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Full text of "British entomology; being illustrations and descriptions of the genera of insects found in Great Britain and Ireland: containing coloured figures from nature of the most rare and beautiful species, and in many instances of the plants upon which they are found"

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ffl BRITISH ENTOMOLOGY; 

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ILLUSTRATIONS AND DESCRIPTIONS 



THE GENERA OF INSECTS 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND: 

CONTAINING 

COLOURED FIGURES FROM NATURE 

OF THE MOST RARE AND BEAUTIFUL SPECIES, 

AND IN MANY INSTANCES 

OF THE PLANTS UPON WHICH THEY ARE FOUND. 



BY JOHN CURTIS, F.L.S. 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE ASHMOLEAN SOCIETY OF OXFORD, 

OF THE IMPERIAL AND ROYAL ACADEMY OF FLORENCE, 

OF THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, ETC. 



VOL. III. 

DERMAPTERA. DICTYOPTERA. 

ORTHOPTERA. STREPSIPTERA. 

HYMENOPTERA, Part L 

LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR, 

AND SOLD BY 

R. ELLIS AND CO., 92 GREAT RUSSELL STREET, BLOOMSBURY 

SIMPKIN AND MARSHALL, STATIONERS' COURT; AND 

J. B. BAILLIERE, 219 REGENT STREET. 

1823—1840. 




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560. 
FORFICULA BOREALIS. 



Order Dermaptera. Fam. Forficulidae. 

Type of the Genus, Forficula auriculariaiiw/i. 
FoRFicuLA Linn., &;C. 

Antenna inserted before the eyes, moderately long, filiform, pu- 
bescent and 14-jointed, basal joint the stoutest, ovate, narrowed 
at the base, 2nd the smallest, 3rd as slender but longer, 4th 
globose, the remainder stouter, 5th as long as the 3rd, 6th a 
little longer, 5 or 6 following rather longer, the remainder 
slightly decreasing in size (1). 

Labrum somewhat transverse-ovate (2 I), attached to the clypeus 
which is similar in form (c), slightly thickened in front, ciliated 
and a little emarginate. 

Mandibles short and trigonate, one strongly bifid at the apex, 

with the internal margin convex at the base (3), the other 

slightly concave and forming an angle at the centre. 

Maxillee rather elongated, furnished with 2 slender lobes, the 

internal one rigid, pointed and bifid at the apex, the interior 

margin ciliated with spines above and hairs below, external lobe 

curved, linear, rounded at the apex. Palpi rather long, hairy 

and 5-jointed, two basal joints short, two following long of equal 

size, a little clavate, 5th rather longer (4). 

Mentum ovate, concave at the base. Lip elongated, pUose, bi- 

lobed, with a transverse suture at the middle. Palpi attached 

to small scapes, triarticulate, rough with short hairs, basal joint 

globose, 2nd and 3rd of equal length, clavate, the latter with a 

gland at the apex (5). 

Head ovate : eyes small, lateral and ovate. Thorax not larger than 

the head, margined, orbicular-quadrate : scutellum concealed. Elytra 

attached beneath the thorax and lying parallel on the back, oblong, 

coriaceous tvithout nervures (9 e). Wings ample, with numerous 

radiating nervures, folded several times, one lying under each elytron, 

with a small portion projecting beyond it (9 w). Abdomen broader 

than the elytra, 9 -jointed in the male with a small elevated knot on 

each side of the 2nd and 3rd joints, and also at the apex ; 1 -jointed 

in the female (A $ ) ; the apex furnished with a pair of moveable 

forceps, curved and denticulated in the male (A (J), curved only at 

the apex in the female ( ? ). Legs, hinder pair a little the longest : 

thighs incrassated : tibise simple : tarsi triarticulate, basal joint 

rather long, 2nd cordate, 3rd slender clavate and nearly as long as 

the 1st : claws slender, acute. 



BoREALis Leach's MSS.—Curt. Guide, Gen. 442. 2. 
In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



Well and universally known as the Earwig is, comparatively 
few are acquainted with its oeconomy and singular structure, 
the dread entertained of these insects rendering them objects 
of aversion to most persons. Earwigs, having the power of 
flight, and coming out in the evening and night to feed upon 
vegetable substances, are exceedingly destructive to fruit and 



flowers, but it is not difficult to get rid of them by a little care 
and attention. In most instances amongst the insect tribes the 
female dies before her eggs hatch, but the parent Earwig lives 
to rear her young, and DeGeer says that, like the Hen, she 
broods over and apparently protects and feeds them. The 
young can run with alacrity, and resemble their parents, ex- 
cept in being smaller, paler in colour, and having no wings, 
and the abdominal appendages divaricate and are not horny. 

The wings of the Earwig are very delicate and pretty, re- 
sembling in some measure the Haliotis, or Ear-shell ; they are 
most curiously doubled, so that a small horny portion only 
projects beyond the elytra : the forceps are employed in fold- 
ing the wings, (they are therefore not wanted in the larvae or 
young ones,) and the little tubercles on the back and at the 
apex of the body probably assist in the operation. 

The Forficulidae found in this country have been divided 
into 4- genera, and the one before us into 3 species. 

1. auricularia Linn. — Panz. 87. 8. S • — neglecta Mars. ? . 

Male 7 lines long ; ochreous, head rufous, disc of thorax 
pitchy, abdomen castaneous, forceps much shorter than 
the abdomen and very much curved (fig. A^). Female 
a little smaller, forceps nearly straight, attenuated and 
finely serrated internally, except at the apex, which is 
curved (A ? ). 
Common, I believe, everywhere in England and Scotland in 

flowers, under stones, the bark of trees, &c. from April to Nov. 
Mr. Stephens gives the F. media of Marsham as a variety 

of this species, but from the characters in the Ent. Brit, there 

can be little doubt of its being either the male of Labia minor 

or another species of that genus. 

2. borealis Leach. — Curt. Brit. Ent.pl. 560. S • 

Male 8 or 9 lines long ; ochreous, antennae lurid, except- 
ing the basal joint, head rufous, eyes black, disc of thorax 
pitchy, elytra lurid, the apex of the folded wings internally 
brown : abdomen castaneous, pitchy at the base and apex, 
forceps nearly as long as the abdomen, moderately curved, 
stout, castaneous, ochreous at the base, with a strong 
tooth on the inside of each towards the base, where there 
are smaller teeth. 
The specimens I take to be females have the forceps less 
curved than in F. auricularia. End of June to end of July, 
Scotland ; hedges, Glanville's Wootton, and in plenty under 
stones in Isle of Portland and Chesil Bank, Mr. Dale ; Yar- 
mouth, Mr. Paget. 

3. forcipata Step. I know nothing of this insect, but it is pro- 

bably a variety of the foregoing with longer forceps. 
The Plant is Teucriwn Scorodonia (Wood Sage or Ger- 
mander). 




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556, 
BLATTA LAPPONICA. 

The Lapland Cockroach. 

Order Dictyoptera. Fam. Blattidas. 

Type of the Genus, Blatta Orientalis Linn. 
Blatta Linn., Fab., &;c. 

Antenna: inserted in front of the face, close to the internal margin 
of the eyes, long, setaceous and pubescent, composed of nume- 
rous joints, basal joint stout subovate, 2nd and 3rd subquadrate, 
larger than any of the following, which are ring-shaped towards 
the base, becoming quadrate at the middle and oblong at the 
apex, as represented at fig. 1 . 

Labrum exserted, suborbicular, but truncated at the base (2). 
Mandibles short and stout, with 4 or 5 teeth at the apex, the 
3 upper ones strong and acute, a membranous margin towards 
the base on the inside, forming a little lobe above (3). 
MaxillcB with an internal lobe acute at the apex, dilated and 
ciliated internally, external lobe longer, fleshy, rounded and 
naked. Palpi long, rough with short hairs, and 4-jointed, basal 
joint subobconic, 3 following long of equal length, the 3rd cla- 
vate, 4th sublanceolate and suddenly narrowed at the base (4). 
Mentum short, convex at the base, notched on the sides. Lip 
elongated, composed of 2 broad lateral rigid lobes, with 2 nar- 
row ones at the centre and a fleshy hollow one behind. Palpi 
attached to the sides near the base, pubescent, triarticulate, 
basal joint short obovate, 2nd a little longer, 3rd the longest 
clavate and truncated obliquely (5). 
Head ovate, bent under the breast and concealed beneath the thorax : 
eyes lateral and kidney-shaped : ocelli none ? Thorax semicircular, 
the base convex : scutellum concealed. Elytra coriaceous, one lap- 
ping over the other, ivith numerous nervures. Wings ample, folded 
longitudinally, with numerous nervures. Females sometimes apte- 
rous. Abdomen flat and oval, terminated by 2 jointed lobes and 2 
slender appendages with a central curved one in the male (7 ^). Legs 
rather long : coxae elongated and stout : thighs stout with a series 
of spines beneath : tibiae clothed with very strong moveable spines ; 
anterior the shortest, posterior the longest : tarsi 5 -jointed, basal 
joint the longest, terminal one long and slender : claws curved and 
acute (8). 

Lapponica Linn. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 445. 6. 

Ochreous, antennae, disc of thorax and abdomen, except at the 
apex, piceous ; elytra with the oblique costal nervures dotted 
with brown, the subcostal one having 4 or 5 small spots, the 
space beneath brown thickly reticulated with ochre : wings iri- 
descent, pale fuscous, a space on the costa and another below 
it, towards the apex, darker : legs piceous, coxae and base of 
tarsi ochreous. 

In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



As volumes might be filled with the histories of the different 
species of Cockroaches, which are very numerous, and appear 
to be distributed over every part of the earth, I can only make 



a few remarks on the well known Cockroach, or Black-beetle 
as it is erroneously called, of our kitchens and houses, and 
must refer to DeGeer, Kirby and Spence, and other writers, 
who may be consulted with profit and amusement. 

The female lays an oval bag containing J 6 eggs ; and after 
having carried it about at the extremity of her body, by means 
of her forceps, until she has found a convenient place, she de- 
posits it: out of this horny bag the young Cockroaches issue, 
and rapidly increase in size until they arrive at the perfect 
state (having passed through that of the pupa), when the males 
become winged, but the females remain apterous. They are 
most active animals; and being nocturnal, very voracious, and 
omnivorous, they are very destructive in houses where they 
abound. Traps are employed for catching them, and common 
wafers that are coloured with red-lead strewed about before 
going to bed are said to be very effectual in destroying them, 
and probably sprinkling spirits of turpentine in their haunts 
would drive them away. It is said that some species of Sphex 
destroy them, and the Evania, a genus illustrated in our 257th 
plate, is one of its parasites. In Russia and Finland B. Orien- 
talis is a perfect pest, and although it seems to be naturalized 
everywhere, no one can determine whether it was originally a 
native of Asia or of South America, one of the many proofs of 
the necessity of speedily recording the geographical distri- 
bution of insects, which is intimately connected with the con- 
stants of nature proposed by Mr. Babbage. 

There are 1 1 species registered as inhabitants of England ; 
amongst them : 
4. B. gevmomc^L Lhvi. — Don. 10. 341. — Kirby SfSpe7ice, t. 2. 
f. 3. Found in houses in London and Bristol from March 
to July. 
6. Lapponica Linn.^ figured in our plate, is sometimes abund- 
ant in the New Forest, on the Fern, the end of May and 
beginning of June; I have taken it there on the wing: 
near Reading it occurs on the White-thorns. 

7. perspicillaris Turt. — Lapponica Fjies. t. ^9.f- 11. End of 

Sept. 2 females ? on Holly-trees, New Forest, Mr. Dale. 

8. Panzeri S/ep. — germanica P«722;. 2. 17. . Beginning of 
July, middle of Aug. ofFJunci, top of Cliff, Black-gang 
Chine ; middle of Aug. found the pupas under stones on 
the beach, Ventnor, and the imago at Bourne Mouth. 

10. lividai^aZ>. — lapponica Z)ow. 10. 332. May, Oaks, Chissle- 

hurst and Bexley, at Mount Misery and the New Forest; 
middle of June, under stones, Bourne Mouth and Lul- 
worth, Mr. Dale; middle of July, under stones, side of 
Cliff, Dover, J. C. 

11. pallida Oliv. June, on trees, Abury, Devon, Mr. Ingpen. 
The Plant is Pidmonaria (Lithospermum Lehm.) maritima 

(Sea Lungwort). 



Vcy( 





lb- n35 

456. 
GRYLLOTALPA VULGARIS. 

The Mole-cricket, Jarr-worm, Eve Churr, or Earth 
Crab. 



Order Orthoptera. Fam. Achetidae. 

Type of the Genus, Gryllus Gryllotalpa Linn. 
Gryllotalfa Ray, Lat., Curt. — AchetaF«&. — Gryllus (Acheta)Zeww. 
Antenna inserted before the eyes, shorter than the thorax, slightly 
setaceous, pubescent and composed of from 60 to 110 joints ; 
basal joint the stoutest, somewhat ovate, 2nd oblong, and larger 
than the following, which form very narrow rings at first, vary- 
ing a little in their length, but towards the apex they are longer 
and somewhat globose (1, the basal joints), 
Labrum exserted, flexible at the base, nearly orbicular and con- 
vex, the margin fringed with bristles (2). 

Mandibles not large, elongate-trigonate, a little curved at the 
apex, with a triangular tooth below on the inside, and another 
at the centre, with a third behind it, smaller in one mandible 
than in the other ; a longitudinal line of hairs down the outside 
and a few on the inside towards the base (3) . 
Maxilla elongated, terminated by a curved acute horny lobe with 
a very slender and acute tooth beneath, and a long curved pal- 
piform lobe outside, fleshy at the apex. Palpi long and 5 -jointed, 
2 basal joints transverse, the others long and equal, 3rd the stout- 
est, compressed, very convex outside, 4th and 5th subclavate, the 
latter terminated by a globose fleshy membrane (4). 
Mentum suborbicular. Lip elongated, terminated by a cordate 
fleshy lobe, from the base of which arise 2 stiffs parallel lobes, and 
on each side 2 stout rigid and pilose ones, all of the same length, 
(these appear to be additional Palpi) . Palpi inserted below them 
stout rigid and triarticulate, basal joint subglobose, 2nd and 3rd 
long of equal length, the former very pilose, the latter ovate and 
fleshy at the apex (5) . 
Head conical : eyes small, nearly lateral : ocelli 2, minute, placed be- 
tween the eyes. Thorax ovate, concave before. Elytra partially 
lying one over the other, the cells at the base more irregular in the 
male (9 (J), than in the female. "Wings ample, reticulated, longer 
than the body, folded longitudinally and lying upon the back when at 
rest. Abdomen large nearly alike in both sexes, with a setaceous 
pubescent and hairy process on each side the penultimate joint, as long 
as the antenna ; the apex divided into 3 short lobes in the female : 
ovipositor none. Legs, aiiterior very strong and dilated, posterior 
formedforleaping. Coxse large, especially the anterior (8 b). Thighs, 
anterior short and broad, with a sharp compressed tooth at the base 
(c) ; hinder pair long and incrassated. Tibiae of fore legs trigonate 
palmate, the apex divided into 4 strong teeth (d) ; posterior long, fur- 
nished with strong spines outside towards the apex. Tarsi triarticu- 
late, anterior compressed and trigonate, inserted on the side of the 
tibia, 2 first joints produced on the inside and acute, the \st large, 
'3rd small ovate (e) ; 1st and 3rd joints long and the 2nd globose in 
the other feet. Claws simple and small, straight and unequal in the 
forefeet. 



G. vulgaris Lat. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 446. 1. — Gryllotalpa Linn. 

Velvety brown above, dark ochreous beneath ; margins of thorax tawny : 
elytra dull yellowish white, brown towards the base and costa, nervures 
dark brown : wings dirty white, with the costa, a longitudinal stripe be- 
low it, and many of the nervures bi'own : anterior tibiae and tarsi subcas- 
taneous, piceous at the apex. 

The Mole-cricket is one of the largest Insects inhabiting Britain ; its 
structure is wonderful and its oeconomy most interesting. In its perfect 
state it is capable of flight, and I suspect, from the resistance the thorax 
and elytra offer to water, that it is able to swim. Its fore paws are beau- 
tifully'adapted for burrowing in the ground, and their power is prodigious ; 
according toRoesel it commonly employs a force equal to the counterpoise 
of 2 or 3 pounds : there is a large tooth at the base of the anterior thighs 
which meets the interior margin of the tibia when bent back, and this re- 
ceiving and protecting the tarsus when in the act of digging or burrowing, 
altogether form a large toothed sort of hoe or shovel : they are able to 
run backward as well as forward with great facility in their burrows ; and 
to warn them of approaching danger in retrograding, as Professor Kidd has 
justly observed, they are furnished behind with 2 appendages similar to 
their antennse, but not jointed*. 

They live probably the year round, and are found in gardens, meadows, 
peat bogs, by the sides of ponds and streams, in dung-hills, pea and 
barley fields, &c., in most parts of England, particularly towards the 
south ; they feed on potatoes, and the roots of grass and corn, sometimes 
causing great mischief, it is said, to the crops in Germany. Dr. Kidd says 
they prefer raw meat, and will attack each other, when the victor devours 
the'flesh of the vanquished, but that they can live 9 or 10 months without 
food. I have kept a mole-cricket in a cage, but it has always managed 
to escape ; and so interesting are its habits and history, that I should re- 
commend those who amuse themselves by keeping mice and other animals 
to obtain some of the crickets, and they may be rewarded by some impor- 
tant and curious discoveries ; for this insect is supposed to be the " Will o' 
the wisp," the " ignis fatuus," about which so much has been said and so 
little proved, the phantom that has eluded the vigilance of the naturalist 
and the curious for ages ! They can emit a sound more shrill but softer 
than that of the frog, and Dr. Leach says the male sings in the evening by 
rubbing the elytra together. 

I am not aware that any one has been able to detect an external sexual 
character ; I am therefore happy in observing that after ascertaining the sexes 
by dissection, I discovered that the elytra are different. It is a female that 
I have represented flying, and on comparison it will be seen that the ely- 
tron (Jig. 9 $), which is the right-hand one of a male, has nervures very 
different to the other sex : the same peculiar structure is visible in this as 
in Acrydium (pi. 439-)> the inner edge having more the appearance of a 
costa than the outer one. The males seem to be uncommon; I have seen 
but 2, and in them the right-hand elytron lapped over the other, but in all 
the females it was the reverse. 

The Plant is Montia fontana (Water Blinks) . 

* The reader will find an admirable paper on the IMoIe-Cricket in the Philoso- 
phical Transactions, by J. Kidd, M.D., F.R.S., &c. 




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293. 

ACHETA SYLVESTRIS. 



Order Orthoptera. Fam. Achetidae Leach. Gryllides Lat. 

Type of the Genus, Gryllus domesticus Linn. 
AcHETA Fab., Lea., Sam. — Gryllus Linn., Lat. 

Antennce as long or longer than the body, inserted close to the 
eyes in front of the face, setaceous, composed of innumerable 
transverse joints, the basal one very large and globose (1). 
Labium transverse-oval, slightly ciliated (2). 
Mandibles strong, subquadrate, truncated obliquely, externally 
convex, the apex crenate-dentate (3). 

Maxilla short, with a horny lobe on the inside, terminated by 2 
very acute teeth and ciliated internally ; external lobe palpiform, 
biarticulate ? the basal joint or process short, 2nd long, slightly 
curved and rounded at the apex. Palpi long pubescent, 4 -jointed, 
1st joint not very short, attenuated and curved at the base, the 
remainder nearly equal in size and length, the 3rd and 4th trun- 
cated obliquely, especially the latter which is hollowed at the 
apex (4). 

Mentiim large, transverse, dilated anteriorly. Labium long and 
fleshy, dilated at the base, terminated by 2 conniving, articulated 
lobes, with 2 acute ones arising from their base and meeting in 
the centre ; behind them is a large hollow fleshy appendage. 
Palpi inserted on each side the labium towards its base, attached 
to 2 subglobose scapes, triarticulate, basal joint short, incras- 
sated at the apex, 2nd longer and robust, 3rd the longest, sub- 
clavate, somewhat ciliated internally (5). 
Eyes lateral. Head large subglobose, as broad as the Thorax which 
is more or less quadrate. Abdomen rather short and thick, produ- 
cing 2 long lateral setaceous tails; the female furnished with a long 
porrected Ovipositor. Elytra veined differently in the sexes, with 
reticulated Wings, frequently longer than the body and sometimes 
none. Legs j 4 anterior short, posterior pair formed for leaping, 
the Thighs very robust, Tibiae producing a double row of spines and 
several long curved ones at the apex. Tarsi triarticulate, basal joint 
long, ivith short spines down the back and terminated by long ones, 
2nd joint very obscure, 3rd simple. Claws curved. Pulvilli none, 
(8, a portion of hind leg). 



Sylvestris Fab. Ent. Syst. 2. 33. 18. 

Male. Ochreous inclining to ferruginous. Antennae fuscous. 
Head black, shining, with the margin of the eyes and a pen- 
tagon in front of the face ochreous. Thorax pilose, the back 
spotted and the sides entirely black. Elytra not quite covering 
the body (7 a), piceous, the principal nervure and the base pale. 
Abdomen pubescent,black, obscurely spotted with ochre (b), tails 
pilose (c). Legs variegated with black. 

Female. Elytra very short, dirty ochre, sides and nervures pi- 
ceous. Wings none. 

Li the Cabinets of Mr. Dale and the Author, 



Although the chirping of the Cricket is familiar to most per- 
sons, yet few comparatively are acquainted with its form. 
During the summer the heaths resound with the singing of 
the merry Field-Cricket ; and the incessant vibration of the 
House-Cricket is to some persons agreeable, whilst to others it 
is very annoying. Abundant as the former species must be, 
I have never seen it alive ; but of the latter I once saw in a 
bakehouse, countless multitudes in every stage of growth, 
from those that were just emerged from the egg to the perfect 
insects. And in a kitchen I have witnessed one running over 
the hot embers, immediately after the fire had been raked 
out, in so careless a manner that it was miraculous that its 
delicate wings were not scorched ; and his habitation beneath 
the grate must have been a very warm retreat. 

Crickets live underground, forming their burrows by means 
of their strong jaws; the labium assumes the form of max- 
illae, and behind it are a lip and 2 slender lobes, bearing in this 
respect as well as in the oviduct, a considerable analogy to 
the Tenthredinidae. 

The species found in this country are 

1. A. domestica Linn. — Do7i. 12. 409. — Panz. 88. 6 (^ 7. 

This insect lives through the year, and is very destruc- 
tive in houses, injuring wet linen, feeding on bread, 
&c. They may be taken like wasps by bottles filled 
with beer. 

2. A. campestris Lijin. — Don. 12. 432. — Sotio. Biii.Mis. tab. 

65.—Pafiz. 88. 8 4^ 9. 
Stewart says, " These insects live in holes, in dry soils, 
making a very curious subterraneous abode, with re- 
gular cells. They are solitary beings : sitting in 
the entrance of their caverns ; they chirp all night as 
well as day, from the middle of May to the middle 
of July; the noise they make is probably to allure 
the females, for the males alone make the chirping. 
They begin to appear and form their holes in March, 
and in August these holes are obliterated." I have 
been informed that in France, children decoy these 
insects from their burrows by inserting a fly attached 
to the end of a horse-hair. 

3. A. sylvestris Fab. — Curtis Brit. Ent. pi. 293. Jemale. 

Mr. Dale first discovered this insect amongst dead 
leaves in a gravel-pit, the middle of August, near 
Lyndhurst in the New Forest; and I have found the 
pupae on a dry bank at the same place, the begin- 
ning of June. 

4. A. itaica? Fab. — Pa?iz. 22. 17. — pellucens? Scop. 

A single specimen was taken in Norfolk in June, and 
is in Mr. Haworth's cabinet. 
The plant is Sisymbritim tenuifolium (Wall Rocket). 



d'Z 




■''4. 



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fy f >t« v^.-^..^^ CLf: i:mS 



82. 
ACRIDA BINGLEII. 



Order Orthoptera. Fam. Gryllidae Leach. Locustavias Lat. 

Type of the Genus Gryllus viridissimus Linn. 
AcRiDA Kirbij. Conocephalus Leach. Locusta Fab., S^c. Gryllus Linn. 
Antenna as long as the body, setaceous, inserted close to the in- 
ternal margin of the eyes, composed of innumerable small joints, 
irregular in their length, basal joint dilated, 2nd short, 3rd rather 
longer, attenuated (f. 1). 

Labrum membranaceous, orbicular, dilated at the base (2). 
Mandibles short, trigonate, internal edge sinuated, in some long, 
acute, and dentated (3). 

MaxillcE slender, internal lobe horny, bifid, with a 3rd tooth be- 
low the apex, external lobe membranaceous, obtuse, with a few 
short hairs. Falpi 5-jointed, 1st joint very short, 2nd short, the 
following long clavate, terminal joint the longest, truncate (4). 
Mentum narrowed anteriorly (5 b). Palpi hairy, 3 -join ted ; 
1st joint short, 2nd longer cylindric, 3rd long, clavate, trun- 
cate (c). Lip bipartite orbicular, each lobe having a palpiform 
process on the internal edge (a). 
Head short, vertical, sometimes acuminate. Thorax convex, com,- 
pressed, fiat above, lobed behind. Abdomen short, thick. Ovipo- 
sitor long, straight, or recurved. Elytra and Wings deflexed, the 
males having a transparent cell at the base of the elytra (9 a), in 
some with rudiments only of elytra, in others entirely wanting. An- 
terior legs short, posterior pair very long, formed for leaping. Tibiae 
serrated, posterior with several strong spines at the apex. Tarsi 
4-jointed, the penultimate joint bilobed, the 1st joint having a lobe 
on each side near the base in the posterior pair (8 apex of tibia and 
tarsus of hind leg.) 
Obs. The dissections are taken from L. grisea F., that species being 
nearest allied to A. Bingleii. The elytron of the male is from the 
latter species. 



Bingleii Dale's MSS. 

Ma/e brown, tinged with green. Head rounded, pale and dull 
green. Thorax of the same colour, slightly carinated, dilated 
behind. Abdomen piceous, edges of the segments pale. Elytra 
pale fuscous, tinged with green, spotted with brown, the cen- 
tral spots the largest, interior margin green towards the base. 
Wings transparent greenish at their base. Legs griseous-yellow ; 
posterior thighs green at their base, variegated with brown. 
Female dull and pale ochraceous, variegated with brown. Ab- 
domen pale down the back ; piceous on the sides with irregular 
pale margins to the segments. Ovipositor slightly recurved, 
brown with a rosy tinge. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Dale and Mr. Haworth. 



These insects are well known by the incessant chirping which 
they make in the evening and (.hiring the night ; a specimen 
of Acrida viridisshna that I kept, feeding it with flies, con- 
stantly began to sing at twilight ; and by placing a candle in 
the room, I could distinctly see that the sound was produced 
by chafiing the anterior margins of the elytra together when 
at rest. 

Greatly as this family has been divided since the days of 
Linnaeus, it is difficult to find characters that will embrace 
even the insects that are now included in this genus. The 
name Conocephaliis which Dr. Leach gave to these insects has 
been dropped, because it applies to an exotic group with co- 
nical heads that will not associate with any other ; and Mr. 
Kirby's name has been adopted, as it is intended to follow the 
views taken in the Zoological Journal by that learned author. 

Li giving the following arrangement, which I hope will be 
found useful, I beg to acknowledge my obligations to J. C. 
Dale, Esq., for his valuable information and assistance. 

A. Living upon or under the ground. Males with 

an ocellus at the base of the elytra. An- 
tennae not spotted. 

* With perfect elytra and wings. 

\. A.viridissima Linn.^ Donovan v. ^. pi. 130. 

2. verrucivora Linn., Panz.Jasc. 89. pi. 20 & 2L 

3. Bingleii Dale, nob. 

4. grisea Fab., Sowerbifs Brit. Mis. tab. 64. 

** With imperfect elytra and wings. 

5. brachyptera De Geer. 

6. Kirbii Dale. 

7. fusca Fab., Panz.fasc. 33. pi. 2. 

*** Apterous, or with rudiments of elytra only. 

8. aptera Turton. 

B. Inhabit trees. Without an ocellus. Antennae 

spotted. 

* With complete elytra and wings. 

9. varia Fab., Don. v. 3. pi. 79. 

** With incomplete wings. 

10. clypeata Panz.fasc. 33. j^l- 4. 

Mr. Dale informs me that A. Bingleii was first taken at 
Goodwin's Croft, near Christchurch, Hampshire, and given 
to the late Rev. W. Bingley. Mr. Dale's female was taken 
30th July, 1818, by the side of a barley field near Christ- 
church, and his male at the same place the 14th of August fol- 
lowing. This species has been confounded in the Entomolo- 
gical Transactions with A. verrncivora, a very fine species 
discovered near Rochester by Professor Henslow, the end of 
August ; it is employed by the Swedish peasantry to destroy 
warts, from which circumstance it receives its name. 

The plant figured is Carex pr^ecox (Vernal Carex). 




C^l^.^^ ^: C' t'*- (^'"y- ^- -<^^ ^ 



608. 
LOCUSTA CHRISTII. 



Order Orthoptera. Fam. Gryllidae or Locustidae. 

Type of the Genus, Gryllus migratorius Linn. 
LocusTA Leach, Curt. — Gry\\.\\s Linn., Fab., Charp. — Acrydium Za^. 
Antennee inserted in a cavity before and between the eyes, not 
longer than the thorax, slender, filiform and composed of be- 
tween 20 and 30 joints, basal joint stout and subglobose, 2nd 
small subovate, 4 following smaller and unequal, 7th and 8th 
rather longer and broader, the remainder decreasing in length 
to the apex, (1, eight of the basal joints). 

Labrum very large, orbicular-quadrate, notched on the sides, the 
anterior portion forming a transverse lobe, with all the angles 
rounded, the centre emarginate (2). 

Mandibles very thick and trigonate, the internal apex thin, fur- 
rowed and somewhat serrated (3) . 

Maxillae terminated by a strong corneous process on the inside, 
bifid at the apex, with a large external, curved, hollow lobe. 
Palpi a little longer than the labial, filiform, pilose and 5-jointed, 
2 basal joints very short, 2 following of equal length, a little 
elongated, 5th a little the longest, slightly clavate, truncate and 
hollow at the apex (4) . 

Mentum short and broad, lunate. Labium large, subcordate, 
coriaceous, cleft before, forming 2 semiovate lobes, slightly pu- 
bescent. Palpi short, attached to the sides near the middle of 
the lip, triarticulate, basal joint obovate, 2nd longer, cylindric, 
3rd as long, subclavate, truncated and hollow at the apex (5). 
Males often smaller than the females. Head large, crown semiovate, 
with the oval Eyes on each side ; face ovate, being broadest towards 
the mouth (1 *), a broad ridge above, extending down the middle : 
oceUi Z, forming a large triangle at the upper part of the face between 
the eyes, 2 being above, and one below the antennee. Thorax corset- 
shaped, broadest behind, generally carinated, the base more or less 
produced. Abdomen attenuated, with a tympanum on each side at the 
base (7), the apex terminated by 2 short filaments and a lobe in the 
males {^), and by 2 filaments and 2 pointed lobes above and 2 simi- 
lar ones beneath in the females ( $ ). Wings extending beyond the 
body, especially in the males and very much reticulated ; superior 
deflexed, coriaceous and narrow ; inferior membranous very ample 
and folded. Legs, 4 anterior simple, hinder very long and powerful, 
formed for leaping : thighs, posterior very stout at the base, at- 
tenuated, with longitudinal and oblique transverse elevated lines on 
both sides : tibiae, hinder with 2 series of sharp spines outside, and 
larger ones at the apex: tarsi triarticulate, basal joint oblong, 2nd 
short, lobed beneath, 3rd clavate : claws acute ; pulvilli one-lobed. 

Christii Curt. Guide, Gen. 449. 

In the Cabinets of Miss Ball and the Author. 



Locust being the name used in Holy writ I have retained it 
in preference to that adopted by most authors. The history 
of these destructive insects is too well known to require repe- 
tition here ; it is evident from the dissection of the mouth that 
its mandibles are admirably adapted for cutting herbage, and 
its lips and maxillae for forming a large inclosure to retain its 
food whilst it is eating. 

Upwards of 20 species have been found in this countiy, which 
I shall enumerate, as many of the names in the Guide have 
been superseded by the appearance of Zettersted's and Char- 
pentier's works. 

1. Christii Curt. Brit. Ent.pl. 608. ? . 

Pea-green, antennae sub ferruginous; an ochreous and purplish longitudinal 
line behind each eye, face with 2 lines down the middle and the man- 
dibles blue-black : thorax triangular behind, with a sharp convex carina : 
abdomen reddish-brown marbled with greenish-yellow : elytra more or 
less spotted, nervures reddish-brown, variegated with green towards the 
base : wings delicate yellow inclining to green, the apical portion more 
grey, nervures brown and piceous, reticulations ochreous : hinder legs 
pale green ; thighs blue internally beneath, with a large black space from 
the base to the middle, a blackish band beyond it and a ring near the 
apex, which is brown above : spines of tibiffi tipped with black; tarsi grey. 
This differs so materially from the specimens oiL.migratoria 
I have received from Germany, that I consider it to be a di- 
stinct species, and have therefore named it after Wm. Christy, 
Esq., who took it upon some French-beans in a garden on the 
Clapham-road in July 1826, and very handsomely added it to 
my cabinet. Independently of the wide difference in colour, the 
thorax is not of the same shape as L. migratoria^ the carina 
forms a depressed arch and is rather more pointed behind. 
Another specimen, captured last September at Ardmore in the 
county of Waterford by Miss M.Bali, has been obligingly trans- 
mitted to me for my inspection by Robert Ball, Esq. of Dublin: 
it is of the same sex as the one figured, but the elytra are much 
more spotted. 

2. migratoriaimw. — Don. 8. 3. flavipes Gmel. — ^am. jpl. 4. 
270. f.\9. 

4. •sr\r\6.\x\a,Linn. — Sota. B.M. 5. aprica Ste. 

6. dorsata Zett. [pi. 73. 7. parallela Zett. 

8. miniata Charp, 9. lineata Panz. 33. 9. 

10. rhomboidea Scha;/.? 11. elegans Charp. 

12. bicolor Charp. 13. rufipes Charp. 

14. biguttula Linn. 15. moUis Charp. 

16. varipes iS/^. 17. rubicunda<Szf^.-Z)ow.3.79.2? 

18. venosa Linn. ? 19. haemorrhoidalis? Charp. 

20. tricarniata Ste. 21. parallela Zett. longicornis 

Hage. 
22. montana Charp. 23. Tpedesix'is Linn.-Panz. SS.S. 

The Plant is Bhynchospora alba. White-headed Rush-grass. 



jjg 




^yi^.-iy C/"^.^^ c52^^.- ^.- /<£SS 



Id- n'33 

439. 
ACRYDIUM SUBULATUM. 



Order Orlhoptera. Fam. Gryllidae or Locustidse. 

Type of the Genus, Gryllus bipunctatus Linn. 
AcBYDiuM Geoff., Fab., Curt. — Tetrix Lat. — Gryllus (Bulla) Linn. 
Antenna inserted close to and between the eyes, approximating, 
short, subfusiform and 15-jointed : basal joint stout and ovate, 
2nd globose, 3rd longer than the two following, the 4th being the 
smallest joint, 6th and 7th shorter than the remainder which are 
rather broader, 14th joint minute, 15th pear-shaped (1). 
Labrum orbicular (2). 

Mandibles short and subtrigonate, one with 4 teeth at the apex 
and a large broad striated one near the middle (3) ; the other 
with 3 apical teeth and a smaller obtuse one at the middle. 
Maxilla long, horny, narrow, curved and trifid at the apex, with 
an equally long external lobe, attenuated, with 2 or 3 articula- 
tions or transverse sutures and terminated by a minute fleshy 
apex. Palpi longer than the lobes, filiform, 5 -jointed, slightly 
pilose, basal joint scarcely longer than the 2nd which is the 
smallest, 3rd and 4th nearly of equal length, 5 th a little the 
longest and slightly thickened and truncated at the apex (4). 
Mentum subtrapezate, truncated before, very concave behind. 
Lip large, forming a cup on the inside, composed of 2 conniving 
lobes above, united at their base, with 2 small lobes between 
them towards the apex. Palpi attached to 2 scapes at the 
anterior angles of the mentum, triarticulate, 1st and 2nd joints 
short, 3rd as long as the other 2, stouter clavate and pilose, 
terminated by a vesicle (5). 
Mouth received into the anterior margin of the antepectus. Head with 
the crown short bounded by a sharp semicircular margin : face very 
long and ovate, with a grooved keel down the centre (1*) : eyes sub- 
globose, slightly prominent. Ocelli 3, two above and one beloio the 
antenna. Thorax forming a narrow band, with a keel down the 
centre ; scutellum sometimes much longer than the body, trigonate- 
lanceolate, keeled down the back and acute at the apex. Abdomen 
with 2 horny conical lobes at the apex in the males, terminated by 4 
serrated acute lobes in the females (7). Wings, superior mz'wM^e, 
appearing as if turned round, someivhat reticulated, with 2 elevated 
lines crossing each obliquely (9). Inferior varying in size, sometimes 
very ample, folded like a fan and concealed under the scutellum (which 
affords them the j)rotection the elytra cannot), supported by numerous 
radiating nervures connected by short transverse ones, the edges cre- 
nated. Legs, posterior very long : thighs dilated, ovate, attenuate^ 
to the apex : tibiae with a double series of teeth on the upper edge 
and armed with strong spines at the apex : tarsi triarticulate, basal 
joint long with 2 notches beneath, 2nd joint tninute, 3rc? long, cla- 
vate (8 1) : claws acute loith a tooth beneath near the base : the 
other legs are short and simple, with the 1st and 2nd joints of the 
tarsi small. Pulvilli none. 



SuBULATUM Linn. Faun. Suec. 236. 865. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 451. 1. 
In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



LiNN^us calls this division of" his genus Gryllus, Bulla (the 
name of a group of shells), at the same time referring to Geof- 
froy's work, where it had received the name of Acrydium. 

This variable genus is distinguished from the other Locus- 
t'ldiv by its very long scutellum and small elytra or superior 
wings, which, when at rest, lie close to the sides of the abdo- 
men. They live in fields, on hot and sandy banks, and among 
short grass and plants on the tops of walls even in cities. 

1. A.suhu\atumLmTi.— Curt. B.E. pi. 4!39. ^ .—Sow. Brit. Mis. 

74. 1. — Don 15. 521. — bipunctatum Pz. 5. 18. — Sam. 
p/.4./l8.— .SVi^j9Z.154.9.&10.?andl61./2.&3. 

Pale reddish brown, granulated : antenna? ochreous, tipped 
with piceous, head and sides of thorax brown ; scutellum twice 
as long as the abdomen, slightly recurved at the apex, with a 
reddish or brown triangular spot on each side towards the 
base ; abdomen pitchy ; wings iridescent, costa yellowish 
brown, nervures pitchy; legs mottled, hinder thighs with a 
pale stripe outside, and sometimes an oblique white fascia; 
1st and 2nd pair of tibiae annulated with ochre. 

Philippi characterizes 12 varieties of this, and 13 of the fol- 
lowing species. I have 1 male and 5 females with the scu- 
tellum projecting only a little beyond the abdomen, which ap- 
pear to me to belong to the above-described insect. Mr. Dale 
has taken very strong varieties at Whittlesea Mere ; also at 
Glanville's Wootton, from March 15th to July 9th. 

2. A. bipunctatum Li7m. — subulatum Rcemcr, tab. S.f. 7. var. 

— bifasciatum Fucs. Arch. pi. 52. f. 3. 

Scutellum not longer than the abdomen, and slightly curved 
downward. 

Philippi says the antennae are only 12-jointed, but my spe- 
cimens have the same number of joints as the former species. 
From March 27th to October 13th, Hants and Dorset, Mr. 
Dale; Battersea, Mr. Samouelle. 

3. A. nigricans Sow. 74. 3. — undulatum Sow.^^. 2. ? — opacum 

Fucs. fl. 52. f. 2.? — nutans Ilagenl\ 
From 2\ to 3| lines long. Black or brown, frequently varie- 
gated ; wings small, back arched and sometimes very sharply 
keeled ; scutellum projecting a little beyond the abdomen, the 
keel occasionally spotted with ochre, and a black triangular 
spot on each side towards the base, sometimes with an ochreous 
stripe down the back from the forehead to the tip of the scu- 
tellum. Some varieties have pale ochre spots on the sides of 
the thorax, and 2 fasciae outside the posterior thighs, and the 
legs are annulated with pale brown or dirty ochre. 

End of August, heaths and sandy places, Kamsdown, Hants, 
J. C. ; from April 8th to October 1st, Dorset, Mr. Dale. 

4. A. Pinnula Curt. Guide 451. 4. 

I suspect it is only a variety of A. bipunctatum, for like that 
species the under wings are very small. 

The Plant is Bidens tripartita (Trifid Double- tootli). 




\^il^ 




:J tA'AAs i^^.^^a^cXui.. 



226. 

STYLOPS DALIL 

Order Strepsiptera Kirhy. Rhipiptera Lat. 
Tijpe of the Genus Stylops Melittse Kirby. 
Stylops Kirby, Lat., Leach, Lam., Sam. 

Antennce inserted between the eyes near the crown of the head, 
membranous, perforated or punctured^ composed of 6 joints, the 
basal one somewhat cup-shaped, 2nd very short, transverse, 3rd 
produced on the internal side into a dilated hollow lobe extending 
beyond the 5th joint, 4th large subclavate, oth smaller subovate, 
6th as long, ovate, compressed (D 1, F 1 and G.) 
Labrum and Mandibles wanting? Pharynx visible (E a). 
Maxillcs arising between the eyes, very remote at their base, 
conniving, long, slender, lanceolate and horny (E 3, F 3). 
Palpi arising close to the maxillae (H), large and robust, mem- 
branous, indistinctly pubescent, biarticulate, basal joint subreni- 
form, 2nd attached to the oblique apex of the 1st, oblong, some- 
what truncated obliquely (E 4, F 4). 
Mentum very obscure. Labium and Palpi none. 
Head sessile, very broad and short, producing a large triangular lobe 
in the centre. Eyes very rernote, lateral, globose, composed of nu- 
merous hexagons. Prothorax (I) and Mesothorax (K) very short 
rings, not so broad as the head. Metathorax (D 6) very large and 
long, divided diagonally into 4 portions and dilated very much on each 
side, producing a large Scutellum (D*) projecting over the Abdo- 
men (M) which is small, soft, and composed of 8 or 9 joints, termi- 
nated by an incurved Oviduct? (a). Anterior wings short and 
narrow, attached to the sides of the mesothorax (D 9, K 9), sub- 
coriaceous, pubescent, thickened at the costa and inflated at the apex. 
Posterior wings attached to the metathorax (D 10, L 10), folded 
longitudinally when at rest and meeting over the body, very large 
and membranous, the costa thickened, the nervures very fine. Legs 
alike, 4 anterior approximating (D), \st pair attached to the pro- 
thorax (I 8), 2nd pair to the mesothorax (K 8*), 3rd pair very re- 
mote attached to the extremity of the metathorax (L Sf). Coxae, 
4 anterior very large. Tibiae not spined. Tarsi composed of 4 joints 
surrounded by a pubescent membrane, basal joint the largest, ter- 
minal the smallest and notched at the apex. Claws 7ione. 
Larvae inhabiting the abdomens of living AndrencB, the heads being ex- 

serted between the segments (A, a, b, and B, one extracted) . 
Pupae inhabiting the same situations (C). 



Dalii Nobis. 

Intense velvety black. Palpi with the 2nd joint much smaller 
than the 1st. Antennae with the 2nd joint very minute, and the 
5th shorter than the 6th. Scutellum at the base and abdomen 
at the sides ochraceous. Superior wings or elytra fuscous ; in- 
ferior wings emarginate at the posterior edge and narrowed to- 
wards the anal angle ; milky white, iridescent, the costa fuscous 
as well as several of the nervures at the base. Legs fuscous. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Dale and the Author. 



Until other insects allied to Strepsiptera be found, its natural 
affinities must remain very doubtful, from the imperfect and 
peculiar structure of the mouth ; and there is not a single 
Order perhaps that might not be assumed to be related to it 
by analogy. As I have taken the greatest pains with the dis- 
sections, it is hoped they will require no comment in this 
place : after therefore observing that I consider the third joint 
of the antennae merely eccentric, — that it is doubtful whether 
the horny substances are mandibles or maxillae, since I be- 
lieve the palpi to be biarticulate ; and that it has been my 
good fortune to -prove that the appendages are anterior wings 
or elytra, — -I shall pass on to give Mr. Dale's valuable facts 
relating to our insects. 

" Every specimen of Andrena harbilabrh I have seen this 
year, from the 27th April to the 4th June, have contained 
larvae, pupae, or exuviae of Stylops, from one to three in each. 
On the 5th May I picked one out with a pin, on the seventh 
another rather immature, and caught one flying in the hot 
sun-shine over a quickset hedge in the garden ; it looked milk- 
white on the wing, with a jet black body, and totally unlike 
any thing else ; it flew with an undulating or vacillating motion 
amongst the young shoots, and I could not catch it till it settled 
on one, when it ran up and down, its wings in motion, and 
making a considerable buzz or hum nearly as loud as a Sesia : 
it twisted about its rather long tail, and turned it up like a 
Staphylinus. 1 put it under a glass and placed it in the sun ; 
it became quite furious in its confinement, and never ceased 
running about for two hours. The elytra or processes were 
kept in quick vibration, as well as the wings ; it buzzed against 
the sides of the glass, with its head touching it, and tumbled 
about on its back. 

" By putting two bees {A. lahialis) under a glass in the sun, 
two Stylops were produced ; the bees seemed uneasy and went 
up towards them, but evidently with caution, as if to fight, 
and moving their antenna? towards them retreated. I once 
thought the bee attempted to seize it; but the oddest thing 
was to see the Stylops get on the body of the bee and ride 
about, the latter using every effort to throw his rider. A large 
hole is left in the tail of tlie bee when the Stylops escapes, 
which closes up after a time. I have found five species of 
Andrenae infested." 

The specimen figured was bred from A?idrena labialis, and 
presented to me, together with others, for dissection, by my 
esteemed friend J. C. Dale, Esq., in honour of whom I have 
named the species. The minuteness of the second joint of 
the antennae, the small size of the second joint of the palpi, 
and the differently formed wings, are sufficient characters to 
distinguish it from any species hitherto described and figured. 



3SS 




c -H./^.-^, 'J: (g«-«C,.^«,.- /.-Mir 



385. 
ELENCHUS WALKERI. 



Order Strepsiptera Kirhy. Rhipiptera Lat. 
Type of the Genus, Stylops Walkevi Curtis. 
Elenchus Curtis.. — Stylops Curtis. 

Antennce inserted in a cavity on each side the front of the head, 
before the eyes, slender, pubescent and scabrous, longer than 
the thorax, terminated by 2 long compressed lamellae, 5-jointed, 
1st and 2nd joints short, cup-shaped, 3rd produced on the side 
and forming a long lanceolate appendage, 4th joint slender, 
half the length of the 5th, which extends beyond the apex of 
the 3rd (G). 

MaxillcE long, slender, lanceolate and horny (3). 
Head short, producing an obtuse lobe in front and a smaller one on 
each side. Eyes remote, lateral, globose, composed of about 20 
hexagons. Collar or Prothorax short. Mesothorax (K) longer, 
with an appendage or Pseudelytron (9) attached on each side, ex- 
ceeding in length the breadth of the mesothorax, clavate, slender 
towards the base. Metathorax (6) large and oblong, divided dia- 
gonally into 4 portions, the Scutellum being the smallest. Meta- 
sternum ? very large. Postscutellum (*) elongate ovate. Posterior 
Wings (10) large, rounded at the apex, punctured and pubescent, 
with the casta thickened, a few imperfect nervures below it, and a 
long one running parallel to the internal margin. Abdomen (M) 
slender, composed of 9 or \0 joints, as long as the trunk but incurved. 
Legs long, hinder pair (8t) remote. Coxae, anterior and intermediate 
very long, hinder short. Thighs and Tibiae nearly of equal length, 
the 4 anterior (8 and S*) long slender and curved, the posterior 
short, and broad towards the apex. Tarsi composed of 2 joints, 
slenderest in the ]st pair (W 8) basal joint forming a lobe beneath, 
and hollow above to receive the 2nd which is subclavate (W 8^). 
Claws none. 

Walkeri Curtis's Guide Gen. 452. n'^ 6. 

Dull ochreous-fuscous : eyes black and shining: wings iridescent, 
pale fuscous, costa and nervures darker fuscous : legs and an- 
tennae pubescent. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Dale, Mr. Haliday, Mr. Walker, and the Author. 



The minuteness and value of these insects have prevented me 
from ascertaining one or two points with the accuracy I could 
desire : I hope, however, that some able entomologist may 
eventually possess ample materials for correcting any error I 
may have committed and for supplying any deficiencies that 
may be detected. 

The collar is extremely small, and the pseudelytra are much 
longer than in Xenos or Stylops; they are fixed very low 



down on the side and close to the anterior margin of the 
mesotliorax ; viewed above they look like pendants for the 
ears, whence the generic name. The thorax is shorter than 
in Slylops and more gibbose, as well as the postscutellum. The 
body is long and slender, but not having been able to get a 
clear view of the apex in Mr. Dale's specimen (D.) it may not 
be an exact resemblance of it. The long and slender antenna? 
are remarkable. The 4 anterior legs attached to the collar 
and mesothorax, are close together like those of Pulex, and the 
exceedingly long coxae enable the insect to porrect them very 
forward or to place the intermediate nearer the hinder pair 
as represented in the coloured figure : the tarsi appear to be 
formed of 2 joints only, which are much more slender in the 
first pair than in the othei's. It must be remembered that in 
Mr. Dale's specimen, the tarsi of the intermediate and the ter- 
minal joint in the posterior pair are wanting. 

I have not the least doubt that Mr. Walker's and Mr. Dale's 
insects are the same species, and the differences in the outline 
figures with regard to the form of the antennae and legs arise 
from Mr. Dale's having been drawn in a dry state, whilst that 
of Mr. Walker (W.) was relaxed in hot water. 

Mr. F. Walker first discovered a female ? at Southgate 
amongst grass, S-ith June. Mr. Dale next took a male? 
11th June 1830, by sweeping some flowers and wheat near 
Glanville's Wootton, and found it in his net when he returned 
home; and the end of June 1830 and July 1831 Mr. Haliday 
took 2 females in sweeping some herbage near Belfast. To 
all these gentlemen I am indebted for the use of their speci- 
mens, and to the last for his kindness in having presented me 
with one accompanied by the following interesting observations. 

" I have no clue to the family it may be parasitic on, for I have not 
found any bee with the larva in it; the most common in its locality 
are Andrena cineraria & albicans and Halictus 7-ubicundiis & albipes. It 
seems very delicate ; the only specimen 1 could succeed in bringing home 
alive I put under a watch glass, but having to leave it for an hour 1 found 
it dead, though placed in a cool spot. It moved with a vacillating but 
tolerably rapid gait with the upper wings extended and the lower rapidly 
vibrating, the abdomen, with which it smooths the wings, twisting freely in 
all directions. The antennas are kept apart with the branches divaricated, 
and the longer one generally bent in an angle at the articulation ; the 
palpi? mostly in motion. All the membranous parts are capable of much 
dilatation and contraction, and are fully expanded when in lively motion, 
but contract after death. The wings were cinereous with blacker nervures. 
Abdomen longer than the rest of the trunk, fleshy, of 8 segments besides 
the anal one bearing the appendage. The first three are softer, more ex- 
tensile and versatile than the rest, which have a single row of transverse 
spots down the back, one on each segment, of stronger consistence and 
darker colour, also a series of more minute ones down the belly. The colour 
of the membranous parts is cinereous yellow, the horny plates of a darker 
blackish-cinereous shade : the ovipositor tibiae and base of antennae nearly 
black, eyes deep black."— Mr. A. H. Haliday's MSS. 

The Plant \s Hypochceris radicata (Long-rooted Cat's-ear). 




^J3 



^/l 



9- ii^9. 

433. 
HALICTOPHAGUS CURTISII. 



Order Strepsiptera Kirhy. — Rhipiptera Ljat. 
Type of the Genus, Halictophagus Curtisii Dale. 
Halictophagus Dales MSS. 

JntenncE inserted in front of the face, rather short, lamellate, 
7?-jointed, basal and 2nd joints the stoutest, subquadrate, each 
of the remainder producing a somewhat ovate lobe on the out- 
side, gradually decreasing in length to the apical one which is 
inserted at the base of the lobe of the penultimate joint; the 
lobes are submembranous and ornamented with semitransparent 
punctures (g). 
Tropin undiscovered {the head being closely attached by gum to the 
card). Head broader than the thorax. Eyes very remote, promi- 
nent and coarsely granulated. Prothorax and Mesothorax short, the 
latter with a Pseudelytron attached on each side (9), they are very 
slender at the base and terminated by an ovate club. Metathorax (6) 
somewhat scutate, the anterior portion forming 3 nearly equal lobes, 
the Scutellum being short and rounded. Metasternum ? large. Post- 
scutellum very long tongue-shaped and thick, with a long deep groove 
at the base (*). Wings (10) large, minutely punctured, rounded at 
the apex, with the costa thickened, a subcostal and 5 other strong 
longitudinal nervures and a callous stripe at the apex, the 2nd ner- 
vure apparently a detached branch of the 3rd, which has a short ray 
near the base of the 2nd. Abdomen (ji) rather short, a great por- 
tion concealed by the postscutellum, composed of about 8 joints, ter- 
minated by an obtuse process. Coxae ; anterior long. Thighs rather 
short. Tibise short and compressed. Tarsi triarticulate, basal joint 
stout in the anterior pair, the 2nd long and slender, 2rd small ob- 
ovate[8) ; nearly of equal length in the posterior pair (8 f), the apex 
of each joint produced beneath and submembranous orjieshy. Claws 
none. 

Curtisii Dale's MSS. 

Black and slightly glossy, clothed with a brown velvety pu- 
bescence ; antennae and legs dull brownish ochre ; wings slightly 
tinged with fuscous ochre and obscurely iridescent ; nervures 
brown ; tips of the joints of the tarsi and apex of abdomen 
ochreous. 

In the Cabinet of Mr. Dale. 

At the close of the last volume I had the opportunity of pub- 
lishing a second genus of the order Strepsiptera, and through 
the kindness of my friend Mr. Dale, I have now the pleasure 
of presenting entomologists with a most interesting insect, 
v*?hich has been named Halictophagus by its captor, from its 
feeding or living in the larva state in the bodies of the genus 
Halictus. 

Mr. Dale says in his letter, " I took H. Curtisii the 15th of 
last August, in company with the males of Halictus aratus'^ 
which were in plenty, by brushing some long coarse grass and 



thistles close to the sea, on a rock called Durdle Door at Lul- 
worth Cove. In one of the Halicti I found a pupa so exactly 
at the apex of the abdomen, that I mistook it for an appen- 
dage, and killed the bee, otherwise I should liave bred the 
imago, as it was nearly matured. My Halictophagus seemed 
unable to run in the net, its feet being entangled in the same 
manner as those of Elenchus, which was the cause, I have 
little doubt, of the tarsi being broken in my specimen. 

" All the Strepsiptera appear to be short-lived, for the Ha- 
lictophagus died in the evening soon after I arrived at the inn. 

" I remember finding, a few years ago, a larva in Halictus 
4!-guttatus? which I took in the New Forest in April." 

It is unnecessary to point out the differences between Sty- 
lops {pi. 226.), Elenchus (pi. 385.), and Halictophagus: this 
splendid discovery of Mr. Dale's, which adds a fourth genus 
to the remarkable order Strepsiptera, if not the most curious, 
is, I think, by far the most interesting of the whole, from the 
antennae being rayed as in some of the Hymenoptera {Cera- 
phron Halidayi^ pi. 249. and the males of Eulophus, ^j/. 133, 1.), 
or rather lamellated like the club of the antennse in the Melo- 
lonthidae, and likewise from the greater number of the con- 
spicuous nervures in the wings ; notwithstanding these decided 
charactei's, we are still unable to find the slightest affinity be- 
tween this and the other orders. 

In describing Stylops in 1828, I stated that the third joint 
of the antenna? was merely elongated into a lobe, and that they 
were 6-jointed ; and I am now fully borne out in my opinion 
by the structure of those of Halictophagus. I find that Mr. 
Westwood has been pleased to observe, that I was not the 
first to discover that the pseudelytra were attached to the me- 
sothorax*. However that may be, I was the first, I believe, 
who proved it ; and if Mons. Latreille did entertain an opinion 
that the appendages were elytra, it is far from clear in xki^Hegne 
Animal, and in the 'Families Naturelles he states that the 
prebalancers are inserted on the sides of the prothorax. Mr. 
Kirby, misled by Mr. Bauer's drawing, imagined that they 
were attached to the coxae of the anterior legs, as represented 
in the Plate he refers to ; indeed they are so placed, that with- 
out dissecting the Stylops, it would be utterly impossible from 
a dead specimen to ascertain to what part they were attached. 

I take this opportunity of adding, that Mr. Templeton in 
examining the nest of Bombiis mnscorum^ found a specimen of a 
Stylops very similar to Elenchus Walker i, if it be not the same, 
the 7th or 8th of last August in the neighbourhood of Belfast, 
which induces him to think it may be a parasite of that bee. 

The Plant is Tragopogon porrij'oliiis (Purple Goat' s-beard). 

* Mr. Westwood says that I claim the discovery of the attacliment of the 
pseudelytra to the mesothorax ; in this he is not quite right ; I said, '• it has been 
my good fortune to prove that the appendages are anterior wings or elytra." 
Vol. V. p. 226 a. 



^y 




s67 

>%ii-:lAf rJ:S«M^ ^C7^ Oct / 'f8l4 



41. 
CilMBEX DECEM-MACULATA. 



Ordeh Hj'ineiioptfra. Tam. Tentliredinidse Lat., Leach, 

Type of fhe Genus Tenthredo europaea Leach. 
CiMBEX Oliv., Fab., Lat., Leach. Tenthredo Linn., Jur. 

Antennce inserted between the eyes, clavate, 6-jointed, first joint 
cup-shaped, second very short, third very long, fourth and fifth 
clavate- truncate, sixth oblong, club-shaped, with a transverse 
suture. (1.) 

Luhrum small, oblong, rounded at the apex, hairy. (2.) 
Mandibles exscrted, unequal, robust, acute, with one or two 
irregular teeth on the inside. (3.) 

