 262, 263, 379. 

rubra, Lam., 263. 

tenuis, Reel., 261. 
Embla, Lov., 45. 

Korenii, Lov., 47. 
Ensatella Europcea, Sow., 18. 
Ensis, Sch., 16. 

magnus, Sch., 18. 
Epheria, Leach, 343. 

Bulweriana, Leach, 348. 

Goodallii, Leach, 348. 
Erycina anodon, Ph., 43. 
Eucharis, Reel., 45. 
Eudora variant, Leach, 340. 
Eulima, 204, 246. 
Eutropia, Humphr., 337. 

Fissurella, Brug., 190, 265, 277, 
282, 283. 
cancellata, Gr., 267. 
cancellata, Gr. B. Sow., 267. 
Europcea, Sow., 267. 
Grreca, 256, 266, 268, 378. 
Listeri, Woodw., 267. 
nimhosa, Lam., 268. 
nimbosa, Ph., 268. 



Fissurella (continued). 

nubecula, L., 267, 268. 

occitanica, Reel., 267. 

Fhilippii, Req., 268. 

reticulata, F. & H., 266. 

rosea, Lam., 268. 

rosea, Ph., 268. 

striata, RecL, 267. 
Fissurelladcs, Fl.. 255. 
Fissurellid.e, Fl., 255, 256, 268, 

270, 276, 285. 
Fistulana, Brug., 90. 

corniformis, Lam., 171. 
Fusus, 201. 

Galaxura, Leach, 36. 
Galeomma, 29. 
Galerus, Humphr., 273. 
GASTEROPODA, 199, 201, 202, 

342. 
Gastroch.ena, Sp., 90, 91, 92. 94, 
138. 

cuneiformis, Lam., 93. 

cuneiformis, Phil., 93. 

dubia, 91, 92, 377. 

fulva, Leach, 93. 

modiolina, Lam., 91, 93. 

mumia, Sp., 90. 

pelagica, Risso, 93. 

Poiiana, Lam., 93. 

Polii, Lam., 93. 

tarentina, Costa, 93. 

GASTROCH.ENIDiE, Gr., 89. 

Gastrochina, Sw.. 90. 
Gibbula, Leach, 294, 305. 

lineata, Leach, 315. 

striata, Leach, 312. 
Glicimeris, Kl., 75. 
Glycimeris, 75. 

arctica, Lam., 81. 
Goniodoris nodosa, 275. 

Haliotid.e, Fl., 276, 285. 
Haliotides, 277. 

Haliotis, L., 194, 265, 277, 278, 
281, 282, 283, 293. 

tuberculata, L., 277, 279, 280, 379. 
Helcion, De Montf., 230, 242, 245. 

pectinatum, 245. 

pellucidum, 242, 377. 
Helices, 363. 
Helicidce, 200. 
Helix, 355. 

deprcssa, Mont., 287. 



INDEX. 



385 



Helix (continued). 

fasciata, Ad., 350. 

incarnata, 142. 

lacuna, Mont., 351. 

margarita, Lask., 297. 

nemoralis, 103. 

neritoidea, Delle Ch., 364. 

serpuloides, Mont., 287, 290. 

strigella, 142. 
Heteropoda, 200. 
Hiatella, Daud., 77. 
Hipponice, Defr., 271. 
Hipponyx, Defr., 271. 
Hyalcea (Carolina) tridentata, 167. 
Hydrobia ulvoe, 366. 
Hypogcea, Poli, 24, 104. 

crinita, Poli, 20. 

falcata, Poli, 18. 

gibba, Poli, 28. 

hirudo, Poli, 11. 

tentaculata, Poli, 22. 

verrucosa, Poli, 107. 

Ianfhina, 167. 
Mm, Forb., 246. 

Jouannetia, 115. 

Kellia, 69. 

Kupkus arenarius, 123, 156. 

Lacuna, Turt., 340, 343. 

albella, Lov., 348. 

crassior, 344, 345, 346, 348, 349, 
379. 

divaricate, 346, 348, 349, 379. 

frigida, Lov., 348. 

glacialis, Moll., 345. 

labiosa, Lov.. 348. 

Montacuti, Turt., 351. 

Montagui, Brown, 351. 

neritoidea, Gould, 352. 

pallidula, 350, 351, 380. 

patula, F. & H., 351. 

pertusa, Conr., 348. 

puteolus, Turt., 343, 348, 351, 380. 

■retusa, Brown, 353. 

solidida, Lov., 348. 

sulcata, Macg., 351. 

vincta, F. & H., 346. 
Leda, 300. 
Lepeta, Gr., 230, 251, 253. 

caeca, 251, 252, 379. 
Lepidopleurus, Leach, 210. 

VOL. III. 



