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Author of " The Diseases of Dogs" " The Diseases of Horses, 





WHEN reminded by the Publisher that a dozen or so lines of Preface 
were needful in introducing " British Dogs " to the public, the following 
questions were forcibly presented to my mind : First, whether the book 
should have been written ; and, secondly (given the necessity for it) 
whether I should have undertaken the work. 

Both these questions I propose handing over to the reader for solution, 
as I fear I might not be altogether an unprejudiced judge; and in doing 
so I trust to his good nature to treat leniently all faults, and to his good 
sense to assimilate whatever may be found worthy. 

The object aimed at has been to give, as far as obtainable, a sketch 
of the origin of each breed, and an accurate description of the points 
of excellence of each variety as demanded by modern taste. 

Only the initiated know the minute distinctions between breeds and 
individual dogs, patent to the subtle discrimination of the present-day 

My fitness, if fitness there be, to convey this class of information 
much sought after nowadays has been acquired as canine critic for 
The Field, as kennel editor of The Country, and as a judge at shows, 

iv Preface. 

in which capacities I have visited many of the great exhibitions of the 
canine species in France, Germany, and America, as well as all the 
principal ones in the United Kingdom, where I have had exceptional 
opportunities of enlarging a knowledge of my favourite animals, which 
I had all my life been accumulating. 

There are parts of the book I can refer to with unqualified pleasure 
and unstinted praise, namely, the chapters contributed by the friends 
who have so kindly and ably assisted me. These contributions are in all 
cases accredited to the individual authors, and the views expressed must 
command, as they well deserve, the respect which the great experience 
of the writers' merits. 

The illustrations are from life, celebrated " Dogs of the Day" having 
been selected, and the artists have, in most instances, succeeded in 
giving very correct delineations, showing the distinguishing character- 
istics of each breed. 



INTRODUCTORY - - - 1 10 

Dogs Used in Field Sports. 

KILL. Including The Greyhound, the Scotch Deerhotuid, 
the Irish Wolf hound, the Scotch Rough-haired Greyhound, 
the Lurcher, the Whippet, the Siberian Wolfhound, the 
Persian Greyhound 13 49 

KILL. Including The Bloodhound, the Foxhound, the 
Otterhound, the Harrier, the Beagle, the Basset, the 
Dachshund, the Schweisshund - - - - - 50 102 

The English Setter, the Irish Setter, the Gordon or Black 
and Tan Setter, the Spanish Pointer, the Pointer, the 
Dropper 103133 

RETRIEVING GAME. Including The Black Spaniel, the 
Cocker Spaniel, the Clumber Spaniel, the Sussex Spaniel, 
the Norfolk Spaniel, the Irish Water Spaniel, the English 
Water Spaniel, the Black Wavy-coated Retriever, the 
Black Curly-coated Retriever, the Norfolk Retriever, the 
Russian Retriever 134 171 

vi. Contents. 

The History of Dog Shows, Objects and Management of 
Dog Shows, the Judges : their Election, &c., Judging by 
Points, Standard of Excellence 172192 


Dogs Useful to Man in other Work than Field Sports. 

HIS WORK. Including The Scotch Colley, the Smooth- 
coated Colley, the Bearded Colley, the English Bob-tailed 
Sheepdog or Drover's Dog, the Esquimaux Dog, the 
Truffle Dog 195217 

The Bulldog, the Mastiff, the St. Bernard, the Newfound- 
land, the Landseer Newfoundland, the Dalmatian, the 
Thibet Mastiff, the Great Dane, the German Boarhound, 
the Bulldogs of Spain and the Continent - - - 218 288 

The Fox Terrier, the Wire-haired Fox Terrier, the 
Dandie Dinmont Terrier, the Bedlington Terrier, the Black 
and Tan Terrier, the Skye Terrier, the Bull Terrier, the 
Scotch Terrier, the Irish Terrier, the White English Ter- 
rier, the Airedale or Bingley Terrier, the Aberdeen Ter- 
rier, Dog Showing, Standard of Excellence - - - 289 392 


House and Toy Dogs. 

ALREADY DESCRIBED. Including The Blenheim Spaniel, 
the King Charles Spaniel, the Pug, the Pomeranian, the 
Poodle, the Maltese Terrier, the Yorkshire Terrier - 395436 

Contents. vii. 

OUR SHOWS. Including The Italian Greyhound, the 
Black and Tan Toy Terrier, the Blue and Tan Toy Terrier, 
the White Toy Terrier, the Long-haired Toy Terrier, the 
Japanese Pug, the Broken-haired Toy Terrier, the Chinese 
Crested Dog, the Chinese Edible Dog, Exhibiting Toy Dogs, 
Training Pet Dogs, Standard of Excellence for Toy 
Dogs 437450 


Breeding, Rearing, and General Management of Dogs. 


of Breeding, Breeding, Bearing, General Management - 453 487 



FEW subjects, and certainly no animal, has been treated with so much 
written eloquence as the Dog, nor do we grudge the lavish encomiums 
heaped upon him, for they are well deserved. 

That we do not follow in the usual course pursued by writers on this 
subject there are several reasons. First, the felt want of ability to give 
expression to our views and feelings in language at once sufficiently 
laudatory and appropriate ; secondly, that the several writers who have 
assisted in compiling this book may be trusted to do justice to the 
breeds they treat of in better terms than we can ; and, lastly, that as the 
book is intended to be in great part descriptive of the varieties as seen 
and classified at our dog shows, and therefore a practical work, both for 
the experienced exhibitor and the tyro whose love for the dog needs no 
stimulus, panegyrics on his good qualities are not needed. 

In carrying out our purpose, we have, on a plan we will presently 
more fully explain, grouped the dogs, and, as far as possible, given a full, 
minute, and accurate description of each variety as it at present exists 
and is recognised at our principal dog shows, and illustrated these 
descriptions by faithful portraits of dogs of the day that are acknowledged 
by the highest authorities to be true representatives of their class. 

The subdivision of classes is now so great, and the points that separate 
one from another in some cases so minute, that an illustration in 
very case is needless, but wherever a sufficient difference of type to 

B 2 

British Dogs. 

require it exists, we have called in the aid of the artist to explain our 
meaning. The pencil greatly assists the pen in showing the difference 
between closely allied breeds, and in this the several artists have in most 
cases been eminently successful. 

No book on dogs would be complete without some notice of the 
history and development of the various breeds, as far as it can be traced 
by direct testimony or fair inference, but we have not attempted that 
well-trodden ground which has hitherto proved so barren, and discussed 
the vexed question of the origin of the dog, which remains to the present 
time hopelessly obscure, and surrounded with the entanglements of con- 
tradictory opinions waiting to be unravelled by a Darwin or a Wallace. 

In reference, however, to the origin of the very great number of 
varieties which exist, and are ever increasing, we may in many instances 
hazard a speculation which may be accepted or rejected at the reader's 

We cannot accept the theory propounded by a recent writer that each 
country or district had a peculiar type of wild dog created for it from 
which the various breeds of domesticated dogs have sprung. Varieties 
can, we think, be accounted for more reasonably and more in accord with 
the result of modern research. 

Whoever would write the history of dogs must write the history of 
man, for in periods as remote as history reaches we find this animal 
associated with him as his useful servant. When or how the close 
intimacy sprung up which mutual advantage has -kept and improved 
century after century, it may be impossible, with accuracy, to determine ; 
but when we consider the extraordinary capacity for service natural to 
the dog, his wonderful scenting powers, his great speed, his strength 
and endurance, his marvellous cunning, his indomitable courage, his 
power of arranging, and facility in carrying out a preconcerted attack on 
his prey, we see a combination of qualities in the dog of the greatest 
value to man in his most primitive state, which man's superior intelligence 
would quickly perceive and lead him to wish to appropriate to his own 
use, and possibly the conquest was rendered easy by a natural instinct in 
the lower animal to trust, love, and serve him. At least in favour of 
this we have the fact, which applies with more or less force to all breeds, 
that their greatest pleasure is in serving man and receiving his praise. 

When man depended largely on the spoils of the chase for sustenance 


the dog would be of the utmost value to him, and when the time came 
that other of our more domesticated animals were subdued, or partially 
so, and the shepherd's crook was taken up in addition to the rude 
instruments of war and chase, the pliant nature of the dog would be 
quickly moulded into agreement with the new state of things, and become, 
as we find he had in the days of the patriarch Job, and as he still is in 
many countries, both tender and defender of the flocks and herds. 

In this case the new duties and conditions of life would develop new 
traits of character and variety of form and shape. The shepherd's dog 
would gradually assume a character of his own, and the Nimrods of 
those early days would have their own branches of the family chosen as 
best suited for their particular purpose, which, being used for special 
work, certain faculties being constantly used whilst others were allowed 
to lie dormant, the latter would become almost extinguished, and thus 
still further divergence of type from the original and differences between 
existing breeds become more distinct. 

This alone, carried out extensively, as it was certain to be, would 
produce great variety in form, size, colour, and capabilities, and with the 
growth of civilisation these influences would increase in strength and 
variety, and, together with the powerful influence of climate and accidental 
circumstances, impossible to gauge, fully account for the extraordinary 
varieties of form we see in the dog as he exists at present. 

Anecdotes of dogs are not embraced in our scheme. We have not 
inflicted insipidities of that kind on our readers ; these are usually 
mere extensions of personal vanity, using the dog as the medium of 
praising the writer, and are generally, in addition, a compromise between 
the marvellous and the silly, that might be fairly described as attenuated 
twaddle. All such we have mercilessly excluded, and found room only 
for a few which are exceptionally apt and strongly illustrative of some 
distinguishing characteristic. 

It may be said that with works to hand, wherein the subject is so well 
and exhaustively treated as those of " Stonehenge," Youatt, Hamilton, 
&c., there is no necessity for further writing on the subject. We trust, 
however, the reader will find in the following pages the best justification 
of our efforts ; and as this is one of those subjects of which so many 
never tire, and on many points of which there is still considerable dif- 
ference of opinion, we have reason to hope it will not be without its use, 

British Dogs. 

and although there may be little original in what has been written for 
there are many echoes and but few voices still it is pleasant sometimes 
to see old friends in new dresses, and instructive to view even familiar 
things through other eyes than our own. It is always interesting to 
compare the opinion of the past with those of the present, and to mark 
the changes that take place, and, to go no further back, those who have 
followed dog shows from their establishment, cannot fail to be struck 
with the very great change which has taken place in many varieties for 
better or worse, and which are worth while considering. 

Before proceeding to explain our grouping of the dogs it may be of 
interest to very briefly notice the classification and arrangement adopted 
by the principal writers on the subject. The arrangement of dogs by 
our dog show committees cannot be considered very satisfactory where 
there are the two great divisions of sporting and non- sporting. 
No doubt this system has arisen from the fact that the first publicly 
recognised dog shows were for sporting dogs only, and the division was 
made when other classes were added ; but the distinction appears to us 
to be perfectly useless and rather confusing. Why, for instance, should 
a fox terrier, used for bolting foxes, be in the sporting division, and 
a Dandie Dinmont terrier, used for bolting otters, be in the non-sporting 
division? The arrangement is arbitrary and useless, and those who 
frame dog show schedules seem simply to have followed each other in the 
matter like sheep through a gap without their bell-wether. We have, 
therefore, discarded dog show catalogues as a guide to our arrangements. 

We will now hark back to one of the oldest English writers on dogs, 
and we believe the first to attempt a classification, Dr. Johannus Caius. 
In his treatise on " Englishe Dogges" he adopted a classification very 
quaintly expressed, but which has much to recommend it, its principle 
being based on the dog's relation to man, and the uses to which man puts 
him ; and he makes three great divisions, namely, sporting dogs, useful 
dogs otherwise employed, and toys. He says : "All English dogges be 
eyther of, A gentle kind, serving the game, A homely kind, apt for sundry 
necessary uses, or A Currish kind, meet for many toyes." The first of 
these he subdivides into two kinds, those used in hunting, including 
harriers, terriers, bloodhounds, gazehounds, greyhounds, lyemmers, and 
tumblers, and those used in fowling, which includes the land spaniel, 
water spaniel, setter, and the fisher. The second division, or "homely 


kind," contains the "shepherd's dogge" and the mastive or bandogge, 
with a few others not very clearly defined, as " the mooner " and " the 
tynckers curre." The third division, or the "currish kind," he de- 
scribes as "curres of the mongrel and rascall sort, 1 ' and it consists of 
three varieties : "the wappe or warner," "the turnspete," and "the 
dancer." This arrangement of Cains has been followed by Pennant, 
Daniel, and other writers. 

We will now refer to the classification adopted by " Stonehenge," 
although it will be familiar to most of our readers, but we do so to show 
that the same principle is applied, though, of course, the latter writer 
had a greater subject to handle, and the manner of using the dog has 
considerably changed in three centuries ; but on the same plan he gives 
us a fuller and more detailed arrangement, namely, first, wild and half- 
reclaimed dogs ; second, dogs hunting chiefly by the eye ; third, dogs 
hunting chiefly by the nose, and both finding and killing their game ; 
fourth, dogs finding their game by scent, but not killing it, being chiefly 
used in aid of the gun (corresponding to the "gentle kind" of Caius 
used " in taking the byrde," that is, in aid of the net, now supplanted 
by the gun) ; fifth, pastoral dogs and those used for draught ; sixth, 
watch, house, and toy dogs ; seventh, cross-breeds, retrievers, &c. 

It will be seen that these two arrangements, differing in detail, possess 
leading features in common ; and now, as in strongest contrast to them, 
we will briefly give Cuvier's arrangements, who separates into three 
great divisions, according to the shape of the head and length of jaw. 
This places the greyhound, deerhound, dingo, dhole, &c., in one class, and as 
many terriers are now bred, it would certainly include them. The second 
division, consisting of those with heads moderately elongated, includes 
the spaniels, pointer, setter, sheep dogs, and the hounds hunting by 
scent, as the foxhound, &c. The third division, with short muzzle and 
high skull, includes the bulldog, mastiff, pug, and, in the present 
time, would also take in Blenheims and King Charles spaniels. 

Now, whatever merits Cuvier's plan of classifying the dog may possess 
from a scientific point of view, it is useless and confusing to the sports- 
man and the fancier. 

Lieut.-Col. C. Hamilton- Smith adopts a similar arrangement, and also 
takes into consideration the original geographical distribution, and makes 
sub-divisions according to the length and quality of coat. On this latter 

8 British Dogs. 

point he lays more stress than any other writer. Youatt adopts Cuvier's 
system, as does Elaine. Meyrick considers it practically useless. Mr. 
C. Linnaeus Martin divides dogs into five groups greyhounds, Newfound- 
lands, spaniels, hounds, and mastiffs, and terriers, which is, at least, as 
unsatisfactory as having no arrangement at all, which indeed is the case 
with a considerable number of writers, to whom it is perhaps unnecessary 
to make further reference. 

In dealing with a subject that has been treated by such able writers 
as those referred to, and others we have not mentioned, it is not to be 
expected, nor is it pretended, that we have anything very original to offer 
in the arrangement and grouping we propose ; neither do we for a moment 
suppose that we have hit on a perfect system of classifying dogs. The 
varieties run into each other so imperceptibly, and from the pliant, tract- 
able nature of the dog he is put to such various uses, that we often find 
varieties the farthest removed from each other in form and structure, 
interchanging positions, and each doing what we may term the legitimate 
work of the other, so that we can conceive of no system free from flaws and 
objections ; but we hope our plan will prove convenient for the discussion 
of the history, development, and characteristics of each group with its 
individual varieties, and be found of easy and ready reference by those 
disposed to refer to it for informatidn. 

A word of explanation, and by anticipation of objections to disarm 

We have included in "British Dogs" varieties that are not strictly 
British, because we think them, like so many breeds introduced in 
the past, likely to become British, and meeting with them so often at our 
shows, we trust they are, if not yet fully, at least in process of being 

Knowing, also, as Dr. Caius quaintly expresses it, in referring to " a 
new sort of dog just brought out of France," that "we Englishmen are 
marvellous greedy gaping gluttons after novelties, and covetous cormo- 
rants of things that be seldom, rare, strange, and hard to get," we believe 
our readers will not severely censure us for travelling a little beyond our 

Thanks to the enthusiasm of the Eev. J. Gumming Macdona, J. H. 
Murchison, Esq., and a few other gentlemen, the magnificent St. Bernard 
is now a British Dog, and so may it be in the future with many another 


noble breed, that need only to come under the genius for stock breeding 
so peculiarly English, to have their best qualities fully and quickly 

Of the breeds worthy of being added to our list of British dogs, and 
that we would like to see more popular, we may mention that handsome 
dog the Barsee or Siberian wolfhound, splendid specimens of which have 
been shown by H.E.H the Princess of Wales, the Eight Hon. Lady 
Emily Peel, and others ; that immense dog, the Great Dane, the finest 
specimen of which that has graced the show bench being Mr. Frank 
Adcock' s gigantic dog, Satan ; that singularly attractive and eminently 
useful-looking La Vendee hound, of which Mr. G. De Landre Macdona's 
Eamonneau is a splendid specimen; the basset, as represented by 
Mr. E. Millais' Model and the Earl of Onslow's team ; those burly tykes, 
the Thibet mastiffs, of which H.E.H. the Prince of Wales shows 
specimens ; and several other attractive varieties we might mention. 

The classification we shall adopt is as follows : 


Group I. Those that pursue and kill their game, depending entirely 
or mainly on sight and speed, and little or not at all on their scenting 
powers, with varieties bred directly from them : Greyhounds, deerhounds, 
whippets, lurchers, &c. 

Group II. Those hunting their game by scent and killing it : Blood- 
hounds, foxhounds, otterhounds, harriers, beagles, &c. 

Group III. Those finding the game by scent, but trained to forego 
their natural instinct to pursue, and to stand and index the game for the 
advantage of the gun : Setters, pointers, &c. 

Group IV. Other varieties used with the gun in questing and 
retrieving : All the spaniels and retrievers. 


(as assistants in his work, watchers and defenders of property, life- 
savers, companion and ornamental dogs, and destroyers of vermin.) 

Group I. Those specially used as assistants in man's work : Pastoral 
dogs, and dogs used for draught ; shepherds' and drovers' dogs ; Esqui- 
maux, &c. 

Group II. Watchers and defenders of life and property, life-savers, 


British Dogs. 

companion and ornamental dogs, as bull doga, mastiffs, St. Bernards, 
Newfoundlands, Dalmatians, &c. 

Group III. Vermin destroyers : The terriers. 


Group I. Those of distinct varieties from foregoing : Pugs, Pome- 
ranians, poodles, Blenheims, &c. 

Group II. Those that are merely diminutives of already mentioned 
species : The various toy terriers, &c. 



fc I 


o ^ 
00 \ 

g I 

Dogs that hunt their Game by sight, and kill. 

Including : 

/. Greyhound. 

2. Deerhound. 

3. Irish Wolfhound. 

4. Rough Scotch Grey- 

5. Lurcher. 

6. Whippet or Snap Dog. 
j. Siberian Wolfhound. 

8. Persian Greyhound. 


The whole of this group is included in Cuvier's first 
division, "characterised by head more or less elongated, 
parietal bones insensibly approaching each other, and 
the condyles of the lower jaw placed in a horizontal 
line with the upper molar teeth." The general form 
is light and elegant, chest deep, with flank more or less 
tucked up, long and strong back, and great length from 
hip bone to hock joint ; the whole appearance giving the 
impression of great swiftness, which is a distinguishing 
property of the whole group, although not possessed in 
an equal degree by each variety. All more or less 
show the characteristics of the Canes celeres of the 
ancients, and although not in every case running their 
game strictly by sight, that is also a leading character- 
istic of all. 



THE particular variety of Canes venatici grayii of which I propose to 
treat, and which possesses an inherent right to occupy the highest place 
in the group of dogs hunting by keenness of sight and fleetness of foot, 
is the modern British greyhound. I say British, for the time has gone by 
when we could speak of English, Scotch, or Irish greyhounds in any other 
than the past tense; and the modern greyhound, the most elegant of the 

14 British Dogs, 

canine race, the highest achievement jof man's skill in manipulating the 
plastic natnre of the dog and forming it to his special requirements, as he . 
is stripped, in all his beauty of outline and wonderful development, not 
only of muscle, but of that hidden fire which gives dash, energy, and 
daring, stands revealed a manufactured article, the acme of perfection in 
beauty of outline and fitness of purpose ; and, whether we see him trying 
conclusions on the meadows of Lurgan, the rough hillsides of Crawford 
John, or for the blue ribbon of the leash on the flats of Aitcar, he is still 
the same the dog in whom the genius of man has so mingled the blood 
of all the best varieties, that no one can lay special claim to him. He is 
a combination of art and nature that challenges the world, unequalled in 
speed, spirit, and perseverance, and in elegance and beauty of form as far 
removed from many of his clumsy ancestors as an English thoroughbred 
from a coarse dray horse. 

It is not my intention to attempt to trace the history of the greyhound, 
or to follow his development from the comparatively coarse, but more 
powerful dog from which he derives his origin. The very name has long 
been a bone of contention among etymologists ; but, however interesting 
to the scholar, the discussion possesses few attractions for the general 
reader, the ingenious guessing and nice hair-splitting proving often 
more confusing than profitable. Not to pass the subject over in com- 
plete silence, I may observe that whilst some contend that the name 
Canis Orcecus points to a Greek origin, others derive the name from 
" grey," gre or grie, supposed to be originally the prevailing colours ; 
others, with apparently greater reason, suppose the name to have been 
given on account of the high rank or degree the dog held among his 

The greyhound having been always kept for the chase, would naturally 
undergo modifications with the changes in the manner of hunting, the 
nature of the wild animals he was trained to hunt, and the characteristics 
of the country in which he was used ; and having always, until very 
recent times, been restricted to the possession of persons of the higher 
ranks, he would have greater care, and his improvement be the better 
secured. That his possession was so restricted is shown by the forest 
laws of King Canute, which prohibited anyone tinder the degree of a 
gentleman from keeping a greyhound ; and an old Welsh proverb says : 
" You may know a gentleman by his horse, his hawk, and his greyhound." 

The Greyhound. 15 

The alteration in the game laws of modern times, coupled with the great 
increase of wealth and leisure, have, by giving impetus to the natural 
desire for field sports, characteristic of Englishmen, led to the present 
great and increasing popularity of coursing, and consequent diffusion of 
greyhounds through all classes, heightening an honourable competition, 
and securing a continued, if not a greater care and certainty of the dogs' 
still further improvement. 

It is impossible to separate the greyhound from coursing, as we under- 
stand it ; for, although the sport existed and was practised in a manner 
similar to our present system some seventeen hundred years ago, as 
described by Arrian in the second century, the thorough organization of 
the sport and the condensation of the laws governing it, are not only 
essentially British, but, in their present shape, quite modern, and it is 
the conditions of the sport that have produced the greyhound of the day, 
to which the words 

They are as swift as breathed stags, 
Aye, fleeter than the roe, 

are more applicable than to any of its predecessors. 

If we go back to the earlier centuries of the history of our country, we 
find the greyhound used in pursuit of the wolf, boar, deer, &c., in 
conjunction with other dogs of more powerful build ; still we can easily 
perceive that to take a share in such sports at all he must have been 
probably larger, certainly stronger, coarser, and more inured to hardships, 
whilst he would not be kept so strictly to sight hunting as the demands of 
the present require ; still, the material out of which the present dog has 
been made was there, and his form and characteristics, even to minute 
detail, were recognised, and have been described with an accuracy which 
no other breed of dogs has had the advantage of, else might we be in a 
better position to understand the value of claims for old descent set up 
for so many varieties. And to these descriptions I propose to refer, 
to endorse, as well as to make still more clear and emphatic, the points 
of excellence recognised as correct by modern followers of the leash. 

The whole group to which he belongs is distinguished by the elongated 
head, the parietal, side and upper or partition bones of the head shelving 
in towards each other, high proportionate stature, deep chest, arched 
loins, tucked-up flank, and long fine tail ; and such general form as is 

1 6 British Dogs. 

outlined in this description is seen in perfection in the greyhound. 
To some it may sound contradictory to speak in one sentence of elegance 
and beauty of form, and in the next of a tucked-up flank ; and fox- 
terrier and mastiff men, who want their favourites well ribbed back, 
with deep loin and flanks well filled, to make a form as square as a 
prize shorthorn, may object, but we must remember that beauty largely 
consists in fitness and aptitude for the uses designed and the position to 
be filled. 

This being so, in estimating the greyhound's claim to be the hand- 
somest of the canine race, we must remember for what his various ex- 
cellences, resulting in a whole which is so strikingly elegant, is designed. 
Speed is the first and greatest quality a dog of this breed can possess ; to 
make a perfect dog there are other attributes he must not be deficient in, 
but wanting in pace he can never hope to excel. The most superficial 
knowledge of coursing or coursing literature will show this, and it is a 
quality which, although developed to its present high pitch, has always 
been recognised as most important. Chaucer says, 

Greihotmds he hadde as swift as fowl of flight, 

And again following the example of the immortal scoundrel Wegg to 
drop into poetry, Sir Walter Scott, in his introduction to " Marmion," 
thus eulogises the speed of the greyhound : 

Remember'st thou my greyhounds true ? 
O'er holt or hill there never flew, 
From leash or slip there never sprang, 
More fleet of foot, more sure of fang. 

Well does he deserve the encomium of Markham, who declares he is, " of 
all dogs whatsoever the most princely, strong, nimble, swift, and 

In addition to speed, the dog must have strength to last out a severe 
course, nimbleness in turning, the capacity to catch and bear the hare in 
his stride, good killing powers, and vital force to give him dash, staunch- 
ness, and endurance. What a dog possessing these qualities should be 
like, I shall, by the assistance of the keenest and most experienced 
observers and writers on the subject, endeavour to show ; and whilst 
gladly sitting at the feet of modern Gamaliels, not slighting the wisdom of 
the past, but offering gleanings from the works of old, that may prove 

The Greyhound. 17 

both interesting and instructive to the tyro, although as a tale .that hath 
been told to many ; and in defence of such a course let me quote Geoffrey 

Chaucer : 

For out of the old fieldis, as men saith, 

Cometh all this new corn from year to year ; 
And out of olde bookis in good, faith, 

Cometh all this new science that men lere. 

It would be as much out of place here as it is unnecessary to enter on 
any lengthened dissertation on coursing passionately fond of the sport, 
next to seeing it it would be a labour of love to write or speak of it, and 
it is almost with pain that I recall the words of Somerville, whose tastes 


The musical confusion 
Of hounds and echo in conjunction ; 

and who, with unjust prejudice, penned an undeserved censure against 
followers of the leash when he wrote : 

A different ho and for every different chase 
Select with judgment ; nor the poor timorous hare, 
O'er-matched, destroy ; but leave that vile offence 
To the mean, murderous, coursing crew. 

Without going deeply into the subject of coursing, it will, however, I 
think, be necessary to briefly glance at what a dog is required to do in a 
course, and that for two reasons : First, because I hold that all dogs 
should be judged in the show ring by their apparent suitability for their 
special work ; and, secondly, because this book may fall into the hands of 
many who are real lovers of the dog and genuine sportsmen at heart, but 
who, from various circumstances, have never had an opportunity of 
seeing a course, or that so rarely as to be practically unacquainted 
with its merits. 

The remarks of the inexperienced on a course are often amusing. The 
most common mistake made by the tyro is that the dog that kills the 
hare always wins, irrespective of other considerations a most excusable 
error on the part of the novice, as in most or all other descriptions of 
racing the first at the post or object is the winner ; but in coursing it is 
not which is first there, but which has done most towards accomplishing 
the death of the hare or put her to the greatest straits to escape. Be it 
here understood that the object of the courser and the object of the dogs 
differ materially. The dog's object is the death of the hare; the 
courser's object is to test the relative speed, working abilities, and: 


1 8 British Dogs. 

endurance of the competitors, as shown in their endeavours to accomplish 
their object ; and the possession of the hare is of little consequence, 
except to the pothunter or currant jelly devotee, who is quite out of the 
pale of genuine coursing society. 

Although what I am going to say will be as stale and tiresome to and 
as likely to create a smile in many as listening to a child's first lesson 
in the alphabet, I consider it, for the reasons already given, necessary. 
Two dogs only are slipped at a hare, and this has always been the 
honourable practice in this country. Even in Turberville's Observations on 
Coursing we find the maxim " If the greyhounds be but yonge or slow 
you may course with a lease at one hare, but that is seldom seen, and a 
brase of dogges is ynow for such a poore beaste." 

The hare being found, or so-ho'd, and given law a fair start of eighty 
or a hundred yards the dogs are slipped, in the run up, as in after 
stretches following a turn, the relative speed of the dogs is seen ; but 
the hare, being pressed, will jerk, turn, and wind in the most nimble 
manner, testing the dogs' smartness in working, suppleness, and agility 
in making quick turns, and "it is a gallant sport to see how the hare 
will turn and wind to save herself out of the dogge's mouth, so that 
sometimes, when yon think that your greyhound doth, as it were, gape to 
take her, she will turn and cast them a 1 good way behinde her, and so save 
herself by turning, wrenching, and winding." It is by the practice of 
these clever wiles and shifts that the hare endeavours to reach her covert, 
and in closely following her scut and o'ermastering her in her own devices 
that a greyhound displays the mastery of this branch of his business, in 
which particular a slower dog will often excel an opponent that has the 
foot of him in the stretches ; but, with this working power, a facility in 
making short turns, speed must be combined, or it stands to reason points 
could not be made except on a comparatively weak hare. It is, therefore, 
important that the conformation of the dog should be such as to combine 
speed with a strength and suppleness that will, as far as possible, enable 
him to control and guide the velocity with which he is moving, as his 
quick eye sees the game swerve or turn to one side or another. 

As the death of the hare when it is a kill of merit that is, when 
accomplished by superior speed and cleverness, and not by the accident 
of the foremost dog turning the hare, as it were, into the killer's mouth 
is a consideration in reckoning up the total of good points made, it is 

The Greyhound. 19 

important that the dog should be formed to do this, picking up and 
bearing the hare in his stride, and not stopping to worry her as a terrier 
would a rat ; and here many points come in which should be narrowly 
scanned and compared in the show ring, but tpo seldom are not, and 
these I will allude to in going over the several points. 

In addition, there are other requirements for which the dog must 
possess qualities, to make him successful in the field and give him a 
right to a prize in the show ring, and which will be noticed in detail. A 
good idea of a course, with the gallant efforts of pursuer and pursued, is 
given in the following lines from Ovid, translated by Golding : 

As when the impatient greyhound, slipped from far, 

Bounds o'er the glade to course the fearful hare, 

She in her speed does all her safety lie, 

And he with double speed pursues his prey, 

O'erruns her at the sitting turn ; but licks 

His chaps in vain ; yet blows upon the flix. 

She seeks the shelter which the neighbouring covert gives 

And, gaining it, she doubts if yet she lives. 

In forming an opinion of a dog, whether in selecting him for some 
special purpose of work or merely choosing the best out of a lot in the 
prize ring, first impressions are occasionally deceptive, get confirmed into 
prejudices, and mislead the judgment. But, in the great majority of 
cases, to the man who knows what he is looking at, what he is looking 
/or, and what he has a reasonable right to expect, the first impression 
conveyed to the mind by the general outline or contour, and the way it is 
filled in, will be confirmed on a close critical and analytical examination 
of the animal point by point ; and it is only by such close and minute 
examination that a judge can become thoroughly master of his subject, 
and arrive at a position where he can give strong, clear, and intelligible 
reasons for the opinions he has formed and the decision he has given. 
Moreover, there is that to be weighed and taken into account in the final 
judgment on the dog's merits which is referable to no part alone, which 
can only be appreciated on taking him as a whole, that is, Ufe that 
indefinable something which evades the dissector's knife, yet permeates 
the whole body, the centre power which is the source of movement in 
every quivering muscle, and is variously seen in every action of the dog 
and in every changing emotion of which he is capable. This, I conceive 
to be the only difficulty in the way of judging by points, and it is not 

C 2 

2O British Dogs. 

insuperable : this is probably what is often meant by condition and 

The judge must, however, as already said, consider, and, if need be, 
describe, not only the general appearance of the animal and the impression 
he conveys to his (the judge's) mind, but, as it were, take him to pieces, 
assessing the value of each particular part according to its fitness for 
the performance of the special function for which it is designed, and 
under the peculiar conditions in which it will have to act ; and, having 
done so, he will find his first opinion confirmed precisely in the ratio of 
his fitness to judge. 

Before taking the points of the greyhound one by one, I must give 
the description of a greyhound, as laid down in the doggrel rhymes of 
the illustrious authoress of "The Book of St. Alban's," Dame Juliana 
Berners or Barnes, somewhile Abbess of Sopewell, and since described as 
" a second Minerva in her studies and another Diana in her diversions." 
It would be sheer heresy to write of greyhounds without introducing Jier 
description, so universally has this been done ; I therefore give it in full, 
which I have never seen done by any of our modern authorities. In 
doing so, I must confess there are two lines that to me are somewhat 
obscure. I, however, venture to suggest that in his eighth year he is 
only a lick ladle fit to lick a trencher, and in his ninth year cart and 
saddle may be used to take him to the tanner. 


A grehound shold be heeded lyke a snake 

And neckyd lyke a drake, 

Footed lyke a catte, 

Tayllyd lyke a ratte, 

Syded lyke a teme, 

And chynyd lyke a beme. 

The fyrst yere he must lerne to fede, 

The second yere to felde nim lede, 

The thyrde yere he is felowe lyke. 

The fourth yere there is none syke. 

The fyfth yeare he is good enough, 

The syxte yere he shall hold the plough, 

The seventh yere he woll avaylle 

Grete by tches for to assay lie, 

The eygthe yere licke ladyll, 

The nynthe yere cartsadyll ; 

And when he is comyn to that yere 

Have him to the tannere, 

For the best hounde that ever bytche had 

At nynthe yere he is full badde. 

To begin the detailed description with the head which includes jaws 

The Greyhound. 21 

teeth, eyes, ears, and brain development first, the general form must 
be considered. It must be quite evident that "headed like a snake" 
cannot mean "like a snake's head," which is short, flat, and blunt, or 
truncated. I understand the Abbess to use the snake itself, not its head 
only, as a simile of the length and thinness of the greyhound's head. 

Arrian says : " Your greyhounds should have light and well-articulated 
heads, whether hooked or flat-nosed is not of much consequence, nor does 
it greatly matter whether the parts beneath the forehead be protuberant 
with muscle. They are alone bad which are heavy-headed, having thick 
nostrils, with a blunt instead of a pointed termination." Edmund de 
Langley, in his " Mayster of Game," says, " The greihound should have 
a long hede and somedele grete, ymakyd in the manner of a luce ; a good 
large mouth and good sessours, the one again the other, so that the 
nether jaws passe not them above, ne that thei above passe not him by 
neither;" and coming down to " Gervase Markham," in the sixteenth 
century, we have his description : " He should have a fine long leane 
head, with a sharp nose, rush grown from the eyes downward." 

The general form and character of the head is here pretty fairly 
sketched, and we see a very close agreement between these old authori- 
ties. It appears to me that the "Mayster of Game" was the most 
happy in his illustration, " made in the manner of a luce," that is, a full- 
grown pike, as the head of the greyhound and pike will bear a fair com- 
parison without straining ; and who can say it was not the exigencies of 
rhyme that compelled our sporting Abbess to set up for us that stumbling 
block, the head of the snake. No doubt she thought of the excellent 
illustration the neck of the drake offered her, and had to find a rhyme to 
it, but she might with as great propriety have written : 

The grehound should be headed like a luce 
And neckyd like a goose. 

The force of illustration lost in the second line is more than compen- 
sated by the strength of the first. Markham is right in desiring a " long 
lean head," but even that may be carried to a fault ; but we do not want 
the " part beneath the forehead protuberant of muscle ; " and the " heavy 
headed, with thick nostrils and a blunt nose," I must, with Arrian, 
discard altogether as thoroughly bad, too slow, and certain to be "too 
clever by half." Looking at the whole head, we see, by the sloping-in of 

22 British Dogs. 

the side walls of the skull how the brain capacity is diminished, and how 
the elongation and narrowing of head and jaws have almost obliterated the 
olfactory organs, the internal cavities becoming contracted and presenting 
so much less surfare that the scenting powers are necessarily limited, 
although it is a mistake to suppose that they are entirely lost. This is 
just what we want in the greyhound ; he must run by sight, never using 
his nose ; he must have the brain developed where it shows courage, 
not intelligence. When a retriever has to puzzle out a lost bird, his 
nose and his intelligence are both put to the test, and the higher the 
development, the better the dog, and as we find the intellectual faculties 
highest in those dogs with most brain before the ears, so we select our 
retrievers thus formed ; but as this would be a disadvantage in the grey- 
hound, which we want to run honest and fair, such as Justice Shallow, 
in the "Merry Wives of Windsor," describes 

He is a good dog and a fair dog ; 

Can there be more said he is good and/az> 

we select them without this intellectual development, by use of which 
they would soon study the wiles and shifts of " poor Wat," and, to save 
their wind and legs, " run cunning " that is, do a " waiting race," the 
cunning dog allowing his fellow to do the work, whilst he hangs back for 
the hare to be turned into his mouth. A greyhound should measure well 
round the head, across and at back of ears, which is a sure indication of 
the courage that gives dash and persistence to their efforts. 

By " hooked nose," I presume Arrian to mean that the upper jaw 
protrudes ; but that would decidedly be a fault, as a dog so formed 
would be at a disadvantage in holding and killing his hare. This forma- 
tion, called overshot, or pig-jawed, is often met with in various breeds of 
dogs, but if at all excessive it is most objectionable. The opposite to 
that is sometimes seen, and we have them undershot ; but such cases are . 
comparatively rare, and owe their origin to the cross with the bulldog, 
which has been resorted to to give stamina, courage, and staunchness to 
the greyhound ; but the form to be desired is the level mouth with the 
" good sessours one again the other." 

The teeth themselves are important ; they should be large, strong, and 
white, the fangs sharp and powerful ; this is not only necessary for their 
work, but it is always a sign of health. 

"The eye," Arrian says, "should be large, upraised, clear, and 

The Greyhound. 23 

strikingly bright. The best look fiery and flash like lightning, resembling 
those of leopards, lions, or lynxes." Markham says, "a full clear eye, 
with long eyelids." The latter pecularity I have never observed, probably 
from want of a close attention to the point ; but the clear, bright, and 
fiery eye is always a necessity, although, of course, the condition of the 
dog and the circumstances under which he is seen must be considered in 
judging of it ; the colour varies with that of the coat, as in all breeds. 

Of the ears Arrian writes, "they should be large and soft, so as to 
appear broken ; but it is no bad indication if they appear erect, provided 
they are not small and stiff." This description would not be accepted as 
satisfactory now ; ears are preferred small, and free from all coarseness ; 
neither does Markham' s "a sharp ear, short, and close-falling," quite 
convey the modern idea of a greyhound's ear; it should be soft, fine in 
leather, and folded with the shoulder of the ear, strong enough to carry 
the whole up when the dog is excited or his attention fixed. 

The neck is the next point, and it is one of very great importance ; it 
must belong, strong, well clothed with muscle; yet withal light, airy, and 
possessing wonderful flexibility and suppleness. Arrian says, " The neck 
should be long, round, and flexible, so that if you forcibly draw the dogs 
backwards by their collars it may seem to be broken, from its flexibility 
and softness." The neck is certainly wonderfully pliant, and readily 
bent to either side at will. Our royal writer says, " The neck should be 
grete and longe, and bowed as a swanne's neck;" Markham, "a long 
neck, a little bending, with a loose hanging wezand." The last point is 
not correct, and might convey the idea that there was a looseness of skin 
underneath ; the windpipe, although easily felt, does not hang loose, 
the whole neck being neat, round, clean made, and elegantly carried. A 
long neck, as well as long head, are necessary to enable the dog to pick 
up, carry, or bear the hare without stopping, which he will do, throwing 
his head up with the hare in his mouth ; but a dog with a short neck 
would have to stoop so in catching his hare that there would be every 
chance of his coming a "cropper," the force at which he was going 
throwing him heels over head. 

Continuing from the neck we have the broad, square, beam-like back 
of good length and great strength ; without this the dog could not endure 
the exhaustive process of the "pumpers" he is submitted to. The 
chest, too, must be deep and fairly wide. Arrian says, ' Broad chests 

24 British Dogs. 

are better than narrow ; shoulders wide apart, not tied together, but as 
loose and free as possible ; legs round, straight, and well jointed ; sides 
strong ; loins broad, firm, not fleshy, but sinewy ; upper flanks loose and 
supple ; hips wide asunder ; lower flanks hollow ; tail long, fine, and 
supple; haunches sweeping and fine to the touch." In respect to the 
chest, it is needless to say how all-important it is that it should be 
capacious, but we must get capacity from the depth and squareness, not 
from the bulged-out barrel form, which would produce slow movement 
and a heavy fronted dog that would soon tire. Take Markham's 
description in " The Country Farm :" "A long, broad, and square beam, 
back, with high round fillets ; he must be deep, swine sided, with hollow 
bended ribs and a full brest." 

"The Mayster of Game" gives an excellent description: "Her 
shuldres as a roebuck ; the for leggs streght and grete ynow, and nought 
to hind legges ; the feet straught and round as a catte, and great cleas ; 
the boones and the joyntes of the cheyne grete and hard as the chyne 
of an hert ; the thighs great and squarred as an hare ; the houghs 
streight, and not crompyng as of an oxe." The shoulders should be set 
on as obliquely as possible, to enable the dog to throw his fore legs well 
forward in his gallop, the shoulder blades sloping in towards each other 
as they rise, they should be well clothed with muscle, but not fleshy and 
coarse, so as to look loaded ; the shoulders should not be tied together 
but have plenty of freedom this with the strong muscles of the loin 
enable the dog to turn fast and cleverly ; the elbows must be neither 
turned out nor in ; the bone of the leg strong ; there must be good 
length of arm ; and the leg below the knee must be short and very 
strong, and the foot round and cat-like ; well sprung knuckles, a firm 
hard, thick sole, and large strong nails are also essential. 

The beam-like back is to give the necessary strength ; the deep chest 
is needed with sufficient width to give plenty of room for the lungs and 
heart to freely perform their functions ; width is needed that the 
necessary room may be got without making the chest so deep as to be in 
the way and catch against stones, tussocks, and lumps of turf on rough 
coarse ground, when the dog is fully stretched in the gallop ; the oblique 
shoulders enable the dog to throw his legs well forward and close to- 
gether, thus enabling him to cover a lot of ground at each stride, and 
also, in connection with his long and supple neck, to throw himself 

The Greyhound. 25 

through an astonishingly small meuse. The necessity of sufficient bone, 
big, strong joints, and muscular legs, is apparent where such violent 
exertion is called for, and the round, cat-like foot, is a necessity of speed. 
No one would have the wheels of a fast-going gig made as broad 
in the tyre as that of a four-ton waggon. The soles are required hard 
and tough, that they may stand the wear and tear of rough ground and 
stony lanes, if these come in the way ; the strong claws give the dog 
purchase over the ground. 

The loins must be strong ; a greyhound weak there might be fast for a 
spurt, but would prove merely flashy, being neither able to endure nor 
yet good at his turns. When Markham says " short and strong fillets," 
he means the loin the term being used in speaking of the horse not the 
fleshy part of the thigh, which the term might apply to. The hips must 
be wide asunder, and the hind legs straight as regards each other, " not 
crompying as an oxe " that is, as we now express it, not cow-hocked 
but they must be bent or sickle hocked ; the thighs with immense and 
well developed muscle, the same strength of bony and muscular develop- 
ment is needed as in the fore legs, and especially there should be no weak- 
ness below the knee. The dog should stand rather wide behind and higher 
than before ; the slight width gives additional propelling force, and the 
higher hind quarters additional speed and power in racing up hill, as 
hares invariably do if they can, unless there is temptation of a covert 
near, a fact quaintly expressed in the " Book of St. Albans " : 

" Tell me," Maystre, quod the man, " what is the skyll 
"Why the Haare wolde so fayne renne against the hill ? " 
Quod the Mayster, " For her legges be shorter before 
Than behind; that is the skyll thore." 

In respect to the tail, all agree it should be long and fine. Markham 
says : " An even growne long rat's tail, round, turning at the lower end 
leashward, and full set on between the buttocks." The " Mayster of 
Game" says : "A catte's tayle, making a ring at eend, but not to hie." 
The tail, no doubt, acts as a rudder, and as such must play an important 
part in swerving and turning. 

Colour in greyhounds should go for little, but many have a prejudice in 
favour of a special fancy, although experience proves that there are good 
of all. In the hunting poem by "Gratius," as translated by Wase, we 
are told to 

Chuse the greyhound pied with black and white, 
He runs more swift than thought or winged flight. 


British Dogs. 

Many coursers prefer the pure black or the red ; but a short list, taken 
from the " Coursing Calendar," will show good greyhounds of many 
different colours : Scotland Yet and her sons, Canaradzo and Calioja, were 
white ; Cerito, fawn and white ; Lobelia, brindled and white ; Lady Stor- 
mont, black and white ; Master M'Grath, black and white ; Beacon, Blue 
Light, and Sapphire, all blue ; High Idea, blue ticked ; Bed of Stone, Bab 
at the Bowster, and Sea Cove, red ; Cauld Kail, red ticked ; Mocking 
Bird, Cashier, Black Knight, all black ; Landgravine and Elsecar, 

The medium sized dog is by most preferred, and there is a considerable 
difference both in height and weight between the dog and bitch. 

The dog selected for illustration is strongly typical of the Scotch style 
of greyhound, but without the coarseness which usually belongs to the 
scions of the north-country breeds. He was a reddish fawn, with splendid 
back and loin, good shoulders, and muscular quarters, with good legs and 
feet, and altogether a thoroughly well-shaped dog. He was the property 
of J. H. Salter, Esq., Tolleshunt D'Arcy, Kelvedon, Essex, but is now 
dead. The following is his pedigree and performances : 


Fawn greyhound, 651b. weight ; whelped Jan. 4, 1869 ; 
bred by Dr. Dougal, Glasgow. 

Wee Avon 

S?a Girl 

Seaflower (Spinks's) 


Scotland Yet 

Blue Light 




Flora Macdonald 

John Bull 



Bonnie Prince Charlie 

Ran first at Ardrossan, February, 1870, winning Sapling Stake. 

Ean at Scottish National, September, 1870, dividing St. Leger (64 dogs) with kennel 

Ran at Scottish National, March, 1871, dividing Biggar Stakes (61 dogs) with kennel 

The Greyhound. 27 

Ban at Scottish National, September, 1871 ; won two courses in Douglas Cup (20 dogs). 

Kan at Lurgan. October, 1871 ; won two courses in Brownlow Cup (64, dogs), beating 
Pretender and Smuggler, beaten by Cataclysm. 

Ran at Border Union, November, 1871 ; won three courses Netherby Cup (64 dogs) : 
beaten, when lame, by Crown Jewel. 

Ban at Brigg, January, 1872. Ran second for Eisham Cup (32 dogs) ; beaten by 
Leucatheia, when hurt. 

Ran at Waterloo, February, 1872 ; won two courses in Waterloo (64 dogs), beating 
Chameleon ; put out by Magenta. 

Ran at Scottish National, March, 1872; divided Biggar Stakes (64 dogs) with kennel 
companion Avonside. 

Glenavon thus divided three 64-dog stakes in two seasons, ran second 
for a 32, &c. He never ran except at a first-class meeting, and rarely 
was entered for anything under a 64-dog stake. He was perfectly honest 
to the end of his career, always going fast and running stoutly. His 
cleverness was never questioned. 

In judging the dog from the engraving, it must be remembered that he 
is not shown in running condition. 

The following measurements of good dogs may be taken as a fair 
average : 

Mr. J. L. Bensted's greyhound Chimney Sweep : Age, 5 years ; weight, 
661b. ; height at shoulder, 26|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 
42iin. ; length of tail, 19in. ; girth of chest, 29|in. ; girth of loin, 21in.; 
girth of head, 15in. ; girth of forearm, 6fin. ; length of head from occiput 
to tip of nose, 10in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, 8fin. We have measured him in working condition. Chimney 
Sweep won the gold medal in his class at the Paris International Dog 
Show, 1878. Mr. J. H. Salter's greyhound dog Snapdragon : Age, 
8 years ; weight, 721b. ; height at shoulder, 27in. ; length from nose to 
set on of tail, 41in. ; length of tail, 19in. ; girth of chest, 31|in. ; girth 
of loin, 22in. ; girth of head, 15in. ; girth of forearm, 7in. ; length of 
head from occiput to tip of nose, lO^in. ; girth of muzzle midway 
between eyes and tip of nose, 7 fin. Mr. J. H. Salter' s greyhound bitch 
Satanella : Age, 5 years ; weight, 57^1b. ; height at shoulder, 24|in. ; 
length from nose to set on of tail, 4Hin. ; length of tail, 18iin. ; girth 
of chest, 30iin. ; girth of loin, 21in. ; girth of head, 14|in. ; girth of 
forearm, 6|in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 9in. ; girth 
of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, Sin. 

28 British Dogs. 



THIS article has been specially contributed to this volume by a gentle- 
man who has chosen to veil his identity under the nom de plume of 
"Senex." He is a popular judge, and one whose extended experience 
and observation of exhibition dogs, as well as that of a breeder, and as one 
who has had the advantage of working deerhounds on their proper quarry 
in their native glens, lends great value and weighty authority to his 
opinions. He says : 

" The rough Scotch greyhound is, perhaps, as old a breed as any extant, 
not excepting the fabulous pedigrees we read of in the mastiffs ; but 
whether their lineage traces back from the time that Noah made his exit 
from the ark or is of more recent origin it matters little. Few will deny 
that it is a most striking and picturesque breed of dogs. As an 
ardent admirer of the true breed, and having kept them some five-and- 
thirty years or more, perhaps a few lines from me will not come amiss to 
instruct the inexperienced what kind they are to try to obtain. The 
deerhound of the present day is very difficult to get quite pure, so many 
crosses have been resorted to. Some have tried the foxhound, others the 
bulldogs, and then again the colley. 

"The deerhound stands from 28in. to 30in. or 31in. high; lately, I 
believe, one has been exhibited 33in., but then what use is such a hound ? 
His immense size, to the tyro, may be taking on the bench, but let him 
only consider what he is wanted for, viz., to hunt and pull down the 
stag. Can a lumbering, overgrown animal (for such a hound of the size 
would be) gallop over all kinds of ground at a rapid pace and be active 
likewise ? No. For real work choose a hound about 28in. or 29in., 
not more. 

" The deerhound resembles in form the common greyhound, only his 
build is more massive. His head should be long, and broad between 
the ears, the jaws very powerful, and the teeth strong, white, and 
regular ; the hair on the sides of the lips forms a sort of moustache. 
Whenever one is seen with a narrow skull be assured at some time 
or other Persian or Eussian cross has been resorted to ; this is apparent 

The Scotch Deerhound. 29 

in many of the specimens one sees on the show benches at the present 
day. The ear should be small, set on very high, and at the back of the 
skull more like the rat's, and when at rest the flaps should be turned a 
little outwards, so that one sees inside the ear ; this I have always noticed in 
the best bred ones. Avoid a large ear, it is an abomination, and look for 
a black fringe on the tips of the ears ; it is seen in the best specimens. The 
neck should be moderately long, and very muscular, and the shoulders broad 
and deep and obliquely set ; this is of great importance, as anyone must 
understand that a dog with an upright shoulder cannot have any pace ; 
the fore legs should be straight, with plenty of bone, and well set on the 
feet, which should not be spreading, but the toes well held together. In 
an old rhyme on greyhounds one line is, "a back like a beam," which 
holds equally good with the deerhound, for without strength in this 
department it is impossible to maintain a high speed long, and a deer- 
hound is required to have speed, endurance, and strength ; where the 
loins are weak the animal is useless for the purpose the breed denotes ; 
the loins, then, cannot be too strong, which applies to the hind quarters 
likewise, as they are the chief element of progression. Strong stifle joints 
and hocks, with great length between them, and from the stifle to the hip, 
in conjunction with a short leg, is to my mind the beau ideal of hind 

" A few words may be said not inaptly about coat, as now-a-days one 
sees so many types even in animals of the same parentage. The Scotch 
deerhound, unadulterated, has a strong wiry coat, not silken, or any ap- 
proach of it. Perhaps one of the finest specimens of the breed that has 
been for years for symmetry is W. Hickman, Esq.'s, Morni, but then he 
failed in coat, which was very soft, and that is seen likewise in some 
to the descendants from his sister Brenda, who has thrown a number 
of winners ; and I cannot help fancying, without any disrespect to 
the good dogs, that within this last ten or twelve years a little 
foreign blood has been infused. I should always doubt the purity of 
a deerhound with a head narrow between the ears, or which may have 
a fine silky coat. Well can I recollect my first, a black grizzle, with a 
strong wiry coat, and all the good ones I have seen imported from the 
Land of Cakes had the same texture hair, strong and wiry. I am fully 
convinced if the advocates of the soft-haired deerhounds would only try 
their hounds against the hard-coated ones in Scotland, standing on the 

30 British Dogs. 












29* . ... 




Hilda (Miskop) 






side of some exposed place and during a driving mist, they would then 
candidly confess that the wiry had the day. 

" I have stated that 28in. was a good size for a deerhound 
by that I meant for work ; for the show bench an inch or so higher 
might do, but avoid too much in that quarter, as then, in the majority 
of cases, a weak loin is the result. Thanks to the kindness of a friend, 
who, I believe, took the measurements at Birmingham show, 1873, I am 
enabled to give the measurements, &c., of many of the most famous dogs 
and bitches of the present day. 


" There were seven dogs over 30in., whereas the second prize dog was 
only 2 Gin. 

" Somerset, who since that time has made his mark in the show yard, 
measures : Height, 29|in. ; girth, 35in. ; loin, 26|in. ; and length, 5ft. 9in. 

" The above are the only measures I have been able to obtain ; but are 
sufficient to show that, as a rule, it is not an overgrown hound that the 
young exhibitor has to look to to obtain honours. Search for an active 
dog, with good legs, strong loins and haunches, a nice sloping shoulder, 
and a hard coat, and such a one will take a deal of beating." 

It is but fair to state that in a letter on the above article the owner of 
Morni, whilst admitting that his dog has not a hard coat, accounts for it 
by the fact that, being a favourite, he was allowed to sleep in warm rooms 
on soft carpets and was also periodically washed. This undoubtedly 
tends to soften the coat in all dogs. He further quoted McNiel, of 
Colonsay, to show that there are pure deerhounds with coats of a soft 
texture, but all sportsmen;will agree with ' ' Senex ' ' that the harsh hard coat 
is the most useful one. " Senex " has not referred to colour, so we, with 
his approval, add that this varies from red wheaten to dark and many 
shades of grizzle. 

The measurements given by " Senex " we are now enabled to supplement : 

The Scotch Deerhound. 31 

Mr. J. W. Hickman's Morni: Weight, lOOlb. ; height at shoulder, 
30iin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 55in. ; length of tail, 25in; 
girth of chest, 34in. ; girth of loin, 27jin. ; girth of head, 17jin. ; length 
of head from occiput to tip of nose, 11 Jin. 

Mr. H. Cha worth-Muster's Old Torunn : Weight, 1201b. ; height at 
shoulder, 31in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 53in. ; length of tail, 
23in. ; girth of chest, 35Jin. ; girth of loin, 26Jin. ; girth of head, 18in. ; 
girth of forearm, 10 Jin ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
12Jin. ; girth of thigh, 18Jin. 

Mr. J. Harris' Young Torunn : Height at shoulder, 31in. ; length from 
nose to set on of tail, 53in. ; length of tail, 26in. ; girth of chest, 33 Jin. ; 
girth of loin, 24in. ; girth of head, 17 Jin. ; girth of forearm, 9in. ; length 
of head from occiput to tip of nose, 12 Jin. ; girth of thigh, 18in. 

Prince Albert Solms' Duchess ; Age, 2 years and 9 months ; weight, 
71 Jib. ; height at shoulder, 27in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 46in. ; 
length of tail, 22in. ; girth of chest, 29iin. ; girth of loin, 21 Jin. ; girth 
of head, 16in. ; girth of forearm, 12in. ; length of head from occiput 
to tip of nose, llin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, Sin. 

Prince Albert Solms' Morven : Age, 2 years and 9 months ; weight, 
79Jlb. ; height at shoulder, 28Jin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 46in. ; 
length of tail, 23in. ; girth of chest, 31Jin. ; girth of loin, 23iu. ; girth 
of head, IG^in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, lliin. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 8Jin. 

Dr. Haddon's Lufra : Age, 4 years ; weight, 71 Jib. ; height at shoulder, 
27jin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 46in. ; length of tail, 20Jin. ; 
girth of chest, 30in. ; girth of loin, 20in. ; girth of head, 15Jin. ; girth 
of forearm just below elbow when standing, 7Jin. ; length of head from 
occiput to tip of nose, lOJin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and 
tip of nose, S^in. ; colour, slate grey. 

Dr. Haddon's Maida; Age, 20 months ; weight, 641b. ; height at 
shoulder, 27fin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 47in. ; length of 
tail, 21in. ; girth of chest, 29in. ; girth of loin, 20in. ; girth of head, 
16in. ; girth of forearm just below elbow when standing, 7jin ; length of 
head from occiput to tip of nose, llin. j girth of muzzle midway be- 
tween eyes and tip of nose, 8Jin. ; colour, slate grey. 

Dr. Haddon's Roy : Age, 20 months ; weight, 841b. fasting ; height at 

32 British Dogs. 

shoulder, 29iin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 49in. ; length of 
tail, 22|in. ; girth of chest, 32in. ; girth of loin, 24in. ; girth of head, 
16in. ; girth of forearm just below elbow when standing, Sin. ; length 
of head from occiput to tip of nose, llin. ; girth of muzzle midway 
between eyes and tip of nose, 9in. ; colour, light brindle. 

Dr. Alexander's Bran : Age, 6 years ; weight, 821b. ; height at 
shoulder, 28in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 47in. ; length of 
tail, 19in. ; girth of chest, 33in. ; girth of loin, 25in. ; girth of head, 
17in. ; girth of forearm, S^in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, ll|in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, Sin. 



To do full justice to this subject is almost impossible, owing to the fact 
that there has been a generally received impression amongst modern 
writers that this noble breed of dog is entirely extinct ! That the breed 
in its " original integrity " has apparently disappeared cannot be 
disputed, yet there can be little doubt that so much of the true breed is 
forthcoming, both in the race still known in Ireland as the " Irish wolf- 
hound " (to be met with, however, in one or two places only), and in our 
modern deerhound, as to allow of the complete recovery of the breed in its 
pristine grandeur, with proper management, in judicious hands. It is a 
fact well known to all modern mastiff breeders who have thoroughly 
studied the history of their breed that, until within the last thirty or forty 
years, mastiffs, as a pure race, had almost become extinct. Active 
measures were taken by various spirited individuals, which resulted in the 
complete recovery of the breed, in a form at least equal, if not superior, to 
what it was of yore. 

Why should not, then, such measures be taken to recover the more 
ancient, and certainly equally noble, race of Irish wolfhounds ? It may be 
argued that, the services of such a dog no longer being required for sport, 

The Irish Wolfhound. 33 

his existence is no longer to be desired ; but such an argument is not 
worthy of consideration for a moment, for how many thousands of dogs 
are bred for which no work is provided, nor is any expected of them, 
added to which, the breed would be admirably suited to the requirements 
of our colonies. One after another the various breeds of dogs which had 
of late years more or less degenerated, as, for instance, mastiffs, fox 
terriers, pugs, St. Bernards, colleys, have become "the rage," and, in 
consequence, a vast improvement is observable in the numerous specimens 
shown from time to time. Let us, then, hope that steps may be taken to 
restore to us such a magnificent animal as the Irish wolfhound. 

That we have in the deerhound the modern ' representative of the old 
Irish dog is patent ; of less stature, less robust, and of slimmer form, the 
main characteristics of the original breed remain, and in very exceptional 
instances specimens " crop up " that throw back to and resemble in a 
marked manner the old stock from which they have sprung ; for instance, 
the dog well known at all the leading shows (now for some years lost to 
sight) as champion Torunn, beyond the facts that he required a somewhat 
lighter ear and still more massive proportions, combined with greater 
stature, he evidently approximated more nearly to his distant ancestors than 
to his immediate ones. The matter of ear here alluded to is probably only a 
requirement called for by modern and more refined tastes, as it is hardly 
likely that any very high standard as to quality or looks was ever aimed 
at or reached by our remote ancestors in any breed of dogs. Strength, 
stature, and fleetness were the points most carefully cultivated at 
any rate, as regards those used in the pursuit and capture of large 
and fierce game. 

It is somewhat remarkable that, whilst we have accounts of almost all 
the noticeable breeds, including the Irish wolfhound, there is no allusion 
to any such dog as the deerhound, save in writings of a comparatively 
recent date. 

The article or essay on the Irish wolfhound, written by Eichardson in 
1842, is, it is supposed, the only one on this subject in existence; and 
whilst it is evident to the reader that the subject has been most ably 
treated and thoroughly sifted by him, yet some ^of his conclusions, if not 
erroneous, are at least open to question. It is a matter of history that 
this dog is of very ancient origin, and was well known to and highly 
prized by the Romans, who frequently used him for their combats in the 


34 British Dogs. 

arena ; and that he was retained in a certain degree of purity to within 
a comparatively recent period, when, owing to the extinction of wolves, 
and presumably to the indifference and carelessness of owners, this most 
superb and valuable breed of dog was unaccountably suffered to fall into 
a very neglected and degenerate state. 

From the general tenor of the accounts we heard of this dog' s dimensions 
and appearance, it is to be gathered that he was of considerably greater 
stature than any known race of dogs existing at present, and apparently 
more than equal to the destruction of a wolf. 

It is an incontestable fact that the domestic dog, when used for the 
pursuit of ferocious animals, should be invariably larger, and apparently 
more powerful, than his quarry, as the fierce nature, roving habits, and 
food of the wild animal render him usually more than a match for his 
domesticated enemy, if only of equal size and stature. We know that the 
Russian wolfhounds, though equal in stature to the wolf, will not attack 
him single-handed ; and wisely, for they would certainly be worsted in the 

The Irish wolfhound, being used for both the capture and despatch of 
the wolf, it would necessarily have been of greyhound conformation, 
besides being of enormous power. When caught, a heavy dog such as a 
mastiff would be equal to the destruction of the wolf, but to obtain a dog 
with greyhound speed and the strength of the mastiff, it would stand to 
reason that his stature should considerably exceed that of the mastiff one 
of our tallest as well as most powerful breeds. The usual height of the 
mastiff does not exceed 30in. ; and, arguing as above, we may reasonably 
conclude that, to obtain the requisite combination of speed and power, a 
height of at least 33in. would have been reached. Many writers, however, 
put his stature down as far exceeding that. Goldsmith states he stood 
4ft. ; Buffon states one sitting measured 5ft. in height ; Bewick, that the 
Irish wolfhound was about 3ft. in height ; Richardson, arguing from the 
measurements of the skulls of the Irish wolfhound preserved at the 
present time in the Royal Irish Academy, pronounced it his opinion that 
they must have stood 40in, 

It is perfectly certain, from these and many other accounts, allusion to 
which want of space renders impossible, that the dog was of vast size and 
strength, and all agree in stating that, whilst his power was that of the 
mastiff, his form was that of the greyhound. The " Sportsman's 

The Irish Wolfhound. 35 

Cabinet," a very valuable old book on dogs, published in 1803, which is 
illustrated with,very good engravings after drawings from life by Eenaigle, 
E.A.,says, " The dogs of Greece, Denmark, Tartary, and Ireland, are the 
largest and strongest of their species. The Irish greyhound is of very 
ancient race, and still to be found in some few remote parts of the king- 
dom, but they are said to be much reduced in size even in their original 
climate ; they are much larger than the mastiff, and exceedingly ferocious 
when engaged." A very good and spirited drawing of this dog is given, 
which almost entirely coincides with the writer's conclusion as to what 
the Irish wolfhound was and should be, though a rougher coat and some- 
what more lengthy frame are desirable. The dogs described in ' ' Ossian ' ' 
are evidently identical with the Irish wolfhound, being of much greater 
stature and power than the present deerhound. From these descriptions, 
and those given elsewhere, we may conclude that, in addition to the dog's 
being of great stature, strength, and speed, he was also clothed in rough 
hair. In support of this, we find that in the present day all the larger 
breeds of greyhound are invariably rough or long as to coat. 

Many writers have incorrectly confounded the Irish wolfhound with the 
Great Dane, though the two dogs vary entirely in appearance, if not so 
much in build. It seems more than probable, however, that the two 
breeds were frequently crossed, which may account for these statements. 
The late Marquis of Sligo possessed some of this breed, which he was in 
the habit (erroneously) of considering Irish wolfhounds. 

Eichardson was at very great trouble to get every information as to the 
probable height of this dog, but the conclusions arrived at by him 
(chiefly based on the lengths of the skulls measured by him) would seem 
to be decidedly wrong, for the following reasons : He states ' ' the skull is 
llin. in the bone ; " to that he adds Sin. for nose, skin, and hair, thus 
getting 14in. as the length of the living animal's head. The head of a 
living deerhound, measured by him, is lOin., the dog standing 29in. ; he 
then calculates that the height of the Irish wolfhound would have been 
40in., taking for his guide the fact that the 29in. dog's head was lOin. 
This would appear to be correct enough, but the allowance of Sin. for 
extras is absurd. IJin. are an ample allowance for the extras, and if the 
head is taken at 12in. the height of the dog will be reduced to 36in. 
Moreover, the measurement of lOin. for the head of a 29in. deerhound' s 
head is manifestly insufficient, as the writer can testifiy from ample 

2 6 British Dogs. 

experience and frequent measurements. A deerhound of that height 
would have a head at least llin. ; so, calculating on the same principles, 
the Irish skulls would have been from dogs that only stood 33in. 
Richardson says that this skull is superior in size to the others, which 
would prove that the average must have been under SSgin., and we may 
safely conclude that the height of these dogs varied from 31in. to 34in. 
In support of this view the writer would point to the German boarhound ; 
this dog has retained his character from a very remote age, and as he is 
still used for the capture of fierce and large animals, the breed is not 
likely to have been allowed to degenerate. The height of this breed 
varies from 28in. to 33in., the latter being probably the limit to which 
any race of dogs has been known to arrive. 

The writer has numerous extracts from various authors, and many en- 
gravings from pictures by artists, dating from the middle of the sixteenth 
century to the commencement of the present century ; but want of space 
will not allow of their being introduced, though of much interest. From 
these sources it is gathered clearly that the dog was such as has been 
above stated ; and from these varied accounts the following detailed con- 
clusions as to the appearance and dimensions of the breed are arrived at, 
though perhaps they may not be considered as absolutely conclusive. 

General Appearance and Form. That of a very tall, heavy, Scotch 
deerhound ; much more massive and majestic looking ; active, and tole- 
rably fast, but somewhat less so than the present breed of deerhound ; the 
neck thick in comparison to his form, very muscular and rather long. 

Shape of Head. Very long, but not too narrow, coming to a compara- 
tive point ; nose not too small, and head gradually getting broader from 
the same evenly up to the back of the skull ; much broader between the 
ears than that of the present deerhound. 

Coat. Rough and hard all over body, tail, and legs, and of good length ; 
hair on head long, and rather softer than that on body ; that under the 
jaws to be long and wiry, also that over eyes. 

Colour. Black, grey, brindle, red, and fawn, though white and parti- 
coloured dogs were common, and even preferred in olden times. 

Shape and Size of Ears. Small in proportion to size of head, and 
half erect, resembling those of the best deerhounds ; if the dog is of 
light colour a dark ear is to be preferred. 

The Irish Wolfhound. 37 



Probable height at shoulder 

... 32in. to 35in. ... 

28in. to 30in. 

Girth of chest 

... 88 44 

32 84 

Round forearm 

... 10 12 ... 

8 9J 

Length of head 

... 12J 14 

10} 11J 

Total length 

... 84 100 

70 80 

Weight in Ibs 

... 110 140 ... 

90 110 

When Sir Walter Scott lost his celebrated dog Maida (which, by the 
way, was by a Pyrenean dog out of a Glengarry deerhound bitch) he was 
presented with a brace of dogs by Glengarry and Cluny Macpherson, 
both of gigantic size. He calls them " wolfhounds," and says, " There 
is no occupation for them, as there is only one wolf near, and that is con- 
fined in a menagerie. ' ' He was offered a fine Irish greyhound by Miss 
Edgeworth, who owned some of this breed, but declined, having the 
others. Eichardson says, " Though I have separated the Irish wolf dog 
from the Highland deerhound and the Scottish greyhound, I have only 
done so partly in conformity with general opinion, that I have yet to cor- 
rect, and partly because these dogs, though originally identical, are now 
unquestionably distinct in many particulars." 

As the rough Scotch greyhound is to the present deerhound, so is the 
deerhound to what the Irish wolfhound was ! 

It may be of interest to mention here that the last wolf is said to have 
been killed in 1710, but there is no accurate information as to the date. 
The height of the European wolf varies from 2 Sin. to 30in., and he is, 
though of comparatively slight form, an animal of very great power and 

Eichardson, being an enthusiast on the subject, and not content with 
simply writing, took measures to recover the breed. With much patience 
and trouble he hunted up all the strains he could hear of, and bred dogs 
of gigantic size, to which the strains now in existence can be distinctly 
traced. A gentleman of position and means in Ireland, deceased some 
six or eight years, possessed a kennel of these dogs, on the breeding of 
which he expended both time and fortune freely. They were, though not 
equal to the original dog, very fine animals. It has been ascertained be- 
yond all question that there are a few specimens of the breed still in 
Ireland and England that have well-founded pretensions to be considered 
Irish wolfhounds, though falling far short of the requisite dimensions. 

In conclusion, the writer would again earnestly urge that some 
decided action may be taken by gentlemen possessing both leisure and 

38 British Dogs. 

means to restore to us that most noble of the canine race the Irish 

Since the foregoing was written by Capt. Graham the subject of the 
Irish wolfhound has been occasionally before the public both in this 
country and in America, but no new and authenticated facts have, so 
far as we are aware, been elicited in the discussion, and, unless we 
accept statements unsupported by evidence, we are left in the position 
that although there are dogs unquestionably possessing some of original 
Irish wolfhound blood, none are known to exist of absolutely pure pedigree. 

In March, 1878, a sketch of a supposed scion of this race appeared in 
" The Country " newspaper of New York, followed by a fair resume of his- 
torical notices of the breed. A month following a letter appeared in the 
same journal from Mr. Frank Adcock, of Shevington Hall, Wigan, in 
which he says, " It may interest your readers to know that this dog 
(the Irish wolfhound) is still in existence and exhibits all the various at- 
tributes ascribed to him by ancient writers. Those that I possess are 
blackish grey and grizzled in colour, with stiff wiry coats. In shape they 
resemble the great Scotch deerhound, but are somewhat more stoutly 
made, and very much superior in size and courage, the head also, although 
as long, is more massive and punishing in character, and the sense of 
smell is marvellously acute." 

We, through the same medium, expressed our surprise at Mr. Adcock's 
statement that the pure breed existed and were in that gentleman's pos- 
session, knowing him to be an exhibitor of rare breeds, and yet that he 
kept such an interesting fact from his countrymen, and had given them no 
opportunity of seeing, even at a Kennel Club Show, one specimen of this 
rarity, and suggested that he should substantiate a statement which had 
astonished more than ourselves. Unfortunately, the American ' ' Country ' ' 
is now more extinct than the Irish wolfhound, but in its last issue appeared 
a letter from Mr. Adcock, in response, we presume, to an editorial article on 
the subject, in which occurs the following sentence : " It certainly seems 
strange that the first intimation of it (the existence of the breed) should have 
been published in our columns, but we have no complaint to make on that 
score, if Mr. Adcock will make his claim good by proving that he really 
owns, as he has stated, more than one of the original breed." The 
letter from Mr. Adcock, however, is headed "Wolfhounds," says a 
good deal about Spain and the Pyrenees wolf dogs, and distinctly adds, 

The Irish Wolfhound. 39 

" the wolfhounds I allude to are not to be confounded with these mongrels, 
but are more or less identical with the dog known as the Irish grey- 
hound or wolfhound." 

Feeling strongly interested in the recovery or resuscitation of the Irish 
wolfhound, this controversy led us to make further enquiries respecting 
the breed, but there are few indeed who appear to know much of it or 
take any practical interest in it ; and for the following notes referring to 
the last known pure strains we are indebted to the writer of the foregoing 
article, who possesses a more thorough knowledge of the breed and all 
concerning it, who has had more practical experience in breeding up to 
standard of the true Irish wolfhound than any man living, and who has 
in his dogs various combinations of, as far as we know, the only strains 
that possess authentic claims of descent from the original stock. 

Captain Graham writes us: "With regard to the Caledon breed of 
Irish wolfhounds, the present lord tells me that his father kept them, 
and that he can just remember them in his extreme youth. He very 
kindly made strict inquiries when on his Irish estates last year, and from 
the older keepers and tenants he has gathered the following particulars, 
which he filled in on a form containing a series of questions which I sent 
him. The Irish wolfhounds kept by the late Earl of Caledon were as 
tall as the largest deerhound now seen if not taller of a stouter make 
throughout, broader and more massive ; the ears were similar to a deer- 
hound's ; rough, but not long coated ; fawn, grizzly, and dun in colour ; 
some old men have mentioned a mixture of white. 

" The late Earl of Derby had a similar breed, I am assured positively 
by a gentleman (a clergyman) who had one given him many years ago 
over fifteen, probably twenty ; but from Knowsley direct I have not got 
any information, though I wrote ; probably the old keepers who had 
charge of the menagerie have disappeared and knowledge of the dogs 
has died out. A clergyman to whom one of my dogs was given some 
nine or ten years ago told me that the present Lord Derby had seen this 
dog, and considered him a finer dog than any he had formerly had. I 
understand he grew to be very high thirty-two inches and massive in 
proportion ; his sire was only thirty and a half inches, but his grandsire 
was thirty-two, or considered to be so. 

" Richardson, in his essay on this breed, says Sir Richard Betham, 
Ulster King at Arms, has stated it as his conviction that the Irish wolf 

40 . British Dogs. 

dog was a gigantic greyhound, not smooth-skinned, like our greyhounds, 
but rough and curly -haired. In the face of this, Sir William Betham's 
son, the well-known archer, wrote me some years ago to call my attention 
to a specimen of the Irish wolfhound which was to be purchased in his 
neighbourhood ; his description of the dog, however, showed him to be 
distinctly a boarhound or Great Dane, of no great size. A Mr. Mahony, 
of Dromore a large property near Muckross had, about twenty years 
ago, a breed of these dogs, but they have been allowed to die out. He 
had them, however, from the late Sir J. Power, so that the same blood 
is now in my possession. He described them fully to me as being 
similar to the deerhound, but more massive and powerful, and not so 
high on the leg. 

" Two of these dogs, of the Power breed, were the property of a lady 
living at Hyde, Isle of Wight, and of which I have photographs ; they 
are however dead, and left no produce. I at great trouble traced out 
the Mr. Carter who is referred to by Eichardson, but only to find that 
his breed of dogs had passed into oblivion." 

At the Irish Kennel Club Show, held at Dublin, April, 1879, a class 
was made for dogs showing the nearest approach to the old Irish 
wolfhound as described by sporting writers of the past, and the com- 
mittee did us the honour of appointing us to judge. The class was 
composed of dogs differing very widely in character, and what we 
considered our duty was to select for honours the elements out of 
which the old race could be rebuilt. We therefore gave first prize to 
a dog of very distinct deerhound type, but enormous stature a dog, 
indeed, wanting nothing but more bone and substance to be our ideal of 
an Irish wolfhound. These are great wants, no doubt, but in the class 
brought together in this, the first public attempt to resuscitate the 
breed an attempt that redounds to the honour of the Irish Kennel 
Club, and in a marked degree to Mr. St. George, who laboured hard in the 
interest of the breed the judge had to deal with elements and possibili- 
ties only ; the actual has to come, and was not even looked for in this, the 
first show of dogs under this name. The winning dog, Mr. Percy H. 
Cooper's Brian, is by Captain G. A. Graham's Swanan Dr. Lammond- 
Hemming's Linda. The latter is a well known deerhound bitch, while 
Swanan, we believe, has as much of the genuine old Irish wolfhound blood 
as any dog living ; and it was with a view to forward the resuscitation 

The Scotch Rough-haired Greyhound. 41 

of the 'Irish wolfhound that the litter, of which Brian is one and the 
better-known Ingleside another, were bred. 

The second prize was awarded to a puppy shown by Mr. Frank Adcock, 
no pedigree given. He had a strong look of the great Dane, with a good 
deal of the shape and style of the deerhound dark, grizzled, and with a 
hard useful coat, although rather short ; he was a puppy of great power and 
substance, the right stamp of head, although just a trifle too heavy, and 
in a cross with a sister to this dog and such a dog as Brian, we should 
expect to see the nearest approach in form to the old Irish wolfhound that 
has existed in this century, and in them we should also expect to get 
courage, a most essential attribute in a dog that has to cope with large 
and fierce game, and without which, indeed, he is worthless. 

The third prize was awarded to Capt. G. A. Graham' s Scot, a dog with 
more authentic Irish wolfhound blood in him than anything shown, and, 
in shape and style, correct, but wanting in coat, and, what is more im- 
portant, size and substance, for he was small almost to weediness. 

The Irish Kennel Club give a challenge cup of .15 15s. value, and I 
hope this and the other means they are taking to encourage the restoration 
of this noble breed will eventually prove successful. The demand for such 
a dog for the hunting of fierce game in our colonies and abroad is 
unlimited, and with that view alone Ireland should encourage the 
restoration of the Irish wolfhound. 



THIS variety of dog is now rarely met with except on some show benches, 
mixing with his larger brethren the deerhounds, and assuming their name. 
The popularity and great increase of public coursing seem to have rung 
his death knell, and, although he still exists in out-of-the-way places, he 
has, to a very large extent, become absorbed in the more modern smooth- 
skins, most strains jof which have more or less of the rough blood in 

42 British Dogs. 

their veins. It is now nearly thirty years since I last saw a rough grey- 
hound competing in a coursing match, and he won it. When I say it wa? 
in a parish where every one was a courser, and that can boast the 
production of such good greyhounds as Cutty Sark, Scotland Yet, Wigan, 
Canaradzo, &c., it will be a sufficient guarantee that good stuff was 
pitted against the lanky dog with hirsute muzzle, whose name I forget, 
and who, I well remember, had his life closed on the day of his victory 
by some undiscovered scoundrel having that night cut his hock sinews, 
when, of course, he had to be destroyed. 

A celebrated public performer was Gilbertfield, a rough brindled dog 
that flourished forty years ago ; but, although rough himself and the sire 
of rough dogs that proved themselves good ones, his sire was of the 
smooth variety. 

The shape of the rough greyhound corresponds closely with that of the 
deerhound ; but he is not so large and powerful, averaging about 2 Gin. at 
shoulder against 29in. or 30in. in the deerhound. That both sprang from 
same original stock I think there can be no doubt ; the existing difference 
gradually became established by the work to which they were kept and the 
selections in breeding that would naturally be resorted to to mould and 
modify the animal to the purpose for which he was required. 

In most points the rough or, as it has been called, the wiry-haired 
greyhound corresponds with the smooth, except that he is larger boned, 
not quite so elegant in shape, or perhaps, more correctly, wanting in that 
beautiful finish that stamps the modern greyhound as the highest effort of 
man's skill in moulding this plastic animal to his will. The rough, harsh 
coat adds to this effect, and the hairy jaws make the head look coarse ; 
this, however, it is in reality, the head being wider between the ears, 
which are also apt to be rather large and carried in an ugly manner. 
From its general resemblance to the deerhound, many specimens have 
been sold as such, and, being kept as companions and crossed with deer- 
hounds, have swelled the ranks of the latter, and helped to deteriorate 
their size. 

I believe there are still to be met with in Wales specimens of the 
rough greyhound ; I have no personal knowledge of them, but, from 
information furnished me, I believe they in all respects correspond with 
the Scotch, and are no doubt descendants of the dogs that rid the 
Principality of its wolves. 

The Lurcher. 43 



IT would be in vain to look for the lurcher in the streets or parks of 
London, in any of our considerable towns, or at any of our dog shows. 
In some of our manufacturing towns he is kept, but out of sight ; his 
appearance is so suggestive that the modesty and retiring disposition of 
his master will not allow him to parade the dog before the public gaze. 
The lurcher is, in fact, par excellence the poacher's dog, and those who 
desire to see him must look for him in the rural districts ; there look 
out for the jobbing labourer, the man who never works but from dire 
necessity, a sturdily built but rather slouching fellow, whose very gait and 
carriage half swagger, half lurch proclaim the midnight prowler, and 
close to his heels, or crouched at his feet beneath the ale house bench, 
you will find the lurcher. 

The dog is by no means the ugly brute he is sometimes described to 
be. True, they vary greatly, and the name more properly describes 
the peculiar duties of the dog, and his manner of performing them, than 
distinctiveness of type ; but still the old-fashioned genuine lurcher has a 
well-defined character of his own which no other dog can lay claim to. 

The lurcher proper is a cross between the Scotch colley and the grey- 
hound an average one w ill stand about three-fourths the height of the 
greyhound ; more strongly built and heavier boned, yet lithe and supple 
withal, his whole conformation giving an impression of speed, just, 
as his blinking, half-closed eye, as he lies pretending to sleep, 
impresses one with his intelligence and cunning. His coat is rough, 
hard, and uneven ; his ears are coarse, and altogether there is 
an air of, not rusticity, but vulgarity, about him. You cannot help 
associating dog and master, and, to be just, you will admit that there 
has been gross neglect or fundamental errors in the education and 
bringing up of both dog and man, for which they may not be altogether 
responsible ; and, to conclude your philosophising, you may, with a sigh, 
regret that so much capacity for real work should be turned into a wrong 

If we may compare the two in morals, the dog has much the better of 

44 British Dogs. 

it. He worships his master ; he is as ready to defend as to adulate ; 
his obedience is willing, prompt, and thorough, and rendered with a 
silence that would command the praise of the Chelsea philosopher. No 
yelp, youf, or yowl from the lurcher. Steady at heel or keeping watch 
at the stile till the wire is in the meuse and the net across the gate ; then 
a motion of the hand, and, without a whimper, he is round the field, 
driving rabbit and hare into the fatal snare. 

I attribute the wonderful intelligence displayed by some lurchers I 
have known to their constant and most intimate association with their 
owners. They eat, sleep, and thieve together ; and if the dog were not of 
Sir Wilfrid Lawson's opinion on the subject, they would, after a success- 
ful raid on the squire's preserves like Tarn o' Shanter and Souter 
Johnny "be drunk for weeks together." 

Lurchers will run either by nose or sight, as suits them, but always 
cunning. Let them start a hare, they will probably make for the meuse 
and meet poor Wat ; but their great game is with crouching stealthy step 
to pounce on him in his form. 

All of them will retrieve their game. Watch that itinerant tinker and 
collector of sundries, trudging behind that thing on four wheels he calls 
a cart, drawn by a nag that should be at the knacker' s ; he has seen the 
keeper heading for the Pig and Whistle. "Hie in, Jerry! " and the 
lurcher that enters the spinney empty mouthed, comes out two hundred 
yards below, and deposits a hare at his master's feet. 

As before said, these dogs vary greatly in general size and shape, 
and so they do in colour, but my beau ideal of a lurcher is a heavyish 
greyhound conformation with enough of the colley to make them look in- 
telligent, and in colour red, brindle, or a grizzle. 

The Whippet. 45 



THE whippet, or snap dog, as he is also called, is a great favourite with 
workmen in Durham and other northern counties, and the Darlington 
Show never fails to bring together a large collection of them. 

It is not, however, for the show bench, but the race ground that he is 
bred, where they are matched against each other for speed and for their 
superiority in rabbit coursing. I cannot describe them better than by 
saying they are a greyhound on a small scale with a dash of terrier. 

An account of the dog racing for which these whippets or snap dogs 
are used, and which is so popular with the working classes in many 
parts of the north, will be interesting. 

The dogs are handicapped according to their known performances, &c., 
and the distance run is two hundred yards. They are entered as 
"Thomson's Eose, 19lb.," as the case may be, and the weight appears 
on the handicap card. Dogs are weighed in an hour before the time 
set for the first heat, and are allowed four ounces over the declared 
weight. The winner of the heat is weighed again immediately the 
heat is run. For the second heat eight ounces are allowed. For 
the final race additional extra weight is allowed, that being run on 
the following Saturday. The dog generally gets a light meal half a 
pigeon, or a chop, or piece of steak after running his second trial heat on 
the second Saturday ; so he weighs a bit heavier the second time of scaling. 
The modus operwndi will be best illustrated by the following description 
of a race meeting recently held at Farnvrorth Recreation Grounds, near 
Bolton. There were sixty odd heats of three dogs. The course is a 
perfectly level path of twelve yards in width. The dogs are stripped 
and put on their marks, each being held by his owner, or a man 
for him, and the starter goes behind them with the pistol. Mean- 
while a man the dog knows starts off in front of him, carrying a 
big piece of linen rag, or some conspicuous object, sometimes a big tuft 
of grass or a pigeon's wing ; and every now and then, as he runs up the 
course, he will turn round and "Hi" to the dog, at the same time 
waving the cloth up and down. When these runners up have got pretty 

4 6 

British Dogs. 

near the finish, the pistol is fired and the dogs are released. The 
runners up must then get over the ten-yard mark, beyond the finish 
line, and the dogs, running right on, snatch the cloth with their teeth 
and hang to it like grim death. Each dog has a piece of ribbon round 
his neck, according to his station red, white, or blue ; and the judge 
or referee, as he is called, holds up a flag of the winning colour to 
show which has won. The cloth is called "bait," and "live bait" is 

The following is a copy of rules in force at a number of racing grounds 
in the Manchester district, which will make the working of this popular 
pastime clear : 

1. All doS that have never run at these grounds must be entered in 
their real owner's name and residence, also the town or place in which 






they are kept, or they will lose all claim in any handicap, and will be 
subject to inspection at the scales ; and no person will be allowed to 
run with live bait. 

2. Any person objecting to a dog on the mark, that heat shall be post- 
poned. The objector and owner shall stake in the hands of the handi- 
capper or referee <! each at the time of objection, which must be made 
into 5 each before the last heat is run. If it cannot be proved on the 
day of objection, the dog will run under protest. The person who owns 
the dog shall leave it with the proprietor or handicapper until the 
objection is proved right or wrong if it is proved wrong the money to 
be paid to the objector ; but if not proved the money to be paid to the 
owner of the said dog. 

3. In any case of running-up for a wrong dog, both the owner, the 

The Whippet. 47 

"runner," and the dog will be disqualified. They will be expelled from 
the grounds for twelve months, and will not be allowed to enter any 
handicap during that time. Their names will also be published in the 
sporting papers. 

4. Any owner of dogs attempting to weigh, or sending any other 
person to weigh a wrong dog, both owner and dog shall be excluded 
from the grounds for twelve months. 

5. If a dog be disqualified after running, the second dog in the heat 
shall be placed first, and if it is not possible to tell the second dog, all 
the dogs in the heat shall run again, except the one disqualified. All 
bets void on the heat. 

6. Should the dogs go when the cap is fired, and not the shot, they 
shall run again in all cases ; and any dog slipped before the cap or shot 
is fired, shall forfeit all claim to the handicap, except all the dogs go, 
then it shall be a race. 

7. Only one runner-up allowed with each dog. Any one not at the 
mark when the previous heat is over will be disqualified in any part of 
the race. The runners to be ten or fifteen yards over the mark, according 
to the rules of the ground, when the dogs finish, or the dogs they 
represent will be disqualified. In all heats dogs must start at their 
respective marks. 

8. All bets stand whether the dogs run or not, excepting bets on 
heats, when backers must have a race for their money. 

9. That entries for dog handicaps shall close on Saturdays (Monday 
morning's post in time) ; and no entries will be taken after Monday 
morning on any account. This rule applies only to handicaps run on 
two succeeding Saturdays ; when run on other days it will be subject 
to alteration as announced in bills. 

10. If the proprietors and handicappers at any of these grounds make 
a mistake in a dog's start, and, not detecting it, allow any dog to run 
the first day, it shall not be disqualified through the handicapper having 
made a mistake in the start, and all bets must stand. 

11. Any dog entered " old " and not over five years old will be dis- 
qualified in any part of the race, and lose all claim to bets or stakes. 
No age will be taken after eight months old. 

12. FINAL HEAT. All dogs in the final heat shall be subject to 
weighing and inspection. In weighing, they will be allowed 6oz. in 

48 British Dogs. 

addition to the usual allowance ; and anyone taking his dog off the 
course before the referee declares "All right," shall forfeit all claim to 
stakes and bets. 

All disputes to be settled by the referee. 



THIS is a dog of the Scotch deerhound type, and much the same in size. 
The most striking difference is in the colour. The grizzle, almost 
universal in the deerhound, gives place here to a mixture of colours. 
The majority of those exhibited at our shows are white, with fawn or 
yellow markings ; but a gentleman who reported a dog show at Moscow 
for The Country, when there were about fifty exhibited, describes the 
prevailing colour of the Barsee, as these hounds are called, to have been 
white and dark grey ; and Minski, shown at Burton-on-Trent, is a 
mixture of light and dark grey and white ; but certainly the majority we 
see here are white and fawn or yellow. 

They are scarce in this country, which is to be regretted, as they are 
strikingly handsome and majestic. The best specimens I have seen are 
Lady Emily Peel's Czar, by the Duke of Hamilton's Moscow out of 
the Rev. J. C. Gumming Macdona's Sandringham ; and the latter bitch 
is also a grand one. Czar is a splendid fellow, white and lemon coloured, 
in build corresponding with our best deerhounds ; he has a good deep 
chest, well sloped shoulders, airy neck, and noble head, with rather 
full, almost amber-coloured eyes, which show bead-like, surrounded as 
they are with white. He is altogether a dog of fine proportions and noble 
appearance, and a first-rate specimen of the breed. 

The texture of the coat is finer than in our deerhounds, and, from their 
colour partly, they have a milder look than their name and work would 
lead us to expect. 

As an ornament and companion they are to be commended, and I hope 
to see them become more plentiful. 

The Persian Greyhound. 49 



THE specimens of this graceful but rather delicate variety are com- 
paratively rare in England, still we generally have one or more at our 
London shows. 

They are of similar type to our greyhound but built more slimly r 
wanting the great muscular development which the greyhound has ; 
indeed, so delicate in appearance are those I have seen exhibited, that 
they are in that respect an enlarged edition of the Italian greyhound. 

They differ from our greyhound also in having the ears larger, 
drooping, and fringed with silky hair, much longer than on the body, and 
the tail is similarly adorned. 

They are used in hunting the gazelle, an interesting account of which 
appeared in the " Field " newspaper some years ago. They are used in 
relays, a custom which was at one time in practice in this country. 

The most beautiful specimen I have seen is Mr. H. Allan's Tierma, a 
delicate fawn, standing, I should say, 22in. to 23in. at the shoulder. 
Tierma has often been exhibited, and her great beauty has always- 
secured her a first prize on these occasions. 

Dogs that hunt their Game by scent, and kill. 

Including : 

1. The Bloodhound. 

2. The Foxhound, 
j. The Otterhound. 
4. The Harrier. 

5. The Beagle. 

6. The Bassett. 

. The Dachshund 

This group corresponds in head formation -with the 
second division of M. Cuvier. (C The head moderately 
elongated, and the parietals diverging from each other 
for a certain space as they rise upon the side of the 
head, enlarging the cerebral cavity and the frontal 
sinus." Many, and notably those nearest approaching 
the older types, are possessed of deep flews and abun- 
dance of loose skin about the head and throat. They 
are heavier in build and slower in pace than those in 
Group i, and, although in several instances used to quest 
for game only, the general employment of the group 
is to hunt by scent only and to kill. 



HE who attempts to discover the origin and trace the history of any 
one of our breeds of dogs, beyond a comparativly few generations, will, in 
most or all cases, speedily find himself in a fog, tossed on a sea of doubt, 
driven hither and thither by the conflicting evidence of the writers he 
consults, who seem to emulate each other in the meagreness of the inform- 
ation they give and the vagueness with which they convey it. To this 

The Bloodhound. 51 

the bloodhound is no exception, and it is, perhaps, wiser to accept the in 
evitable, and frankly admit that we know very little about the origin o 
this or any other breed, for at best we can but guess at the most probable 
rom the very insufficient data at our command to form any certain 
opinion. This is certainly a wiser and more dignified course than, as 
many are disposed to do, prate about this, that, and the other breed 
being the original dog of the British Islands. Of one thing I feel very 
certain, that, could we go back, say, a thousand years, and select a 
hundred of the finest specimens then living, and bring them as they then 
were into competition with their descendants of- to-day, say, at an 
Alexandra Palace show, the whole century of them would be quickly sent 
out of the ring as mongrels ; they would stand no more chance than a 
herd of our ancient wild cattle would against a dairy of shorthorns. 
Such, at least, is my opinion, and if anyone disputes it, let him prove me 
wrong. The first printed book touching on dogs that we have is the 
"Book of Huntynge," by Juliana Barnes, and the list of dogs given by 
her does not include Bloodhounds, but it does the Lemor and Raches, 
both of which were dogs that ran their game by scent, and the former was 
probably the nearest approach to our notions of a hound, and was used to 
trace the wounded deer, &c., the name Lymer being taken from the fact of 
his being led in leash. No doubt at this date, and for a long time 
previous, English hounds were being modified by crosses from imported 
dogs brought in by the Norman conquerors from France, whence they 
originally came from the .East, and the slow hunting hounds of that day 
have, by various commixture, produced for us the varieties we now 

Dr. Caius mentions the bloodhound as " the greatest sort which serves 
to hunt, having lips of a large size, and ears of no small length." In 
Turberville's "Book of Hunting " there are a number of dogs portrayed, 
all of the hound type, and with true hound ears, whereas, in the " Book 
of St. Albans," printed a century earlier, the dogs represented have much 
smaller ears, and thrown back, as the dogs are seen straining on the slips, 
greyhound-like. Turberville has a good deal to say about hounds. If he 
is to be credited, the progenitors of our modern dogs originally came from 
Greece, and the first of them that reached this country were landed at 
Totnes. It was the custom at that time to range the dogs according to 
Colour ; of these, white and fallow, white spotted with red, and black 


52 British Dogs. 

were most esteemed. White, spotted with black or dun, were not so- 
much valued. The best of the fallow were held to be those with their 
hair lively red, with white spots on the forehead, or a white ring round 
the neck ; and of those it is said " those which are well joynted and dew- 
clawed are best to make bloodhounds," clearly showing, as passages from 
all the old writers could be quoted to do, that the term bloodhound was 
applied to the dog because of the work set him, and that, in fact, where 
hounds are spoken of the bloodhound is included. Black hounds, called 
St. Hubert's, are described as mighty of body, with legs low and short, 
not swift in work, but of good scent. The following couplet shows that 
the St. Hubert hounds were highly thought of : 

My name came first from holy Hubert's race, 
Soygllard my sire, a hound of singular grace. 

Turberville says " the bloodhounds of this colour prove good, especially 
such as are ' cole ' black." The dun hounds are much nearer in colour 
to our modern dog ; these were dun on the back, having their legs and 
fore-quarters red or tanned, and it is added the light tanned dogs were not 
so strong. 

Gervase Markham, who was a very copious writer, follows Turberville 
pretty closely. His description of a Talbot-like hound would, in many 
respects, stand for a modern bloodhound, although certainly not in head,, 
on which point I fancy he has not expressed his meaning very clearly. He 
says, " a round, thick head, with a short nose uprising, and large open 
nostrils ; ears exceedingly large and thin, and down hanging much lower 
than his chaps, and the flews of his upper lips almost two inches lower 
than his nether chaps ; back, strong and straight ; fillets, thick and 
great ; huckle bones, round and hidden ; thighs, round ; hams, straight ; 
tail, long and rush-grown, that is, big at the setting on, and small down- 
wards ; legs, large and lean ; foot, high knuckled and well clawed, with a 
dry, hard sole. 

From all this, and much more that might be quoted, I gather that 
whilst the dun and tan, that is, the black saddle back and tan legged 
dogs, most nearly agree in colour with our bloodhound, it is a mere 
accident of selection, although that may have been influenced by that 
coloured dog showing more aptitude for the special work he was put to> 

The Bloodhound. 53 

and certainly the colour is admirably adapted to a dog used for night 
work, as he was ; and this reminds me that Dr Caius tells us these dogs 
were kept in dark kennels, that they might better do night work. The 
practice would assuredly defeat its object. 

When the bloodhound was first used to track fugitives I have never 
been able to discover ; the first written notice of such a thing I am 
acquainted with occurs in " Blind Harry's Life of William Wallace," the 
Scottish patriot, as the following lines, which have been so frequently 
quoted by writers on the bloodhound, show : 

About the groud they set on breid ani length 
A hundreth men, chairgit in arms strang, 
To keep a hunde that they had them amang, 
In G'illisland there wab that Brachall bred, 
Sikyr of scen% to follow them that fled . 
Sae was she used in Eske and Liddesdale, 
Quhile she gat bluid nae fleeing might avail. 

And again : 

But this sleuth brache, quilke sekyr w as and keen, 
On Wallace fute followit sae felloune fast 
Quilk in thar sicht thai prochit at the last. 

In the traditions of the peasantry of the west of Scotland many stirring 
stories of the " hair-breadth 'scapes " of Wallace and Bruce from blood- 
hounds still live, and some of them at the present moment come up fresh 
to the writer's mind, although they have lain buried for many years. 

In the wars in Ireland bloodhounds were used in a manner reflecting 
little credit on the dominant power, and their scenting powers and 
ferocity have, in later times, been used to hunt down the unfortunate 
slaves in Cuba and elsewhere. For a stirring account of the employment 
of over a hundred of these dogs in hunting down revolted negroes in 
Jamaica, I refer the reader to the ' Sportman's Cabinet." 

In our own country they were long bred and trained to track border 
raiders, and a most exciting chase it must have been through those wild 
moorlands, as all who have read Scott, even without having visited the 
scenes he so wall depicts, will say. The words of eulogy on the dead 
Eichard Musgrave, pronounced by "the stark moss -trooping Scott," 
William of Deloraine, who, 

By wily turns and desperate bounds, 
Had baffled Percy's best bloodhounds, 

54 British Dogs. 

will arise in every reader's memory, but they will lose nothing by 
repetition here : 

Yet rest thee, God ! for well I know 
I ne'er &hall find a nobler foe 
In all the northern countries here, 
"Whose word is snaffle, spur, and spear. 
Thou wert the best to follow gear; 
'Twas pleasure, as we looked behind, 
To see how thou the chase could wind, 
Cheer the dark bloodhound on his way, 
And with the bugle rouse the fray. 
I'd give the lands of Deloraine 
Dark Musgrave were alive again. 

In later times the bloodhound has been used successfully in tracing 
poachers. Meyrick, in his useful little work on dogs, gives an interesting 
example of a successful poacher hunt, and he was often used for tracing 
thieves, and as an instance of this, so late as the beginning of the present 
century, the Thrapstone Association for the Prosecution of Felons a 
class of institution now almost obsolete kept a trained bloodhound for 
the tracking of sheep stealers. The description of the dog so employed, as 
given by Somerville in " The Chase," is inimitable in its graphic force. 
No one not thoroughly acquainted with hounds could have worked e\ery 
detail into so telling a picture : 

Soon the sagacious brute, his curling tail 
Flourished in air, low bending, plies around 
His busy nose, the steaming vapour enuffs 
Inquisitive, nor leaves one turf untried, 
Till cor&cious of the recent stains, his heart 
Beats quick ; his snuffling nose, his active tail, 
Attest his joy ; then with deep opening mouth, 
That makes the welkin tremble, he proclaims 
Th' audacious felon ; foot by foot he makes 
His winding way, while all the listening crowd 
Applaud his reasonings : O'er the watery ford, 
Dry sandy heaths, and stony barren hills ; 
O'er beaten paths, by men and beasts disdained, 
Unerring he pursues ; 'till at th cot 
Arrived, and seizing by his guilty throat 
The caitif vile, redeems the captive prey. 
So exquisitely delicate is his nose. 

Somerville is not the only poet who has paid tribute to the wonderful 
powers of this king of hounds. Tickell, in his poem on hunting, says : 

O'er all the bloodhourd boasts superior skill, 
To scent, to view, to turn, to boldly kill. 

The Bloodhound. 55 

The following quotation from Dr. Caius (temp. 1550) as to the use of 
bloodhounds may prove suggestive, and enforce the arguments I have 
repeatedly used in favour of the extraordinary scenting powers of this 
noble hound being again utilised as a thief taker. Burglaries, especially 
in rural and suburban districts, never were more rife ; the capture of the 
thieves is often due to some happy accident, but capture and detection of 
the perpetrators of these crimes too rare. The use of well trained 
bloodhounds would, I am persuaded, prove most valuable in lessening 
this class of crime, because of the absolute certainty with which they 
could be trained to track the felon, even when put on the scent hours 
after the deed had been committed. 

The dog was probably first used to trace deer stealers when the 
stringent forest laws of the Norman kings were in force, and after- 
wards his aptitude for the work was used for extended purposes. 
That may be merely conjecture, but Dr. Caius seems to strengthen 
the idea ; he says they " do not only chase the beast while it liveth, 
but being dead also by any manner of casualty make recourse to 
the place where it lieth, having in this point a sure and infallible 
guide, namely, the scent and savour of the blood sprinkled here 
and there upon the ground, for whether the beast being wounded doth 
notwithstanding enjoy life and escape the hands of the hunts- 
man, or whether the said beast, being slain, is conveyed clearly out 
of the park (so that there be some signification of bloodshed), these dogs 
with no less facility and earnestness than avidity and greediness, can dis- 
close and bewray the same by smelling, applying to their pursuit agility 
and nimbleness, without tediousness, for which consideration of a singu- 
lar speciality they deserved to be called scmguinarius bloodhounds. 
And albeit, peradventure it may chance that a piece of flesh be subtlely 
stolen and cunningly conveyed away with such provisos and precaveats 
as thereby all appearance of blood is either prevented, excluded, or con- 
cealed, yet these kind of dogs, by a certain direction and an inward as- 
sured notice and privy mark, pursue the deed doers through long lanes, 
crooked reaches, and weary ways, without wandering away out of the 
limits of the land whereon these desperate purloiners prepared their 
speedy passage ; yea, the nature of these dogs is such, and so effectual is 
their foresight, that they can bewray separate and pick them out from an 
infinite multitude and an innumerable company, escape they never so far 

56 British Dogs. 

into the thickest throng, they will find him out notwithstanding he 
be hidden in wild woods, in close and overgrown groves, and lurk in hol- 
low boles apt to harbour such ungracious guests. 

' ' Moreover, although they should pass over the water, thinking thereby 
to avoid the pursuit of the hounds, yet will not these dogs give over their 
attempt, but, presuming to swim through the stream, persevere in their 
pursuit, and when they be arrived and gotten to the further bank they 
hunt up and down, to and fro run they, from place to place shift they, 
until they have attained to that plot of ground where they passed over, 
and this is their practice, perdie they cannot at the first time smelling find 
out the way which the deed doers took to escape. So at length get they 
that by art and cunning and diligent endeavour which by fortune and 
luck they cannot otherwise overcome, in so much as it seemeth wisely 
written by Elianus to be as it were naturally instilled and poured into 
these kind of dogs, for they will not pause ror breathe from their pursuit 
until such time as they be apprehended and taken which committed the 
fact. The owners of such dogs use to keep them in close and dark channels 
in the day time, and let them loose at liberty in the night season, to the 
intent they might with more courage and boldness practise to follow the 
felon in the evening and solitary hours of darkness, when such ill-dis- 
posed varlets are principally purposed to play their impudent pranks. 

" These hounds, when they are to follow such fellows as we have 
before rehearsed, use not that liberty to range at will which they have 
otherwise when they are on game (except upon necessary occasion, where- 
on dependeth an urgent, an effectual persuasion, when such purloiners 
make speedy way in flight), but being restrained and drawn backward 
from running at random with the leash, the end thereof the owner hold- 
ing in his hand, is led, guided, and directed with such swiftness and 
slowness (whether he go on foot or whether he ride on horseback) , as 
he himself in heart would wish for the more easy apprehension of these 
venturesome varlets." 

The employment of dogs in the detection of a great crime quite 
recently brought the question of the utilisation of the bloodhound for 
such purposes up for discussion. In the case referred to the dog had 
displayed no more sagacity than is common to the whole species, 
advantage being taken of the deep sensation produced by the inhuman 
nature of the crime to impose as a wonderful performance the most 

The Bloodhound. 57 

ordinary event on the ignorant and credulous. It is not, however, 
altogether impracticable to make these hounds auxiliaries to the police. 
A well-trained hound will trace the steps of the fugitive after many 
hours, and in cases of burglary or other crimes in rural districts, as 
already said, their employment might be useful. It certainly seems a pity 
that, kept as he is now as a noble companion, the wonderful power 
nature has given him should, with but few exceptional cases, be allowed 
to lie dormant. 

Having cursorily glanced in the first part of this chapter at the 
bloodhounds of our forefathers through such dim light as he is at all 
visible, I now turn to him as he is in our own day, the noblest of all 
the hound tribe, so patrician in appearance that he calls up to the 
imagination pictures of old baronial halls with their wide-extending 
parks and noble woods, rather than the surroundings in which the 
majority now only see him on the show bench, where he, as by right of 
birth and blood, heads the long list of canine aristocracy. To write of 
the bloodhound and not quote the unparalleled lines of Scott in the 
"Lay of the Last Minstrel" were rank heresy. The beauty of these 
lines has been so much better eulogised by the writer of the article on 
41 Bloodhounds" in the "Penny Cyclopaedia," that I quote them 
verbatim as an introduction to the lines themselves: "This is one of 
the best poetical descriptions of the bloodhound in action, if not the 
best, for though Somerville's lines may enter more into detail, they 
want the vivid animation of the images brought absolutely under the 
eye by the power of Seott, where the ' noble child,' the heir of Brank- 
some, is left alone in his terror : " 

Starting oft, he journeyed on, 

And deeper in the wool is gone. 

For aye, the more he sought his way , 

The farther fctill he went astray ; 

Until he heard the mountains round 

Ring to the baying of a hound. 