Maxilla membranaceous at the apex, with a large hairy lobe near 
the base of the palpi, extending towards the apex. 
Palpi irregular, extending a little beyond the maxillae, 6-jointed, 
third joint the longest, fourth somewhat clavate, sixth small, 
ovate. (4.) 

Mentum oblong, dilated anteriorly (5. a.) : Palpi scarcely longer 
than the lip, 4-jointed, gradually increasing in size to the third 
joint, terminal joint small (b.) : Lip membranaceous, with a few 
hairs above, three-lobed, the centre one narrow, external lobes 
somewhat hemispherical, (c.) 
Clypeus b7'oad, emarginate. Ocelli 3. Abdomen sessile, cylindric in 
the males, somewhat ovate in the females, first segment especially of 
the males deeply emarginate above. Oviduct not exserted, composed 
of two Imnellce, which are serrated. Superior wings with 2 marginal 
and 3 submarginal cells. Thighs 4 posterior unarmed, very thick in 
the males. Tibiae terminated by syphon-formed spurs, obtuse at the 
apex. Tarsi with the penultimate joint a little shorter than the an- 
tepenultimate, four first joints with membranaceous appendages (8. « 
fore leg) ; the basal joint of the 4 posterior tarsi of the males produced 
into a spine beneath.(%. a.) 
Larva with membranaceous feet. 



Decem-maculata Leach Zool. Mis. v. 3. p. 106. n. 7. T. lutea Linn. ? 
¥n. Su. 1534. 

Body obscurely villose : black, the abdomen tinged with violet, 
the third and seventh joints having a pale greenish yellow spot on 
each side ; the 3 intermediate joints of the same colour interrupted 
by blackish violet down the centre. Abdominal membrane pale 
yellow. Antennae and tarsi testaceous. Wings pale fulvous : 
costii, 2 cells near the stigma and posterior margin ferruginous. 

Li t/te Cabinet of the British Museum. 



Dr. Leach has described in the Zoological Miscellany (above 
referred to) eleven species of this fine Genus, seven of which are 



ascertained to be inhabitants of Great Britain ; the unique speci- 
men figured, which is a female, was taken in the month of July 
at Windsor several years since by Mr. Griesbach, and presented 
to the British Museum by Dr. Leach. 

The larvae of this Genus greatly resemble those of the Lepidop- 
tera, except that they have twenty-two feet ; they have also two 
lateral apertures from which they are able to spirt a fluid, for what 
purpose we can only conjecture, probably it may be sufficiently 
fetid or noxious to protect them against the attacks of the destruc- 
tive Ichneumonida. When the larvae are full grown, they form 
for themselves an oblong hard case, which is generally attached 
to a twig or small branch of the tree they fed upon, within which 
they change to an incomplete pupa. 

The plant figured is Holcus mollis (Creeping Soft Grass) . 




CMM/^rJ.SM/iiu' _!^/<^ '^^, y /a'2/ 



49. 
TRICHIOSOMA LATERALE. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Tenthredinidse Lat., Leach. 
Type of tlie Genus Tenthredo Lucoriim Linn. 

Triciiiosoma L^ach. Cimbex Oliv., Fab., Lat. Tenthredo Linn., 
Fab., Jiir. 

Antenna inserted between the eyes, clavate, punctured, 7-jointcd, 
first joint nearly globose, very hairj', second transverse, third very 
long and slender, fourth and fifth clavate, truncate, sixth dilated 
anteriorly, forming the base of the club which has an elevated 
transverse suture, (f. 1.) 

Labrum quadrate, angulated at the base, rounded before and cili- 
ated, sliglitly produced in the centre. (2.) 

Mandibles cxsertcd, of the male very long, slender, acute, most 
commonly with two teeth on the internal side. (3.) 
Maxillfe witli the external lobe corneous, the internal one mem- 
branaceous, haiiy : Palpi irregular, extending a little beyond 
the maxillic, composed of six joints nearly equal in length, the 
fourth being the most dilated, and the tenuinal most slender. 
(4.) 

Mentum short, oblong, slightly angulated before (5. a.) ; Palpi 
a little longer than the lip, 4-joiiited, first and second joints 
somewhat long, cyliudric, third joint membranaceous, flat, broad, 
terminal joint slender, cylindric (b.) : Lip membranaceous, three- 
lol)ed, the centre lobe rather the smallest, attenuated towards the 
base, (c.) 
Clypeus broad, slighthj emarginate. Ocelli 3. Abdomen sessile, villose, 
cylindric in the nudes, sonmchat ovate and depressed in the females, 
Jirst seyraent, especially of the males, slightly emarginate above. Ovi- 
duct not exserted, composed of two lamella;, which are serrated. Supe- 
rior wings with 2 maryiiud and 3 submarginal cells. Thiglis 4 
posterior, dent a ted and incrassated in the males. Tibia" ?cith siphon- 
formed spurs, obtuse at the apex. Tarsi 5 -jointed, with the penulti- 
mate Joint a little shorter than the antepemdtiMate, four first joints 
with small membranaceous appendages, dentated beneath, especially the 
first joint of the males. Claws simple (Sfore leg of a mciW). 
Larva with membranaceous feet. 



Latekale Leach Zool. Mis. v. S. p. 109. n. 2. 

.^llneous black covered with soft yellowish hairs. Head and anten- 
nae very black ; sides and underside of abdomen, tibise, tarsi, and 
costa, yellow inclining to ferruginous. Wings stained with yellow, 
posterior margin fuscous. 

Li the Author s and other Cabinets. 



The Genus Trichiosoma was established by Dr. Leach in his 
valuable Monograph upon the Tenthredinida : it is closely allied 



to the Genus Cimhex ; from which, however, it is very distinct in 
the formation of the organs of mandueation, the labrnm being 
very broad, the mandibles are tridentate, and tlie relative propor- 
tions of the joints of the palpi are very different ; the most con- 
stant character in the antennae is the great length of the third 
joint, the tarsi have their joints angulated beneath towards the 
centre, not spined near the apex as in Cimhex, from which the 
males may be instantly known, by their wanting the membrana- 
ceous covering near the base of the abdomen, aud the four 
posterior thighs being furnished with a tooth. The dissections in 
the plate are taken from a male, in which sex the instrumcnla 
c'lhana far exceed those of the female in size, especiidly the lab- 
rum and mandibles. 

TiicMosoma laterale is a rare insect, specimens being only 
occasionally met with in the woods about London : IMr. Samouelle 
first captured a specimen at Coombe, in the month of April ; the 
one figured (which is a male) came from Darent ; and I believe 
Mr. Stephens has also specimens from the same neighbourhood : 
the other British species are T. sylvaticum Leach. ; Lncornm 
Linn. ; tibiale Steph. ; Scalesii Leach., and unidentatum Iicach. 

The larvae, like those of Cimhex, roll themselves up in a pecu- 
liar manner, and when full grown inclose themselves iu a hard 
case, which they attach to the plant they fed upon. One species 
{T. Liicoruiu) is very abundant upon the White-thorn (PI. 31.) ; 
and iu the winter, when the leaves have fallen off, the cocoons 
are easily collected ; and in April following the lly will make its 
appearance. 

Hyacinthus non-scriptiis Linn. ; 8cilla nutans Smith (Hare- 
bell Squill) is figured with the insect. 



9^ 




93. 
CLAVELLARIA MARGINATA. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Tenthrc'dinidae Lot., Leach. 

Type of the Genus Tcnthredo Amcrin<e Linn. 
CbAVELLAniA Lamarck, Leach. Cimbex Olb:., Fab., Lat. Tcnthredo 
Linn., Fab., Jur., Panz. 

AntenncE inserted between the eyes, long:er in the male than fe- 
male, clavate, j-jointed, 1st joint somewlmt globose, with a tuft 
of long hairs, 2nd transverse- hairy, 3rd very long slender, 4lh 
short, ;>th forming a club as long as the 3rd joint, covered with 
minute t'uberculated glands (f. 1). 

Labrum large, semi-transparent, scarcely hairv, rounded, nar- 
rowed at the base (2). 

Mandibles exserted, very long in the male, slender, acute, with 2 
large and sometimes smaller teetii on the internal edge (3). 
M axil lie hiiir)-, composed of J membranaceous lobes, the superior 
one somewhat trigonate, the internal one more lanceolate. Palpi 
considerably longer than the maxillie, composed of G joints of 
nearly equal length, 3 tir^t joints robust. 2 following somewhat 
hatchet-shapt'd, rerniin;il j<iinf rl.ivsitr (1). 

Mentinn pilose, oblong, slightly dilated before (J a). Palpi a 
little longer than the lip, 1 -jointed, 3 first joints of equal length, 
the 3rd rather morcrol)ust, terminal joint the longest, cvlindric, 
not more slender than the others (b). Lip membranaceous, 
3-Iobed, the centre one linear, the otiiers considerably longer, 
narrow, attenuated towards the base (c). 
Clypeus broad, emar^inatv, numhrnnaceous (I a, front view of head of 
male). Ocelli 3. Abdomen sessile, viltose, linear in the males, some- 
what dilated in the females, \st segment scarcely emar^inate above. 
Oviduct not exserted, composed of 2 lamelUe that are serrated. Su- 
perior wings with 2 marginal and 3 submarginal crlU. Thighs 
unarmed, A posterior incrassated in the males. T'\b'ix with siphon- 
formed s-purs, obtuse at the apex. Tarsi j -jointed, with the penulti- 
mate joint a little shorter than the antepenultimate, 4 Jirst joints with 
small membranaceous appendages slightly angulated beneath. Claws 
simple (8 afore leg). Larva with membranaceous feet. 



Maroinata Linn. Syst. Nat. 2. 929. 2. Fab. Em. Syst. t. 2. p. IOC. n. 6. 
Fern : black. Head and thorax pubescent. Clypeus pale vellow. 
Club o4 the anteniu-e except at the base ferruginous. Thorax 
and basal joint of abdomen green inclining to purple. Basal 
joint of abdomen edged with yellow, the remaining joints except 
the 2nd and 3rd margined with ochraceous, the band on the 4th 
joint being interrupted in the middle. Tibiie and tarsi pale fer- 
ruginous. Wings stained yellowish, the costal and one of the 
discoidal cells being most intense, nerves and stigma ferrugi- 
nous ; posterior margins tinged pale brown. 
In the Cabinets of the British Museum and Mr. Stephens. 



Except in the cabinets above recorded, I know of no British 
specimens of this valuable genus, of which Dr. Leach in the 
Zooloo-ical Miscellany mentions 2 species that were first de- 
scribed by Linnaeus ; and from our finding males only of the 
one and females of the other, it is exceedingly probable they 
are the same species, notwithstanding their dissimilarity, which 
would render the specific name of " dispar" more appropriate; 
the fact, however, of their being the same is not proved ; and 
if it should hereafter, I would strongly recommend that the 
name which Linnaeus gave to the male might be adopted, 
^^ AmerincE" being descriptive of the locality of the insect; for 
we are informed by authors that it inhabits sallows, living in 
society, and eating the edges of the leaves of those trees. 

Clavellaria Amerhice Linn, has been twice taken at Windsor 
in June : a figure of it will be found in Panzer's FawKS Ger- 
vianica, fasc. 65, pi. 1. mas. 

C. marginata Linn, is also figured by Panzer : the specimen 
represented in our plate was taken at Windsor also in June, 
by Mr. Griesbach. 

The absence of the membranaceous covering as well as the 
slight emargination at the base of the abdomen, and the an- 
tennae being composed of fewer joints and a longer club, are 
characters to distinguish Clavellaria from Cimbex and the 
neighbouring genera, no less than the organs of manducation; 
and the extraordinary length of the jaws in the males is not 
less characteristic. If then there be good characters to es- 
tablish so many genera, (and that there are, no one can doubt, 
when it is recollected that Dr. Leach in the division of Cimbex 
employed only external distinctions,) the group with clavate 
antennae, viz. the Citnbices, will form an excellent family; and 
the oeconomy of the Tenthredinidce, as well as their peculiar 
structure, may render it advisable in a more advanced stage 
of science to separate them from the Hymenoptera and form 
them into a new order, an idea which has long been enter- 
tained by various authors. 

Pyrola media (Intermediate Winter-Green), from the heaths 
in the north of Perthshire, appears to be the plant figured. 



97 




97. 
ZARMA FASCIATA. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Tenthredinidifi Lat., Leach, 

Type of the Genus Tenthredo fasciata Linn. 
ZarjEA Leach. Cimbex Fuh., Otiv., Lot. Tenthredo Linn.,Jur., Panz. 
AntenncE inserted near the interior margin of the eyes, short cla- 
vate, slightly pubescent, 6-jointed, 1st and 2nd joints transverse, 
slightly hairy, 3rd long, slender, bent, clavate, the remainder of 
nearly equal length, 5th and 6th forming the club, the latter 
somewhat ovate (fig. 1). 

Lahrum exserted, semicircular, covered above with rigid hairs (2) . 
Mandibles small, bent, very acute, with an obtuse tooth on the 
internal edge, very hairy externally (3). 

jlfaj:i//cz?long, lobes membranaceous, terminal one naked, rounded, 
the other large, attenuated, acute. Palpi long, hairy, 6-jointed, 
coriaceous at the base, terminal joints membranaceous, two 1st 
joints small, 3rd robust, 4th long, bent, or twisted, 5th very long, 
6th nearly as long (4). 

Mentum somewhat quadrate, deeply emarginate, hairy (5 a). 
Palpi hairy, 4-jointed, 2 basal joints short, 3rd and 4th mem- 
branaceous compressed, dilated, the former very large (b). Lip 
composed of 3 nearly equal hollow lobes (c). 
Head s??ja/Z. Eyes of the males contitigent behind. Ocelli 3, placed 
bejore the eyes, especially in the males. Abdomen sessile, cylindric, 
ovate in the females. Oviduct not exserted, composed of 2 lamellce 
which are serrated. Superior wings with 2 marginal and 3 sub- 
marginal cells. Legs slender. Tibiae with obtuse siphonformed 
spurs. Tarsi with the joints gradually decreasing in length to the 
last, 5-jointed, 4 first joints with membranaceous appendages. 
Claws simple. I'ulvilli distinct (8 afore leg). 
Larvae with membranaceous feet. 



Fasciata Linn. Faun. Suec. 1538. Fab. Ent. Syst. t. 2. p. 107. n. 9. 
Female seneous- black, shining, pubescent, minutely punctured. 
Antennse dull black: 1st joint of abdomen semitransparent, 
whitish with an interrupted black line at the base. Wings iri- 
descent, tinged with fuscous towards their extremities, the su- 
perior with a large brown spot in the centre. Tibiae brown, tarsi 
dull ochraceous. Abdomen beneath whitish in the middle, at 
the base. " Male bronzed, the 1st segment of the abdomen not 
white as in the female." Jurine. 

In the Cabinet of Mr. Stephens. 



Although the more rounded labrum and acute mandibles, 
as well as the form of the 4th joint of the maxillary palpi and 
the great breadth of the 3rd joint of the labial palpi, are im- 
portant differences to distinguish our genus from Abia ; a 
more obvious character is to be found in the antennae, each of 
which is composed of 6 joints only, the club being formed by 
2 instead of 3 articulations. 

At present there is no other species of this genus described: 
the one figured is rare in this country, and I have had no op- 
portunity of examining a male. The females have been taken 
by J. F. Stephens, Esq. in Coombe Wood in May; from which 
we may infer that the males are more scarce (an opinion that 
is corroborated by the females being constantly figured, and 
the specimens I have received from Germany for dissection 
being all of that sex), a circumstance that is somewhat sin- 
gular, because in Abia, to which it is so closely alhed, the 
males are by far the more common sex. 

The plant figured is Adoxa Moschatellina (Tuberous Mos- 
chatel). 



89 







89. 
ABIA NIGRICORNIS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Tenthredinidae Lat., Leach. 

Tijpe of the Genus Tenthredo sericea Linii. 
Abia Leach. Cimbex Fab., Oliv., Lat. Tenthredo Linn., Jur., Panz. 
Antennce inserted near tlie interior margin of the eyes, short cla- 
vate, 7-jointed, 1st and 2nd joints transverse, hairy, 3rd very 
long bent, clavate, 4th and oth more robust clavate- truncate, 
Cth short robust, 7th short rounded (fig. 1), 
Labrum transverse, rounded, very pilose (2). 
Mandibles small, bent, somewhat acute, with a strong tooth on 
the internal edge, very hairy externally (3). 
Maxillce small, internal lobe acute, external ovate ciliated. Palpi 
long coriaceous at the base, membranaceous towards the apex, 
slightly hairy, 1st and 2nd joints very short, 3rd and 4th of equal 
length, robust, "jth and Gth longer and more slender (4). 
Mentum somewhat quadrate, deeply emarginate (5 a). Palpi 
4 -jointed, 2 first joints coriaceous, the others membranaceous (b). 
Lip composed of 3 equal lobes, margined (c). 
Head rather small. Eyes of the males approximating behind. Ocelli 
3, placed before the eyes, especially in the males. Abdomen sessile, 
villose, cylindric, broader in the females, the males having a quadrate 
silky spot beyond the middle. Oviduct not exserted, composed of 2 
lamellae which are serrated. Superior wings with 2 marginal and 3 
submarginal cells. Legs slender. Tibiae with obtuse syphonformed 
spurs. Tarsi with the joints gradually decreasing in length to the 
last, 5 -jointed, 4 first joints with membranaceous appendages. Claws 
bifd. Pulvilli distinct (8 afore leg). 
Larvae with membranaceous feet. 



NiGRicoRNis Leach, Zool. Mis. v. 3. p. 1 13. n. 1 . — nitens Linn. Faun. 
Suec. 1539. — sericea var. Fab. Syst. Piez. p. 18. n. 10. 
Male : Antennae black. Eyes dull cinereous. Head and thorax 
greenish-black. Abdomen dull, brassy green, minutely punc- 
tured and covered with short pubescence, a large quadrangular 
blackish spot upon the centre of the 4th, 5th, and 6th segments. 
Wings iridescent at their margins, stained yellow : superior 
variegated with brown in the centre and at the apex, nerves pale 
towards the base, dark at their extremities. Legs pale ochra- 
ceous, thighs aeneous-black, except at the apex. Female: An- 
tennae with the club brown. Abdomen dull aureous green, 
without any spot. 

In the Authofs and other Cabinets. 



Abu was separated from the Cimbices by Dr. Leach, and is 
easily distinguished from his genus Zarcea, which it most re- 
sembles, by the three last joints of the antennae forming a club, 
whereas in Zarcea it is composed of only 2 ; and the singular 
quadrate spot upon the abdomens of the males at once distin- 
guishes that sex from the whole family. 

Abia nigr-icornis appears to have been considered by Lin- 
naeus as the female of Tenthredo nitcns, and by Fabricius as a 
variety of Civibex sericea. Amongst other distinctions, how- 
ever, the colour of the antennae, the brown markings of the 
wings, and the situation and form of the spot upon the ab- 
domen of the males are sufficient, now that the sexes of both 
have been taken, to justify its being recorded as a distinct spe- 
cies. It was, I believe, never before figured. It has been taken 
at Coombe Wood, by J. F. Stephens, Esq., in the month of 
June. A sericea, the other species inhabiting this kingdom, 
has been found on heaths upon Furze-bushes, in June, and 
sometimes occurs in considerable abundance : it is figured by 
Donovan in his Brit. his. v. 12. pi. 402. 

The plant represented is Genista anglica (Needle Furze, or 
Petty Whin). 




<J'U:tya-6..^ J,^ rJL.^^ / IhU 



54. 
LOPHYRUS PINI. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. TentliredinidEe LaL, Leach. 

Type of the Genus Tenthredo Pini Linn. 
LoPHYRUS Lat., Leach. Tenthredo Linn., Fab. Hylotoma Fab. 
Pteronus Jtir. 

AntenncB inserted near the middle of the face, somewhat approxi- 
mating, not longer than the thorax, pubescent ; male with about 
23 joints, all of which are bipectinated, except the fh-st 2 and ter- 
minal joints (f. 1.) ; female thickest in the middle, slightly serrated 
internally, having from 16 to 18 joints (1. a). 
Labnim nearly quadrate narrowed anteriorly, ciliated (2.) 
Mandibles, one tridentate (3.), the other with a small tooth only. 
MaxillcB with 2 long lobes, the inferior one somewhat acuminate, 
membranaceous, as long as the external one, which is rounded and 
hairy : Palpi long sbghtly hairy 6-jointed, 1st and 2nd joints 
short, the following long, the 2 last being more slender (4.) 
Menimn quadrate, slightly dilated anteriorly (5. a.) : Palpi haiiy, 
4-jointed, of nearly equal length, gradually increasing in breadth 
to the last which is somewhat ovate acuminate (b.) : Lip tripar- 
tite, the lobes of nearly equal size (c) 
Head in the males very broad. Ocelli nearly in a transverse line. Thorax 
in the males large. Abdomen sessile, somewhat cylindric in the 
males, depressed and ovate in the females. 0\aduct 7iot exserted, com- 
posed of 2 lamella which are serrated. Superior wings ?cith 1 mar- 
(jinal and 4 sub-marginal cells, the nerve dividing the \st and 'ind cells 
being imperfect. Tibise icith spurs. Tarsi ^-jointed, first 4 joints 
with membranaceous appendages, \st joint very robust, the following 
gradually decreasing in size to the apex, which is terminated by claws 
slightly unidentate (8. a foreleg). 
Larva with Q pectoral and 16 membranaceous feet. 



Pini mas. Linn. Syst. Nat. 2. 922. 14^.— Fab. Fnt. Syst. v. 2. p. 112. 
n. 28.— /m. T. dorsata Fab. v. 2. p. 111. n. 26. 
Male black, head and thorax minutely punctured. Palpi, tibiae 
and tarsi pale ochraceous. Stigma large, furruginous. Wings 
slightly discoloured with fuscous. Antenna? with 22 joints. Female 
larger than the male, pale ochraceous. Head, antennae (except- 
ing the 1st joint) a spot before the centre and a lunulated mark 
on each side the thorax black, margin to 1st segment 4th and 3 
following segments, excepting the sides, a mark on the centre of 
the 8th and the apex of the abdomen also black. Legs pale varied 
with'fuscous. Wings pale ochraceous, stigma large ferruginous. 
Antennae with 1 8 joints : Some specimens have more and others 
less black. 

hi the Cabinet of the British Museum. 



We have only three British species of tliis pretty genus of La- 
treille's, which rival even the Lepidoptera in the beauty of their 
antennse ; and nature;, guided by the same principle, has bestowed 
this ornament alike in both Orders upon the males, which still 
further involves in mystery their use and quality; since, if form 
were material, the power of one sex would either be very different 
or very superior to that of the other ; — if the sense of feeling in- 
deed be the only faculty they possess, their form is not of so much 
importance ; and like Lehmann we shall be inclined to adopt this 
opinion, if we consider their general situation, their porrected 
attitude when in action, and still more the uses to which they are 
applied. 

Lophyrus Pini is a rare insect in Britain : the female has been 
taken in Derbyshire, but the pine forests of Scotland are the most 
productive places for them : L. pallidtcs of Leach was found in 
the larva state by that gentleman at Oban in Scotland, upon Pinus 
sylvedris. (PI. 7.) On the 6th of September they spun cocoons; 
on the l-ith of June following one female hatched, L. riifus 
King, is not uncommon in the same country, and is also occasion- 
ally met with at Birchwood, June appears to be the month in 
which all the species are found in the imago state, and the males 
are by far the rarest ; that of L. pallidus is unknown, and I have 
seen but one British male of L. Pini. 

De Geer devotes the whole of tab. 36. vol 2. to the illustration 
of L. Pini; and his history of it at p. 971 is not less interesting. 
The larvse (says that author) are gregarious, of an obscure ochre 
colour with a row of large black spots down the side, when full- 
grown with another row down the back : they assemble in July 
upon the branches of the pine in large troops of more than a hun- 
dred ; they commonly repose along the leaves, having their heads 
inclined on one side ; they are very voracious, not only devouring 
the straight leaves of the pine, beginning at the end as one eats a 
radish, but also the bark of the young shoots ; and after having 
despoiled one branch of its leaves, they go in a body and fix upon 
another, until so many branches are stripped that their habitation 
becomes conspicuous. When touched they raise their heads and 
let flow from their mouths a drop of clear resin, which has the 
scent and consistence of that exuding from a wounded branch of 
the pine. In every state the sexes may be known by their size ; 
even the cocoons which are fixed to the branches of the pine are 
much smaller in the males than the females ; the larvae form 
cocoons about September, but they do not change to pupae until 
the spring ; and one of Dr. LeacVs caterpillars of L. jiallidus 
remained two years in that state without nourishment, which could 
not happen if they were not perfectly secluded from the air : the 
males bred by De Geer appeared in May, — the females did not 
hatch till June. 

Lychnis dioica mas. var. alba (White Campion) is figured. 




d^i^iyO'.eaAA^ JL,J^ \U 6f^. /.■■/&2S 



58. 
CRYPTUS PALLIPES. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Tenthredinidae Lat., Leach. 
Type of the Genus Tenthredo furcata Vill.^ Fab. 
Cryptus Juritie, Leach. Tenthredo Fab., Coqueb. Hylotoma Fab., 
Lat. 

Antennce inserted between the eyes, pubescent, 3-jointed ; 1st 
joint (in the male) cup-shaped, 2nd short, 3rd very long furcate, 
with numerous whorls of long bristly hairs round each branch 
(fig. 1.) ; 3rd joint (in the female) simple, filiform, without 
bristles (1. a.) 

Labrum transverse, emarginate and ciliated anteriorly (3.) 
Mandibles arcuated, acute, with a tooth about the middle of the 
internal edge, more evident in one mandible than the other (3.) 
Maxilla short, external lobe large, rounded, internal lobe small 
linear : Palpi long, hairy, 6 jointed, 1st joint small, 4 following 
of nearly equal length, the 4th joint being the broadest, terminal 
joint rather long and slender (4.) 

Mentum elongated, narrowed before (5.) : Palpi short, slightly 
hairy, 4-jointed, 3 first joints short, the 3rd being the broadest, 
4th long, slender (b.) : Lip tripartite of equal portions (c.) 
Head with a tubercle in front above the eyes. Ocelli 3. Abdomen 
sessile somewhat short. Oviduct 7iot exsei'ted composed of 2 serrated 
lamellce. Superior wings toith 1 marginal cell and four imperfect 
submarginal cells. Tibiae simple, with spurs at the extremities. Tarsi 
^-jointed, 4 first joints with appendages beneath, the 1st Joint lo?igest 
the 4eth shortest. Claws simple, with pulvilli (8 afore leg.) 
Larvae with ^pectoral and 1% or 14 membranaceous feet. 



Pallipes Leach Zool. Mis. v. S.p. 125. n. 3. 

Black shining. Head thorax and scutellum minutely punctured, 
thickly covered with very short yellow hairs invisible to the naked 
eye. Abdomen perfectly smooth, slightly aeneous with a shade 
of piceous, pubescent. Tibiae and tarsi very dull and pale brown. 
Wings very iridescent with a brownish yellow tinge, especially 
beneath the stigma which is brown as weU as the nerves. 

In the Cabinets of the British Musetim and Mr. Stephens. 



Fabricius having established the genus Hylotoma, in which he 
united several very excellent genera, Latreille afterwards separated 
them, and retained under that name the insects which compose 
Jurine's genus Cryptus : Dr. Leach has again divided the group. 



extracting the species with furcate antennse, for which he has 
retained Jurine's name Cryptus, leaving the remainder of the 
group under Hylotoma, following Latreille ; and it is only to be 
regretted that he did not give another name to the genus, and 
thereby avoid the confusion which Jurine has introduced by 
employing the name Cryptus here, when Pabricius had 3 years 
before given that name to a genus of Ichneumonidce, wliich Jurine 
was aware of, from his referring one of his divisions in that 
family to Eabricius^s genus in a subsequent page ; and had not 
Panzer published those IcJmeumonida under the name of Alomya, 
by wliich they are now well known, it would still be necessary to 
substitute a new name, in which we should only be doing justice 
to Fabricius. 

The male of Cryptus pallipes (a figure of which has never 
before appeared in any work) was first taken at Coombe Wood, 
by Mr. J. King ; and was named and described by Dr. Leach, 
and deposited in the British Museum. J. F. Stephens, Esq. 
was afterwards so fortunate as to meet with both sexes of tliis 
extremely rare species in June, at the same place : the other 
species {Tenthredo furcata Vill., C. ViUersii Leach) has been 
taken at Bristol in June ; it is figured by Panzer in his Fauna 
Insectomm Germanica, fasc. 46. tab. 1. ; and by Coquebert in 
his Ulustratlo Iconographica Insectorum, tab. 3. fig. 4. mas. I 
have retained Villers's name, although it is objectionable, from its 
being a generic rather than a specific one, and descriptive of the 
male only ; because as the greater proportion of insects have been 
named from one sex, we shall never have our nomenclature 
settled, if it is to be disturbed upon such occasions. 

Triglochm maritimum (Sea Arrow-grass) is figured in the 
plate. 



6o 




U.^y O: $^6., ^.r^^ ^,./ -fiji!,^ 



65. 
HYLOTOMA STEPHENSII. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Tenthredinidse Lat., Leach. 
Type of the Genus Tenthredo coerulescens Fab. 
Hylotoma Fab., Lat., Leach. Tenthredo Linn. Cryptus Jur. 

^w<e«n«? inserted near the centre of the face, divaricating, curved, 
3-iointed, 2 first joints small, 3rd very long, filiform, and pilose 
in the males, the hairs arising at right angles on one side (f. 1) : 
not so long in the females, somewhat clavate, and scarcely 
hairy (la). 

Labrum exserted, transverse, hairy, sides convex, anterior mar- 
gin nearly straight (2). 

Mandibles somewhat robust, arcuate, with an obtuse tooth near 
the middle of the internal edge, less evident in one than in the 
other mandible, ciliated externally (3). 

Maxilla: small, internal lobe nearly obsolete, external oval, hairy : 
Palpi hairy, 6-jointed, 2 first joints small, 3 following of nearly 
equal length, the 1 st being the most robust, terminal joint slender 
and the longest (4). 

Mentum (5 a) somewhat quadrate, dilated into angles on each 

side where the Palpi arise, which are 4-jointed, 1 st joint small, 

2nd and 3rd of nearly equal size, 4th slender, elongate, conic 

(b): Lip tripartite, of nearly equal portions (c). 

Head with a tubercle between the antennce. Ocelli 3. Abdomen sessile , 

rather short and thick. Oviduct not exserted, composed of 2 serrated 

lamella:. Superior wings ivith one marginal cell, emitting a nerve 

from the apex, and 4 perfect submarginal cells. Tibiae simple, the 4 

posterior, having a spine on the internal side, below the middle (8 a 

hind leg). 

Stephensii Leach Zool. Mis. v. 3. p. 123. n. 6. 

Head and thorax violaceous-black, the latter inclining to rufous 
in parts, .\bdomen yellowish-ochraceous, palest at the base, 
pectus ferruginous, violaceous-black in the middle. Wings iri- 
descent, stained pale yellowish fuscous ; costa, stigma, and nerves 
piceous. Legs brown, pubescent 3 4 posterior thighs yellow, 
except at their apex. Tarsi and antennae nearly black. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Stephens and the Author. 



The division of Fabricius's genus Hylotoma has been already 
explained in the account of Cryptus (fol. 58) : it is therefore 
only necessary here to observe, that, independent of the diffe- 
rence of the instrumenta cibaria, there are external characters 
that fully justified Dr. Leach's separating that genus from 
Hylotoma; the simple antennae in both sexes in Hylotoma, the 
branch from the marginal cell of the vikings, and the spines of 
the 4 posterior tibiae, are the most remarkable. The genus as 
it now stands contains 14< British species, which I shall here 
enumerate, observing that the first may possibly belong to Le 
Peletier de Saint- Fargeau's genus Ptilia. 

HYLOTOMA 

1. pilicornis Leach. 8. Klugii Leach. 

2. Berberidis Klug. 9. segmentaria Panz. 

3. Anglica Leach. 10. coerulescens Fab. 

4. enodis Linn. 1 1 . femoralis Klug. 

5. \io\acea Klug. 12. Rosse Lm?i. 

6. coerulea Klug. 1 3. Stephensii Leach. 

7. ustulata Linn. 14. pagana Panz. 

Our species (of which a female is figured) was first disco- 
vered at Darent Wood, Kent, by J. F. Stephens, Esq., in 
honour of whom it was named by Dr. Leach. It is nearly 
allied to H. pagana, from which it differs in having more trans- 
parent wings, brown and pubescent tibiae, and black tarsi : it 
appears to be a local species, as I have never met with it my- 
self, excepting at Darent, where it is taken in June, in which 
month all the species above recorded are to be found. 

Stachys sylvatica (Hedge Wound-wort), referred to in folio 
61, is figured with the insect. 



6^j 




Uy^!.C^^<i:.i «'.-/.-/cC(i 



617. 
ATHALIA SPINARUM. 

The Turnep Saw-fly. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Tenth red in idae. 

Type of the Genus, Tenthredo spinarum Fah. 
Atiialia Lea., St. Farg., Curt. — Hylotoma i^wi. — AUantus Jtir., 
Klug. — Tenthredo Linn., Fab., Fanz. 

Antenna inserted near the middle of the face, short and clavate, 
stoutest in the female ; 10-jointed, basal joint chalice-shaped, 
2nd shorter obovate, 3rd long, slightly clavate, 4th not longer 
than the 1st, the following decreasing in length, terminal joint 
the stoutest, ovate, never so long as the 3rd (1). 
Labrum subquadrate, the anterior margin being considerably 
produced in a bow, forming rounded angles on each side ; ci- 
liated and pilose (2). 

Mandibles, one rather smaller tlian the other in the female, the 
apex forming a curved claw, with a small tooth inside in one 
(3), merely notched in the other, hairy outside. 
Maxilla: elongated, terminated by a somewhat ovate leathery 
lobe, with a long lanceolate internal one very pubescent on the 
inside. Palpi long pubescent and 6-jointed, basal joint the 
shortest, the remainder nearly of equal length and clavate, 3rd 
less attenuated at the base, 6th the slenderest, slightly fusi- 
form (4). 

Mentum elongate obovate. Palpi short, attached to the anterior 
angles, 4-jointed, pilose towards the apex, joints nearly equal, 
1st clavate-truncate, 2nd more ovate, 3rd obovate, 4th a little 
the longest, ovate-conic, the apex excavated on the inside. Lip 
large suborbicular, trilobed, centre lobe narrow (5). 
Head transverse: eyes oval: ocelli 3 in triangle. Thorax globose. 
Abdomen short subcylindric. Wings, superior with 2 marginal and 
4 siibmarginal cells. Legs rather short : tibiaj clavate, all having a 
pair of acute unequal spurs at the apex: tarsi rather long and 5- 
jointed, the 4 first having appendages at the apex beneath : claws and 
pulvilli small (8 t hind leg). 
Larvae with 6 pectoral, 14 abdominal and 2 anal feet. 



Spinarum Fab. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 464. 2. — Centifoliae Panz. 49. 
18. 

Bright orange; antennae and head black, underside of the 
former, excepting the base and apex, duU yellow : labrum and 
palpi yellow : thorax black above, with the collar and a conical 
space before, the scutel, and a spot on the postscutel reddish - 
orange : wings and nervures yellowish at the base, costa and 
stigma dark brown ; tarsi whitish, tips of tibia; and of all the 
tarsal joints black, the apical one entirely black, as well as the 
claws and the tip of the ovipositor. In the male the 2 basal 
joints of the antennae are yellow beneath, and more or less so 
above. 

In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



Athalia nearly resembles Hylotoma and Selandria, but is 
distinguished from both by its antennae, which are more cla- 
vate than the latter and have more joints than the former. 
Di-. Leach described them as 10-jointed, but in the species 
figured the males have only 9 joints (fig. 1.), and in the females 
an nth joint is indicated. Six species are recorded in the 
Guide as British, and the one before us is well deserving our 
attention from the injurious habits of its larva. 

The T. spinarum is stated by Fabricius to be destructive to 
turneps, and the T. centifolicc of Panzer is undoubtedly the 
same species. 

In walking through the turnep-fields last year the most 
casual observer must have noticed the mere skeletons which 
the leaves often exhibited, the fibres only remaining, the mem- 
brane being consumed by larvae called Blacks by the farmers. 
From the middle of August to the 20th of October, at which 
lime they were full-grown, I observed them feeding on the 
leaves of the turneps; they often varied considerably in stature, 
and the bulb was evidently reduced in size through their 
agency. The larvae or caterpillars when full-grown are some- 
times green, but generally of a lead or slate colour, being black 
before changing their skins, and always appearing darker when 
rolled up : they form an oval horny cocoon either amongst the 
leaves on the ground or under the clods of earth, where they 
become pupae. The fly appears principally in August and 
September, but I have found them as early as the 29th of 
March, and as late as the middle of October. I first observed 
these flies in abundance in a potato-field at Battersea, and 
afterwards in a field near Heron Court ; but last year they 
were distributed over the whole country, after an absence in 
many places, I was informed, of upwards of 30 years ; they 
have appeared again this year, and Mr. R. Taylor and my- 
self, in a botanical excursion last August, saw the flies coming 
out of the ground in myriads in a ploughed field near Bristol, 
where potatos had apparently been grown. 

The Jlies do not appear to be attached to any particular 
plant ; whether the larva; will attack any other than the En- 
glish turnep I cannot determine, but it is a remarkable fact 
that they will not touch the Swedes. I believe it is not diffi- 
cult to destroy them, for if they are brushed off the leaves it 
seems they are unable to crawl upon the ground and recover 
their station ; they consequently perish unless they are fiill- 
grown at the time : but as there is a constant succession from 
August till near November, the operation of drawing a hurdle 
or something over the turneps ought to be repeated at inter- 
vals during that period. Wet, also, is said to destroy the 
blacks, and ducks turned into the fields clear them off' rapidly 
and grow fat upon them. 

The full-grown larva is represented feeding upon the tur- 
nep, Brassica llapa. 



7^v 





'■-^i^^^y.'5,,^-tA:^'/l^,f./(^^C^ 



764. 
ALLANTUS FLAVIPES. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Tenthredinidae. 

Type of the Genus, Tenthredo Scrophularise Linn. 

Allanttjs /«?•., Panz., Curt. — Tenthredo Z/««m., Fab., King., St. Farg. 
Antenna frequently shortest in the males, inserted in the middle 
of the face, approximating, as long as the thorax, clavate, com- 
pressed, 9-jointed (1); basal joint short stout subpyriform, 2nd 
small, obovate, 3rd the longest, clavate, 4th and 5th stouter 
but much shorter, the following diminishing to the apical joint, 
which is small and conical. 

Lahrum suborbicular, angulated in the centre and ciliated (2). 
Mandibles very similar, curved, the apex forming a strong claw 
with 3 or 4 stout teeth below, externally pilose (3) . 
Maxillae long and slender terminated by an ovate lube, and an 
internal pubescent one. Palpi long slender pubescent and G- 
jointed, basal joint short, 2nd and 3rd longish and stout, 4th a 
little longer, rather slender and clavate, 5th not longer than the 
3rd, 6th shorter, the slenderest, apex conical (4). 
Mentum short, corset-shaped. Palpi attached to the anterior 
angles, short stout pubescent and 4-jointed, basal joint sub-py- 
riform, the remainder nearly of equal length, terminal joint 
ovate-conic. Lip broad and trilobed, central lobe oblong, late- 
ral lobes more obovate (5). 
Males not always the smallest. Head transverse-oblong , base concave : 
face trigonate : eyes vertical, prominent, and oval : ocelli forming 
a compact triangle on the crown. Thorax globose : scutel broad 
and semiovate. Abdomen generally cylindric, a little depressed and 
linear in the males, the apex rounded, sometimes rather broad in the 
females, the apex conical : ovipositor not projecting. Wings, su- 
perior with 2 marginal and 4 submarginal cells. Legs, hinder 
long, stoutest in the males : thighs, anterior the shortest : tibiae all 
spurred, anterior with the apex of one spur furcate : tarsi 5-jointed, 
first 4 joints lobed beneath, and stouter than the others in the hinder 
pair of the males (8 f) : claws bifid : pulvilli distinct. 
Larvae with 6 pectoral, 14 abdominal and 2 anal feet. 

Flavipes Fourc. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 466. 

Male black, head and thorax mealy ; clypeus labrum and 2 
basal joints of antennae yellow, 2nd black inside ; sides of collar 
scapulars and 2 dots on postscutel yellow ; margin of 3rd seg- 
ment and 2 following ferruginous, with a black streak at the 
base of each, remainder yellow, base of 6th with a broad black 
band, narrow on the 7th, wings ferruginous-yellow, costa and 
stigma ochreous ; legs yellow, intermediate thighs with a small, 
hinder with a large black patch on the inside ; 4 anterior tibiae 
with a black patch at the apex ; tarsi black, gray at the base, 
hinder with the 3 basal joints yellow. Female with 2 basal 
joints of antennae yellow : abdomen with the margins of the 
segments yellow, interrupted on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th, forming 
sublunate spots on the sides (A) : wings yellow, costa stigma 
and nerves orange ; hinder thighs with a black patch at the base. 
In the Cabinets of Mr. Shuckard and the Author. 

If we take the typical species of Allantus and compare them 
with those of Tenthredo, pi. 692, the differences are very 

276. 



evident, especially in the anteniiEe; but if we proceed in the 
comparison we shall find that they gradually approach, so 
that at last there is little to distinguisii the genera excepting 
the length of the 3rd joint of the antennae. I cannot speak 
with certainty regarding thetrophi, not having examined them 
sufficiently, but 1 must not omit to notice a remarkable de- 
parture from the typical structure, which Mr. Haliday has 
pointed out to me in a species allied to Selandria, with very 
short pal[M, containing only 5 and 3 joints instead of 6 and 4. 
Mr. Haliday has only seen the males which he took at Holy- 
wood, and has named them seminigra, and perhaps Brachy- 
thops may be considered an appropriate generic name. 

In addition to the 42 species of Allantus recorded in the 
Guide, I am now able to add three more. The following 
sections may probably be found preferable to Dr. King's, 
which are based on the colour of the antennje. 
* AnteniKS sJiort^subdavate. a. Hinder tarsi stout in the males. 

1. Scrophulariae Linn. — Panz. 100. 10. — rusticus Srhr. 

2. captiva St. Farg. 88. 256. First detected by Mr. Shuckard. 

3. Thompson i Curt. MSS. 

Male black ; clypeus, base of antennae, humeral spots, 2 on 
scutel, margins of 1st and 4th, sides of 5th and apical 
segments yellow: legs yellow, upper side of thighs, apex 
of tibia? and tarsi black, hinder dilated. 
1 have the pleasure of dedicating this pretty species to my 

friend C. J. Thomson, Esq., who was present when I took it 

at Mickleham the middle of August. 

4. flavipes Fuurc. — Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 764. (J. — (\\spd.v King. 
This species was first observed by Mr. Shuckard in Battersea 

fields, where it appeared in abundance the end of June. Wish- 
ing to see the insect alive, I went to the spot the beginning 
of July, when 1 found 2 females upon the flowers of Sinajns 
nigra and also 6 larvce, one of which I have figured : they 
were feeding on that plant, and I believe upon S. alba, pi. 
546 ; they ate the leaves, stalks and flowers ; one soon changed 
its skin, when it lost all the black spots except those on the 
head, and it buried itself on the 17th, and the others success- 
ively, but unfortunately I could not rear them : there is little 
doubt however that they were the larvee of A.Jlavipes. 

Dr. Klug having described 2 species of Allantus under the 
name of di spar, I have lound it necessary to revert to Four- 
croy's name, although it is not perhaps so appropriate. 
h. Hinder tarsi alike iu both sexes. 

5. rusticus Lifin. — carbonaria Fab. — Panz. 71. 10. — notata 
Panz. 64. 10. ?. 

** ylntenncc longish,Jiliform : a. hinder tarsi stout in the males. 

6. zonatus Panz. 64. 9.— equestris Panz. 107. 6.— succincta 
Do7i. 13. 441. 2. 

b. Hinder tarsi sle^ider in both sexes. 

7. lividus Linn.— Panz. 52. 6. ? .— Carpini Panz. 71. 9-6- 
The plant is Sinapis nigra, Common Mustard. 



6q-z 




692. 
TENTHREDO CINGULATA. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Tenthredinidae. 

Type of the Genus, Tenthredo dimidiata Fab. 

Tenthredo Linn., Curt. — Hylotoma Fab. — Allantus Jur. 

Antenna stoutest in the male, inserted near the middle of the 
face, approximating, shorter than the body, compressed, slightly 
pubescent and 9-jointed (1) ; basal joint the stoutest and ob- 
ovate, 2nd the smallest, cup-shaped, 3rd as long as the 4th, the 
remainder decreasing in length, the apical joint short and ellip- 
tical in the male. 

Labrum inserted under the clypeus, orbicular, slightly truncated 
at the base, the margin ciliated with longish hairs (2). 
Mandibles very similar, elongate, linear, convex and hairy ex- 
ternally, the apex forming a large claw, with a small tooth be- 
low and a tubercle at the middle (3). 

Maxillce slender, terminated by an ovate lobe, with an internal 
one equally large, and very pubescent, the apex acuminated. 
Palpi long pubescent and 6-jointed, basal joint short, 2nd and 
3rd the stoutest, the former scarcely so long as the 3rd or 4th; 
5th and 6th a little shorter, the last slightly clavate (4). 
Mentum corset-shaped. Palpi attached to the anterior angles, 
rather long, hairy and 4-jointed, basal joint obovate, 2nd twice 
as long, curved and ciliated before, 3rd and 4th much broader, 
especially the former which is ovate, the latter ovate-conic. Lip 
rather large and cordate, composed of 3 lobes, the outer ones 
ovate-trigonate, the central one narrow, dilated at the apex (5). 
Males generally smaller than the females. Head transverse, base con- 
cave-, face trigonate : eyes, lateral prominent and ovate: ocelli /«r^e, 
3 in triangle on the croivn. Thorax not large, subglobose : scutel 
rather large and semiovate. Abdomen linear and depressed in the 
males, rather large and convex in the females, the upex conical : ovi- 
positor with the apex projecting. Wings, superior with 2 marginal 
and 4 submarginal cells. Legs, anterior the shortest, hinder the 
longest: coxae, hinder large: thighs short, hinder the stoutest: tih\3s 
all armed at the apex loith a pair of spurs : tarsi 5 -jointed, first 4 
joints lobed beneath : claws bifid : pulvilli distinct. 
Larvae with 6 pectoral, 1 4 abdominal and 2 anal feet. 



CiNGULATA Fab. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 467. 2. 

Male black : abdomen and legs bright ochre, excepting the back 
of the 2 basal segments and the coxa and trochanters : head and 
scutel strongly punctured : wings yellowish fuscous, scapulars 
and costa ochreous, nervures and stigma brown, the latter with 
an ochreous margin. Female with 2 basal joints of antennae 
bright ochre : abdomen brow^n, margins of segments ochreous, 
excepting the basal one ; in other respects it is like the male. 
In the Author s Cabinet. 



The differences between Tenthredo and Allantiis are very 
slight; the 3rd joint of the antennae is evidently longer than 
the 4th in the latter genus, which seems to be the essential 
character. Tenthredo comprises 23 British species, of which 
I shall notice a few in my own cabinet. 
2. cingulata Fab.— Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 692. 

The remarkable insect figured is a hermaphrodite, the right- 
hand half being feminine, that on the left masculine, so that 
in the specimen the antennae, abdomen, legs, and wings are 
not symmetrical : the sexual organs are representeil at fig. 6. 
Since the attention of naturalists has been called to this sub- 
ject, a large number of insects of this description have been 
discovered, especially amongst the Papilionidae. I have on 
a former occasion alluded to an example oi Smerinthus Pop7ili 
in my possession, but the most extraordinary specimen that 
has come under my observation was a North American 
Lucanus, which Mr. Raddon showed me. Never having seen 
any other Hymenopterous insect of this kind, I have been in- 
duced to figure the Tenthredo in the annexed plate; and as 
the sexes vary in the colour and markings of the abdomen, &c., 
they are rendered conspicuous in the figure. I took this indi- 
vidual with a vast number of i'emales off Fern in the New 
Forest in June; the males were very rare. I have also found 
the females in Coomb Wood in May. 

13. neglecta St. Farg. Man. 77. 229. — subinterrupta Steph. 
Middle of June, Yorkshire and Scotland, J. C. 

14. ornata St. Farg. p. 77. no. 228. — Faun. Fran. pi. S.f. 5. 

16. scutellaris Fab.? Panz. 98. 12. 
Common in June and July. 

17. ambigua Klug. die Blaft. p. 202. 146. 

18. nassata Linn.— Panz. 65. 2. S- — Tiliae Panz. 91. 13. ?. 
End of May and June, abundant in hedges. 

19. Rubi? Panz. 91. 14. ? . 

Beginning of August near Manchester, and at Roundstone 
in Connemara. 
21. antennata Klug. p. 129. 98.— duplex Geoff.l 

Beginning of June, Glanville's Wootton, Mr. Dale. 
23. Rapae Zvm«. — Schccf. lcon.pl. 179. 1. 

May and June, common in hedges. 
6. dimidiata Fab. The lower recurrent nervure in this species, 
nearly meets the second in the submarginal cell, as in fig. 9*. 
Klug considers T. dimidiata., scutellaris, nassata and Tilice of 
Panzer to be one species, which he has named instabilis; but 
as the neuration of the wings is so different in T. dimidiata, I 
think that at least must be distinct. 

Mr. Dale possesses a specimen with seven legs. 

The Plant is Spergula arvensis^ Corn Spurry. 



436. 
EMPHYTUS FASCIATUS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Tenthredinidae. 

Tyj^e of the Genus, Tenthredo cincta Linn. 
Emphytus Leach, Curt. — Dolerus Jnr., Le Pel. St. Farg. — Ten- 
thredo Linn., Fab., Klug. 

Antennee inserted in front of the face, approximating, half the 
length of the body, filiform, clothed with short pile and 9- 
jo^inted, basal joint cup-shaped, 2nd small, 3rd, 4th and 5th 
nearly of equal length, the remainder decreasing in length, the 
apical joint oval (1). 

Labrum semiorbicular, pilose and ciliated with long hairs (2). 
Mandibles, one forming a long acute tooth at the apex with an 
obtuse point below, the interior margin sinuated (3) ; the other 
elongate-trigonate, less acute at the apex, with 2 obtuse teeth 
below the centre on the inside (3 *). 

Maxilla broad, terminated by a rounded, slightly pubescent 
lobe with a long internal one, pilose, curved and acuminated 
at the apex. Palpi long pilose and G-jointed, basal joint small, 
2nd subclavate, scarcely so long as the 3rd which is linear, 4th 
the same length and clavate, 5th and Gtli shorter, of equal 
length, the former subovate, the latter slender, linear, and 
shghtly curved (4). 

Mentum subrhombiform, truncated before and behind. Palpi 
rather long and pubescent, attached on each side towards the 
apex, 4-jointed, basal joint the shortest, 2nd nearly twice as 
long, curved and clavate, 3rd dilated, obtrigonate, 4th as long 
as the 2nd subovate. Lip suborbicular, emarginate on each 
side at the base, trilobed, centre lobe narrow strap-shaped (5). 
Hegid transverse : eyes j)rominent : ocelU3. Thorax not broader than 
the head, globose. Abdomen sessile, rather long slender subcylin- 
dric, the back slightly angulated. Oviduct slightly exserted. Su- 
perior wings with 2 marginal and 3 submarginal cells, the central 
one being the shortest. Legs slender. TibiaB simple, anterior short, 
furnished with 2 spurs at the apex, one dilated and bifid. Tarsi, 
anterior much lo7iger than the tibia, 5-jointed, each joint excejjting 
the last, with a membranous appendage betieath at the apex, basal 
joint long. Claws bifid near the apex. Pulvilli distinct (8, a fore 
^'9)- __________ 

Fasciatus Le Pel. Mon. Tent. p. 118. n. 346. — Curt. Guide, 
Gen. 470. 5\ 

Black shining : 2 white spots at the base of the scutellum : 
abdomen with the 4th, 5th and 6th segments (excepting the 
hinder margin of the last) orange : nervures and stigma pale 
brown : tips of posterior coxse and trochanters white : upper 
side of anterior thighs towards the apex and tips of middle inur 
dirty white : all the tibiae and tarsi bright ochre, tips of the 
latter and the greater portion of the posterior pair fuscous. 
In the Author's Cabinet. 



Emphytus is placed between Dolerus and Croesus {pi. 17.); 
from the former it is at once distinguished by the great length 
of the first submarginal cell, and from the latter and the Ne- 
mati also, by its having 2 marginal and only 3, instead of 4 
submarginal cells. 

The following are recorded as British species. 

1. E. succinctus Klug. — togatus Panz. 82. 12. — June, July, 

and August; hedges and woods round London, Mr. 
Samouelle ; and Parley, Dorset, Mr. Dale. 

2. E. cinctus Linn. — Jurine, PL 6. — Middle of May, Coomb 

Wood, and gardens near London, J. C. — Glanville's 
Wootton, Mr. Dale ; hedges and woods round Lon- 
don in June, July, and August. 

3. E. togatus Fah. 4. E. melanarius Klug. 

5. E. vicinus Le Pel. 118. 347. — Middle of August, Dover, 

and on leaves of Bur-reeds in ditches, Battersea, J. C. 
5^ E. fasciatus Le P.— Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 436 ? . — The only 
specimen I have seen of this pretty insect, which has 
never before been figured, I took the middle of June 
at Glanville's Wootton. 

6. E. rufocinctus Klug. 7. E. calceatus Klug. 

8. E. nigricans Klug. — varipes Le P. ? 

9. E. varipes Klug. — Beginning of May bred a male out of 

the stem of a Dog-rose {pi. 374.) ; the larva, which 
was found by Mr. E. T. Bennett, appeared to be 
feeding on the pith. 

10. E. coronatus Klug. 

11. E. luctuosus Le P. 119. 352.— 14th May, Isle of Port- 

land, J. C. 

12. E. gilvipes Klug. 13. E. testaceipes Le P. 1 19. 351. 

14. E. serotinus Klug. 

15. E. abdominalis Le P. 118. 345.— Middle of October on a 

window, Glanville's Wootton. 

16. E. cereus Klug. — June, July, and August, hedges and 

woods, Mr. Samouelle. 

17. E. filiformis Klug. 

18. E. tibialis Jur. — Pa7iz. 62. 11.? — braccata Gmel. — June, 

July, and August, Parley, Dorset, Mr. Dale. 

19. E. patellatus Klug. 

20. E. immersus Klug. — pallimacula Le Pel. — Glanville's 

Wootton, Mr. Dale. 

21. E. impressus Klug. 22. E. ochroleucus Ste. 
Mr. Dale has a species of this genus with seven legs, and I 

have a fly {Chrysogaster) with the same number : in the second 
volume of Germar's Magazine there is a figure of Elater 
vana6z7/s of similar structure; but the most remarkable perhaps 
is the Chrysomela hcemoptera,Jig. 5^; pi. 111. of British Ento- 
mology. 

The Plant is Sparganium simplex (Less Bur-reed). 



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17. 
CRCESUS SEPTENTRIONALIS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Tenthredinidae Lat. 

Type of the Genus, Tenthredo septentrionalis Linn. 
Crcesus Leach, Curt. — Nematus Jur., Lat. — Tenthredo Linn. Fab. 

Antenna inserted between the eyes in front of the head, alike in both 
sexes, rather long setaceous pubescent and 9-jointed, basal joint 
short, 2nd cup-shaped, the remainder long but decreasing in length 
to the apex (1). 

Labrum exserted, transverse, pilose and ciliated, sides rounded, an- 
terior margin slightly convex (2). 

Mandibles small, robust, elongate-trigonate, acute, with a tooth on the 
inside below the apex (3) . 

Maxillce elongated, corneous at the base (4 a), dilated above, the in- 
ternal margin pubescent with a tooth at the apex (c), terminal lobe 
membranous and subovate. Palpi long, pubescent and 6-jointed, basal 
joint obovate, 2nd elongated, 3rd longer and stouter, 4th and 5th the 
longestj 6th shorter, slender and filiform (b). 

Mentum quadrate, dilated and emarginate before (5 a). Palpi pube- 
scent, composed of 4 joints of nearly equal length, basal joint clavate, 
3rd the stoutest and bent, 4th elliptic-conic (6). Lip membranous, 
trilobed, external ones large, subhemispherical, striated and pubescent 
externally, central lobe narrow and spatulate (c). 
Males smaller than the females. Clypeus transverse, emarginate. Head 
transverse, face orbicular : eyes oval : ocelli 3 on the crown. Thorax sub- 
globose. Abdomen sessile, short ovate-conic : oviduct concealed. Supe- 
rior wings with 1 marginal and 4 submarginal cells, the 1st small, almost 
round, 2nd large and receiving 2 recurrent nervures, 3rd small quadrate. 
Legs, hinder the largest in both sexes : tibiae with spurs at the apex, longest 
in the hinder pair which are much dilated: tarsi b-jointed, basal joint very 
much dilated in the hinder pair and subelliptic, the other joints very short : 
claws bifid: pulvilli distinct. (8, afore leg.) 
Larvae attenuated behind, with 6 pectoral, 1 2 abdominal and 2 anal feet. 
Pupa inclosed in a cocoon in the earth. 



Septentrionalis Linn. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 471. 1. 

Male black, base of antennae, excepting the 2 first joints, brown : ab- 
domen rufous, except the 2 basal segments : superior wings yellowish 
beyond the middle where there is a faint brown cloud ; stigma brown : 
legs rufous-ochre, hinder coxae black, the apex as well as the tro- 
chanters whitish : tips of hinder thighs black, posterior tibiae and tarsi 
pitchy, the former white at the base. Female, antennae and apex of 
abdomen black : thighs black, apex of anterior ochreous ; tibiae and 
tarsi ochreous, base of the former whitish, hinder tibiae and tarsi black, 
base of the former white, the spurs ochreous. 

In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



The insects of this family may be easily known by their perfectly 
sessile abdomens, by their peculiar oviduct formed of 2 serrated 
lamella, and by their ample wings of many cells. Many of them 
fejo-n death when alarmed and bend down their heads and antennae 
solbrcibly as to show the membrane that connects the thorax. 

The larvae of this family bear a strong resemblance to those of 
the Lepidoptera, but they have more abdominal or false feet, they 
feed upon the leaves of plants, are very sensitive, and have a peculiar 
manner of rolling themseves up, when touched, like a convoluted 

shell. 