Lepidopleurus (continued). 

carinatus, Leach, 224. 

punctulatus, Leach, 227. 
Ligula, Mont., 33. 

pubescens, Mont,, 38. 
Lima, 98. 
Limacidce, 200. 
Limapontia nigra, 66. 
Limapontiidce, 200. 
Limax arborum, 343. 
Limnma auricularia, 66. 

per eg r a, 66. 

stagnalis, 66. 
Limopsis aurita, 301. 
Lingula, 235. 

Litkopkaga dactylus, 102, 114. 
Litorina, Menke, 355. 
Littorina, Fer., 293, 339,341, 342. 
344, 354, 356, 363, 376. 

arctica, Moll., 361. 

Beanii, Macg., 358. 

communis, Th., 376. 

dispar, 376. 

groenlandica, Menke, 368. 

limata, Lov., 361. 

litoralis, F. & H., 356. 

litoralis, 359, 379. 

litorea, 359, 368, 370, 371, 372, 
373, 376, 380. 

marmorata, Pf., 366. 

melanostoma, Kryn., 364. 

neglecta, Bean, 366. 

neritiforma. Brown, 357. 

neritoides, 354, 361, 366, 375, 380. 

obtusata, 66, 352, 356, 359, 361, g 
367, 372, 380. 

palliata, F. & H., 357. 

palliata, 358, 359, 361, 379. 

patula, Jeffr., 365. 

rudis.354, 359, 361, 363, 364, 367, 
372, 376, 380. 

rudissima, Bean, 368. 

saxatilis, Johnst., 365. 

sexatilis, Brown, 366. 

Sitchana, Phil., 366. 

sulcata, Menke, 368. 

tenebrosa, F. & H., 365. 

vulgaris, Sow., 376. 

ziczah, 376. 

zonaria, Bean, 368. 
LiTTORix.E, 213, 341, 354, 355. 
Littorinid.e, Gr., 340, 343. 
Lophyrus, Poli, 206. 
Lottia, Gr., 246. 



386 



INDEX. 



Lutraria, 1. 

elliptica, 90. 
LroKsiA, Turt., 28, 29, 52. 

Norvegica, 29, 30, 35, 377. 

Macha, Oken, 3. 
Mactra solida, 27. 

solida, var. elliptica, 27. 
Mactridce, 32, 44. 
Magdala, Leach, 29. 
Mangelia, 204, 246. 
Margarita, Leach, 292, 294, 295, 
304. 

arctica, Gould, 297. 

arctica, Leach, 297. 

aurea, Brown, 305. 

cinerea, Couth., 307. 

elegantissima, Bean, 305. 

glauca, Moll., 305. 

helicoides, Beck, 297. 

olivacea, Brown, 305, 379. 

plicata, Sars, 305. 

polaris, Dan., 305. 

pusilla, Jeffr., 289. 

striata, Brod. & Sow., 304. 

undidata, Sow., 300. 

vulgaris, Leach, 297. 
Margarita ? costulata, Moll., 291. 
Margarita ? maculata, S.Wood, 303. 
Margarites diaphana, Leach, 297. 
Martesia, 115. 

striata, 111, 114. 
Medoria, Leach, 344. 

Danmoniensis, Leach, 346. 

Walkeri, Leach, 346. 
I Melania, 59. 
Meleagrince, 281. 
Mitra Hungarica, KL, 269. 
Mitrularia, Sch., 273. 
Molleria. Jeffr., 292. 

cegyptiaca, Lain., 312. 

cegyptiaca, Payr., 312. 
Monodonta articxdata, Lam., 320. 

Braparnaudi, Pa jr., 320. 

sitis, Keel., 320. 
Montacuta, 42. 

Moniagua Danmoniensis, Leach, 322. 
Mxirex erinaceus, 325. 

trunadus, 61. 
Muricida, 199, 311. 
Mya, L-, 1, 44, 60, 61, 63, 66, 69, 
75, 77, 101, 114. 

acuta, Say, 66. 

arctica, L., 82." ' 



Mya {continued). 

arenaria, L., 33, 61, 64, 65, 66, 
67, 74, 377. 

Binghami, 70, 72, 75, 76, 377. 

convexa, W. Wood, 39. 

declivis, Penn., 39. 

distorta, Mont., 41. 

dubia, Penn., 91. 

incequivalvis, Mont., 58. 

lata, J. Sow., 64. 

membranacea, Gm., 32. 

mercenaria, Say, 66. 

nitida, Fabr., 31. 

nitida, Mull., 31. 

Norvcgica, Ch., 29. 

norvegica, Sp., 78. 

ovalis, Turt., 70. 

pellucida, Brown, 31. 