And hark ! and hark ! the deep-mouthed bark 

Comes nigher still, and nigher ; 
Burst on the path a c'ark bloodhound, 
His tawny muzzle tracked the ground, 

And his red eye shot fire. 
Soon as the 'wildered child saw he, 
He flew at him right furiouslie. 
I ween you would have feen with joy 
The bearing of the gallant boy, 
When, worthy of Hs noble sire, 
His wet cheek glowed 'twixt fear and ire 

58 British Dogs. 

He faced the bloodhound manfully 
And held his little bat on high; 
So fierce he struck, the dog, afraid, 
At cautious distance hoarsely bay'd, 

But still in act to spriug. 
When dashed an archer through the glade, 
And when be saw the bound was stayed, 

He drew his tough bow-srring. 
But a rough voice cried, " Sboot not, hoy ! 
Ho ! shoot not, Edward 'tis a boy." 

The bloodhound of to-day, changed as he no doubt has been by 
" modern refinement, collateral crosses, and experimental commixture," 
stands an average height of about 27in., bitches an inch or more less. 
He possesses a commanding dignity of appearance, with an attractive- 
ness of expression that is truly noble ; he seems to rest with silent 
confidence and self-reliance in the consciousness of his own power and 
importance ; and, as he reposes on his bench in stately form calmly 
viewing his admirers, receives their adulations in stately fashion, as "to 
the manner born." When seen in action he moves more gracefully 
than the more massive mastiff, and gives an impression of a well- 
adjusted union of activity and strength. 

The head is remarkably striking ; it is large and long, high domed, 
and peaked at back of skull in comparison with its length it is narrow ; 
the upper jaw is also long and narrow, ending with wide-spread 
capacious nose ; the upper lips or flews are thin and deep, hanging well 
below the under jaw. The ears, low set on, are remarkable for their 
great length, hanging like folds of graceful drapery to such depth they 
can be made to meet before the nose. There is a quantity of loose 
skin about the head and throat, giving the attractive wrinkled appear- 
ance to the face, and the " dewlaps like Thessalian bulls," called 
" throatyness," The eye is deep-seated, calm, and scrutinising, and 
full of expression, the "haw" from its red appearance, probably 
named from the berry of the white thorn well exposed. The neck 
is longer in reality than appearance, shoulders fairly sloped, and fore 
legs, stout, straight, and muscular, with the feet round, and well 
padded ; splay feet are objectionable ; the claws are large, strong, 
and black in colour. The barrel of moderate length, ribs deep and 
well sprung ; loins and hind quarters very muscular ; the tail of great 
length, set on high, thick at the base, and tapering, but not to a> 
fine point very pliant. " Stonehenge " pays "gracefully waving;" 

The Bloodhound. 59 

another writer says " lashing," and carried moderately high; but it is 
of little consequence which description we accept. 

Colour has been, if it is not still, a vexed question. " Stonehenge " 
says " black -tan, or deep and reddish fawn (no white should be shown 
but on just the tip of the stern)." "Dogs of the British Islands" 
(first edition) says " a reddish tan, darkening gradually towards the 
upper parts till it becomes black on the back. A white patch on the 
body, a white face, or a streak down it, proclaims a stain which is death 
to all hope of purity of blood." 

I cannot believe in colour as an infallible test of purity of blood. 
I have seen how these hounds were bred from those of various colour, 
and Pennant, writing the end of last century, claims for them a black 
spot over each eye a characteristic of the old Southern hound. Does 
this ever appear in litters now ? Mr. Holford, a successful modern 
breeder, says : " There is almost invariably more or less white on the 

chest The less white on the feet the better. There should 

be no white on any other part of the body, though few breeders would 
reject a dog solely on account of colour if all other points were good." 

Those that are spotted with white are esteemed by many, and, when 
thus faintly flecked or dappled, the effect is greatly to enhance the 
appearance of the dog in the eyes of many. I certainly very much 
admire it, but question its being any proof of purity. 

The coat is short, fine, and thick, but, of course, this is much 
modified by the circumstances of rearing, keeping, and work. The 
voice, once heard, is not to be forgotten : it is awfully deep and loud, 
with a prolonged sonorous melody ; and, heard at night, when the 
mountain echoes sullenly fling back a dull response, it has quite a solemn 
and weird effect. 

The points of the bloodhound, as generally accepted, are : 

Head 15 

Ears and Eyes 1 

Flews and Dewlap 10 

Neck 5 

Chest and Shoulders 10 

Back and Bick Rib3 10 

Legs and Feet 20 

Colour and Coat 5 

Stern 5 

Symmetry 10 

Total ... ... 100 

60 British Dogs. 

Among the best bloodhounds that have been exhibited, I may 
enumerate Major J. A. Cowan's Druid, Dauntless, Dingle, Draco ; Mr. 
T. A. Jennings's Druid; Mr. C. E. Holford's Regent, Matchless, and 
Trimbush ; Mr. E. Reynolds Ray's Roswell, Baron, and Baroness ; 
Mr. Edwin Brough's Rufus; Sir Fowell-Buxton's Luath, and Capt. 
Clayton's Luath; and those now (1878) that take the lead at our 
exhibitions are Mr. Bird's Brutus; Capt. J. W. Clayton's Luath XI., 
too pale coloured for modern fancy, but a grand hound, with a long, 
deep, narrow head, peaked skull, and abundance of flew, wrinkles, and 
dewlap ; Mr. Leger G. Morrell's Rollo, rich in colour, and grand in 
head; Mr. Mark Beaufoy's Merton ; Mr. Herbert Singer's Judge, a 
stout built, dark coloured, and excellent young hound ; and Mrs. 
Humphries' Don, without exception the finest made specimen of the 
breed I have seen, full of quality, with all the special attributes of the 
bloodhound well developed, although the skull is neither quite so narrow 
or peaked as in some of his competitors. 

Of first-class bitches, Mr. J. C. Tinker's Dido, I think, ranks the 
highest, and her success in the show ring has been uninterrupted. Mr. 
Johnstone Auld's Harmony, Dr. Forbes Winslow's Bell, and Mrs. 
Humphries' s Haidee, are also magnificent hounds of the true type. 

Through the courtesy of their owners, I am enabled to give particulars 
of measurements of some of the above-mentioned hounds, which will be 
of use for comparison with others. 

Mrs. Humphries' s Don : Age, 4| years ; length from nose to set on of 
tail, 49in. ; length of tail, 18in. ; girth of chest, 35in. ; girth of loin, 
29fin. ; girth of head, 18in ; girth of forearm, 8|in. ; length of head 
from occiput to tip of nose, 13in. ; ears from tip to tip, 27|in. ; each 
ear, 9|in. ; between ears, 8Jin. ; depth of flews, 6iin. 

Mr. J. T. Tinker's Dido : Age, 1 year 7* months ; weight, 871b. ; 
height at shoulder, 25fin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 45fin. ; 
length of tail, IS^in. ; girth of chest, 33in. ; girth of loin, 26in. ; girth 
of head, 18in. ; girth of forearm, 8fin. ; length of head from occiput -to 
tip of nose, lliin. ; length of ears from tip to tip, 25in. 

Capt. J. W. Clayton's Luath XL: Age, 4 years; weight, 107lb. ; 
height at shoulder, 27in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 46in. ; 
length of tail, 19in. ; girth of chest, 36in. ; girth of loin, 32in. ; girth 
of head, 23in. ; girth of forearm, 9in. ; length of head from occiput to 

The Bloodhound. 61 

tip of nose, 13in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, 14in. ; length from tips of ears across forehead, 26in. 

Mr. W.Herbert Singer's Judge : Age, 1 year 7 months ; weight, '891b. ; 
height at shoulder, 2 7in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 48|in. ; 
length of tail, 18|in. ; girth of chest, 33|in. ; girth of loin, 27in. ; girth 
of head, 17in. ; girth of forearm, 9jin. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, 12in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 
lOJin. ; length of ears from tip to tip, 29in. 

Mr. J. E. W. Wilbey's Gassy (6861) : Age, 2 years 8 months ; height 
at shoulder, 24in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 45in. ; length of 
tail, 16|in. ; girth of chest, 32in. ; girth of loin, 25in. ; girth of head, 
19 in. ; girth of forearm, 8fin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, lOin. ; length of ears, 24|ir. 

Rev. E. Fowler's Druid: Age, uncertain; weight, 941b. ; height at 
shoulder, 24in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 52in. ; length of 
tail, 16in. ; girth of chest, 14in. ; girth of loin, 34Jin. ; girth of head, 
27in. ; girth of forearm, 10|in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, 13in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 18in. ; 
ears from tip to tip, 27in. 

Eev. E. Fowler's Lufra: Age, 3 years; weight, 861b. ; height at 
shoulder, 24in. ; length from nose to set on of tail. 43in. ; length of tail, 
I7in. ; girth of chest, 12in. ; girth of loin, 33in. ; girth of head, 21in. j 
girth of forearm, 9f in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, llin. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 13iin. ; ears from 
tip to tip, 26in. 

We give an engraving of Mr. E. Bird's Brutus, winner of a cup and 
two firsts at Birmingham, second twice at Crystal Palace, and also 
second at Alexandra Palace. Brutus was bred by his owner, and he is 
by Mr. Eeynolds Eay's Eoswell out of Eufia, by Mr. Holford's Eegent 
out of Doris, by Eockwood out of Bird's Vengeance ; and the following 
notice of him appeared in The Country report of the Birmingham show, 
1875 : "Brutus is wonderfully good, although considered by many short 
in leg, but he has a magnificent head, grandly carried, and is well made 
throughout ; anything he loses in height is compensated by his bone and 
substance and symmetrical frame." 

Don, the subject of our other engraving, is by the old champion 
Eoswell out of Flora, by Eufus out of Hilda. Eoswell was by the Duke 

62 British Dogs. 

of Beaufort's Warrior out of sister to Rufus. Don is considered by 
many of our best judges the bloodhound of the day, and he is, 
unquestionably, the best framed and most symmetrical hound of the 
breed we have seen. He has taken first prize at Manchester, Bristol, 
Alexandra Palace, and many other places, and the couple of magnificent 
puppies by him taking second and third prizes at the Irish Kennel 
Club, April 1, 1879, proves his capability of transmitting his grand 

Although the bloodhound is now rarely hunted in packs, Lord 
Wolverton still does so, hunting regularly at the present time seventeen 
and a half couples. His lordship exhibited a few of his hounds at the 
Bristol show, November, 1878, and fine specimens they were, especially 
the grand old dog Harold and the beautifully modelled bitch Freedom. 



THE writer of the following spirited article, has been a frequent 
contributor to The Country, and well known as a judge at many of 
our most important shows, and that he is equally at home and happy 
in the field as in the ring no reader of his article on the Foxhound can 
doubt. "Vert" says : 

" Our Saxon forefathers hunted down the fox not so much for sport as 
to protect their slender stock of poultry, lambs, and sucking pigs from 
'the subtle, pilfering foe, prowling around in midnight shades,' and 
were wont to proclaim his mort-note in joyous blasts from the sonorous 
throat of the cowhorn ; and we do not suppose that they would be very 
particular as to the kind of hound they employed for their purpose. 

" Who ever asks where, or when, or how, the wily fox is ta'en " until 
victorious William and his son Eufus taught them with horn and voice 
to cheer and discipline the pack ? For centuries the chase was reserved 
for royalty and the nobles of the land ; and it was not until " our George 

The Foxhound. 63 

was king" that the middle classes were allowed to join in the sport, 
when the yeomen and farmers in various parts of England got up packs 
of hounds for hunting the fox, each giving bed and board to one or more 
couples, which they brought together on appointed hunting days. 
These were called trencher packs, from the manner in which they were 
billeted out on the members of the clubs. Several such packs are still 
kept in the northern counties, and afford their supporters plenty of 

The first pack of foxhounds, with huntsman and whippers-in on 
horseback, was established about the middle of the last century in 
Dorsetshire, and hunted the Cranbourne Chase country for several 
years, when they were purchased by Mr. George Bowes, grandfather of 
the present Mr. John Bowes, of Streatlem Castle, after which they 
hunted the Durham country, and initiated northern foxhunters into the 
proper way of following the sport. 

The Brocklesby Hound list, which is one of the earliest, dates from 
1786, the first sire recorded being Dover, by Fitzwilliam' s Rumager. 

Mr. Farquharson hunted Dorsetshire from 1806 to 1858, fifty-two 
seasons, and had ninety couples of honnds in his kennels. He bred his 
bitches to about 21in., and his dog hounds to 23in. high, and they 
brought thirteen hundred and forty-seven brace of foxes to book in 
twenty-one seasons. In the season 1842-1843 the nose tally of this 
kennel was eighty-seven brace. 

Mr. Meynell, who hunted the Quorn for twenty-four seasons, did not 
care to have them under 24in., and Mr. Assheton Smith, who succeeded 
him, raised the standard to 25in. Of the old masters, the Duke of 
Grafton, Lord Lonsdale, and Mr. Warde liked to have them very little 
under 26in. 

Mr. Hall, the present master of the Holderness, has hunted that 
country for thirty-five seasons without intermission, having won his 
first spurs on the grey-tail Screveton, with Mr. Digby Legard, in 1820, 
and has since learnt the " hang " of every field from Sledmere plantation 
to Lammas stream, of which local tradition avers that, by sounding the 
depth of that dainty-looking water trap, Mr. "Nimrod" Apperley had 
the freedom of Holderness conferred on him, and that he carried away a 
luckless Lammas minnow in his boot as his precept of initiation. Mr. 
Hall cares more for the working qualities of his hounds than an inch 

64 British Dogs. 

or so in height ; and, besides his doings at home with the Holderness, 
he has also carried his banner to the fore amongst the crack riders, and 
at all the crack meets in the shires, from Lord Yarborough's at Cainby 
Corner and the Quorn at Rolleston to Lord Chesterfield's at Bullock 

In January of 1836, a knot of twenty-one second horses, by a lucky 
nick-in, gained the rising ground and caught a head view of the Belvoir 
bitch pack pressing hard on a Piper Hole fox up the vale, near the close 
of a fast forty-eight minutes ; the first flight being reduced to seven 
horsemen, with Tom Goosey at the fag end. 

" Lord Forrester is leading them, on the grey," says Tom Chambers,, 
alluding to a grey holding a centre lead of a good twenty lengths. Men- 
tally, we had already claimed the grey as one of the Yorkshire contin- 
gent ; and, biding our time, as he led down the swede ridges, and closely 
scanning his charge at the ox-fence too stiff to bend and too tough to 
break we caught the certainty, and broke out: "It's the Lord of 
Holderness that's on the grey, my lads ; and all the lords in Leicester- 
shire can't catch him!" Nor could they! And when the fox was 
pulled down, two fields ahead, there were only three claimants up 
for the twenty-one fresh horses at hand, the noble lord above alluded 
to not being one of them. Will. Goodall was second whip on .that 
day; and when he took the horn in 1842 he reduced the Belvoir 
standard from twenty-four to twenty-three inches, and in the season 
of 1854 he killed one hundred and ten foxes in one hundred and 
twelve days. 

"We don't call foxhounds dogs" was the crusty retort of Tom 
Parrington, the Yorkshire secretary to a Craven scut-hunter, on the eve 
of the Skipton hound show. But, with all due deference to the cherished 
reservation of the mighty mentor, we not only call the foxhound a dog, 
but the dog of dogs, and premise that, from a national point of view, 
foxhounds are of more importance than all other breeds of dogs clubbed 

We have weekly records of hunting appointments, from 167 packs 
of foxhounds in Great Britain and Ireland, which collectively engage to 
hunt about five hundred and forty days a week, besides which we are 
cognisant of several other established packs of foxhounds not included 
in the lists, and probably six hundred hunting days a week would be 

The Foxhound. 65 

nearer the mark, and this goes on ('weather permitting') for nearly 
half the year. 

" It is a clearly ascertained fact that a country cannot be properly 
hunted three days a week for less than .3000 a year, or four days a week 
for less than .4000 a year, and if we make this a basis for calculation, 
we have as an approximate no less a sum than .600,000 a year spent 
on foxhunting establishments alone, to say nothing of the enormous 
sums spent on the private studs of those for whom the sport is provided, 
nearly every shilling of which is not only spent at home, but on home 
products, and filters through every branch of the home trade. 

I do not rhyme for that dull elf 
Who cannot picture to himself 

that the chief reason why our ' flower of chivalry ' are the finest and 
best field officers in the world is owing to the knowledge of the manage- 
ment of the horse, and the courage inspired thereby acquired by early 
lessons taken in the hunting field. 

" There is no breed of dogs that have attained to such a high degree of 
perfection in form and substance as Foxhounds. Their pedigrees have 
been longer and better kept ; their breeders have united science with 
practice for many years past, and the result shows the master's hand. 
They have also been long under the control of a class with whom petty 
jealousies do not stand in the way of improvements, the services of a 
favourite hound in most packs being available for any other kennel if 
properly sought, of which we have an instance in the case of the late Sir 
Eichard Sutton, who, in a letter to a brother M.F.H., written only a 
few days before his death, says, * Send bitches to Glider,' Glider being 
considered the best hound in Sir Eichard' s kennel. 

"The modern Foxhound possesses in the highest degree thep roper 
conformation for courage, scenting powers, speed, and endurance, which 
proclaim him a workman of the first order and a model of canine per- 
fection to breed up to a model such as Petrarch in the equine world, 
that we may fancy to have said at the St. Leger post, ' Tell Kisber and 
the gentlemen that I am here waiting.' In short, the Foxhound is a 
pattern card for the breeders of pointers, setters, retrievers, &c., to help 
them to breed out chumpy heads and lumpy shoulders, lanky backs and 
cranky hind quarters, leathery necks and narrow chests, cow hocks and 
weak feet and pasterns. 


66 British Dogs. 

" To give a list of the names of the patriarchs of the stud which have 
taken their part in bringing the foxhound to his present standard of 
excellence would fill a volume of no mean size. Most kennels have had 
their Tarquins and Furriers, their Eingwoods and Eallywoods, to make 
or mar their destinies. Yorkshiremen of the old regime would swear by 
Sir Mark Sykes's Aimwell, that Chalon transferred to canvas, and whose 
grand head ' gardanfc ' is considered the choicest specimen from that 
artist's easel. His written eulogy 

Aimwell is by judges called a handsome hound, 
And always foremost when the fox is found, 

being attributed to the pen of Major Healey, than whom few had a more 
correct eye for horse or hound, or stronger nerve or better hand, as he 
proved when he jumped the iron-spiked gate in the Welham carriage 
drive when on the swing, without disturbing a hair on the clever brown 
bay, Hard Bargain. Willing and Wanton, and a long array of W's have 
kept up the dark patchy Aim well's reputation in this and other kennels. 

" Willing was a wonder at carrying a scent over sticky fallows ; but, 
being too fast for Tom Carter on the wolds, she was transferred to 
Brocklesby, where Will Smith did not give her many trials before he 
returned her with ' She's of no use to me ; we can't keep her in sight.' 
But Carter had no cause to regret the return, as she bred him Warrior 
and Woodman to Splendour. The former carried home the fox's head 
the first day he was out ; and, if allowed, he would always do so, be the 
distance never so great. 

" Of the fifty couples in the Eddlesthorpe hound list of 1842, before the 
kennel was transferred to Birdsall account, for the third time during the 
half century, Wanton and her sister Willing contributed ten and a half 
couples. The Mennithorpe miller never forgot his short cut across the 
kennel meadow at Eddlethorpe, when Wanton, catching sight of his 
dusky figure flitting through the early dawn, opened tongue, and, 
deserting her Shiner puppies, after a brief run, gave him a two hours 
and twenty minutes bay in the ash tree, at the end of which time he 
was released by Eobert Wise, the kennelman, as he arose to his duties 
at 5 a.m. 'Tak' her away, Eobert,' he pleaded; 'I was runnin' ti 
Burythorpe to fetch t' cow doctor ; dea tak' her away ! ' 

" The Brocklesby hounds, like the Yarborough estates, passed in male 

The Foxhound. 67 

tail, of which the old lord, regardless alike of the tooth of time or the 
increase of the gods, decreed, ' We will fall our Brocklesby oaks 
every hundred years and our ashes every fifty.' The Brocklesby horn 
also descended from father to son for several generations, and old Will 
Smith's last command to his son and successor was, ' Stick to Banter.' 

" Tom Sebright was first entered to the chase by running after his 
father's primitive pack in the New Forest, where they would hunt any- 
thing from a deer to a dragon fly. He was then caught up and schooled 
by Mr. Musters ; thence he passed to Sir Mark Sykes for three 
seasons, when he was transferred to Mr. Osbaldeston as whip, with this 
recommendation, ' He kills all our horses.' In 1822 he entered upon 
his forty years' service under Earl Fitzwilliam, and hunted the Milton 
hounds up to his death in 1862, having spent well-nigh half a century 
in breeding and hunting hounds. He had his favourite Furriers and 
Feudals ; but the cheery face of the veteran never beamed more radiantly 
than when he dilated on the Quorn Tarquin of his whipper-in days. 
' There never was such another hound as Trimbush ' was Will Danby's 
rooted belief, and he had had a lifetime of experience in the Baby, 
Holderness, Ainsty, and Harworth saddles. No day was too long and 
no seduction powerful enough for this unpledged disciple of Father 
Matthew, always excepting the cura9oa substitute in the coffee cup 
when the Holderness meet was under the old Scorbro' elms ; but he took 
much more kindly to this little counterfeit than any allusion to his fast 
fifteen minutes with the Neswick badger, which he pulled down on 
Tibthorpe Wold. The tastes of Danby's henchman, Ned Oxtoby, also 
ran in the temperance groove ; and he proved that his mother was no 
false prophetess when she predicted that ' he was born to be a hunts- 
man,' as the Holderness killed their fox under her cottage window at 
Long Biston in the same hour in which he first saw light, and he himself 
was strong in the faith that his mission in life was foxhunting. When 
the leading hounds once went headlong after their fox over the Speeton 
Cliff he begged a farmer to fetch a cart rope and lower him over the 
precipice, and he was drawn up first with Lavender in his arms, and then 
made a second descent for Petticoat, both of which, but for this gallant 
rope adventure, must have been left to perish among the seagulls and 

"Will Goodall's lease of life was as brief as his hunting career was 


68 British Dogs. 

brilliant. But his faith in the 23in. Brocklesby Eallywood did good 
service to the Belvoir kennel ; and when he laid down his horn in 1859 
he left a pack of hounds which, for matchiness in size and colour, as also 
for steadiness and working qualities, has rarely, if ever, been equalled. 
His last advice to Ben Morgan was ' hold by the Alfred sort ; they are 
such close workers, and have got me out of many a difficulty.' 

" Will Derry, like Ben Morgan, preferred gay, raking hounds of the 
24in. stamp, and both men were quick and clever in the field, and great 
killers of foxes. Nothing delighted Ben so much as to get on the trail 
of a good fox that would take them over the Holderness or the York and 
Ainsty frontier, and nothing short of failing scent or closing darkness 
would prevent his being brought to book. Both Derry and Morgan were 
hard riders, and proved the truth of the axiom that ' If welter weights 
break horses' backs, light weights break horses' hearts.' 

" Puppies are mostly whelped during the spring months, and, as soon as 
able to take care of themselves, they are taken out to quarters amongst 
the farmers, where they lead a dolce far niente sort of life, and are 
fetched in about the next February, when the lambs begin to drop. On 
their return they are branded with the initial of the hunt, and their 
ears are shortened by rounding off the points, to prevent them dipping 
into the feeding trough, and thus becoming coated and greasy, which 
would induce canker on the edge of the ear. Each now receives a 
name, and their education begins in good earnest being constantly 
schooled into submission and confidence for even Tom, the whip's, 
manner of rating a delinquent is open, decisive, cheery, and instructive, 
and in marked contrast with Whistle, the head-keeper's bullying and 
degrading appeal to a recalcitrant pointer, which oftener results in a fit 
of either the shivers or the sulks than in any knowledge of the fault 
committed or the duties required. 

" The beautiful manner in which the Quorn entries behaved at the late 
Yorkshire Hound Show at Skipton was worth a day's journey to witness 
especially in the case of Alice, the winner in the unentered bitch class 
coming up to every call and turning to every wave of Tom Firr's 
hand, true as the magnet to the pole. 

" Some of the hard riding Holderness farmers, whose hearts are in the 
sport, are proud of being trusted with a favourite bitch before she pups, 
when for her accommodation and comfort they cut a hole in the bieldy 

The Foxhound. 69 

side of the straw stack, where she rears her whelps far better than in 
any kennel. It is customary in most hunts to have the young unentered 
hounds judged during the summer, when prizes, which take the shape of 
silver cups, silver teapots, or handsome silk dresses, are awarded to the 
lady of the house where the best looking puppy has been walked in the 
previous year ; so that every farmer's wife wants to have charge of a 
good looking one to qualify her chance for the next show day. 

"Draft hounds are such as can be spared from the pack, and are drawn 
for size as above or below the desired standard of the kennel, or for 
some fault, real or imaginary. These are the perquisites of the hunts- 
man, and usually fetch three to four guineas a couple. Drafts from the 
best packs are in great request, being often bespoke long before the time, 
and command higher prices. 

" Promoters of monster dog shows must have been profoundly purblind 
when they placed Foxhounds in their prize schedule, or they would have 
foreseen that M.F.H.'s of important packs would never send hounds to 
be cribbed, cabined, and confined for the week about, running the 
gauntlet of all the ills that dog flesh is heir to ; to be poked and 
provoked by the canes of incipient man-milliners, and submitted to the 
judgment and criticism of lapdog fanciers the Whitby deadlock of '75 
to wit. ' What's that lang chap, wi'd fine gleaves on keep leaking inta 
their e'en for ?' asked a Bilsdale jet miner, who had tramped ten miles 
on foot and thirty-six by rail to back ' oor Charlotte, ' and had lost his 
money in the first over. 'E'en,' replied his companion in travel, 'he's 
leaking up their noases, mum, to see which has the sharpest scent.' 

" From the Waterloo year to the advent of the Russian campaign may 
be termed the Homeric period of foxhunting. Fields were more select 
and less crowded, first-flight men had less difficulty in recruiting then, 
studs, as thoroughbreds too slow for the turf were then drafted to the 
hunting stable, instead of being, as of late, degraded into steeplechasers, 
timber-toppers, and instruments of cheating and robbery. Fallows were 
not generally gridironed by drain-pipes and ' catch 'em up ' wire fences, 
and asphalte had not taken possession of the country. Coverts were not 
yet sacred to St. Pheasant, nor was there then a branch railway to cross 
the line of every fox. However, things look brighter in the north, for 
the engine drivers on the Richmond branch line, who have mostly one or 
more crosses of the sportsmen in them, have decided to respect the 

70 British Dogs. 

scarlet sleeve of the master of the Bedale, and when they see it standing 
at danger they draw up to a standstill, and allow his spotted beauties to 
cross scathless. But the N.E.B,. is accustomed to take things easy, and 
the traveller who has crawled through Quaker Straits by the North 
Passage without having his time wasted or his temper spoilt must have 
dropped into a hopeless state of uselessness. 

" The music of hounds breaking covert, blended with the windings of the 
huntsman's horn, is something to be remembered with pleasure ; but it 
is reserved for those whose nights are spent within earshot of the kennel 
to listen to that matchless song of unpricked music which, once heard, is 
never to be forgotten the midnight chorus of a pack of foxhounds, as it 
breaks on the ear and swells in tuneful cadences in the dark and stilly 
night ; when Harmony and Audible pitch the keynote, and Musical and 
Singwell and Songstress carry on the air, waking old Charon and 
Crowner, that put in the bass notes, while Vocal and Tuneful and 
Rhapsody and Eantipole and a score more swell the choir and prolong 
the song. The wakened kennelman starts from his pillow, but, catching 
bon-accord notes ere he can clutch the handle of the riot bell, gives pious 
thanks that it is Harmony, and not old Discord, that breaks his dreams, 
composes himself, and drops off to sleep again." 

To the foregoing remarks by " Vert " we add the following, as giving 
information on points not touched upon by him. 

Two qualities have always been considered essential in the Foxhound 
nose and endurance, and to that is now added speed. To ensure 
the latter two qualities perfect symmetry is essential; by which is 
meant harmony and due proportion of each part relatively to the other 
and to the whole, and as applied in the present instance, includes the 
adaptability for displaying a high rate of speed conjointly with great 
stoutness by the special development and strengthening of certain parts 
towards that end. 

Mere size has nothing to do with this, and on that point there is still 
difference of opinion, although still the balance, as in the days of 
Somerville and Beckford, is in favour of a middle sized hound, but that 
must always be a question to be determined to a considerable extent 
by the nature of the country to be hunted. 

On the subject of size Beckford says, " I most approve of hounds of 
the middle size, and believe all animals of that description are strongest 

The Foxhound. 71 

and best able to endure fatigue." And Somerville, in "The Chase," gives 
his views on this point in the following words : 

But here a mean , 

Observe, nor the large hound prefer, of size 
Gigantic ; he in the thick-woven covert 
Painfully tugs, or in the thorny brake 
Torn and embarrassed bleeds ; but if too small 
The pigmy brood in every furrow swims ; 
Moiled in the clogging clay, panting, they lag 
Behind inglorious ; or else shivering creep, 
Benumbed and faint, beneath the sheltering thorn. 
Foxhounds of middle size, active and strong, 
Will better answer all thy various ends, 
And crown thy pleasing labours with success. 

The head must be of good size and well balanced, forehead well pro- 
nounced without being unduly prominent, good length of skull and also 
of muzzle, which is not pointed, the nostrils being wide and open ; the 
ears, which are generally rounded to prevent them from getting torn, set 
on low and closely carried. 

The neck from the head should gradually swell towards the shoulder ; 
it is long and muscular, without coarseness, clean, and free from dewlap 
or throatiness, such as characterise the bloodhound and old southern 

The shoulders should be strong and clean, not loaded, and well sloped, 
the arms long and muscular, the elbows thereby being well let down. It 
is essential the elbows should be quite straight, in a line with the body, 
to insure the requisite speed. 

The chest should be deep and fairly wide, the ribs, especially the back 
ribs, coming down well, giving strength and a certain degree of square- 
ness without clumsiness. 

The back and loins must be strong, and connected with abundance of 

The hind quarters of the foxhound must also be very strong, the 
buttocks firm and muscular, the thighs long, letting down the hock well, 
and the stifles but slightly bent. 

The legs and feet are of great importance. The leg bone should be 
great, and the muscles hard and firm. They should be " straight as 
arrows," and the feet round and compact, with high knuckles, strong 
claws, and a hard, firm sole. 

The coat must be close, short, and rather hard in texture. The chief 

72 British Dogs. 

colours are black and white, black tan and white, hare pied, and badger 

The stern should be thick at the root, gradually tapering, carried well 
up with a gentle arch, and fringed slightly with strongish hair. 



ALTHOUGH many writers describe the Otter-hound as a dog of mixed 
breed, all refer him back to the old southern hound, or the bloodhound, 
for his origin, whatever crosses may have been resorted to to produce the 
dog we now recognise as the legitimate hound to pursue the ' ' Fish- 
slicer." Elaine says he is the old southern hound, crossed with the water 
spaniel, and that those with a dash of the bulldog in them are the best, 
the water spaniel being supposed to supply the roughness of coat for 
water spaniels of last century were very different in coat as in other 
points to those dogs of to-day called by that name and also to give or 
increase the aptitude for swimming, whilst the bulldog cross is supposed 
to have infused the necessary hardiness, courage, and tenacity. 

Both Youatt and Richardson suppose him to be the result of a cross 
between the southern hound and the rough terrier, and by others the 
rough deerhound has been held to have had a share in the production of 
the otter hound. I am strongly of opinion, however, that if any such 
crosses have ever occurred, either by accident or design, it is so remote 
and slight as to be now quite swallowed up, and as a stream lost in the 
immensely larger volume of the river to which it is a tributary, so has 
any infusion of alien blood been absorbed by the true old English hound 
blood of the genuine Otter-hound. 

The hunting of the otter is one of our most ancient sports. Jesse, in 

The Otter-hound. 73 

his researches into the history of the dog, gives many interesting quota 
tions from ancient documents showing the pursuit with hounds of 

This subtle spoiler of the beaver kind 

to have been a royal pastime with many of our English kings. In July, 
1212, the Sheriff of Somerset received commands from King John to 
" provide necessaries for Ralph, the otter huntsman, and Godfrey, his 
fellow, with two men and two horses and twelve otter hounds as long as 
they find employment in capturing otters in your shire." And John, the 
otter hunter to King Edward I., had twelve otter dogs under his charge. 
An annual payment, called " Kilgh Dourgon," was made in Wales for 
the king's water dogs with which they hunted otters ; and James I., an 
ardent sports man, had for his master of Otter-hounds John Parry to super- 
intend the hunt and provide for the king's diversion, and so on from 
reign to reign, otter hunting has, with varying patronage and popularity, 
remained a British sport, and afc the present day there are, on the 
authority of " Stonehenge, " at least nine packs hunted, of which the 
following is a list : " Subscription packs at Carlisle, under the master- 
ship of Mr. Carrick ; in Northumberland, near Morpeth, under Mr. A. 
Fenwick ; and at Cockermouth, hunted by a committee. In South Wales, 
Colonel Pryse and Mr. Moore have each a pack ; while in England the 
Hon. Geoffrey Hill hunts the otter from his kennels at Hawkestone, 
Salop, and Mr. Collier's, from Culmstock, near Wellington. In the west, 
Mr. Cheriton and Mr. Mildmay also pursue the sport." It is neither my 
province to describe otter hunting nor my purpose to attempt it ; but 
some reference to it I have considered necessary that the hound engaged 
in this sport and the qualifications required in him may be better under- 
stood. From the time when he is driven from his " wicker couch," con- 
trived ' ' within some hollow trunk, where ancient alders shade the deep 
still pool," until 

Pierced through and through, 
On pointed spears they lif t him high in air. 

The mephitic otter gives his pursuers plenty to do, and when it comes to 
close quarters, be it with terrier or hound, makes, as opportunity offers, 
good use of his teeth. Traced by his sprainta and seal, and unharboured 
from his kennel or couch, he finds hard work for men and dogs, as the 

74 British Dogs. 

latter follow him up from holt to holt and pool to pool, and the huntsmen 
eagerly watch for his vents. 

In recent times otter hunting has been modified to suit different cir- 
cumstances, and practices in vogue in one hunt are tabooed in another. 
The spear is discontinued, and the practice of tailing the otter that is, 
rushing in on him when worn and pressed, seizing him by the tail, swing- 
ing him round in presence of the hounds to excite them, and finally 
throwing him among them whilst treated as an act of prowess in some 
otter-hunting districts, is strictly forbidden in others. 

A breed of dogs selected and kept to this game, even if originally of 
the identical stock of our modern bloodhounds, would naturally diverge 
in some characteristics, and the wet-resisting coat, so necessary to a 
dog so much in the water, would be developed ; whereas, on the 
contrary, the treatment the companion bloodhound is subjected to 
tends to fine and soften his coat, or there may have been, and I think 
it highly probable, if not capable of absolute proof, that there were 
rough-coated hounds of the bloodhound type from which the otter hound 
has sprung, and, according to Caius, bloodhounds were used for this 
sport, but whether either of these suppositions is correct or not, he is 
in shape and voice and style so truly a hound that I cannot think he 
is indebted to a strain of either spaniel, terrier, or deerhound blood for 
his rough and wet-resisting coat. 

In general appearance always excepting the coat he much resembles 
the bloodhound ; he should be perfect in symmetry, strongly built, hard 
and enduring, with unfailing powers of scent, and a natural antipathy to 
the game he is bred to pursue. The head should be large, broader in 
proportion than the bloodhound's, the forehead high, the muzzle a fair 
length, and the nostrils wide. The ears are long, thin, and pendulous, 
fringed with hair. The neck is not naturally long, and looks shorter 
than it really is from the abundance of hair on it ; the shoulders should 
slope well, the legs be straight, and the feet a good size, but compact ; 
the back strong and wide, the ribs, and particularly the back ribs, well 
let down ; the thighs should be big and firm, and the hocks well let 
down ; the stern well and thickly covered with hair, and carried well up 
but not curled ; the colours are generally grizzle or sandy, with black and 
tan more or less clearly defined. The subject of our engraving is Mr. 
J. C. Carrick's Charmer ; the drawing was made out of the hunting 

The Harrier. 75 

season, and when she was fat, and the position adds to that appearance, 
which must consequently be allowed for ; but her head and front are 
wonderfully well done, and the artist has caught the expression well. 

The following are the weights and measurements of two of Mr. 
Carrick's best hounds : 

Mr. J. C. Carrick's Lottery : Age, 3i years ; weight, 76|lb. ; height 
at shoulder, 24in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 39in. ; length of 
tail, 17in. ; girth of chest, 30in. ; girth of loin, 24in. ; girth of head, 
I7in. ; girth of forearm, Tin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
lO^in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, llin. ; 
ear, S^in. 

Mr. J. C. Carrick's Danger: Age, 1 years ; weight, 731b. ; height at 
shoulder, 25^in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 40|in. ; length of 
tail, 18in. ; girth of chest, 31in. ; girth of loin, 23in. ; girth of head, 
18in. ; girth of forearm, 7in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, llin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 
lljin. ; ear, 9in. 



OF the various breeds of hounds, none has undergone greater modifica- 
tions than the Harrier or hare-hound, so called from his having been kept 
exclusively, or nearly so, to the pursuit of that game. 

Caius describes him as ' ' that kind of dog which nature hath endued 
with the virtue of smelling, whose property it is to use a justness, a 
readiness, and a courageousness in hunting;" and further, "we may 
know these kind of dogs by their long, large, and bagging lips, by their 
hanging ears reaching down both sides of their chappes, and by the 
indifferent and measurable proportion of their making ; this sort of dog 
we call Leverarius, Harriers." 

Such a description, meagre as it is, applies more to the dog we still 
recognise as the old southern hound if, indeed, that type has not been 

7 6 British Dogs. 

entirely improved out of existence than to the harrier of to-day, for it is 
long since hare hunting was revolutionised, and the slow plodding hound 
that would dwell on the scent, giving vent to the keenness of his own en- 
joyment of the chase, and delighting the sportsman with melodious 
tongue whilst following puss in her every wile and double, has had to make 
way for the modern hound, possessing more dash and speed, which force 
the hare to depend on her swiftness rather than on cunning devices to 
evade her pursuers. 

Harriers, like other classes of hounds, have been bred and varied to 
suit the requirements of the country they are hunted in and the taste 
and even whims of the owner. " Stonehenge," in his original work on 
the dog, says. "The true Harrier is a dwarf southern hound, with a 
very slight infusion of the greyhound in him." But I should think, to 
get the increased speed required, it would be unnecessary and unadvis- 
able to go to the greyhound for qualities to be obtained from a nearer ally 
the light and fleet northern hound, which cross would not endanger or 
diminish the scenting power. Beckford, a sportsman and brilliant writer 
on sporting, whose opinions were, and still are, authoritative as far as 
applicable to the altered circumstances of our day, writing the end of last 
century, says : " The hounds I think most likely to show you sport are 
between the large slow hunting Harrier and the little fox beagle ; the 
former are too dull, too heavy, and too slow the latter too lively, too 
light, and too fleet. The first, it is true, have most excellent noses, 
and I make no doubt will kill their game at last if the day be long enough 
but the days are short in winter, and it is bad hunting in the dark. 
The other, on the contrary, fling and dash, and are all alive ; but every 
cold blast affects them, and if your country be deep and wet, it is not 
impossible that some of them may be drowned. My hounds," he goes 
on to say, " were a cross of both these kinds, in which it was my 
endeavour to get as much bone and strength in as small a compass as 
possible. I tried many years and an infinity of hounds before I could 
get what I wanted, and at last had the pleasure to see them very hand- 
some, small, yet very bony ; they ran remarkably well together, went fast 
enough, had all the alacrity that could be desired, and would hunt the 
coldest scent." 

The Harrier in most externals is almost a facsimile of the fox- 
hound, but the head is in proportion heavier, the skull flat and 

The Harrier. 77 

broad, the ears set on low, being close and fine in texture ; the 
"large and bagging lippes " of the days of Caius, with the attendant 
abundance of dewlap, have been bred out ; the neck long and airy, 
rising with a gradual swell from the shoulders, which must be well 
placed, sloping back, and clothed with muscle ; the forearms strong, 
elbows well let down and in a straight line with the body ; the fore legs 
perfectly straight, large of bone, neat strong ankles, and a foot round, 
firm and close, the knuckles arched, but not immoderately so, the claws 
strong, and the sole firm and hard ; the chest must be capacious ; the 
back broad and strong, lined with hard muscle, the ribs, especially the 
back ones, well let down ; the loin deep, and, like the hind quarters, very 
strong, the thighs very muscular, clean hocks, without a suspicion of 
"cromping" (that is, cow hocked, leaning in towards each other), and 
the leg from the hock down should be short and strong, the stern must 
be thick at the setting, and gradually tapering to the point ; well 
covered with hair without being bushy, and carried gaily and almost 
straight. The whole build of the Harrier is most symmetrical there 
should be literally no waste about him. The coat should in texture be 
moderately fine, very dense, and the colour various, black, white and tan, 
blue mottles, badger pied, hare pied, and a variety of combinations, in 
which the colours are often very beautifully blended. 

Delicacy of scent and perseverance are essential qualities in the Harrier, 
and the tongue should be rich and melodious. 

Through the courtesy of the master of the Holcombe Hunt, Alfred 
Ashworth, Esq., of Egerton Hall, Bolton-le-Moors, I am enabled to give 
the measurements of one and a half couples of the Holcombe harriers 
one couple of dogs and a single bitch. I have also been favoured with 
measurements of two of Mr. C. D. Everett's harriers, which I give 

Sergeant: Age, 3 years; weight, 631b. ; height at shoulder, 22in.; 
length from nose to set on of tail, 37in. ; length of tail, 12Jin. ; girth 
of chest, 29in. ; girth of loin, 21in. ; girth of head IG^in. ; girth of 
forearm, 7|in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 10in. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, llin. 

Swinger : Age, 3 years ; weight, 62lb. ; height at shoulder, 22in. J 
length from nose to set on of tail, 36|in. ; length of tail, 13in. ; girth 
of chest, 29Jin. ; girth of loin, 21in. ; girth of head, 16iin. ; girth of 

78 British Dogs. 

forearm, 7f in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, lOin. ; girth 
of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, lO^in. 

Barmaid: Age, 4 years; weight, 561b. ; height at shoulder, 21|in. ; 
length from nose to set on of tail, 37in. ; length of tail, 13in. ; girth of 
chest, 27iin. ; girth of loin, 22^in. ; girth of head, 15in. ; girth of fore- 
arm 7^in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, lOin. ; girth 
of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, lOin. These hounda 
have a pedigree for a hundred years back in the Holcombe Kennels. 

Mr. Chas. Dundas Everett's Gladsome : Age, 2 years ; weight, 34Hb. ; 
height at shoulder, 19|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 36in. ; 
length of tail, 14in. ; girth of chest, 27in. ; girth of loin, 21in. ; girth 
of head, 19in. ; girth of forearm, 6iin. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, lOin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 

Mr. Charles Dundas Everett's Glider : Age, 2 years ; weight, 321b. ; 
height at shoulder, 19|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 36in. ; 
length of tail, 12|in. ; girth of chest, 27in. ; girth of loin, 20in. ; girth of 
head, 17in. ; girth of forearm, 7in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, lOin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, lOin. 

Lancashire is the home and centre of Harrier hunting, and the 
Holcombe pack is pure Harrier blood. Sergeant and Swinger are a 
wonderful pair, pronounced by competent judges to be the grandest 
couple of Harriers in Lancashire, which is about equivalent to saying in 
the world. The three are thoroughly representative and true made 
Lancashire Harriers, not too large, but strong, compact dogs, with 
plenty of lip and plenty of music, with still a nice clean neck, grand 
ribs, and low, good straight legs and cat feet, just the stamp to give 
a good account of themselves over the rough bleak hills of the country, 
where it is not a question of doubling round a few fields, but, after all 
the windings, of killing the game three or four miles as the crow flies 
from the find. 

The Beagle. 79 



THIS is another and the smallest of hounds or hunting dogs, as the name 
"Beagle," which means smallness, implies. The following description 
from Somerville's poem, " The Chase," applies with propriety to either 
the Beagle or harrier, and is as clear, minute, and correct as it is 
beautiful : 

His glossy sMn, or yellow pied or blue, 

In lights or shades by Nature's pencil drawn, 

Reflects the various tints ; his ears and legs, 

Flecked here and there in gay enamelled pride, 

Rival the speckled pard ; his rush grown tail 

O'er his broad back bends in an ample arch ; 

On shoulders clean upright and firm he stands ; 

His round cat foot, straight hams, and wide-spread thighs, 

And his low drooping chest, confess his speed, 

His strength, his wind, or on the steepy hill 

Or far extended plain. 

Of the antiquity of the breed there can be no doubt. It is said that 
Queen Elizabeth owned a pack so small that they could be carried in a 
man's glove a statement which we must take cum grano salts. Gervase 
Markham describes "the little Beagle which may be carried in a man's 
glove " probably a mere quibble, the fact being that these dogs were bred 
so small that one could be easily carried in a gloved hand. Whilst on 
the subject of their size I may quote the following from the " Sportsman 
Cabinet," published 1803 : "The late Col. Hardy had once a collection 
of this diminutive tribe amounting to ten or twelve couple, which were 
always carried to and from the field of glory in a large pair of panniers 
slung across a horse ; small as they were and insignificant as they would 
now seem, they could invariably keep a hare at all her shifts from 
escaping them, and finally worry or rather tease her to death." 

Although Gervase Markham doubtless refers to the Beagles of the time 
of Elizabeth, it is singular that Johannes Caius, in his ' ' English Dogges,' ' 
does not mention the beagle, nor does he specially refer to any diminu- 
tive hound, although he lived during the first fifteen years of Elizabeth's 
reign, when dwarf " singing Beagles " are reported to have been popular. 

8o British Dogs. 

These small hounds are spoken of by Oppian as one of the kind of dogs 
peculiar to the ancient Britons : 

There is a kind of dog of mighty fame 

For hunting ; woithy of a fairer frame ; 

By painted Britons brave in war they're bred, 

Are beagles called, and to the chase are led, 

Their bodies small, and of so mean a shape, 

You'd think them curs that under tables gape. 

Not only in the time of Elizabeth, but in our own, there has been an 
occasional rage for very diminutive Beagles, and much emulation in pro- 
ducing the most perfect liliputian hound. The writer of the article on 
this breed in " The Dogs of the British Islands" describes Mr. Crane's 
Southover Beagles as perfect in symmetry and excellent in nose and in- 
telligence, and not exceeding 9in. in height, and all of them model 
miniature hounds. It is to be regretted that the Beagle is not more en- 
couraged by committees . of shows, and that, when a class is made for 
them, all sizes are lumped together. 

I have spoken of the Beagle as a dwarf hound, which he is, but there 
is a considerable difference in outline between him and the modern fox- 
hound ; the former is not so clean in the shoulder, his head is different in 
shape, the skull being in proportion broader and flatter, and the jaw 
shorter, the ear longer, and there is always more or less dewlap or 

Beagles may be fairly classified as hare Beagles and rabbit Beagles, 
other distinction than size being minor. Their power of scent is ex- 
quisitely keen and their intelligence great, and when well sorted in 
these respects and in size, work wonderfully together, puzzling out even 
the coldest scent, whilst their music is most charming. 

Although occasionally, they are not much used with the gun, except in 
driving woods and spinnies for rabbits, &c. 

Of whatever size, the Beagle should be shapely, as free from lumpy 
shoulders as possible, legs straight, and more bone and stronger pasterns 
than is generally seen would be an improvement ; the ears are very long, 
hang close, and are very fine in the leather ; ribs rather more rounded 
than in the foxhound, with the back ribs well let down ; back and loins 
strong, and hind quarters very cobby and muscular ; the tail roughish and 
gaily carried. The colours are various, as in the harrier, and chosen to 
suit individual tastes. 

The Beagle. 81 

This article, when it appeared in The Country, called forth the following 
letter of friendly criticism, which is well worthy of a place here : 

" In his paper on the beagle, I observe that ' Corsincon ' affects to class 
the breed into hare and rabbit beagles, with the remark that other 
distinction than size is ' minor.' Now, it is not very often I find room 
to differ with ' Corsincon,' but I honestly confess I do here. In the 
first place I believe the term rabbit beagle to have been coined for a 
half-breed between the beagle and the terrier. The beagle pur et simple 
is, and ever has been, a hound valued essentially for its exquisite power 
of scent ; bred, as Gervase Markham tells us, ' for delight only, being 
of curious scents, and passing cunning in their hunting, for the most 
part tiring, but seldom killing the prey.' The different requirements in 
a hare hound and a ' rabbiter ' are strikingly pronounced. In the 
former, delicacy of nose is all important ; but in the latter, where the 
quarry is rarely found further than a stone's throw from his burrow, 
which he can dart into before you can shout ' knife,' the less nose in 
your dogs the better. Of course I am fully aware that beagles are 
occasionally employed in driving woods and spinnies, as well as gorse 
and fern brakes for rabbits, but I say there is no special breed for this 
purpose either in size or character. 

" A pack of these half-bred small-sized terrier-beagle-rabbiters is given 
by Stradanus in his thirty-eighth plate, with an explanatory quatrain by 
Dufflceus : 

Callidus effosais latitare curriculus antris 
Et generare solet. Verum persaepS catelli 
Anglorum celeres f allunt pecus : ore prehendunt 
Illusum : preedam venatorique ministrant. 

"Now for the second chapter of my disagreement. I maintain there 
are as many types of beagles as there are of spaniels, mastiffs, or St. 
Bernards. Some are rough as Jack Eussell's terriers, or Mr. Carrick's 
otter hounds ; others as smooth and silky coated as a dachshund or a 
toy terrier. There are strains possibly derived from a cross with the 
foxhound showing the clean cut throat and symmetry of a Manchester 
terrier ; and quite as familiar is the exact double of the Segusian dog 
mentioned by Arrian in the third chapter of his ' Book on Coursing ' : 
' Shaggy and ugly, and such as are most high bred are most unsightly.' 
Again, there is a very distinct variety in 'the Kerry beagle,' a 


82 British Dogs. 

specimen which may, roughly speaking, be described as a miniature 
bloodhound, being of precisely the same colour, and sharing many of 
that noble dog's chief characteristics. The beautiful short legged 
basset of France, the dachshund of Germany, and the peculiar Swedish 
beagle, are but branches of the one family, which most truly exists in all 
the symmetry of variety." 

The following description and points of Beagles are by H. A. Clark, 
Esq., Master of the Cockermouth Beagles : 

" Head, like a foxhound, not quite so broad across forehead, with 
sweet, intelligent countenance, the head long, and the nose should not 
come to a sharp point. 

"Ears long, and set on low down, and carried close to head, not too 
broad, and the thinner in the leather the better. 

" Neck and throat long and lean, but some of the heavier hounds are 
very loose in throat and have a deep voice. 

" Shoulders long and strong, well clothed with muscle. 

" Chest deep and wide ; ribs also deep. 

" Back strong and wide, and especially wide across loins. Bitches are 
generally better across loins than dogs, for their size. 

' ' Hind quarters, the stronger the better, wide and deep ; stern strong 
at set on, and tapering, carried high, but not curled. 

" Legs straight, although for work they are no worse standing a little 
over on the forelegs, strong of bone ; feet round, like a cat. 

" Colour, black, white, and tan ; black and white. I had a heavy dog 
this colour, that was always first to find game, and always led. He was 
well known among the Cumbrians, and they knew his voice, and said, 
' Dar, that's auld Duster ; we'll have a run noo.' Occasionally beagles 
are the colour of bloodhounds. 

" The beagle should be hard in condition, with plenty of muscle. 

"The Cockermouth beagles hunt the hare often on Skiddaw and 
in the lake district. Some capital runs are enjoyed about Buttermere, 
where it is a grand sight to see the little hounds on the breast of a 
mountain, when a sheet could cover them sometimes, and their cry 
is melodious . It takes us all our time to keep up with them on a good 
flat country. In the season 1878 and 1879 we killed eighty. We do not 
mount our huntsman. In summer the dogs are sent out to farms, &c., 
to walk, and are great pets with children." 

The Basset. 83 

The following are the measurements of two good dogs : 
Mr. H. A. Clark's Comely. Age, 6 years ; weight, 27ilb. ; height at 
shoulder, 14fin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 30in. ; length of 
tail, llin. ; girth of chest, 21in. ; girth of loin, 18in. ; girth of head, 
13^in. ; girth of forearm, 5|in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, Sin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 
7in. ; length of ears from tip to tip, 17in. 

Mr. H. A. Clark's dog Crowner: Age, 5 years; weight, 26lb. ; 
height at shoulder, 15in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 31in. ; 
length of tail, 10|in. ; girth of chest, 22in. ; girth of loin, ISJin. ; girth 
of head, 14in. ; girth of forearm, 6in. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, 7|in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 
Sin. ; length of ears from tip to tip, 17in. 



The following article is from the pen of "Snapshot" (a frequent 
contributor, under that signature, to The Country, and also well known 
as " Wildfowler " of the ' ' Field "), who is the author of numerous canine 
articles and works, including " Wildfowling," "General Sport at Home 
and Abroad," "The Various Breeds of Foreign Hounds and other 
Sporting Dogs," &c. His experience with continental sporting dogs has 
been considerable, which gives weight and value to his article on bassets. 
He says : 

"Any hound which stands lower than 16in. (no matter his ' provincial ' 
breed) is called in France and in Belgium a basset. The derivation of 
the expression basset is clear, i.e., bas means low ; and, therefore, basset 
means low set, a very appropriate denomination as applied to these 
diminutive hounds. 

G 2 

84 British Dogs. 

"The vast army of French and Belgian bassets may be divided into 
three grand classes, viz., bassets & jambes droites, straight legged ; ditto, d 
jambes demi-torses, with forelegs half crooked ; and ditto, d jambes torses, 
forelegs fully crooked. And in each of these classes will be found three 
varieties of coats, viz., the bassets d poil ras, smooth coated ; those 
d poil dwr, rough coated ; and a class half rough half smooth coated, 
which is called half griffons. 

" The types vary for almost each province, but the general charac- 
teristics remain throughout pretty well the same. All well-bred bassets 
have long, pendulous ears, and hounds' heads ; but the crooked-legged 
breeds show always better points in these respects than the straight- 
legged ones, simply because, when a man wishes to breed a good basset 
d jambes torses, he is obliged to be very careful in selecting the stock to 
breed from if he does not wish his experiment to end in failure ; for, 
should there be the slightest admixture of foreign blood, the ' bar 
sinister ' will be at once shown in the forelegs. Hence, the bassets 
d jambes torses show, as a rule, far better properties than their 

" In build the basset & jambes torses is long in the barrel, and is very 
low on his pins; so much so, that, when hunting, he literally drags 
his long ears on the ground. He is the slowest of hounds, and his 
value as such cannot be over-estimated. His style of hunting is peculiar, 
inasmuch that he will have his own way, and each one tries for himself ; 
and if one of them finds and * says ' so, the others will not blindly 
follow him and give tongue, simply because he does (as some hounds, 
accustomed to work in packs, are apt to do), but, on the contrary, they 
are slow to acknowledge the alarm given, and will investigate the 
matter for themselves. Thus, under covert, bassets d jambes torses 
following a scent, go in Indian file, and each one speaks to the line 
according to his own sentiments on the point, irrespective of what the 
others may think about it. In this manner it is not uncommon to see 
the little hounds, when following a mazy track, crossing each other's 
route without paying any attention to one another ; and, in short, each 
of them works as if he were alone. This style I attribute to their 
slowness, to their extremely delicate powers of scent, and to their innate 
stubborn confidence in their own powers. Nevertheless, it is a fashion 
which has its drawbacks ; for, should the individual hounds hit on 

The Basset. 85 

separate tracks of different animals, unless at once stopped and put 
together on the same one, they will each follow its find, and let the 
shooter, or shooters, do his or their best. That is why a shooter who is 
fond of that sort of sport rarely owns more than one or two of these 
hounds. One is enough, two may be handy in difficult cases, but more 
would certainly entail confusion, precisely because each one of them will 
rely only on the evidence of his own senses. 

" I have now several clever bassets djambes torses, in my mind's eye, 
and their general description would be about as follows : Height between 
lOin. and 15in. at shoulder, longish barrels, very crooked forelegs, with 
little more than an inch or two of daylight between the knees, stout 
thighs, gay sterns, conical heads, long faces, ears long enough to overlap 
each other by an inch or two (and more sometimes) when both were 
drawn over the nose, heavy-headed rather, with square muzzles, plenty of 
flews and dewlap, eyes deep set under heavy wrinkles, forepaws wide and 
well turned out, markings hare-pied and white, black-tan and white, tan 
and white, black with tan eyebrows, and tan legs and belly, &c. in 
short, all the varieties of hound markings will be found among them. They 
have excellent tongues for their size, and when in good training and good 
condition they will hunt every day, and seem to thrive on it. They are 
very fond of the gun, and many are cunning enough to * ring ' the game, 
if missed when breaking covert, back again to the guns until it is shot. 
Some of these bassets are so highly prized that no amount of money will 
buy them, and, as a breed, it may safely be asserted that it is probably 
the purest now in existence in France. They hunt readily deer, roebuck, 
wild boars, wolves, foxes, hares, rabbits, &c., but if entered exclusively 
for one species of quarry and kept to it, they never leave it to run riot 
after anything else. I have seen one, when hunting a hare in a park, 
running through fifty rabbits and never noticing them. They go slowly, 
and give you plenty of time to take your station for a shot hence, their 
great value in the estimation of shooters. They are chiefly used for 
smallish woods, furze fields, and the like, because if uncoupled in a forest 
they do not drive their game fast enough, and though eventually they 
are bound to bring it out, yet the long time they would take in so doing 
would tell against the sport. Moreover, large forests are cut about by 
ditches, and here and there streamlets, boulders, and rocks intervene, 
which difficulty the short crooked-legged hound would be slow in 

86 British Dogs. 

surmounting. He is, therefore, not so often used there as for smaller 
coverts, where his voice can throughout the hunt be heard, and thereby 
direct the shooters which post of vantage to take. 

" As regards the coats of bassets a jambes torses, there are both rough, 
half -rough, and smooth-coated specimens ; but the two latter predominate 
greatly. In fact, I have but rarely seen very rough bassets d jambes 
torses. I saw three once, in the Ardennes. They were very big hounds 
for bassets, and were used chiefly to drive wolves, roebuck, and wild 
boars. They were d poll dur with a vengeance, and, when * riled,' 
their backs were up like bristles. Of course in these matters, the 
chasseurs breed their hounds accordingly to the ground they have to hunt 
over, and, accordingly, it will be found that in provinces of comparatively 
easy coverts, such as vineyards, small woods, furze fields, &c., smooth- 
coated or half -rough-coated bassets are in universal demand, In Brittany, 
Vendee, Alsace, Lorraine, Luxemburg, on the contrary, wherever the 
coverts are extensive and very rough, rougher-coated hounds are used; 
but poil durs are scarce, as far as diminutive hounds are concerned. 

' ' Bassets d jambes demi-torses are simply crosses between bassets d 
jambes demi-torses and bassets d jambes droites. They are usually bigger 
than the former and smaller than the latter, although it must be borne in 
mind that there are several varieties of bassets d jambes droites, quite as 
small as the smallest with crooked legs. In short there are so many 
subdivisions in each breed that any classification must necessarily be 

' ' The advantages claimed by the owners of bassets d jambes demi- 
torses are these : 1st, these hounds are almost as sure- nosed 
as the full-crooked breeds ; 2nd, they run faster, and yet not fast enough 
to spoil shooting ; 3rd, in a wood with moderate ditches, being bigger in 
body and higher on the leg than the full-crooked beagles, they can clear 
the ditches at a bound, whereas the full-mm&es torses has to go down into 
them, and scramble up on the other side. In points they are pretty much 
like their congeners, but already the cross tells. The lips are shorter, the 
muzzle not so stout in proportion to general size ; the ears are much 
shorter, the skull is less conical, the occiput being not so pronounced, 
the body is not so long, the stern is carried more horizontally, the feet are 
rounder, the wrinkles in the face are fewer, the eye is smaller, and the coat, 
as a rule, is coarser ; the increase in size is also great. I have seen such 

The Basset. 87 

reaching to fully sixteen inches, and I believe they had been obtained by 
a direct cross from a regular chien courant (hound) with a full basset 
d jambes torses. When sire and dam are both good, there is no reason 
why the progeny should not answer the breeder's purpose, but I confess 
to a tendency for either one thing or another, and were I to go in for 
fancy for that breed of hounds I would certainly get either a thoroughly 
crooked basset or a thoroughly straight-on-his-pins beagle. By the way, 
a black and tan or a red basset d jambes torses cannot by any possible use 
of one's eyes be distinguished from a dachshund of the some colour although 
some German writers assert that the breeds are quite distinct. To the 
naked eye there is no difference, but in the matter of names (wherein 
German scientists particularly shine) then, indeed, confusion gets worse 
confounded. They have, say, a dozen black and tan bassets d jambes 
torses before them. Well, if one of them is a thorough good looking 
hound, they call him dachs bracken ; if he is short-eared, and with a 
pointed muzzle, they cap him with the appellation of a dachshund. 
Between you and I, kind reader, it is a distinction without a difference, 
and there is no doubt that both belong to the same breed. I will, at a 
fortnight's notice, place a basset d jambes torses, small size, side by side 
with the best dachshund hound to be found, and if any difference in legs, 
anatomy, and general appearance of the two can be detected, I shall be 
very greatly surprised. That the longer-eared and squarer-muzzled 
hound is the better of the two for practical work there is not the shadow 
of a doubt ; but, of course, if digging badgers is the sport in view, then 
the dachshund terrier is the proper article. But that is not to be 
admitted. One cannot breed hounds from terriers, whereas one can breed 
terriers from hounds, and therefore the dachshund terrier is descended 
from the basset a jambes torses. As for dachshund hounds, they are in 
every respect bassets & jambes torses ; at least, that is the opinion I have 
come to after a great deal of experience. Quarreling about names is an 
unprofitable occupation. Never mind the ' bracken ' or the ' hund,' 
since the two articles are alike. I say, from the evidence of my senses, 
that they must come from the same stock, and since they cannot come 
from a terrier pedigree, the hound one is the only logical solution. 

" The basset d jambes droites is synonymous with our beagle ; but, 
whereas our beagles rarely exceed 14in., it is not uncommon to see some 
bassets reaching even 16in. in France ; but, it should be remembered 

British Dogs. 

that, then, even among the French, appellations will differ. Thus, a 
certain school will call 16in. bassets petits chiens courants, and will deny 
them the right of being called bassets, being, in their estimation, too 
high on the leg. I agree with them. The characteristics of bassets d 
jambes droites are : a somewhat shorter face than those with crooked 
legs ; ears shorter, but broader, and very soft usually ; neck, a shade 
longer ; stern carried straight up ; good loins ; shorter bodies, very level 
from shoulder to rump. Whereas the other two breeds are invariably a 
shade lower at shoulder than at the stern. Some show the os occipitis well 
marked ; others are more apple-headed ; the hair is coarse on the stern, the 
feet are straight and compact, knees well placed, thighs muscular and well 
proportioned ; in short, they are an elegant looking, dashing, and rather 
taking breed as a lot. But in work there is a world of difference. The 
crooked-legged ones go slow and sure, the straight-legged ones run into 
the defect of fast hounds, i.e., they go too fast occasionally for their 
noses ; they are not either quite so free from riot ; but wherever pretty 
fast work is required, and when the covert requires some doing in the 
way of jumping drains and scrambling over boulders, &c., then they will 
carry the day. They are chiefly used for large game in pretty large 
coverts, and run in small packs. For fast fun, exercise, and music they 
will do ; but for actual shooting commend me to the basset ajambes torses. 
With such a little hound, if he knows you and understands your ways, 
you are bound to bag, and alone he will do the work of ten ordinary 
hounds, and, in truth, there are few things more exciting to the sports- 
man than to hear his lonely crooked-legged companion merrily, slowly, 
but surely, bringing his quarry to his gun. Some of the pleasantest 
moments of my life have been thus spent ; and once, having shot two 
wolves that had been led out to me by a basset d janibes torses, I fairly 
lifted up the little beggar to my breast and hugged him, and I called him 
a pet and a dear, and all that sort of bosh, and I thought that in all my 
life I had never seen a pluckier and cleverer little fellow. 

" In short, there is no doubt that for purposes of shooting, bassets, of 
whatever breeds, are pre-eminently excellent. They run very true, and 
are more easily taught the tricks of game than full-sized hounds. This I 
have found out by experience. The average large hound, once in 
full swing on a scent, runs on like a donkey. But bassets seem to 
reason, and when they come to an imbroglio of tracks, purposely left by 

The Basset. 89 

the quarry to puzzle them, they are rarely taken in ; but, slowly and 
patiently setting to work, they unravel the maze, and eventually pick up 
again the wily customer's scent. Hence, for the man who can only keep 
one or two hounds to be used with the gun, there is no breed likely to 
suit him better than bassets, for they are sure not to lose the scent, 
whatever takes place, and their low size enables them to pick it up when 
it is so cold that a larger hound would, perhaps, not even notice it. 

" They have also a good deal of pluck, to which they add a sort of 
reasoning discretion. To illustrate my meaning, I will give an instance 
to the point, viz., very few hounds of any kind take readily to hunting 
wolves, and when they do take to it they hunt in a pack, each hound 
countenancing the other. Now, some well-bred bassets will hunt a wolf 
singly. I have stated already that I have had myself the pleasure of 
killing two wolves that were, individually, hunted by one basset. This, 
therefore, shows extraordinary pluck on the part of the little hound ; for, 
be it known that, as a rule, any hound or dog who comes for the first 
time on the scent of a wolf forthwith bolts home, or hides behind his 
master for protection. On the other hand, bassets are cautious. When 
they by chance come near a wolf, or a wild boar, or a stag, or any other 
wild animal on whom they could make but little impression, but who is, 
on the other hand, likely to do them an irretrievable injury, they never 
run the risk, but bay at him from a distance. As long as he chooses to 
stop they will not leave him ; they will resume hunting him as soon as 
he will start, but they will only run at him when the decisive shot has 
been fired. 

" Some bassets are used for vermin killing (badger, fox, &c.) ; others 
are employed for pheasant shooting, woodcock shooting, and partridge 
shooting, besides their legitimate employment in hunting ground game. 
When used for birds they are frequently called to, to keep them within 
range, and, generally, a bell or small brass grelot is fastened to their 
collar, that the shooter may know where they are. Some men make 
their bassets retrieve, even from water ; and most bassets will go to 
ground readily to fox or badger. 

" Finally, some peasants use their extraordinary powers of scent to find 
truffles. Their training for that sort of business is wonderfully simple. 
The hound, when young, is kept a day without food, and a truffle being 
shown to him, the peasant throws it into some small covert, or hides it in 

go British Dogs. 

stones, or buries it lightly in the ground, and makes the dog find it. 
When he has done so, he gives him a piece of bread. This sort of thing 
being repeated until the basset looks readily for the truffle, he is then 
taken to those places in the neighbourhood of which truffles are known 
or suspected to be, and the peasant, pretending to throw away the usual 
truffle, tells the dog, " Cherche! cherche! " (seek ! seek !) whereupon the 
little hound, diligently ferreting about the ground, soon comes upon a 
truffle scent, and begins digging for it. At the first sign of that process 
the peasant relieves him and digs out the precious tubercle, and so on. 
There are some other species of dogs also used for that sort of work ; 
but the basset, owing to his acute power of scent, is mostly preferred by 
the professional chercheurs de truffes. Some of these men, however, use 
pigs for the purpose. 

' ' Concerning those French bassets which have from time to time been 
exhibited at our shows, some of them have shown fair points, but none 
of them have had the very long ears which one will notice with the 
bassets in the foresters' kennels on the Continent. Moreover, in the 
classes set aside for bassets, I do not remember having seen a good basset 
cijambes torses, though there were one or two fair specimens of half- 
crooked, and straight-legged bassets. If my memory serves me right, 
the Earl of Onslow's were straight-legged, half rough-coated bassets, 
with remarkably short ears. Mr. Millais' Model was a black, white, 
and tan smooth-coated basset, with very fair properties the best I had 
seen in England, so far, and a Vendean basset was a regular griffon ; I 
forget now the state of his legs, but his coat was just the sort of jacket 
for the rough woods of Brittany and Vendee. 

" On the other hand, in the classes for dachshunds, I have seen some 
first-rate black and tan, and also red, bassets a janibes torses, all smooth- 
coated. No doubt, eventually, classes will be set apart for each individual 
breed, and in such a case there is a very fine field yet open for an enter- 
prising exhibitor wishing to produce bassets in open court." 

Measurements, &c., of celebrated French Bassets : 

The Earl of Onslow's Nestor : Age, 2 years 10 months ; weight, 391b. ; 
height at shoulder, 14in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 36in. ; 
length of tail, 12in. ; girth of chest, 24in. ; girth of loin, 22in. ; girth of 
head, 15|in. ; girth of forearm, GJin. ; length of head from occiput to tip 
of nose, 9in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 9in. 



The Dachshund. gi 

The Earl of Onslow's Pino : Age, 3 years 8 months ; weight, 391b. ; 
height at shoulder, 13in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 33in. ; length 
of tail, llin. ; girth of chest, 24in. ; girth of loin, 23in. ; girth of head, 
16|in. ; girth of forearm, 6in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
lOin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 8|in. 

Mr. Everette Millais' Model: Age, 7 years ; weight, 461b. ; height at 
shoulder, 12in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 32in. ; length of tail, 
lliin. ; girth of chest, 25in. ; girth of loin, 21in. ; girth of head, 17in. ; 
girth of forearm, 6^in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 9in. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 9iin. ; length of 
ears from tip to tip, 19in. ; height from ground, forefeet, 2fin. 

Mr. Everette Millais' Garrenne : Age, 2| years ; weight, 301b. ; height 
at shoulder, 9^in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 29in. ; length of 
tail, 9in. ; girth of chest, 20in. ; girth of loin, 16in. ; girth of head, 
13in. ; girth of forearm, Sin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
Sin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7in. ; length 
of ears from tip to tip, I7in. ; height from ground, forefeet, 



To " Vert " as a sportsman we have already alluded in the preface to 
his article on Foxhounds, and we need only say here that his large 
experience of Dachshunds entitles his opinions on the breed to be 
considered authoritative. He writes : 

" So much has been said and written on this breed of dogs during the 
few years that they have had a place in the prize schedules of our shows, 
that in treating the subject we shall endeavour to unsay some of the 
nonsense that has from time to time been put forth by some of those 
journals whose pages are opened to the discussion of canine matters, in 
one of which a certain amusing correspondent, in a playful moment, tells 

92 British Dogs. 

his readers that the ears of the dachshund cannot be too long. Another 
says the body cannot be too long. Then we read that the legs cannot be 
too short or too crooked, with such impossible measurements as could 
only be found in the fertile brain of the writer. At shows we have had 
our special attention drawn to the veriest mongrels, and been held by 
the button by enthusiastic owners, and had glaring defects pointed out as 
characteristics of the pure breed ; but being unable to draw on our 
credulity to that extent, we have had to fall back on our stock of charity, 
and call to mind that even Solomon was yoifng once in his lifetime. 
There is no breed of dogs that the English have been so tardy in taking 
to as the dachshund, Satan and Feldmann being the only representatives 
of the breed on the Birmingham show bench for several years ; and 
certainly we had one judge that had the courage to grapple which this 
little hound when he did make an attempt to emerge from his obscurity, 
and we have seen the best dachshund that has yet been exhibited passed 
over by a couple of " all-round " judges of high standing at an important 
show, one of those Solons arguing that he was a beagle otter hound, and 
the other that he was a turnspit, neither of them being aware that the 
turnspit was little different from a moderate crooked-legged pug of the 
present time, and that it would be impossible to confine a long-backed 
twenty pound dog in one of those small cages in which the little prisoner 
had to ply his calling. We have no wish to speculate on the early history 
of this breed, as, like other cases, it would be a mere leap in the dark 
from the same source as before alluded to. We have been seriously told 
that the breed came originally from France, and that once on a time, 
when the French army invaded Germany and were capturing towns and 
provinces, the German nobles, by way of retaliation, invaded France and 
carried off all the dachshunds ; but, as we do not find this theory sup- 
ported by any authority that we have consulted, possibly the writer of the 
story may be entitled to the invention also. 

" The dachshund is a short-coated, long-backed dog, on very short legs, 
of about 201b. weight, and should not be less than 181b., the bitches being 
31b. or 41b. less than the dogs. They must be self-coloured, although 
a little white on the breast or toes should not be a disqualification, as 
these beauty spots will crop out now and then in any breed of dogs. 

" The colour most in fashion just now is the fallow red and black and 
tan, but we have very good specimens of various shades of red, more or 

The Dachshund. 93 

less smutty, as well as the brown with tawny markings, some of which 
are very handsome. In black and tan we do not demand pencilled toes, 
as in the terrier, although, if good in every other respect, we should con- 
sider it an acquisition ; but we prefer such as nearest approach the 
standard of excellence, and care little for shades of colour, so that it 
be any of these above-named. The head, when of the proper type, 
greatly resembles that of the bloodhound. The ears also are long and 
pendulous, and in a 201b. dog should measure from 4|in. to 5in. each, and 
from tip to tip over the cranium, when hanging down in their natural 
position, from 13in. to 14in. ; the length from the eye to the end of the 
nose should be over 3in., 3|in. being a good length for a dog of 201b. 
weight ; girth of muzzle from Sin. to 8|in., which should finish square, and 
not snipey or spigot-nosed, and the flews should be fairly developed ; the 
eyes should be very lustrous and mild in expression, varying in colour 
with that of the coat ; the teeth should be very strong and perfectly 
sound, as a dog with a diseased mouth is of little use for work, is very 
objectionable as a companion, and is quite unfit for the stud in this or any 
other breed of dogs ; the neck should be rather long, and very muscular. 
We have a brood bitch from one of the best kennels in Germany, in which 
the dewlap is very strongly pronounced ; but this and the conical head 
are but rarely met with as yet. The chest should be broad, with the 
brisket point well up to the throat ; the shoulders should be very loose, 
giving the chest an appearance of hanging between them ; they should be 
well covered with muscle, with plenty of loose skin about them. The 
fore legs are one of the great peculiarities of the breed ; these are very 
large in bone for the size of the dog, and very crooked, being turned out 
at the eldows and in at the knees ; the knees, however, should not 
'knuckle,' or stand forward over the ankles, as we frequently see in 
very crooked -legged dogs, which render them more clumsy and less 
powerful. The feet should be very large, and armed with strong claws, 
and should be well splayed outwards to enable him to clear his way in the 
burrow. Terrier -like fore feet cannot be tolerated in the dachshund, as 
great speed is not required, the great essentials being a good nose, for 
tracking ; a conformation of body that will admit of his entering the 
badger earth, and adapting himself to his situation ; and a lion heart and 
power to grapple with the quarry, in the earth or the open ; and these 
are no small requirements. We are frequently told so-and-so's terrier 

94 British Dogs. 

has finished his badger in some very small numbers of minutes. But 
there are badgers and badgers baby badgers ; and if we are to believe a 
tithe of what we hear on this head, the supposition is forced upon us that 
a great many badgers die in their infancy. 

"We do know that the premier dachshund of the present day has 
within the last two months drawn a wild fox from his fastness and finished 
him, unaided, in about four minutes ; but an unsnubbed, fully-matured 
badger of five or six summers is an awkward customer, and with him the 
result might have been quite different. 

"What are called dachshunds may be picked up in most German 
towns, but those are often of an inferior sort, or half-breds, the genuine 
blue blood being almost entirely in the hands of the nobles. Familiar to 
us in the north were those of the late King of Hanover ; those of Baron 
Nathasius and Baron Von Cram in the south. The Grand Duke of Baden's 
kennel at Eberstein Schloss is unrivalled. Prince Couza, Baroness Ingel- 
heim, and Baron Haber also possessed some of the best and purest strains. 

" In England, Her Majesty the Queen and H.I.H. Prince Edward of 
Saxe- Weimar have for many years possessed the choicest specimens of the 
best strains in Germany ; and we have been favoured with stud dogs and 
brood from some of the above-named kennel, which required some- 
thing more than gold to possess them. A habit has sprung up of late, and 
a very bad one it is, of entering rough-coated little dogs as dachshunds 
at some of our best shows, and some of them have received honours which 
they are in no way entitled to. This is misleading, as they are not dachs- 
hunds, but 'bassets,' very nice little fellows, but with no more right to 
be exhibited as dachshunds than a setter or a spaniel would have in a 
pointer class. They may be half-breds, as dachshund-basset or dach- 
shund-spaniel ; we have also met with others, hound marked and smooth- 
coated, which looked like dachshund-beagle ; these are all bassets, a 
term applied by the French to all low, short-legged dogs. The best we 
have met with were a leash owned by a French marquis ; these had grand 
heads of the otter hound type, with rough coats, very long bodies, and 
short crooked legs, and were called 'Eostaing bassets,' and were 
excellent workers in thick coverts, but they rarely possess either the 
courage or the scenting powers of the dachshund." 

Between the points translated from the German by Her Von Schmie- 
denburg, editor of " Der Hund," and the English view, as given by 

The Dachshund. 95 

"Stonehenge" in "Dogs of the British Islands," there is some 
difference, and as " Stonehenge " acknowledges the assistance in 
drawing up the description of points of three German gentlemen and at 
least two Englishmen of long experience in Germany, this is the more 
remarkable. These gentlemen were Prince Albert Solms, Mr. Schuller 
(who has imported a great number of the best dachshunds seen in this 
country), Mr. Schweitzer, Mr. Percival de Castro, Mr. Fisher, and Mr. 
Barclay Hanbury. 

Of the skull "Stonehenge" says, "the occiput wide and its protu- 
berance well developed," the German description ignoring an occipital 
protuberance, and indeed seeming to be in contradiction of its existence ; 
indeed conical heads are distinctly declared faulty. 

Of the ears " Stonehenge" says, "long enough to reach nearly to the 
tip of the nose, .... hanging back in graceful folds." By German 
breeders at Hanover show, 1879, we were assured they do not like the 
ears to come much over the angle of the jaws. 

Of the eye "Stonehenge" says, " rather small, piercing, and deeply 
set " against " medium size, round, neither protruding nor sunken." 

Neck "somewhat short, thick," against "long, flexible, broad, and 

The German description is silent as to size, but this we have remedied 
by the actual measurements of well known dogs, which we give at the 
end of the chapter. 

The following are the points of the dachshund, as drawn up by a 
council of the Hanover Kennel Club, composed of many of the leading 
German breeders : 

1. General Appearance. Low and very long in structure, the fore part 
(not only the chest) especially well developed, legs very short, the fore 
legs turned inward at the knees, but the feet considerably bent out. 
The whole appearance is weasel-like ; the tail is moderately bent, and is 
carried very little above a horizontal line, or else downwards. Hair close, 
short, smooth. Expression intelligent, attentive, and lively. 

2. Head. Somewhat long, tapering towards the nose, wedge-like, 
broadest at the hind part of the skull, and without a stop ; skull broad, 
almost flat ; nose narrow, straight, sometimes a little upward-bent ; lips 
very little hanging, forming a small fold at the corner of the mouth. 

3. Ears of medium length, tolerably broad, and rounded at the end, 

British Dogs. 

which is less broad than other part. The ear is placed high up and well 
backward, so that the space between ear and eye appears considerably 
larger than with other hunting dogs. The ears are not wrinkled, but 
hang down close at the cheeks. 

4. The Eye is of medium size, round, neither protruding nor sunken in 
(klar vorliegand, i.e., well visible when seen from the side), and very 
sharp in expression. 

5. Neck. Long, flexible, broad, and strong ; the skin somewhat loose 
in front. 

6. Back. Very long, slanting towards the tail; loins well developed. 

7. Breast. Broad, framework of ribs long and deep, the flanks drawn in. 

8. Tail of medium length, strong at the root, and tapering to a thin 
end ; almost straight, and carried as said above. 

9. Fore Legs. Muscles stronger than at the hind feet ; the shoulders 
very muscular, upper arm short and strong, bending outwards ; the 
knees bent inwards, the feet again outwards. The legs seen in the 
profile must appear straight, not hanging over in the knees. 

10. Hind Legs. Straighter than with other dogs, seen from behind 
almost straight ; the quarters have muscles well visible, almost pointing 
out (eikig), the bone from hock to pastern very short. 

11. Feet. The feet of the fore legs are more muscular than those of 
the hind legs, the toes well closed, with nails strongly curved and black ; 
the sole of the feet is broad and thick. The toes of the hind legs are 
shorter and straighter, the feet also smaller. 

12. Hair. Short, close, and glossy, not soft, but resisting to the touch 
(mit stechender Spitze) when stroking against it ; very fine and close at 
the ears, coarser and longer at the lower side of the tail, but here also 
lying close to the skin. On the belly the hair is a little coarser, and the 
skin well covered. 

13. Colour. Black, with tan at head, breast, front of neck, belly, legs, 
and under the tail ; also dark brown, golden brown, hair grey with 
darker stripe on the back : as also ash grey, silver grey with dark patches 
(Tigerdachs) . The darker colours are mostly united with tan markings ; 
with lighter colours the nails ought also to be black, and the eyes always 
dark. Any white is only to be endured as a small mark at the chest. 

14. Teeth. Upper and lower teeth meet exactly; in proportion to the jaws 
they are stronger than with any other breed, especially the corner teeth. 

The Dachshund. 97 

As faulty are considered dogs who have a compressed or conical head ; 
the muzzle too short, too broad, or with a stop at forehead ; when the 
lips are hanging ; the ears folded, or not hanging close ; when the fore 
legs are so crooked that the knees touch each other, or are unable to bear 
the weight of the body ; when the neck is thin and the breast too narrow; 
when the fore feet are too much, or irregularly turned outward, when the 
knee joint is weak and the toes spread out ; also when the bone from the 
hock downward is too long and the hocks too close together. The tail is 
bad if it is crooked or has long hair sticking out. Any white as principal 
colour is also faulty. 

Measurements and weights of celebrated dachshunds : 

Mr. J. Hanson Lewis's Uhlan (K.C.S.B., 6333) : Age, 3 years; weight, 
221b. ; height at shoulder, 8|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 
27in. ; length of tail, 9in. ; girth of chest, 21in. ; girth of loin, 10|in. ; 
girth of head, 13in. ; girth of forearm, 4fin. ; length of head from occiput 
to tip of nose, T^in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, 6fin. 

Mr. J. Temperley's Waldine (K.C.S.B., 6355) : Age, 5 years; weight, 
23|lb. ; height at shoulder, lOiin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 
30Jin. ; length of tail, lOiin. ; girth of chest, 20in. ; girth of loin, 18|in. ; 
girth of head, 13^in. ; girth of forearm, 4|in. ; length of head from occiput 
to tip of nose, 8|in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip 
of nose, 7in. ; length of ear, 6^in. 

Capt. Donald Shaw's Olga (K.C.S.B., 7416) : Age, 4 years ; weight, 
191b. ; height at shoulder, 9fin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 31in. ; 
length of tail, 9iin. ; girth of chest, 19in. ; girth of loin, 17fin. ; girth 
of head, 12in. ; girth of forearm, 5in. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, Sin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, 7in. ; length of ear, 6in. 

Mr. W. Arkwright's Xaverl (K.C.S.B., 6337) : Age, 3| years ; weight, 
18lb. ; height at shoulder, lOfin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 
29fin. ; length of tail, llin. ; girth of chest, 19|in. ; girth of loin, 15fin. ; 
girth of head, 13in. ; girth of forearm, Sin. ; length of head from occiput 
to tip of nose, Sin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 
7in. ; length of ear, 6in. 

Mr. W. Arkwright's Senta (K.C.S.B., 8401) : Age, H years ; weight, 
191b. ; height at shoulder, 9fin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 31in. ; 


98 British Dogs. 

length of tail, lOin. ; girth of chest, 20in. ; girth of loin, 15fin. ; girth 
of head, 12 Jin. ; girth of forearm, 5in. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, Sin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, 7fin. ; length of ear, 7Jin. 

Mr. C. Goas's TecTc . Age, 2 years; weight, 22 Jib. ; height at shoulder, 
lOJin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 29in. ; length of tail, llin. ; 
girth of chest, 20in. ; girth of loin, 16in.; girth of head, 13iin. ; girth of 
forearm, 6Jin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, Sin. ; girth 
of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7Jin. ; width of skull, 
4Jin. ; length of muzzle, 4|in. 

Mr. H. Jones's Zange : Age, nearly 2 years ; weight, 13 Jib. ; height at 
shoulder, 9in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 26|in. ; length of tail, 
Sin. ; girth of chest, IG^in. ; girth of loin, ISfin. ; girth of head, lOfin. ; 
girth of forearm, measured lin. above elbow, 5f in. ; length of head from 
occiput to tip of nose, 7iin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and 
tip of nose, 5|in. ; colour and markings, red ; girth of leg, measured lin. 
below elbow, 4^in. ; sex, bitch. 

Mr. H. Jones's Blitz: Age, 9 months; weight, 131b. ; height at 
shoulder, Sfin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 25fin. ; length 
of tail, S^in. ; girth of chest, 16in. ; girth of loin, 13|in. ; girth 
of head, lOf in. ; girth of forearm, measured lin. above elbow, 
5fin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 7gin. ; girth of 
muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 5|in. ; colour and 
markings, black and tan ; girth of leg, measured lin. below elbow, 4fin. ; 
sex, bitch. 

Mr. H. Jones's Waldine : Age, over 2 years ; weight, 131b. ; height at 
shoulder, 9in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 25in. ; tail, injured ; 
girth of chest, 16 Jin. ; girth of loin, 13 Jin. ; girth of head, lOfin. ; girth 
of arm, measured lin. above elbow, 5iin. ; girth of leg, measured lin. 
below elbow, 4^in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 6f in. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 5|in. ; colour and 
markings, black and tan ; sex, bitch. 

Mr. H. Jones's Barbaroftma : Age, 4 years ; weight, 161b. ; height at 
shoulder, Sfin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 29fin. ; length of 
tail, Sfin. ; girth of chest, ISiin. ; girth of loin, 14in. ; girth of head, 
lliin. ; girth of arm, measured lin. above elbow, 5Jin. ; girth of leg, 
measured lin. below elbow, 4fin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 

The Dachshund. 99 

nose, 7in. ; length of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 
colour and markings, red ; sex, bitch. 

Mr. H. Jones's Waldmann I. (K.C.S.B., 6335) : Age, 4 years ; weight, 
16|lb. ; height at shoulder, 10|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 
27f in. ; length of tail, 8|in. ; girth of chest, 18in. ; girth of loin, 15|in. ; 
girth of head, 12Jin. ; girth of arm, measured lin. above elbow, 6Jin. ; 
girth of leg, measured lin. below elbow, 5|in. ; length of head from 
occiput to tip of nose, 7fin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and 
tip of nose, 6^in. ; colour and markings, black and tan ; sex, dog. 

Mr. H. Jones's Waldmann II. : Age, about 3 years ; weight, 17ilb. ; 
height at shoulder, 9fin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 29Jin. ; 
length of tail, 9|in. ; girth of chest, 18in. ; girth of loin, 15fin. ; girth 
of head, ll|in. ; girth of arm, measured lin. above elbow, 6fin. ; girth of 
leg, measured lin. below elbow, 4fin. ; length of head from occiput to tip 
of nose, 7fin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 
6f in. ; colour and markings, black and tan ; sex, dog. 

Mr. H. Jones's Donner (K.C.S.B., 8377) : Age, about 2 years; weight, 
161b. 6oz. ; height at shoulder, 9^in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 
26|in. ; length of tail, lOin. ; girth of chest, 17in. ; girth of loin, 14|in. ; 
girth of head, 13in. ; girth of arm, measured lin. above elbow, 5|in. ; 
girth of leg, measured lin. below elbow, 4in. ; length of head from 
occiput to tip of nose, 7jin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and 
tip of nose, 6|in. ; colour and markings, black and tan. 

Miss M. J. Bell's Faust: Age, 16 months; weight, 251b. lOJoz. ; 
height at shoulder, lO^in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 32|in. ; 
length of tail, ll|in. ; girth of chest, 20|in. ; girth of loin, 17iin. ; 
girth of head, 13in. ; girth of forearm, 5|in. ; length of head from 
occiput to tip of nose, 8jin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes 
and tip of nose, 6|in. ; from point to point of ears, 14iin. ; colour, black 
and tan. 

Miss M. J. Bell's Waldine : Age, about 3 years; weight, 171b. ; 
height at shoulder, 9|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 28in. ; 
length of tail, lOin. ; girth of chest, 17in. ; girth of loin, 14in. ; girth of 
head, ll^in. ; girth of forearm, 5iin. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, 7|in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 
6in. ; from point to point of ears, 13in. ; colour, black and tan. 

Miss M. J. Bell's Dessauer : Age, about 6 years ; weight, 241b. ; height 

H 2 

ioo British Dogs. 

at shoulder, 10-|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 32|in. ; length of 
tail, lOin. ; girth of chest, 20in. ; girth of loin, 16in. ; girth of head, 
13in. ; girth of forearm, 6|in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
8fin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7in. ; from 
point to point of ears, IS^in. ; colour, black and tan. 

Miss M. J. Bell's Frida : Age, 1 year 4 months ; weight, 141b. ; height 
at shoulder, 9Jin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 29in. ; length of 
tail, lOin. ; girth of chest, 17|in. ; girth of loin, 13|in. ; girth of head, 
lljin. ; girth of forearm, Sin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
7|in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 5fin. ; from 
point to point of ears, 13|in. ; colour, black and tan. 

Mrs. Douglas Murray's Von Josstik : Age, 4| years ; weight, 17ilb. ; 
height at shoulder, 9|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 2ft. 3in. ; 
length of tail, 9in. ; girth of chest, 1ft. 5|in. ; girth of loin, 1ft. lin. ; girth 
of head, 1ft. lin. ; girth of arm, measured lin. above elbow, 7in. ; girth 
of leg, measured lin. below elbow, 4in. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, 7in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 
Sin. ; colour and markings, red. 

Mrs. Douglas Murray's Von : Age, 1 year and 9 months ; weight, 
18|lb. ; height at shoulder, 9^in.; length from nose to set on of tail, 
2ft. 3in. ; length of tail, 9in. ; girth of chest, 1ft. 5fin'. ; girth of loin, 
1ft. ; girth of head, 1ft. l|in. ; girth of arm, measured lin. above elbow, 
9in. ; girth of leg, measured lin. below elbow, 4fin. ; length of head from 
occiput to tip of nose, 7in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and 
tip of nose, 7iin. ; colour and markings, red, white spot on chest. 

Mr. Montague Wootten's Zigzag (K.C.S.B., 8393) : Age, 1 year 
5 months ; weight, 21|lb. ; height at shoulder, ll^in. ; length from nose 
to set on of tail, 31in. ; length of tail, lljin. ; girth of chest, 19^in. ; 
girth of loin, 17in. ; girth of head, 13iin. ; girth of forearm, 5fin. ; 
length of head from occiput to tip of nose, S^in. ; girth of muzzle midway 
between eyes and tip of nose, 6fin. ; length of ear from root to tip, 5^in. ; 
colour, blood red, red nose ; breeder, owner. 

Mr. Montague Wootten's Zomah (K.C.S.B., 8404) : Age, 1 year 
8 months ; weight, 201b. ; height at shoulder, llin. ; length from nose to 
set on of tail, 29in. ; length of tail, llin. ; girth of chest, 19in. ; girth 
of loin, 16in. ; girth of head, 13jin. ; girth of forearm, 5|in. ; length 
of head from occiput to tip of nose, 7iin. ; girth of muzzle midway 

The Schweisshund. 101 

between eyes and tip of nose, 6 Jin. ; length of ear from root to tip, 
5^in. ; colour, red, white fore feet, black nose ; breeder, W. Arkwright ; 
she is own sister to Senta (K.C.S.B., 8401). 



THIS is a German hound which will, when better known in England, 
find a place in our shows. They are about the size of our larger fox- 
hounds. I had the opportunity of seeing a large class of them at the 
Hanover Show, 1879, about sixty competing at that exhibition, when 
they attracted the attention of the numerous English visitors. 

The schweisshund corresponds with what was once known here as the 
lyme hound, or lymer, as far as work is concerned, for it is impossible 
now to fix accurately the points of a dog long since modified or absorbed 
in higher types, a process which has so long gone on in this country. 
The schweisshund has a great reputation at home for aptitude and per- 
severance in his special work of tracking wounded deer. The type of 
head is different from our bloodhound, the occipital protuberance is not 
very pronounced ; there is an absence of " frown," insisted on as one of 
the evidences of great scenting powers by a few bloodhound fanciers 
here, yet these schweisshunds are marvellously clever on the coldest 
scent. They are shorter in the muzzle proportionately to size than 
our bloodhounds or even foxhounds, flatter in the skull, with little 
flew or dewlap. The colour is generally a red or a red brindle, from 
which I imagine them to be more nearly related to the immense boar- 
hound of Germany than to any of our hounds. The following are the 
points required by German breeders and sportsmen : 

1. General Appear office. Medium height, of strong and long structure, 
high in the back head, tail rarely carried high, earnest expression of the 

2. Head of middling size, the upper part broad and flat, the forehead 

IO2 British Dogs. 

slightly wrinkled, the hind part of the head is moderately expressed. 
Nose broader than in other breeds of hounds, may be black or red. The 
bridge of the nose under the eyes is small or drawn in, almost arched. 
The eyebrows are considerable developed and protruding. Nose round, 
and lips falling over in the corner of the mouth. 

3. Ears tolerably long, very broad, rounded at the ends, high, and 
equally set out, always lying close. 

4. Eyes clear, with energetic expression, no red observable. 

5. Neck long and strong, enlarging towards the chest. 

6. Back rather long, sunk behind the shoulders, hind part broad, and 
slightly vaulted and sloping. 

7. Breast wide, ribs deep and long, back gradually sloping up behind. 

8. Tail long and well provided with hair. 

9. Fore legs stronger than the hind legs, shoulders sloping, very loose 
and movable ; the muscles of the shoulders are well developed. 

10. Hind legs moderately well developed, the lower parts not quite 

11. Feet strong, round, and closed toes. Nails, strong, uneven; the 
sole of the foot is strong and large. 

12. Goat close and full, smooth and elastic, almost glossy. 

13. Colour grey-brown, like the winter coat of deer ; dark brown on 
muzzle ; eyes and tail red-brown, or red-yellow, or brown intermixed 
with black, and marked mostly with the darker colour on the eyes, 
nose, and tail, and with dark marks on the back. 

Those dogs are considered as faulty which have a small high skull, narrow 
nose, running in the same dimension toward the forehead ; if the ears are 
too long, too narrow, and too pointed ; if the legs are bent, too short, or too 
thin, or strongly bent and too high carried tail ; as also the structure, if 
not in correspondence with the different parts of the body. As regards 
colour, white and also yellow marks, must be considered faulty. 


Dogs that find their Game by scent, and index 
it for the advantage of the Gun. 

Including : 

1. The English Setter. 

2. The Irish Setter. 

j. The Gordon or Black 
and Tan Setter. 

4. The Spanish Pointer. 

5. The Pointer. 

6. The Dropper. 

This group corresponds sufficiently closely with 
Group II. in head formation to come also into the 
second division in the arrangement of M. Cuvier. 
Speaking broadly and generally, the head and muzzle 
of the modern varieties included in this group are 
slightly more elongated than the dogs embraced in 
Group II., with the exception of the bloodhounds. 
Setters are undoubtedly more closely allied to spaniels 
than to pointers, and naturalists would group the two 
former together and the pointers with the hounds, but 
the system of classification which for convenience I 
have adopted leaves no option but to place setters and 
pointers together, as the work they do and the manner 
of doing it are in strong accord. 



DIFFICULT as it admittedly is to trace the history of any of our modern 
breeds of dogs, although, in most instances, their manufacture, if I may 
use the term, into their present form is of comparatively recent date 

104 British Dogs. 

there is, in respect to the setter, a general agreement among writers and 
breeders that our present dog is largely derived from the spaniel ; indeed, 
the proofs of this are very conclusive the family likeness is in many 
respects yet strongly preserved, and in some kennels, where they have 
kept pretty much to their own blood, following different lines from our 
show and field trial breeders, this is most markedly so. No more 
pronounced instance of this has come under my notice for years than a 
number of dogs, all of the same blood, shown by the Earl of Carlisle and 
other gentlemen at the Border Counties Show at Carlisle in January, 1877. 
These were mostly liver and white in colour, stood higher than the show- 
bench spaniel, shorter and rounder in the head than the present day 
setter, but strong useful looking dogs, showing a lot of spaniel character 
in general formation, carriage of ears, and coat and feathering, the coat 
having a strong tendency to curl, and some of them showing as distinct 
a topknot as the Irish water spaniel, although not so large. The writer on 
setters in the " Sportsman's Cabinet," 1802, tells us that in his day, in 
the northern counties, the pointer was called the smooth spaniel, the 
setter the rough spaniel ; and, although he speaks of this localism with 
surprise as a misnomer, it was really the preservation of an old distinction, 
the setters, or setting spaniels, being so named to divide them from their 
congeners, used for different work, and named cockers and springers. 
Our forefathers do not appear to have been so fastidious respecting the 
appearance of their dogs as we are, but undoubtedly the spaniel was pre- 
eminently their setting dog, both for use with the net and the gun. 

In a much older book than the " Sportsman's Cabinet," the " Gentle- 
man's Recreation," the writer gives the following directions how to 
select a setting dog : " The dog which you elect for setting must have a 
perfect and good scent, and be naturally addicted to the hunting of 
feathers, and this dog may be either land spaniel, water spaniel, or 
mongrel of them both, either the shallow- flowed hound, tumbler, lurcher, 
or small bastard mastiff. But there is none better than the land spaniel, 
being of a good and nimble size, rather small than gross, and of a 
courageous mettle, which, though you cannot discern being young, yet 
you may very well know from a right breed which have been known to be 
strong, lusty, and nimble rangers, of active feet, wanton tails, and busy 
nostrils, whose tail was without weariness, their search without change- 
ableness, and whom no delight did transport beyond fear and obedience. " 

The English Setter. 105 

Many other writers might be quoted to the same effect, and it is quite 
clear that the old setter was simply a spaniel kept to certain work, and 
as useful to the old sportsman who netted his covey of partridge as his 
modern representative is to the present "shooter on the wing," who is 
content to bag his brace by a right and left from his patent breechloader. 
Somerville, that thorough sportsman and true poet, gives a lucid and very 
happy description of the working of the setter in the following lines : 

When autumn smiles, all beauteous in decay, 

And paints each chequered grove with various hues, 

My setter ranges in the new shorn fields, 

His nose in air erect ; from ridge to ridge, 

Panting, he bounds, his quartered ground divides 

In equal intervals, nor careless leaves 

One inch untried. At length the tainted gale 

His nostrils wide inhale, quick joy elates 

His beating heart, which, awed by discipline 

Severe, he dares not own, but cautious creeps 

Low-cowering, step by step ; at last attains 

His proper distance, there he stops at once, 

And points with his instructive nose upon 

The trembling prey. On wings of wind upborne 

The floating net unfolded flies ; then drops, 

And the poor fluttering captives rise in vain. 

These were the halcyon days of sport when driving, battues, and 
mowing machines were alike unknown, and, rude as the appliances 
for taking game were, they gave full play to the capabilities of a good 
setter, the clever working of which gave such genuine pleasure to the 

Whether the modern setter has been produced from the spaniel by care- 
ful selection, or by a cross with the pointer or some other breed, it is 
difficult to decide ; many have supposed the flat coat has been obtained 
by a cross, but selection would quite account for that, as well as the 
change in formation. 

Since the institution of dog shows and field trials a considerable impetus 
has been given to dog breeding, and in the strife for fame none has been 
so successful as the Laveracks, which, for elegance of outline, are unsur- 
passed by any breed of dogs. These, and crosses from them, are now 
pretty well spread over the country, and are also very fashionable in 
America. Sam, late the property of Mr. W. Wardlaw Eeid, and the 
subject of our engraving, was a pure Laverack, brother to Mr. Purcell 

1 06 British Dogs. 

Llewellyn's Countess and Nellie, by Dash II. out of Moll III., and so going 
back to Ponto and Old Moll. Sam was a dog showing great quality, and 
with a good frame, free from the extreme delicacy of appearance which 
not a few modern setters have ; and I am of opinion size and stoutness 
are sometimes a little too much sacrificed to elegance. 

Mr. Purcell Llewellyn now claims to have produced a distinct strain of 
his own ; he has been unquestionably a large and successful breeder of 
both good and handsome dogs, and his breed is now well known in the 
United States of America, to which a great number of them have been 
shipped as the " Llewellyn setter." The strain is founded on Laverack 
blood, and has on more than one occasion given rise to discussions 
which it would be unprofitable for us to enter upon here. 

We find absolute purity of Laverack blood in Mr. T. B. Bower's 
Bandit, Mr. George Lowe's Tarn O'Shanter, in Mr. A. P. Heywood- 
Lonsdale's kennels, and a few others, but good and handsome setters 
only part Laverack are plentiful enough. 

The general appearance of a well bred setter is very pleasing to the 
eye ; he is so nicely put together as to present a well balanced whole, 
showing capabilities of speed and endurance, and his expression shows a 
high order of intelligence, combined with a diffidence and solicitude to 
please, which courts attention and praise. He is in form rather long and 
low, as compared with the pointer, but not so much so as either the 
Clumber or the modern field spaniel, and is altogether of artistic shape ; 
the elegance of form in which he excels most breeds being heightened by 
the richness of his soft, wavy, silky coat, and profuse though not over- 
abundant feathering. 

The head should be rather lean and long, not so thick as the pointer' s, 
being narrower between the ears, with plenty of brain room before them ; 
the jaws should be long and level, the teeth meeting evenly, and these 
should be strong and white always an evidence of sound health which 
should not be overlooked either in judging or in examining with a view 
to purchase ; little dip below the eyes ; the nose wide, slightly 
raised, and rather spreading any pinched appearance there gives a 
terrier look ; the colour of the nose black, or dark liver for preference, 
but it often varies with the colour of the dog, and in orange and lemon 
marked is often flesh coloured ; the lips should be clean cut that is, 
without flew, except a slight looseness or pouchiness at the angles. 

The English Setter. 107 

The eyes should be set straight, and be bright, clear, and animated ; 
they are of various shades of brown, differing according to the body 
colour, and in orange and lemon marked dogs are sometimes amber or 
almost yellow. 

The ears, of medium size, should be set on low, fall straight, the 
leather thin, and covered with fine silky hair, falling down as a fringe 
from 2in. to Sin. below the leather. 

The neck is elegant, sloping gently, with a good curve from the head, 
and should be free from the tendency to bloodhound-like throatiness 
sometimes seen in the Gordon setter ; the shoulders muscular and well 
sloped, and with plenty of freedom of action ; chest deep, with the fore 
ribs well sprung and the back ribs deep ; the back stout, the backbone 
well lined on each side with muscle, very slightly arched at the loins ; 
thighs muscular, though rather flat, stifles wide and well bent, hocks 
strong, and like the elbows, well let down ; the fore legs straight these, 
as well as the hind legs, well feathered ; cat-like feet are preferred, but 
if too much so they are apt to be bare, and those with an inclination to 
the hare foot are better protected with hair between the toes. The tail 
should be of fair length, free from curl, but not dragged, as some setters 
are seen to do ; the proper carriage shows a very gentle curve, and it is 
well feathered with fine hair, longest about the middle, and tapering off 
almost to a point. The coat is of a soft, almost silky, texture, wavy, but 
free from absolute curl ; longest in ears, fore legs, hams, and tail. 

The colours are various, ranging from black, black and white, with 
large patches and flecked, called blue Beltons, red, orange or yellow and 
white patched or flecked, and black and white, with a little tan, and pure 
white. Some whites have a brownish-creamy colour, with sprinklings of 
dark hair, almost approaching to a roan. 

Measurements, &c., of celebrated English setters : 

Mr. A. P. Heywood-Lonsdale's Fred V. : Age, 3 years ; weight, 511b. ; 
height at shoulder, 24in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 36in. ; 
length of tail, 16in. ; girth of chest, 28in. ; girth of loin, 21|in. ; girth of 
head, 16in. ; girth of forearm, 6|in. ; length of head from occiput to tip 
of nose, 13in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 

Mr. H. Prendergast-Garde's Royal Dan: Weight, 401b. ; height 
at shoulder, 22in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 38in. ; length of 

io8 British Dogs. 

tail, 12|in. ; girth of chest, 26in. ; girth of loin, 19|in. ; girth of head, 
15|in. ; girth of forearm, G^in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, 8|in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, lOin. 

Mr. F. J. Staples-Browne's Fancy : Age, 1 year 4 months ; weight 46jlb. ; 
height at shoulder, 22in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 3ft. ; length 
of tail, 1ft. Sin. ; girth of chest, 2ft. 2in. ; girth of loin, 1ft. Sin. ; girth 
of head, 1ft. 2^in. ; girth of forearm, 6|in. ; length of head from occiput 
to tip of nose, 10|in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, 8^in. 

Mr. T. Webber's Moll ITI. . Age, 1 year; weight, 471b. ; height at 
shoulder, 22in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 37in. ; length of 
tail, 12|in., girth of chest, 25in. ; girth of loin, 21in. ; girth of head, 
15|in. ; girth of forearm, 6fin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, 9iin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 

Mr. T. B. Bower's Bandit : Age, 8 years; height at shoulder, 22in. ; 
length from nose to set on of tail, 38in. ; length of tail, 13in. ; girth 
of chest, 28in. ; girth of loin, 23in. ; girth of head, 16in. ; girth of fore- 
arm, 7in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 10|in. ; girth of 
muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 10|in. ; ears when extended 
(measurement taken across the head), 17in. 

Mr. T. B. Bower's Blue Belle II. : Weight, 401b. ; height at 
shoulder, 22in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 33in. ; length of tail, 
12in. ; girth of chest, 26in. ; girth of loin, 20in. ; girth of head, 15in. ; 
girth of arm lin. above elbow, 10|in. ; length of head from occiput to tip 
of nose, 9in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 

Mr. J. H. Salter's Daisy : Age, 4 years ; weight, 501b.; height at shoulder, 
21in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 35in. ; length of tail, 14in. ; 
girth of chest, 27in. ; girth of loin, 22in. ; girth of head, 15in. ; girth of 
forearm, 8in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 8|in. ; girth 
of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 9in. 