The present genus was separated from Nematus by Dr. Leach in 
the 3rd vol. of the Zool. Misc. in a paper upon the external cha- 
racters of the Tenthredinidae : the hinder legs, dilated in both sexes, 
indicate a different mode of life from the other Nemati and are pro- 
bably useful in flight. 

When the first edition of this work was published, only one spe- 
cies of Croesus was known, but in the 1st vol. of the " Annales de 
la Soc. Ent. de France" M. Foulgues de Villaret has described 3 
new species, 2 of which are supposed by Mr. Stephens to be British. 

1. septentrionalis. Linn. Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 17. ?. 

This was formerly considered a rare insect, being taken occa- 
sionally at Darent-wood Kent, in Norfolk, near Lyndhurst, &c. in 
June, but it now sometimes appears in abundance. Mr. C. Parsons 
observed the larvae near Southend feeding on the hazel ; they agreed 
with the figure in our plate copied from the Ent. Mag., but did not 
change to flies till July. Mr. C. J. Paget found the larvae on willows 
in a meadow near Great Yarmouth the end of August ; they were 
small but "in such numbers," he says in his letter, "that some trees 
are perfectly bare: I never observed a more extensive blight : there 
are literally thousands in this meadow alone." I took a female at 
Bungay in Suffolk several years since. 

2. varus? Be Vill. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1. 306. ;;/. 11./. 8. 3. 

Palpi and clypeus white : abdomen black, middle of the 2nd segment and the 
following to the 7th ferruginous: 4 anterior legs pale ferruginous, hinder 
thighs ferruginous tipped with black : wings unclouded : expanse 9 lines. 
Beginning of June, Birch-wood. Ste. 

3. laticrus De Fill. v. I. j}. 307. pl.n.f.7. ? . 

Palpi reddish, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th segments of abdomen ferruginous: legs 
black, tips of anterior thighs ferruginous, anterior tibiae and tarsi reddish 
white, intermediate pitchy, base of the former whitish : superior wings with a 
fuscous cloud : expanse one inch. 
Said to have been taken near London. 

I think it very probable that Mr. Stephens's specimens are merely 
varieties of the male and female of C. septe7itrionalis. 

The Plant is Crepis tectonm, Smooth Hawk's-beard. 



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457. 
CLADIUS PILICORNIS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Tenthredinidce. 

Type of the Genus, Tenthredo difFormis Panz. 
Cladius Lat., Leach, Le Pel., Curt. — Pteronus Jiir. — Lophyrus 
Klug. — Tenthredo Panz. 

Antenna inserted near the middle of the face, shorter than the 
body, tapering, pilose and 9-jointed, generally branched in the 
males; 1st and 2nd joints small, especially the latter, 3rd the 
stoutest and rather shorter than the following, curved and hook- 
ed at the base beneath, producing a branch above, the remainder 
nearly of equal length, the 4th and 5 th being branched above 
(1) : simple in the females, 
Labrum semiorbicular hairy and ciliated (2).- 
Mandibles rather small curved and acute, notched on the inside, 
forming an obtuse tooth above the middle, pUose externally to- 
wards the base (3). 

MaxillcB small, terminated by a suborbicular lobe, with an acute 
and ciliated one on the inside. Palpi long pilose and 6-jointed, 
basal joint subglobose, 2nd twice as long, 3rd much longer, at- 
tenuated from the middle, the remainder equally long but mem- 
branous and clavate, the terminal joint more strap-shaped (4). 
Mentum small trapezate, sinuated before. Labium trilobed, 
centre lobe a little the narrowest and rounded. Palpi rather 
long, pubescent and hairy, 4-jointed, basal joint the slenderest, 
subclavate, two following subovate, 4th a little the longest, 
ovate-conic (5). 
Head transverse : eyes lateral and prominent : ocelli 3. Thorax sub- 
orbicular. Abdomen cylindrical, conical at the apex. Wings ample, 
iridescent, superior having a large stigma ■ one marginal and 4 sub- 
marginal cells, the basal one small and nearly obliterated, 3rd short 
and receiving a recurrent nervure in the middle, discoidal cell trian- 
gular. Legs rather small : thighs short : tibiae simple, spurred only 
at the apex: tarsi 5 -jointed, basal joint the longest. Claws andipvl- 
viUi distinct. 
Larva hairy with 6 pectoral, 12 abdominal and 2 anal feet. 
Pupa inclosed in a strong glossy cocoon. 

PiLicoRNis Curt. Guide, Gen. 473. 5. 

Male black, shining slightly pubescent, minutely punctured : 
antennae nearly as long as the body, tapering, thickly clothed 
with fine short hairs on the under side (fg. 1, a), 2nd joint 
nearly as large as the 1st, cup-shaped, 3rd joint stout, curved 
at the base and acute on the upper side at the apex, 4th joint 
nearly twice as long, slightly clavate, the upper side forming an 
acute angle at the apex as well as 2 or 3 of the following : 
mandibles ferruginous at the apex : wings pale yeUowish-fus- 
cous, the costa and stigma fuscous brown ; nervures piceous : 
tips of thighs and tibiae whitish ochre, hinder pair with a fuscous 
line down the inside : tarsi brovmish- ochre. 
In the Author's Cabinet. 



Although most of the males of Cladiiis may easily be re- 
cognised, the females are not readily distinguished from some 
of the Nemati, N.pallipes St. Farg. for example, in which the 
3rd submarginal cell receives a recurrent discoidal nervure 
in the centre ; this submarginal cell, however, is the longest in 
Nematus, and the 1st discoidal cell forms a less perfect triangle 
than in Cladius; and although the 1st submarginal cell is in- 
distinct in Cladius, it is altogether wanting in N. pallipes, 
notwithstanding many of the Nemati have 4 submarginal cells. 
Cladius was established by Latreille, in his " Considerations 
Generales ", in 1810, and contains the following British spe- 
cies : 

1. C. difformis Panz. 62. 10 mas. 

Found from the end of May to the middle of August in 
Copenhagen Fields, Coombe-wood, on Blackheath, in Darent 
Lane ; near Bristol ; Glanville's Wootton and Stafford Dorset, 
J. C. Dale, Esq. ; Tynemouth Northumberland, G. Wailes, 
Esq. 

Two or three years since my friend Mr. C. J. Thompson 
gave me some larvae * that he found at Fulham on the under 
side of the leaves of the China rose, eating small holes through 
them : they were thickly clothed with short upright hairs, the 
head was ochreous, with two minute black eyes : the body 
green with a deeper line down each side and a darker one 
along the back ; the anal feet did not assist them in walking. 
They were full fed about the 28th of July, when they spun 
cocoons amongst the leaves, and hatched the 1 1th and 12th of 
August : one that was stung by an Ichneumon produced a 
Tryphon the 20th of August. 

2. C. rufipes St. Farg. Mon. 58. 167. — Faim. Fran.pl. 12. 

/.5. 

3. C. Morio St. Farg. 58. 168. 
Females beginning of July, Dover, J. C. 

4. C. pallipes St. Farg. 59. 169.— Faun. Fran.pl. 12./. 6. 

5. C. pilicornis Curt. Brit. Fnt.pl. 457 cJ. 

This insect, which I at first thought had only been the female 
of C. diffbrmis, I found near London in June ; the specimens 
which I consider to be the females of this species have simple 
antennas, but longer than in C. difformis. 

6. C. immunis, and 7. C. luteicornis Ste. are undescribed. 
The Plant is Vicia Cracca (Tufted Vetch). 

* Seethe outline figure in the Plate, and pi. 11. torn. 1. of the Annales 
de la Societe Entomologique de France. 



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381. 
LYDA FASCIATA. 

Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Tenthredinidee. 

Type of the Genus, Tenthredo Sylvatica Linn. 
Lyda Fab., Sam., King., Le Pelt., Curt. — Pamphilius Lat. — Cepha- 
leia Jur. — Tenthredo Linn., SfC. 

Antenna: inserted towards the middle of the face, setaceous and 
simple, but sometimes more robust in the male than female, 
composed of 25 to 30 joints, basal joint the most robust, 2nd 
somewhat cupshaped, 3rd not longer than the 1st nearly linear, 
the remainder insensibly diminishing in size to the end( I the base). 
Labrum thin, horny and subcordate (2). 

Mandibles long, curved and crossing, acute and rather slender, 
producing a large tooth on the inside near the middle (3). 
MaxillcB terminated by 2 lobes the internal one subovate, the 
external dilated and very pubescent at the apex, the former but 
slightly so. Palpi very long and pubescent, except at the base, 
6-jointed, basal joint short, 2nd rather the stoutest, but shorter 
than the following which are long and nearly of equal length, 
slightly tapering towards the apex, the 4th and 5th somewhat 
clavate, the terminal joint subconical at the apex (4). 
Mentum oblong, horny. Lip rather large, fleshy, slightly hairy 
and trilobed. Palpi long and stout, pilose and 4-jointed, basal 
joint the smallest, the remainder nearly of equal length, 2nd sud- 
denly narrowed at the apex, 3rd the stoutest, subclavate, 4th 
subovate (5). 
Mouth concealed by the Clypeus lohich is semicircular. Head large 
subquadrate or orbicular. Eyes remote, rather small and pro- 
minent. Ocelli 3 in triangle. Neck short. Thorax subglobose. 
Wings broad with 2 marginal and 3 complete submarginal cells, the 
external basal cell small, the intermediate divided at the middle, and 
the nervure of the internal one venj much sinuated. Abdomen de- 
pressed, frequently broad, apex rounded. Oviduct not exseried. 
Tibiae spurred at the apex, 4 posterior with a single spine also on the 
inside, below the middle. Tarsi 5-jointed. Claws bifd. Pul villi di- 
stinct (8t hind leg). 

Larvse gregarious, with 6 pectoral, but no membranaceous feet, apex 
terminated by 2 appendages like horns. Lat. 

Fasciata Curtis's MSS. — Guide, Gen. 474. 

Black and shining, head and thorax coarsely punctured ; base of 
antennae ochreous 5 mouth, a subcordate spot between the antennae 
and a minute one behind each eye, yellow ; apex of mandibles 
ferruginous: scapulars yellow: wings stained yellowish-brown, 
superior with a darkish brown fascia across the middle ; inferior 
brownish at the margin ; stigma and nervures piceous : abdomen 
minutely punctured, black with a violaceous tint ; a yellowish 
membrane at the margin of the basal joint, the 5th ochreous in 
the middle, the remainder entirely so, the 3rd and following 
joints with a yellow spot on the side of each segment, increasing 
in size towards the apex : legs yellow, base of coxae and of 4 an- 
terior thighs black ; tarsi orange. 
In the Cabincti of the British Museum and Mr. Newman. 



The following are British species of this fine genus: — 

1. L. Sylvatica Linn. — Panz. 65. 10. fern. — nemorum Fab. — 

Panz. 86. 8. male. 
June, hedges and woods. 

1''. L. fumipennis Curt. MSS. Larger than No. 1, but very 
similar, the antennae are fuscous towards the apex, 
yellow at the base, without any black spot on the 
upper side of the 1st joint, and the wings are stained 
brownish, instead of a yellow tint. 
I found both sexes many years since on gooseberry bushes 
in a garden in Norfolk. 

2. L. Stigma St. 

3. L. aurita King. Berl. Mag. 1808. p. 275. tab. l.f.S. 

4. L. pratensis Fab.-^Schcef. fl. 42. / 8. & 9.? 

5. L. flaviventris BeG. — depressa Panz. Qh. 11. 
Coombe Wood, and 10th May Cottrel Clough, Mr. R. 

Wood, Manchester. 

6. L. Sylvarum St. 

7. L. hortorum King. — fallax Le Pel. St. Fargeau. 

8. L. inanita Vill. — inanis King.— Faun. Fr. j)l. 14. f. 6. 
Taken by Mr. E. Newman in Birch-wood, flying, the end 

of June. 
8^ L. fasciata Curt. Brit. Fnt. jpl. 381. 
The female figured was taken on a blade of grass in Darent 
Wood, the middle of June, by Mr. E. Newman. 

9. L. marginata Le Pel. 

I took a specimen many years since ; and it has been cap- 
tured by Captain Blomer in Pembrokeshii-e. 

10. L. Arbustorum Fab. — lucorum Vill. 
June, hedges Coombe Wood. 

11. L. lutescens Le Pel— Panz. 107. 7. 

12. L. cingulata Lat. — Faun. Fr. pi. 1^. f. 3. 

13. L. Betulffi Linn.— Panz. 87. 18. 
June, on the birch, nut, and hornbeam. 

14. erythrocephala Fab. — Pa7iz. 7. 9. fern. 

June, hedges and woods. It frequents also the Pinus syl- 
vestris. 

The figures referred to in the Faune Franfaise are not 
yet published I believe: I have copied the references from 
M. St. Fargeau's Monograph. 

The Plant is Aira j^racox (Early Hair-grass), communi- 
cated by the Rev. Professor Henslow. 



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301. 
CEPHUS FEMORATUS. 



Order . Hymenoptera. Fam. Tenthredinidae Lat. 
Type of the Genus, Sirex pygmseus Linn. 
Cephus Lat., Fab., Pz. — Trachelus Jur. — Astatus Klu. — Sirex Linn. 
Antennce inserted in front of the face between the eyes, rather 
remote, longer than the thorax, slightly clavate and pubescent, 
composed of 21 joints, basal joint robust ovate, 2nd subglobose, 
3rd and 4th long, the following to the 8th decreasing in length, 
•where they become oblong and are transverse towards the apex, 
which is ovate (1). 

Labrum minute, concealed beneath the clypeus^ semiorbicular, 
emarginate, and ciliated with long hairs (2). 
Mandibles large, crossing before the clypeus, tridentate, pilose 
externally, with a fascicle of hairs on the inside ; one mandible 
with the internal tooth very large and spreading (3). 
MaxillcB terminated by a rather long subovate pilose lobe, fur- 
nished internally with a long lobe attached by the centre, the 
superior portion rigid and pilose, the inferior part coriaceous and 
pubescent. Palpi long, 6-jointed, basal joint short, 2nd a little 
longer, 3rd longer and the most robust, 4th very long slender 
and slightly clavate, 5th oval, 6th longer than the 3rd slender 
and attenuated at both ends (4). 

Mentum long oval and narrowed below the apex, which as well 
as the base is rigid. Palpi inserted at the anterior angles, as 
long as the lip, pilose, 4-jointed, basal joint not very long, 2nd 
rather shorter, 3rd cup-shaped, 4th as long as the 1st subfusi- 
form, being dilated most towards the base. Labium as long as 
the mentum composed of 3 lobes, united before the base, pu- 
bescent at the apex and ciliated with spines, the central lobe 
being the longest (5). 
Clypeus broad. Head subglobose, transverse above. Eyes prominent. 
Ocelli 3 on the crown of the head. Prothorax rather long and nar- 
rower than the Mesothorax, which with the Scutellum/onHS an oval. 
Abdomen sessile, rather lung, narrow, cylindric, compressed towards 
the apex in the females. Ovipositor short and exserted. Superior 
wings with 2 marginal and 4 submarginal cells. Legs rather slen- 
der. Tibiae spurred, intermediate toith one, posterior with two spurs 
towards the middle. Tarsi longer than the tibice, 5-jointed, each 
joint having a small membranous appendage beneath. Claws long 
slender and bifid near the apex. Pulvilli distinct (Sf^ hind leg). 

Femoratus Nob. ' 

Black, shining. Palpi testaceous. Head densely pilose. Ab- 
domen with the membrane at the base subtrigonate and sulphu- 
reous. Wings very iridescent, costa stigma and nervures pi- 
ceous. Legs ferruginous ochre, tips of posterior thighs fuscous, 
middle and posterior tibiae sulphureous at the base, the remain- 
der in the latter black ; anterior tarsi at the- tips, and the others 
entirely black. 

Li the Cabinets of the British Museum and the Jlulhor, 



Dr. Leach's group Xiphydriadae has been always included 
by Latreille with his Tenthredinidae : it is not necessary here 
to inquire whether it be expedient to establish two families, 
but it is evident that Cephus does not belong to Dr. Leach's 
group ; for the perfectly developed and trilobed labium and 
long palpi show that its habits are similar to those of the 
Tenthredinidae ; its posterior tibiae also, spurred towards the 
middle, are similar to those of Hylotoma {pi. Q5) : and it is 
stated by the learned naturalist of Paris, that the larvae of a 
new species (C ahdominalis^ Lat.) live upon the flowering buds 
of fruit-trees, and do them a great deal of mischief. 
The following are British Cephi. 

1. C. Troglodyta JP.— P«/2^. 83. 12.—Klug. 49. pi. 6./ 1, 2. 

2. C. pygmaeus Linn. — King. 50. pi. 6./. 3. — spinipes Panz. 

1'6. 17.— Klug. 51. pi. 6. f. 4. a. 6.— viridator Fab. 

June, on flowers in fields; beginning of July, females 
in abundance on white umbellate flowers on the sides 
of roads near Dover, but not one male. Also upon 
grass in woods at Southgate. 

3. C. pallipes Klug. in the Berlin Transactions, 53. pi. 6./. 6. 

4. C. floralis Klug. ditto pi. 6./. 5. a, h. 

5. C. analis King. 54. ;;/. 7. /. 1. — haemorrhoidalis Jur. pi. 7. 

Gen. 9. 

6. C. tabidus F.—Panz. 85. 11.— Klug. 56. pi. 7./. 3. a, h.— 

Took a pair at Dover with C pygmceus the beginning 
of last July : found also upon grass in woods at South- 
gate by Mr. F. Walker. 

7. C. pusillus ^tep. — punctatus Klug. 55. pi. 7. f.l.a^h ? 

8. C. Satyrus Panz. 85. 12. 

9. C. phthiscus Fab. Piez. 251. 5. 

10. C. femoratus. Curt. Brit. Ent.pl. 301. — On the 4th June, 
1824, 1 took the specimen figured, off" an oak in a 
meadow in the neighbourhood of Lyndhurst, Hamp- 
shire. 
The plant is Ranunculus arvensis (Corn Crowfoot). 



30 




<Si/-/^^ rj tC,^, J,^,^ rXd,^ H89^ 






30. 
XYELA PUSILLA. 

Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Xiphydriidae. 

Type of the Genus, Xyela pusilla Dalm. 
Xtela Dalm., St.Farg., Curt. — Pinicola ^re6. — Mastlgocerus iiC/M^r, 
Antenna inserted in front of the face, at the base of the clypeus, 
remote, longer than the head and thorax especially in the male, 
geniculated, slightly pubescent, 12-jointed, 3 basal joints stout,. 
1st elongated, cylindric, 2nd shorter, obconic, 3rd very long, 
stout and cylindric, equal in length to the 9 following, which 
are slender and filiform, the apical joint minute (1), 
Labrum membranous, transverse, narrowed before, margin en- 
tire and ciliated (2). 

Mandibles corneous, slightly curved, with 3 irregular teeth on 
the internal margin, the lower tooth dilated and forming a lobe 
in one (3). 

Maxillce small, bilobed ; internal lobe subovate, hairy at the 
apex ; the other hairy outside, with a smaller lobe at the apex. 
Palpi very long, stout and 4-jointed, basal joint short, curved, 
2nd thrice as long, bent and clavate, 3rd very long, inflated 
towards the base, attenuated to the apex which is very slender, 
and terminates in a little cup, whence arises the 4th joint which 
is as long as the 2nd, strap-shaped and membranous (4). 
Mentum obtrigonate- truncate. Lip obsolete. Palpi longish, 
clavate, pubescent, 4-jointed, 1st and 3rd joints short, 2nd twice 
as long, 4th large, somewhat ovate and inclining inward (5). 
Head transverse-ovate : eyes lateral, large and oval, not prominent : 
ocelli 3 in triangle on the crown. Thorax not broader than the head, 
orbicular ; collar short. Abdomen sessile, short, someiohat elongate- 
ovate, the apex narrowed and scutiform in the male, terminated by an 
exserted ovipositor in the female as long as the abdomen (6 under- 
side) : lateral lobes (7 a) lanceolate, compressed, pubescent outside, 
inclosing a sword-shaped membranous Oviduct, corneous down the 
centre {b). Wings large, superior with 18 cells, 3 marginal and 4 
submarginal ; stigma large : inferior notched at the anal angle ; with 
many cells. Legs moderate : thighs stoutish : tibiae, anterior with 
a long spine at the apex, the others with slender spurs, intermediate 
with 1 , posterior with 2 bristles, near the middle : tarsi as long 
or longer than the tibice, 5 -jointed, basal joint long, 4th the shortest : 
claws slender curved : pulvUH distinct. 
Eggs somewhat oval. Metamorphoses and economy unknown. 

Pusilla Dalm. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 478. 1. 

Female black, shining : clypeus and eyes margined with yellow ; 
thorax with 2 yellow or orange spots before : abdomen piceous : 
ovipositor, trophi and legs ochraceous, thighs dusky, tips of 
tarsi black : antennae piceous, subcastaneous at the base : wings 
pale yellowish, stigma and nervures darker. Male with the 3 
basal joints of antennae ferruginous : head yellow, crown and 
front piceous, with 2 yellow stripes at the base and a piceous 
long spot on the face : a lunate yellow mark behind the collar 
and a yellow spot near the scutel. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Dale, the Author, 8fC. 

283 



Xyela, which so perfectly connects the Tenth redinidae with 
the Siricidae or Uroceridse, evidently belongs to the family 
Xiphydriidae of Leach, although Dalman, in his valuable 
paper upon this genus in the Stockholm Transactions, and 
subsequently in the " Analecta Entomologica," considers that 
it belongs to the Uroceridse : but the ample wings and large 
stigma bear considerable affinity to the genus Lyda, pi. 38], 
whilst it cannot be denied that the exserted and compressed 
oviduct brings it close to Xiphydria. Dalman has overlooked 
the twelfth joint of the antennas, which is the smallest, and 
also one of the joints of the labial palpi ; the former he describes 
as eleven-jointed, and the latter as triarticulate. Although 
the conformation of Xyela is altogether remarkable, no part 
is, I think, more curious than the maxillary palpi, which look 
like a little pair of feet attached to the insect; and from the 
legs being placed far behind, it is not im.probable that the 
palpi may occasionally be employed like those members to 
support itself; the 2nd and 3rd joints are hollow, which may 
enable the insect to fold them close for protection, and the 
terminal joint is perfectly flexible. 

Of this rare and interesting insect I took three females in 
1811, upon umbelliferous plants in the vicinity of fir-trees in 
Norfolk, where those trees are abundant ; it has been taken 
at Southgate, by Mr. F. Walker, amongst grass, the middle 
of May, and by Mr. Newman, off the spruce-fir in Birch- 
wood, the middle of April. The male I had never seen when 
the first edition of this folio was published ; but Mr. Dale has 
since enriched my cabinet with both sexes, which he found at 
Stafford, and also on a birch-tree on Knighton heath the 3rd 
of May. It appears to be not uncommon in Sweden, on young 
Scotch firs, during the month of July; but there is another 
species named X longula^ discovered by Gyllenhal, and de- 
scribed by Dalman, which is much rarer; it is two or three 
times as large as X piisilla, with a piceous ovipositor. 

ChcErophyllum sylvestre. Wild Chervil, being the umbelli- 
ferous plant upon which I believe my specimens were found ; 
it is figured in the plate. 



46o 



.^ilf 





'i^: ^ C/- O^uA^-^ oi^ ■/.■ /cit 



460. 
ORYSSUS CORONATUS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Siricidae Curt.^ Uroceridae Lat. 

Type of the Genus, Oryssus coronatus Fab. 
Obyssus Lat., Fab., Jur., Leach, Curt. — Sphex ScopoU. — SirexPawz. 
AntenncE inserted beneath the clypeus, at the base of the man- 
dibles, shorter than the head and thorax, curved, compressed and 
1 1 -jointed in the males, " 2nd and 3rd joints obconic, the former 
very short, the latter longer than the following, the 4th and re- 
mainder nearly equal in length, terminal joint with the apex 
acuminated." Lat. — 10-jointed in the female, and slightly in- 
creasing in breadth to the apical joint ; basal the stoutest, sub- 
globose, 2nd small ovate, 3rd much longer spatulate, 4th and 
5th short, subquadrate, 6th the longest, 7th and 8th shorter, 
9th longer than the 8th, somewhat sabre-shaped, 10th small 
and slender, pubescent and truncated (1 $). 
Labriim. exserted, coriaceous, small suborbicular, flat, ciliated 
before with soft hairs. Lat. — Lobe membranous, subovate, the 
apex elongated, strap-shaped (2). 

Mandibles somewhat wedge-shaped, rounded at the apex and 
.pubescent, clothed externally with longer hairs (3). 
Maxillce terminated by a horny curved process, pilose externally, 
with a large suborbicular membranous lobe on the inside. Palpi 
long, pubescent and 5-jointed, basal joint long, subclavate, 2nd 
short obconic, 3rd longer and stouter than the 1st, 4th the longest 
linear, 5th the slenderest and as long as the 1st (4). 
Menttim small, cylindric, slightly narrowed at the middle. Lip 
as large as the mentum, compressed, subconic and slightly con- 
cave above. Palpi much smaller than the maxillary, rough with 
short hairs, triarticulate, basal joint clavate, 2nd minute, 3rd a 
little longer and broader than the 1st, truncated obliquely (5). 
Head orbicular, with a crown of tubercles on the top : eyes ovate, more 
remote before than behiAd : ocelli 3 in triangle. Thorax not larger 
than the head. Abdomen sessile, subcylindric, slightly clavate and 
conical at the apex . Ovipositor concealed in a groove beneath. Wings 
rather sho7't, superior with one long marginal, and 3 imperfect siib- 
marginal cells, the 1st and 2nd being united, the Zrd very long. Legs 
rather small : thighs sho7-t. Tibiae all furnished with 2 spurs at the 
apex in the male, and the tarsi more elongated and 5-jointed. Tibiae 
of the female, anterior very short and attenuated at the base, tvith a 
notched spine on the inside of the apex, and an oblique suture above 
the middle, appearing like a joint ; the others angulated and acute at 
the apex on the outside, the posterior slightly serrated. Tarsi tri- 
articulate in the fore feet, basal joint long and rounded, 2nd the 
shortest, inserted on the side before the apex of the 1st, pear-shaped 
but truncated obliquely, Srd longer and clavate, the others 5-jointed 
and spined beneath at the apex, basal joint long, 4th minute. Claws 
and pulvilli small (8, fore leg of female). 

Coronatus Fai., Curt. Guide, Gen. 480. 1. — Vespertilio A7«^., Panz. 
In the Cabinet of the British Museum. 



This curious insect bears a considerable resemblance to the 
TenthredinidaB, but is nearest allied to Sirex, as is evident by 
the triarticulate labial palpi : it may therefore be viewed as the 
connecting link of Xiphydria and Sirex. The mouth affords 
some further peculiarities ; and I regret that I did not discover 
the external part of the labrum, having found only a mem- 
branous lobe inserted beneath the clypeus : neither could I 
procure a male for examination. The mandibles are rounded 
and spoon-shaped, the external lobe of the maxillae is rigid, 
and the 2nd joint of their palpi the smallest, and the labium 
is not divided, but hollow and similar to the Ichneumonidae. 

Oryssus is very peculiar in its structure : the sexes vary con- 
siderably; the antennae, which are inserted under the clypeus, 
are 11-jointed in the male, and 10-jointed in the female; the 
oviduct is capillary and rolled up spirally in the abdomen, as 
it is, I think, in some of the Cynipidae and Diplolepidae ; the 
submarginal cells are only 2, but 3 are indicated ; the anterior 
tibiae are so singularly formed towards the apex in the females 
as to appear like a basal joint to the tarsi, which are only tri- 
articulate in the fore feet of this sex. 

The only species of the genus is 

O. coronatus Fab. — Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 460. ? . — Coq. tab. 5. 

I.Set^. 

Black shagreened : eyes fuscous, a white stripe on each side 
the face ; antennas with the 3rd joint except at the base, the 
4th, 5th, and a spot at the base of the 6th white ; abdomen 
smooth and rufous, excepting the 2 basal joints : wings, supe- 
rior with the apical portion fuscous, excepting the tip which is 
transparent as well as a band beyond the stigma, this as well 
as the nervures is piceous; a spot at the apex of the thighs 
and an abbreviated stripe outside the tibiae white ; tarsi and 
inside of the posterior tibiae subferruginous. 

Two specimens of this rare insect, taken by Dr. Leach, are 
in the British Museum : the male is smaller than the female : 
the former was captured in Devon, the latter in Darent Wood, 
in July. It is said to inhabit sandy situations : and the disco- 
very of these insects in England is very remarkable ; for I be- 
lieve they have never been found to the North of Brives in the 
South of France. 

Latreille says these insects are lively and restless : they re- 
pose in preference upon old trees, exposed to the sun. They 
run over a portion of their height with rapidity in a straight 
line, taking, when they are alarmed, a lateral or retrograde 
direction. Scopoli found them upon fir-trees, and Latreille 
upon old hornbeams in the spring. 

The Plant is Phalaris canariensis (Manured Canary-grass). 



i-c^J 




iJP^./^<j:€^.'^ rru.- /.m^ 



253. 
SIREX JUVENCUS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Siricidse Nob. — Uroceridae 
Lat., Leach. 
Type of the Genus Sirex juvencus Linn. 
SiREX Linn., Fab., Jur., Panz., King. — Urocerus Geoff"., Lat., Leach. 
Antennce inserted in front of the face, longer than the thorax, 
nearly filiform, containing from 1 7 to 23 joints, those of the 
female composed of the greater number, basal joint the most 
robust, 2nd globose, 3rd as long as the 1st, the remainder de- 
creasing in length to the last which is often a little longer (fig. 1, 
basal joints of antenna of the male from which sex all the dissec- 
tions were taken). 

Labrum but partially exserted, tongue-shaped, very rigid towards 
the apex and pilose on the sides (2), 

Mandibles rather small, short, subtrigonate and tridentate at the 
apex, producing rather soft and long hair externally and inter- 
nally (3). 

Maxilla uniting at the base of the mentum, not so long as the 
lip (4*), terminated by a narrow pilose, membranous lobe, twice 
as long as the Palpi, which are very small and arise from a 
thickened shoulder of the maxillae j biarticulate? the terminal 
joint very minute (4). 

Mentum small transverse, narrowed at the base (5). Lip rather 
large, coriaceous at the base, the apex forming a membranous 
lobe, thickly clothed with long pubescence. Palpi inserted near 
the base, very much larger than the maxillary ; triarticulate, 
basal joint small, 2nd rather longer, 3rd large and clavate, pro- 
ducing very long hairs, especially on the internal side (5b). 
Head not large but suborbicular. Ocelli 3, between the Eyes which 
are small and not quite lateral. Thorax shield-shaped, anterior 
angles produced. Abdomen lo7ig cylindric, perfectly sessile, acumi- 
nated, especially in the female. Ovipositor exserted. Wings with 
2 marginal and 4 suhmarginal cells. Legs rather long, hinder tibiae 
and tarsi dilated in the males. Thighs short and robust. Tibiae with 
2 short spurs at the apex, except in the anterior pair, which have a 
single spine dilated into a lobe near the apex which is acuminated. 
Tarsi very long, basal joint the longest, 4th minute. Claws strong, 
bent and bidentate. Pulvilli distinct in the males (8, afore leg). 
Larvae with 6 pectoral feet, body armed at the apex with a spine. Klug. 

Juvencus Linn. F. S. \575.fem. — noctilioFafe. E. S. 2. 130.22. male. 
Male dark green, punctured, head thorax and base of abdomen 
very pubescent, 3rd and 8th joints of the latter purplish, the in- 
termediate space orange coloured. Eyes legs and wings ochreous, 
nervures ferruginous. Thighs and hinder legs bluish black, the 
penultimate joint of tarsus and base of tibia ochreous. 
Female blackish purple, base and apex of abdomen chalybeous. 
Legs ochreous, tarsi piceous at their tips. 

In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



The Sirices appear to be most destructive insects to dead 
trees and timber ; which is not surprising when it is stated, 
that tlie eggs are deposited in clusters of two or three hun- 
dred ; and the largest maggots, when full grown, are about 
1^ inch in length. It is remarkable how much insects whose 
. arvae are xylophagous vary in size ; for, whilst some speci- 
mens o^ Sirex juvencus are as large as those represented in the 
plate, others (especially females), from the same trees are not 
more than a quarter the size. There are two species of this 
fine genus found in Britain, the sexes of which are so dissi- 
milar, that they have been described under four names. 

1. S. Gigas Linn. Jem. — Kirhy 8^ Spence, tab. ^. f, 1. — Don. 

6. 197. — S. Marisca Lhin. male: Panz. 52. 20. — psyl- 
lius Fab. var.Jem. 
June, rare. Pine and Lime-trees. Norwich, Wiltshire, 
Kent, Berkshire, and in and near London. 

2. S. juvencus Lin7i. — Curtis Brit. Ent. pi. 253. 

July, August, and September. Fir groves, &c. ; Norfolk, 
Suffolk, Hampshire, and Yorkshire. 

For a fine series of this insect, including the beautiful spe- 
cimens figured, I am indebted to my kind friend the Hon. 
Charles Harris, as well as for the following valuable observa- 
tions relating to the destruction of fir-trees in the plantations 
near Heron Court, the seat of the Earl of Malmesbury. 
" With us," says Mr. Harris, " at the age of twenty the fir- 
trees sometimes die to a great extent. The summer of 1825 
or 1826 was peculiarly destructive to them, from its intense 
heat and drought; and I am certain that I never saw any 
trace of a Sirex except on dead trees. The smell of the tur- 
pentine would fully account for this ; and if you remember, the 
only spot where we could detect the Sirex in the standing 
plantation of shorter trees, was on some dead stumps that had 
evidently been overgrown by the others. The day after your 
departure I went to visit the fir wood, when I had the good 
fortune to extract eight males of the Sirex ; two of these I 
purposely let go ; they proved very strong on the wing, and 
ascended with a loudish hum to an invisible height." From 
this it appears that the mischief arises from allowing dead 
trees to remain standing or lying about ; and timber ought to 
be well examined before it is employed in building ; for I un- 
derstand that considerable numbers of the males have been 
taken flying about the tower of York Minster, no doubt seek- 
ing the females which were issuing from the timbers that sup- 
ported the roof, and which would be, of course, greatly 
weakened by the constant and continued operations of the 
Larvae, as well as rendered more combustible by the multi- 
tude of passages and the quantity of dust which they create. 

The plant is Lapsana communis (Common Nipplewort). 



2dr/ 





<-^ t!y d'.^.^A&a (Ufi.^Y: ma 



257. 
EVANIA FULVIPES. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Evaniidae Lat., Leach. 

Type of the Genus Sphex appendigaster Linn. 

EvANiA Fab., Jur., Lat., Panz., Sam. — Ichneumon DeG. — Sphex 
Linn. 

ArttenncE inserted in front of the face, approximating, slightly 
attenuated, 13-jointed, basal joint long, subclavate, 2nd minute, 
3rd as long as the 1st, remainder decreasing in length to the 
end (1, the basal ; 1 b, the apical joints). 
Labrum concealed beneath the nasus, membranous, suddenly- 
attenuated and forming a coriaceous lobe, margined with a few 
long and rigid bristles, the membranous portion dilated beneath 
and pubescent at the edge (2). 

Mandibles nearly alike, pilose trigonate, with a deep cleft below 
the apex, forming 2 large teeth, with a slight shoulder on the 
outside (3). 

MaxillcE terminated by a large rounded pubescent lobe, with a 
very minute internal one. Palpi putrescent, 6-jointed, basal 
joint short, 2nd and 3rd long robust, subclavate, the latter rather 
the longest, the remainder very slender, 4th considerably longer 
than the 5th, the 6th as long as the 2 former united (4). 
Mentum forming a shield, subovate, dilated on the sides towards 
the base, anterior edge emarginate. Palpi arising from the sides 
of the lip, behind the mentum, large pubescent 4-jointed, 1st 
joint slender at its base, truncated obliquely, 2nd robust obovate 
externally pilose, the other 2 pilose internally, 3rd joint subtri- 
gonate, dilated on the inside, 4th long attenuated subconic. Lip 
concealed by the mentum, cylindrical, divided in front, and pro- 
ducing 2 flat lobes on each side (5). 
Head transverse. Eyes oval. Ocelli 3. Thorax globose. Metasternum 
very large obtuse. Scutellum triangular, near the apex of which is 
inserted the petiole, which is rather long and stout. Abdomen com^ 
pressed ovate or trigonate. Ovipositor 7iot exserted. VV^ings some- 
times with 2 discoidal and 3 apical cells (9). Hinder legs very long. 
Coxae long. Tibiae simple spurred. Tarsi 5 -jointed, basal joint long, 
penultimate one minute. Claws bifid (8, afore leg). 



FuLViPEs Nobis. 

Black shining variolous. Antennae rather thickened towards the 
apex, the 3rd joint not much longer than the 2nd. Head, trunk 
and petiole pubescent, the former transverse globose. Abdomen 
ovate, very shining. Wings with the discoidal and apical ner- 
vures wanting. Four anterior legs with the apex of the thighs, 
the tibiae, and tarsi fulvous. 

Li the Cabinets of Mr. Dale ajid the Author. 



The remarkable insect which is the type of our genus, has 
been ascertained by the late Dr. Arnold to be one of those 
destined to destroy the Blattse ; whether by depositing its eggs 
in their larva or ova, is I believe not known. 

As the species vary in the structure of the trophi, and in 
the nervures of the wings, they have been thus divided by 
Latreille. 

I. Antennae with the 3rd joint much longer than 

the 2nd. Upper wings with distinct discoidal 

cells. 

* Mandibles unidentate(orbidentate). Labial palpi 

with the penultimate joint much dilated, &c. 

1. E. appendigaster Linn., Reauni. torn. 6. pi. 31. f. 13. — 

Rcemer, L S5. f. 7. — Kirby Sf Spence, tab. 4. f. 2. — 
Don. 10. 329.— laevigata Lat. 
Entirely black. 

This was the only species known to Linnaeus. I think the 
E. Icevigata of Latreille is the same ; and that the E. appen- 
digaster of this author is distinct, for Linnaeus describes his 
insect as entirely black. 

This species is said to inhabit America, Jamaica, the Cape 
of Good Hope, the Isle of France, New Holland, Spain, and 
England, where it may have been introduced with the Cock- 
roaches. 

** Mandibles tridentate. Labial palpi with the 
penultimate joint not much dilated, &c. 

2. E. flavicornis Nobis — appendigaster Lat.y Oliv., Panz. 62. 

12. var. — Jur. pi. 7. Gen. 1. 
Black. Antennae, tarsi, and 4 anterior tibiae rufous. In 
Panzer's figure the body and all the legs are rufous also. 

Inhabits the South of France, Spain and Italy. I am not 
aware that it has been discovered in Britain. 

II. Antennae with the 3rd joint not much longer 
than the 2nd. Upper wings with no discoidal 
cells. 

3. E. fulvipes Curtis Brit. Ent. pi. 257. 

Mr. Dale first discovered this new insect a few miles from 
Dorchester ; and the 22nd of last August I found a specimen 
under a flag of turf in the beautiful plantations of Ramsdown 
near Heron Court, Hants. 

4. E. minuta Fab., Oliv., Coq. pi. 4./ 9. 
Smaller than the last, and entirely black. 

Mr. Dale has taken this insect upon Parley Heath, Dorset, 
where Blatta lapponica abounds ; and having found them at 
the same time (3rd September) and on the same spot, he con- 
jectures that this little Evania is the parasite of that Blatta. 

I am indebted to Mr. R. Chambers, F.L.S. for specimens 
of the pretty plant represented. Campanula hederacea (Ivy- 
leaved Bell-flower). 



423. 
FCENUS ASSECTATOR. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Evaniidae. 
Type of the Genus, Ichneumon Asseclator Lijin. 
F(ENUS Fab.,Lat.,Jur., Panz.,Curt. — Gasteruption Lat. — Ichneumon 
Linn., Ssc 

Antennce inserted in front of the face, as long as the thorax, 
straio'ht, filiform and velvety 5 13-jointed in the male, 14-jointed 
in the female (19), basal joint ovate, a little the stoutest, 2nd 
the smallest, cup-shaped, 4th a little longer than the 3rd, the 
remainder decreasing in length to the apical joint which is as 
long as the 4th and linear-ovate. 

Labrum membranous, broad ciliated and deeply notched in the 
centre, from vi'hence arises a tongue-shaped lobe, hairy towards 
the apex with a large triangular membrane beneath (2). 
Mandibles acute at the apex, oblong, truncated obliquely, one 
having a very large triangular tooth on the inside (3). 
MaxillcE terminated by a large oval pilose lobe, with a narrow 
ciliated one on the inside. Palpi moderately long, slightly pilose 
and 6-jointed, 3 basal joints the stoutest, oblong, the 3rd being 
a little longer than the 1st and 2nd; 4th the longest, clavate, 
5th and 6th a little shorter, the latter linear-conic (4). 
Mentum oblong, narrowed and rounded at the base, the anterior 
angles truncated, and producing large fleshy scapes to which are 
attached the Palpi, they are rather long pilose and composed of 
4 clavate joints, the 3rd a little the shortest, 4th the slenderest, 
linear-conic. Lip strong, shorter than the mentum (5). 
Head subovate or orbicular, attached by an elongated neck. Eyes late- 
ral ovate. Ocelli 3 in triangle on the crown of the head. Thorax 
narrow and compressed. Abdomen very long compressed narrow and 
clavate, slightly arched and very slender at the base, composed of 8 
joints. Ovipositor long. Wings short, marginal cell large, 2 large 
suhmarginal cells and 3 irregular areolets in the centre : inferior with 
a few very fine nervures. Legs rather short. Coxae ; posterior large 
and contiguous ; trochanters long . Thighs j hinder pair the stoutest. 
Tibiae short, posterior clavate with a small spine, anterior with a 
' curved one near the apex. Tarsi 5 -jointed, hinder pair the stoutest, 
basal joint the longest, 4th small. Claws and Pulvilli minute (8, 
fore leg). 

AssECTATOR Linn. Foun. Suec.407. \627.—Curt. Guide, Ge??.483. 2. 
In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



These remarkable insects are by no means common : I had 
not seen one alive for many years until last June, when I took 



several specimens of the F. Assectaior, and they reminded me 
in their flight of the Ammophila vulgaris, from the singular 
manner in which they raised their bodies. The following 
observations I have copied from Latreille. " They live upon 
flowers, and often elevate their abdomens in a state of repose : 
during the night, or when bad weather prevents them from 
flying, they fix themselves by their mandibles to the stalks of 
different plants, and are then almost in a perpendicular posi- 
tion. They are often met with in dry and sandy districts, 
flying with solitary bees and Spheges in order to discover their 
nests and take possession of them, or to deposit their eggs by 
the side of those of the above insects, or upon their larvae, which 
become their prey. The larvee undergo their metamorphoses 
in the same nest where they lived." Linnaeus says, on the 
authority of Bergman, that /. Jaadator inhabits the larvae of 
Apis tnmcoru7n,Jiorisom7iis, and Sphex Figulus, examining with 
its antennae where the larva is concealed, it flies away, returns, 
and deposits an egg in it. 

1. F. Jaculator Li7in. F. S. 406. 1626.— Paw;^. 96. 16 ? .—Jti- 

rine, pi. 7. Gen. 2. ? . 

Black, slightly glossy : head excessively thickly and 
minutely punctured, forming fine transverse lines: 
thorax coarsely punctured and reticulated : abdomen 
with the 2nd and 3rd joints reddish yellow : oviposi- 
tor as long as the rest of the insect : base of 4 ante- 
rior tibiae white ; posterior with a white ring near the 
base and another on the 1st joint of their tarsi. 
Taken near London and in Norfolk in June. 

2. F. Assectator Liim, — Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 423. ? . 

Smaller; silky black, head and thorax excessively 
minutely punctured, the latter also variolose or like 
the end of a thimble : abdomen with 3 reddish irre- 
gular bands on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th segments : ovi- 
positor not half the length of the abdomen : tibiae with 
a white ring near the base : tips of the thighs some- 
times white. 
I took both sexes of this insect towards the end of June, 
flying about the southern sides of rocks and over sandy places 
at the back of the Isle of Wight : it has also been taken by 
Mr. Dale in Devon, and sometimes met with, I believe, near 
London. 

The Plant is Orchis latifolia (Marsh Orchis). 





'■-^.<iy<~j:s:.^.^(3Q^//ssp 



728. 
ICHNEUMON AMATORIUS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidae. 

Type of the Genus, Ichneumon Comitator Linn. 
Ichneumon Linn., Grav., Curt., &c. 

Antennee inserted in the middle of the face, approximating, not 
quite so long as the wings in the male, straight, tapering to the 
base and apex, basal joint the stoutest, oval, 2nd semiorbicular, 
3rd the longest (la), the remainder short, with a slight ser- 
rated appearance internally : often shorter, stouter, and curved 
in the female. 

Labrum transverse, semiovate, the margin ciliated, with a trian- 
gular membranous lobe in the centre (2). 

Mandibles small, curved and bifid at the apex, pubescent ex- 
ternally (3). 

Maxilla small, with an internal lobe and an external one larger 
and orbicular, both ciliated. Palpi long, slender, pubescent and 
5-jointed, basal joint long and slender, 2nd longer, stout and 
cleaver-shaped, 3rd as long, 4th scarcely so long, 5th the longest 
and slenderest (4). 

Mentum obovate-truncate. Lip short, semicylindric rounded, 
notched in the middle. Palpi pubescent and 4-jointed, basal 
joint elongate-clavate, 2nd and 3rd stouter, shorter and some- 
what obovate, 4th considerably the longest, slender linear and 
curved (5). 
Head short, transverse, face ovate-trigonate (1 *) •• eyes lateral, elon- 
gate-ovate : ocelli 3, forming a depressed triangle on the crown. 
Thorax elongate-ovate : scutel ovate-truncate : metathorax with 
4 elevated lines united at both ends. Abdomen longish, curved, 
elliptical, attached by a fat petiole, dilated at the extremity, 2nd 
segment the longest, apex more or less conical. Wings rvith a long 
marginal cell ; areolet quinquangular. Legs, hinder the longest and 
stoutest : coxae, posterior stout : thighs moderate : tibiae, anterior 
short with a spine at the apex, the others spined : tarsi, hinder the 
longest, 5-jointed, 4th joint the shortest : claws and pulvilli rather 
stout. 
Obs. figures 1 to 5 are from I. luctatorius Linn., and fig. 9 is the ab- 
domen of I. amatorius in profile. 

Amatohivs Mill.— Curt. Guide, Gen. 484. 112. 

Female black ; antennae curved, base black gradually becoming 
brown, and at the 8th joint ochreous, 8 following of the same 
colour : head and thorax thickly punctured and clothed with 
short brown pubescence ; internal orbits of eyes yellow ; scutel 
semiovate, of the same colour : scapulae and 2 dots before them 
yellowish : metathorax roughly, abdomen finely punctured, 2nd 
segment rufous with a yellow margin, the remainder also mar- 
gined with yellow, 2nd and 3rd segments rufous beneath : 
wings yellowish-brown, nervures darker ; stigma, tips of thighs, 
especially the anterior, tibiae and tarsi bright ochre. 
In the Author's Cabinet. 



In 1828 I published a fioiire, &c. o{ Ichneumon Atropos (PL 
231), which appeared to be a typical species, but Gravenhorst 



in his Ichn. Europ. having called the group Trogus, to 
which that species belongs, it will be necessary to adopt his 
name, and I avail myself of this opportunity to illustrate the 
group which he now considers as the true Ichneumons. Having 
given in my Guide the most complete catalogue of the Ich- 
neumonidae that has ever been published, a reference to that 
will show the species belonging to this family, and I cannot 
perhaps do more service to those who do not possess Graven- 
hprst's work, than translate his characters of the genera and 
sections of the tribe before us. 

Guide 
Genus. 
Head transverse. 

IScutel elevated Trogus. 496. 

Scutel flat. 

Posterior legs not at once stout and elongated. 
Aculeus of female concealed, or somewhat exserted. 
Areolet 5-angular, very rarely triangular, or none. 
Antennae serrated .... Pristiceros. 485. 

Antennae simple. 

Abdomen cylindric . . . Ischnus. 486. 

Abdomen ovate or oblong. 
Areolet none. 

Wings long .... Crypturus. 487. 

Wings very short . . Brachypterus. 489. 
Areolet distinct. 

Exterior cell incomplete Stilpnus. 488. 

Exterior cell complete . Ichneumon. 484. 

Sect. 1 . Scutel and abdomen entirely black. 

2. Scutel and abdomen black, apical segments spotted 

with white. 

3. Scutel pale or with pale spots; abdomen totally black. 

4. Scutel pale or with pale spots; abdomen black, apical 

segments spotted with white. 

5. Scutel pale or with pale spots; abdomen tricolored. 

6. Scutel pale; apex of abdomen and frequently the 

middle also, with yellow spots or rings. 

7. Scutel pale ; abdomen either spotted pale or with 

some of the segments entirely yellow, terminal seg- 
ments entirely black. 

8. Scutel pale ; abdomen entirely red, or red and black. 

9. Scutel black; abdomen entirely red or red and 

black. 

10. Scutel black ; abdomen tricolored. 

11. Thorax and scutel red or painted with white; ab- 

domen tricolored or bicolored ; apex white. 

Cynodon Dactylon, Creeping Panick-grass, was communi- 
cated by Mr. R. Kippist, who found it on the beach between 
Penzance and Marazion. 



3S8 







d^.^yU", ^^^:^.„..x/&J^ 



388. 
STILPNUS DRYADUM. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidae. 

Type of the Genus, Stilpnus gagates Grav. 
Stilpnus Grav., Curt., Hal. 

Antennce inserted between the eyes in front of the face, as long 
as the thorax, rather stout, slightly thickened towards the apex, 
pubescent and composed of 20 joints in the male and 16 in the 
female (1), basal joint robust ovate, 2nd small globose, 3rd ge- 
nerally the longest, slender, the 3 following rather longer than 
the remainder which are ovate-quadrate, the terminal joint longer 
and conical. 

Labriim with the basal portion semicircular, coriaceous and 
ciliated, the centre membranous, ciliated and forming an elon- 
gate triangle, articulated at the middle (2). 
Mandibles curved, acute and bifid at the apex (3). 
MaxillcE terminated by 2 suborbicular pubescent lobes, the in- 
ternal one with the cilia very short, the external one pilose at 
the apex. Palpi long and rather slender, composed of 5 hairy 
joints, nearly of equal length and subclavate, the 2nd dilated on 
the inside, 4th rather the shortest, 5th a little the longest and 
linear (4). 

Mentum elongate obtrigonate. Lip distinct, hollow, pubescent 
and slightly emarginate. Palpi much shorter than the maxillary, 
pilose, 4-jointed, 1st and 2nd joints of equal length and rather 
stout, the former clavate, the latter subovate, 3rd the smallest, 
4th a little the longest, cylindric oval (5). 
Head short transverse, face orbicular. Eyes rather prominent and oval. 
Ocelli 3 in triangle (1*). Thorax oblong, obovate, gibbous. Scu- 
tellum convex, semiovate. Wings ; anterior with a large triangular 
stigma, a triangular marginal cell, not reaching the apex; areolet 
small, pentagonal and scarcely closed on the furthest side, the 2 
posterior cells united (9). Abdomen slightly depressed, narrower 
than the thorax and somewhat linear or elliptical in the males (6 (J); 
suborbicular and broader than the thorax in the females ; petiole 
rather long and narrow, channelled and dilated posteriorly : ovipo- 
sitor concealed. Legs more slender in the male than female : tibiae 
a little dilated towards the apex and spurred: tarsi 5 -jointed, basal 
joint the longest. Claws and Pulvilli distinct. 



Dryadum Haliday's MSS. Curtis's Guide, Gen. 488. n' 289*. 
In the Cabinet of Mr. Haliday. 

This genus, Mr. Haliday says, seems more allied to Hemiteles 
than to any of the other Ichneumonidse, indeed sometimes 
they can only be distinguished by the areolet, or a little dif- 
ference in the length of the aculeus. The males of Stilpnus 



and of some species of Atractodes are also very similar. I 
have not heard of any of the species being bred from the 
pupa ; and when my Guide was published, one only was 
known to inhabit these Islands, but since that period the fol- 
lowing have been detected in England and Ireland ; and I am 
indebted to A. H. Haliday, Esq. for specimens, as well as the 
loan of the example figured. 

1. S. gagates Grav. v. I. p. 667. n. 288. — Curtis's Guide. 
Length If to 2 lines. Black, shining; antennae often fer- 
ruginous beneath at the base; stigma and nervures brown, 
ochreous at the base; abdomen of the male sometimes with 
an ochreous band at the base of the second joint. Legs rufous; 
coxae, especially the hind pair, generally black, tips of tarsi 
dusky. 

June and August, Ireland, Mr. Haliday : I took females 
in a garden at St. John's Wood, the end of September, and I 
believe in May also; and another which was much larger at 
Rhennes in France, the beginning of June. 

2. S. Pavonije Scop.— Grav. 1. 671. 2S9.—Curt. Guide. 
Similar to No. 1. but the antennae are ochreous at the base, 

and the legs are of a paler colour : I suspect it is merely a 
variety. Not uncommon in Ireland, from June to August. I 
have also taken it with the last. 

3. S. dryadum Hal— Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 388. 

Black, shining: antennae straw-colour at the base, the first 
joint sometimes with a black spot on the upper side : wings 
with the stigma and nervures pale brown, yellowish at the 
base : abdomen in the male with a pale ochreous band at the 
anterior margin of the second and third segments ; female with 
a broad ochreous stripe down the back of the second, third and 
fourth segments, a spot at the tip of the petiole (which has a 
channel down the middle), and the margin of the second seg- 
ment pale ochreous. Legs ochraceous, tips of tarsi blackish. 

Obs. Sometimes the abdomen of the female is entirely 
black, and this sex has only fourteen joints in the antennae. 
Both sexes of this new species were taken on oak-trees in 
Galway, Ireland, by Mr. Haliday. 

4. S. blandus Grav. 1. 672. 290.— Curt. Guide. 

Female 2 lines long : black, shining ; first and second 
joints of antennae ochreous beneath ; second and third seg- 
ments of abdomen rufous; ovipositor exserted but very short: 
legs pale rufous, posterior coxee black at the base. 

Rare : taken by Mr. Haliday in Ireland. 

The Plant is Sherardia arve^isis (Little Field-madder). 





••Jl^ 





644. 
MESOLEPTUS WALTONI. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidse. 

Type of the Genus, Mesoleptus Isevigatus Grav. 
Mesoleptus Grav., Curt. — Ichneumon, Bassus, Cryptus Fab. 

Antenna almost as long as the body, slender, slightly thickened 
between the base and apex, inserted a little aboye the middle of 
the face, rather remote, composed of 30 joints and upwards, 
basal joint stout, 2nd somewhat cup-shaped, 3rd the longest, 
4th oblong, the remainder decreasing in length to the apical 
joint which is ovate -conic (1). 

Labrum concealed beneath the clypeus, transverse, the anterior 
margin convex and ciliated with long bristles, having a mem- 
branous pubescent trigonate lobe beneath (2). 
Mandibles folding transversely, rather stout and cleft at the 
apex, forming 2 subtrigonate teeth (3). 

Maxilla terminated by an ovate bristly lobe. Palpi long pube- 
scent pilose and composed of 5 nearly equal joints, basal joint 
elongated and clavate, 2nd a little longer and incrassated, 3rd 
as long but not so stout, the following rather more slender (4), 
Mentum long, gradually tapering to the base. Lip long and 
broad. Palpi stout, longer than the lip, pubescent, bristly and 
4-jointed, basal joint clavate, 2nd stout trapezate, 3rd pear- 
shaped, 4th subfusiform (5). 
Head transverse, face orbicular : eyes lateral ovate : ocelli 3 in a tri- 
angle on the croivn of the head. Trunk long and narrow : scutel 
semiovate : metathorax elongated, with elevated lines and a small 
tooth on each side of the apex. Abdomen long depressed and clavate-^ 
the petiole long slender and tuberculated on the sides : ovipositor 
slightly exserted. Wings wz7/i an oblique somewhat ovate areolet (9)- 
Legs, hinder the longest and stoutest : coxae hinder long and stout: 
tibiae spurred at the apex : tarsi long and 5 -jointed, basal joint long, 
4th and 5th very short : claws and pulvilli minute. 
Obs. The dissections are taken from the species jigured. 



Waltoni Curt. Guide, Gen. 491. 57^. 

Black ; antennae with the joints vertebrate, the anterior margins 
bristly (1), 3rd and a few succeeding joints fulvous; 2 vertical 
ovate spots below the antennae, palpi and mandibles yellow, 
apex of the latter ferruginous (1* the face) : petiole long slender 
and channelled, dilated at the apex which is ferruginous, 3 fol- 
lowing joints rufous ; areolet minute ovate oblique with a long 
peduncle (9 b), nervures costa and stigma brown ; a portion of 
the latter ochreous ; 4 anterior legs excepting the coxae and 
trochanters testaceous, apical joint of tarsi brown, hinder tibiae 
and tarsi brown, the former ferruginous at the base. 
In the Author's Cabinet. 



Mesoleptus is a group detached from Tryplion by Graven- 
horst : it contains 70 or 80 species, and about 50 have been 
detected in this country. It is distinguished from Tryphon by 
its long and slender petiole, and the areolet is generally of a 



different form ; the labium is longer and not deeply notched, 
and the joints of the labial palpi appear to be differently pro- 
portioned. It must however be remembered that there are 
numerous modifications in this genus; in some species the 
antennas are much shorter than the body, in others longer 
and capillary : the petiole varies much in the length, and is 
often considerably dilated at the apex ; the abdomen is more 
or less clavate, the ovipositor rarely visible from above; the 
areolet is frequently trigonate and sometimes wanting, and the 
hinder legs are rarely thickened. 

1 shall give Gravenhorst's sections, although perhaps much 
more natural ones might be obtained from the proportions of 
the petiole, if not from the areolet and the metathorax. 

1 . Scutellum and abdomen black. 
7^. ventralis Ctiri. Male -. Antennse shorter than the body : areolet 
small trigonate petiolated: black silky sliining: trophi, 2 spots on the face, 

2 basal joints of antennte beneath, scapulce and legs yellow; coxae black, 
trochanters spotted with black, thighs and tibiaj ochreous, hinder thighs 
and inside of tibiae at the apex piceous as well as the tarsi except at their 
base, anterior tarsi with the apex and base of each joint dusky; abdo- 
men sublinear, yellow beneath except at the base and apex, 2 dots at the 
base of the 2nd and 3rd segments as well as the margin of the latter 
pellucid ferruginous. 4^ lines long. 