Pholadia, Mont., 93. 

prmtenuis, Pult., 34. 

pubescens, Pult., 38. 

pullus, S. Wood, 70. 

punctulata, Ken., 38. 

rostrata, Sp., 51. 

striata, Mont., 31. 

truncata, Chier., 38, 68. 

truncata, L., 39, 66, 67, 68, 69, 
71, 72, 81, 377. 
Myadce, Flem., 60. 
Myatella Montagui, Brown, 31. 
MV1DJ2, 60, 101. 
Mytilus, 77, 91. 

Adriaticus, 255. 

ambiguus, Dillw., 93. 

carinatus, Brocchi, 76. 

edulis, 61, 66, 88, 103. 

modiolus, 80. 

pholadis, L., 82. 

plicatus, Mont., 75. 

pra>cisus, Mont., 82. 

rugostcs, L., 81. 

Nacella, Sch., 242. 
Nassa incrassata, 325. 

reticulata, 325. 
Nausitora Dunlopei, P. Wr., 147. 
Ne^era, 44, 47, 48, 

abbreviata, Forbes, 48, 49, 50, 
377. 

arctica, Sars, 55. 

attenuata, Forb., 52. 

Chinensis, Gr., 52. 

costellata, 49, 52, 377. 

cuspidata, 52, 53, 377. 



INDEX. 



387 



Ne.era {continued). 

renovata, Tib., 52. 

rostrata, 51, 53, 54, 55, 377. 

rostrato-costellata, Act., 51. 

sulcata, Lov., 51. 

vitrea, Lov., 49. 
Neara, Gr., 47. 
Nerita, 343, 361. 

littoral is, L., 360. 

littorea, Fabr., 368. 

pallididus, Da Costa, 351. 

reticulatus, Sfc, List., 367. 

rufa, Mont., 351. 
Neritina fluviatilis, 66, 120. 
Nucleobranchiata, De Bl., 200. 
Nucula, 300. 

sulcata, 117. 
Nudibranchiata, Cuv., 200. 
Nudibranchs, 1. 

Odmicincta, Da Costa, 34. 
Odostomia, 337. 

truncatida, 216. 
Opistkobranches, Milne-Edw., 200. 
Osteodesma, Desh., 29. 

elongata, Gr., 30. 

Paludina, 337. 

Pandora, Hwass, 23, 27, 29. 

flexuosa, Ph., 28. 

g facialis, Leach, 28. 

oblong a, Ph., 28. 

obtusa, Leach, 24, 25, 26. 

incequivalvis, 24, 25, 26, 27, 377. 

margaritacea, Lam., 27. 

rostrata, Lam., 24, 26, 28. 

Pandora ? csquivalvis, Ph., 32. 
Pandorid.e, Gr., 22, 23, 28. 
Pandorina, Sc 29. 
Panopcea, Goldf., 1, 75. 

Bivoncs, Ph., 81. 

Middendorffii, A. Adams, 81. 

Norvegica, 74, 78. 

Spengleri, Valeria, 81, 
Panopea, Men., 74, 75. 

Aldrovandi, 74. 

australis, 74. 

glycimeris, 74, 77, 79. 

glycymeris, 75. 

placata, 75, 377. 

Norvagica, 60. 
Panopia, Sw., 75. 
Panopoea, Nyst, 75. 
Parapholas, 115. 



Parapholas (continued). 
ovoideus, Gould, 115. 
Patella, List., 95, 97, 189, 190, 204, 
209, 229, 230, 233, 234, 235, 
242, 245, 246, 253, 266, 277. 

(squalis, J. Sow., 249. 

albida, Don., 275. 

amcena, Say, 248. 

anomala, L., 235. 

apertura, Mont., 267. 

^s?W2, Midd., 249. 

aspera, Ph., 238. 

atkletica, Bean, 237. 

bimaculata, Mont., 245. 

Bonnardi, Payr., 237. 

cesca, MiilL, 252. 

carulea, L., 245. 

caruka, Mont., 245. 

Candida, Couth., 253. 

cerea, MiilL, 253. 

Chinensis, L., 273. 

Clealandi, Couch, 248. 

Clealandi, Sow., 248. 

Clealandiana, Leach, 248. 

clypeus, Brown, 248. 

cornea, Mich., 245. 

crepidula, L., 276. 

depressa, Gm., 237. 

depressa, Penn., 237. 

equestris, L., 273. 

extinctorium, Turt, 235. 

fissura, L., 259, 261. 

fissurella, Mull., 258. 

Forbesii, Sm., 251. 

fulva, Mull., 250. 

grcsca, L., 266, 267. 

intorta, Penn., 245. 

Icevis, Penn., 243. 

larva, reticulata, Da Costa, 267. 

minima, Gm., 249. 

minor, Wall., 245. 

muricata, Brocchi, 275. 

Noachina, L., 257. 

orbiculata, Walk., 235. 

parva, Da Costa, 249. 

pectinata, L., 245. 

pellucida, L., 242. 

pellucida, Ph., 250. 

pileolus, Midi, 249. 