The Irish Setter. 109 


" A VETERAN SPORTSMAN," author of " A Correct Delineation of the 
Canine Race," \vriting in 1803, says : " The sporting gentlemen of 
Ireland are more partial to setters than pointers, and probably they are 
better adapted to that country. Setters, it is presumed, cover more 
ground than pointers, are not so liable to be footsore, and can bear the 
changes of weather much better than the latter, which they term the 
smooth spaniel. The fields in many parts of Ireland are large, very 
rugged, and stony ; the rains sudden, sharp, severe, and driving. Setters, 
therefore, particularly suit the country they go over; to this may be 
added the grouse shooting, which is excellent, and it is a universally- 
received opinion that this species of dog only is equal to the fatigues of 
it." The writer I have quoted from does not attempt any description 
of the setter in use in Ireland in his sporting days, nor dwell on his 
points after the manner of our modern dog show critics ; but, instead, he 
gives briefly the fact that the dog selected by Irish sportsmen was one 
specially adapted to the circumstances of the country and climate in which 
he had to work, a most important fact, which I think dog show managers, 
judges, and others cannot have too often brought under their notice, for 
there is undoubtedly an evil tendency in our dog show system to forget 
the fitness of the dog for his work, which should exist, and indeed should 
be made a sine qud non, and to exalt far above their legitimate value, 
points of beauty and arbitrary standards of perfection, giving undue 
weight to matters of comparatively little moment, such as the existence of 
a few dozen white hairs, more or less, the colour of the eyelashes, and the 
precise carriage of the tail to a line minutely described and insisted on. 
I by no means say that beauty and utility should not be combined, but 
great care should be exercised that in setting up a fancy standard we 
do not sacrifice to it absolutely essential or even desirable characteristics. 
I for one have little faith in the fabulous pedigrees I hear of, and as little 
in the assertions that a shade of colour is a proof of long descent in this 
or any other breed. Such a thing as well kept stud books must, at least, 

no British Dogs. 

have been rare indeed, as so far as I know there is nob a dog living of any 
breed whatever, if we except hounds, whose pedigree can be traced in a 
manner that could be considered as proven for even one hundred years, 
and it would still further mightily surprise me to find that the points of 
all, or even one of the progenitors, had been as minutely described as 
modern fanciers require. Hence, I fall back on general facts, and firmly 
believe, with the writer I have quoted, that Irish sportsmen chose the 
setter as best adapted to their purposes, and no one who has seen Irish 
setters, especially as they are to be seen at Irish shows, will doubt that 
the selection was a wise one, whether the originals were red or white and 
red, for it is the general characteristic of both ; but I must say, to my mind 
especially, of the reds, they impress one with their powers of hardihood 
and endurance and defiance alike of rough country and rough weather ; 
they have a " devil-may-care" look about them which plainly says it is 
neither hard work, hard weather, nor hard living that will stop us, 
although at the same time this same look creates a suspicion, if not of 
actual stubbornness, at least of a wilful rollicking disposition chary of 
too close restraint. 

Colour is the point which has been most warmly discussed since shows 
were introduced, and, without going through the arguments and asser- 
tions pro and con, I will merely observe that, so far, at least, as English 
shows and English judges go, the deep blood-red, free from any black on 
ears, ridge of back, or tail, and with as little white as possible a mere 
line down the face and star on chest has gained the day, and any dog with 
much white would in prize competition, judging from decisions of the last 
few years, be very heavily handicapped, if not absolutely disqualified, and 
I doubt very much if Dr. Stone' s grand old dog Dash were to visit the 
scenes of his former triumphs, whether that "white snake round his 
neck" would not mar his prospects. Our Irish friends provide distinct 
classes for the reds and red and whites, they being two distinct types of 
the Irish setter breed a course highly to be approved; for, however 
little faith may be placed in a vague tradition that would rest purity of 
blood in a shade of colour, the very existence of such traditions proves 
that such points had existed in good dogs, and had been consequently 
noted and valued by old breeders. Speaking personally, I prefer the 
blood red, with as little white as possible, as it gives to the dogs a more 
distinct character, or rather it adds to their pronounced family character 


The Irish Setter. in 

and I can see no reason why such a point cannot be bred up to without a 
sacrifice of higher and more essential qualities. 

In general appearance the Irish setter is rather lighter and more wiry- 
looking than the English. The head is long and narrow, the nose wide, 
not snipey or terrier-like ; the ears set on well back, rather narrow, 
hanging close and lightly feathered ; the eye should be brown, corre- 
sponding with the dark flesh-coloured nose ; the lips deep, but not so 
much so as to be hound-like ; the neck neat, light, and well placed ; the 
shoulders sloping ; the chest deep, but not wide, as a wide chest indicates 
slowness ; the fore ribs deep, the sides rather flat, loins strong and very 
muscular, and the flank rather tucked up ; hind quarters strong and 
muscular, but not heavy ; the tail set on rather low and well carried, fine 
in bone, and the feathering rather lighter in colour than the body ; coat is 
rather fine, but more wiry than an English setter ; the feather is longest 
about the middle of the tail, tapering off gradually towards the point ; 
the legs straight, feet hare-like, and fairly feathered between the toes ; 
the hocks strong, stifles well bent ; the feathering on the legs abundant, 
fine in texture, and same shade as on the tail ; the body coat is harder, of a 
wet-resisting texture. Many of the Irish setters of the day can be traced 
back with more or less certainty to kennels of renown during the early 
part of the century, and the number of good dogs, it is reasonable to assert, 
has increased since the advent of shows gave an impetus to the breeding 
of them ; and now it is a rare thing to find an English show where this 
breed is not represented. In the United States of America this dog is a 
great favourite, almost as much so as the Laverack, and specimens are 
constantly being sent across the Atlantic from Irish kennels. The most 
celebrated dogs of this breed of recent date, which have been exhibited, 
are Mr. Hilliard's Palmerston, Dr. Kennedy's Dick, Mr. Macdona's 
Plunket, Mr. Nuttall's Maybe, Mr. M'Haffie's Mina, Miss Lizzie War- 
burton's Lily, Dr. Stone's Dash, Mr. Lipscomb's Shawn Bragh, Mr. 
Jephson's Dash, Major Hutchinson's Bob, Major Cooper's Ranger, and 
others too numerous to mention. 

Among the most successful breeders I may mention Miss Warburton, 
Mr. Cecil Moore, Mr. Henry Jephson, and these and several other breeders 
trace the pedigree of some of their dogs to the beginning of the present 
century, going back through the kennels of Messrs. Evans and Lloyd, of 
Dungarvan, to the kennels of Lords Antrim and Enniskillen and a noted 

H2 British Dogs. 

breeder, Mr. Hazard, of Fermanagh ; and of other old strains there is the 
La louche, Lord Clancarty's, and the Marquis of Waterford's. Mr. 
Jephson was the breeder of Lilly II., Eily (both first prize winners at 
Birmingham and Crystal Palace), Nell (second Crystal Palace), Sheelah 
(ditto, 1876), March (champion cup, Dublin, 1875), Eufus (first puppy 
class, Crystal Palace), and other good ones less well known. 

The subject of our engraving is Mr. J. Fletcher's Grouse, bred by Mr. 
W. J. Smith. He made his debut at the Dublin Show, 1877, when he 
took premier honours, and has since had a victorious career, having won 
many prizes for his present owner under various judges. Grouse is a deep 
red, with capital straight coat of the right texture, feathering on legs 
profuse, nice comb -like flag, which he carries well; he has a good deep 
chest, muscular loins, and good hind quarters, with a head almost 

The following are the measurements of some celebrated Irish setters : 

Mr. J. H. Salter's Whisper : Age, 2% years ; weight, 561b. ; height at 
shoulder, 25in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 42in. ; length of tail, 
19in. ; girth of chest, 28in. ; girth of loin, 21in. ; girth of head, 17in. ; 
girth of arm. 7in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, lOin. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 9in. 

Mr. T. Hilliard's Palmerston: Age, 11 years; weight, 651b. ; height 
at shoulder, 23|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 44in. ; length 
of tail, 15in. ; girth of chest, 30in. ; girth of loin, 24in. ; girth of head, 
16in. ; girth of arm, 9iin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
lOiin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, lOin. 

Mr. T. Hilliard's Count : Age, 2 years 9 months ; weight, 541b. ; height 
at shoulder, 23in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 37|in. ; length of 
tail, 13in. ; girth of chest, 28|in. ; girth of loin, 22in. ; girth of head, 
15|in. ; girth of arm, lOin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
9|in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 8fin. 

Mr. T. Hilliard's Titty : Age, 4| years ; weight, 451b. ; height at 
shoulder, 22in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 37in. ; length of tail, 
14in. ; girth of chest, 27in. ; girth of loin, 20|in. ; girth of head, 14tin. ; 
girth of arm, S^in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 9in. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 8fin. 

Mr. F. A. Bird's Belle : Age, 3 years 3 months ; weight, 471b. ; height 
at shoulder, 22in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 35in. ; length of 


The Gordon or Black and Tan Setter. 113 

tail, 14in. ; girth of chest, 28in. ; girth of loin, 21in. ; girth of head, 16in. ; 
girth of forearm, 7Jin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
lOin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, lOin. 



WHETHER the dog under consideration should be called the black and 
tan setter or the Gordon setter is a subject open to controversy, but of 
one thing there is no doubt, as the authentic records of breeders prove, 
that many of the best modern black and tan setters have a large commix- 
ture of that Gordon Castle blood which became half a century ago so 
famous as to stamp the generic name of Gordon Setters on its possessors. 
What the original colour of the Gordon setter was is still a disputed point, 
which was ably argued in the Field some years back, the weight of 
evidence produced being decidedly against the black and tan and in 
favour of the black, white, and tan, as the prevailing colours in this 
celebrated kennel, but if it was difficult to get an unanimous consent as 
to the colour of dogs distributed thence at comparatively so recent a date, 
it becomes a still more difficult problem to solve how the breed was first 
established. Many hold that it was originally a cross of our English 
setter with the red Irish setter, and, in support of this view, advance the 
fact that in many litters pure red puppies are met with. This does not 
occur so often now as we get further from the source of the red blood, 
but it is fair presumptive evidence of the cross having taken place. On 
the other hand, it has been asserted that many of the good qualities of 
the Gordon Castle setter were inherited from a celebrated colley of poach- 
ing proclivities ; and there are more unlikely things than that such a cross 
might be tried, for no one, seeing the sagacity of the sheepdog as dis- 
played in his management of his charge, can fail to be impressed by it, and if 


1 1 4 British Dogs. 

that wonderful sense could be infused into a setting dog and undesirable 
points bred out whilst retaining it, it might be a consummation devoutly 
to be wished. And such an attempt is far from unlikely to have been 
tried, so that it is not at all improbable that the Gordon and our modern 
black and tan have both Irish setter and colley blood in them. This 
pre-suppose3 that the Irish setter has been longer in existence as a distinct 
breed than the Gordon, and this, I think, can be established, although 
that breed, like all others, has probably been considerably modified. 

As it is generally I may say universally acceded that the spaniel is 
the foundation on which all our varieties of setters has been built, and 
there is no means of proving positively the modus operandi adopted, it is 
a fair field for conjecture to those so disposed ; but one thing is clear, the 
lines followed in breeding, whether as regards crossing or selection, must 
have differed to create three varieties with such distinctive features as 
the English, Irish, and black and tan, and it is with the latter I have at 
present to do, for, although I take black, white, and tan to have been the 
prevailing colour of the Gordon, these have been elbowed off the show- 
bench by their darker brethren for good or ill, for by all recent judging a 
dog with a white frill even would stand no chance at shows where the 
class is still described as black and tan, or Gordon setters, and under 
these circumstances I think it a great pity that a class is not provided for 
the handsome tri-coloured dog. 

It is a fact worth noting that black and tan setters took the prizes against 
all comers at the first two shows for setters ever held, these being Mr. J. 
Jobling' s Dandy, first at Newcastle, 1859, and Mr. F. Burdett' s Brougham, 
first at Birmingham in the November following. Dandy's grandsire was 
the Duke of Gordon's Grouse, and both his stock and that of Brougham 
have since frequently appeared in the prize lists. 

As a working dog the black and tan is excellent ; he is possessed of a fine 
nose, with staunchness; he is not so fast as the Laverack, and in the 
opinion of many, not so enduring, but on this latter point I have a different 
opinion, having known dogs of this breed work constantly in rough hill 
shooting without being knocked up, and for this kind of work his superior 
bone and muscle seem to adapt him better than the lighter and more 
elegant Laverack. 

The black and tan differs from the English, and especially the Laveracks, 
in presenting a rather heavier appearance ; the head is decidedly heavier, 

The Gordon or Black and Tan Setter. 115 

with a nearer approach to the bloodhound type, the lips in many good 
specimens showing a good depth of flew, but in general points the two 
varieties should agree, colour of course, excepted. This should be an 
intense, yet brilliant black not a dead absorbing black relieved by a 
very rich warm mahogany red, and as free from white as possible. This 
deep tan could not be inherited from a colley cross, the prevailing colours 
in which are black and white, and those that are tan marked have that 
colour very pale. The tan should appear clear and distinct on the feet, 
feather of the leg, under the stern, on the vent, cheeks, lips, and in spots 
over the eye, as in black and tan terriers. 

As I do not believe in the wisdom, utility, or good taste of making a 
decision in judging sporting classes depend so exclusively on colour and 
markings, and consider it bad policy to exclude, as in this case, black, white, 
and tan, which many think the legitimate colour of the breed, and prefer 
both for beauty and work, I hope to see a class formed for them. There 
might, after the damaging effects of show judging on them for years past, 
be few exhibited at first, but in a few years this really handsome variety 
of the setter would take a foremost place. It was some years after shows 
were started that a class for fox terriers was instituted, and now they are 
the most numerous at all shows. 

The main points of difference between the black and tan and the 
modern English setter, after colour, are that the former are heavier 
built, larger in head (which is added to in appearance by tendency to 
throatiness and flew), a rather harsher quality of coat, and shorter stern. 
The hind-quarters should be particularly strong, and the stifles wide 
apart and well bent. A dog that appears tied in the hams, as toy 
spaniels are, is of no use for work. 

The subject of our engraving is Mr. H. B. Gibbs' Young Lome, 
one of the most perfect specimens of the breed. Young Lome has 
not been much exhibited, but has been fairly successful, and his stock 
have turned out well. He is also, I am given to understand, for I have 
not seen him work, an excellent performer in the field. 

Measurements of black and tan setters : 

Mr. E. L. Parsons' champion, Floss : Age, 5 years ; weight, 591b. ; 
height at shoulder, 22|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 39in. ; 
length of tail, 15in. ; girth of chest, 27^in. ; girth of loin, 22in. ; 
girth of head, 16in. ; girth of forearm, 6fin. ; length of head from 

I 2 

1 1 6 British Dogs. 

occiput to tip of nose, 9|in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and 
tip of nose, 9|in. 

Mr. J. H. Salter's Bex II. : Age, 5 years ; weight, 71flb. ; height at 
shoulder, 25in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 42in. ; length of tail, 
18in. ; girth of chest. 32in. ; girth of loin, 22in. ; girth of head, 18in. ; 
girth of forearm, Sin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, lOin. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, llin. 

Mr. T. Jacobs' Marquis : Age, 2 years 3 months ; weight, 551b. ; height 
at shoulder, 22in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 38in. ; length 
of tail, 14in. ; girth of chest, 29in. ; girth of loin, 22|in. ; girth of 
head, 15|in. ; girth of forearm, 7iin. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, lOin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 
9in. ; black and tan, correctly marked, free from white. 

Mr. T. Jacobs' Earl : Age, 2 years 3 months ; weight, 651b. ; height at 
shoulder, 23|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 38|in. ; length of 
tail, 14in. ; girth of chest, 30|in. ; girth of loin, 23|in. ; girth of head, 
16|in. ; girth of forearm, Sin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, lO^in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 
lOin. ; colour and markings, black and tan, correctly marked, free from 

Mr. H. B. Gibbs' Young Lome: Age, about 5| years; weight, 611b. ; 
height at shoulder, 23in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 3ft. 5in. ; 
length of tail, 1ft. Sin. ; girth of chest, 30iin. ; girth of loin, 22|in. ; 
girth of head, 1ft. 6in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, lOin. ; girth of 
leg lin. below elbow, 8|in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
llin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 10|in. ; 
colour and markings, black and rich sienna tan, correctly marked and 
free from white. 

Mr. H. B. Gibbs' NoraU : Age, about 3i years ; weight, 471b. ; height 
at shoulder, 21in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 2ft. lOin. ; length 
of tail, 1ft. 2in. ; girth of chest, 2ft. 2fin. ; girth of loin, 20iin. ; girth 
of head, 15|in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 9in. ; girth of leg 
lin. below elbow, Sin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
9^in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 9in. ; 
colour and markings, black and tan of a rich sienna colour, correctly 
marked and free from white. 

The Spanish Pointer The Pointer. 117 



THE old heavy lumbering Spanish pointer is said to be no more, at least, 
in this country ; but, judging from specimens we still see occasionally at 
shows, he has not been entirely improved out of existence in the British 
Isles. As the source of our far more elegant, faster, and stauncher 
pointer, we must speak of him with feelings of regret for the obsolete 
that was useful in its day. 

Compared with the modern English pointer, he was bigger, coarser, 
and clumsier. Standing higher on the leg, his coarse head and badly 
balanced body gave him an over-topped appearance. His feet were apt 
to be flat and spreading, which added to his slowness ; but in nose he 
excelled, and to careful breeding from him the present pointers' high 
qualities in that respect are due. Close observers may still see in litters, 
bred without the exercise of care and judgment, specimens with unknit 
frames, unsymmetrical build, and heavy chumpy heads evidence of their 
origin from a dog most useful in his day. 

No detailed description of him is necessary, but we owe too much to 
him altogether to ignore his existence and the influence he has had on 
the modern race. 



THE pointer is now, and has ever been, most essentially a sporting dog. 
Although his origin is not quite clear, nor the country from which he 
was imported into England satisfactorily made out, still he is generally 
credited with coming to us from Spain. Even now we not unfrequently 
hear the phrase, "That is a regular old-fashioned Spanish pointer," 
applied to a heavy, lumbering dog, such as was much used by our fore- 

n8 British Dogs. 

fathers. If his footing upon British soil cannot be traced back so far as 
the setter's or, at least, as the setter has existed amongst us in some 
form or another still, he seems to have been bred in this country for the 
purpose for which he is now used, and for that alone. In France, 
America, Spain, and Portugal he is also used for sporting purposes. 

He has always, as far as I can ascertain, been considered in England a 
distinct breed of dog, cultivated for finding game by scent, and trained to 
" pointing " it when found- i.e.. to come to a standstill upon scenting it. 
So innate is this propensity to point in a well bred puppy of this breed 
that we frequently see him point the first time he is entered to game. 
This is regarded by some sportsmen as evidence of an original disposition 
to point peculiar to this breed, but all the information that I have 
obtained on this matter goes to show that it was first only the result of 
training, and now exists more as a communicated habit than anything 
else. It is advanced in favour of the pre-disposition theory that the 
setter has been bred, trained, and used for precisely the same purpose, 
yet he does not exhibit this quality spontaneous pointing in anything 
like the same degree. It is a fact that the pointer does, as a rule, take 
to pointing much earlier in his training, but the cause of this I must 
leave for others to decide. 

The pointer, however different in form to what he now is, and in spite 
of the many crosses to which he has been subjected, seems to have 
experienced very little change in his leading characteristics. The 
crossing him with other dogs, which at various times has been tried, has 
not eradicated the " stamp " peculiar to his breed; neither is it evident 
that the object sought by infusing into his veins blood foreign to him 
was so much to change his character as to introduce qualities that it was 
thought he might with advantage possess. By this I mean that it was 
not so much to produce, by crossing with other breeds, a dog to do the 
pointer's work, as to render him more suitable to the work which he was, 
through change of circumstances, required to perform. In most cases, I 
believe, first crosses have proved failures, whether with foxhound or 
other dog. The foreign blood thus imported had to be diluted (if I may 
use the expression) by crossing back again with the pointer, before even 
so good a dog as the pure pointer was produced. " Droppers ' ' for such 
is the name given to the produce of the first cross between pointer and 
setter are, in some few instances, fairly good ; but they are no improve- 

The Pointer. 119 

ment on the pointer or setter proper. The pointer of to-day is an animal 
that has been produced by the most careful exercise of knowledge gained 
by keen observation, assisted by extensive breeding and sporting expe- 
rience. He is now a dog specially adapted to his work. He has been 
rendered capable of doing it with the greatest amount of ease and effi- 
ciency. By careful selection he has been divested of all the lumber that 
was the cause of his distress in years gone by. His pace has been 
improved by a due regard to the formation of his chest ; it is now deeper 
and narrower than formerly. He is, as a consequence, capable of hunting 
a larger range of ground without becoming useless by excessive fatigue. 
The ease with which the present shape of his shoulders and chest allows 
him to sweep over his ground in graceful strides, and to preserve and 
exercise with advantage his gift of scent, is a pleasure to witness. 

There is no doubt that field trials and dog shows that have been held 
for the past fifteen years have greatly contributed towards the attain- 
ment of his present high state of excellence ; but, much as I admire the 
modern pointer, there is just one of his properties that I do not think 
has been improved, at least, by no means so much as have others I 
mean his olfactory powers. He does not appear to possess any greater 
or even so great a faculty of scenting game now as he did years ago. 
But I am fully aware that the great speed at which most pointers hunt 
the ground now, as compared with the old-fashioned dog of, say, twenty- 
five years ago, ought to be taken into account in considering this matter. 
It is more than probable that the slower a dog goes the greater are his 
facilities for taking into his nostrils the atoms of scent. Assuming this 
to be the case, the slow dog of the past had an advantage in " winding " 
game over the flyers of to-day. 

Be this as it may, the pointer now, to my thinking, does not " spot" out 
his game with the ease and certainty at the great distance he once did. 
For let an old slow dog trot round or across a field of ordinary size, and 
if he did not point, you might depend on it there was no game in it. His 
nose appeared to be good enough to allow him to go almost straight to 
his game without the laborious quartering of the ground, which is now so 
necessary, and without which much game would be left behind. 

I may be permitted to remark that many of my sporting friends who 
have used pointers all their lives are of my opinion upon the subject. 
My father, too, has used pointers and setters for nearly fifty years, and 

120 British Dogs. 

has, within the last few, trained some (and seen others at work) of my 
pointers by champions Eap, Pax, Chang, Macgregor, and Bang; and 
although he willingly admits their superior pace and style, yet he fails to 
detect any increased range of nose over that he has been accustomed to 
in good dogs he used very early in his sporting experience. 

There is no doubt whatever that the modern pointer, owing to his 
increased pace, and through being able to endure (by his better formation) 
more hard work with less fatigue, is of more service to the sportsman ; 
still there is room for improvement in him. What we want is to make 
him as much superior in nose as he is beyond his ancestors in pace. This 
as yet we have not accomplished. Of course increased pace allows of 
more ground being hunted in the same time, and this of itself is a great 
advantage ; and it is this alone, in my opinion, that gives the modern 
fast pointer the advantage over his slower rival. To illustrate what I 
mean I may say that I have often put down my field trial winner Eomp with 
good-nosed slow dogs (local celebrities, too), and owing to her terrific 
pace, she could always take and keep the outside beat ; consequently 
her chances of finding game were much increased, and she invariably beat 
them " hands down." But it was only her^>ace, not her nose, that gave 
her the advantage. The dags she could easily beat were her equals in 
nose. I have attended field trials for the last five years, and in no case 
have I seen any pointer exhibiting an increased range of nose over that I 
have seen in other good dogs. 

A fear has often been expressed that, by breeding for pace, the staunch- 
ness of the pointer would be detrimentally affected. I am pleased to say 
I do not find this to be the case. He is now, in this respect, all that a 
sportsman can wish for. 

As the pointer and setter are used for identically the same purpose, it 
may be expected that I should say something as to their relative merit. 
It is always an invidious task to draw comparisons, and in this case I 
think it especially so ; for each breed has a host of admirers, who are 
ready to swear by their favourite's superiority. 

As we are all too apt to be influenced in our opinion by our surround- 
ings, and by our likes and dislikes ; and, further, to generalise from a few 
instances that we may have had occasion to take knowledge of, I shall 
content myself by pointing out that sportsmen of great experience, both 
in the past and present, agree that the setter is the better adapted for 

The Pointer. 121 

hunting rough heather. His feet seemed to stand the work better. Ifc 
has also been said the setter can do more hard work ; but I think that, 
the fact of the old-fashioned pointer being so heavy in frame and build 
that he could not bear the strain of continued hunting, has produced an 
unmerited prejudice as to the powers of endurance of the breed. 

I possess pointers (and I do not for one moment suppose I am 
an exception) equal to any amount of work. The subject of the 
illustration, Special, I have hunted daily week after week, and never 
saw him either footsore or come to a trot. And the pointer, I am fully 
persuaded, is more readily trained to his duties than the setter. He 
seems to take more kindly to his work, and is generally kept up to his 
training with less trouble. I have seen pointers that have not been 
turned into a field for a year or two go and do their work in rare form, as 
if they had been in full training. I do not think the pointer is such a 
companionable dog as the setter. He is " all there " when at work, but 
afterwards the kennel seems his proper place. He does not acquire so 
much affectionate amiability of character from his association with man- 
kind as does the setter and other sporting dogs. Of course there are 
exceptions to every rule, and I know some few pointers that are remark- 
able for their attachment and sagacity. 

By old sportsmen, and in books, too, we have had some truly 
astonishing accounts given of intelligence displayed by them when at 
their legitimate work, and I feel bound to say that, after what I have 
seen, I am inclined to believe quite possible much that I thought wholly 
incredible. Had it not been for the high authority who stated the fact 
that a dog, when used by him with a puppy, would worry the puppy 
because he flushed game, I could not have credited it for one moment ; 
but, since this has appeared in print, a similar fact has been demonstrated 
before my eyes ; and more, the dog that would do this would also, when 
told, run after and bite the puppy that persisted in chasing game. 
I have also seen a pointer leave his " point " and go round the birds that 
were running from him, apparently to prevent them getting up " out of 
shot," and this without the least instruction. 

These facts serve to show what a high degree of sagacity it is possible 
to obtain in the pointer. I feel sure that it will be said by many of my 
readers, ' ' No matter what you say in favour of the pointer, he is of less 
service to the sportsman than he has ever been. ' ' As far as partridge 

122 British Dogs. 

shooting is concerned, I am compelled to admit that he is the victim of 
circumstances. The change made in the system of cultivation in Eng- 
land has been such that, from lack of cover to hide his game (which 
enabled him to get up to it), and not from degeneracy in himself, he has 
become of less service now than he was in the days of small enclosures 
and reaped stubbles. 

The stubbles, once the chief cover, are now cut by the machine so close 
that it is next to impossible for game to lie to a dog on them. This, 
with other changes in agriculture, militates strongly against the dog. 
He has now to work against very great difficulties, and difficulties which 
are not, I am sorry to say, likely to disappear. In spite of these disadvan- 
tages, I still maintain that a good pointer can be used during the first 
month of the season with pleasure and advantage. I have always used 
my dogs this season, whether I have been shooting alone or in company, 
and during the first three weeks, in a very rough country, over 100 brace 
were killed to them, and they did excellent service in finding wounded 

A friend to whom I lent my bitch Stella killed over her 100 brace 
to his own gun, and in the latter part of September he wrote me, 
' ' I find I can still have good sport with your dog. Stella is all that 
I can wish for as a pointer, and I never lose any wounded game with 
her ; she has rendered me excellent services. She does in her work all 
but talk to me." 

Now, even in Scotland, "setting" dogs are, after the first three 
weeks, of little service ; so that for partridge shooting (where it is not 
conducted in gangs) I consider that the pointer has still, through his 
usefulness, a heavy claim on our regard. 

Before I proceed to define the points considered necessary to make up 
a first-class prize winning pointer, I may just say that there can be no 
doubt whatever that the standard of points used to decide as to which 
is the best looking pointer is in some measure a fancy and an arbitrary 
one. It makes some points essentially necessary that are of no real 
practical value, because they have no direct or indirect bearing on the 
dog's utility. The possession of them does not render him any the more 
fitted to assist the sportsmen with the gun. , 

I do not demur to the points now adopted as tests of beauty, simply 
because we all have our ideas of what is beautiful, and the standard 

The Pointer. 123 

may represent the framer's views of it, but I only wish to point out 
that in matter of minutiae the standard of points used to decide which 
is the best looking pointer need not be applied to dogs bred for sporting 
purposes alone, for whether they possess these trifling points or not 
does not in any way affect their usefulness ; such, for instance, as that 
a pointer must have a deep stop between the eyes, and a well pro- 
nounced drop from skull to nose ; no loose skin on his throat, called 
" throatings " ; ears set on low, and lying flat to cheeks ; a nicely tapered 
stern, &c. That these are not absolutely necessary to render a pointer 
good at his work will be clearly understood by every sportsman, and in 
support of this statement I may add that many dogs remarkable for 
their excellence in the field do not possess them. That celebrated field 
trial winner Drake (sold at seven years old for 150 guineas to Mr. 
Price, of Bala), a marvel in his day, although possessing in a very 
marked degree the points of endurance, wear and tear qualities, cannot 
raise any claim to be considered good looking in a show-bench point 
of view. In general outline he is just the build that is looked for in a 
dog of whom a lot of hard work is required ; but on critical examina- 
tion that is, taking into consideration all the little etceteras which go 
to make up a show-bench winner, he is found very deficient. Only 
compare him with his kennel companion, the celebrated show-bench 
winner Wagg, and then the points which make Wagg so successful 
will be seen to be entirely absent in him. These are the points which I 
would be understood to call " fancy points." 

I know well that many good-looking dogs have won at field trials, but 
the fact that many more that are not good-looking have taken the most 
prominent position as field trial runners remains. Dogs that have, 
by their excellent qualities in the field, quite charmed me, have been 
most unlike what is considered a good-looking show-bred bench 

I know the object of the standard of points was to combine the useful 
and the beautiful, and that these have not been more successfully 
united in the pointer of to-day is no reflection on breeders. Pointers are 
now, there can be no question, far better looking than in former years, 
but that the best for field purposes are not always the best looking is 
a well-established fact. In the productions of nature, and of animal 
nature especially, great beauty and great usefulness are very rarely com- 

124 British Dogs. 

bined, and that pointers possessing both are the exception, not the rule, 
is quite certain. 

Our leading prize winners, under different, and even the same judges, 
so very frequently change places in the prize list, that it is almost 
impossible to select a dog as " the model " of what a pointer should be. 
In the midst of this strange conflict of opinion as to which is and which 
is not the ideal pointer, and in spite of the fickleness of individual judges, 
it must be admitted that many of the principal prize takers of to-day 
are dogs of striking symmetry, and such as possess all the essential 
qualities to make excellent sporting dogs, although their beauty may be 
of very different types. 

As far as can be gathered from decisions given, it now appears that 

The head should be long, and that from the corner of eye to end of 
nose should be as long as possible. There should be a well pronounced 
stop between the eyes, and a good drop from the skull to nose. The 
space under the eye, between the eye and nose, should be cleanly cut. 
This seems to give character to the face ; when this part is filled up it 
makes the head look what is called " gummy." The skull should not be 
too wide between the ears, nor too prominent from corner of set of ear 
to the eye. Dogs with wide skulls and full temples are very frequently 
extremely headstrong, and far too independent of their master's instruc- 
tions when at work. They do not acquire in intelligence by this increased 
size of skull so much as a selfish liking to do as they please when beyond 
immediate control a very troublesome fault. The lips should not hang 
down like the bloodhound's, nor yet taper up to nostrils so much as the 

The eyes should not be sunken like the hound's, nor yet " goggle-eyed," 
but should be full of animation and intelligence. A sullen, hard-looking 
eye is to be avoided ; it is frequently the indication of a headstrong, 
ungovernable animal, almost worthless in the field. 

The ears should be thin and silky, and of such a length as to reach just 
below the throat, that is, when hanging in the usual position. They 
should be set in below the square of the skull, and hang flat to the 

The neck should be long and muscular, springing out cleanly from 
the shoulders, and pinned to the skull in the same way. It should be 
slightly arched. 

The Pointer. 125 

The forelegs should be straight and strong, the arms muscular, the 
elbows well let down, and coming down well under the body, not out at 
elbow or pigeon-toed. The pastern should be short and well developed. 

The feet should be of proportionate size to the dog, and either round 
or cat-shaped, or pointed like that of the hare. I have seen dogs with 
both kinds stand any amount of work without going lame, therefore for 
use I think there is no difference ; but for show purposes the round foot, 
with well arched toes, looks the smartest. 

The shoulders should be long, thin, and sloping backwards ; great 
attention should be given to them, as a dog with a thick loaded, straight 
shoulder, will have a cramped, stilty, laboured gallop. 

The chest should be deep, and not wide, the ribs well sprung from 
backbone, and not shovelling at the brisket. 

The body should be long and powerful ; a weak, tucked up body is a 
great defect, indicating lack of constitution, and a dog without a good 
constitution is not capable of enduring consecutive hard work. The 
back ribs should be deep, and the last rib as near the hip bone as 
possible to get it. Much length from last rib to hip gives an appearance 
of a slack weak loin. 

The loin should be slightly arched, very wide, strong, and muscular. 
It is upon the hind legs and thighs that a dog chiefly depends for his 
propelling leverage. If they are weak and ill formed the dog is a poor 
" stayer." The thighs should be very long and muscular, well developed, 
with a prominent second thigh. The stifle fairly bent, and slightly in- 
clined outwards. The hocks large and strong, and coming straight with 
thigh, not in, or cow-hocked. The hip wide apart and well up, at least 
as high as the line of back, even when the dog is in good condition. The 
dogs with wide, ragged hip bones are generally dogs with speed and 

The tail should be short, but not shortened, fine at tip and strong at 
root. It should be set on just below the line of back, and not too low 
down to make the dog look " goose-rumped." It must not be curled 
over back like the hound's, nor yet drooping like the Clumber's. It 
should be carried in a lively manner just above the level of the back. 

Symmetry is, as far as I can define it, a perfect unity of proportion of 
all the points before enumerated, so as to present the beautiful outline 
that is so pleasing to the eye. A perfect adaptability of each part of the 

126 British Dogs. 

dog to the exercise of all his powers to the greatest advantage. For 
instance, some dogs possess several points in a very marked degree of 
excellence, and still, because other parts are deficient, their symmetry will 
be said to be at fault. Unless all parts are considered collectively, no 
estimate can be formed of symmetry ; and then it is very difficult to 
estimate correctly. 

Colour I do not consider should have any weight in a decision at all. 
A predominance of white has been thought to be best, because it assists 
the sportsman in detecting the whereabouts of his dogs in high covert ; 
but as to the colour of the markings on this white ground, why I attach 
no importance to it whatever, and in support of this opinion I may say 
we frequently see equally good pointers of different colours. A few 
years ago the lemon and white were the most fashionable, but for the 
past year or two the liver and white have been the most successful prize 
winners. For smartness of appearance in the show ring I consider liver 
or lemon and white the best colours. 

There is much that is quite essential in making up a first-class pointer 
that show-bench beauty however much it may be admired and valued 
does not vouch for the possession of ; consequently, a great deal besides the 
points of merit as given in my standard, whereby to judge of appearance, 
has to enter into the calculations of a successful breeder. For instance, 
a dog may comply with all the conditions there laid down to make him 
a successful show dog, and yet be a worthless brute for the purposes 
for which the pointer is bred ; and as these qualities, so necessary to 
make the dog useful, are transmitted from parents to offspring, it is 
only reasonable in breeding to exercise the same care to produce what is 
needed in the dog to make him suited for his work as is employed to 
obtain the beauty that now graces the pointer classes at our large 

As much difference exists between pointers in their working capacities 
as in their appearances, and sportsmen know well enough how to appre- 
ciate the qualities that make a dog a good performer in the field. Dogs 
that can successfully run through a big stake at field trials are con- 
sidered more valuable than those that are able to win many a champion 
cup on the show bench. And, having knowledge of this fact, I think it 
becomes me, in writing on this subject, to define that which is of such 
primary importance to those interested in the breed. 

The Pointer. 127 

First, it is of great importance that pointers should have a good nose to 
enable them to scent game at a distance, the further off the better, 
provided they have sufficient discrimination in using it to prevent them 
false-pointing. The necessity for this quality is so evident that I will not 
dilate further upon it, simply adding that this subject, nose versus brains, 
in setting dogs, is full of interest, and one that I should like to discuss 
with other breeders. 

Next to this is a natural love of hunting, without which no dog ever 
attains to any great perfection, and with it many dogs, weak in other 
points, become, by practice, tolerably useful dogs. Those that frequently 
require the words of encouragement, " hold up," are very troublesome to 
break, and when broken often turn out lazy or display a lack of energy 
that is painful to witness. From their nervousness and want of heart 
they are unable to use to advantage the other good qualities they may 

It is a nice, lively, high-spirited, kindly-dispositioned dog that is so 
much prized those with plenty of pluck, and yet not headstrong or 
reckless. Many dogs from their self-will, although possessing other 
admirable qualities, become very difficult to manage, and nothing but 
repeated and hard work will keep them under control. Such dogs are 
never wholly reliable, and this is especially felt when using them in braces . 
A good dog that is trying to do his best is tempted into doing wrong by 
the provocation he receives from his reckless companion. 

Many otherwise good dogs turn out useless because of their defective 
temper, and, therefore, I think it is an all-important matter to get a good- 
tempered dog, especially if he is to be trained for sporting purposes, for 
in his work he has so continually to hold in check his natural instincts 
that, unless he has a good temper, he is continually forgetting his previous 
training. As for myself, I have quite decided never again to undertake to 
train a dog that is thoroughly self-willed. It is, at best, a tiresome under- 
taking, and, as yet, I have never found it worth the trouble it entails. 
When a dog of this temperament gets beyond your immediate control, 
he is often getting into trouble by doing something that is sufficient to 
annoy you, or else the close attention necessary in working him destroys 
half the pleasure the sport should afford ; at least, such is my experience. 

Dogs with a jealous disposition are, I consider, very defective. They 
are difficult to deal with when using in braces, because they are not to be 

128 British Dogs. 

depended upon as "backers," and, when opportunity serves them, they 
will take away the other dog's point a most serious fault. This same 
failing makes them reckless in their range, and they have the stupid 
habit of folloiv the leader, instead of taking up an independent beat, 
and, often from sheer jealousy, commit faults (amongst others, that of 
" flushing"), not from want of nose, but from giving too much attention 
to what the other dog is doing, instead of minding their own work. 
What is most needed in a pointer to make him a good workman is a good 
nose, plenty of pace, a level sweeping stride, that will enable him to hunt 
a lot of ground without distressing himself, a natural love of hunting, 
making him anxious to find game, with sufficient perseverance to make 
him continue ranging, even where game is scarce ; a lively, kindly, 
temperament, with plenty of courage without being headstrong, not 
jealous of a companion, though ever ready to do his share of work, 
standing correction for a fault without getting sulky or refusing to work, 
neither sly, shy, nor wilful ; carrying his head well up, never stooping to 
ground scent ; having sufficient brains to make him clever at getting on 
to " point " by making the best use of the wind in quartering the ground. 
When a sportsman has succeeded in breeding or obtaining pointers 
possessed of the qualities I have enumerated, as necessary for success on 
the show-bench and in the field, if he takes my advice, he will be very 
chary in parting with them. 

The gentlemen that at present possess dogs nearest to my idea of the 
model pointer are Messrs. J. H.Whitehouse, Samuel Price, G. Pilkington, 
E. Lloyd Price, G. Moore, T. Statter, C. H. Mason, Heywood-Lonsdale, 
W. Arkwright, Barclay Field, R. P. Leeche, Viscount Downe, and Lord 

The brace illustrated, Special and Stella, combine in a marked degree 
those qualities I have attempted to describe, and which I consider are sine 
qua non in a first-class pointer. Stella has been decided by competent 
judges to be one of the best large pointer bitches in England, 
as evidenced by the fact that some five years ago she won the 
cup at the Crystal Palace, and then, after a rest of four years, 
was again shown and won first Palace, first Birmingham, and then 
took champion cup at Birmingham in 1878, which proves that for 
the last few years nothing has been produced that can relegate 
her to a "back seat." She is one of the very few Sancho bitches 

CJ "*l 
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2 I 

P S 

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The Pointer. 129 

still living, and it is to this blood much of the excellence of the 
pointers of 1879 is due. I may just mention the fact that very 
prominent indeed, the most prominent prize winners for years past 
have been direct descendants of Sancho, viz., champions Wagg, Don II., 
Pearl, Blanche, Macgregor, Cedric, Luna, Stella, &c., &c. What other 
dog can show such an illustrious family ? And it must be remembered 
that this dog died very young. His litter brother, Chang, too, was a 
champion in his day. Now, leaving the past, we then find that so strong 
is his blood that his daughter, Mr. Leeche's Belle, when put to Mr. 
Samuel Price's Bang, has in two litters produced a whole string of 
winners, sufficient to sweep the board for some time to come. One of 
the first litter, Bow Bells, has scarcely suffered a defeat. She has in 
three years taken the first prizes and champion at the leading Kennel 
Club shows. .200 has been offered for her. Her sister, Zeal, has also 
been successful here, and more so in America. If only shown in good 
condition she is almost beyond beating in any company. Again we find, 
in a strong class at the late Alexandra Palace Show, five bitches out of a 
later litter, sisters to Bow Bells and Zeal, are those left in for all the 
prizes given in this class, one of them afterwards taking the cup given 
by The Country as the best sporting puppy bred in 1878. These contain 
a large amount of Sancho blood, as their dam was by Sancho, and their 
sire, Mr. S. Price's Bang, was by Brockton's Bounce, the sire of Sancho. 
This is in-breeding, and probably accounts for the smallness of the 
pointers produced by the Belle and Bang cross. However, this is suffi- 
cient to establish beyond doubt the Sancho blood as of the very best. 
Besides these being good, show-bench dogs, they are equally good in 
the field ; indeed, Eapid, Eomp, Macgregor, Bow Bells, Zeal, and Wagg 
have all figured in field trial prize lists, so their achievements must be 
added to the successes of the same blood. It is a rare thing to find 
pointers of this strain that are not good at work, providing, of course, 
they have been properly handled. They are rather excitable, but when 
settled down to their work they are very reliable, and no day is too 
long and no work too hard for them. 

Special is a dog of great muscular development. He has only been 
exhibited seventeen times, and has won sixteen prizes. His pedigree is 
of the best, combining as it does the blood of the most noted field trial 
and show-bench winning strains existing in England at the present day. 



British Dogs. 

I have owned and worked many pointers, but none better than Eomp, 
Special, and Stella, above referred to. 

The engravings given are from sketches taken by that successful 
artist, Mr. Arthur Baker, and I am pleased to vouch for the faithfulness 
of the likenesses he has produced. 

The following measurements, very carefully taken, are of two cele- 
brated prize winners. It will be seen that there is very little difference 
between the two dogs. They are both magnificent animals. Wagg took 
the cup as best pointer in the show at Birmingham, and Don has once 
beaten Wagg under the same judge. 






Height at shoulder 24.J 

Length of body 31 

Length of head 9$ , 

Round skull 18i 

Round loin 23 25 

Roundthigh 16 16 

Round second thigh 9^ 9$ 

Round chest 29J 30 

Round forearm 8 7| 

From corner of eye to end of nose 3f 4 

Length of ears 6 6 

Distance between ears 6 6$ 

Top of shoulder to elbow 11? 113 



"Romp (owner) 

Romp (Brackenbury's) 
Champion Chang 

Champion Bell 
Bounce (Brockton's) 

Champion Pax 


Hamlet Sal 
Romp (Powis's) 

Bob (Price's) 
Mona (Whitehouse's) 

Measurements of some celebrated pointers : 

Mr. J. H. Salter's Chang II. : Age, about 5 years ; weight, 651b. ; 
height at shoulder, 24in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 36in. ; length 
of tail, ] 7f in. ; girth of chest, 30in. ; girth of loin, 24in. ; girth of head, 

The Pointer. 131 

17in. ; girth of forearm, 7fin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, 9f in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, llin. 

Mr. Geo. Pilkington's Fancy: Age, 4 years; weight, 481b.; height 
at shoulder, 22|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 37in. ; length 
of tail, 12in. ; girth of chest, 26iin. ; girth of loin, 20in. ; girth of 
head, 14in. ; girth of forearm, 6|in. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, 9in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 

Mr. Geo. Pilkington's Faust : Age, 4 years ; weight, 701b. ; height at 
shoulder, 25in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 39in. ; length of tail, 
14|in. ; girth of chest, 30|in. ; girth of loin, 22|in. ; girth of head, 
17|in. ; girth of forearm, 7fin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, 9jin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 10|in. 

Mr. Geo. Pilkington's Tory: Age, 5 years ; weight, 621b. ; height at 
shoulder, 25iin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 39in. ; length of 
tail, 14in. ; girth of chest, 30|in. ; girth of loin, 21in. ; girth of head, 
16fin. ; girth of forearm, 7in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, 9iin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, lO^in. 

Mr. Geo. Pilkington's Garnet : Age, 3 years ; weight, 581b. ; height at 
shoulder, 25fin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 39in. ; length of tail, 
14in. ; girth of chest, 29in. ; girth of loin, 21in. ; girth of head, 16in. ; 
girth of forearm, 7in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 9in. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, lOin. 

Mr. G. Thorpe-Bartram's Stella: Age, 6 years; weight, 581b. ; 
height at shoulder, 22|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 36in. ; 
length of tail, 15in. ; girth of chest, 30in. ; girth of loin, 22in. ; girth 
of head, 16Jin. ; girth of forearm, 7 fin. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, 9|in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 
9in. ; girth of neck midway between head and shoulders, 15fin. ; length 
from corner of eye to end of nose, 4in. ; length from elbow to top of 
shoulders, lliin. ; length of ear from top to set on at skull, 6in. 

The following are the property of Mr. E. J. LI. Price : 

Wagg : Age, 8 years ; weight, 701b. ; height at shoulder, 24in. ; length 
from nose to set on of tail, 44in. ; length of tail, 13in. ; girth of chest, 
30in. ; girth of loin, 23in. ; girth of head 17|in. ; girth of forearm, Sin. ; 
length of head from occiput to tip of nose, lOin. ; girth of muzzle midway 
between eyes and tip of nose, lOin. 

K 2 

132 British Dogs. 

Qrog : Age, 3 years ; weight, 601b. ; height at shoulder, 25in. ; length 
from nose to set on of tail, 38in. ; length of tail, 14in. ; girth of chest, 
28in. ; girth of loin, 22in. ; girth of head, 16^in. ; girth of forearm, Sin. ; 
length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 9fin. ; girth of muzzle 
midway between eyes and tip of nose, 9|in. 

Eos Cymru : Age, 4J years ; weight, 651b. ; height at shoulder, 25in. ; 
length from nose to set on of tail, 37in. ; length of tail, 14Jin. ; girth of 
chest, 29in. ; girth of loin, 23in. ; girth of head, I7|in. ; girth of fore- 
arm, lOin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, lOin. ; girth of 
muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 9in. 

Dandy Drake : Age, 2 years ; weight, 461b. ; height at shoulder, 
23in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 39in. ; length of tail, 12in. ; 
girth of chest, 27in. ; girth of loin, 17in. ; girth of head, 13in. ; girth 
of forearm, 9in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 9in. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 9in. 

Irrepressible : Age, 2 years ; weight, 581b. ; height at shoulder, 25in. ; 
length from nose to set on of tail, 36in. ; length of tail, 13in. ; girth 
of chest, 29in. ; girth of loin, 21|in. ; girth of head, I7in. ; girth of 
forearm, 9in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 9iin. ; girth 
of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, lOin. 

Belle : Age, 9 years ; weight, 561b. ; height at shoulder, 24in. ; length 
from nose to set on of tail, 38iin. ; length of tail, 14in. ; girth of chest, 
29in. ; girth of loin, 21in. ; girth of head, 13in. ; girth of forearm, 8in. ; 
length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 9in. ; girth of muzzle midway 
between eyes and tip of nose, 8in. 

Bow Bells : Age, 3 years ; weight, 521b. ; height at shoulder, 24iin. ; 
length from nose to set on of tail, 36in. ; length of tail, 13in. ; girth of 
chest, 27^in. ; girth of loin, 21in. ; girth of head, 18in. ; girth of forearm, 
9in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, lOin. ; girth of muzzle 
midway between eyes and tip of nose, S^in. 

Sixpence : Age, 4 years ; weight, 521b. ; height at shoulder, 22in. ; 
length from nose to set on of tail, 37in. ; length of tail, 12|in. ; girth of 
chest, 27in. ; girth of loin, 23iin. ; girth of head, 15in. ; girth of fore- 
arm, Sin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 9in. ; girth of 
muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, Sin. 

Ben : Age, 3 years ; weight, 421b. ; height at shoulder, 20|in. ; length 
from nose to set on of tail, 33in. ; length of tail, 13in. ; girth of chest, 

The Dropper. 133 

26in. ; girth of loin, 20in. ; girth of head, 15in. ; girth of forearm, 8in. ; 
length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 9in. ; girth of muzzle midway 
between eyes and tip of nose, 8iin. 

Jimo : Age, 2 years ; weight, 481b. ; height at shoulder, 23in. ; length 
from nose to set on of tail, 37in. ; length of tail, 13in. ; girth of chest, 
26in. ; girth of loin, 20in. ; girth of head, 13in. ; girth of forearm, Sin. ; 
length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 9in. ; girth of muzzle midway 
between eyes and tip of nose, Sin. 

Nimble Ninepence : Age, 6 years ; weight, 481b. ; height at shoulder, 
22^in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 35in. ; length of tail, 13in. ; 
girth of chest, 25in. ; girth of loin, 21in. ; girth of head, 13in. ; girth 
of forearm, Sin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 9in. ; girth 
of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 9in. 

Beau : Age, 6 years ; weight, 511b. ; height at shoulder, 23in. ; length 
from nose to set on of tail, 34in. ; length of tail, IS^in. ; girth of chest, 
27in. ; girth of loin, 20in. ; girth of head, 16in. ; girth of forearm, Sin. ; 
length of head from occiput to tip of nose, lOin. ; girth of muzzle mid way 
between eyes and tip of nose, 9in. 



THE cross between the setter and the pointer is so called, and often 
proves to be a hardy, useful dog, displaying the excellencies of both 
parents; but, although individual specimens turn out all that their 
owners wish, the cross is not a desirable one, resulting in the first 
generation in produce of the most varied types, nor can it be continued 
with advantages or any certainty. 

It has therefore followed that these are but seldom bred now, and they 
never find a place at any of our shows. 


Dogs used with the Gun in questing and retrieving 


Including : 

/. The Black Spaniel. 

2. The Cocker. 

j. The Clumber Spaniel. 

4. The Sussex Spaniel. 

5. The Norfolk Spaniel. 

6. The I rishWater Spaniel. 
j. English Water Spaniel. 

8. The Flat or Wavy- 

coated Retriever. 

9. The Curly-coated Re- 


10. The Norfolk Retriever. 
n. The Russian Retriever. 

In conformation of head this group agrees closely 
with the preceding one. The spaniels and retrievers, 
although not so closely allied as the setters and spaniels, 
are grouped together on the plan already explained. 
Youatt thus describes the head characteristics of the 
spaniel family : (( The head moderately elongated, the 
parietals not approaching from their insertion, but 
rather diverging, so as to enlarge the cerebral cavities 
and the frontal sinuses, consequently giving to these 
dogs greater power of scent and intelligence." 



THE spaniels, as we now understand the term, are a numerous family, 
which has by modern breeding become split up into many divisions, most 
of them pretty clearly defined, but, in some instances, more by arbitrary 

Spaniels. 135 

selection of the few for special honours from the great body of the family 
on account of one special property than from general excellence, as, for 
instance, the black field spaniels, for whom modern fashion reserves all 
bench honours to the exclusion of parti-coloured dogs. 

The wisdom of this I have always thought doubtful, and, indeed, 
rather more than doubtful, and, in my opinion, our present classification 
the classification adopted at our shows and the standard of excellence 
required in dogs to win ignores the important, and, indeed, absolutely essen- 
tial point of view to a sportsman, that of apparent working capacity. We 
have allowed the arbitrary and ornamental points to supersede the useful, 
and this is especially so in the rage for black spaniels to the exclusion of 
others in the class now known as " field spaniels." Even the name is 
not over-happily chosen ; for in the wood, the covert, the brake, or the 
hedgerow the land spaniel, as he was originally called, is still more at 
home than in the field, unless we use the term spaniel in the wider sense 
adopted by our fathers as applied to the setter, and even the pointer, 
which was frequently known as the smooth spaniel. 

That covert hunting has, however, for many generations, ever since 
the introduction of fowling pieces, been the spaniel's great forte, there can 
be no denying, useful as he often proves at different work. The poet 
Somerville writes on this topic in terms as emphatic as they are stirring 
to the soul of a sportsman : 

But if the shady woods my cares employ 
In quest of feathered game, my spaniels beat, 
Puzzling the entangled copse ; and from the brake 
Push forth the whirring pheasant; high in air 
He waves his varied plumes, stretching away 
With hasty wing. Soon from th' uplifted tube 
The mimic thunder bursts, the leaden death 
O'ertakes him ; and with many a giddy whirl 
To earth he falls, and at my feet expires. 

With this in view we have to consider whether the modern spaniel, as 
encouraged by and bred for dog shows, is an improvement or otherwise, and 
whether the plan followed by those who have the management of such 
shows has not done a direct injury to the breeding of a very large, wide- 
spread, and most useful class of dog, simply because they do not accord 
with the distinctions of colour and other minor points arbitrarily set up. 

First, let us briefly glance at the history of the spaniel, or rather at a 
few of the very meagre notices of him which we get at wide intervals. I 

136 British Dogs. 

believe the first notice of the spaniel by that name in English occurs in 
" The Maister of Game," by Edmund de Langley. He says, " the houndes 
for the hawke cometh out of Spayn," and describes him as white and 
tawny, with large head and body, not too rough in coat and with a 
feathered tail ; he further describes their general character and action, 
and their use in the netting of partridge, &c., and also refers to their use 
in the pursuit and capture of waterfowl. 

The spaniel also occurs in the list of breeds of dogs given by the 
Sopewell Prioress in the " Book of St. Albin," published 1486, but she 
gives no description of it. A century later Dr. Johannes Caius, in his 
book, "English Dogges," says of spaniels, there are two sorts, one 
"that findeth game on land," and one "that findeth game on the 
water," and the same distinction is observed by all later writers up 
to the present century. 

Nicholas Cox, in " The Gentleman's Recreation," published 1677, 
copying Markham, I believe, describes the land spaniel as " of a good 
and nimble size, rather small than gross, and of a courageous mettle ; 
which, though you cannot discern being young, yet you may very well 
know from a right breed which have been known to be strong, lusty, 
and nimble rangers, of active feet, wanton tails, and busy nostrils, whose 
tail was without weariness, their search without changeableness, and 
whom no delight did transport beyond fear or obedience." 

Spaniels were in olden times also known by the name of the game 
they were kept to, as " a dog for the partridge," " a dog for the duck,' ' 
" a dog for the pheasant," as in our own day we still have the cocker, or 
dog for the woodcock; but at what date the term "springer" or 
" springing spaniel " was introduced I do not know, but presume it must 
have been when the qualities of the setter or " setting spaniel " became 
fully developed and permanently fixed by breeding setters -from known 
setting spaniels only, and keeping the breed of questing spaniels 
distinct ; the term springer was probably given to them on account of 
their natural disposition to rush in and flush or spring their game. 

In the "Sportsman's Cabinet," 1802-3, spaniels are treated by "A 
Veteran Sportsman ' ' under three divisions the springing spaniel ; the 
cocker spaniel, in which latter class he includes the Duke of Marl- 
borough's Blenheims, now only recognised as toys ; and water spaniels. 
The springers are described as differing but little from the setter of that 


day, except in size, being about two-fifths less ; the engravings given in 
illustration from drawings by Renaigle do not, however, bear this state- 
ment out, the setter's muzzle being truncated and the flews deep, as though 
crossed with the Spanish pointer ; while the springer, although shown 
with open mouth, is evidently comparatively pointed in muzzle, and also 
shorter in the back, and, indeed, very much more like the compara- 
tively leggy but compact, active, merry-looking dogs still seen in numbers 
throughout the country, and turning up in plenty at some West of Eng- 
land shows, than the very long-backed and excessively long heads and 
muzzles of the black field spaniel of the show-bench . 

I do not wish to be understood as objecting to the black spaniel : his 
beauty is undeniable, and the colour is no innovation, black having 
always been recognised ; and black and tan is also mentioned by old 
writers, but I say that in length of body and stamp of head they are a 
departure from the old type, and for working qualities a depar- 
ture in a wrong direction. If we take our present illustration of Mr. 
Holmes' Flirt, it must be admitted she does not look like a dog suited 
for a day's hard work in a rough country, although she may do to potter 
about the outside of a hedge, or put up a rabbit in turnips, and Flirt 
is a good representative of the most fashionable and winning strain, 
and shown with great truthfulness by Mr. Wood, the artist, in our 

What we want is a dog, more compact, with shorter and stronger 
muscles coupling the back ribs and hind quarters ; and if the present 
fashion is to be maintained the prejudice in favour of black colour, long 
backs, and setter-like heads I plead for two classes at all shows, if their 
purpose is to improve the various breeds of dogs for sporting purposes. 
One class for other than self-coloured dogs, representing the old springer 
most generally diffused throughout the country, and weighing over, say, 
251b., and a corresponding class for cockers weighing from 181b. to 251b., 
and I think it would not be difficult for sportsmen to agree as to a stan- 
dard of points by which they should be judged. 

The spaniel is not only the oldest breed we have that has been kept to 
the hunting of fur and feather, as a help to hawking, netting, and the 
gun, but he is still the most generally useful of our game dogs, as he is 
the most universal favourite ; in field or covert no dog works so close as 
a well-bred and well-broken spaniel ; neither fur nor feather can escape 

138 British Dogs. 

him ; no hedgerow is too thick, no brake too dense for him to penetrate 
and force out to view of the sportsman the reluctant game ; he is a most 
active, ardent, and merry worker; his "wanton tail," ever in motion 
while he quests, increases in rapidity of action with that tremulous 
whimper that tells so truly that he is near his game, and says to his 
master, in tones that never deceive, " Be ready ; it is here." 

The spaniel is no less a favourite as a companion and house dog, for 
which his watchfulness, sagacity, and fidelity, equally with his gentleness 
of manners and handsome appearance, eminently fit him. 

The present classification of spaniels, according to the Kennel Club 
Stud Book, is, field spaniels in which, as already observed, blacks almost 
invariably usurp the whole of the prizes Clumber spaniels, Sussex 
spaniels, Irish water spaniels, and water spaniels other than Irish, and the 
now purely toy varieties, Blenheim and King Charles spaniels. Having 
referred to the older style of spaniel, the parti-coloured specimens of 
which (and these are in a large majority of the whole) are practically 
excluded from bench-show honours, I shall proceed with a description of 
the several varieties named, beginning with the modern favourite. 



THESE dogs have achieved great prominence since the establishment 
of dog shows, the principal breeders and exhibitors of them having been 
the late Mr. Burdett, of Birmingham ; the late Mr. Jones, of Oscott, 
near Birmingham ; Mr. Phineas Bullock, of Bilston, Staffordshire ; and 
Dr. Boulton, of Beverley, in Yorkshire ; and the strains of these 
several gentlemen's kennels are now in the hands of a considerable 
number of exhibitors and others throughout the country. The general 
appearance is that of a long, low set dog, legginess being looked on 
as a great fault ; the general contour, enhanced by the bright glossy jet 
black coat, is very pleasing. To take the points seriatim : 

H ^ 

The Black Spaniel. 139 

The head is long, both in skull and muzzle ; the latter must not be 
pointed, but rather deep than square, the skull standing up well above 
the ears, the forehead fairly shown, and the occiput well developed. 

The ears are set on low as above inferred lobe-shaped, long, and well 
feathered, with straight and silky hair. 

The eye is dark in colour, pretty full, but not prominent or watery, as 
in the toy varieties. 

The neck is long, pretty muscular when examined ; covered thickly with 
longish hair. 

The whole barrel is rather long, with a tendency to too much space 
between back ribs and hind quarters, which is a fault. The chest should 
be deep, ribs moderately sprung, the back ones well let down, the back 
well clothed with muscle. 

The shoulders should be moderately sloped and well clothed with 
muscle ; fore legs straight, hind legs strong in stifle and moderately 
bent; they must be strong of bone. The feet should be moderately 
round, and the sole thick and hard ; but the show specimens have so 
much feathering that it gives them the appearance of having a long flat 
foot. The knuckles are not much sprung, and the whole foot should be 
a good size. 

The tail, which is invariably docked, should be well feathered, and not 
carried higher than on a level with the back. 

The coat should be a jet glossy black, free from rustiness and from 
white, although a few white hairs on the chest are no detriment ; in tex- 
ture the coat is soft and silky, of good length, and free from curl, 
longest on the breast, tail, ears, and legs, which are all well feathered. 

The subject of our engraving is Flirt, the property of Mr. James 
Holmes, of Wellington, Salop, and was bred by Mr. P. Bullock. Flirt is 
a pure black, under 221b. weight, and a winner at the Crystal Palace, 
Manchester, Hull, Nottingham, and many other shows. She is by the 
Hon. W. Arbuthnott's Nick (K.C.S.B., 2152) out of Chloe (K.C.S.B., 
2187) ; Nick was bred by Mr. Bullock, but no pedigree of him is given ; 
Chloe was by Bob out of Nellie (these two being brother and sister) , by 
Young Bebb out of Flirt, by Jones's Bob out of his Nellie, by his Bob 
out of his Chloe ; Bob by Burdett's Bob out of Jones's Floe ; Bebb by 
Old Bebb, from Lord Derby's kennels, out of Nancy, by Lloyd's Charley 
out of Baggot's Lady. 

140 British Dogs. 

The following measurements have been furnished by the respective 
owners : 

Mr. A. H. Easten's black spaniel Brush : Age, 2 years ; weight, 401b. ; 
height at shoulder, 15in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 38in. ; 
length of tail, Sin. ; girth of chest, 26in. ; girth of loin, 24jm. ; girth of 
head, 16in. ; girth of forearm, 7in. ; length of head from occiput to tip 
of nose, 9iin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 9in. 

Mr. A. H. Easten's black spaniel Bona : Age, 2J years ; weight 321b. ; 
height at shoulder, 15in.; length from nose to set on of tail, 35in.; length 
of tail, 4in. ; girth of chest, 24|in. ; girth of loin, 22in. ; girth of head, 
14in. ; girth of forearm, 6|in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, Sin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7Jin. 

Mr. J. W. Dennison's black spaniel Beverlac : Age, 3f years ; weight, 
541b. ; height at shoulder, 15in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 
41in. ; length of tail, Gin. ; girth of chest, 27in. ; girth of loin, 25in. ; 
girth of head, 18in. ; girth of forearm, Sin. ; length of head from occiput 
to tip of nose, 9|in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, 9|in. 

Mr. William Avery's field spaniel Black Douglas: Age, 17 months; 
weight, 441b. ; height at shoulder, 1ft. 3|in. ; length from nose to set on 
of tail, 3ft. 2in. ; length of tail, 5fin. ; girth of chest, 2ft. l^in. ; girth 
of loin, 1ft. 9iin. ; girth of head, 1ft. 5in. ; girth of forearm, 6in. ; 
length of head from occiput to tip of nose, lOin. ; girth of muzzle midway 
between eyes and tip of nose, 9 Jin. 


SMALL sized spaniels, weighing from 201b. or even less to 241b., and of 
all colours liver, black, white with liver or black, and in these flecked 
or mottled on face, legs, &c. are still pretty numerous throughout the 
country, and many of them are as good as they are handsome, but at dog 

The Cocker Spaniel. 141 

shows they are the exception, as they have been neglected for the larger 

As one of the most beautiful, intelligent, and clever dogs, most useful 
bustling, and merry in covert or hedgerow, they should receive more 
encouragement indeed, when we consider the wide field of usefulness 
the spaniel fills, and the great number of very distinct varieties into 
which the family is subdivided, it is not too much to ask for still more 
classes for them at our shows. 

I think we should have classes for liver-coloured cockers to include 
the Welsh and Devon varieties, and also one for those of mixed colours, 
the maximum weight for each class to be 241b., and I would take the 
points of the black spaniel with the following difference. 

The nose is not so square at the end, i.e., very slightly tapered. The 
ears are smaller, lobe shaped, and well fringed. The length of back is 
decidedly less in proportion to height at the shoulder than in the modern 
field spaniel. The coat is soft, silky, abundant, not quite flat, but 
showing a slight wavyness, not curly. 

Weight, measurement, &c., of cocker spaniels : 

Mr. John Kirby Pain's Nell : Age, 2 years ; weight, 231b. ; height at 
shoulder, 9in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 30in. ; length of tail, 
13in. ; girth of chest, 23in. ; girth of loin, 18in. ; girth of head, 14in. ; 
girth of forearm, Sin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 8|in. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 4in. bare ; colour, 
liver mottled. 

Mr. John Kirby Pain's Flo : Age, 2 years ; weight, 231b. ; height at 
shoulder, lOin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 29in ; length of tail, 
13in. ; girth of chest, 22in. ; girth of loin, 18in. ; girth of head, 14^in. ; 
girth of forearm, 5in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, Sin. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 3in. full ; colour, 
liver mottled. 

142 British Dogs. 


THE Clumber is unquestionably the aristocrat of the spaniel family, in 
comparison to whom his modern black brother of the benches is a mere 
parvenu, and the Irish water spaniel as an unkempt kerne to a 
polished gentleman. The grave and somewhat weird Sussex cannot 
compare with him in dignity of demeanour, and the busy little cocker, 
with his fussy usefulness, neat and taking though he be, is commonplace in 
comparison with the Clumber, whose manners, solemn, slow, and almost 
dull, are yet stamped with that repose which the least imaginative may 
easily conceive rests on the proud consciousness of his long descent. 

How the variety of spaniel under consideration came into being I have 
failed to discover. That the present characteristics he presents have for 
several generations of men been preserved by in-and-in breeding appears 
pretty certain, and for long the breed was confined to the Newcastle 
family, from one of whose seats they take their name. 

But how a dog differing so considerably from other spaniels first 
originated is a puzzle to me which I would like solved. His long barrel, 
short legs, general heavy and inactive appearance, differ widely from the 
sprightly cocker and ordinary springer ; and then, again, his big heavy 
head, large truncated muzzle, deep eyes, sometimes showing the haw, 
suggest a cross with a short-legged hound, which the fact of his being 
mute in questing seems to contradict. But, as I must have a theory of 
his origin, I content myself with imagining that the introduction of 
French bassets to the Clumber kennels may have produced the form and 
stamped him with many of the peculiar features which distinguish him 
from other breeds of spaniels. 

The Clumber, if pure bred, invariably hunts mute ; they have 
excellent noses ; from their low build, great strength, thick flat coats, 
and close lying ears they are extremely well fitted to force their way 
through and under the thickest tangles of briar, whin, or bramble, but it 
is not now in 

Thridding the sombre boskage of the wood 

S : 



The Clumber Spaniel. 143 

that lie is mostly used, but in the battue, where his silence, docility, and 
excellent retrieving qualities make him valuable ; he is easily broken to 
retrieve, and works steadily and with a plodding and untiring patience ; 
many of them prove excellent water dogs, although that is not their 
forte, and, well entered, they prove equally useful and steady on snipe, 
pheasants, or rabbits ; in packs they work splendidly together, showing 
less jealousy and disposition to copy than many breeds, and to the single- 
dog sportsman the Clumber proves a useful, reliable, and, although a 
rather sedate one, an intelligent and pleasing companion. 

This breed has been guarded with great jealousy by several of the 
noble families in whose kennels it has long held a place ; of these, first 
on the list are the Dukes of Newcastle, Norfolk, Portland, and Earl 

Mr. Foljambe's name is intimately associated with our best specimens. 
Mr. E. S. Holford, in the earlier days of dog shows, exhibited some very 
grand specimens ; and Mr. W. Arkwright, of Sutton Scarsdale, is an 
enthusiastic admirer of the breed and a successful exhibitor and breeder ; 
and among the more celebrated Clumbers exhibited of late years we 
may include his Lapis (the subject of our engraving), Mr. Phineas 
Bullock's celebrated Old Nabob, Mr. James Fletcher's Beau, and Mr. 
T. B. Bowers' Belgrave. 

A correspondent who has lately visited the Welbeck Kennels, celebrated 
for their ancient and stainless pedigree, writes me he saw about a 
score specimens, everyone fit to grace a show ring. 

The general appearance of the Clumber is that of a long, low, heavy dog, 
somewhat slow and dull-looking. 

The head is large, long in skull, with the muzzle broad and cut off 

The eyes are large, often rather deeply set, with a quiet thoughtful 

The nose is liver or flesh coloured. 

The ears are large, lying close to the cheek, free from curl, but covered 
with short close hair, with rather longer hair at the edges. 

The neck is long, thick, and muscular. 

The shoulders are very thick through, and giving a heavy appearance. 
The chest and body are deep and round, the ribs well sprung, wide 
apart, and extending well back, the back ribs deep. 

144 British Dogs. 

The back is very long, straight, and both it and the loins are strong. 

The hind-quarters are not much bent in stifle, the fore legs are straight 
with immense bone, the fore arm very thick and strong, the feet large, 
rather flat, and these and the legs are well feathered. 

The tail is generally docked, but not very short, feathered, and with 
a downward carriage. 

The coat is thick, flat, and soft a curly coat is objectionable ; the 
colour is white and lemon, which should be nicely distributed, the lemon 
should come down the head to below the eyes, and be divided by a line or 
narrow blaze of white up the forehead. 

The subject of our engraving is Mr. W. Arkwright's Lapis, winner at 
the Crystal Palace Show, 1877 ; he is a three-year-old dog, by the Duke 
of Portland's Bob out of Mr. Arkwright's Floss, by the celebrated Duke 
out of Arkwright's Kose. 

The following shows the weight and measurements of Lapis and 
other good specimens. Lapis is higher at the shoulder than many. 

Mr. W. Arkwright's Lapis : weight, 621b. ; height at shoulder, 18in. ; 
length from tip of nose to set on of stern, 42in. ; length from occiput to 
between eyes, Gin. ; thence to tip of nose, 4fin. ; length of tail, 6|in. ; 
girth behind shoulders, 29in. ; girth of head, 18|in. ; girth of forearm, 
Sin. ; girth of loin, 25in. 

Mr. W. Arkwright's Busy : Height at shoulder, 16in. ; length from 
nose to set on of tail, 45in. ; length of tail, 7in. ; girth of chest, 26in. ; 
girth of loin, 25in. ; girth of head, 171in. ; girth of overarm, 7|in. ; 
length of head from occiput to between eyes, 5fin. ; length from eyes 
to nose end, 3in. 

Mr. W. Arkwright's Looby : Length from nose to set on of tail, 39in. ; 
length of tail, Gin. ; girth of chest, 23iin. ; girth of loin, 22in. ; girth 
of overarm, 7fin. ; length of head from occiput to between eyes, Gin. ; 
length from eyea to nose end, 4|in. 

The Sussex Spaniel. 145 



IN introducing " Castra " to our readers it will be sufficient to say he 
is a gentleman who has taken an enthusiastic interest in, and done much 
to save the true Sussex spaniel from annihilation by absorption into more 
modern strains. Not only has he been a successful breeder and exhibitor, 
but nearly all the winning dogs of this strain at the present day are from 
or bred direct from, his kennels. 

" Castra" says : 

" This variety of spaniel is one of the oldest known breeds of English 
sporting dogs, and is probably the one from which the setter has been 
produced by the simple process of selection ; such appears to be the 
opinion of 'Idstone,' and such was the opinion of the king of setter 
breeders I refer, of course, to the late Mr. Laverack who went so far 
as to admit that in breeding the animals for which he became so justly 
famous, he always aimed at producing an enlarged spaniel ; and main- 
tained that the formation of a pure Sussex spaniel was perfection for the 
purposes of endurance. 

"My theme has been so well and so exhaustively treated by modern 
writers, and their writings are so fresh to my memory, that it will be 
preferable, for my purpose to quote certain passages from Youatt, 
' Stonehenge,' and ' Idstone ' verbatim, rather than permit their ideas 
adopted by the writer to appear secondhand. 

" It is generally agreed that the spaniel is of Spanish origin, and thence 
its name. Youatt declares ' he is evidently the parent of the Newfound- 
land dog and the setter ; while the retriever, the poodle, the Bernardine, 
the Esquimaux, the Siberian, and the Greenland dogs, the shepherd and 
drover's dog, and every variety distinguished for intelligence and 
fidelity, have more or less of his blood in them.' 

" ' Stonehenge ' says ' The Sussex is a distinct and a very old- 
established breed. He divides the honours of old family with the 
Clumber, and he always has been and always will be in demand ; ' 
whilst ' Idstone ' writes in 1872 thus : ' The Sussex is nearly if not 
quite extinct, and I have not seen a first-class one for some years. 


146 British Dogs. 

These dogs were as silent as Clumbers, but as a rule they would fling 
their tongue under strong excitement, and especially on view, unless they 
were broken to drop to game. Good spaniels may be obtained of any 
colour, but the true Sussex is golden liver. The dog has never been 
produced in great numbers, nor has he ever been common. He has been 
in the hands of a few families, and the late Mr. Fuller, of Eosehill, 
was celebrated as a breeder, and for the breaking and discipline of his 

" ' For the patient, genuine sportsman there is no better dog than the 
short-legged, thick-set, long, and low spaniel, which ought to down 
charge, to retrieve, and to swim well and cheerfully. 

" ' The Sussex possesses all these accomplishments, and is a capital 
dog to go through thick covert or woodlands, being able, from his 
formation, to burrow under gorse or tangle, and to rouse fur or feather 
in situations inaccessible to his master. 

" ' For this purpose he should have a thick, straight, but not a 
voluminous coat, such as shall protect but not impede him, and ears of 
moderate size, or what a judge of exhibition spaniels would declare 
small. A dog with heavily-coated ears, and with leather sufficient to 
cover one-half of a football, may be ornamental to the benches of a dog 
show, but he is useless as a sporting dog.' 

"From one cause and another Sussex spaniels had become well nigh 
extinct about the year 1870, when a few gentlemen undertook the task 
of resuscitation with this result, that the breed has now classes at all 
our chief exhibitions, where there is generally to be seen a very fair 
sprinkling of the old sort, although, I regret to say, that the spurious 
article is still supplied in considerable numbers. 

" In general appearance the Sussex spaniel should be long and low, and 
of a deep golden liver colour not mealy nor yet puce but the shades 
of the liver in a strong light should appear golden. 

"The head should resemble that of a good Clumber; it should not 
appear long. 

" The ears should be lobe shaped, and thickly clothed with straight silky 
hair ; and should spring in front from a point above the level of the eyes. 

"The nostrils should be very large, and the lower jaw should recede 
considerably; the flews should be so large as to be capable of being 
drawn together underneath the extremity of the lower jaw. 

The Sussex Spaniel. 147 

" The eyes should be of a dark hazel colour, and should be overhung by 
the eyebrows. The expression should be extremely intelligent, and 
entirely free from any indication of frivolity. Mr. William Lort says 
that the true Sussex has a weird look, and that even when young it is a 
steady, sober sort of dog. 

"The neck must be thick, and not too long, with a slightly arched crest. 

"The body must be long, deep, and very strong ; the shoulders oblique, 
and the loin just sufficiently arched to give an indication of power. 

"The legs must exhibit immense bone; they should be short and 
straight in front, whilst those behind should be very much bent at the 
stifles and the hocks, in order to give the requisite propelling power to a 
heavy, low dog. 

" The feet must be large, round in shape, and sufficiently furnished 
between the toes with short, thick hair, which is necessary for the pro- 
tection of the feet when at work. 

" The tail which indicates the purity of a spaniel sooner than anything 
should be docked to a length of about 9in., and should be carried 
below the level of the back, except under very strong excitement, such 
as that caused by a quarrelsome dog. 

" The coat must be perfectly straight, of ahardish texture, and very 
thick ; the feather must not be too abundant anywhere, nor must it 
extend below the knees in front or the hocks behind. 

" The weight should be from 331b. to 401b. " 

Measurements of some good Sussex spaniels : 

Mr. George Parsons' s Mouse : Age, 3 years; weight, 26lb. ; height 
at shoulder, 12iin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 33|in. ; length 
of tail, Gin. ; girth of chest, 23in. ; girth of loin, 19jin. ; girth of head, 
14in. ; girth of forearm, Gain. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
S^in.; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, Sin. ; from 
elbow to toe nail, 7in. ; from elbow to ground when standing, Gin. ; ears 
tip to tip, 19in. ; sex, bitch. 

Mr. George Parsons's Noble : Age, about 2 years; weight, 451b.; height 
at shoulder, IGin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 40in. ; length of 
tail, Sin. ; girth of chest, 26in. ; girth of loin, 19in. ; girth of head, 20in. ; 
girth of forearm, 9in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 10|in. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 9in. ; elbow to toe, 
lOin. ; elbow to ground, 9in. ; ears tip to tip, 23in. 

L 2 

148 British Dogs. 

Mr. George Parson's Puzzle : Age, 1 year ; weight, 261b. ; height 
at shoulder, 13in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 34in. ; length of 
tail, 6in. ; girth of chest, 22in. ; girth of loin, 18in. ; girth of head, 
14|in. ; girth of forearm, Sin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, S^in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, Sin. ; 
elbow to toe, 7fin. ; elbow to ground, 6fin. ; ears tip to tip, 19in. 

Mr. T. Jacobs' champion Bachelor (K.C.S.B., 6287) : Age, 3| years ; 
weight, 461b. ; height at shoulder, 15in. ; length from nose to set on of 
tail, 32in. ; length of tail, 6in. ; girth of chest, 25in. ; girth of loin, 23in. ; 
girth of head, 17in. ; girth of forearm, 7in. ; length of head from occiput 
to tip of nose, 9iin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, 9|in.; length of front leg from elbow to toe nail, 9in.; when standing, 
from elbow to ground, 7fin. ; length of ears from tip to tip, 22in. 

Mr. F. C. Barton's bitch Countess : Age, 10 months ; weight, 401b. ; 
height at shoulder, 13in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 31in. ; length 
of tail, 5in. ; girth of chest, 24in. ; girth of loin, 22in. ; girth of head, 
15|in. ; girth of forearm, Sin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, 8Jin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 9in. ; 
length of ears from tip to tip, 17in. ; golden liver colour. 



THE Norfolk belongs to the springer branch of the family, and is rather 
a leggy dog, of an average weight of about 401b., and generally liver and 
white in colour. 

This variety is stated to have been produced by a cross with a black 
and tan terrier, and was often so marked, and was bred and kept by a 
late Duke of Norfolk. 

The specimens I have seen at Eastern Counties shows, and represented 
to be pure Norfolk, were free from tan markings. 

They are stated to be very staunch dogs, and, from their height and 
strength, useful in high turnips and other cover, in beating which a 
smaller and weaker dog would be lost sight of and soon tire. 


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The Irish Water Spaniel. 149 

Except that they are considerably higher on the leg, the ears long and 
lobular, deeply fringed with soft hair, the description of the modern 
spaniel applies to them also. 


To a sportsman of limited means, or one who has not accommodation to keep 
a team, the Irish water spaniel is the most useful dog he can have, inas- 
much as he can be made to perform the duties of pointer, setter, retriever, 
and spaniel ; but, as his name implies, he is peculiarly fitted by tempera- 
ment and by a water -resisting coat for the arduous duties required by a 
sportsman whose proclivities lie in the direction of wild fowl shooting . 
In this branch of sporting they have no -equal, being able to stand any 
amount of hardship ; this, combined with an indomitable spirit, leads 
them into deeds of daring from which many dogs would shrink. Many 
are the feats recorded of their pluck, sagacity, and intelligence. To a 
well bred and trained specimen no sea is too rough, no pier too high, and 
no water too cold even if they have to break the ice at every step they 
are not damped, and day after day they will follow it up, being of the 
" cut-and-come-again " sort. As a companion for a lady or gentleman 
they have no equal, whilst a well behaved dog of the breed is worth a 
whole mint of toys to the children, he allowing the little ones to pull him 
about by the ears, to roll over and over with them, to fetch their balls 
as often as thrown for him, and to act as their guard in times of 

When I first commenced to keep Irish water spaniels, many years ago, 
there were three strains, or rather varieties one was known as the 
Tweed spaniel, having its origin in the neighbourhood of the river of 
that name. They were very light liver colour, so close in curl as to give 
me the idea that they had originally been a cross from a smooth-haired 
dog ; they were long in tail, ears heavy in flesh and hard like a hound's, 
but only slightly feathered fore legs feathered behind, hind legs smooth , 
head conical, lips more pendulous than McCarthy's strain. The one I 

150 British Dogs. 

owned, which was considered to be one of the best of them, I bred from 
twice, and in each litter several of the puppies were liver and tan, being- 
tanned from the knees downward and under the tail. I came to the 
conclusion that she, at any rate, had been crossed with the bloodhound. 
In Ireland, too, there exists two totally distinct varieties, which are 
now known as the North and the M'Carthy strains ; the former are in 
appearance like a third-rate specimen of their southern relation, but are 
generally much smaller, have less feathering on legs, ears, and head, 
often a feathered tail, and oftener still are inclined to be crooked on their 
fore legs. The McCarthy strain are a very much more aristocratic 
looking animal than either of the afore-mentioned, and are 
now found in greater perfection on this side the Channel than 
on their native soil. Capt. E. Montresor, Eev. A. L. Willett, 
Mr. Eobson, and the writer are the oldest English breeders, and 
in later years Mr. Lindoe and Eev. W. J. Mellor went into the 
breed for a short time, and Mr. Engelbach and Lieut.-Col. Verner 
should also be classed amongst the older breeders. Both from Mr. 
Engelbach and the late Sir Wm. Verner I have derived benefit from 
crossing with their strains, also from that of Mr. W. S. Tollemache's, who 
for a period of over thirty years kept the breed in its purity, and although 
he never exhibited them he has owned some of the finest dogs of the breed 
it has ever been my lot to look upon. Mr. Morton, of Ballymena, 
Ireland, has for a long time been foremost in this breed in his own 
country, and the most formidable opponent I have had to meet at our 
shows. We have rung the changes repeatedly in crossing to our mutual 

It has been argued that the Irish water spaniel is too impetuous and 
hard-mouthed to be worth much as a field dog. To this I must say that 
the dogs which have caused this remark to be applied to the whole breed 
have either been cross bred animals, or else have had a defective 
education. With true bred dogs the reverse is the case, they being 
tender-mouthed enough to please the most fastidious, and if they are 
taken in hand young enough and trained properly, the libel will die 
out. When Blarney (now Mr. P. J. D. Lin doe's, if not dead) was a 
puppy, I had her and her brother Fudge (who died of distemper) , and I 
trained them to retrieve by means of a tame pigeon, which from some 
cause or other could only fly a short distance. I used to put it in my 

The Irish Water Spaniel. 151 

pocket when I took the puppies out for a run, and for a period of at least 
three months they each retrieved it some dozen times nearly every day, 
without injuring the pigeon in the least. I have seen one of them (the 
dog I think) so afraid of harming it as to take hold of it by the wing and 
fairly lead it to me. Can any other breed of retriever beat that for tender 
mouths ? Their dam, Juno, was also as tender-mouthed, and as clever a 
retriever as any sportsman could wish to be master of, but I will freely admit 
that some of the breed have been made hard-mouthed, and so also have 
hundreds of retrievers from the same cause. The Irish water spaniel, as 
everyone knows who has owned one, is never satisfied unless he is doing 
something to please his master ; for this reason he is kept as a companion, 
and taught to carry a stick, fetch stones, balls, &c. This kind of 
education it is which causes them to be hard-mouthed especially if this is 
done before they have been taught to retrieve game. They are high- 
couraged like the Irish setter, and, like them also, when well broken, 
cannot be beaten. 

There is considerable diversity of opinion as to their points for 
exhibition purposes, and since Mr. M'Carthy brought them to what he 
considered perfection, there has been a great confusion brought about by 
judges (who have never been breeders) giving prizes to a class of dog 
that was far from correct. For instance, Mr. McCarthy, in his description 
in the Field in 1859, says the head should be capacious, forehead pro- 
minent, whilst his dogs, and the dogs of his day, were all square on 
the muzzle. A dog with a head of this description would be ignored 
nowadays, but I am by no means disposed to say that the snipe-nosed 
ones, which certain of our judges go in for, are correct ; it is the fashion 
to call a weak bitch-faced dog " full of quality." This so-called quality in 
the Irish water spaniel cannot be got without a corresponding loss of 
bone and, in my opinion, constitution. 

The head from the apex to the eye is large and capacious, giving the 
appearance of being short, which is by no means the case, only appear- 
ing so from its being so heavily furnished with topknot ; the dog, which 
looks long as a puppy, loses it as he gets older. The topknot is one of 
the chief characteristics of the breed, and it does not arrive at perfection 
as a rule until the dog attains the age of about two and a half years ; 
it should not grow straight across the face to between the eye like a wig, 
but from the front edges of the ears should form two sides of a triangle, 

152 British Dogs. 

meeting in a point between the eyes ; the head should be well covered 
with this topknot, the hair of which should be in a dog in full coat 4in. 
or more long, the forelocks hanging gracefully down the face, but I very 
much admire the topknot when about half grown, and when standing 
straight up all over the head in a most wild Irishman kind of manner. 

The face is long, and is the most remarkable feature of the breed to my 
mind, being in a good specimen quite smooth ; the hair no longer than 
that upon a smooth terrier this short hair should extend to the cheeks. 
I know of no other dog which carries the same quantity of hair on its 
head, legs, ears, that has not also a rough face, and however remote may 
be the cross of poodle or Eussian retriever, it will show itself upon the 
face and cheeks as moustachios and whiskers. This is a point which 
judges should specially make a note of. I have named it to several, who 
all have made light of it ; not so, however, with Mr. McCarthy and other 
breeders. The nose is large and with a slight squareness of muzzle. 
The eyes, too, I have never seen taken into account by any judge, and 
yet it is the eye that gives character to the face ; this should be a deep 
rich brown, which in the dark or shade is beautiful, not to be described, 
but seen ; a light yellow, or gooseberry eye, is my detestation, and is 
always accompanied by a coat which before moulting time assumes a very 
light sandy hue, whilst the dark-eyed ones are many shades darker at 
the same period of coating. 

The ears are about 18in. long in the flesh, lobe shaped, not pointed, 
and when well furnished with hair should be from 26in. to 30in. from 
tip to tip, when measured across the head. Old Doctor measured, when 
he won the last time at the Crystal Palace, 31 in. 

The chest should be deep and the ribs well sprung, so that the body 
appears round, rather than deep. The shoulders are inclined to be a bit 
thick, as the dog all over should appear cobby. 

The back and quarters are as strong as those of a waggon horse. 

The legs should be straight, with good feet, well clothed with hair, 
both over and between the toes ; the fore legs are heavily feathered at the 
sides and behind, with a curled or rough appearance in front. The hind 
legs are smooth in front, from the hocks downwards, whilst it is essential 
that they should be feathered behind down to the foot. In crossing with 
certain breeds, such as the retriever, this is one of the first points lost. 

The tail is, like the face, a sure indication of the breeding ; and at the 

The Irish Water Spaniel. 153 

risk of repeating myself, I assert that no other breed of dog exists with 
a smooth tail which carries as much hair elsewhere as does the Irish 
spaniel. These characteristics viz., tail, face, and topknot stamp 
him, in my opinion, as the purest of pure bred dogs. The tail is 
shorter than in most other dogs, thick at the root, and tapering to a 
sting at the point. For about Sin. from the body it is covered with 
small curls, the remaining portion being smooth. 

The coat should consist of innumerable hard short curls, free from 
woolliness. These curls get felted, or daggled, before moulting time. A 
woolly coat shows the poodle cross, which may also be detected in the 
head. A silky coat, with an inclination to waviness instead of curl, indi- 
cates a cross with land spaniel or setter ; this cross also shows itself in 
the quality of the leg -feather. The colour is that dark shade of liver 
called puce, having a rich plum-coloured hue when seen in the sun. The 
best coloured dog of the breed I ever saw was my old champion Duck 
when she was in the prime of life. A patch or star of white is often seen 
on the chest, and should not be regarded as fatal to a dog' s winning, as it 
is met with in the best strains ; in fact, in a litter of "puppies, if there is 
one with more white on than the rest, it, as a rule, is the largest. 
Whether white is a sign of strength or not I am not prepared to say. 

In respect to symmetry by which I mean the general appearance of 
the dog, his carriage, style, &c. he should be judged as you would 
judge a cob. Many of the dogs of the present day are too leggy. A 
leggy spaniel of any breed I detest. The best dogs we have seen of late 
years of this breed have been : Doctor and Eake, bred by Mr. Eobson, 
Hull ; Pilot and Sailor, breeder Eev. A. L. Willett ; Blarneystone and 
Chance, bred by Mr. Salisbury ; Mr. P. J. D. Lindoe's Blarney, Mr. 
Engelbach's Pat, Mr. Fletcher's Young Doctor, Mr. Morton's Paddy and 
Shamrock, Mr. C. Pilgrim's Barney, and Bridget and Patsey, all bred by 
myself. The portrait represents Patsey, a son of Young Doctor and 
Bridget, who possesses the characteristics of the breed in a remarkable 
manner, especially when it is taken into account that he has been kept 
chained to a kennel all his life without any attention being paid to his 

Measurements of Irish spaniels : 

Mr. H. E. C. Beaver's Irish Spaniel Captain: Height at shoulder, 
20Jin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 37|in. ; length of tail, 13in. ; 

154 British Dogs. 

girth of chest, 27|in. ; girth of loin, 23in. ; girth of head, 17in. ; girth 
of forearm, 7^in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, Sin. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 8|in. This dog 
has been twice round the world with his master. Captain is a very good 
specimen of the breed. 

Mr. W. Beddome Bridgett's Young Duck (K.C.S.B., 8337) : Age, 5 years 
3 months ; weight, unascertainable ; height at shoulder, 20in. ; length 
from nose to set on of tail, 38in. ; length of tail, 14in. ; girth of chest, 
25in. ; girth of loin, 19in. ; girth of head, 15in. ; girth of forearm, 6in. ; 
length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 9^in. ; girth of muzzle midway 
between eyes and tip of nose, 8|in. ; length of ear in leather, 18in. ; length 
of ear with feather, 25in. 



IN the Kennel Club Stud Book will be found a list of about two dozen 
spaniels, classed as " Water Spaniels other than Irish." 

I have often pondered over this, wondering what it was meant to 
nclude, and why the Irish water spaniel should be distinguished by a 
class to itself, and the much older breed, the English water spaniel, be 
ignored. I suppose it will not be denied that the English water spaniel 
is at least historically older than the Irish. Every writer on dogs from 
the fourteenth century to the present date has referred to them, and 
more or less minutely described them. 

Dr. Caius says of the water spaniel : " It is that kind of dog whose 
service is required in fowling upon the water, partly through a natural 
towardness, and partly through a diligent teaching, is endued with that 
property. This sort is somewhat big and of a measureable greatness, 
having long, rough, and curled hair, not obtained by extraordinary trades, 
but given by Nature's appointment." 

In the " Gentleman's Recreation " a very similar description occurs. 

The English Water Spaniel. 155 

In the "Sportsman's Cabinet" (1802), he is described as having "the 
hair long and naturally curled, not loose and shaggy," and the 
engraving which accompanies the article from a drawing by Renaigle, 
engraved by Scott represents a medium-sized liver and white curly- 
coated spaniel, with the legs feathered but not curled. The woodcut in 
Youatt's book on the dog is very similar, and in his first work on the dog 
" Stonehenge" copied this from Youatt's book, and did not hesitate, in 
addition, to give the points of the " Old English Water Spaniel." It is, 
therefore, the more astonishing to find him saying in his most recent, 
work, " I do not pretend to be able to settle the points of the breed." 

The Kennel Club at their shows have, as has been already said, a 
class for " Water spaniels other than Irish," and the title of the class is 
well deserved, for a more heterogeneous collection than generally com- 
poses it could scarcely be found outside the Dogs' Home, and in the 
judging the description of the old English water spaniel as given by all 
our writers on the subject is utterly ignored. Had the Kennel Club set 
up a standard of their own, which sportsmen and exhibitors could read 
and understand, there would be at least something tangible to deal with, 
something to agree with or condemn ; but they ignore the only descrip- 
tions we have of the breed, and give us nothing but chaos instead, for 
dogs have won in this class of every variety of spaniel character, except 
the right one. 

It is true Youatt says, " the water spaniel was originally from Spain, 
but the pure breed has been lost, and the present dog is probably 
descended from the large water dog and the English setter;" but whilst 
all seem to agree that our spaniels came originally from Spain, no one has 
ever contended that they exist as imported without alteration by selec- 
tion or commixture with allied varieties ; and from all descriptions I 
have met with the " large water dog" referred to by Youatt was in great 
part water spaniel, whilst our English setter it is very generally agreed 
springs from the land spaniel. 

As already said, from the earliest times we have the old English water 
spaniel described as differing from the land spaniel. Edmond de Langley, 
in " The Maister of Game," writes of the land spaniel, " white and tawny 
in colour and not rough coated," whereas the water spaniel is by every 
writer described as rough and curly coated, but not shaggy, and this very 
decided characteristic is ignored in the judging of water spaniels at our 

156 British Dogs. 

shows. Youatt says : "The hair long and closely curled." " Stone- 
henge," in "The Dog in Health and Disease," says " head and tail 
covered with thick curly hair," and gives as an illustration of the 
breed a woodcut of a dog with a distinctly curly coat. 

I do not believe the breed is lost, but that scattered throughout the 
country there are many specimens of the old English water spaniel, which 
it only requires that amount of encouragement to breeding which it is in 
the power of show committees to give to perpetuate the variety and improve 
its form. 

I have come across many specimens, and owned one many years ago, 
which would fairly represent the breed as described and portrayed by our 
older sporting writers. 

The duties of a water spaniel require that he should be under the most 
perfect command, obedient to a sign ; for silence in fresh water shooting 
is absolutely necessary to success, waterfowl of all kinds being peculiarly 
wary and timid. The dog should even be taught to slip into the water 
noiselessly, and not with a rush and plunge, if the bag is to be well 
filled ; he must quest assiduously and in silence, keeping well within 
range and working to signal ; he must be a thorough retriever, as bold 
and persevering as obedient, and, by early education, under the most 
perfect command. 

Two sizes are generally referred to, but, for the fresh water fowler, a 
large dog is not required, and one 301b. to 401b. will work the sedges, 
reeds, willows, &c., of river sides, pools, and locks, with greater advantage 
than a big one. 

The points of the English water spaniel I would describe as follows : 

The general appearance, strong, compact, of medium size, leggy by com- 
parison with the Clumber, Sussex, or black field spaniel, and showing 
much greater activity. 

The head, rather long, the brow apparent but not very great ; jaws fairly 
long, and slightly, but not too much, pointed, the whole face and skull 
to the occiput covered with short smooth hair, and no forelock as in the 
Irish water spaniel. 

The eyes fairly full but not watery, clear, brown coloured, with intel- 
ligent beseeching expression ; the ears long, rather broad, soft, pendulous 
and thickly covered with curly hair of greater length than on body. 

The neck short, thick, and muscular. 

Retrievers. 157 

The chest capacious, the barrel stout, and the shoulders wide and 

The loins strong, the buttocks square, and the thighs muscular. 

The legs rather long, straight, strong of bone, and well clothed with 
muscle, and the feet a good size, rather spreading, without being abso- 
lutely splay footed. 

The coat, over the whole upper part of the body and sides thick and 
closely curled, flatter on the belly and the front of the legs, which 
should, however, be well clad at the back with feathery curls ; the pre- 
vailing colour is liver and white, but whole liver, black and black and 
white are also described by some writers. 

The tail is usually docked, rather thick, and covered with curls. 



THERE is, perhaps, no name that is applied to dogs of so many different 
characters by the general public as Eetriever, and if it can be correctly 
used to describe the amazing varieties of mongrelism so designated, 
it must indeed be a most elastic and accommodating term. In fact, 
every big black or brown or black and white dog with a roughish 
curly or a wavy coat, is dubbed a retriever. If we go to the Dogs' Home, 
where so many of the canine street sweepings are always waiting to be 
claimed, we are sure to find twenty to thirty animals of most opposite 
and incongruous types, all classed under the generic name of retriever. 
Open a daily newspaper, and we are sure to find a greater or less number 
of big black or brown dogs lost, described as retrievers, although 
probably, not one of them bears more than a remote resemblance to the 
retriever proper, as seen in such perfection at our dog shows and field 

By a retriever is now understood a dog used with the gun, and which 
recovers and brings in to the gun lost, wounded, or dead game, and in 

158 British Dogs. 

that sense it is not applicable to the deerhound, who, although he has 
been termed a retriever, is only so to the extent of recovering and tracing 
the lost trail of the wounded deer, but manifestly cannot retrieve it in 
the sense that the retriever proper does smaller game. 

If the definition of the retriever stopped there, there would be more 
justification for the general loose application of the term than there is, 
for it would be impossible to deny a dog's right to the name until we 
had proved his capacity for the work ; but it is one of the good things 
which modern dog shows have done to define more or less clearly, not only 
what the working capacities of a good retriever should be, but the external 
appearance and all the points and physical attributes of the breed, so 
that a retriever proper, whether good at his business or not, is, from his 
tout ensemble, as easily recognised to be such as is either the pointer or 
the setter to be what they are. 

The retriever of the present day is quite of modern production, an 
instance of intelligent selection and careful breeding up to a standard 
which has been crowned with very marked success, and reflects the very 
greatest credit on the skill and unwearying patience of those who have 
worked at it, and now see their labours crowned with success. Those 
who visiting a show admire the beautiful symmetry, fine intelligent 
countenance, and jet black coats of the retrievers, whether wavy-coated 
or curly-coated, and go away with the idea that the fine collection, every 
one of which bears the unmistakeable family stamp, is a mere fortuitous 
assemblage of dogs accidently alike, would be very far from the truth. 
The idea of which these dogs are the embodiment was conceived in the 
minds of certain sportsmen years ago, and has been slowly worked out, 
every succeeding year seeing some fault bred out and desirable points 
developed, till I am strongly of opinion that, if the breed has not reached 
perfection, it is about as near it as human effort is likely to attain ; 
yet it is not many years since a dog in white stockings won a 
first prize at the Crystal Palace. In the early days of dog 
shows, when it was more the custom to cry out that these insti- 
tutions were ruining the various breeds than is the case now, there 
was much discussion as to retrievers then in the course of manufacture 
and it was clearly enough proved, if indeed it needed proof, that dogs to 
do the work of retrievers, could be made by a combination of almost any 
breed ; even a half bred bull dog has been known to do it. A cross with 

The Black Wavy-Coated Retriever. 159 

the foxhound was bound to give power of steady and persistent questing, 
the bloodhound, the beagle, the terrier, and the colley were all suggested ; 
but with the advent and progress of shows came the desire, which has 
continued to grow ever since, to combine in the same animal good looks 
and good qualities, and in no breed has this been better attained than in 
the retriever proper, as he is sometimes called, in distinction to the 
retrieving spaniel, setter, or other distinct breed that may be used to 
perform his special work. 

Of modern retrievers there are four varieties, separated from each other 
by distinctions in coat and colour. These are the flat or wavy-coated, and 
the curly-coated, and these again are each divided into black and brown 
or liver-coloured. 

At very few shows now is a class for liver-coloured dogs provided, the 
black variety having so grown in public estimation as to have pushed 
the liver almost out of sight ; and this I, for one, regret, for there are 
many very excellent specimens of the reds ; and I think it should be one 
of the objects of dog show promoters to encourage, not discourage, the 
production and propagation of varieties having distinct character, no 
matter if for the time being they should be unpopular. " Every dog has 
his day," says the proverb; and the time may yet come when brown 
retrievers will be as fashionable as blacks are now ; and I think it is a 
pity they should now be so entirely ignored. 

In considering these four varieties, we will take first the one that I 
think undoubtedly occupies the chief place. 



WHEN " Stonehenge" published his first edition of the "Dogs of the 
British Islands," about ten years ago, he wrote anent retrievers that they 
must be either " black or black and tan, or black with tabby or brindled 

1 60 British Dogs. 

legs," pointing out 'that the brindled legs were indicative of the Labrador, 
to which breed we owe many of the best qualities the wavy-coated 
retriever possesses ; but in the present day a black and tan or a brindled- 
legged dog would stand no chance in competition, however good, because 
the self-coloured dogs have been brought to such perfection that they 
would equal, if they did not excel, the marked one in all points, and 
possess the desired jet black colour in addition, having thereby something 
in hand to win with over their handicapped competitors. One of the best 
working retrievers I ever saw in my life was a black and tan dog, the 
property of Mr. Gavin Lindsay, The Holm, Sanquhar, and in point of 
symmetry and good looks fit to compete with anything I ever saw ex- 
hibited, but that his markings would throw him out. These tan mark- 
ings are, no doubt, got from the Gordon setter, and are easily enough 
bred out. 

Perhaps the sires that have exercised most influence in stamping- the 
character of the present generation of retrievers under discussion are 
the two Wyndhams, the one the property of that well known and successful 
breeder, Mr. J. D. Gorse, the younger dog owned by Mr. T. Meyrick, M.P., 
the latter dog much used by that other most successful of retriever breeders, 
the late JohnD. Hull; Paris, owned by Mr. S. E. Shirley, M.P., and bred 
from imported Labrador parents ; Major Allison's Victor, and Mr. 
Chattock's Cato, both without known pedigree. Dr. Bond Moore paid 
considerable attention to this breed some years ago, his kennels were 
principally of Hull's strain, and he had some remarkably fine specimens. 
I remember seeing a litter of Midnight's, if I mistake not, in Dr. Bond 
Moore's kennels, in which were two fine pups of a pale liver colour, 
although both parents and grand parents were jet black. 

The strains of the various breeders are now getting pretty well 
commingled, and Mr. Shirley, who I consider is now the foremost of 
retriever breeders, has in his the blood of nearly all the old notabilities 
in conjunction with his own special Paris and Lady Evelyn strain. 

The coat has undergone very considerable modifications in this strain. 
In old Wyndham (Meyrick's), the wave became a ripple almost a 
surge over the hips ; and a grandson of his that I now own, and who 
greatly resembles Wyndham in other respects, has this peculiarity in a 
very marked degree. Now, however, we have many with coats as flat 
almost as that of a smooth-coated dog, which I think an excess in the 

The Black Wavy-Coated Retriever. 161 

opposite direction ; and personally I think, as a point of beauty, there is 
nothing to compare with a nice and regular wavy coat. 

In general appearance this dog in some degree resembles the New- 
foundland, but is less in size, not so clumsily built, and altogether lighter 
and more active looking ; and, not having so deep and shaggy a coat, he 
shows himself built on finer lines. 

The head is, for his size, large and long, with a good development of 
brain before the ear the muzzle is long and squarer than in the curly- 
coated variety ; his capacious mouth should hold a set of large and white 

The ears should be small and lie close to the head, set on well back 
and low, quite free from fringe, but covered with soft silky hair. 

The eye large, dark in colour, mild in expression, and the haw never 

The neck, although muscular, is longer than in the Labrador, and has 
that more supple appearance and freer action meant to be expressed by 
the term "airy." 

The shoulders should slope well, and be well clothed with muscle like 
the forelegs, which latter should be straight and of moderate length, 
giving an average at shoulder of 2 Sin. to 24in. 

The chest should be broad, but not to the extent of pushing out the 
elbows from the straight line with the body, which would rob the dog of 
his speed. 

The back, loins, and hind quarters should all be strong, in keeping with 
the fore quarters, without positive heaviness, so that the dog may with ease 
carry a hare a distance over rough ground, stone dykes, or field gates. 

The feet should be of moderate size, compact, and with good hard 
soles, and the interstices between the toes protected with hair ; a splay 
foot, with spreading toes, is very objectionable. 

The coat should be abundant and close, and long enough to fall in 
gentle and regular waves, which is preferable to a perfectly flat coat. The 
colour should be a jet glossy black, and quite free from tan, brindled, or 
white markings, but as I do not think there are many dogs whelped with- 
out more or less white hairs onHhe chest, it is better, in my opinion, not 
to allow a trifle of that kind to weigh for so much as to offer an induce- 
ment to plucking. 

The stern should be strong and gaily carried, but not curled over the 


1 62 British Dogs. 

back ; it should not be so strong or so bushy as that of the Newfound- 
land, but plentifully furnished with feather. 

The subject of our illustration is S. E. Shirley (M.P.), Esq.'s, Thorn. 
Mr. S. E. Shirley's Thorn has not only proved successful in the show 
ring, but is good in the field, and has proved eminently successful at 
stud, his stock including Loyal, first at Birmingham and Alexandra 
Palace ; Wave, winner of first and also champion retriever prize at 
Birmingham ; Transit, first at Crystal Palace and Oxford ; Trace, first 
at Alexandra Palace ; Eaven, first and cup at Warrington ; and many 
others. Mr. Shirley informs me, whilst Thorn's stock are, as a rule, good 
workers, he has found the cross with the Paris blood and Thorn better 
for work than the Thorn and Lady Evelyn blood. 

The following particulars of weights and measurements of wavy-coated 
retrievers have been furnished by the owners : 

Mr. S. E. Shirley's (M.P.) Thorn : Age, 5 years ; height at shoulder, 
22|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 37in. ; length of tail, 15in. ; 
girth of chest, 29|in. ; girth of head, 16|in. ; girth of forearm, 9in. ; 
length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 10|in. ; girth of muzzle 
midway between eyes and tip of nose, lOin. 

Mr. G. Thorpe-Bartram's Bonnie Lassie : Age, 3| years ; weight, 
541b. ; height at shoulder, 21in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 36in. ; 
length of tail, 13in. ; girth of chest, 28in. ; girth of loin, 22in. ; girth of 
head, IT^in. ; girth of forearm, 7zin. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, 9iin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, lOin. ; girth of neck midway between head and shoulders, 16|in. ; 
length of nose from eye to tip, 4in. ; length from elbow to top of 
shoulder, llin. ; length of ear from tip to set on at skull, 5Jin. 

Mr. G. Thorpe-Bartram's Bogle : Weight, 731b. ; height at shoulder, 
25iin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 41iin. ; length of tail, IS^in. ; 
girth of chest, 32in. ; girth of loin, 24|in. ; girth of head, 20in. ; girth of 
forearm, 9in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, llin. ; girth of 
muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, lO^in. ; girth of neck 
midway between head and shoulders, 19in. ; length of nose from eye to 
tip, 4f in. ; length from elbow to top of shoulder, 12|in. ; length of ear 
from tip to set on at skull, 6iin. 