2. Scutellum with a pale spot ; segments frequently with pale 

margins. 
10^. gracilipes Curt. Antennje slender, longer than the body: areolet 
oblique-ovate : testaceous, slender, head black, face trophi and scapulars 
yellow, a spot on each side of the collar and scutel and also the meta- 
thorax brown : abdomen subfusiform and ferruginous, petiole black, 2nd 
segment and sides of the following piceous : tips of hinder thighs and 
tibiae and of all the tarsi brown. 3 lines, 
I took a male near Lanark in September. 

3. Scutellum pale or rufous ; abdomen entirely nfous, or red 

and black. 
23^. speciosus Curt. Antennse much longer than the body: areolet none: 
black, 2 basal joints of antennae beneath, face, trophi, underside of thorax, 
legs, scapvilse, margin of collar, 2 hooked streaks on the thorax and scutel 
excepting the tip bright yellow; metathorax with a foveolet at the base: 
abdomen ovate-clavate, ferruginous, petiole black, broad at the apex, 
hinder legsfen-uginous, coxs and trochanters yellow, hinder tibiae brown, 
their apex and tarsi black. 3^ lines. 

A male found in Coomb-wood the 7th of May. 

4. Scutellum black; abdomen rifous or red and black. 
57''. Waltoni Curt. Brit. Ent. pl.6\<^S- This insect is re- 
markable for its curious antennte, which resemble the ver- 
tebrae of some reptiles, and the areolet is exceedingly minute. 
I have the pleasure of dedicating this new species to my 
friend John Walton, Esq., to whose exertions this work is 
greatly indebted for many of the rare and beautiful plants that 
have ornamented the recent volumes : three specimens were 
taken by the river Nidd at Knaresborough in June, and also 
in the neighbourhood of Settle in Yorkshire. 
The Plant is Dryas octopetala, Mountain Avens, from Arncliff. 




C^-^0?tg^8.£,^.. /S£S. 



399. 
TRYPHON VARITARSUS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidae. 

Tijpe of the Genus, Ichneumon rutilator Linn. 
Tryphon Fall., Grav., Curt. — Ichneumon Linn., Fab. — Cryptus S^ 
Bassus Fab. 

Antennce inserted in the centre of the face, approximating, as long 
as the body, fusiform, composed of numerous pubescent joints ; 
basal joint robust oval^ 2nd subglobose^ 3rd ring-shaped, 4th long, 
5 th half the length, the remainder decreasing in length to the 
apical joint which is very minute and conical, (1, portions of the 
base and apex.) 

Labrum transverse-fusiform, the edge ciliated vi^ith long bristles 
producing a trigonate coriaceous lobe beneath, elongated and 
attenuated at the apex (2). 
Mandibles arched, bifid at the apex (3). 

Maxillcc with an internal fleshy suborbicular lobe and an external 
one subovate and very pilose. Palpi very long, pubescent and 
pilose, 5-jointed, 2nd a little the longest and broadest, penulti- 
mate a little the shortest, terminal joint the slenderest (4). 
Mentum oblong subovate. Palpi rather long, pubescent pilose 
and 4-jointed, basal and terminal joints of equal length, the 
former clavate, the latter subfusiform, 2nd and 3rd short, the 
former a little the broadest and shortest. Lip bifid or deeply 
emarginate (5). 
Head short transverse and orbicular, face flat. Eyes oval. Ocelli 3 
in triangle. Thorax subglobose : scutellum rather small convex and 
subirigonate : postscutellum channelled. Abdomen subsessile oblong 
clavate and convex, the ovipositor short but exserted (6). Wings 
pubescent, superior rather broad and truncated obliquely at the apex, 
areolei subrhomboidal with a pedicle above, the first recurrent ner- 
vure very much sinuated (9) . Legs; hinder pair the longest. Thighs; 
posterior the stoutest. Tibiae simple and spurred. Tarsi as long as 
thetibicE; posterior Jiot very thick 5-jointed, 4th joint minute. Claws 
simple. Pulvilli distinct. 
Obs. The dissections are taken from T. varitarsus 9 , excepting the wing. 

Varitarsus Grav. Ich. Eur. v. 2. p. 222. n. 146. — Curt.' Guide, Gen. 
492, n. 146. 

Black, shining, pubescent: antennae fuscous, black at the base, 
ochreous beneath. Head punctured, face clothed with hoary pu- 
bescence ; labrum ferruginous, mandibles yellow. Abdomen 
with 2nd and 3rd segments rufous. Wings iridescent and trans- 
parent, nervures and stigma brown, except at the base where 
they are pale yellow. Legs bright ochre, trochanters black, coxae 
pale yellow, the posterior sometimes black at the base, as well 
as the tips of the thighs ; tibiae and tarsi of this pair black, the 
former with the middle and spurs white, the latter with the base 
of the joints whitish ; in the other tarsi the apex is blackish. 
In the Authors and other Cabinets. 



Gravenhorst has described 143 species of Tryphon, and the 
following have been found in this country. 
T. prgerogator L. T. erylhrocerus Gr. T. lateralis Gr. 
T. compunctatorZy. T. mesoxanihus Gr. T. melanocerus Gr. 
T.melancholicus Gr. T. elongator F. T. semicaligatus Gr. 
T. lucidulus Gr. T. sphaerocephalus Gr. T.insolens Gr. 
T. aulicus Gr. T. pastoralis Gr. T. evolans Gr. 

T. marginatoriusi^. T. mitigosus Gr. T. fulvilabris Gr. 
T. tricolor Gr. T. notatus Gr. T. rutilator Gr. 

T. varitarsus Gr. 

Mr.Haliday has discovered two new species, one T. mirifluus 
(the type of his proposed subgenus Cleniscus) occurs on Wil- 
lows from July to Sept. ; the other he has named T. Curtisii, 
and says, " The only specimen I have seen belongs to the same 
type, as well as T. sexlituratus and about three species besides 
in my cabinet." 

For the following observations I am indebted to the same 
gentleman, and am sorry I can only give an abridgement of 
them. " T. varitarsus I have sent a specimen of, to illustrate 
Gravenhorst's note on this species : he errs in supposing it 
the effect of accident ; 3 out of 4 specimens occur thus affected. 
I subjoin extracts from my notes on the subject, with a sketch 
of the larvag (for such they are, and not eggs) in different 
stages. The Tryphons occur in August and Sept. on Wil- 
lows and Ragwort, and I have found as many as 18 larvae 
attached to one insect : at first they are all of a smooth pear- 
shaped and shining opaque waxy tint (fig. B) ; in a kw days 
they appear as represented at C, which is the underside : at 
this stage its voracious powers develop themselves, and I find 
the oldest generally making a meal of his next neighbour, who 
is soon sucked to the skin. I observed two motions in the 
mouth, one an opening and shutting of the mandibles, the 
other a general dilatation and contraction of the membrane of 
the mouth. Beyond this they show little signs of life while 
attached to the oviduct, but on being removed, which is easily 
done without injuring them, the darker ones have a slight 
jerking motion." 

Neither Mr. Hal id ay nor myself know the male of T. vari- 
tars7is, but all the females I have seen have had these nits 
attached to them ; each appears to me to be an animal con- 
tained in a bladder which has a peduncle at the lower end (B), 
by which it is attached to the base of the oviduct (A) ; they 
are there nourished, but whether the animal ever leaves the sac 
I am not able to determine : I think it probable, since I found 
that the bladders attached to the upperside of the abdomen of 
a female Dyticus inarginalis contained an Hydrachna or Lim- 
nochares, the drawings of which I have by me. 
The Plant is Spergula nodosa (Knotted Spurrey). 



igs 




C^4c/',C.i^oC,/: fSt8 



198. 
ANOMALON VESPARUM. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidae Lat., Leach. 

Type of the Genus Ichneumon Icetatorius Fab. 

Anomalon Jurine. — Ichneumon Linn., Fab., Lat., Panz. — Bassus 
Panz. — Cryptus & Ophion Fab. 

Antenna: approximating, inserted in front of the head sometimes 
above the middle, not longer or so long as the body, fiUform, 
pilose, composed of 18 joints and upwards, basal joint the most 
robust, 2nd the smallest, 3rd the longest, terminal joint conical 
(fig. l*a). 

Labrum transverse-ovate, the sides attenuated, very pilose ante- 
riorly (2). 

Mandibles transverse when at rest, subtrigonate, bifid and acute 
at the extremity, pilose externally (3). 

MaxillcB membranous, terminated by 2 dilated lobes, the inner 
one the smaller, the external one pilose. Palpi rather long, 
pilose, submembranous, S-jointed, 2 first joints robust, nearly 
of equal length, the remainder slender, the 3rd being the longest, 
the 4th the shortest (4). 

Mentum cup-shaped (5 a). Palpi rather long, pilose, robust, 
4-jointed (b). Labium membranous, semicircular (c). 
Head transverse, ( I* front view). Eyes lateral. Ocelli 3 in tri- 
angle. Thorax subovate, sometimes elongated. Abdomen with the 
basal joint forming a very short peduncle, angulated on the sides. 
Ovipositor short, scarcely exserted. Wings, superior with one mar- 
ginal and 2 large submarginal cells, the tittle one wanting, and a 
large one between the disc and the posterior margin. Legs, anterior 
the shortest, posterior the longest. Tibiae spurred. Tarsi b-jointed, 
basal joint long. Claws simple. Pulvilli minute (8 afore leg). 
Obs. the dissections were made from A. Vesparum. 



Vesparum Nob. 

Black slightly but thickly punctured. Metathorax deeply sculp- 
tured. Abdomen very large and ovate, distinctly peduncled, 
rather glossy, pubescent towards the apex, the 2nd and 3rd joints 
dull ferruginous, fuscous in the centre. Wings pubescent, trans- 
parent, iridescent, nervures and stigma dark brown, a transverse 
nervure next the posterior margin nearly obliterated. Legs fer- 
ruginous, posterior the most robust. Tarsi, posterior entirely, 
the others fuscous only at their apex. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Wood and the Author. 



Although Jurine fell into error by servilely following his fa- 
vourite system, and by that means has collected together, as in 
the present instance, a mass of insects differing exceedingly in 



structure, still by selecting his type to draw our characters 
from, without reference to any of the others, we shall be able 
to make a sound genus of Anomalon. 

Jurine's genus is distinguished from most of the Ichneu- 
monidae by the absence of the areolet, or second submarginal 
little cell, so common to this family, and from many others by 
the large cell joining the first submarginal one, which is im- 
perfectly closed next the posterior margin in A. Vesparum,; but 
it is not so in Jurine's type, A. Icetatorius. There are a con- 
siderable number of species that agree with these insects in 
their wings ; but we shall not venture to place them in the 
same genus at present, as they present other differences. 

1. A. laetatorius Fab. Panz. 19. 19. mas. — 100. 14. fern. — 

102. IS. fern. var. — Middle and end of July upon plants 
in meadows and gardens. 

2. Vesparum Nod, 

For specimens of this Anomalon (probably females), one of 
which is figured, we are indebted to the zeal and liberality of 
Mr. R. Wood of Manchester, who transmitted them with the 
nidus and following observations upon this singular insect. 
" In examining the combs of some Wasps' nests, (near the 
end of July probably,) in one of them I discovered many cells 
about half the length of those of the Wasps, and capped with 
wax. I put the comb into a glass jar, and the day following 
had the gratification of finding that three had eaten their way 
out of the cells. I think they were the liveliest insects I ever 
saw ; yet on going to look at them again, I found that several 
Wasps had emerged from their cells and had actually eaten 
two of them. I then took out the comb, and destroyed the 
young Wasps by running a pin through them in their cells, 
and again put the comb into the jar ; and in a few days three 
others came out. I fed them with honey, and they seemed 
to be very fond of it." Nothing has transpired since the comb 
has been in our possession ; but we expect that those cells 
containing the Anomalon, will produce the other sex of the 
insect in the course of next summer. The cells occupied were 
in various situations, from two to four together : each cocoon 
was hexagonal, and filled the inside of the Wasp's cell; it was 
very tough and silky, round at the bottom and flat at the top. 
It is worthy of remark, that the cells of the Wasps containing 
the Anomalon were closed like the others ; and upon opening 
them the exuvia of the Wasp's grub filled n space about one- 
third of the cell, from which we conclude that the eggs were 
deposited in the bodies of the larvse and lived in them till they 
became nymphae. 

The plant is Inula pulicaria (Less Fleabane). 



234. 
ICHNEUMON ATROPOS. 



Order Hymenoptera. 

Type of the Genus Ichneumon bidentorius Fah. 
Ichneumon Linn., Fab., Lat., Fall., Panz. 

AntenncB inserted between the eyes, in a cavity towards the 
middle of the face, long and setaceous, composed of 40 joints 
and upwards, basal joint robust, cylindric, truncated obliquely, 
2nd very short, 3rd slender and the longest, the remainder de- 
creasing in length to the apex (1* a). 

Labrum transverse oval, a small portion only exserted, anterior 
margin ciliated, and producing from beneath a fleshy acuminated 
lobe (2). 

Mandibles small, resting transversely, slightly bent and bifid, 
being notched below the apex (3). 

MaxillcB short, terminated by a large oval ciliated lobe and a 
narrow fleshy one on the internal side. Palpi very long and 
slender, composed of 5 joints nearly of equal length, basal joint 
clavate, 2nd dilated subsecuriform, 3rd and 4th scarcely clavate, 
5th very slender (4). 

Mentum short ovate. Labium short hollow membranous. Palpi 
rather long slender and pubescent, 4-jointed, 3 first joints nearly 
of equal size, clavate truncate, 4th much longer and more slen- 
der (5). 
Head short, vertical, orbicular. Eyes lateral oblong (1*, head of 
I. jitropos viewed in front). Ocelli 3 in triangle. Pro thorax s/jori 
and small, metathorax cancellated. Scutellum rounded, sometimes 
gibbous. Abdomen alike in both sexes, oblong-conic or ovate, pe- 
duncle short, slender and arcuate. Ovipositor very short and not 
exserted. Wings with a pentagonal areolet. Legs, anterior the 
shortest, posterior the longest. Coxae short and robust. Tibiae, an- 
terior producing I spine at the apex, the others 2. Tarsi long, 5- 
jointed, basal joint very long and notched internally at the base in 
the anterior pair, 4th joint small, 5th not longer than the2nd. Pul- 
v'lWi distinct. Claws simple (8, a foi-e leg). 



Atkopos Nob. 

Black, antennae with the basal half orange ; trophi and margin 
round the eyes ochreous, top of prothorax, a line before and an- 
other beneath each wing ochreous. Scutellum yellow. Abdomen 
with the 3 first joints rufous. Wings shining, aureous yellow, 
the posterior margins fuscous, nervures ferruginous. Leg ochreous 
excepting the coxae, the apex of the posterior thighs and tibiae 
which are black. 

Obs. In some specimens the black in the antennae extends nearer 
the base, the head and face are more yellow and the metathorax 
and the coxae more mottled with ochre. 

Li the Cabinets of Mrj Davis and Mr. S. Sulivan. 



Fallen states that the true Ichneumons deposit their eggs in 
larvae that feed on the leaves of trees, and in pupae which lie 



near the surface of the earth ; it appears to me that they prefer 
naked caterpillars, and probably puncture them after they 
have descended into the earth, but before they have changed 
into chrysalides. 

The following list of British species belonging to this nu- 
merous genus, incomplete as it is, will enable any one to re- 
cognize those insects which belong to this particular group; 
and manuscript names without descriptions would only be an 
incumbrance, since Professor Gravenhorst is about to publish 
a Monograph upon the family. 

1. I. nigratorius Fab. — e. June, near Covehithe, Suffolk. 

2. annulator Liim. 

3. comitator Linn. — Panz. 71. li. 

4. nigrator Fab. 

5. narrator Fab. 

6. sputator Fab.— Panz. 19. 20. 

7. nigratorius Fab. — e. June, near Covehithe, Suffolk. 

8. molitorius Liim. — Panz. 19. 16. 

9. moratorius Fab. 

10. oratorius Fab. — Panz. 80. 10. 

11. deliratorius Z/Zww. 

12. pedatorius Fab. — Panz. 71. 12. 

13. castigator Fab. 

14. lutorius Fab. — m. July, flying about Sallows at Whit- 

tlesea Mere. 

15. pisorius Fab.—Scliaf. El. t. 12./ 1. 

16. fusorius Linii. 

17. Atropos. Curt. Brit. Fnt. 234. 

18. sugillatorius Linn. — Schcef. Icon. t. 84./ 9. 

19. infractorius Linn. — Panz. 78. 9. 

20. vaginatorius Linn. — Panz. 79. 8. — August and Sep- 

tember. Umbellate flowers. 

21. ambulatorius Fab. 

22. occisorius Fab. — Panz. 78. 10. 

23. negatorius Fab. — ornatorius. Panz. 73. 15. 

24. fasciatorius Fab. — nugatorius. Panz. 80. 12. 

25. bidentorius Fab. — desertorius. Pa7iz. 45. 1 5. — e. June 

and b. August. 

26. luctatorius Litin. — Schcsf. Icon. t. '26^. f. 6.— m. August, 

Dover. 

27. similatorius Fab. 

I. Atropos has been bred from the caterpillar of Acherontia 
Atropos {pi. 147), by Miss Giraud of Faversham, Kent; the 
specimen figured from Mr. Sulivan's cabinet was taken at 
Rochester by Professor Henslow; and Mr. Davis took his the 
end of July in a lane leading to Darent Wood. 

For specimens of Juncus liyiiger. With., Luzula congesta, 
Forst. (Flaxen Rush), I am indebted to Mr. Charlwood. 



/w 






U1./:t.d:L:,.£.,^rUn C^,. '^i- ^^ 



3' /S'^^ 

120. 
ALOMYA VICTOR. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneunionidas Lat.^ Leach. 

Type of the Genus Ichneumon debellator Fab. 

Alomya Panz., Fallen. — Cryptus Fab. — Ichneumon Linn., Fab., Lat., 
Jur. 

jintennce inserted below the centre of tlie face in deep fovese, 
approximating, subfiliform, convolute, pubescent, shorter than 
the head and thorax, composed of upwards of 30 joints, basal 
joint robust, 2nd small transverse, remainder more or less trans- 
verse, excepting the last, which is conic (fig. 1 a). 
Labrum obtrigonate, rounded and ciliated anteriorly (2). 
Mandibles large, strong, bent, bifid (3). 

Maxilla small membranous, with 2 lobes, external extending 
beyond the internal and ciliated. Palpi long pubescent, 5-jointed, 
basal joint the longest, 2nd robust, 3 following of nearly equal 
length and more slender (4). 

Mentum elongate trigonate (5 a). Palpi long, pubescent, com- 
posed of 4 joints of nearly equal length, of which the Jst and 2nd 
are the most robust (b). Lip very short and obscure (c). 
Clypeus broad short. Head orbicular, cheeks projecting. Eyes small 
ovate, placed in the middle of each side. Ocelli 3(1, front view of 
head). Thorax elongate ovate. Metathorax 7iot cancellated, rounded 
with a spiracle on each side. Abdomen elongated, ovate, convex, 
petiole short slender incurved. Oviduct not exserted? Wings 
shorter than the body, the 2nd submarginal, cell small quinquangu- 
lar. Legs short, posterior the longest. Coxae anterior long. Thighs 
short robust. Tibiae, 4 anterior very short, \stpair having one spine 
at the extremity, the remainder 2. Tarsi much longer than the tibice, 
5-jointed, basal joint the longest, 4th the shortest. Claws simple. 
Pulvilli distinct (8, afore leg) . 



Victor nobis. 

Black, shining, punctured, slightly pubescent. Antennae ferru- 
ginous, 1st and 2nd joints black, terminal portion fuscous. Ab- 
domen ferruginous, the 2 last joints and the posterior margin of 
the antepenultimate black. Wings pubescent, slightly iridescent, 
stained fuscous, nervures brown, stigma ferruginous. Trochan- 
ters and thighs ferruginous at the apex. Tibiae and tarsi fer- 
ruginous, the former pale in the middle. 

J« the Cabinet of the Author. 



The vast number of species contained in Ichncumonida:^ to- 
gether with the difficulty of seizing distinctive cliaracters, has 
either caused this family to be totally neglected or but imper- 
fectly understood in most countries, but in none more so than 
in our own, where the Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, with the 
exception of the Tenthredoes and Bees, have entirely engaged 
the attention of the entomologist till within the last few years ; 
by which means not less than 600 species have been confused 
under the title of Ichneumon, instead of taking advantage of 
the improvements suggested by our neighbours, which, how- 
ever imperfect, must form the basis for a more complete di- 
vision and natural arrangement of this family. 

Had Fabricius, who first divided the Ichieumonidce into 
genera, done it with that care and attention which so difficult 
a task required, there is no doubt but Latreille would have 
gone further than he has done into the investigation of them ; 
but the Fabrician system is so perfectly artificial, that the 
author of it himself could not follow it without making " con- 
fusion worse confounded," as is evident from a slight view of 
the genera in his last work. 

Difficult as the task is, and unequal as we must acknowledge 
ourselves to perform it, we can only promise to lend our aid by 
separating groups as opportunities may offer, thereby lessen- 
ing the mass that at present is nearly unmanageable, which 
will we hope enable those, who have better opportunities and 
more leisure than ourselves for studying this family, to accom- 
plish an undertaking so absolutely necessary to a knowledge 
of the Hymenoptera. 

Alomya was first established by Panzer, and has been 
adopted by Fallen: yet we are so imperfectly acquainted 
with the sexes, that Jurine and Fallen are at issue respecting 
them : there are, however, characters which are so evident, 
that we can recognize the genus at first sight, viz. the com- 
paratively short wings, the long and convex body, the very 
short thighs and tibiae, the globose head, and the short and 
curled antennae, composed of fewer joints than in most of the 
genera. 

These insects do not appear to fly much ; they are generally 
found running amongst moss and grass, for which purpose 
their short and strong legs are well adapted. A. debellator has 
been found in Norfolk. A. victor I found last summer near 
Dunkeld ; its red petiole distinguishes it from the former in- 
sect, which has a black one. We have 2 or 3 other species that 
are unnamed. 

The plant figured, Tricntalis europcva (Chick weed Winter- 
green,) was found at the same time. 



668. 
CRYPTUS BELLOSUS. 

The Odyuerus Ichneumon. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonida}. 

Type of the Genus, Cryptus viduatorius Fab. 
Cryptus Fah., Fall., Grav., Curt. — Ichneumon Fab. 

Antenncs inserted in the middle of the face, contiguous, often as 
long as the body, composed of numerous joints, stout and seta- 
ceous in the male, the joints gradually decreasing in length 
from the 4th ; slender and curved in the female, basal joint 
robust and oval, 2nd and 3rd short, 4th long, the remainder de- 
creasing in length. 

Labrum nearly concealed under the clypeus, subtrigonate and 
ciliated with longish hairs, with an elongate-trigonate membra- 
nous lobe at the centre (2). 

Mandibles short, crossing, rather thick, curved, bilid at the apex 
(3). 

MaxillcE terminated by a rounded pubescent lobe and a smaller 
inner one. Palpi long slender pubescent and 5-jointed, basal 
joint the shortest, clavate, '2nd long and rather stout, clavate, 
3rd the longest, 4th and 5th not longer than the 2nd and slender, 
especially the 5th (4). 

Mentum elongate-ovate, the angles excised to receive the Palpi, 
which are pubescent and 4-jointed, basal joint clavate, 2nd and 
3rd short obtrigonate, 4th the longest, stoutest at the base and 
attenuated to the apex. Lip tolerably long, concave and emar- 
ginate (5). 
Head transverse, face concave, orbicular-trigonate (1*) .• eyes lateral, 
vertical : ocelli 3 in triangle at the base of the head. Thorax elon- 
gate-ovate ; collar narrow : scutel semiovale : metathorax with a 
tooth at each hinder angle. Abdomen long and slender in the male, 
subfusifonn, petiole clavate (A) .- stouter and more ovate in the fe- 
male, petiole long, depressed and very much dilated at the apex : ovi- 
positor exserted, often as long as the abdomen. Wings ample, su- 
perior with a quinquangular areolet, marginal cell lanceolate. Legs : 
anterior the shortest, hinder long and stout: thighs, hinder the stout- 
est : tibiae spurred at the apex : tarsi o-Jointed, basal joint the long- 
est : claws and pulvilli small. 
Obs. The dissections are from Ichneumon obscurus Gmel. ? except- 
ing fig. A, which is the abdomen of I. titillator Linn. ? 

Bellosus Curt. Guide, Gen. 499. 

Female slate black, thickly and delicately punctured, 10th, 1 1th, 
and r2th joints of antennae white above ; thorax deep red ; scutel 
white, the surrounding sutures blackish ; metathorax globose, 
scarcely tuberculated at the angles, with 2 transverse sutures : 
base of abdomen more coarsely punctured ; petiole with a minute 
tooth on each side, 2 apical segments white, as well as the mar- 
gins of the others beneath when alive : anterior tibiee and tips 
of thighs ochreous : wings iridescent, the posterior margins 
fuscous, stigma and nervures piceous. 

In the Author s Cabinet. 



There are fifty described species of this extensive genus in- 
habiting Great Britain which are recorded in the " Guide," 
and I have nearly tvi^enty more in my ovi^n Cabinet which I 
cannot identify with any of Gravenhorst's. It is therefore im- 
possible to do more here than to give his sections with an En- 
glish type of each, referring to the Guide for a complete list 
of the species. 

J . Scutellum and abdomen black, 
21. moschator Fab. — Grav. 2. 451. 21. 

2. Scutellum pale, abdomen blacJc. 
40. viduatorius Fab. — Grav. 2. 476. 40. 

3. Scutellum pale, abdomen 'with pale rings. 

No specimen has yet been discovered in Britain of this sec- 
tion. 

4. Scutellum with a pale spot ; abdomen rufous or red and blacJc. 
82. albatorius Vill. — Grav. 2. 536. 82. 

5. Scutellum black ; abdomen red or red and black. 
91. obscurus Gmel. — Grav. 2. 548. 91. 

6. Scutellum and thorax partly rufous ,• abdomen red and black, 
136. minutorius Fab.— Grav. 2. 625. 136. 

7. Scutellum white, thorax red, abdomen black. 

144^. bellosus Curt. Brit. Ent.pl. 668. ? . The (J is unknown. 

Two females of this beautiful insect I bred the end of last 
June from some dead bramble stalks that were given to me by 
Mr. F. Smith, with the expectation of obtaining from them the 
Osmia leucomelana, not one of which however made its appear- 
ance, but to my surprise and gratification these Crypti, and a 
few days after some females of Odi/7ierus [Epipone) Icevipes, 
described by Mr. Shuckard in Loudon's Magazine of Nat. 
Hist, issued from the sticks. The Crypti were exceedingly vi- 
vacious, not a joint of their antenna? or legs, or a segment of 
their abdomen being at rest, and they resisted the fumes of 
sulphur under a glass longer than any other insect that has 
come under my observation, whilst, on the contrary, the Ody- 
neri were very sluggish, not attempting to unfold their wings, 
and were easily deprived of life. 

For specimens of Valeriana [Fedia) auricida, gathered near 
Cowes in the Isle of Wiofht, I am intlebted to Dr. Bromfield. 




. J': !£^^> Jan, /, /^£i2 



? 


- / ? 
389. 


3 a 


AGRIOTYPUS 


ARMATUS, 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidae. 
Type of the Genus Agriotypus armatus Walk. 
Agriotypus Walk. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 503^ (') 

Antennce inserted towards the middle of the face, remote, filiform, 
very hairy, rather long in the male and composed of 31 joints, 
basal joint the stoutest, ovate, 2nd short subovate, 3rd the 
longest, 4th not longer than the 1st, remainder decreasing in 
length to the apex, apical joints short and oblong, the terminal 
one conical (1, portions of the base and apex). Short in the 
female and composed of 2-1 joints, 

Labrum nearly concealed by the clypeus, somewhat orbicular, 
anterior margin thickened, producing a few long bristles; tongue- 
shaped, pubescent, with a lobe inserted beneath and extending 
considerably beyond the labrum (2). 

Mandibles exserted, meeting at the apex and crossing, broadest 
at the base, curved, with an obtuse tooth below the apex which 
is acute, ciliated externally (3). 

MaxillcB forming a large rounded lobe, with another external one 
of equal size and ciliated at the apex. Palpi very long, pubes- 
cent pilose and 5-jointed, 2nd joint the stoutest, 3rd the longest, 
4th and 5th rather slender, the latter the shortest (4). 
Mentum attenuated to the base, truncated before. Falpi attached 
to the anterior angles of the mentum, rather long, pubescent, 
pilose and 4-jointed ; 3 first joints short, nearly of equal length, 
subclavace, 2nd and 3rd slightly dilated, 4th long slender and 
conical at the apex. Lip large hollow and very pubescent (5). 
Head short transverse, face somewhat obovate. Eyes rather swall but 
prominent. Ocelli 3 in triangle (1 ^, front view of head). Thorax 
narrow: scutellum elongate-trigonate, the sides rejtexed, terminated 
by a porrected spine: postscutellum with 6 longitudinal elevated 
lines. Abdomen short and oval, attached by a long stout arched 
petiole, broader than the thorax in the male, and much more so in 
the female, the basal joint very large in the female, with 2 indistitict 
transverse sutures, the apex terminated by two small appendages in 
the male: ovipositor short and exserted from beneath. Wings, su- 
perior with an oval stigma and a small triangular marginal cell, 
areolet none (9) ; inferior with distinct nervures. Legs all long and 
slender, hinder the longest. Tibiae all long, spurred at the apex. 
Tarsi long, basal joint very long, 4th the shortest, apical joint as 
long as the 2nd. Claws and Pulvilli rather large : (8, apex of tibia 
and the tarsus). 



Armatus Walkers MSS. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Walker and the Author, 



(') The situation of the genus is thus indicated that it may be recorded in the 
Guide ; and whenever it is reprinted, all new or additional genera will be inserted 
in their proper places, with letters attached to the numbers, that those of the first 
edition may not be disturbed. 



In the last Number I had the pleasure of publishing an extra- 
ordinary novelty belonging to the order Strepsiptera, and I 
am happy to commence a new volume with an equally fine 
species of" the order Hymenoptera. 

This curious insect is considerably like Helorus and some 
of the Proctotrupidae at first sight, and not unlike some of the 
Formicidae; and the habit as well as the sculpture of the 
thorax remind us, at a casual glance, of the genus Chlorion ; — 
on examining the mouth however, and wings, it will be found 
to be entirely different. It is undoubtedly one of th.e Ichneu- 
monidae, and bears considerable resemblance to Hemiteles, 
but it has no areolet in the superior wings ('). 

For specimens of this fine nondescript I am indebted to 
Henry Walker, Esq., who took them on the Clyde, near 
Lanark; they were accompanied by the following remarks. 

" I observed the males at the end of May and beginning of 
June, on days when the sun shone bright, skimming over the 
surface of the water, and alighting on humid moss-covered 
stones. Towards the close of the day I subsequently detected 
two females reposing on the same rocks, apparently in a dor- 
mant state." 

A. armatus Walk. — Curtis Brit. Ent. pi. 3S9. Jemale. 

Male, black shining, thickly clothed with very short yel- 
lowish pubescence, minutely punctured; scutellum with the 
tip of the spine ochreous, postscutellum and petiole dull, the 
latter thickly punctured, with two elevated lines down the 
back, and one on each side. Wings transparent, obscurely 
clouded with pale brown, the stigma and nervures piceous. 
Female more robust; the antennae are much shorter, similar 
in colour and sculpture, the spine of the scutellum is entirely 
black ; the wings, especially the superior, are stained yellow, 
clouded with rich brown forming three fascise, the two first 
united at the interior margin, the third running obliquely from 
the stigma, the apex of the same colour, but rather paler. 

They vary exceedingly in size, some being only half as large 
as others. 

The Plant is Scutellaria galericulata (Common Skull-cap). 

(') Since the above was written, I have received a specimen sent by me to Mens. 
Latreille for his inspection. He says : " The antennse, the cibarian organs, and 
partly the disposition of the cells of the wings, rank it with the Ichneumonidae; 
but by the form of the abdomen and the radial cell of the wings it appears to me 
to approach the Oryuri, especially my genus Helorus ; — in a word, it seems to unite 
the IchneumonidaB with the Oxyuri. The ovipositor (terebra), or rather the ex- 
tremity of the abdomen, appears, from the specimen that you haVe transmitted to 
me, more analogous to that of the latter than the former." 




^^^4- c/€.*-£-c^^ /./sss- 



1^^ J2Z^' 
536. 
PEZOxMACHUS HOPEI. 



Ordeu Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonida}. 

Type of the Genus, Mutilla acarorum Linn. 
Pezomachus Grav., Curt. — Gelis Thun.} — CryptusFab. — Ichneumon 
Fab., Oliv., Panz. — Mutilla Linn., Schr. 

Antenna: scarcely so loiif-f as the body, suhfilifonn, pubescent, 
composed of If) joints in some females, basal joint the stoutest 
and oval, 2nd the smallest, suhglobose, .'Jrd the lonjrest, re- 
mainder decreasinj; in leny-th hut becomins? gradually thicker 
and quadrate beyond the middle, terminal joint elongate-conic 
(1 portions of the bsuse and apex). 

Labrum inserted under the clypeus, transverse, somewhat semi- 
circular, with a few bristles on the margin, and a membranous 
l)ubescent triangidar lobe beneath, a little attenuated at the 
apex (2). 

Mandibles short, elongate-trigonate, bifid at the apex (3). 
Maxilla: terminated l)y '1 rounded lobes, the internal one cilijited 
with very short hairs, the other larger and pilose. Palpi long, 
pilose and o -jointed, basal joint clavate, "ind and 3rd a little 
longer, the former the stoutest, 4th a little the shortest, 5th 
the size of the 3rd, subfusiform (4). 

Mentum eloug-atc obovate. Lip small, cordate and striated. 
Palpi rather short, jjilose and 4-jointed, first 2 joints obtrigo- 
nate, 3rd smaller stibglobose, 4th the longest and subconic (.')). 
Head transverse, broader than the thorax (1 # the face) : eyes lateral 
prominent and ovate, coarsely (jranulated : ocelli 3 in triangle on the 
crown of the head. Thorax long and narrow, with a stiture across 
the middle in the apterous females (T) ; collar very .^tmall in the 
winged species, and the scutellum distinct. Wings often wanting, 
always imperfect, shorter than the thora.r, bristly, nerrures strong, 
suj)erior with only '2 basal cells (9). Abdomen ovate, not longer 
than the head and thorax, but broader in the females, with 6 joints 
I'isible, attached by a peduncle, sometimes funnel-shaped (Trt).- ovi- 
positor stout, sborter than the abdomen. Legs appearing long, es- 
pecially the hinder pair : tibia*, anterior with a spine, the others 
spurred at the apex : tarsi 5-jointed, basal joint the longest, 4th 
sometitnes cordate (8, afore leg). 
The dissections were drawn from /. vagans Oliv. 

HoPEi Grav. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 504. 29 1**. 

Female ferruginous red, clothed with very fine short pubescence ; 
head black, antenna? black above, excepting the first five joints 
which are entirely rufous, and the tip of the 7th and 3 following 
are white above : wings shorter than the thorax, having no 
areolet ; scutellum distinct, metathorax with a small tooth at 
each angle ; hinder margin of the 4th abdominal segment and 
the following black, the 6th bearing a broad white band above : 
ovipositor black, castaneous at the apex ; tips of hinder thighs 
and tibia* black. 

/« the Author s and other Cabinets. 



Pezomachus is a remarkable group of ilie Crypti, being either 
apterous or having only rudimentary wings. From Graven- 
horst's description and figure of one of these, it appears that 
they vary in their neuration, and the genus therefore requires 
further investigation in order to form at least natural sections, 
and from the very great dissimilarity in the structure of the 
thorax and the form of the penultimate joint of the tarsi, two 
genera probably might be established, in which case Thun- 
berg's name of Gelis would very well apply to one of them. 

The Pezomachi are equally curious in their oeconomy, for 
although like the rest of the IchneumonidiE they are parasitic, 
they do not seem to be attached to any particular group, if 
the statements made be correct. I have heard of their being 
produced from Spiders' eggs and from the larvfe of Ctircidio 
plajitaginis, and Linnaeus says one species in its perfect state 
lives upon Acari. The two that I have bred, P.festinans Fab. 
and P. vagans Oliv., hatched from the cocoons of two species 
of Microgaster, and with the latter appeared another parasite, 
a species of Hemiteles, and Mr. Haliday in the Ent. Mag. 
mentions two, so that 3 or 4 different Ichneumonidae were pro- 
duced from the .same cocoons. The most remarkable fact 
however relating to these little animals is the great apparent 
excess of females ; I have in my own cabinet upwards of 20 
species, and only know the male of one [P.fesiinans), and Mr. 
Haliday sayshe has seen hundreds of the female oi P .fasciatiis^ 
yet he never met with a male. 

For a list of the species I must refer to the Guide. They 
are found in spring, summer and autumn where reeds abound, 
in sandy districts, in theflowersofSyngenesious plants, amongst 
grass &c., and in winter in moss and under stones. The species 
figured I swept into my net last August, off some bushes of 
Sweet Gale in the Isle of Arran, as we were ascending Goat- 
feld, and I had met with it twice before in Norfolk : the male 
has not been discovered. 

The Plant is Urtica pilulifera (Roman Nettle), from Lowes- 
toft Denes, Suffolk. 




^d/ 



^=^=^"^^1^ 



cie/.-4 c/:^w;, <Zy././8X> 



Id - 1 ^33 
464. 

MESOCHORUS SERICANS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidae. 

Type of the Genus, Mesochorus splendidulus Grav. 
Mesochorus Grav., Curt. 

Antenna; as long as the insect, slender, filiform and pubescent, 
inserted in a cavity towards the middle of the face, composed of 
about 40 joints, basal joint the stoutest, 2nd ovate, 3rd minute, 
4th long, the remainder rapidly decreasing in length, the apical 
joints small and ovate {I* a). 

Labi'um small, semicircular and cUiated with bristles, with a 
fleshy pubescent, triangular lobe somewhat acuminated at the 
apex (2). 

Mandibles small, curved, bifid at the apex (3). 
Maxillce terminated by two rounded lobes, the superior very 
pilose. Palpi very long, pilose and 5 -jointed, basal joint clavate, 
a little the shortest, 2nd dilated internally, the remainder slender 
and linear, the 3rd being the longest (4). 

Mentum somewhat obovate. Lip small, semicylindric, slightly 
emarginate and pubescent. Palpi rather long, pilose and 4- 
jointed, 1st and 2nd joints nearly of equal length, the latter di- 
lated internally, 3rd and 4th longer and clavate, the latter the 
slenderest (5). 
Head short and transverse, face orbicular (1 *) ; eyes elliptical : oceUi 
3. Thorax not broader than the head, gibbose, ovate : scutellum 
subtriangular or semiovate. Abdomen attached by rather a long 
petiole, fusiform slightly convex clavate in profile, scarcely so broad 
as the thorax, furnished at the apex in the male with 2 rigid and at- 
tenuated spines (7) : ovipositor exserted rather stout and longer than 
the style in the male (6). Wings, superior, with the stigma rather 
small, the marginal cell not large and conical, areolet large and 
rhomboidal with a short pedicle : inferior sometimes with the lower 
nervure furcate towards the a?ial angle. Legs not short. Thighs, 
posterior the stoutest. Tibiae spurred at the apex. Tarsi 5 -jointed, 
basal joint the longest. Claws and Pulvilli small. 



Sericans Haliday's MSS. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 508. 
In the Cabinet of Mr. Haliday. 



The large rhomboidal areolet, connected with the lower ner- 
vure of the marginal cell by a short pedicel, and the large 
curved internal cubital cell, are good characters to identify 
the Mesochori ; and the males of this pretty genus are distin- 
guished by two slender spines at the apex of the abdomen. 



Mr. Haliday has observed to me, in a letter, that this genus 
affords two strongly-marked divisions, — 

L With the interior brachial cell of the lower wings emitting 
a single nervure from its inner angle. 

1. M. Tipularius Grav. 2. 964. 332.— Curt. Guide, 508. 332. 

In larch plantations, Galway, Mr. Haliday. 

2. M. splendidulus Grav.- — Very rare at Belfast, but common in Galway. 

3. M. olerum Hal. — Length If line. Black, lower part of face, orbit of 

eyes, posterior margin of 2nd segment of the abdomen, a spot at 
the base of the 3rd, and the legs, ochreous : tips of posterior tibiae 
and tarsi fuscous. 
Found on turnips by Mr. Haliday. 

4. M. fulgurans Hal. — Length 3|: lines. Ochreous, tips of antennae and 

eyes dark : abdomen ferruginous-ochre : stigma pallid. 
Taken in shady ravines in Ireland. 

5. M. basalis Curt. — Length 3 lines. Ochreous; eyes, crown of head, 

3 spots on the thorax, postscutellum, base of abdomen (excepting 
the posterior margin of the 2nd segment), and a spot on each side 
the 3rd segment, black : base and tips of posterior tibiae black. 
New Forest, on stumps of trees in shady groves, beginning of June. 

6. M. Sylvarum Hal. — Length 3 lines. Black, orbit of eyes and mouth 

pale yellow, mesothorax and scutellum ferruginous, the former 
with 3 black spots, and a brownish spot sometimes on the back 
of the abdomen. Legs ochreous, tips of tarsi fuscous. 
Abundant on trees in hedge-rows, particularly ash and oak, Mr. 
Haliday. 

II. Interior brachial cell of the lower wings emitting 2 ner- 
vures from its inner angle. 

7. M. sericans Hal— Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 464. <? . 

Black, with a dull blueish bloom, and clothed with pale pu- 
bescence ; face and mouth yellow, underside of antennae ochreous- 
brown, an ochreous dot at the angles of the basal joint of the body, 
and a scutiform spot on the margin of the 2nd, and the base of 
the 3rd of the same colour ; the posterior margin of the latter 
and the tip of the abdomen ochreous : wings stained yellow, the 
nervures and stigma pale brown : legs ochreous, thighs reddish, 
tips of the posterior and of their tibiae blackish; posterior tarsi 
brown, the others brown only at their tips. 
Taken by Mr. Haliday, I believe, near Belfast. 

8. M. Splenium Curt. — Length 2j lines. Male pale ochreous; head 

black, face yellowish-white, antennae fuscous, except at the base; 
alitrunk black, scutellum bright ochre ; abdomen with the base 
of the 1st joint and sides of 2nd black, sides of the remainder, 
and a considerable portion of the apex and the styles, brown : 
centre of stigma pale ochre ; nervures, tips of posterior tibiae, 
pulvilli and claws brown. 
This pretty species I took in the New Forest. 

Mr. Haliday has at least twenty- six very distinct species of 
this genus. 

The Plant is Cuscuta Epithyrmm (Less Dodder). 




<JU.-^ c/jg^<«, cX« /:/ilSk. 



407. 
LAMPRONOTA CRENICORNIS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidse. 

Tijipe of the Genus, Ichneumon setosus Four. 
Lampronota Curt. — Lissonota Grav., Curt. — Ichneumon Fab. S^c. 
AntenncB inserted near the middle of the face, not approximating, 
as long as the body, filiform, composed of about 40 joints, basal 
joint the stoutest obovate, 2nd subglobose, 3rd the longest, the 
remainder decreasing in length to the apical joint which is a little 
longer and conical. 

Labrum; superior portion transverse conic, furnished with a 
rounded and ciliated membrane producing a tongue-shaped 
lobe (2). 

Mandibles rather small, slightly pubescent, subtrigonate and bifid, 
being terminated by two nearly equal teeth (3). 
MaxillcB hairy outside, terminated by an oblique oval very pube- 
scent lobe, with an equally large and rather fleshy oblong one 
on the inside. Palpi very long, pilose and 5-jointed, basal and 
2nd joints rather robust, subclavate, the latter rather the longest 
and convex on the inside, the remainder slender ; 3rd the longest, 
4th about the length of the 2nd, the oth a little shorter (4). 
Mentum pilose, oblong, slightly narrowed towards the base. 
Palpi longer than the mentum, to the anterior angles of which 
they are attached, pilose and 4-jointed, basal joint clavate, 3rd 
rather shorter and broader, subtrigonate, 3rd clavate, 4th slender, 
elongate-conic. Lip short, deeply notched in the centre (5). 
Head transverse and short. Eyes oval and prominent. Ocelli 3 in 
triangle. ThoraK gibbose. Scutellum suborbicular or triangular : 
postscutellum rather Large and convex, with a faint channel. Ab- 
domen narrowed at the base, rather elongated, somewhat cylindrical, 
smooth and shining. Ovipositor as long or longer than the body, 
the apical joints are not cleft but conceal the aperture. Wings 
generally with a triangular areolet sometimes petiolated (9), in a 
few it is wanting. Legs rather slender, anterior the shortest. Coxse 
large. Tibiae slender and spurred. Tarsi 5-jointed, basal joint the 
longest. Claws and Pulvilli short. 
Obs. The trophi and wing were drawn from L. impressor Grav. 



Crenicornis Hal. MSS. — Curtis's Guide, Gen. 511. 

Black, glossy, slightly pubescent : antenna; simple in the female, 
geniculated towards the middle in the male, the 5 th joint notched 
on the outside towards the apex and the 6th at the base (1 (J) : 
head finely, thorax more coarsely punctured : postscutellum and 
base of the abdomen rugose : ovipositor scarcely so long as the 
body (6). Wings rich yellowish, iridescent 3 areolet none, stigma 
and nervures piceous. Legs reddish ochre, posterior tibiae and 
tarsi and the tips of the other tarsi brown. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Haliday and the Author. 



ScHGENHERR having employed Lissonota to designate a group 
of the Cerambycidae, it becomes necessary to supersede Gra- 
venhorst's name, and to assist the memory I have used a 
similar word. 

Lampronota is a subgenus of Pimpla, and is best distin- 
guished by the smoothness of the abdominal segments. 

The following appear to be British species. 
14*. L. crenicornis Hal. — Curt. Bril. Ent. pi. 407. male. 

Mr. Haliday says "it was found from the early part of 
August to the middle of September, and another species with 
similar antennae of the same figure, &c. occurred in a pine- 
wood : it differs in having the coxae black, the hind tibiae and 
tarsi dusky, and it is larger," 

I am indebted to Mr. Haliday for specimens of the remark- 
able insect figured, and he considers it to be almost osculant 
between Lampronota and Phytodietus; from the former it dif- 
fers only in the cleft abdomen of the female and the deep 
thoracic sutures. 
14. L. setosa Four. — Grav. v. 3. p. 35. n. 14. — Shceff". Icon. 

t. 50. f. 5. 
18. L. sulphurifera Gr. 39. 18. 
20\ L. suborbitalis Gr. 42. 20''. 

22. L. agnata? Gr. 44. 22. 

23. L. catenator Schceffi i. 20. f. 10. — lineolaris Gmel. — I took 

a female in Scotland. 
25. L. hortorum? Gr.47. 25. — ventrifascius Sc^r. lyar. — Scot- 
land and Dover in July. 

27. L. impressor Gr. 50. 27. — October, Isle of Wight. 

28. L. segmentator Fab. — Gr. 52. 28. 
33. L. maculatoria Fah.—Gr. 60. 33. 
37. L. pectoralis Gr. 69. 37. 

47. L. perspicillator ? Gr. 86. 47. — Middleof August; 1 male 
and 3 females at the top of the cliff, near Wall-pan 
Chine, Isle of Wight. 

50. L. verberans ? Gr. 93. 50. — I took a female the end of 
August upon a post near the beach, Portsmouth. 

54. L. murina? Gr. 99. 54. 

57. L. accusator Fah.— Gr. 101. 57. 

58. L. cylindrator Vill.—Gr. 102. 58. 

60. L. bellator, Gr. 106. 60.— coracinus G»«e^.— Beginning of 
June New Forest, and July in Scotland. 
The Plant is Atriplex patula (Spreading Halberd-leaved 
Orache). 



2/4 




/ - / t Sit 
214. 

PIMPLA ^THIOPS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidae Lat.^ Leach. 

Tijpe of the Genus Ichneumon manifestator Linn. 
PiMPLA Fab., Lat., Leach., Fallen., Panz. — Cryplus Fab. — Ichneumon 
Linn., Fab., Panz. 

Antenna: inserted in the middle of the face, approximating, long, 
pubescent, subsetaceous in the males, filiform in the females, 
composed of numerous joints (never transverse); basal joint the 
most robust, ovate, truncated obliquely, 2nd as long but slender, 
3rd very long, 4th much shorter (1), the remainder decreasing 
in length to the apex, the terminal joint being longer than the 
foregoing (lb). 

Labrum minute concealed beneath the clypeus, horny, ciliated 
with long hairs, producing a triangular membranous lobe be- 
neath (2). 

Mandibles small, robust, subtrigonate, slightly bent, bidentate 
at the apex (3). 

MaxillcE terminated by a rounded pilose lobe, having a smaller 
fleshy one on the inside. Palpi long pubescent, 5-jointed, un- 
equal, 1st and 2nd subclavate, the latter rather longer and more 
robust, 3rd the longest but slenderer, 4th rather shorter, 5th 
scarcely longer than the basal joint and very slender (4). 
Mentuvi oblong dilated anteriorly, the angles truncated and re- 
ceiving the base of the Palpi, which are 4-jointed, 1st and 2nd 
joints obtrigonate, especially the latter, 3rd and 4th more slen- 
der, the former subclavate, the latter subconic. Lip placed far 
behind the mentum, membranous, hollow, deeply and acutely 
cleft in the centre (5). 
Head transverse. Eyes remote. Ocelli large, 3 in triangle. Thorax 
long ovate, gibbous. Abdomen almost sessile elongated subcylindric, 
S-jointed, more linear in the male {7); more robust and truncated at 
the apex in the female (6); Ovipositor exserted ; frequently much 
longer than the body; the sheath (6a) arising from the superior 
^angle is composed of 2 hollow lobes, externally pubescent and shorter 
than the Oviduct inserted beneath and formed of a rigid acute and 
hollow process (b) inclosing 2 other more slender rigid filaments (c) 
with membranous edges, apparently hollow, lanceolate and striated 
transversely externally at the apex. Wings with the central sub- 
marginal cell small, trigonate or rhomboidal. Legs, anterior short, 
posterior pair long. Coxse, posterior very large. T'lh'iad spurred at the 
apex. Tarsi 5-jointed, penultimate joint minute. Claws long and bent. 
Pulvilli large. 
Obs. the dissections are drawn from /. instigator Fab. 



;Ethiops Nob. — corruscator ? Linn, not of Fab. 

Black, shining, minutely punctured, pubescent. Antennas lurid 
at their tips. Anterior legs with the tibiae and a stripe down the 
thighs ochraceous. Tarsi fuscous. Oviduct ferruginous. Wings 
fuscous transparent. 

In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



Fabricius having drawn his best character for the division of 
Pimpla and Cryptus from a sexual distinction (the form of 
the antennae), it becomes necessary to have recourse to other 
parts to estabhsh them as genera. The only difference we 
shall now point out is the nearly sessile abdomen of Pimpla, 
and the peduncled one of Cryptus, a mark which will be 
found sufficient to separate them. 

By this arrangement the genus Pimpla will be very much 
circumscribed ; nevertheless it will be sufficiently extensive to 
admit of the following sections : 

I. Ovipositor longer than the body. 

* Abdomen slender. 

1. P. persuasorius Linn. — Don. 15. 522. — Beginning of 
July ; about Pine-trees near Manchester, and in a garden in 
Norfolk. Mr. Bracy Clark informs me that he took the females 
upon Pine-trees in Switzerland, and that they were not able 
to extricate their oviduct from the crevices in the bark where 
they were inserted. 

2. P. manifestator Linn. — Panz. 19. 21. — Sain. 8. 4. — 
Lijinean Transactio7is v. 3. tab. 4. 

June ; upon posts, Norfolk, Kensington Gardens, &c. 

3. P. mediator Fab. Scurra Panz. 92. 6. 

4. P. extensor? Fab.— Panz. 109. 11. 

* * Abdomen robust. 

5. P. Cossivora Nob. — Bred from the pupa of Cossus lig- 
niperda. Brit. Ent. pi. 60. 

II. Ovipositor shorter than the body. 

6. P. pennator? Fab. 

7. P. instigator Fab. 

8. P. spectrum (Sirex) Don. v. I.pl. 225. not o^ Linn, nor 
Fab. — June, amongst leaves of Horse-radish. 

9. P. iEthiops Nob. — Bred from the pupae of Arctia 
caenosa. Brit. E?it. j)l. 68. 

10. P. examinator Fab. 

11. P. accusator i^«6. — Pa7iz. 109. 12. 

The above are the only species that appear to be described. 
It is well known that they all deposit their eggs in different 
larvae ; those with long oviducts in internal feeders, and the 
others in caterpillars of moths : many, if not all the Pimplae 
when taken, emit a very foetid odour. The ovipositor is ge- 
rally considered to consist of 3 parts, but my friend Mr. Tho- 
mas Carpenter has discovered that the central part or oviduct 
is composed of a sheath inclosing 2 filaments ; which gives 
strength, prevents the entrance from being closed when the 
oviduct is placed at a right angle with the body, and enables 
the insect to regulate the passage to the size of the egg : the 
same structure obtains in the Cynipsidae also. 

One of the plants upon which Arctia cccnosa feeds, Butomus 
timbellatiis (Flowering Rush), is given with the Pimpla, which 
is a female. 




< '%J>. Ipj d-^^jHu Jo-n>&n. J,t«o.. 1 






4. 
PELTASTES DENTATUS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidae Lat., Leach. 

Type of the Genus Ichneumon necatorius Fab. 

Peltastes III. — Metopius Panz., Lat. — Ichneumon Fomt., Fab., Marsh., 
Panz., Jur. 

JntenncE inserted above the middle of the face, in 2 cavities between 
the eyes, long, robust, straight, setaceous and attenuated towards the 
base, composed of 60 joints and upwards (fig. 1* a). 
Lnbrum triangular rounded and ciliated in front (2). 
Mandibles strong, slightly arcuated, acute, bifid near the apex (3,3), 
Maxillce terminated by 2 lobes nearly of equal size, the internal one 
almost naked, the external very pilose and dilated (4 a). Palpi very 
long and hairy, 5-jointed, basal and 3rd joints nearly of equal size, 2nd 
very large, subobovate, 4th the smallest, oth long and slender (4 b). 
Mentum oblong (5 a). Palpi short, hairy, composed of 4 nearly equal 
joints (b). Lip large, membranous, striated, sides recurved (c). 
Head rather small, transverse ; face scutiform sometimes acuminated between 
the antennae {I*). Eyes oblong. OceWi 3 in a depressed triangle. Thorax 
short globose. Scutellum quadrate, the sides reflexed and produced at the 
angles. Abdomen almost sessile, the basal joint being scarcely narrowed 
at its attachment, long, somewhat ovate and depressed, concave beneath ; 
composed of 8 joints in the male (7 the underside of apex); and 7 in the 
female (6 the underside). Ovipositor nearly concealed. Wings shorter 
than the body ,• superior vAth one long marginal and 3 submarginal cells, 
the middle one small rhomboidal. Legs ; 4 first short and small, poste- 
rior longer and robust. Tibiae spurred, the posterior pair with 2 spines 
at the apex. Tarsi 5-jointed. Claws strong. Pulvilli large (8f, tarsus, 
&;c. of a hind leg). 
Larvae parasitic feeding upon the caterpillars of various Bombycidce. 
Obs. the Tropin and fig. 6 are drawn from the type, and the other parts are 
taken from P. dentatus. 



Dentatus Fab. Fnt. Syst. 2. 180. 192.— Micratorius, f'afe. Sijst., Piez.62. 
41.— Pini Curtis Brit. Ent. ed. l.fol. 4. 

Black, deeply and thickly punctured : antennae ochraceous beneath : 
nasus yellow. Thorax with 8 yellow spots before the insertion of the 
wings, and 2 at the base of the scutellum, which is margined with 
yellow behind. Abdomen with 4 yellow spots on the 1st and 2nd seg- 
ments, the remainder margined with yellow. Wings obscure fer- 
ruginous, stigma and nervures brighter. Legs yellow, 1st pair the 
palest : the posterior thighs striped black inside. 
In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



Peltastes receives its generic name from the face forming an es- 
cutcheon or shield : like the rest of the family these insects are pa- 
rasitic in the larva state, the females depositing their eggs in the 



caterpillars of Lepidoptera ; they begin to feed as soon as they are 
hatched upon the muscles of their victim, until the whole internal 
substance is consumed, excepting the alimentary canal. In this 
diseased state the caterpillar changes to a chrysalis, frequently as- 
suming the natural form, although the colour is sometimes altered; 
but instead of a moth or butterfly, one or more Ichneumonidae are 
produced. 

This tribe of insects, however, is eminently useful, employed as 
it appears to be, to destroy and keep within bounds those hosts of 
caterpillars which otherwise might frequently deprive vegetation of 
its beauty and utility : to convince the reader of this, it will be only 
necessary to refer him to the " History of the Brown-tail Moth, by 
W. Curtis." 

The following are the species and varieties of this genus : 

1. P. necatorius Fab. Ent. Syst. 2. 144. 45.— Vespoides Panz.fasc. 47. pi. 19. 

Black, thickly punctured. Antennae orange beneath. Clypeus, 2 spots 
on the shoulders and margin of scutellum yellow, base of abdomen, a spot 
on each side the apex of the first joint and the margins of the remainder 
of the same colour. Legs yellow, thighs partially black. Wings yellowish 
fuscous. 

August. — South wold, Suffolk, and Plaistow marshes near Lon- 
don : it has been bred from the pupa of Stauropus Fagi. This may 
prove to be the other sex of the following species. 

2. P. dentatus Fa5. — Micratorius Fab. — Pini nob.— a, Chrysopus. Trans. Linn. 
Soc. V. 3. tab. 2./. 5.-/3 Polyzonias Forst. Cent, of Ins. n. 85. 

This is the largest species, and has been taken in June by Mr. 
Bentley and Mr. Dale, near Ringwood, Hampshire, flying amongst 
pine-trees, in the sunshine ; and by the latter gentleman also on the 
heathy side of a mountain near Ambleside, Westmoreland ; and 
var. a was bred from the pupa of Lasiocamioa Trifolii. This 
species, like the rest of the genus (indeed of the family I might say), 
is extremely variable ; some having orange antennae not black above 
as in var. a, others with the clypeus, palpi, and all the thighs black, 
and yellow bands to all the segments of the abdomen ; and in var. /3 
the thighs are ferruginous. Although there is no doubt but this 
last is a variety only of P. dentatus^ as it seems to be a very un- 
common example, I have not adopted Forster's name, which other- 
wise has the right of priority. 

