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Full text of "British journal of entomology and natural history"

ISSN: 0952-7583 



British Journal of 
ENTOMOLOGY 

and Natural History 



Volume 8 
1995 



Published by the British 

Entomological and Natural History 

Society and incorporating its 

Proceedings and Transactions 



British Journal of Entomology and Natural History is published by the British Entomological 
and Natural History Society, Dinton Pastures Country Park, Davis Street, Hurst, Reading, 
Berkshire RG10 OTH, UK. Tel: 01734-321402. The journal is distributed free to BENHS 
members. 

Editor 

Richard A. Jones, B.Sc, F.R.E.S., F.L.S. 

13 Bellwood Road 

Nunhead 
London SE 1 5 3DE 

Editorial Committee 

Rev. D.J.L. Agassiz, M.A., Ph.D. 

R.D.G. Barrington, B.Sc. 

E.S. Bradford 

P.J. Chandler, B.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

B. Goater, B.Sc, M.I.Biol. 

A.J. Halstead, M.Sc. 

R.D. Hawkins, M.A. 

P.J. Hodge 

T.G. Howarth, B.E.M., F.R.E.S. 

I.F.G. McLean, Ph.D., F.R.E.S. 

Mrs F.M. Murphy, B.Sc. 

M.J. Simmons, M.Sc 

T.R.E. Southwood, K.B., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

R.W.J. Uffen, M.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

B.K. West, B.Ed. 



© 1995 British Entomological and Natural History Society. 
Registered charity number: 213149 



Typeset by Dobbie Typesetting Limited, Tavistock. 
Printed in England by Henry Ling Ltd, Dorchester. 



BRITISH JOURNAL OF LNTOMOLOGY 
AND NATURAL HISTORY 

Index to volume S, 1995 

Compiled bv David Young, will the assistance of 

P.J. Chandler, A.J. Halstead, N. Hall, A.W. Jones, 

A.J. Pickles, J. Rohbinsand R.D. Hawkins 

Dates of publication 

Part 1 —January 1995 

Part 2 — March 1995 

Part 3 — September 1995 

Part 4 — October 1995 



GENERAL 

Aculeate wasps and bees of Crow Wood, Finninglcy in 

Watsonian Yorkshire, with the introduction of a 

new national quality scoring system 49 
Announcements 

Bedfordshire butterflies and moths 

rear cover part 1 

BENHS expedition 72 

Blachford collection of Coleoptera 96 

Microlepidoptera of Middlesex: an 

appeal for records 42 

Nat. Pyralid Recording Scheme 174 

Prof. Hering Memorial Res. Fund 72 

Public liability insurance rear cover part 3 
Annual Exhibition Reports for 1994 

Arachnida 212 

British butterflies 177 

British macrolepidoptera 181 

British microlepidoptera 188 

Coleoptera 201 

Corrigendum to 1992 report 213 

Diptera 198 

Dermaptcra 210 

Foreign lepidoptcra 194 

Hemiplera 207 

Illustrations 212 

Hymenoptcra 207 

Meeoptera 2 1 1 

Neuroptera 21 1 

Odonata 210 

Orlhoplera 210 

Siphonaptcra 21 1 
Armadillidium pictum new to Gloucestershire 76 
BENHS workshop 8 April 1995 The National Network 

for Recording Britain's Moth's 170 
Breeding experiment with the Small Copper Butterfly 97 
Book reviews and notices 

Agricultural entomology 160 

Australian beetles 6 

Book of the spider 10 

Butterflies and moths of Berkshire 221 

Butterflies' fly-past 47 

Colour guide to hovcrfly larvae 48 

Die Kafer Mittclcuropas 77 

Die Schmetterlingc Ostcrreichs (Lepidoptcra). 

Systcmalischcs Ver/.eichnis mil Verbrcilungs- 

angaben fur die cinzelnen Bundeslander 35 



Entomological bygones or historical 

entomological collecting equipment and 

memorabilia 100 

Ries in the Yorkshire museum 154 

Ground beetles in the Yorkshire museum 154 

Insect conservation biology 17 

Insects: an outline of entomology 59 

Insects: life cycles and the seasons 60 

Invertebrate zoology 77 

Invertebrates of Wales: a review of 

important sites and species 159 

New life for old woods 216 

Rarity 76 

Systematic and applied entomology: an 

introduction 144 

British species of Metopia with two new to Britain 33 

Colour plates 

I 101 

II 177 

III 208 

Correction to Buttcrlly Conservation's claimed 
attitudes on conservation 171 

Deadwood Coleoptera from two important Denbighshire 
parklands, including five new to Wales 156 

Diptcrisls Forum 121 

Dirhagus pygmaeus and Hallomcnus bino talus: 
two beetles new to Wales 158 

Distribution and habits of the bee Hylaeus pectoralis in 
Britain 43 

Distribution and habits of the small carpenter bee Ceralina 
cyanca in Britain 1 

Distribution of the Society's Journal 222 

Dorcatoma dresdensis new to Glos. 137 

Editorial. House style 5: County names in records 27 

Effects of cattle poaching on insects living at the margin 
of the river lichen, 165 