Pileus Morionis major, Da Costa. 
271. 

pulchelfa, Forb., 250. 

squamidata, Ren.. 275. 
Tarentina, Lam., 237. 



388 



INDEX. 



Patella {continued), 
tessellata, Mull., 248. 
tessulata, Miill., 248. 

tcstudinalis, Miill., 246. 

testudinaria, L., 248. 

testudinaria, Miill., 248. 

tricornis, Turk, 235. 

ungarica, L., 269. 

unguis, L., 235. 

virginea, Miill., 248. 

vulgaris, Bel., 241. 

vulgata, L., 231, 236, 371, 378. 

Zetlandica, Fl., 258. 
Patella? Ancyloides, Forb., 254. 

exigua, Forb., 255. 
Patelladce, Guild., 229. 
Patella, 354. 
Patellid^e, Guild, 199, 229, 255, 

268. 
Patelloidea, Quoy & Gaim., 246. 
Patelloides vitrea, Cantr., 250. 
Patellus, De Montf., 235. 
Patina, Leach, 242. 
Pecten, 98. 

maximus, 90. 
PECTINIBRANCHIATA, Cuv., 

199, 229. 
PellibrancMata, Aid. & Hanc, 200. 
Peloris, 114. 
Periploma, Sch., 36. 

myalis, Coll.. 36. 
Petricola lithophaga, 58. 
Pharella, Gr., 9. 
Pharus, Leach, 9. 
Phasianella, Lam., 337, 339, 341. 

bifasciata, Brown, 348. 

cornea, Brown, 348. 

fasciata, Brown, 348. 

pulchella, Reel., 341. 

pulla, 338, 339, 379. 

pullus, F. & H., 338. 

striata, Brown, 348. 
Pkoladacea, Tryon, 90. 
Pholadaires, Lam., 90. 
Piiolades, 26, 94, 98, 99, 100, 101 , 

134. 
Piioladilve, Gray, 89, 90, 93, 94, 95, 

100, 119, 122, 123, 156. 
Pholadidea, Good., 93, 95, 100, 114, 
115, 116,119. 

Goodallii, De Bl., 118. 

Loscombiana, Good., 118. 

papyracea, Turk, 116, 378, 380. 
Pholadidoides Anglicanus, 118. 



Pholas, L., 61, 63, 94, 95, 96, 
97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 
104, 106, 111, 114, 115, 118, 
119, 130, 136, 138, 149, 151. 
152, 166. 

bifrons, Da Costa, 114. 

callosa, Lam., 112. 

Candida, L., 94, 99, 107. 110, 111. 
378. 

candidus, L., 107. 

clavata, Lam., 114. 

conoides, Pars., 114. 

crenulatus, Sol., 112. 

crispata, L., 89, 94, 98, 109, 111, 
ii2,117, 118,378. 

cylindrica, J. Sow., 109. 

dactyloides, Delle Ch., 109. 

dactyloides, Lam., 112. 

dactylus, L., 84, 103, 104, 106, 
107, 108, 109, 112,378. 

faba, Pulk, 93. 

Mans, Brocchi, 93. 

Mans, Ch., 93. 

Mans, Pulk, 107. 

lamellata, Turk, 118. 

ligamentina, Desh., 112. 

lignorum, Rumph., 114. 

muricatus, Da Costa, 107. 

nanus, Sol., 114. 

papyracea, Turk, 116, 117. 

papyraceus, Sol., 109, 118. 

parva, 108, 109, 111, 112, 378. 

parvus, Penn., 109. 

pusilla, L., 93, 114. 

pusilla, Poli, 93. 

pypyraceus, Sol., 118. 

sulcata, Brown, 114. 

teredo. Miill. & Fabr., 166, 180. 

Teredula, Pall., 181. 

vibonensis, Ph., 113. 

xylophaga, Desh., 122. 
PholeoSia, Leach, 77. 
Phyllidia, 235. 
Physa fontinalis, 66. 
Pileopsis, Lam., 269. 

Hungaricus, F. & H., 269. 
Pilidium, F. & H., 246, 253. 

fulvum, F. & H., 250. 
Piliscus commodus, Midd., 272, 379. 
Pinna, 2. 

rudis, 250. 
PleurobrancMata, Gr., 200. 
Pleurotoma, 283, 329. 
Pleurotomaria, 282. 



INDEX. 



389 



Pleurotomatida, 201. 
Polyplaxiphora, De BL, 203. 
Poromya, Fork, 44, 46. 

anatinoides, Forb., 46. 

granulata, 45, 46, 377. 
Proboscidifera, Gr., 201. 
Propilidium, F. & H., 230, 252, 253. 