3. P. dissectorius Panz. Faun. Germ.fasc. 98. n. 14. 

Black thickly punctured. Abdomen chalybeous, margins of 4 first joints 
yellow ; legs piceous, thighs partially black. Wings with a fuscous ;>pot be- 
yond the stigma. 

I took a specimen the end of September, 1822, in the North of 
Devon, and have since received another, which is a very strong va- 
riety, being black, with a yellow spot only on each side of the 3 
first segments of the body and a yellow margin to the 4th, and the 
fuscous spot on the wings is very faint. 

A small portion of Pmus Abies (the Spruce Fir) accompanies the 
insect. 



660. 
EUCEROS ALBITARSUS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidac. 

Type of the Genus, Euceros crassicornis Grav. 

EucERos Grav., Curt. 

Antenna inserted near the middle of the face, approximating, as 
long as the body, porrected, subfusiform, composed of numerous 
joints, basal joint somewhat chalice-shaped, 2nd short and broad, 
3rd minute, 4th slender and elongated, 5th and 4 following sub- 
quadrate, about 10 of the succeeding compressed, dilated inter- 
nally and forming a fusiform mass, the remainder short and 
tapering to the apex ( 1 ) . 
Labrum concealed under the clypeus. 
Mandibles short, crossing, bifid at the apex. 
Maxilla not examined. Palpi long slender pubescent and 5- 
jointed, 2nd joint stout nearly as long as the 3rd ; 4th and 5th 
rather shorter and slenderer (4). 

Labium not examined. Palpi short and 4-jointed, apical joint 
small and ovate (5). 
Head transverse, face broad (1 *), projecting under the antennce (1 f) •• 
eyes remote, lateral and ovate : ocelli 3 in triangle on the crown of 
the head. Thorax ovate, gibbose : scutel large, semiorbicular and 
convex. Abdomen sessile, someivhat elliptical, incurved, depressed, 
the segments constricted at their junction, 1st joint longest, broad, 
narrowed at the base (7). Wings, superior without an areolet. 
Legs slender, anterior the shortest, posterior the longest and stoutest: 
thighs short: tibiae iiot much longer, spurred : tarsi 5 -jointed, basal 
joint long : claw's a7id pulvilli minute. 



Albitarsus Curt. Guide, Gen. 522. 37. '2nd Edit. 
In the Author's Cabinet. 



This remarkable genus is so exceedingly rare that only three 
specimens of the first species have been discovered, and but 
one of each of the others, and the females are unknown, which 
will account for the incomplete description of the trophi, it 
being quite impossible to obtain a specimen for dissection ; at 
the same time I could not resist the temptation of giving a 
figure of the magnificent novelty represented in our plate, 
as it cannot fail to be acceptable to those who admire and 
study the interesting order of Hymenoptera. 



1. crassicornis Grav. v. 3. p. 370. No. 35. — Shuck. Transl. of 

Burm.Jig. 2 of Frontispiece. 
Black, thickly and minutely punctured ; antennae brown, 
the dilated portion ochreous : head excepting the crown 
yellow, a hooked mark on each shoulder, 2 below the wings, 
margin of scutel and edges of abdominal segments straw- 
colour : legs straw-colour, hinder piceous, trochanters and 
knees yellowish: expanse 6 lines. 

My specimen, which I obtained from the cabinet of the late 
Mr. E. Blunt, appears to be a male, and was captured I be- 
lieve at Birch Wood. 

2. serricornis Hal. MSS. 

I regret having no description of this insect, which was taken 
I believe in Ireland by Mr. Haliday. 

3. albitarsus Curt. Brit. Ent.pl. 660 ^ . 

Shining black, very thickly and minutely punctured and 
finely pubescent ; antennae ochreous outside from the base 
beyond the middle, excepting the 1st joint, and extending 
along the central portion of the back : face and cheeks yel- 
low, a small and large spot on each shoulder and 3 forming 
a line down the pleurae yellow ; abdomen ferruginous-red, 
the basal joint black, the anterior margin reddish : posterior 
margin of wings fuscous, stigma and nervures black: legs 
ferruginous-ochre, coxae and trochanters black, the former 
in the 4 anterior with a yellow spot outside ; hinder tibiae 
black, red inside, their tarsi yellowish-white, the basal joint 
black, apex brown. 

Mr. W. Simmons took this specimen off a Dock in May or 
June on the borders of a wood near Milton in Northampton- 
shire, and very liberally added it to my Cabinet. 

The Plant is Veronica officinalis, Common Speedwell. 



J6-^ 




ci5^, ^ c/.' <S«^^ ^<i^ ■ ^ ^'^^'^ 



588. 
BANCHUS FARRANI. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidas. 

Type of the Genus, Banchus pictus Fab. 
Banchus Fab., Panz., Grav., Curt. — Ichneumon Linn., Fab. 

Antennae inserted near the middle of the face, as long as the 
body in the female, shorter and more curved at the apex in the 
male ; setaceous, composed of numerous joints, basal one robust 
and ovate, truncated obliquely to receive the •2nd, which is stout, 
3rd small, 4th the longest, the remainder decreasing in length 
and size to the apex : (1, the base and apex). 
Labrum triangular and hairy, the base horny, with a membra- 
nous attenuated and pointed lobe attached beneath (2). 
Mandibles curved, bifid at the apex, internal tooth the longest 
and emarginate (3). 

MaxillcE terminated by an orbicular hairy lobe, with a smaller 
one on the inside. Palpi not very long, pubescent and com- 
posed of 5 joints, nearly equal in length, 2 basal joints stout 
and clavate, 1st rather the longest, 3rd slender, 4th spatulate 
and very much dilated in some species, 5th slender and linear 

(4)- 

Mentum oval, anterior angles emarginate to receive the Palpi, 
which are not very short; hairy and 4-jointed; 2 basal joints 
short and pyriform-truncate, 3rd not quite so stout, a little 
longer and truncated obliquely, 4th the longest, slender and 
linear. Lip semicylindric, slightly emarginate (5). 
Head short transverse, face orbicular : eyes vertical, ovate : ocelli 
large, 3 in triangle on the crown. Thorax gibbose, ovate (T, c the 
collar) : scutellum, convex, trigonate-ovate, generally with an in- 
curved spine towards the apex (s). Abdomen sessile, subftisiform, 
compressed beneath and at the apex, somewhat scimeter-shaped in 
profile, basal joint broad and transverse at the base (6, the same in 
profile), the back most curved in the male, the belly more so in the 
female ; ovipositor not exserted. Wings with a large submarginal 
cell, the lower external nervure not angulated, areolet subtrigonate, 
the base convex. Legs, hinder pair long and stout, with large coxce : 
tibiae, anterior short, with an internal spine at the apex, the others 
spurred : tarsi long and 5-jointed, basal joint long, 4th small : claws 
and pul villi simple. 

Fareani Curt. Guide, Gen. 523. S''. 

In the Author's Cabinet. 



Nothing, I believe, is known of the oeconomy of these insects : 
the males are distinguished by short antennae, spiral at the 
apex; the abdomen is generally less dilated vertically at the 
apex, and is often a little incurved. 

2. compressus F. — variegatus F. — Schaf. Ic. t. 130.^] 4. ?. 
Black ; orbits of eyes, 2 spots on thorax, scapulars and a spot under them, 
scutel, an interrupted band on the postscutel and margins of segments, 



yellow : antennae and legs ferruginous, base of former above, coxje, tro- 
chanters and base of posterior thighs, black ; base of tibise and tarsi yel- 
low : Fern, face yellow with a black stripe, antennae black above : 4|^ to 6 
lines long. 

I think Mr. Dale took one in Middlemarsh Woods in May, 
and Mr. W. Clifton gave me a male he captured at Boulogne. 

3. pictus Fab. — volutatorius Linn.? — cultratus Gmel. 

Black; clypeus, internal orbit of eyes, scapulars, a spot under them, scutel, 
a spot on each side postscutel, and margins of segments, yellow : antennre 
and legs ferruginous, base of former, coxie, base of trochanters and out- 
side of thighs, excepting the tips, black ; tibiae yellow, apex ferruginous : 
Fern, with 2 hooked marks on thorax, and face yellow, with a black stripe ; 
antennge sometimes blackish above : 5 to 5^ lines. 
May, flowers in woods, Suffolk, J. C. ; June, Parley Heath 
and Glanville's Wootton, Mr. Dale. 

3^ Farrani Ctirt. Brit. Ent.pl. 588. ? . 

Black ; 3 basal joints of maxillary palpi and underside of antennae ferru- 
ginous, mandibles yellow, tips piceous ; orbits of eyes and face yellow, 
•with a black stripe, furcate above the antenna?, leaving a yellow V in front 
of the ocelli ; 2 hooked marks in front of the thorax, scapulars and a round 
and vertical spot beneath, scutel, excepting the short spine, and a trans- 
verse line of 6 dots on the postscutel, yellow; first 3 segments of abdomen 
broadly banded with yellow, the others with a small spot ; legs orange ; 
coxae black, 4 anterior yellow outside ; apex of postei-ior tibiae and their 
tarsi above, excepting the base, blackish. 

As I cannot consider this a variety I have named it after 
my esteemed friend Dr. Farran of Dublin, who was of our 
party in Connemara the end of last July, when I found a spe- 
cimen flying about the plant figured, on the sand -hills near 
Roundstone. I have also received a female from Kinnordy, 
where it was taken by Mr. Lyell. 

4. falcatori^.— venator J^.— Pa«2;. 109. 15. c?.— pictus Z)on. 12. 

413. ?. 
Male black, back of abdomen rufous at the middle, legs fulvous, apex of 
posterior tibiae and coxae black, external orbit of eyes and underside of 
antennae rufous ; scutel tuberculated. Fern, underside of antennas and 
face yellow, with a black stripe ; a furcate mark on the forehead, and 
orbits of eyes yellow ; 2 hooked spots on thorax, scapulars, a round and a 
long spot beneath them, scutel and 2 dots behind it, and one by each 
angle of postscutel, and a transverse band on the medipectus, yellow ; 
back of abdomen, except the base and apex, yellow and ferruginous; legs 
yellow, coxae black with large yellow spots outside ; tips of hinder tibiae 
and tarsi brownish : 5 to 7 lines. 
June and July, common on umbelliferous plants. 

5. hastator Fab. — monileatus Grav. 

Black, legs fulvous, apex of hinder tibiae and coxas black ; male with ex- 
ternal orbits of eyes yellow ; female with the mouth and face yellow, with 
a black line ; thorax with a yellow horseshoe on the medipectus ; 4 an- 
terior coxae fulvous beneath ; scutel with an erected spine ; margins of 
dorsal segments sometimes ferruginous : 4^ to 6 lines. 

I have a female which I took at Darent in June, and have 
little doubt that it is the B. hastator Fab. 

The Plant is Raphanus maritimus (Sea Radish). 



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736. 
THERION AMICTUM. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidae. 

Type of the Genus, Ichneumon circuraflexus Linn. 
Therion Curt. — Anomalon Grav. — Ichneumon Linn., &c. 

Antenna inserted a little above the middle of the face, longer 
than the wings in the male, filiform, composed of innumerable 
quadrate joints, basal one the stoutest, 2nd minute, 3rd the 
longest : shorter and stouter in the female, more tapering to 
the apex, and the joints transverse. 

Labi-urn transverse, semiorbicular, ciliated with long hairs, having 
a minute lobe in the centre (2). 

Mandibles slightly curved, terminating in a strong beak, with a 
long but smaller tooth outside where it is hairy (3). 
Maxillce short, terminated by a semiorbicular ciliated lobe, with 
a smaller serailunate one inside. Palpi very long, pilose and 5- 
jointed, basal joint rather the shortest, 2nd the stoutest, oth 
the slenderest and linear, the apex ovate (4). 
Mentum elongate-ovate. Palpi shortish, pilose and 4-jointed, 
basal joint obovate, 2nd stout, semiobovate, 3rd somewhat 
hatchet- shaped, 4th the longest, slender and subfusiform. Lip 
short and bilobed (5). 
Head transverse, base very concave ; face orbicular-ovate : eyes ovate, 
not large : ocelli 3 in triangle on the crown. Thorax rather short, 
thick and oval : scutel gihbose and semiorbicular or subquadratc : 
metathorax sloping, flat and rugose. Abdomen very long and 
slender, compressed, arched, clavale, carinated above, with distinct 
spiracles down each side : petiole long, slender, cylindric and cla- 
vate, 2nd joint slender : ovipositor short but exserted. (G $ , ter- 
minal segme7its of female ; (^ the same of male.) Wings mlich 
shorter than the body ; superior with a long marginal cell, no 
areolet and a long narrow stigma. Legs slender, anterior short, 
hinder very long : trochanters, hinder very long and b'larticulate : 
thighs simple, clavate : tibiae clavate, spurred : tarsi, hinder with 
2, 3 or 4 of the basal joints incrassated in the viales ; 5-jointed, 
basal joint the longest, terminal one slender, clavate : (8 ^ hind leg). 

Amictum Fab. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 531. 114. 

Male, head with an acute spine in front, black as well as the 
thorax, thickly punctured and pubescent : antennae very long, 
ferruginous, ochreous beyond the middle, basal joint yellow 
with a black line outside, 2nd and base of 3rd yellow beneath : 
face and trophi yellow : abdomen ferruginous, a faint streak of 
black on the petiole and a black shining stripe on the back of 
the 2nd; 4th and following segments fuscous beneath as well as 
the backs of 2 or 3 of the terminal : wings yellowish, the mar- 
gins slightly fuscous, nervures brown, stigma ochreous : legs 
yellowish, outside of thighs and apex of tarsi ochreous: hinder 
legs bright ferruginous, coxae and trochanters yellow beneath ; 
apex of tibiae dull black ; tarsi dilated, basal joint attenuated to 
the base, the following ochreous, 2nd joint robust oval, 3rd but 
shghtly thickened, 4th minute, 5th small and clavate. 

This pretty little group is distinguished from Paniscus by the 
absence of the areolet, and from Ophion (pi. 600.) by its less 



ample and shorter wings, as well as by a striking difference 
in the form of the nervures, where the areolet is situated 
when present, and by the thicker posterior legs, their tarsi 
being generally more or less incrassated in the males; but in 
a new species which I shall describe, and also in T. tenuitar- 
sum^ they are not thickened. 

Having published the genus Anomalon before Graven- 
horst's work appeared, it may appear necessary to give my 
reasons for rejecting some of his names in the Guide. 1st 
Bassus of Fabricius is Gravenhorst's 3rd family of Cryptus, 
seductorius being the type given in the Piezatorum ; 2ndly, 
Jurine's 1st family of Anomalon, which of course is his type, 
Gravenhorst has called Bassus. 3rdly Jurine's 2nd family of 
Anomalon I have called Theuion, because it is not the typi- 
cal Anomalon. 

1. Scut elliim yellow or ferruginous. 

1. enecator Rossi. — Grav. Ichn. Europ. 3. 641. 110. 

I cannot remember the localities of this species, 5. and 9. 

2. circumflexum Linn. — Don. 3. jjI. 93. f. 2l 

Taken at Darent: I believe it has been bred from the 
caterpillars of Sphinx Ligustri. 

2. Scutellum black, rarely rufous. 

3. amictum Fab. — Curt. B. E. pi. 736 S. a little magnified. 
For the specimen figured I am indebted to Mr. C. Lyell, 

who took it at Kinnordy in Forfarshire. 

4. xanthopus F. — Grav. p. 652. no. 116. June, Darent. 

5. ruficorne Grav. 655. no. IIG^. 'Netley, Salop, Mr. Hope.* 

6. cerinops Grav. 658. no. 118. — flavifrons Grav. Uebers. 
I think I took it at Dover. 

7. flaveolatum Grav. 664. no. 122. — auricapillus Gmel.? 
Middle of June, Yorkshire, and Aug., Isle of Arran, J. C. 

8. tenuicorne Grav. 671. no. 125. 

Coomb Wood, on oaks; males in May, females in July. 

9. gracilipes Curt. Length 5y lines. 

Male ferruginous ; head and thorax, a streak on the 2nd 
abdominal segment, and 3 apical joints black : antennae 
very long and slender, brown, ferruginous beneath to the 
middle, face and anterior coxae yellow : hinder with a black 
patch at the base, inside: wings short, nervures brown, 
stigma yellow : legs slender, hinder tarsi not dilated. 

10. fibulator Grav. 681. no. 131. 

• Isle of Portland 14th May, and b. Aug. Heron Court. 

11. tenuitarsum Grav. 683. 7io. 133. 

I think it was this which Mr. Dale bred from pupae of 
Episema cceruleocephala. 

Dr. Balfour of Edinburgh obligingly communicated speci- 
mens of the Coral-rooted Boat-lip, Corallorhiza innata^ from 
Ravelrig bog, where they were found growing last July. 



)3- )^ 3^ 

600. 
OPHION VENTRICOSUS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidse. 

Type of the Genus, Ichneumon luteus Linn. 
Opiiion Fab., Grav., Curt. — Anomalon Jur. — Ichneumon Linn. 

Antennce inserted above the middle of the face, remote, nearly as 
long as the insect, very slender, the apex somewhat curved in 
the female, composed of numerous joints, basal one a little the 
stoutest. 

Labrum inserted under the clypeus, subtrigonate, arched at the 
base, w^ith the angle produced, the apex acuminated, the sides 
convex and hairy (2). 

Mandibles curved, convex, strongly bifid at the apex (3). 
Maxillce short with an oval fleshy internal lobe and a larger 
rounded and hairy external one. Palpi long pilose and 5-jointed, 
2 basal joints elongated, stout andclavate, the remainder slender, 
3rd the longest, 4th and 5 th a little shorter, the latter conical 
at the apex (4). 

Mentum obovate-truncate, the angles emarginate to receive the 
Palpi which are much shorter than the maxillary, pilose and 4- 
jointed, first 3 joints somewhat pear-shaped and nearly equal in 
length, 4th longer slender, conical at the apex. Lip rather 
large and de-^ply notched in the middle (5). 
Head short and broad : face transverse-ovate. Eyes large, vertical 
and reniform : ocelli large and verg prominent, forming a triangle 
on the crown (1 * the face, the 2 dark spots showing the sockets of 
the antennce and above them the ocelli). Thorax ovate gibbose : scu- 
tellum semiorbicular and convex, the sides compressed. Abdomen 
carinated, falcated, clavate and compressed at the apex, attached by 
a long slender clavate petiole, the apex truncated obliquely, the last 
joint Or little acuminated above and deeply notched on the side, with 
2 slender styles under the apex, an incurved hook in the centre and 2 
broad vertical lobes at the bottom, meeting at the apex (6 ^) : deeper 
in the female (6 ? ), with 2 small styles as in the male and a cleft 
one that is parallel and 2 lobes somewhat erected at the middle, with 
a groove reaching from the apex into the 6th segment, inclosing the 
aculeus or oviduct (o). Wings ample extending to the apex of the 
abdomen ; superior with a long marginal cell, not reaching the apex, 
the internal cubital cell very long, semilunate, the apex being elon- 
gated, without an areolet, the inner nervure of the discoidal cell very 
much curved, sometimes angulated, with a small branch. Legs long 
and slender : tibise with long spurs at the apex, anterior with one 
spine: tarsi long slender and b -jointed, basal joint very long, 4th 
the shortest : claws and pulvilli distinct. 

Ventricosus Grav. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 532. 141. 

Ochreous with a reddish tinge, eyes, crown of head, and a line 
a little way down the face black, a line on the fore part of the 
thorax, the entire underside, metathorax and 6 spots inside the 
hinder coxae black ; apex of abdomen silky piceous ; wings yel- 
lowish, stigma ochreous, nervures brown ; antennae orange, espe- 
cially in the male. 

In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



The sexes of Ophion are rather difficult to distinguish, for 
even the abdominal appendages are very similar ; but an ob- 
lique suture, in which the oviduct is secreted, distinguishes the 
females: this oviduct is short and rigid, being well fitted for 
puncturing the skins of larvae in order to deposit the eggs ; 
and from its acuteness and horny substance it seems to be 
equally well adapted for defence. 

It has struck me as very remarkable that one often can ob- 
tain only one sex of Ophion from an infested larva, although 
a considerable number may be hatched : having observed this 
several times it can scarcely be accidental ; I am therefore rather 
inclined to think that one sex appears before the other, and 
that the eggs of each are deposited separately in different 
Caterpillars. 

The following are British species, 2 of which are unrecorded 
natives. 

1. O. luteus Linn. — Schccff. Icon. t. \.f. 10. 

" Testaceous, eyes fuscous ; interior nervure of the radial 

cell straight : male 6 — 9,fem. 4 — 9 lines." 
The maggots are said to infest the larvae of Noctua prcecox 
(pi. 539.), but I have always obtained the fly from the pupseof 
Cerura Vinula ; the female I have found in May, and I took a 
small pair the middle of last October flying amongst heath in 
the neighbourhood of Heron Court. 

2. merdarius Grav. v. 3. p. 698. 7^". 138. 

" Testaceous, eyes fuscous, interior cell bipunctate in both 
sexes : 6 to 10 lines long." Grav. 
I have taken it in Norfolk. 

3. ramidulus Limt. 

" Testaceous, apex of abdomen black ; interior, cell bi- 
punctate in both sexes : 6 to 10 lines." Grav. 
I took a specimen in Darent Wood, I believe. 

4. ventricosus Grau. — Curi.B.E.pl. 600, the male a little mag- 
nified. 

" Rufous, apex of abdomen, pectus and metathorax black 
or maculated with black : male 4^^ — 7^ lines, y^w. 6^ to 7^." 
Grav. 
Beginning of June near Oxfoi'd. 

5. marginatus Jur. tab. 8./. 4. 

" Rufous, apex and base of abdomen, also suture of the 
thorax black : 7 — 10 lines." Grav. 
May and June, amongst pine trees. 

The Plant is Heracleum Sphondylium (Common CowParsnepj. 



6^/j 




624. 
PRISTOMERUS VULNERATOR. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumon idae. 

Type of the Genus Pachymerus vulnerator Grav. 
Pristomerus Curt. — Pachymerus Grav., Curt. — Ichneumon Panz. 
Antenna shorter than the body, slender, narrowed at the base, 
pubescent, composed of 32 joints at least, 3rd and following 
elongated to the middle, where they are oblong, and soon be- 
come very short and turbinate, the apical joint being subconic. 
Labrum trigonate, cuspidate. 
Mandibles bifid, very acute. 

Maxillary Palpi composed of .5 nearly equal joints. 
Mentum long and narrow. Palpi forming 4 short joints. 
Head transverse : eyes not very remote, large and subglobose : ocelli 
3, very large. Thorax obovate : scutel semiovate : postscutel 7iot 
elongated, with 4 elevated lines. Abdomen subfusiform, compressed, 
falcate and clavate at the apex : petiole long, very narrow at the 
base : ovipositor slender, as long as the body. Wings ample ; 
stigma large, trigonate ; areolet none ; marginal and discoidal cells 
short. Legs slender, hinder the longest and stoutest, especially in 
the males ; their thighs with a strong spine beneath at the middle, 
beyond which they are denticulated to the apex in the male only (8 f) • 

Vulnerator Panz., Grav. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 535, 149. 

Deep, shining black ; middle of abdomen yellow beneath, apex 
of '2nd and 3rd segments rufous in the male, all of them edged 
with yellow in the female : trophi and legs ochreous : hinder 
coxae, sometimes the trochanters, thighs, excepting their base, 
apex of tibite and tarsi piceous, as well as the stigma and ner- 
vures : expanse 6 lines. 



Mr. Shuckard discovered this rare species in Batterseii 
Fields the beginning of last July, when he took several males 
and two females on the flowers of the garden Parsnep, and by 
his obliging addition of specimens to my cabinet, I am enabled 
to give a magnified figure of the male. Its flight is peculiar, 
resembling that of the Lark. 

It has long since been observed in this work, that the trophi 
cannot be expected to differ much in allied groups, and con- 
sequently that they enable us to generalize and form families 
rather than genera, and this is exemplified in the two species 
of Pachymerus, whose organs of manducation are very similar, 
yet in other respects they vary so greatly, that they cannot be 
included in one genus: the structure of the antennae, the neu- 
ration of the wings, and the dentated hinder thighs in P. viil- 
nerator are characters sufficiently strong to justify its separa- 
tion ; I have therefore applied the name of Pristomerus to 
this species, reserving Gravenhorst's Pachymerus for that 
which has the thickest thighs in both sexes, which I shall now 
describe. 



PACHYMERUS Grav. 

Antenna inserted in front of the face, not so long as the body, 
slender at the base, slightly thickened to the apex, composed 
of at least 22 joints, the basal ones forming an ovate mass, 3rd 
elongated, the following decreasing in length, being oblong be- 
yond the middle ; pubescent in the male, and each joint pro- 
ducing a bristle on the inside. 

Labrum trigonate, anterior margin rounded and ciliated with 
long hairs, with a membranous strap-shaped lobe in the 
centre (2). 

Mandibles elongate-trigonate, broad and bifid at the apex (3). 
Maxillce terminated by 2 large rounded lobes, the outer one ci- 
liated. Palpi long, pilose and 5-jointed, basal joint clavate, 
2nd longer and stout, the remainder decreasing in bulk, the 4th 
not longer than the 1st, the terminal one linear (4). 
Mentum obconical. Lip large and slightly cordate. Palpi ra- 
ther longer than the lip, pilose and 4-jointed, basal joint cla- 
vate-truncate, 2nd stout subglobose, the following elongate- 
ovate (5). 
Head short and narrow, base concave ; face convex : eyes remote, 
small and ovate : ocelli 3 in triangle on the crown. Thorax narrow 
and elongated : scutel semiovate, convex : postscutel long and nar- 
roiv, with 4 elevated lines. Abdomen suhfusiform, gradually nar- 
rowed to the base, the apex compressed and clavate ; broader and 
deeper in the female (6) ,• truncated obliquely with a long groove to 
receive the short and stout ovipositor which extends about \th be- 
yond the apex. Wings ample, superior icithout an areolet, stigma 
and marginal cell elongated, the upper discoidal one with a short 
internal branch (9). Legst;ery slender, excepting the hinder, which 
are long and stout : coxae, jjosterior long, their thighs thick in both 
sexes : tibiae spurred, hinder long and clavate : tarsi long, simple, 
and 5-jointed, basal joint long, 41 h the smallest : claws a7id pulvilli 
minute. 

Calcitrator Grav. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 535. No. 150. 

Black, shining ; antennae brown, yellow beneath ; apex of the 
petiole, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th segments rufous, the 2nd generally 
with a brown patch on the back, the remaining segments edged 
with white : nervures and stigma brown : legs brown, 4 ante- 
rior ochreous, except on the outside ; hinder tibiae sometimes 
inclining to reddish-brown, especially at the base : expanse 
6-^ lines. 
Not an uncommon insect. I have taken the female at Coomb 
Wood and in the Isle of Wight the middle of June, and males 
at Darent and Dover the end of July. Mr. Shuckard finds 
both sexes on umbellate flowers in Battersea Fields. 

The Plant is Scandix {Myrrhis Scop.) odorata, Sweet Cicely 
found at Knaresborough by J. Walton, Esq. 




3cSo 



353. 
XYLONOMUS PILICORNIS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidae Lat. 

Type of the Genus, Ichneumon irrigator Fah. 
Xylonomus Grav., Curt. — Bassus and Ichneumon Fab. 

Antennce nearly as long as the body in the males, filiform, rugose 
and very pubescent beneath, composed of about 26 joints j basal 
joint robust, 2nd minute, 3rd long, 4th longer, the remainder 
gradually decreasing- in length to the end, the apical joint elon- 
gate-conic (l(?): shorter in the female, pubescent, slightly 
thickened and curved at the apex j composed of many joints, 
basal one subglobose, 2nd minute, 3rd and 5 succeeding long, 
5 following shorter, the remainder more or less cup-shaped, 
several producing slender spines nearly at right angles, terminal 
joint long and conical (1 9)- 

Labrum transverse-oval, the basal angles produced ; a fleshy lobe 
projecting from beneath, semicircular and densely pilose (2). 
Mandibles short, subtrigonate, very broad at the base, internally 
concave with a fascicle of hair on each side towards the apex (3). 
MaxUl(X short and broad, internal lobe oval and clothed with short 
pubescence, external a little larger, broader and very pilose. 
Palpi very long and pubescent, pilose on the inside, 5-jointed, 
1st and 2nd joints robust, subclavate, the latter a little the 
largest, the remainder slender, the 3rd very long, 4th not longer 
than the 1st, 5th as long as the 3rd (4). 

Mentum subobovate, truncated before, a little dilated where the 

Palpi are attached, these are stout, very hairy and 4-jointed, 

basal joint subclavate, 2nd and 3rd subtrigonate, the latter the 

smallest, 4th as large as the basal joint, ovate-conic. Lip forming 

2 spreading lobes (5). 

Head subglobose. Eyes not very prominent. Ocelli 3 in triangle. 

Thorax elongate-oval : postscutellum bidentate. Wings having no 

areolet (9). Abdomen sessile, slightly depressed, generally rugose 

at the base, with two elevated longitudinal lines on the 2 basal joints; 

slender and somevihat elliptical-conic in the male (7), basal joint tu- 

berculated. on the sides, 3rd and 4th at the base, the former being the 

largest: broader and subfusiform in the female : ovipositor nearly or 

quite as long as the abdomen. Legs, anterior small, posterior long 

and rather stout: tibiae suddenly narrowed at the base in the females, 

with a transverse groove: tarsi 5-jointed, basal joint the longest. 

Obs. The dissections are taken from X. pilicornis and the trophifrom 

a female. 



PiLicoRNis Grav. Ichn. Eur. v. 3. p. 833. n. 9. — Curtis's Guide, 
Gen. 54\.n.9. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Davis and the Author. 



Xylonomus of Gravenhorst is distinguished from Xorides of 
Latreille by the abdomen being broader at its base, and sca- 
brous instead of smooth. 

The Xylonomi are so called from their inhabiting wood, 
and like most others that reside in timber in the larva state 
they vary greatly in size in the same species. In fine weather 
the females run over the surface of paling and trees perforated 
by bees and other insects, and investigate the holes with their 
antennae in order to ascertain if they contain any larvae; but 
I have never seen this rare insect deposit its eggs. 

Gravenhorst neither mentions the singular base of the tibiae 
in the females, nor the curious spines towards the apex of their 
antennae, which in the only male I have examined are nearly 
straight, filiform, and very pilose on the underside. 

Two species appear to inhabit Britain, neither of which 
has been figured. 

1. X. pilicornis Grav. — Curt. Brit. E71t.pl. 353. fern. 

Male black, slightly pubescent, head sparingly, thorax very 
thickly punctured; postscutel rugose : abdomen rugose, smooth 
towards the apex, 2nd and 3rd joints rufous : stigma and ner- 
vures piceous, the former white at the base : palpi pale fus- 
cous ; anterior legs ochreous, posterior rufous ; trochanters, 
coxae and base of thighs black, hinder tibiae and tarsi brown, 
the former subochreous at the base and tip. Female with the 
12th and 3 following joints of the antennae whitish: abdomen 
rufous, blackish at the apex : ovipositor longer than the body, 
black, oviduct rufous : legs rufous, trochanters and coxae black, 
4 anterior legs variegated with fuscous, hinder tibiae and all 
the tarsi brown. 

I first discovered a male of this insect many years since in 
Coomb-wood, on the 8th of June, and I took a female the 
20th of last May on a rail near Hampstead. The fine female 
figured (which is much larger than mine) was taken by my 
friend Mr. Davis, I believe near Gravesend. 

2. X. Gravenhorstii Curtis. 

Male undiscovered. Female 4 lines long, aculeus 2 lines. 
Distinguished from the last by its short antennas and ovipo- 
sitor, and by its more slender form ; the base and tip only of 
the abdomen are black ; it is smooth, not rugose, and the lon- 
gitudinal lines at the base are scarcely visible. 

I have taken two females of this nondescript near London, 
and have dedicated it to the distinguished Professor whose 
elaborate work has enabled me to study this curious and ex- 
tensive family, of which I possess upwards of 400 British 
species. 

The plant is Briza minor (Small Quake-grass), found near 
Poole, Dorsetshire, by the Hon. C. A. Harris. 



69 




■v.- '.,/..•/<. J.„M.„ ///^y 



69. 
BRACON DENIGRATOR. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidae Lat.^ Leach. 
Type of the Genus Ichneumon desertor Linn. 

Bracon Jur., Fab., Lat., Panz. Ichneumon Linn., Fab. Vipio Lat., 
Hist. Nat. 

Antenna inserted in front of the head, nearly filiform, somewhat 
thickened towards the extremity in the male only, pubescent, 
composed of about 47 joints, 1st joint robust, elongated, trun- 
cated, 2nd cup-shaped, 3rd longer than the following, which de- 
crease in length imperceptibly to the last joint which is conic 

(fig- 1). 

Labrum coriaceous, trigonate, inflexed, apex acute, membrana- 
ceous appendage small, lanceolate. Lat. 
Mandibles small, acute, internal edge sinuated (3). 
Maxillce small, terminal lobe large, trigonate, somewhat acute, 
hairy, coriaceous externally, membranaceous internally : Palpi 
very long, pilose, 1st and 2nd joints small, the 3 following long 
of nearly equal length, the first being very robust, the last 
slender (4). 

Mentum elongated, dilated anteriorly, deeply emarginate (5 a) : 

Palpi longer than the lip, pilose, 3-jointed, 1st joint short, 2nd 

long, robust, clavate, 3rd long, somewhat slender cylindric (b) : 

Lip entire, concave, sides conniving externally (c). 

Head quadrate. Ocelli 3, distant in the males, approximating in the 

females. Abdomen somewhat depressed, nearly sessile, ovate m the 

males, obovate in the females. Oviduct in some longer, in others 

shorter, than the body (6). Wings pubescent, with I marginal, 

2 submarginal and 2 discoidal cells, the marginal and 2nd submar- 

ginal cells elongated in the females (9). Legs robust. Thighs short. 

Tibiae spurred. Tarsi 5-jointed, \st joint elongated, 4tfi minute. 

Claws simple. Pulvilli distinct. 



Denigrator Linn. Syst. Nat. 2. 934. 28.— Fa6. Ent. Syst. v. 2. 
p. 161. n. 112. 

Black, smooth, shining, slightly pubescent, abdomen orange, 
.shining, punctured pubescent. Wings iridescent, dark fuscous, 
with a transverse obscure, whitish, lunulated mark, crossing the 
1 st submarginal cell, nerves strong, piceous : female larger than 
the male : oviduct shorter than the abdomen. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Stephens and Mr. Stone. 



Although there are a considerable number of minute species 
witli transparent wings which are comprised in the genus 



Bracon, it will be found that they do not well agree with the 
characters of the larger ones with opaque wings, which appear 
to be universally distributed, being found as far south as the 
Cape of Good Hope, from whence we receive a variety of 
beautiful species ; on the continent of Europe there have been 
several detected, but we can claim but one at present in this 
country. 

Mons. Latreille has observed that the mouth is produced 
in the form of a rostrum, like Agathis : it appears to me that 
the lip and maxillae unite, so as to form a short proboscis ; 
but this is not easily discoverable in dead specimens, except 
by dissection. The same author has described the labial palpi 
as 4-jointed, but I am inclined to agree with Fabricius, that 
they have only 3 joints. I would wish here to remark, that 
the costal nerve is continued round the wing, and not termi- 
nated near the apex, as is common with the Ichneumonidse ; 
that the submarginal cells are complete, but the last transverse 
nerve is less strong than the others, especially in the female ; 
and that the 1st submarginal and two discoidal ceils, which 
are nearly of equal size, form a regular hne across the supe- 
rior wings : indeed so great are the differences of structure, 
as well as economy of Bracoji and its congeners, that it is pro- 
bable when further investigated and better understood, they 
will be found to form a natural and extensive family. 

The male of Bracon Denigrator, it is presumed, is very rare 
even upon the continent, otherwise it would have been figui'ed 
with the other sex. That which is here represented, was 
taken last year in Birchwood, Kent, and is now in the posses- 
sion of Mr. Stone; and the only female that I have seen, was 
captured by the Rev. W. Kirby, and is now in Mr. Stephens's 
fine collection. Panzer in his Fauna Germanica,fasc. 45. n. 14. 
has figured this sex. 

Fabricius says, that it frequents gardens upon the continent, 
where it appears to be not uncommon ; and Latreille informs 
us, that the female deposits her eggs in the fruit of plants, es- 
pecially thistles. 

The plant figured is Cichorium Infyhus (Wild Succory). 



73 




;/,. ■../c.,>M., 



73. 
BASSUS CALCULATOR. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidae Lat., Leach. 

Type of the Genus B. Calculator Fab. 
Bassus Fah. Ichneumon Fab., Lot., Jur., Panz. 

AntenncE setaceous, more slender in the males than in the fe- 
males, inserted towards the top of the face, distant, many-jointed, 
1st joint robust curved, 2nd small turbinate, 3rd longer than the 
1st, the following decreasing in length to the apex, covered with 
short coarse hairs (fig. 1). 

Labrum transverse, slightly narrowed before, with a triangular, 
membranaceous, hairy tongue, projecting from beneath (2). 
Mandibles very thin coriaceous, small, somewhat elongated, 
acute, bifid, hairy externally (3). 

MaxillcE membranaceous, internal lobe covered with short hair 
at the extremity, external lobe rounded, ciliated : Palpi pilose, 
composed of 5 long joints, 2 first joints robust, 3rd the longest, 
4th and 5th slender (4). 

Mentum nearly quadrate-elongate (5 a) : Palpi hairy, 4-jointed, 

2 first joints more robust than the two following (b) : Labium 

nearly cylindric entire, divided down the middle above (c). 

Head transverse, as broad as the thorax. Ocelli 3. Thorax ovate, 

elevated, long, somewhat attenuated anteriorly. Abdomen scarcely 

petiolated, not longer than the head and thorax, oblong, somewhat 

depressed, shining, composed of few joints in the males ; more cylin- 

- dric, somewhat arcuated in the females {&) . Oviduct exserted, as 

long as the body. Wings alike in both sexes, superior with one 

narrow oblique marginal cell ; submarginal cells 3, \st incomplete, 

2nd very minute, 3rd very targe, discoidal cells 2, of nearly equal 

size, inferior 07ie incomplete ; stigma large; inferior wings small linear. 

Legs ; anterior small, posterior long robust. Tibiae spurred. Tarsi 

5-jointed, basal joint very long, 4tfi minute. Claws small simple 

(8 afore leg). 



Calculator Fab. Ent. Syst. suppl. p. 225. n. 131. Syst. Piez. p. 98. 
n. 21. Calculatorius Panz. Faun. Germ. 83. tab. \3.fem. 
Black, shining. Thorax, scutellum, 4 anterior legs and trophi 
brick-colour : metathorax deeply punctured ; basal and 2nd 
segments of abdomen deeply and longitudinally channelled: 
apex of posterior thighs ferruginous, base of posterior tibiiE dirty 
white. Wings very pale-fuscous, iridescent : stigma and nerves 
brown : anterior coxae in the male, brick -colour. 
In the Cabinet of the Author. 



Neglected as this extensive family has been, it is not to be 
wondered at that we are but ill-acquainted with the affinities 
and economy of many of the groups composing it : as every 
fact is therefore rendered the more valuable, I have the 
greater pleasure in presenting my readers with the present 
species, which I captured in the New Forest about a mile to 
the north of Lyndhurst. We were resting ourselves about 
noon in the early part of September 1822, whilst the sun 
shone very powerfully, when I observed one of these pretty 
insects flying over the flat surface where a tree had been felled, 
upon which it settled; and shortly after two others appeared. 
They all hovered over the block and at intervals lighted upon 
it, but I could not observe that the female deposited any eggs ; 
and knowing it to be a rare insect, new to Britain, I was fear- 
ful of losing it, which prevented me from further observing 
its operations. I consider myself most fortunate in capturing 
both sexes, as the males of this family are very seldom known; 
and Panzer having only figured the female, the male is here 
represented in preference, and the body of the female is given 
at the bottom of the plate. 

Latreille's genus Ichneumon, comprising most of the genera 
into which Fabricius had divided it (although very imper- 
fectly), must be considered as a family, since it is impossible 
to include insects in the same genus so widely different as 
Peltastes (plate 4.) and our present subject, Bassus ; and 
although the long exserted ovipositor gives it the appearance 
of a Pimpla, it will be found to be much more nearly allied 
to Microgaster and Agathis. 

There are probably about 15 British species in our cabinets 
allied to that figured, but I think only 4< or 5 of them per- 
fectly agree with our type, and I believe none of their names 
have yet been ascertained. 

Vaccinium Myrtillus (Bilberry), growing in abundance 
where the insect was taken, has been selected for the plate. 



Ji'/ 




ci^.^c^^«<4;. CLy- /• mu 



1- )H?>d 
321. 

MICROGASTER ALVEARIUS. 



Order Hynienoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidae Lat.^ Leach, 

Type of the Genus, Ichneumon globatus Linn. 

MicROGASTEB Lat., Ill, Spin., Leach. — Cryptus S^ Ceropales Fab., 
— Bassus Panz. — Ichneumon Linn., Fab. 

AntenncB inserted between the eyes, above the middle of the face, 
approximating, filiform, very pubescent, composed of 18 joints or 
upwards, basal joint the most robust, 2nd subglobose, 3rd and 
following long, appearing like 2 joints united, terminal joints 
subglobose, the last conical (fig, 1, the basal and terminal joints). 
Labrum transverse-ovate, pilose, ciliated, base emarginate, an- 
terior margin straight (2). 

Mandibles small, subtrigonate, externally pilose, bifid at the 
apex which is acute, the lower tooth being blunt (3). 
MaxillcE rather long and meeting below the mentum, terminated 
by two very distinct lobes, the internal one somewhat transverse 
or lateral, the external large, elongate-ovate and very pilose. 
Palpi very long and pilose, 5 -jointed, 2 first joints the most 
robust, basal joint rather the shortest, 2nd a little the longest, 
3rd rather shorter, 4th and 5th slender, the latter as long as the 
3rd J the former shorter (4). 

Mentum subobconic. Lip membranous subcylindric, the sides 
nearly meeting above, pubescent and ciliated. Pnlpi long, in- 
serted at the anterior angles of the mentum, triarticulate pilose, 
basal joint the shortest and rather the most robust, 3rd a little 
the longest, subfusiform (5). 
Head orbicular, transverse. Eyes not large, lateral. Ocelli 3, large 
and very prominent. Thorax globose and rather gibbous. Abdomen 
attached by a small portion of its base, but appearing sessile, short, 
flat on the back and rugose at the base, compressed beneath in the 
females, 8-jointed, furnished below the apex with two flat pilose 
valves and with a sheath below, producing an Oviduct composed, of 
an incurved horny and sharp sheath, containing 2 fine bristles (6). 
Wings pubescent , with a strong costal nervure and large stigma; 
3 discoidal cells and a suhtriangular areolet (9), sometimes imper- 
fect. Legs robust, posterior very long. Coxae, hinder pair very 
large. Tibiae spurred. I'arsi 5-jointed, basal joint the longest. 
Claws and Pulvilli small. 



Alveabius Fab. E. S. Supp. 232, 232.— bicolor Curt. Guide, G.554.5. 
Brightish ochre, clothed with very short pubescence. Eyes and 
ocelli black. Postscutellum black and punctured. Abdomen 
black and shining, 1st and 2nd joints rugose and pale at the 
sides, an orange spot at the base, and one on each side at the 
middle, the underside is ochreous at the base. Superior wings 
with the costa and stigma fuscous, the nervures paler, the areolet 
imperfect. Hinder thighs and tibiae at the apex, their tarsi, and 
all the claws and pulvilli, blackish. 

Obs. The antennae are sometimes fuscous, and the 2 orange 
spots on the body very obscure. 

In the Author's Cabinet. 



This natural group, which was distributed by Fabricius, has 
been formed into a genus by Latreille, but has never been 
described as British. Like the rest of the Ichneumonidae 
these small insects deposit their eggs in lepidopterous larvae, 
and one of them is particularly useful in destroying the cater- 
pillar of the Cabbage Butterfly [Poiitia Brassiccs). There 
must occasionally be myriads of these little Ichneumonidae, 
for we frequently see large clusters of beautiful silky cocoons 
attached to a single caterpillar, and those whose cases form a 
sort of honey-comb produce vast quantities. 

Microgaster is nearly related to Bracon and Bassus. The 
following British species may be thus divided. 

I. Areolet perfect. 

1. M. deprimator Fab. Supp. p. 227. — Panz. 79. II. fern. — Middle of Au- 

gust, Dover. Bred September out of the larvae oi Acronyda Sali- 
cis. The larvae were only half-grown when 2 maggots came out 
of two of them, and formed cocoons in August ; in the following 
May another hatched. 

2. M. globatus Li7m. F. S. n. 1645. — Reaum. t. 2. 2^1- 35./. 2 — 5. — Begin- 

ning of September, Isle of Wight. 

3. M. sessilis Fab. E. S.p. 1 94. 4.—Coq. fab. 4./.8.— Middle of July, Dover. 

4. M. annulipes Curt. Guide. — dorsalis Sjnn.? — Beginning of June, 

Coomb-wood ; beginning of August bred by Mr. C. Fox, from 
white cocoons out of a Bombyx caterpillar. 

5. M. auriculatus Fab. Piez. 69. 82?— Spin. Ins.Lig. 2. 147? 

II. Areolet imperfect. 

6. M.alvearius Fab.— Curt. B. E.pl. 321.— Reaum. 2. tab. 35./. 7. —The 

only specimens I have ever seen of this beautiful species, were bred 
from honey-comb cells by my brother. The areolet in some is 
not so imperfect as in others. 

7. M. glomeratus Li7in. F. S. n. 1646. — Platygaster ovulorum Mag. Nat. 

Hist. V. 3. p. 51.— The beginning of July I bred 20 or 30 from lit- 
tle yellow cocoons, that 1 found sticking to a caterpillar of Hip- 
pnrchus papilionarius, but it is generally found upon the larvae of 
Pontia BrassiccB ; and the reader is referred to Loudon's " Maga- 
zine of Natural History " for the history and admirable figures of 
this insect. 

8. M. vitripennis Curt. Guide. — Like the preceding, the nervures stronger, 

and the hinder thighs tipped with brown. 

9. M. lacteipennis Curt. Guide. — Black : wings milky white, stigma and 

costa piceous, anterior tibise and tips of their thighs ferruginous. 
Middle of August, Dover. 

10. M. tibialis Cz»-f. Guide. — Black: legs ochreous, middle and hinder thighs 

and tarsi piceous : wings subfuscous. 

11. M. lineola Curt. Guide. — Like the preceding, the hinder thighs with a 

piceous line above and below, and the tips of the tibiae piceous. 
Wings transparent. Out of larvae oi Scava Pyrastri. 

12. M. graciHs Curt. Giiide. — Black: legs pale ochreous, middle and hinder 

thighs, tips of tibiae and tarsi piceous. Bred in September from 
cocoons found upon grass, by the Hon. C. Harris. 

13. M. atrator Curt. Guide. — Black : tibias and tarsi ochreous, hinder ones 

brownish. 

14. M. Aphidum Lirin. Faun. Suec. p. 410. n. 1643. 

15. M. anomalon Curt. Guide. — Black, body very short and compressed, 

tips of anterior thighs and tibia; ochreous. 
The plant is Vicia sativa (Common Tare). 



47'^ 




c3U/.,. .J, (^.«fc- >2 .-.• /• ^c 



15 V^3J 
476. 

LEIOPHRON APICALIS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidae. 

Type of the Genus, Leiophron pallipes Curt. 
Leiophron Nees, Curt., Hal. — Cryptus Fab. 

Antennce inserted in front of the face, as long as the wings in 
the male, and composed of from 26 to 17 joints ; shorter in the 
female, and composed of from 21 to 16 joints, filiform and pu- 
bescent, basal joint the stoutest, 2nd globose, 3rd slender, longer 
than any of the following, which decrease in length until they 
become nearly cup-shaped, the apical joint ovate-conic (1). 
Labrum transverse-oval, with a membranous ciliated margin and 
an elongate-trigonate pubescent lobe in the middle (2). 
Mandibles curved, slender, cleft at the apex, slightly pilose ex- 
ternally (3). 

Maxillee terminated by a rounded hairy lobe with a minute one 
on the inside. Palpi long pilose and 5-jointed, 1st 3rd and 5th 
joints the longest, 2nd the broadest, very pilose, 4th the shortest, 
5 th slender subfusiform (4). 

Mentum oblong, rounded at the base, truncated before. Lip 
short pubescent subcordate. Palpi as long as the mentum, pi- 
lose, triarticulate ; basal joint slightly clavate, 2nd subovate, 3rd 
a little longer subfusiform (5). 
Head subglobose, transverse. Eyes large and lateral. Ocelli 3, large 
and prominent on the crown of the head. Thorax elongate-ovate ; 
neck narrowed: scuteUum semiorbicular. Abdomen ovate-conic, 
not larger than the thorax ; attached by a broad sulcated peduncle, 
narrowed at the base, the sides sometimes slightly sinuated; 2nd joint 
large campanulate : ovipositor concealed. Wings, superior with a 
large trigonate stigma, the marginal cell short, semilunate ; 2 large 
discoidal and no submarginal cells (9). Legs moderately long stout 
and simple : tibiae with small spurs at the apex : tarsi 5-jointed, basal 
joint the longest, 4th the shortest, 5th a little broader : claws and 
pulvilli distinct. 

Apicalis Curt. Guide, Gen. 549. 7. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Walker, Mr. Haliday and the Author. 



This genus was established by Nees von Esenbeck, who placed 
it between Perilitus (which follows Aphidius) and Bracon; and 
Mr. Haliday, in his learned Essay on the Parasitic Hymeno- 
ptera, locates it between the same groups. Our Leiophrons 
are easily distinguished from the other IcJmeumones minuti, by 
the extremely short and sublunar marginal cell, although they 
are undoubtedly closely allied to the Braconidae. 



I shall describe the few species recorded in my Guide, ^s 
well as two others, and regret that space will not allow me {o 
add some that Mr. F. Walker has obligingly transmitted to 
me. Mr. Haliday calls his division A. Pygostolus, of which 
Crypus sticticus Fab. is the type; it is characterized by "the 
radial areolet just touching the apex of the wing," The next 
is B. Radial areolet very short, semilunate. 

a. Abdomen sessile. 
Type L. mitis Halidai/s MSS. 

b. Abdomen petiolated. * Petiole striated. 

1^, L, Orchesise C«r/.— 15 lii\e. Antennae 26-jointed in the male ? Black, 
shining : antennae (excepting the last 10 joints), head and legs 
ochreous ; eyes and crown of head black, leaving a bright ochre 
orbit : postscutellum thickly punctured : posterior coxae piceous; 
wings very transparent, the stigma piceous, excepting the interior 
angle. 
This fine species was bred, I believe, by Mr. Walker, from 

pupae of Orchesia micans (folio 197"). 

1. L. pallipes Curt. — 1^ line. Antennae of male 24-jointed, of female 21. 

Black shining, head and thorax punctured, postscutellum rugose : 
antennae pale castaneous or ochreous at the base : legs deep 
ochre ; stigma pale piceous. 

2. L. picipes Curt. — 1 line. Antennae l6-jointed. Black shining, post- 

scutellum dull and rugose ; abdomen antennae and legs piceous, 
the latter gradually growing paler from the thighs, the tips of 
which, as well as the tibiae and tarsi of the anterior pair, are more 
or less ochreous ; stigma pale piceous. 

3. L. nitidus Curt. — Similar to No. 2, but narrower ; the antennae are 

rather stout, castaneous brown, ochreous at the base, legs ochreous, 
posterior thighs and tibiae, excepting the base of the latter, brown. 

4. L. similis Curt. — Like No. 2, but the antennae are longer, with the 4 

basal joints ochreous as well as the legs, the posterior being a 
little the darkest. 

** Petiole punctured and indistinctly striated. 

5. L. fulvipes Cwr^ — 5-Hne. Piceous shining : antennae l6-jointed, brown, 

the base ochreous ; postscutellum punctured ; wings pale fuscous; 
legs ochreous. 

6. L. pallidistigma Curt. — | line : piceous shining : antennae l6-jointed, 

longer than in the foregoing and ochreous, as well as the legs ; 
postscutellum shining, sparingly punctured: stigma pale ochreous. 
6*. L. basalis Curt. — Similar to No. 6, but the base of the abdomen is 
ferruginous-ochre, and the scutellum dull and thickly punctured, 
or reticulated. I took a specimen b. of June, in the New Forest. 

7. L. apicalis Curt. B. E. pi. 476. <? . Antennae l7-jointed in the male, 16 

in the female ; shining ochreous ; tips of antennae and pulvilli 
brown : eyes green : ocelli piceous ; postscutellum punctured, pi- 
ceous in the female ; petiole long and nearly linear, slightly angu- 
lated at the middle ; posterior portion of abdomen piceous : stigma 
pale, with a brown patch at the extremity. 
This pretty species, as well as Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6, 
Mr. Walker took at Southgate. 

The Plant is Lysimachia Niimmularia ( Money- wort). 



^x^- 




C^.-^c/<^^:. a^: /.■ i 



9 - J^i d(^ 

415. 

ZELE ALBIDITARSUS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidae 

Alysiidas Curt, 
Type of the Genus, Zele testaceator Curt. 
Zele Curt. 

AntenncE inserted at the upper part of the face between the eyes, 
longer than the body, setaceous and pubescent, composed of 
numerous joints, basal joint the stoutest, ovate-truncate, 2nd 
small subglobose, 3rd long, the remainder decreasing in length 
to the apex, the last joint conical (1, a few joints of the base and 
apex). 

Labrum inserted under the clypeus, membranous, semicircular 
and pilose (2). 

Mandibles closing transversely, curved and rather slender, bifid 
near the apex, the external tooth being the longest ; externally 
pilose (3). 

Maxillae small, terminated by a large pilose lobe with a small 

one on the inside. Palpi very long, pilose and 6-jointed, basal 

joint short, 2nd and 3rd nearly of equal length, the latter the 

stoutest and very convex on the inside, the remainder slender, 

4th and 6th the longest, 5th a little shorter (4). 

Mentum obovate, pilose. Palpi rather long, stout pilose and 

4-jointed, basal joint not short, obovate-truncate, 2nd a little 

longer, elongate-ovate, 3rd subglobose, 4th as long as the 2nd 

but narrower and subclavate. Lip large subcylindric, pubescent, 

truncated obliquely, the anterior margin notched (5). 

Head rather broad. Eyes oval rather prominent. Ocelli 3 in triangle, 

devated on the crown of the head. Thorax rather long and narrow. 

Abdomen rather short, subfus form, striated at the base, attached by 

a short stout peduncle; clavatein the female and, slightly compressed 

at the apex, and truncated obliquely, with 2 minute appendages 

towards the apex. Ovipositor exserted, robust, considerably shorter 

than the body (6). Wings very ample; iridescent, superior with 1 

marginal, 3 submarginal and 2 discoidal cells, the stigma large ; 

inferior with 2 basal, one costal and 4 external cells. Thighs simple. 

Tibiae, anterior with a long spine at the apex, the others furnished 

with 2 long spurs. Tarsi 5 -jointed, basal joint the longest. Claws 

small; puWilli distinct. 



Albiditarsus Curt. Guide, Gen. 551. 4. 

Piceous, shining: antennae beneath brown, the 2 basal joints 
ochreous : head ochreous, the whole crown piceous ; eyes black : 
thorax inclining to castaneous, margin of scutellum ochreous : 
abdomen subcastaneous towards the base and apex, the base 
vermiculated. Wings stained yellowish brown, squamulae pale 
ochre, nervures and stigma brown, the latter pale in the centre. 
Legs testaceous ; posterior tibiae (except at the base,) and pul- 
villi piceous J posterior tarsi yellowish white. 
In the Author's Cabinet. 



From the great resemblance these insects bear to the Bra- 
conidse, 1 placed this group in my Guide between Bracon and 
Agathis, but it is evident from the 6-jointed maxillary palpi 
that it belongs to that extensive sub-family which may now be 
termed Alysiidse. The typical species are characterized by a 
perfect trapezoid cell on the costal margin of the inferior wings, 
and also by the minuteness of the 3rd joint of the labial palpi. 
The following are British species, and Mr. F. Walker has 
several others which he found on grass in meadows at South- 
gate in the summer, and in the Isle of Wight in September. 
* Inferior wings with a costal cell. 

3. Z. testaceator Curt. — 4- lines long. Ochraceous, eyes and 

spaces between ocelli black : ovipositor fuscous, stigma 
yellow; posterior tarsi dirty white. 

End of July, Coomb Wood and Regent's Park. 

4. Z. albiditarsus Curt. Brit. Ent.pt. 415. S- 

Taken in the Regent's Park. J. C. 

** Marginal cell of inferior wings wanting. 
2. Z. ochraceator Curt. Guide. 

5. Z. Ephippium Cwr/. — 2 lines long. Bright ochre; antennae, 

tips of posterior tibiae and of the tarsi, also the ovipo- 
sitor brownish: eyes and space round ocelli black: 
thorax reddish; a spot before, the metathorax and 
base of the abdomen black, nervures and stigma piceous 
in the male, lurid in the female. 
My attention was first called to the remarkable oeconomy 
of this species by a most accurate observer of nature, Mr. John 
Bolt of Lyndhurst; the cocoon is attached by a thread to a 
leaf as represented in the Plate, and the insect is hatched in 
July : it is generally found on the Hazel, on which I have 
taken it in Coomb Wood. I was a little surprised to find that 
one of the cocoons produced Hemiteles areator Panz. 
7. Z. pectoralis Curt. Guide. 8. Z. fulvifrons Curt. Guide. 

9. Z. thoracicus Curt. — Male 2| lines : black shining, disc of 

thorax reddish, legs pale ochre. 

July 16th Regent's Park. 
*** Antennae shorter than the body. 
1. Z, atrator Curt. — If line. Piceous black; antennae beneath 
at the base ochreous; palpi pale ochre, legs dirty 
ochre, base of posterior tibiae whitish, ovipositor as 
long as the antennae, wings hyaline. 
I took several last September on the windows of Durnford 
House, Wilts, the seat of the Honourable Mrs. Robinson. 

1 0. Z. longicauda Curt. — Similar to the last, but the ovipositor 

is twice as long, and the central submarginal cell of 
the upper wings is wanting. 
The Plant is Sviyrnium Olusatnm (Alexanders). 



672. 
CHELONUS WESMAELII. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidae. 

Type of the Genus, Ichneumon oculator Fab. 
CuELONUs Jur., Panz., Nees, Wesm., Curt. — Sigalphus Lat. 