The Black Curly-Coated Retriever. 163 



THERE are few handsomer dogs than a good specimen of this breed, 
such, for instance, as Toby, True, X L, Muswell-Butterfly, or Chicory, 
with their compact forms, neat clean legs, and coats of jetty black, per- 
fectly regular crisp little nigger curls, level, thick, and clustering over 
every part from ears to end of tail, as though clothed with the heads of 
so many prize piccaninnies. 

How the variety originated I do not pretend to say with any degree of 
certainty, for if we turn to the pedigrees of our most noted specimens we 
find ourselves very soon at the end of 'a blind alley, even their immediate 
progenitors being, as a rule, identified by their owner's name, and not by 

That they are compounded of several elements that are only just 
becoming so thoroughly commingled as to breed with any certainty of 
result, I have the experience of breeders to warrant me in believing ; 
for, however good two specimens may be in that great desidera- 
tum coat, for instance the percentage of their produce equally 
good in that respect has been small. This, however, the further we 
get from the different sources originally resorted to, and the closer 
we keep to those having in a high degree the properties in common 
which we desire to propagate, becomes altered, and soon, if not now, 
we will be able to rely on securing good and level litters, with merely 
&n occasional pup throwing back, which should in all cases be carefully 
weeded out. 

I am of opinion that the crisp curly coat has been obtained from 
the old close-curled English water spaniel, which one looks for in vain 
now in the classes set apart at our shows for this breed. Their place is 
now usurped by a class of dog with a coat I should call " irregular " for 
want of a better term, for it is neither flat, wavy, nor curled, and in other 
points as well as coat widely differing from the^old English water spaniel 
as described by Youatt and "Stonehenge." The latter in body, carriage, 

M 2 

1 64 British Dogs. 

as well as in coat, much resembling the modern curly retriever, making 
due allowance for the improvements produced by careful breeding for 
competition for twelve or fifteen years. 

There are, I know, many who think the retriever owes his remarkably 
curly coat to the Irish water spaniel ; against this we have the recorded 
opinion of that high authority on Irish spaniels, Mr. McCarthy, that 
these dogs will not bear a cross with other breeds, and that the cross with 
the setter, spaniel, Newfoundland, or Labrador, which would be the most 
likely to be resorted to to produce the retriever, " completely destroys 
the coat, ears, tail, and symmetry." 

From Mr. McCarthy's experience his opinion must have great weight, 
and yet against that a case came under my personal notice which, as 
far as a single case can, controverts that opinion. About thirteen years 
ago I sent to my brother, a farmer in the west of Scotland, a pure-bred 
Irish spaniel maiden bitch ; she proved a most excellent all-round 
dog, good alike at questing and retrieving, and just the thing for a one- 
dog sportsman, and that led to the desire to breed from her ; but as there 
were no dogs of the same breed in the locality she was sent to a retriever 
with a considerable amount of Gordon setter blood in him. I some years 
afterwards saw two of the produce ; both were jet black, and with most 
perfect curly coats, and one kept and worked by my brother was as clever 
as he was in some points good looking ; but I cannot claim for him excel- 
lence in symmetry a point which, with all respect to my friend Mr. J. S. 
Skidmore and other partisans of the Irish spaniel, I think that dog remark- 
ably deficient in. 

Among the exhibitors of this retriever that have been prominent as 
winners of late years are : Mr. J. W. Morris, Rochdale ; Mr. F. J. 
Staples-Brown, Brashfield ; Mr. J. H. Salter, ToUeshunt D'Arcy; Mr. 
G. Thorpe-Bartram, Braintree ; Mr. W. Arkwright, Sutton Scarsdale ; 
Mr. E. Ellis, Doncaster ; Mr. S. Darby, Tiverton ; and Mr. W. A. How, 
Whitwick, all of whom possess first-class specimens. Mr. Morris's True 
and X L have often properly figured at the head of their respective cham- 
pion classes. True is closely matched by Mr. How's champion Toby, 
the subject of our illustration, and Mr. Thorpe-Bartram' s Nell is, in 
the opinion of many judges, quite equal, if not superior, to X L, and 
Mr. Tom B. Swinburne's young bitch Chicory, by Mr. Salter' s King 
Koffee, bids fair to surpass both, having youth on her side, and being, in 










The Black Curly-Coated Retriever. 165 

my opinion, a model retriever. She is a nice size, well built, without waste 
or coarseness, well ribbed, with excellent back and loins, a good tshest, 
and legs that are simply faultless ; her coat, too, is first-rate, and even 
her tail to its end, both upper and under side, is thickly covered with 
small perfect curls. 

Mr. How's Toby has been before the public since 1874, when ho 
began what has proved to be an extraordinary successful career by 
taking first at both the Nottingham and the Birmingham shows. He was 
described in the "Country" report of Brighton Show, 1876, in these 
terms : " His head is nearly faultless ; he is good in limbs, well formed in 
body, and seems just made for his business, being neither too light for 
hard work nor too clumsy to clear a dyke or a gate with a hare in his 
mouth, and to this I may add that his coat is very good." 

The value of the points differs from the wavy-coated as follows : 

In the head the skull is less wide thoughout and the muzzle rather 
narrower at the nose. 

The coat is entirely different, consisting of short crisp curls all over 
the body and tail ; the face covered with short smooth hair there must 
be no topknot. The eye should be hazel brown or darker, a yellow eye 
which we have seen in otherwise good specimens mars the appearance of 
the dog and is very objectionable. 

The tail should be thick at the root and tapering to a fine point, carried 
straight and stiffly and covered with small curls, not feathered or bushy ; 
but many good dogs of the breed have this fault. 

The colour must be all black, but a small white spot on the chest 
ought not to disqualify. 

With the exception of coat and the fact that the muzzle is narrower, the 
points of the wavy-coated apply to this ; the face, forehead, and 
muzzle is covered with short hair only, the curls beginning from the 
occiput, and they should be free from any trace of the Irish spaniel top- 
knot. There should be entire freedom from flew, and a yellow or light 
eye is objectionable. 

In all retrievers temper and tractability are to be considered, but 
indications of the first only can be seen in the show ring, and to test 
their ability in seeking and retrieving, in which a good nose, with per- 
severance, pluck, and a soft mouth, are requisite, we must see him in the 

1 66 British Dogs. 

The following are particulars of the measurements of Toby and other 
good specimens of the breed : 

Mr.W. H. How's Toly : Age, 5f years ; weight, 891b.; height at shoulder 
24|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 40in. ; length of tail, I7^in. ; 
girth of chest, 35in. ; girth of loin, 30in. ; girth of head, 19in. ; girth of 
forearm, 9|in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, ll|in. ; girth 
of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 12in. ; length of ear, 4in. ; 
width of ear, Sin. 

Mr. W. H. How's Soot : Age, 2i years ; weight, 811b. ; height at 
shoulder, 23in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 39in. ; length of tail, 
15|in. ; girth of chest, 33in. ; girth of loin, 29in. ; girth of head, 16in. ; 
girth of forearm, Sin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
9Jin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 10|in. 

Mr. Thorpe-Bartram's Lulu : Age, 6 years ; weight, 751b. ; height at 
shoulder, 26|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 40|in. ; length of 
tail, 17|in. ; girth of chest, 33in. ; girth of loin, 28in. ; girth of head, 
20fin. ; girth of forearm, 8|in. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, llin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, lOin. ; length from corner of eye to end of nose, 4f in. ; length 
from elbow to top of shoulder blade, 13|in. ; length of ear from tip to 
set on at skull, 5Jin. 

Mr. Thorpe-Bartram's Nell : Height at shoulder, 22Jin. ; length from 
nose to set on of tail, 36Jin. ; length of tail, 15in. ; girth of chest, 28in. ; 
girth of loin, 23in. ; girth of head, 17in. ; girth of forearm, Sin. ; length 
of head from occiput to tip of nose, lOin. ; girth of muzzle midway 
between eyes and tip of nose, lOJin. ; length from corner of eye to end 
of nose, 4in. ; length from elbow to top of shoulder blade, 12^in. ; length 
of ear from tip to set on at skull, 5|in. ; girth of neck, 16in. 

Mr. S. Darby's Pearl : Age, 3 years ; weight, 801b. ; height at 
shoulder, 24|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 43in. ; length of tail, 
16^in. ; girth of chest, 31iin. ; girth of loin, 25Jin. ; girth of head, 
18|in. ; girth of forearm, Sin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, 12in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, lOin. 
Mr. Tom Swinburne's Chicory : Age, 2 years ; weight, 761b. ; height 
at shoulder, 24Jin. : length from nose to set on of tail, 41in. ; length of 
tail, 15fin. ; girth of chest, 30|in. ; girth of loin, 22in. ; girth of head, 
15in. ; girth of forearm, 7in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 

The Norfolk Retriever. 167 

nose, lOfin. ; girth of muzzle midway between between eyes and tip 
of nose, 9|in. 

Mr. J. H. Salter's champion King Koffee : Age, about 5 years ; weight, 
751b. ; height at shoulder, 27in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 39 Jin. ; 
length of tail, 18in. ; girth of chest, 33fin. ; girth of loin, 26in. ; girth 
of head, ISfin. ; girth of forearm, 7|in. ; length of head from occiput 
to tip of nose, lOin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip 
of nose, 10|in. 


To the preceding varieties we now add another, which "Saxon," a Nor- 
folk sportsman, claims as peculiar to his county. Of the correctness of so 
doing, however, we have some doubt, for although retrievers answering 
his description may be more plentiful in Norfolk than elsewhere, they 
are met with often enough in all parts of the country. He says : 

" There is no doubt that dog-shows have done much towards improving 
the various breeds of dogs ; but there are still some counties which are, 
so to speak, outside the magic circle of shows, and in these counties the 
improvement is not so manifest. Norfolk is one of them, and though it 
is a first-rate county for shooting of all kinds, yet at the same time, from 
a show point of view, its dogs are not up to the mark. 

"It is well known that the retriever is not a distinct breed, and purity 
of blood, therefore, can only exist so far as the strain is concerned. In 
spite of this there is a strong family likeness visible in most good speci- 
mens of the so-called Norfolk retriever. 

" For many a long year Norfolk has been celebrated for its wildfowl 
shooting. On broad, river, sea-coast, and estuary, wildfowl abound during 
the winter months, and unassisted by boat or dog the gunner would lose 
by far the greater part of the fowl he shot. In rough weather, when the 
fowl are most easy of access, the use of a boat in many instances becomes 
difficult, not to say dangerous and impossible, and some kind of dog, 

1 68 British Dogs. 

therefore, became necessary to the fowler of olden times. The old- 
fashioned pointer, so steady and good after partridges in the long hand- 
reaped stubbles, failed signally in most instances when the thermometer 
hung feelingly in the neighbourhood of zero and the beard of the 
shooter was white with icicles and hoar frost. It was not his trade, and 
he knew it. A hardier dog was necessary, and one with a rougher coat. 
The old-fashioned English water-spaniel was undoubtedly good at flush- 
ing the birds from reed-beds and the like, but for all-round work his 
impetuosity would be against him. Something more sedate than all 
spaniel blood was required, and yet the dash and resolution of the genuine 
spaniel should be retained. By continual crossing frequently accidental 
and still more frequently injudicious by a strong infusion of Irish water- 
spaniel blood, with here and there a tinge of the Labrador, the necessary 
animal was by degrees manufactured. 

" Such is my theory concerning the origin of the Norfolk retriever. Now 
for a description of the dog. The colour is more often brown than black, 
and the shade of brown rather light than dark a sort of sandy brown, 
in fact. Coat curly, of course, and the curls hardly so close and crisp 
as in the show retriever of the present day, but inclined to be open and 
woolly. The coat is not long, however, and across the back there is often 
a saddle of straight short hair. In texture the coat is inclined to be 
coarse, and it almost invariably looks rusty and feels harsh to the touch. 
This, however, may in some measure be due to neglect. The head is 
heavy and wise-looking, the muzzle square and broad ; ears large, and 
somewhat thickly covered with long curly hair. The limbs stout and 
strong, with large and well-webbed feet. The tail is usually docked like 
a spaniel's, but not so short. This seems to be quite a keeper's custom, 
and probably originated from the fact that, to an inexperienced eye, the 
tail of a puppy generally appears too long for the dog. However, although 
docking the tail improves the appearance of a spaniel, in my opinion it 
completely spoils the symmetry of a retriever. I remember once asking 
a Norfolk keeper's opinion of a very handsome flat-coated retriever I had. 
After examining the dog carefully, the man said, ' Well, sir, he would be 
a rare nice-looking dog if you only cut half-a-yard off his tail.' I need 
hardly add that I did not act on the suggestion. 

" When white appears on the chest it is more frequently in the form of 
a spot or patch than a narrow streak. They are usually rather above 

Liver-coloured Retrievers. 169 

than below the medium size and are strong compact dogs. As a rule, 
they are exceedingly intelligent and tractable, capaple of being trained 
to almost anything, both in the way of tricks and with the gun. In 
temperament they are lively and cheerful, making excellent companions ; 
and it is very rarely that they are found sulky or vicious. When only 
half -trained they are apt to be headstrong and impetuous, and, though 
naturally with a strong retrieving instinct, are often a little inclined 
to be hard-mouthed. This defect can be traced to two causes. It may 
be the rusult of injudicious breeding from hard-mouthed parents, or it 
may arise from careless or slovenly handling in their young days. 
However, when they are wanted almost exclusively for wildfowl 
shooting, this failing is not of so much moment, for they will be 
principally used for retrieving birds that fall in the water, and, as fowl 
are for the most part very tough birds, the rough grip as a dog seizes a 
duck will not cause much mischief, and while swimming the most 
inveterate " biter " will seldom give his birds a second nip. For wild- 
fowl shooting they are admirable. Their resolute nature renders them 
most determined in hunting coots, moor-hen and half -fowl, as the gunners 
call many of the smaller members of the anas tribe, for which their too 
limited knowledge of natural history cannot supply a name. When 
accustomed to sea-shore shooting they will face a rough sea well, and 
they are strong swimmers, persevering, and not easily daunted in their 
search for a dead or wounded fowl." 



THESE also are smooth, or wavy and curly-coated. Of the former I 
have not seen a good specimen exhibited for a considerable time, the 
few I have seen being coarse, and apparently half bred spaniels. Several 
good specimens of curly coated ones have at different times appeared 

170 British Dogs. 

at shows ; the best I have seen being Nero, the property of Mr. Bullock, 
Prescot, Lancashire, and Mr. R. J. LI. Price, of Ehiwlas, Bala, has 
shown several good ones, and now Mr. McKenzie's curly-coated Garnet 
is the best of this variety. The following are his measurements : 

Mr. L. McKenzie's Garnet: Age, 18 months; weight, 781b. ; height 
at shoulder, 24|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 43in. ; length 
of tail, 17in. ; girth of chest, 30in. ; girth of loin, 2 Sin. ; girth of 
head, 18in. ; girth of forearm, Sin. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, ll^in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, lOin. 



A FEW years ago the Russian retriever was often met with at our shows, 
and Mr. E. B. Southwell's Czar scored a good number of first prizes in 
the variety classes, but for two seasons past I do not recollect to have 
seen a specimen at any show. 

I believe " Idstone's " is the only book on the dog in our language that 
has deigned to notice this breed. And "Idstone" very summarily dis- 
misses him thus: "I recollect seeing one of them at a battue, which 
attempted to fetch a hare from a thick brake, and became so entangled 
amongst the thorns and ' burs,' that the beaters had to cut away a 
quantity of his coat to liberate him, and in the confusion the hare was 
lost. Further comments on the Russian retriever for this country is 

A single glance at the dog would show anyone that he is of no use in a 
thick brake of thorns, briars, or whins, but it does not follow that he 
is of no use in this country; and the anecdote related by "Idstone" 
seems to me rather to reflect on the man who put the dog to work for 
which he was so evidently unsuited than on the dog. We have unques- 
tionably dogs far better fitted for retrieving under any conditions in wood 
or wild, on land or from water, than the Russian retriever, but as a 

The Russian Retriever. 171 

distinct variety we have room for him if only as a companion and guard, 
using him as a retriever under suitable conditions when required. 

I have said that in dog books, in that of " Idstone" alone is he referred 
to, but " Stonehenge " gives a woodcut of a Eussian setter crossed with 
English setter, which appears to me a modification of the Eussian 

The Eussian retriever is a large leggy dog, very squarely built, with 
an excess of hair all over him, long, thick, and inclining to curl, a large 
short head, round and wide in the skull, rather short and square in the 
jaw, not unlike a poodle. The ears are medium sized, pendulous, heavily 
covered with hair ; the legs are 1 straight, covered with long hair front 
and back, like an Irish water spaniel. The eyes and whole face are 
covered with long hair, like a modern Skye terrier, but more abundantly. 
The coat throughout is long and dense, and requires great care to keep it 
in anything like order, as it readily gets felted. 

They are generally extremely docile, very intelligent, and show great 
power of scent, and for "tricks" of retrieving from land or water 
excellent, and they make good watch dogs, and it is only as companion 
dogs they are likely to take a place in this country. I have known 
three that I consider good specimens, namely, Mr. E. B. Southwell's 
Czar ; one the property of Mr. Pople, of the British Hotel, Perth ; and 
one that met with a tragic end, having been burnt to death in a fire which 
destroyed the house of his owner in Villiers-street, Strand. I should say 
the height of each referred to would be about 26in. at shoulder, and the 
colour throughout a grey. 


Dog Shows and Dog Judging, and Standard of 
Excellence by which to Judge. 

Including : 

/. History of Shows. 

2. Objects and Manage- 


j. The Judges : their Elec- 
4. Judging by Points. 

5. Scale of Points. 



DOG shows have now been established in this country just twenty years, 
for, although gatherings of fanciers at favourite haunts to compare the 
merits of their dogs were common enough long before that date, the dog 
show at Newcastle, in June, 1859, is looked upon as the first really public 
exhibition of the sort, and the history of dog shows begins from that date. 
I am not sure, however, that some valuable hints might not be taken from 
the meetings of " the canine fancy " in what I may call the pre-historio 
age of dog shows. Those convivial meetings, where very often the dogs 
were only shown because of the pride the owner felt in their possession, 
and the considerable share of the praise bestowed upon them, which he 
felt justified in appropriating to himself, were of course held at public 
houses, and, doubtless, owners of celebrated dogs were often subsidised 
by the landlord to appear on the scene with their stock, as an attraction 
to customers in general who were possessed of doggy proclivities. I 

The History of Dog Shows. 173 

have " dropped in," as Paul Pry would put it, to many such meetings, 
in some of the large towns of England, and been thus introduced to many 
notable dogs, and thereby picked up many a " wrinkle." Such gather- 
ings still take place, and, although their fame has been eclipsed by the 
splendour of our more imposing modern shows, there were always to be 
found at them good specimens, and men who could discuss the merits and 
properties or points of a dog seriatim, and it was thus each specimen 
was judged and relegated to his proper position among the canine celebrities 
of the day. At these pseudo private shows the exhibitors were all supposed 
to be not only fanciers, but judges, and, when matches were made, the 
match makers were also the judge makers, and he the judge was ex- 
pected to say in what properties the dog he selected for honours excelled 
his less fortunate opponent. 

These are two important points : the election of the judge by the 
exhibitors, and the judging by the individual points or properties, 
which I may hereafter refer to more fully, merely remarking now that, 
as a very considerable section of those who have taken an interest in dog 
shows is in favour of both plans, it becomes a duty to discuss their 
merits. Probably, the desire of those who first took an active part in 
shows was to raise their character in every way above mere pothouse 
affairs, and such an object was most commendable ; but is it quite 
certain that in avoiding the Scylla of low associations they have managed 
to steer clear of the Charybdis of respectable but dull incompetence 
cunningly mixed with craft ? Most certainly the letters of complaint 
with which that portion of the press dealing fully with the subject teems 
indicate a very general discontent with things as they are, and the scores 
of good men who go in for dog showing for a time with enthusiasm, 
and afterwards retire with silent disgust, emphasise the written com- 
plaints, and strengthen the suspicion that reform is needed. 

As previously stated, although dog shows sprung from the meetings of 
the "fancy" in sanded parlours, where they had long been deeply rooted, 
the fact is generally ignored. It is felt to be inconvenient in this, as in 
so many things else, to trace the pedigree too curiously, lest the low origin 
might be found inconsistent with existing pride. So, just as many people 
would scorn to acknowledge an ancestor before the advent of William the 
Conqueror, the birth of dog shows is in polite circles dated Newcastle^ 
June 28, 1859. 

174 British Dogs. 

This, which the Kennel Club Stud Book describes as " the first dog 
show ever held," was organised by Messrs. Shorthose and Pape, at the 
suggestion of Mr. E. Brailsford. Competition was limited to pointers 
and setters, and there were sixty entries, and only two prizes ; but there 
were no less than six judges three for setters and three for pointers a 
great contrast from present practice, where frequently one judge has as 
many as thirty classes to deal with. 

The Newcastle show was followed in the autumn of the same year by 
one in Birmingham, organised by Mr. E. Brailsford, and including more 
varieties. The following year a much more extended schedule was 
issued, embracing thirteen classes for non-sporting dogs. The extension 
was fully justified by results, the public responding liberally by their 
entries and their presence, and steady progress continued to mark the 
history of Birmingham shows, so that, in a few years, those who had 
taken an interest in it, finding it advisable they should have a "local 
habitation ' ' as well as a name, formed themselves into a company and 
built the Curzon Hall, where, since 1865, the shows have continued to be 
held ; and success, as far as entries and attendance, never fails, and, in- 
deed, both are only limited by the size of the building thus showing how 
strongly popular the Birmingham exhibition is. There are doubtless 
several reasons for this. Birmingham is exceptionally well situated, and 
contemporaneous with its dog show is the world-famed show of fat cattle 
at Bingley Hall. These two exhibitions assist and feed each other, with 
both exhibitors and gate money, from the thousands who flock to this 
great midland centre from a wide and thickly-peopled district, and most 
of whom have a knowledge of and an interest in live stock. It would, 
however, be unfair to attribute the undoubted success of Birmingham 
shows entirely to these accidental circumstances. Mr. George Beach, the 
secretary, is a gentleman of great business ability, and to his excellent 
management much of the success is fairly attributable. No one of ex- 
perience in such matters will, I think, hesitate to allow that on the whole 
this show is thoroughly well managed, and in many respects a model for 
imitation ; and I state this with the greater pleasure because I take 
strong exception to several of their rules, which I shall refer to further 

Many other places followed the example of Birmingham, and in 1861 
we had the monster Leeds show of unhappy memory. 

The History of Dog Shows. 175 

The Messrs. Jennings, of Belle Vue Gardens, Manchester, followed the 
same year, and continued to hold shows in their gardens at intervals up 
to 1875 ; but, I presume, finding they failed to pay, like prudent men of 
business, dropped them. The great increase in the number of shows held 
is, however, due to their being made adjuncts to the attractions of 
agricultural shows, for not one in fifty is strong enough to stand alone, 
whereas, as an addition to a show of live stock in general, they 
undoubtedly draw and add to the good of the whole. 

In the metropolis dog shows are on quite a different footing, and, as 
far as visitors go, must depend on their own attractions ; and the average 
Londoner is equally careless about and ignorant of all live stock. Hence 
the necessity that such shows in London should be under the fostering 
care of a rich society. 

The Kennel Club occupy this position, and since their first show at the 
Crystal Palace we have had yearly, and even twice a year, in London, 
shows which, if not unequalled and on the whole I think they have 
been have not been excelled by any in the kingdom, but I should 
be quite prepared to hear the Americans claiming superiority. The 
general management of the Kennel Club shows is unexceptionable; in 
Mr. George Lowe we have a secretary as courteous as he is capable ; and 
under the able management of Mr. John Douglas mistakes are reduced to 
a minimum. Having thus very briefly, and in outline only, sketched the 
history of dog shows, I would presently direct attention to their objects 
and management. 

Dog shows have grown to an extent of which their founders had pro- 
bably no anticipation. It will be well within the limit if I say there is 
now an average of two a week the year round in this country ; and if 
we take the average of the prize money offered as .200, we have over 
.20,000 of money to be competed for in the course of the year ; and 
if we average the number of entries at 200, at each show costing in 
entry fees and carriage 1, the prize money offered would exactly cover 
these expenses; but not more than one-third reaches the committees 
in shape of the entrance fees, the railway companies and others absorbing 
the rest, so that the prize money, after all, has to be made up from 
the general public in the shape of gate money and by private subscrip- 
tion. There is always, therefore, considerable monetary risk to the 
promoters, as in every speculative business ; for, although a fairly 

176 British Dogs. 

approximate estimate of the outlay may be made, much of the income 
depends on counter attractions simultaneously offering themselves, and 
also on that most uncertain of all things in this country, the weather. 
It is quite clear, then, that promoters run a risk. It is also clear 
enough that the money to be won by an exhibitor is nothing equal to 
the outlay the cost of purchase, preparing for and exhibiting, being so 
great that only occasionally is even the last item of expense covered by 
the prize money. The profit, however, is got in another way. The 
astute exhibitor knows that the prizes carry a higher remuneration than 
the mere money value. They raise the prestige of his kennel, and bring 
grist to the mill in the shape of stud fees and immensely enhanced 
prices for his stock. 

Of course there are hundreds of exhibitors with whom dog showing is so 
purely a hobby, that they seek for the honour alone ; but no matter with 
which of these views the pursuit is followed, the object sought is of equal 
value (for Kudos is to the one equal to cash to the other) and every means 
possible should be taken to insure the end being gained in a fair field with 
no favour and by merit alone. It is my object to inquire whether the 
present methods of arriving at the results all should aim at, and all 
profess to desire, are the best possible and practicable, and to do so it ia 
necessary to consider the various sections of the subject and those features 
in the present system which most frequently give rise to complaint and 
controversy. To this end we must review, in a general way, the con- 
stitution and arrangement of dog shows, the election of judges, the 
means and manner of judging, and other questions bearing on the very 
important object of all the machinery of dog shows the selection of the 
best dog for the highest honours. 

These embrace the often discussed questions of public versus private 
judging, single-handed, by two or more judges, the use by the judge 
of a catalogue, owners leading the dogs out, the system of electing 
judges, and judging by points, to the consideration of which I shall now 

Objects and Management of Dog Shows. 177 


THE one great object which should take precedence of all others, and the 
one which is universally professed, is the improvement of the various 

There are many other objects which naturally associate themselves 
with the principal one and act as auxiliaries to its attainment, and are 
in themselves not merely innocent, but laudable. 

That dog shows are an excellent means of arriving at the end sought 
for is, I think, beyond dispute, for they are the only convenient, and for 
most people the only possible, means of comparing the excellence of their 
own with the excellence of others ; and discovering, it may be, faults 
they were blind to, and good points previously unthought of, and giving 
a stimulus to the correction of the one, and the cultivation of the other. 

When dog shows fail in their highest object, it is on account of that 
object being lost sight of, or made subservient to other and meaner ones, 
even the grossest blunder a judge can commit can do no more than prove 
a temporary check ; and frequently, through the publicity given to them 
by the free criticism of the press, such blunders prove a blessing, being 
made prominent as danger signals. 

So long, however, as men are merely human, it is not to be expected 
that in carrying out such extensive schemes as dog shows, their objects 
can be altogether unmixed. 

Men, like their dogs, are intensely emulative animals, and dog shows 
provide a field where that attribute can be exercised in a most interesting 
manner. Merit, too, has its rewards to look forward to. Prizes and 
future profit stimulate the exertions of many ; some few seek only the 
glory and honour of being foremost in the race ; and for all, the shows 
provide a medium of pleasant re-union for those of congenial tastes, who 
would not otherwise meet. 

Another object influencing the promoters of shows, and a perfectly 
legitimate and laudable one, is to benefit the town in which it is to be 
held. Our great towns compete with each other for the visits of the 
Eoyal Agricultural Society and kindred associations, and the getting up 


178 British Dogs. 

of a dog show is often undertaken in the same spirit of loyalty to the 
interests of a locality, and this need in no way interfere with the higher 
object generally professed. 

Of course there is not the slightest objection to any person or persons 
getting up a dog show as a mere spectacle and speculation, if he or they 
pretend to nothing else ; but I do not think this is ever done. Therefore, 
it behoves exhibitors to consider the probabilities of the professed objects 
being the true ones, and the way in which such shows are put before the 
public, got up, and conducted, will pretty surely indicate the real object. 
Those exhibitors who support purely speculative shows, to find they 
cannot get paid their prize money, are in a similar position to a man 
who, attending a race course, invests his money with anybody who 
chooses to hold up an umbrella. Both are pretty sure to get " welched," 
and instead of receiving sympathy, will be laughed at. 

My contention is, that without being behind the scenes, an acute 
observer and accurate reasoner, from what is open to every one, can 
easily come to a fairly correct conclusion how far the professed objects 
of those who take upon themselves the direction of dog shows is true, 
and whether the means adopted to attain those objects do not confute 
the profession by rendering such attainment impossible. 

I do not expect to find in any case self interest wholly absent. In 
bodies of men, small or large, we generally find a mixture of the sordid 
with the pure, the mean with the lofty ; nor is absolute perfection to be 
looked for anywhere. 

The cleanest corn that e're was dicht, 
May hae some piles o' c'afl in. 

But it should be the care of all to secure the higher object from 
being obscured by the unworthy, or even the less worthy. 

On the organisation of some shows the following half serious, half 
humorous, sketch contributed to the Country is not without a broad 
foundation of truth, and may fairly find a place here. 

" First of all we have the organisers whoever they may be who first 
moot the idea that ' it would be a good thing to get up a dog show in 
Kennelborough.' The first thing needed is 

A sort of managing committee, 

A board of grave responsible directors, 

A secretary good at pen and ink, 

And a treasurer, of course, to keep the chink 

Objects and Management. 179 

and Mr. Boniface, of the Stirrup Cup shrewd man knowing how very dry 
arguments are apt to be, and how thirst-provoking to their users, gives 
a room wherein the arrangements and all the coming glories of the show 
shall be evolved from the inner consciousness of the ' managing com- 
mittee.' And here, at the very start human passions the noble and the 
mean, the generous and the selfish, come into play, and for the most part 
the higher natures bear down the meaner and make the scheme respect- 
able ; and it is only by cunning devices, undreamt-of by the single 
minded, that the selfish carry their ends. 

"This, I am convinced, is largely true, for in human nature, imperfect 
though it be, the good predominates, and it is only those people with 
unwashed eyes who see nothing but the faults of others. 

' ' Exhibitors and others newspaper reporters not excepted are apt to 
enlarge on the shortcomings and failings, and forget the good that has 
been done, in thinking too much of the good that might have been, but is 
omitted. Before the show becomes an accomplished fact there has been 
on the part of many considerable sacrifice of time and money, and much 
anxiety, to be continued till all is over and the cash book balanced. In 
the number of active members, no doubt, there is too often the self- 
seeker, the man who by hook or by crook always manages to get at least 
one class in the schedule to suit himself ; and when a committee is cursed 
with a few such, farewell to the fair character of the show, for these 
fellows will so play the game of " Tickle me, Toby, and I'll tickle thee," 
that, what with classes and conditions to suit certain dogs and a pliant 
judge, their nominee, the ring parade is worse than a farce. It is an 
acted lie of the meanest description." 

I do not intend to go into mere details of management, but rather to 
point out as briefly as possible some too common acts of mismanage- 
ment that must of necessity defeat the object of shows if that object be 
the improvement of dogs. 

1. The appointment of inexperienced and incompetent judges. 
Judges should have a wide experience of dogs, except those who limit 

their decisions to one or a few varieties. Unfortunately there is a craze 
with many to occupy the position for sake of the kudos it is supposed 
to give, and social influence is used to attain it, to the great hindrance 
of dog improvement. 

2. The election of judges by a section only of exhibitors. 

N 2 

180 British Dogs. 

Members of committee who elect the judges ought not to exhibit for 
prizes. If they can afford the sacrifice of time and money which they 
are supposed to do for the furtherance of a great object, it is not asking 
much from them to go a step further and show their animals not for 
competition. In the case of a great body like the Kennel Club, who so 
emphatically declare the sole object of their existence to be the improve- 
ment of dogs, dog shows, and dog trials, this unquestionably should 
be so. 

3. Dog shows should not be a mere market for the sale of puppies. 

I am of opinion classes for litters, and also for single puppies, at least 
for those under nine months, should be abolished. The result, especially 
in shows of long duration, is the spread of distemper and other con- 
tagious diseases, and canine mortality is immensely raised after every 
show buyers of pups soon lose them ; this injures shows, and hinders 
the development of their chief object in a double sense. 

4. Catalogues should in every case prove the means of identifying the 

In this respect those issued by the Kennel Club are models to others ; 
but scores are published with, in many cases, only the number of the 
pen and the exhibitor' s name, and this often leads to the substituting of 
one dog for another, and the crediting a stud dog with prizes he has 
never won. 

The Kennel Club catalogues would be improved by the colour and 
markings being given in classes where this is necessary. 

5. Shows should not extend over four days, three would be better, and, 
if puppies are included, not more than one day. 

6. In shows where the dogs are confined more than two days more 
ample provision for their regular exercise should be provided. 

7. The Kennel Club, or some other authority which should be of 
national character, should adopt a standard of excellence in each breed. 

8. The judges appointed by such authority referred to in Clause 7 
should be bound to judge by such standard. 

9. The dogs should be judged by points. 

By this means only can the judge's reasons for his decisions be seen 
and understood, but as I shall go fully into this point further on, I pass 
it for the present. 

Election of Judges. 1 8 1 


IN dog shows the judge is the central figure ; not only does he pose) and 
is sometimes posed) in the middle of the ring in which the aspirants to 
fame are paraded, and where he and his doings are, for the time being, 
the cynosure of all eyes, but his power reaches a much wider circle than 
those immediately concerned, and the influence of his decisions is felt in 
hundreds of cases outside the boundaries of shows. Take up any news- 
paper wherein dogs are advertised for sale and see how the decision of a 
judge is turned into coin of the realm ; how the fact of a prize having 
been awarded an animal, or even to his grandmother, is emphasised and 
capital made of it ; and consider the vast (I believe an average of nearly 
1000 dogs are weekly advertised in The Bazaar newspaper alone) business 
done in dogs nowadays, and how greatly the ordinary purchaser is in- 
fluenced by such facts as prizes having been won ; and at least one very 
practical effect of the judge's wide influence will be seen; and, if it is 
further considered that on the strength of such prize winnings dogs are 
largely bred from, another most important view of that influence pre- 
sents itself. 

What should be indelibly fixed on the minds of all concerned is that the 
judge's power does not end, but really begins, with the distribution of 
prizes, and that, therefore, his qualifications, the way in which he exercises 
his functions, and his mode of election, cannot, in the best interests of 
shows, be too carefully considered or too closely scrutinised, so long as 
that is done in a broad and liberal spirit, and free from the mere desire to 
cavil and find fault. I cannot take upon myself to define all the quali- 
fications a judge should possess, but there are some which to be without 
is to render him unfitted for the position. 

There are men afflicted with " colour blindness," and I have seen men 
attempting to judge dogs who were evidently afllicted with what I should 
call "canine blindness" an utter incapacity to distinguish between 
corresponding and conflicting characteristics. What a muddle such men 
make, and how deplorable the consequences ! These men may be the 
best of good fellows, their honour unimpeachable, and their desire for 

1 82 British Dogs. 

the improvement of the dog great, but they lack the absolutely necessary 
qualification of a judge, and as such they are failures. The judge must 
be a man of order, possessed of a natural ability for clear and accurate 
comparison and rapid analysis ; he must be able almost at a glance to 
take in the whole animal, and roughly estimate its approach to his ideal 
standard of excellence for the breed ; mentally dissect the several pro- 
perties of each one, and place them in the order in which they approach 
nearest to his idea of perfection. The qualifications necessary are partly 
natural and partly acquired by experience without a natural taste for 
the class of animals he judges together with an aptitude in the arrange- 
ment of facts, and a power of analogy, no amount of experience will ever 
give that quickness and decision absolutely necessary to be successful as 
a judge. 

There is a rather widespread opinion that to be a good judge a man 
must first have been a successful breeder. That is I think a position 
quite untenable. There is no doubt much to be gained by experience in 
breeding. The really successful breeder not the merely lucky breeder 
the man who starts to breed with a defined purpose, and keeps that 
in view until he attains it, has gained much that will raise his qualifica- 
tions as a judge ; but it does not make him one, for the simple fact 
is, that that man was a judge to begin with. On the other hand, the 
effect of such experience on some minds is narrowing and prejudicial, 
and in all cases it requires the counteracting and correctional influence 
of the experience of others. 

That experience as a breeder is not absolutely necessary to the making 
of a capable judge, I might put forward many instances in dog show 
circles, but it is perhaps better to show the fact without drawing on 
that source. Readers at least country readers must, many of them, 
have known in the days when the butcher and the farmer dealt with 
each other directly, and beasts and sheep were " sold by hand," many a 
clever dealer who could value each of a herd to a fraction, and at a word 
could tell in what points the animal was best and wherein wanting, and 
yet such men may never have farmed an acre, and never bred either a 
cow or a sheep. If we take the case of horse judging it is just the 
same it is not always either the breeder or the owner that is the best 
judge, and there are many men who never even owned a "screw" 
whose judgment is accurate and valuable. The experience gained by 

Judges: their Election. 183 

breeding may be beneficial or prejudicial, but it can never make a man 
a judge. 

That the sort of judge I have feebly indicated as the right one is not 
always elected it is needless for me to state. 

When I ventured to say inexperienced judges should not be appointed, 
I had no intention of suggesting that new judges should be forbidden the 
ring. There are within my own knowledge many good judges of large 
private experience who have not acted officially. But too often we see 
men appointed purely from the accident of their position, without any 
regard to fitness, and that is what should be discouraged. 

I am of opinion that for shows that have a national character and 
importance, the judges should be elected, not appointed, and the larger 
the constituency of electors the less danger of the wrong man being 
voted to the position. To take the case of the Kennel Club. It 
is not sufficient for them to say, " we publish our judges' names 
before entries close, and those who object to them need not exhibit." 
The Kennel Club court the support of the public, and it has been 
liberally given. It has been very generally recognised that they 
have undertaken useful work and deserve support ; and even those who 
think the position they occupy might be better filled, have too much 
sympathy with their objects to oppose them. Hence they enjoy, to a 
great extent, a monopoly, and people must exhibit at their shows or not 
at all, unless an undesirable opposition is started ; for it can hardly be 
with any intelligent hope of improving the dog that people dip their hands 
in the Birmingham lottery bag. 

The plan I propose, and it is one I have long publicly advocated, is to 
let the exhibitors elect the judges, whereas at present these functionaries 
are generally appointed by a very small section of them. 

If, as often happens, there are ten judges to be elected, let there be 
for each section given to them individually, three men nominated by the 
committee of the show, and let the votes go in with the entry papers ; a 
sub-committee would count votes and publish the names of the elected 

This is a practice of such long standing, and applied to so many 
things in this country, that I cannot think, as has been alleged, that 
gentlemen would object to be nominated. It was also, when formerly 
discussed, objected that it would lead to combinations of exhibitors 

1 84 British Dogs. 

electing men who would pledge themselves beforehand. I never could 
believe in that danger, but the objection only applied to the proposition 
that exhibitors should both nominate and elect. 

My proposition is, to some extent, a compromise. The committee to 
name thirty instead of ten men of whom they approve, and the exhibitors 
to select from them. The plan has this further advantage, that exhibitors 
approving of none of the three nominated in their section instead of 
voting, might name three in the order in which they would like them 
nominated for future shows, and this would be to some extent an index 
of the public wishes for the Kennel Club. 


THE newest and most brilliant luminary in canine literature, before 
whom all past and present dealers in doggy lore must, sooner or later, 
pale their ineffectual fires, is Mr. Vero Shaw, and he says, in his " Pen 
and Ink Sketches," that on the subject of judging by points I am what 
he terms "immense," but that rumour says it is not from conviction, 
but obstinacy, that I adhere to this " unclean thing." 

Rumour and Mr. Shaw are both mistaken. My friend Mr. Shaw has 
written a book all about dogs, and I particularly admire that portion 
of it in which is described the several "points" of each breed and the 
numerical value put upon them. 

Now, I conceive that it is utterly impossible for any sane writer to so 
minutely assess the value of each individual point and express it in those 
dreadfully matter-of fact things, figures, if he did not intend them to be 
used, and this is what Mr. Shaw does " one for his knob, two for his 
heels " everything has an exact value, be it the chop of the bulldog or 
the tail of the pug, you are told it to a fraction ; and, therefore, believing 
my friend to be sane, I claim him on my side that is, in favour of 
judging by points. 

Another strong opponent of the system has also committed himself, 
although not so deeply. I refer to Mr. S. E. Shirley, M.P., chairman of 

Judging by Points. 185 

the Kennel Club. I never heard Mr. Shirley speak against the principle 
of judging by points, but he once said to me he thought life was too 
short for its practice. Now Mr. Shirley has recently contributed to 
Mr. Shaw's book an article on collies, in which he most precisely lays 
down the absolute numerical value of each point in that breed. Why 
is this ? figures of speech may be ornamental, but mere numerical figures 
have to all but statisticians a dreary sameness about them, and plain 
matter-of-factness which cannot be turned to ornament. I wonder what 
Mr. Shirley's reflections would be now if , when at school, his tutor had 
said to him of the multiplication table, " These figures are all very well 
you know, and you had better learn them, but bear in mind you must 
never think of making a practical use of them life is much too short 
for that." 

The simple fact is, judging by points is the only possible way of 
judging at all, and to arrive at conclusions as to the respective merits of 
the dogs for adjudication in any other way is mere guess work. 

In the most ordinary friendly chats about dogs, when discussing their 
relative merits, we say Bob's head is better than Carlo's, and Wagg is 
better in loin than either, and such remarks are quite understood and 
appreciated ; it is a rough and loose way of judging by points, and the 
application of the numerical value to each point, as described in the 
standard of excellence, is merely giving exactness to it, and facilitating 
the work of striking a balance between the good and bad points, and more 
readily, and with greater precision, awarding to each dog his proper place 
in the scale of merit. 

Of course, we do not use pencil and paper every time we have to 
deal with figures, but in intricate accounts mental arithmetic is not 
trusted to. And so it is in judging dogs j practice enables anyone with 
any pretensions to fill the position of a judge, to weed out quickly 
specimens so wanting in general excellence aa to be " out of the hunt," 
but in close competition when the judge is supposed to be very 
particular as to each good and bad point of each competitor would it 
not save time and ensure accuracy to put down, in a prepared tabular 
form, the value put upon each point seriatim, and add them up at the 
finish ? I do not think life is too short for that ; on the contrary, 
I think this would prove a lengthening of life, by saving time. 

An able opponent of point judging contends that in the exercise of his 

1 86 British Dogs. 

functions the judge is guided by an inborn faculty aided by years of 
experience, and that his decisions should be received, accepted, and re- 
spected without question by those not blest with such innate ability ; and 
further, that it is not the duty of the judge to teach, nor is it in his 
power to explain to the public, so that they can understand the pro- 
cesses and stages by which he arrived at his conclusions. In fact that it 
would be as fair to ask a clever prestidigitateur to explain how he accom- 
plished his clever tricks and illusions as to ask a judge how he arrived at 
his decisions the former could but shrug his shoulders and re-perform 
the trick as plainly as he could, and so with the judge, both performing 
their work by the power of an inborn faculty aided by years of practice 
and experience. On the contrary, I hold that the objects of shows being 
what they profess to be, it is essentially the duty of the judge to instruct 
the public, and that he is not at all in the same position as the performer 
of sleight of hand tricks who has only to amuse. The judge may be 
more fairly compared to an expert mechanic one whose deftness and 
rapidity of action in producing results wonderful to the uninitiated, can 
yet intelligently explain every process from beginning to end, so that 
anyone may understand. 

Judging by points, too, has this advantage ; it settles the question of 
dual judging, by giving the opinion of both to the public in a concrete 
form, and that of the arbitrator also on the point of difference on which 
he was called upon to decide the cases where the two judges had 

It settles the question of public versus private judging fairly well, 
providing a more substantial feast than seeing the dogs walked round, 
and acting as indicators to every step the judge took in going through 
his duties. With this solatium to wounded feelings the disappointed 
exhibitor could look with more equanimity on the secret conclaves of 
Curzon Hall. 

One objection I have heard urged against point judging is that it 
would reduce judging to a dead level ; there would, it is said, be a dull 
stagnancy about it that would soon asphixiate shows. 

I cannot see that there would be less difference of opinion under the 
one system than under the other, nor would there be sameness in the 
awards of the same man, nor more room for charges of inconsistency 
then than now. It is unreasonable to expect perfection in the work 

Judging by Points. 187 

of any judge, and in judging by points the qualified man, whilst he 
might vary in his valuation of points, would never be very far off the 

The modus operandi of judging by points is so clearly shown by 
" Caractacus," in his chapter on the bulldog, that I need not repeat 
it here, but will in conclusion refer to a few general questions affecting 
judging, and the manner of doing it. 

What I may call the Birmingham system, as it is the only show of 
importance, where it is now in vogue, is the election of the judges by a 
small committee and the keeping of their names secret from the public and 
exhibitors until the day on which they have to act arrives. 

Concomitant with this secrecy respecting the judges, there is a great 
parade made of keeping these gentlemen entirely ignorant as to the 
identity of the dogs they are judging plain chains and collars must be 
worn by the dogs no one but the committee, the judges, and the servants 
of the committee, who lead the dogs, are admitted during the judging. 
Even the press is excluded until noon, and then they are denied 
catalogues and forbidden to approach or speak to a judge until he has 
completed his labours ; and altogether on the judging day at the 
Birmingham show one feels that in Curzon Hall they are breathing an 
atmosphere of suspicion as thick and unwholesome as Birmingham 
vomits from any of her numerous tall chimneys. The great difficulty is 
in deciding which class the judges, reporters, or exhibitors is the most 
suspected by this immaculate committee. I am disposed to think the 
servants in the yellow striped vests are treated with the most confidence 
at Birmingham. 

The simplicity that supposes such ridiculous rules effective for the 
avowed object is in harmony with the miserable spirit which considers 
precautions against collusion between judge and exhibitor necessary. 

The Birmingham committee cannot, for want of space, have public 
judging, but here as elsewhere when the public cannot see for them- 
selves, their representatives, the press, should certainly have every 
facility given to them to accurately and fully report facts to their clients 
but the Birmingham committee seem like Otaheitan cooks, to think 

No food is fit to eat 
Till they have chewed it. 

As far as the matters above referred to go, the Birmingham committee 

1 88 British Dogs. 

remain wrapped in the swaddling clothes of infancy, and are content 
with the illusions of childhood. 

It certainly requires no great exercise of that common sence of which 
Birmingham, not without reason, boasts to show that it is utterly impos- 
sible to prevent judges of experience knowing and recognising at a glance 
dogs they have seen scores of times. Then why not put all dogs on an 
equality, so far as can be done, by giving the judge a catalogue in his 
hand ? If he can be influenced by ownership, it is not such rules as 
obtain at Birmingham that will stop him in wrong doing, but, believing 
as I do in the honour and integrity of judges, I hold you are materially 
aiding him and forwarding the highest objects of shows by giving him 
every item of information that can assist him in coming to a mature and 
correct decision. 

At Maidstone, Cork, the Irish Kennel Club, the Bulldog Club, and 
other shows, catalogues are handed to the judges before they begin. 
Personally, except when it is necessary to refer to age or some such 
point, I have found them practically an encumbrance, and prefer 
The Field duplicate judging book. The practice is nevertheless useful 
in many ways, and most of all in that it disarms unworthy suspicion. 

The kennel club have adopted public judging and the practice of 
announcing their judges' names before the entries close, and have been 
largely followed by other committees, and I hope to see them go still 
further and let their judges have catalogues to consult openly, and not as 
has been the case in some instances, clandestinely. 

The question of single or dual judging is not important if point judging 
be adopted, but while this is not the case public opinion runs strongly in 
favour of single judging, and I believe judges generally prefer it. 

Standard of Excellence. 

1 89 


I. Greyhound. 

Head 10 

V. Lurcher. 

Not shown or encouraged. 

"NTppk 10 

Chest and forequarters ... 20 
Loin and back ribs 15 
Hindquarters 15 
Legs and Feet 15 
Tail 5 

VI. Whippet. 

Same as Greyhound. 

Colour and coat 10 
Total 100 

VIL Siberian Wolf- 
i j 


Head . 10 

//. Scotch Deerhound. 

Eyes 5 


TToorl 10 

Ears 5 

Neck 10 

Ears and eyes 5 
Neck 10 

Chest, shoulders, and ribs 15 

Chest and shoulders 15 
Back and ribs 10 
Hindquarters 10 
Legs and feet 15 
Tail 5 

Back and loins 15 
Hindquarters 10 
Legs and feet 10 
Tail 5 
Colour and coat 5 

Colour and coat 10 
Symmetry 10 

Total . ... 100 

Total 100 

III. Irish Wolfhound. 

Head (skull and jaw) ... 15 
Neck chest, and shoulders 15 

VIII. Persian Grey- 

Head 10 

Back, loins, and ribs 15 

Hindquarters 10 

Ears 5 

Legs and feet 10 

Neck 5 

Colour and coat 10 
Size and symmetry 25 

Total 100 

Chest, ribs, and shoulders 10 
Back and loins 
Legs and feet 10 
Tail 5 

IV. Rough Scotch Grey- 

Same as Greyhound. 

Colour and coat 10 
Symmetry and elegance ... 20 

Total 100 

i go 

British Dogs. 

IX. Bloodhound. 

... 15 

XIIL Beagle. 



Ears and eyes 
Flews and dewlap 

... 10 
... 10 
... 5 
... 10 
... 10 
... 20 
... 5 
... 5 
... 10 

... 100 

Neck and throat 

... 10 

Chest and shoulders ... 
Back and back ribs ... 
Legs and feet 
Colour and coat 


Back and loins 
Legs and feet 
Colour and coat 
Condition and symmetry 


... 10 
... 10 
... 10 
... 10 
... 10 

... 100 

. 15 

X. Foxhound. 
Head &c 

XIV. Basset. 

Head (skull and jaws) ... 15 
Eyes 5 
Ears 5 
Neck 5 
Chest and shoulders 15 
Back, loins, and hindquarters 20 
Legs and feet 20 
Stern 5 



Shoulders and arms 


Chest and ribs 
Back and loins 
Legs and feet 
Colour and coat 

Of a-.,-.. 

... 10 

... 10 
... 15 
... 15 
... 5 
... 10 

. 100 

Symmetry and condition 

Colour and coat 

... 10 
... 100 

... 15 

. 10 

XL Otterhound. 

XV. Dachshund. 

Head (skull, muzzle, 


... 10 


... 5 
... 10 

Chest and shoulders ... 
Body and loins 
Legs and feet 

... 15 
... 15 
... 10 
... 10 





... 15 


... 5 


Symmetry and strength 

... 10 
... 100 

Hind legs 

... 10 
... 10 





XII. Harrier. 

Same uoints as Foxhound 

Colour . ... 

. 100 

Total . 

Standard of Excellence. 


XVI. English Setter. 


Skull 10 

Nose 5 

Ears, lips, and eyes 4 

Neck 6 

Shoulders and chest 15 

Back quarters and stifles ... 15 

Legs, elbows, hocks 12 

Feet 8 

Flag 5 

Texture of coat and feather 5 

Colour 5 

Symmetry and quality ... 10 

Total . 100 

XVII. Black and Tan or 
Gordon Setter. 

Head, including ears, eyes, 

and nose 20 

Neck 5 

Shoulders 10 

Cheat 10 

Barrel, back, and loins ... 15 

Quarters and stifles 10 

Legs and feet 1.0 

Flag 5 

Coat and colour 5 

Symmetry 10 

Total . . 100 

XV I II. Irish Setter. 


Head 10 

Eyea 4 

Ears 4 

Neck 8 

Body, including shoulders 

and loins 20 

Forelegs 10 

Hind legs 12 

Feet 10 

Stern '.. ... 5 

Coat 7 

General appearance 10 

XIX. Pointer. 

Skull . 10 




Ears, eyes, and lips 


Shoulders and chest 

Back, quarters, and stifles 
Legs, elbows, and hocks . . 




Colour ... 









Symmetry 7 



XX. Black Spaniel. 


Head 10 

Ears 5 

Eyes 5 

Neck 5 

Chest, back, and loins ... 25 

Shoulders, legs, and feet ... 20 

Tail 5 

Coat, colour, and feathering 15 
General appearance and 

symmetry 10 



XXI. Cocker Spaniel. 

Same valuation of points. 

XXII, Clumber Spaniel. 


Head 20 

Ears 10 

Neck 5 

Length 15 

Shoulders and chest 10 

Back 10 

Legs and feet 15 

Stern 5 

Coat 5 

Colour K ... 5 



1 9 2 

British Dogs. 

XXIII. Sussex Spaniel. 


Sknll 15 

Eyes 5 

Nose 10 

Ears 5 

Neck 5 

Shoulders and chest 10 

Back and back ribs 10 

Legs and feet 10 

Tail 10 

Colour 10 

Coat 5 

Symmetry 5 

Total . ,.100 

XXIV. Norfolk Spaniel. 

Same as the cocker. 

XXV. Irish Water 

Head and topknot 

Face and eye 


Chest and shoulders ... 
Back and quarters 

Legs and feet 


Coat and colour 



... 15 
... 10 
... 10 
... TO 
... 10 
... 10 
... 10 
... 20 


XXV I. English Water 
Spaniel. POINTS . 

Head and muzzle 15 

Eye 5 

Nose 5 

Ears 5 

Neck 5 

Chest and shoulders 15 

Back and loins 15 

Tail ... 5 

Legs and feet 15 

Coat and colour 15 

Total . ,.100 

XXVII. Wavy - Coated 
Retriever, Black and 
Liver. PoiNm 

Head, muzzle, and nose ... 20 

Ears and eyes 5 

Neck and shoulders 10 

Chest 10 

Back, loins, and hindquarters 15 

Legs and feet 15 

Tail 5 

Coat and colour 10 

Symmetry 10 



XXVIII. Curly - coated 
Retriever, Black and 
Liver. PoiNT8 . 

Head and muzzle 15 

Ears and eyes 5 

Smallness and closeness of 

curl in coat 15 

Neck 5 

Chest and shoulders 15 

Back and loins 15 

Hindquarters 10 

Stern 5 

Legs and feet 15 



XXIX.-Norfolk Retriever. 

The same as last, allowing for 
difference in various points. 

XXX. Russian Retriever. 

Judged by shape, size, coat, and 
colour. Points have not been 





tJ .* 




Dogs specially used by man as assistants in 
his work. 

Including : 

1. The Scotch Co I ley. 

2. The Smooth - coated 


j. The Bearded Colley. 
4. The English Sheepdog 

or Drover's Dog. 

5. The Esquimaux. 

6. The North American 

Wolf Dog. 

7. Sleigh Dogs. 

8. The Truffle Dog. 

This group does not include a great variety of British 
dogs, especially as we have kept out of it the vermin 
destroyers and others which have some claim to be 
included in it. In head formation all are modifications 
of the corresponding group in Division I., except the 
English sheepdog, which is shorter and thicker in the 
head. Most of the varieties embraced in it are marked 
by a high degree of intelligence. 


I DO not think it possible to say much if, indeed, anything new about 
the colley ; but as there has been almost as much nonsense written about 
this dog as on the subject of teetotalism, I shall try to shovel a lot of the 
accumulated rubbish aside, that we may have a clearer view of the dog as 

o 2 

1 96 British Dogs. 

he was and still is when " unimproved " by the descriptive eloquence of 
the advertising- and ignorant dealer, and " undescribed " by the ready 
pen but too often superficially informed dog show reporter. 

I do not say that these classes, even with the influence of the incom- 
petent judge thrown in, have destroyed the colley, but they have done 
their utmost, and succeeded so far that the dust they have kicked up has 
got into the eyes of the public, and with the public, in consequence, a 
usurper rules where the true colley should reign. 

It is, perhaps, not my province to award the proportions of blame 
among the three classes of delinquents referred to, but I decidedly think 
the reporters are most deserving of censure. The constant iteration 
of what are evidently considered smart and clever sayings, regardless 
of their relevancy or truth ; the flippant delivery of the ipse dixit 
in fact, the constant chatter and gabble, as of spring geese, which 
is often met with in the pages of fanciers' papers, are sickening to a 
degree, and as damaging as such twaddle can be to true canine interests. 
They convince me that the present system of dog show reporting is as 
vicious as it is nauseous, and that there is no class, except, perhaps, the 
judges, which the world could so well spare as the common run of dog- 
show reporters. 

I need scarcely say I do not write indiscriminately of all judges and 
all reporters. I have often seen the work of both, which proved con- 
clusively that the performers not only knew their business but took 
pains to do it well. These, however, are still comparatively few, and are 
the mere salt and pepper which prevent the general body from becoming 

Some years ago, when the "Field " was the only paper reporting 
dog shows, constant descriptions of colleys, with beautiful jet black 
coats and rich orange tan markings were given ; and in advertisements 
and elsewhere we still occasionally hear the reverberation of the silly 
sing-song. What stronger incentive could there be to dealers to offer 
half-bred Gordon setters as pure colleys, when the leading journal was 
teaching the public such a false lesson, and thereby creating a demand 
for the graceful mongrels with thin coats, " soft as a lady's hand," 
feathered legs, draggle-tails, saddle-flap ears, and a rich mahogany 
coloured kissing spot on each cheek, that have been so plentiful ever 
since. Nice articles these toys would be " to bide the pelting of the 

The Scotch Colley. 197 

pitiless storm," to bravely face the snow-drift and the sleet throngh 
heather and moss hag, in tentie care of 

the ourie cattle, 
Or silly sheep that hide the brattle 

O' winter war; 
And through the drift deep lairing sprattle, 

Beneath a scaur. 

I quote from memory, and therefore not literally, but I believe it was 
"Idstone," in one of the charming papers he used to contribute to the 
" Field," who told the story of the Scotch shepherd on the hill side fall- 
ing in love with his Gordon setters, and saying he would " like a cross 
o' yin o' them wi' his colley, for they would throw unco braw whalps." 
Oh ! " Idstone !" " Idstone !" how could you let my countryman draw 
the white feather over your eyes so ? The " pawky auld carle ' ' had ulterior 
designs on your whisky flask, and was not unmindful of the proverb, 
" Love me, love my dog ;" but a shepherd who would make such a pro- 
position in earnest is not fit to take care of a hirsel. 

Further, in reference to this question of colour, I, for my part, put 
aside, as purely fanciful and with facts all agains t them, the opinions 
given in both the earlier and the last edition of " Dogs of the British 
Islands." In the former I find it stated the colou rs are various, " some- 
times sandy or of various mixed greys, some of which are singularly 
beautiful and picturesque. There is generally a very fine white line 
down the forehead, not amounting to a blaze as in the spaniel." 

Who wrote the article on colleys in the first edition I do not know, 
but feel certain it was not "Stonehenge," for he could not by any 
possible slip conceivable to me be guilty of the absurdities with which it 
abounds to wit, the following quotations, the statements in which were 
gravely made in a book for many years the standard work on dogs, given as 
information to the British public, and not as jokes, ponderous as they 
would have been: "Their [the colleys] homing faculty is very extra- 
ordinary, and it has been asserted that the Scottish drovers would send 
them back alone from Smithfield to the Highlands with a wave of the 
hand." Would that the Ettrick Shepherd and Kit North had read the above 
together we should have had an additional chapter in the Noctes. 
Again we have the following evidence of hearsay usurping the practical : 
41 If a dog is of a marked intelligence, he may even be trusted to lie upon 

198 British Dogs. 

an eminence all day and to watch the movements of thousands of sheep 
grazing below him, for he will keep all in their proper district ; and when 
he hears his master' s shrill whistle he will ' go round ' and drive them 
home." I once read the foregoing balderdash to a Scotch shepherd, 
which elicited the criticism, "Hoota ! fulebody ; does he think a' the hirsel 
lie in ae' hollow, and that we drive them a' hame at 'een like kye tae the 
byre ?" The fact is, the writer borrowed the story from an earlier writer, 
"John Meyrick," and enlarged and embellished it with the exuberance of 
his own fancy as a bit of padding ; and that was the sort of intellectual 
pabulum offered to the inquiring mind on colleys by the " Dogs of the 
British Islands." 

In the recently issued edition of his work, " Stonehenge" has swept 
his pages clean of all such trumpery, recognising that the extraordinary 
intelligence really possessed by the colley needs not the embellishments 
of Munchausenism, and he has given the best descriptive article on col- 
leys ever written. Yet still on the subject of colour I have " a crow to 
pluck " with him, presumptuous as it may be to " beard the lion in his den,' ' 
as it were, and attack the king of canine writers in his very castle. He says : 
"A good deal of white is met with in some strains, and sometimes the 
tan is altogether absent, but, cceteris paribus, a black and tan colour 
without much white is highly preferred." Now, this gives the impres- 
sion that the black and tan has some superiority over those with white, 
which is not the case ; neither, as stated by " Stonehenge," are black and 
tan colleys the most commonly met with. That such is the case at shows I 
freely grant, but there a large number owe the colour to the setter cross, 
although in some cases this may be rather remote ; but in the pastoral dis- 
tricts of Scotland and the North of England my own observations, con- 
firmed by reference to numerous friends, convince me that black- white-and- 
tan colleys are the most numerous, and chacon a son gout ; but cceteris 
paribus, I say those with a white ring, or almost a ring, round the neck, 
a white chest, a white end to the tail, and a good broad dash of white down 
the forehead and face are greatly to be preferred. That black and white 
colleys have been long recognised, the following advertisement, which 
appeared in the " Edinburgh Evening Courant " of 20th January, 1806, 
bears witness : " There was lost in Princess-street, on Saturday, the 
28th Dec. last, a black and white rough colley or shepherd's dog." 

I do not, however, rest my argument entirely either on my own observa- 

The Scotch Colley. 199 

tion nor upon the terms of an old advertisement. The ploughman-poet of 
Scotland had plenty of opportunities, and may be allowed to have been 
a capable observer, and of his own colley he says : 

His breast was white, his toozie back 
Weel clad wi' coat o' glossy black. 

Strong as I consider the evidence of Burns in my favour, I have still 
my trump card to play, after which I hope the advocates of the black 
and tan, and "the fine line down the forehead not amounting to a 
blaze," will follow the advice of Joey Ladle to the musical party after 
hearing Madeline sing. 

No less an authority than Dr. Gordon Stables says " the best dogs are 
tricoloured, black on the body, with tan points, and white collar and chest 
and forearms, and at times a blaze up the face and white tip to tail." 

I have no prejudice against black and tan, but much prefer the tricolour, 
and I consider the white ring round the neck very characteristic of the 
breed, and indeed it seems not improbable that this very usual distinctive 
mark gave the name of colley to the breed, just as the sweetwilliam is 
the coll-me-quick of the garden from the ring of colour round its petals. 

To pass on from the consideration of colour, I must say the colley 's 
head has also been rather badly treated. So long as we had the black and 
rich orange tan in the ascendant we were bound to have with it with a 
few exceptional cases the high domed skull and more or less full fore- 
head ; but having got rid of one evil, there are some judges and writers 
clamorous to rush us into the opposite excess, and would have triangular 
heads, with the foreheads planed down to a perfect level and tapering 
jaws as long as those of a pike. These are some of the exaggerations 
created and nursed by those who can only take in one point of a dog 
at a time, and, having to say something, make that one point the all in 
all of their ephemeral creed. As an instance of the way extremes are 
run into, this desire for a long head as against the " chumpy " ones of 
the Gordon setter cross sort, some of the prize winners at the Alexandra 
Palace Show, July, 1879, had heads as long as deerhounds, and more 
the shape of a Jargonelle pear than what a colley 's head should be. 

Again, what an outcry there is if a colley is seen to carry his tail over 
his back when in the ring. What slaps with the chain and covert strokes 
with the stick the knowing ones give the poor caudal appendage, and all 

2OO British Dogs. 

because ignorance puts its veto on the dog doing exactly what he ought 
to do. 

The colley is a dog of great spirit, and when he meets his peers, be it 
at kirk, or market, or in the show ring, he gets his flag up, as much as to 
say, " I'm as good a dog as any of you." And for this, forsooth, the 
"inverted telescope " reviewers taboo the dog, and write him down as a 
ring-tailed mongrel. No true colley carries his tail lying curled on his 
back like a Pomeranian, but he should not trail it behind him like a 
Llewellyn setter or the brush of a done-up fox. 

There has been an attempt made by recent writers to circumscribe the 
national character of this dog by calling him the Highland colley, as though 
he were peculiar to the north of Scotland. There appears to me to be 
even less justification for this than for calling the old English black and 
tan terrier the Manchester terrier, for Manchester has done something 
special in making the modern black and tan terrier what he is ; but it is 
not so in the case of the Highlands of Scotland and the colley, and this 
dog is more properly described as the Scotch collie, even to the manner of 
spelling the word. 

This dog is peculiarly Scotch, and as a pastoral dog originally more 
intimately connected with the lowlands, where he is still, I consider, met 
with pure in the greatest numbers, although now plentiful both in the 
highlands of Scotland and the northern counties of England, and, indeed, 
through the influence of dog shows and the rage for the breed in fashion- 
able circles in London itself, where he always appears to me to have 
wandered out of his latitude. 

The question of orthography may not be an important one, but I am 
of opinion collie is correct, as I find Dr. Ogilvie, in his " Imperial 
Dictionary," and Jameson, in his "Scottish Dictionary," both give that 
form of spelling, and I think it is not improbable that collie is merely 
the diminutive and familiar form of coll, as in all Scotch words the " ie " 
is thus used, as Will becomes Willie, and Lass Lassie. Bewick, in his 
" British Quadrupeds," indeed, had his own peculiar and original spelling 
of the word, which was coaly pardonable in a book published in coaly 

Of the moral and intellectual qualities of the dog a great deal of very 
silly rubbish has been written. His intelligence is of such a high order 
that it is not improved, but made ridiculous by the embellishments of those 

The Scotch Co I ley. 201 

who write without practical knowledge, and concoct foolish stories about 
him, which are merely the reflex of their own love for the marvellous rather 
than for the truth. It would, indeed, be difficult to over-estimate the intelli- 
gence of a good colley ; he thinks and acts for himself under difficulties 
and conditions new to him, and in matters relative to his special duties 
rarely fails to strike out the true path. That he feels the responsibility 
of his charge and acts independently of special orders, all who have had 
opportunities of observing him must have noted. Even the cottager's 
dog, when he has been once initiated into it as a duty, will turn the 
poultry out of the garden without bidding. I have seen a dog in charge 
under the shepherd of a flock of white-faced sheep on the south aide of a 
hill, and where the watershed was the boundary, and no fence to mark 
it, over and over again, without the slightest hint from his master, get up 
and leisurely pick out and drive back to the north side of the hill the 
hardier black faces that had stolen over the crest and down the south 
slope among their white-faced friends in search of the better bite they 
well knew grew there. These are among the common duties and every- 
day practice of trained colleys, which might be extended and illustrated 
almost ad libitum, and are a sufficient proof of high intelligence without 
intrenching on special doings of individual dogs, which in some instances 
are certainly very remarkable ; but what higher display of that craftiness 
and cunning with which the colley is credited can we have than in the 
performances of trained specimens under the intelligent handling of the 
shepherds at those sheepdog trials instituted by Mr. J. LI. Price, of 
Rhiwlas, Bala ? The craft and cunning is of a high order, and to me 
clearly indicates considerable reasoning power ; and, indeed, the highest 
encomium a Scotch shepherd can pass on a colley is that he is " gey 
wyse," i.e., very wise. 

Instances and anecdotes innumerable could be given illustrative of the 
colley' s cleverness and fidelity to his trust and to his master, were this the 
place for so doing, but I take it that my readers are fully aware of his 
capability for marvellous displays of intelligence, and need neither 
ancient saws nor modern instances to confirm them in their faith. 

It is just worth notice that the colley is one among other sheepdogs 
that writers have credited with being the origin of all the varieties of our 
domestic dogs ; but as each writer has selected the sheepdog of his own 
country as the real original, the idea is considerably damaged, the sheep- 

202 British Dogs. 

dogs of various countries differing quite as widely from each other as 
the people do, so that I feel bound to accept the colley as he is, without 
being too curious as to his origin the theory that each country had a 
special breed of dog manufactured for its special behoof, from which all 
its varieties spring, not commending itself to my judgment. 

There is one point I think most people will agree upon, namely, that 
the colley is in physical properties more nearly allied to several races 
of wild dogs than any other of our domestic breeds. The likeness 
between the colley and the Indian hare dog, as given by Youatt, is very 

In general appearance the colley stands clear and distinct from any 
other of our domestic breeds his build is light and graceful, no super- 
abundance of needless bone or tissue to cumber him in his work, and no 
sacrifice of these at the shrine of elegance ; yet his style and carriage are 
eminently elegant in every outline and graceful movement, and there is 
a fitness about him for the rough yet important work he has to do, and a 
combination of wisdom and self-reliance, toned down by an expression of 
loyalty and love for his master, that commends him to us and commands 
our admiration. 

The general contour, with its filling in, shows a combination of agility, 
speed, suppleness, with a power of endurance that no other breed 
possesses. There is no waste, no lumber about him ; even his heavy 
coat is so in appearance only, being essentially wet-resisting and a ne- 
cessity of his exposed existence. 

There is no dog that excels the colley in good looks, high intelligence, 
and unswervable loyalty to his master, and to these qualities does he owe 
his high position as a general favourite with the public, whilst his many 
practical excellencies render him indispensable to the shepherd. 

As a general complete poetic yet accurate description of the colley, I 
know of nothing to compare with Burns' description of his own dog 
Luath, which I therefore transcribe : 

He was a gash and f aithfu' tyke 
As ever lap a sheugh or dyke. 
His honest, sonsie, bawsint face, 
Aye gat him friends in ilka place. 
His breast was white, his towzie back 
Weel clad wi' coat o' glossy black. 
His gawcie tail, wi' upward curl, 
Hung ower his hurdies wi' a swurl. 

The Scotch Colley. 203. 

The wise and faithful, yet sonsie that is, open, jolly, engaging look 
is admirably descriptive ; and the bawsint face that is, with the bold 
white blaze down it, like a badger ; and the gawcie, or large abundant 
swirling tail, are eminently characteristic of the breed. 

To take the points seriatim : 

The head should be in size proportionate to the whole body, although 
it looks rather small in the best specimens from the long thick ruff of 
hair round the neck and throat in which it is set. The skull is broad 
and rather flat, slightly narrowing towards the front. The forehead is 
slight, and there is more or less fulness over the eyes, but this, if much 
exaggerated, is a suspicious point. It should not, however, be a long 
lean and gradually tapering head from occiput to nose, but the muzzle 
gradually tapering and of fair length, without becoming what is termed 
snipey. The teeth should be strong, white, and those of the upper and 
lower jaw should meet. I have never seen a decidedly undershot colley. 
Such a feature would be a great disfigurement, and the opposite, over- 
shot or pig-jaw, is so also, although not to the same extent. This was a 
great fault in Old Jack and in Carlyle, the subject of our illustration. 

The eyes are pretty close together, being set well forward and at an 
oblique angle, as, indeed, the eyes of all breeds are, more or less, 
although in most not so pronounced as in the colley. The colour varies 
with the colour of the coat, but generally some shade of brown. Those 
with a good deal of white have generally the lightest eyes. 

With the ear, the large drooping or " saddle-flap" style is almost a 
certain indication of impurity, and if there is a silky fringe to it a setter 
cross may be pretty safely inferred. I have seen colleys of undoubted 
purity with prick ears, but they are not a nice feature. The ear that is 
thrown back, with its tip embedded in the thick frill as the dog scampers 
about or comes bounding towards you in his pleasure, and is seen imme- 
diately to be at half cock, that is, pricked up when he is on the qui vive 
is the one to be desired. It drops when the dog is still. 

In a rough-coated dog the shoulder must be felt to know what it is, 
but it can be pretty well judged of by the dog's action a stiff stilted 
movement betrays a straight and useless shoulder ; it should slope well, 
and be well clothed with elastic muscle. 

The chest is deep ; a wide one throws the elbows out, and indicates 
too slow and laboured a pace. On the other hand, if the depth is 

2O4 British Dogs. 

exaggerated the dog will catch a bump on hags and tussocks as he 
runs over rough ground. 

The back is decidedly long and strong, but supple ; the fore ribs deep, 
and not too much rounded ; the back ribs rather shallow, but not so 
much so as to cause the dog to be greatly tucked up in the flank. In 
ihis there should be a happy medium between the greyhound form and 
the square built mastiff. The loin is slightly arched, and from the hip 
bones there is a gradual droop to the set on of tail. 

The forelegs straight and muscular, strong forearm, elbow in a line 
with the body and well let down ; hind legs well bent, strong and 
muscular thighs ; sickle hocks ; from the hock-joint there should be 
no feathering, in strong contrast to the hams above, where the 
feathering is very abundant ; the feet are not quite round, like a cat's, 
neither are they long, like an English terrier's, but between the two ; 
the knuckles are well sprung, the claws strong, and the pads hard and 

The coat is of the greatest importance, and one of the great 
characteristics of the breed. It consists of an outer long compara- 
tively thin lot of hair, of hard, useful texture, and an under jacket of 
very thick, close, soft hair, quite of a woolly texture, and in black dogs 
always of a fulvous colour, which is frequently seen through the outer 
ihin covering. The two combined are impermeable to rain, and even to 
Scotch mist of any ordinary or reasonable sort, and this, for a dog that 
has to be constantly running through long grass, brackens, rushes, 
and heather, or lying curled up in a snow wreath, or by a wet dyke side, 
is of the utmost importance. In winter, with alternate snow, rain, and 
frost, a very long coat is objectionable, as it gets matted with mud and 
balls of snow, and makes travelling almost impossible for him. On the 
jaws, face, skull, and on the entire front and inside of legs, the hair is 
short and smooth, but from the angle of the jaw and round immediately 
at the back of the occiput it is very long, and round the throat turns 
upwards and forwards So thick and long is it round the neck and throat 
as to form a decided frill or ruff, and this I hear called " the mane " and 
" the apron/' both terms inappropriate and as purely fanciful as ridiculous. 
If our modern dog fanciers must turn word coiners, they should become 
more expert at it before thrusting their manufacture on the public. On 
the whole of the body the coat stands well out, because of the abundance 

The Scotch Colley. 205 

of undercoat, although the whole presents a level and flat appearance at 
a little distance. The hair on the hams and tail is very abundant, quite 
a contrast to the fine thin fringe that adorns these parts of the setter. 

I believe black and white, with more or less of tan, to be the pre- 
dominating colour, and not black and tan, as has been so often 
insisted on in recent years. All black, black and tan, black and white 
without tan, red and white, red tawny grizzled, and beautiful blue-grey 
and white mottle or mirled, I have seen, and it must always be a matter 
of taste which is preferred. I like the tricoloured best, and do not object 
to a good dash of white. If there is much white it is sure to appear on 
the collar, the feet, and lower legs and the tip of the tail. 

The tail should not be set on too high ; it should be of fair length, 
not quite equal to the dog's height at shoulder, and be ornamented 
with abundance of feathering, thick, and of good length. When the dog 
stands quiet, it " hangs ower his hindies wi' a swirl ;" when galloping it 
is carried nearly straight out ; and when he greets his fellows and takes 
the measure of a stranger his flag is up, his colours are displayed, for no 
recreant coward is he, but as fond of a free fight as an Irishman. Has 
he not made the expressive word " Collieshangie," my masters ? Although 
carried well up and curved, not stuck up like a mop handle, it is never 
curled over the back a la Pomeranian. 

Among the best rough-coated colleys I have seen shown are, Mr. 
Skinner's Vero, Mr. W. W. Thomson's Moss, Mr. S. E. Shirley's 
Tricolour, Mr. Ashwin's Cocksie, Mr. Cope's Time, Mr. Wildman's 
Marcus, Lad o' Kyle, and old Hero, whose present owner I do not know. 
There are, of course, many others well worth mention, for the classes 
are rapidly rising in quality at our best shows. In bitches I have seen 
nothing I liked so well as Hornpipe and Bess. 

The following are measurements of celebrated Colleys : 

Mr. W. A. Walker's (Warwick) Scott (5424) : Age, 3 years and 10 
months ; height at shoulder, 24in. ; length of nose to set on of tail, 
42in. ; length of tail, 20in. ; girth of chest, 28in. ; girth of loin, 22in. ; 
girth of head, IT^in. ; girth of forearm, 7|in. ; length of head from 
occiput to tip of nose, llin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and 
tip of nose, 9in. 

Mr. W. A. Walker's (Warwick) Colley bitch : Age, 2 years 1 month ; 
height at shoulder, 21in.; length of nose to set on of tail, 37in.; length 

206 British Dogs. 

of tail, 19in. ; girth of chest, 26in. ; girth of loin, 20in. ; girth of head, 
15in. ; girth of forearm, 7iin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, lO^in. ; girth of muzzle, midway between eyes and tip of nose, Sin. 

Mr. Ashwin's CocJcsie : Age, 3 years ; weight, 491b. ; height at 
shoulder, 21|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 37in. ; length of 
tail, 17in. ; girth of chest, 26in. ; girth of loin, 21in. ; girth of head, 
13in. ; girth of forearm, 6in. ; girth of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
9|in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7|in. 

Mr. E. I. H. Price's Gather: Age, 10 years; weight, 541b. ; height at 
shoulder, 22Jin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 42in. ; length of 
tail, 14in. ; girth of chest, 27in. ; girth of loin, 20in. ; girth of head, 
15in. ; girth of forearm, 7iin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, 10|in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, Sin. 

Dr. James's Carlyle : Age, 5 years ; weight, 571b. ; height at shoulder, 
21in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 36in. ; length of tail, 18in. ; 
girth of chest, 30in. ; girth of loin, 24in. ; girth of head, 15Jin. ; girth 
of forearm, 7in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, llin. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, Sin. 



[N all points, except coat, this variety is a facsimile of the more 
fashionable rough-coated ones, indeed, rough-coated and smooth-coated 
are often found in the same litter, a good instance of which is Mr. W. W. 
Thomson's Guelt, who is of the most noted strain in the West of 
Scotland, being a lineal descendant of the dog of a noted sheep stealer, 
who, as he drove his flock to the southern markets along the old Roman 
road that runs along the crest of the hills on the north bank of the river 
Nith, used to send his dog along the hill sides or the south side of the 
river to select a few sheep from several flocks, and, fording the river add 
them to his master's drove. 

The Smooth-coated Colley. 207 

Mr. Thomson had his dog Guelt and another from the same litter direct 
from their breeder, Mr. Craig, of Glen, and one of them was a very rough- 
coated one. 

Some shepherds prefer these to the long-coated, as they do not get 
matted with snow, and their coat is so dense as to prove a sufficient 
protection against the weather. 

The mottled, marbled, mirled, or Harlequin variety are nearly always 
smooth-coated and also " china-eyed;" Mr. Howard Mapplebeck's well- 
known bitch Fan is an exception in the last particular, but I look upon it 
as a defect in her, so characteristic of the breed is the china eye 
indeed, in many specimens both eyes are of this kind. 

Of late we have had very good classes of smooth-coated colleys shown, 
they being especially numerous in the north of England. The best 
before the public is, I consider, Mr. W. W. Thomson's Yarrow (facile 
princeps). She is small, but judged by points can give all her opponents 
ten points and beat them easily. As I bought the bitch in Scotland, and 
after winning with her sold her to Mr. Thomson, it may be thought I am 
slightly prejudiced in her favour ; but it is not so ; on deliberate 
judgment and careful comparison, I think her the best ever shown. 
Next to her I would place Mr. Swinburne's Lassie. Both of these bitches 
are black, white, and tan. 

Mr. Thomson has also excellent dogs in Guelt and Hawk, and a mirled 
dog with two china eyes, bred on Salisbury Plain. Mr. Wilson's Meg, 
Mr. W. H. Charles's Scott, and Mr. M. C. Ashwin's Nellie are also in 
the front rank. There is a scarcity of good smooth-coated sires. 

I have omitted to notice that the Harlequin or mottled dog is often 
termed the Welch " heeler." The variety is, I believe, rather popular in 
Wales, but it is by no means confined to the Principality, but found 
scattered all over the United Kingdom. 

In judging smooth colleys ten points only need be allowed for coat, the 
ten points deducted being given for symmetry and general appearance. 

208 British Dogs. 



IN the west of Scotland there is a rough-faced and very shaggy-coated 
dog called the bearded colley, differing mainly from the true colley in 
being rough-faced, rather heavier built, altogether less elegant, and with 
a shaggier and harsher coat. 

I think they must be a cross with a rough hound, otter hound, or deer- 
hound probably the former. 



THIS appears to be quite a distinct variety of pronounced type, but 
confusion appears to have arisen in the minds of more than one writer by 
taking every drover's dog with a docked tail to belong to the genuine 
stock. At one time dogs without tails were not taxed, which was a 
sufficient inducement to owners to cut off that useful and ornamental 
appendage to their dogs. 

It has been held that this docking of the tail generation after 
generation resulted in pups being born tailless ; but although such a 
result might follow if the practice were continued long enough, I do not 
think such was the case, and that being the cause is controverted by the 
fact that the bob-tailed sheepdog has other clearly marked features in 
common which breeding from the promiscuous herd of dogs docked to 
save a tax would have dissipated rather than insured. 

" Stonehenge" suggests that a cross with the bulldog may account for 
the short bob tail, and considers this idea strengthened because he 
asserts these dogs frequently show a tendency to the brindle colour. 
I think " Stonehenge" is wrong in this. A brindle dog of this variety 

The Bob-tailed Sheepdog. 209 

must, I think, be rare ; at least, the vast majority of those I hare met 
with are black and white, grey or grizzled ; and in attending shows for so 
many years a large number have come under my notice. 

In appearance they differ very widely from the elegant colley square 
built, short backed, bull necked, and with a rounder head and truncated 
muzzle. The coat is long and shaggy, more or less curly in some 
instances, but much better when straight. The face, unlike the colley, 
is always more or less rough that is, bearded. 

This breed I have seen in greatest numbers in the West of England, 
and at the Devon shows there have been exhibited the best I have met 

Occasionally specimens with long tails are met with, of which Mr. 
P. W. Parry's Help is wonderfully good. "Stonehenge " also makes 
the, to me, singular statement respecting this breed that " he has the 
peculiar habit of running over the backs of sheep when in flock in 
order to head them, and on that account is highly valued in fairs and 

This habit is not at all peculiar to the bob-tails. Any colley that is 
up to its business will do so when occasion requires it, as everyone must 
have observed who has attended a sheep fair or market, and this, among 
other reasons, is why a light nimble dog is to be preferred to a heavy 
one, which it may be as well to notice, for there are evidences of a 
tendency in some of our judges to go in for large dogs. The object 
should be to encourage dogs of the size best suited for the performance 
of their natural work, and although a large dog may have a grander and 
more imposing appearance, and for that reason be preferred as an orna- 
mental companion, excessive size is a disadvantage, and by judges should 
be viewed as such. 

2i o British Dogs. 



THE Esquimaux dog occupies as wide a geographical range, and includes 
as much variety, as the human species to whom the term is applied, but 
also presents throughout its variations certain general and prominent 
family features. 

These are a certain gaunt and wolf-like form and fierceness of 
expression, the muzzle pointed, ears erect, and eyes more or less oblique, 
small, and piercing, and the coat dense and deep, the latter to enable 
them to withstand the intense cold of the northern regions of which they 
are native. 

We have specimens of them occasionally exhibited which we may 
assume to have been selected as superior to the general run. 

We have seen no handsomer than the dog Garry, of which we give an 
engraving. He has been repeatedly shown in this country, and at the 
Alexandra Palace exhibition, December, 1878, was described in the 
catalogue as " an Esquimaux bred in the extreme north of Lombardy." 

Mr. C. E. Fryer, whose notice of Garry we reproduce from The Country, 
entitled him a "North American wolf dog," and we find the idea that 
these dogs, or at least special varieties of them, are produced by a cross 
with the wolf rather commonly entertained, but there is no better reason 
for it than his general wolfish appearance. Garry is decidedly typical of 
the Esquimaux family of dogs, and on the subject of his breeding we have 
little to add to our sub-note to Mr. Fryer's letter at the time it first 

Mr. Fryer says : " The accompanying engraving represents one of these 
curious dogs, which are so much prized by the natives and inhabitants 
of North America, and so difficult to obtain in this country. The 
cut is taken from a photograph of a dog lately owned by a member 
of Oxford University, who gave me the following account of it : 
Garry, the dog in question, is about eighteen months old, and has 
been in this country seven months. He was brought from the 
Saskatchewan Mountains, Manitoba, in the far north-west of Canada. 
The following are the dimensions of this handsome dog : Height 

The Esquimaux Dog. 211 

at shoulder, 2ft. Gin. ; length from centre between shoulder blades 
to centre between ears, 1ft. ; from latter point to end of nose, llin. ; 
length from shoulders to setting on of tail, 2ft. 7in. ; length of tail, 
1ft. 4in. ; measurement round head just behind ears, 2ft. ; just above 
eyes, 1ft. Sin. ; at point of nose, lOin. ; his girth measured fairly tight, 
not outside the hair, 3ft. ; his weight is 8st. 81b. His hair is long, 
straight, and pure white, which is his chief beauty. The Indians take 
great pride in rearing a pure white wolf dog, and when they manage to 
secure one they have a feast in his honour, called the ' Feast of the 
White Dog.' I refrain from attempting the native names, lest I should 
display my own ignorance and do some damage to my readers' jaws. 
Garry is said to be the produce of an Esquimaux bitch, crossed nine 
times by a prairie wolf. The Indians chain up the Esquimaux mothers 
in the neighbourhood of the wolves, to whose kind attentions they leave 
them. The dog Garry has travelled many thousand miles over the snow, 
drawing a sleigh, and is quite tame, following his master closely through 
the streets without chain or muzzle. Sometimes he is treated to this latter 
sign of ' civilisation,' under which he is very patient, though he 
continually endeavours to free himself from it. His food is plain dog 
biscuit, which he eats without complaint, though at first he ate raw meat 
ravenously. His master, however, finding his blood was getting too hot, 
gradually reduced him to one meal per day of dog biscuits. He is very 
tractable and docile, and but for his enormous size would not give any idea 
of ferocity. His eyes are very small, and of a pale yellow colour. 

" The long thick tail, the pointed head, and short pointed ears seem 
unmistakably to show the wolf blood in the dog, and his general appear- 
ance shows his descent. His mouth would easily take in a man's leg, 
and his teeth are a caution to dentists. Whether he feels flattered 
by being told that we are possessors of developed ' canine ' teeth I can't 

"His owner tells me he does not bark, but utters a low growl when 
enraged, and at night howls piteously. 

"The dog was entered for exhibition at the last Birmingham dog 
show, 1876, where he was awarded a special prize." 

The mystic story of Garry's birth and parentage is very charming, but 
I fear the talismanic number nine would alone be fatal to it, as it is 
decidedly suspicious ; and in these days of Kennel Stud Books we 

p 2 

212 British Dogs. 

get awfully sceptical of unauthenticated pedigrees, and in such matters 
positively refuse as evidence the traditions of the Bed Man, however 
pretty and romantic. I saw Garry in the flesh at Birmingham where, 
by the way, he took a .5 prize and I must pronounce him the very 
finest specimen of an Esquimaux dog I have seen, but I must differ 
from our esteemed correspondent when he says there is unmistakeable 
evidence of wolf blood in the dog. Dogs appear to approach nearer to 
the wolf type the farther they are removed from the higher civilised life of 
man, and that, I think, is the case with Garry, and, besides that, hybrids 
do not breed. The measurements cannot have been accurately taken ; 
and Mr. Fryer must have been misinformed as to Garry's sleigh drawing, 
if we may judge by his age. 

Among those exhibited in this country, the best specimens I have seen 
are Zouave, shown by Mr. W. Arkwright, and Mr. W. K. Taunton's 
Sir John Franklin and Zoe. 

Zouave I have understood was imported from Greenland, and Sir John 
Franklin, the finest exhibited, was brought over in the Pandora. As 
they are now being bred by one or two gentlemen in this country we 
may, in a few years, see more of them. 

Mr. Taunton describes his Esquimaux as intelligent and of amiable 
disposition, and the following is his description of them : 

" The head is wolf -like, with the same pointed muzzle, and, more 
or less, the oblique eye, which gives the dog a treacherous appear- 
ance ; ears small, rounded, erect, and pointed forward ; short thick 
neck, deep chest, body long ; legs well made, without any feather, feet 
round, tail very bushy and carried curled over the back. The coat is 
dense and thick, standing out from the body, and is stiff on the outside 
like bristles, especially so along the back, whilst the undercoat is a soft 
wool, much resembling down, and admirably adapted to keep out the cold 
and wet. The nearer approach in appearance to the wolf the more 
typical of the breed I should consider it. The colour varies, being some- 
times pure white, sometimes, as in Towser and Sir John Franklin, a 
silvery grey, and other colours. In size they vary, those which are 
reared where fish is plentiful making, I am informed, larger dogs than 
those bred further away where food is scarcer. The average height, as 
far as I am able to ascertain, would be 22in. to 24in." 

Dogs of this class are of the greatest service drawing sleighs, and, as 

The Esquimaux Dog. 


descriptive of several varieties so used, we quote the following description 
from a letter on the subject, and accompanied with sketches of the heads 
of several taken from life by a correspondent, Mr. Adrian Neison, of 
The heads of the two named the Toganee and the Timber wolf dog, 


the latter especially, greatly resemble that of Garry. The Hoosque is in 
the drawing shown with a prominent skull, which the position and the 
amount of upstanding hair on it accounts for. 

Mr. Neison's remarks cannot fail to be of interest to those who take 
delight in the varieties our great shows now bring together, and among 
which are so often found specimens of Esquimaux type. 


British Dogs. 

The first that Mr. Nelson, who was writing of sleigh dogs, noticed was a 
cross with the Newfoundland ; of those of decidedly Esquimaux character; 
he says, " The next is the most common breed of sleigh dog, and isbetter 
known as the plain ' Husky ' dog, of which there are two distinct 
varieties. It is quite evident that they are of the same stock, if not 
descendants of tamed specimens of the large timber or Arctic wolf, and 


of prairie wolf or Toganee. The other dog is the Hoosque" of the 
Mackenzie river district, and is the dog used by the American Esquimaux, 
and of these there is a yellow and a black variety. 

" Of course these breeds are found more or less mixed all over the 
continent, especially varieties of the wolf breed, as these are by far 
the most numerous. 

The Esquimaux Dog. 


" I have observed them crossed until almost lost in the Newfoundland, 
and I am told on the best authority it is the same in Labrador. 

"The dog is only found pure to my knowledge in Abbitibbe, and on 

the Peace river. 

" The Toganfee and Arctic wolf dog are both much the same in general 
appearance. Their colour ia stone grey, the build large and bony, with 


very large feet ; they have sharp noses and prick ears. When crossed 
with others they always have a blotched appearance from the peculiar 
dark markings which they then take. The hair is long and wiry, and falls 
against the body. The Arctic is a very large dog indeed, his usual size 
being fully equal to the largest dogs I have seen in England ; the 
Toganee is never larger than a spaniel, and is often smaller. This is 
the common so-called * Husky ' dog of Manitoba. North of the 

2i6 British Dogs. 

Saskatchewan and east of Lake Winnipeg it dissappears, and the Arctic 
takes its place a peculiarity common to the two breeds of wolf, the 
prairie wolf being unknown in these regions. The true " Husky " dogs 
are, I believe, peculiar to the American Esquimaux. The dog of the 
Greenland Esquimaux, as obtained at Disco, being, I believe, a distinct 
breed. These I consider the best sleigh dogs known, especially the black 
variety of Hoosque. They are also found in all shades of yellow, sometimes 
almost white. Out of a good many hundred I have not seen a single 
specimen marked with either white or brown patches. When skinned it 
is at once noticed that the skull is unusually flat ; this peculiarity is 
hidden in the live animal by its hair. It has a heavy jaw, very small 
round ears, which are always erect, and the hair, which is long, hard, 
and wiry, invariably stands erect off the skin, very similar to that of a 
black bear, to which the whole dog bears a very close resemblance when 
lying down. All of this breed are fierce, treacherous, and active. A 
man would be considered a fool who attempted to harness them without 
his whip, and that whip must have some little bells, thimbles, or pieces of tin 
attached, so as to constantly jingle. Approaching the dog, the driver 
throws the lash, which is about 10ft. long, round the dog's neck, twists 
it until it almost chokes him, and then drags him to his collar by main 
strength, grasps his head between his thighs, and then slips the collar, 
which is very tight, over the head. From that instant the dog is quiet 
and submissive enough. The whips used are of plaited caribou hide, 
with from 2oz. to 8oz. of small shot woven into them to give them weight. 
Besides this, with most trains, it is necessary to carry chains to fasten 
the dogs at night, and, if travelling on ice, also a spear to picket them 
to. Mr. Ouyon, of Fort Chippewyan, on Lake Athabasea, has some 
splendid dogs of this breed. This post has the reputation of having the 
finest dogs in the North. 

" A peculiarity in these dogs is that they all have bright, clear, yellow 
eyes, similar to a cat, with great powers of dilating the pupils." 

The illustrations are facsimiles of some rough sketches which accom- 
panied Mr. Neison's letter. 

Although we have had dogs exhibited under the distinctive names of 
the North American wolf dog and sleigh dogs, I have not seen any to 
warrant a separate description, and have, therefore dealt with them as 
Esquimaux dogs, of which they are varieties. 

The Truffle Dog. 217 


CONSIDERING the utility of this little dog, and that he is so inbred and 
distinct from other varieties, it is a wonder we never see specimens in the 
variety classes at our shows, for although truffle hunters do not belong to 
the exhibiting class, those who do take an interest in shows might have 
been expected to show the public what this clever and really useful dog is 
like in the flesh. 

They appear to be a dog with a considerable amount of poodle blood in 
them, with a dash of terrier of some kind. Their work is to find where 
the truffles lie buried, which demands a keen nose, much perseverance, and 
considerable intelligence. They are trained to this work, being carefully 
broken from game, and by their cleverness form the main support of 
many families. 

They average about 141b. or 151b. in weight, and are more agile looking 
than the pure poodle. 

The colour is generally white, black and white, or a grey. 

As they do not come under the category of exhibition dogs no scale of 
points has been drawn up of the breed, their owners being only anxious 
to develop in them those qualities by which they assist them in their 
labour without paying regard to external appearance. 


Watchers and Defenders of Life and Property, 
Companion and Ornamental Dogs, 

Including : 

1. The Bulldog. 

2. The Mastiff.' 

j. The St. Bernard. 

4. The Newfoundland. 

. The Dalmatian. 

6. The Thibet Mastiff. 
J. The Great Dane. 
8. The German Mastiff, or 

The head formation in all the varieties I have placed 
in this group agrees more or less closely with Cuvier's 
description of his third division, namely, muzzle more 
or less shortened, skull high, frontal sinus enlarged, 
condyle of the lower jaw extending above the level of 
the upper cheek teeth, and the cranium diminished in 


By F. G. W. CBAFBR. 

OF the many distinct varieties of the domesticated dog, the bulldog, 
although one of the oldest and purest, is the most neglected and mis- 
represented. From being very numerous and popular, it has become 
so scarce that other dogs number hundreds, even thousands, to every 
bulldog. It is rarely seen except at dog shows, where it is looked upon 

The Bulldog. 219 

only as a relic of a barbarous and bygone age. Most writers agree that 
the bulldog existed in this country before any record, and that it is 
indigenous to this, and has never been found in any other country. The 
unfounded supposition " that he has been produced by a mixture of the 
blood of the hyaena with that of the common dog " is not probable or 
generally admitted. 

On the origin of the bulldog there has been some dispute between the 
admirers of that breed and those of the mastiff, each being asserted to be 
the stock whence the other is derived. All I can gather on the subject 
points to the conclusion that the ancestor of both breeds was the dog 
called the " alaunt," " mastive or bandog," the description of which is 
more applicable to the modern bulldog than to the modern mastiff. Mr. 
Jesse says " Cotgrave gives the following, which is evidently copied from 
the 'Master of the Game ': Allan, a kind of dog, big, strong, thickheaded, 
and short snouted. Allan de boucherie is like our mastive, and serves 
butchers to bring in fierce oxen and keep their stalls. Allan gentil is 
like a greyhound in all properties and parts, his thick and short head 
excepted. Allan vautre, a great and ugly cur, of that kind (having a big 
head, hanging lips, and slouching ears) kept only to bait the bear and 
wild boar.' Du Fouilloux gives, in his 'Interpretations de Venerie' : 
' Allans qui sont comme Leuriers fors qu'il ont grosse teste et courte.' " 

The " Master of the Game," after reviewing the kinds of alaunt above 
mentioned, says : " Te heued ye whiche should be greet and short; and 
thouze ther Alauntes of alle heues ye vray hue of ye good Alauntz yat is 
most common shuld be white, with a blak spot a bout ye eerys; small 
eyne and white stondying eres. . . . Any beest yat he might come to he 
shuld hold with his seseurs, and nought leave it, for an alaunt of his 
nature holdeth faster his biting yan shuld three greehoundes. ... A 
good Alaunt should be hardy to nyme al maner beestis without turning 
and hold fast and not leave it." The " mastives " are by the same author 
described separately as watch dogs. 

Dr. Kaye (or Caius, A.D. 1576) describes the " mastive or bandogge " 
as watch dogs, " serviceable against the foxe and the badger, to drive 
wilde and tame swyne out of medowes, pastures, glebe lands, and places 
planted with fruite, to bayte and take the bull by the eare when occasion 
so requireth . . . for it is a kind of dogge capable of courage, violent, 
and valiant, . . . standing in feare of no man, in so much that no 

22O British Dogs. 

weapons will make him shrincke nor abridge his boldness ... No 
dogge can serve the sundry uses of men so aptly or so conveniently as 
this sort." 

From the descriptions it is evident that the original ' ' alaunt,' ' " mastive 
or bandog," was a dog distinguished by a large, short, and thickhead and a 
short muzzle, and his chief qualities were his high courage and his ability 
to " pin and hold." These characteristics have always been, and still 
are, peculiar to the bulldog, "as true a dog as ever fought at head." 
" The broad-mouthed dogs of Britain " could only refer to a breed having 
the broad mouth possessed by the bulldog, and by no other dog. In the 
middle ages dogs that were used for the same general purposes, although 
of various kinds, were most probably called by the same name, alaunt (of 
which there were several sorts, as described above), meaning any house 
or watch dog, in contradistinction to hounds. The dog that was used, 
as Dr. Caius says, "against the foxe and the badger," &c., would be the 
same used in baiting animals, and as "sport" increased it must soon 
have become apparent that a certain size and make of dog was best 
adapted for a certain purpose. Spenser wrote, A.D. 1553-98 : 

Like as a mastiff, having at a bay 

A salvage bull, whose cruell homes do threat 

Desperate daunger if he them assaye. 

Baiting the bear and the bull was undoubtedly a very ancient pastime, 
and was patronised by persons of both sexes of the highest rank, as 
recorded in cases where King Henry II., Queen Mary, Princess Elizabeth, 
&c., were interested spectators. 

The bull being very different in its mode of combat to other animals, 
caused bull-baiting to become a distinct sport, for which a distinct class 
of dog was exclusively kept. One author says, " The bulldog exhibits 
that adaptation to the uses to which he is rendered subservient which we 
see in every race of dogs ; and we have only to suppose the peculiar 
characters of the animal, called forth from generation to generation by 
selection, to be assured that a true breed would be formed. This has 
been so in a remarkable degree in the case of the bulldog. After the 
wild oxen of the woods were destroyed, the practice was introduced so 
early as the reign of King John of baiting the domesticated bull and other 
animals, and thus the breed of dogs suited to this end was preserved, 
nay cultivated, with increased care up to our own times, ' ' centuries after 

The Bulldog. 22 1 

his larger and coarser brother " Allan Vautre, kept only to bait the bear 
and wild boar," had become extinct on account of the cessation of its 
employment. The introduction of the sport referred to is thus given in 
the "Survey of Stamford": "William, Earl Warren, lord of this 
town in the time of King John (A.D. 1199 to 1216), standing upon the 
castle walls of Stamford, saw two bulls fighting for a cow in the meadow 
till all the butchers' dogs, great and small, pursued one of the bulls 
(being maddened with noise and multitude) clean through the town. This 
sight so pleased the said earl that he gave all those meadows (called the 
Castle Meadows) where first the bull duel began for a common to the 
butchers of the town, after the first grass was eaten, on condition they 
find a mad bull the day six weeks before Christmas Day for the con- 
tinuance of that sport every year." 

A yet ignobler band is guarded round 
With dogs of war the bull their prize ; 
And now he bellows, humbled to the ground, 
And now they sprawl in howlings to the skies. 


Now bull ! now dogge ! 'loo, Paris, loo ! 
The bull has the game : 'ware horns, ho I 

In bull-baiting the object the dog was required to effect was that termed 
" pinning and holding," which was to seize the bull by the muzzle " and 
not leave it ; " the bull's nose being his most tender part, he was, when 
seized by it, rendered helpless. The bull in fighting naturally lowers his 
head to use his horns, and was often provided with a hole in which to bury 
his nose some old veterans ("game' ' bulls), not so indulged, would scrape 
one for themselves ; it was therefore necessary for the dog to keep his 
own head close to the ground, or, as it was termed, to " play low ; " the 
larger dogs were obliged to crawl on their bellies to avoid being above the 
bull's horns, hence the smallest dog of the kind capable of accomplishing 
the object required was selected, it being useless to sacrifice large dogs 
when smaller and more active, though equally courageous dogs, answered 
the purpose better. The dog found to be the best suited to the require- 
ments, and actually used by our ancestors until the cessation of bull 
baiting, was from 14in. to 18in. high, weighing 401b. or 501b., very broad 
muscular, and compact, as shown ia pictures still extant, notably an 
engraving dated 1734, from a picture by Moreland, of three bull-dogs of 
exactly the same type as that of the purest bred dogs of the present day 

222 British Dogs. 

Crib and Rosa (1817), Lucy (1834) " Mr. Howard and his Pets," 
" The Bull Loose," and others. 

On the suppression of bull-baiting by Act of Parliament in the early 
part of the present century the bulldog lost its peculiar occupation, but 
was preserved from extinction in the families of some of its admirers and 
bred in all its purity. 

After some considerable time the breed became fashionable for awhile 
as a companion. Subsequently an attempt was made to breed it as small 
as possible, for a toy, by crossing it with the terrier, but this attempt only 
resulted in a travestie of the true breed, and eventually failed on account 
of the tendency to revert to the original size. 

Of late years strenuous attempts in the opposite direction have been 
made by a few breeders to increase the bulldog's size, by breeding it with 
the mastiff and large foreign dogs, and also to have the gigantic mongrel 
race received as a new standard for the old breed, with which it differs 
in the most important points (the broad mouth and receding nose 
especially). The result is the obliteration of the characteristic type. 

In spite of all the breed has suffered from the neglect and disparage- 
ment of its opponents, and the injury it has sustained from its more 
mischievous and inventive patrons, there still remain true representatives 
of the original bulldog for the use of those breeders who wish to preserve 
the correct type of the pure, old-fashioned dog, and who are wise enough 
to decline to be misled by false pedigrees and specious arguments into 
breeding from novel-shaped parents under pretence of improving the 
breed and restoring it to what it is alleged to have been before bull- 
baiting became a separate sport. There are men still living who remem- 
ber bull-baiting being practised ; some of such have frequently described 
it to me, and their descriptions of the sport agree entirely with the one 
quoted by Jesse, dated 1694. The baited bull, like the coursed hare, 
was supposed to be better for eating than when killed in cold blood. 
The bull was fastened by a rope or chain, about four or five yards long, 
to a ring round a stake, and the dogs were slipped at him (generally) 
singly. " The dog that runs fairest and furthest in wins." The owner 
of the bull charged a certain sum for each dog slipped, and both he and 
the owners of the dogs made collections amongst the spectators. My 
informants agree that the dogs used were of the same type and size as 
the best medium-sized dogs of the present day, but one says that some 

The Bulldog. 223 

dogs were, in the last days of the sport, bred impure, the favourite cross 
being with a eolley (bearing to the pure breed the same relation that the 
lurcher or poacher's dog bears to the pure greyhound), and always "ran 
cunning." It is also stated that a dog of about 401b. was sometimes able 
not merely to pin a bull, but to throw it on its side. Another informant, 
on whose word I can rely, related to me the following occurence, which 
he witnessed : Some cattle were being driven through a butcher's shop in 
London, when one broke away from the rest, and could not be driven 
through the door. The butcher called his bulldog, described as of the 
old-fashioned type, about 451b., which had been quietly watching the 
proceedings from the side of the shop, and the dog rushed immediately 
and seized the beast by the nose, and dragged it forcibly through the 
shop into the yard at the back. 

The distinguishing characteristics of the bulldog are (as given in the 
ancient descriptions of the alaunt) a short nose, a large and massive head, 
and a " broad mouth " the latter the most essential of all other points 
and a sine qua non. The larger the head in circumference (caused by 
the prominent cheeks), the greater the quantity of muscle to hold the 
jaws together; the shorter the snout and jaws, the more powerful the 
grasp (as in a vice or pair of pincers) ; the broader and flatter the mouth 
in front, laterally, the larger and broader the grip taken. The under jaw 
projects beyond the upper, to enable the dog when running directly to the 
front to grasp the bull, and, when fixed, to give him a firmer hold ; the 
lower jaw, being very thick and strong, makes the mouth appear curved 
upwards across the middle of the face. The top of the nose inclines 
backwards, so as to allow free passage of the air into the nostrils whilst 
the dog was " holding." It is apparent that, if the mouth does not pro- 
ject beyond the nose, but that if the jaws and nose were even (" level "), 
the nostrils would be flat against the part to which the dog was fixed, and 
breathing would then be stopped. The dog is really then not a bulldog to 
all intents and purposes. Bulldogs, especially tha large and new types, 
are frequently seen with this defective formation, which is termed "frog- 
faced " and " down-faced," and this formation should deprive the dog of 
all claim to compete as a pure bred bulldog, and disqualify it entirely for 
show purposes. The body of the dog is (like that of man) broad and deep 
in the shoulders and chest, and small in the waist, the forelegs appearing 
short on account of the deep chest and muscular shoulders. The back 

224 British Dogs. 

short and strong long backed animals being weak, slow, and unwieldy, 
easily fatigued, and having a loose, shuffling, and disjointed manner of 
moving. The hind legs large and muscular, with plenty of propelling 
power, and like the greyhound's, long in proportion to his forelegs, 
raising the loins into an arch higher than the shoulders, so as to bring his 
hind legs well under him, and enable him to spring quickly high off the 
ground. The belly small and well gathered up ; and the flank, under the 
loins, hollow, to lighten him as much as possible of useless weight. The 
wrinkles on the head, the length of the tail, the colour, and other minor 
points much insisted on by modern fanciers, however much to be admired, 
were, and ought still to be, of secondary importance to (instead of taking 
precedence of) a correct general formation, and especially of the square 
protruding lower jaw, the broad mouth, and receding nose. 