Ancyloide, F. & H., 254. 

ancyloides, 254, 379. 
PROSOBRANCHES, Milne-Edw., 

200. 
Psaiyimobia, 1, 4, 98. 

scopula, Turk, 5. 

taniata, Turk, 7. 
Pulmonobranchiata, Sow., 200, 355. 
Puncturella, Lowe, 254, 256, 257, 
265, 266, 282. 

Noachina, 257, 258, 260, 379. 
Pupa, 356. 

Rhomboides, De BL, 77. 
Rhombus, De BL, 77. 
Simula, Defr., 256. 

Flemingii, Macg., 258. 
Bissoa, 287, 342. 

Zetlandica, 287. 
Rissoce, 342. 
Rocellaria, FL, 90. 
Rostrifera, Gr., 201. 
Rupicola, FL, 43. 

concentrica, Reel., 43. 

Salpce, 1. 

Saxicava, Fleur., 60, 72, 74, 77, 81, 
84, 134, 138. 

arctica, F. & H., 82, 85. 

fragilis ?, Nyst, 76. 

Norvegica, 78, 80, 85, 377. 

rugosa, 26, 33, 71, 77, 81, 84, 87, 
89, 377. 

rugosa, young ?, F. & H., 75. 
Saxicava, 69, 72, 80, 84, 86. 
SAxicAviDiE, Sw., 72, 73, 89. 
Scalaria, 337. 

Schismope, Jeffr., 257, 282, 283. 
Scissurella, D'Orb., 257, 259, 282, 
283. 

angulata, Lov., 285. 

aspera, Ph., 285. 

crispa, Sow., 285. 

crispata, FL, 282, 283, 285, 379. 
Scissurella. 283. 

SCISSURELLID.E, Gr., 282. 

Serpula Teredo, Da Costa, 174. 



Siliquaria, 283. 

bidens, Ch., 7. 
Sipho, Brown, 257. 

radiata, Brown, 267. 

striata, Brown, 258. 
Siphonium, Browne, 167. 
Siphonobranchiata, Goldf., 199, 256, 

311. 
Siphonodentalium vitreum, Sars, 190. 
Skenea, FL, 287, 337. 

Cutleriana, CL, 287. 

divisa, FL, 291. 

Serpidoides, Macg., 309. 
Skenea} Cutleriana, F. & H., 287. 

divisa, F. & H., 290. 

Icevis, F. & H., 289. 
Solarium, 317. 

turbinoides, Nyst, 303. 
Solecurtus, De BL, 2, 3, 8. 

antiquatus, 3, 6, 377. 

candidus, 3, 6, 7, 377. 

coarctatus, F. & H., 6. 

strigilatus, L., 3, 5, 6, 7. 
Solen, 1,2, 8, 11, 77,94. 

albicans. Chier., 5. 

antiquatus, Pulk, 6. 

candidus, Ren., 3, 5. 

caribbaus, Lam., 8. 

centralis, Say, 8. 

coarctatus, Gm., 7. 

crispus, Gm., 114. 

cultellus, L., 7. 

cultellus, Penn., 7. 

curvus, List., 18. 

declivis, Turk, 8. 

divisus, Sp., 7. 

ensiformis, S. Wood, 18. 

ensis, L., 2, 16, 18, 19, 377. 

fragilis, Pulk, 7. 

gibbus, Sp., 8. 

gladiolus, Gr., 20. 

gladius, Bolt., 20. 

Guineensis, Ch., 8. 

legumen, L., 9, 10. 

ligula, Turk, 19. 

marginatus, Pulk, 20, 22. 

minutus, L., 82. 

multistriatus, Se., 4. 

novacula, Mont., 19. 

pellucidus, Penn., 2, 8, 14, 18, 19, 
376. 

pellucidus, Sp., 16, 377. 

pinna, Mont., 28. 

pygm&us, Lam., 16. 



390 



INDEX. 



Solen (continued). 

siliqua, L., 18, 20, 21, 22, 377. 

tenuis, Ph., 15. 

truncata, W. Wood, 22. 

vagina, L., 20, 21, 22, 377. 
Solenid^e, Latr., 1. 
SoJenoconches, Lacaze-Duth., 185. 
SOLENOCONCHIA, Lacaze-Duth., 

185. 
Solenocurtis, Sw., 3. 
Solenocurtus, Sow., 3. 
Sph(snia Binghami, F. & H., 70. 
Sphenia, Turk, 60. 

Binghami, Turk, 70, 84. 

cylindrica, S. Wood, 76. 

Swainsoni, Turk, 70. 

Swainsonii, Lov., 70. 
Spirula australis, 167. 
Stomatia, 281. 