Antenna inserted near the top of the face, approximating, scarcely 
so long as the body and 28-jointed in the male ; not longer than 
the thorax and 24-jointed in the female, rather stout and taper- 
ing very much at the apex, basal joint long and stout, 2nd sub- 
globose. 3rd nearly as long as the 1st, the remainder decreasing 
and becoming turbinate towards the apex (1, a few joints). 
Labrum inserted under the clypeus, sublunate, the anterior mar- 
gin straight and pilose, with a large membranous lobe beneath, 
projecting beyond the labrum (2). 
Mandibles rather small, trigonate, hairy and bifid (3). 
ilfff,r27/<e terminated by an obovate coriaceous lobe, and a smaller 
internal membranous one, both ciliated. Palpi long, slender, 
pubescent, pilose and 6'-jointed, basal joint the shortest, clavate, 
2nd longer and stouter, 3rd the stoutest, long and clavate, 4th 
a little the longest, slender and nearly linear, 5 th and 6th 
shorter and slender (4). 

Mentum elongated, ovate at the base. Lip moderately long, 
hollow. Palpi not short, pubescent, pilose and 4-jointed, basal 
joint elongate-clavate, 2nd as long and stouter, 3rd shoit, stout, 
obovate, 4th as long as the 1st, slender, apex conical (5). 
Head transverse, base concave, face suborbicvlar : eyes rather small, 
lateral, ovate and pubescent : ocelli 'i, forming a compact triangle on 
the crown. Thorax sabglobose or oblong : scutel triangular : me- 
tathorax rugose, and toothed at the angles. Abdomen elongate- 
ovate, clavate (A), the basal joints united and forming a rough shield, 
the sides and apex inclosing a deep cavity beneath like a wooden shoe : 
oviduct short, arising from a trigonate valve and not projecting be- 
yond the apex (0). Wings ample, superior loith 1 marginal, 3 sub- 
marginal and 1 discoidal cell. Legs moderate : thighs and tibise 
short, the latter more or less clavate and spurred : tarsi slender and 
5 -jointed: claws awt/ pul villi distinct. 

Wesmaelii Curt. Guide, Gen. 556. 



This group of insects, rendered remarkable by the absence 
of abdominal segments, is thus characterized by Nees ab Esen- 
beck in h.\ii Hymen. Ichn. qffvn. v. I. "Labial palpi 4-jointed: 
mandibles bifid : abdomen covered with a cuirass, the 3 basal 
segments united." Wesmael in his Man. des Bracon. de Belg. 
has divided this group into other genera, which I have adopted 
in my "Guide," and shall here give his definitions. Besides the 
following 13 indigenous species there are 10 others recorded. 
546^. Rhitigaster Wesm. AbdomeJi with the aiir ass composed 
of 3 segments: radial cell elongate: 3 cubital cells, 2nd elon- 
gate-quadrate. 
1. Irrorator Fab.—De Geer, \. p. 577. tab. 36./. 12. 13. 



The larva lives upon the Caterpillars of Nod. {Acronycta) 
Psi, not N. pyramidea. 

5^6'^. AscoGASTER Wcsm. Eyes smooth : a suhtrigonate radial 
and 3 cubital cells, the \st separated from the external dis- 
coidal cell by a distinct nervure. 
* The cuirass in 3 distinct pieces: entirely open beneath. 

1. rufescens Lat. — dentator Pawz. 88. 14. 
14th Aug. off rushes, Stilton Fen, Mr. Dale. 

** The cuirass of one piece, the sides bent under the body. 

2. Consobrinus Ce/r/.G. ist edit. no. 10. Slender like ^. rzz/^es. 

Black ; antennae 33-jointed, brown, underside at base, trophi and legs 
ochreous, hinder legs with the coxae blackish at the base ; apex of thighs 
of tibias and tips of all the tarsi fuscous : metathorax 4-toothed : wings 
brownish on the disc, with a white transverse line, stigma and nervures 
pale brown : length If line. 

3. pallidicornis Curt. Guide, 1st edit. no. 6. 

Blackish; antennae 32-jointed, underside ochreous to the middle: thorax 
4-toothed : legs ochreous, coxte, underside of anterior thighs and the whole 
of the others, excepting the extreme base and apex, terminal portion of 
hinder tibice and all the tarsi, pale piceous : in stature and wings like No. 2. 

4. quadridentatus Wesm. June, Shotover near Oxford. 

5. varipes Wesm. & 6. instabilis Wcsm. I possess. 

7. fulviventris Curt. Guide, 1st edit. no. 9. is I believe only a var. 
oi A. instabilis, with the back of the abdomen subferruginous, the apex 
fuscous, the underside entirely ochreous. 

8. Esenbeckii Curt. — pulchellus Guide, 1st edit. no. 8. 
Black, head large, palpi fuscous ; antennae very long, of 39 joints, taper- 
ing greatly to the apex, basal portion ferruginous, 1st joint piceous above : 
thorax bidentate : abdomen ochreous, a dot at the base, a line across the 
middle, and the apical portion brown : wings fuscous, basal half white, 
with the nervures ochreous: legs black, tips of antei'ior thighs and all the 
tibife, except the apex of the hinder, bright ochreous : 2^ lines. 

July, off grass in meadows, Glanville's Wootton, Mr. Dale. 

I have named it in honour of the Professor to whose able 

works both entomologists and botanists are so greatly indebted. 

SSQ. Chelonus. Vide the characters on the preceding page. 

1. oculator Fab. — Pan:::. 72. 3. Common on umbellate flow- 
ers, grass, sedges in ditches from July to September. 

7. Wesmaelii Curt. Black, pubescent, head punctured, trophi ochreous; 
antennae setaceous, as long as the body and 34-jointed ; thorax strongly 
reticulated, metathorax with 2 short teeth at the angles : abdomen reti- 
culated, oi-ange, with a triangular black spot at the base, nearly reaching 
a black dorsal stripe, arising from the apex, which is black : wings fus- 
cous with a white horseshoe line round the stigma, which is brown as 
well as the nervures : legs bright ochreous, coxae and trochanters piceous, 
tips of hinder thighs, tibiae, and all the tarsi, except the basal joint, fuscous. 

This male I took at Tollsbury the end of July, and have 
named it after the Professor whose monograph has essentially 
assisted me in the investigation of this tribe. 

8. basalis Curt. Black, minutely punctured, pubescent: antennae 16- 
jointed ; metathorax bituberculate, with 2 carinae down the back, slightly 
toothed at the apex : base of abdomen ochreous : wings slightly fuscous ; 
stigma large and darker : legs black, tips of anterior thighs, tibiae and base 
only of hinder ochreous : not 1 line long. 

For this species 1 am indebted to F. Walker, Esq. 
The Plant is Carex rcmota, from T. C, Heysham, Esq. 



ov2 




^ 





512. 
ROGAS BALTEATUS. 

Ordek Hymeiioptera. Fam. Ichneumonidie. 

Type of the Genus, Bfissus testaceus Fab. 
RoGAs Nees, Hal., Curt. — Bassus Fab. — Bracon Spin. 

Antenna; inserted near the middle of the face, as long as the 
insect, filiform, pubescent, composed of numerous oblong joints, 
gradually decreasing in size to the apex ; basal joint the stoutest, 
2nd the smallest, subglobose, apical joint conical (1, the base 
and apex). 

Labrum rather large, subovate, with a membranous pubescent 
triangular lobe at the apex (2) . 

Mandibles small, trigonate and bifid, pilose outside (3). 
Maxillce with a large lobe on the inside, and another rounded 
and hairy one above it. Palpi long pubescent pilose and 
6-jointed, basal joint minute, 2nd twice as long and oblong, 
the remainder long, 3rd a little the shortest, 4th the longest, 
the apical joint subfusiform (4). 

Mentum ovate -cordate. Lip large and rounded. Palpi rather 

long, very hairy and 4-jointed, basal joint small, the remainder 

rather thick and of equal length, suboval, the terminal joint 

conical at the apex (5). 

Head small, transverse, margined behind, face subtrigonate : eyes 

leather small, ovate and lateral : ocelli 3, in triangle on the crown. 

Thorax oblong : postscutellum subquadrate and somewhat depressed. 

Abdomen attached by so short a peduncle as to appear nearly sessile, 

elliptical, \st and 2nd joints large, Srd generally a little shorter (6 $ 

profile) : ovipositor short and exserted, the valves rather broad and 

obtuse (o) . Wings pubescent, superior with a large marginal and 

3 submarginal cells, 2nd the smallest and nearly quadrate ; posterior 

loith 2 transverse nervures. Legs, posterior the largest : tibia; 

simple, spurred: tarsi 5-jointed, basal joint the longest, 4th the 

smallest : claws minute ; pul villi distinct. 

Obs. R. bicolor Spin, was the species dissected and described. 



Balteatus Hal. MSS. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 555. 

Opake ferruginous-ochre, pubescent : antennae longer than 
the insect, black as well as the head, the hinder margin of the 
eyes ferruginous : Thorax inclining to rufous, black beneath, a 
black dot on each scapular and a spot of the same colour at the 
apex of the scutellum ; postscutellum coarsely and tliickly 
punctured, black, with a bilobed rufous spot behind : abdomen 
punctured, with an elevated line down the back, the apical 
portion black, excepting the base of the 3rd segment : nervures 
brown, base of stigma ochreous : tips of hinder thighs and tibia; 
and all the tarsi brown, the latter black at the apex. 
In the Cabinet of Mr. Haliduy. 



This pretty genus contains a considerable number of species, 
many of which have been added by Mr. Haliday, who has 
kindly presented lue with several, together with a list of them. 



They are characterized by a small head, long antennae, sessile 
and opake abdomen, &c. 

10. R. dlspar Hal. 

The sexes are very dissimilar in shape and colour, the male 
being slender, the female having a white ring round the 
middle of the antennae, which are black, rufous at the base. 

On Larches in Autumn, Mr. Haliday ; and the female has 
been taken by Mr. Dale, 

3. testaceus Fab. Taken in Ireland by Mr. Haliday as well 
as No. 8. 

4. ochraceus Curt. 

This species is the largest I have seen ; it is entirely ochreous, 
excepting the apex of the antennae, the eyes, ocelli and tips of 
tarsi. 

Beginning of August in the Regent's Park, J. C. 

1. ater Curt. Black, opake, orbits of eyes and legs ferru- 
ginous. 

Beginning of June, damp places, Shotover near Oxford, 
J. C. ; and at Southgate, Mr. F. Walker. 

2. bicolor Spm. Lulworth, Mr. Dale ; and Dover, J. C. 

5. Subucola Curt. Testaceous, postscutellum and base of 
abdomen black. 

Middle of May, Suffolk, and Woods, Southgate, J. C. 

6. similis Curt. Ochreous, head, excepting the orbits, sides 
of thorax, postscutellum, basal joint of abdomen, except- 
ing a spot at the apex, and sides of 2nd segment black. 

7th of May and 25th of July, Coomb-wood, Surrey. 

11. spathuliformis Curt. Macrocentrum, No. 4. of Guide. 
Similar to the last and probably the male of it ; it is duller, 

and the apex of the abdomen is fuscous. In Nos. 5., 6. and 
11., the 1st submarginal cell is narrower, and the 2nd longer, 
than in the five preceding species. 

Beginning of September, Isle of Wight. 

12. balteatus Hal.— Curt. B. E. pi. 512. 

Taken near the Harbour of Donaghadee, by Mr, Haliday. 

7. Gasterator? Spin. — Jur.pl. 8. Gen. 3."^ 

I found a specimen the 10th of July, in a meadow at Eccles 
in Norfolk, similar to the following, but the basal joint of the 
abdomen is entirely rufous. 

8. nobilis Hal. " Black, shining, pubescent, mouth collar 
and legs reddish-ferruginous, apex of posterior thighs 
and tibiae, and all the tarsi black ; abdomen rugose, 
rufous, 1st segment with a black spot at the base, pos- 
terior portion smooth shining black, with golden pubes- 
cence. 

On Umbelliferae near Holywood, Mr. Haliday; Monk's 
Wood, Mr. Dale. 

9. rugulosus Ess. Taken by Mr. Haliday in Ireland. 
The Plant is Iberis {Tecsdalla) jiudicaulis (Naked-stalked 

Candy-tuft), communicated by W. W. Saunders, Esq. 



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Jl- ) ^df 

50/. 
HECABOLUS SULCATUS. 



Order Hynienoptera. Fam. Ichneunionidae. 

Type of the Genus, Spathius sulcatus Curt. 

Hecabolus Hal. MSS. — Spathius Curt. 

Antenna; inserted near the centre of the face, approximating, as 
long as the head and thorax, composed of 24 joints in hoth 
sexes, basal joint stout, subovate, 2nd globose, 3rd nearly as 
long as the 1st and almost linear, the remainder gradually de- 
creasing in length, the apical joint conical (1, the base and apex). 
Labrum undiscovered. 

Mandibles stout, subtrigonate, obtusely bifid, with 2 or 3 bristles 
outside (3). 

MaxillcE membranous, with a lanceolate internal lobe, and a 
larger more ovate and pilose external one. Palpi long, rather 
slender and bristly on the inside, 6-jointed, basal joint minute, 
2nd elongate-ovate, the remainder twice as long, scarcel)' de- 
creasing in length, 3rd and 4th rather stout (4). 
Mentum elongate subconic. Lip broader and subcordate. Palpi 
rather short, hairy, compressed and 4-jointed, 1st and 2nd joints 
the shortest and broadest, suborbicular. 3rd and 4th joints longer 
and slender, the former subclavate, the latter conical at the 
apex (5). 
Head spherical : eyes rather small and globose : ocelli 3 in triangle on 
the crown of the head. Thorax elongate-ovate. Abdomen clavate, 
gradually attenuated to the base, having no petiole : ovipositor longer 
than the insect. Wings pubescent and ciliated, superior with a 
thickened stigma, a long marginal cell, a rhomboidal and a long sub- 
marginal one, and a discoidal cell equal in size to the 1st submarginal 
one : inferior wings with 2 longitudinal nervures and 2 or Z radical 
cells, the male having a thickened stigma near the base (9 S)- Legs 
moderate, posterior a little the largest ; thighs a little incrassated and 
clavate: tibiae short and simple: tarsi 5 -jointed, basal joint the longest, 
4th the smallest, claws and pulvilli distinct (8). 



Sulcatus Curt. Guide, Gen. 545". 5. 

Pitchy shining black, antennae pale ferruginous, dusky towards 
the apex, a ferruginous spot sometimes behind each eye ; disk 
of the thorax, postscutellum, 2 first joints of abdomen and the 
base of the 3rd finely striated with minute punctures between 
the lines, 2nd joint in the female more or less ferruginous and 
the ovipositor deep ochreous, tips of the sheaths black : wings 
iridescent, nervures and stigma piceous: legs ferruginous brown, 
upper side of thighs darker as well as the tips of the tarsi. 
In the Cabinets of Mr. Rudd and the Author. 



Hecabolus is evidently nearly allied to Spathius, in which 
group it is included in the Guide, but the shorter and stouter 
antennae and the absence of the petiole to the abdomen dis- 
tinguish it from the latter genus; the male is also characterized 
in a very remarkable manner, having a stigma on the costa 
near to the base of the inferior wings, similar in substance and 
colour to those in the upper wings, and filling one of the cells, 
which is open in the other sex. 

Many years since I discovered a female of this curious 
insect in Norfolk, and afterwards both sexes on a post very 
much perforated by insects in a Garden at Fulham; they were 
entering the holes with Heriades (1 believe), Pemphredon, 
Crabro, Ptilinus, &c. 

I am also indebted to the Rev. G. T. Rudd for specimens 
which he found on an old ash post in Yorkshire. He states 
to me in his letter that they were confined to one spot and 
post, and were evidently parasitic on the genus Ptilinus, and 
he has lately informed me that he discovered dead specimens 
of the Hecabolus in the pupae-cases (which they completely 
filled) of Ptilinus pecihiicotfus, and also the CheirojmcJms qua- 
drum {Cleonymus maculipeimis of this work, folio 194.) in pro- 
fusion in the pupas-cases of Hyle sinus Fraxini, thereby con- 
firming the remarks made by Mr. Cooper in the Entomolo- 
gical Magazine. 

For specimens of the rare plant figured. Daphne Mezereum 
(The Mezereon), I am indebted to J. C. Dale, Esq., who pro- 
cured them the beginning of last April from Cranbourn Chase, 
Dorsetshire. 




'-'u/r.6y iJ:t^u.i/L, ^cnui^ //av: I: Hit-C 



141. 
ALYSIA APII. 

Order Coleoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidae Lat.^ Leach. 
Type of the Genus Ichneumon Manclucator Panz. 
Alysia Lat., Leach. — Ichneumon Panz. — Cryptus Fab. — Bracon Jur. 
— Cechenus III. 

AntenncE inserted in front of the face, long, slender, submonili- 
form, pubescent, containing from 30 to 50 joints, basal joint 
obovate robust, 2nd globose, 3rd slender, 4th and following 
subquadrate, terminal ovate (fig. 1 a). 
Labrum triangular, pilose, membranous at the apex (2) . 
Mandibles remote, lateral, not crossing each other, subquadrate, 
narrowed towards the base, tridentate at the apex (3 & 1*). 
Maxilla; with the lobes coriaceous, external one membranous at 
the edge, pilose ; internal one acute. Palpi very long, pilose, 
G-jointed, basal joint short slender, 2nd short robust, 3rd and 
4th long, the former robust, 5th nearly as long as the 6th (4). 
Mentum elongated, emarginate, (5 a). Palpi long robust pilose 
4-jointcd, 2nd joint the thickest (b). Lip subcoriaceous, 
hollow, rounded, broader than the mentum (c). 
Head transverse. Ocelli 3 in triangle. Eyes small lateral; (l* front 
view (f the head), lliorax ovate. Abdomen attached by a very 
short peduncle, rugose at the base, slightly depressed in the males, 
somewhat compressed in the females, 7- or S-jointed and truncated at 
the apex. Oviduct somewhat robust, in some longer in others shorter 
than the abdomen, (6, abdomen of a female in profile). Wings 
pubescent, the nervure not continued round, vnth 1 marginal, 3 sub- 
marginal, and two discoidal cells (9). Stigma sometimes very much 
elongated. Inferior wings with nervures at the base. Legs, hinder 
ones a little the longest. " Tibiae simple. Tarsi 5 -jointed. 



Apii Nobis. 

Black, smooth, shining. Head not very large; trophi ochra- 
ceous ; antennae very long pubescent, basal joint beneath and 
2nd joint ferruginous. Thorax with a deep fovea between the 
wings ; metathorax punctured. Abdomen piceous slightly pu- 
bescent, basal joint rugose punctured, 2nd rufous at the base. 
Oviduct veiy short, nearly obsolete. Legs ochraceous, apex of 
tarsi fuscous. Wings pubescent, very iridescent, superior large ; 
stigma extending the greater portion of the costa, fuscous, ner- 
vures of the same colour. 

Li the Cabinet of the Author. 



Alysia approaches very near to Bracon, especially in the 
structure of the wings, which are however ahke in both sexes ; 
the labial and maxillary palpi have a joint more than those of 
Bracon, and its tridentate jaws so remarkably situated, at once 
distinguish it from all other genera. 



Of this singular genus only one species appears to have 
been described, and that has never been recorded as British : 
we have had the good fortune to discover eight others of which 
we shall give short descriptions, first observing that all, ex- 
cepting No. 6, are black and shining, with ochraceous legs. 

I. Stigma short, subtrigonate. 

A Oviduct shorter than the body. 

1 A. Manducator, Panz. Faun. Germ. fas. 72, 7i. ^^fem. — 

Antennee very pubescent in the female, rather robust, 
ferruginous at the base. 

2 apicalis iVo6. — Mandibles black at their apex. 

3 similis iVoi. — Smaller, antennae black at their base, 

mandibles entirely ferruginous. 

B Oviduct as long as the body. 

4 Pratellae 'Noh. — Black, shining, legs trophi and base of 

antennae ferruginous. Head very large. Antennae 
very long, slightly pubescent. Stigma narrow. 

5 graciUs ^ob. — Oviduct not longer than the body. 

Head small, ferruginous next the eyes. Antennae 
entirely piceous. 

6 pallida 'Nob. — Dull ochraceous, eyes and a spot be- 

tween them black ; metathorax and base of abdo- 
men black; apex piceous; antennae and nervures 
of wings fuscous. 

II. Stigma elongated. 

7 Apii 2Vb&. 

8 pubescens iVoJ. — Oviduct short, but visible. Smaller 

than the last, covered with pale pubescence, espe- 
cially the thorax. 

9 minuta No6. — Small, nervures of the wings very strong 

and black. 

A. Manducator is not uncommon upon umbellate plants in 
meadows, the dung of animals, &c. 

A. PratellcE. Found with some Cynipsidcc the end of Sep- 
tember in the park of Heron Court, Hampshire, by my 
esteemed friend the Hon. Charles A. Harris, who disco- 
vered them concealed between the collar and gills of very 
young mushrooms. 

A. Apii. For specimens of this insect and their history I am 
indebted to a lady who found the larvae feeding upon 
the parenchyma of celery leaves the 30th Sept. ; on the 
11th Oct. they had changed to shining oval pupae of a 
dull ochre colour, having very much the appearance of a 
shell [Turbo Chrysalis oi Turton); the imago appeared 
the June following. 
Our insect receives its specific name from the genus of 

plants to which it is destructive; and Apium graveolens (Wild 

Celery) being an indigenous species, it is figured in the plate. 




2^ 



289. 

CH^iNON ANCEPS. 

Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidae Lat., Leach. 

Type of the Genus, Chaenon Anceps, Hal. 

Ch^non Hal, MSS., Curt. 

Antenna: inserted in the middle of the face, approximating, as 
long as the body, nearly filiform, pubescent, composed of nume- 
rous subquadrate joints, basal joint the most robust subovate- 
truncate, 2nd very short, 3rd the longest (l*a), apical joint 
obovate (b). 

Labrum small sublunulate and ciliated (2). 
Mandibles remote, lateral divaricating not crossing subquadrate, 
terminated by 4 unequal teeth (1 * & 3). 

Maxillce very small, terminated by a suborbicular and pilose lobe, 
with a longer one inside. Palpi very long, pubescent and pi- 
lose, 6-jointed, 1st and 2nd joints short, equal in size, 3rd the 
most robust, the remainder slender, the 4th the longest, 5th and 
6th of equal length (4). 

Mentum somewhat pear-shaped-truncate. Palpi long, rather 
robust, and pilose, 4-jointed, the 2nd joint a little the longest 
and stoutest, terminal one elongate-conic. Lip hollow, rounded, 
scarcely broader than the mentum (5). 
Head globose quadrate, face convex. Eyes remote, lateral. Ocelli 3, 
large, forming a triangle on the crown of the head (l* front view of 
the head). Thorax scarcely broader than the head, very much elon- 
gated. Pustscutellum large semiorbicular. Abdomen elongate-ovate 
narrowed at the base ; very much compressed beyond the middle in 
the female type. Ovipositor scarcely visible. Wings rather long 
and pubescent ; superior with 1 marginal, 2 submarginal and 2 dis- 
coidal cells. Stigma slightly elongated. Inferior wings uith several 
nervures. Legs, posterior the longest. Tibiae spurred. Tarsi 5- 
jointed, basal joint the longest, 4th the shortest. Claws short. Pul- 
villi large (8, afore leg). 



Anceps Hal. MSS. 

Black shining. Mandibles castaneous, black at the extremity. 
Postpectus rugose, pilose, with a groove down the middle. Ab- 
domen ochreons, with an abbreviated black mark at the base on 
the back, where it is deeply and coarsely furrowed ; in the fe- 
male the superior edge is black towards the apex. Wings iri- 
descent with a yellow tinge. Stigma and nervures brown. Legs 
ferruginous ochre. Tarsi and tips of hinder tibiae fuscous 3 in 
the female the hinder thighs excepting the base, the tibiae and 
tarsi are blackish. 

Obs. The coloured Insect is a female, and fig. 6. the abdomen in 
profile : fig. /. is the upper side of the male abdomen. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Haliday and the Author. 



Since the genus Alysia was illustrated, the present group has 
been discovered by Mr. Haliday, to whose liberality I am in- 
debted for the species I possess; and Mr. F. Walker has fa- 
voured me with his collection, to enable me to arrano-e and 
give slight characters of the whole. ^ 

The species have been taken by the former gentleman in 
Ireland, from July to September, in moist meadows, and by 
the latter near Southgate as early as the end of June. The 
length of the antennae is probably only a sexual character, and 
I suspect the species depart considerably from the type, in the 
form of the female abdomen, and one is destitute of wino-s 

1. C. anceps Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 289. July, amongst'' lon^ 

grass in drains. ^ 

2. C. gracilis Ha/.— Slender, black; legs testaceous, 4 poste- 

rior thighs piceous, tarsi fuscous. Nearly as laree as 
No. 1. -^ fe 

3. C. elegans i^a/.— Probably a small var. of No. 2. 

4. C. viduus Hal. — Black, abdomen piceous, anterior thifvhs 

beneath and tips of coxse ochreous. ^ 

5. C. obscurus O/r^.— Similar to No. 4. but smaller: legs ochre- 

ous, 4 posterior thighs and tibiae, except at the^base, pi- 
ceous, tarsi fuscous. 

6. C. similis Curt. — Smaller; the legs brighter. 

7. C. affinis Hal. — As large, and more robust, than No. 2 : 

anterior thighs and tibiae ochreous. 

8. C. fuliginosus Curt.—lAkQ No. 7, with a rufous spot on the 

body; the anterior thighs and tibiae, and the coxae and 
tibiae of intermediate legs, ochreous. 

9. C. cingulatus Hal.— As small as No. 6: abdomen pale pi- 

ceous, ochreous in the centre, legs ochreous, thighs and 
apex of tibiae of 4 posterior and tarsi, fuscous. ° 

10. C. rufinotatus Curt.— More robust, the black and ochre 

more bright ; antennae, excepting the basal joint, 
ochreous. 

11. C. brevicornis Hal.— Antennas short, ochreous at the 

base : abdomen piceous, ochreous in the centre : legs 
bright ochre, apex of 4 posterior thighs, tips of hinde'i', 
tibiae, and tarsi piceous. 

12. C.apterusCW/.— The smallest. Wings none. Testaceous; 

head, extremity of antennae, apex of abdomen, and tips 
of tarsi, blackish. 

The plant is Lythrum Salicaria (Purple-spiked Willow- 
herb). 



3S3 




cy.^A./iycy.o^^,y^£^^./:/ci/ 



383. 
APHIDIUS CIRSII. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Ichneumonidoe. 

Tyipe of the Genus, Ichneumon Aphidum Linn. 
Aphidius Nees. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 547. — Hal. — Incubus Schr. — 
Ichneumon Linn., DeG., Geoff". 

Antennce inserted in front of the face, scarcely so long as the 
body, pubescent and in some thickened towards the apex 
composed of II joints (sometimes of as many as 24), basal 
joint longer and stouter than the 2nd which is ovate, 3rd slender 
longer than the 1st, the remainder gradually growing thicker, 
terminal joint the longest and conical. (1, the base). 
Labrum undiscovered. 

Mandibles subtrigonate, arched, acute, one notched near the 
apex, externally pilose (3). 

MnxillcE terminated by a pilose lobe, with a sublanceolate one 

on the inside. Palpi composed of 4 nearly equal, moderate and 

pilose joints, basal joint subclavate, 2nd dilated, obovate, 3rd 

and 4th slenderer, the latter subfusiform (4). 

Mentum obtrigonate. Palpi short, pilose, triarticulate, basal 

joint small, 2nd rather longer, 3rd globose-ovate. Lip hollow, 

rounded and pubescent (5). 

Head transverse, the crown broad. Eyes rather small. Ocelli 3 m 

triangle. Prothorax short. Scutellum semioval. Abdomen attached 

by a short and stout petiole, convex and subfusiform in the male 

ovate-conic in the female. Wings pubescent and iridescent, superior 

with few cells, the stigma large (9), inferior nerveless. Legs slender: 

thighs and tibiae of equal length simple, the latter spurred. Tarsi 

5-jointed, basal joint considerably the longest in the hind pair. 

Claws minute : pulvilli large extending beyond them (8, afore leg). 

Obs. The dissections were drawn from A. dimidiatus Curt. 

CiRSii Curt. — Aphidum Linn. Faun. Suec. 410, 1643 ? 

Female. Shining pitchy black. Antennae thickest towards the 
apex, with the 2nd and 3rd joints dirty ochre : wings transparent, 
but faintly tinted with brown : the stigma very faint and nearly 
open : petiole ochreous, broad and short with a tubercle on each 
side at the base : abdomen short and depressed, piceous, slightly 
ochreous at the base and apex v;hich is acuminated and bent 
down, with 2 straight diverging valves beneath (6). Legs dirty 
ochre, 4 posterior coxae and thighs piceous, as well as the tibiae, 
excepting at the base : tarsi dusky. 

Li the Cabinet of Mr. A. H. Haliday. 



These little insects are parasitic, and live in the female 
Aphides : we sometimes see their horny bronzed cases stick- 
ing to the leaves of roses and other plants, with a round hole 
on one side and the lid frequently hanging like a door on its 
hinges, as represented in Harris's Exposition, tab. 18. f. 10. 
from these some of the little Ichneumons or their minuter 



destroyers have escaped, for these again have their parasites 
as we learn from Geoffroy, who states that a Cynips destroys 
the larvae of the Ichneumon des Peucerons (Aphidius), and 
from his description I think it may be my Ceraphron Carpen- 
teri (folio 249* No. 10), which I there stated had been bred 
from the Aphides by the late Mr. Carpenter. 

I am indebted to Mr. Haliday for a valuable monograph 
containing 19 species of Aphidii ; and Mr. F. Walker tells me 
he thinks he has about 50. It being therefore impossible to 
give specific characters of the whole, I shall avail myself of 
Mr. Haliday's paper, and give his admirable divisions. 

* Wings with 3 cubital areolets (Div. 1. Nees). Radial areolet termi- 
nating at the apex. Head small, rather globose. Antennse shorter than 
the body of 11 joints in both sexes. Aculeus short compressed, a little 
curved upwards. 

* * Wings with one cubital cell effuse to the margin, distinct from the 
anterior of the disc (Div. 3. Nees). Wings very ample, the radial areolet 
effuse, including the whole apex. Antennae and legs long and extremely slen- 
der. Head small globular narrowed to the back. Palpi long and slender. 

Mr. Haliday has described 4 species of the first division, 
and 3 of this, but has given no names, and I have none of them. 

* * * Wings with the anterior cell of the disc and inner cubital confluent 
and sometimes both together open to the margin (Div. 2. Nees). Head 
more transverse than in the other divisions. Radial cell terminating at 
the apex, its interior nervure often vanishing before the apex. 

a. Valves of the aculeus compressed, straight or curved upwards, black 
(Antennae longer in the males, varying in the number of joints, more nu- 
merous in the same sex : middle cell complete or open only to the exterior 
cubital one). 

This division contains A. Pini Hal., the males taken on 
the larch in Aug. the females on the Finns sylvestris in Sept. 
— infulatus Hal. on the larch in Aug. — pictus Curt, on the 
Scotch fir, Sept. — dimidiatus Curt. — Rosae, Hal.? — picipes 
Nees, infests the Aphides of Hieracium ? — fumatus Hal. 

b. Valves of the aculeus incurved, broad, generally securiform, pale, 
f Anus beneath unarmed. 

1. The middle areolet defined posteriorly. 
Contains two unnamed species. 

2. The middle areolet entirely eftuse to the margin (species very minute). 
Contains two species, and probably A. basalis Curtis^s Guide. 
ft Anus beneath in female armed with 2 diverging horns recurved at 

the end, longer than the aculeus which lies between them. Middle areolet 
effuse. Antennae in the females of 1 1 joints, rather thicker towards the apex. 
Contains A. letifer .H«Z.^ — A. minutus Curt. — A. constrictus 
Hal., and another. 

The insect figured may be the I. Aphidum Linn.: but as 
the specific name has been converted into one for the genus 
by Nees ab Esenbeck, I have given it the name of ' Cirsii ' 
from its being said to be parasitic on the Aphis Cirsii, so 
named from its inhabiting Cirsium arvense Lam., the Carduus 
arvensis of this Work, PI. 296. 

The Plant figured \s Anemone aj^ennina (Mountain Anemone) 
from Lord Spencer's park, communicated by W. Christy, Esq- 




'M-hf ^/ S^A^U,J-r..U. 'TTU^A ,f(i^t^ 



22. 
IB ALIA CULTELLATOR. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Diplolepidas Led. 
Type of the Genus, Ichneumon Cultellator Fab. 
Ibalia Lat., III., Curt. — Ichneumon. Ophion, Banchus Fah. — Cynips 
Jur. — Sagaris Panz. 

Antennce straight, inserted in the centre of the face between the eyes, 
approximating, fihform, composed of 15 joints in the male; third 
joint bent, clavate, emarginate on the external edge (1.); a little 
clavate and 13-johited in the female (1. ? .), second joint very small. 
Labrum corneous, minute, transverse, arcuated before, emarginate in 
the centre. Lat. 

Mandibles thick, nearly quadrate, tridentate on the internal side in 
one mandible and bidentate in the other, apical tooth most acute, in- 
ferior broad, truncate. (3.) 

Maxilla very broad in the middle, terminal lobe broad at the apex, 
slightly bilobed, ciliated : Palpi short, pubescent, 5-jointed, first and 
fourth joints small, second and fifth large, elongate-obtrigonate, 
rounded at the apex. (4.) 

Mentum pear-shaped. (5. a.) Palpi short, hairy, 3-jointed, terminal 
joint equal in length to the other two. {b.) Lip small, concave, 
nearly circular, (c.) 
Head transverse, as broad as the thorax, concave behind. Ocelli 3. Thorax 
elongate-ovate, flat, slightly compressed. Scutellum subquadrate, bituber- 
culate. Abdomen attached by a very short petiole, very much compressed, 
knife-shaped, being very sharp on the under side, with a puncture or spi- 
racle on each side of the last joint ; composed of 6 joints, of nearly equal 
size, very much arched in the male. (7.) 5th and 6th joints the largest in 
the female with 2 elongated lamince, between which a capillary oviduct 
passes, and is curved over the back. (6.) Superior wings ivith no de- 
cided stigma, costal nerve very distinct, one marginal cell, linear-lanceo- 
late ; 3 submarginal cells, first small, oblong, second extremely minute, 
third large, complete ; inferior wings with a nerve branched near the ex- 
tremity, four anterior feet short and slender : coxae of posterior legs large ; 
thighs short, robust ; tibiae very long, first joint of tarsus very long, second 
small, produced into a spine on the external side (8. «.), third and fourth 
small, fifth longer, slender (Sf hinder leg of male) : tarsi 5-jointed, ter- 
minated by pulvilli, and claws. 
The dissections of the mouth were made from a female, of which the labrum 
was lost; the ovipositor was represented too short, in the 1st edition, from 
the specimen being imperfect. 



Cultellator Fa6. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 563. 1. 

Black, hairy, rugose, head and thorax striated transversely, the latter 
with the margin of the collar elevated, and three longitudinal grooves 
down the back. Abdomen bright ochraceous, shining. Legs black 
or fuscous, hinder thighs tinged with chestnut colour. Wings pale 
yellowish-fuscous : nervures strong and dark. 
In the Author s Cabinet. 

319 



The genus Ibalia contains at present, I believe, no other species 
than Cultellator, and was never known to inhabit Britain until the 
male represented in the plate was captured flying in a garden at 
Bungay, Suffolk, by Mr. W. H. C. Edwards, justly celebrated for 
his masterly engravings and knowledge of the fine arts. It is also 
found in Germany and the South of France. M. Latreille found 
it in the environs of Brive, in a wood of old Horn-beams, vaulting 
round some of the trees, in the month of May : M. Foudras also 
takes it near Lyons. The economy and habits of this genus are 
supposed to be similar to the rest of the family, forming galls upon 
various plants. 

The eccentric structure of the third joint of the antennae in the 
male at once shows that Ibalia belongs to the Diplolepida;'^, of 
which family it is the largest species; the second submarginal cell 
is so minute, that it is scarcely discernible through a lens; the 
hinder legs in both sexes are very powerful, and exceedingly dis- 
prqportioned to the body and other legs, which are remarkably 
small. Ibalia is nearly allied to Cynips (pi. 688), but it is readily 
distinguished by the length of the abdomen and the neuration of 
the wings. The singular spine on the second joint of the hinder 
tarsi of both sexes, as well as the puncture or spiracle on the side 
of the abdomen, has hitherto, I believe, escaped the observation of 
authors. 

It may be here observed, that the mandibles are often not coun- 
terparts of each other, tlie shape being adapted to their close con- 
tact when at rest; other parts of the mouth are also sometimes ir- 
regularly formed. The student must not be misled by these excep- 
tions, which are most frequent in the Hymcnoptera^ occasionally 
in the Coleoptcra, and probably all the Mandibulat(e. 

The plant figured is SteUaria jiiedia, Common Chick weed. 

* This family ought to have been called Cynipidce, but having adopted La- 
treille's term, it has been tliought better to retain it through the work to prevent 
confusion. 



688 



,t'-f/*WX 




£ / ^ 



L^..^ ' /■ Cv*^- r-^'^ ■■ /■ ^ V c 



688. 
CYNIPS NERVOSA. 

Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Diplolepidae. 

Type of the Genus, Cynips Quercus radicis Fab. 
Cynips Linn., Fab., Curt. 

AntenncE inserted in a cavity in front of the face, longer than the 
body in the males (1 (^), subsetaceous, pubescent, and 15-jointed, 
basal joint the stoutest, short and ovate, 2nd the smallest ovate, 
3rd the longest, suddenly bent and slightly emarginate towards 
the apex, 4th shorter and linear, the remainder decreasing iu 
size to the last joint, which is shghtly longer than the penul- 
timate ; not longer than the body, slightly clavate and 14-jointed 
in the females ( ? ), 3rd joint the longest but simple, 4th and 
5th linear, 6th stouter and shorter, the remainder subturbinate, 
apical joint a little longer, ovate-conic. In some species there 
are only 13 joints. 
Labrum undiscovered. 

Mandibles broad, subtrigonate, terminating in a strong tooth, 
with a trigouate tooth next it, and sometimes a third inside (3). 
Maxillce terminated by a double ovate hairy lobe. Falpi rather 
long, hairy and 5-jointed, basal joint minute, 2nd long slender 
and clavate, 3rd and 4th oblong, 5th the stoutest, elongate, 
semiovate, the apex being truncated obliquely (4). 
Mentum elongated, narrow, a little dilated anteriorly, forming 
shoulders for the insertion of the Palpi, which are short stout 
and biarticulate, basal joint the longest, 2nd ovate-conic. 
Obs. there is an indistinct suture giving an appearance of a 
central joint, which is fully developed I believe in some species. 
Labium moderate, hollow rounded and pubescent (5). 
Head short transverse ; face suborbicular : eyes small, lateral and ovate : 
oceUi forming a large depressed triangle on the crown. Thorax 
gibbose, ovate, collar very short : scntel semiovate. Ahdomen smaller 
than the thorax, especially in the male, ovate compressed and trun- 
cated obliquely, attached by a short thick petiole, basal joint large, 
apical ones very short : oviduct slender and curved, attached above 
near the apex, and emerging through a sheath below and 2 large cla- 
vate ones above. Wings, superior very much longer than the body, 
with a large subtrigonate marginal cell, discoidal cells incomplete, 
but occasionally ivith a triangular areolet, costal nervure none (9) .• 
inferior rather small, with 2 basal nervures. Legs strong, hinder 
the longest: coxse, hinder incrassated : tibiae simple, with minute spurs 
at the apex: tarsi rather long, slender, and 5-jointed: claws and pul- 
vUli small. Obs. the antennae are drawn from C. megaptera Panz. 

Nervosa Curt, Guide, Gen. 564. 4. 

Female black shining, obscurely punctured and slightly pube- 
scent; antennae 14-jointed, as long as the body, 2 basal joints 
brownish : ocelli very large : postscutel rugose with 3 parallel 
ridges : abdomen very smooth and ochreous, the lower sheath 
brown ; wings pale fuscous, iridescent, nervures brown, edges 
of marginal cell suffused ; anterior legs pale ochreous, interme- 
diate brown, hinder piceous, base of all the thighs darker, apical 
joint of tarsi fuscous. 

In the Author's Cabinet. 



This group of insects, called Gall-nut flies, deposits its eggs 
in the leaves, buds, stalks, and even in the roots of plants, 
thereby forming the various and curious galls which are com- 
monly found upon the oak and other trees, rose bushes, &c. 
One of them, C. Gallcs-tiiictoricB, is the origin of the Oak-gall 
in Asia Minor, which is employed in making ink, dyeing, &c., 
and another, there is little doubt, is the author of the bitter 
apples alluded to in the Old Testament. Protected as the 
larvae are in the heart of a hard ball, they are not secure from 
the attacks of other Hymenoptera, which by means of their 
ovipositors are enabled to pierce the galls, and lay their eggs 
in the tender larvae, so that instead of the Cynips alone, a 
tenfold greater number of Callimome (fol. 552.) and Ichneu- 
monidaD often issue with them from the galls. 

The abdomen of a female that I dissected was filled with 
eggs; the oviduct was attached near the superior angle and 
curved vertically towards the base, and was exserted under or 
between the laminse at a short distance from the ventral sheath. 
Roesel has given figures of the Galls, larvae, pupae and imago 
in pi. 35, 36, 52 and 55 of vol. iii. The following species 
from my collection seem to be undescribed. 

4. nervosa Curt. Brit. Ent. j)l- 688 ? . 

July, Dover. It is distinguished from C. Ros(E by the large 
ocelli, carinated scutel, dark hind legs, the absence of the brown 
splash on the costa of the upper wings, and of the areolet. 

5. brevicornis Curt. Guide. Fem. black, shining; abdomen bright 
ferruginous ; legs bright ochreous, tips of tarsi fuscous ; mandibles and 
antennaj ferruginous, the latter brownish towards the apex, not much 
longer than the head and thorax, 13-jointed, terminal joint the longest: 
length \-\ line. Dover. 

12. pallidicornis Curt. Shining piceous; antennae mouth and legs 
ochreous, the former shorter than the body, subclavate, 13-jointed, 3rd 
joint the longest : ^ long. 

17. Anthracina Curt. Fewi. black, head minutely punctured ; abdo- 
men piceous, beneath paler, legs lurid ochre, tips of tarsi brown, antennae 
shorter than the body, subclavate, 15-jointed, brown, 2 basal joints ochre- 
ous, 3rd the longest, wings long, transverse nervures of wings suffused 
yellowish-brown : 1^ long. May, Coomb Wood. 

26. crassicornis Curt. Head and thorax black and punctured, abdo- 
men shining piceous: autennse as long as the body, 15-jointed, ochreous, 
apex brown, 3rd joint the stoutest and longest; legs piceous, anterior 
ochreous, base of thighs, outside of tibiae and tips of tarsi piceous ; wings 
■with faint nervures : -J long. 

27. fulviceps Curt. Shining black, head and legs bright ochre; an- 
tennae longer than the body, fuscous, base ochreous, 2 basal joints ovate, 
3rd slender, scarcely longer than the following, wings very ample: -| long. 
Bred from female Aphides by the late Mr. T. Carpenter. 

32. pedestris Curt. Shining piceous ; head large and black ; legs and 
antennje ochreous, the latter fuscous beyond the middle, as long as the 
body, 14-jointed, 2 basal joints stout ovate, 3rd a little longer: thighs 
brownish at the base, tips of tarsi fuscous ; wings rudimentary : -A- a line 
long. Southgate, Mr. Walker, and also No. 26. 
For Mr. Walker's characters of Sections consult the 3rd 

vol. of the Ent. Mag. 

The Plant is Conium mactilatum, Common Hemlock, 



cl// 





df^.-^c/.SM^^^c/a^: /./dS/ 



341. 
GALESUS FUSCIPENNIS. 



Ord. Hymenoptera. Fam. Proctotrupidae Cwr^. Oxy wvi Lat. 

Type of the Genus, Psilus cornutus Panz. 
Galesus Hal. MSS., Curtis. — Psilus Panz., Jur. — Diapria Lat. 

Antennce inserted on the edge of a large cup formed by tlie pro- 
jection of the face, very pubescent and pilose, as long as the 
body, geniculated, filiform in the male and 14-jointed, basal joint 
the longest curved and angulated on the inside, 2d and 3d joints 
the shortest and slenderest, the remainder robust and oblong, 
the terminal joint long and conical (I) : shorter clavate and 12- 
jointed in the female, the 2d and 3d joints being rather longer 
than the following, suboval, 4th and 5th ovate, the following 
moniliform, increasing in size to the terminal joint, which is 
long and conical (1 a). 

Lahrum} subcordate, ciliated with long hairs (2). 
MancZi6Zes approximating, rostrlform, porrected, long and slightly 
pilose, bent and pointed at the apex, the inside very much sinu- 
ated, with a tooth towards the apex (3). 

Maxillce externally corneous, terminated by 2 thin semioval 
plates, lying close together, one producing a series of bristles, 
the other ciliated. Pulpi rather long and slender, attached ap- 
parently to a minute scape, 5-jointed, 1st and 2nd joints nearly 
of equal length, 3d short oblong, 4th and 5th dilated, the former 
at the apex, the latter is the longest and truncated obliquely (4). 
Mentum lozenge-shaped, anterior margin rounded, beyond which 
extends a fleshy Labium. Palpi biarticulate, basal joint slender 
and clavate, 2d rather longer, robust, pilose (5). 
Trophi dejiexed (If) forming a rostrum beneath the Head which is 
oval, the crown elevated in front with a short horn on each side the 
face sloping inward to the clypeus. Eyes lateral small and oval. 
Ocelli 3, placed on the fore part of the crown of the head, very large 
( I *, underside of the head of a female, 1 1 the same in profile) . Neck 
distinct. Thorax broader than the head, elongate-ovate, the sutures 
very strongly marked: squamulse very large and covering the base of 
the superior wings. Scutellum emarginate at the apex the angles 
acute. Petiolus robust andjlutcd. Abdomen elongate-ovate rather 
conical at the apex in the female, basal joint with a deep channel at 
the base and covering the whole body, excepting the apex. Wings 
iridescent, pubescent and ciliated, superior very large, narrow at the 
base, rounded at the apex, with a short subcostal nervure, a transverse 
curved callous nervure near the base and several nervures indicated 
only, and no cells : inferior wings small and narrow. Legs rather 
short and slender : coxae long : thighs short and incrassated : tibiae, 
anterior very slender at the base and robust at the apex, producing 
a long curved and acute spine, dilated below the apex : tarsi 5-joint- 
ed, basal joint long, curved at the base and beautifully pectinated i/i 
the anterior pair, terminal joint shorter than the basal one: claws 
acute: pulvilli membranous (8, afore leg). 

FusciPENNis Curtis's Guide, Gen. 570. No. 1. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Walker and the Author. 



Galesus is characterized by the peculiar form of the antennae, 
and by the remarkable head and distinct petiole ; and it may 
be observed that the Psili of Jurine, which are the Diaprise of 
Latreille, vary from our genus in having the third joint of the 
antennse long. 

In dissecting this insect, the curious scales vi'hich cover the 
base of the superior wings attracted my notice; they are thin 
and moveable, and may be used in closing the large wings, 
which for want of strong nervures, probably require iheir as- 
sistance. The dilated spine at the apex of the anterior tibiae, 
and the beautiful pectinated basal joint at the tarsi, although 
common in the Hymenoptera, are seldom more developed. I 
have now little doubt that they are for the purpose of clean- 
ing the antennae ; few insects are without a spine to the ante- 
rior tibiae, and the basal joint of their tarsi is generally hol- 
lowed out inside, if it be not always pectinated in this order. 

Three species only have been discovered ; Mr. Haliday 
thinks the third may be a small variety of the second. 

1. G. fuscipennis Curtis Brit. Ent. }-)l. ^41. male. 

Smooth, black and shining, partially covered with yellowish 
pubescence : antennae as long as the wings in the male, with 
the fourth and following joints elongated: eyes castaneous: 
ocelli pale : scutellum rugose : petiole with five very elevated 
longitudinal lines: wings pale, fuscous, yellowish towards the 
base, superior, with two white, and two or three brownish lon- 
gitudinal lines on each ; a callous spot below the apex of the 
subcostal nervure, and the curved one near the base, yellow- 
ish brown : base of thighs, tibiae, and tarsi castaneous, the 
hinder tibiae with a dark spot below the middle and the tips 
of the tarsi black. 

The male figured I took in Norfolk many years since, and 
Mr. F. Walker finds it amongst grass in woods near South- 
gate, in June and July. 

2. G. cornutus Panz. 83. W. female. 

Antennae shorter than the wings in the male, having the 
fourth and following joints subovate, excepting the apical one 
(f. 1.): wings very pale, yellowish-luscous: petiole with five 
faint elevated lines : base and tips of the thighs castaneous, all 
the tibiae blackish in the middle, the hinder pair and the tarsi 
castaneous only at the base. 

Males taken in February and April, in shady places ; and 
females beginning of July, on the sea-shore at Holywood, by 
Mr. Haliday. 

3. G. claviger Hal. MSS. Curtis's Guide, No. 3. 

Length three quarters of a line and one and a quarter. Male 
undiscovered : females very similar to the last, with which they 
were taken by Mr. Haliday. 

The plant is Pinguicula lusitanica (Pale Butterwort), from 
Boscomb Chine, Hants, communicated by the Honourable 
C. A. Harris. 



3S0 





.yw,.iyJ^€^'-£. ■,^^.■/.■f6&f 



380. 
CINETUS DORSIGER. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Proctotrupidjje. 
Type of the Genus, Cinetus gracilipes Curt. 

CixETUS Jur., Curt. Guide, Gen. 573. 

AntenncE approximating, as long as the body, filiform, pubescent 
and 14-jointed in the males, basal joint a little thickened in the 
middle, not longer than the 3rd ; 2nd globose, the remainder 
slightly decreasing in length j the 3rd joint is emarginate outside 
at the base, the apical joint subconical (1) : 15-jointed in the 
females. 

Labrum undiscovered. 

Mandibles short, one trigonate, rounded at the apex, with a slight 
protuberance on the inside, the other bifid at the apex, emargi- 
nate on the inside at the base, forming a strong tooth (3). 
Maxilla with the base broad, terminated by a large rounded lobe, 
produced on the outside, ciliated and bristly at the margin. 
Palpi very long, pubescent, pilose and 6-jointed, basal joint mi- 
nute, 2nd longer, 3 following of equal length and a little longer, 
the 3rd slender, 4th and 5th dilated, 6th nearly twice as long as 
the 5th and slender (4). 

Mentum small obconic. Lip short and fleshy. Palpi rather long, 
pubescent and triarticulate, 1st and 2nd joints of equal length, 
subclavate, 3rd longer, clavate ovate and pilose (5). 
Head subglobose, slightly produced in front at the insertion of the an- 
tennae. Eyes lateral and suboval. Ocelli rather large, 3 in triangle 
on the crown of the head. Thorax gibbous, obovate ; scutellum ra- 
ther large, the angles of the postscutellum often acuminated. Wings 
generally ample and pubescent, with a subcostal nervure, a furcate 
longitudinal nervure below, with a transverse one towards the base, 
the Stigma open and forming a trigonate cell producing a nervure 
at the lower angle (9). Abdomen with the basal joint forming a 
robust peduncle, 2nd joint covering the whole body, excepting the 
apex which is composed of 6 or 7 rings. Coxse long. Thighs short 
and incrassated. Tibiae spurred, very slender at the base and robust 
at the apex, especially the anterior, which are furnished with a curved 
and bifid spine at the apex. Tarsi long and b-jointed, basal joint 
long curved and pectinated on the inside at the base in the anterior 
pair, terminal joint not longer than the 2nd. Claws acute. Pulvilli 
long. 

DoRSiGER Halidarfs MSS. 

Ochreous shining, slightly pubescent: antennae brown, base 
ochreous : eyes, margins of the ocelli and disc of the thorax 
and scutellum black : abdomen pellucid, dirty white, excepting 
towards the apex : wings iridescent, the nervures brown. 
In the Cabinet of Mr. Holiday, 



Belyta and Cinetus are so much connected, and the females 
are so similar, that until we have the sexes of the different 
species it will be difficult to determine whether the genera 
ought to be separated or united. Jurine distinguishes Ci- 
netus by the triangular costal cell, and the antennae of the 
males are 14-jointed, those of the females 15-jointed. Since 
the plate was engraved I have availed myself of Mr. Haliday's 
papers, and I have scarcely any doubt that the fig. 1 a, belongs 
to Jurine's genus Belyta; I have therefore not incorporated 
the characters of this sex in the generic description, but I 
strongly suspect some of the females have antennae very similar 
to the figure above alluded to. 

The following species have been already detected in Britain, 
although only one has ever been recorded, except in the Guide, 
and there is no figure of the genus, I believe, in any work, 
British or foreign. 

1. C. Rubecula Hal.— Curt. Guide, Gen. 573. 1. 

2. C. bicornis Ste. 

SW C. arraatus Hal. Male !-§- line long; black, shining and slightly pilose, 
tip of the 1st and base of the 2nd joint of antennae castaneous, 
angles of postscutelluni very acuminate. Wings fuscous, nervures 
piceous. Legs ferruginous, base of coxee, middle of thighs and of 
4 anterior tibiae and tarsi at the apex piceous. 

3. C. gracilis Curt. If- line long : similar to No. 2 '' but more slender ; 

the 3rd joint of antennae is strongly sinuated, the base of abdomen 
castaneous, the legs are entirely ochreous and the open stigma is 
elongated. June, Bexley, Kent. 

4. C. gracilipes Curt. 2\ lines long : black shining ; peduncle slender, as 

long as the abdomen : wings slightly yellow, nervures ochreous, 
antennge and legs ferruginous ochre, the former fuscous at the 
apex, posterior thighs castaneous. 

5. C. fuliginosus Curt. \\ line long : similar to No. 4; the abdomen much 

narrower, and oval. Wings dusky, nervures piceous. 

6. C. Cantianus Curt. 1 line long : black, shining : wings transparent, 

the open stigma elongated : legs ferruginous brown, antennae cas- 
taneous at the base, submoniliform in the female. 

7. C. Vigil Hal. 

8. C. maurus Hal. 

9. C. Numida Hal. 

10, C. nigripennis Hal. April, Holy wood. 

12. C. ruficornis Curt. Female 1§^ line long: robust, black and shining, 

angles of postscutellum produced ; peduncle short and thick : 
wings yellow, the open stigma elongated, nervures piceous : an- 
tennae and legs rufous ochre, the former moniliform. 

13. C. maculatus Hal. 

14. C. dorsiger Hal. — Brit. Ent.pl. 380. The male figured was taken on 

an oak by A. H. Haliday, Esq. in the county of Galway, Ireland. 

17. C. Cursor Curt. Female. Similar to No. 12. in size and colour, but 

having very short and imperfect wings ; the base and tip of the 
abdomen are ferruginous. 

18. C, MirmJUo Hal. 

19. C. dryinoides Hal. 

20. C. astutus Hal. 

No. 11. (bicolor Jur.) of the Guide, and probably 14, 15, 
and 16, ought to be arranged under Belyta. 

The Plant is Cnicus pratensis (Meadow Plume-thisde.) 



40J 




c^..^c^(<$;wo r/Ly /.-mt 



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403. 

HELORUS ANOMALIPES. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Proctotrupidse. 

Type of the Genus, Sphex anomalipes Patiz. 

Helorus Lat., Jur., C?(rf.— Sphex Panz. 

Antenncc inserted between the eyes, not approximating, shorter 
than the body, filiform and clothed with very short pubescence, 
composed of IG joints, basal joint the stoutest, ovate-truncate, 
2nd globose, 3rd ring-shaped, 4th longer than the following 
which decrease slightly in length to the apical joint which is 
ovate (1). 

Labrum ? long narrow, spear-shaped and ciliated with long 
bristles (2). 

Mandibles porrected, strong, curved and slightly hairy, the apex 
forming a large tooth with 2 large ones below on the inside (3) ; 
the superior the smallest in one mandible. 
Maxillcje terminated by a rounded hairy coriaceous lobe, with a 
large but thinner one on the inside. Palpi long hairy and 
5-jointed, 1st and 2nd joints of equal length, the former very 
slender at the base, the others very long, the 3rd and 4th being 
stout and subclavate, 5th the longest and slenderest (4). 
Mentum oblong, hairy, emarginate on each side near the apex, 
where the Palpi are attached ; they are rather long hairy and 
triarticulate ; basal joint slightly clavate, 2nd shorter, subovate, 
3rd a little longer than the 1st subclavate (.5). 
Head rather large and transverse. Eyes lateral and oval. Ocelli 3. 
Thorax obovate, the postscuiellum rugose. Wings iridescent and 
pubescent superior rather broad, the stigma rather large with a small 
angulated marginal cell, and a minute looped one on the disc. Ab- 
domen attached by a long peduncle, stoutest at the base, the body 
ovate-conic, with the apex hiflected, the greater portion covered by 
the basal joint (6). Legs simple. Tibiae; anterior with a curved 
spine at the apex, the others with small spurs. Tarsi as long as the 
tibicB, 5-jointed, basal joint long, 4th small. Claws distinct. 



Anomalipes Panz. 52. 23. and 100. 18 var. — Curt. Guide, Gen.574.2. 
Black shining and punctured, clothed with very minute yellowish 
hairs. Trophi ferruginous, the head with 2 large fovese in front 
where the antennse are inserted, postscutellum rugose : peduncle 
urn-shaped, channelled and carinated at the base. Legs ochre- 
ous, the base of the anterior and the whole of the other thighs, 
excepting the tips, black, the apex of the; tarsi fuscous. Wings 
slightly stained with yellowish brown, the stigma and nervures 
piceous. 

In the Author s and other Cabinets. 



Helorus is a genus that does not appear to be immediately 
connected with any that have been at present discovered, for 
the neuration of the wings reminds us of Cynips ; the peduncu- 
lated body, of Agriotypus (pi. 389.); and the structure of the 
mouth shows an affinity to Bethylus, to which genus I believe 
Mr. Haliday thinks it most allied ; indeed there can be no 
doubt of its belonging to the family of Proctotrupidas ; but it 
may be at once distinguished from all its congeners by the 
curved nervure, forming, as Jurine observes, a horse-shoe in 
the centre of the superior wings. 

The portion of the mouth figured as the labrum, may be 
only an appendage to it, but it was all I could discover, and 
I had only the opportunity of dissecting one specimen ; I be- 
lieve a similar lobe is exserted from the mouths of the Bethyli. 