In size the best show specimens are found to be dogs 351b. to 551b., 
bitches 301b. to 501b. I am not singular in the opinion that at shows 
bulldogs should not be classed according to weight, but only according to 
sex, so that all would compete fairly on their individual merits, instead 
of, as at present, a very, inferior specimen with no chance in one class, 
being reduced in weight to take a prize in a class of diminutive 
abortions ; or a bull mastiff of lOOlb. being given a prize as a bulldog in 
a class made for the apparently special purpose of excluding the true 
breed from competition. For, as some people's " geese are all swans," so 
some people's mongrels are said to be all bulldogs. 

In the "good old times," when this dog was kept by all classes, its 
characteristic qualities were so highly prized as to cause it to be chosen 
as the type of the national character of that famed " British bulldog 
courage ' ' and tenacity of purpose which has earned for the nation the 
rank it has attained amongst the first powers of the world ; yet now, 
when it is commonly said of British institutions, " they do these things 
much better abroad, ' ' and the sturdy policy of our ancestors seems out 
of fashion, the type of the old " British bulldog pluck," still vaunted by 
reformers, is neglected and forgotten by the nation, except for he 

purposes of ignorant abuse. 

They call us for our fierceness, English dogges. 
Now, like to whelpes, we crying run away. 
Hearke, countrymen ! Eyther renew the fight 
Or teare the lyons out of England's coat- 
Renounce your soyle. 
When bull baiting went out of fashion and ceased to be patronised by 

The Bulldog. 225 

the upper classes, it was continued by the lower orders, who preserved 
the pure breed of bulldogs. In the controversy that preceded the 
passing of the Act of Parliament which made bull baiting illegal, the 
ill-used bulldog (though it merely served the purposes of his more brutal 
and degraded masters) was represented by its former admirers as the 
incarnation of ferocity, " loving bloodshed and combat," &c. ; and to 
be the cause rather than the instrument for perpetrating the cruelties 
desired to be suppressed. Most modern authors who have expatiated on 
dogs, unable to ignore the existence of the bulldog, and having no actual 
knowledge of him from experience, have been reduced, as the only means 
of covering their ignorance, to repeat the incorrect statements 

Of one whose hand, 

Like base Judean, threw a pearl away 
Richer than all his tribe 

Such writers have declared the bulldog to be capable of no education, 
and fitted for nothing but ferocity and combat, entirely deficient in the 
virtues of the canine race, and, although belonging to the order canidce, 
scarcely reclaimed from a wild state, never, under any circumstances, to 
be trusted, and as dangerous as a fresh-caught tiger. The reverse of 
such statements is truth, as may be proved by anyone who will but make 
the experiment. Like that of the whole species, 

His nature is too noble for the world ; 

He would not natter Neptune for his trident 

Or Jove for his power to thunder. His heart's his mouth ; 

What his breast forges that his tongue must vent ; 

And, being angry, does forget that ever 

He heard the name of death. 

" Give a dog a bad name and hang him " is an old proverb which has 
been, unfortunately, exemplified at the expense of the British bulldog. 
" The virtues of the dog are his own, his vices those of his master." The 
bulldog is, in fact, a dog neither more nor less, and as capable as any 
other variety of dog of being " the companion and friend of man." 

A gentle dog; as mild as beauty's breath 

To win man's gratitude or 'bide his wrath; 
Tame as a spirit fading into death, 

Or sunshine sleeping on a lion's path ; 
Affectionate as Desdemona's love, 

Whose sweet endurance all its wrong withstood ; 
A creature, dwelling on God's earth, to prove 

Bad men should blush to find a dog so good. 

226 British Dogs. 

Like children, dogs have their mental characters formed by their 
training and associations, and, although different individuals have 
different dispositions or temperaments, it is not to be imagined that they 
have different natures. It has been truly said, " the god of the dog is 
man ; " if, therefore, a dog is treated by man as though it were a fiend 
incarnate, to be ruled with the harshest measures and used in the most 
cruel and dangerous occupations, to have all the good feelings of its 
nature crushed by its master, who takes a pride in its ferocity, is it to be 
wondered at that the poor beast which survives the hardening process 
should appear to merit the bad character assigned to it by those only 
who fear it ? If all affection is suppressed by ill-usage, and the animal 
is kept chained and solitary, in order to cultivate a savage disposition, it 
learns to look upon man as its enemy, and to be ready to resent the 
brutality it expects, so that if any it matters not what breed of dog be 
reared in such a manner, the result must be the same if the dog has 
sufficient courage to sustain its trials ; if not so gifted, the speedy result 
will be a spiritless and treacherous brute, an equal disgrace to its trainer; 
and libel on its race. But if reared and trained with the same care and 
kindness expended on other breeds, " there is," as Dr. Caius says of it, 
"no dog that can serve the sundry uses of men so aptly or so conveniently 

as this sorte." 

His temper, therefore, must be wel observed ; 
Chide him for his faults, and do it reverently, 
When you perceive his blood inclined to mirth. 
But, being moody, give him line and scope, 
Till that his passions, like a whale on ground, 
Confound themselves with working. 

Fdr his celebrated invincible courage the bulldog was at first selected 
as the only dog with sufficient endurance to serve the cruel purposes of 
depraved owners, and the utmost that can be proved against him is that 
he has been, and still is, in many instances, more ill-treated and worse 
trained than any other dog. 

Most "fanciers " of bulldogs know more about other breeds than the 
authorities on other breeds know about bulldogs, and have adopted that 
breed only after a long experience of the others. The fairest way is to 
" speak of a man as you find him," and who can know more about a dog 
than its keeper ? But it is avowedly those who do not and dare not 
keep bulldogs that take upon themselves to condemn the breed. Its 
chief virtues they misrepresent as unpardonable faults. The high 

The Bulldog. 227 

courage and indifference to pain which enabled the bulldog to limp with 
dislocated shoulders or dismembered limbs (like Witherington in " Chevy 
Chase") to pin the bull at the command of his wealthy master, also 
enable the dog, now its former cruel occupation is abandoned, to suffer 
patiently trials which no other breed could so quietly endure, rendering 
him the staunchest and most reliable companion and the most capable of 
being taught 

Even as one would say precisely ; thus I would teach a dog. 

"Manners makyth man," quoth William of Wykeham, and surely it 
may be said that the manners also make the dog ; if a dog is capable of 
being trained to the perfection of canine intelligence and fidelity, he 
ought not to be undeservedly condemned. There are many people who can 
testify and prove that the bulldog can be so trained "precisely." Several 
owners of bulldogs have assured me that in their opinion it is the only 
kind of dog that can with perfect safety be trusted alone to the mercy of 
children, than which there can hardly be a greater trial of patience and 
good temper. Having from my earliest recollection been accustomed to 
dogs, and having possessed specimens of almost every breed of dog, I 
consider myself, from experience, competent to contradict the statements 
made to the disparagement of this breed, whose cause I now advocate. 
In proof I can show one which for nine years has been the constant com- 
panion and playfellow of my only child. It succeeded in my household 
a fine Mount St. Bernard, and has proved itself in every way fully, if not 
more than, equal to any of its predecessors in endurance, fidelity, and 
sagacity. When first brought home the dog was chained to a kennel in 
the garden, whence my little child, then not three years old, brought it 
indoors to play with. It has since remained always loose in the house, 
and has, with others of the same breed, daily sustained trials which 
none but a bulldog could endure without " showing its teeth." Food or 
bones can be taken away from them without any exhibition of illtemper, 
whilst they are as good watch dogs as possible, and under the most 
complete control. I could adduce plenty of little anecdotes in proof of 
the bulldog's intelligence; but as every dog owner can do the same of 
his own dog, and not having space for such, I will only repeat that there 
are many people who can corroborate my assertion that the bulldog 
is inferior to no other dog, and that ferocity is not natural to this 

228 British Dogs. 

more than any other breed. If anyone has reared either a child or a 
dog which fails to meet his approval, he should criticise his own 
disposition and method of training to discover how the faults he 
condemns have been acquired. As the only plausible objection that 
has been advanced against the bulldog is its appearance, it is a 
matter of surprise that bulldog breeders have not the good taste to 
take the same pains to study the art of breeding for colour which they 
take to produce the broad mouth, short face, and other points by which 
the dog is judged. By so doing they would remove the prejudice im- 
pressed on the admirers of other breeds by the pied specimens. The 
colour is the most conspicuous point to a casual observer, and when a 
bulldog is white and unevenly pied with brindled patches and a patch 
over one eye and ear, and appears red and raw round its eyes, and 
wherever its coat is thin, it is no wonder that fanciers of Pomeranians, 
Italian greyhounds, and other breeds so diametrically opposed, should 
decline to admit the bulldog's claim to beauty. But when of uniform 
colour brindle, red, or fawn the bulldog is in many respects more 
attractive than several other canine pets ; for example, the modern King 
Charles spaniel, &c. ; and if its colour be whole and a " smut," like the 

pug whose 

Mouth was black as bulldog's at the stall, 

it is in every way to be preferred to that dog, being handsomer as well as 
more useful, faithful, and intelligent. White animals have not generally 
as strong constitutions as dark coloured ones, and are, therefore, much 
more liable to disease. When bred together they frequently produce 
"ricketty" or deaf whelps. 

"A Staffordshire Farmer," writing to a newspaper, said that he 
has found from long experience that two good bulldogs always loose 
in his yard do much more towards making his neighbours honest than 
all the parson's preaching. Many writers often testify to the good 
qualities of the bulldog in the "Field," "Bell's Life," &c. Meyrick 
speaks most highly of it in his book. "Idstone" says, "The bull- 
dog is the source of courage and perseverance. . . invigorates the 
constitution and strengthens the nerves of certain breeds." " Stone- 
henge," the highest modern authority on such matters, says, "The 
bulldog is indisputably of British origin, and has never been permanently 
introduced into any other country. ... If the brain is weighed with 

The Bulldog. 229 

the body of the dog, it will be found relatively above the average . . . 
the mental qualities of the bulldog may be highly cultivated, and in 
brute courage and unyielding tenacity of purpose he stands unrivalled 
amongst quadrupeds. . . . From confinement to their kennels they are 
often deficient in intelligence . . . but when differently treated the bull- 
dog is a very different animal, the brutal nature which he often displays 
being mainly attributable to the savage human beings with whom he 
associates. . . . Yet I contend that this is not natural to him any more 
than stupidity or want of affection which may readily be proved to be 
the reverse of his character if anyone will take the trouble to treat him 
in a proper manner. . . . The bulldog has been described as stupidly 
ferocious, &c., but this is untrue, he being an excellent watch and as a 
guard unequalled . . . far from quarrelsome. ... If once the pure 
breed is allowed to drop, the best means of infusing fresh courage into 
degenerate breeds will be finally lost ... for I believe that every kind 
of dog possessed of very high courage owes it to a cross with the bull- 
dog. ... I am sure my brother sportsmen will see the bad taste of 
running down a dog which with all its faults is not only the most 
courageous dog, but the most courageous animal in the world." I 
think this alone is sufficient testimony in the bulldog's favour, and 
fully endorse the words of the poet Smart : 

Well ! of all dogs, it stands confessed, 
Your English bulldogs are the best ! 
I say it and will set my hand to it ; 
Cambden records it, and I'll stand to it. 

The outline of Rosa, in the well-known print of " Crib and Rosa," is 
considered to represent perfection in the shape, make, and size of the 
ideal type of the bulldog. The only exception that has ever been taken 
is, that it has been alleged to be deficient in wrinkles about the head 
and neck, and also in substance of bone in the limbs. This, however, 
does not alter the fact of its being a correct representation of the true 
type of the old-fashioned bulldog. Some allowance should be made for 
her sex never as grand and well developed as dogs and her position in 
the drawing. 

We are indebted to Mr. T. W. Wood for the faithful portrait of Capt, 
Holdsworth's Sir Anthony, one of the best bulldogs of his day. He 
took first prize in the open class at the Crystal Palace, 1874. He was by 
Crib eat Meg, Crib by Duke II. ex Rush, by King George ex Blossom ; 

230 British Dogs. 

Meg, by Old King Dick ex Old Nell, by Old Dan. As Sir Anthony has 
since unfortunately met with a fatal accident, a second engraving of 
another very good, though not such a perfect, specimen is given. Mr. 
Donkin's Byron of whom, in its report of the Bulldog Club's third 
show, where Byron won second prize the "Live Stock Journal" said, 
on May 16, 1879, " He is a red dog, broad in muzzle, with good legs and 
chest, and excellent feet;" and "The Country" said, " He is a good 
all round dog, with no faults, but no superlative qualities." Byron is a 
red smut, 451bs., by Gibbon's Dan ex Eose, by Tiger ex Eush ; Tiger bj~ 

Amongst the public stud dogs of the present day, the following, though 
not each faultless, are considered to approach and fairly represent the true 
type described and sought to be preserved and perfected : Mr. Eaper's 
Tiger (full brother to Sir Anthony), Mr. Shirley's Sancho Panza, Mr. 
Pearl's Duke, Mr. Benjamin's Smasher, Mr. Shaw's Sepoy, Mr.Verinder's 
Slenderman, Mr. Ball's Lord Nelson, Capt. Holdsworth's Doon Brae, 
Mr. Webb's Faust, and especially Mr. Donkin's Byron and Mr. Eaper's 
Eichard Ccsur de Lion, for their possession of the broad lower jaw, with 
the six front teeth in an even row the chief bulldog point to be 
produced and transmitted, and in which too many of Crib's descendants 
show a deplorable deficiency, very different from the bulldogs like the old 
Boniface strain bred about twenty years ago by such breeders as Messrs. 
Brent, H. Brown, Parker, Scott, Stockdale, Wickens, and Eivers- 
Wilson. A new aspirant for supreme honours has lately put in an 
appearance in the person of Monarch, bred by Mr. Berrie, which is 
reported as more admirable than any bulldog of the present day. It 
is, however, rumoured that even he will be forced to abdicate in his 
turn in favour of Conqueror, a puppy of extraordinary promise, bred by 
Mr. James Collins, from Slenderman ex Nell Gwynne. 

Breeders should remember, before deciding upon the sire, that correct 
form and pedigree on the female side are quite as necessary for successful 
breeding as on the male side, and that the numbers of prizes won by the 
parents are no guide to judicious mating. 

By Mr. Dalziel's desire I append certain measurements of a few 
specimens of both sexes of the breed (all I could procure in the short 
time at my command) , in order to show the average proportions of the 
true bred bulldog. I consider the measurements given in the specimen 

The Bulldog. 


page of Stud Book (at the end hereof) most suitable, but those used 
suffice to show the proportion that the largeness of the skull and muzzle 
and the shortness of the face which are the principal points of the true 
breed should bear to the size, i.e., the weight of the animal. Any great 
increase in size above 501b. must be the result of impure breeding with 
foreign crosses, and, although giving larger measurements, they are 
found, on comparison with the increased size, to be unaccompanied with 
the corresponding increase desired (but rather a decrease) in the 
proper proportions. For instance, a bulldog 461b. measuring 20in. 
round skull, and a dog 901b. measuring 2 2 in. round skull, of totally 
different types, but both awarded prizes as bulldogs, proves the necessity 
of judging all dogs together by "general appearance," irrespective of 







Girth of 



































Mr. Geo. Raper's ... 













Mr. Alfred Benja- 

) -) 

min's (late Mr. 

> Smasher ... > 












Vero Shaw's) 

) ) 

Mr. J. Pearl's 













Mr. Gurnets (late 
Mr. Berrie's) ... 

} Zing Cole II. } 












Mr. Donkin's 












Mr. Crafer's 













Mr. Crafer's 
Mr. Crafer's 

Prince Rupert ... 
Gipsy Countess... 















S 4 


Mr. Crafer's 

Mr. Jas. Collins' ... 
Mr. Donkin's 

( 01 ytie( sister to 1 
I Sancho Panza) ) 
Nell Gwynne ... 
























Mr. Adcock's 












* Taken from Field, of September 29, 187S. 

The following description of the bulldog, was, after careful considera- 
tion, adopted as the standard type of excellence for the breed by the 
Bulldog Club, 1875 (of which I was then Hon. Secretary) together with 
a scale of marks at which the several points mentioned in the club standard 
are relatively valued, and forma of judging and stud books. In adopting 

232 British Dogs. 

the principle of distributing 100 marks amongst the several points of the 
bulldog, the Bulldog Club has followed the example of the old National 
Dog Club, with whose valuation of the separate points of the bulldog 
(as given in " Stonehenge's " " Dogs of the British Isles ") the present 
scale is almost identical. 

" In forming a critical judgment on the dog the ' general appearance ' 
(which is the impression the dog makes as a whole on the eye of the 
judge) should be first considered. Secondly should be noticed his 
size, shape, and make, or rather his proportions in the relation they 
bear to each other. No point should be so much in excess of the others 
as to destroy the general symmetry of the dog, or make him appear 
deformed, or interfere with his powers of motion, &c. Thirdly, his 
style, carriage, gait, temper, and his several points should be considered 
separately, in detail, due allowance being made for sex, the bitch not being 
as grand or as well developed as the dog. 

"1. General Appearance. The general appearance of the bulldog is 
that of a smooth coated thick set dog, rather low in stature, about 18in. 
high at the shoulder, but broad, powerful, and compact. Its head 
strikingly massive, and very large in proportion to the dog's size. Its 
face extremely short, with nose almost between the eyes. Its muzzle very 
broad, blunt, truncated, and inclined upwards. Its body short and well 
knit ; the limbs stout and muscular. Its hind quarters very high and 
strong, but rather lightly made in comparison with its massive fore 
parts. The dog conveys an impression of determination, strength, and 
activity, similar to that suggested by the appearance of a thick set 
Ayrshire or Highland bull. 

"2. Skull. The head (or skull) should be very large the larger the 
better and in circumference should measure round in front of the ears 
at least the height of the dog at the shoulder. Viewed from the front, 
it should be very high from the corner of the lower jaw to the apex of the 
skull ; it should also be broad and square. The cheeks should be well 
rounded, and extend sideways beyond the eyes. Viewed at the side, 
the head should be very high, and very short from its back to the point 
of the nose. The forehead should be flat, neither prominent, rounded, 
nor overhanging the face ; and the skin upon it and about the head very 
loose, hanging in large folds or wrinkles. 

"3. Stop. The temples or frontal bones should be very prominent, 

The Bulldog. 233 

broad, square, and high, causing a groove between the eyes. This 
indentation is termed the 'Stop,' it should be both broad and deep, 
and extended up the middle of the forehead, dividing the head vertically, 
and be traceable at the top of the skull. 

" 4. Eyes. The eyes (seen from the front), should be situated low down 
in the skull, as far from the ears as possible. Their corners should be in 
a straight line at right angles with the stop, and quite in front of the 
head. They should be as wide apart as possible, provided their outer 
corners are within the outline of the cheeks. They should be quite 
round in shape, of moderate size, neither sunken nor prominent, and 
in colour should be as dark as possible, showing no white when looking 
directly forward. 

"5. Ears. The ears should be set on high, i.e., the front inner edge of 
each ear should (as viewed from the front) join the outline of the skull 
at the top corner of such outline, so as to place them as wide apart 
and as high and far from the eyes as possible. In size they should be 
small and thin. The shape termed ' rose ear ' is the most correct. 
The ' rose ear ' folds inwards at its back, the upper or front edge, 
curving over outwards and backwards, showing part of the inside of the 

" 6. Face. The face, measured from the front of the cheek bone 
to the nose, should be as short as possible ; its skin should be 
deeply and closely wrinkled. The muzzle should be short, broad, square, 
not pointed, turned upwards, and very deep from the corner of the eye 
to the corner of the mouth. The nose should be large, broad, and black ; 
its top should be deeply set back, almost between the eyes. The distance 
from the inner corner of the eye (or from the centre of the stop between 
the eyes) to the extreme tip of the nose should not exceed the length 
from the tip of the nose to the edge of the under lip. The nostrils 
should be large, wide, and black, with a well defined straight line between 

"7. Chop. The flews, called the 'chop,' should be thick, broad, 
pendent, and very deep, hanging completely over the lower jaw at the 
sides (not in front) . They should join the under lip in front and quite 
<3over the teeth, which should not be seen when the mouth is closed. 

"8. Mouth. The jaws, more especially the lower, should be broad, 
massive, and square, not in any way pinched or pointed, the canine 

234 British Dogs. 

teeth, or tusks, wide apart. The lower jaw should project considerably 
in front of the upper, and turn up. It should be very broad and square, 
and have the six small front teeth between the canines in an even row. 
The teeth should be large and strong. 

" 9. Neck and Chest. The neck should be moderate in length, rather 
short than long, very thick, deep, and strong. It should be well arched 1 
at the back, with much loose, thick, and wrinkled skin hanging about 
the throat, forming a double dewlap on each side from the lower jaw 
to the chest. The chest should be very wide laterally, round, prominent, 
and deep, making the dog appear very broad and short-legged in front. 

" 10. Shoulders. The shoulders should be broad, slanting, deep, and 
very powerful. 

" 11. Body. The barrel should be capacious, round, and deep. It 
should be very deep from the top of the shoulders to its lowest part, where 
it joins the chest, and be well let down between the fore legs. It should 
be large in diameter, and round behind the fore legs (not flat-sided, the 
ribs being well rounded). The body should be well ribbed up behind, 
with the belly tucked up, and not pendulous. 

"12. Back. The back should be short, broad, and strong, very broad at 
the shoulders and comparatively narrow at the loins. There should be a 
slight fall in the back close behind the shoulders (its lowest part) , whence 
the spine should rise to the loins (the top of which should be higher than 
the top of the shoulder), thence curving again more suddenly to the tail, 
forming an arch (a distinctive characteristic of the breed) termed 
'roach back,' or, more correctly, ' wheel back.' 

"13. Tail. The tail, termed the 'stern,' should be set on low, jut out 
rather straight, and then turn downwards, the end pointing horizontally. 
It should be quite round in its whole length, smooth, and devoid of fringe 
or coarse hair. It should be moderate in length rather short than long 
thick at the root, and tapering rather quickly to a fine point. It should 
have a downward carriage (not having a decided upward curve at the end 
or being screwed or deformed), and the dog should, from its shape and 
position, not be able to raise it over his back. 

"14. Fore Legs. The fore legs should be very stout and strong, set 
wide apart, thick, muscular, and straight, with well-developed calves, 
presenting a rather bowed outline, but the bones of the legs should be 
large and straight, not bandy or curved. They should be rather short in 

The Bulldog. 235 

proportion to the hind legs, but not so short as to make the back appear 
long, or to detract from the dog's activity and so cripple him. The 
elbows should be low and stand well away from the ribs. The ankles, 
or pasterns, should be short, straight, and strong. The fore feet should 
be straight, and turn very slightly inwards ; they should be of medium 
size, and moderately round. The toes short, compact, and thick, being 
well split up, making the knuckles prominent and high. 

"15. Hind 'Legs. The hind legs should be large and muscular, and 
longer in proportion than the fore legs, so as to elevate the loins. The 
hocks should be very slightly bent and well let down, so as to be long and 
muscular from the loins to the point of the hock. The lower part of the 
leg should be short, straight, and strong. The stifles should be round, 
and turn slightly outwards away from the body. The hocks are thereby 
made to approach each other, and the hind feet to turn outwards. The 
latter, like the fore feet, should be round and compact, with the toes short, 
well split up and the knuckles prominent. From his formation, the dog 
has a peculiar heavy, slouching, and constrained gait, appearing to walk 
with short quick steps on the tips of his toes, his hind feet not be lifted 
high, but appearing to skim the ground, and often running with the one 
shoulder rather advanced, similar to the manner of a horse in cantering. 

"16. Size. The most desirable size for the bulldog, and at which 
excellence is mostly attained, is about 501b. 

" 17. Coat and Colour. The coat should be fine in texture, short, close, 
and smooth (hard only from its shortness and closeness, not wiry or 
woolly). The colour should be whole or smut, that is, a whole colour 
with a black mask or muzzle. It should be brilliant and pure 
of its sort. As 'a good horse cannot be of a bad colour,' the same 
may be said of the dog if perfect in other points. The colours, in their 
order of merit, if bright and pure, are, first smuts, and whole brindles, 
reds, white, with their varieties, as whole fawns, fallows, &c. ; second, 
pied and mixed colours. Black, which was once most esteemed, is now 
considered undesirable." 

Overleaf I give a table of the points by which bulldogs were to be 
judged by the Bulldog Club, and a copy of the form which should be 
used by the judge. 


British Dogs. 

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The Bulldog. 


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British Dogs. 


Bull Dog Club Stud Book 

Entry in Produce Register 

Ditto in any other Stud Book 

Name of Dog or Bitch____ 

Date of birth day of. 

Breeder, Mr. 



of the Club). 

(a Member 

Round skull (before ears) 

Breadth of stop (between inner! 

corner of eyes) J 

From outer corner of eye to ear 

Across forehead (between ears) 
Length of face (inner 

to tip of nose) 

Tip of nose to edge of lip 

Round chop (close before eyes) 

Between points of lower canines ... 


Width of chest between forelegs ... 

Height at top of shoulders 

Height of elbow from the ground... 
Length of body (top of shoulder \ 

to root of tail J 

Girth of barrel close behind elbows 

Height at top of loins 

Girth of foreleg below elbow 

Weight Ibs. 


[Space for critical description of style, colour, markings, and other points, or for 


Sire and Dam. 

Grand Sires 
and Dams. 

Great Grand Great Great Grand 
Sires and Dams. Sires and Dams. 

( i 


i ( 

| '{ 

{ ! 

Owner's Address. 

Stud fee . 

The dog's history to be written on other side. 

The Mastiff. 239 

Measurements of Bulldogs 

Mr. J. W. Gurney's King Cole : Age, born 31st Dec., 1875 ; weight, 
41ilb. ; height at shoulder, 14Jin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 
28in. ; length of tail, Gin. ; girth of chest, 26in. ; girth of loin, 18|in. ; 
girth of head, 18|in. ; girth of forearm, 7^in. ; length of head from 
occiput to tip of nose, 5Jin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and 
tip of nose, ll|in. ; length of nose, fin. ; width corner of inside of eye, in. 

Puppy, 4| months : Bound skull before ears, 13|in. ; height at 
shoulder, ISJin. ; corner of eye to tip of nose, liin. ; tip of nose to top 
of under lip, lin. ; depth of flew, Sin. ; weight, 201b. ; colour, white. 
Pedigree : Slenderman out of Duchess ; Slenderman, Sir Anthony 
Whuskie; Duchess, Turton'sCrib Whuskie. 



IT is not my intention to write a history of the old English mastiff, or to 
attempt to trace his origin or prove him the indigenous dog of Britain. 
Such a task would require more ability and research than I can devote to 
it, whilst, if undertaken, it is doubtful if the result would be commen- 
surate with the labour it would demand. 

I cannot, however, quite ignore that part of the subject, deeply 
interesting as it is to all who admire the noble qualities of this breed, the 
magnificent appearance of which seems to entitle it to "claims of long 

It is an undisputed fact that when the Eomans invaded these islands 
they found the natives possessed of a fierce and powerful breed of dogs, 
which they used in war, and during the Eoman occupation dogs con' 
stituted a not inconsiderable article in the exportations of that period ; 
and of such importance was this branch of commerce considered, that a 
special officer was appointed by the emperors to superintend the selection 
-and transmission of them. Some of these exported dogs were used by the 

240 British Dogs. 

Romans for hunting, and, as they are written of as a small dog, probably 
corresponded to some extent with our modern beagle. They are thus 
described by Oppian : 

There is a kind of dog of mighty fame 
For hunting ; worthy of a fairer frame ; 
By painted Britons brave in war, they're bred, 
Are beagles called, and to the chase are led ; 
Their bodies small, and of so mean a shape, 
You'd think them curs that under tables gape. 

There were other dogs sent to Eome for more brutal purposes, namely, 
to bait the bull and other animals for the amusement of the people in 
the amphitheatres. These were the "broad-mouthed dogs of Britain," 
differing, no doubt, very much from either the bulldog or the mastiff of 
to-day, but possessing the great strength and indomitable courage that 
distinguish both of these breeds, and which so eminently fitted their pro- 
genitors for the rough and hazardous sports for which they were used. 

A Latin poet thus refers to them and their employment in the amphi- 
theatres : 

And British mastiffs break the brawny necks of bulls. 

A feat which I imagine could not be literally performed by any dog then 
or now. 

Although the majority of writers refer these fighting dogs to the 
mastiffs, there are others who think the dog so used by the Eomans was 
the Irish wolfhound ; and this view was cleverly argued by a writer in the 
"Field" in 1871, whose letters, signed "E. W. E.," were reproduced in 
"Dogs of the British Islands," and in these are given quotations showing 
that Irish dogs were used in the amphitheatres ; but this does not show 
that English dogs were not ; indeed, it is certain the sort from which our 
mastiffs and bulldogs are descended, were also similarly employed, and 
the writer I have referred to appears to me to be wrong when he quotes 
Oppian' s description, " small in size, squat, lean, and shaggy, with blink- 
ing eyes and lacerating claws, but mostly prized for their scent in tracking 
where the foot has passed," against mastiffs having been so used, and 
asks, " does this description apply to either mastiff or bulldog ? ' ' The 
answer is evident. Oppian was not describing the dog used for bull- 
baiting, but the beagle, which the Eomans so largely exported from 
Britain for hunting purposes. 

I do not for a moment think that wolfhound, bulldog, or mastiff, such 
as the names now cover, were represented at that date except in a rough 

The Mastiff. 241 

typical way, and the descriptions handed down to us are far too meagre 
and widely-scattered to allow the changes that have taken place to be 
traced with any degree of accuracy, therefore much is necessarily left 
to conjecture. The great Buff on supposed the mastiff to be "a mongrel 
generated between the Irish wolfhound and the bulldog, but much larger, 
and more resembling the latter than the former." Practical dog breeders, 
with I think good reason, lean to an opposite conclusion namely, that 
the Irish wolfhound was a combination of mastiff and greyhound blood ; 
and in that or similar directions all attempts at the resuscitation of 
that lost variety must be made. 

It seems clear enough that, co-extensive with the known history of 
these islands, a dosr representing, however roughly, the modern mastiff, 
has existed, and at an early date he was known in England by that name. 
In the forest laws of Henry II., if not earlier, the keeping of these dogs 
in or near royal forests was the subject of special regulations, which 
would now be considered cruel and oppressive. The statute which 
prohibited all but a few privileged individuals from keeping greyhounds 
or spaniels provided that farmers and substantial freeholders, dwelling 
within the forests, might keep mastiffs for the defence of their houses 
within the same, provided such mastiffs be expeditated according to the 
laws of the forest. 

This " expeditating," "hambling," or " la wing," as it was in- 
differently termed, was intended so to maim the dog as to reduce to a 
minimum the chances of his chasing and seizing the deer, and the law 
enforced its being done after the following manner : " Three claws of the 
forefoot shall be cut off by the skin, by setting one of his forefeet upon a 
piece of wood Sin. thick, and 1ft. square, and with a mallet, setting a 
chisel of 2in. broad upon the three claws of his forefeet, and at one blow 
cutting them clean off." 

This just enables us to look at the mastiffs of that day as through a 
narrow chink in the wall of silence that hides from us the past. The 2uu 
chisel was intended to cut the three doomed claws off at one blow ; how 
much wider would it require to be to perform its work efficiently on some 
of our best modern specimens ? considerably so, I think to make the 
" clean" job of it the instructions intended to provide for ; and we may, 
therefore, fairly infer that the dogs were altogether less in size than, 
the grand massive animals that we can boast of to-day. 

242 British Dogs. 

Coming down to the time of Cains and Cotgrave, who both wrote in 
the reign of Elizabeth, mastiffs and bulldogs are both mentioned, bnt no 
description of any accuracy is given of either ; and to construct a dog 
from the loose references made to them sufficient to satisfy a modern 
fancier, requires the active aid of imagination, and this, I find, generally 
assists writers towards what they wish may have been, and facts of the 
slightest character are strained to support pet theories. 

For my own part, I feel convinced that the mastiff and the bulldog 
have sprung from a common origin. The attributes which they still have 
01 common, after so many years of breeding towards opposite points, 
strengthens me in this belief, which is still further confirmed by a study 
of the various engravings and paintings made of them from time to time, 
which I have been able to consult, all of which show that the further 
back we go, starting from " Stonehenge " on "The Dog," the more 
closely do the two breeds assimilate in general character. 

Of our present dogs, the strain for which the greatest, or rather absolute, 
purity is claimed is the Lyme Hall mastiff, which has been in the Legh 
family since the beginning of the fifteenth century, if not from a still 
earlier date ; but whether the existing dogs of this strain have been 
kept pure by absolute in-and-in breeding, or with such merely occasional 
cross with some closely-allied strain as may have been found necessary to 
prevent deterioration, so that we may rely on it as representing the 
original type, I have no means of knowing ; but as it is held as a pure 
representative of the old English mastiff by the family who have 
so long had it in their possession, I can have no doubt that good reasons 
for that belief exist, and that the strain is at least approximately pure 
and best represents the whole breed ; and I am not aware that any other 
breeders claim anything approaching to such a long descent for their 
dogs, although a strain so noted as the Lyme Hall must long have been 
would be sure to spread and leave its mark on such other kennels as 
were most likely to be preserved with some degree of purity. 

Of late years the champion of the Lyme Hall mastiff has been Mr. 
H. D. Kingdon, of Willhayne, Devon, who obtained the breed from Lyme 
Hall by the courtesy of the present Mr. Legh, and who insists on their 
superiority over all others with a tenacity, and, I might say, dogged 
obstinacy, thoroughly English, and worthy of the breed he admires. I 
cannot say, however, that I agree with him in his absolute worship of 

The Mastiff. 243 

what he calls purity ; when that term is applied to dogs of any breed my 
scepticism is aroused, and, indeed, even could absolute purity be proved, 
I would not put the high value on it that many do. Beyond a certain 
point, I consider this "purity" positively hurtful ; I prefer, as a breeder 
of dogs, to look forward rather than back, and like 

The grand old gardener and his wife 
Smile at the claims of long descent. 

The good old dogs, like the good old times , possess many advantages 
over the present, now that distance lends enchantment to the view ; 
but in my opinion the present dogs are the best, and will as certainly be 
excelled by those of the future. To think otherwise would be to admit 
that the English, who have succeeded so unquestionably in the improve- 
ment of so many other animals, have failed with the dog. 

In making these remarks I do not disparage nor even, I hope, under- 
estimate the good qualities of the Lyme Hall mastiff. One of the most 
astute judges and successful breeders (Mr. Edgar Hanbury) has thought 
highly and written of them in most eulogistic terms, giving practical 
force to his expressed admiration by introducing them into his own 
kennels from Mr. Kingdon's ; and of several of the breed that I have 
seen I can say they were magnificent specimens, and I regret that so 
few opportunities are now afforded the public of seeing them at shows, 
as it is only by actual comparison that a fair judgment on relative 
merits of animals can be formed, and in forming such judgment it is 
absolutely necessary for agreement that the various judges should adopt 
one standard of excellence. 

Modern taste in mastiffs seems to require above all things size and 
symmetry, and what I contend for is that modern taste has a perfect 
right to demand what it pleases in such matters. The great evil to te 
guarded against is that the standard should not be varied at the caprice 
of judges or societies, whose position gives them an adventitious influence 
in forming public taste and opinion. Now, to put a case : if I considered 
it necessary to cross the mastiff with the boarhound in order to gain 
the desired size, and having gained that point went back to the 
mastiff to eliminate other elements which the boarhound cross had intro- 
duced, but which I did not want, I would expect that some members for 
a number of generations would, to use a favourite! expression of Mr. 
Kingdon's, exhibit "the discordant elements of which their ancestors 

B 2 

244 British Dogs. 

were compounded " ; but I would also expect that the seventh or eighth 
generation at furthest would show no traces of the boarhound, and 
would be as fully entitled to be called pure-bred mastiffs as any in or 
out of the Stud Book. Hence, in judging mastiffs I do not care to 
consider whether they were manufactured twenty years ago, or have 
an unspotted lineage from the Flood. 

This part of the subject has, however, unwittingly drawn on my space 
to a greater extent than I intended it should ; I will, therefore, only say 
further that it is self-evident that while I think judicious crossing in 
this and all breeds is not only permissible within certain limits but a 
necessity of improvement although we may produce a fine dog by a 
mixture of breeds, we cannot have a mastiff unless that blood is allowed 
to predominate, and the older and purer it is the sooner and better it 
will assert itself over the introduced blood, as shown in foreign features 
engrafted on it, yet that specially desired feature, such as increased size r 
may, by selection, be retained. 

In general appearance the mastiff is noble and dignified ; his strength 
is shown in his immense bone, large, square, and well-knit frame, whilst 
the majesty of his carriage, his noble head, and the magnanimous ex- 
pression of his countenance bespeak consciousness of power governed by 
a noble and courageous nature. There are mastiffs with sinister and 
scowling faces, exhibiting the ferocity of the coward and bully, but these 
will rarely be found to possess the grandeur of form that distinguishes 
the breed, and are often cross-bred ; but instances of a surly and dangerous 
disposition will show itself in otherwise good and pure dogs, and when 
it does, they become a positive danger even to their owners, and a terror 
and a nuisance to the neighbourhood in which they may be kept ; but the 
natural disposition is gentle, with an intuitive desire to afford protection, 
so that a well-trained mastiff is at once the best of companions not 
given to quarrel, solicitous of notice from those he serves and proves, 
with his intelligence and high mettle, the best of guards for person and 
property. These good qualities characterise the modern mastiff, and 
show the power of man in taming down the fierce nature of the fighting 
dogs of Britain, for in this, as in outward form, it is impossible 
to doubt he has been greatly modified and improved since he was mainly 
kept in order to display his prowess in the bull ring and the bear 

The Mastiff. 245 

As to his modern uses, he is still pow excellence the watch dog of 


Whose honest bark 
Bays deep-mouthed welcome as we draw near home. 

He is the gamekeeper's best companion and preserver from night 
marauders, and for this purpose a dark brindled dog is preferable to a 
fallow, not being so easily seen at night, and to these arduous duties have 
been added the lighter ones of companion to ladies and gentlemen, and 
the occasional display of his regal canine magnificence on the show bench. 

I have mentioned the faults of temper in dealing with the general 
character. I will now point out the faults in outward appearance most 
often met with. These are, first, I think, the ungainliness of motion 
caused by weak legs, particularly shown in the knee joints and the develop- 
ment of cow hocks ; with this there is generally flat, lean, wasted hams, 
and sometimes light, weak loins, and all these or the cow hocks alone give 
a shambling gait that is most objectionable. These defects are often 
caused by bad rearing, inferior or insufficient food, want of room or 
dampness in the kennel. The faults alluded to are very common, and 
it should be the endeavour of breeders and also of judges to get rid of 
them the latter by refusing prizes to all dogs that show the faults, and 
the former by judicious selection and careful rearing. 

The points of the mastiff are as follows : 

The head should be large as a whole, square, skull flat, with great 
girth before the ears, forehead broad and flat, face may be slightly 

The muzzle is black in colour, square and broad, neither so deep nor so 
narrow as in the bloodhound, with fairly deep flews, but not the chop of 
the bulldog ; under jaw may slightly protrude, but it is better the teeth 
should meet evenly. 

The eyes are small and intelligent, mild in expression, not sunk in the 
head, nor showing the haw as in the bloodhound. 

The ears are small, pendant, and thin, and lying close to the cheek, 
black in colour in the fawns. 

The neck should be thick and muscular, and should not have a super- 
abundance of loose skin. 

The chest should be deep and broad, back of fair length, but strong, 
loins muscular, the back ribs well developed; a cut-up flank, as is often 
seen in very long-bodied dogs, is very objectionable. 

246 British Dogs. 

The leg bone should be very great, round and straight ; the feet large 
and round a splay foot and weak joints are great objections. 

The thighs should be large, wide, and well clothed with muscle ; hooka 
straight cow-hocks are one of the worst faults. The stern, must be a 
good length, straight, moderately covered with hair, and carried pretty 
straight, not hound-like or over the back ; a ring tail is held to be very 

The average height of dogs may be put as about 31in. at shoulder, 
bitches 29in. ; but the higher the better if the dog's body is well 
let down, and his weight increases with height in proper ratio. 

The coat is a minor point, often depending on feeding, grooming, &c. 
As a rule, the lighter the colour the finer the texture. It should be dense 
and not too soft. 

Colour is another minor point. The fashionable colours are bright 
fawn with black muzzles and ears, and brindles of various shades. There 
are also good ones of a decided red tinge ; white on neck, face, or legs a 
very slight objection. 

The subject of our engraving is The Shah, the property of Mr. C. T. 
Harris, 15, Fenchurch- street, City. The Shah is a fawn dog, standing a 
little over 32in. at the shoulder, and weighs 180lb. Further measure- 
ment I have not had an opportunity of obtaining, but he is a dog of 
remarkably true proportions, making a grand whole, as is well shown 
by our artist, Mr. T. W. Wood. 

The Shah came out as a puppy at the Crystal Palace Show, 1874, where 
he took first in a strong class, and was claimed by his present owner at 
catalogue price, .100. Since then the following are his prizes, having 
won wherever shown : First Crystal Palace, first Birmingham, first 
Maidstone, champion prize Brighton, 1876 ; special prize in champion 
class, Agricultural Hall, Islington, 1877. Champion prize Birmingham, 
1877, first Bristol, 1877. Twenty Guineas Silver Cup, Margate, 1878, 
champion prize Alexandra Palace, 1878, and the same prize there, July, 
1879, where his son, Mrs. Eawlinson's The Emperor, out of champion 
Countess, and his daughter, Mr. Fletcher's Lady Love, out of a Monarch 
bitch, were first in their respective classes, with a number of others by 
The Shah in the prize list. 

Of late and present breeders whose dogs have held the highest position 
in competition, or transmitted their good qualities to those that do, I 

The Mastiff. 247 

may specially mention Mr. Lnkey, Mr. Eowe, Mr. Bill George, the late 
Miss Aglionby (breeder of the celebrated Turk, who so many years held 
sway as champion), Mrs. Bawlinson, whose champion Countess has pro- 
duced such grand ones as Thyra, Stanley, and now, in a younger litter, 
The Emperor, probably the grandest mastiff living, and likely to be for 
the next few years the champion in his class. Mr. T. C. Harris, owner 
of The Shah, a dog that has begot the best young stock of the day. Mr. 
Edgar Hanbury, owner and breeder of many good ones, including Eajah, 
sire of the Shah and Wolsey. Mr. W. K. Taunton, whose preference is 
for good brindles. Mr. Forbes Winslow, possessor of a good team, and 
Dr. J. Lamond Hemming, owner of His Lordship, one of the very best ; 
and Mr. Carr, owner of Leo by Monarch, who, as a young dog, made his 
mark at Northern shows, taking the place of that grand dog The Colonel, 
after the death of that dog. 

The following are the measurements of a few mastiffs of note : 

Mr. Eichard Cook's Sylvia III: Age, 2 years ; weight, 1361b ; height 
at shoulder, 29in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 50in. ; length of 
tail, 18in. ; girth of chest, 37in. ; girth of loin, 29in. ; girth of head, 
23^in. ; girth of forearm, 10|in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, lOiin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 14in. 

Dr. J. Lamond Hemming's His Lordship (champion) : Age, 1 year and 
10 months ; weight, 1801b. ; height at shoulder, 33in. ; length from nose 
to set on of tail, 53in. ; length of tail, 22in. ; girth of chest, 44in. ; girth 
of loin, 36in. ; girth of forearm, lliin. ; length of head, from occiput to 
tip of nose, 12in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 
15in. ; girth of head, 28in. 

Mr. T. W. Allen's Creole : Age 4 years ; weight, 1201b. ; height at 
shoulder, 29in.; length from nose to set on of tail, 51in. ; length of tail, 
18in. ; girth of chest, 36in. ; girth of loin, 27iin. ; girth of head, 23in. ; 
girth of forearm, 9in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 10in. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 13fin. ; colour, 
fawn and black points. 

Mr. J. W. Allen's Magnus : Age, 2 years 6 months ; weight, 1551b. ; 
height at shoulder, 30|in. ; girth of chest, 41|in. ; girth of loin, 31in. ; 
girth of head, 27|in. ; girth of forearm, 10|in. ; girth of muzzle midway 
between eyes and tip of nose, 14in. ; colour, fawn and black points. 

Mr, Morton's Rupert (K.C.S.B., 7433) : Age, 3 years pnd 4 months ; 

248 British Dogs. 

weight, I701b. ; height at shoulder, 31|in, ; length from nose to set on of 
tail, 57in. ; length of tail, 21in. ; girth of chest, 42in. ; girth of loin, 
33in. ; girth of head, 27iin. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 12in. ; 
girth of leg lin. below elbow, llin. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, 12in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 
15|in. ; colour and markings, fawn, black points. 


AMONG the large-sized companion " dogs of the day" there can be no 
doubt of the St. Bernard occupying the position of chief favourite with the 
public at the present time. The large classes brought together at our 
principal shows furnish sufficient proof of this ; and although I do not 
accept the decline in the, entries of Mastiffs at the Crystal Palace Show, 
1878, and again at the Alexandra Palace in 1879, as in itself proof 
of their fall in popular favour, any more than I take the inferior quality 
of the exhibits at the former as evidence of the decadence of the breed, 
yet it is significant that there were nearly seventy entries of St. Ber- 
nards to forty of mastiffs in the first case, and over seventy to fifty in 
the second, and at most leading shows now the former breed is invariably 
well represented both in numbers and quality. 

The history of the St. Bernard in this country is bub a short one, and 
there is no mystery or doubt about the present generation of them as 
far as their immediate progenitors are concerned ; but many of the most 
illustrious sires we have had, dogs whose blood is destined to influence 
many future generations, from having begot the grandest of the breed 
yet seen, are without pedigree, or have merely a sire and dam attributed 
to them by name, which, for any information it gives, might as well be 
by Jack, out of Jill. The great ambition seems to be expressed in the 
constantly repeated phrase, " Descended from the celebrated Barry." 
There is a degree of indefiniteness about this which should tempt some 
bold exhibitor to go a step further and bring out one " descended from 


6 ^ 

* 1 
S 8 

" I 


^^ v 

I g * 

6 | 

< J 

The St. Bernard. 249 

the celebrated dog of Bernard de Meuthon, sire of the whole illustrious 
race who lived and begat whelps in the seventh decade of the tenth 

Whether the existing dogs are indeed descended more or less directly 
from the dog of the noble-hearted monk whose name these hospitals and 
the breed of dogs still bear, and to whose large-heartedness and manly 
charity they constitute a noble monument, I am unable to say ; but, as 
the portrait of the saint's original dog, still preserved with that of him- 
self at the hospital, is described as a bloodhound, there are more 
unlikely things ; for whatsoever their origin may be, it is an indisputable 
fact that many specimens, acknowledged to be true St. Bernards, do still 
exhibit some of the most marked bloodhound characteristics the red 
haw, pendulous chops, and throatiness although these points are not 
approved when strongly developed. That our present St. Bernards are 
composed of different and somewhat discordant elements I think they in 
themselves furnish sufficient evidence, for in large classes we meet with a 
variety of types that, by pedigree, have an equal claim to be called pure 

It appears from the records in the various books on the subject that 
some half century ago the monks lost all their dogs, they, with several 
servants, having been swept away by an avalanche, and at that time, 
according to " Stonehenge," two dogs that the monks had previously 
given away were returned to them, and from these the existing breed are 
descended. "Idstone," who wrote from information gleaned on the 
spot when a guest of the monks, says (writing in 1872): "The breed of 
St. Bernards has undergone some changes within the last thirty or forty 
years. A pest or virulent distemper at one time carried off all the dogs 
of the St. Bernard but one, and that, I believe, was crossed with the 
Pyrenean wolfhound." "Idstone" doubtless had good ground for 
making this statement, and possibly to the introduction of the wolfhound 
cross we may attribute the tendency to a lanky form and elongated 
muzzle seen in otherwise good specimens. 

What other crosses may have been at different times resorted to in the 
course of nine centuries it is now impossible to say, but it is not likely 
that strict in-and-in breeding either could or would be adhered to, and 
no doubt the monks would aim more at preserving the characteristics of 
strength, courage, endurance of cold, with that high intelligence and 

250 British Dogs. 

docility which, with the special aptitude for tracing buried footways and 
discovering lost travellers, had been developed by keeping these animals 
to special work, and all of which qualities were essential to their canine 
assistants in carrying out their arduous and charitable tasks. " Stone- 
henge' ' speaks of a Newfoundland cross having been tried and failed, and 
even speaks of Mr. Gresham's Monk as having too much of the Newfound- 
land type. I confess I can see nothing in Monk of the Newfoundland 
type, if that be the true type of Newfoundland, as I think it is, which 
" Stonehenge " has given us in the engraving of Mr. Howard Map plebeck's 
Leo in his latest work. 

In the Rev. J. Gumming Macdona's imported black and tan dog Meu- 
thon we had something nearer to the Newfoundland type, but perhaps 
still closer to the Thibet mastiff. 

To attempt, then, to trace the pedigrees of our present St. Bernards 
further than has been done in the Kennel Club Stud Book would be fruit- 
less. We are directed in it to our earlier imported dogs, many of whom 
had no known pedigree, and to others vaguely referred to as descendants of 
Barry, a dog that made his name famous by the great number of lives he 
saved forty -two according to "Idstone" and "Stonehenge," which, 
however, under the enthusiastic pen of the Eev. Mr. Macdona, becomes 

Be the number of lives saved by Barry more or less, it is impossible for 
a lover of dogs to refrain from offering a tribute of praise to the noble 
animal whose life was so beneficently spent, or to withhold generous 
sympathy with his grandly tragic and yet most becoming death ; he died 
in harness at the ripe old age of fifteen years by the hand of a benighted 
traveller to whom he was carrying life and hope, and who, mistaking his 
would-be preserver for a wolf, killed him. 

It was not until dog shows had been some years established that a 
class was made for St. Bernards ; this was first done at the show held 
March, 1863, in the Ashburnham Hall, Cremorne, first and second prizes 
being won by dogs with no written pedigree, but both bred by the monks 
of St. Bernard ; these were the Eev. A. N. Bate's Monk and Mr. W. H. 
Stone' s Monk, bred in this country from two dogs imported from St. Bernard 
Hospital when puppies. Shortly after this the Eev. J. Gumming Mac- 
dona, whose importation of Tell was the foundation of the grandest 
team of St. Bernards that has existed in this country, with the exception 

The St. Bernard. 251 

of the present Shefford Kennels, gave a considerable impetus to the St. 
Bernard fancy, and to that gentleman, above all others, I believe the St.. 
Bernard owes its great popularity to-day, for his lavish expenditure of 
time, money, and skill in importing and breeding did more than anything 
else to establish the breed in public favour. In fact it only wanted good 
specimens of these magnificent and colossal dogs to be shown to an 
appreciative British public to secure them a lasting home here, and this 
Mr. Macdona did both in his imported specimens and those bred by 
himself, and I can assure those who read this that it was a very grand 
sight to see six or eight of those noble animals scampering over the sands 
and breasting the waves round Hilbre Island like some gigantic sea dogs. 
Of other importers of good dogs I must specially mention Mr. J. H. Mur- 
chison, who brought Thor into this country, a dog the sire of more present 
winners than any other. He has proved a great boon to breeders. Among 
those of his get I may mention the Rev. G. A. Sneyd's Hector, Mr. F. 
Gresham's Shah and Dagmar, Mr. M'Killop's Simplon, Mr. Armitage's 
Oscar, Mr. Du Maurier's Chang all of the very first rank. Thor and 
also Miss Hales's Jura and many other good ones brought over here 
were bred byM. Schumacher, of Berne, whose name is most prominent in 
England as a Continental breeder. 

It is almost needless to observe that there are two varieties recognised, 
the rough and the smooth-coated, but these are so closely allied, and 
differing in no other point, that rough and smooth whelps may appear in 
the same litter, a notable example of which was Mr. Gresham' s champion 
smooth-coated dog The Shah and his late rough-coated bitch Dagmar, 
by Thor, out of Abbess. 

The general appearance of the St. Bernard is very pleasing, which effect 
is no doubt enhanced by his picturesque markings, for although I think 
colour is too often overrated in summing up the aggregate points of a 
dog, its effect on our first impressions is telling ; but, independent of 
colour and markings, the dog's colossal size and symmetrical shape, to- 
gether with his fine intelligent head, gives him a commanding and majestic 
appearance. The most common faults are, as in the mastiff, slackness of 
loin, not being well coupled, as he should be, with strong sinews con- 
necting the ribs and hind quarters, and a tendency to cow-hooks, which 
gives an awkward gait. Mr. Macdona, in Webb's book, says : "Tha 
gait or carriage of the dog much resembles the march of the lion," an 

252 British Dogs. 

opinion which I cannot from my own observation controvert, all the lions 
I have seen being prevented from marching in anything like a dignified 
fashion by the limits of their cages, but judging from the construction of 
'the two animals, I am inclined to think the reverend gentleman drew on 
his "inner consciousness" for the illustration, and that the king of 
brutes does not march with anything like the noble bearing I lately saw 
displayed by eight of the pick of the Shefford Kennels as they filed along 
a Bedfordshire-lane for my delectation. 

In judging St. Bernards, I think symmetry, which is essential to good 
action and endurance, of the first consideration, and to which size alone 
should give way ; but the latter point is, in a companion dog, kept for 
his commanding appearance, not to be lost sight of ; for a big good one 
is better than a little good one, but a slouching gait destroys his preten- 
sions to high rank and gives him a vulgar look, for which gigantic size 
does not compensate. 

In temper the St. Bernard is, as a rule, gentle and manageable, but 
ihis, as in all breeds, depends much on his human masters and on indi- 
viduality, but even a naturally bad-tempered dog may be improved by 
judicious treatment. 

There is one fault to which I have reason to believe they are as a breed 
naturally prone namely, a penchcvnt for raw mutton, which they are apt 
to indulge in a lawless manner unbecoming dogs living in civilised 
society. This taste they do not object to vary by making a meal of "a 
kid of the goats," and I advise those rearing St. Bernards to keep a 
watchful eye, and check with a firm hand the first disposition to meddle 
with flocks and herds they see exhibited in their young dogs. 

The following points of the St. Bernard, so admirably drawn up by 
<i Stonehenge," I have copied verbatim from his article in his new issue of 
" The Dogs of the British Islands," for, I think it is most desirable that 
a standard should be recognised by which these dogs should be judged, 
and the points have nowhere else been described with such complete- 
ness and lucidity. 

There are a few points only in which I cannot quite concur, and to 
which I will refer, although many may consider it presumptuous to differ 
from instead of sitting at the feet of the Gamaliel of canine lore. 

First, as to the line up the poll. " Stonehenge," after describing the 
dress and badge of the Benedictine monks, says : " A dog marked with 

The St. Bernard. 253. 

white in the same manner is supposed to be peculiarly consecrated to his 
work," and adds, "There is no rational objection to the value appor- 
tioned to this point." I, on the other hand, think there is more than one 
rational objection to it : First, as he gives ten positive points for this 
line up the poll and five more for colour, distributed as he describes it,, 
a self-coloured dog like Mr. Du Maurier's magnificent dog Chang or Dr. 
Russell's grand young bitch Muren would be debited with fifteen 
negative points, or a difference of thirty points less than one marked 
after this arbitrary fashion, and to my mind this is eminently unjust. 
On this rule Meuthon would never have won a prize, and in that case the 
rule would have done good, but by it Chang, Muren, and many other 
good ones would be debarred from winning. 

The second objection I have to it, and which I hope readers will not 
consider an irrational one, is that to my mind it is an anachronism to in- 
troduce a monkish superstition as a factor in the practical work of 
dog judging in the present day. I remember seeing Mr. Samuel Lang 
and Mr. William Lort engaged for about two hours in judging a large 
class of costermongers' donkeys, but I have no recollection that they 
were influenced by or even looked for that cross on the back which surely 
as "peculiarly consecrates" an ass as the fancied resemblance of a 
mark of white to the badge of a Benedictine monk does a St. Bernard 

I also wish to record my strong objection to dew claws being 
considered a necessary or advantageous adjunct; they are just the 
opposite, and, in addition, are as ugly as a wart or any other 
"accidental monstrosity," as Darwin designates dew claws. Those 
who contend that dew claws prevent the dog sinking in the snow must 
be profoundly ignorant on the matter; they can never have travelled 
through a heavy snowfall, for they might -as well expect the point of a 
walking stick to prevent them sinking in a snow wreath as a dew claw, 
double or treble, to support a St. Bernard under like circumstances. 
All dew claws should be cut off ; they give a clumsy appearance, and 
the leg would look cleaner and better shaped without them. That 
the large foot fits the animal for snow travelling is clear enough, 
but the dew claw, which is loose, and easily doubles up, is useless as a 

"The head is large and massive, but is without the width of the 

254 British Dogs. 

mastiff. The dimensions are extended chiefly in height and length, the 
occipital protuberance being specially marked, and, coupled with the 
height of brow, serving also to distinguish it from the Newfoundland. 
The face is long, and cut off square at the nose, which is intermediate in 
width between those of the Newfoundland and mastiff. Lips pendulous, 
approaching in character to the bloodhound type, but much smaller. 
Ears of medium size, carried close to the cheeks, and covered with silky 
hair. Eyes full in size, but deeply sunk, and showing the haw, which is 
often as red as that of the bloodhound. 

" Line of poll. As remarked above, great stress is laid by the monks 
on this marking, which is supposed to resemble the white lace bands 
round the neck and waist of the gown worn by the Benedictine monks, 
the two being connected by a strip carried up the back. A dog marked 
with white in the same manner is supposed to be peculiarly consecrated 
to his work, and is kept most carefully to it. Hence it is in this country 
also regarded as a characteristic of the breed, but it is seldom met with 
in anything like a perfect state of development ; Monarque being more 
perfect in this respect than any dog ever exhibited. 

"Shape of body and neck. There is nothing remarkable about the 
neck, except that there is generally a certain amount of throatiness, to 
which there is no objection. The body ought to be well proportioned, 
with a full chest, the girth of which should be double that of the head, 
and half the length of the body from nose to tip of tail ; the loin should 
be full and the hips wide. 

" In size and symmetry this breed should be up to a full standard, 
that is to say, equal to the English mastiff. Indeed, excepting in colour, 
in the dewclaws, and in the shape of head, the smooth St. Bernard very 
closely resembles that dog. He is generally more active in his move- 
ments, from having been more worked than his English compeer, who for 
generations has been kept on the chain. 

" Legs and feet. Of course, in so large a dog the legs must be straight 
and strong, while the feet also must be large, in order to avoid sinking 
through the snow. The last point is greatly insisted on by the monks, 
who prefer even what would be considered here a splay foot to a small 
and compact one. 

"Dewclaws. There is no doubt that the double dewclaw on the hind 
legs has in some way been introduced into the strain of dogs used at the 

The St. Bernard. 255 

two Alpine monasteries, but how it is now impossible to say. Both Tell 
and Monarque exhibited this peculiarity, as well as most of the dogs 
admitted to be imported from the Hospice. Gessler, however, who 
showed every other point of the breed in a very marked degree, had no 
dewclaw at all on his hind legs, and his son Alp, though out of Hedwig, 
sister to Tell, was equally deficient. It is very doubtful whether this 
peculiarity is sufficiently permanent in any strain to be an evidence of 
purity or impurity, and consequently its value is only placed at 5, making 
the negative deduction 10 when wholly absent. 

" The temperament of the St. Bernard is very similar to that of the 
mastiff that is to say, if suitably managed, the dog is capable of great 
control over his actions, whether in the absence or presence of his owner. 
When kept on the chain he is, like other dogs, apt to become savage, and 
there is almost always an instinctive dislike to tramps and vagabonds. 
He is a capital watch and guard, and attaches himself strongly to his 
master or mistress. 

" The colour of this dog varies greatly. The most common is 
red and white, the white being preferred when distributed after the 
pattern described above. Fawn and white and brindle and white 
come next, marked in the same way, the brindle being a very rich 
one, with an orange-tawny shade in it, as shown in Tell, and in a 
lesser degree by his nephew, Alp. Sometimes the dog is wholly 
white, or very nearly so, as in the case of Hospice and Sir C. H. 
Isham's Leo. 

" The coat in the rough variety is wavy over the body, bushy in the 
tail, and feathering the legs, being generally silky, but sparsely so, on the 
ears. In the smooth variety the depth and thickness of the coat are the 
points to be regarded." 

Believing the weights, measurements, and other particulars of well- 
known dogs would interest readers, I give the following of a few of those 
whose owners have kindly obliged me. 

The particulars given of the Eev. J. Cumming-Macdona's grand 
old dog Tell now dead many years I have copied from "Stonehenge's" 
first edition of the "Dogs of the British Islands," thinking it might be 
interesting to be able to compare at a glance the dimensions of some of 
our dogs of the day with those of the dead champion. 

Mr. Armitage's Oscar is in colour a rich orange tawny and wkite with 

256 British Dogs. 

white legs and feet, white collar and chest, white blaze up the face and 
black ears and muzzle ; he has one single and one double dew claw. Oscar 
was bred by Miss Hales, Hales Place, Canterbury, and is by Thor Jura, 
both imported by Mr. J. H. Murchison, and both well-known winners. 
Oscar I have always considered a marvellously handsome specimen of the 
breed, in confirmation of which I may quote from my critique on the Man- 
chester Show, held at Belle Vue, December, 1874, and which appeared in 
The Country, 31st Dec., 1874 : " Of all the non-sporting classes at Belle 
Vue we are disposed to think the St. Bernards the best. The first prize 
went to Mr. A. C. Armitage's Oscar, who is only 15 months old. He is 
really a magnificent specimen of the breed, and will draw attention to 
Thor as a sire. This pup has the most superb head we have seen, and 
will develop into a very grand dog if well seen to ; he is not yet filled 
up, and in the opinion of some is hollow backed, and will always be slack 
in loin, but with these opinions we do not coincide .... still, he should 
not here have been placed over Mr. F. Gresham's Monk, with whom in 
no other point than head can he at present compare." Oscar has borne out 
my good opinion of him as a pup, and has since won at the Crystal Palace. 
He is an exceedingly good tempered and excellent companion and guard. 
Dr. Russell's bitch Muren was, I consider, a wonder at her age, while yet 
but a pup ; she has single dew claws, is in colour a light orange, with 
white points and partial white collar. Her colour is considered by some to 
be quite a damning fault, an opinion, I think, utterly untenable, unless we 
are to reduce St. Bernards to the level of toys, and ignore their magnificent 
history; and the noble life of derring-do to which he has been trained, and for 
which nature and the education and example of good men have fitted 

Mr. Sydney W. Smith's Barry is a remarkably fine specimen of an 
imported dog, bred by Mr. G. Ficher, of Fribourg, Switzerland. He was 
brought to England in 1876, when about twelve months old, and took 
first prize at Darlington Show, in a good class, immediately after his 
arrival, and he now ranks as one of the finest specimens we have. In 
colour he is orange tawny with white points, white chest, white blaze up 
the face, and white star on the neck. He is blessed with those " mon- 
strosities," dew claws, considered so essential by the class of fanciers 
who attach more weight to the number of hairs on the mole on a pug's 
cheek than to the more important parts of his anatomy. 

The St. Bernard. 





S 1 

3 S 











Name of Dog 
















3 o'g 





















3 ff 











Mr. Arthur C. Armi- 1 
tape's "Oscar" J 

4 years 
8 months 











Dr. Russell's \ 
" Mentor " J 

6 years 











Mr. G. R. Tetley's~) 
(lateMr.W.Yuile s s) f- 
"Siroplon" J 

4 years 











Mr. Sydney W. 1 
Smith's 4<f Barry" j 
Dr. Russell's bitch 1 
"Muren" j 

3 years 













Rev. J. C. Macdona's \ 
"Tell" (dead) J 




11 v 








Mr. Stanhope Inglis's Bruno : Age, 4 years ; height at shoulder, 30in. ; 
length from nose to set on of tail, 51in. ; length of tail, 22^in. ; girth of 
chest. 38Jin. ; girth of loin, 33in. ; girth of head, 25in. ; girth of fore- 
arm, 12in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 12in. ; girth of 
muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 13in. ; colour, orange 
tawny and white. 

Mr. L. H. Layland's Leo : Age, 2 years and 5 months ; weight, 
1401b.; height at shoulder, 29in. ; length from nose to set on of 
tail, 52iin. ; length of tail, 25in. ; girth of chest, 38in. ; girth of loin, 
32in. ; girth of head, 25in. ; girth of forearm, ll^in. ; length of head 
from occiput to tip of nose, 12^in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes 
and tip of nose, 15in. 

Mr. J. C. Tinker's Gresham : Age, 10 months ; height at shoulder, 
31in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 61in. ; length of tail, 24in. ; 
girth of chest, 40in. ; girth of loin, 35in. ; girth of head, 25in. ; length 
of head from occiput to tip of nose, 12in. ; girth of muzzle midway 
between eyes and tip of nose, 15in. ; entire length, 85in. 

Mr. J. C. Tinker's bitch Mob : Age, 3 years and 8 months; weight 
about 1281b. ; height at shoulder, 29iin. ; length from nose to set on of 
tail, 53fin. ; length of tail, 2 Gin. ; girth of chest, 3?iin. ; girth of loin, 
29 in. ; girth of head, 25in. ; girth of forearm, lOin. ; length of head 


258 British Dogs. 

from occiput to tip of nose, lOfin. ; girth of muzzle midway between 
eyes and tip of nose, 14jin. 

Prince Albert Solms' rough-coated dog Courage : Age, 4 years ; 
weight, 14rolb. ; height at shoulder, 30jin. ; length from nose to set on 
of tail, 51in. ; length of tail, 25in. ; girth of chest, 36Jin. ; girth of loin, 
31^in. ; girth of head, 2 Sin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
13in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 14|in. 

Mr. William Valentine's smooth-coated Bernard: Age, 5 years; 
weight, 1201b. ; height at shoulder, 30in. ; length from nose to set 
on of tail, 52in. ; length of tail, 23in. ; girth of chest, 35in. ; girth 
of loin, 29in. ; girth of head, 27in. ; girth of forearm, llin. ; length 
of head from occiput to tip of nose, 12in. ; girth of muzzle midway 
between eyes and tip of nose, 14in. 

Mr. W. Hart-Chamberlain's M artigwy : Age, 2 years 7 months; 
weight, 1391b. ; height at shoulder, 30in. ; length from nose to set on 
of tail, 56in. ; length of tail, 23in. ; girth of chest, 37|in . ; girth of loin, 
30in. ; girth of head, 23|in. ; girth of forearm, lOiin. ; length of head 
from occiput to tip of nose, 12iin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes 
and tip of nose, 13in. 

Mr. T. C. Emmerson's BolcTcow : Age, 3 years ; weight, 1401b. ; height, 
at shoulder, 30|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 52in. ; length of tail, 

23in. ; girth of chest, 40in. ; girth of loin, 29in. ; girth of head, 23|in. ; 

girth of arm lin. above elbow, 12in. ; girth of leg lin. below elbow, lOin. ; 

length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 12in. ; girth of muzzle 

midway between eyes and tip of nose, 13in. ; colour and markings, 

orange tawny, black muzzle, white breast and feet. 

Mr. Charles Goas's Marco : Age, 22 months ; weight, 1551b. ; height 

at shoulder, 33in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 57|in. ; length 

of tail, 24in. ; girth of chest, 42in. ; girth of loin, 37in. ; girth of 

head, 26in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 12iin. ; girth of leg lin. 

below elbow, llfin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 12|in. ; 

girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 15in. ; colour and 

markings, self-coloured orange. 

Dr. Russell's Cadwallader (never shown) : Age, 2 years ; weight, 

1561b. ; height at shoulder, 31in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 

63in. ; length of tail, 24in. ; girth of chest, 39in. ; girth of loin, 32in. ; 

girth of head, 26in. ; girth of forearm, 13in. ; length of head from 

The St. Bernard. 259 

occiput to tip of nose, 12in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and 
tip of nose, 15iin. ; length of muzzle, 4in. 

Mr. W. J. Sherringham's bitch, Snowdrop : Age, 12 months; weight, 
1091b. ; height at shoulder, 29in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 
48in. ; length of tail, 21in. ; girth of chest, 37in. ; girth of loin, 31in. ; 
girth of head, 20in. ; girth of forearm, lOin. ; length of head from 
occiput to tip of nose, 10|in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and 
tip of nose, 12|in. 

The following measurements of puppies will also prove valuable to 
breeders for comparison : 

Mr. S. H. Fox's Bella, by Moltke Snowdon : Age, 5 months and 
27 days; weight, 821b. ; height at shoulder, 26in. ; length from nose to 
set on of tail, 48|in. ; length of tail, 20in. ; girth of chest, 32|in. ; 
girth of loin, 27in. ; girth of head, 21in. ; girth of forearm, 9in. ; length 
of head from occiput to tip of nose, lOin. ; girth of muzzle midway 
between eyes and tip of nose, llfin. 

The Eev. Grenville F. Hodson's Haco : Age, 7 months; height ab 
shoulder, 27in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 46|in. ; length of 
tail, 21in. ; girth of chest, 34in. ; girth of loin, 27in. ; girth of head, 
21in. ; girth of forearm, 9iin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, llfin. 

Mr. G. Watmough Webster' s pup, by Moltke Norma : Age, 6 months ; 
weight, 901b. ; height at shoulder, 25in. ; length from nose to end of 
tail, 69in. ; girth of chest, 35in. ; girth of loin, 30in. ; girth of head, 
22|in. ; girth of forearm, 10|in. 

s 2 

260 British Dogs. 


WHENEVER I sit down to write about any breed of dog I feel disposed 
to dash off with " Of all varieties of the dog none has created so much 
public interest, given rise to such wide and protracted discussion, and 
brought out such variety and divergence of opinion respecting it as the 
one under consideration." But a moment's reflection shows me that if I 
use such words at all, I ought to have them stereotyped as applicable to- 
nearly all and every breed. 

The Newfoundland has undoubtedly had its full share of public atten- 
tion, and long before dog shows were in existence, or the finely drawn dis- 
tinctions respecting " points " called into being, he reigned paramount in 
the affections of the British public as a companion, ornament, and guard. 

But in those days, as I have said, every man had his own ideal standard 
of excellence, or borrowed a suitable one from a doggy friend, the suita- 
bility being ensured by alteration sufficient to make it applicable to his 
own pet, a process not yet entirely obsolete. 

Many of these large so-called Newfoundland dogs of twenty-five 
to forty years ago had, undoubtedly, like the "Caesar "that Burns 
immortalised in his poem of " The Twa Dogs," been 

whalpit some gate far abroad, 
Whare sailors gang tae fish for cod, 

or were the immediate descendants of such, but they differed materially 
in colour, coat and in other minor points from each other, and still more 
from what is now held to be the Newfoundland proper, as he is bred 
and exhibited in this country. 

I can speak personally to the decided difference between dogs im- 
ported from Newfoundland into Liverpool some twenty-five and thirty 
years ago, each believed to be the pure breed of the island by their 
owners ; that difference, as it exists in a memory naturally tenacious of 
such things, was more in the sort of coat and the colour than in the other 
marked characteristics of the breed which they all had in common with 
the recognised dog of the day. 

The marked difference then existing in this country was also common 

oo 5 

2 g 


c/> * 

* ^ 


3 ^ 


W "a 

* &> 

The Newfoundland. 261 

in the island of Newfoundland, and I understand on good authority con- 
tinues, and this obscures the interesting question, What was the 
original breed of the island really like ? and prepares us for the very wide 
difference and rather dogmatic expression of opinion on the subject by 
gentlemen who have had the advantage of a residence there, and who have 
afterwards joined in public discussion on the question. 

I remember some years ago, after the pleasures and fatigue of a 
Wolverhampton Show, spending a most enjoyable evening with that 
eminent and excellent judge Mr. William Lort, a friend, and a church- 
warden (one of Sothern's Broseleys), when the former gentleman, who is 
by no means a "talking machine," for once, opening the gateways of 
his memory, gave us reminiscences of his Newfoundland life, so graphic 
and brilliant in their delineations, as to hold us spellbound. Of course 
the dogs were not forgotten, and I believe I am repeating in effect his 
views that, although a variety of big mongrels were kept and used there, 
those that the natives of the island looked on as the true breed were the 
black or rusty black, with thick and shaggy coats, and corresponding 
in all other points, although, from want of proper culture, inferior to 
our best specimens of the day. 

Against this testimony I will quote a few other opinions. "Index," 
who in the "Field," about nine years ago, wrote on this subject with 
great pertinence, and evidently from personal observation, declared the 
true breed to be of " an intense black colour," and "with a small streak of 
white, which is upon the breast of ninety-nine out of every hundred 
genuine dogs." 

Per contra " Otterstone," in the "Country," 6th January, 1876, says : 
" The predominant colour of the ' Newfoundland proper 'is white. His 
marks are nearly invariable, namely, a black head or face mark, a black 
saddle mark, and the tip of the stern also black." "Otterstone" also 
wrote from personal observation, I believe, of the dogs accepted as pure 
Newfoundlands in Canada, and I might go on quoting from others, not 
only about colour, but texture of coat, some holding it should be curly, 
others wavy, others shaggy, and the height of the original is variously 
stated as 24in. to 26in., up to 30in. to 32in. 

This, however, would only, I think, occupy unnecessary space. I 
cannot, however, forego the pleasure of quotations from the " Sports- 
man's Cabinet," published 1802, which I feel sure cannot fail to interest 

262 British Dogs. 

readers who have not perused that now comparatively scarce book. The 
engraving of the Newfoundland therein given is from a drawing by 
Eenaigle and engraved by J. Scott, and represents a dog like our modern 
one in most points, but not so big and square in head, and altogethei 
lighter in build, and almost entirely white. It is to be regretted thai 
the author of the accompanying letter-press did not give a minute 
description, which he was thoroughly competent to do. Here, however, 
is what he does say : " The dog passing under this description is sc 
universally known in every part of the kingdom, and is so accuratelj 
delineated by the united efforts of the artists in the representatior 
annexed, that a minute description of its size, shape, make, and forn 
may be considered unnecessary. . . . He is one of the most majestic 
of all the canine variety. Although at first sight he appears terrific fron: 
the immensity of his magnitude, the placid serenity of his countenance 
as instantly dispels the agitating vibrations of fear." The words oi 
such an authority should be given due weight in considering what is 
and what is not a true Newfoundland. Whether there was a dog oi 
marked characteristics from other recognised breeds found indigenous tc 
the island on its discovery or not, we may accept the case as provec 
that they are now from various causes a mixed lot, as inferior to oui 
English Newfoundlands as their Eastern progenitors are to our thorough 
bred horse. There is, however, a very general agreement that as regards 
size we have imported two varieties the one the Newfoundland as no\N 
recognised, the other the lesser Newfoundland, or Labrador dog, or 
which our wavy-coated retrievers are founded ; and it is of the formei 
we are now treating. 

The contention of those who say the original breed did not stand mor( 
than about 25in. at the shoulder is greatly discounted by references tc 
the size and dignified appearance of the dog by older writers ; anc 
although climate and good care do much, I cannot think their effects 
would be so immediate and so great as to make a 30in. dog out of a puj 
which, left at home, would only have grown to 25in., or that that resull 
would follow except after a considerable number of years of carefu 
breeding; but we have seen that by the extract from the " Sportsman's 
Cabinet," nearly seventy years before " Index " wrote in the "Field,' 
and his dictum as to height was accepted by " Stonehenge," the dog was 
valued for his great size. 

The Newfoundland. 263 

There is certainly a dignity of demeanour, a noble bearing, and a 
sense of strength and power, though softened by the serenity of his 
countenance and deeply sagacious look which cannot be disassociated 
from great size, and no better illustration of this could be found than 
Mr. Howard Mapplebeck's Leo, and these were among the good qualities 
which have always commended him to public favour. The Newfoundland's 
good qualities, however, do not rest here ; he is of a strongly emulative 
disposition, extremely sensitive to praise or censure, and should therefore, 
especially when young, be managed with great care and circumspection ; 
he is never so well satisfied as when employed either for the pleasure or 
advantage of his master, and his strong propensity to fetch and carry 
develops itself naturally at an early age. One that I trained when a boy, 
and that afterwards became famous in the Postmaster General's service 
(although not on the pay list), by carrying the letter bags between a village 
office and the Carlisle and Glasgow Mail Coach, when quite a puppy 
would bring a small log from the woodhouse for the kitchen fire at the 
word of command, and indeed often without, for I have seen him, for his 
own amusement, bring quite a pile of them in, which he would take back 
one by one when told. 

As a water dog he has no equal he delights in it, will almost live in 
it and his high courage and great swimming powers enable him to face, 
and do service in such a sea as I believe no other land animal can success- 
fully encounter. 

Knowing and admiring the wonderful faculty he possesses, suggested 
to me, when viewing the sea from the site of Portsmouth Dog Show in 
1875, the advisability of instituting water trials as a means of keeping 
up and developing this wonderful and useful natural power, that his 
great abilities as a life-saver might be made the best of for the 
benefit of man, for it cannot be denied that without such aids public or 
private dog shows may do serious harm, giving, as they properly do, 
prominence to the finest developed animal. But if prize winners, how- 
ever grand in appearance, are uneducated, their instincts and natural 
powers undeveloped and indeed checked, are continuously bred from, 
we shall soon have lost sterling qualities and get, in return, mere good 

But the two things fine physical development, with high cultivation 
of those instincts, and natural powers are not incompatible, and should, 

264 British Dogs. 

I think, be simultaneously encouraged by dog show promoters, just as 
the Kennel Club does for pointers and setters by their field trials. 

Chiefly at my instigation, water trials of Newfoundlands took place at 
Maidstone Show, May, 1876, and were repeated at Portsmouth later in 
the same year, and, although neither could be pronounced as a brilliant 
success, they were each of them in many respects interesting, and proved 
that with more experience, and well carried out, such competitive trials 
might become more than interesting highly useful. 

I would be the last to advocate again reducing this or any breed to a 
beast of burden, but I cannot but think and here repeat what I have so 
often written, that the Newfoundland's extraordinary natural power as a 
water dog, his wonderful sagacity and intense desire to serve should be 
systematically developed and utilised, and I can see no reason why one 
or more trained dogs should not be attached to every lifeboat station 
and at every popular bathing resort around our coasts. 

I must here render praise to Mr. C. Marshall for the excellent rules he 
drew; up for the conduct of the first public water trial of dogs. As a 
basis for others who may wish to institute similar competitions, I append 
the tests adopted at Maidstone. 

Tests for Water Dogs. 

1st. Courage displayed in jumping into the water from a height to 
recover an object. The effigy of a man is the most suitable thing. 

2nd. The quickness displayed in bringing the object ashore. 

3rd. Intelligence and speed in bringing a boat to shore the boat must 
of course, be adrift, and the painter have a piece of white wood attached 
to keep it afloat, mark its position, and facilitate the dog's work. 

4th. To carry a rope from shore to a boat with a stranger, not the 
master, in it. 

5th. Swimming races, to show speed and power against stream or tide. 

6th. Diving. A common flag basket, with a stone in the bottom of it 
to sink it, answers well, as it is white enough to be seen and soft enough 
to the dog's mouth. 

In regard to the points of this dog I adopt without alteration those of 
" Stonehenge," because of their excellence, and also because I think, 
although one may differ in minor points, it is most undesirable to set up 
or attempt to set up a variety of standards scarcely differing from each 
other except in the language in which they are set forth. I therefore give 

The Newfoundland. 265 

the following verbatim, adding a few comments for the acceptance or 
not of readers, as they think fit. 

" The head is very broad, and nearly flat on the top in each direc- 
tion, exhibiting a well-marked occipital protuberance, and also a con- 
siderable brow over the eye, often rising three-quarters of an inch from 
the line of the nose, as is well shown in the case of my present illustra- 
tion, Mr. Mapplebeck's Leo, in which it exists to a greater extent than 
usual. The Labrador shows the brow also, but not nearly in so marked 
a manner. There is a slight furrow down the middle of the top of the 
head, but nothing approaching to a stop. The skin on the forehead is 
slightly wrinkled, and the coat on the face and top of the head is short, 
but not so much so as in the curly retriever. Nose wide in all directions, 
but of average length, and moderately square at the end, with open 
nostrils ; the whole of the jaws covered with short hair. 

" Eyes and ears. The eyes of this dog are small, and rather deeply 
set ; but there should be no display of the haw or third eyelid. They 
are generally brown, of various shades, but light rather than dark. The 
ears are small, clothed with short hair on all but the edges, which are 
fringed with longer hair. 

" The neck is often short, making the dog look chumpy and inelegant' 
This defect should always be attended to, and a dog with a sufficiently 
lengthy neck should have the full allowance ; but, on the other hand, a 
short chumpy one is so often met with that, even if present, the possessor 
of it should not be penalised with negative points. The throat is clean, 
without any development of frill, though thickly clothed with hair. 

"The chest is capacious, and rather round than flat; back ribs 
generally short. 

"The back is often slack and weak, but in some specimens, and 
notably in Leo, there is a fine development of muscle ; accompanying 
this weak back there is often a rolling and weak walk. 

"The legs should be very bony and straight, well clothed with 
muscle on the arms and lower thighs. Elbows well let down, and neither 
in nor out. Both the fore and hind legs are thickly feathered, but not to 
any great length. There is also often a double dew claw. 

"The feet are large and wide, with thin soles. The toes are generally 
flat, and consequently this dog soon becomes foot-sore in road work, 
and cannot accompany a horse or carriage at a fast pace. 

266 British Dogs. 

" In size the Newfoundland should be at least 25in. in height, and if 
he is beyond this it is a merit rather than a defect, as explained in the 
above remarks. Many very fine and purely-bred specimens reared in this 
country have been from 30in. to 32in. high. 

" The symmetry of this dog is often defective, owing to the tendency 
of a short neck and weak loin. As a consequence, a symmetrical dog like 
Leo is highly to be approved of. 

" The colour should be black, the richer the better ; but a rusty 
stain in it is so common in the native breed that it should by no 
means be penalised. Still the jet black is so handsome in comparison 
with it that I think, other points being equal, it should count above the 
rusty stain in judging two dogs. A white star on the breast is often met 
with. The white and black colour exhibited in the Landseer type never 
occurs in the true Newfoundland. 

" The coat of the Newfoundland is shaggy, without much under- 
coat, and at first sight it would appear unfit for much exposure to wet. 
It is, however, so thick and oily that it takes some time for the water to 
reach the skin through it. There is often a natural parting down the 
back, and the surface is very glossy. 

"The tail is long and gently curled on one side, but not carried 
high. It is clothed thickly with long hair, which is quite bushy, but 
often naturally parted down the middle." 

I prefer in judging to take general appearance and symmetry first. 

It is impossible to dissent from "Stonehenge's" remarks in regard to 
the head, and it will be observed that we have also selected for our 
engraving that incomparable dog Mr. Howard Mapplebeck's Leo. The 
illustrations, however, are from the drawings of different artists, viz., 
Mr. Baker and Mr. Moore. 

As to the ears, I may here remark on the authority of Meyrick for I 
have not met with the original work that Justice Haliburton, who was a 
connoisseur in the breed, describes this feature as " a small and delicate 
mouse-like ear." 

Haliburton also refers to the dew claws ; it is usual to remove them, 
and this should I think be done in all breeds, for they are a useless 
incumbrance, and make the leg look clumsy. 

Although a 2 Sin. dog may be a pure Newfoundland, one that size 
would stand little chance in competition at our large shows. 

The Newfoundland. 267 

With the conflicting evidence before us, I am not prepared to endorse 
the statement that the white and black colour never occurs in the 
true Newfoundland, but this question has been practically settled in the 
best possible way by making a distinct class for the picturesque black 
and white under the name of Landseer Newfoundland. 

Mr. Howard Mapplebeck's Leo, now Mr. S. W. Wildman's, is a fine 
model of the breed ; he is of great size, most symmetrical in build, with 
an elegant carriage ; has a fine broad intellectual looking head, and the 
dignified appearance so remarkable in all good specimens of the breed ; 
and is without doubt the finest living specimen that has been exhibited, 
and this is high praise when we consider the number of good ones our 
shows have brought out. 

Weights and measurements of celebrated dogs : 

Mr. T. Worthy's Help : Age, 2i years ; weight, 1541b. ; height at 
shoulder, 30in. ; length of nose to set on of tail, 51in. ; length of 
tail, 25in. ; girth of chest, 41in. ; girth of loin, 31in. ; girth of head, 24in. ; 
girth of forearm, 12in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 12in. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 12|in . 

Mrs. Cunliffe Lee's Nep : Age, 5 years ; height at shoulder, 31in. ; 
length from nose to set on of tail, 48in. ; length of tail, 16in. ; girth of 
chest, 36in. ; girth of loin, 32in. ; girth of head, 21in. ; girth of fore 
arm, lOJin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 9in. ; girth of 
muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 12in. 

Mr. S. W. Wildman's champion Gipsy : Age, 3 years ; weight, 981b. j 
height at shoulder, 28in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 42in. ; 
length of tail, 18in. ; girth of chest, 35in. ; girth of loin, 30in. ; girth of 
head, 21^in.; girth of forearm, lO^in. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, ll^in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, 12in. 

Mr. S. W. Wildman's champion Brunette : Age, 4 years ; weight, 
1041b. ; height at shoulder, 29in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 
43Jin. ; length of tail, 18|in. ; girth of chest, 36in. ; girth of loin, 33in. ; 
girth of head, 22in. ; girth of forearm, llin. ; length of head from 
occiput to tip of nose, llfin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and 
tip of nose, 12in. 

Mr. S. W. Wildman's Lady in Black : Age, 4 years ; weight, 1061b. ; 
height at shoulder, 28in. ; length of nose to set on of tail, 44in. ; length 

268 British Dogs. 

of tail, IS^in. ; girth of chest, 36in. ; girth of loin, 31in. ; girth of head, 
22in. ; girth of forearm, 10|in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
llin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 12in. 

Mr. S. W. Wildman's Flora, dam of Gipsy : Age, 7 years ; weight, 89ilb. ; 
height at shoulder, 28in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 42in. ; length 
of tail, 18in. ; girth of chest, 35in. ; girth of loin, 29in. ; girth of head, 
21in. : girth of forearm, lOin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
lljin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose 12-jin. 

Mr. S. W. Wildman's champion Leo : Age, 6 years ; weight, 1351b. ; 
height at shoulder, 31|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 50in. ; 
length of tail, 20in. ; girth of chest, 38in. ; girth of loin, 34in. ; girth 
of head, 22in. ; girth of forearm, 9in. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, llin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, 12in. 

Mr. S. W. Wildman's champion Lion : Age, 2| years ; weight, 1291b. ; 
height at shoulder, 29 Jin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 52in. ; 
length of tail, 20Jin. ; girth of chest, 39in. ; girth of loin, 32in. ; girth 
of head, 24in. j girth of forearm, lOJin. ; length of head from occiput 
to tip of nose, 12|in. j girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, 13in. 

Mr. S. W. Wildman's Mayor of Bingley : Age 2 years 4 months ; 
weight, 1421b. ; height at shoulder, 32in. ; length from nose to set on 
of tail, 50in. ; length of tail, 21in. ; girth of chest, 41|in. ; girth of 
loin, 33in. ; girth of head, 24|in. ; girth of forearm, llin. ; length of head 
from occiput to tip of nose, 12fin. ; girth of muzzle midway between 
eyes and tip of nose, 13in. 

Mr. S. W. Wildman's Black Prince : Age, 2 years ; weight, 1331b. ; 
height at shoulder, 31in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 51in. ; 
length of tail, 20in. ; girth of chest, 39^in. ; girth of loin, 34in. ; 
girth of head, 23iin. ; girth of forearm, lOJin. ; length of head from 
occiput to tip of nose, 13in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and 
tip of nose, 

The Landseer Newfoundland. 269 




THAT great artist, Sir Edwin Landseer, having immortalised a black and 
white dog, of Newfoundland type, in his painting, "A Distinguished 
Member of the Humane Society," made this variety too popular to be 
ignored by fashion, which is most arbitrary in such cases, and had 
determined that all black should be the colour of Newfoundland dogs. 

Fashion, therefore, finding itself opposed by genius which was popular, 
very wisely entered into a compromise by setting up two classes of New- 
foundlands, and in honour of genius calling the black and white sort the 
Landseer Newfoundland. 

Although I think it is doubtful whether the black has a claim to the 
exclusive title given him, I cannot but agree that we are happy in having 
such an excellent reason for christening the bi-colour dog the Landseer, 
and there is every reason to increase the number of classes, if by so 
doing we can increase the number of good dogs kept, and diminish the 
number of mongrels. Since a class was established for Landseers the 
numbers exhibited have increased. 

The Landseer differs but little from the black except in colour, and a 
tendency in the coat to curl. Some specimens are very curly, and I do 
not know that that is a fault. It should perhaps rather be made a 
point of difference between them and the black. 

Mr. Lord's Moldau, however, has a straight dense coat, and this German 
bred dog, so perfect in symmetry, should be most valuable as a sire. He 
has not so much white on him as is generally desired in a Landseer where 
the white and black are liked best in about equal proportions, but a dog 
of his beautiful formation, and with his white points, should with lightish 
coloured bitches get grand stock. Moldau I gave second prize to at the 
International Show, Hanover, 1879, in the best class I have ever seen. 

Mr. Evans' Dick has proved the greatest prize winner of this variety, 
he is a noble specimen and as clever as he is handsome, and from personal 
knowledge of him I can add perfect as a companion dog. 

270 British Dogs. 

The points by which the class should be judged are the same as in the 
black, with the exception of coat and colour. 

Weights and measurements of Landseer Newfoundlands : 

Mr. E. Evans's Dick : Age, 7 years ; weight, 1391b. ; height at 
shoulder, 30in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 4ft. Sin. ; length 
of tail, 21in. ; girth of chest, 40in ; girth of loin, 32in. ; girth of head, 
24|in. ; girth of forearm, lO^in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, llin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 12 Jin. 

Mr. Walter J. Sherringham's bitch Lill : Age, 21 months ; weight, 
1121bs. ; height at shoulder, 28 Jin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 
56in. ; length of tail, 22in. ; girth of chest, 35in. ; girth of loin, 30in. ; 
girth of head, 21in. ; girth of forearm, lOin. ; length of head from occiput 
to tip of nose, 11 Jin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, 12in. 

Mr. W. H. Harper's Bruno : Age, 3 years ; weight, 1641b. ; height 
at shoulder, 30in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 49in. ; length of 
tail, 21in. ; girth of ohest, 41in. ; girth of loin, 35in. ; girth of head, 
23Jin. ; girth of forearm, 12in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, 11 Jin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 


THE origin of the Dalmatian is quite as obscure as that of any other 
breed. When naturalists indulged in flights of fancy on such subjects 
this peculiarly spotted dog was said to be the offspring of an alliance 
between a dog and a tiger ; he has been called a pointer, the Bengal 
harrier, the Danish dog, and likened to a bull terrier. There appears, 
however, to be no valid reason to reject the origin suggested by his name, 
and, with no arguments against it that bear investigation, and sugges- 
tions to the contrary appearing to be mere fancies unsupported by proof, 
I think it reasonable to assume that he is a native of Dalmatia, on the 
eastern shores of the Gulf of Venice. Of course, the idea at one time 
seriously put forward, that our spotted carriage dog was the result of a 


t ' 

i - 

The Dalmatian. 271 

cross between a dog and a tiger, would now be laughed at by any school- 
boy, who might, indeed, suggest the leopard as the more likely animal to 
produce a spotted dog. I do not know on what authority Youatt called 
him the great Danish dog, a variety naturalists have described as much 
larger and, in many respects, different from our carriage dog, and his 
claim to be a Bengalese harrier seems to rest on the single fact that a 
spotted dog resembling our modern Dalmatian was once brought from 
Bengal to Spain. That he originally came from Dalmatia his name indi- 
cates, and this view seems strengthened by the recorded fact that for two 
centuries and a half he has been one of the domesticated dogs of Italy, a 
country so near to his reputed native home that we can easily imagine his 
being familiarised there long before he reached this dog-loving isle. When 
the Dalmatian first became known in England I have been unable to dis- 
cover. He was a favourite with the wealthy in the last century, and 
continued to be considered an absolutely indispensable appendage to the 
elaborately magnificent equipage and stable establishments of the great, 
to which his highly ornamental appearance added splendour, and his 
natural habits and love for the horse so well fitted him. 

Bewick gives an engraving of one so perfect in the clearly defined and 
perfectly arranged spots that I have not the least doubt art improved on 
Nature, just as Mr. Baker in "Dogs of the British Islands " has made 
Captain's spots so very much more distinct with his pencil than Dame 
Nature has with hers. 

Either of these engravings might, however, be taken as a model to 
breed up to as regards colour and spots, but neither is so correct in that 
respect as Mr. Moore has been in depicting Spotted Dick, the subject 
of our engraving, although the body colour is too dark, not doing the dog 
justice there, but the spots are given as they actually are. 

It has been assumed that the Dalmatian possesses an instinctive 
fondness for the horse, but this I do not conceive was the cause of his being 
attached to the carriage and stable ; but I rather suppose his ornamental 
qualities were the attractions to owners of equipages, and that his liking 
for horses and all connected with them has been fostered by habit and is 
now inherited. 

' ' Idstone ' ' says he never knew a dog of the breed that did not readily 
take to following horse and conveyance, but my experience has been 
different, and I possess one now of prize blood that shows no propensity 

272 British Dogs. 

to following a carriage, although reared among horses. Still, that is a 
predominating trait in their character, and, in fact, in that seems to con- 
sist their sole delight, and, no matter at what hour, they are always ready 
for the turn out, and do not seem to care how far the run may be. 

Some Dalmatians keep close under the carriage in running, so much so 
that they appear to run as though chained to the axle, but others, indeed 
the most of them, when fresh and full of life, gallop in front, showing 
much dignity as the forerunner of the carriage, and pleasure in association 
with it. At other times they run marvellously close to the horse's heels, 
but they never snap at them or jump up barking at them in front of 
their nose as dogs of other breeds are apt to do under similar circum- 

As already said, in the early part of the century the carriage dog was 
more generally kept than he is npw as a part of the stable establishment, 
and then, and indeed until almost recent years, his ears were cropped 
short, often to a level with the head. Many readers will recollect dogs 
that had been subjected to this barbarous custom, and I am glad to say 
it no longer prevails ; indeed, terrier fanciers are the only class who now 
indulge such a vitiated taste, and it is to be hoped they will soon, from 
shame at being so far behind their neighbours, if from no higher motive, 
give up a custom for which it is impossible to find any better justification 
than the wish to indulge a vulgar fancy. There are, I think, evidences 
that this very handsome appendage to the carriage is slowly but, I hope, 
surely regaining his popularity. It is true they have never been a large 
class at our shows, but I certainly know more good specimens at the 
present time than I have done for years, and I have known every prize 
winner since the commencement of shows. 

The Messrs. Hale, of Brierley Hill and Burton-on-Trent, were prin- 
cipal winners at early shows, and Mr. Eowland Davies, of Swan Village, 
West Bromwich, owned some good ones that won at Birmingham and 
London ; and then followed Mr. E. J. LI. Price's Crib, bred by Mr. Eow- 
land Hale, that took all before him until in his declining years he had to 
give way to Mr. Fawdry's celebrated Captain a dog, I think, the best 
coloured of any of the breed I have ever seen, but, from what I have 
seen of coming dogs, I should think his place is likely to be taken by the 
subject of our woodcut Dr. James's Spotted Dick a dog not so good in 
contrast of colour, but superior in formation. 

The Dalmatian. 273 

Dalmatians are unusually plentiful in the charming districts sur- 
rounding the Crystal Palace, and fair puppies may often be bought very 
cheaply from some of the owners of public carriages, as they are pretty 
generally kept about these stables ; good specimens are also often seen 
accompanying private carriages in the neighbourhood. I do not 
know whether Dalmatians show the same pleasure in accompanying a 
bicycle as a carriage, but I have no doubt that if they did not at once 
take to the iron steed they could very soon be brought to do so, and the 
bicycling tourist would in this dog have a highly ornamental adjunct to 
his travelling equipage, a pleasant companion, and a good guard of his 

The Dalmatian has been accused of an apathetic temper, of concen- 
trating all his affection on the horse and showing none to his master. 
This, is, however, an unjust charge. Dalmatians, like all other dogs, 
are very much what they are made, and if the owner forgets that the Dal- 
matian is an animal appreciative of caressses and kindness, and treats 
him merely as an ornament to his establishment, he cannot reasonably 
complain if the dog bestows his affections on his fellow-occupant of the 
stable, and strong are the friendships sometimes seen to exist between 
the dog and the horse. But the carriage dog, when made a companion, 
is faithful and affectionate if less demonstrative than some breeds, and 
therefore I strongly recommend him to the bicyclist, whilst I should 
like to see him regain his popularity as a carriage dog. It is said he is 
used in some continental countries as a pointer, and I do not doubt his 
innate capacity to fill that position if his powers were developed by 
training, but as he is never so used here I treat him merely as an 
ornamental and companion dog. 

I shall now take the points of the Dalmatian seriatim, and, first of all, 
I think, should be considered his fitness for travelling, which so much, 
depends on his strength and symmetry : a heavy, lumbering, unshapely 
dog, lumpy in shoulders, bulging at the elbows, and stilty behind, would 
be incapable of travelling at horse pace for the time a well-made Dalmatian 
can do so with apparent ease and pleasure, and, therefore, capability to 
travel with the carriage being a necessity, no cripple, however beautifully 
spotted, should gain a prize, and for strength, build, and symmetry I 
should give twenty points in judging. 

The head very much resembles that of the pointer, but is neither 


274 British Dogs. 

quite so deep nor so broad in muzzle ; the skull tight-skinned, no flews 
indeed, no loose skin about either head or throat ; the eyes medium size, 
dark in colour, and bright and sparkling ; the ears broad at base, nar- 
rowing to a rounded point, thin in texture, and spotted. 

The neck should be of fair length, nicely arched, airy that is, free 
from coarseness and clean cut, there being little or no wrinkling or 

The shoulders must be well sloped and free, and well covered with 
muscle, but not thick or loaded. 

The body must be elegant, not heavy ; the ribs fairly sprung, but 
not rounded like barrel hoops, which would indicate slowness, and 
destroy the symmetry ; the loin strong and muscular ; the quarters 
strong, nicely sloping from the huckle bone to set on of tail. 

The legs and feet are most important. In the hind legs the second 
thigh should be seen and the hock well let down ; the fore legs should be 
straight and clean made, lined with strong muscles. The feet are of good 
size, of compact shape, rather round than long, knuckles well up, and 
the sole thick, hard, and tough. A spreading foot is very objectionable, 
rendering the dog unfit for travel. 

The tail should be strong at the insertion, and rush grown 
that is, tapering to a point, and carried with a slight curve upwards, but 
neither crooked nor curled. If distinctly spotted, it is considered a great 
advantage, as adding much to the beauty of the dog. 

The coat should be clean and sleek, but firm, close, and wet resisting, 
neither woolly nor silky. 

The colour and markings give the dog his very distinctive 
character, and, therefore, are properly very highly valued. The body 
must be a pure white ; single black hairs running through the ground 
colour, giving a greyish hue, are a very great fault ; the purer and brighter 
the white the better the black and liver spots look by contrast ; the colour 
of the spots should be a pure black, blue black, or rich reddish liver ; the 
handsomest are the tricolours, with black spots on the body and bright 
well-defined liver spots on the back of the forelegs, inside and front of 
the thighs, and sometimes under and on the sides of the jaw. Some of 
the earlier winners had distinctly tanned faces, but these and black 
patches are objectionable, although less so than the dark ridge of con- 
glomerated spots that often runs down the back. The more distinct 

The Thibet Mastiff. 275 

from each other and the more clearly defined against the white the spots 
are the better. In size they should be from that of a sixpence to a florin, 
and the rounder the better. Large ones generally run into each other, 
and when too small they want boldness, and give a shotted or freckled 

The subject of our engraving, Spotted Dick, is the best built dog of 
his breed I have ever seen ; he is beaten by Captain in spots and colour 
by a few points, but in other respects is, I think, the best dog of the day. 
He has well spotted ears, which are rarely met with, and the beautiful 
bright tan spots on back of legs, &c., which are a great addition to a 
Dalmatian's beauty. Spotted Dick, formerly owned by Mr. A. W. Dalziel, 
and now the property of Mr. A. G. James, Kirkby Lonsdale, was bred 
by Mr. A. B. Jayne, of Upper Norwood. 

Measurements of Dr. James's Spotted Dick : Age, 2| years ; weight, 
431b. ; height at shoulder, 21in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 
34in. ; length of tail, 13in. ; girth of chest, 25in. ; girth of loin, 19in. ; 
girth of head, 15Hn. ; girth of forearm, Gin. ; length of head from 
occiput to tip of nose, 8|in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and 
tip of nose, 8|in. 



THIS breed is comparatively rare in England, and therefore only 
occasionally met with at our shows, but he is such a magnificent animal 
that I would gladly see him bred here, as he is really well worth 
cultivating for his noble appearance, and under the skill and care of 
English breeders his natural good qualities, grand proportions, and 
noble bearing would be developed to the utmost. 

In their native country they are used as guardians of the flock 
and the family, and half a dozen of them with ' ' their bristles 
up" would certainly present a formidable front to marauders, human or 

In general contour he bears a considerable resemblance to our English 


2j6 British Dogs. 

mastiff, although, the rough dense coat and black colour is quite a 
contrast to the rich fawns and fallows of our home breed, with their 
close-lying short and shining jackets. 

The subject of our engraving is a remarkably fine specimen, one of 
two exhibited by His Eoyal Highness the Prince of Wales at the Alex- 
andra Palace Show, December, 1875. The pair were exceedingly well 
matched, and were much admired, Siring, whose portrait we give, being 
perhaps a shade the better. 

In size they are not quite equal to our native mastiffs, although the 
long coat gives them an advantage in appearance, but both the specimens 
shown by His Eoyal Highness were well formed, strong in the back 
and loins, deep ribbed, with well developed quarters, and standing on stout 
straight legs with no lack of bone"; the coat is about as longaa a New- 
foundland's and very dense, not sleek and glossy, but rough, without 
being harsh ; the colour is black, inclining to brownish-black on some 
parts of the body ; the tail is large, well furnished with hair, and carried 
pretty high and with a good swirl in fact, the term " gawcie," which 
Burns uses to describe the Scotch colley's tail, pretty accurately applies, 
but unfortunately I can find no exact equivalent in English. Bushy yet 
showy comes near it, and the Thibet mastiff carries his stern much 
higher than the colley in fact, well over the hips. 

The head, wherein the character of the animal is stamped, and where 
we always look first in considering the type of dog, differs considerably 
from that of his English namesake, and partakes somewhat of the 
character of our bloodhounds, although equally distinct from that, and it 
might fairly be described as a compromise between the two, as it possesses 
features common to both the skull is shorter than that of the blood- 
hound, and not so massive as that of our mastiff ; the ears are small, like 
the latter, but the eyes are deep sunk, like the bloodhound's, and show 
some haw ; there is also a good deal of flew, the lips falling very deep, 
quite as much so as in an ordinary specimen of a bloodhound, and with 
this there is the usual concomitant throatiness, although this latter 
feature is not so noticeable under the thick ruff that surrounds the throat 
and neck as it is in the smooth-haired hound ; the muzzle is a trifle 
longer than in our mastiffs, and the nose is wide and capacious, showing 
inherent ability to hunt, although that quality may not be developed, as 
he ia principally used as a guard. The general appearance of the animal 

I / 

The Great Dane. 277 

stamps him as a distinct variety, and one of such noble qualities, that 
I would like to see such encouragement given at our Kennel Club 
shows to this variety, and to the Eussian wolfhound, and a few others, 
as would stimulate breeders to produce them and bring them forward 
at our shows in greater numbers. 


THE most consistent and also persistent advocate for including the 
great Dane among the list of British dogs is Mr. Frank Adcock, of 
Shevington Hall, Wigan, and his monster dog Satan and bitch Proserpina, 
known among the habitues of dog shows as "the Devil and his wife," 
are the specimens of the breed most familiar to the dog showing public. 

The great Dane is referred to by those eminent naturalists, Linnaeus 
and Buffon, as a prominent and distinct variety. 

Buffon, who I am disposed to think held exaggerated views of the 
influence of climate, classes the great Dane among those varieties that 
had been modified and formed by climatic influence, and owing his origin 
to the sheepdog, and the small Danish dog in his thesis is a modified 

To follow out this argument would, however, carry us too far from the 
present subject, but I must, in passing, point out the discrepancy 
between Buffon, the author of the "Sportsman's Cabinet," and Youatt, 
the latter looking on the Dalmatian as the small Dane, and the great 
Dane identical with it in all but size. 

The great Dane has long been a recognised breed throughout central 
Europe, and, as already observed in the article on the German boar- 
hound, that dog has probably a good deal of the Dane blood in him. 

The Danish dog and the Irish wolfhound have been held, by Buffon and 
other writers, to be identical, and most of the best authorities on the 
subject admit a strong agreement in principal features. 

Buffon observes of the Irish wolfhound that he strongly resembled in 

278 British Dogs. 

figure the Danish dog, but greatly exceeded the latter in stature. As 
Buffon, however, says, he never saw but one Irish wolfhound, and 
estimates that one at five feet high when sitting, he evidently exaggerated 
the dog's size or failed to express his meaning clearly, for it might well 
be that the dog would measure five feet from the rump up to end of nose 
held up while sitting. 

From all I have been able to gather, there appears among the best 
writers a strong agreement that there was a close affinity between the 
great Dane and the Irish wolfhound, and to an infusion of great Dane 
blood do I look as most hopeful to resusitate the Irish breed. 

Eichardson, in his " Monograph of the Mastiff," says: " The Dane 
rarely stands less than 30in. at the shoulder, and is usually more. His 
head is broad at the temples, and the parietal bones diverge much, thus 
marking him to be a true mastiff ; but, by a singular discrepancy, his 
muzzle is lengthened more than even that of an ordinary hound, and the 
lips are not pendulous, or, at least, but slightly so. His coat, when 
thoroughbred, is rather short than fine, the tail is fine and tapering, the 
neck long, the ears small and carried back, but these are invariably 
taken off when the dog is a whelp." Eichardson further describes a dog 
of the breed, named Hector, the property of His Grace the Duke of 
Buccleugh, that measured, when eighteen years old and his legs had given 
way, 32in. high at the shoulder, and computed that he must have 
measured 33^in. high when in his prime. Hector was bought from a 
student at Dresden. 