Tapes, 86. 

decussatus, 88. 

pullastra var. perforans, 72. 85. 
Tectura, Cuv., 230, 245, 246, 252. 

fulva, 250, 251, 252, 253, 379. 

testudinalis, 246, 248, 251, 378. 

virginea, Mull., 248, 251, 378. 
Tecture, Cuv., 245, 246. 
Tellina, 156. 

balthica, 66. 

Cornubiensis, Penn., 88. 

coruscans, Sc, 32. 

cuspidata, 01., 53. 

fragilis, L., 38. 

fragilis, Penn., 38. 

fragilissima, Chier., 36. 

gibba, 01., 56. 

incequivalvis, L., 23, 24. 

naticuta, Chier., 51. 

papyracea, Poli, 36. 

partkenopaa, Delia Ch., 58. 
Temina, Leach. 344. 

rufa, Leach, 351. 

Turtoniana, Leach, 351. 

variabilis, Leach, 351. 
Terebratula, 93, 209. 

caput-serpentis, 304. 
Teredarius, Dum., 167. 
Teredines, 73, 132, 133, 134, 135, 
139, 144, 145, 147, 158, 160, 167. 
Teredinid^, Flem., 90, 100, 119, 

122, 123. 
Teredo, Sell., 90, 94, 95, 96, 100, 
101,115,116,119,122,123-138, 



Teredo (continued). 

140-142, 144-146, 148-152, 154, 

156-163, 165, 166, 170, 178,181, 

183, 192. 
batavus, Sp., 174. 
bipalmata, Delle Ch., 184. 
bipalmulata, Delle Ch., 184. 
bipartita, 183. 
bipennata, Turk, 182. 
bipinnata, Flem., 183. 
bipinnata, Turk, 167, 181, 182. 
Bruguierii, Delle Ch., 171. 
communis, Osl., 171. 
cucullata, 167, 182, 183. 
denticulata, Gr., 181. 
Beskaii, Quatr., 171. 
dilatata, St., 179, 180. 
divaricata, Desh., 169. 
excavata. 167, 1S3. 
fatalis, Quatr., 171. 
fimbriata, 183, 184. 
fusticulus, 183. 

malleolus, Turk, 167, 179, 181, 182. 
marina, Sell., 130, 171. 
megotara, Hani., 130, 157, 167, 

170, 172, 176, 180, 182, 378. 
minima, De Bl., 127, 170, 184. 
navalis, Gm., 171. 
navalis, L., 127, 130, 131, 140, 

144, 155, 156, 157, 163, 171, 

173, 174, 175, 179, 180, 184, 

378. 
navalis, Moll., 180. 
navalis, Sell., 173. 
navis, L., 173. 
navium, Sell., 171. 
navhim, Vail., 130. 
nigra, De BL, 171. 
norvagica, F. & H., 130, 168. 
norvagicus, Sp., 168. 
Norvegica, Sp., 128, 131, 139, 148, 

149, 157, 168, 171, 172, 173, 

175, 179, 180, 181, 378. 
oceani, Sell., 180. 
oceani, Vail.. 130. 
palmulata, F. & H. 183. 
palmulata, Ph., 184. 
palmidatus, Lam., 183. 
pedicellata, Quatr., 132, 139, 145, 

148, 174, 175, 378. 
pedicellatus, Quatr., 174. 
pennatifera, De BL, 183. 
Philippii, Turk, 184. 
Sellii, Van der Hoev., 174. 



INDEX. 



391 



Teredo {continued). 

Senegalensis, De Bl., 147, 171. 

Senegalensis, Laur., 171. 

serratus, Desh., 184. 

spatha. 183. 

Stutchburii, 156, 182, 183. 

subericola, 179. 

vulgaris, Lam., 174. 
Tergipes Jacinulatus, 66. 
Thracia, Leach, 29, 32, 33, 34, 42, 
45,46, 52,61. 

brevis, Desh., 43. 

convexa, 39, 46, 377. 

corbuloides, Desh., 43. 

declivis, Macg., 41. 

distorta, 33, 34, 38, 40, 41, 72, 377. 

elongata, Ph.. 43. 

fabula, Ph., 43. 

Montagui, Leach, 39. 

myopsis, Beck, 43. 

ova/is, Ph., 43. 

ovata, Brown, 38. 

papyracea, 36, 38, 39, 68, 377. 

phaseolina, F. & H., 36. 

prsetenuis, 34, 37, 377. 

pubescens, 38, 39, 377. 

Scheepmakeri, Dunk., 41. 

truncata, 43, 380. 

ventricosa, Ph., 41. 

villosiuscula, F. & H., 37. 
Thracle, 41. 
Trapezium, Miihlf., 90. 
Tricolia, Kisso, 337. 
Trochi, 325. 
Trochid^e, D'Orb., 199, 282, 286, 

337. 
Trochita, Sch., 273. 
Trochocochlea, KX, 294, 295, 317. 
Trochoidea, D'Orb., 283. 
Trochotoma, 282. 

Trochus, Bond., 285, 286, 292, 293, 
294, 312, 319, 322, 325, 343. 