Mr. F. Walker showed me some specimens which I sus- 
pect are the males of our insect ; they are more slender, the 
antennae are brown or ochreous, the wings transparent, the 
peduncle much more slender than in my specimen ; the body 
is more acute, the legs are very slender and ochreous, with 
black coxae, and the posterior thighs are brown, except at the 
base and apex. 

It is not improbable that the H. ater represented in Jurine's 
14th plate may be nothing more than a variety of H. anoma- 
lipes with the legs entirely black ; for in one of Panzer's figures 
all the thighs are black, and I have a specimen in which only 
the tips of the anterior thighs and their tibiae are ochreous. 

Helorus is by no means a common insect; I took speci- 
mens many years since in Norfolk, and Mr. Kirby has ob- 
served it in Suffolk ; Mr. F. Walker takes it at Southgate in 
a marshy meadow in August ; Mr. Dale has found it on Parley 
Heath, Dorset; and Mr. Haliday sent me a specimen from 
Belfast ; he detected it in a marshy field at Holywood. 

The Plant represented is Solanum nigrum (Common Night- 
shade). 



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744. 
PROCTOTRUPES AREOLATOR. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Proctotrupidae. 

Type of the Genus, Ichneumon gravidator Linn. 
Proctotrupes Lat., Hal., Curt. — Codrus Jur. Esen. — Bassus Fab. 
AntenncB inserted in the middle of the face, remote, not so long 
as the body, iiliform, or slightly thickened towards the apex, 
pubescent, 13-jointed, basal joint elongate-ovate, stout, 2nd 
small, cup-shaped, 3rd the longest, the remainder gradually 
decreasing in length, the apical joint a little longer than the 
penultimate, the apex somewhat conical (1). 
Labrum transverse, semiovate, hairy (2). 
Mandibles rather slender, slightly curved, not very acute (3). 
Maxilla terminating in a short irregular hairy divided lobe, di- 
lated externally. Palpi 5-jointed? longish and hairy, basal 
joint short, indistinctly articulated, 2nd long sto«t and clavate, 
3rd similar but a little longer, 4th the longest clavate, slenderer 
than the preceding, 5th rather shorter and attenuated (4). 
Mentum oblong, rounded at the base. Labium very short and 
rounded. Palpi moderate, hairy, clavate, triarticulate, basal 
joint longish, 2nd short, 3rd stout, elongate-obovate (5). 
Head short and broad, face suborbicular : eyes lateral prominent and 
oval : ocelli 3 in triangle. Thorax narroioer than the head and very 
long : collar compressed : scutel semiglobose : metathorax long 
narrow and rounded behind. Wings pubescent, iridescent : superior 
with a large stigma and a very small m.arginal areolet, or a some- 
what triangular cell ; costal and subcostal nervures parallel, a dis- 
coidal cell and 2 longitudinal nervures are also faintly traced (9) ; 
inferior wings nerveless. Abdomen as long as the thorax and a 
little thicker, attached by a short thick petiole, 6-jointed, ovate- 
conic, the apex furnished tvith 2 short appendages in the male, atte- 
nuated in the female ; ovipositor considerably shorter than the body, 
incurved (7) composed of 2 strong sheaths, ciliated and slightly 
hooked at the apex (a), inclosing a slender lanceolate sheath {b), 
which contains 2 valves (c), that are curved and pointed, and these 
are confined by the apex of the sheath which forms a cap, into which 
they fit, besides these there is a long broader membranous filament 
with a rib in the centre {m). Legs rather slender, hinder long : 
coxae, hinder with a spur at the internal apex : thighs slightly cla- 
vate : tibiae simple, spurred at the apex : tarsi long slender and 5- 
jointed, basal joint the longest and stoutest, 4th not much shorter than 
the 5th : claws rather long and slender : pulvilli distinct. 



Areolator Hal. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 575, no. 6. — ephippium no. 17, 
Shining piceous-black, disc of thorax and scutel rufous : meta- 
thorax clothed with pale hairs, rugose, with a ridge down the 
middle : petiole short, dilated towards the apex, striated as well 
as the base of the following segment ; ovipositor incurved, 
half as long as the abdomen, ferruginous ; antennae much shorter 
than the body, brown, 4 or 5 of the basal joints ochreous : wings 
yellowish, a little fuscous towards the apex, costal nervures and 
stigma piceous, marginal areolet elongate-trigonate, the other 
nervures faint ; legs ferruginous-ochre, tips of tarsi fuscous. 



It was the opinion of Latreille and Esenbeck that Proctotru- 
pes is allied to Helorus (pi. 403), and Mr. Haliday considers 
that it connects Diapria (Psilus) and Ceraphron (pi. 24'9). I 
must confess I expected to find it related to Cynips, and being 
unable to enter upon its affinities, I shall pass on to an ex- 
amination of the ovipositor, which offers some peculiar cha- 
racters. In the Ichneumonidae this organ is either porrected 
or elevated, but in ProctoLrupes it is deflexed. Like that 
family, however, it has 2 sheaths inclosing a compound ovi- 
duct composed of 3 pieces, as shown in Pimpla (pi. 214. f. 6), 
but in Proctotrupes these are acuminated, and the lateral ones 
have their points securely fixed in the central one, the apex 
of which forms a cap for them : the most remarkable part of 
the structure, however, is an additional valve a little longer 
than any of the others, rather broad and membranous, with 
a thickened rib down the middle, the apex rounded (fig. m.) : 
never having seen more than 5 pieces in any ovipositor inclu- 
ding the sheaths, I cannot at present determine its functions. 
I rejoice to see that Mr. Haliday has commenced publish- 
ing Monographs on the Oxyuri, as they will enable those en- 
gaged in the study of these minute Hymenoptera to derive 
every advantage from his elaborate investigations. The fol- 
lowing sections and species form his 1st fasciculus. 
A. Metathorax rugose. Both sexes whiged. 
B. Claws of anterior feet with appendages. 

I. niger Panz. 85. 9? 2. ater Esen. 2. 359. 8. 

3. WgdiVns Esen. 359. 9. — basalis, minor, monilitor of Guide,vars, 

4. brevicomis Guide, 575. 14. 5. longicornis Esen. 358. 7. 

B.B. Claws entire. C. Petiole conspicuous. 
D. Sides of prothorax roughish. 

6. gravidator Linn. — campanulator Fah. — Ahr. 5. 16. — ■ 
brevipennis Lat.? Gen. Crust. 4;. pi. 13. f 1. 

7. gladiator Hal. p. 10. n. 7. 8. bicolor Hal. 10. 8. 

D.D. Sides of prothorax very smooth. 

E. Scutel of mesothorax smooth. 

9. elongatus Hal. 11.9. 10. pallipes Jur. pi. 1 3. gen. 46 ? . 

II. viator Hal. 12. 11. 12. curtipennis. Guide., 575. 8. 
13. calcar Hal. 12. 13. 14. fuscipes Guide, 575. 10. 

E.E. Scutel of mesothorax bisidcated. 

15. areolator Hal— Curt. B. E.pl. 744. ? .— ephippium Guide 
n. 17. 

This is the most variable of all the species, the thorax being 
sometimes piceous. Mr. Walker gave it me many years since. 
C.C. Petiole concealed. 

16. aculeator Hal. 14. IG. 

17. LaricisHiz/. 14. 17. On larch-trees infested with Aphides. 

18. parvulus Esen. 360. 10. Females gregarious inboleti, in- 
festing the larvae of Mycetophila in the autumn. 

A.A. Metathorax smooth. 

19. apterogynus Hal. 15. 19. 

The plant is Picris hieracioidcs, Hawkvveed Ox-tongue. 



zo6 



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206. 

DRYINUS CURSOR. 

Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Proctotrupidae ^06. OxyuriZya^. 

Type of the Genus Dryinus forraicarius Lat. 
DuYiNUS Lat., Leach. — Gonatopus Klug. 

Antemice remote, slightly geniculated and clavate, pilose, inserted 
between the eyes at the base of the nasus, 10-jointed, basal joint 
long, subclavate, 4 following increasing in diameter, the 3d joint 
being a little the longest, 5th the shortest, the 6th and remainder 
turbinate, robust, of equal length, excepting the terminal joint 
which is conical and longer (1). 
Labrum undetected. 

Mandibles remote, quadridentate, externally pilose (3). 
MaxillcE small, terminated by a pilose lobe, scarcely cleft. Palpi 
very long and slender, 6-jointed, basal joint small, 2d twice as 
large, the remainder nearly of equal length, being rather long 
slender and pilose (4). 

Mentiun long, dilated anteriorly. Labium very small, concealed. 
Palpi remote, short, triarticulate, basal joint short, 2d the 
largest, 3d not larger than the 1st, rhomboidal (5), 
Head subtrigonate. Eyes large. Ocelli 3, in triangle. Thorax not 
broader than the head, the prothorax sometimes elongated. Abdomen 
not larger than the thorax, peduncled, conical and acuminated. 
Wings iridescent, pubescent, superior with a costal and marginal 
cell, the nervure of the latter from the angle sometimes indistinct, 2 
nervures running from the base to the apex intersected transversely 
before the middle ^ stigma large ^ inferior wings nerveless, lobed at 
the base (9). Legs long. Thighs incrassated, especially the an- 
terior in some and attenuated to the apex. Tibiae spurred, anterior 
short. Tarsi long 5 -jointed, anterior with the basal and terminal 
joints long of equal length, the latter being robust, producing at the 
base a horny lobe, the analogue of a 2d claw, extending to the 2d 
joint, the 3 intermediate small (8) .- basal joint the longest in the 
other feet. Claws ; anterior feet with one only, which is very long, 
re/lexed and slightly produced towards the base. Pulvilli porrected 
and very long (8) ; the other feet with 2 small claws very much di- 
lated at the base and a large Pulvillus (8 b, hind foot). 
Obs. The above description is from D. Cursoi*, the following from 
D. bicolor. Apterous like a neuter ant. Head very large. Ocelli 
very minute. Thorax very long slender, binodate. Abdomen 6- 
jointed (6), Tibiae, anterior long, ^/le Tarsi 4-jointed, basal and 
terminal joints long, intermediate very short. Claws 2, very long 
and unequal, spined internally. Pulvilli large (8 a fore foot). 

Cursor Hal. MSS. 

Black, shining, slightly pubescent. Antennae slightly ferruginous 
at the base. Head and metathorax dull, the former minutely, 
the latter coarsely punctured. Legs ochraceous. Thighs, tibiae 
and basal joint of tarsi of 4 posterior legs piceous. Wings hya- 
line, slightly stained yellow ; nervures and stigma ochreous. 
In the Cabinets of Mr. Holiday and the Author, 



Nature, ever fertile in her resources, having dispensed with 
one claw in the anterior feet of the males (at least in the spe- 
cies of which there were duplicates to examine), — to supply the 
deficiency, has produced the base of the terminal joint exactly 
as if a second claw was bent back as in the apterous sex, and 
soldered to that joint ; it would appear therefore that the means 
of capturing their prey are curtailed ; but the power to retain 
it is probably increased. Like the genus Proctotrupes, the 
abdomens are acuminated, which give them all the appearance 
of females. 

The following species (with the exception of the first and 
last) were taken by Mr. Haliday in Downshire near the Bay 
of Belfast, " on grass in open groves and the adjacent meadows, 
from the 4th of June to the middle of August. "When in the 
net they ran with uncommon activity, the chelate ungues re- 
maining reflected on the tarsus." 

A. Prothorax elongated. 

1. D. formicarius Lat. H. N. 13. 228.— Gen. Crust. 1. 12./ 6. 
— The female has been taken I believe at Ripley, Surrey, in Aug. 

B. Prothorax short. 1. Legs of nearly equal size. 

2. D. Cursor Brit. Ent. pi. 206. 

3. D. rapax Hal. MSS.—The size of D. Cursor. Black, 
shining, antennae and legs ferruginous-ochre, the former long 
and black in the middle, the apex of the posterior thighs as 
well as of the intermediate and posterior tarsi black ; stigma 
and nervures ochreous. 

4. jy.Ancidns Hal. MSS. — Smaller than the last; black shi- 
ning; antennae not longer than the thorax, fuscous except at 
the base, which is ochreous, as well as the legs, the posterior 
thighs fuscous at their apex ; nerves of the wings very obscure. 

2. Anterior legs incrassated. 

5. D. crassimanus Hal. MSS. — Like D. rapax, but more 
robust, the antennae shorter. 

6. D. fulviventris Hal. MSS.~The size of D. lucidus; black, 
abdomen fuscous-ochre, black at the base, and a dark spot 
towards the apex ; antennae and legs yellowish piceous, apex 
of the former ochreous, the posterior thighs dark at their tips, 
4 posterior tarsi and stigma dirty yellowish white. 

7. D. bicolor Hal. MSS. — Apterous, black, prothorax pale 
and dirty ochre, anterior margin brown ; antennae at their base 
and legs pale ochreous fuscous, anterior thighs at their base, 
middle thighs beneath, a stripe on the anterior tibiae and the 
apex of the 4 posterior tarsi piceous. Taken in moss on a 
bank in L-eland, April 1826. 

I cannot conclude without acknowledging my obligations to 
Mr. Haliday for the handsome manner in which he has al- 
lowed me to be the medium of communicating his valuable 
researches, as well as for his liberality in supplying me with 
specimens to illustrate this remarkable genus. 

Cardtms acaidis (Dwarf Thistle) is figured in the plate. 



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720. 
BETHYLUS FULVICORNIS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Proctotrupidae. 

Type of the Genus, Bethylus punctatus Lat. 
Bethylus Lat., Fab., Nees, Curt. — Ceraphron Panz. — Omalus Jur. 
AnteriTKe straight, slightly tapering, not remote, inserted at the 
base of the clypeus, shorter than the thorax, pubescent and a 
little pilose, 12-jointed, basal joint very stout, elongate-ovate, 
2nd oblong, slenderer than the following which are compressed, 
a little thickened to the middle and tapering again to the apex 

Labrum a semicircular membrane, inserted under the clypeus, 
with a long horny lobe in the middle and a seta at the apex (2). 
Mandibles exserted, meeting, rather large and curved, the apex 
semicylindric and truncated, with 3 or 4 small teeth (3). 
Maxilla short and broad, terminated by an oblique oval ciliated 
lobe. Palpi not long, filiform and 5 -jointed, basal joint some- 
what cup-shaped, 2nd the stoutest, oblong, 3rd and 4th the same 
length, a little clavate, 5th a trifle longer, elliptic- conic (4). 
Mentum corset-shaped, the basal angles produced, the centre 
convex, the anterior angles excised to receive the Palpi, which 
are short and biarticulate, basal joint cup-shaped, 2nd large 
clavate and pilose at the apex. Lip almost as large as the 
mentum, hollow and fleshy, the sides conniving (5). 
Head ovate or orbicular -quadrate, depressed but convex : eyes lateral, 
ovate : ocelli 3, placed in triangle at the base of the head. Thorax 
rather long and narrow : prothorax short, narrowed before : scutel 
conical trigonate : metathorax ovate, rugose at the base. Abdomen 
not longer than the thorax but broader, ovate- conic, the base with a 
short broad petiole, 2nd segment the largest, the apex furnished with 
a fleshy oviduct. Wings, superior with a costal nervure divided at 
the middle and forming a short narrow cell, closed by a small stigma, 
which emits a curved nervure not touching the costa, 2 long basal 
cells, lower one the shortest, with a pale line running to the extre- 
mity and an oblique indented one at its base : inferior with only 2 
short basal nervures. Legs, hinder a little the longest: thighs 
stoutish, compressed : tibiae narrowed at the base, with 1 spine at 
the apex: tarsi as long as the tibice, 5 -jointed, basal joint long, 3 
following very short in the anterior, 5th short and stout; claws 
short, stout and hooked at the base : pulvilli large. 



FuLvicoRNis Curt. Guide, Gen. 579. 

In the Author's Cabinet. 



I MUST confess that after great pains I am unable to satisfy 
myself as to the affinities of Bethylus, but I believe it to be 
most nearly allied to Ceraphron, fol. 249. Latreille places it 
amongst his Proctotrupii in the Gen. Crust., and says the an- 
tennas are 1 S-jointed in both sexes, that the maxillary palpi 
are 6-jointed, and the labial 3- or 4-jointed ; in his Fam. Nat. 



he includes it in his tribe Oxyuri, under the same section as 
Dryinus. Nees ab Essenbeck says the antennae are 14-jointed 
in the males, that the maxillary palpi are 6- and the labial 4- 
jointed. Jurine considers the antennae to be 13-jointed in one 
sex and 12-jointed in the other. Now it is very remarkable 
that none of my specimens agree with any of the above charac- 
ters, the antennas being all 12-jointed, and the palpi 5- and 2- 
jointed; how these incongruities are to be reconciled I know 
not. There are as great differences of opinion respecting the 
species ; for whilst some describe several, others view them as 
mere varieties : from the different situations in which I have 
found them, and from the variety of colour in their antennae 
and legs, I shall distinguish them as species. Mr. Haliday 
has ascertained that the Bethyli secrete the larvae of Lepido- 
ptera in broken reeds which occur on sand-hills, for the pur- 
pose, it is presumed, of supporting their larvae. The perfect 
insects are much attached to Syngenesious flowers, sallows, 
roses, grasses, &c. 1 must not omit to observe, that Epyris 
cannot be included with the Bethyli. 

1. cenopterus Panz. 81. 14. " Base of antennae and legs fus- 
cous-testaceous: wings opake, somewhat nerveless : 1 line." 

2. punctatus Lat. Hist. Nat, 13. 229. " Second and a few fol- 
lowing joints of antennae, and apex of tibiae and tarsi fulvous: 
superior wings obscure, with a fine white nervure trifid at 
its extremity." 

April, off" rushes on the beach at Covehithe, Suffolk : June, 
off* a hedge near Windsor, and in Yorkshire. 

3. fuscicornis Jur. tab. 13, Gen. 43. " Black, flagellum of an- 
tennae, tibiae, and tarsi testaceous: If to 2 lines." 

Off" bushes Coomb Wood and Shooter's Hill in June. 

4. fulvicornis Oirt. B. E. pi. 720. Black, shining : very mi- 
nutely shagreened, with a few scattered punctures, except- 
ing the abdomen, which is very glossy, with a slight chaly- 
beous tinge : head with an elevated longitudinal ridge be- 
tween the antennae, which are bright ochreous, as well as 
the mandibles : superior wings yellowish, with a large yel- 
lowish-brown space beyond the middle, through which runs 
a white line, nervures and stigma brown, 2 basal cells per- 
fect: inferior wings iridescent: legs ochreous, anterior thighs 
with a brown patch above, the others piceous as well as their 
tibiae, excepting the base and apex ; tips of tarsi and claws 
brown. 

August, on sand-hills. Sandwich, on the coarse grass, and 
in pits not uncommon. 

5. formicarius Pa7iz. 97. IG. " Black, middle of antennae, 
tibiae, and tarsi pale, stigma obsolete : 1 i line." 
August, Scotland. 

6. Syngenesiae Hal. Wings short. 

The plant is Anthri^cus sj/lveitris, Wild Chervil. 







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1- ndd 

317. 
SPARASION FRONTALE. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. ProctotrupidaeA^oZ>. — Oxyuri Z/a/. 

Type of the Genus, Sparasion frontale Lat. 

Sparasion Lat., Lea., Curt. — Ceraphron Jur. 

jlntennce inserted at the base of the clypeus, longer than the 
head, geniculated, pubescent, 12-jointed, basal joint the longest, 
incrassated, slender at the base, the ciavola tapering to both 
ends, 2nd joint not so short as the 4th, 3rd longer, the remainder 
turbinate, apical joint small and conical (1), 
Labrum undiscovered. 

Mandibles long, narrow, bidentate and slightly pilose (3). 
Maxillce nearly meeting at the base behind the mentum, lower 
portion horny, semiovate, emarginate towards the top, and pro- 
ducing a membrane ciliated with bristles, some dilated at the 
base : lobe membranous, with a small horny and pilose appendage 
near the apex. Palpi long, 5-jointed, basal joint long, slender 
at the base, 2nd subovate, 3rd the most robust, not so long as 
the first, dilated and pilose on the inside, 4th and 5th hairy, as 
long as the basal joint, 5th considerably longer (4). 
Mentum small, pilose, subturbinate, the anterior angles trun- 
cated obliquely, from which rise the Palpi, they are not very 
short but pilose and triarticulate, 1st joint a little longer than 
the 2nd, 3rd twice as long, subconic. Labium concealed behind 
the mentum (5). 
Head broad obtuse and produced transversely in front, appearing 
pointed in profile (If). Eyes lateral, not large. Ocelli 3, /aro^e, 
remote and placed in triangle. Trunk a little broader than the head, 
obovate ; prothorax short. Scutellum rounded; postscutellum 
bilobed. Abdomen attached by a portion of its base, but appearing 
sessile, elliptical, depressed, 7 -jointed, the sides forming a sharp edge 
projecting over the underside. Oviduct concealed. Wings ; supe- 
rior rather short and broad; no costal nervure, but one running 
parallel to it halfway, where it forms a stigma and produces a short 
branch, 2 other longitudinal nervures are indistinct. Legs j posterior 
the longest. Thighs not much incrassated. Tibiae rather stout and 
short in the anterior pair, producing strong bristly spines externally, 
with a curved spine at the apex on the inside. Tarsi longer than the 
tibiae, b -jointed, basal joint the longest and most robust, especially in 
the posterior pair, and beautifully pectinated on the inside, penulti- 
mate joint the shortest. Claws and Pulvilli small (8). 



Frontale Lat. Hist. Nat. t.\3.p. 230.— Curtis' s Guide, Gen. 580. — 
Cornutus Jur. Hyyn. pi. 13. g. 44. 

Black shining, sparingly clothed with ochreous pubescence and 
hairs. Head and thorax coarsely punctured, having a reticulated 
appearance. Abdomen marked with fine elevated longitudinal 
lines on the back. Wings iridescent, tinted with brown, darkest 
at the costa3 stigma and nervure piceous. Thighs and tibiae fer- 
ruginous at their tips, tarsi of the same colour. 
In the Author s Cabinet. 



Sparasjon was unknown as a British insect until I had the 
good fortune to capture a specimen at Black Gang Chine in 
the Isle of Wight, the 16th of August 1828, but I have never 
been able to meet with it there since. 

The 12-jointed antennae, and the minute 2nd joint of the 
maxillary palpi, are sufficient to distinguish Sparasion from 
Ceraphron, to which it is closely allied on the one hand ; but 
whether it be so nearly related to Bethylus on the other, I 
am not able at present to determine. The membranous 
appendage also to the maxilla?, ciliated along its concave 
margin, I have never observed in any other insect that I 
have dissected. 

I shall here take the opportunity of observing, that with 
very few exceptions, I shall limit myself to the illustration of 
those genera of the minute Hymenoptera which have been 
established by Latreille, so that a very considerable number 
of those recorded in my " Guide" will not be published in 
this work; by which means the Student will be put in posses- 
sion of the leading characters, to enable him to extend his in- 
vestigations further if he chooses, and this work will not be 
carried to an inconvenient length. I beg however to acknow- 
ledge my obligations to my esteemed friends Mr. Haliday and 
Mr. F. Walker for their generous and valuable assistance ; 
and I hope they will be induced to give naturalists the benefit 
of their researches in the two families they have so success- 
fully studied, by publishing the characters of the genera and 
species of these minute but beautiful tribes, of which Mr. Hali- 
day has made most admirable dissections, and Mr. Walker 
has formed a collection embracing at least 700 British species. 

The minute Hymenoptera are best collected by beating 
into, and sweeping with, a net made of fine gauze, and Mr. 
Haliday recommends me to collect them into quills, and after- 
wards to empty their contents into hot water, by which means 
their wings are naturally expanded ; then by introducing a 
card under them to take them out of the water, arranging the 
legs and wings when necessary with a camel's hair pencil, and 
leaving them upon the card till they are dry, they may after- 
wards be taken off with a penknife, and gummed upon the 
points of small pieces of drawing- or card-paper of a long tri- 
angular form. 

The plant is Galium vemm (Yellow Lady's Bed-straw). 



24g 




c/'tg.-v&cSSi:./; 



249. 
CERAPHRON HALIDAYI. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. ProctotrupidaeA'bi. Oxyuri Z,a/. 

Type of the Genus Ceraphron sulcatus Jur. 
Ceraphron Jur., Spin., Lat., Leach. 

Antenna inserted near to the mouth, longer in the male than 
female, geniculated, 11 -jointed in both sexes, pubescent, and 
attenuated in the male, the basal joint the most robust, not so 
long as the 3rd, 2nd very small, 3rd the longest, the remainder 
slightly decreasing in length to the last (1) ; filiform or subcla- 
vate in the females, the basal joint the longest, 2nd as long as 
the 4th, the 3rd long, the remainder slightly decreasing in length 
to the last, which is elongate-oval (1, a). Labruni undetected. 
Mandibles slender, bent, bifid and slightly pilose (3). 
Maxillce short, membranous, horny only on the outside, termi- 
nated by a broad rounded lobe. Palpi very long and exserted, 
5-jointed, 3 first joints nearly of equal length, the 1st slender, 
2nd and 3rd dilated, subovate, 4th and 5th very slender, the 
former nearly as long as the latter which is the longest (4). 
Mentuni elongated, horny, the angles emarginate to receive the 
Palpi, which are not longer than the lip, clavate and apparently 
triarticulate, the 2 first joints very minute, the 3rd ovate, pilose. 
Lip large rounded and pubescent (5). 
Head suborbicular, frequently depressed. Eyes remote. Ocelli 3, 
Thorax ovate or oblong ; prothorax transverse and not suddenly nar' 
rowed. Scutellum, elongate-conic ; postscutellum sometimes toothed 
in the centre. Abdomen attached by a broad and very short pe- 
duncle, ovate-conic, composed of 7 joints, the \st striated at the base 
and frequently covering more than half the body. Wings pubescent, 
anterior with a thickened costal nervure, terminated {in the type) by 
a large stigma, producing a curved branch. Thighs sometimes a 
little thickened. Tibiae spurred. Tarsi 5-jointed, the basal joint long. 
Claws and Pulvilli distinct (8, afore leg). 
Obs. The dissections are taken froin a male of C. Dux, nob., excepting 
fg. \, a, which is the female antenna of the same species. 



Halidayi Nob. 

Male black, shining. Antennae as long as the wings, 1 1 -jointed, 
basal joint large ochreous, 2nd globose, the 4 following pro- 
ducing each, a long <"lavate branch pilose at the apex, the 3rd 
and 4th joints very short, 5th and 6th longer, 7th the longest, 
slightly branched at the apex, the remainder more robust, sub- 
ovate, the 8th being slightly produced on the internal side, the 
11 th elongate ovate. Head transverse, large, punctured. Eyes 
large remote. Ocelli distinct. Thorax punctured, with 3 lines 
on the back meeting at the scutellum. Abdomen very smooth 
and shining, tinged with ochre and slightly furrowed at the base. 
Wings hyaline, iridescent, pilose, basal half of the costa thick- 
ened, the stigma large semiorbicular, producing a curved branch, 
all fuscous. Legs ochraceous ; thighs, middle pair fuscous above ; 
posterior pair of legs fuscous. Female unknown. 
In the Cabinet of Mr. Holiday. 



So little are these minuter Hymenoptera understood, that 
this genus has never been recorded even as British ; and it is 
remarkable that only one species has ever been described by 
continental writers. I have now seen upwards of sixty species 
taken by Mr. Haliday, Mr. F. Walker, and myself. It is 
evident that they do not vary in figure and character less 
amongst themselves, than they do from the typical form, as 
will be shown by the following divisions with which Mr. Ha- 
liday has kindly furnished me. The insect dissected I pre- 
ferred to the type, not only because it is the largest of the ge- 
nus, but from my being acquainted with the sexes. 

Div. 1. Antennas 11-jointed; wings with the stigma sub- 
trigonate or suborbicular. The Antennae shorter, the 
scape longer and the apex incrassated in the females. 

1. C. Dux Nob. Length two lines, breadth three. Black, 

shining, base of tibiae and tarsi ferruginous. Superior 
wings with a fuscous cloud. Mr. Haliday, Ireland. 

2. opacus Hal. MSS. Mr. Haliday, Ireland. 

3. cimicoides Hal. MSS. m. Sept. Holywood, Downshire. 

4. rufiscapus Nob. Norfolk. 

5. rufipes Nob. Norfolk. 

6. nitidus Nob. Mr. Walker. 

7. su\ca.tusjur.pl.l4f. — 24-th July,pales,Hampstead Heath. 

8. puliciformis Nob. 

9. crispus Hal. MSS. Aug. Holywood. 

10. Carpenteri Nob. Black, head and thorax pubescent, 

body shining; apex of thighs, tibiae and tarsi ochre- 
ous. Antennae in the male similar to those of the 
same sex in Eurytoma abrotani. I have the pleasure 
of naming this curious insect after Thomas Car- 
penter, Esq. who bred it from female Aphides. 

11. elegans iv^o6. Mr. Walker. 

1 2. Halidayi Nob. pi. 249. This beautiful little insect I have 

dedicated to A. H. Haliday, Esq. a zealous advocate 
of Entomology, whose knowledge of these beautiful 
tribes is only equalled by the liberality with which it 
is imparted to others for the advancement of science. 
It was taken the 8th of Aug. near Holywood. 

13. gracilis Nob. Mr. Haliday. 
Div. 2. Apterous. 

14. C. ruficollis Hal. MSS. May, Kensington Gardens. 

15. Rubi Nob. e. Aug. upon bramble leaves, near Heron 

Court, Hants. 

16. melanocephalus Hal. MSS. June, Oct. Shady groves. 
Div. 3. Wings with a linear branch, but no stigma. 

1 7. longipennis Nob. Mr. Haliday and Mr. Walker. 
Div. 4. Antennae 10-jointed. 

18. C. ferrugineus Hal. MSS. July 8, Holywood. 

19. discolor Hal. MSS. Aug. Sept. Holywood. 

20. nubilipennis Nob. Mr. Walker and Mr. Haliday. 
The plant is Lathyriis pratcnsis (Meadow Vetchhng). 



333 




fa / 



cJ^i^^c/"C«^.;=^- /./dSO 



I'll 30 
333. 

TELEAS ELATIOR. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Proctotrupidae 'Noh. Oxyuri Lai. 

Type of the Genus, Teleas clavicornis Lot. 
Teleas Lat., Curtis. — Scelio Lat. 

Antennce approximating, inserted close to the clypeus on each 
side a tubercle, geniculated and pubescent, 12-jointed; as long 
as the body, and filiform in the males; basal joint long, 2nd 
minute, 3rd not so long as but more robust than the basal joint, 
4th shorter, 5th and following elongate ovate, terminal joint 
conical, as long as the 4th (1) : shorter in the females and cla- 
vate, basal joint very long, 2nd slender but not much shorter 
than the 3rd and 4th which are robust and oblong, 5th and 6th 
cup-shaped, the remainder forming an elongate-conic club (1 a). 
Labrum undiscovered. 

Mandibles very much curved and bifid, the internal tooth having 
a smaller one on the inside (3). 

Maxillce with the basal part large and subtrigonate, terminated 
by a semioval coriaceous lobe, slightly pilose externally. Palpi 
short triarticulate, basal joint subclavate, 2nd shorter obtrigonate, 
3rd as long as the other two, subclavate pilose (4), 
Mentum elongate-trigonate. Lip none or concealed. Palpi re- 
mote forming one small elongate obovate joint, producing 3 
bristles (5). 
Head suborbicular a little produced in front forming a ridge between 
the Eyes which are lateral globose, and not prominent. Ocelli 3 in 
triangle, quite at the back of the head. Trunk obovate: prothorax 
very short. Scutellum tnucronated at the apex. Pleurae with the 
angles acute. Abdomen narrowed at its base, more or less oval, 
somewhat depressed, the margins beneath thin and sharp ,- Q-jointed, 
theSrd being very large; the male organs sometimes exserted. Wings 
pubescent, superior spatiilate, the radius or costal nervure extending 
two-thirds of their length, and terminating in a short obtuse ray enter- 
ing the wings : 2 nervures near the base are slightly indicated : infe- 
rior small sublanceolate, the costa thickened half way. Legs slender, 
anterior the shortest. Thighs, hinder sometimes incrassated especially 
in the females. T\h\ad simple, with short spurs. Tarsi 5-jointed, basal 
joint the longest, terminal not much longer than the penultimate. 
Claws acute. Pulvilli long and slender (Sf hind leg of male). 

Elatior Haliday MSS. — Curtis's Guide, Gen. 583. n. 2. 

Male, black, shining, slightly pubescent. Head striated, with an 
elevated ridge between the eyes : thorax thickly punctured, 
clothed with yellowish depressed pubescence : scutellum mucro- 
nated : metathorax coarsely punctured : abdomen beautifully 
striated, strongest and coarsest at the base : wings iridescent, 
with a pale fuscous tint, costal nervure piceous : knees and tips 
of tibise ferruginous. Female unknown. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Haliday and the Author. 



There cannot be a greater proof of the general neglect of the 
Hymenoptera in this country, than the fact that this numerous 
and interesting genus of insects, which has been described and 
published by Latreille upwards of twenty years, has not been 
even recorded as British in any of our works, excepting the 
*' Guide." Nineteen species are there named, and in Mr. Ha- 
liday's collection alone I have seen fifteen others undescribed. 

The remarkable margin to the body beneath, forming a 
sharp edge, is common to Scelio, Sparasion, Teleas and Pla- 
tygaster. From these genera Teleas is distinguished, by having 
a costal instead of a subcostal nervure, which terminates in a 
short branch in the superior wings. In Ceraphron the large 
stigma to the wings will characterize the greater portion, and 
the whole are separated from Teleas by their 5-jointed maxil- 
lary palpi and 11-jointed antennae. 

From Mr. Haliday's observations it appears that the genus 
may be thus divided : 

I. With a punctiform stigma, situated beyond the middle 

of the wing. 

1. T. varicornis Hal. — Is found in sandy places. 

2. T. elatior Hal. — Brit. Ent. pi. 333. — Taken in June by 

Mr. Haliday on marshy ground. 

3. T. lotus Curtis. 

4. T. clavicornis Lat. — In sunny gravel-pits. 

5. T. longipes Curt. 

6. T. Ephippium Hal. — Found in August. 

7. T. flavipes Hal. 

8. T. femoratus Curt. 

9. T. niger Curt. 

10. T. fumipennis Curt. 

11. T. fuscipennis Walk. 

12. T. minutus Curt. 

13. T. iEthiops Hal. 

II. With a longer and angulated nervure branching off 

from the costa near the middle. 

14. T. ater Curt. — This may be only a black variety of the 

next. 

15. T. metallicus JZaZ.— Has been taken by Mr. Haliday 

amongst Junci on the banks of stagnant pools, and in 
the water, July 31st; and by Mr. F. Walker at 
Southgate on Lime-trees in September, and on the 
banks of ponds and brooks just above the water in 
October. 

III. Apterous. 

16. T. longicornis Curt. 

17. T. pusillus Ctirt. 

18. T. Pulex Hal. 

19. T. brevicornis Hal. 

20. T. parvulus Hal. 

The plant is Arenaria serpyllifolia (Thyme-leaved Sandwort). 



32dr 






Cj^.- /y iJ.^^^u&^Cf^if. f. /630 



1- r^3o 

325. 
SCELIO RUGOSULUS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Proctotrupidae Noh. — Oxyuri 
Lat, 

Type of the Genus, Scelio rugosulus Lat. 
ScELio Lat., Curt. 

Antenna inserted in a cavity at the base of the clypeus, approxi- 
mating, longer than the head, geniculated robust pubescent and 
10-jointed in the male (1) ; basal joint long, 2nd and 3rd of 
equal length, and longer than the following which are rather 
transverse, terminal joint ovate ; 12-jointed in the female (1 a), 
the basal joint is longer than in the male, and the clavola is 
more incrassated. 
Labrum undiscovered. 
Mandibles slender, bifid and pilose (3). 

MaxillcB with the stipes large, triangular, and meeting behind 
thementum, terminated by 1 or 2 transparent membranous lobes, 
thickened and pilose externally. Palpi short and slender, tri- 
articulate, basal joint not short, 2nd subovate pilose, 3rd rather 
long pilose and oval at the apex (4). 

Menium subturbinate-elongate. Palpi arising from near the 
anterior angles, not very short, triarticulate, basal joint obovate, 
2nd subglobose, 3rd the longest suboval and slightly pilose. Lip 
small hollow and pubescent (5). 
Head broad subglobose. Eyes lateral not large. Ocelli 3, remote, 
placed triangularly. Trunk a little broader than the head; pro- 
thorax very short: scutellum large lunulate. Abdomen attached 
by a portion of its base, elongate-ovate, depressed. Wings pubescent, 
superior (9), with only 1 nervure running from the base {not quite 
parallel to the casta), nearly half their length, where it forms a hook 
towards the disc, upon which is a callous but undefined stigma-, there 
are indications also of other nervures. Legs moderate. Thighs in- 
crassated. Tibiae; anterior not very short, with a long curved spine 
at the inner angle of the apex, the others spurred. Tarsi scarcely 
longer than the tibice, o-jointed, basal joint the longest and beau- 
tifully pectinated on the inside in the anterior pair, penultimate joint 
the shortest. Claws and Pulvilli distinct (8). 



Rugosulus Lat. Gen. Crust, v. 4. p. 32. — Curtis's Guide, Genus 584. 
Black, shining, slightly clothed with short, depressed, pale pu- 
bescence. Antennae slightly fuscous. Head and trunk reticu- 
lated. Abdomen finely and closely sulcated. Wings iridescent, 
pale fuscous, the nervures pale brown. Tibiae dull ferruginous, 
the 4 posterior black in the middle. Tarsi ferruginous, terminal 
joint and claws black. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Walker and the Author. 



ScELio Is another of Latreille's genera which has not been 
recorded in any British work excepting the " Guide to an 
Arrangement of British Insects ;" with the continuation of 
which I shall now proceed, I hope, without further delay. 

Scelio bears a considerable resemblance to Sparasion 
(plate 317), but is distinguished from it by the 10-jointed an- 
tennas of the male, as well as by the form of the maxillae and 
their palpi. I have been able to detect by dissection twelve 
joints in the antennae of the female (fig. 1. a.) ; and having at 
the same time extracted the ovipositor, no doubt can remain 
of its being that sex : this, as well as the third joint of the 
labial palpi, were apparently unknown to Latreille. 

There is but one species belonging to the genus Scelio : I 
first took a male near Niton, in the Isle of Wight, the middle 
of September 1826 ; and Mr. Francis Walker has since found 
a female upon a window at Southgate, in the month of July. 

Scelio rugosidusy as well as Spat-asionfrontale (lately figured), 
is found in the neighbourhood of Paris, generally upon the 
ground in fields. I took a specimen of the latter insect upon 
a wall near Marseille, the end of last June. 

The plant is Cheirantlius fruticulosm (Wall-flower), from 
Dover Chffs. 




og 



309. 
PLATYGASTER BOSCII. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Proctotrupidae Noh. 

Oxyuri Lat. 

Type of the Genus, Scelio ruficornis hat. 

Platygaster Lat., Curt. — Scelio Lat. — Ichneumon Kirhy — Psilus 

Jur. 

AntenncE inserted close to the base of the clypeus, as long as the 
thorax, geniculated, lO-jointed, basal joint very long and rather 
robust, 2nd and 3rd of equal length, the former oval, the latter 
oblong, 4th shorter, 5th and 6th small cup-shaped, the remainder 
forming a distinctly articulated club, 7th joint cup-shaped, 8th 
and 9th subquadrate, 10th subovate (1), 
Labrum undiscovered. 

Mandibles curved, broad and bifid at the apex (3). 
Maxilla with the basal portion large scutiform and corneous, 
terminated by a membranous ovate lobe, thickened and rather 
pilose externally. Palpi inserted at the base of the lobe and ex- 
tending a little beyond it, linear and biarticulate j basal joint 
short, 2nd considerably longer producing 2 bristles at the apex(-4). 
Mentum obconic, terminated by a broad membranous Labium, 
at the base of which on each side rise the Palpi, they are short 
and formed of one elongate-ovate joint, furnished with one or 
two bristles (5). 
Head transverse, suborbicular, concave behind. Eyes lateral and 
not very prominent. Ocelli 3. Thorax subovate. Scutellum inu- 
cronate, or obtuse and tuber culiform. Abdomen somewhat de- 
pressed, spathuliform, considerably narrowed at the base, some- 
times acute at the apex; composed of ^ or 7 joints, the 2nd being 
more than equal in size to the remainder. Wings without nervures, 
or at most with a short subcostal one. Legs generally slender. 
Thighs clavate. Tibiae clavate and spurred at the apex ; anterior 
with a curved membranous and- bifid spine at the apex. Tarsi 
5 -jointed, basal joint long. Pulvilli as long or longer than the 
Claws (8). 
Obs. All the dissections were drawn from P. Boscii. 

Boscii Jur. Hym. p. 318. Curtis's Guide, Gen. 585. n. 16. 

Black smooth and shining. Antennae with the 2nd joint brown. 
Head hollow on the crown. Ocelli remote. Thorax ovate. Scu- 
tellum obtuse. Abdomen very glossy, ovate-lanceolate (6), with 
a long horn (6) produced at the base and curved over the thorax 
as far as the head, upon which it can rest, striated, especially 
towards the base (a), 2nd joint fiat in the centre and channelled 
at the base and on the sides which are thickened. Wings very 
pubescent and iridescent, superior with a short nervure at the 
base, not touching the costa, clubbed at the apex. Base and 
apex of the tibiae and the tarsi subferruginous. 
In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



The injury done to the wheat in 1795 by the Tipula Tritici 
(Cecidomyia B. E. 178) led to some valuable and interesting 
observations published in the Linnean Transactions, whence 
we learn that one, if not more, species of Platygaster are 
destined to prevent the too extensive increase of the Tipulae. 
As it would be impossible to do justice to Mr. Kirby's remarks 
without transcribing the whole of his papers, we shall recom- 
mend the perusal of them as well to the agriculturalist as to 
the naturalist and philosopher. 

Mr. Walker has captured 50 species of this genus, and Mr. 
Haliday has favoured me with the loan of his collection, and 
proposes the following divisions. 

I. Scutellum produced or mucronated. 

1. P. filicornis Hal. MSS. 

2. P. Phragmitis Schr. Ins. Aust. p. 321. n. 647. Inhabits 
the panicles of Arundo Phragmites. 

3. P. ruficornis Lat. Hist. Nat. v. 13. p. 227. 

4. P. velutinus Hal. 

5. P. hyemalis Curt. — Taken out of moss found in Coomb- 
wood, the first week of January, by Mr. A. Mathews. It is 
rather larger than P. TipulcS; the tips of the thighs, tibiae and 
tarsi (excepting the fore legs) and antennae are black. 

6. P. Tritici Hal. 

7. P. Tipulae Linn. Trans, v. 4. 232. 8^ 5. 108. tab. 4./ 8 
Sf 9. On grass in June, and on the glumes of the wheat in 
July, when it deposits its eggs in the larvae of Cecidornyia 
Tritici. 

II. Scutellum obtuse, tuberculiform. 

8. P. inserens Kirhy^ Linn. Trans, v. 5. p. 107. tab. 4. 
f. 4 — 7. — June 7th, depositing eggs in the valvules of the 

corolla of the wheat, and when they hatch, attaching them- 
selves probably to the larvae of C. Tritici. 

9. P. anthracinus Curt. Guide.- 

10. P. unicolor Curt. Guide. 

11. P. brunnipes Curt. Guide. 

12. P. consobrinus Curt. Guide. 

13. P. obscurus Walk. MSS. 

14. P. attenuatus Hal. MSS. 

15. P. elongatus Hal. — June and July, on grass at Southgate. 

1 6. P. inermis Hal. 

17. P. niger Hal. 

18. P. Boscii Jur. — Curtis. — This remarkable insect is sup- 
posed by Mr. Haliday to be the female, and he suspects that 
the males have no horns. Mr. Walker takes it from June 
to August amongst grass in woods at Southgate ; it also inha- 
bits umbellate flowers. 

The plant is Triticum {Agropyrum Beauv.) repensy var. 
(Couch-grass). 



y// 




C^Lfri^ (J.-€u^£^(Ju^ 



/■/m. 



411. 
MYMAR PULCHELLUS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Proctotrupidse. 

Type of the Genus, Ichneumon Punctum Shaw. 
Mymar Hal., Curt. — Ichneumon Linn. ? — Shaw. 

JntenncE inserted in front of the head^ rather remote, very long, 
filiform and 13-jointed in the male, basal joint long, slender in the 
middle, clavate at the base and thickened before the apex, 2nd 
joint short obovate, 3rd and remainder nearly as long as the first 
joint, slightly tapering, terminal joint a little shorter, elliptic- 
conic (1) : as long as the body, and geniculated in the female, 
clavate and 9-jointed, basal joint longer and stouter than in the 
male, but similar in form, 2nd short obovate, 3rd and 4th very 
slender, the former scarcely longer than the 2nd, the latter longer 
than the 1st, the 4 following submoniliform, gradually increas- 
ing in size and length, 9th joint the stoutest, subelliptic (19). 
Mandibles tridentate (3). 
Head subglobose. Eyes round, lateral, not prominent, coarsely granu- 
lated. Thorax subovate, gibbous and narrowed anteriorly. Abdomen 
generally attached by a long slender pedicle; inserted at ike lower 
portion of the base, obovate, the upperside being very much arched: 
oviduct short but exserted (6). Wings; superior long and without 
nervures, the costa thickened, apex ciliated with long hairs ; inferior 
either very narrow or merely a short rigid nervure. Legs long and 
slender. Thighs incrassated in the middle. Tibiae a little thickened 
towards the base and apex, with a minute spine at the apex. Tarsi 
4-jointed, basal joint the longest, 3rd scarcely shorter than the 4th 
which is a little dilated at the apex, and terminated by minute Claws 
and Pulvilli (8, afore leg). 
Obs. The dissections and descriptions are taken from the species figured. 



PuLCHELLUS Walk. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 586. 12. 

Ochreous shining, slightly pubescent: eyes black : wings, supe- 
rior formed of a long costal nervure, producing a blackish mem- 
brane only at the apex, the basal half of which is white and trans- 
parent, the edges and apex pilose with a longitudinal line of 
bristles, the margin beautifully ciliated with long hairs ; inferior 
rudimentary only : terminal joint of tarsi fuscous. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Walker, Mr. Haliday, and the Author. 



Amongst other peculiar characters that mark this group, the 
tetramerous tarsi, and the structure of the wings, especially 
the inferior, which in some species form only a rigid nervure, 
must not be overlooked. In dissecting the head 1 discovered 
a mandible which was tridentate as represented in the plate, 
and I thought I could distinguish a mentum and maxillae, but 
not a vestige of palpi. 



These singular little insects are not unfrequently found on 
windows, where Mr. Dale has captured many curious species. 
Mr, Haliday has formed them into a genus, and Mr. F. Walker 
has favoured me with the following outline of his views on the 
arrangement of the British species. 

I. Abdomen petiolated. A. Wings ciliated. 

* Base of the superior wings represented by the costal 
nervure alone: inferior rudimentary, confined to 
the costal nervure. 

12. M. pulchellus Walk.— Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 411.— July and 

August; dry sunny banks and grass in fields in 
September, Southgate. 
** Wings perfect. 

f Ovipositor exserted, longer than the abdomen. 
12*. M. atripennis Walk. — June, amongst grass in a wood. 
ff Ovipositor concealed beneath the abdomen. 
The species of this division are found amongst grass in fields 
from May to September. They walk slowly. 

5. M. longipes W. — June and July. 

4. M. Ovulorum? Linn.F.S. 1644. 10. M. fimbriatus W. 

7. M. flavipes ?f.— June. 9. M. niger W. 

B. Wings not ciliated. 

8. M. dimidiatus Hal. 15th Sept. — There are 12 others 

named by Mr. Walker : they jump slightly, move 
faster than the species of the preceding division, and 
inhabit the same localities. 

II. Abdomen sessile. A. Wings not ciliated. 
These are found with the species of the preceding division, 

at the same periods and in the same situations. They run 
very fast ; but do not jump, it is supposed. 

2. M. acuminatus Curt. 1. M. fuscicornis W. 

16. M. Atomus? Li7in. S. N. 2. 941. 76. 

6. M. pusillus W. — June, windows. 

B. Wings ciliated. 

The species of this division are very minute, and may be 
found from June to October on windows. 

13. M. cucullatus Ctirt. 

3. M. Punctum S/iaxv. — Limi. Trans, v. 4. 189. pi. \S.f. 1. 

14. M. pallidus Curt. 15. M. longicornis Curt. 
11. M. minimus Walk. 

C. Wings none. 

19. M. apterus Walk. — New Lanark, Scotland. 

17. M. Monas, and 18. M. Termo, I do not know, and Mr. 

Walker has 30 more species named. 
The Plant is Viola palustris (Marsh Violet). 



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740. 
SPALANGIA NIGRA. 

Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Spalangidse. 

Type of the Genus, Spalangia nigra Lat. 

Spalangia Lat., Spin., Nees ab Es., Hal., Curt. 

Antennce inserted at the extremity of the head, on each side of 
the clypeus, geniculated, pubescent and 10-jointed, longer than 
the head and thorax, fiUform in the male (1 cJ), basal joint very 
long, 2nd short somewhat funnel-shaped, 3rd much longer, 6 
following turbinate, 10th as long as the 3rd and conical; 
shorter and a little clavate in the female (1 $ ), 2nd joint longer 
than the 3rd which is subovate, 6 following somewhat cup- 
shaped, increasing in diameter, 10th the stoutest ovate-conic. 
Labrum undiscovered : clypeus forming a distinct oval mass 
(C), slightly hairy before, with a large membranous lobe be- 
neath (2). 

Mandibles subtrigonate, curved and bifid at the apex (3). 
Maxillce terminating in a large hairy lobe. Palpi shortish and 
biarticulate, basal joint subclavate, 2nd longer and slenderer, 
with a few bristles (4). 

Mentum long and narrow, subelliptic. Palpi attached to. the 
anterior angles, short, biarticulate, basal joint subclavate, 2nd 
shorter, ovate-conic, with a few bristles. Liplong and narrow, 
the apex rounded (5). 
Head drooping, ovate, slightly elongated, ivith a large oval fovea in 
front ; attached by a short neck : eyes lateral and oval, villose : 
ocelli large, 3 arranged in a curve. Thorax very long, broadest at 
the base : collar long narrow and lunate : scutel semiorbicular, ivith 
a transverse line of strong punctures at the base : petiole short and 
stout, longest in the male, cylindric and striated. Abdomen oval, 
not longer than the thorax, Srd segment the longest, apex acute, acu- 
minated in the female. Wings pubescent superior spatulate, the 
costal nervure touching the margin before the middle, and continued 
beyond it, terminating in a fork formed by a short ray : inferior 
tvings narrow, lanceolate. Legs moderate, slender, hinder a little 
the longest, their coxae pear-shaped, sometimes with a short curved 
spine on the inside of the apex : thighs and tibiae slender, the latter 
with a long notched spine at the apex of the 1st pair, the others with 
very slender spurs at the apex : tarsi slender and 5 -jointed, basal 
joint the longest, incrassated in the anterior, 3 following short, espe- 
cially the 3rd and 4th, 5th short and stout : claws curved, acute, 
the base a little dilated : puivilli rather long. 



Nigra Latr.—Curt. Guide, Gen. 589, 3. 

In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



Spalangia is an interesting group, distinguished from all the 
other pentamerous Chalcididae by its biarticulate palpi. The 
allied genus Cerocephala being apterous is readily distin- 
guished from the typical Spalangise, and the very minute and 
imperfect labial palpi of Pirene form the essential character 
of that curious genus. Mr. Haliday observes that this group 
has a slight resemblance in habit to Megaspilus (Ceraphron, 
pi. 249). It having appeared to me that this insect would 
connect the Oxyuri or Proctotrupidae with the Cynipidae or 
Chalcididae, I placed it between those two extensive groups 
in my Guide ; but the difficulties attending a natural arrange- 
ment of such unlimited families have led to a variety of opi- 
nions concerning their affinities. It seems to me that there 
are ^ species of Spalangia, and I very much regret not having 
received the nondescripts in time to figure one of them. 

1. hirta Hal. Ent. Mag. 1. 334. 1. 

" Head and thorax almost entirely punctate-reticulate, 
densely villose. Length of body, 14 ; of wings, 2." 
Taken in England. 

2. nigra Lat. — Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 740 ? . 

Shining black ; the head with a large smooth shining fovea 
in front, the rest punctured, as well as the thorax, which is 
slightly pubescent and sometimes greenish, disc and scutel 
perfectly smooth ; abdomen faintly violaceous : wings iri- 
descent, scarcely tinged with brown, nervures brown ; base of 
tarsi bright ochreous. Length from 1 to 1 ^ line. 
Found in pastures and marshes amongst the grass, also on 
the foliage of trees not uncommonly, from the middle of April 
to August, in every part of the counti'y, and even in the gar- 
dens of London. 

Bouche says the larvae inhabit the pupae of the common 
house-fly, Musca domestica, eating the intestines. 

3. nigripes Curt, MSS. 

Black, head and thorax slightly tinted with green, abdomen 
a little violaceous; basal joint ochreous only in the anterior 
tarsi: length 1^ line. 
A female has been taken by Mr. Shuckard. 

4. nigroaenea Curt. Guide, n. 4. 

Black, bronzed and greenish, hinder portion of the abdo- 
men chalybeous : antennae stoutish : wings yellowish brown, 
base and tips of tibiae and tarsi bright ochreous, the latter 
with the apex blackish : length li line. 
A male in Mr. Shuckard's collection, and I have seen an- 
other elsewhere. 

Asparagus officinalis, Common Asparagus, was transmitted 
to me by Dr. Bromfield, who gathered specimens last July 
on the sandy shore at Norton in the Isle of Wight. 



/(33 






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133. 
EULOPH.US DAMICORNIS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Cjnipsidse Lat.^ Leach. 
Type of the Genus Ichneumon pectinicornis Linn. 

EuLOPHUS Geoff., Oliv., Lat., Kirhy. — Diplolepis Fab. — Cleptes Fab. 
— Ichneumon Linn., De Geer. 

Antenna inserted between the eyes, below the middle of the 
face, not longer than the thorax, geniculated, 9-jointed in the 
male, 1st joint long robust, 2nd minute obovate, 3 following- 
filiform, each having a slender, very pilose branch, arising from 
the base, 6th filiform, the remainder forming an ovate, acute club 
of 3 joints (fig. 1 ) j simple and 8-jointed in the female, 3rd joint 
oblong, 4th and 5th oval, 3 following forming a conical elon- 
gated club (la). 
Labriim very minute ? 

Mandibles with 3 or 4 teeth. Lat. Gen. Crust. 
MaxillcE membranous, dilated below the palpi (4), forming a 
concave lobe above (4 a). Palpi with a few bristles at the apex, 
3-jointed (4 b). 

Mentum dilated in the middle (5). Palpi 3-jointed, terminated 
by a few bristles (5 b). Lip short, ciliated (5 c). 
Head triangular vertical, as broad as the thorax, with 2 oblique grooves 
uniting above to receive the basal joint of the antennce. Eyes lateral. 
Ocelli 3 in a depressed triangle. Thorax large ovate, prothorax 
rounded, jnetathorax sloped off'. Scutellum suborbiculate. Abdomen 
subovate, narrowed at the base, depressed, concave above, margins 
elevated, apex mucronate in the male unarmed in the female. Wings 
large, transparent, pubescent; superior with an abbreviated costal 
cell, the costal nermire branched towards the middle; inferior small 
sublanceolate, nerveless. Coxae posterior very large corneous. Legs 
subcoriaceous, simple. Tibiae with a spine at the apex. Tarsi 4- 
jointed, basal and 3rd joints short in the 4 posterior, 2nd and 4th 
longer, terminated by Pulvilli. Claws arising behind the apex (8, a 
foreleg). 



D.iMicoRNis Kirby Linn. Trans, v. 14./). 1 12, 

Male. Antennae with the 1st and 2nd joints pale yellow, re- 
mainder dull ochre. Eyes black. Head and thorax deeply 
punctured, aureous green. Abdomen smooth, violaceous, black, 
with an ochraceous spot near the base. Wings iridescent. Coxae 
posterior punctured, aureous green. Legs very pale yellow. 
Pulvilli brown. 

Female. Abdomen with the apex and a large spot at the base 
ochraceous. Wings slightly fuscous in the middle. Thighs, 
])Osterior fuscous near the middle. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Kirby and the Author. 



Mr. Kirby having but one specimen of the male, the legs of 
which I could not clearly see, and having kindly given me 
females which I could relax, I have drawn the latter sex of 
this pretty and rare insect, which perfectly agrees with the 
former excepting the simple antennae, the spot on the posterior 
thighs, and a slight cloud upon the wings. I could not (from 
the same cause) satisfy myself perfectly of the club of the an- 
tennae being composed of 3 joints in the male as I did in the 
female, neither do I feel positive that the branches are not 
articulated. The extreme minuteness of the mouth prevented 
me from obtaining the labrum and mandibles, which I was 
very anxious to accomplish as the Cynipsidce are less com- 
plete in their organization than most of the Hymenoptera ; 
their wings are nerveless, and their palpi and tarsi composed 
of fewer joints than usual. 

Mr. Westwood having discovered a new species, the de- 
scription of which he has obligingly communicated as well as 
some useful remarks, and having another nondescript in my 
own cabinet, I shall give a short account of all the species. 

1 E. ramicornis Fah.^ De Geer, Geoff, v. 2, p. 313, t. lB,f. 3. 

Entirely of a beautiful golden green with yellow legs — 

1^ line long. 
Bred from pupae attached to the leaves of lime-trees. 
In the cabinets of Mr. Kirby and Mr. Haworth. 

2 E. damicornis Kirhy. described as above. 

Bred the beginning of August from larva o^ Ptilodontis 
camelinus P 

3 E. Latreillii 7iob. 

Female. Head, thorax and petiole bright green, abdo- 
men violaceous black, bright green at the base, with 
a small whitish spot below the base, legs and 2 first 
joints of antennae nearly white — | line long. 

Bred from pupae of Tinea Cramerella Fab. 

In the Author's cabinet. 
4. E. Kirbii JVestwood's MSS. nob. 

Black with a dull white subpellucid spot at the base of 
the abdomen — ^ line long. 

3 males were taken from a hazel-bush in a small wood 
near Ashford, Kent, August 1825, by Mr. W. 

In the cabinets of Mr. Westwood and the Author. 
5 E. pectinicornis Linn.^ Fab., De Geer, v. I, p. 589, t.35, 
f. 1-7. 

Dull black — ^ a line long. 