In 1863 Sir Eoger Palmer exhibited an immense black and white dog 
of this breed called Sam ; he stood fully 35in. at the shoulder and 
weighed 2001b. In a letter to Mr. Adcock Sir Eoger says that he was 
extremely intelligent, very quiet, but will stand no nonsense from 
strangers, and so acute were his scenting powers that he never failed to 
find his owner, although liberated as much as twenty-five minutes after 
he had left the house. 

I do not pretend to draw a clear and distinctive line between the 
German boarhound, which it is now proposed to call the German mastiff, 
and the great Dane, but those of the former which I have seen had 
neither, as a rule, the length of muzzle nor the kind of ear described by 

That this breed is well worth encouraging, no one who has carefully 

The Great Dane. 279 

inspected the specimens, more or less pure, seen occasionally at our 
shows, can doubt. Their immense strength, activity, and apparent 
"go," mark them as most valuable for hunting and bringing to bay the 
large and fierce game of our colonies and Indian possessions, and also 
for judicious crossing with some of our native breeds for the above and 
other special purposes. Of the breed Mr. Frank Adcock says in " Dogs 
of the British Islands : " " Enormous in size, sensitive in nose, of great 
speed, unyielding in tenacity and courage, and full of intelligence ; there 
is no dog that can so well sustain the part of the dog of the hunter of 
large game," and this opinion is deserving of every respect from the 
writer's knowledge and experience of the breed. 

As to the purity of the dogs exhibited as great Danes, I am not in a 
position to speak. Mr. Adcock' s Satan I look upon as the grandest 
specimen I have seen much superior in size, muscularity, and power- 
fulness of build, to any in the class of "Deutsche Doggen," at the 
Hanover International Exhibition of 1879, or in the excellent class of 
" Grand Danois," at the International Exhibition of Dogs, Paris, 1878, 
both of which lots I inspected most carefully. That Satan, at all events, 
retains the exact type of head which dogs of this breed possessed very 
far back, will be proved by the inspection of a very fine painting in 
the Spencer collection in the South Kensington Museum. This picture 
only shows the head of a dog of this breed, but there are several other 
extremely ancient pictures which conclusively prove how accurately the 
type has been maintained. 

The following are the weight and measurements of a great Dane : 
Mr. F. Adcock' s Proserpina, a blue brindled great Dane bitch : Age, 2 
years ; weight, 1351b. ; height at shoulder, 30in. ; length from nose to 
set on of tail, 51in. ; length of tail, 20iin. ; girth of chest, 34in. ; girth 
loin, 31in. ; girth of head, 21in. ; girth of forearm, 9in. ; length of head 
from occiput to tip of nose, 12in. ; girth of muzzle midway between 
eyes and tip of nose, 

280 British Dogs. 



THE German boarhound is fairly entitled to a place here on the lines we 
have laid down, namely, to include dogs not strictly British when 
frequently met with at our shows, and, by the attention paid to them by 
the English philokuon, may be supposed to be under process of natural- 

From an early period in the history of our shows, specimens of the 
immense German boarhound have frequently graced the benches, and had 
the same encouragement been given to them as to the dachshund, we 
would now have large classes of them ; but, hitherto, they have had to 
form part and parcel of that olla podrida, the variety or foreign dog 
class, the most difficult of all to judge, and wherein decisions are almost 
invariably eccentric and puzzling. 

Many dogs shown as German boarhounds would, I am disposed to 
think, be more correctly classed as great Danes ; and to that ancient 
breed, I believe, the German boarhound owes much. 

I do not profess to write of this breed from an extensive experience, or 
with a profound knowledge ; and inquiries into its history on my part 
have been unsatisfactory. 

From all I have been able to discover, and from observations at home 
and continental international exhibitions, I feel strongly convinced that 
the dog is of no special purity, but rather represents selections from 
many stocks used and found suitable for certain purposes. 

Believing, as I do, that this is the case with nearly every breed of dog, 
it raises no prejudices in my mind against the one under consideration. 

The Ulmer appears to be but another name for the boarhound, 
although it may refer more specially to a sub-variety of the breed for 
which, I understand, Ulm is somewhat celebrated. 

The Leonberg is another new claimant for recognition, and is also an 
ally ; or, perhaps, more correctly, an alloy of this breed with New- 
foundland and other varieties. 

The German breeders have themselves in contemplation, I believe, to 

The German Boarhound. 281 

arrange a standard of excellence and to re-name the breed the German 

There is, I think, much to be said in favour of this, for most of them, 
and particularly those I have seen selected by German judges for prize 
honours, exhibited more mastiff characteristics from an English point of 
view than hound properties. 

All this shows a haziness surrounding the breed which, I frankly 
confess, I have not, so far, been able to penetrate, and it was rendered 
none the less dense by the variety of types among the thirty odd 
specimens shown at Hanover, in 1879, by native breeders. Among these 
there was great diversity in size, style, and colour. The reds and 
brindles seemed to be most appreciated by the judges. Some of the 
brindles were remarkably rich in colour, and markedly so a fine upstanding 
and open-countenanced dog called Caesar, who took premier honours, as 
he had also done at the Berlin Show in 1878. There were also, however, 
mouse colours, blues, and blue mottles, the latter essentially a great 
Dane colour ; and one, a bitch called Tigress, the property of H.S.H. 
Prince Albert Solms, was black and white spotted, pretty evenly so, and 
not unlike a gigantic Dalmatian with the spots exaggerated. 

Regarding this peculiarity of marking, it may be well to observe that 
the well-known writer, Youatt, recognises the Dalmatian and the great 
Dane as identical, except in size, an opinion from which I differ, for 
reasons given elsewhere. 

In general appearance the German boarhound shows a good deal of the 
mastiff, but is not so massive as our best modern specimens. The whole 
head, and particularly the jaw, is longer, and this is added to in 
appearance by the absurd practice of mutilation of the ears. When left 
on the ears fall neatly, and are rather smaller than in our mastiff. The 
general build and carriage shows a combination of strength and agility, 
and the cut up flank is absent or but slight. The stern is not carried so 
gaily as in our hounds, and he entirely lacks those flews, long folding 
ears, and dewlap characteristics of our slow hounds. The coat is short, 
thick, but soft and close, and on many specimens I have observed dew- 
claws. I merely mention this latter fact because so many will still 
persist in claiming these appendages as peculiar to certain breeds, 
although very little attention to facts would show that they occasionally 
appear in all. 

282 British Dogs. 

It has been publicly stated that specimens of this dog have grown to 
the extraordinary height of over 40in. It is said a dog of this breed, 
that won at the International Show at Hamburgh, measured 3ft. 4^in. at 
the shoulder. Such statements are so absurd that they scarcely require 
contradiction, and are best met by giving actual measurements of 
acknowledged good specimens, and this, by the courtesy of H.S.H. 
Prince Albert Solms, Braunfels, Prussia, I am enabled to do, and here 
append measurements of German boarhounds. 

Prince Albert Solm's Cora : Age, 4 years ; weight, 121|lb. ; height at 
shoulder, 28in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 51|in. ; length of 
tail, 22in. ; girth of chest, 33in. ; girth of loin, 26in. ; girth of head, 
19|in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, llin. ; girth of 
muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 12in. 

Prince Albert Solm's Nero : Age, 3 years ; weight, 1321bs. ; height at 
shoulder, 29in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 48in. ; length of tail, 
22in. ; girth of chest, 36in. ; girth of loin, 31in. ; girth of head, 22in. ; 
length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 12in. ; girth of muzzle 
midway between eyes and tip of nose, 12in. 

Prince Albert Solm's Sultan : Age, 3 years ; weight, HOlbs. ; height at 
shoulder, 28|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 49in. ; length of 
tail, 19in. ; girth of chest, 33iin. ; girth of loin, 28in. ; girth of head, 
21iin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, llin. ; girth of 
muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, lliin. 

Measurements of celebrated Ulmer Dogs (Bavarian Boarhounds) : 

Eudolf M. Leo's Sultan I. : Age, 3 years ; weight, 1801b. ; height at 
shoulder, 34in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 58in. ; length of 
tail, 22in. ; girth of chest, 38fin. ; girth of loin, 30iin. ; girth of head, 
24f in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 5^in. ; 
colour, yellow with black spots. 

Eudolf M. Leo's Xantipphe I. : Age, 2 years ; weight, 1261b. ; height 
at shoulder, 32in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 54in. ; length of 
tail, 20fin. ; girth of chest, 36in. ; girth of loin, 26|in. ; girth of head, 
21in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 5in. ; 
colour, black, with yellow spots. 

Mr. H. M. Savage's Blitz : Age, 7 months and 20 days ; height at 
at shoulder, 25in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 42in. ; length of 
tail, 17|in. ; girth of chest, 28in. ; girth of loin, 22in. ; girth of head, 

The Bulldogs of Spain and the Continent. 283 

. ; girth of forearm, 8in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, 9in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7in. ; 
girth of neck, IG^in. ; colour, pure slate, with white extremities. 

Mr. H. M. Savage's Lena: Age, 7 months and 1 day; height at 
shoulder, 26in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 45jin. ; length of 
tail, 20in. ; girth of chest, 28in. ; girth of loin, 22iin. ; girth of head, 
lOin. ; girth of forearm, 9 fin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, 9iin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7iin. ; 
girth of neck, 18in. ; colour, pure slate, with white extremities. 



THE dog, of which this slight sketch attempts to treat, is one for which 
Great Britain has been famous since the advent of the Eomans, who con- 
veyed large numbers to Italy. Sir Win. Jardine says, "it may be 
doubted whether there were in Britain two races of broad-mouthed dogs 
during the Roman era ; it seems to us there was but one, and in that case 
the bulldog was the animal in question." Claudian, the Latin poet (who 
died 408), mentions the English bulldog, and distinguishes him from 
all other dogs, as being able to pull down a bull. Joanes Ulizious 
unmistakably describes the ancient bulldog in these words, " Occulis ita 
lippis et detortis, labris et malis adeo sordidis et pene dentibus apparent ; 
ut advenes mera monstra videantur : at quanto deformiores es fere 
meliores estimantur." From this period, there is ample evidence of the 
dissemination of this breed of dogs over the Continent, and this was much 
assisted by the fact of so important a town as Bordeaux having been in the- 
hands of the English from the 12th to the 14th Century, and the Court of 
King Edward, with its attendant English sports of bull and bear baiting, 
having been held there for about eleven years. In about the year 1556 
great numbers of English bulldogs were introduced into Spain and the 

284 British Dogs. 

Island of Cuba, by Phillip II., for the purposes of the arena, and 
their decendants are to be found, (but in very limited numbers) to this 
day, with all the physical and mental qualities described by Dr. Caius, of 
Cambridge, in the year 1576. The doctor heads his article "Ban- 
dogge," and says : " This kind of dogge, called a Mastyre or Bandogge, 
is vast, huge, stubborne, ougly, and eager ; of a heavy and burthenous 
body, and therefore of but little swiftnesse ; terrible and frightful to 
beholde, and more fearce and fell than any Arcadian curre, (notwith- 
standing they are sayd to have their generation from the violent Lyon.) 
They are serviceable against the Foxe and Badger, to drive wild and tame 
swyne, to bayte and take the bull by the ear, when occasion so requireth, 
one dogge or two at the utmost sufficient for that purpose, be the bull never 
so monstrous, never so fearce, never so furious, never so stearne, never so 
untameable: For it is a kind of dogge capable of courage, violent and 
valiant, striking could feare into the hearts of men , but standing in fear 
of no man, insomuch that no weapon will make him shrink or abridge his 

There are various pictures in existence of the dog, as described 
by Dr. Caius, and all are more or less identical with the ancient 
bulldog of Britain, now better known through my importation of them as 
the Spanish bulldog. The most accurate representation is an oil paint- 
ing on oak panel in my possession, by A. Hondius, bearing date 1585. 
This was painted within nine years of the time when Dr. Caius published 
his article, and may be fairly said to offer a faithful illustration of the 
same. The picture represents two bulldogs attacking a wild boar ia the 
bed of a shallow stream. The dogs are respectively red, with a black 
muzzle, and white with brindle ear patches, rose ears, long fine tails, 
(termed "tyger tails," in the article on the bulldog in the Cynographia 
Brittannica, published 1800,) and from the relative size of the dogs and 
the wild boar which might have been painted from life but yesterday 
the dogs must have weighed from lOOlb. to 1201b. The red dog is 
represented as having a firm grip of the left ear of the boar, and the 
white dog is rushing in on the other side. I have also in my possession 
an engraving from a picture by Hondius showing the head of a bulldog, 
who, with dogs of another breed, are about to attack a bear. The 
description by Caius, and the illustrations by Hondius, are also well 
supported by the "Master of the Game," who not only describes the 

The Bulldogs of Spain and the Continent. 285 

great size and tenacity of the ancient bulldog, but also the most common 
colour, viz., white with dark patches about the ears. 

Richardson, who saw two or three specimens, thus wrote upon the 
Spanish bulldogs in the early part of the present century. " His head 
is of prodigious size, even apparently too large in proportion to his body ; 
his eyes are placed very far apart, his upper lip pendulous, the ear is 
small and not perfectly pendulous, being erect at the root, but the 
tip falling over, colour usually tawny or light rufous ; the under jaw is 
also undershot, and I do not think I can give my readers a better idea 
of the dog than by describing him as a gigantic bulldog." He then 
goes on to say : " Col. H. Smith conceives this race to have been 
identical with the broad-mouthed dogs for which Britain was cele- 
brated during the Eoman era ; and certainly as this race answers to 
ancient description far better than our common bulldog, I am disposed 
fully to concur with him.' ' 

In Eussia and Germany the ancient bulldog is almost extinct ; and in 
France but very few remain, the modern English fashion for small or toy 
bulldogs having crossed the channel, and the result of the pairing of the 
manufactured toy with the original stock has been the almost total 
extinction of the latter in its purity. During the reign of the Commune 
many of the ancient bulldogs were obtained from Bordeaux and Spain for 
the purposes of the arena, but, from paucity of numbers and the dangerous 
nature of their employment, but few were left alive. Bordeaux, from the 
time it was occupied by the English up to within a very few years, was 
the great centre from which emanated the purest of ancient bulldogs, and 
the dogne de Bordeaux was at one time well known all over the Continent, 
but now, owing to the stringency of the laws, the breed has practically 
died out, and it is only in Spain where the remnants of this historical 
race can be found, and is known as the perro de presa. 

In that country the bulldog is still used as he was in England 
in the reign of King John (A.D. 1200), and as described by Dr. Caius, 
to catch and hold a bull, who, in an immense arena, unfettered by rope 
or chain, or disarmed by balled horns, rushes at dog or man with 
the ferocity of a tiger, and is only pinned and held by the immense 
power, wonderful activity, and terrible determination so well described 
by Caius. In such a combat as this it is needless to point out 
that the toy dog at present cherished by a few as the English bull- 

286 British Dogs. 

dog is, notwithstanding he is frequently possessed of unflinching 
courage, quite incapable of the part assigned him by Claudian and the 
subsequent writers ; indeed, the dwarfed body and limbs would not only 
prevent his ever being able to catch an active and unfettered bull, but 
would also deprive him of the ability to make good his escape should he 
feel so disposed, whilst the absurd, excessive, and unnatural shortness of 
face would render a firm and lasting hold almost an impossibility. A 
wretched jaded beast, tied to a stake, a toy bulldog, or indeed a game fox 
terrier, would no doubt be able to pin ; but it was no such miserable 
exhibition as this which suggested Claudian' s " Magnaque taurorum 
fracturae colla Britannge." 

Since the subjugation of the enlarged bull or wild boar by bulldogs 
has become impossible in this country, an absurd standard, founded upon 
no basis, has constantly been foisted upon breeders of this variety ; and, as 
Darwin remarks, " there can be no doubt that the fancy bulldogs of the 
present day have been greatly reduced in size ; ' ' and at the same time 
other properties have been lost. The scale of points (usually made to fit 
the dog owned by the author of the same) are in themselves destructive of 
many of the peculiarities of the breed, because, whilst advocating the 
breeding for one particular property, the framer of the scale admits his 
ignorance of the force of correlated action : thus, for example, in advocat- 
ing the production of a small thin ear, he is unconsciously but certainly 
diminishing the thickness and volume of the skin covering the head and 
neck, so necessary for the protection of an essentially gladiatorial animal 
as the bulldog, and at the same time, also rendering impossible the pro- 
duction of the folds of skin or wrinkles, and the hanging chaps so much 
desired, and all of ,which points he insists upon in the same breath. The 
amateur is also told that the tail must be destitute of rough hair, which 
practically means that the coat of the dog must be of an extremely fine 
nature. Now, the scientist knows full well that the cultivation of this 
peculiarity tends to, and has actually resulted in, diminution of the bony 
structures ; the inferior dentition ; and weakness of constitution ; yet the 
breeder is told that large bones and teeth are a sine quoL non ! Darwin has 
also noticed the effect of correlated action here, for he remarks, the modern 
bulldog has fine limbs, but " this is a recently selected character." It has 
been frequently urged by those who have during the last few years flooded 
the country with canine literature, that the ancient bulldog was not so 

The Bulldogs of Spain and the Continent. 

worthy of perpetuation as his toy descendant, because his head was not so 
great in size, in proportion to the number of pounds weight as the toy dog. 
It is a matter of some surprise that the fact, that the head of a King 
Charles spaniel, or that of a toy terrier is much greater in proportion for 
weight, than any 401b. toy bulldog should have escaped the notice of 
these gentlemen, and also the fact that dwarfs of all the animal creation 
have heads greatly out of proportion to their stature. 

I think my readers will agree with me, that it is far more desirable 
to rescue the remains of this breed, for which England was once so 
famous, than to attempt to cultivate that which is simply a puny 
and imperfect imitation. That nearly all the dog show winners owe what 
they possess to the cross with the Spanish dog Bigheaded Billy, or to my 
Toro, a reference to the Kennel Club calendar will prove, and I have no 
doubt there is a large reserve of English gentlemen of broad views who 
will join the ranks of those who have, during the last ten years, done so 
much to reinstate a dog unquestionably more desirable in every way than 
the absurd apology once so high in favour : 

The following description and measurements of Toro are taken from 
The Field of the 27th Sept., 1873, and may be of some service as a guide 
to breeders : 

" Toro is a huge, massive dark chestnut or 'carroty' brindled dog, 
with blackish muzzle ; he has very deep flews, high temples, large 
nostrils, and is very much underhung, and, for his size, short in the face. 
His eyes are tolerably full, and a good deal of the white is shown ; the 
' stop ' or indentation between the eyes is large and deep, and runs high 
up the head. The skin about the head is very loose, and fails into 
wrinkles and folds when the ears of the dog are erected ; and a deep 
double dewlap runs from the angles of the mouth to the sternum. His 
ears have been cut out, very little of the burr being left, and this greatly 
detracts from the apparent size of his head. His neck is arched, short, 
very thick and muscular, and covered with quantities of loose skin ; the 
shoulders broad and flat at the top, standing well out from the ribs, and 
very muscular ; the elbows well out from the ribs ; the forearm very thick, 
and slightly bowed ; feet large and round, and furnished with very strong 
claws ; the chest is great, and not only broad, but deep, and the ribs are 
very round. There is a considerable fall at the shoulders, and from that 
point the loins begin to rise, the arch terminating at the insertion of the 

288 British Dogs. 

tail. This is placed very low, has a downward crook at the root and 
another at the end, is very short and fine in bone, and is never erected so 
high as the level of the dog's back. The loins are strong and muscular, 
as are also the hind quarters, the stifles turning out slightly, and the hocks 
rather close together. The whole of the hind quarters are small, as com- 
pared with the fore quarters, and are considerably higher. The coat is 
very fine and smooth, and the hair very hard in texture. In showing 
condition Toro weighs 901b. 

" The following are his exact measurements : Head, 22in. ; chop, close 
up to eye, 14in. ; length of face from corner of eye to tip of nose, 
2in. ; from corner of eye down to angle of mouth, 5in. ; between eyes 
2fin. ; from ear to ear across forehead, 5in. ; from top of nose to 
under jaw, Sin. ; projection of lower incisors beyond those in the upper 
jaw when the mouth is closed lin. ; between canines in upper jaw, 
2_on. ; in lower jaw about 2in., being broken ; round neck, 19in. ; length 
of neck, 5in. ; round ribs, 31in. ; across chest, 13in. ; between forelegs, 
9in. ; length of neck and body from apex of skull to root of tail, 30in. ; 
round forearm, 8in ; round loins, 2 lin. ; height at shoulder, 22in. ; from 
point of elbow to ground, llin. 

" Toro, although very forbidding in appearance, is exceedingly quiet and 
docile, and is possessed of great intelligence ; he retains all the peculiar 
attributes of the ancient British bulldog such as size, courage, &c. He 
will only pin an animal by the head, and when fighting is perfectly silent 
and utterly regardless of pain. He is rather slow in this movements, has 
a rolling kind of gait, and carries his head low. 

" With such a dog as we have described to start with possessing as he 
does form, size, courage, and, what is if anything of greater importance, 
clean blood to cross out with the inbred stock which we have in England 
Mr Adcock will, we think, have little difficulty in re-establishing this 
ancient breed." 

The cross with Toro has proved exceedingly valuable, both upon the 
show bench and in the increase in size, constitution and bone ; and, in 
conjunction with the strains of my champion Ajax and Queen Bess, has 
produced a dog, who, when full grown, will weigh from lOOlb. to 1121b. 













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Vermin Destroyers : The Terriers. 

Including : 

1. The Fox Terrier. 

2. The Wire-haired Fox 


j. The Dandie Dinmont 

4. The Bedlington Terrier. 

5. The Black and Tan 


6. The Skye Terrier. 

7. The Bull Terrier. 

8. The Scotch Terrier. 

9. The Irish Terrier. 

10. The White English 


n. The Airedale Terrier. 

12. The A berdeen Terrier. 

Some of the varieties included in this group differ 
widely from each other in physical characteristics. On 
the one hand we have the light and nimble black and 
tan, with a long head and gradually tapering jaw, and 
on the other the low-legged and very strongly built 
Dandie Dinmont, with a comparatively large and wide 
head and more truncated muzzle. All of them, however, 
closely resemble each other in the work they are mostly 
kept to, and which, as it is their legitimate business, 
they take to with most readiness and zest. 

All of them have been, doubtless, much modified from 
the native terrier of Britain of some centuries ago, 
and many of them are admittedly manufactured by the 
admixture of other kinds with the terrier base, yet as 

2go British Dogs. 

every class of them possesses marked qualities in common, 
and are, above all things, vermin destroyers, and in a 
variety of ways used for that purpose, they thus form 
a natural group on the lines we laid down for classi- 
fying the dogs upon which we treat in these pages. 



AMONG all those who have written on fox terriers of late years, none 
appear to have been inclined to go to the root of the matter and tell 
us anything of the origin and early history of this breed. 

A general idea seems to prevail that fox terriers are a production of 
modern times, and this idea has no doubt been fostered by the way in 
which spurious imitations of them have been from time to time manu- 
factured, and by the ignorance of judges who have permitted various 
and very opposite types to find favour. 

The fox terrier proper is not a modern breed, and perhaps there were 
as good dogs fifty years ago as there are now. 

Some of us will, I dare say, remember the old black and tan English 
terrier not in any way resembling the whip. tailed, smooth-coated, and 
pencil-toed black and tan of the present day, but a dog of very similar 
appearance to the Old Jock and Old Trap type of fox terriers. 

My father has at present in his possession a painting of a noted terrier 
that belonged to his grandfather. This dog was a black and tan that 
is to say, black, with a considerable quantity of light tan, and white 
breast. He, upon one occasion, went to ground in Newburgh Park, and 
stayed several hours, until dug out, when it was found that he was 
engaged with two large badgers, and though fearfully cut up, he showed 
no signs of giving in. This dog had good drop ears, and in all other 

The Fox Terrier. 291 

respects except colour would have held his own on a show bench at the 
present day. 

I believe there is no doubt that there was an equally old breed of 
white English terriers of the same character, and it was by crossing 
these two sorts that the colour of our modern kennel terriers was pro- 
duced. The black and tan was, from its colour, difficult to keep in 
view, and mixed colour looked more uniform with the hounds. 

However, even to the present day, or at least till very recently, the 
Duke of Beaufort has kept up a breed of black and tan fox terriers, 
and excellent dogs they are. 

Treadwell, the huntsman of the Old Berkshire, has had several good 
terriers notably Tip and these were descended from a black and tan 
dog he had with the Cottesmore twenty-five years ago, called Charley. 
This dog was bred by Mr. Cauverley, of Greetham, near Oakham, whose 
family has had the breed for a century. Some years ago I was at the Old 
Berkshire kennels, and saw Treadwell' s terriers. They were a hardy, 
useful sort, weighing from lOlb. to 161b. 

Old Trap was descended from a black and tan breed, and I believe Old 
Jock was also. These doga were thoroughly genuine terriers, and their 
blood at the present day asserts itself in many of the best prize winners 
we have. Unfortunately, owing to the want of authentic pedigree 
registries and the not very scrupulous consciences of certain dealers and 
breeders, Old Jock and Old Trap have been made responsible for a great 
deal of stock with which in reality they had no connection. Old Jock 
was bred by Capt. Percy Williams, and was by his Jock out of Grove 

This brings me to a consideration of the Grove terriers, which, in the 
hands of Jack Morgan, soon attained to the greatest fame. It may, 
indeed, be questioned if, at the present day, we have a better bitch than 
old Grove Nettle. I may also direct attention to another terrier, not so 
generally known, that was bred by Jack Morgan, when huntsman to 
Lord Galway. That was Trimmer, better known as Cooper's Trimmer, 
and he achieved lasting fame as being the sire of Belvoir Joe. Of the 
Belvoir terriers, however, I shall have something more to say. 

Of the same breed as the Grove are the terriers, which Ben Morgan 
introduced into Lord Middleton's kennels ; and, though their lot did not 
fall in early days among the show world, they were none the less good- 


292 British Dogs. 

looking and thoroughly up to their work. I well remember Nettle of 
this breed. She was the granddam of Belvoir Joe, and a thorough 
terrier, quite up to show form. Another of the same strain was Old 
Vic, whose daughter Vic, by Old Tartar, produced Jester II. The two 
Vies, for many seasons, did excellent service with the hounds. 

Another very old breed, not generally known to fame, was many years 
in the hands of the late Mr. F. Bell, of the Hall, Thirsk. Some eighteen 
years ago two of his terriers distinguished themselves greatly in an otter 
hunt that took place in the Colbeck one of the tributaries of the Swale. 
Twig, one of these dogs, several times bolted the otter, and was the 
first to tackle him on crossing a shoal. For this he nearly lost his life, 
as he was found to be bitten through one of the veins in his neck, and 
nearly bled to death. The sister to this dog a bitch called Venom 
won one of the first prizes that were ever offered for fox terriers. This 
was at Yarmouth. Twig was an exceedingly good-looking dog, showing 
no bull, and as good as most of the present' winners. He was marked 
with black and grey tan on the head. I am sorry to say, however, 
that Mr. Bell's breed has become well-nigh extinct. 

Mr. Bower, of Oswaldkirk, has long been the possessor of terriers 
that have often become notorious for doughty deeds; and people still 
tell the story of Old Jim, who worried a very large and savage monkey 
that belonged to Sir George Wombwell. The dog was only eleven 
months old, and had previously been considerably bullied by the monkey. 
At last, upon the eventful day, he was observed to go towards the mon- 
key's yard, look inquiringly around, doubtless to see if any one was near, 
and then he went in. Some time afterwards the brewer, who had seen 
him enter the yard and not return, went to look after him, and 
found the monkey dead, while the dog was so punished he could not 

Mr. Bowers 's breed has been extensively used in kennels in the North 
of England ; but I have little doubt that there is a cross of bull in it. 

Mr. H. Gibson has long been well known as a breeder of first-class 
fox terriers, and he has, in fact, owned them for above thirty years. 
The first he ever possessed was a bitch bred at Hams Hall, in War- 
wickshire, by a gamekeeper named Massy. This bitch killed a favourite 
cat belonging to the present Mr. Adderley's mother, and so had to be 
got rid of. Massy consequently sold her to a barber named Collins, of 

The Fox Terrier. 293 

Coleshill, and he went to the school where Mr. Gibson then was and sold 
her to him for all the money he then possessed, i.e., d63. Mr. Gibson 
now says he wishes he could find a few like her at .100 each. Her name 
was Fly. Mr. Gibson also tells me that in those days there were many 
good fox terriers to be found, and that gamekeepers used them instead 
of spaniels. They were valued from 20s. to 40s. each. The Atherstone, 
the South Warwickshire (in Vyner's time), and the Belvoir (in Goosey's 
day) had plenty, such as you can hardly find now. 

From the Belvoir kennels thirty- five years ago Sir Thomas Whichcote 
got Old Tyrant, and he was of a sort that never has been surpassed. 
This breed was kept very select, and among other direct descendants 
of it I may mention Belvoir Venom, who was bred by Goodall, at 
Aswarby, in 1860. He now has a dog and bitch out of her by Belvoir 
Joe. They are eight years old, and are probably the best bred terriers 
at present in existence. Their names are Viper and Violet. Venom 
passed into the hands of Mr. Wootton when she was over twelve years 
of age, and he had unprecedented success in breeding many pups from 
such an old bitch. 

I think few will differ from me when I say that the Grove and Belvoir 
have taken more pride in their breed of terriers than any other pack, 
and have crossed them as carefully as they did their hounds. I will first 
make a few remarks on the Belvoir terriers ; and, as Belvoir Joe is the 
best known to breeders of the present day, I will give his pedigree, which 
can be traced back for upwards of forty years. Belvoir Joe was bred 
by W. Cooper, a late huntsman to the Belvoir, and was by his Trimmer 
out of Trinket a grand-looking bitch, and one that would take a lot of 
getting over by the best of the present time ; Trinket was by the Belvoir 
Earth Stopper's Trap out of Ben Morgan's Nettle; Trimmer, from the 
Grove, was by a favourite dog of the late Sir Richard Sutton's, out 
of a bitch belonging to Tom Day, late huntsman to the Quorn. Ben 
Morgan was huntsman to Lord Middleton, and he got Nettle from his 
brother at the Grove. I have seen Nettle ; she was a very good looking 
terrier, rather heavily marked with black and tan ; she got a prize or two 
at the early Yorkshire shows. The Belvoir Earth Stopper's Trap was 
by the late Will Goodall's Doc, bred by a late huntsman called Rose ; 
and Goodall always declared that Doc was the only dog he ever had or 
knew that could draw a fox out of the main earths near Belvoir Castle. 

294 British Dogs. 

Cooper took great pains in keeping the breed pure during his time at 
Belvoir, and got several of the old black and tan sort, mentioned before, 
from Mr. Wm. Singleton, of Caythorpe, near Grantham, a noted breeder 
of them, and he kept them free from bull for over forty years. This 
strengthens my belief that the white, black, and tan terrier of the pre- 
sent day is, or should be, descended from the old black and tan. I 
cannot trace the present breed of Belvoir terriers further back than Tom 
Goosey's day, over forty years ago ; his Tyrant was a noted dog, and he 
afterwards became the property of Sir Thomas Whichcote, who has kept 
the breed pure up to the present day. Sir Thomas bred the celebrated 
Belvoir Venom from this strain when young Goodall was with him, and 
there are three terriers still in existence by Belvoir Joe out of Belvoir 
Venom, viz., two of which belong to Will. Goodall, of the Pytchley, 
named Viper and Violet, the other being the property of Cooper, called 
Grip. These, it is needless to say, I look upon as the best bred terriers 
now living, and their blood is invaluable to all lovers of the pure kennel 

Jack Morgan has been, I believe, chiefly instrumental in bringing the 
Grove terriers to the perfection they attained, for it is beyond dispute 
that the Grove have turned out two as good, or better, than anything of 
the present day. These are Old Jock and Grove Nettle. Jock was out of 
the Grove Pepper, by a black and tanned dog, Capt. Percy Williams's 
Jock ; but I do not quite know the correct pedigree of Nettle. I believe 
she was by a dog belonging to Mr. J. B. Hodgson, M.F.H., out of Gimlet, 
by old Grove Tartar out of Eose, by Grove Trickster out of Nettle, by a 
Grove dog out of Mr. Foljambe's old Cambridge Vic. There was a Nettle 
breed as above, and she is either Grove Nettle or Ben Morgan's Nettle. 
I see, however, in the Kennel Club Stud Book that Grove Nettle is said 
to be by Merry's Grove Tartar out of Eev. W. Handley's Sting. I 
have omitted to state that J. Morgan's Spit and Topper were good dogs, 
and the sires of good ones. 

The Quorn have never been famed for their terriers, although I be- 
lieve Mr. Musters had Ragman and Fussey when Master and Mr. Mur- 
chison had a nice bitch named Psyche from those kennels, who won a 
prize, beating that miserable specimen Bellona. Mr. Murchison put 
Psyche to Old Jock, and Mr. Allison got one of the pups, which I have 
seen ; it was a rare sort, and perfection for its work. Fan, also from 

The Fox Terrier. 295 

the Quorn, bred the prize dog Pantaloon ; she was a very beautifully 
made bitch, with excellent coat. Terriers are never used in a galloping 
country like the Quorn, excepting in cub hunting time, when Tom Firr 
takes out a couple, descended from the present prize strains, and I 
believe they do their work well when needed. The Duke of Grafton 
always had a good terrier, and Crab, a noted dog some years ago, was 
by Belvoir Joe out of a bitch of his. 

Ben Morgan, when with Lord Middleton, got together a good team of 
terriers, chiefly from his brother, and they won a prize or two in York- 
shire. Will Thompson, the earth stopper, has kept up the breed, and 
bred Jester II. from Vic., a direct descendant of the old breed. The York 
and Ainsty had a good lot in the time of old Will Danby, but since he left 
they have been crossed with bull. 

Having reviewed the most noted breeds of pure kennel terriers, let us 
consider how many dogs there are available for stud purposes, possess- 
ing the pure blood in their pedigree, unalloyed by the objectionable 
strains of beagle and Italian greyhounds. The Foiler blood is good, and 
I should not object to breed from his son Flinger out of Brokenhurst 
Nettle, by Hornet out of Cottingham Nettle. Eeflections have lately been 
cast on the breeding of Cottingham Nettle ; but, whether the pedigree 
given with her is correct or not, she looks a well-bred terrier, and I have 
no doubt she is one. She is also the dam, granddam, and great-granddam 
of winners ; and I like the heading of her son Jester, by Old Jock. Jester 
II. is, in my opinion, second to nothing, but Viper and Grip for good 
kennel blood ; he is by Old Jester out of Vic, by Old Tartar out of the 
Old Vic, a daughter of Old Nettle. Another good bred dog is Beppo 
(late Viper), by Belgrave Joe out of Vixen, by Terry's Trapper out of 
Vene, by Old Trap. And Mr. Gibson's Brokenhurst Joe, by Belgrave Joe 
out of Tricksy by Chance, will do, as will Turk ; for although there is a 
doubt about his breeding, he undoubtedly gets good stock, and he is also 
the grandsire of winners. I would much sooner breed from a dog with an 
unauthenticated pedigree that gets good stock, and is also the grandsire 
of good ones, than from such animals as Diver, Draco, Brick, Bitters, or 
Trimmer. Diver was by a bull terrier ; Draco was, I have heard, by a 
carriage dog ; Brick was nearly related to a beagle : Bitters' dam has no 
pedigree, and he has got no good stock ; and Trimmer's sire (Eap) was 
undershot, and his dam had prick ears. Some of my readers will no 

296 British Dogs. 

doubt say, there are the champions Buffet and Nimrod, and their sire 
Buffer. Buffet must have had a lot of chances, and has got nothing 
worthy of notice, with the exception of the second prize dog at Nottingham, 
and he had the same fault as most of the Buffer breed, viz., heavy ears 
hung helplessly down by the side of the head ; and I think that, 
with hardly an exception, the two worst dogs at Nottingham were 
by Nimrod ; they had ears that would have suited a foxhound, and 
they were out of different bitches. Buffer, although he has got two 
exceedingly good ones, is the sire of some of the worst I ever saw 
one, own brother to Speculation, weighs about 301b., and has immense 

I will now give my opinion as to how a first-class fox terrier should 
be made. The head should be of fair length, not too long, but in 
proportion to the size of the dog. The jaw should be muscular, and 
the muzzle not too fine ; and, of course, the nose should be black. 
The ears small, not very thin, and dropping forward, so as to keep 
out the dirt. The eye must be small, rather sunken, and dark, a 
prominent eye being objectionable, as showing bull. The neck should 
be of fair length, lean, and muscular ; the shoulders long, fine, and 
sloping ; and the chest deep and rather narrow ; the back short and 
strong; and the loin slightly arched and full of muscle. A very im- 
portant part is the legs. The fore legs must be straight and strong 
in bone, and the feet small, round, and arched, with a good thick 
sole. This is of much importance, as a dog with a thin sole soon 
gets footsore. The thighs, of course, muscular, and the hocks straight 
and well let down. The tail should be strong, and set on rather 
high ; and the coat hard and abundant, but close and smooth. 
The carriage of a good terrier should be gay and lively, and the ex- 
pression of the face intelligent and good tempered. There is one thing 
I want particularly to impress on readers, and that is, that a fox terrier 
should in no way resemble "a brick with the corners knocked off," or 
"a shorthorn," a simile that has frequently been used by more than one 
writer on fox terriers. Could anyone imagine an animal whose formation 
is less adapted for speed and endurance than a shorthorn, unless a brick 
could be endowed with life P If a fox terrier's build has been likened to 
a foxhound or good hunter, I would have agreed ; but a shorthorn or 
brick, never ! 

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The Fox Terrier. 297 

The standard recommended by the Fox Terrier Club is as follows : 

"1. Head: The skull should be flat and moderately narrow ; broader 
between the ears, and gradually decreasing in width to the eyes. Not 
much " stop " should be apparent ; but there should be more dip in the 
profile, between the forehead and top jaw, than is seen in the case of a 
greyhound. The ears should be V-shaped, and rather small ; of mode- 
rate thickness, and dropping forward closely to the cheek, not hanging by 
the side of the head, like a foxhound's. The jaw should be strong and 
muscular, but not too full in the cheek ; should be of fair punishing 
length, but not so as in any way to resemble the greyhound or modern 
English terrier. There should not be much falling away below the eyes ; 
this part of the head should, however, be moderately chiselled out, so as 
not to go down in a straight slope like a wedge. The nose, towards which 
the muzzle must slightly taper, should be black. The eyes should be 
dark rimmed, small, and rather deep set ; full of fire and life. The teeth 
should be level and strong. 

"2. The neck should be clean and muscular, without throatiness, of fair 
length, and gradually widening to the shoulders. 

" 3. The shoulders should be fine at the points, long, and sloping. The 
chest deep, and not broad. 

" 4. The back should be short, straight, and strong, with no appearance 
of slackness behind the shoulders ; the loin broad, powerful, and very 
slightly arched. The dog should be well ribbed up with deep back ribs, 
and should not be flat-sided. 

" 5. The hind-quarters should be strong and muscular, quite free from 
droop or crouch ; the thighs long and powerful ; hocks near the ground, 
the dog standing well up on them, like a foxhound, without much bend in 
the stifles. 

" 6. The stern should be set on rather high, and carried gaily; but 
not over the back, or curled. It should be of good strength, 
anything approaching a pipe-stopper tail being especially objection- 

"7. The legs, viewed in any direction, must be straight, showing little 
or no appearance of ankle in front. They should be large in bone 
throughout, the elbows working freely just clear of the side. Both fore 
and hind legs should be carried straight forward in travelling, the stifles 
not turning outwards. The feet should be round, compact, and not too 

298 British Dogs. 

large ; the toes moderately arched, and turned neither in nor out. There 
should be no dew claws behind. 

" 8. The coat should be smooth, but hard, dense, and abundant. 

" 9. Colour : White should predominate. Brindle, red, or liver mark- 
ings are objectionable. Otherwise this point is of little or no im- 

" 10. Symmetry, size, and character : The dog must present a generally 
gay, lively, and active appearance. Bone and strength in a small 
compass are essentials ; but this must not be taken to mean that a 
fox terrier should be cloggy or in any way coarse. Speed and endurance 
must be looked to as well as power, and the symmetry of the foxhound 
taken as a model. The terrier, like the hound, must on no account be 
leggy ; neither must he be too short in the leg. He should stand like a 
cleverly-made hunter covering a lot of ground, yet with a short back, 
as before stated. He will thus attain the highest degree of propelling 
power, together with the greatest length of stride that is compatible with 
the length of his body. Weight is not a certain criterion of a terrier's 
fitness for his work. General shape, size, and contour are the main 
points ; and if a dog can gallop and stay, and follow his fox, it matters 
little what his weight is to a pound or so, though, roughly speaking, 
it may be said he should not scale over 201b. in show condition. 

" Wire-haired Fox Terriers. This variety of the breed should resemble 
the smooth sort in every respect, except the coat, which should be 
broken. The harder and more wiry the texture of the coat is, the 
better ; on no account should the dog look or feel woolly, and there 
should be no silky hair about the poll or elsewhere. 

" The coat should not be too long, so as to give the dog a shaggy 
appearance, but at the same time it should show a marked and distinct 
difference all over from the smooth species. 

"Points. Head and ears, 15 ; neck, 5 ; shoulders and chest, 15 ; back 
and loin, 10 ; hind quarters, 5 ; stern, 5 ; legs and feet, 20 ; coat, 10 ; 
symmetry and character, 15. Total, 100. 

"Disqualifying Points. 1. Nose, white, cherry, or spotted to a con- 
siderable extent with either of these colours. 

"2. Ears, prick, tulip, or rose. 

"3. Mouth, much undershot. 

" (Signed) W. ALLISON, Sec." 

The Fox Terrier. 299 

Weights and measurements of fox terriers : 

Eev. F. De Castro's Buffer (sire of champions Buffet, Nimrod, &c.) : 
Age, 8 years and 6 months ; weight, 17lb. ; height at shoulder, 14in. ; 
length from nose to set on of tail, 26|in. ; length of tail, 4iin. ; girth 
of chest, 20in. ; girth of loin, I7in. ; girth of head, 13in. ; girth of 
forearm, 5in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 7|in. ; girth 
of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7in. 

Mr. J. T. Carver's Brokenhurst Bob : Weight, 17flb. ; height at 
shoulder, 14in. ; girth of chest, 18in. ; girth of loin, 16in. ; girth of 
head, 12iin. ; girth of forearm, 4jin. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, 7fin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, 9in. 

Mr. J. C. Tinne's Brokenhurst Frolic : Weight, 17|lb. ; height at 
shoulder, 13in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 25iin. ; girth of chest, 
18iin. ; girth of loin, 18in. ; girth of head, llfin. ; girth of arm, 4fin. ; 
girth of forearm, 4in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 6f in. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7iin. 

Mr. G. Heritage's Nell : Weight, 161b. ; height at shoulder, 13in. ; 
length from nose to set on of tail, 27in ; length of tail, 4jin. ; girth of 
of chest, 16in. ; girth of loin, 12in. ; girth of head, lO^in. ; girth of 
arm, 5in. ; girth of forearm, 3\m. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, 7in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose. Gin. 

Mr. J. T. Carver's Sirius : Weight, 17ilb. ; height at shoulder, 14in. ; 
girth of chest, 19J-in. ; girth of loin, 17in. ; girth of head, 13iin. ; girth 
of arm, 7iin. ; girth of forearm, Sin. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, 7iin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, Sin. 

Mr. A. Hardy's Spot : Weight, I7iin. ; height at shoulder, 13iin. ; 
length from nose to set on of tail, 25in. ; length of tail, 4iin. ; girth of 
chest, 20in, ; girth of loin, I7in. ; girth of head, 12|in. ; girth of arm, 
74in. ; girth of forearm, Sin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
?2in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7in. 

Mr. W. J. Haughton's Tyrant : Weight, 181b. ; height at shoulder, 
13in. ; length from noae to set on of tail, 27in. ; length of tail, 5in. ; girth 
of chest, 4|in. ; girth of loin, 144in. ; girth of head, ll^in. ; girth of 
forearm lin. above elbow, 4|in. ; girth of forearm lin. below elbow, 4iin. ; 

300 British Dogs. 

length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 6fin. ; girth of muzzle mid- 
way between eyes and tip of nose, 6in. 

Mr. J. C. Tinne's Vixen : Weight, I71b. ; height at shoulder, 14in. ; 
length from nose to set on of tail, 2 Sin. ; girth of chest, l$iin. ; girth of 
loin, 14fin. ; girth of head, llfin. ; girth of arm, 5fin. ; girth of fore- 
arm, 41in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 7|in. ; girth of 
muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7in. 



IT is not unfrequently said and written that the fox terrier is a com- 
paratively modern invention, and that he was compounded from various 
elements, such as beagle, old English terrier, bulldog, &c., at no very 
remote date. 

This, as a matter of fact, is very far from the truth, for whatever 
foolish persons have done in the way of manufacturing the breed for 
show purposes, the fox terrier, pure and simple, is in fact the old 
English terrier. As a proof of this let me quote Dr. John Kaye, or 
Caius, as he called himself, who was physician to Edward VI,, 
Mary, and Elizabeth, and amongst other works wrote one on English 
dogs. The title page runs thus : " Of English Dogges, by John Caius 
Doctor of Phisicke in the Universitie of Cambridge, 1576. lohannes 
Caius a profound clerke and a ravenous devourer of learning, was requested 
by Conradus Gesnerus to write a treatise on the dogges of England." 
Then follows the list of them, which classes the " Terrare " with the 
" Harier " and the " Bludhunde," under the denomination " Hunde/' 

Writing then "of the dogge called a Terrar," he says :" Another 
sort there is which hunteth the foxe and the badger or greye onely, whom 
we call terrars, because they (after the manner and custome of ferrets in 
searching for connyes), creep in to the grounde, and by that meanes make 

The Wire-haired Fox Terrier. 301 

afrayde, nyppe, and byte the foxe and the badger in such sorte that eyther 
they teare them in pieces with theyre teeth, beying in the bosome of the 
earth, or else hayle and pull them perforce out of their lurking angles, 
dark dongeons and close caves, or at the least through conceaved feare, 
drive them out of their hollow harbours, insomuch that they are com- 
pelled to prepare speedy flight, and being desirous of the next (albeit not 
the safest) refuge, are otherwise taken and intrapped with snares and 
nettes layde over holes to the same purpose." 

Here, then, we have the description of terriers' work, and a very good 
description it is, and we may assume that the terrier of those days was 
a rough and ready customer, suitable in size, coat, and gameness for 
the work he had to perform. Unfortunately Dr. Caius does not go on 
to describe his appearance, and we must come to a late date for informa- 
tion. "The Sporting Dictionary," published 1803, under the head 
Terrier, says 

" Terriers of even the best blood are now bred of all colours ; red, 
black (with tan faces, flanks, feet, and legs) ; brindled, sandy some few 
brown pied, white pied, and pure white ; as well as one sort of each 
colour rough and wire-haired, the other soft and smooth, and what is 
rather extraordinary the latter not much deficient in courage to the 
former, but the rough breed must be acknowledged the most severe and 
invincible biter of the two. 

' ' Since foxhunting is so deservedly and universally popular in every 
county where it can be enjoyed, these faithful little animals have become 
so exceedingly fashionable that few stables of the independent are seen 
without them. Four and five guineas is no great price for a handsome, 
well bred terrier." 

Thus we may see that smooth and wire-haired fox-terriers existed con- 
temporaneously in those days, and that the word terrier is not applied to 
any dog, except those fitted for hunting and going to ground. 

The modern Manchester terrier, and white English terrier could not 
possibly be classed in such a category, while, as to the black and tan 
colour of the last century and beginning of this, it was quite different 
from that of the so called Manchester terrier : that is to say, the tan 
was lighter and more abundant such things as pencilled toes, thumb 
marks, &c., being altogether absent, while the shape and character of 
the dog was that of the modern fox terrier, as may be evidenced by old 

302 British Dogs. 

pictures, and by the breed which the Duke of Beaufort, Treadwell, and 
others preserved until quite recently. 

Now, having premised that wire-haired terriers have, or ought to have, 
as good antecedents as their smooth brethren, it behoves us to look at 
them as they are, and we shall find that while the smooth sort have for 
many years excited the greatest interest, the rough one has languished in 
comparative obscurity. Nay, at some shows, he has even been relegated to 
the ranks of the " Non- Sporting Dogs " while the Kennel Club actually 
made a retrograde movement at their show in 1879 by removing the wire- 
haired division from the arbitrament of the fox terrier judges. 

All this is a base libel on the breed. A good wire-haired terrier is one 
of the most sporting of all dogs ready for anything ; and though the 
writer of this has given more attention to the smooth kind, he would be 
the last to deny that, unless the smooth dog is of good and pure strain, 
with plenty of coat, the rough one is the better sportsman of the two. 

It is, no doubt, a fact, that any breed of dogs that is vastly in fashion 
runs a great danger, So many specimens become valuable merely for 
their show qualifications that would otherwise have been knocked on the 
head as rank curs or at least, never bred from. But, as it is, the unrea- 
soning public breed indiscriminately from prize winners ; and, besides 
that, certain sharp customers are for ever at work manufacturing what 
they consider better sorts than the real article. Is it said a terrier's head 
should be long; they go for assistance to the greyhound. He should 
have lots of bone ; they obtain it from the beagle, and so on. Thus it 
is that a great number of our smooth fox terriers are irritating brutes 
without any idea of their work, or of hunting, which is a great point ; 
for a terrier who is not a keen hunter, and does not lash an ever-busy 
stern, either along a hedgerow or in cover, is not the right sort at all ; 
while if he will give tongue on a scent so much the better. 

Avoiding, however, the mongrelised smooth dog, and sticking to good 
old strains, we should say there is not twopence to choose between the 
smooth and the wire-hair for work. It is submitted that a close, dense, 
smooth coat will always turn wet better than one that is broken. 

On this point " Stonehenge " says: "The Fox Terrier Club descrip- 
tion does not sufficiently, I think, insist on the thick and soft undercoat, 
which should always be regarded as of great importance in resisting wet 
and cold. An open long coat is even worse than a thick short one for 

The Wire-haired Fox Terrier. 303 

this purpose, as it admits the wet to the skin and keeps it there, whereas 
the short coat speedily dries." There is no doubt this undercoat is of 
great importance, but even when it exists in perfection, the divisions 
among the longer hair must allow a more ready access for rain and wet 
in the interstices than would be the case with a smooth dog, whose thick, 
dense coat lies flat and close together. 

But the wire-haired terrier, from the absence of those causes that have 
so damaged the smooth race, has preserved in obscurity all the true 
working capacity of the tribe, for a very simple reason, that as a rule he 
has been bred solely for work. 

There can be no doubt that in point of quality he is considerably 
behind the smooth hair ; incfeed, what would have happened to the race 
had not Kendal's Old Tip come to the rescue and got some really good- 
looking ones, such as Mr. Carrick's Venture, Mr. Shirley's Tip, Mr. 
Hay ward Field's Tussle, and others, it is impossible to say. Indeed, it 
is very seldom, even now, that one can find a good-looking dog of the 
breed without some serious fault. 

The north countrymen have paid much greater attention to the breed 
than the south, and it was there that Kendal's Tip did good service with 
the Sinnington for some years. Mr. Carrick, of Carlisle has always a 
few good ones, which he uses with the otter-hounds, and several of them, 
such as Vixen and Venture, have been very successful at shows. 

The late Charles Kir by, of Malton, owned some excellent terriers, 
chiefly from strains possessed by the Eev. C. Legard. Among these was 
Sam, who afterwards belonged to the writer, as game a dog as ever 
walked, but short of coat. He won a prize or two and was worried in 
the kennels. His blood proved very valuable, and may be met with in 
such dogs as Mr. G. Hogg's Topper, and several others, such as Sting 
(K.C.S.B. 5629). 

Among others of Kirby's was Vic. (K.C.S.B. 6712), a beautiful bitch by 
Capt. Skipworth's Tartar out of Venom, by Lord Milton's Sam out of Eev. 
C. Legard' s Miss, and there was also Tip, now called Tussle, a rare little 
dog, one of the few wire-haired terrier dogs of the present day that is 
just the right size for be it remembered that the wire-haired terrier has 
for a long time been the companion of rabbit and rat catchers, so that 
his size has been permitted to increase in a way to unfit him for his 
legitimate purpose. 

304 British Dogs. 

Mr. Colling, of Marske-by-the-Sea, is never without a good dog or 
bitch of the sort, and from his Patch, who hailed from the Hurworth 
Kennels, he bred Motley, a smooth dog, by Old Jester, who won several 
prizes in good company. 

Mr. A. H. Easten has been very successful with several of his, of whom 
Tip, by Old Venture, did great things in his day ; and we have the north 
country further strengthened now by Mr. Petler, of York, having pur- 
chased Gorse, who is without doubt the best show dog of the day albeit, 
by no means perfect. 

The bitches, strangely enough, seem to be considerably in advance of 
the dogs in show properties ; and probably no one has brought out so 
many good ones as Mr. G. F. Richardson, who carried all before him with 
Bramble, Birch, and Bristles the two last mentioned being now the 
property of Mr. Shirley, who should be able to breed something good 
from them with his well-known dog Spike. 

Mr. A. Fitz Roy may be mentioned as one who has exhibited terriers of 
this breed with success, his Madge and Minx being very good samples. 
Then, of course, there has always something out of the common hailing 
from Nottingham, either from Mr. Wootton's, Mr. Terry's, or Mr. 
Hulse's kennels. 

The Rev. J. Russell, who is certainly the father of fox terrier breeders, 
tells us that he has bred his dogs since 1815, and their pedigree has 
been kept quite pure, except that he once admitted an admixture of old 
Jock, a high compliment to the old dog. 

The points of the wire-haired fox terrier are precisely the same as 
those of the smooth one, with the exception of the coat, which should be 
broken. The harder and more wiry the texture of the coat is the better. 
On no account should the dog look or feel woolly, and there should be no 
silky hair about the poll or elsewhere. The coat should not be too long, 
so as not to give the dog a shaggy appearance, but at the same time it 
should show a marked and distinct difference all over from the smooth 
species. This is the Fox Terrier Club's description of the coat, and I 
have nothing to add to it, except perhaps " Stonehenge's " remark about 
the necessity for plenty of undercoat. 

The great thing is to get wire-haired terriers small enough, for they 
offend more in this respect at present than do the smooth ones. We 
must remember, however, that mere weight does not constitute size, and 

The Wire-haired Fox Terrier. 305 

that show condition means at least IJlb. more than working condition. 
It must also be remembered that a somewhat oversized terrier can often- 
times be of service, while he is able to get along when the small one 
must be led or carried. The writer has seen a dog running with the 
Cleveland hounds that would certainly weigh close on 191bs., and he was 
generally able to do all that was required, while he could really make 
his way unaided either with or on the line of the hounds. 

" The Sporting Dictionary " says : " With every established pack of 
foxhounds there is seldom to be seen less than a brace of terriers; and 
for the best of reasons, one is generally larger and stronger than the other ; 
in a small earth where one cannot enter the other may." 

So, then, it is apparent our grandfathers did not wholly discard a dog 
that could not always follow his fox, if they knew he would be generally 
able to do so ; but they supplemented him with a smaller one, whose draw- 
back would be inability to go the pace. 

It must not be thought for a moment that this chapter advocates large 
terriers. On the contrary, there can be no doubt that the ideal dog is one 
who can follow his fox anywhere, and yet has size and speed enough to 
enable him to get over the ground ; but it would be somewhat unfair to 
sweep the larger ones off the face of the earth, provided always, they 
are not like the majority of wire-haired terriers of the present day, 
large beyond all reason. 

Measurements of 

Mr. Arthur H. Easten's wire-haired Tivister : Age, 1 year and 5 
months ; weight, 221b. ; height at shoulder, 13Jin. ; length from nose to 
set on of tail, 26|in. ; length of tail, 4in. ; girth of chest, 21^in. ; girth 
of loin, 18|in. ; girth of head, 13iin. ; girth of forearm, 5iin. ; length of 
head from occiput to tip of nose, 7iin. ; girth of muzzle midway between 
eyes and tip of nose, 6Jin. 

Mr. J. W. Corner's Chance : Weight, 191b. ; height at shoulder, 14in. ; 
length from nose to set on of tail, 28in. ; length of tail, 4Jin. ; girth of 
chest, 20in. ; girth of loin, I7in. ; girth of head, 12in. ; girth of arm, 
4fin. ; girth of forearm, 3fin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, 7|in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7|in. ; 
colour, white body, lightly marked badger tan on head. 

306 British Dogs. 



" FIRST, touching Dandies, let us consider with some degree of scientific 
strictness what a Dandie specially is." The consideration of this question 
of what a Dandie Dinmont terrier specially is has been undertaken 
by numbers of his ardent admirers, often with a zeal which has overrun 
knowledge, and with a disregard to that scientific strictness which is 
guided by facts and forbids the play of imagination, refusing to accept 
evidence not clearly established, merely because it happens to chime in 
with interests, prejudices, or preconceived notions.* 

Had Sir Walter Scott not written "Guy Mannering" there would 
never have been a breed of dogs known as Dandie Dinmont terriers ; had 
he not created for us that big, burly, honest Liddesdale farmer, with his 
terriers and his grews, what an unknown quantity of temper would have 
been directed into other channels, and what fountains of printer's ink 
would have been saved ! There is no class of fanciers so quick to take 
up a quarrel, or who would fight it out with such tenacity, as those who 
affect the Dandie ; they seem to partake strongly of the pugnacious 
character of their pets, and, being mostly Scotchmen or Border men, are 
always ready to " argue the point." 

I know a great number of men, that I am very pleased to call my 
friends, whose enthusiasm on Dandie Dinmont subjects is so intense that 
were it not that they are so cool headed, reasonable, and shrewd in 
dealing with all other topics, lunatico inquirendo would naturally occur 
to the mind ; with many it is only necessary to whisper Harry or Sir 
Douglas in their ear to produce a similar effect to shaking a red rag be- 
fore a mad bull ; not being quite free from the taint myself, I can speak 
the more freely of a weakness that has characterised in a special manner 
a large proportion of Dandie Dinmont fanciers. Time and mutual 
gatherings at shows and elsewhere has, however, brought the opinions 
of all nearer together. 

The Dandie Dinmont Terrier. 307 

The fact is, in my opinion, we have claimed too much for the dog ; 
enthusiasm has idealised him, and strong desire has created good qualities 
as inherent and never wanting in the breed, but which are not always 
found. It is a mistake to claim for every Dandie all the best attributes 
of a terrier ; as a class there is no dog more game, and with gameness 
they generally possess considerable intelligence and tractability ; but I 
have known Dandies of the bluest blood that were worth very little. 
Although, speaking broadly, as a terrier he is unexcelled ; a good speci- 
men has all the courage and perseverance of the bull terrier, and is under 
far better control, and in comparison with his cousin, the Bedlington, 
his temper alone gives him the palm. I think no one can reasonably 
object to my speaking of the Bedlington as a relation of the Dandie 
the two breeds have so many points in common that it appears to me 
impossible to ignore their relationship. 

Another point much insisted on is absolute purity of descent from 
Dandie Dinmont' s dogs well, I confess myself a sceptic, and I think this 
has been made too much of. I have little faith in the absolute purity of 
any specimen living, and I must add I think it a matter of very little 
consequence ; there is abundance of proof that the very great bulk of our 
Dandies have at least a large proportion of the blood of Mr. Davidson's 
terriers in them, but to suppose that they have been kept absolutely free 
from crosses, whether occurring by accident or design, is to take up with 
the improbable. When the Dandie Dinmont terrier stud book is 
compiled we may have more light thrown on this subject, but I confess 
I have little faith in many of the oral traditions on which we are asked 
to place implicit confidence. 

I have a letter before me in which the writer says he was, when a boy, 
on the most intimate terms with Hugh Purves, one of the few who had 
dogs direct from Charlieshope, and assisted in keeping up the old breed ; 
and my correspondent says that Purves more than once used a brindled 
bull terrier to his Dandie bitches, and I think it is rather unreasonable 
to ask us to believe that the Dandie of the day is absolutely, and without 
the slightest admixture, descended from Pepper and Tar. 

The Dandie Dinmont Terrier Club have drawn up a standard of points, 
and if a dog agrees with that standard, possessing all the points required, 
it is of little consequence whether his ancestors were whelped at Ellwan 
foot or in Coaly Newcastle. Purity must, in speaking of dogs, always 

30 8 British Dogs. 

be used comparatively ; there is not a single breed in existence worth a 
Spratt's biscuit that can claim absolute purity. We have got them to 
their present state of high development by careful selection and judicious 
crossings, and it should be quite sufficient for us to know that there are 
hundreds of Dandies now living that are to all intents and purposes pure 
bred, in so far as they have at least more or less of the blood of Dandie 
Dinmont's Mustards and Peppers, and have the recognised characteristics 
of the breed so fixed in themselves as to be depended on to reproduce the- 
same with almost absolute faithfulness. Much as has been written anent 
Dandie Dinmont terriers, that much has for the most part been in 
ephemeral form, chiefly in the various contributions to the controversies 
on the subject that have been raised from time to time in the newspapers 
(notably in the "Field" and the "Country"), and a good deal of in- 
formation and many valuable opinions are therein met with. 

The Eev. J. C. Macdona was, I believe, the first to give publicity to 
the following unquestionably important document, which he met with in 
researches he made some ten or twelve years ago into the early history of 
the breed ; it is described as being in the handwriting of James David- 
son, with his initials attached, written on old hand-made letter paper, 
yellow with years and bearing all the evidences of being genuine. The 
memorandum was originally sent by Mr. Davidson to the Hon. George 
H. Bailie, of Mellerstain, and is as follows : 


" Tuggin, from A. Armstrong, reddish and wiry. 
Tarr, reddish and wiry-haired, a bitch. 
Pepper, shaggy and light, Mr. Brown, of Bonjedward. 
The race of Dandies are bred from the two last. " J. D." 

Mr. James Scott, of Newstead, who contributed much useful inform- 
ation respecting the breed in the correspondence on the subject in 
the "Field " some years back, speaking from a personal knowledge of 
" Dandie Dinmont " and his dogs, says he had two varieties of terriers, 
one large and leggy, the other short on the fore leg and small, and that 
it was only the latter that Davidson would allow to be called Dandie 
Dinmonts, and it has been assumed that these smaller terriers were the 
produce of the two dogs, Pepper and Tarr, given to him by Dr. Brown, of 
Bonjedward. When Sir Walter Scott made Davidson's Pepper and 

The Dandie Dinmont Terrier. 309 

Mustard terriers famous there was at once, we may fairly assume, a 
pretty general desire to possess the breed, and it is hardly likely the demand 
would or could be supplied from this single pair, and as Pepper and Tarr 
must have had relations more or less close in consanguinity, these would 
probably be used to swell the family circle of the Dandies, and in support 
of the supposition that we have living specimens directly descended from 
Pepper and Tarr without admixture of blood more or less foreign, even 
if we could be quite sure Dandie Dinmont himself stuck rigidly to the 
Pepper and Tarr blood (and after they became so public he would probably 
do his best to breed to one standard or type) I know of the existence 
of no proof that dogs distributed by him throughout the country were by 
their several owners bred to others of the same blood. Is it not reason- 
able to suppose that the produce of a terrier bitch of another strain 
sent to a dog known to be from Hindlee would be called Dan die's or of 
Dandie Dinmont' s strain, just as before the advent of dog shows and 
the care which has of late years been bestowed on pedigrees, a sportsman 
who had bred from a pointer dog of Earl Sefton' s would describe the 
produce as of the Sefton strain ? 

I conceive much more has been done to secure to us the correct article 
to-day by those breeders who, some of them having personal knowledge 
of Davidson's own dogs, sticking as close as they could breed to the 
type, and selecting on occasion, even without a knowledge of its pedigree, 
a dog that bore the family character, than by others who lay too much stress 
on pedigrees which cannot be proved with any degree of certainty. Take, 
for instance, Shamrock, one of the subjects of our illustrations. His 
pedigree in the Kennel Club Stud Book gives his dam as Vic, bred by 
Mr. W. Johnstone, by a dog of good blood belonging to an officer at the 
Purshill Barracks. Here we have in one of the best known and best 
dogs of the day a break in the pedigree before we go back two genera- 
tions. No doubt Mr. Johnstone felt satisfied he was using a dog of good 
blood because he possessed the characteristics of a good Dandie, but 
there is no proof that he was of pure breed, and so we find breaks in the 
chain between every existing dog and those two given to Dandie Dinmont 
by Dr. Brown, of Bonjedward. 

It would be needless to recapitulate the names of all of the earlier breeders 
who followed the originator of this strain. James Scott, of Newstead, 
Stoddart, of Selkirk, Douglass, of Cessford, Somner, of Kelso, with a 

310 British Dogs. 

number of others, were among the earlier breeders, and the Duke of 
Buccleuch has kept up the breed, but I do not know with what degree 
of purity. Nicol Milne, of Faldonside, has had the breed for about half 
a century, and for many years E. Bradshaw Smith, of Blackwood House, 
has owned a large and important kennel, but whether he had authenticated 
pedigrees with those dogs with which he commenced his kennel, I am unable 
to say, or even whether a careful register of the produce of the kennels 
has been kept, if so, it does not appear to be available for public use, 
or even to the Dandie Dinmont Club, of which Mr. Smith is vice-president, 
if I may judge from a duplicate of pedigree of my own dog, furnished me 
by Mr. W. Foster, who is compiling the Dandie Dinmont Terrier Stud 
Book, for, going back through Mr. Pool's Dirk to Mr. Smith's Pepper and 
Jennie II., there is not merely a hiatus, but a full stop. 

Although Mr. Davidson fixed the character of these dogs for us, it has 
never been said of him that he created the breed, and how they were 
first produced must remain a matter of speculation ; but that he is a 
manufactured article, and not a true terrier, I think there can be no 
doubt, and no theory I have heard broached seems to me to have so 
much evidence in favour of its correctness as that of " Stonehenge," 
given in his book " The Dog," published in 1859, namely, a cross with 
a low-legged Scotch terrier with the otter hound or rough harrier. The 
Dandie Dinmont muzzle is too massive and square for a terrier, and in 
that feature, and unmistakably in the size, shape, and set on of his ears 
and the carriage of his stern he shows the hound cross. 

I will go further, and say although I know I shall be considered a 
schismatic for venturing to express such a heterodox opinion a judicious 
infusion of foreign blood would be a good thing for the breed, if of no 
other use than to check the tremendous mortality among puppies of which 
nearly all breeders complain, and for this purpose there is no dog so well 
suited in shape and style as the rough-coated La Vendee hound, a hand- 
some specimen of which was shown a few years ago by Dr. Seton he 
was long and low with immense bone, head, ears, eye, muzzle, stern, 
coat, and colour fairly corresponding to the Dandie, and as to disparity 
of size, that would be quickly set right by selection. 

If we come to consider the points and qualities, physical and moral, of 
the Dandie breed generally, all are now pretty well agreed, although hair 
splitters still wrangle over a pound in weight, the exact texture of the 

The Dandie Dinmont Terrier. 311 

coat, the colour of a claw, the evidence for or against purity, of a light spot 
on the palate or some such triviality. But the club formed some 
years ago for the special purpose of taking this breed under its fostering 
wing have, by deciding on a standard of excellence, from which there are 
few or no dissidents, except on minor and verbal matters, earned the 
thanks of all lovers of the breed, and whether so publicly stated or 
not, Dandies have been virtually judged by that standard at all late 
shows ; and although this cannot fortunately, I think ensure identity 
of opinion, it does ensure general concurrence on essential points, 
and has told and will continue to tell on the improved general 
character of the classes of these dogs at our shows ; and I think, when 
" Idstone " publishes another edition of his book, he will see the need for 
altering his opinion as therein expressed, that "the points of the Dandie 
are an open question, and I doubt if any 'authorities' can settle it." 
So much has the public discussion of the breed and the action of the 
club done that it has become an impossibility for two public judges at 
our largest shows to write, as Mr. Charles Collins and Mr. Matthias 
Smith did ten years ago, that " the Dandie Dinmonts north of the Tweed 
are long-backed to strange deformity, legs shorter than any other breed 
(not excepting the dachshund of Germany), faces as long as crocodiles and 
jaws as strong, small pig-like eyes, ears small and erect (one may fall 
over at the tip), coat not very long, but hard and erect as bristles from 
top to toe. This is a Dandie." Well might Mr. Bradshaw Smith write 
of this effusion, " such a description of this beautiful animal is enough 
to mak auld Dandie Dinmont himsel loup oot o' his grave." 

Had Mr. Collins' s description not been written seriously, but as a 
caricature, it would have been excellent. 

The character of the Dandie as a vermin dog is first rate ; ho is plucky, 
keen, and resolute, and at the same time easier kept under command 
than some other breeds ; and the graphic terms in which Scott, in " Guy 
Mannering," speaks of him in this capacity still holds good, for, when 
" regularly entered, first wi' rattans, then wi' stots or weasels, and then 
wi' the tods and brocks, they fear naething that ever cam' wi' a hairy 
skin on't." They also, when trained, make excellent rabbiters, and can 
stand any amount of fatigue, although not so lissome on very rough 
ground as lighter and more leggy terriers. 

As companion and house dogs I like them very much. They are quick 

312 British Dogs. 

and watchful in the house, and, although they are not a beautiful variety 
of dog, or to be compared in symmetry with the fox terrier and some others, 
they possess a most distinct and unmistakable character that separates 
them, even to the eye of the least observant, from the ' ' common herd," and 
their quaintness and great sagacity amply made up for lack of beauty. 

The following description of the general appearance and special points 
of this dog were drawn up by Mr. W. Wardlaw Eeid and myself, from 
the written opinions of members of the clubs and other old breeders and 

In forming an opinion of a dog's merits, the general appearance (by 
which is meant the impression which a dog makes as a whole on the eye 
of the judge) should be first considered. Secondly should be noticed 
the dog's size, shape, and make, i.e., its proportions in the relation they 
bear to each other ; no point should be so much in excess of the others 
as to destroy the general symmetry, and cause the dog to appear deformed 
or interfere with its usefulness in the occupations for which it is specially 
adapted. Thirdly, the dog's style, carriage, gait, temperament, and each 
of its other points should be considered separately. 

Point 1. General appearance. The general appearance of the Dandie 
Dinmont terrier is that of a rough-coated, thick-set dog, very low on its 
legs, and having a body very flexible and long in proportion to its 
height; but broad, deep-chested, and compact. The head very large, 
with broad and well-domed skull, covered with light coloured hair of a 
softer and more silky texture than that on the body. This hairy scalp 
very often gives the head an appearance of being disproportionate to the 
body, when such is not actually the case. Jaws long and slightly taper- 
ing to the nose, which must be large and always black ; covered with 
shorter and slightly harder hair than on the body. Neck thick and 
muscular ; shoulders low, and back slightly curved down behind them, 
with a corresponding arch of the loins, which are broad and strong. 
Ears pendulous, and bearing low. Legs short and very muscular. The 
Dandie carries in his countenance the appearance of great determination, 
strength, and activity, with a constant and vigilant eagerness to be busy. 
In brief, he is an embodiment of docility, courage, strength, intelligence, 
and alertness. 

Point 2. The head should be large, and rather heavy looking in 
proportion to the dog's size. Skull broad between the ears, with a very 

The Dandie Dinmont Terrier. 313 

gradual and slight taper towards the eyes. It should be long from back 
to front, with high forehead and cranium conical and well domed, 
measuring about the same from the point of the eye to back of skull as 
it does between the base of ears ; and round the largest part about a 
third more than the dog's height at the shoulder. The head should 
always be covered with soft silky hair, not curled, but slightly wavy, and 
not confined to a mere top-knot ; it is also of a much lighter colour than 
that on the body. The cheeks, starting from the ears, proportionately 
broad with the skull, should, without any unsightly bulge, taper very 
gradually towards the muzzle, the muscles showing extraordinary de- 
velopment, more especially those that move the lower jaw. The head of 
the bitch, as in nearly every other breed of dogs, is comparatively 
smaller and lighter in proportion to that of the dog. 

Point 3. The muzzle should be long, deep, and very powerful ; very 
slightly tapering to the nose, which should be large, well formed, well 
spread over the muzzle, and always black. The muzzle should measure 
from the corner of the eye to the tip of the nose about Sin. in length, or 
in proportion to length of skull as three is to five, and round close in 
front of the eyes, about two and a half to three times its length. The 
muzzle should be thinly covered with short and hardish hair of rather 
darker colour than on the body ; the top of muzzle should be nearly 
bare for about an inch from the black part of the nose, coming to a point 
towards the eye. A foxey or snipey muzzle is very objectionable. The 
jaws should be long and powerful, with very strong teeth, perfectly 
level in front, the canines should fit well into each other so as to 
give the greatest available holding and punishing power. A pig- jawed 
or undershot mouth is very objectionable, though, as it occurs in 
the purest strains, it cannot be altogether considered a disqualification. 
The mouth should be very large and the roof of it very dark, almost 
always black. 

Point 4. The eyes should be wide apart, large, round, moderately full, 
very clear, bright, and expressive of great intelligence, set low, and 
well in front of forehead. Colour, a rich brown or hazel, yellowness 
being a great fault. Frequently they have a dark ring round the eye, 
the hair of which is rather short and of a downy nature. This dark 
shade, together with that (already referred to) down the centre of the 
nose, contrasts beautifully with the bright silvery top-knot, and imparts 

314 British Dogs. 

to them that gipsy, game, and genuine appearance which is an essential 
characteristic in the Dan die. 

Point 5. The ears should be large and pendulous, from 3in. to 4in. 
long, set far apart, well back, and rather low on the skull, hanging close 
to the cheeks, like a hound's or beagle's, but a little more pointed or 
almond-shaped, i.e., broad at the base, and tapering to a small rounded 
point. The taper should be all, or nearly all, on the back edge, the front 
edge hanging nearly straight down from its junction with the head to the 
tip. They ought to show a little shoulder at the base, which causes the 
tips of the ears to point a little forwards towards the jaw. They should 
be moderately thick and leathery, and covered with a short, soft, darker 
and brighter sort of hair than on the body, having a smooth velvety 
appearance, showing no lint or silky hair, excepting in some cases a thin 
feather of lighter hair starting about an inch or so from the tip, and of 
the same colour and texture as the top-knot ; this gives the top of the 
ear the appearance of a distinct point. 

Point 6. The neck should be rather short, and very muscular, well- 
developed, and strong, showing great power by being well set into the 
shoulder. The length of neck should average about one-third of its 
girth. , 

Point 7. The body should be very long and flexible, measuring from 
top of shoulders to root of tail about an inch or two over one and a half 
times the height of dog at shoulder. Chest well developed and broad, 
with brisket round and deep, being well let down between the fore legs. 
The back should be rather low at the shoulders, and slightly curved 
down behind them, with a corresponding arch, the rise commencing about 
2in. behind the shoulder blade ; over the loins, which should be higher 
than the shoulders, broad and strong, with a slight gradual droop from 
the top of loins to root of tail. Eibs well sprung and rounded, back and 
front, forming a good barrel. Both sides of spine should be well supplied 
with muscle ; in fact, every part of the dog seems to be abundantly 
supplied with muscle, giving it great compactness. 

Point 8. The tail (or stern) should be in length a little less than the 
height of the dog at the shoulder. It should be set on at the bottom of 
a gentle slope about 2in. from top of loins, being rather thick at the 
root, getting very slightly thicker for about 4in., then tapering off to a 
fine point. It should be covered on the upper side with wiry hair, of 

The Dandie Dinmont Terrier. 315 

darker colour and stronger nature than that on the body, while the under 
side is lighter and less wiry, with a little nice light feather, commencing 
about 2in. from root, and from lin. to 2in. long, getting shorter as it 
nears the tip, which is pointed. It should be carried gaily, or hound- 
like, slightly curved upward, but not directly curled over the back. 
N.B. When not excited nearly in a horizontal line, but otherwise hound- 

Point 9. The legs. The fore-legs should be very short in proportion to 
the dog's size, very stout, and set wide apart, thick, and straight, with 
immense muscular development in the fore-arm ; this, with the ankles 
being very slightly turned inwards, makes the dog appear somewhat 
bandy-legged, but the leg bones themselves should be stout and straight, 
and not curved. The feet should be well framed and broad, but not flat, 
standing firm, and well under the chest, with very little or no feather on 
the legs. Hind legs thick and strong, longer than the fore-legs, well 
spread, with a good bend in the hocks, the muscles of the thighs being 
very thick and well developed ; the feet are much smaller, with no feather 
or dew-claws. The toes rather short, net hare footed. The claws black, 
and very strong. White claws, however, should not be a disqualification. 

Point 10. Size. Height from Sin. to 12in. at top of shoulder, but never 
above 12in., even for a dog. Weight : Dogs, from 161b. to 241b. ; bitches, 
from 141b. to 201b. The most desirable w.eight, 201b. for dogs and 161b. 
for bitches, but 241b. dogs are very useful to give bone, muscle, and 
stamina to the produce of the smaller ones. 

Point 11. The coat. This is a very important feature. The hair 
(about 2in. long) along the top of the neck and upper part of the body 
should be a mixture of about two-thirds, rather hard (but not wiry), with 
one-third soft, linty, not silky hair, which gives a sort of crisp feeling to 
the hand, and constitutes what old John Stoddart used to term "a pily 
coat." It becomes lighter in colour and finer in texture as it nears the 
lower part of the body and legs. The head is covered with hair of a 
longer, lighter, and much more silky texture, giving it a silvery appear- 
ance, but not so long as to hang completely over the eyes like a Skye or 
poodle. The lighter in colour and softer the better. 

Point 12. The colour, either mustard or pepper, and their mixtures. 
Mustard is a reddish or sandy brown of various shades. Pepper is a 
bluish grey, either dark in shade, ranging from a dark bluish black to 

316 British Dogs. 

slaty grey, or even a much paler or silvery grey ; sometimes a combina- 
tion of both, in which case the back is grey, while the legs, inside of ears, 
chest, and under side of tail are mustard, verging on a pale red or fawn 
colour. No other colours admitted, and any white, even on chest, is 

The subjects of our engravings are Grip and Shamrock. Mr. W. 
Wardlaw Eeid's well-known Grip, a very compact and muscular dog, a 
true and excellent specimen of the breed, and one likely to leave his 
mark on the Dandie Dinmonts of the future, judging from the specimens 
of his pups we have seen. He was bred by the Eev. S. Tenison Mosse, 
and is a grandson of the old patriarch and champion Dandie Shamrock, 
Grip has also, as will be seen, a strain of Mr. Nichol Milne's celebrated 
Old Jock, and is the son of Mr. E. Bradshaw Smith's Dirk, known as 
"the incomparable Dirk," a son of Mr. Smith's Pepper, a dog that, on 
account of his fighting proclivities, received the appellation of " Peter the 

Shamrock has been longer before the public than any other Dandie, 
and is acknowledged one of the best ever shown. The following are the 
pedigrees of the two : 

Pedigree of Grip. Grip, sire Dirk (known as "the incomparable 
Dirk"), by Pepper: (known as " the murderer ") out of Jenny, all bred 
by Mr. E. Bradshaw Smith, Blackwood House, Ecclefechan. Grip's dam 
was the Eev. S. Tenison Mosse' s Schann II. by Shamrock out of Nettle. 

Pedigree of Shamrock. Shamrock, by Mr. Hodge's Mustard out of 
Broadwith's Vic, bred by Mr. W. Johnstone, by a dog of good blood be- 
longing to an officer at the Purshill Barracks, out of Johnstone' s Maud 
by Miss Mather's Spice, out of J. Scott's Wasp, by E. B. Smith's dog 
out of Scott's Little Spice, by his Brandy out of Johnstone' s Spice, by 
Sir G. Douglas's Pepper out of Mr. Brisbane's Nettle ; Mustard by Mr. 
Scott's (of Newstead) Pepper out of Boyd's Nettle, by Sir F. Douglas's 
Pepper II. out of Scott's Vixen, by Brisbane's Pepper out of his Spice, 
bred by Mr. D. M'Dougall, of Cessford (celebrated for his pure breed) ; 
Pepper by Brisbane's Demon out of Nettle, bred at Kirkmichael ; Demon 
by Friar Tuck out of John Eeed's Pepper ; Pepper II. by Sir G. 
Douglas's Pepper I. (bred by the Duke of Buccleuch, and descended 
from Old John Stoddard's blood) out of Schann, descended from Stod- 
dard's Old Schann and Dandie; Scott's Pepper, sire of Mustard, was by 

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The Dandie Dinmont Terrier. 

Scott's Brandy out of his Jezabel, by his Wasp out of his Bess, by Sir 
G. Douglas's Pepper (bred by Mr. Taylor) out of Scott's Mustard; 
Wasp by Scott's Pepper out of his Vic ; Brandy by Dr. Brown's Puck 
out of Scott's Wasp, by his Dandie out of his Nettle, by Duke of 
Buccleuch's Dandie out of his Ringlet ; Puck by Henry Dodd's Pepper 
out of his Pepper. 

The following are weights and measurements of celebrated Dandie 
Dinmont terriers : 

Mr. C. F. Henderson's Bob Roy : Age, 4 years and 5 months ; weight,. 
211b. ; height at shoulder, 10|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 
29in. ; length of tail, Sin. ; girth of chest, 19in. ; girth of loin, 15in. ; 
girth of head, 14in. ; girth of forearm, 5in. ; length of head from 
occiput to tip of nose, 8in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and 
tip of nose, 8^in. 

Mr. Joseph Finchett's Euffs: Age, 15 months; weight, 191b. ; height 
at shoulder, llin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 27in. ; length of 
tail, lOin. ; girth of chest, 18in. ; girth of loin, 14in. ; girth of head, 
13|in. ; girth of forearm, Sin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
7in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 8iu. ; 
colour, pepper. 

Mr. Joseph Finchett's Cleg : Age, about 2 years; weight, 171b. ; 
height at shoulder, lOin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 26in. ; 
length of tail, 7in ; girth of chest, 17in. ; girth of loin (being in milk 
impossible to ascertain) ; girth of head, 12in. ; girth of forearm, 4in. ; 
length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 7in. ; girth of muzzle midway 
between eyes and tip of nose, 7in. ; colour, pepper. 

Mr. W. E. Jackson's Bessie Bell : Weight, 221b. ; height at shoulder, 
llin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 28|in. ; length of tail, 9in. ; 
girth of chest, 19|in. ; girth of loin. 15in. ; girth of head, 13^in. ; girth 
of arm, 4^in. ; girth of forearm, 5iin. ; length of head from occiput 
to tip of nose, Sin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, 7iin. 

Mr. J. Heritage's Venture : Weight, 20|lb. ; height at shoulder, 10in. ; 
length from nose to set on of tail, 30in. ; length of tail, 9in. ; girth of 
chest, ISfin. ; girth of loin, 15in. ; girth of head, 14in. ; girth of arm, 
5iin. ; girth of forearm, 4|in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, 8in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7in. 

3i 8 British Dogs. 

Mr. H. Nicholson's Vic : Weight, 181b. ; height at shoulder, llin. ; 
length from nose to set on of tail, 32in. ; length of tail, lOin. ; girth of 
chest, 19in. ; girth of loin, 15in. ; girth of head, 13in. ; girth' of arm, 
Gin. ; girth of forearm, 4|in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, 7iin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7in. 

Mr. E. C. R. Goff's Whiskey : Weight, 2Ulb. ; height at shoulder, 
lOin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 28in. ; length of tail, 9|in. ; 
length of ear, 4in. ; girth of chest, 19in. ; girth of loin, 16in. ; girth of 
head, 14in. ; girth of arm, Sin. ; girth of forearm, 4in. ; length of head 
from occiput to tip of nose, Sin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes 
and tip of nose, 6Jin. 



THE Bedlington terrier had a hard struggle to obtain from dog show 
committees that recognition to which he is so well entitled. He has, 
however, now gained his true position among modern terriers, and there 
are very few schedules issued that do not provide prizes for this breed. 

As will be seen from the statements of the writers I quote, the Bed- 
lington has long been a distinct breed, the strain from which the modern 
specimens have sprang having been peculiar to the district for at least 
thirty years before the name Bedlington was applied to them, the first 
dog so called being Mr. Ainsley's Young Piper, whelped about the year 

The following, which appeared in the " Newcastle Chronicle," 24th 
July, 1872, gives a fair statement of facts respecting this breed, and is 
valuable as embodying the opinions of the late Mr. Thomas John Pickett, 
well known to exhibitors generally under his soubriquet of the Duke of 
Bedlington a title earned by his great success as a breeder and exhibitor 
of these terriers: "Of the breed of dogs for which this locality is 
noted, none has caused so much controversy as the Bedlington terrier, 
who is, I believe, the last new-comer amongst recognised breeds exhibited 

The Bedlington Terrier. 319 

at the shows. Indeed, a furious controversy has been raging as to 
whether the strain is deserving of recognition as a fixed and well-defined 
breed at all, and some of our south country friends have made fun of 
the question ' What is a Bedlington terrier ? ' To this query the best 
answer that can be given is that furnished by perhaps the most successful 
exhibitor of the present day, Thomas John Pickett, of Grey-street, New- 
castle-upon-Tyne, who says : ' The Bedlington is a light-made, wiry dog, 
with a bright, alert bearing, and whose cut and demeanour is indicative of 
fire and resolution. The head should be high and rather narrow, and 
when looked at from behind should be almost wedge-shaped ; it should 
be surmounted with a fine silky tuft, and this with the ears and tail 
should, in the blue sort, be of a much darker shade of colour than the 
body. The eyes should be small and a little sunken, and the jaw long, 
quickly tapering, and muscular. The ears should be long, should hang 
close to the cheek, and should be slightly feathered at the tip, whilst the 
neck should be long and muscular, and should rise well away from widely- 
set shoulder blades. The legs should be rather high, and should be 
straight, hard, and sinewy. The body should be compact and well 
formed. The tail should be small, from 8in. to 12in. long, and slightly 
feathered. The coat should be rather wiry, and the colour blue-black, 
sandy, or liver. The dark blue dogs should have black noses ; the liver 
or sandy are most approved of with flesh or cherry- coloured noses, but I 
would not object to a sandy dog with a black nose if from the blue strain.' 

" Although the Bedlington terrier is only a new comer, I think he has a 
great future before him with regard to popularity and esteem. The breed 
can well afford to depend upon its merits to push its way to the front, and 
the more well-bred specimens get spread about, in the greater demand will 
the dog most assuredly be. The Bedlington, I take it, is a farmer's friend, or 
a country gentleman's companion. No breed of terrier can compare with 
him for stamina, fire, courage, and resolution. He will knock about aE 
day with his master, busy as a bee at foxes, rabbits, or otters ; and at 
night, when any other sort of dog would be stiff, sore, and utterly jaded, 
he will turn up bright as a new shilling, and ready for any game going. 
He takes to the water readily, has a capital nose, is most intelligent and 
lively, and, as I have said, as a rough and ready friend about the fields 
and woods he has no equal. 

" Despite the vast body of evidence adduced to clear up the question 

320 British Dogs. 

of the origin of this cross, I hold that the matter may yet be regarded 
as by no means satisfactorily determined. I have seen pedigrees of 
crack dogs of the breed extending over a period of 100 years, but then 
one has no means of knowing what the dog was like whose name we 
see figuring as having lived in the last century. No doubt some 
famous dogs of the breed of old Northumberland terriers were long ago 
located about Thropton, Eothbury, Felton, and Alnwick, and it is not at 
all unlikely that the Staffordshire nailmakers, who, some eighty or ninety 
years ago, were brought down from the south and employed at Bedlington, 
crossed the pure-bred native terrier with some of the stock they brought 
with them, having, probably, fighting purposes in view. But it does not 
matter how this clever and undoubtedly useful race has been produced ; it 
is sufficient to know that we have it, and that it is as permanent and 
breeds as truly as any other cross we know of. At the same time, 
if the Staffordshire nailmakers made the cross with the intention of 
breeding a fighting animal, they failed, so far as raising up an antagonist 
to the bull-terrier is concerned. The Bedlington is as tenacious, 
as resolute, and as indifferent to rough usage as the professional 
gladiator he was pitted against ; but he lacks the formidable jaw and 
the immense power of the bull-terrier, and the combat is emphatically 
no part of his business. 

" The first show of Bedlingtons I can call to mind was got up by 
Henry Wardle, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, a good judge, and an ardent 
admirer of the canine species. That show took place on 12th April, 
1870, and the first prize was won by Thomas John Pickett, with 
Tip, a thorough game one, but I thought he had a dash of bull in 
him. I would like to do justice to the ability and care displayed in those 
early show days of the Bedlington by Thomas Thompson, of Wideopen, 
and Joseph Ainsley, of Bedlington, who stood foremost as reliable judges 
of the strain, and as acknowledged depositories of almost all that was 
known concerning it, but I have not space at command to enter into the 
intricacies of pedigrees, and I must hasten on to mention two or three of 
the most famous prize takers of the race. Mr. Pickett, who has bred 
Bedlingtons since 1844, has now three champions, who will often be 
referred to by breeders in after times, namely, Tear'em, Tyne, andTyne- 
side, all descended from Thomas Thompson's strain, and inheriting 
pedigrees of portentous length. Tyne was first shown at the Crystal 

The Bedlington Terrier. 321 

Palace show in 1870, and went thence to Birmingham, where she was 
again not noticed; she was then sent to Manchester, but, from some 
mistake of the railway servants, was never taken out of her hamper. At 
Liverpool, to which show she was sent on, a similar mistake occurred ; 
but the committee of the show becoming aware of the fact, sent Mr. 
Pickett a special prize. Despite this series of rebuffs, Mr. Pickett 
forwarded Tyne to the Glasgow show, when the judges pronounced her 
not to be a Bedlington at all. The ' Scotsman ' of 2nd March, 1872, 
however, in its notice of the show, remarked that she was by a very 
long way the best in the class in which she was exhibited. This was 
a case of doctors differing with a vengeance ; and Tyne managed to 
stultify the Glasgow decision by making a round of brilliant victories 
at York, Kendal, Bedlington, Blaydon, Seaton Burn, and other dis- 
trict shows, and won twice at Durham viz., in 1870 and 1871 finally 
visiting the great Crystal Palace exhibition of 1872, and taking first 
prize in her class, which the 'Times,' of 2nd June, 1872, described as 
the best collection of Bedlingtons ever exhibited at any show. Tear-'em 
is the hero of the original show at Bedlington in 1870, where, in a class 
of fifty-two competitors a number that has never been exceeded since 
he was awarded first prize. Tyneside, a beautiful blue bitch, fault- 
less in shape, coat, and colour, was placed first in a class of twenty- 
five at Bedlington in 1871 ; but in the Bedlington show of 1872, this 
distinguished branch of the family obtained its greatest triumph Tyne 
(own sister to Tear-'em) being placed first, with Tear-'em second, and 
Tyneside third, in a class of twenty- three entries. I have been supplied 
with a pedigree of Tyneside for six generations back, but the limited 
space at my disposal prevents my giving it here. It may, however, be 
stated that she is inbred to a most curious extent, the name of Hutchin- 
son's Tip occurring no less than five times in the course of her pedigree, 
while on the part of both sire and dam she is descended from such grand 
dogs as Bagille's Piper, Thompson's Jean, Burn's Twig, Jos. ShevilTs 
Jean, Thompson's Boa Alley Tip, and Bagille's Nimble, &c. The dimen- 
sions of Tyneside are as follows : From lugs to tip of nose, Sin. ; length 
of tail, IHin. ; length of lugs, 5in. ; breadth (tapering off in a filbert 
shape), Sin. ; height from the claw to the shoulder blade, 14fin. ; weight, 
201b. ; size round the chest, 19Jin. ; and fore arm, 7iin. So much for 
the Bedlingtons, and in taking leave of the race I may mention that most 


322 British Dogs. 

of them known to me are terribly inbred, and that the usual conse- 
quences often follow ; also that many of them exhale an odour which, to 
say the least of it, is peculiar." 

The following quotation from a letter on the subject, by Mr. W. J. 
Donkin, secretary of the Bedlington Terrier Club, is in some points con- 
firmatory of the above, and throws some additional light on the history 
of the breed. He says : 

" During the first quarter of the present century, Mr. Edward Donkin, 
of Flotterton still dear to the old sportsmen of Coquetside by the 
familiar soubriquet of ' Hunting Ned ' hunted a pack of foxhounds 
well known in the Eothbury district. At that time he possessed two 
very celebrated kennel terriers, called Peachum and Pincher. A colony 
of sporting nailors from Staffordshire then flourished at Bedlington 
(a village situated about twelve miles north from Newcastle), who 
were noted for their plucky breed of terriers. But reform was 
at hand, and the old favourites were obliged to make way for new 
blood. To Joseph Ainsley, a mason by trade, belongs this honour. He 
purchased a dog named Peachum from Mr. Cowen, of Bock Law, and the 
result of a union of this dog with Mr. Christopher Dixon's Phoebe, of 
Longhorsley, was Piper, belonging to James Anderson, of Eothbury 
Forest. Piper was a dog of slender build, about 15in. high, and 151b. 
weight. He was of a liver colour, the hair being a sort of hard 
woolly lint, his ears were large, hung close to his cheeks, and were 
slightly feathered at the tip. In the year 1820, Mr. Howe, of Alnwick, 
visited a friend at Bedlington, and brought with him a terrier bitch 
named Phoebe, which he left with Mr. Edward Coates, of the Vicarage. 
Phoebe belonged to Mr. Andrew Eiddle, of Framlington, who subse- 
quently made a present of her to Ainsley ; but from the fact of her home 
being at the Vicarage she was generally known as Coates' s Phoebe. Her 
colour was black, with sort of branded legs, and she had a light-coloured 
tuft of hair on her head. She was about 13in. high and weighed 141b. 
In 1825 she was mated with Anderson's Piper, and the fruit of this union 
was the Bedlington terrier in question, Mr. Ainsley being the first to 
claim that title for his dog Piper. Of the sagacity and courage of Piper, 
one of their offspring, a volume might be written. 

" The Bedlington terrier is fast, and whether on land or water is equally 
at home. In appetite theae dogs are dainty, and tkey seldom fatten, 

The Bedlington Terrier. 323 

but experience has shown them to be wiry, enduring, and in courage 
equal to the bulldog. They will face almost anything, and some queer 
stories could be told about them ; they will seize a burning paper ; and 
Mr. Thos. Wheatley, of Newcastle, had a dog that carried a red hot 
poker in its mouth, the mouth after having much the same smell as when 
putting a new shoe on a horse's foot. The dog mentioned was a very 
little one, and was greatly in-bred. To their other good qualities may 
be added their marked intelligence and hostility to vermin of all kinds. 
They will encounter the otter, fox, or badger with the greatest determina- 

The same writer, I may observe, in common with most fanciers of the 
breed, claims for them a pedigree going back to 1792 ; but it is quite 
clear from the above statement that an admixture of terrier blood from 
Staffordshire was introduced, and the colour of the Alnwick bitch bred 
from by Ainsley goes to show she was not in that point at least what we 
now recognise a Bedlington to be. The evidence, written and traditional, 
is, however, conclusive that a terrier of a distinct type had, prior to that, 
been recognised as peculiar to the district, and the infusion of a strain of 
foreign blood, although it might modify, would probably not greatly alter 
the original type. 

In respect to the character of the Bedlington, I have been converted 
from a prejudice against him to a very strong feeling in his favour, and 
that by fairly studying the breed and finding that two, the only dogs of 
the breed I have owned, were all their most ardent admirers claim for 
them. I have found them easily kept under command, a remarkably 
lively and cheerful dog, with plenty of " go " in them, capital at vermin, 
showing plenty of courage and bottom, receiving punishment in silence 
and returning it with interest ; handsome I cannot say I think them, but 
they possess a style, and are stamped with character which removes them 
from any suspicion of mongrelism. I have found them first-class water 
dogs, and most intelligent, obedient, and useful as house guards and com- 
panions. In none of the specimens I have had to do with have I 
observed the disagreeable odour referred to by the writer in the " New- 
castle Chronicle," quoted above. 

In general appearance the Bedlington is somewhat leggy and flat- 
sided, but useful, active, and hardy looking. It is a practice very 
commonly indulged in to pluck the hair from the face and muzzle. Dogs 

T 2 

324 British Dogs. 

thus trimmed looking cleaner and longer in the jaw ; this is so commonly 
done that it seems to be accepted by judges as a matter of course, but 
it is better to discountenance faking, even in its mildest forms, and I 
think a trimmed dog should be penalised. The tail also often comes in 
for a share of the faker's art. 

The following are the points adopted by the Bedlington Terrier Club. 
I must say I do not think the comparison of the Bedlington 's head to 
that of a ferret a correct or happy one, in other respects the description 
may be accepted as authoritative : 

" Head. The head rather resembles the ferret, and though wedge- 
shaped, like most terriers, should be shorter in the skull and longer in 
the jaw, and narrow or lean muzzled ; it should be a narrow, high 
skull, coned or peaked at the occiput, and taper away sharply to the 

" Ears. They should be filbert- shaped, lie close to the cheek, and are 
set on low like a Dandie, thus leaving the head clear and flat, and the 
ears should be feathered at the tips. 

" Eyes. In blue, or blue and tan, the eyes have an amber shade ; in 
livers, &c., it is much lighter, and is commonly called the ' hazel eye.' 
It should be small, well sunk into the head, and placed very close 
together ; very piercing when roused. 

" Jaw and Teeth. The jaw should be long, lean, and powerful. Most 
of these dogs are a little ' shot ' at the upper jaw, and are often termed 
' pig- jawed.' Many prefer what is called * pincer-jaw,' that is, the 
teeth should meet evenly together, but it is not very often they are 
found that way ; the teeth should be large, regular, and white. 

" Nose. The nose or nostrils should be large, and stand out promi- 
nently from the jaw. Blue or blue and tans have black noses, and livers, 
&c., red or flesh coloured noses. 

"Neck and Shoulders. The neck long and muscular, rising gradually 
from the shoulders to the head. The shoulder is flat and light, and set 
much like the greyhound's. The height at the shoulder is less than at 
the haunch. More or less this is the case with all dogs, but is very 
pronounced with this breed, especially in bitches. 

"Body, Eibs, Back, Loins, Quarters, and Chest. A moderately long 
body, rather flat ribs, short straight back, slightly arched tight and 
muscular loins, just a little ' clicked ' up in the flank, fully developed 

The Bedlington Terrier. 325 

quarters, widish and deep chest ; the whole showing a fine muscular 

"Legs and Feet. Legs perfectly straight and moderately long; the 
feet should be rather large, that is a distinguishing mark of the breed ; 
long claws are also admired. 

"Coat. This is the principal point on which fanciers differ; some 
prefer a hard wiry coat, which several of the south-country judges ' go 
in ' for, but the proper hair of these dogs is linty or woolly, with a very 
slight sprinkling of wire hairs, and this is still the fancy of the majority 
of north-country breeders. 

"Colour. The original colours of this breed of dogs were blue and tan, 
livers, and sandies, and these are still the favourite colours of the old 
breeders. The tan of these dogs is of a pale colour, and differs greatly 
from the tan of the black and tan English terriers, and the blues 
should be a proper blue linty, not nearly black, which is sometimes seen 
now. In all colours the crown of the head should be linty or nearly 
white, otherwise white is objectionable. 

"Tail. The tail should be of moderate length (Sin. to lOin.), either 
straight or slightly curved, carried low, and feathered underneath. The 
tail should by no means be curled or carried high on to the back. 

"Weight. The weight of these dogs varies greatly, but the average 
is from 181b. to 231b., or at outside about 251b. weight." 

The table on the following pages is a well-authenticated pedigree of 
Lieut.-Col. John A. Cowan's Bedlington Terrier Ask 'im II., going 
back to the year 1782, for which I am indebted to the courtesy of 
the owner. 

I believe such an extended pedigree of a dog of any breed has never 
before been published. 


British Dogs. 









The Bedlington Terrier. 


I J 





JJ e 




328 British Dogs. 

The following are weights and measurements of several good specimens 
of the breed : 

Mr. R. L. Batty' a Matt (K.C.S.B., 5580) ; Age, 7 years 5 months ; 
weight, 211b. ; height at shoulder, 14fin. ; length from nose to set on 
of tail, 30iin. ; length of tail, 10|in. ; girth of chest, 19iin. ; girth of 
loin, 15in. ; girth of head, llin. j girth of arm lin. above elbow, 6|in. , 
girth of leg lin. below elbow, 5in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, 8| in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 6Jin. ; 
colour and markings, dark liver, with wiry coat and light linty crown. 

Mr. E.L. Batty 'aYoungTopsy (K.C.S.B.,6682): Age, 4 years 11 months; 
weight, 211b. ; height at shoulder, 14fin. ; length from nose to set on of 
tail, 30iin. ; length of tail, llin. ; girth of chest, 19in. ; girth of loin; 
14in. ; girth of head, llin. ; girth of arm, lin. above elbow, 5fin. ; 
girth of leg lin. below elbow, 4|in. ; length of head from occiput to tip 
of nose, 8iin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 
Gin. ; colour and markings, sandy or light liver. 

Mr. John Parker's Tyneside II. : Age, 2 years 9 months ; weight, 221b. ; 
height at shoulder, 14in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 31iin. ; 
length of tail, llin. ; girth of chest, 19|in. ; girth of loin, 15in. ; girth 
of head, 12in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 7jin. ; girth of leg lin. 
below elbow, 5jin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 8iin. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, Tin. ; colour and 
markings, blue. 



As far back as the history of British dogs goes we have mention of the 
terrier, the dog that went to earth after fox and badger, and by 
" conceaved fear drove them out of their hollow harbours." 

I have written of them in the past tense, for in the multitudinous 
varieties now called terriers there are many altogether unfitted for the 
work which gave the breed the generic name. 

Justice compels me to say the modern black and tan, after the refining 

The Black and Tan Terrier. 329 

processes of the Manchester and Birmingham showmen, is one of those 
that would make but a poor figure at underground work. The legs 
and feet are too slender and elegant for digging, and their satin-like coat 
is not the sort of covering in which to face wet grass and dank woods. 

Whilst on the subject of the coats of terriers I must notice a rather 
curious and, I think, altogether erroneous supposition of Youatt's on the 
subject. He says, " the rough terrier possibly obtained his shaggy coat 
from the cur, and the smooth terrier may derive his from the hound." 
The cur he elsewhere describes as a cross between the sheepdog and the 
terrier, but there are rough-coated as well as smooth-coated hounds, and 
the terrier was placed by Caius among the hounds, between the harrier 
and the bloodhound in fact, and he states him to be the " smallest of the 
kind called Sag ax." Now, if there always have been hounds, both 
smooth and rough, it is surely quite as likely there have also always been 
smooth and rough terriers. 

Caius says nothing about the length of coat or the colour of his 
terriers. Daniels, in his " Eural Sports," makes special mention of the 
elegant and sprightly smooth-coated terrier, black in body and tanned 
on the legs ; and in foxhound kennels of the last and early in this century 
terriers of all colours were kept red ones, brindled, brown pied, white 
pied, pure white and black with tanned faces, flank, feet, and legs, and 
all of these were kept for work, not for show work requiring the 
strength, fortitude, ardour, and indomitable pluck of a genuine terrier, 
for a working terrier worthy of the name should be as " hard as nails," 
active as a cat, and lively as a cricket. 

The old style of black and tan terrier was stronger but not so elegantly 
built as his modern representative, and still we may occasionally see the 
stouter-limbed, broader-chested, thicker-headed, and coarser-coated dog 
that illustrates the original from which our show dog has sprung. 

Dog shows have, no doubt, had much to do with transforming the 
rather "cloddy" rough-and-tumble black and tan into the graceful and 
refined animal of our show benches ; and noted among breeders who 
had a large share in producing this dog of the day stands the name of 
the late Mr. Sam Handley, who in the earlier years of dog shows success- 
fully exhibited, and became generally recognised as the greatest authority 
and most expert judge of this breed especially, although also of many 
other varieties in which he took an interest. 

330 British Dogs. 

I do nob know that any cross has been resorted to in bringing this 
terrier up to the mark, but the great length of head, the tendency to 
show a tucked-up flank, and a something in the general contour gives one 
the impression that greyhound blood is in them, and if so, it was 
probably obtained through the whippet. The skull is certainly much 
narrower in proportion to length and to size of dog than in the grey- 
hound, and rumour says this end is obtained by continued compression 
with wet bandages during puppyhood. 

With improved elegance of form was introduced gradually a finer coat 
and richer and more decided contrast in the colours, and when Nature 
is not so kind as desired in this respect, some of the votaries of the 
breed assist her. 

I believe, however, that staining, dyeing, and painting is not much 
resorted to now-a-days ; careful breeding has done so much towards 
perfecting the dog that there is less need to introduce low tricks, which 
cannot be too severely censured. 

Although the modern black and tan terrier is unfitted for the hard 
rough work at which his progenitor was an adept, it must not be inferred 
from anything I have said that he is a useless dog he is, on the contrary, 
game enough and death to vermin, as all the terrier tribe are, but he is 
simply not fitted to stand rough weather. He is also a remarkably 
active and cheerful companion, and makes a first-rate house dog, being 
generally quite free from any objectionable smell, and he does not 
harbour fleas, nor carry the dirt on wet days into the house, as rough- 
coated dogs do. 

The black and tan is sometimes called the Manchester terrier, but 
there is no sound reason for it ; this I pointed out in an article on the 
breed, which I contributed to "Dogs of the British Islands," and made 
it a cause of complaint against the Kennel Club that in their stud 
books they gave countenance to this misnomer ; and I see in the volume 
of their "Stud Book" since issued the entries of these dogs are not 
called Manchester, but simply black and tan terriers, and this is as 
it should be, for far more good ones have been bred out of Manchester 
than in it, and the dog is really an old English terrier. 

There is considerable difficulty in breeding dogs with all the desirable 
points, and when a specimen is found nearing perfection in shape, colour, 
and markings, very long prices are given for it. 

The Black and Tan Terrier. 331 

Another point (of course, artificial, yet great stress is laid on it), is 
the cutting of the ears unless this is what is euphonistically and most 
erroneously called artistically done, it mars the chance of an otherwise 
first-rate dog winning. 