Agafhensis, Reel., 313. 

alabastrum, Beck, 333. 

amabilis, Jeffr., 294, 300, 304, 379. 

cinerarius, Born, 3 J 2. 

cinerarius, Fabr., 299. 

cinerarius, L., 286, 294, 309, 313, 
314,315,318. 379. 

cinerarius, 01., 312. 

cinerarius, Pult., 315. 

cinerarius, Tar. conica, 325. 

cinereus, 304, 379. 

cinereus, Da Costa, 312. 



Trochus {continued). 
Chlandi, W. Wood, 327. 
Clelandiana, Leach, 327. 
conicus. Don., 323. 
conuloides, Lam., 332. 
conulus, Da Costa, 325. 
coyndus, L., 325, 332, 333. 
Cranchianus, Leach, 332. 
crassus, Pult., 317, 320, 371. 
crenulatus, Brocchi, 325. 
crenulatus, Lam.. 325. 
Oyrn&us, Eeq., 322. 
depictus, Desh., 323. 
discrepans, Brown, 331. 
divaricatus, Fabr., 346, 348. 
divaricatus, L., 347. 
Duminji, 315,379. 
electissimus, Bean, 311. 
elegans, Jeffr., 327. 
elegantissimus, 304, 379. 
elegantulus, 304. 
elegantulus, Jeffr., 304. 
erythroleucos, Gm., 323. 
exasperatus, Penn., 324, 379. 
exiguus, Pult., 324, 325. 
exilis, Ph., 288. 
formosus, Forb., 333, 336. 
jragilis, Gm., 330. 
fragilis, Pult., 330. 
fuscus, Walk., 309. 
granulatus, Born, 327, 329, 330, 

379. 
granosus, S. Wood, 329. 

Grcenlandicus, 298, 299, 379. 
grbnlandicus, Ch., 298. 

helicinus, Fabr., 295, 296, 298, 
379. 

helicinus, Gm., 297. 

in flatus, Brown, 300. 

irregularis, Leach, 332. 

Icevigata, J. Sow., 331. 

lineatus, 294, 295, 317, 320, 371, 
379. 

lineatus, Da Costa, 312. 

lineatus, Lam., 320. 

linearis, Pult., 320. 

littoralis, Brown, 312. 

Lyonni, Leach, 331. 

magus, L., 305, 306, 379. 

margaritus, Gr., 297. 

Martini, Sm., 327. 

Matonii, Payr., 325. 

miliaris, Brocchi, 327. 

millegranus, Ph., 325, 327, 379. 



392 



INDEX. 



Trochus (continued). 

Montacuti, 320, 321, 323, 379. 

Montagui, W. Wood, 320. 

Isassaviensis, Ch., 309. 

obliquatus, Gm., 315. 

occidentalis, Migh., 294, 333, 379. 

papillosus, Da Costa, 339. 

parvus, Ad., 332. 

parvus, Da Costa, 323. 

patholatus, Gm., 309. 

perforatus, Brown, 312. 

PMlberti, Keel., 312. 

polymorphus, Cantr., 332. 

punctulatus, De Bl., 320. 

pusillus, F. & H., 289. 

pyramidatus, Lam., 325. 

quadricinctus, S. Wood, 336. 

Backetti, Payr., 309. 

Sisyphinus, Maeg., 332. 

sitis, Keel., 320. 

striatus, L., 304, 317. 322, 323, 
324, 325, 379. 

tenuis, Mont., 330. 

tuberculatus, Da Costa, 307. 

tumidus, Mont., 294, 307, 379. 

umbilicaris, L., 315. 

umbilicaris, Penn., 315. 

umbilicatus, L., 294, 312, 314, 316, 
379. 

undulatus, F. & H., 298. 

Vahlii, 294. 

varius, L., 312. 

Zezyphinus, Ch., 332. 

ziczak, Ch., 376. 

Ziziphinus, Mont., 332. 

Zizvphimis, L., 27, 330, 332, 333, 
336, 379. 

Zyziphinus, Born, 332. 
Trutina, Brown, 24. 

solenoides, Brown, 28. 
Tubulus antalis, Mont., 194. 
Turbinid^e, Fl., 292, 337. 
Turbo, 341, 343. 

auricularis, Mont., 349. 

Basterotii, Payr., 364. 

carulescens, Lam., 364. 

calcar, Mont., 341. 

canalis, Mont., 347. 

carinata, Gr., 182. 

carneus, Lowe, 299. 

castanea, Gm., 341. 

crassior, Mont., 344. 

dispar, Mont., 376. 

dsrrsalis, Turt., 120. 