Bred 9th Oct. by the Baron De Geer out oi Tinea pupae. 
Taken by Mr. Westwood from the white-thorn when 
in blossom, near Wimbledon Common, May 1825. 

In the cabinets of Mr. Kirby and Mr. Westwood. 

The plant is Veronica agrestis (Germander). 



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395. 
ENCYRTUS VITIS. 

Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Cynipidae. 

Txjpe of the Genus, Encyrtus scutellaris Dalm, 
Encyrtus Lat., Dalm., Curt. — Mira Schel. — Ichneumon and Chry- 
sis Rossi. 

Antennce inserted towards the lower part of the face, remote, 
geniculated, pilose clavate and composed of 13 joints ; basal 
joint very long in the female, distinctly articulated with a slender 
scape, 2nd and 3rd minute rings, 4th elongate obtrigonate, the 
remainder gradually increasing in diameter and decreasing in 
length until they become cup-shaped, the 3 last joints being 
closely united, somewhat compressed and truncated at the apex 
(1 (5^); more slender in the male, basal joint shorter, annelli very 
indistinct, the following joint obtrigonate, the next and succeed- 
ing oblong clothed with very long hairs, the three terminal joints 
closely united and forming an elongate conical club (1 $). 
Labruin undiscovered. 

Mandibles concavo-convex, broad and thin, rounded at the apex 
and slightly hooked, producing a few long hairs (3). 
Maxillce small terminated by a large rounded pilose lobe with a 
smaller one on the inside. Palpi more slender than the labial, 
rather long and 4-jointed, 1st and 2nd joints of equal length 
subclavate, 3rd much shorter obovate, 4th the longest and 
stoutest, subfusiform and very pilose (4). 

Mentum small oblong, subovate at the apex. Palpi attached to 
the anterior margin, approximating, rather stout, pilose and 
biarticulate, basal joint obovate, 2nd rather larger, ovate-conic. 
Lip rather long and narrow (5). 
Head broad hemispherical, concave behind. Eyes rather large but re- 
mote. Ocelli 3 in triangle situated at the hack part of the crown. 
Collar short. Scapulae minute. Frsena transverse, almost concealed. 
Scutellum large, sometimes bearded at the apex. Abdomen short, 
depressed, more or less ovate-conic ; ^ietlole i?idistinct. Wings pu- 
bescent ; superior rounded, with a subcostal nervure extending to the 
middle where it forms a short branch into the wing ; inferior rather 
short and narrow. Legs very dissimilar, compressed, anterior pair 
short: thighs long and slender in the intermediate pair : tibiae rather 
broad, furnished with a spine at the apex, which in the intermediate 
pair is long and robust and the tibia is narrower and subclavate (8'^) : 
tarsi long, 5'jointed, basal joint the longest : pulvilli large and mem- 
branous with 2 minute claws. 
Ohs. The dissections are taken from a female of E. Vitis. 



ViTis Nobis. — Curtis's Guide, Gen. 598, w. 1 '. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Samouelle and the Author. 



This singular and extensive genus is distinguished from the 
other Cynipidas by the branch of the wing springing from the 
apex of the subcostal nervure, as well as by the long spurred 
intermediate legs. In this genus the form of the antennae is 



not a sure guide, for not only do they frequently vary exceed- 
ingly from the type, but those of the male are sometimes very 
dissimilar to the female. 

Mr. Haliday, to whom I am so much indebted for his va- 
luable contributions and information, distinguishes Encyrtus 
by its minute scapulas and transverse frsena, almost concealed 
by the dorsolum. From his dissections I see that the man- 
dibles of his JLncyrtus Coniferce are tridentate, and his genus 
ERicYDNUS is characterized by "compact fusiform antennae. 
Wings vi^itli the subcostal nervure branched towards the apex. 
Abdomen beneath compressed, acuminate." 

I must refer to the " Guide" for a list of the British species 
amounting to 28, only one of which has even been recorded by 
any other English writer. 

1. E. scutellaris Dalm. in the Stockholm Trans, for 1820. 
pi. 2./ 57. 58. 62. and 63. 

Bred out of a Coccus found on the Corylus Avellana. 
v. E. Vitis Curt. Brit. Ent. jjI. 395. 

Aide: dull black, slightly pubescent and punctured ; antennae filiform and 
very pilose, terminated by a slender club; ochreous, 2nd joint and the club 
blackish : head with large punctures : scutellum with a tuft of hair at the 
apex : abdomen with the membrane at the base whitish : wings iridescent, 
transparent, nervures subochreous, costal one brown : legs ochreous, pos- 
terior pair compressed, blackish, inside of the thighs, tibiae and central joints 
of tarsi ochreous. 

Female: reddish orange, slightly pubescent and punctured : antennae with 
the flagellum compressed and gradually dilated to the apex which is black, 
and truncated : head sparingly punctured with large shallow impressions : 
scutellum with a black tuft of hairs at the apex, the sides beneath brown : 
abdomen reddish brown : wings transparent, superior clouded with fuscous 
beyond the middle ; nervures, a spot before the middle and the stigma 
brown : tibiag, intermediate brown at the base, posterior compressed, the 
outer edge blackish, the tarsi brown at the base and tip. 

For specimens of this insect and the following observations 
I am indebted to Mr. Samouelle, who bred them from the 
Coccus of the Vine, and has no doubt that the black one, 
which is much the rarest, is the male ; this somewhat resembles 
the E. hirticornis^ and the female the E. Sis^ederi of Dalman. 

" Found on the Vine in Lambeth, July 9th and 10th, 1830. 
These insects settle on the underside of the vine-leaves during 
rain, and on the upper surface when the sun shines; they are 
fond of door-posts, and seem to seek the heat. I also find 
them in the house on the windows ; they leap well, at least a 
foot at a time : the antennae, when the insect is active, are ap- 
plied alternately to the object on which it rests." 
6. E. cyaneus Dalm.? p. 160. 12.— luniilatus Curt. MS. 

June and July. Bred from a bundle of cocoons attached 
to a leaf and covered with cottony yellow wool, like that which 
envelopes some spiders' eggs. 

28. E. Urocerus Dalm. This, as well as a new species of Mr. 
Haliday's, has the ovipositor robust and exserted. 

The Plant is Cyjienis fuscus^ from J. J. Bennet, Esq. 



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596. 
STENOCERA WALKERI. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Cynipidae. 

Stenocera Walk., Curt. 

Antenna: Inserted below the middle of the face, not quite so long 
as the head and thorax, slender, nearly filiform, geniculated and 
10-jointed, basal joint long, 2nd obovate, 3rd elongated, the 
remainder decreasing a little in length, the apex conical. 
Head suborbicular, notched in front : eyes remote, prominent, subor- 
bicular : ocelli 3, large and forming a spacious triangle in front of 
the crown. Thorax oblong, depressed; coWax elongated, narrowed, 
sublunate : scutellum large, suborbicular, each side of the base ex- 
cised. Abdomen sessile, long, subfusiform, concave, apex pointed. 
Wings, superior with a subcostal nervure divided beyond the middle, 
but forming only a little button not a ray : inferior short, narrow and 
lanceolate. Legs short and slender : tibiae, anterior the shortest, in- 
termediate the slenderest, with a spine at the apex, hinder pair the 
broadest, being compressed : tarsi 5-jointed, intermediate a little the 
shortest and stoutest, hinder the longest: claws and pulvilli minute. 
Male unknown. 

Walkeri Curt. Guide, Gen. 612. n. 1. — Brit. Ent. pi. 596. ^ . 

Finely shagreened, coppery-purple above, bright green beneath, 
sides of the head, thorax and the whole metathorax of the same 
colour : antennae black : head with a broad deep groove from 
the crown to the clypeus, with a chalybeous stripe down the 
middle of the face ; mesothorax and scutellum concave : abdo- 
men shining, the tip green, wings iridescent, the nervure fus- 
cous ; coxae, hinder pair bright green ; thighs bluish-green, 
tipped with ochre ; base and apex of tibiae ochreous, interme- 
diate legs of the same colour, with the base of the thighs and a 
suffused space on the tibiae, piceous ; terminal joints of all the 
tarsi brownish. 

Mr. F. Walker took 2 females off Lime and Oak-trees at 
Soutbgate the middle of July, one of which he presented to me. 
When I first began to study this and the following species 
I thought they would form 2 sections of a genus, but as I pro- 
ceeded such important differences presented themselves, that I 
found the formation of 2 genera would be unavoidable, and 
having only one specimen of Stenocera I have been under the 
necessity of confining myself to a description of the external 
characters, but more elaborate ones are given of Calosota. 

Type of the Genus, Calosota vernahs Walk. 
Calosota Walk., Curt. 

Antennce inserted below the middle of the face, remote, geni- 
culated, as long as the thorax, nearly filiform, compressed, pu- 
bescent and 13-jointed in both sexes, basal joint very long, 2nd 



pyriform truncate, 3rd shorter oblong, 7 following oblong, as 
long as the 2nd but stouter, the three terminal joints forming 
an elongated subelliptic mass, most evident in the female (1 $ ). 
Labrum undiscovered. 

Mandibles subtrigonate, truncated and somewhat trifid at the 
apex, the external tooth conical (3). 

Maxilla terminated by an oblique ovate lobe ciliated externally. 
Palpi rather short and slender, pubescent, 4 -jointed, basal joint 
small, 2 following subovate, 4th long, subfusiform, with a slight 
shoulder on the inside, from whence it is bristly to the apex (4). 
Mentum triangular- conic. Lip rounded, not large. Palpi rather 
remote at their insertion, short, triarticulate, basal joint the 
longest, pyriform-truncate^ 2nd subglobose, 3rd ovate and 
hairy (5). 
Head rather transverse : eyes lateral, large and ovate : ocelli 3 in 
triangle on the fore part of the crown. Thorax elongate-ovate : 
collar narrowed and a little elongated; disc of thorax flat or concave : 
scuteUum large gibbose and ovate, truncated at the base. Abdomen 
sessile, hollow above, elongate-ovate in the male (A(^), longer and 
acuminated in the female : ovipositor sometimes a little exserted. 
Wings rather short, superior with the costal nervure furcated to- 
wards the apex. Legs rather short and slender, intermediate as long 
as the hinder, but not so stout : tibiae, anterior the shortest, inter- 
mediate with a large spine at the apex, hinder pair with small ones : 
tarsi 5 -jointed, intermediate with the \st and 2nd joints incras- 
sated, the former elongated, the latter cordate : claws and pulvilli 
minute. (8*, intermediate leg). 



1. vernalis Walk. Shagreened, greenish-copper ; antennae black, basal joint 
green ; head black, face of female very bright green, the centre violet, 
cheeks bright cupreous : abdomen cupreous above : wings hyaline, ner- 
vures slender and lurid : apex of thighs and a large portion of the apex 
of tibiae, especially the intermediate, ferruginous-ochre ; tarsi brownish, 
a little ochreous at the base : <? 1+ line, ^ 2^ long. 

2. aestivalis JValk. Duller than C. vernalis, the antennae, legs, and ner- 
vures of wings thicker; disc of wings ferruginous brown, costal branch a 
little hooked at the apex : legs dark green, knees, the external tip of the 
tibiae and base of tarsi ochreous : (? H lines, ? 2+ long. 

July, decayed Oak-trees, Southgate, Mr. F. Walker. 

The trophi of these insects agree best with those of Calli- 
mome (fol.552), at least of the genera illustrated in this Work; 
but in habit perhaps they make a nearer approach to Eupel- 
mus, especially in the formation of the intermediate legs and 
slightly exserted ovipositor, but these are points which must 
be left for Mr. Walker to decide as he advances in his Mo- 
nograph. 

For the beautiful drawing of Rosa hibernica (the Belfast 
Rose), I am indebted to Miss Haliday. 



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194. 
CLEONYMUS MACULIPENNIS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Cynipsidse Lat.^ Leach. 
Type of the Genus Diplolepis depressa Fah. 
Cleonymus Lat. — Cynips Lat. — Pteromalus Dal. — Diplolepis Fab. 
— Ichneumon Linn., Fab. 

Antenncc inserted in the middle of the face, longer than the 
head, geniculated ; 13-jointed and filiform in the maJe, basal 
joint very long and stout, 2nd small, 3rd and 4th ring-shaped, 
5th and remainder submembranous pilose, cup-shaped, the 3 last 
forming a conical mass, (fig. 1) : 12-jointed in the female, 
thickened towards the apex, the 3rd being the shortest, the 5th 
nearly as long as the 4th, the remainder of equal length, the 
last being longer and conical (la). 
Labruni none ? 

Mandibles alike, subtrigonate, notched on the internal side, and 
having 3 teeth near the apex (3). 

MaxillcE long, terminated by a lobe rigid and ciliated externally, 
dilated and membranous internally. Palpi rather short, 4- 
jointed, basal joint small, 2nd and 3rd longer of equal length, 
4th twice as long and hatchet-shaped, truncated obliquely and 
pilose (4). 

Mentiim oblong. Palpi arising from cavities in the anterior 
margin of the mentum, short, 3-jointed, 2nd joint minute, 3rd 
oval pilose. Lip short, rounded (5). 
Head orbicular and convex in front; transverse above. Eyes small. 
Ocelli Z,in a depressed triangle. Prothorax bilobed, narrower than 
the remainder. Scutellum rounded. Abdomen sessile obconic, de- 
pressed in the tnales, elongated in the females with a long channel 
beneath to receive the ovipositor, (6 a, the base). Wings longer than 
the body in the males, transparent, often spotted or clouded, pubescent, 
ciliated ; superior with a nervure running from the base parallel to 
the costa, halfway, whence it is continued along that margin a short 
space and then becomes furcate. Legs slender, posterior pair appear- 
ing very far behind, from the great length of the Coxae. Thighs, 
middle pair slender, posterior incrassated. Tibiae simple. Tarsi 
b-jointed, basal joint the longest. Claws hooked. Pul villi dii'^inc^ 
(8, afore leg). 

Obs. The dissections are from a male of C. maculipennis ; the abdo- 
men and antenna (6 and 1 a) from a female C. depressus ? 

Maculipennis Nob. 

Male green with a cupreous tinge. Antennas very pubescent, 
brown, 1st and 2nd joints ochraceous. Head and thorax thickly 
punctured. Abdomen perfectly smooth and shining, a deep 
channel in the middle from the base, where it is ochraceous, the 
shoulders being elevated and green, the apex pubescent, black 
with a cupreous shade. Wings iridescent, the superior with 2 
large black spots on each, one in the centre, the other nearer the 
apex. Legs ochreous. Thighs, posterior very robust. 
In the Cabinets of Mr. Cooper and the Author. 



The trophi of Cleonymus are so very similar to those of Colax, 
that we should not have established the latter genus had not 
other characters presented themselves : it is true that the man- 
dibles of the former are stronger and have but two distinct 
teeth, and the terminal joint of the maxillary palpi is shorter 
and more dilated; but on comparing the males of the two 
genera, more decided characters will be found to distinguish 
them, and such we trust as will fully justify their separation. 
The males of Colax are marked by a very large head, a ring- 
shaped prothorax, an obovate abdomen and slender thighs ; 
the same sex of Cleonymus has a moderately-sized head, a bi- 
lobed prothorax, an obconic and thick abdomen, and robust 
anterior and incrassated posterior thighs. We regret that the 
want of female specimens has prevented us from perfecting 
our specific descriptions, as well as from entering into a 
further investigation of that sex, than to observe that the ab- 
domen is longer, more depressed and less compressed and an- 
gulated beneath than in the genus Colax, and that the female 
antennae (at least in the specimens before us) are thickened 
gradually to the apex ; they have not the ring-shaped third 
joint which that genus has, nor do the three last joints form a 
distinct mass. 

So completely have these insects been neglected, that very 
few species of Cleonymi have been described, and only one 
that I can find figured. It is most likely that the genus is 
very extensive ; but my own cabinet contains only seven 
species, all of which are females, excepting the one figured in 
our Plate. 

1. C. depressus Fah. — Coq. Illus. Ins. tab. B.f. 5. 

2. maculipennis Nob. 

For specimens of this beautiful insect, which appears to 
be a nondescript, I have to acknowledge my obligations to 
A. Cooper, Esq., who took four males the latter end of June, 
on the trunk of a decayed Elm near Knight's Hill Cottage, 
Dulwich. 

The plant is a tetrandrous variety of Euonymiis europtsus 
(Spindle-tree). 



166 




^yu.iy J.€,.AJii. ^//u, / mj 



166. 
COLAS DISPAR. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Cynipsidae JLat.^ Leach. 

Type of the Genus Colas dispar Nob. 

Colas Nob. — Cleonymus Lat. — Pteromalus Dai. — Diplolepis Fab. — 
Ichneumon Linn., Fab. 

Antennce of the male longer than the head, geniculated, inserted 
in the middle of the face ; 13-jointed, pilose, basal joint long, 
2nd small cup-shaped, 3rd and 4th like rings, the 6 following 
cylindric, decreasing in length, the remainder forming a long, 
indistinctly articulated conic compressed club (fig. 1) : — of the 
female longer than the head, geniculated, pubescent, 12-jointed, 
basal joint long, 2nd short clavate, 3rd very minute, 6 following 
subquadrate, decreasing in length, the remainder forming a 
conical mass (la). 
Labium not discovered. 

Mandibles subquadrate, one with 3, the other with 4 teeth (3). 
MaxillcE long, terminated by a single concave lobe, coriaceous 
and hairy externally, membranous and ciliated internally. Palpi 
rather long and slender pilose 4 -jointed, basal joint rather longer 
than the 2nd and 3rd which are of equal length, 4th long sub- 
fusiform, slightly produced at the insertion of the bristles (4). 
Mentum obconic. Lip rather long, rounded, ciliated. Palpi as 
long as the lip, 3-jointed, 2nd joint very minute, terminal one 
elongate-conic, pilose at the apex (5). 
Head transverse much larger in the male than female. Ocelli 3. Thorax 
transverse, not so broad as the head. Sculellum rounded. Abdomen 
short, depressed, spatulate in the males ; long attenuated to the apex, 
angulated beneath in projile in the females (6, a, the base). Oviduct 
concealed. Wings as long or longer than the body in the males, pube- 
scent, ciliated, transparent ; superior with a nervure running from the 
base parallel to the casta, not so far as the half, whence it is con- 
tinued along that margin, and becomes furcate before arriving at the 
apex. Legs sleiider. Coccas ; posterior large. Thighs nearly straight. 
Tibiae simple with a single spine at the apex. Tarsi 5 -jointed, basal 
joint the longest, terminal most robust. Claws hooked. Pulvilli large 
(8, afore leg). 

Dispar Nob. 

Male. Head and thorax bright bluish green, minutely punctured. 
Eyes fuscous. Antennae ochraceous. Abdomen metallic green, 
subcupreous at the base, with a large ochraceous spot above the 
middle. Wings iridescent, nervures pale ochre. Coccae green 
at the base. Legs ochraceous : apex of tarsi and pulvilli fuscous. 
Female. Head and thorax dull bluish green. Eyes dull castaneous. 
Antennae fuscous, basal joint ochraceous. Abdomen chalybeous^ 
sometimes inclining to green, blackish towards the middle and 
near the apex. Coccae green. Legs ochraceous ; thighs green 
except at their extremities ; tibiae brownish at the base^ apex of 
tarsi fuscous. 

In the Author's Cabinet. 



We believe the group under investigation has been united by 
Dalman with the Pteromali, a genus of Latreille's allied to 
Perilamjms ; but Colas is nearer, perhaps closely allied to 
Cleonymus of the latter author which embraces those species 
with clouded wings, truncated antennae, the abdomens of the 
females being similarly shaped to ours, but longer ; from being 
unacquainted with their males, we cannot at present enter 
further upon the subject. From other genera of the same 
family, the one before us seems to be sufficiently distinct, and 
easily distinguished when the sexes are known. The authority 
on which we give the two insects in the plate as sexes of the 
same species, is tolerably satisfactory ; but so far from wishing 
that it should be received as conclusive, we would invite those 
who are interested in the subject to pay attention to the lepi- 
dopterous Chrysalides producing these pretty insects, which 
will enable them to supply invaluable information upon a 
family whose economy is highly interesting and but imperfectly 
understood. 

In the 136th plate of this work the caterpillar of Acronycta 
Salicis is given ; and from one of these (which spun itself up 
in a web, but died before it became a pupa, in consequence of 
its being inoculated by these parasites) we obtained, the be- 
ginning of the following June, about half a dozen males and 
twice as many females; and amongst 10 or 12 more species of 
this genus, few of which appear to be described, is a pair that 
I took last September upon the Achillea Millefolium^ in the 
Isle of Wight, not differing in form but essentially in colour. 

Colas is derived from the Greek, and alludes to the parasitic 
economy of this group ; and the specific name of dispar is cha- 
racteristic of the disparity of the sexes. 

Our insects were inhabitants of the Trossacks, and specimens 
of the plant figured, Viola lutea (a variety of the yellow Moun- 
tain Pansy), were tolerably abundant on the north and east 
sides of Schichallien the beginning of July. 



^^7 




yy I. -I- r „ v^;, ,■ < .... /..^^--i 



427. 
PHAGONIA SMARAGDINA. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Cynipidse. 

Type of th Genus, Pliagonia flavicornis Hal. 
Phagonia Hal., Curt. — Pteromalus Dal. 

Antennce approximating, inserted near the middle of the face, as 
long as the thorax, pilose, geniculated and 13-jointed in the 
males (1), basal joint very long, 2nd short subpyriform, 3rd and 
4th minute, cup-shaped, 6 following oblong remotely articu- 
lated, the remainder forming an indistinctly articulated, elon- 
gate-conic club, the terminal joint the smallest. 
Labrum undiscovered. 

Mandibles oblong, truncated obliquely, with 4 teeth nearly of 
equal size (3). 

Maxillce with the basal portion dilated, terminated by an oval 
lobe, membranous on the inside, horny and pilose outside and at 
the apex. Palpi large and triarticulate, basal joint long and 
curved, 2nd considerably longer, both slender, 3rd very large, 
ovate or orbicular and concave, forming a thin bowl (4). 
Mentum elongate-ovate. Lip a little dilated and rounded. Palpi 
extending a little beyond the lip, triarticulate ? basal joint as long 
as the 3rd clavate, 2nd minute, 3rd conic, furnished with a few 
bristles at the apex (.5). 
Head large orbicular and transverse. Eyes small and lateral. Ocelli 3, 
very minute. Thorax narrower than the head; collar narrow : scu- 
telluni large and rounded. Abdomen very short and attached by a 
short thick peduncle, somewhat orbicular-truncate, 5}-jointed, ter- 
minated by a style. Wings; superior ample with a submarginal ner- 
vure reaching the costa at the middle and extending to the apex, with 
a short obtuse ray between the middle and apex; inferior with only a 
costal nervure. Legs similar, anterior the smallest. Thighs a little 
thicker than the Tibiae, the anterior of which have a spine at the 
apex. Tarsi, posterior shorter than the tibice, b -jointed, basal joint 
a little longer than the 2nd, 'ith a little smaller than the 3rd and 
5 th. Pulvilli membranous and distinct. Claws minute (8, afore leg). 



Smaragdina Curt. Guide, Gen. 63 1 . 

Bright blueish green, excessively thickly punctured ; eyes black, 
mandibles ochreous ; antennas and palpi orange, the former yel- 
low at the base, 2nd joint and palpi fuscous at the base : Abdo- 
men of metallic lustre, peduncle blackish and punctured : wings 
with the nervures lurid : legs ochreous, coxae green, thighs and 
base of tibiae yellow, the upper edge of the posterior thighs and 
tips of tarsi brown. 

In the Cabinet of Mr. F. Walker. 



Mr. Haliday first proposed the genus Phagonia, which is 
recorded in my Guide ; and as its singular structure renders 
it interesting, and neither figure nor description of it having 
been published, it is hoped that the present notice will be 
acceptable to those engaged in the study of this beautiful and 
extensive family of Hymenoptera. 

Dalman in a slight Conspectus of his genus Pteromalus 
mentions 3 of his species having entirely yellow antennae with 
incrassated palpi, under the names of chilodes, patellanus, and 
■palpalis; but as no characters are given, it is impossible to say 
whether our species be the same as his. 

I am indebted to Mr. Haliday and Mr. Walker for speci- 
mens of the type, which may be thus described : 

1. P. flavicornis Hal. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 631. 1. 

Length 1 line, or a little longer : bright golden green, ex- 
cessively thickly punctured : eyes black ; palpi orange, man- 
dibles pale ochreous, tipped with black : antennae ochreous, 
black at the apex, 2nd joint brownish at the base : abdomen 
metallic, polished, 2nd joint violaceous, peduncle aeneous black 
and punctured: wings with the nervures lurid. Legs deep 
and bright ochre, coxae green, tips of tarsi brown. 

Taken in June and July by Mr. F. Walker on Ferns in 
woods at Southgate. 

The following is the description of the insect supposed by 
Mr. Walker to be the female : 

Length 1^ line. Brilliant green with a golden tinge: 
excessively thickly punctured : eyes and antennae black, the 
latter ochreous at the base : palpi' small and blackish : man- 
dibles ochreous : abdomen rhombiform, metallic, polished, 
with a violaceous tinge towards the apex: wings with the 
nervures lurid: legs ochreous, coxae green, trochanters and 
thighs, excepting the tips of the latter, black ; tarsi brown at 
their apex. 

Taken with the last. 

2. P. smaragdina Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 427 S • 

A single example of this new species was found by Mr, 
F. Walker in a currant-bush at Southgate in June. 

The Plant is Fiimaria capreolata (Ramping Fumitory). 




4]^ 




C^.- ^ C^^>d> Oc<(.- /: ; 



472. 
SMIERA MACLEANII. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Cynipidae or Chalcididce. 

Type of the Genus, Sphex sispes Linn. 

Smiera Spin., Curt. — Chalcis Fab., Dal., Lat., Jur., Panz. — Sphex 
Linn. 

Antenna inserted at the middle of the face, as long as the head 
and thorax, geniculated, 13-jointed, basal joint long and stout, 
2nd and 3rd small, the former cup-shaped, the latter transverse, 
4th longer than the following which decrease in length, the 3 ter- 
minal joints forming a subcorneal mass (1 <J) ; the basal joint 
longer in the female and the apical mass more ovate (1 $). 
Labrum exserted, small, transverse, the sides rounded, anterior 
margin ciliated with longish hairs (2). 
Mandibles short, one trifid (3), the other bifid at the apex. 
Maxillce terminated by an oblique oval and ciliated lobe. Palpi 
rather long slender pilose and 4-jointed, basal and 3rd joints 
rather short, 2nd longer, 4th very long and subfusiform (4). 
Mentum elliptic, truncate before and notched to receive the Palpi 
which are not short ; triarticulate, 2nd joint a little shorter than 
the 1st, 3rd a little longer and pilose, subovate at the apex (5). 
Head broad and short, emarginate before, loith a tooth in the middle : 
eyes lateral prominent and globose : ocelli 3 in triangle. Thorax 
ovate-truncated before ; collar distinct ; scutellum bidentate. Ab- 
domen small, trigonate-ovate, compressed, attached by a long stout 
petiole, 1 -jointed in the male (7 S)> 8-jointed in the female : oviduct 
concealed beneath. Wings, superior ivith afeio indistinct longitudi- 
nal nervures, a subcostal nervwe, united with the costa at the middle 
and forming a small peduncled cordate stigma a little beyond it ; in- 
ferior wings small. Hind legs very large, the Coxre as long us the 
Thighs which are lentiform and serrated beneath ; the Tibiae scythe- 
shaped, pointed and acute at the apex. Tarsi 5 -jointed. Claws and 
pulvilli sma//. (8, hind leg, the first joint being the Coxa.) 



Macleanii Curt. Guide, Gen. 653. 3. 

In the Author's Cabinet. 



Smiera is distinguished from Eucharis by its curved posterior 
tibiae, and from Chalcis by the length of the petiole. I sus- 
pected from the manner in which the S. sispes hovers about 
and settles upon the rushes, that the female laid her eggs in 
larvae either upon or inside the stalks, but we learn from 
Latreille that these insects " deposit their eggs in the nymphae 
of the Stratiomydte or of some other diptera, the larvae of 
which live in the water." 

I shall now describe the British species. 



1. S. sispes Zy/w«. F.S.n.l657. — chwipes Fab.— Patiz.78. 15. 

—Sam. pi. 8./. 6.— Don. 11. 379. 

Black, thickly and coarsely punctured, abdomen smooth and shining : 
wings pale fuscous : posterior coxse very long and a little stouter than the 
peduncle : 4 anterior thighs ferruginous at the apex, the intermediate pair 
incrassated at the apex, hinder pair large, lenticular and rufous, black at 
the apex, serrated beneath, the basal tooth the largest : tarsi ferruginous, 
black at the tips. 

As this is the Linnaean species, I have retained its original 
name. I am sorry to find continental naturalists superseding 
old established names, for the right of priority will always be 
respected by the true friend of science. This insect is found 
from June to the end of July on rushes at the back of the Red 
House, Battersea ; Kensington Gardens ; near Faversham, 
Kent ; on umbellate flowers, Whittlesea Mere, Mr. Dale ; 
sides of ditches, Tollsbury, Essex, J. C. 

In the two following species the antennae of the females seem 
to be only 12-jointed. 

2. S. Macleanii Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 472 ? . 

Black, thickly and coarsely punctured, clothed with fine pale hairs ; 
antennffi clavate ; scutellura emarginate, peduncle half the length of the 
abdomen, which is smooth and shining : wings stained brown, costal 
nervures piceous ; scapulars and tips of 4 anterior thighs pale yellow, 
posterior minutely punctured, serrated beneath, with 2 larger teeth at 
the base, the external one pale yellow, as well as a sublunulate one 
towards the apex and a round one opposite on the inside ; base of anterior 
tibiae ochreous, the tips ferruginous as well as the tarsi which are brown 
at the apex. Male undiscovered. 

I have named this fine insect after Dr. Maclean, of Colches- 
ter, whose zeal for science and ardour in the pursuit of know- 
ledge have led to many discoveries that entitle him to the 
thanks of all lovers of Natural History. It appears to be very 
similar to the C. higuttata of Spinola and the C. melanaris 
Dalm., from which it is at once distinguished, by the 3rd spot 
towards the apex on the inside of the hinder thighs, as well as 
by other differences of colour. I first discovered S. Macleanii 
the end of June, settling on the rush figured, in a ditch at 
Tollsbury ; Mr. Bennet soon after took another in company 
with the S. sispes, and Dr. Maclean captured a third. 

3. S. petiolatus Curt. — sispes Fab.—Panz. 77-11. 

Black, thickly and coarsely punctured, scutellum slightly emarginate, 
petiole long, slender and yellow ; body smooth and shining ; a yellow 
spot on each side the face, scapulars of the same colour : thighs yellow, 
black at the base, posterior with a saddle-shaped black mark above at the 
base, and a brown one at the apex : tibiae yellow, 4 anterior brown at the 
middle, posterior piceous except at the tip : tarsi ochreous : antennae of 
male rather long stout and subfusiform, the basal joint the slenderest ; 
short slender and clavate, I believe, in the female. 

Said to have been captured in the neighbourhood of London. 

This being the C. sispes of Fab., who very carelessly trans- 
posed the names, it is become necessary to give the species 
another appellation to prevent further confusion. 

The Plant is Scirpus maritimus (Salt-marsh Club-grass). 



/c5S 





3 3^ 



158. 
PERILAMPUS PALLIPES. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam.' Cynipsidae LiUt.^ Leach. 
Type of the Genus Cynips Italica Fab. 
Perilampus Lat. — Diplolepis Fab., Panz. — Chalcis Jiir., Panz. — 
Cynips Fab., Oliv., Lat. 

AntenncE alike in both sexes, approximating, inserted in the 
middle of the face, geniculated, pubescent, IS-jointed; basal 
joint long slender, 2nd small cup-shaped, 3rd like a ring, the 
remainder forming a long robust, subfusiform mass, the first joint 
the longest, the 6 following cup-shaped, the 3 last sometimes 
obscure, the apical one minute conical (fig. 1). 
Labrum concealed beneath the clypeus, very minute, quadrate, 
emarginate producing spines terminated by bristles (2). 
Mandibles large concave, one being trifid (3), the other bifid (3*). 
MaxillcB long, terminated by a single concave lobe, coriaceous 
and hairy externally, membranous and ciliated internally. Palpi 
long, filiform, basal joint longer than the 2nd or 3rd, which are 
of equal length, terminal joint the longest, subfusiform, slightly 
bent, pilose, sinuated internally (4). 

Mentum elongated, conical posteriorly. Lip rather long con- 
cave, edges conniving. Palpi long, 3-jointed, basal joint the 
longest, clavate, 2nd minute, 3rd elongate conic, pilose (5). 
Clypeus distinct. Head short, vertical, as broad as the thorax : face 
orbicular, concave above to receive the basal joint of the antennce. 
Eyes rather small lateral. Ocelli 3, in a curved line. Thorax 
transverse cylindric, prothorax very short. Scutellum large more or 
less triangular, projecting over the Abdomen which is short depress- 
ed, rhomboidal or triangular. Ovipositor concealed. Wings as long 
as the abdomen, pubescent, transparent, superior with a nervure run- 
ning from the base, parallel to the costa as far as the middle, where 
it extends a short space along that margin, and is furcate at the ex- 
tremity ; inferior small, sublanceolate, with a nervure parallel to the 
costa, extending only half their length. Legs slender. Thighs slightly 
clavate, nearly straight. Tibiae simple terminated by 2 spines. Tarsi 
5-jointed, basal joint a little the longest, terminal incrassaled. Claws 
and Pulvilli distinct (8, afore leg.) 



Pallipes Nob. 

Female. Head minutely punctured, aeneous ; face black ; eyes 
cinereous 3 antennae ferruginous, 1st and 2nd joints black. Tho- 
rax and scutellum dull brassy green, regularly reticulated. Ab- 
domen quadrangular, chalybeous, slightly pubescent. Wings 
scarcely stained with yellow, iridescent, nervures fuscous. Legs 
violaceous, apex of thighs and a portion of the apex of the ante- 
rior tibiae, especially on the inside ochraceous, tarsi of the same 
colour ; pulvilli black. 
Male smaller, abdomen obovate or conic, obtuse. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Stephens and Mr. Bainbridge. 



Perilampus, a genus containing several European species, 
was separated from Cynips and established by Latreille in his 
Genera Crustaceorum. The wings of the Cijnipsidce seldom 
furnish generic characters ; and in many other tribes of Hy- 
menoptera, their structure is not available for separating small 
groups, they consequently become rather characteristic of fa- 
milies or of tribes ; and this led Jurine (whose system was built 
upon their conformation) into the error of uniting the Fabri- 
cian genera of Ichneumonidce^ and considering that vast group 
as a genus. The same system compelled him to sink many ex- 
cellent genera amongst the bees, and prevented him from admit- 
ting of any material division in the Cynipsidce or Diplolepidce. 
The antennae however, when carefully examined, will supply 
the deficiency by furnishing the best generic characters for ge- 
neral use ; for although we believe that the trophi are of the 
first importance, it is not possible for the student to examine 
those parts in every specimen ; and characters obtained from 
more convenient parts will enable him to decide upon affinities 
after a genus is firmlj^ established by dissection. At present 
we shall not enter into the merits of our genus : it may not 
be amiss, however, to remark, that the singular manner in 
which the labrum is produced into spines, and the same dispo- 
sition in the terminal joint of the maxillary palpi, have not 
been before noticed. 

The metallic hue of the bodies render the Perilampi striking 
and beautiful objects, although inferior in splendour to their 
neighbours. They are parasitic, feeding in the larva state 
upon caterpillars, and forming an oval cocoon, which Reaumur 
represents suspended from a branch by a thread. 

The species figured not agreeing with Fabricius's descrip- 
tion of Cynips t-iificornis^ which is said to have a black head 
and thorax, nor with Panzer's Chalcis molacea^ which has the 
4 anterior legs entirely ochraceous, we have considered it as 
a nondescript, and called it P. pallipes, from its pale feet. 
Mr. Bainbridge took a male at Darent; and the female figured 
was taken off an umbelliferous plant by Mr. Joseph Standish 
at Dover the end of last July. 

The pretty plant in the plate, Antirrhinum spiirmm (Round- 
leaved Fluellin), was gathered upon the heights at Dover. 



ScSi 






1^ '/"s Si" 
552. 
CALLIMOME SUBTERRANEUS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Cynipidee Lat. 
Type of the Genus, Ichneumon Bedeguaris Linn. 
Callimome Spin., Walk., Curt. — Torymus Dal. — MisocampusXo^. — 
Diplolepis Fab. — Cynips Fab., Lat. — Ichneumon Linn., DeG., 
Fab., &c. 

Antenna geniculated, considerably longer than the head and in- 
serted a little below the middle of the face, in a cavity receiving 
the 1st joint, pubescent and 13-jointed, basal joint long, 2nd 
short, somewhat obconic, 3rd saucer- shaped, 4th stout oblong, 
the remainder decreasing in length and becoming a little trans- 
verse, the 3 last forming a compact compressed ovate-conic mass 
(1 (^ , 4 basal joints) ; longer in the female, 3rd joint subglobose, 
4th elongated (1 ? ). 

Mandibles subtrapezate, truncated and trifid at the apex, and a 
little hairy outside (3). 

Maxill(E terminated by a large ovate lobe, very hairy at the 
margin. Palpi longer than the maxillae, 4-jointed, 3 first joints 
of equal length and oblong, 4th long, subfusiform and clothed 
with long hairs (4) . 

Mentum long and narrow, ovate at the base, attenuated to the 
apex. Labium as long as the mentum, a little dilated at the 
base and apex. Palpi not longer than the lip, pilose and triar- 
ticulate, 1st joint obconic, 2nd shorter, subquadrate, 3rd as long 
or longer than the 1st and conical (5). 
Head transverse, face orbicular-trigonate : eyes lateral, ovate: ocelli 
3 on the crown of the head forming a depressed triangle, the lateral 
ones remote. Thorax elongate-ovate ; coUar semiovate ; scutellum 
large convex and subovate. Abdomen attached by a small portion 
only of the base, short, slightly depressed, and terminated by an acu- 
minated process in the male, more compressed and 7 -Jointed in the 
female, basal joint large, apex truncated and fur?iished with an Ovi- 
positor, generally as long as the insect (A side view). Wings, su- 
perior ample, rounded, with a nervure, uniting with the casta near 
the middle, and continued toioards the apex, forming a very short ob- 
tuse branch midway ; inferior wings short and narrow. Legs, hinder 
pair the longest and stoutest (8 t) : coxse all large : trochanters 
small : thighs short and a little incrassated: tibiae simple, furnished 
with a single spur, excepting the posterior, which have a pair at the 
apex: tarsi slender and 5 -jointed, basal joint long, 4th small: claws 
very much bent : pulvUli rather large. 
SuBTERRANEUs Curt. MSS. — Guidc, Gen. 646. 
In the Author's Cabinet. 



Some of these Insects I breed in vast quantities from the beau- 
tiful moss-like balls attached to the branches of the Dog-rose, 
called Bedeguar, and known in some parts of England by the 



name of "Robin's Pincushions;" they are easily bred by placing 
the galls under a tumbler, and are beautiful objects for the mi- 
croscope, for in elegance of form and beauty of colouring they 
can scarcely be surpassed. These mossy excrescences are sup- 
posed to be entirely formed hy Cy^iips Rosa, and our insects 
are said to feed on their larva^, and most skilful parasites they 
must be, for in breeding them 1 have often obtained nothing 
but the Callimome, and it is very remarkable that from mul- 
titudes of the galls of the Wild Carrot I never bred any other 
insect than the C. Dauci. 

In the Stockholm Transactions for 1820, and a subsequent 
vol., a synoptic table and descriptions of the species will be 
found; in the 1st vol. of the Ent. Trans. Mr. Walker has de- 
scribed 61 species, and 18 were recorded in the Guide. 

3*. subterraneus Curt. B. E.pl. 552. ? . 

Minutely sliagreened ; deep blue, head and thorax with rather large 
but shallow punctures, the latter variegated with violet ; antennae 
black, basal joint ferruginous, except at the tip ; mouth and abdomen 
ferruginous-ochre ; back black with a cupreous or violet tinge, except- 
ing a band near the base, apex green ; ovipositor ferruginous, sheaths 
pubescent and black above, tips whitish ; superior wings with a pale 
yellow brown oval sjiace on the disc ; nervures piceous : legs and tips 
of coxae, excepting the posterior, ferruginous-ochre; hinder tibiae 
piceous, ferruginous towards the apex ; tarsi ochreous, tips piceous. 
Male smaller, antennaj entirely black, and the abdomen without an 
ochreous band near the base. 
Bred by Mr. E. A. Johnson from galls of the Beech-tree, 
formed by the larvae of Cynips aptera, on which they are pa- 
rasitic. 

5. Geranii Curt. ? li line long, ovipositor l^ line; beautiful green, 
head rather cupreous ; antennae black, basal joint, excepting the tip, 
ochreous : abdomen with an ochreous band near the base, legs of the 
same colour, hinder coxjk green, ochreous at the tips and their tibiae 
brownish towards the base : nervures yellowish bi-own. 
Bred from the gall of a native Geranium. — J. C. 

1 2. Arundinis Curt. ? Length ll, ovipositor l §- : bright shining green ; 
head aureous or cupreous, antennae black, basal joint beneath ochreous, 
with a spot of the same near the base of the abdomen : legs yellow- 
ochre, coxae green outside, faint in the anterior pair, base of tarsi 
whitish-ochre, tips brownish ; nervures ochreous. 
Middle of August on rushes, Blackgang Chine. — J. C. 

15. \Ja,\XCiCurt, 9 1+ line, ovipositor 5 ; green, antenna? black, basal 
joint straw colour beneath : legs whitish-ochre, thighs, excepting the 
tips, green, hinder tibiae violaceous-black, except at the base and tips, 
apex of tarsi blackish, especially the posterior. 
I observed, the middle of August, at the back of the Isle of 
Wight, vast numbers of the umbels oi DaucusCarota producing 
galls; they contained bright orange- coloured larvse, from which 
I bred a great number of this insect of both sexes the follow- 
ing September. 

The Plant is Rosa spinoaissima (Burnet Rose). 



3jdr 




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345. 
DECATOMA COOPERI. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Cynipidae Lat.^ Leach. 

Type of the Genus, Decatoraa biguttata Swed. 
Decatoma Spin., Curtis's Guide, Gen. 650. — Eurytoma Dal. 

Antennce inserted in the centre of the face, geniculate, pilose, 
excepting the basal joint, which is received into a groove in front 
of the face, longer in the male than female ; 9-jointed in the male, 
the 1st joint long, 2nd curved subpyriform, two annuli forming 
the base of the 3rd joint which is oval truncate, longer than the 
3 following which are remotely articulated, the remainder form- 
ing a narrow elongated club, the apex producing very short 
spreading bristles (i) : 10 -jointed in the female, 1st joint long, 
2nd slender, bent subpyriform, then follow I think 2 annuli, the 
3rd joint obovate truncate, 4 following semioval, the remainder 
forming an ovate or conical club (1 a). 

Mandibles subtrigonate, truncated obliquely and tridentate, the 
apical tooth acute, the internal one blunt (3). 
Maxilla: long and narrow, rounded and ciliated at the apex, and 
producing a membranous dilated margin. Palpi slender, triarti- 
culate, basal and 3rd joints long, the latter truncated obliquely 
and pilose, 2nd joint subovate (4). 

Mentum rhomboid. Lip large, oblong, narrowed at the base, the 
anterior margin sinuated. Palpi large, biarticulate, basal joint 
truncate, 2nd subovate pilose (5). 
Head broad, short, slightly concave in front. Eyes large, lateral. 
Ocelli 3. Trunk oblong : prothorax large transverse. Scutellum 
rounded. Wings remote from the head, pubescent, ?,Vi^Qx\o\- large, 
obtuse, vnth a subcostal nervure, touching the costa beyond the centre 
where it forms a short branch. Abdomen very small, subglobose and 
attached by a long stout petiolus in the male : longer ovate, slightly 
compressed, the petiolus much shorter and the apex acuminated, with 
an ovipositor beneath in the female (6 ; a, the point of attachment) . 
Coxae large, producing a transparent plate at the apex of the ante- 
rior pair : thighs incrassafed, especially the posterior : tib'ae spurred, 
posterior ciliated externally with a few spiny bristles : tarsi 5-jointed, 
basal joint the longest: claws bent: puhiWi distinct (8, afore leg). 



CooPERi Curtis. 

Female black, pubescent, very closely and coarsely punctured j 
underside of antennae, tip of the 2nd joint and the apex ochreous^ 
face of the same colour : collar with a narrow orange border, 
broadest before and interrupted behind ; base of the wings 
orange : abdomen very smooth and shining : superior wings 
with a sublunular brown stigma, black at the costa, the nervures 
ferruginous : legs ochreous, posterior coxae black, intermediate 
thighs with a streak of black, the posterior black except at the 
base and apex, posterior tibiag black in the middle. 
In the Cabinets of Mr. Cooper and the Author. 



Decatoma is a genus proposed by Spinola, but I am ignorant 
of his characters : from the typical Eurytoma it is distinguished 
by the antennae being clavate in the female ; and the 2nd basal 
joint is very nearly as long as the 3rd, not reckoning the little 
rings ; whereas in Eurytoma, the 3rd joint is frequently almost 
as long as the basal one, and very much longer than the 2nd. 
It is very important to remember, also, that the maxillary palpi 
are only triarticulate ; for Mr. Haliday has observed, that they 
are composed of 4 joints in E. longula ? Dal. 

I shall characterize the species lent to me by F. Walker, Esq. 
of Southgate, where they were taken, I believe, on grass under 
trees. 

1. D. Cooperi Curtis' s Brit. Ent. pi. 34^5. fern. 

For males of this pretty insect, I am indebted to A. Cooper, 
Esq., who beat them out of a hazel-bush, with one female, in 
September, close to the river Mole at Cobham. 

2. D. biguttata Swed. — Fejnale much smaller, but similar to 

No. 1 : antennae black, the tip of the 2nd joint only 
ochreous : face variegated with yellow : collar of the 
same colour, with a large trilobed black mark : abdo- 
men with a yellow spot on each side, near the centre : 
legs pale ochre, variegated as in No. 1. 

3. D. variegata Walk. MSS.—SimWsiV to No. 2, but much 

smaller : the collar is yellow, with the centre and a 
spot on each side black, a yellow horse-shoe-formed 
mark above each upper wing : the hinder thighs have 
only a broad black ring round the middle, and the 
stigma is trigonate. 

4. D. obscura Walk. — Female similar to No. 3, but the collar 

is almost entirely black : there is no yellow spot on the 
side of the abdomen, as in No. 2 and 3 ; the hind thighs 
and tibiag are black, except the knees : stigma sublu- 
nulate, pale fuscous, black at the costa. 

5. D. unicolor Walk. — Male much smaller: antennae pale to- 

wards the apex : stigma small, black : tarsi and knees 
of hinder legs alone yellowish, the former fuscous at 
the apex. 

6. D. minuta Walk. — Male similar to No. 5, but the face is 

variegated with ochre : there is an ochreous ring ou 
each side the collar, and the tibiae are ochreous, ex- 
cepting the middle of the posterior pair, which is black. 

7. D. mellea Walk. — Male as large as No. 2, ochreous : collar 

and head yellowish, both a little blackish at the base : 
scutellum variegated with black, and three large con- 
nected black spots on the back of the abdomen. 
S. D.?penetransJv/V.— Brassy-black: abdomen bluish-black, 
compressed : apex truncated : aculeus subexserted. — 
Linn. Jrans. 5. 109.pl. 4./ 10, IJ. 
This minute insect is probably allied to the present group. 
Corylus Avellana (Hazel-nut Tree), in flower, accompanies 
the insect. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Order 2. DERMAPTERA. Vol. III. 



556 



. 456 
. 293 



Fam. FORFICULID^. 

257. Forficula borealis . . . 

Orders. DICTYOPTERA. 

Fam. BLATTIDiE. 

258. Blatta lapponica. . . . 

Order 4. ORTHOPTERA. 
Fam. ACHETID^. 

259. Gryllotalpa vulgaris 

260. Acheta sylvestris . 

Fam. LOCUSTIDiE. 

261. Acrida Bingleii 82 

262. Locusta Christii 608 

263. Acrydium subulatum . . . 439 

Order 5. STREPSIPTERA. 

264. Stylops Dalii 226 

265. Elenchus Walkerii . . . .385 

266. Halictopliagus Curtisii. . . 433 

Order 6. HYMENOPTERA. 



Fam. TENTHREDINID.E. 

267. Cirabex 10-maculata 

268. Trichiosoma laterale 

269. Clavellaria marginata 

270. Zaraea fasciata . . 

271. Abia nigricornis . . 

272. LophyTus pini . . 

273. Schizocerus pallipes 
Cryptus pallipes. . 

274. Hylotoma Stephensii 

275. Athalia spinarum . 

276. AUantus flavipes. . 

277. Tenthredo cingulata 

278. Emphytus fasciatus . 

279. Croesus septentrionalis. 

280. Cladius pilicornis 

281. Lyda fasciata. . 

282. Cephus femoratus 

Fam. XIPHYDRIDiE. 

283. Xyela pusilla . . . 

Fam. SIRICID^. 

284. Oryssus coronatus . 

285. Sirex juvencus . . 



Fam. EVANID^. 



286. Evania fulvipes . . . 

287. Foenus assectator . . 

Fam. ICHNEUMONID/E 

288. Ichneumon amatorius 

289. Stilpnus dryadum . 

290. Mesoleptus Waltoni 

291. Tryphon varitarsus 

292. Anomalon vesparum 
Scolobates vesparum 

293. Trogus atropos . . 
Ichneumon atropos. 

294. Alomya victor . . 



65 
617 
764 
692 
436 

17 
457 
381 
301 



30 



460 
253 



257 
423 



728 
388 
644 
399 
198 

ib. 
234 

ib. 
120 



295. Crj'ptus bellosus . . 

296. Agriotypus armatus. . 

297. Pezomachus Hopei . . 

298. Mesochorus sericans . 

299. Lampronota crenicornis 
Lissonota Grav. . . . 

300. Pimpla sethiops . . . 

301. Peltastes (pini) dentatus 

302. Euceros albitarsus . . 

303. Banchus Farrani. . . 

304. Therion amictum . . 
Anomalon Grav. . . 

305. Ophion ventricosus. . 

306. Pristomerus vulnerator 
Pachymerus Grav. . . 

307. Xylonomus pilicornis . 

Fam. ADSCITID.E. 

308. Bracon denigrator . . 

309. Bassus calculator . . 
Microdus Nees. ab Essen. 

310. Microgaster alvearius . 

311. Leiophron apicahs . . 

312. Zele albiditarsus. . . 

313. Chelonus Wesmaiilii . 

314. Rogas balteatus . . . 

315. Hecabolus sulcatus . . 

316. Alysia Apii .... 

317. Chaenon anceps . . . 
Ccelinius Nees. ab Essen. 

318. Aphidius cirsii . . . 



Fam. DIPLOLEPIDiE or CYNI- 
PIDyE. 

319. Ibalia cultellator . . . 

320. Cyuips ner\'osa .... 

Fam. PROCTOTRUPID^. 



321. 
322. 
323. 
324. 
325. 
326. 
327. 
328. 
329. 
330. 
331. 
332. 



Galesus fuscipennis. 
Cinetus dorsiger. . 
Helorus anomalipes 
Proctotrupes areolator. 
Diyinus cursor . . 
Bethylus fulvicornis 
Sparasion frontale . 
Cerapliron HaUdayi 
Teleas elatior. . . 
Scelio rugosulus. . 
Platygaster Boscii . 
Mymar pxdchellus . 

Fam. SPALANGIDiE 



333. Spalangia nigra 

Fam. CYNIPID^ or CHALCI- 
DID.E. 



334. Eulophus damicornis . 

335. Encyrtus vitis ... 

336. Stenocera Walkeri . . 

337. Cleonymus maculipennis 

338. Colas dispar .... 

339. Phagonia smaragdina . 

340. Smiera Macleanii . . 

341. Perilampus pallipes. . 

342. Callimome subterraneus 

343. Decatoma Cooperi . . 



Plate. 
668 
389 
536 
464 
407 

ib. 
214 
4 
660 
588 
736 

ib. 
600 
624 

ib. 
353 



69 
73 
ib. 
321 
476 
415 
672 
512 
507 
141 
289 
ib. 
383 



22 



341 
380 
403 
744 
206 
720 
317 
249 
333 
325 
309 
411 



. 740 



133 
395 
596 
194 
166 
427 
472 
158 
552 
345 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF 

Vo.^ •■' Plate. 

/fi "Abia nigriconiis 89 

J/--Acheta sylvestris 293 

^ -^•J'-Aciydium subulatum 439 

- t);nri<.)l'^''^-A-Fiotypus armatus 389 

■^ A'O'Allantus flavipes 764 

. . . 120 
. . .141 
. . .198 
. . .736 
. . .383 
. . .617 



HYMENOPTERA, &c. Vol. III. 



f ^ it -Alomya victor 

60 -Alysia apii . • • 
3fc-Anomalon vesparum 
fS Grav. . 



(>d- -Aphidius cirsii 

fc^ -Athalia spinarum .... 
■ -Banchus Farrani 588 



% 



)^ -Bassus calculator 73 

lO -Bethylus fuhdcornis 720 

c^ -Blatta lapponica 556 

5^ -^racon denigrator 69 

^4 - Callimome subterraneus .... 552 

b / Coelinius anceps 289 

<2.^-Cephus femoratus 301 

72.-Cerapbron Halidayi 249 

iD / -Chaenon anceps 289 

5/" -Chelonus Wesmaelii 672 

tl ^Cimbex 10-maculatus 41 

b d -Cinetus dorsiger 380 

,iY -Cladius pilicornis 45/ 

yS-Clavellaria marginata 93 

'J'/'Cleonymus maculipennis. . . . 194 

7^1— Colax dispar 166 

Aj - Croesus septentrionalis .... 1 7 

5? -Crj-ptus bellosus 668 

i'] pallipes 58 

^■/-Cynips nervosa 688 

"f7-Decatoma Cooperi 345 

^? -Dryinus cursor 206 

■? -Elenchus Walkerii 385 

Emphytus fasciatus 436 

V -Encyrtus vitis 395 

yZ-.-Euceros albitarsus 660 

fc' j-Eulopbus damicornis 133 

jy-Evaniafulvipes 257 

3 / >-Fcenus assectator 423 

/ — Forficula borealis 560 

fc.r-Galesus fuscipennis 341 

3 - Gryllotalpa vulgaris 456 

'W-Halictophagus Curtisii .... 433 

5?-'Hecabolus sulcatus 507 

6 7 -Helorus anomalipes 403 



Hylotoma Stephensii . 
Ibalia cultellator . . 
Ichneumon amatorius. 

atropos 

Lampronota crenicornis 
Leiopliron apicalis . . 
Lissonota Grav. . . 
Locusta Christii . . 
Lophyrus pini . . . 
Lyda fasciata . . . 
Mesochorus sericans . 
Mesoleptus Waltoni . 
Microdus calculator . 
Microgaster alvearius. 
Mymar pulcliellus . . 
Ophion ventricosus 
Oryssus coronatus . . 
Pachymerus Grav. 
Peltastes pini ... 
Perilampus pallipes . 
Pezomachus Hopei. . 
Phagonia smaragdina . 
Pimpla iEthiops . . . 
Platygaster Boscii . . 
Pristomerus vulnerator 
Proctotrupes areolator 
Pteromalus Dalm. . . 
Kogas balteatus. . . 
Scelio rugosulus . . 
Scbizocerus pallipes . 
Scolobates vesparum . 
Sirex juvencus . . . 
Smiera Macleanii . . 
Spalangia nigra. . . 
Sparasion frontale . . 
Stenocera Walkeri. . 
Stilpnus dryadum . . 
Teleas elatior . . . 
Tenthredo cingulata . 
Therion amictum . . 
Trichiosoma laterale . 
Trogus atropos . . . 
Tryphon varitarsus 
Xyela pusilla . . . 
Xylonomus pilicornis . 
Zaraea fasciata . . . 
Zele albiditarsus . . 



Plate, f^^^ 

, 65-y? 

. 22-63 
. 728 -3 A 
. 234- 3 r 
. 407- i-5 
. 476- ^Ti* 
. 407-*/ 3 
. 608- 6 
. b4-ll> 
. 381- ,5r 
. 464- VA 
. 644-3^ 
. 7Z-i3' 
. 321' fh 
. 411-76 
. 600 -V? 
. 460-^g 
. 624 '^0 
. 4'V^ 
. 158*^5* 
. 536- fy 
. 427-'S^3 
. 214-^y 
. 309 -7i- 
. 624-5'') 
. 744- hi 
. 166-5^5. 
. 512-5^ 
. 325- 7 V' 

. 58-/r 

. 198^3^ 
. 253-..^<^ 
. 472'^ H 
. 740-77 
. 317-7/ 
. 596 -'?o 
. 388-33__^ 
.'333-!;3"i--)" 
. 692-.a/ dl^.l 
. 736. •'f'? "•' - 
. 49-^"^ 
. 234-- 
. 399-"" 
. 30-J-7 
. 353-5/ 
. 97' /V- 
. 415-:r6 



Folio. ERRATA. 

4 It is possible this may be the Ichneumon chrysnpus Lewin, Trans. Linn. Soc. v. 3. 
p. 4. tab. 2. f. 5. 
41 line 32 add Claws bifid. 
58 The genus Cryptus has been recently named Schizocerus, which, for reasons 

given in our text, we shall adopt. 
69 line 29 for 2 read 3 submarginal cells. 
82'' line (>for anterior read interior. 
141 line 3 for Order Colcoptera read Order Hymeuoptera. 
1 64 line 33 for Coccse read Coxse. 
166 line 34, 42, & 41, for Coccse read Coxae. 

198 Jnomalon vesparum. Several males hatched the end of last April, as I antici- 
pated. Is it not probable that they would have lived till females of another 
brood appeared in the following July? 
226 line 25 for Scutellum read Postscutellum. 
line 33 for Prothorax read Antepectus. 
line 34 for Mesothorax read Medipectus. 
line 35 for Metathorax read Metasternum. 
254^ dele line 17. 

Ii7ie 26 for t. 12 read b2. 
380 Cinetus dorsiger. The size of this insect was omitted in a few of the im- 
pressions : it is the length of this hne | . 



234'' line 29 for Linn, read Fab. 

line 39 for 264 read 244. 
333'' line 23 for lotus read latus. 
333 line 41 for 583 read 582. 
341^ line 11 for at read of the tarsi. 



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