This is a custom I most strongly deprecate, and I hope to see it done 
away with, as it has been in the case of pugs, Dalmatians, and others. 
Whether it improves the dog's appearance is a matter of opinion ; I 
think it does not, and I do not think without better reasons than 
I have ever heard given we are justified, for a mere whim or fancy, in 
exposing to all weathers one of the most delicate organs of the body, 
which nature has specially protected, thus leaving the poor beast easily 
liable to ear canker, deafness, and other evils. The following are the 
points required in a first-rate specimen : 

The head must be long and narrow, clean cut, tight skinned, with no 
bulging out at the cheeks ; the skull flat and narrow. 

The muzzle should be long, lean, and tapering, with the teeth level, or 
the incisors of the upper jaw just closing over the under ones. The nose 
must be quite black. 

The eyes are black, bright, and small, neither sunk in the skull nor 

The ears are, for exhibition purposes, invariably cut, and much impor- 
tance is attached to the result of this operation. It is required that the 
ears correspond exactly in shape and position with each other. They 
must be tapered to a point, stand quite erect, or slightly lean towards 
each other at the tip. This is a practice I strongly deprecate, and never 
miss an opportunity of protesting against ; and I believe there is a 
general feeling arising against it. Among others who strongly condemned 
it I may name the late Mr. S. Handley. The supporters of the practice 
cannot offer a single valid argument in its favour, whilst there are many 
strong reasons against it. It is sheer nonsense to say the dogs look 
better cropped. It is not many years since people thought pugs looked 
better with their ears shorn off by the roots, but nobody thinks so now ; 
and the practice as regards terriers could be effectually stopped by a 
resolution of the Kennel Club to the effect that no dog with cut ears 
would be eligible to compete at any of their shows after 1879. There is 
this practical evil, too, in cropping, that it places the dog with naturally 
defective ears on an equality in competition with the dog born with 

332 British Dogs. 

perfect ears, if they have been equally skilfully manipulated. The 
natural ear is of three kinds the button or drop ear, like the fox 
terrier ; the rose ear, that is half folded back, so that the interior of the 
ear can be partially seen ; and the prick or tulip ear. But I have never 
seen the last-named kind, except in coarse specimens. The leather of 
the ear is thin, and generally finest in the best bred dogs. 

The neck must be light and airy, well proportioned to the head, and 
gradually swelling towards the shoulders ; there should be no loose 
skin or throatiness. The shoulders are not so muscular as in some 
breeds, but nicely sloping. 

The chest must be deep, but not wide; the latter would indicate a 
bull cross, which would also be shown in the head and other points. The 
body is short, the ribs rather deep than round, the back ones pretty 
well let down. 

The loins are strong and muscular ; with this formation there is an 
absence of the cut-up flank which the whippet and Italian greyhound 
crosses give. 

The legs are straight, light of bone, clean as a racehorse's, and the feet 
long, with the toes well arched, and the claws jet black. 

The coat must be short and close ; it should look fine and glossy, but 
not soft in texture. 

The colour and markings are in this breed which is now essentially 
a fancy dog important. No other colour than black and tan or red is 
permissible, the least speck of white is fatal to winning chances, and it is 
in the richness, contrast, and correct distribution of these that excellence 
consists. The black should be intense and jet-like, the tan a rich warm 
mahogany ; the two colours in all points where they meet being abruptly 
separated not running into each other. On the head the tan runs 
along each jaw, on the lower jaw running down almost to the throat ; a 
bright spot on the cheek, and another above the eye, each clearly sur- 
rounded with black, and well defined; the inside of the ears slightly 
tanned, spots of tan on each side of the breast, the forelegs tanned up to 
the knee ; feet tanned, but the knuckles with a clear black line, called 
the " pencil mark," up their ridge ; and in the centre of the tan, midway 
between the foot and the knee, there must be a black spot called the 
"thumb mark," and the denser the black, and the clearer in its outline, 
the more it is valued. The insides of the hind legs are tanned, and also 

c/3 O; 




The Black and Tan Terrier. 333 

the under side of tail ; but tan on the thighs and outside, where it often 
appears in a straggling way, producing the appearance called "bronzed," 
is very objectionable. The vent has also a tan spot, but it should 
be no larger than can be well covered by the tail when pressed down 
on it. 

The tail must be long, straight, thin, and tapering to a point. Its 
carriage should be low, and any curl over the back is a great defect. 

The symmetry of this dog is of great importance, as this point is 
developed to as great an extent as in any other breed, not even except- 
ing the greyhound. 

The subjects of our engravings are Mr. F. W. Parry's Saff, acknow- 
ledged by most judges to be the best bitch of the breed living. Saff is 
perfection in symmetry, possesses all the points of the breed, and is 
remarkably rich in colour. In the engraving the head is depicted as 
carried rather high ; in a lower position the neck would have shown to 
greater advantage, but, on the whole, Mr. Moore has most successfully 
portrayed Saff, who well represents the breed. 

Our other engraving represents Mr. Howard Mapplebeck's (now Mr. 
Vicary's) Wasp, a good specimen, and fairly successful in the show 

The following will show size and dimensions of a few good specimens : 

Mr. F. W. Parry's Saff: Age, 2 years 9 months; weight, 19Jlb. ; 
height at shoulder, 15in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 24in. ; 
length of tail, 9in. ; girth of chest, 20in. ; girth of loin, 15^in. ; girth of 
head, llin. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 6|in. ; girth of leg lin. 
below elbow, 4 fin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 7f in. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 6|in. ; colour and 
markings, black and tan. 

Mr. W. K. Taunton's Swift (K.C.S.B., 8631) : Age, 2 years ; weight, 
241b. ; height at shoulder, 16in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 27in. ; 
length of tail, 9in. ; girth of chest, 21in. ; girth of loin, 16in. ; girth of 
head, 13in. ; girth of leg lin. below elbow, 5in. ; length of head from 
occiput to tip of nose, 7|in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and 
tip of nose, 6|m. 

Mr. W. K. Taunton's Black Bess (K.C.S.B., 8635) : Age, 2 years ; 
weight, 16lb. ; height at shoulder, 13in. ; length from nose to set on of 
tail, 25in. ; length of tail, Sin. ; girth of chest, 17|in. ; girth of loin, 

334 British Dogs. 

13in. ; girth of head, llin. ; girth of leg lin. below elbow, 4|in. ; length 
of head from occiput to tip of nose, 7|in. ; girth of muzzle midway 
between eyes and tip of nose, 5f in. 

Mr. W. K. Taunton's Stella, by General (K.C.S.B., 2943) Saff II. 
(K.C.S.B., 3024) : Age, 2 years and 2 months ; weight, 181b. ; height at 
shoulder, 14Jin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 26in. ; length of 
tail, 7Jin. ; girth of chest, 19|in. ; girth of loin, 15|in. ; girth of head, 
lliin. ; girth of leg lin. below elbow, 4|in. ; length of head from 
occiput to tip of nose, 7in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and 
tip of nose, Gin. 



FOR several years past this game little dog and favourite pet has been 
much discussed in newspapers dealing with canine subjects. I am 
anxious that the views of each party should be fairly represented in 
" British Dogs," and with that view I consider it best they should speak 
for themselves. 

This necessitates making the article on Skye terriers rather longer 
than I desired, but in the interests of fair play I can see no other plan 
to follow. I will, therefore, make my own remarks as brief as possible, 
whilst I feel compelled, from the position I have assumed, not to pass the 
opposing opinions over in silence. 

Engravings of the three types advocated are also given, which will 
assist in elucidating the opinions expressed. 

I will first give the opinions of those who advocate the stamp of dog 
represented by the woodcut of " Gareloch," which maybe called the 
Eoseneath type. 

It is most unfortunate, in my opinion, that those who espouse this type 
should not be content with advocating its excellencies, but decry all 
others with a wantonness and inattention to strict accuracy most 
damaging to their own cause. 

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The Skye Terrier. 335 

They have, in correspondence which has been dragged through 
numerous newspapers, insisted that the dogs obtaining prizes at English 
dog shows have coats of soft silky texture. To make this statement is to 
show gross ignorance of facts, or wilfully to write that which is untrue. 
A dog with a soft silky coat, or of " Berlin wool " texture, may occa- 
sionally have won, judges not being infallible ; but to say that English 
judges, by preferring soft-coated Syke terriers encourage mongrels, is 
altogether unsustainable by facts, and soft silky-coated dogs are now but 
rarely seen in a Skye terrier class. In June, 1879, I acted as judge at 
Exeter show, when, to my astonishment, there was a class of some ten or 
twelve, and every one hard-coated, and when we come to the principal 
prize winners at all good shows it is the same. Her Majesty the 
Queen's Toddy, Gretton's Sam, Pratt* s Piper, Haggis, and others of his 
kennel, Brooke's Warlock, Pike's Oscar, Cunningham's Monarch and 
Venus, Locke's Perkie, and many more I could name are all remarkable 
for the hardness of the exterior coat. 

Another objection taken to the prize winners is the length of the coat. 

Prize winning Skye terriers in England are not regularly worked, and 
some of them not at all ; if they were, every practical man knows their 
coats would soon be short enough ; but the issuers of the manifesto I am 
about to quote insist that the length of coat could not be attained 
without crossing with a naturally longer haired variety. In this they 
answer themselves by stating that the Eoseneath strain has a coat two- 
thirds longer than the original, and say this result has been obtained by 
" systematic breeding by selection." Just so the dogs prized in England 
may have obtained their long coats, and with prize dogs there have been 
other influences at work tending to the production of long coats the 
constant attention to combing and brushing alone stimulates and 
increases the growth of hair, and attention to health and cleanliness 
keeps the dogs from scratching and breaking the hair. When the reader 
comes to Mr. John Flinn's able contribution, he will, however, find that 
although short-coated terriers may long have existed in the Western 
Highlands, very long-coated terriers were peculiar to these parts over 
300 years ago. 

Another objection taken to prize dogs, and strongly urged by the party 
I am now referring to, is that their owners give no account of their 
pedigree, or how or from whom they originally obtained the strain. 

336 British Dogs. 

I do not care to characterise this as I think it should be characterised, 
the facts being that several great prize winners, of whom I may mention 
Mr. J. Pratt and Mr. Duncan Cunningham as examples, have, in the 
only public records of canine pedigrees existing, proved their prize dogs 
to be of long descent, whereas not one of the signatories to the manifesto 
have ever published a pedigree of one of their dogs. 

Another charge against prize-winning Skyes is want of courage and 
ability to do the work of a terrier. 

A more groundless statement could not be made, as I can testify from 
practical experience; and men must surely be absolutely blinded by 
prejudice who, by such reckless statements, would injure other people's 

I will only further remark that the journal " which need not be 
named " was The Country, of which I was Kennel editor, and that the 
words attributed to me shows a lack of accuracy and candour on the part 
of the quoter. 

The manifesto is as follows , 

' ' The Skye terrier defined, as existing in the Western Isles and High- 
lands of Scotland. 

" During the last three years a widespread agitation has been main- 
tained in the columns of leading journals on sporting matters, with 
reference to the question ' What constitutes a Skye terrier P ' and, how- 
ever explicitly it has been demonstrated by gentlemen qualified to speak 
as to facts that the breed belongs to the Western Isles and Highlands of 
Scotland, and are essentially ' terriers,' being utilised in the destruction 
of all kinds of vermin to be met with in this country, strange to say, 
Southern breeders, as a class, are strongly opposed to this view, on no 
stronger ground, apparently, than it does not accord with their preconceived 
notions about Skye terriers. In one journal (the name of which need not 
be specified) a statement recently appeared from the pen of an editor 
professedly well versed in canine matters, to the effect that the term 
' Terrier ' is not now restricted to its original meaning ; but it would 
have been more correct to say that the application of such term to dogs, 
such as are generally exhibited in the Skye terrier class, is to ascribe a 
meaning to the word ' Terrier ' at variance with its derivation. The 
same authority adds that Skye terriers have for many years been bred, 
both north and south, for the drawing room rather than the otter's 

The Skye Terrier. 337 

'holt' and the badger's 'earth,' but this, if true at all, is only so in 
a very limited sense, i.e., drawing-room pets are no doubt in vogue 
throughout England and some districts of Scotland, but they are not 
acknowledged in the Highlands as the native terrier, being neither bred 
nor kept by admirers of the gallant little mountaineers. Probably the most 
marked distinction between the old breed and the modern so-called Skye 
terrier to be met with at exhibitions, is that of 'coat,' which, on the 
fancy article, is frequently of a silky texture, and ranging from eight 
inches to about a foot in length, while the true breed has wiry hair, and 
rarely, if ever, exceeding in length one-third of the extreme limit above- 

" Some theorists, who have been unable to shut their eyes to these 
marked differences, have ascribed them to two causes, viz., the complete 
change in the mode of life to which dogs are subjected in England, 
coupled with the fact of a milder climate prevailing there than further 
north. But if these views were not fallacious, it would follow that High- 
land-bred terriers sent to England and reared there (many of them in the 
lap of luxury) would themselves, or their produce, in course of time, 
manifest a change of coat in harmony with their reputed descendants (the 
show animals). However, experience has shown beyond question that 
the covering provided for the Skye terrier by ' Dame Nature ' is not 
liable to be influenced in its growth by external causes, or the habits of 
life becoming more artificial. As a matter of fact, the Skye terrier proper, 
whether lodged in the kennel, made a pet of in the drawing-room, or as 
you please in this country, is still a terrier, and not a substitute for a 
door mat. We do not wish to imply that only Highland-bred Skyes are 
genuine, but we submit that bonu fide lineal descendants of such, and 
they alone, are entitled to be termed Skye terriers. We challenge 
breeders of the popular show specimens to declare when, where, and from 
whom in the Highlands the dogs were derived, from whom their present 
show Skyes are alleged to have originated, and further, to enlighten the 
public by explaining to them how the modifications as to ' coat,' and 
other points specified hereafter, are reconcilable with the statements 
made that the breed had been maintained pur et simple. Such, then, is 
the ground taken up by the subscribers, all of whom are familiar with the 
terriers bred in the Western Isles and Highlands of Scotland, and known 
there for at least eighty years as Skye terriers, the characteristics of 


338 British Dogs. 

which breed differ widely from those of the dogs which win, and have for 
years won, at shows held throughout England, as will be manifest from 
the following detailed description of ' points.' Such description is 
declared by the subscribers hereto to be reliable and in all respects 
strictly accurate : 

" Head. Medium size, muzzle shortish and rather broad, not ' snipey ' 
like that of a fox. Jaws strong and well clad with muscle. Average 
length of head 7in , say, from end of nose to eyes 2|in., and from eyes to 
back of skull, 4|in. Girth of muzzle in front of eyes about 7in., and 
girth of head in front of ears from llin. to 12in. Jawbone about 4^in. in 

" Eyes. Dark hazel colour, very expressive, and of moderate size, 
overhung by bushy eyebrows, but never so as to obstruct the sight in the 
slightest degree, differing in this respect very prominently from the dense 
thatch (of hair) veiling face, muzzle, and even the nose of some of these 
nondescript animals, which are favoured by canine judges (?) under the 
erroneous idea (probably inspired by the door mat style of illustrations 
given in Punch} that they are real Skye terriers. The vicinity of the 
eyes, if disfigured by stains, would imply a poodle cross at no distant 

" Ears. Small, broad at the root, but tapering to a point. They 
should be clad with soft hair, and slightly ' feathered,' but anything 
approaching the spaniel for ' feather ' should be viewed with grave 
suspicion. The drop-ear should not lie flat against the side of the head, 
but drop towards the front. In the prick-eared variety the ears are 
carried erect. A 'slouch' ear, i.e., the organ of hearing showing a 
decided tendency to fall outwards, is considered objectionable. When 
the dog is ' at attention ' the ears ought to stand firmly upright, but 
when in a listless attitude the position of the ears is somewhat modified. 
Length of ears from 2^in. to 3in., breadth at the root about 2Bn., and 
tapering to a point ; while the spurious so-called Skye terriers are generally 
distinguished by excessively coarse ears, almost rivalling those of a 
donkey in size. 

" Neck. Should be strong and muscular, about 5in. long, and from 9 
to 10in. in girth. 

"Body. Long in proportion to height of dog; chest and ribs deep, 
body neither flat sided nor yet round like a barrel, as, on entering a den 

The Skye Terrier. 339 

or cairn, where the formation of the rock causes the opening to be 
perpendicular, the dog gets easier through, and if the opening is 
horizontal, a terrier instinctively endeavours to gain an entrance side- 
ways, i.e., crawling on his side. Length from shoulder to root of tail, 
say, from 15in. to I7in., girth behind foreleg 15in. to 16jin. Dog should 
not be prominently ' tucked up ' at the loins, but on the contrary, well 
ribbed home. 

" Legs. Should be short and strong, with plenty of muscle ; they may be 
slightly bandy, but the less the better. Hair on legs (like that on under- 
part of body) softer in texture as well as lighter in colour than that on 
the back of the dog. Foreleg 4|in. to Sin. in length, inside measurement, 
girth almost equal to length, if the muscles are well developed. 

" Feet. Small, and more or less hairy. There should not be any dew- 
claws, which are considered very objectionable in any terrier. 

" Tail. Short, and rather bushy, about 9in. long (hair inclusive), and 
the nearer straight in carriage the better it looks. A long ' whiphandle ' 
style of tail does not belong to the breed. 

"Height. From Sin. to 9in. at shoulder, and should not be lower 

"Coat. Should, on the body, be dense, and the outer (or longer 
hair) of a decidedly wiry texture, that underneath being much finer in 

" In different strains the length of coat varies, but the pure-bred Skye 
terrier never shows (within 5in. to Gin.) the extraordinary length of hair 
on the back of some show dogs, nor can such unusual length of coat be 
ascribed to any cause apart from cross breeding, to attain the distinc- 

" Dogs bred in the recognised best kennels in the Isle of Skye exhibit 
hair on them measuring, say, about 3in., although apparently not above 
half the length here indicated. While the strains most popular in the 
' Argyle Country,' bred for so many years at Inverary Castle, as well as 
in the Isle of Mull, and more recently at Eoseneath, are generally longer 
coated, perhaps to the extent of about 2in., a circumstance which can be 
easily explained, without reference to ' differences of temperature ' in the 
localities named. In short, it may fairly be ascribed to the fact of 
systematic breeding by selection, for moderately rough-coated terriers, 
being pursued in Argyleshire. 


340 British Dogs. 

" Colour. A matter of taste. In the Isle of Skye dark-grey is the 
general colour of the breed, but there are also some very light-coloured 
specimens, and others nearly black ; while the Skyes in Argyleshire are 
chiefly reddish-yellow, with some darker hairs intermixed, If the dog is 
of any light colour, a dark muzzle, with tips of ears and tail also dark, 
should be considered a strong recommendation, as lending to the dog a 
distinguished appearance. White on feet, breast, or any other part of 
the dog should be regarded as a blemish. 

" Weight. Males from 121b. to 161b., females ranging about 31b. less. 

"Value of Skye terrier points: "Head (number indicating relative 
value), 15 ; jaws and teeth, 10 ; eyes, 5 ; ears, 5 ; body and neck, 25 ; 
legs and feet, 15; tail .(carriage of), 5; coat (texture of) and colour, 
10 ; symmetry, 10." 

Here follow the signatures of twenty-two persons. 

Mr. J. Gordon Murray's contribution to our knowledge of the subject, 
which I now propose to give, at least does credit to his industry and 
his patriotism. Unfortunately his is not a judicial mind, the clan spirit 
crops out, and shows the bias. In his advocacy of what he calls the 
" very real and pure Skye terrier," he reminds me of the anecdote of the 
two Scottish dames who were discussing the prospects of our arms on 
the eve of a great battle, when one wound up with the pious exclamation 
that she " hoped Providence would be on the side of those who were 
right," when the other, showing the true national spirit, indignantly 
exclaimed, "Houts, woman ! let Providence be on our folks' side, whether 
they're right or wrang." 

There is no praise too ridiculously fulsome, and no expression of 
opinion too absurd in favour of his "very real and pure," which he 
hesitates to entertain, or, at least, express. 

The comparison of the dog with a retriever in his work, and the 
statement that a dog 7in. to 9in. high at the shoulder could retrieve any 
"quadruped" bigger than "rats and mice and such small deer" is an 
injustice offered by Mr. J. G. Murray the partisan to J. G. Murray the 
sportsman, which the latter does not deserve. Mr. Murray's partisan- 
ship also carries him aside from facts which should be known to him as 
a frequent visitor at London and other large shows. He insinuates that 
the winning dogs at such shows have coats soft in texture ; he says that 
their heads are round and apple shaped, and the tail carried " d la pug,'* 



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The Skye Terrier. 341 

whilst they have " almost n'o legs, and a caterpillar body" that is, an 
excessively lengthy body. Every one of these statements are untrue of 
the principal winners at our best shows, for, although long in coat, it is 
hard and coarse in texture, the carriage of the tail is low, and the pro- 
portions of length of body to height at shoulder practically the same as 
he and his friends of the " manifesto " lay down as correct that is, the 
length rather more than three times the height their ideal of perfection 
being 3& to 1. I have not measured either Mr. Bead's Eoseneath 
dog Garelock, or Mr. Murray's Otter, but the illustrations* certainly give 
one the impression that they are each of them very much shorter in 
length than the written standard put forward by their admirers require, 
and, having seen Otter in the flesh, that impression of him is strong 
with me. In appearance, Otter has nothing but his decidedly " varmint" 
look to recommend him ; he is decidedly ugly, and to ask fanciers of dogs 
and lovers of the beautiful in these animals to give up the charming Skye 
terriers, brought to their present perfection by careful and judicious 
breeding, and take in their place such a dog as Otter, or even Garelock, I 
can only consider one of those ponderous things known as a "Scotch joke.' ' 
It is very easy to understand that a hardy rough terrier, with a 
shortish wire coat, and something of the sort Mr. Murray describes, 
would be kept for vermin hunting, and, as at one time was the case with 
other breeds, their quality as workers considered almost entirely, and the 
beauty of appearance almost ignored, but it has been proved in Skye 
terriers, as in other breeds, that a beautiful exterior is quite consistent 
with good working qualities, and has, in fact, been produced without 
loss of hardihood, pluck, and endurance. That some of the prize Skyes 
are capital workers, as also some of those bred from prize winners, I can 
testify from experience of them, and when put to work the excessive 
length of coat would not be long in the way. To ask us, however, to 
change the coat of dogs principally kept for their beauty, one of the 
great charms of the modern Skye, for the short harsh uncultivated one, 
such as covers Otter, would be equivalent to ask the descendants of 
Highland gentlemen settled in the south to give up all the advantages of 
modern civilisation and culture and betake themselves to the garb of a 
Dunniewassal of the last century ; but all this is giving Mr. Murray the 

* The illustration of Garelock is a fac-simile, by a patent process, of a drawing by 
Mr. Barron. 

342 British Dogs. 

benefit of his assertion, that a short coat is the correct thing and the 
original, which I do not grant. 

The "Mogstads," "Drynocks," and " Canmsennaries, " referred to 
by Mr. Murray as "breeds," would be more accurately described as 
"strains" exhibiting those slight differences from others from the same 
parent stock which kennels quickly assume when bred within themselves. 

Mr. J. Gordon Murray remarks : 

" There can be no doubt but the Highland terrier rendered important 
services to our forefathers in assisting to destroy the large quantities of 
vermin with which Scotland, but especially the northern part, was much 
overrun a century ago or more. Being an animal posessed not only of 
great courage and sagacity, but also of energy and hardihood, and being 
of small size seldom exceeding nine inches to ten in height, more fre- 
quently under the latter they were enabled to follow foxes, wild cats, 
&c., into their dens and " homes " in cairns, where no other breed of dog 
could go at least, such breeds as then existed in Scotland, to wit, the 
sheepdog, deerhound, and bloodhound. Hence the " Holt " dog or High- 
land terrier was in great requisition, and here I would beg to state that 
there is no such name in the Gaelic language as Skye terrier. That name, 
which has been such a bone of contention, is of very recent application, 
and, as I shall endeavour to show as I proceed, is quite a misnomer when 
applied to the modern show-going dog of that name. 

"At one time many parts of Scotland were divided into districts, to each 
district a foxhunter, with a few of these terriers and a crossbred dog or 
two (something between the colley and blood or sleuth hound), was 
appointed, whose duty it was to destroy, if possible, all the vermin on his 
beat, which used to commit sad ravages on sheep, lambs, &c., and would, 
even in open day, attack poultry and carry them off, so daring had they 
become. I have read in an old agreement or lease a clause to the follow- 
ing effect that the tenant was to provide a certain number of men and 
dogs for a specified time to assist in destroying the wild animals which 
committed such injury on the property of landowners and tenants. I 
have no proof that the terrier was used in the chase of boars or wolves, 
but I think it is quite possible they may have been used to ' track ' 
those gentlemen, just as we find at the present day in Lower Canada. 
There is a small dog there not heavier than many of our fox terriers, 
which is of great use in following the bear, and assists much in bringing 

The Skye Terrier. 343 

him to bay. Many gentlemen in the north of Scotland kept a pack of 
terriers for otter hunting, and some do so still ; and many at the present 
day use them for rabbit hunting, at which sport no dog can equal them, 
as they never get too excited, and are always ready to obey the commands 
of their master. In close creeping ' whins ' or ' furze ' they will go 
through the rabbit runs like ferrets, and Mr. Bunny is either obliged to 
bolt or be killed. They are capable of being trained to retrieve, and it 
is a very pretty thing to see one of these little dogs carrying a partridge, 
woodcock, or snipe. They will take to the water like an otter, and 
give excellent sport when flapper shooting. In fact, in my day I have 
seen a great many, and used a few of the so-called retrievers ; but give 
me a well-broken Highland terrier in preference to any retriever I 
know, and if there is game to be had I should have little fear in losing a 
wounded bird or quadruped if it kept above ground. 1 shall now give 
the opinions of a few gentlemen well qualified, from a long experience of 
the dog under discussion, to describe what a Skye or Highland terrier 
should be, at the same time readers will observe that these ' opinions ' 
were kindly furnished me in respect to a description of the animal I had 
previously sent them being anxious to have the advice of the very best 
living authorities on the breed. 

" I shall now quote a letter from Mr. M'Intyre, head keeper, Armadale, 
Isle of Skye : ' Sir, With reference to your letter of the 31st of October, I 
beg to state that I am entirely of the opinion stated in your description, 
except that in former days we thought more of the bandied legs than the 
straight. As to the dog given to Argyle by the late lord, he was of what 
was known in Skye as the ' Mogstad ' breed of terriers, as all his lord- 
ship' s were got from the late Mr. M'Donald, of Mogstad. As to the time 
the long-haired dogs became common in Skye, I think it is about sixty 
years since a dog was landed from a French wreck, through which the 
long-haired originated.' I was aware previous to writing Mr. M.'Intyre 
that the Mogstad breed were held in very high repute in old times, and I 
wrote to a gentleman in Skye, who holds a public appointment there, to 
obtain for me if he could a description of them and others with which I 
had reason to know he was well acquainted. This gentleman wrote as 
follows : ' Dear Sir, I am favoured with your letter anent the pure 
breed of Skye terriers, as also your description of the different points in 
the right dogs, in the correctness of which I quite concur. The pure 

344 British Dogs. 

Skyes were of all colours except spotted, long in body, short bandy- 
legged, strong wiry hair, from Sin. to 3|in. long the creature looking 
very small when wet. The long-coated Skyes are believed to be by all 
experienced judges only a cross between the originally pure Skye and 
some foreign long-haired breed, the first of which was supposed to have 
landed off a wreck in Skye about sixty years ago, and the finest specimens 
of those long-haired dogs seen for the last fifty years were the property 
of Donald M'Leod, Esq., and were of a dark greyish colour, very long in 
body, bandy-legged, and drop-eared.' 

" The Mogstad Skyes were of a dark greyish colour, with wiry hair, from 
3in. to 3|in. long, with body low but long, and measuring well in girth, 
legs stout and short, and well provided with very strong claws ; the 
greater part prick-eared, and all of them excellent workers. 

" The Drynocks are another very splendid breed of the original pure 
Skyes, closely resembling the common Scotch seal in colour, short wiry 
hair, with body of a medium size, a good deal like the Mogstads, and all 
of them first-rate workers. 

" The Camusennaries are another famous breed of the very real and pure 
Skye terriers, and derive their name from a wild and mountainous tract 
of land in Skye, extending from Coirnisk on the west town or the Spar 
Cave on the east. The breed were originally reared there by a Lieut. 
Macmillan, long passed away, the whole of them short wiry-haired, like 
the aforenamed breeds ; colour almost always dark all over, middle part 
of hair in many instances grey, but again dark next the skin , no white 
on feet or chest ; a thin medium-sized prick ear, and very pointed ; and 
in every third or fourth litter a reddish-yellow one. This breed was 
excelled by perhaps no others of pure Skyes in the kingdom in point of 
courage, sense of smelling and readiness to work, in addition to many 
other excellent qualities. They would retrieve from the water, and one 
of these a black, prick-eared dog, the property of the late J. Campbell, 
Esq., Lochard, in Appin, and residing in Skye eighty years ago would 
follow the hounds for twelve hours over the steep and lofty Skye hills 
till the fox was traced to his den, where, in many instances, he had to 
succumb to this courageous and most powerful little dog, the exploits of 
which will be long remembered in Skye. Another of the same breed, 
black and prick-eared, the property of Mr. M'Intyre, head gamekeeper to 
the Lord M'Donald, has been known to break the jaw-bone of a full 

The Skye Terrier. 345 

grown fox and kill him. Some of the Camusennaries have been known 
to enter a pool of water three feet deep, enter a crevice below the water, 
and bolt an otter. 

" The next letter is from a captain, late of the 42nd Highlanders, 
residing in the Island of Mull : * Sir, Mr. G. (Knoch) has asked me to 
give you some information regarding a breed of Skye terriers kept by 
the late Col. Campbell, of Knoch. I remember them when I was a boy, 
now many years ago. They were generally of a dark grey colour, some 
quite black when young, but used to turn blue and grey when some 
two or three years old. There were also among his terriers some 
reddish-brown, with dark muzzles ; both colours equally good at all 
sorts of vermin. They were kept purposely for otter-hunting, and no 
dogs could beat them at that sport. Their coats were short, thick, and 
wiry no silky brutes among them ; they were short-legged, and pretty 
long in the body, but not much out of proportion ; small, sunken eyes, 
with very thick eyebrows; the ears were small, but not erect; their 
tails were carried by them pretty high, with a slight curve. To the 
best of my belief there is not one of the breed in Mull. A friend of 
mine, a Capt. M'Donald, of Waternish, Skye, is one of the best 
authorities on what a real Skye ought to be in all the highlands. 
Should you apply to him, I am sure he would be glad to give all 
information on the subject.' 

" I shall now give another quotation from the letter of another gallant 
officer, residing in Skye, who used to keep a pack of these game little 
dogs : " Sir, I have always heard that the long-haired fancy terriers 
were the result of a cross from some Eussian poodles, and not by any 
means native. Your description of what I have and hold to be the real 
original Skye working terrier is as near as possible correct. I had them 
from dogs bred by Capt. Martin M'Leod, Gesto ; Donald M'Askill, Ehue- 
dunner; Donald M'Leod, Esq., Kingsburgh ; John M'Norman, Esq., 
Pyleahin. Pure, they are very scarce and rare, of late years have been 
much crossed, and, in some instances, were spoilt by in-and-in breeding ; 
but the chief reason has been the demand by visitors for anything in 
the wool. I have only one dog alive now, as for many years I have 
given up keeping a pack. I liked them, and those I gave them to had 
the same value for them, as ' very cool hands,' once well entered. They 
are perfect for otters and foxes, never ' giving a cheep ' till in grip 

346 British Dogs. 

then look out ! Seldom twice mauled in a lifetime, almost always once ; 
excellent noses (scent) and hardy feet, running all day on shore cairns 
without complaining. One great virtue also is, they are kindly towards 
each other, even when their blood is up. 

" Now, anyone who knows what Dandie Dinmonts (pure) are knows how 
unsafe they are when roused ; or any cross with bull blood, how apt to 
quarrel in a cairn. I think I have adduced sufficient evidence to prove, 
what I shall presently show, is the proper description of the genuine 
Skye. I might adduce a great deal more, but consider it would be 
perfectly superfluous, considering the position of the gentleman supplying 
the information and their long experiences of this most valuable terrier. 
To begin, then, with head, it should be longish rather than round, muzzle 
broad, not snipey, jaw strong and muscular. Eyes dark brown, not so 
large or prominent as those of the Dandie, but they are very expressive 
of determination and intelligence ; any watery stains near the eye 
show a decided cross. Ears are V shaped, broad at the roots, but taper- 
ing to a point ; they are covered with short soft silky hair, not like the 
body coat, which is hard or wiry. The drop ear should drop to the front, 
and the prick-eared variety should stand erect and be entirely free of long 
hair, either falling down or standing out like awns or barley corns. There 
can be no doubt but dogs having the above appendages are more or less 
crossed with some other breeds, and yet some I have seen on the show 
bench, with this addition to their ears, were, in many other respects, very 
good dogs. The dog Otter, of which an engraving is given, and to which 
the artist has done full justice, is scarce eleven months old, and is de- 
scended from the black wiry-haired Camusennaries on the dam's side, and 
the famous Mogstads on that of the sire, was bred at Armade, Skye, by 
J. Shaw, Esq., who has made the pure Skye a speciality for many years ; 
and Otter has been pronounced by several eminent judges of the breed to 
be all but faultless, and possessing the best head and ears, as a Skye 
terrier, ever sent across the Border. Length of ear from 2|in. to Sin. 
Neck strong and muscular, about Sin. long, and from 9in. to lOin. in 
girth. Body, long in proportion to the dog's height, but not by any 
means a ' caterpillar ' one ; chest and ribs deep, body flat, not round. 
This seems to be a great provision of nature, as these dogs, when forcing 
their way into a burrow or den, can work as well lying on their sides as 
on their bellies. Length from shoulder to root of tail, from 13in. to 17in. ; 

The Skye Terrier. 347 

girth round chest, from 15in. to 16iin. ; tail, about Gin. or 7in. long, 
slightly curved ; height will vary from 7Jin. to 9|in. Legs should be 
short, and well covered with muscle. Many of the breed are bandy- 
legged, but some breeders prefer straight ones. The length of foreleg will 
vary from 4in. to 5in. (inside measurement), and the girth of ditto 
should be equal, or nearly so. A dog requires legs to walk and run upon, 
also to scratch with ; hence a leg of, say, Sin. would be rather unsuitable 
to a vermin terrier, though it might be much prized in the show ring. 
Coat should be short, exceedingly thick, and wiry ; no curls this 
would show a cross. The best and most practical sportsmen with whom 
I am acquainted prefer the coat not to exceed from 2^in. to Sin. or 3|in. 
in length, as a longer coat would very much impede the dog when work- 
ing. This fact I have, and many others as well, practically tested, and 
invariably found a long coat of, say, 6in., prove a great obstacle to a 
terrier, either under the earth or above it. However, many try to obtain 
as long a coat on their dogs as possible, especially those who keep them 
for exhibition purposes, as English judges generally select a long coat, 
which is entirely wrong, and is not a characteristic of the pure Skye or 
Highland terrier, and a long coat greatly loses in density and hardness of 
texture, giving the animal more the appearance of a Maltese terrier, from 
which many of the so-called Skye terriers are, no doubt, descended. I 
remember, many years ago, seeing in London ' white Skyes,' which were 
brought from Portree, and one of these was honoured with a prize at 
an English show. The proper colour of a genuine Skye is either dark 
grey, reddish yellow, or black, but if of a reddish colour, they ought 
to have a dark muzzle and dark ear-tips ; these are greatly valued by 
gentlemen in the north. The weight of the Skye terrier may vary from 
91b. to 121b. in females, and from 121b. to 161b. in males. However, 
for my own use, I should like one about 141b. ; still, I would not be 
particular to a pound or two in weight, were the other points of the 
dog good ; but any terrier over 181b. I should not much fancy for 
work. Now let us look at the generally accepted type of dog of this 
breed selected for honours at shows by English judges, but whose 
opinions should have little weight, for the simple reason that many of 
these gentlemen, who are valued authorities on setters, retrievers, and 
other breeds, know absolutely nothing of the Highland terrier, having 
neither studied their points nor characteristics, nor used them at work .; 

348 British Dogs. 

hence they have adopted the English popular fallacy with reference to this 
breed, that it must have almost no legs, a caterpillar body, and a coat 
which might be measured by the yard. The head of the show dog is 
generally round or apple-shaped, with a great quantity of silky hair fall- 
ing over and almost concealing his eyes, body exceedingly long, and a flag 
as finely feathered as a setter's, which he sometimes carries on one side 
(a la pug) or over his back, and he may be of any weight from 141b. 
to 231b. 

"I may be told that lots of dogs, such as I have now described, are 
bred at Portree, Paisley, Greenock, and Glasgow. This is unfortunately 
too true, but they are nevertheless a cross-bred animal, and should be 
placed in a class for ' fancy drop or prick-eared terriers.' The sooner 
they are relegated to this class the better, and would very shortly be if 
the judges were gentlemen who had a thorough knowledge of the valuable 
Highland terrier. For hardiness, gameness, faithfulness, and attachment 
to their masters no dog excels the genuine Skye, and for sagacity they 
are equalled by none. An elegant writer as well as a distinguished 
sportsman remarks, speaking of this breed, ' he is almost human in his 
love, and more than human in his fidelity.' " 

I will now introduce to readers an article on the Skye terrier, written 
by Mr. John Flinn, and with whose opinions I entirely concur. By 
authoritative quotation Mr. Flinn shows conclusively that a long-haired 
terrier was peculiar to the Northern Islands more than three centuries 
ago written history when dealing with such matters must be allowed to 
be more reliable than tradition. Mr. Murray and his confreres of the 
" manifesto " go back sixty or ninty years to find a wrecked vessel landing 
dogs on the coast of Skye to account for the long-haired terrier, whilst 
others go back to the wreck of one of the ships of the Spanish Armada. 
This hypothetical foreign cur is sometimes called a French poodle, some- 
times called a Spanish poodle, sometimes a Russian poodle, and at other 
times it is described as a Maltese. That a dog was so landed on the Isle 
of Skye is highly probable, and that such a dog or dogs would be crossed 
with the native dogs is also highly probable, but, admitting that to be so, 
there is no proof brought forward that the prize winning dogs of to-day 
are the descendants of the cross, which is what Mr. Murray and his friend 
have tried hard, using clamour and assertion as a substitute for argu- 
ment, to establish, and have utterly failed to do. In all points but 

The Skye Terrier. 349 

length of coat, the facts are dead against them, as anyone may see who 
will examine our best prize Skye terriers at the London, Edinburgh, or 
other first-class shows ; and their assertions respecting the coat are 
refuted by Mr. Minn, who brings forward the writings of long established 
authorities in support of his opinions. Dr. Caius wrote his book long 
before the Spanish Armada was thought of, and since that lately most 
rare work has been reproduced by the publishers of this book at a cheap 
rate, it is within the reach of all to consult for themselves.* 

I cannot help thinking that if the authors of the "manifesto" were 
to give up fighting about a name, seeing that " Skye terrier" is but a 
modern one after all, and establish classes for their hard short-haired 
working terriers under the name of Highland terriers, they would be 
doing practical good, instead of which such constant reiterations in praise 
of a certain strain looks more like an advertisement than having the 
good of the breed at heart. 

Mr. John Flinn says : " Early writers on natural history have not left 
sufficient material to enable us to arrive at the origin of the different 
breeds of terriers native to this country, consequently, we are left to 
conjecture what it may have been, and this is all the more unsatisfactory 
when we consider, as Darwin says, that ' a breed, like a dialect of a 
language, can hardly be said to have a definite origin.' Some theorists 
assert that the Skye terrier and the Dandie Dinmont are both descended 
from the original Scotch terrier ; but as the first-named appears to have 
existed as a distinct breed as early as there is any mention of the Scotch 
terrier, it would be difficult to prove this assertion. The first mention 
made of the Scotch terrier is by the Bishop of Ross, who wrote in the 
latter half of the sixteenth century, but his description is too meagre to 
furnish data on which to base any argument as to its affinity to the other 
breeds. He says, ' There is also another kind of scenting dog of low 
height, indeed, but of bulkier body, which, creeping into subterraneous 
burrows, routs out foxes, badgers, martens, and wild-cats from their 
lurking-places and dens. Then if he at any time finds the passage too 

* Of Englishe Dpjrges : The diversities, the names, the natures, and the properties. A 
Short Trentise written in latine by Johannes Caius of late memorie. Doctor of Phisicke 
in the Uniuersitie of Cambridge. And newly drawne into Englishe by Abraham Fleming, 
Student. Natura etiam in brutis vim ostendit swam. Seene and allowed. Imprinted at 
London by Rychard Johnes, and are to be solde ouer against 8. Sepulchres Church 
without Newgate. 1576. Reprinted verbatim, 1880. London: "The Bazaar" Office, 
170, Strand. 

35 o British Dogs. 

narrow, opens himself a way with his feet, and that with so great labour 
that he frequently perishes through his own exertions.' 

" No subsequent writer, until comparatively recent times, describes 
the Scotch terrier with any minuteness ; but Caius, who wrote his work 
on ' Englishe Dogges ' a few years before the Bishop of Boss, mentions 
Iseland 'dogges,' which, there can be little doubt, were of the same 
breed as afterwards came to be known by the name of Skye terriers. 
They were fashionable in his time as lap dogs, and were ' brought out of 
barbarous borders from the uttermost countryes northwards,' &c. ; and 
* they,' he says, ' by reason of the length of their heare, make show 
neither of face nor body, and yet these curres, forsooth, because they are 
so straunge, are greatly set by, esteemed, taken up, and made of, in room 
of the spaniell gentle, or comforter.' It would be vain to conjecture 
whence this ' straunge ' animal came, or when it first found a home in 
the Western Islands, but it seems certain that it was there three 
centuries ago. Once there, everything was favourable for its preserva- 
tion as, or development into, a distinct breed. The sea forms a natural 
barrier, which would prevent contamination, and the only influences 
likely to effect any change in the characteristics of the dog would be 
food, climate, and selection, unless other dogs were brought to the 

" An incident did happen in 1588, as we are told, on the authority of 
the Rev. J. Gumming Macdona, in Webb's Book on the Dog, by which a 
foreign blood was introduced amongst them. He informs us that the late 
Lady Macdonald, of Armadale Castle, was possessed of an extraordinary 
handsome strain of Skye terrier, which was descended from a cross of 
some Spanish white dogs that were wrecked on the island at the time 
when the Spanish Armada lost so many ships on the western coast. So 
far as this particular strain is concerned, great care appears to have been 
taken to keep it pure and distinct from the breed common in the island ; 
however, other dogs may have found their way to Skye in a similar 
manner, although there is no record of the fact. At the time when 
Professor Low wrote, the distinctive features of the Skye terrier were 
well marked. He says ' the terriers of the Western Islands of Scotland 
have long lank hair, almost trailing to the ground.' There could not be 
a happier description than this. There is no ambiguity about the length 
of the coat, and the word ' lank ' conveys the idea that it lay straight 

The Skye Terrier. 351 

and free, and, therefore, could not be soft or silky in texture. The coat 
Professor Low described so many years ago as a feature of the terriers of 
the Western Islands he does not call them Skyes, as probably they were 
not generally known by that name then has always been and is still 
considered the proper coat of the true Skye terrier. He also mentions a 
terrier peculiar to the Central Highlands, and describes it as rough, 
shaggy, and not unlike the older deerhounds in general form. Richardson 
likewise mentions this dog, and says it is commonly called the Highland 
terrier. A gentleman of high standing in the medical profession in 
Edinburgh, and whose name is well-known in literature, informs me that 
he remembers seeing terriers in the island of Skye resembling ' miniature 

"The fact that terriers, similar to those of the Central Highlands, but 
probably with a slight admixture of Skye blood in them, were also bred 
in the island of Mull, seems to have caused confusion in the minds of a 
few people as to what really is a Skye terrier. The name of Skye 
terrier is of comparatively recent application, and it was applied to the 
terriers of the Western Islands of Scotland, which were covered with long 
lank hair almost trailing to the ground. Eichardson describes the Skye 
as long in the body, low on the leg, and covered with very long hair ; 
and he says the name was given ' from its being found in greatest perfec- 
tion in the Western Isles of Scotland, and the island of Skye in particu- 
lar.' Any other name might have been given to this breed of terrier, 
and had it been known by a different one it would be absurd to think of 
changing it now. The dog for which the name has lately been claimed, 
if not the Highland terrier itself, appears to be closely related to it, and 
its being bred in Skye can change it into a Skye terrier in no other sense 
than it would change a Dandie Dinmont into a Skye terrier if it were bred 

' ' The researches of naturalists prove that the covering of animals 
adapts itself to the climate in which they are placed. Many examples 
might be given to show' that the coat Nature provides to quadrupeds 
which have to endure cold and wet resembles that of the Skye terrier in 
having an outer covering of hair and an inner coat of short wool. The 
colley may be taken as one. There is no dog in this country so much 
exposed during all weathers as the Scotch sheepdog, and his coat, like 
that of the Skye, is a combination of hard and soft hair. However great 

35 2 British Dogs. 

the advantage of the outer coat may be in throwing off the rain and sleet, 
unless the dog were also provided with the inner coat, which not only 
excludes the wet, but keeps him warm, he would be unable to withstand 
the rigorous climate of the Scotch Highlands. The swine native to the 
northern parts of Scotland were covered with short wool, and the sheep 
of Shetland and Iceland had, in addition to their wool, an outer covering 
of hair. 

" How long Nature might take to change the coat of any animal it is 
impossible to say, but in the case of the Skye terrier there was at least 
three centuries during which the process of adaptation to climate might 
be going on. That it would require such a length of time is not likely. 
The fact that the descendants of dogs brought from Skye about forty 
years ago, and which have all along been carefully housed and fed, con- 
tinue to exhibit the same peculiarity of coat, shows that it does not 
change readily, and that the adaptation must have been completed long 
before these dogs left the island, else the hereditary influences could not 
be so great. Martin, Pennant, Macculloch, and others, who wrote of the 
Hebrides, informs us that the houses of the inhabitants were of the 
rudest description in their time, and where men are themselves badly 
housed it is not likely they would pay much attention to the kennels of 
their dogs. That Skyes were left a good deal to their own resources at 
one period of their history some of their habits sufficiently prove. 

"A gentleman who wrote about forty years ago says of them: ' The 
terriers which I have had of this breed show some curious habits, unlike 
most other dogs. I have observed that, when young, they frequently 
make a kind of seat under a bush or hedge, where they will sit for hours 
together, crouched like a wild animal. Unlike most other dogs, too, 
they will eat (though not driven by hunger) almost anything that is given 
them, such as raw eggs, the bones and meat of wild ducks or wood 
pigeons and other birds, that every other kind of dog, however hungry, 
rejects with disgust. In fact, in many particulars their habits resemble 
those of wild animals ; they always are excellent swimmers, taking 
the water quietly and fearlessly when very young.' It is only in young 
animals that the habits of remote ancestors can be seen. Training 
speedily obliterates all trace of them. 

" It is seldom they quarrel amongst themselves ; however, if they do 
begin, they fight viciously and take every opportunity of having a new 

The Skye Terrier. 353 

settlement of their differences. Two of unequal weight sometimes fall 
out, and the weaker, instead of acknowledging defeat, requires upon 
every fresh occasion to have it demonstrated that he is not the better 
dog of the two. To all vermin they are determined enemies, but when 
attacking the larger sorts they do so with generalship ; yet a bite from 
the adversary often makes them forget their tactics, and when they do close 
they can both give and take as much punishment as any dog of their 
weight. They are keen hunters, have good scent, and are fond of the 
gun. Their speed is not great, but they stick to a scent most per- 
tinaciously, and will follow a wounded animal for miles. 

" For all purposes for which the terriers are used they are of service. 
As house dogs they have much to recommend them. They are watchful 
to a fault ; and they require less exercise to keep them in health than 
almost any other terrier. When kept as house dogs merely, it is of little 
consequence what weight they are ; but when required to go to ground 
they must neither be big in size nor too light in weight. There has been 
much difference of opinion expressed as to what should be considered the 
proper weight of a Skye terrier. The claim has frequently been made on 
behalf of the Dandie that there is no terrier so game as he is. This 
claim may or may not be a just one ; but it does seem very strange, if it 
is just, that the Dandie Dinmont Club should consider 201b. not too 
heavy for a Dandie, and professed judges of the breed outside the club 
should think an additional half stone not too heavy to exclude from the 
prize list, while men who at least pretend to know about Skyes maintain 
that dogs of this breed should not exceed 141b., and that preference 
should be given to even lighter weights. Both breeds are used for the 
same kind of work, and surely it is too much to expect a 141b. Skye to 
be successful in doing what it requires a 241b. Dandie to accomplish, 
especially when the latter is the ' gamest of all terriers.' Fox terriers 
are not considered too large at 201b. , and as a Skye has the advantage of 
two or three pounds in shape, breeders cannot be called unreasonable if 
they limit themselves to that weight. It does not follow that because a 
Skye weighs 201b. he must necessarily be of large size. Bone and muscle 
weigh well, and if he has plenty of these, properly put together, he will 
look smaller than an ill-made dog four or five pounds lighter. This holds 
true, to a certain extent, with all breeds. 

" Speed is not so much necessary with the Skye as strength The 

354 British Dogs. 

chief end of his existence is to go to ground, and power to grapple with 
his subterranean foe is the first consideration. That power must, how- 
ever, be in a body small enough to enable him to reach the enemy in its 
stronghold ; and it follows that the particular build or shape by which 
the greatest amount of strength can most easily get into a small hole is 
the shape best suited for the purpose. All animals intended by Nature 
to hunt their prey in holes such as the weasel, stoat, marten, &c. are 
very long in the body and short on the leg, and it is safe to assume that 
this form is the most suitable for that purpose. The Skye is the longest 
and lowest of all terriers, and is, therefore, better adapted to do the 
work of a terrier than any other. The proportion of length to height, 
even in the longest Skye, falls far short of what it is in animals of the 
weasel kind ; yet objections are sometimes made to the Skye because of 
the shortness of his legs. The advantage in going to ground which a 
short-legged dog has over a longer-legged one must be apparent to every- 
one, as the former can do his work in a natural position, while the latter 
must crouch, and so lose power. Again, if there is burrowing to do, the 
short-legged one has also the advantage of the other, as it is impossible 
to use long legs properly in a hole. The shortest-legged of all burrowing 
animals is the mole, and it is credited with being able to make a new hole 
for itself in less time than any other animal can. 

" In general appearance the Skye terrier is a long, low dog, with a 
large head, a very long, flat-lying, straight coat, and a sharp, intelligent 
look. The head is long from the occipital bone to the eye ; it is also 
broad, and has the appearance of being broader above the eyes than 
between the ears. This is owing to the position of the ears, which are 
set on high. The skull is flat, not domed like that of the Dandie. The 
muzzle is long and broad, the jaws strong, and the teeth very large. It 
is a much greater objection to the mouth of a Skye to be undershot than 

" The perfect mouth is, of course, level, or, as many breeders prefer to 
have it, with the upper teeth fitting closely over the under ones. The 
eyes are dark brown or hazel in colour, of medium size, and are not 
prominent. There should not be much falling away under the eye ; and 
there is almost no hollow or stop between the forehead and the muzzle. 
The ears should not be large, and if pendant, should hang straight down 
and lie close to the side of the head ; if erect they should be set on high 

The Skye Terrier. 355 

and carried without any outward inclination. The hair on the ear 
should hang gracefully down and mingle with that on the cheek, which 
should also be plentiful. The long hair on the face and ears has been 
called superfluous, but if those who think it so had ever seen one 
protected in this way go to ground in a sandy bank, they would be 
satisfied of its great advantage to the dog in keeping the sand out of his 
eyes and ears. The neck is long, slightly crested, and very muscular. 
The shoulders and forelegs feel as if they had been intended for a much 
larger dog. The chest is deep and somewhat wide, but not too much so. 
The back is very long, and nearly level. Breeders have a great abhor- 
rence of a roach, or, as they call it, a " Dandie " back. The ribs are well 
sprung, the barrel round and well-ribbed home. No Skye .terrier should 
be flat-sided or tucked up in the flank. The loins are broad, and, like the 
quarters, well clothed with muscle. The thighs are strong and well 
developed, the second thighs prominent and reaching almost to the hock. 
Allowance is sometimes made for the forelegs being a little bandy, but 
they certainly ought to be straight. The elbows and stifles should not 
incline either inwards or outwards, as the Skye should stand as fair and 
square on his legs as a foxhound, and both the fore and hind feet should 
always point straight in front. The tail should be carried low, with a 
very slight curve. When the dog is not excited the proper position of 
the tail is a little below the level of his back. The feather of it should be 
long but thin. The coat, which has been already referred to, is com- 
posed of two distinct qualities or kinds of hair an under coat of short 
soft woolly hair, and an outer coat, which is long and hard in texture. It 
should lie close to the dog, and be free from either wave or curl. A soft- 
coated dog looks larger then he really is. One of the best ways of judg- 
ing a Skye is to wet him, and if he is made as he ought to be, and has a 
correct coat upon him, he will look nearly as large when wet as when 
dry, whereas if he wants substance, or has a bunchy or soft coat, he will 
not appear half the size. 

" The usual colours of Skyes are a slate blue, and all the intermediate 
shades between light silver-grey and black. Fawns still crop up 
occasionally, but as they are not general favourites, they are gradually 
becoming scarcer. Whatever the colour of the dog, the muzzle, ears, and 
tip of tail should be black, and the head and legs should always be as 
dark as the body. A lightish grey, with black points, is, perhaps, the 

A A 2 

356 British Dogs. 

colour most fancied by the public, but breeders prefer tlie darker 
colours, as there is a tendency with Skyes to throw stock lighter than 

Weights, measurements, &c., of celebrated drop-eared Skye terriers : 
Mr. James Pratt's Piper (K.C.S.B., 4852): Age, 6 years; weight, 
161b. ; height at shoulder, 9in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 30in.; 
length of tail, 9in. ; girth of chest, 19in. ; girth of loin, 15in. ; girth of 
head, 15in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 5 Jin. ; girth of leg lin. 
below elbow, 4in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, Sin. ; girth 
of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7in. ; colour and 
markings, slatey blue. 

Mr. James Pratt's bitch Heatherbloom (K.C.S.B., 6695) : Age, 4 years ; 
weight, 141b. ; height at shoulder, 8Jin. ; length from nose to set on of 
tail, 28in. ; length of tail, 7 Jin. ; girth of chest, 16in. ; girth of loin, 

12 Jin. ; girth of head, 12in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 4in. ; girth of 
leg lin. below elbow, Sin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
7in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 6Jin. \ 
colour and markings, blue. 

Weights, measurements, &c., of celebrated prick-eared Skye terriers : 

Mr. Duncan Cunningham's Elcho : Age, 14 months ; weight, 171b. ; 

height at shoulder, 9in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 29in. ; length 

of tail, 9in. ; girth of chest, 17in. ; girth of loin, 15 Jin. ; girth of head, 

13 Jin. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 6in. ; girth of leg lin. below 
elbow, 5Jin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 7f in. ; girth 
of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7Jin. ; colour and 
markings, silver grey. 

Mr. Duncan Cunningham's bitch Thistle : Age, 2 years 7 months ; 
weight, 151b. ; height at shoulder, Sin. ; length from nose to set on 
of tail, 27in. ; length of tail, 7|in. ; girth of chest, 16in. ; girth of loin, 
13in. ; girth of head, 12in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 5in ; girth 
of leg lin. below elbow, 4 Jin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
7in.; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 6iin. ; colour 
and markings, steel grey. 

Mr. Duncan Cunningham's Monarch : Age, 4 years 8 months ; weight,. 
201b ; height at shoulder, 8fin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 31 Jin. ; 
length of tail, 9in. ; girth of chest, ISin. ; girth of loin, 15in. ; girth of 
head, 14in. girth of arm lin. above elbow, 6in. ; girth of leg lin. below 

W t 


The Bull Terrier, 357 

elbow, 5|in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 8|in. ; girth of 
muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, Sin. ; colour and markings, 

PerUe (K.P.E., 282) : Age, 2 years and 7 months ; weight, 161b. ; 
height at shoulder, 8fin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 30in.; 
length of tail, Sin. ; girth of chest, 17in. j girth of loin, 14in. ; girth of 
head, 12in; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 5Jin. ; girth of forearm lin. 
below elbow, 5Jin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 7f in. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 6f in. ; colour and 
markings, steel grey or blue. 



THE bull terrier is understood to be the produce of a cross between the 
bulldog and the terrier, but it is generally admitted that there are other 
elements in the bull terrier of the present day. What the source of 
those elements may be, whether the greyhound, pointer, or foxhound, 
we can only suspect in the absence of direct proof. The bull terrier 
is noted for its beautiful form with great substance and its innate attach- 
ment to everything domestic, which, with its indisputable pluck, makes 
him a most excellent companion. Although the fashion of testing his 
courage by pitting one against another has ceased to exist, we still 
expect to find in him all the essential attributes of the " fighting dog," 
as the breed is judged by that standard. " Stonehenge" commends the 
bull terrier as a vermin dog, and I agree so far as work above grorind, 
but for going to earth, my experience has told me he is scarcely suitable, 
for if the game be "fox" he will invariably prove "too hard" for 
Eeynard, and, on the other hand, if it be "badger" or " otter," he will 
stick so close to his work that he will be placed Tiors de combat for 
many a day, even if nothing worse happens to him. 

The bull terrier, like all other breeds of dogs, has been greatly improved 
in general appearance since dog shows have become so general, for now, 

35 8 British Dogs. 

instead of having a variety of types, colours, and sizes, some of which 
were far from prepossessing in appearance, we have one recognised 
type and colour, which has found favour with many gentlemen who 
would never think of possessing a specimen of the smut, brindle, or 
patched varieties. The late Mr. James Hinks, Birmingham, will long 
be remembered as one who did more than any other individual to 
improve the bull terrier, and many of our best specimens bear testimony 
to that fact, as they date from his strain. There are two strains that 
breeders go back to for pedigree, one known as that of a celebrity called 
Madman, and the other Old Victor, both of which passed through the 
hands of the late Mr. Hinks, but the latter is the fashionable blood of 
the day. 

The best of the celebrated Old Victor's descendants now living is the 
stud dog known by that name, to be found among the team left by the 
late Mr. Hinks, and the champion bull terrier Tarquin (late the property 
of Mr. Vero Shaw, and now owned by Sir Wm. H. Verner, Bart.), a 
grandson of Old Victor. 

Breeders should not go too much for great weight in the large-sized 
specimen. I consider 451b. quite large enough for any specimen, 
especially for exhibition purposes, as when we get above that weight we 
lose more important detail, such as formation of skull, tightness of lip, 
straight legs, and symmetry, points which should not be sacrificed to get 
weight. The best sizes for exhibition purposes are 161b., 201b., 251b., 
and as near to 451b. as can be. I do not mean to say that a pound or two 
either way in the large-sized specimens would be objectionable, but the 
nearer they can be bred to the weights named the better chance of their 
success upon the show bench. I adopt the points as given by " Stone- 
henge," which are worthy the attention of all interested in the breed. 
The points are as follow : 

The skull should be long and flat, wedge shaped, i.e., wide behind, 
with the smaller end at the place of the brow, which should not be at 
all prominent. The line from the occiput to the end of nose should 
be as straight as possible, without either brow or hollow in front of the 
eyes. This line is never absolutely straight, but the nearer it approaches 
to a straight line the better. The skull should, however, be " broken 
up," but not to anything like the same extent as in the bulldog. 

Face, eyes, lips, and teeth. The jaws must be long and powerful, 

The Bull Terrier. . 359 

nose large and black. Eyes small and black, with black edged eyelids 
for choice. The upper lip should be as tight over the jaw as possible, 
any superfluous skin or approach to chop being undesirable. The 
under lip should also be small. The teeth should be regular in shape, 
meeting exactly without any deviation from the straight line. A pig 
jaw is as great a fault as being under hung. 

The ears are always cropped for show purposes, and the degree of 
perfection with which this has been accomplished is generally considered. 
They should be brought to a fine point and exactly match. In their 
uncropped state they vary a good deal in shape, and seldom reach their 
full proportion till after teething. 

The neck should be rather long and gracefully set into the shoulders, 
from which it should taper to the head, without any throatiness or 
approach to dewlap, as in the bulldog. 

Shoulders and chest. The shoulders should be strong and slanting, 
with a wide and deep chest, but the last ribs are not very deep, though 
brought well back towads the hips. 

The back should be short, and well furnished with muscle, running 
forward between the shoulder blades in a firm bundle on each side. 

The legs. The fore legs should be long and perfectly straight, the 
elbows lying in the same plane as the shoulder points, and not outside 
them, as in the bulldog. The hind legs should also be long and 
muscular, with straight hocks well let down, i.e., near the ground. 

The feet are rather long than catlike ; but they should be well 
arched and close together. 

The coat must be short and close, but hard rather than silky, though 
when in show condition it should shine from constant friction. 

The colour for show purposes, must be pure white, though there are 
many well-shaped dogs of other colours. This is, however, purely a 
fancy breed, and as such there is not the slightest reason why an 
arbitrary rule should not be made, as it was without doubt in this case, 
and it is useless to show a dog of any other colour. . 

The tail or stern, should be set on low, fine in bone, and carried 
straight out, without any curl over the back. 

Of symmetry this dog shows a considerable amount, all his points 
being agreeable to the eye of the artist. Any deviation from a due 
proportion should therefore be punished accordingly. 

360 British Dogs. 

Among the principal exhibitors of this breed are : Sir Wm. Hercules 
Verner, Bart. ; Messrs. E. J. Hartley, Altrincham ; J. S. Day, Oldham ; 
W. J. Tredinnick, St. Austell; C. E. Firmstone, Stourbridge; C. L. 
Boyce, Birmingham ; J. E. Pratt, Stoke-on-Trent ; W. Adams, Ipswich ; 
Mrs. James Hinks, Birmingham ; and Mr. Alfred George, Kensal Town. 

The subject we have selected for illustration is Mr. W. J. Tredinnick' s 
champion Young Puss, a well-known prize winner, and a specimen 
possessing the important points in great force. 

Weights and measurements of a few celebrated bull terriers : 

Mr. Eobt. D. Graham's Tarquin II. : Age, 3 years ; weight, 501b. ; 
height at shoulder, 21in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 36|in. ; 
length of tail, 12|in. ; girth of chest, 25iin. ; girth of loin, 19in. ; girth 
of head, 18in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 9in. ; girth of leg lin. 
below elbow, G^in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 9in. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 8iin. ; colour and 
markings, white. 

Messrs. E. B. and T. S. Carey's champion Scarlet (K.C.S.B., 7635) : 
Weight, 241b. ; height at shoulder, 15in. ; length from nose to set on of 
tail, 30in. ; length of tail, Sin. ; girth of chest, 21in. ; girth of loin, 17in. ; 
girth of head, 13in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 5in. ; girth of leg 
lin. below elbow, 4in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 8iin. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7in. ; colour, white. 

Mr. P. L. King's Sankey : Age, 4 years ; weight, 231b. ; height at 
shoulder, 14in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 26in. ; length of 
tail, 9in. ; shoulder to shoulder, 7in., and right round, 17in. ; girth of 
loin, 18in. ; girth of head, 13iin. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, G^in. ; 
girth of leg lin. below elbow, 4in. ; length of head from occiput to tip 
of nose, 3in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 
7 i in. ; colour and markings, white with black nose. 

Mr. James Chatwin's TJiyra-. Age, 1 year 11 months; weight, 151b. ; 
height at shoulder, 13jin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 24Jin. ; 
length of tail, 7|in. ; girth of chest, 19in. ; girth of loin, 14iin. ; girth 
of head, 12in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, G^in. ; girth of leg lin. 
below elbow, 4fin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 7in. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, G^in. ; colour and 
markings, white. 

Mr. W. J. Tredinnick' s champion Young Puss : Age, uncertain ; weight, 



^ % 
w f? 

a ^ 

(^ S 



f^ ^ 

The Bull Terrier. 361 

381b. ; height at shoulder, 18in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 31in. ; 
length of tail, 8|in. ; girth of chest, 26|in. ; girth of loin, 21in. ; girth 
of head, 16in. ; girth of forearm, 5fin. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, 8fin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 
Sin. This is the bitch represented in our engraving. 

Mr. W. J. Tredinnick's Little Princess (late Daisy) : Age, about 4 
years 6 months ; weight under 161b. ; height at shoulder, 14in. ; length 
from nose to set on of tail 17in; length of tail, 9in. ; girth of chest, 
ISiin. ; girth of loin, 15iin. ; girth of head, 12^in. ; girth of forearm, 
4jin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 6f in. ; girth of muzzle 
midway between eyes and tip of nose, G^in. Little Princess is winner of 
ten first and three second prizes, including second Birmingham, second 
Bristol (twice). 

Mr. J. M. Marshall's Noble (K.C.S.B., 6593) : Weight, 411b. ; girth of 
neck, 16in. ; girth of shoulders, 28in. ; height at shoulder, 19in. ; length 
from nose to set on of tail, 30in. ; length of tail, 12iin. ; girth of chest, 
24in. ; girth of loin, 19in. ; girth of head, 18in. ; girth of arm lin. above 
elbow, Sin. ; girth of leg lin. below elbow, 6in. ; length of head from 
occiput to tip of nose, 7fin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and 
tip of nose, 9f in. ; colour and markings, white. 

Mr. E. J. Hartley's Magnet : Age, 4| years ; weight, 421b. ; height at 
shoulder, IS^in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 30|in. ; length of 
tail, lOiin. ; girth of chest, 25in.; girth of loin, 19in. ; girth of head, 
15|in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 9fin. ; girth of leg lin. below 
elbow, 6^in ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 9in. ; girth 
of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 9iin. ; girth of pastern, 
4in. ; hock to ground, 5in. ; between ears, 4in. ; colour, white. 

Mr. Ei. J. Hartley's Violet : Age, 3| years ; weight, 451b. ; height at 
shoulder, ISJin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 3Hin. ; length of 
tail, 9|in. ; girth of chest, 26iin. ; girth of loin, 22in. ; girth of head, 
16fin. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 10in. ; girth of leg lin. below 
elbow, Gjin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 9in. ; girth of 
muzzle, lOin. ; girth of pastern, 4in. ; hock to ground, 5|ln. ; between 
ears, 4in. ; colour, white. 

362 British Dogs. 




SCOTLAND is prolific in terriers, and for the most part these are long- 
backed and short-legged dogs. Such is the Dandie Dinmont, the Skye, 
and the Aberdeen terrier ; but the old hard and shorthaired " terry" of 
the West of Scotland, as I recollect him when a boy, was much nearer in 
shape to a modern fox terrier, but with a shorter and rounder head, the 
colour of their hard wiry coat mostly sandy, the face free from long hair, 
although some showing a beard, and the small ears carried in most 
instances semi-erect, in some pricked. 

The Kennel Club has on several occasions instituted classes for the 
old Scotch terrier at their shows, but these have never obtained sufficient 
entries to encourage the club to keep the class open, until at their sum- 
mer show, 1879, when they received the support and co-operation of the 
recently formed Scotch terrier club, or of those who had discussed the 
propriety of forming such a club, and who, I believe, subscribed the 
prize money, found or suggested the judge, and made most of the entries, 
which latter amounted to fifteen. 

Unfortunately, those selected for prizes, although undoubtedly hard- 
haired Scotch terriers, as the schedule described them, were not the old 
hard-haired Scotch terrier, but a well-known distinct variety yclept the 
Aberdeen terrier, several of the winners being in fact imports from the 
granite city or the district. The best in the class, judged as an old Scotch 
terrier, was Mr. J. C. Carrick's Pig, and as the judge, Mr. J. B. Morrison, 
was brought specially from the West of Scotland to judge this class, 
his going for the short-legged Aberdonians was the more astonishing. 
It may, however, be accounted for, if we recollect that Mr. Morrison is a 
Skye terrier fancier, and suppose that breed, in common parlance, to have 
" filled his eye." 

The true old Scotch terrier should be a stoutly built dog, leggy in 
comparison with the Skye, Dandie, or Aberdeen, varying in size, as all 
breeds little cared for do, but easily to be kept near to a standard of 
151b. to 181b., which I hold to be the most useful for a working "var- 
mint ' ' dog, even if he is not wanted to go to ground. 

The Scotch Terrier. 363 

The head rather short and the skull somewhat round, the jaws being- 
strong and also short more or less bearded ; a long lean punishing jaw, 
as the phrase goes, is a modern feature in terriers of any variety, and the 
idea is often carried to great excess. 

The eyes bright and keen, peering through short shaggy hair. 

The ears small, covered with soft short hair, semi-erect, falling over 
at the tip. 

The neck short and strong. 

The chest moderately deep, ribs strong, the back ones fairly developed, 
the back short as a fox terrier's, with strong loins and goodjinuscular 
square buttocks. 

The legs stout, well covered with hard hair, stifles only moderately 
bent, front legs straight, all covered with hard short hair ; the feet 
compact, and hard in the sole, and the claws strong. 

The tail, if undocked, Sin. to lOin. long, brush-like, not fringed, the 
covering being hard hair. 

The prevailing colour sandy, sometimes a dark grizzle, and I have 
occasionally seen them brindled. 

The coat hard and very dense, from lin. or rather less to 2in. in length 
at the greatest. 

I give the above, written from memory, as a rough description of the 
Scotch terrier, as kept by my father, and such as'were commonly met with 
in the West of Scotland some forty years ago. 

The above admittedly rough description first appeared in The Bazaar 
newspaper, and drew forth rather strong letters expressing views 
antagonistic to those of mine. 

Mr. J. B. Morrison, the judge referred to, naturally adheres to the 
type he selected as best illustrating the breed of the old Scotch terrier at 
the Alexandra Palace Show, and "The Badger," who owned the prize 
winners, as naturally followed suit. 

I respect both these gentlemen and their opinions, and wishing that 
both views might find expression in " British Dogs," I offered, at " The 
Badger's" request, to give publicity to his remarks on the breed; but 
after waiting some time, to the inconvenience of the publishers, without 
receiving anything on the subject from "The Badger," I can only say that 
I believe his views and description of an old hard-haired Scotch terrier will 
be found given, as well as I was able, under the heading Aberdeen Terrier. 

364 British Dogs. 

I have, however, had the pleasure of receiving a letter from Mr. S. D. 
Hine, a gentleman who has for many years bred Scotch terriers, and 
whose description differs both from the gentlemen above referred to, and 
from mine on some points, whilst on others we are all agreed. Mr. Hine 
says : " He is a square-built dog, about lOin. high, not over 141b. in 
weight, and with a hard straight coat, no tendency to curl, and in 
texture more allied to badger bristles, with a total absence of any 
approach to silkiness. His coat is abundant and rough, but more thick 
than long in the hair ; colour any shade of brown, tan, yellow or grey, 
seldom black, never white in the pure breed, and blue invariably 
indicates a cross with the Italian greyhound. In body he is rather long 
and low, not weasel-shaped like a Skye, still less leggy, like a Bedlington 
terrier, thicker in bone in the limbs than a Fox terrier, with very muscu- 
lar thighs. In conformation of head he is inclined to squareness, with 
rather full frontal development, the jaws closing level with each other, 
not snipey or pointed. The eye is rather full, and the irides brown, the 
darker the better ; ears short and drop, never pricked. The neck is 
thickish and rather shorter than any other breed of terrier. In tempera- 
ment the Scotch terrier is rather grave than gay, always looks full of 
business, but is seldom savage. I have bred a great many, but never 
knew one turn out morose or sulky in disposition. Very attached and 
affectionate to his master ; very plucky, but not quarrelsome. They are 
hardy and robust in constitution, and mostly good water dogs. I think 
it is a breed of dog not so well known as it should be, and only wanting 
to be known to be very highly valued." 

I have pleasure in giving Mr. Hine's description, although it does not 
alter my opinion that a more leggy dog than one lOin. high was, and is, 
in many parts of Scotland recognised as the right stamp. It appears to 
me that in this, as in all breeds when not specially bred to a standard, 
considerable difference is sure to arise, and one style of dog will be 
found peculiar to one district, another to another, all having sprung 
from one parent stock. 

Whilst, therefore, I look upon the Aberdeen terrier as a Scotch 
terrier, as I have endeavoured to describe him he differs considerably 
from what in youth I knew as the Scotch terrier, and as these terriers 
exist in such numbers, I think in this age of sub-division of varieties 
and minute description, he deserved to be separately treated. 

The Scotch Terrier. 365 

I will now give quotations from two justly eminent writers on dogs, and 
it would be easy to quote many others who have written similarly on the 
subject. Youatt says : " There are three varieties, first the common 
Scotch terrier, 12 or 13in. high ; his body muscular and compact, 
considerable breadth across the loins, the legs shorter and stouter than 
those of the English terrier, the head large in proportion to size of body, 
the muzzle small and pointed . . . the hair long and rough, colour 
black or fawn . . . Another species has nearly the same conforma- 
tion . . . legs apparently, but not actually, shorter ; body covered 
with longer, more curly, and stouter hair. ... A third species, of con- 
siderably larger bulk, and Sin. or 4in. taller than either of the others ; 
its hair is shorter than that of the others, and is hard and wiry." 

"Stonehenge" says: "The Scotch terrier closely resembles the English 
terrier in all but his coat, which is wiry and rough, and hence he is some- 
times called the wire-haired terrier ; a name, perhaps, better suited to 
a dog which has long been naturalised in England, and whose origin is 
obscure enough. Beyond this difference in externals there is little to 
be said distinctive of the one from the other, the colours being the same, 
but white being more highly prized in the southern variety, and the black 
and tan when more or less mixed with grey, so as to give the dog a pepper 
and salt appearance, being characteristic of the true Scotch terrier ; but 
there are numberless varieties in size, and also in shape and colour." 

I hold that such writers as I have quoted, and others who have 
similarly written, should not be ignored by " fanciers," who are too apt 
to possess themselves of the dog first, and from him frame their standard 
by which to judge, regardless of the views and opinions of others. 

As already said, I see no reason to alter my rough description. I look 
upon it as an attempt only to draw a more marked line between varieties 
which differ considerably in character, far more in fact than drop-eared 
and prick-eared Skye terriers, which are now bred distinct, and are given 
separate classes at shows. 

I repeat, without the slightest disrespect to Mr. Morrison, that the 
dogs awarded prizes by him as Scotch terriers are nearer in type to Skye 
terriers than the one I consider the lowland Scotch terrier, and are what 
I have attempted to describe as Aberdeen terriers. 

366 British Dogs. 



THE enthusiasm characteristic of Irishmen has, within the last few years, 
brought this terrier to the front with a dash. 

Lovers of the breed, those who best knew its inherent good and useful 
qualities, worked hard, and patiently to gain for it public recognition 
as a distinct variety, and laboured long before success crowned their 

Many influences hindered the advance of the Irish terrier in public 
esteem, and not least among these may be reckoned the internecine war 
carried on in the public prints by the fanciers of the breed, with all the 
gusto with which Irishmen are supposed to fight. 

The law of compromise in debateable points was at first ignored, and, 
it is to be feared, is still but partially recognised and acted upon among 
them, although the formation of the Irish Terrier Club has done wonders 
in welding into unanimity opinions and prejudices which it appeared 
impossible to harmonise. 

If the leaders themselves were for long irreconcilable in their opinions 
as to what an Irish terrier was, or should be, it is not to be wondered at 
if this added to the confusion in the public mind. Classes for the breed 
were instituted at the principal Irish and some of the Scotch dog shows, 
and as every Irishman who owned a terrier thought and small blame 
to him that he possessed the genuine article, the benches were filled 
with animals of the most astonishing diversity of character ; and the 
critics and the public, who looked at them as the supposed representa- 
tives of a distinct breed, were principally struck with the intense 
mongrelism exhibited by them as a whole. 

The impression thus produced was greatly strengthened by the con- 
tradictory decisions of judges ; and I confess that, between the war of 
words raging between breeders and the eccentric awards alluded to, it 
was some considerable time before I could get fixed in my mind the 
ideal of an Irish terrier as now accepted by all the best breeders and 

Of those who have done so much to popularise this useful hardy terrier, 

The Irish Terrier. 367 

I may mention as among the pioneers Messrs. Morton, Erwin, Eidgway, 
Montgomery, Jamison, Crosbie Smith, and Dr. Marks, some of whom 
are still prominent in the fancy with their able coadjutors in forwarding 
Irish terrier interests Messrs. A. Krehl, G. E. Krehl, Despard, Dr. 
Carey, and others. 

The first practical step that produced marked results in consolidating 
the conflicting interests and influences that had previously hindered the 
true progress of the breed, was the drawing up of a standard, agreed to 
and signed by twenty-five breeders and exhibitors, for publication in 
" Dogs of the British Islands." 

" Stonehenge " had refused to recognise in his book a dog about which 
no two seemed to agree, and which he believed in no way differed from 
the old Scotch terrier commonly met with in England in the early part 
of the present century. 

At the request of some friends Irish terrier fanciers I endeavoured 
to mediate in favour of a recognition of the breed in so important a work, 
and found that the author had taken the wise resolve to publish, on con- 
dition of a standard being drawn up and agreed to by a sufficient number of 
breeders, so as to ensure unanimity. The next important step was getting 
separate classes instituted for them at Kennel Club shows, and in the 
attainment of this end I also had the pleasure of acting as an advocate. 
These classes filled well, and with a higher bred and more level lot than 
I had ever previously seen shown, and led, I think, to that most im- 
portant step, the formation of the Irish Terrier Club, which has done 
so much to improve and popularise the breed. To Mr. G. E. Krehl, I 
believe, belongs the chief honour of founding the Club, and certainly to 
his untiring energy much of its success is due. 

In general appearance the Irish terrier is not taking, except to the eye 
of those who can detect merit under an unpolished exterior ; but as so 
many warm and generous hearts beat under " cloth of frieze," so under 
the rough unkempt coat of the Irish terrier there is a spirit of " derring- 
do," a strength of affection for his master equal to his pluck, and a 
stamina that carries a little racing-like wiry frame through the hardest 
of days. 

As a terrier he is bred too large for going to earth after the smaller 
vermin, but for all above ground work he is unexcelled, although not as 
injudicious admirers will have it, unequalled ; added to his undeniable 

368 British Dogs. 

"varmint" look, his racing build shows speed and nimbleness, most 
useful qualities in rabbitting, ratting, and kindred sports. They are 
excellent, too, as water dogs, and the coat short and hard, with a close 
soft inner jacket, is a first rate wet resister. 

Irish terrier fanciers have not been free from the weakness of claiming 
for the breed a long and pure descent. 

Mr. Eidgway says : " It is a pure breed indigenous to Ireland," that 
it " has been known in Ireland as long as that country has been an island, 
and I ground my faith on their age and purity on the fact that there exists 
old manuscripts in Irish mentioning the existence of the breed at a very 
remote period." 

Surely man never yet " grounded his faith " on a more slender basis. 
The patriarch Job, in an old manuscript written in a language older than 
Irish, refers to the " dogs of his flock," so when his descendants take to 
sheepdog showing they may " ground their faith " in the antiquity and 
purity of their colleys by Mr. Eidgwuy's example, and with as much 
logical and historical support. In English manuscripts of the 13th 
century, the existence of terriers in this island is referred to, but which, if 
any, of the numerous varieties we now have, approach in form the dog 
of that time it would be difficult to say. 

No matter whether the terrier under consideration was "indigenous" 
to Ireland, or whether he is of still more ancient blood, a true Milesian 
engaged in worrying Grecian rats before Ireland was the island of the 
Irish, Mr. Eidgway did a vast deal better service to the breed by 
drawing up a standard of excellence and code of points descriptive of 
the dog than by vain attempts to prove his long and pure descent. 

It has been felt that the descriptive points, originally drawn up by Mr. 
Eidgway, and agreed to by twenty-four others, is scarcely elaborated 
enough for the increasing difficulties that arise in distinguishing between 
merit when the competition is close, and I therefore have pleasure 
in submitting remarks on the breed, and a more minute description of 
points drawn up by Mr. G. Jamison. 

Thesel place following those of Mr. Eidgway as given in " Stonehenge's" 
work, and as I think there is a tendency to swerve from the original 
lines, which is very different from a necessary elaboration of points, I 
offer comments, explanatory of my own views, leaving readers interested 
in the breed to form their own conclusions. 

The Irish Terrier. 369 

As I understand the club are about to frame a standard and code of 
points, and that those of Mr. Jamison' s may form the basis of discussion, 
I venture to point out what appears to me a danger of altering the 
character of the dog as at present recognised, and sure (if I may use an 
Irishism) that would be a sad thing to befall a dog so ancient and pure 
that he has been referred to in old manuscripts in Irish. 

Mr. G. Jamison writes : 

" The Irish terrier, as his name denotes, is the representative of the 
Emerald Isle, and specially suitable for his native damp country, being 
able to stand much more wet, cold, and fatigue than most other terriers ; 
the coat is so hard and flat on the body that wet cannot penetrate, and, 
not being too long, does not hinder them in cover work. This breed is 
more used as vermin destroyers than for any other purpose, which 
principally accounts for breeding for size being neglected ; however, 
within the last four or five years the breed has been much closer looked 
after, and at the present time there are a number of these dogs that in 
point of show qualities approach as near perfection as most breeds. 
There are a certain number of enthusiasts who have been writing this 
breed up in fancier papers as the only genuine working terrier ; this, of 
course, is nonsense ; at the same time it is a recognised fact that 
from their peculiar hardy and active habits they at least are deserving 
of a front rank among working terriers. In the beginning of the year 
1879 the Irish Terrier Club was inaugurated for the protection and 
breeding of pure specimens ; the club has been the means of the breed 
being brought more prominently before the public. 

" Head. Skull must be flat and moderately narrow between ears, 
getting narrower towards the eye, without much stop ; the jaw must 
be strong and muscular, not too full in the cheek and of a fair 
punishing length, but not so fine as a black and tan or white English 
terrier ; there should be a little falling away or chiselling out below the 
eye, so as not to give a greyhound appearance ; teeth should be strong and 
level ; nose must be black ; eyes generally of a dark hazel colour, small, 
and full of life and fire ; ears, when uncut, small and V shaped, of 
moderate thickness, set well up on the head, and dropping forward closely 
to the cheek ; the ear must be free of fringe and the hair thereon shorter 
and generally darker in colour than the body ; as long as the present 
demand for terrier character is prevalent we are afraid the adversaries to 

B B 

370 British Dogs. 

cropping will have a poor chance in the show ring, for undoubtedly 
cropping gives character and smartness of appearance. 

" Neck. Should be of a fair length and gradually widening towards 
the shoulders, well carried, and free of throatiness. 

" Shoulders and chest. Shoulders must be fine, long, and sloping well 
into the back, the chest deep and muscular but not broad. 

" Back and loin. The back should be strong and straight, with no 
appearance of slackness behind the shoulders ; the loin broad and 
powerful and slightly arched ; ribs well sprung and well ribbed back. 

" The hind quarters. Well under the dog, should be strong and 
muscular, the thighs powerful, hocks near the ground, stifles not much 

" Stern. Generally cut, should be free of fringe or feather, set on 
pretty high, carried gaily, but not over the back or curled. 

" Feet and legs. Feet should be strong and round and moderately 
small, toes arched, and neither turned out nor in ; black toe-nails 
are preferable, but of little value over light ones. A much greater 
objection is white toes ; once white toes are thoroughly got rid of, there 
will be very few light coloured toenails ; legs moderately long, with 
plenty of bone and muscle, must be straight viewed from all directions, 
the elbows working freely just clear of the side ; pasterns short and 
straight, hardly noticeable ; both fore and hind legs should be moved 
straight forward when travelling, the stifles not turned outwards, the legs 
free of feather and covered, like the head, with as hard texture of coat 
as body, but not so long. 

" Coat. Hard and wiry, free of softness or silkiness, not too long, 
perfectly straight and flat, no shagginess, and free of waviness, lock, or 
curl ; the hair on head and legs is shorter than on body, but must be 
hard and wiry. 

"Colour. Must be 'whole coloured,' the most preferable being 
bright red, next yellow, grey, or wheaten ; white very objectionable on 
either chest or feet, in fact much white is a disqualifying point. 

" Size and symmetry. Weight, in show condition, from 161b. to 
241b., but in a short time we hope to see the largest reduced to under 
221b., which is a nice, stylish, and useful size ; the dog must present a gay, 
lively, and active appearance, lots of substance, at same time free of 
clumsiness, as speed and endurance as well as power are very essential. 

The Irish Terrier. 371 

"Disqualifying points : Nose white, cherry, or spotted to any con- 
siderable extent ; mouth much undershot or cankered ; colour brindle or 
much white ; coat curly or soft." 

First as to ears. Mr. Jamison implies that cropping gives a "terrier 
character " to a dog ; this seems to need no contradiction, as the opinion 
is no more than one hastily made. Have the Skye, Bedlington, Dandie 
Dinmont, and Fox terriers no "terrier character?" and yet their ears 
are not cropped. 

The only character cropping gives is that of mongrelism, and associa- 
tion with the lowest in taste and most uneducated of the fancy ; good 
reasons can be shown for " rounding," although they may not be uncon- 
trovertible, but who ever heard a reason satisfactory to a sane and humane 
mind in favour of cropping ? That in dealing with their dogs, gentlemen 
of education and refined taste in most matters should permit themselves 
to be ruled by the practices of the ignorant and vulgar, is to me a mystery. 
It is to be expected that the ignorant and thoughtless should be unaware 
or overlook in indulging a caprice, or what they wrongly call taste, that 
they are exposing to constant danger of inflammation, canker, and other 
evils, one of the most delicate organisms ; but the higher class of fanciers 
have no excuse for the evil they do in following a fashion which destroys 
nature's necessary provision against danger and accident to a sensitive 
organ. I hope the Irish Terrier Club will put their veto on the abomin- 
able practice. 

The other point I wish to comment on is the ribs. Mr. Jamison says : 
" ribs well sprung and well ribbed back." 

It has always been held that this terrier should possess speed, that he 
should be of " a racing build." Spuds was admitted to be the correct 
type to breed to by those who signed Mr. Bidgway's code, and she is not 
only a fast bitch but looks it, and is certainly not " well ribbed back," 
if by that is meant that the back ribs are well let down, which is what I 
understand by the expression. 

To be well ribbed back is to give strength at the sacrifice of speed, to 
create not a fast but a cobby dog. The Dandie Dinmont and the pug 
should be well ribbed back, but they are not built for speed, and any dog 
to be fast must be more or less up in the flank after the manner of a 
greyhound, not with deep back ribs like a mastiff. 

The front ribs should be rather deep than round and well sprung, 

B B 2 

372 British Dogs. 

implies roundness and that carries with it a wide chest. That formation 
makes a dog slow, and if we have the deep chest ivith the round ribs, we 
have this intensified. In my opinion the ribs should come well out from 
their insertion, and show a very slight curve in their descent, the dog 
appearing by comparison with a Dandie Dinmont to be flat sided, 
whereas well sprung ribs would give a barrel shape, and this is in- 
consistent with other points ; the head, for instance, which in this 
breed is long, and all fast dogs are long in the head and deep but 
not wide in the chest and more or less cut up in the flank, and the 
latter point is inconsistent with deep back ribs. 

The subject of our illustration is Spuds, a celebrated bitch that has 
won many prizes and served as a model for breeders, although now 
equalled, if not outstripped, by younger ones. 

The descriptive points, drawn up by Mr. E. G. Eidgway and endorsed 
by signatures of twenty-four other breeders, are as follow : 

Head. Long and rather narrow across skull ; flat, and perfectly free 
from stop or wrinkle. 

Muzzle. Long and rather pointed, but strong in make, with good 
black nose, and free from loose flesh and chop. 

Teeth. Perfectly level, and evenly set in good strong jaws. 

Ears. When uncut, small and filbert shaped, and lying close to head, 
colour of which is sometimes darker than rest of body, hair on ears short 
and free from fringe. 

Neck. Tolerably long and well arched. 

Legs. Moderately long, well set .from shoulders, with plenty of bone 
and muscle, must be perfectly straight, and covered, like the ears and 
head, with a similar texture of coat as the body, but not quite so long. 

Eyes. Small, keen, and hazel colour. 

Feet. Strong, tolerably round, with toes well split up ; most pure 
specimens have black toe nails. 

Chest. Muscular, and rather deep, but should not be either full or 

Body. Moderately long, with ribs well sprung ; loin and back should 
show great strength, and all well knit together. 

Coat. Must be hard, rough, and wiry, in decided contradistinction 
to softness, shaggyness, silkyness, and all parts perfectly free from rock 
or curl. Hair on head and legs not quite so long as rest of body. 




The Irish Terrier. 373 

Colour most desired is red, and the brighter the colour the better, 
next in order, wheaten or yellow, and grey, but brindle is to be objected 
to, thereby showing intermixture of the bull breed. 

Tail. If uncut, carried gaily without a ring, and showing absence of 
feather and bushinesa. 

Weight of good working Irish terrier varies from I71b. to 251b.; in 
olden times I understand that they ran up to 301b. and 351b., but it is 
better to fix the standard weight as mentioned, viz., 171b. to 251b. 

Measurements, &c., of celebrated Irish terriers : 

Mr. J. J. Pirn's champion Spuds: Age, 2 years; weight, 271b. ; 
height at shoulder, 17in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 31fin. ; 
tail cut ; girth of chest, 22in. ; girth of loin, 18in. ; girth of head, 
13|in. ; girth of leg lin. below elbow, Sin. ; length of head from occiput 
to tip of nose, 9in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, 8in. ; girth of neck, 12in. ; colour and markings, red. 

Mr. G. E. Krehl's bitch Blarney : Weight, 141b. ; height at shoulder, 
12fin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 25|in. ; tail docked ; girth 
of chest, 19in. ; girth of loin, 15in. ; girth of head, 12in. ; girth of arm, 
5|in. ; girth of forearm, 4|in. : length of head from occiput to tip of 
nose, GJin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, G^in. ; 

Mr. E. B. Carey's bitch Colleen Dhas : Weight, 211b. ; height at 
shoulder, 15in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 27Jin. ; length of 
tail, 4iin. ; girth of chest, 18?in. ; girth of loin, 15in. ; girth of head, 
12in. ; girth of arm, Gin. ; girth of forearm, 4iin. ; length of head from 
occiput to tip of nose, 7iin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and 
tip of nose, 6|in. ; cropped. 

Mr. E. F. Despard's Jaque: Age, 1 year 4 months; weight, 16lb. ; 
height at shoulder, 13m> ; length from nose to set on of tail, 23in. ; 
length of tail, 4in. ; girth of chest, 18|in. ; girth of loin, 15in. ; girth 
of head, llin. ; girth of arm, 5iin. ; girth of forearm, 4|in. ; length of 
head from occiput to tip of nose, Gain. ; girth of muzzle midway between 
eyes and tip of nose, Gin. ; colour, bright red, not a white hair ; toenails, 

Mr. E. F. Despard's Kitty : Age, 1 year 4 months ; weight, 231b. ; 
height at shoulder, 15in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 29in. ; 
length of tail, 3iin. ; girth of chest, 21|in. ; girth of loin, I7iin. ; girth 

374 British Dogs. 

of head, 12iin. ; girth of arm, 7in. ; girth of forearm, Sin. ; length 
of head from occiput to tip of nose, 7in. ; girth of muzzle midway 
between eyes and tip of nose, 6|in.~; colour, red, not a white hair ; toe- 
nails, black. 

Mr. E. B. Carey's dog NaboclcUsli : Weight, 201b. ; height at shoulder, 
14|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 27|in. ; length of tail, 
3iin. ; girth of chest, 19in. ; girth of loin, 15in. ; girth of head, 
12iin. ; girth of arm, 6fin. ; girth of forearm, 4in. ; length of head 
from occiput to tip of of nose, 7in. ; girth of muzzle midway between 
eyes and tip of nose, 6|in. ; cropped. 

Messrs. E. B. and T. S. Carey's dog Shamrock (late Gaelic) : Age, 2| 
years ; weight, 231b. ; height at shoulder, 16in. ; length from nose to 
set on of tail, 26in. ; length of tail, 6in., docked; girth of chest, 22in. ; 
girth of loin, 19 tin. ; girth of head, 13in. ; girth of arm, 5fin. ; girth of 
forearm, 5iin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 8Jin. ; girth 
of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7iin. ; colour and 
markings, red, black nails ; ears cropped. 

Mr. G-. Krehl's Sporter : Weight, 221b. ; height at shoulder, 16in. ; 
length from nose to set on tail, 28in ; tail docked ; girth of chest, 22in. 
girth of loin, ISiin. ; girth of head, 13in. ; girth of arm, 7|in. ; girth of 
forearm, 5in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 7in. ; girth 
of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7in. ; not cropped ; all 
black toenails. 

Mr. A. F. W. Krehl's Paddy II. : Age, 2 years 3 months ; weight, 
251b. ; height at shoulder, 15|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 
28jin. ; tail docked ; girth of chest, 24in. ; girth of loin, 17in. ; girth of 
head, 14in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 7iin. ; girth of leg lin. below 
elbow, 5in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 7fin. ; girth of 
muzzle, 7in. ; colour and markings all bright red ; ears cropped. 

The White English Terrier. 3^5 



THE white English terrier, like many other breeds, has undergone consi- 
derable modification since public dog shows came into being. How 
the modern dog of that name was manufactured I do not pretend 
to say with certainty. Mr. James Eoocroft, Mr. Peter Swindells, and 
a few other Lancashire fanciers could throw light on the subject, but I 
shall not be very far out if I say a small dash of a light coloured and 
rather weedy foz terrier, a strong dash of bull terrier, and a double dash 
of whippet are about the proportions, and the correct ingredients used. 

The dog shown in the early days of exhibitions was a comparatively 
thick-headed and a heavier made dog than those of to-day. The 
Lancashire breeders appear to have taken the black and tan terrier as 
their model, and moulded the white terrier to his form, and it was a good 
line to take, and the idea has been worked out with considerable success, 
although in many specimens we are still unpleasantly reminded of the 
Italian greyhound in the wheel back and hooped tail that take off from 
their terrier character. 

Among the old show celebrities, Mr. Walker's (of Bolton) Old Tim 
stood high, winning at all the principal shows, and sired some good ones, 
some of his own name, whilst a host of others were called after him 
for, in nomenclature, dog fanciers are as imitative as parrots. Gem, by 
Old Tim, out of Swindell's Empress, was another great success in the 
ring, and his son Joe, out of Pink, was like his sire and dam, a great 
prize winner indeed, when the three last named were in one kennel and 
at their best, they were invincible. Since they went off from their best 
form, Eoocroft's, now Mr. Alfred Benjamin's Sylph and her son Silvio 
by Joe have held supreme sway, and Mr. Mather's Vril and his Snow 
have also at recent shows taken premier honours. These may all be 
said to be of the same blood, being more or less related, and close in- 
breeding will still be of advantage in fixing the type that it has been the 
desire to establish. 

376 British Dogs. 

Of course in doing this a selection of the fittest must be made, for it 
is one of the facts connected therewith which should never be lost sight 
of in breeding, that there is a strong tendency in nature to reproduce 
individual characteristics as well as the generic features common to the 
family. I think it will also be admitted that the closer dogs can be bred 
without loss of vitality the better, when the desire is to preserve type ; 
for in-and-in-breeding is the best safeguard against throwing back to 
any one of, it may be, the somewhat discordant elements out of which 
the breed was originally formed. 

That the white English terrier is sufficiently established as to breed 
true, a litter out of Mr. Alfred Benjamin's Sylph by Silvio, by Joe out 
of Sylph, shows as far as one instance can do. I have had many oppor- 
tunities of seeing them, and they all show the main characteristics of 
the breed in a decided manner. 

As to points, with the exception of colour, they may be judged by 
those of the black and tan terrier they should be pure white, the eye 
small and black, the nose black, the head well balanced, level, and 
gradually tapering. The ears are always cropped, which is a great pity, 
for some of them have naturally pretty drop ears, thin and neat. 
Smartness of build, a close, dense, but smooth coat, and what is known 
as a " terrier expression," are desiderata, and as already said, the wheel 
back and hooped tail, inherited from no very remote ancestor, are very 
objectionable, and are generally accompanied by a soft "unvarmint" 

Mr. Alfred Benjamin's Silvio : Age, about 3 years ; weight, 221b. ; 
height at shoulder, 16|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 25in. ; 
length of tail, 8iin. ; girth of chest, 19Jin. ; girth of loin. 16in. ; girth 
of head, 12in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 7in. ; girth of leg lin. 
below elbow, 4in. ; girth of muzzle, Gin. ; colour, white. 

The Airedale or B ingle y Terrier. 377 



THE following first appeared in the "Country" newspaper, and led to 
correspondence, in which I was urged by breeders and owners to call the 
dog the Airedale, not the Bingley Terrier, as being more applicable, 
the breed not being restricted to Bingley, but well known all over that 
district of Yorkshire as Airedale. 

" I have," I then wrote, "no intention of setting up a new breed, or to 
claim that I have manufactured one ; I merely take the liberty of giving 
what appears to me a suitable name to an old and established variety 
manufactured by accident or design probably before I was born. The 
dog I allude to has already got ' a local habitation,' and names enough 
to pick and choose from, and yet I have ventured to giv,e him another 
in my gallery of ' dogs of the day.' 

"My reasons for doing so are that Bingley terrier is a more ready name 
and less confusing than some of his cognomens ' broken-haired or 
working terrier,' for instance, by which title he is called in dog show 
catalogues ; a name which, although correctly descriptive of my Bingley 
terrier, is equally so of quite a legion of British dogs that differ from 
him widely in many points. 

' ' Then I have so many precedents for adopting a local name. There is 
the Yorkshire terrier, that was wont to be called the Scotch terrier, and 
still is by some committees of shows and others, for no apparent reason, 
except that it is so unlike the Scotch terrier proper ; the Aberdeen terrier, 
a varmint little dog, which the Scotch Terrier Club also call the Scotch 
terrier, and also probably for no other reason than that he is not ; there 
is, too, the Manchester terrier, the Bedlington terrier, and others with 
cognomens borrowed from the localities whence they sprung or where 
they abound. I might, it is true, have called it with much propriety the 
Airedale terrier, for the Agricultural Society ' of that ilk ' appear to 
have at their shows taken him specially under their fostering care ; but 
then they make Bingley their head- quarters, and at Bingley Show of all 
others, in my experience, he is to be met with in much the strongest force, 

378 British Dogs. 

both in quantity and quality. Or, yet again, I might have called him 
' The Waterside Terrier,' for by that also he is known well, and a very 
applicable name it is for this rough-and-tumble customer, who is equally 
happy wet or dry, and is not to be excelled in questing and hunting, 
either game or vermin, by land or water ; but, applicable as it is, I fear 
the partisans of several other kinds would, with good show of justice, lay 
equal claim to it, and, what is more, prove their right ; so, although he 
may be indeed, is par excellence the waterside terrier of his native vales, 
I cannot give him an exclusive right to the title, and fall back on my 
selection, the Bingley Terrier, as being at once short, unambiguous, 
distinctive, and easily said which is in itself no mean advantage. 

"The ' Bingley Terrier,' as I shall call the dog, gives one the impression 
of being a sort of giant relation of the Dan die Dinmont and the Bedlington. 
That he has a lot of hound blood in him, whether the infusion be recent 
or remote, there can be no doubt, and I hold that both the other breeds 
have the same. He is considerably larger than either, ranging from 351b. 
to 451b., very strongly built, the ribs rounder, and the haunches wider and 
more muscular than the Bedlington, and he is much longer in the leg, and 
consequently proportionately shorter in the body than the Dandie; he is, 
like the latter, very strong in the jaw, and the whole head is large ; the 
ears fall close to the cheeks, rather wider and shorter for the size of the 
dog than in either of the other two breeds ; the neck rather strong than 
neat ; the whole body stout and compact, and good muscular shoulders, 
over useful straight strong legs and good feet ; the hind quarters are firm 
and square, finished off by a thick coarsish tail, docked to about 6in. or 
7in. ; the coat is a right useful one, short, and broken, much harder to 
the feel than it looks, being a good mixture of hard and soft hair, and, in 
fact, just the coat to get dry after an immersion with a few good shakes 
and a roll in the grass ; the prevailing colour is grizzle of various shades 
with tan, variously distributed, but showing a saddle back with tan legs, 
tan about face, &c., and with the hair on the top of the head lighter and 
much softer than on the body, as in both Bedlingtons and Dandies. 

"I am told he is generally a generous-dispositioned, good tempered 
dog, bold and resolute in work, very hardy, the day never being too 
wet, too cold, or too long for him, so long as there is sport ; and whether 
for rat or otter, duck or water hen, he is equally good, unexcelled in 
nose, eager at questing, and as game as obedient." 

The Airedale or Bingley Terrier. 379 

The following descriptive points of the Airedale terrier have been 
drawn up by breeders and supplied to me by Mr. H. E. Knight, Chapel 
Allerton, near Leeds : 

Head, flat, and of good width between the ears. 

Muzzle, long, but by no means light, the nose being black, the 
nostrils large, and the lips free from "flews." 

Jaw, strong. 

Mouth, level. 

Eyes, small, bright, and dark in colour. 

Ears, thin, and somewhat larger, in proportion to the size of the 
dog, than a fox terrier's, carried forward like the latter's, but set on 
more towards the side of the head, devoid of all long, silky hair, and 
without the least tendency to "fall." 

Neck, strong, rather than neat, and free from dewlap and throatiness. 

Shoulders, well sloped. 

Chest, full and wide, but not too deep. 

Hind-quarters, square, and showing a good development of muscle. 
Thighs well bent. 

Back, of moderate length, with short and muscular loins. 

Eibs, well sprung and rounded, affording ample scope for the action 
of the lungs. 

Legs, straight, and well furnished with bone.' 

Feet, round, and with no tendency to " spread." 

Tail, stout, and docked from 4in. to 7in. 

Coat, broken or rough, and hard in texture. 

Colour, a bluish grey, of various shades, from the occiput to root of 
tail, showing a " saddle back " of same, also a slight indication on each 
cheek ; rest of body a good tan, richer on feet, muzzle, and ears than 

Weight, from 401b. to 551b. for dogs, and from 351b. to 501b. for 

The following are weights and measurements of a few of the breed : 

Mr. Matthew Hainsworth's Crack : Age, 1 year ; weight, 531b. ; height 
at shoulder, 2 Sin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 35in. ; length of 
tail, 7in. ; girth of chest, 26in. ; girth of loin, 20in. ; girth of head, 
17in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, Sin. ; girth of leg lin. below 
elbow, 6in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, lOin. ; girth of 

380 British Dogs. 

muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, lOin. ; colour and markings, 
dark mingle back, tan legs and head, wire haired, tan ears. 

Mr. Joseph Jackson's YOIWUJT Drummer : Age, 16 months ; weight, 
521b. ; height at shoulder, 23in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 
36in. ; length of tail, 5in. ; girth of chest, 29in. ; girth of loin, 23in. ; 
girth of head, 17in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, lOin. ; girth of leg 
lin. below elbow, 7in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
9fin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 
colour and markings, grizzle back, tan legs. 



VARIETIES of the dog multiply, and in no class more than in the 
terriers. At one time " terrier " was the generic name for all and every 
vermin dog that was used to go to ground, and the name was restricted 
in its application to dogs so used, as indeed the term implies. 

Now, however, its application has been broadened, and many varieties 
are included in it that are far from being " earth dogs," their size alone 
forbidding they should follow even the badger into his " lurking angles, 
dark dungeons, and close caves," whilst they would scarcely get their 
head into the holt of the otter, or some of the narrow and tortuous 
passages in which sly Reynard seeks shelter. Others, again, are so 
small, soft, and toyish they would not fright a mouse. The Aberdeen 
terrier is not of either of these kinds, for, although varying in size 
considerably, none are such small and silken toys as to be out of the 
working class, and none of them are too big to prevent them doing the 
real work of the terrier. They are about as ' ' varmint ' ' a looking set 
as I ever saw, reugh-and-tumble customers, that will stand any work 
and any weather, however rough, that such a multum in parvo of 
strength, hardiness, and pluck as a good specimen represents can by the 
utmost stretch of physical laws be expected to perform. Shorter in the 

The Aberdeen Terrier. 381 

leg, and not so nimble as the old hard-coated Scotch terrier, they equally 
show the true terrier "fire" in their eagerness for the fray, and the 
indomitable courage, the ' ' dourness ' ' with which they hold on, marking 
them as real " die-hards " among the terrier race. 

Those who saw the prize winners in the Scotch terrier classes at the 
Alexandra Palace Show, 1879, saw the stamp of the Aberdeen terrier, 
and it seems to me a very great pity that the Kennel Club Show should 
on that occasion have been used so to misdirect public opinion, and 
to stultify the judgments previously given at their shows, when terriers 
nearer the type, or at least built more closely on the lines of the old 
Scotch terrier, won. 

There is much in the general appearance of the Aberdeen Terrier that 
suggests to the mind a Skye terrier in the rough. Low on the leg, long 
in the back, an abundance of bone and muscle, a rough hide covering 
a big heart, a concentration of strength, a head of the useful punishing 
sort, and a countenance lit up by a keen and piercing eye, he is the 
best and merriest of companions for those who eschew the "pretty" 
and prefer in their peregrinations round the homestead to have the 
society of a dog that will take the sow by the ear and turn her out of 
the garden, or that if a rat presents itself, it is "dead for a ducat " 
before you can utter the words. 

These dogs have natural prick ears, the muzzle is a medium length, 
teeth strong and level set, the whole body covered with a very hard coat 
of the horsehair texture taken from the mane, and about an average of a 
couple of inches in length. A dog's coat as hard as " pig's bristles or 
pin wire," as it is often said to be, I have never met with, and I hope I 
never shall. 

I am quite sure these dogs which, I understand, are plentiful not 
only in Aberdeen but throughout the north-eastern counties of Scotland 
only require to be better known among English terrier lovers to be 
appreciated, and as I know several gentlemen in the south have taken 
to them and are breeding them, I have good hopes ere long of seeing 
classes for Aberdeen terriers at our shows. 

The following are measurements of a couple of the breed : 

A bitch owned by Mr. H. B. Gibbs : Age, about 3 years ; weight, I71b. ; 
height at shoulder, 8in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 30iin. ; 
length of tail, 7in. ; girth of chest, 18iin. ; girth of loin, 13in. ; girth of 

382 British Dogs. 

head, 12|in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, Gin. ; length of head from 
occiput to tip of nose, 7in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and 
tip of nose, 6^in. ; colour and markings, red. 