Turbo (continued). 

expansus, Brown, 361. 

fabalis, Turt., 357. 

fuscus, Mull., 299. 

incarnatus, Couth., 300. 

inflatus, Tott., 297. 

jugosus, Mont., 365. 

labiatus, Brown, 366. 

Lemani, Delle Ch., 364. 

lineatus, Da Costa, 312, 317. 

littoralis, Baster, 376. 

littoreus, L., 368, 371. 

mammillatus, Don., 341. 

moniliferus, Nyst, 303. 

navalis, Sp., 183. 

neritoides, L., 361. 

neritoides, Pult., 361. 

neritoideus, 01., 297. 

obligatus, Say, 366. 

obtusatus, L., 356. 

palliatus, Say, 361. 

pallidus, Don., 346. 

patrceus, Mont., 364. 

petreus, Fl., 364. 

petricola, Leach, 364. 

pictus, Da Costa, 341. 

pullus, L., 338. 

puteolus, Turt., 348, 351. 

quadrifasciatus, Mont., 347. 

retusus, Lam., 361. 

rudis, Mat., 364. 

rugosus, L., 341. 

sanguineus, L., 305. 

saxatilis, 01., 366. 

sulcatus, Leach, 365. 

tenebrosus, Mont., 361, 365. 

ventricosus, Brown, 366. 

vestitus, Say, 366. 

vinctus, Mont., 348. 
TurbonidcB, Fl., 337. 
Turritella, 337. 

Uperotus, Guett., 90. 

Valvata? striata, Ph., 317. 
Velutina Icevigata, 275. 
Venerupes, 86. 
Venerufis, Lam., 85, 86, 87. 

decussata, Ph., 88. 

Irus, 84, 85, 86, 88, 378. 

Lajonkairii, Payr., 88. 
Venus, 77, 98, 294. 

Bottarii, Ren., 88. 

canmllata, L., 88. 



INDEX. 



393 



Venus (continued). 

cancellata, 01., 88. 

fluctuosa, 59. 

gallina, 27. 

gallina var. laminosa, 27. 

gallina var. striatula, 27. 

lamellata, 88. 

sinuosa, Penn., 43. 

striata, Humphr., 88. 
Vermetus, 201. 



Vitrina, 265. 

Xylophaga, Turt.,93, 100, 118, 119, 
122. 
dorsalis, 120, 378. 
Xylopkagus, G-ron., 167. 

Zirpkaa, Leach, 112. 
Ziziphinus, Leach, 294, 304, 320. 

alabastrites, Gr., 336. 

vulgaris, Gr., 332. 



EXPLANATION OE PLATES. 





Frontispiece. 






Teredo Norvegica. 






Plate I. 




Fig. 1. 
2. 


Solecurtus antiquatus. 
Ceratisolen legumen. 


Fig. 3. 
4. 


Solen siliqua. 
Pandora incequivalvis. 




Plate II. 




Fio- 1 
2. 
3. 


Lyonsia Norvegica. 
Thracia papyracea. 
Poromya granulata. 


Fig. 4. 
5. 


Necera cuspidata. 
Corbula gibba. 




Plate III. 




Fio- 1 

x i D . X. 

2. 
3. 


Mya truncata. 
Panopea plicata. 
Saxicava rugosa. 


Fie- 4 
5. 


Venerupis Irus. 
Gastrochcena dubia. 




Plate IV. 




Fig. 1. 
l a 
2. 


Pholas dactylus. 
. P. parva. 
Pholadidea papyracea. 


Fig. 3. 
4. 


Xylophaga dorsalis. 
Teredo Norvegica. 




Plate V. 




Fig. 1. 
l a 
2. 
3. 


Dentalium entalis. 
D. Tarentinum. 
Chiton fascicidaris. 
Patella vidgata. 


Fig. 4. 
5. 
6. 


Helcion pellucidiim. 
Tectura virginea. 
Lepeta cceca. 




Plate VI. 




Fig. 1. 
2. 
3. 


Propilidnim ancyloides. 
Puncturella Noachina. 
Emarginula Jissura. 


Fig. 4. 
5. 
6. 


Fissurella Grceca. 
Capulus Hungaricus. 
Calyptrcea Chinensis. 




Plate VII. 




Fig. 1. 
2. 


Haliotis tuberculata. 
Scissnrella crispata. 


Fig. 3. 
4. 


Cyclostrema serpidoides 
Trochus zizyphinus. 




Plate VIII. 




Fig. 1. 
2. 


Phasianella pulla. 
Lacuna divaricata. 


Fig. 3. 


Littorina litorea. 



END OP VOL. III. 



PIUXTED BY TAYLOU AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



Plate I 




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I. Sole-cu. rt. us. 



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Vol. 6. 




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Vol.3 




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