A dog owned by Mr. H. D. Gibbs : Age, 4 years ; weight, 181b. ; height 
at shoulder, 9in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 25|in. ; length of 
tail, Sin. ; girth of chest, 19iin. ; girth of loin, IS^in. ; girth of head, 
13in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 6in. ; length of head from occiput 
to tip of nose, 7|in. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of 
nose, 7in. ; colour and markings, dark steel grey. 



THE exhibition of dogs has taken a strong hold on popular fancy, and is 
now a source of interest and pleasure to thousands in this country. 

When fairly and honestly conducted, competition at these exhibitions 
gives rise to healthy excitement, and furnishes a stimulus to breeders to 
still further improve the several varieties of dogs. 

Every season brings with it a new set of exhibitors spiritedly entering 
the arena, and courageously endeavouring to wrest the coveted laurels 
from those who have been earlier in the field and won successes. 

It often happens that the tyro in exhibiting meets with most dis- 
heartening rebuffs through his own ignorance of, or inattention to, 
matters without which success is impossible. 

I desire to point out, as clearly as I can, for the benefit of inexperienced 
exhibitors, rules of conduct and treatment in preparation for competi- 
tion, each and all of which it is necessary more or less closely to observe, in 
order to succeed. First and foremost let me impress on the young exhibitor 
to make up his mind firmly never to entertain even the desire to win by 
resort to any subterfuge, dodge, or trick ; unfortunately such things are 
done, but also, fortunately, by the few, otherwise, what honourably fol- 
lowed is a most interesting pursuit, would speedily loose character, and 
become that which no man of self-respect could take part in. 

Forthcoming dog shows are announced in the various newspapers that 

Dog Showing. 383 

treat of canine subjects, and the first thing the intending exhibitor has to 
do is to select at which show his dog shall compete. Before doing so, a 
schedule of prizes offered, with copy of rules, should be obtained from the 
secretary. Bead carefully the conditions under which you can exhibit ; if 
you approve of them, fill up the entry form according to the requirements, 
and in all things abide rigidly by the rules to which you have subscribed. 

Having determined to show, you have now to consider the amount of 
preparation your dog requires, so that on the day of competition he may 
be shown at his best. 

Many people are disposed to treat the condition in which a dog is 
shown too lightly ; it is really of great importance, it adds or detracts 
much from the good impression the dog should make on the mind of 
the judge if the animal is to stand a chance of winning. Of course 
condition is not everything, still rank bad ones at times have won 
through the splendid form in which they were shown, for superficial 
polish does much in creating a favourable impression at first sight. 
True, he is but a poor judge who can mistake veneer for solid mahogany, 
but be your mahogany of the very highest quality it should not be need- 
lessly handicapped by being exhibited in a dirty and unprepared state. 

Some dogs require but little preparation, the main thing in all breeds 
is to have them in perfect health, so that they shall be seen to advantage 
through the fire and vigour of life displaying their forms to the best. 

Fatness is not required in any breed of dogs. It throws the natural 
form out of proportion, and, whilst it may hide faults, it, on the other 
hand, obliterates good points. In all and especially is it seen to effect 
in smooth haired varieties there should be flesh hard and firm, with 
the sinews brought up and standing out like cords ; nothing like softness 
or flabbiness should appear. This is specially required in such breeds as 
greyhounds, bulldogs, pointers, terriers, &c. In bloodhounds and mastiffs 
attention to condition is often neglected, and they are to be seen loaded 
with fat and looking as soft and unwieldly as prize pigs. In all breeds, 
long or short coated, excess of adipose matter causes sluggishness of 
action, whereas activity is a great characteristic of all dogs in health. 

To get dogs into the best condition for exhibition attention to numerous 
matters of detail are necessary, and may best be here considered 
separately. First : 

Constitution and State of Health. No trainer of greyhounds who can 

384 British Dogs. 

hope to be successful treats his dogs as if they were lumps of inorganic 
matter, to be individually kneaded by identical processes into exactly the 
same thing. 

Dogs vary in constitution, and on that depends the amount and quality 
of the training he must receive in preparation for a show ; some are gross 
feeders, others very dainty ; some are naturally disposed to lay on flesh, 
others the reverse ; and these and many other peculiarities will be 
observed and acted on by the intelligent kennelman. Again, the state of 
health at the time the dog is to commence his preparation must not be 
overlooked. A single dose of physic will rarely do harm, and if the dog 
is sluggish, and especially if there appears a tinge of yellowness about 
the eyes, such a pill as the following will be most suitable : Podophyllin 
resin 3gr., powdered rhubarb 24gr., powdered compound extract of 
colocynth 36gr., extract of henbane 24gr., mixed and divided into 
twenty. four pills, two of which should be sufficient for the largest breeds, 
and others in proportion. It should be made a rule in giving dogs pills 
which are to act on the bowels that they have soft sloppy food the day 
before, and also the day the pill is given. For toy and very delicate dogs 
a dose of castor oil and syrup of buckthorn combined may be sub- 

It should also be considered whether the dog is at the time infested by 
worms. Few dogs escape these pests, and, although some dogs remain 
fat and sleek whilst enduring their presence, as a rule the animal has an 
unthrifty look ; the food he takes seems to do him no good, the coat is 
either harsh or constantly coming off, and, under these circumstances, 
the extra feeding and all the unusual care to get him fit is thrown away. 
A vermifuge or worm medicine, judiciously selected and properly given, 
may always be tried with safety and hope of advantage, and if worms are 
present it should be repeated in a week. The time to give it is the morn- 
ing, after the purge has been administered, and, whatever the worm 
medicine, it should be followed by a dose of olive or castor oil in two 
hours. Areca nut is a good vermifuge ; it should be given freshly grated, 
and a sound and heavy nut selected a worm-eaten nut, as many of them 
are, is of no value. The dose may be taken as two grains for every 
pound weight of the dog. Spratts Patent Cure for Worms is in the 
form of a powder very easily given, and I have found this invariably 
effective in expelling worms of all kinds, and safe to give even to the 

Dog Showing. 385 

most delicate dogs. They are also remarkably cheap, and are, in fact, 
invaluable as a kennel adjunct. Oil of male fern often proves most effec- 
tive as a vermifuge ; the dose is from ten drops to forty drops, and, from 
its irritating effect on the coats of the stomach causing vomiting, it 
should be given sheathed in such a vehicle as mucilage of acacia. 

Dainty feeders are sometimes much benefited by a course of tonics, 
which stimulates the appetite and assists in digestion and assimilation. 
I have found cinchona most suitable, and, perhaps, the liquid extract of 
the bark is the most convenient form. 

Feeding. I do not think it wise to adopt any strict formula in feeding, 
much must be left to the observation of the feeder, who will see that 
what does well for one does not answer with another in getting the dog 
up in firm flesh and muscle ; sloppy food and fat, and fat-making articles 
should be avoided. Many make the mistake of changing the diet 
suddenly from a comparatively poor one to a rich one, and gorge their 
dogs with flesh, with the consequence of throwing more work on to the 
assimilative organs than they can perform, and hence we have a break out 
of surfeit or blotch just at the time we want the dog's skin to be faultless 
and his coat to be bright and clean. 

Supposing a dog's ordinary fare to be ordinary dog biscuits, with, 
perhaps, house scraps or some equivalent for them added, there should 
be no change further than the gradual addition of more, perfectly lean 
meat, and, if this is stewed, the biscuits broken, and the meat and liquid 
from it poured over the biscuits previously broken, and covered up till 
cold enough to give, and, with the addition daily of a modicum of boiled 
green vegetables, no better food for training on can be given. If this 
plan be judiciously followed, the dog may towards the finish be having 
about equal parts meat and biscuits. Two meals a day are, as a rule, 
best, and regularity is of great importance. 

Exercise. It is imperative that, whilst thus highly fed, the dog should 
be regularly exercised some will require clothing when having walking 
exercise, and especially if it is necessary to take off excess of fat what- 
ever kind of exercise is given, whether walking with a horse or in slipping 
them for spurts, it should be regular, and managed to suit the strength of 
the dog of course, with some breeds this is unnecessary. These re- 
marks are designed to assist those who already have mastered the elements 
of dog management, The exercise should always be given before feeding, 

C C 

386 British Dogs. 

and immediately on the return to the kennel the process of grooming 
should be undertaken. 

Grooming. This is far more important than many people suppose. It 
is not merely for cleanliness, although that in itself is much, for dirt is, 
in all forms, as injurious to health as it is offensive to the senses ; but 
judicious grooming not only brightens the coat, giving to it a lustre 
additional to that of health, but it develops the muscles, and thereby 
improves the form. 

In long coated dogs an ordinary stable dandy brush suits in some, in 
others the metallic brushes, specially designed for the kennel by Messrs. 
Ashworth, of Manchester, answer best. In smooth coated dogs Dine- 
ford's hound glove answers well, but even the old fashioned hard straw 
swab works wonders if there be patience and elbow grease behind it. 
It is very important that the friction be applied along the line of the 
muscles ; the groom must not, for instance, rub down the top of the dog's 
back, but along each side of the spine, right from occiput to stern, 
and particularly at the loin where bands of sinews connect the hind- 
quarters with the trunk. 

Washing. When this is necessary is should be done with consideration. 
The water should be not more than tepid. Soda, potash, or any strong 
alkali should be avoided, as they rob the coat of its natural yelk. 
Carbolic acid soaps, too, make the coat harsh and dry. 

The best water softener and cleanser for our purpose is Hudson's 
extract of soap, sold by grocers in Id. packets, and by far the best 
soap yet introduced is the dog soap, made by Spratts patent, it is equal 
in quailty to a toilet soap, is non-poisonous to animals, yet a perfect 
insecticide, killing fleas, lice, and ticks instantly, and being colourless, or 
nearly so, is far more suitable for washing white dogs than others. 

In cases where the hair has become matted it will be easier combed 
out when saturated with water. 

Always finish by thoroughly rinsing in clear water with the chill taken 
off, and in the case of white dogs if the water is tinged with indigo blue 
it improves their appearance. 

Drying should be most thorough. In the case of large dogs those who 
can let them have a roll among clean straw will do well to do so, but 
small pets should be hand dried, before a fire or in the sun. 

Putting the Polish on. After all has been done it will be found that 

Dog Showing. 387 

dogs, like children, are at war with artificial smartness, or that at the last 
moment, to ensure that the work of the past has not been spoiled, just 
before showing, the dog should be looked over, brushed, combed, or wiped 
over, as the case requires ; and, in fact, have the final polish put on. 

Faking. I do not know how this word came into kennel use ; its very 
existence in connection with dogs shows it is a disgrace to us. 

I am disposed to think it was first applied to the cutting the cartilage 
of fox terriers' ears, so as to give them the desired set or fold, and 
Dr. Ogilvie's definition of the word is in that sense. The word now, 
however, has in kennel circles a wider application, and Pierce Egan's 
meaning of the word, as given in his slang dictionary, is, unfortunately, 
the correct one, when the word is used in reference to the " tricks of 
the ring," namely, to cheat or swindle. 

Unfortunately it has not yet been defined what is to be considered 
"faking," and what legitimate preparation for exhibition. I cannot for 
the life of me see why a fox terrier man may not make an incision in 
his dog's ear, if a bull terrier man may cut three parts of his dog's ear 
away, the object of both being to artificially improve the appearance. 
Again, if shaving or trimming with scissors is permissible in one breed, 
why should not the cutting out of a piece of white from the chest of a 
black spaniel be so also P 

I am opposed to all such practices, and I cannot help thinking that 
the Kennel Club, who have taken upon themselves the welfare and 
guidance of canine matters in this country, should find it among their 
most urgent duties to define faking ; and, as far as their power and 
influence extends, put laws against these malpractices in force. That is 
supposing the Kennel Club to be in earnest about anything more than 
their own interests, which, however, their conduct of canine matters 
often leads me to doubt. 

Bull terriers and others are clipped, trimmed, and shaved. I have 
even seen the whiskers shaved off a fox terrier. Fox terriers, and some- 
times other dogs, have an ear with an awkward conque let down with 
the knife or the needle. 

Bedlington terriers have the rough hair on their faces, and sometimes 
elsewhere, pulled out. Black and tans are done with lampblack and oil. 
Yorkshire toys are not always innocent of plumbago ; even dogs for field 
sports are subjected to such processes that their owners are ashamed to 

c c 2 

388 British Dogs. 

own to it, and the " faking," if faking it be, is always done sub rosa. I 
do not know that to use the watering can on the back of a curly retriever 
just before taking him in the ring can be called faking, but pulling the 
coat of the same dog is, and yet that practice is, if not approved, winked 
at by those in authority. 

I have no wish to spread a knowledge of faking further than to ensure 
contempt for it, and its thorough condemnation by all good men 'and true, 
hoping that public opinion may ere long bring about reforms which those 
who have assumed the reins in canine matters seem to have no heart to 

Sending to Show. Having made your entry you will in due course 
have received address label and a metal number with instructions what to 
do with them. 

Let these instructions be obeyed to the smallest minutiae, or you may 
give the show authorities unnecessary trouble, and yourself also. 

Basket or Box. The comfort of the dog in transit may considerably 
affect his chances of winning. A close box without efficient means for the 
admission of fresh air and the emission of that which has been consumed 
and altered in process of respiration is sure to cause illness, if not death, 
a plain sided box with a few holes bored in it does not do, many instances 
of suffocation have occurred through this, or through packing two in a 
box only big enough for one. This is false economy, for if suffocation 
escapes the dogs, one is almost sure to suffer, and the want of sufficient 
air, together with the excitement of the journey, not unfrequently brings 
on a sudden attack of diarrhoea. Give space commensurate with the size 
of the animals, and provide air in like ratio. If your box is flat topped 
have ventilation secured by square pieces cut out of top and sides, and 
over these strong iron rods bent outwards, so that nothing placed on or 
against it can lie flush, and prevent ingress of air. Have strong handles 
to the box, it is a convenience to railway porters, and removes the 
temptation to indulge in what appears to be a natural tendency in them, 
viz., to turn everything they handle upside down, whether it contain a 
live creature or not. 

Baskets, because of their lightness, are preferred for small dogs, but if 
used for terriers they should be lined inside with perforated zino, or they 
will seldom last a journey. 

In the Ring. It is the right and duty of every one to show his dog 

Standard of Excellence. 


before the judge to the beet possible advantage, but nothing is gained 
by forcing a dog on the judge' s attention obtrusively ; often the reverse 
effect is the consequence. It is a great advantage with most dogs to be 
led by those they know, as it gives them confidence, and they show 
themselves better. All dogs intended to be shown should have been 
previously accustomed to be led, for if not the odds are great that they 
will resent it when in the ring, and by pulling back and wriggling about 
make it impossible for the judge to form a true opinion, and the dog's 
chance of winning is thereby lost. 

Last of all, whatever the fiat of the judge, keep your temper. If you 
think the judge wrong, at least let him finish his work undisturbed 
either by your grumbling or by reasonable question. Your interest in 
the show may be over with the judging of a class, but the judge has to go 
on with his work class after class, and it is no more than just to him to 
let him finish his work undisturbed. 



/. Rough Coated Co I ley. 

Head and muzzle 

Eyes and ears 

Neck and shoulders 

Body, chest, back, loin 
Hindquarters, legs, and feet 




Symmetry and condition ... 





//. Smooth Colley. 
The same points, except that ten 
points be taken from the coat 
and given to symmetry. 

///. Bearded Colley. 

Barely shown, and no scale of 
points have been allotted. 

IV. Bob Tailed Sheep 

The same scale as for the Bough 

V. Esquimaux Dog. 
No scale of points allotted. 

VI. No rth A merica n 

Wolf Dog. 
No scale of points allotted. 

VII. Truffle Dog. 

No scale of points allotted. 


British Dogs. 

VIII. The Bull Dog. 

The Club scale. POINTS. 

General appearance 10 

Skull 15 

Stop 5 

Eyes 5 

Ears 5 

Face ... 5 

Chop 5 

Mouth 5 

Neck and chest 5 

Shoulders 5 

Body 5 

Back 5 

Tail 5 

Legs and feet 10 

Coat 5 

Size 5 

Total . .. 100 

IX. The Mastiff. 






Shoulders and chest .. 

Back and loins 

Legs and feet 




Size and symmetry .. 

... 20 
... 5 
... 5 
... 5 

... 10 

... 10 

... 10 

... 5 




Total ... .. 100 

X. St. Bernard. POINTS. 

Head and muzzle ... ... 20 

Eyes and ears 5 

Neck and shoulders 10 

Chest, back, and loin ... 15 

Legs and feet 15 

Coat 10 

Colour and its distribution 10 

Size and symmetry 15 



XI. Newfoundland. P OINTS . 

Head 20* 

Ears and eyes 5 

Neck and shoulders 10 

Body, chest, back, loin ... 15 

Legs and feet 15 

Coat 10 

Colour 5 

Tail 5 

Size and symmetry 15 

Total . ..100 


.. 10 

.. 5 

.. 15 

.. 15 



XII. Dalmatian. 



Body, chest, back, loins 

Legs and feet 



Colour 10 

Markings 25 

Symmetry and condition ... 10 

Total 100 

XIII. Thibet Mastiff. 

No scale of points allotted. 

XIV. Great Dane. 

No scale of points allotted. 

XV. German Mastiff or 
Boar hound. 

No scale of points allotted. 

XVI. Fox Terrier. p 01NT 8. 

Head and ears 15 

Neck 5 

Shoulders and chest 15 

Back and loin 10 

Hindquarters : ... 5 

Stern 5 

Legs and feet 20 

Coat 10 

Symmetry and character ... 15 

Total . ,.100 

Standard of Excellence. 

XV I L Wire-haired Fox 

The same as Fox Terrier. 

XVI II. Dandie Dinmont 








Legs and feet 


Colour ... 

... 10 
... 10 
... 10 
... 5 
... 20 
... 5 
... 10 
... 15 

Size and weight 5 

General appearance 5 



XIX.-Bedlington Terrier. 


Head 20 

Ears 5 

Eyes 5 

Nose 5 

Jaws and teeth 10 

Neck and shoulders 5 

Body, ribs, back, loins, 

quarters, and chest ... 15 

Legs and feet 5 

Coat 15 

Colour 5 

Tail 5 

Weight 5 

Total . .100 

XX. Black and 


Jaws and teeth ... 



Neck and shoulders . 



... 6 

... 5 

... 5 


Black and Tan Terrier 
(contd.) Ponm , 

Chest 10 

Loin 10 

Legs and feet 10 

Coat 5 

Colour 25 

Tail 5 

Symmetry 5 



XXI.Skye Terrier. 


Head 15 

Ears and eyes 10 

Coat, length and texture ... 20 

Colour 5 

Body 20 

Legs and feet 15 

Tail 5 

Symmetry and condition ... 10 



XXII. Bull Terrier. 


Skull 15 

Jaws and teeth 10 

Ears 5 

Neck 5 

Shoulders and chest 15 

Back 10 

Legs and feet 15 

Coat 5 

Colour 5 

Tail 5 

Symmetry 10 

Total . ,.100 

XXIII. Scotch 


Jaws and teeth 










British Dogs. 

Scotch Terrier (contd.) 


Neck 5 

Body 20 

Legs and feet 15 

Tail 5 

Coat 5 

Colour 5 

Condition and symmetry ... 10 

Total . ,.100 

XXIV. Irish Terrier. 

(Drawn up by Mr. G. E. Krehl, 
English Vice-president of the 
Irish Terrier Club.) 


Head and jaw 15 

Ears 5 

Coat 15 

Feet and legs 15 

Back, loin, and stern (in- 
cluding general make of 

body) 15 

Colour 10 

Shoulders and chest 10 

Hindquarters 5 

Neck 5 

Size 5 



XXV. White English 


Jaws and teeth ... 



Neck and shoulders 

Chest 10 

.. 10 
.. 10 
.. 5 
.. 5 


Legs and feet 




Symmetry and condition 







Total . . 100 

XXV I. Airedale Terrier. 

Head . 10 

Jaws and teeth 

Eyes and ears 


Shoulders and chest ... 
Back and hindquarters 

Legs and feet 


Coat and colour 







Total . . 100 

XXVII. Aberdeen Terrier. 

Same valuation of points as in 
Scotch Terrier. 


D D 







Dogs which are distinct varieties from those 
already described. 

Including : 

1. The Blenheim Spaniel. 

2. The King Charles 

j. The Pug. 

4. The Pomeranian. 

5. The Poodle. 

6. The Maltese Terrier. 

. The Yorkshire Terrier. 

This group, with some of those included in the next, 
are pre-eminently the ladies' dogs, and form the 
natural class of lap dogs. In outward form they vary 
much from each other, so that from the naturalist's 
point of view they occupy positions far asunder. The 
poodle, pug, and toy spaniels have short round skulls 
and truncated muzzles, and in these respects the others 
included in the group are just the opposite, and it is 
only their holding the same relative position to man as 
the toys and pets of the canine race that justifies their 
being grouped together. 



AT what date in the history of the human race ladies took to caressing 
small dogs I do not know, but the fashion is a very old one, and has been 
a very general one, if not universal, among nations at all advanced in 

D D 2 

396 British Dogs. 

The fashion only changes in the selection of the reigning favourite, and 
caprice ordaina that the bandy-legged dachshund, lolling in the lap of 
luxury yesterday, may, by the fickle goddess, be to-day dethroned in 
favour of that natty little dandy, the Yorkshire terrier, who, in his turn, 
struts his brief span of power upon the stage, most tyranically governing 
the mistress who lavishes the exuberance of her affections upon him, till 
he again has to give place to some aspiring and successful rival. 

In this country, at the present day, we see the taste for dogs of all 
kinds more developed and indulged in than, probably, at any previous 
period in the world's history ; and the number of varieties of toy dogs is 
now so increased, and the tastes shown in their selection as lap dogs so 
varied, that it would be difficult indeed to ascribe to any one breed 
an ascendancy over the others in that most enviable position so many of 
them occupy in the affections of the ladies. 

Toy spaniels, of one kind or another, seem to be the oldest of our 
ladies' favourites. Dr. Caius, 1576, calls him the " Spaniell gentle, or the 
comforter, a chamber companion, a pleasant playfellow, a pretty worme, 
generally called Canis delicatus," and adds, " These puppies the smaller 
they be the more pleasure they provoke, as more meet playfellows for 
mincing mistresses to bear in their bosoms, to keepe company withal in 
their chambers, to succour with sleep in bed, and nourish with meat at 
board, to lay in their laps and lick their lips as they ride in their wag- 
gons ; and good reason it should be so, for coarseness with fineness hath 
no fellowship, but featness with neatness hath neighbourhood enough." 

Jessop, in his "Researches into the History of the British Dog," 
gives the above quotation, but ascribes it, and the severe censure on the 
ladies for the lavishness with which they caressed their pets, which the 
learned doctor, who was a great moraliser, did not omit, to Harrison, 
writer of the description given in Hollingshead's "History," edition. 
1585; quite overlooking the words of Harrison himself, who says, "How- 
beit the learned doctor Caius, in his Latin treatise upon (sic) " Gesner de 
canibus Anglicis," bringeth them [that is, English dogs] all into three 
sorts, that is, the gentle kind serving the game, the homely kind for 
sundrie uses, and the currish kind meet for many toies, for my part I 
can say no more of them than he hath done already, wherefore, I will 
here set down only a sum of that which he hath written of their names 
and natures." 

Toy Spaniels. 397 

The italics are mine, as I wish to emphasise Harrison's words for a 
reason which will presently disclose itself. Harrison admittedly merely 
quoted Cains, and, by inference, I shonld say from the Latin text in 
which Caius's book on English dogs was originally written; although 
Abraham Fleming's English translation of Caius's book,* printed in 
London,. 1576, two years before the death of Caius, was open to him. 

Now, according to Fleming, the description of the toy spaniel given by 
Caius runs, " these puppies the smaller they be the more pleasure they 
provoke;" but in Harrison's quotation, after the words "the smaller they 
be," the following important words appear, "and, thereto, if they have an 
hole in the fore parts of their heads the better are they accepted." 

Whether Fleming overlooked and omitted this sentence in his transla- 
tion, or Harrison interpolated it, I am unable to say ; but it is just 
possible that Caius himself had omitted the mention of this point of 
importance, and that Harrison supplied the omission from his own know- 
ledge of the fashionable toys of the period. Be that as it may, " the 
hole in the fore part of the head," which we now call "the stop," is 
eminently a characteristic of our modern toy spaniels, and it goes far to 
prove that the toys of Queen Elizabeth's time were true spaniels, and not 
Maltese dogs, as Harrison says, inaccurately quoting Caius, who gives 
Callemachus as his authority for calling them Meliteos, and giving 
Malta as the place where they had their principal beginning. 

Caius, throughout his book, more fully describes the character of each 
breed than the differences in their physical features, of which he only 
gives us glimpses ; and in inveighing against some of the practices of the 
"dainty dames" who indulged in luxury these "pretty, proper, and 
fyne" "instruments of folly," charged both the ladies and their dogs as 
Sybaritical ; and as strict accuracy is not so marked a feature in Caius's 
book as a readiness on the part of the writer to be content with hearsay 
evidence, even on points which the most gullible might be expected to 
question, it is probable, I think, that the natural association of ideas 
had more to do with his favouring the ascription of Malta as the original 
home of those pets than any proof he had in favour of it. 

I am disposed to think that not only is this special feature the indenta- 
tion, or stop, in the forehead strong presumptive evidence in favour of 

* " Englishe Dodges, by Johannes Caius, done into English, by Abraham 
Fleming, 1576," a reprint of which, exact in every particular, ia now published at 
170, Strand. 

398 British Dogs. 

the toy dogs of that time being true spaniels, but also that that pre- 
sumption receives powerful corroborative support in Dr. Caius's remarks 
on the colours of spaniels in general, when he describes them thus, " the 
most part of their skins are white, and if they be marked with any spots 
they are commonly red, and somewhat great therewithall, the hairs not 
growing in such thickness but that the mixture of them may be easily 
perceived. Others, some of them, be reddish and blackish, but of that 
sort there be but a few." 

Now, although the latter is written of spaniels in general, I see no 
reason against, but every reason for, taking it as applying to his spaniel 
delicatus with equal force as to the varieties used in the pursuit of game ; 
and, if I am right, we had the colours of our two great varieties of toy 
spaniels recognised and described more than 300 years ago. 

That, at the present day, dogs have been considerably modified there 
can be no doubt ; ideas of what constitutes beauty changes, and dogs, 
like ladies' bonnets, have to be made to suit the prevailing fashion, 
although some people seem, by persistent dinning into the ears of the 
unthinking, to achieve ephemeral success in making or adopting a dog, 
and then bringing fashion to smile upon it, much to their own benefit, 
both in praise and profit. 

The old name of the spaniel gentle "The Comforter" is still pre- 
served in use by old fashioned folks. When a child, I had a red and 
white toy spaniel which my seniors versed in dog matters, called a "Com- 
forter," it was a pure Blenheim, and it or its parents had been obtained 
from Blenheim Palace. "Trifle" stands out in my memory as a bright 
and sprightly playfellow, good in all the points of a Blenheim, but that 
by modern fanciers he would have been voted too long nosed. 

The name " Comforter" was an expressive one, when we consider the 
belief that obtained with our ancesters, that by the dog being borne in 
the bosom of afflicted persons, the patient was comforted, and often 
cured, the disease passing out of the human frame into that of the dog. 

Further remarks on toy spaniels will be more conveniently, and with 
greater appropriateness, made in considering the two popular varieties 
the Blenheim and the King Charles spaniel. 

The Blenheim Spaniel. 399 



THE modern Blenheim spaniel is a very different dog from the original 
of that name, so long kept by and associated with the Marlborough family. 

It is an instance of the breeder's skill exercised in a wrong direction, for 
the noseless specimens with abnormally developed skulls I look upon as the 
results of a perverted taste obtained at the sacrifice of intrinsic qualities, 
and without sufficient redeeming points to equalise the loss. 

Whether the Blenheim may be reckoned as one of the " Sybaritical 
puppies " of the " daintie dames " of Caius' time may be doubted, and at 
what date this little spaniel was taken under the fostering care of the 
House of Marlborough, and became so closely connected with that illus- 
trious family as to be given the name of their palace I do not know, but 
there exists abundance of proofs that the dog now recognised at shows 
as the Blenheim spaniel is greatly modified by crossings, and with 
features the possession of which although fashion demands them 
widely differs from the original. 

An old writer, referring to the Blenheim spaniels of the end of last 
century, says : " The smallest spaniels passing under the denomination of 
Cockers is that peculiar breed in the possession and preservation of the 
Duke of Marlborough and his friends ; these are invariably red and white, 
with very long ears, short noses, and black eyes ; they are excellent and 
indefatigable, being in great estimation with those sportsmen, who can 
become possessed of the breed." What " sportsman," I wonder, would 
hold in estimation many of the exhibited specimens of the day, animals 
in which stamina and physique have been so utterly sacrificed that, instead 
of being able or disposed to hunt, it is only a select few that possess 
spirit and strength enough for a gambol. True, they are no longer 
wanted to flush woodcocks or drive coneys, and the beautiful coat and 
feather, which is one of the most attractive features of our modern dog, 
would be destroyed for the time being, at least, by such work ; but granted 
that for the development of some desirable points of beauty the utility of 
the dogs as workers must be to a greater or less extent sacrificed, I can 
see no good grounds for the natural and far more beautiful shape of 

4OO British Dogs. 

head and muzzle of the original being superseded by the one in vogue. 
The writer I have quoted describes the nose as short, but the present 
fashion is to encourage the noseless, and, indeed, Mr. Julius, about two 
years ago, exhibited several almost, if not quite noseless, which he named 
"the noseless," in ridicule, as I understood, of the present fashion, for 
he has exhibited several great beauties with a development of nose more 
in accordance with Nature's designs and the dog's requirements, and, I 
might add, the comfort of the owner. 

There are few things more annoying and disagreeable than the noisy 
breathing and snuffling of these artifically short-nosed pets, unless it be 
the paralysed protruding tongue, which is a concomitant evil. Let us 
have a short-nosed dog by all means the best authorities describe the 
original as such but that is a very different thing from a nose so 
deformed that it can only exercise the functions of that organ so indif- 
ferently as to make the animal a nuisance. 

I am quite aware that it is practically useless to attack or oppose the 
omnipotent goddess Fashion, but I comfort myself with the reflection that 
she is as capricious as powerful only wear a thing long enough and it is 
sure to come in, were it only a broad-brimmed hat, and I do not despair 
of seeing that occult power exercise her influence on Blenheims in a 
more sensible direction than at present. 

" Idstone," a most trustworthy authority on the breed, expresses my 
views so entirely views I held long before his book was published that 
I quote and adopt his words : " I would allow (indeed I would, insist upon) 
a deep indentation between the eyes, added to the high skull and a 
moderately short face ; but the projecting lower jaw, the frog mouth, and 
the broken nose, free from all cartilage, I decidedly object to. Such 
animals are offensive from their snuffling and snoring ; and if tolerated 
in sanded parlours are not fit to be admitted into drawing rooms, where I 
should expect to see a spaniel with a pretty face, well coated all over, 
large eared, large eyed, rich coloured, with a bushy flag, well feathered 
feet, and diminutive in stature, in preference to the snuffling apple- 
headed, idiotic animals too often bred by 'the fancy,' and which ought to be 
discouraged ; though, if judging, I would not put them aside until some 
definite conclusion had been arrived at, as an adverse decision would be 
unfair to the exhibitor during the present state of things." 

The points of the Blenheim and King Charles spaniel, taking the 

The Blenheim Spaniel. 401 

present style of show dog as the type, are closely identical ; the greatest 
difference is, of course, the colour, in which good specimens of each 
present a striking and pleasing contrast. In the Blenheim the depth and 
richness of the red, the purity of the white, and the distribution and 
distinctness of the markings are important. A broad blaze up the fore- 
head and over the skull, with the red spot or lozenge in the centre, the 
cheeks and ears being, red, although generally of a paler shade than on the 
body markings ; the neck and front of chest, where the hair is longer, and 
called the mane, pure white, which is also the body colour, and the deep red 
markings on back, sides, &c., are esteemed by the picturesqueness of their 
distribution. The pale colour is now by some exhibitors valued, and 
such specimens are called mace coloured. The coat should be free from 
curl, a fault which some inherit from the King Charles spaniel ; it should 
be abundant all over the body, and long, soft, and silky on the front of 
chest, ears, legs, feet, and tail. 

The size ranges from 51b. to lOlb. ; I think below 71b. or 81b. they are 
too puny and wanting in physique to give pleasure as pets, and likely to 
require too much nursing ; to this, of course, there are exceptions. The 
following are the weights and measurements of two of Mr. J. W. Berrie's, a 
gentleman who has given much attention to the breeding of Blenheims : 

Mr. J. W. Berrie's The Earl : Age, 3 years ; weight, 8lb. ; height 
at shoulder, llin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 19in. ; length of 
tail, Sin. (cut) ; girth of chest, 16in. ; girth of loin, ll|in. ; girth of 
head, llin. ; girth of forearm, 4iin. ; length of head from occiput to tip 
of nose, Sin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, Gin. ; 
ears from tip to tip, 19jin. ; from stop to tip of nose, fin. 

Mr. J. W. Berrie's Little Blossom : Age, 7 years ; weight, lOlb. ; height 
at shoulder, lOin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 18in. ; length of tail, 
Sin. (cut) ; girth of chest, 17in. ; girth of loin, 12in. ; girth of head, 
lOfin ; girth of forearm, 4in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
Sin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 5|in. ; ears 
from tip to tip, 17Jin. ; from stop to tip of nose, |in. 

402 British Dogs. 



THE "Merry Monarch" did many more foolish things than take under 
his royal care and favour, thereby raising to the position of a court 
idol, the beautiful toy spaniel that still bears his name. Harsh censors 
may say this trifle is a fit emblem of a frivolous time, and sneer at 
court voluptuaries toying with pets which in greater times had been by 
their sterner and manlier forefathers contemptuously treated as " fisting 
curres," and only looked upon as "meet playfellows for mincing mis- 

Be that as it may, the royal favour of Charles has secured for this dog 
a popularity which has ebbed and flowed ever since, and is never likely to 
disappear. No matter what pet dog may be in the ascendant, for the 
time being the royal spaniel has always his votaries, and on the whole 
succeeds pretty well in keeping the pride of place due to his exalted 

Being a court favourite, he of course got painted, and no less an artist 
than Vandyke has immortalised him on canvass, but there he is repre- 
sented as a liver and white dog, although doubtless they varied in colour. 
There is but little difference between dark liver and black, and both 
these, as also red are specially spaniel colours. It is easy to conceive 
the ones selected by the painter to be individual favourites, and not 
chosen as representatives of the breed in that one particular. 

Landseer and Frith have both chosen the black, white, and red in 
painting these dogs, doubtless as the more effective from an artistic 
point of view, and the tri-coloured variety was the most popular half a 
century ago and to a later time. A writer in 1802 referring to the breed of 
King Charles, says " they were supposed to be the small black curly sort 
which bear his name, but they were more likely to have been of the 
distinct breed of cockers, if judgment may be consistently formed from 
the pictures of Vandyke, in which they are introduced." From this 
writer, it would appear that, eighty years ago, the black, by which pro- 
bably he meant black and tan, were considered the correct thing. 

From all of these facts and statements, with many others of a similar 





CJ - 


a 3 

3 s 

H fc 





The King Charles Spaniel. 403 

kind, it appears to me that the breed has been modified to suit the fashion 
of the day. 

At present the jet glossy black, with rich warm tan markings, are in 
favour, and no other colours have a chance with these in the judging 
ring. 9 

The breeders of these toys, in London and elsewhere, have certainly 
brought them in form and colour to a high state of perfection ; and, judged 
by the standard set up whether the lines be approved or not both 
these and the modern Blenheims are marvels of the breeder's skill. 

In respect to colour, and the close connection between the black and 
tan, and red, or liver, it is worthy of notice that Mr. Garwood, one of the 
oldest London breeders, took first prize at the Alexandra Palace show, 
1878, in a class for King Charles spaniels of any other colour than black 
and tan, with a red dog, Dandy, the same dog having been second to 
Miss Dawson's Frisky in an open King Charles spaniel class, 1875, and 
Garwood has assured me the dog was black and tan bred on both sides 
for some generations. 

This is at once accounted for when we remember that the black and 
tan King Charles and the red and white Blenheims have been repeatedly 
crossed by the trading breeders of fancy dogs, so that even now a well 
bred bitch of either sort, mated with one like herself, may throw a pup 
of the other variety. 

Such occurrences are, however, becoming rare, for the two are bred 
distinct, except where the cross is purposely resorted to to produce 
specimens of the charming tricoloured pets once so much in vogue. 

Although the black, white, and tan variety is at present rather out of 
fashion, it is not without its admirers, and I believe they are on the 
increase, so that I quite look to them taking a prominent place at shows 
at no distant date. Two of the most beautiful specimens of these I know 
are Mrs. Eussell Earp's Tweedledee, a winner at the Alexandra Palace, 
of which we give an engraving, and Conrad, brother to Tweedledee, and 
the property of Miss Violet Cameron. 

When the colours are rich and nicely distributed, this variety is much 
more attractive and gay than the black and tan King Charles, or even 
the red and white Blenheim ; and if encouragement were given at shows 
to these beautiful toys, they would soon appear in numbers, and regain 
the popularity they have temporarily lost. 

404 British Dogs. 

They are a variety of pet dog that are at least worth preserving, and 
for this purpose, whilst good specimens are so scarce, I would recom- 
mend good rich coloured King Charles bitches to be crossed with Blen- 
heim dogs, as most likely to produce desirable specimens. 

The King Charles, too, is generally rather the largest, which is a distinct 

The produce might be depended on to be stronger and more easily 
reared than the in-and-in bred of either of the parent variety. 

The following are the points of the modern King Charles spaniel, 
together with those of the Blenheim, drawn up by " Stonehange," which 
I do not think can be improved upon. 

If fashion changes, or if, without neglecting the present style, a minia- 
ture spaniel on the lines of our best field spaniels, should be introduced, a 
set of descriptive points forming a standard to breed up to can be easily 
arranged and agreed to by those interested ; in the meantime, it is much 
more to be desired that the standards already drawn up for existing 
breeds should be made practical use of than merely reproduced by 
different writers with variations. 

The present standard would well apply to the black, white, and tan 

Po ints of toy spaniels : 

The head should be well domed, and in good specimens is absolutely 
semi-globular, sometimes even extending beyond the half circle, and 
absolutely projecting over the eyes, so as nearly to meet the upturned 

The " stop," or hollow between the eyes, is as well marked as in the 
bulldog, or even more so ; some good specimens exhibiting a hollow deep 
enough to bury a small marble. 

The nose must be short, and well turned up between the eyes, without 
any indication of artificial displacement afforded by a deviation to either 
side. The colour of the end should be black, and it should be both deep 
and wide, with open nostrils. 

The lower jaw must be wide between its branches, leaving plenty of 
space for the tongue and for the attachment of the lower lips, which 
should completely conceal the teeth. It should also be turned up or 
"finished," so as to allow of its meeting the end of the upper jaw, 
turned up in a similar way as above described. 

The King Charles Spaniel. 405 

The ears must be long, so as to approach the ground. In an average 
sized dog they measure 20in. from tip to tip, and some reach 22in., or 
even a trifle more. They should be set low on the head, and be heavily 
feathered. In this respect the King Charles is expected to exceed 
the Blenheim, and his ears occasionally extended to 24in. 

The eyes are set wide apart, with the eyelids square to the line of face, 
not oblique or fox-like. The eyes themselves are large, lustrous and 
very dark in colour, so as to be generally considered black ; their enormous 
pupils, which are absolutely of that colour, increasing the description. 
From their large size, there is almost always a certain amount of weeping 
shown at the inner angles. 

In compactness of shape these spaniels almost rival the pug, but the 
length of coat adds greatly to the apparent bulk, as the body, when the 
coat is wetted, looks small in comparison with that dog. Still, it ought 
to be decidedly "cobby," with strong stout legs, broad back, and wide 

The symmetry of the toy spaniel is of some importance, but it is 
seldom that there is any defect in this respect. 

The colour varies with the breed. In the King Charles a rich black and 
tan is demanded without white, the black tan and white variety being dis- 
regarded, though, in the best bred litters, occasionally a puppy of this 
colour appears. Tan spots over the eyes and on the cheeks, as well as 
the usual marking on the legs, are also required. The Blenheim, on the 
other hand, must on no account be whole-coloured, but should have a 
ground of pure pearly white, with bright rich chesnut red markings, 
evenly distributed in large patches. The ears and cheeks should be red, 
and there should be a blaze of white extending from the nose up to the 
forehead, and ending between the ears in a crescentic curve. In the 
centre of this blaze there should be a clear " spot" of red, of the size of 
a sixpence. 

The coat in both varieties should be long, silky, soft, and wavy, but 
not curly. In the Blenheim there should be a profuse mane, extending 
well down in front of the chest. 

The feather should be well displayed on the ears and feet, where it is 
so long as to give the appearance of their being webbed. It is also 
carried well up the backs of the legs. In the King Charles the feather 
on the ears is very long and profuse, exceeding that of the Blenheim by 

406 British Dogs. 

an inch or more. The feather on the tail, which is cut to a length of 
about three and a half or four inches, should be silky, and from five to 
six inches in length, constituting a marked " flag " of a square shape. 

In size, both breeds vary from 51b. to lOlb. in weight ; the smaller the 
better, if otherwise well proportioned. 



I AM relieved from the necessity of following in the footsteps of every 
writer on pugs since the issue of " Stonehenge's" work in 1859. One 
and all of them have informed their readers that twenty, twenty-five, 
or thirty years ago according to the date of their writing the pug dog 
was exceedingly scarce, and indeed all but lost. There is no need to 
lament any such scarcity now. As soon as the tide of fashion turned 
and again set in for pugs the creation of the supply commenced, and 
now, like so many others, the pug market is over-stocked, and every- 
where in town and country these animals swarm. 

"Idstone," writing in 1872, hazards the opinion, or rather expresses 
a doubt, whether we could produce half a dozen specimens equal to 
what existed a century ago. I should say "Idstone" undervalued 
the pugs of the day when he penned the remarks quoted, and ever 
since there have been dozens of first class pug dogs shown, and there 
are and always have been a very much greater number in private 
hands which are never exhibited. There are, however, still too few 
good ones, an immense quantity of mediocre ones, and a super- 
abundance of weeds. The fact is dog shows have given a tremendous 
impetus to breeding. Very few who take up dog breeding as a sort 
of "hobby that can be made to pay" seem to have any idea that 
there are certain laws of breeding which must be followed if success 
is to be attained, and that, together with the exercise of a grasping 
spirit which will turn every pup, however worthless, into coin of the 



The Pug. 407 

realm fills the country with rubbish. It is quite certain there are far 
more puppies of this and other breeds born than ought to be allowed 
to live. Many are so weak in vitality that they are sure, if they live 
at all to grow up diseased and weedy, and a majority are so wanting 
in the essential qualities of the breed that no one with a real desive 
to improve our dogs would think of rearing them. But such dogs are 
reared and bred from, on account of a supposed value attaching to their 
pedigrees, and so faults are propagated and confirmed. 

Much has been written on the origin of the pug, but I have been 
able to discover nothing authentic all seems to be merely conjecture. 
One writer says we first obtained the pug from Muscovy, and that he 
is an undoubted native of that country. Another that he is native 
to Holland ; whilst others assert the pug to be a cross between our 
English bulldog and the small Dane. 

I merely state these theories without adopting any of them, and I 
have not one of my own to offer. Of whatever country he is a native 
he is, I think, clearly an import to this, and although his breeding 
was for a time so neglected that he was nearly lost to us, we can 
still boast of having the best in the world. 

The pug is widely distributed ; a dog nearly akin to him is met with 
in China and Japan, he is well known in Eussia, a favourite in 
Germany, plentiful in Holland and Belgium, and common enough in 

From the date of his resuscitation in this country his history is 
much clearer, and, by the aid of the stud books and other means, 
will be kept so. In the last edition of " Dogs of the British Islands," 
" Stonehenge " states, and no doubt on the best authority, that in the 
decade 1840-50, among other breeders who attempted to bring the breed 
up to its former distinguished position in this country, foremost and 
most successful was the then Lady Willoughby d'Eresby, who succeeded 
by crossing a dog obtained in Vienna with a bitch of a strong fawn 
colour imported from Holland, and afterwards, by careful selection in 
breeding from their stock, in establishing the now celebrated Willoughby 
strain. The same excellent authority states the pale coloured Morrison 
strain to be lineally descended from a stock in the possession of Queen 
Charlotte, and through them no doubt to inherit the blood of the 
favourites of Dutch William ; the late Mr. Morrison having, it is 

408 British Dogs. 

assumed, obtained the breed through the servants, and his careful 
breeding has established a strain that bears his name, and by this 
we see that both the Willoughby and Morrison strains are strong 
in Dutch blood, the Morrison being, in fact, the most purely Dutch. 

No doubt there were many other sources to which the present race 
of pugs is due, and it is now usual to call every fawn or stone coloured 
pug a Willoughby, and the paler yellowish ones Morrison's ; but the 
two strains have been frequently united, and in a class of twenty 
almost every shade of colour between the two that mark these strains 
is met with. 

The popularity which the pug has again enjoyed for the last quarter 
of a century is an instance of the caprice of fashion. A writer on the 
breed says of him, " perhaps in the whole catalogue of the canine 
species there is not one of less utility or possessing less the power of 
attraction than the pug dog ; applicable to no sport, appropriated to 
no useful purpose, and susceptible of no predominent passion and in 
no way remarkable for any extra eminence, he is continued from era 
to era for what alone he might have been originally intended, the 
patient follower of a ruminating philosopher, or the adulating and 
consolatory companion of an old maid." With these views and senti- 
ments I have no sympathy, as my friends who are pug lovers, whether 
"ruminating philosophers," maids or matrons, may rest assured. I 
am not so utilitarian as the writer, who I presume to have been a 
cantankerous old bachelor, caring for nothing but his pipe, his 
pointer, and his gun. 

The pug, when made a companion of, shows a high intelligence ; as 
house dogs they are ever on the alert, and promptly give notice of a 
stranger's approach, and from their extremely active, I may say merry, 
habits, they are most interesting pets, and well repay by their 
gratitude any affection and kindness bestowed on them. One quality 
they possess above most breeds, which is a strong recommendation 
of them as lap dogs, and that is their cleanliness and freedom from 
any offensive smell of breath or skin. 

Many ladies, by lavishing mistaken kindness on their pugs, do them 
serious harm. Over feeding, feeding too often, and on too rich diet, 
together with insufficient exercise, cause obesity, with a host of evils 
in its train, asthma among others, which make the dog's life a 

The Pug. 409 

burden to itself and a cause of discomfort to the owner. Nothing 
does so well for house dogs as plain biscuits, dry bread, or well 
boiled oatmeal porridge, varied with a few scraps of meat from the 
stock pot, a little gravy, and boiled green vegetables, such as cabbage, 
turnips, and carrots, and occasionally large rough bones to gnaw and 
play with, and smaller ones to crunch and eat. 

Before proceeding to give a detailed description and value of each 
point, I think it will be very useful to reproduce here in a condensed 
form a correspondence from the columns of the " Country," which created 
very considerable interest at the time, everyone of the writers being pug 
breeders, and most of them successful exhibitors. The writer, to open 
the ball, was Mr. Theodore Marples, and I think I cannot do better than 
let each writer speak for her and himself, omitting matter in the letters 
which had merely a passing or personal interest : 

"As an admirer of this breed of dog, which is nowadays one of, if 
not the, most fashionable canine appendage to the drawing room, 1 
venture to make a few observations as to their points. I have pro- 
cured many opinions on the pug, including ' Stonehenge,' ' Idstone,' 
Mayhew, &c., who differ little as to the essential points requisite in 
a ' perfect specimen.' I have attended many of our shows in various 
parts of the country, but have failed to discover the type of dog 
required, there being such a discrepancy in the decisions at shows. 
One judge seems to favour one dog and another judge prefers another, 
and in many instances, I will not say all, they seem to ignore alto- 
gether the points as laid down by the authors before named. At one 
show you will see a big dog, with a turned-up tail, not the ' curl, ' 
win ; at another, one with a long muzzle and leggy, or a black face 
and the coat all ' smutty,' instead of a distinct trace. Now, I 
think, and have no doubt most of the fancy will bear me out, that 
what I may term the modern pug should, in the first place, be ' small ' 
being a toy, the smaller the better. I adopt myself the standard 
weight of 121b., and if a little less all the better ; but I contend if 
they are much over that it is a fault, and should be looked upon 
as such. They should also be low on leg, with short round body, 
well ribbed up ; shortness of muzzle also is a very important point, 
but how few you see really good in this respect. It is easy to 
breed them the other way, the head to be rather large and lofty, or 

4i o British Dogs. 

high forehead if you will, with a full dark eye and set rather wide 
apart, ears small and to drop nicely at the side of the head, tail 
well-curled on the back, or what is termed ' double curled.' The 
old style was dogs to the right and bitches to the left, though I 
like to see them myself in the centre ; but the important thing is 
that they be well-curled, and not merely turned up on the back like 
many street dogs. With regard to colour, the muzzle, eyebrows, ears, 
and centre of head only should be black, with the requisite moles 
on cheek and distinct line or trace down centre of back extending 
to root of tail. Most old writers maintain that the trace should 
extend to the tip of the tail, but this is seldom seen now. They 
also should have what is called hare feet that is, toes well split up 
and black toenails. Inasmuch as there is a fixed number of points 
given by several of our best known breeders and writers on the pug 
whom no one disputes, I think if judges at our shows would adopt 
the point system to a greater extent it would assist breeders in 
knowing what to breed to, and so to cross the many types of pugs 
we have, and eventually get at the desired result." 

To the above the following responses were made : 

"I read with considerable pleasure Mr. T. Marples's letter about 
' pugs ' in your impression of last week, for, like him, I am an admirer 
and a breeder of these canine aristocrats ; but I take exception to 
some of the points as he describes them. 

" First as to size. Such loose expressions as ' the smaller the 
better ' are objectionable in descriptions of our pets. Mr. Marples 
is quite justified in making 121b. the maximum standard for his own 
breeding, but he cannot tie others to it ; a very small dog might 
be preferable if intended to be constantly nursed in a lady's lap, 
but others prefer a dog that can take exercise on its own legs and 
disport itself in park or field without being knocked up ; and I do 
not think a 161b. pug too big for a companion and pet, and size I 
consider as nothing in comparison with shape, points, and markings. 

" I know Mr. Marples has ' Stonehenge ' on his side in this, that 
eminent writer stating that a pug should weigh from 61b. to lOlb. ; 
but on this and one or two other points I think ' Stonehenge ' con- 
tradicts himself, which I will endeavour to show presently ; but first 
let me say I also take exception to the term * low in the leg ' or to 

The Pug. 411 

their ' being short-legged,' unless it is. qualified or used relatively, and 
its exact meaning more clearly defined. I know a great many writers 
have used these terms in describing the pug, but I hold that thia 
shortness of leg is more apparent than real, and that it is the wide 
and deep chest and round barrel that make the fore legs especially 
look shorter than they are. Meyrick, who, on the whole, gives an 
excellent description of the pug, also says that he should stand low 
on the leg ; but all of these writers use similar terms in speaking of 
the Skye terrier, Dandie Dinmont terrier, and the dachshund, and, 
therefore, I do not think they should be used in describing the pug. 

" ' Stonehenge ' says, 'the general appearance is low and thickset,' 
and ' the body as close to the ground as possible,' which latter expres- 
sion is, I think, absurd, as no such dog could have what he also 
insists on, ' an elegant outline.' The same writer adds, ' chest wide, 
deep, and round.' Now, I would ask, how can you have a dog agreeing 
to that description stand ' Stonehenge' s ' maximum height of loin., 
and not exceed his maximum weight of ten pownds ? Meyrick, too, 
I consider, contradicts his own expression, 'low on the leg,' by giving 
as a maximum height 14in. Now, taking * Stonehenge's ' figures of 
height and weight, suppose a 14in. dog to weigh 91b., he would 
stand from SJin. to 4in. higher at the shoulder than a 161b. Dandie 
Dinmont. I have just roughly measured the engravings in ' Stonehenge's ' 
'Dogs of the British Islands' and 'The Sportsman's Cabinet,' and 
should say the length from outside of hips to front of chest is not 
more than one-fifteenth over the height at shoulder, and such pro- 
portion will not apply to what is generally understood by a short-legged 
dog. I would describe a pug as a squarely built, thickset dog, standing 
on straight legs of moderate length, the height at shoulder and length 
of body being nearly equal. If we are to have short legged dogs we 
shall have a race of King Koffees that much overrated animal, whose 
conformation of body and legs approaches the dachshund. 

"I think it would be interesting if owners of acknowledged good 
pups, such as Mrs. Bligh Monck's Tom and Sambo, Mr. Chapman's 
Leo, Mr. Hicken's Max, Mr. Key's Jumbo, Mr. Nunn's Barron, Miss 
G. E. M. Croker's Punch, and others, would give the height at 
shoulder, length of body, and weight of their dogs. Perhaps Mrs. 
Foster would also give your readers weight and measurement of King 

E E 2 

412 British Dogs. 

Koffee, and Mr. Faire of Mrs. Crusoe, both of which, I fancy, will be 
found to differ considerably in measurement to the others. The 
measurement should be taken with the dog standing square on a 
table, with an upright stick and cross-piece at the shoulder, and for 
length a foot rule along the side, with a crosspiece at back of the 
hips, and one across front of chest. 

" There is another point on which I differ from Mr. Marples, if I 
understand him aright, and that is, ' ears to drop nicely at the side 
of the head.' This is rather vague. I go with him if he means they 
must not be tulip ears, or carried back on the neck like a whippet's ; 
but, if he means that they are to drop like a fox terrier's, fall like 
those of a Dandie or a Bedlington, or be as Nnnn's Barren's are the 
button ears of a bulldog I there join issue with him." 

Another gentleman, writing under the now de plume of "Eileen," 
says : 

"I agree with Theo. Marples in nearly all particulars, especially 
about the feet, yet how few judges think about them ; and as for 
black toenails, that is usually considered a mere nothing. 

"The modern pug, in my opinion, ought to be like the pugs of 
long ago, except for the cropped ears. There is no doubt that the 
breed of days gone by was dark cream, or clear light fawn colour, 
as described by ' Stonehenge,' decidedly not the smutty animals that 
are to be seen so frequently at present. I should like to know if 
Theo. Marples has ever seen a pug perfectly clear in colour and with 
a black trace down the back. I find that when the trace is black 
the coat is invariably smutty, and particularly about the chest. I 
object to any smuttiness, and especially on the chest. The mask ought 
to end abruptly under the chin, and there should not be the slightest 
trace of black below that ; but I usually see a smutty chest when 
there is a black trace. There certainly should be a decided line 
darker than the coat, and when the pug is angry the line or trace 
should stand up in a ridge. 

" With regard to the point system for pug judging, it would be very 
desirable. ' Stonehenge ' gives fifteen for pure colour, ten for trace ; yet 
how many judges take the trace as the sine qua non, and pass over all 
other deficiencies for sake of a black line. The head ought to be the first 
consideration ; then the colour, shape, feet, and tail. With regard to the 

The Pug. 413 

latter, I like the old style, right and left, and decidedly object to a centre 
curl ; it should lie close on the hip, either side. The highest number of 
points is fifteen for pure colour, and therefore it is quite clear that colour 
is the first thing to be thought of. I do not object to a pug weighing from 
121b. to 151b. ; I do not like them much less than 121b. When they are 
smaller they have a very shrill, disagreeable bark ; but, of course, that 
has nothing to do with points ; but in a drawing-room pet a shrill bark is 
objectionable. I find that the fawn pugs have a round, full bark con- 
tralto in tone, if I may use such a term while the bark of the small 
dark mouse-colour pugs is shrill and piercing. 

" I also agree with Theo. Marples that the ears should drop close to 
the head, and that the muzzle should be very short, the eyes dark and 
prominent, and I like the black smudge on fore-head ; I also like a good 
wide chest. I have seen so many different kinds of pugs awarded prizes 
that I am sometimes quite puzzled. Nearly every judge has a fancy of his 
own, and until there is some uniformity of opinion on the pug subject 
there is little chance of any improvement in the breed. 

"If the point system was adopted, there would be a line to guide 
exhibitors, at all events ; and I think that good would result from it." 

Another fancier, signing himself " Xerxes," says : 

"I am glad to see the increasing popularity of this breed. . . . 
' Eileen ' says a dog with a smudged head is not the correct thing ! I 
differ from ' Eileen,' inasmuch as I acknowledge two different types of 
pugs, the light shaded and the dark shaded. 

" The only markings of the former are black mask, ears, moles, and 
toe-nails, and a dark shade running down the back. 

" The markings of the latter are black mask, ears, thumb mark on head, 
toenails, and a dark shade down the front, and trace down the back, 
behind, and under the forearms and between the hind legs, and the head 
of these is always better wrinkled. 

" The pug should be a very stout, squarely built, cobby, and hardy 
animal, standing on straight legs, very broad across the chest and stern ; 
back level, neck stiff and head held well up ; colour silver or golden 
fawn ; a smudged body and white are faults ; the trace should be very 
distinct and narrow, Jin. to fin. wide ; head large, round, and wrinkled, 
eyes bold and prominent. . . . muzzle bold, square, and short, say, 
for a 121b. dog fin., not more ; the mask should be jet black just 

414 British Dogs. 

enveloping the eyes ; the toes well split up, and the nails black ; the 
tail should curl as near the centre as possible, and not on either side ; 
the hair should be plentiful, soft, and piley at the roots, and feel very 
soft to the touch; the weight of a good pug should not exceed 131b., 
nor be less than 91b." 

In a second letter, Mr. Theo. Marples says, of the protruding of the 
tongue : " I do not consider this an essential point, but where it occurs 
I think it an acquisition ;" and "Eileen," in a subsequent letter, says, 
"Victor [Mrs. Tufnell's] is my beau id4al of a pug ; he is clear light 
fawn in colour, with dark shade down back ; tail curled to the right ; 
good broad chest ; black mask, ending under the chin ; moles ; ears falling 
close to the head, and in the very centre of the head a distinct black 
smudge or thumb mark." 

Mr. J. Brookes says : " I have been a breeder of pugs some time, and 
have taken first prizes. The points often overlooked by judges are the 
moles on cheek and carriage of tail, which should be bitch at near side, 
dog at off side." 

Mr J. Nunn, an old London breeder, says : " There are two varieties, 
the gold fawns and silver fawns. ... I find the lighter the body colour 
the blacker the mask, ears, trace, moles, &c. With the golden fawn, the 
ears and trace are seldom more than a dark brown, nothing approaching 
a black, and when they have good masks I find their noses very often 
wanting in colour." 

Mr. S. B. Witchell, breeder of King Koffee, Mrs. Crusoe, and other 
winners, said he objected to a protruding tongue. Mr. Marples expressed 
himself in favour of drop or button ears. Mr. Vero Shaw considered 
the rose ear the prettiest ; and a considerable number of other breeders 
gave their views in accordance with one or other of the preceding. It will 
be seen that there is a very general consensus of opinion on main points, 
although different views are held on minor ones, and, as these differences 
principally express mere individual taste and fancy, they are likely to 

I give the following as my own opinions on the points of the pug : 

General appearance and symmetry of the pug is decidedly square and 
cobby ; a lean leggy dog and a long-backed short-legged one are equally 
out of harmony with the ideal pug, which, although not so graceful in 
contour as the greyhound and some of the terriers are, should yet be so 

The Pug. 415 

well proportioned that each part is, as to size, in harmony and conformity 
with every other, and in combination, forming a symmetrical whole. 
Condition, which materially affects a dog's chance in the judging ring, 
alters the general appearance and destroys the symmetry when it 
represents extreme poverty or excessive obesity. The pug is a multttm 
in parvo, but this condensation, if I may use the word, should be shown 
by compactness of form, in well knit proportions, and hardness of 
developed muscle. 

The head should be round and short, the skull well domed and large, 
to correspond with the general size bigness is the better word of this 
delightful little ladies' pet. The muzzle must be short and square (a 
pointed muzzle is a serious drawback) ; the nose is short, but the pug is 
not "up -faced," like the bulldog. His nose should be decidedly of the 
snub variety, but not retrouss6. The protrusion of the tongue is a de- 
formity often arising from partial paralysis of that useful organ, and apt to 
appear in all short-faced dogs, but it should always be looked on as a fault. 

The ears should be small, thin, soft, and velvety, and black in colour. 
Some are carried flat and close to the face, corresponding to the " button 
ear " of the bulldog ; others have the ears partially thrown back, the edge 
again slightly folding forward, and a portion of the interior shown. This 
also corresponds with a variety of ear of the bulldog, called the " rose 
ear." I prefer the "rose" to the "button" ear in both breeds, the 
latter, giving a dull, heavy, almost sulky look to the countenance. 

The eyes are dark in colour, very large, bold, and prominent, globular 
in shape, soft and solicitous in expression, and very lustrous, and, when 
excited, full of fire. There should be no tendency to water, or weep, as 
it is called. 

It has been insisted that there should be a black mole on each 
cheek, with three hairs growing out of it. "Stonehenge" gives 5 in 
his valuation of points for this. " Idstone" lays it down as important, 
and hundreds re-echo them. I am of opinion that these two eminent 
writers have themselves merely echoed the extremely foolish cant of dog 
fanciers. A mole on each cheek is not peculiar to pugs, but will, on 
examination, be found in every breed, end is easily enough seen on all 
smooth-faced dogs, anti I cannot, therefore, see why these marks should 
be claimed as a special point in the pug. I would not allow a single point 
for them. 

4i 6 British Dogs. 

The mask is the black colour of the face. The more intense it is the 
better, and it should include the eyes, running in a straight line across 
the forehead ; the more sharply defined this mask is the better, as the 
contrast between it and the body colour is thereby more strongly 
marked. Separate from the mask is a black patch or thumb mark but 
rarely met with, but much to be desired, and no pug can be considered 
absolutely perfect without it. The loose skin of the head forms into 
wrinkles, which alter in depth with the varying emotions of the dog ; 
when seen at their greatest they give a frowning look to it. The lines of 
these wrinkles can be traced when the skin is stretched, or smooth, by 
deeper shades of colour. 

The trace is a dark line the blacker the better running along the 
back right to the end of the tail. It should be clearly defined and 
narrow, half an inch to an inch at broadest. 

The colour of the pure Morrison is a yellow fawn, the pure Willoughby 
a cool stone or light drab ; but the two strains are now much interbred, 
and good pugs of many various shades are met with. What is called the 
" apricot fawn ' ' is now in vogue with many, but the great consideration 
is to get the colour whatever its shade decided enough, and with a 
very pronounced contrast between it and the black of the mask, trace, 
and vent. The most common fault in colour is smuttiness, the mask 
spreading over the whole head, the trace extending down each side, and 
the fawn hairs of the body being more or less shaded with black. A 
correspondent informs me that Mr. Beswicke Eoyd's family, who for 
many generations owned a very fine breed of pugs, now lost, had one pair 
the last that invariably threw one pure white pup in each litter. The 
eminent veterinarian, Blain, records a similar instance in a pug bitch of 
his own, which in three consecutive litters had one pure white pup. A 
white pug with good points would be a curiosity, and the production of a 
strain of them does not seem impossible, and is well worth the attention 
of speculative breeders. 

A great fault with many pugs shown now is coarseness of coat. It 
should be fine, smooth, soft, and glossy. The skin is extremely 
loose, and when a handful is taken, the coat, although thus handled, 
must on one side be felt against the grain, should be neither hard nor 

The neck is short, thick, and fleshy, and with the skin loose and 

The Pug. 

free ; although there is seldom a decided dewlap, still there must be an 
abundance, or the head will be tight-skinned and void of wrinkles. 

The pug is wide across the chest, wide through the barrel, and square 
in the quarters ; the back is fairly broad, and the whole body stout and 
thick set. 

The legs must be straight and well under him, of moderate length. 
The dog should stand about twelve inches high, and at that height 
should weigh about 151b. The legs should be strong, and the feet 
rather long or hare- shaped, the toes well split up, and the toenails 

The tail is of great importance. The more tightly and closely it is 
curled over the hip, the more is thought of it ; and in a winner nowadays 
the double curl is almost indispensable. Many fanciers insist that the 
dog should curl the tail over the right hip, and the bitch curl her tail 
over the left hip, and this is very often the case ; but I have seen these 
positions reversed, and many good specimens curl the tail straight between 
the hips. 

The following are actual weights and measurements of good representa- 
tive dogs : 

Mr. S. B. Witchell's Topsey (dam of King Koffee and Mrs. Crusoe) : 
Weight, 14Jlb. ; length from chest to stern, 13fin. ; height at shoulder, 
12in. ; height from elbow down, or length of leg, Gin. ; width of chest 
between forelegs, 5 Jin. ; girth of chest, 21in. ; ditto of loins, 16in. ; width 
of skull between ears, 4in. ; length of nose, |in. ; width around snout, 
7in. ; ditto around skull, 12in. 

Mr. T. Morris's Punch: Weight, 17 Jib. ; height at shoulder, 12in. ; 
chest to stern, 16in. ; length of leg, 6 Jin. ; girth of chest, 19 Jin. ; muzzle, 
|in. ; girth of muzzle, 7in. 

Mr. Vero Shaw's Hilly : Length of body, 12 Jin. ; height at shoulder, 
lljin. ; width round chest, ISJin. ; ditto round skull, 12^in. ; ditto round 
snout, Gin. ; length of tail, 6 Jin. ; ditto nose, Ifin. ; width of skull, 3fin. ; 
length of leg, GJin. ; weight, 151b. 9Joz. 

Mr. S. B. Witchell's Young Friday : Weight, 14flb. ; length of leg, 
Gin. ; height at shoulder, 12in. ; length from chest to stern, 12Jin. ; girth 
of chest, 20in.; ditto of loins, IGin. ; around skull, 14Jin. ; length of nose, 
1 Jin. ; around snout, Sin. ; width between ears, 4 Jin. 

Mr. Hobson Key's Jumbo : Length of body, 12 Jin. ; height at shoulder, 

4i 8 British Dogs. 

12in. ; from ground to elbow, G^in. ; girth of skull, 12Jrn. ; girth of chest, 
19in. ; weight, 15|lb. 

Mr. W. Louis Faire's Mrs. Crusoe : Height at shoulder, lOiin. ; length 
from chest to stern, 12Jin. ; girth of chest, 15in. ; skull, 11 Jin. ; weight, 

Mrs. P. E. Pigott's Judy (K.C.S.B., 5686) : Age, 5J years ; weight, 
16Jlb. ; height at shoulder, 11 Jin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 
23 Jin. ; length of tail, 7in. ; girth of chest, 19 Jin; girth of loin, 16in. ; 
girth of head, 13in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 5in. ; girth of leg 
lin. below elbow, 3Jin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 
4Jin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 6Jin. ; 
colour and markings, light fawn, black ears, muzzle moles, brownish 

Mrs. P. E. Pigott's Patti II. (Irish Kennel Club Show, 1879) : Age, 
14 months ; weight, 131b. ; height at shoulder, lOin. ; length from nose to 
set on of tail, 23in. ; length of tail, 7in. ; girth of chest, 17 Jin. ; girth 
of loin, 14Jin. ; girth of head, llin. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 
5in. ; girth of leg lin. below elbow, 3 Jin. ; length of head from occiput to 
tip of nose, Sin. ; girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 
Gin. ; colour and markings, dark yellow fawn, distinct black trace, black 
ears, and smudge on forehead. 

Miss Alicia A. L. Jaquet's Turn-Turn : Age, 2 years 4 months ; weight, 
191b. ; height at shoulder, 13Jin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 
22in. ; length of tail, 6 Jin. ; girth of chest, 20in. ; girth of loin, 17fin. ; 
girth of head, 14 Jin. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 5fin. ; girth of leg 
lin. below elbow, 5in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 5in. ; 
girth of muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7Jin. ; from corner 
of eye to tip of nose, lin. ; between eyes, Ifin. ; depth of chap, Ifin. ; 
colour and markings, stone fawn, black points. 

Mrs. Foster's Banjo : Age, 2 years ; weight, 121b. ; height at shoulder, 
lOJin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 19Jin. ; length of tail, 5Jin. ; 
girth of chest, 17in. ; girth of loin, 14in. ; girth of head, 12 Jin. ; girth 
of arm lin. above elbow, 5Jin. ; girth of leg lin. below elbow, 4fin. ; 
length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 4Jin. ; girth of muzzle midway 
between eyes and tip of nose, 6fin. ; colour and markings, cold stone 
fawn, with black ears and good trace ; fair good eyes set wide apart, and 
black toe nails. 

The Pug. 419 

Mrs. Foster's Sambo : Age, 4^ years ; weight, 17|lb. ; height at shoulder, 
12|in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 24in. ; length of tail, Gin. ; 
girth of chest, 20in. ; girth of loin, 17in. ; girth of head, IS^in. ; girth 
of arm lin. above elbow, 6in. ; girth of leg lin. below elbow, Siin. ; 
length of head from occiput to tip of nose, S^in. ; girth of muzzle midway 
between eyes and tip of nose, Sin. ; colour and markings, cold stone fawn, 
with black ears and black toe nails, with large full eyes set wide apart. 

Mrs. Jolliffe Tufnell's Victor : Age, 7 years ; weight, 201b. ; height at 
shoulder, 12fin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 22^in. ; length of 
tail, Sin. ; girth of chest, 21in. ; girth of loin, 19|in. ; girth of head, 
14in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, 5|in. ; girth of leg lin. below elbow, 
4fin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, Gjin. ; girth of muzzle 
midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7in. ; colour and markings, apricot 
colour, mask entirely black, terminating at the level of eye. 

Mr. E. Weekley's Vic : Age, 3 years 11 months ; weight, 201b. ; height 
at shoulder, 12in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 21in. ; length of 
tail, Sin. ; girth of chest, 22|in. ; girth of loin, IG^m. ; girth of head, 
12fin. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, Sin. ; girth of leg lin below elbow, 
4|in. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, Sin. ; girth of muzzle 
midway between eyes and tip of nose, 6in. ; colour and markings, 
apricot fawn. 

Mr. E. Field's Swizzle : Age, 2 years 11 months ; weight, 151b. ; 
height at shoulder, 11 Jin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 20in. ; 
length of tail, G^in. ; girth of chest, 19in. ; girth of loin, 16in. ; girth of 
head, 13in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, Gin. ; girth of leg lin. below 
elbow, Sin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, Sin. ; girth of 
muzzle midway between eyes and tip of nose, 7in. ; colour and markings, 
light fawn, distinct mark down the back. 

Mr. E. Field's Snub : Age, 4 years 3 months ; weight, 16|lb. ; heigth 
at shoulder, 12iin. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 23in. ; length of 
tail, Gin. ; girth of chest, 20in. ; girth of loin, IGin. ; girth of head, 
13in. ; girth of arm lin. above elbow, Gin. ; girth of leg lin. below elbow, 
4iin. ; length of head from occiput to tip of nose, 4|in. ; girth of muzzle 
midway between eyes and tip of nose, 61in. ; colour and markings, light 
fawn, distinct mark down the back. 

420 British Dogs. 



THIS variety of the dog is now an established favourite in this country, 
although it has never attained the great popularity of some other breeds 
of house and companion dogs. He has been written of as the wolf dog, 
the fox dog, the spitz, the loup loup, &c. 

There is a pretty large tribe of dogs peculiar to northern latitudes, 
varying in minor points from each other, but agreeing in general form 
and outline, that are often roughly called wolf dogs from an approach to 
the wolf form of body and head, and I have little doubt to one or other, 
or a commixture of several of these, the Pomeranian of to-day owes his 
origin. My reasons for thinking so are that in big and coarse specimens 
of what we now call well-bred Pomeranians there is a decided approach 
to the lank gaunt form seen in all the varieties of northern dogs shown 
as Esquimaux, Greenland, Siberian sleigh dogs, &c., and there is in all 
much correspondence in shape of head, with the invariable prick ears and 
pointed muzzle, dense furry under coat, and short curled tail. In their 
native home Pomeranians are said to be used as sheep dogs, but such 
specimens as are seen in this country are quite unfitted physically for 
shepherding on our hills, even if they possessed the requisite patience 
and intelligence, which I am not disposed to grant them as a class. The 
Pomeranian is a bright, active dog, indeed, almost too active, and many 
specimens would be better described as restless and fidgety ; they are 
also apt to be too noisy, and their yelping becomes annoying ; that, 
however, is a fault good training can cure or modify. These traits in 
his character enhance his value as a house watch, for, ever on the alert, 
he is quick to give tongue, and wise enough in his own interest to keep 
a safe distance from the intruder whilst he gives the alarm. 

Although not ill-tempered dogs, they are rather impatient and not 
very tractable, yet I have known several that were very tricky. They 
are capital jumpers, and are easily taught steeplechasing, jumping through 
hoops, &c., and the handsomest black specimen I ever saw was also the 
cleverest performer, walking and dancing on his hind legs, feigning death, 
and other clever tricks at the word of command. As ornamental dogs 

The Pomeranian. 421 

they stand high when kept in good order ; the white ones should be 
occasionally washed, roughly dried only if the weather is fine, and turned 
into a heap of straw or into a good grass field. The coat should be 
kept from getting matted by the use of brush and comb, but if the 
combing is overdone, they are robbed of the under growth, which gives 
density to the coat, which then assumes a limp and frizzy appearance. 
They should not be allowed to lie by the fire ; they are sufficiently well 
protected from cold by nature, and indulgence by the fire causes the hair 
to come off, which is a great nuisance, as well as detracting from their 
appearance ; and although I cannot explain it, I have known several 
instances where the nose of a Pomeranian, perfectly black, has become 
brown or flesh coloured from no other apparent cause. 

Although one of the numerous breeds we have introduced from abroad 
and naturalised, the Pomeranian has been known here for at least a 
century, as the following description, I think, clearly proves. He 
appears, however, to have been rather bigger than we now like him, and 
the then prevailing colour is now discountenanced, if not altogether lost. 
A writer in the " Sportsman's Cabinet," 1802, thus describes him : " The 
dog so called in this country is but little more than 18in. or 20in. in 
height, and is distinguished by his long, thick, and rather upright coat, 
forming a most tremendous ruff about the neck, but short and smooth on 
the head and ears. They are mostly of a pale yellow or cream colour, 
and lighter on the lower parts. Some are white, some few black, and 
others, but very rarely, spotted ; the head broad towards the neck, and 
narrowing to the muzzle ; ears short, pointed, and erect ; nose and eyes 
mostly black ; the tail large and bushy, and invariably curled in a ring 
upon the back. Instances of smooth or short coated ones are very rarely 
seen. In England he is much more familiarly known by the name of fox 
dog, and this may originally have proceeded from his having much affinity 
to that animal about the head ; but by those who in their writings 
describe him as a native of Pomerania, he passes under the appellation 
of the Pomeranian dog." 

I cannot refrain from giving the same writer's description of the 
character of the Pomeranian, although, as applied to those of the present 
day, it is decidedly too sweeping in its condemnation. He says the 
Pomeranian is " by nature frivolous, artful, noisy, quarrelsome, cowardly, 
petulant, deceitful, snappish and dangerous to children, without one 

422 British Dogs. 

predominant property of perfection to recommend him." If lie deserved 
this terribly bad character in the beginning of the century, he must have 
been a sad dog indeed, and I am glad to be able to say that Master 
Pomeranian has largely profited by the happy influences of English home 
life, and is now morally a respectable, as he is physically an ornamental, 
member of the canine family. 

In respect to colour, fashion seems to rule the day, but surely we 
ought not to let fashion and prejudice injure a breed when all the while 
dog show promoters and others profess to be doing all in their power to 
promote canine interests. What could be prettier than a good cream- 
coloured Pomeranian or a rich reddish fawn ? 

Some fifteen or twenty years ago there was a strain of the latter 
colour in the neighbourhood of Handsworth, Birmingham, perfect models 
in all points, and two years ago I saw a beauty of the same colour 
in an open carriage in London, and I do not think it would be very 
difficult to produce them. There was one, two or three years ago, at a 
butcher's shop in Clapham, and a fair one is to be seen any day now in 

The white ones that now appear at our shows are for the most part 
coarse and indifferent specimens, and the black ones a great deal worse. 
The best black I have ever seen is the property of the proprietor of 
Dolen's Hotel, Amsterdam. 

There are numbers of better Pomeranians in the hands of people who 
never exhibit than nineteen out of twenty seen on the show bench. I 
know of no class exhibited where there is more room for improvement. 

In judging Pomeranians but few points are considered, and these I 
would describe and assess as follow : 

General appearance, symmetry, and condition. He presents the appear- 
ance of being as square built as a pug, although he is not, his thick 
outstanding coat causing the deception, aided by the cut-off look behind, 
owing to his tail lying so tightly on his back ; yet that he is active 
and nimble, his straight forelegs, well bent clean hocks, neat feet, sharp 
muzzle, and bright little dark eyes assure the judge ; out of condition 
he looks thin, meagre, flat-sided, and ragged. 

Size. I think a standard for size should be established. As it is, we 
have them all sizes, from lOlb. to 251b. As they are essentially a lady's 
dog, I would say the nearest to 161b. for dogs and 141b. bitches the better. 

The Poodle. 


Head. Skull flat, broad at occiput, narrowing to the forehead, which 
should not be too bold ; cheeks wide, muzzle narrowing to a fine point ; 
ears small and quite erect ; eyes dark, quite black preferable ; nose also 
black, but a brown nose should not disqualify ; the whole head very fox- 
like ; head and face covered with smooth short hair. 

Coat. Thick, straight, outstanding, free from curl or frizziness, very 
abundant all over the body, and superabundant round the neck, forming 
a thick deep ruff, and long, straight, and flowing on the hams ; under- 
neath the longer hair there should be a thick soft underjacket. 

Colour. Self colours white should be a pure flake white throughout, 
coloured patches, fawn, or other being very objectionable. Other colours 
I think should be encouraged are black, cream, fawn, red, buff. 

Legs and feet. Straight fore legs, feathered behind ; hocks well let 
down, with but scant feathering below the joint ; feet small, neat, 
round, and the toes well sprung. 

Tail short, tightly curled on the back, exceedingly well feathered, 
with the feathering spreading out from each side of it over the hips, fan- 



IN dogs ordinarily spoken of as poodles we find a multiplicity of type, 
which is doubtless to be accounted for by the commixture of pure poodle 
blood with that of other varieties. 

The poodle has been long known in this country. According to the 
writer on domesticated dogs in " Jardine's Naturalists' Library," he is 
of German origin. He says, " The water dog or poodle of the Germans 
rose first in favour in Germany, and was, during the revolutionary wars, 
carried by the soldiers into France, and that in the later campaigns only 
became familiar to the British, who met with it in Spain and the Nether- 
lands." The work in which this statement is made commands for it 
respect ; but I confess that to me it not only lacks lucidity but is unsup- 

424 British Dogs. 

ported by proof, and certainly, so far as the date at which it became known 
to the British is concerned, it appears to be contradicted by the fact that 
Hogarth represents the poodle in his time as the clipped, shaven, and 
befooled canine fop he is still made by some of his admirers, so that if the 
writer referred to is correct, the dog and the whimsical fashion of making 
him as grotesque as possible must have at least spread rapidly. I am not 
aware that he is referred to by any one of the few English writers on 
dogs prior to Hogarth's time, whereas Gesner, the German writer, to 
whose book on animals Dr. Cams contributed the chapters on English 
dogs, describes the poodle as a German dog. 

Linnaeus recognised two varieties, the large and the small barbet or 
water dog, which I take to mean the poodle. Dr. Fitzinger, in his book, 
" Der Hund und seine Eacen," describes no less than six varieties. This 
I give on the authority of " Wildf owler, " who wrote the article on poodles 
in " Dogs of the British Islands," and gave there in detail Fitzinger's 
description of each ; but I do not see that it would be of practical value 
to transcribe it here. To obtain the six varieties there is a considerable 
amount of hair-splitting, and where the class division is not a question of 
coat it is merely one of size. We have poodles spoken of as French, 
Spanish, German, and Eussian, but the terms do not convey a very clear 
means of identification, or, indeed, express any concise thought of the 
speaker in most instances. 

The black variety has been very fashionable of late years, and they 
have been dubbed Eussian poodles, and probably those exhibited may 
have been brought from Eussia ; but black has by all writers been 
recognised as a poodle colour, and is, therefore, not peculiar to any 
Eussian breed of them. 

The fact appears to be that they have, whatever their origin and native 
home, spread over most of the countries of Europe, and doubtless have 
been in different places more or less modified by various crosses. 

Our water dog of the early part of this century appears to have been an 
impure poodle, and I have no doubt (as I stated in an article on the breed, 
published in the " Country " a number of years ago) that the Irish water 
spaniel has in him a considerable amount of poodle blood. These are the 
only two breeds I know of who have the hair on any part of the body 
growing in long spiral ringlets, or quills, which is peculiar to the poodle. 

Linnaeus says of the poodle, "hair long and curled, like a sheep," 


w g 


p -I 

O s 

X a 

* S 







The Poodle. 425 

although the curls are thinner and harder than the variety of sheep I 
presume the great naturalist here to take for his illustration. Fitzinger 
accurately describes the coat as falling down "regularly in rows of 
straight cords," and I imagine this is the most marked characteristic of 
the breed, and that the fluffy and coarse and open woolly coated are 
impure, except, of course, where the open coat has been artificially 
obtained by brush and comb. This, I think, is the case with some of. 
the beat samples of those black shaven ones now in vogue. I lately saw 
at Westgate-on-Sea a splendid specimen, identical in size and shape with 
the present winning dogs, but unshaven, black as jet in coat, which 
consisted of beautiful corded ringlets throughout. 

The white corded variety, with shorter legs, has long been cultivated 
in our northern counties, but one of the best specimens in England, shown 
by Mr. Walter Potts at Hanover, in 1879, stood no chance against the 
German exhibits, which included the finest specimens I have ever seen, 
perfect in the long equal quill-like curls or cords, of a rich creamy white, 
which covered every part of their bodies. 

The poodle, or what I take to be a poodle cross, is, I understand, in 
great request among the " one-horse " sportsmen of the Continent, those 
gentlemen who think of the currant jelly, and mean the pot to boil, and 
who are still in the backward stage of sport our ancestors are represented 
to have occupied in the words of the song 

Shoot how you can was then the plan, 
Some hundred years ago. 

For such a purpose a large poodle with a dash of spaniel would seem the 
very thing to be desired. There is no lack of reasoning power in the 
poodle, and his widespread olfactories seize the slightest particle of the 
tainted gale and unerringly lead him to his prey, whilst the spaniel cross, 
or even a rough terrier or a hound one, would improve his coat for marsh 
and river work, and give him more dash and go. 

In this country pure poodles are not worked, nor are there any longer 
to be found, unless it be in rare instances, his close ally, the old water 
dog, common in the beginning of the ceutury, and specimens of which I 
have seen at work in its fifth decade. There has of late been in the 
columns of the Field a suggestion made to introduce poodle blood in our 
retrievers, and the idea met with considerable support. I cannot see the 
necessity for it, but I should not hesitate to introduce it into my kennels 

F P 

426 British Dogs. 

were I an Irish water spaniel breeder, and, indeed, I think I conld safely 
undertake, in seven or eight generations at most, to manufacture a breed 
identical with these by crossing poodle and large land spaniel. 

The remarkably high intelligence of the poodle and his marvellous 
powers of scent mark him out to the sportsman as worthy of a 
higher destiny than to be compulsorily habited as the buffoon of the 
canine race merely to pander to a frivolous taste. 

I by no means object to any person indulging in the exercise of his 
own peculiar eccentricity in dealing with his dog if no injury can follow, 
but to three-parts shave a long thick coated dog, and in this climate 
exhibit him on a show bench in mid-winter, is not right. Touatt, 
whose name is still and will continue to be honoured by his veterinary 
brethren, writing of this dog, says, " It should be remembered that 
he was not designed by nature to be thus exposed to the cold of 
winter, and that there are no dogs so liable to rheumatism, and that 
rheumatism degenerates into palsy.' ' 

From a show point of view I also object, unless the system of prize 
giving be somewhat modified, and the skill of the perruquier, who most 
successfully displays his fantastic tricks on the dog, should receive the 
prize, and not the substitute for a dog which his craft has created. 

The poodle is par excellence the "tricky dog;" a high intelligence, 
strong love for his master, a naturally cheerful temper, and a liking for 
fun make him at once a bright and cheerful companion and a very apt 
scholar, and innumerable are the tricks he may be taught. This, 
however, is not the place to go into that subject. 

In classifying the poodles for show purposes, I would be disposed 
to recognise only the corded, or, as I prefer to describe them, those whose 
hair falls in regular hard ringlets, the thickness of goose quils or less ; 
and to divide these into the black and the white. I would ignore the 
coarse and open woolly coated or fluffy sort, as unmistakably having a 
bar sinister in their escutcheon. Popular opinion or rather, let me 
say, the views of those who rule over us in doggy matters and wield 
public opinion by the power of their position is for the time against me, 
so I can no more than act up to our motto, "I Dare" 'vent my own 
opinions, and, in the words of another, " bide my time." 

There are a vast number of small white dogs, or white with lemon 
patches, open haired, with a more or less strong tendency to curl, 

The Poodle. 


accepted by the general public as small poodles, which, I believe, for the 
most part, to be a cross of small poodle and Maltese terrier. These run 
from 41b. up to 81b., or even lOlb., and are much prized by ladies. I 
wish a breed of these small white curly-coated pets could be established 
for the sake of the judges at our shows, where these pets often turn up, 
and under circumstances which would render it more agreeable to give a 
prize than to pronounce the inevitable fiat which condemns them to the 
abyss of mongrelism. They are certainly both prettier and more 
amusing as pets than those shivering, semi-nude wretches, yclept smooth- 
haired toy terriers. 

I should describe the poodle, when in his natural state, as a well-built 
and fairly-proportioned dog a medium between the lightness of the 
whippet and the heaviness of the bulldog. The length and density of his 
coat make him look heavier and less active than he really is. In height 
he may vary from, say, 14in. to 19in. or 20in. 

The head should be large, the skull well domed, with considerable 
width between the ears. 

The muzzle should be rather short and truncated ; when shaved and a 
moustache left it has a pointed appearance, but it is really not so, or 
should not be so. 

The forehead should be high and prominent. 

The eyes should be small, dark, bright, and intelligent to a high 
degree. They should light up the face, which, as the dog seems to study 
his master, wears a peculiar expression of combined gravity and drollery. 

The nose should be expanded, that is, the nostrils wide, and black in 

The ears should be long, and covered with the fine ringlets described 
above ; they should be set on low and lie close. 

The neck should be rather short than long, the thick clothing shorten- 
ing its appearance. 

Chest must be pretty deep and not very wide, or the dog will be slow 
and clumsy ; the back straight, with loin strong. 

The fore legs must be straight, the hind legs fairly bent and stifle 
hock well let down ; the feet large tor the size of the dog, and rather 
spreading, although not flat or weak. 

The tail is usually docked, when left on it is of moderate length, carried 
well up at an angle of about 45deg., and well covered with hair in ringlets. 

F F 2 

428 British Dogs. 

As to the coat, I have already stated that I look npon the ringlet coat 
as the true poodle coat, and the open woolly one as a modification of it 
from crosses. 

In colours, the pure white or pure black are to be preferred, but there 
are good specimens combining these colours, in which cases they appear 
in patches. Youatt gives an engraving of one, a black and white, 
which was copied in Stonehenge's " The Dog," and a dog exactly corre- 
sponding to that engraving, and a first-rate specimen of a poodle was 
some years ago in the possession of an innkeeper in Burton-on-Trent. 
There are also specimens of a rufus colour, and although a black or a 
white may be preferred, red coloured ones with all points good should 
rather be encouraged than tabooed. 

The proportions of weight to height at shoulder may be put as about 
l^lb. to the inch, but in some of the white corded specimens the propor- 
tion of weight would be greater. 



ALL English writers, new and old, that I have consulted, agree in one 
thing, and that is, that in centuries long past Malta furnished toy dogs 
for the "dainty dames and mincing mistresses" of both Greece and 

It also appears to be a general agreement among these writers that 
the island of Malta is identical with the Melita ascribed by ancient 
writers as the home of these pet dogs, and, further, that we originally 
obtained the breed from that place, although some of them recognise the 
fact that no proof of that exists. 

Dr. Johannes Caius says (writing, be it remarked, of the toy spaniel 
of his time) : " They are called Meliti, of the Island of Malta, from 
whence they were brought hither." 

In the part of this work dealing with toy spaniels I have expressed 
myself respecting the looseness and inaccuracy of Caius, and the habit he 
evidences of taking things at secondhand, and his tendency to moralise 

The Maltese Terrier. 429 

rather than describe, and I ventured to offer the opinion that he really 
was describing the true, though diminutive, spaniel of his time, and had 
got his historical recollections mixed up with his facts of the day. I 
think it is not at all unlikely that there existed in England toy dogs 
from the Mediterranean of the type we now recognise as the Maltese, and 
that the learned doctor was not sufficient of " a fancier " to discriminate 
the minute differences between one toy and another. 

Strabo, who, so far as I am aware, was the earliest writer to refer 
specially to these toys, does not give Malta as the native place of these 
dogs, but, on the contrary, writes as follows : " There is a town in Sicily 
called Melita, whence are exported many beautiful dogs, called Canes 
Melitei. They were the peculiar favourites of the women; but now 
(A.D. 25) there is less account made of these animals, which are not 
bigger than common ferrets or weasels, yet they are not small in their 
understanding nor unstable in their love." 

Strabo must have been wanting in the organ of comparativeness, or 
the weasels of his time were of Brobdignagian proportions compared 
with ours ; but the point is if Melita, in Sicily, was the birthplace of 
the Maltese so-called dog, why ascribe its origin to the island of 
Malta P 

As I have said, every English writer I have consulted seems to have 
taken it for granted that the dog we call Maltese originally came from 
Malta, but not one offers the slightest proof in support of the assump- 
tion. It would be needless to go through the works of these writers 
seriatim. From "Idstone" I should have expected something more accu- 
rate and scholarly than the slovenly article he has given in his book, and 
coming to " Stonehenge " I am aghast with wonder and amazement. He 
seems to have lost his compass, and at the mercy of wind and tide goes 
see-sawing between Malta and Manilla those wide extremes a hopeless 
wreck out of whose hull we cannot get any cargo worth landing. 

In his earliest work on the dog he describes the breed as nearly extinct, 
but, although " scarce, still to be obtained in Malta." He, however, in 
the same work gave an engraving of a dog, as a Maltese, imported from 
Manilla. In " The Dogs of the British Islands," still hankering after 
Malta as their birthplace, he confesses his inability "to trace any records 
of the dog, after many inquiries made amongst residents in Maltft." 
Well, if Strabo is right this is not to be wondered at any more than 

430 British Dogs. 

that these and other inquiries should have created in Malta a supply of a 
factitious article to meet an unintelligible demand. 

Whether the dog we now call a Maltese terrier be a descendant more 
or less pure from the breed Strabo wrote of, it is now impossible to say ; 
but there is one thing of more practical value, and that is that those 
who affect the breed nowadays, at least know the sort of dog they refer 
to by that name, and in the minds of breeders, judges, critics, and 
fanciers, there should be a clearness of meaning as to the points which, 
aggregated, make up the dog, from which there should be no getting 

From this point of view it is lamentable to think that " Stonehenge," 
who has been accepted as an oracle on such subjects, should have given 
the weight of his name to the contradictions and absurdities which mark 
his several articles on this breed. 

In the 1872 edition of his " Dogs of the British Islands " he discards 
the Manilla dog, and gives his readers an engraving of Mandeville's 
Fido, then at the zenith of his fame, and states the dog's height to be 
llin. at shoulder to a weight of 6lb., whilst from tip to tip of ears the 
dog is said to have measured 21in. These figures condemn themselves. 
In this edition we are told that the coat " should be long, and fall in 
ringlets, the longer the better." In the 1878 edition it is said " there is 
a slight wave but no absolute curl." In the six years, I suppose, the 
tyre women who dress these toys had succeeded in ironing the ringlets out. 

" The eyes," he says, " should not show the weeping corner incidental 
to the King Charles and Blenheim." Enquiry among exhibitors would 
have shown him that " Weeping " is one of the most tiresome things 
exhibitors of Maltese have to contend against. The watery discharge 
stains the white hair a dirty red. 

"The ears," we are told, "are long," which is not the case; the 
skin, or flap of the ear is short, but the hair upon it is long. Further, 
" the roof of the mouth is black." I seldom look into a dog's mouth, 
except to examine his teeth, and consider that, as a proof of quality or 
purity of breed, we might as well consider the colour of his liver. 
Finally, "Stonehenge" objects to this dog being called a terrier, because 
"it has none of the properties of the terrier tribe," and that "it 
approaches very closely to the spaniel." 

Eather strange, this, from the same pen that wrote, " This beautiful 

The Maltese Terrier. 


little dog is a Skye terrier in miniature," and I should think most 
admirers of the breed will agree with me that comparison to a bulldog 
would have been quite as near the mark as comparison to a spaniel. 

By what system of selection these dogs have been brought to their 
present form I cannot say, although it is not difficult to imagine several 
ways of arriving at the end which has been gained. I, however, accept 
the dog as he is, and call him a Maltese terrier, quite certain that at 
least he has as good a right to be called terrier as Maltese. 

Among the earliest and most successful of exhibitors of this variety 
stands Mr. R. Mandeville, who for a considerable time held undisputed 
sway. I believe Mr. Mandeville still breeds a few, but rarely exhibits. 
The last time his Fido competed was at the Crystal Palace Show, 1878, 
when I, acting as judge, placed him second to Lady Giffard's Hugh, and 
before Lord Clyde, a decision which Mr. Mandeville expressly endorsed. 

Hugh and Lord Clyde are brothers, being out of Madge by Man- 
deville's Fido, and their sire, Prince, is by his Old Fido ; and, indeed, 
all the Maltese terriers of any note that are shown are more or less 
purely of Mandeville' s strain. 

Breeders of this variety are few in number. At the present time, Mr. 
J. Jacobs, Maltese Cottage, Headington Quarry, Oxon, is, I think, the 
principal one ; whilst on the show bench Lady Giffard's exquisite little 
pets Hugh, Lord Clyde, Bob Eoy, Pixie, Mopsey III., &c., are each 
more charming than the other, and prove invincible wherever they are 

The general appearance of these dogs depends much on how their toilet 
has been attended to. In show form they are little animated, heaps of 
pure white glistening silk. The long straight hair falls evenly all over 
the body, on the head it is so long that it quite covers the whole face, 
but it is kept parted down the centre and brushed aside, to show the 
long Dundreary whiskers and moustache, with the bright black peery 
eyes shining like diamonds, and almost outdoing the jet-like nose in 
depth of colour. The head, face, and muzzle, if carefully examined, 
will be seen to show more terrier than spaniel character, and the ears, 
though small, should fall, and are well covered with long, soft, straight 
hair, which falls almost to the ground. 

Although the coat hides the shape of body, enough is seen to show 
the dog is short backed, and the carriage of tail adds to this appearance. 

432 British Dogs. 

It is carried over the back or hips, but not so tightly as should be the 
case with the pug and Pomeranian. The tail should be abundantly 
fringed with long flowing hair. 

The subject of our woodcut is Hugh, the property of Lady Giffard, 
Brightley Oakley, Eedhill. Hugh, when drawn, was between 4 and 5 
years old, so just at his best, Maltese not maturing early. He has taken 
prizes wherever shown ; and, indeed, there is now no Maltese to come 
near him except his younger brothers, Lord Clyde and Eob Roy. 

The following are measurements of dogs owned by Lady Giffard : 

Hugh : Age, 4 years ; weight, 4Jlb. ; height at shoulder, Sin. ; length 
from nose to set on of tail, 16in. 

Lord Clyde : Weight, 51b. ; height at shoulder, Sin. ; length from nose 
to set on of tail, 16iin. 

Mopsey III. : Age, 4 years ; weight, 4|lb. ; height at shoulder, 7|in. ; 
length from nose to set on of tail, 15|in. 

Pixie : Age 5 years 4 months ; weight, 51b. ; height at shoulder, Sin. ; 
length from nose to set on of tail, 16in. 

Rob Eoy (K.C.S.B., 8732) : Age, 2 years 3 months ; weight, 3flb. ; 
height at shoulder, 7^in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 14iin. 



NOWHERE in England are dog shows so popular, numerous, and flourish- 
ing as in the counties of Lancaster and York, and their immediate 
borders, and each of the two counties named has given us a new breed 
for the Manchester terrier which we owe to Lancashire is, it must be 
admitted, so widely different from the old black and tan terrier as to be 
almost, if not quite, a new breed, and the Yorkshire terrier is assuredly 
a manufacture of comparatively recent years. 

This dog long went by the name of rough or Scotch terrier, and many 
dog show committees in issuing their schedules still include them under 
that heading ; but to call them Scotch terriers is quite a misnomer, the 
true Scotch terrier being a much rougher, shorter, and harder coated dog, 

The Yorkshire Terrier. 433 

of greater size and hardiness, and altogether a rough-and-tumble work- 
ing vermin dog, with no pretensions to the beauty and elegance of the 
little "Yorkshire swell," so that it is rather startling to find this petit 
exquisite still called a Scotch terrier in the catalogue of such an 
important and excellently managed show as that of Darlington. The 
Kennel Club, and others who have followed them, in making a class for 
these dogs, and naming it Yorkshire terriers, have yielded to the per- 
sistence of the " Country " in pointing out the absurdity of the misnomer 
in general use, and in passing I would observe that to the same paper 
very much of the credit is due of exposing the fallacy, and turning into 
ridicule the idea prevalent seven to ten years ago, and encouraged by the 
newspaper critics and judges of the time, that a colley should be in colour 
"black, marked with rich orange tan." 

That the Yorkshire terrier should have been called Scotch by those 
who, although they may have the credit of producing this dog, probably 
did not know of the existence of the real Scotch terrier as a breed, 
suggests that ab least a terrier of Scotland has had something to do with 
his manufacture. Now, among terriers recognised as Scotch, if not now 
peculiar to the country, we have the old hard short coated Scotch terrier 
par excellence ; the short-legged and mixed-coated Dandie ; the Skyes, 
with the long weasel-like bodies and long hard coat ; and the perky little 
prick-eared hard and short coate.d Aberdonian ; and, in addition, the 
Glasgow or Paisley Skye, a more toyish dog, shorter in the back, and 
comparatively soft and silky in coat, which it probably inherits from 
a Maltese terrier cross. My theory, then, is, respecting the origin of 
the Yorkshire terriers (and I admit it is only a theory, for the 
most diligent and repeated inquiries on my part in all likely or 
promising quarters have failed in elucidating reliable facts, and none 
certainly contradictory of my views), is that the dog was what gar- 
deners call "a sport" from some lucky combination of one of the 
Scotch terriers, either the genuine Skye or the Paisley toy, and one of 
the old soft and longish coated black and tan English terriers, at one 
time common enough, and probably one with a dash of Maltese blood 
in it. 

However first obtained, we have at least got them now, and most 
owners are satisfied if they can claim a strain of the blood of the 
famous Huddersfield Ben, who combined in himself the blood of three 

434 British Dogs. 

illustrious predecessors Walshaw's Sandy, Kamsden's Bounce, and 
Inman's Don ; and most of the celebrities of the day boast of Ben blood, 
and there is never any lack of good ones to come to the front when there 
is a chance to jostle the holders of show honours from their coveted 
position. It must never be forgotten, however, that those we see at 
shows are the crSme de la crgme, shown at their very best, and in parade 
uniform ; and it is not all that are pure bred that turn out fit for show. 
Much depends on their preparation, but there are pure specimens that 
cannot be prepared, and always look scrubby and ragged. 

Although they are essentially toys, they are not wanting in pluck, and 
some of the breed have been good rat killers. A noted breeder has told 
me one of his celebrated show specimens once won fourth prize in a 
considerable sweepstakes, although quite without training or preparation, 
and many of them are perfect little spitfires, sharp as needles, and make 
excellent house dogs from their alertness. 

Artificial means are used to encourage and stimulate the growth of the 
hair. The hind feet are kept encased in chamois leather boots, so that, 
even should they scratch, the claws being covered, the coat is neither 
brokea nor pulled out, and the diet is carefully regulated so as to 
obviate heat of the blood and skin disease. Various applications to 
the skin are used to stimulate the growth of the hair, concerning which 
much mystery is affected. Some years ago I recommended to a breeder 
in Hanley a preparation for this purpose, and as he has recently written 
to The Bazaar newspaper recommending it to others as having proved 
successful in his own hands, it may be of use to repeat it here. It is 
a liniment consisting of the following ingredients, and mixed artem 
secundem, as any chemist and druggist knows how : Strong mercurial 
ointment loz., spirit of hartshorn loz., tincture of cantharides ioz., essen- 
tial oil of nutmeg |oz., and camphorated oil, 17oz. A little of this 
should be well rubbed into the skin at the partings ; the whole of the 
body should not be dressed at once, but the liniment should be used 
daily on portions of the body alternately for instance, one side one 
night, the other side the following, and the head, neck, and breast the 
third. Cocoa nut oil, too, is a capital thing for promoting the growth of 
and softening the coat, and when at home and in preparation for shows 
the coat may with advantage be freely dressed with it. It may be 
necessary to say, in respect to the use of the liniment recipe, for which is 

The Yorkshire Terrier. 435 

given above, that as some dogs are much more tender in the skin than 
others, its effect should be -watched, and if undue irritation is produced 
by it, it should, for use on such dogs, be weakened by mixing with it a 
portion of plain olive oil, and the bottle should always be well shaken 
before using its contents. 

The crowds of ladies attracted to the range of crystal and mahogany 
palaces, where these little beauties luxuriate on silk and velvet cushions, 
see little of their make and shape, concealed as it is with an abundance 
of flowing hair, arranged with all the art of the accomplished perruquier ; 
and it is quite amusing to see the amount of preparation these little 
creatures undergo before being carried before the judge. 

When born the pups are very dark, and a story is told of a celebrated 
judge who, having had a bitch about to become a mother, presented to 
him, when the pups came duly to hand drowned them "right off," and 
wrote to his friend that there must have been some mistake, as the 
pups were as black and tan as Manchester terriers. The tail is docked 
whilst the pups are with the dam, a discreet proceeding, or it is to be 
feared some of them would show their Maltese origin by carrying the 
caudal appendage tightly over the hips. 

The head is small, rather flat on the crown, and, together with the 
muzzle, much resembles in shape the Skye terrier. 

The eyes, only seen when the " fall " or hair of the face is parted, are 
small, keen, and bright. 

The ears, when entire, are either erect, with a slight falling over at the 
tip, or quite pricked. Lady Giffard's Katie, a very good specimen, had 
perfect natural prick ears, but the ears in most specimens are cropped. 

The general shape, as seen in show specimens, is to a considerable 
extent formed by the coat, which, brushed down to the ground on each 
side, gives a square and level appearance, the back being straight and 
level, must not be too long, but a happy medium between the proportions 
shown by the Dandie and fox terrier. 

The legs and feet, although scarcely seen, must be straight and good, 
or the dog would have a deformed appearance. 

The tail is usually docked, and shows abundance of feathering. 

The coat must be long, straight, and silky ; any appearance of curl or 
crimping is objectionable, and if wavy at all, it must be very slightly so ; 
but many excellent specimens have the coat slightly waved. I do not 

436 British Dogs. 

know the utmost extent to which the coat has been grown, but should 
suppose lOin. or 12in. not uncommonly reached, and it should be abundant 

The colour is one of the most essential things to be looked for in the 
Yorkshire terrier ; so important is it, and so fully is this recognised by 
exhibitors, that it is said some specimens are shown at times not quite 
innocent of plumbago, and other things judiciously applied. They are 
really blue and tan terriers, and the blue ranges from the clear silvery hue 
to a deep sky blue and a blue black, all dogs getting, I believe, lighter 
in colour as they age. The tan on the head should be golden, and the 
" fall," or hair, over the face, gets silvery to wards the ends; the tan is 
deeper on the whiskers, and about the ears, and on the legs. 

They vary in size considerably, so much so, that I advocate most 
strongly making two classes for them, for it is utterly absurd to class 
any of this breed as a broken-haired terrier, as the Kennel Club do, 
regardless of the plain meaning of the words. What can be more 
stupid than to give one of these terriers a prize in his own proper class, 
and under his proper designation, and his own mother a prize in the 
broken-haired toy class ? 

The principal breeders and exhibitors are Mrs. M. A. Foster, who, 
indeed, seems to have quite a monopoly of this breed, and to be invariably 
successful as an exhibitor; Miss Alderson, of Leeds, who, however, 
seems of late to have retired from the arena ; Mr. Abraham Bolton, of 
Accrington ; Mr. Cavanagh, of Leeds ; and Mr. Greenwood, of Bradford. 

Measurements of Yorkshire Terriers : 

Mrs. M. A. Foster's Smart: Age, 3 years ; weight, lOlb. ; height at 
shoulder, 12in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 22in. 

Mrs. M. A. Foster's Sandy : Age, 2 years ; weight, 4flb. ; height at 
shoulder, 9in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, 19in. 

Mrs. M. A. Foster's Pride : Age, 4 years ; weight, 41b. ; height at 
shoulder, 8in. ; length from nose to set on of tail, ISJin. 


Diminutives of already mentioned varieties and 
foreign toy dogs occasionally met with at 
our shows. 

Including : 

The Italian Greyhound. 
The Black and Tan Toy 

The Blue and Tan Toy 


The White Toy Terrier. 
The Long-haired Toy 


6. The Japanese Pug. 
f. The Broken-haired Toy 

8. The Chinese Crested 


9. The Chinese Edible 


The dogs I have classed together here are widely 
different in their physical traits, and it is only as toys 
and curiosities that they are akin, and can be ranked 


No more elegant dog exists than a good specimen of the Italian grey- 

There is in such a refinement of form and a grace in every movement 
that inevitably attracts the dog lover and compels his eulogies. 

The beauty of form is matched with a delicacy of frame exquisitely 

438 British Dogs. 

attractive, and mark this pretty pet as fit only for the companionship of 
women, whose tender handling alone is light enough to save from efface- 
ment the peach bloom that seems to adorn them, and preserve from 
destruction a frame too fragile for the rough touch of masculine hands. 

This view may arise from some unusual and unaccountable idiosyn- 
cracy on my part, for certain it is that these most frail specimens 
of canine flesh are almost entirely exhibited by men, rarely by women ; 
but I must confess I always experience a feeling of relief when I see 
such brittle looking goods as Italian greyhounds freed from the coarse 
and heavy hands of men exhibitors. 

As the name imports, Italy is the native home of these exquisitely 
lovely dogs ; yet it is not under the azure skies of Italy that they are 
brought to the greatest perfection,