Ephemera lineala Eaton at Reading 75 

Field meetings of the BENHS 

Tadnoll Heath, 23 May 1993 88 
Mount Caburn NNR, 19 June 1993 88 
Dinton Pastures , 23 April 1994 90 
Aldbury Common, 1 1 June 1994 91 
Nunhcad Cemetery, 9 July 1994 92 
Richmond Park, 6 August 1994 93 
Abernelhy Forest, 13 August 1994 94 
Powerstock Common, 1 1 June 1994 214 
Catfield Fen, 16 July 1994 214 



Further study of the behavioural patterns of six species of 
British butterfly whilst in copula 7 

Indoor meetings of the BENHS 
14 June 1994 78 

12 July 1994 80 

13 September 1994 81 
10 October 1994 82 

7 November 1994 84 

13 December 1994 138 
10 January 1995 140 
28 February 1995 141 

14 March 1995 144 

Interesting saproxylic fauna at Snelsmore Common 74 
Letters to the editor: 

Capital letters for English names 1 19 

County names 169 

Habitat preference in the Lcpidpptcra and 

distribution in light-traps 155 
Life cycle, distribution and habits of Hypcna 

obsitalis in Devonshire 37 
Mollis at Carry on Bay, Cornwall recorded 1989-1993 61 
Myopites eximia new to Devon 157 
Obituaries 

I.G.Farwell 87 

B.J.MacNulty 175 
Observations of Bombus terrcstris feeding on 

honeydew 73 
Officers' reports for 1994 

Council's report 145 

Curator's report 152 

Editor's report 153 

Librarian's report 151 

Prof. Hering Memorial Res. Fund 150 

Treasurer's report 146 
Panoquina panoquinoides eugeon from the Winward 

Islands, Lesser Antilles 161 
Report of the discussion meeting held on 12 May 1992 to 

consider invertebrate conservation in the UK 19 
Rheotauytarsus rioensis, a new species of the pentapoda 

group, from the Canary Islands 1 1 
Some observations on the pros and eons of being a bark- 
feeding insect 129 
Some records of root-aphids on spruce in Britain 125 
Swammerdammia compunctella in McrthyrTydfill, 1 12 
Two new species of Megaselia 1 13 
Two species of Agromyzidac new to the British fauna 74 
Understanding size and pattern variation in mainland 

Britain Pararge aegeria 102 
Winter emergence of Phyllonorycter slrigulatclla 158 

CONTRIBUTORS 

Agassi/., D. 142 

Alexander, K.N. A. 74,76,91,137,157, 158,198,201,207 

Allen, A.W.J. 202 

Archer, M.E. 49,83 

Armitage, P.D. 11 

Bailey, K.E.J.Plale 11,177 

Baker, BR. 47,75 

Ball, S. 80 

Barrington, R.D.G. 178 

Bland, K. P. 188 

Bowdrey.J.P. 208 

Boyd, G. 78,199,207 

Bradford, E.S. 181,188 

Britton, MR. 178,181,189 

Brock, J. P. 208 

Brotheridgc, D.J. 181, Plate 111 



Bum, JT. 49 

Butcher, A.G.J. 181, Plate 111 

Callow, M. 178 

Callow, N. A. 87 

Carter, C. 141 

Chandler, P.J. 199 

Clancy, S. P. 182,189 .Plate 111 

Clarke, J. H. 182,Plalc 111,212 

Classey.E.W. Plate 11,178 

Colenutt, S. 189, Plate 111 

Collins, G. A. 93,199,208,211 

Cook, RR. 182 

Copcstake, DR. 202 

Corke.D. 161,162 

Corley, M.F.V. 182,189,194, Plate 1 1 1 

Cramp, P.J. 183,189 

Deeming, J. C. 74 

Dennis, R.C. Plate 11,178 

Disney, R.H.L. 113 

Dobson.A.H. 37,183, 189,Plate 111 

Drake, CM. 165 

Else.G.R. 1,43,119 

Elston.H.J. Plate 11,195 

Emmet, A.M. 183,189 

Eversham, B.C. 202,207,210 

Falk, S.J. 33 

Fensome, B. 178 

Foster, A. P 91,183,189,198,201,207 

George, R.S. 211 

Gill, N. 183 

Goatcr, B. 35,183,Plate 111 

Godfrey, A. 199 

Hackctt, D.S. 81,84,86,195,200,203,212,213 

Hall.N. 183,196 

Halstead, A.J. 60,78,80,81,84,85,142,144,200,203,208 

Harley, B.H. 213 

Hannan.T.W. 183, 197,200, Plate 111 

Hanncr, AS. Plate 11,179 

Harper, M.W. 190,Plale 111 

Hart.C. 183 

Harvey, P.R. 200,208 

Hawkins, R.D 200 

Haywood, B. 183 

Haywood, R. 183 

Heckford, R.J. 190 

Henderson, M. 203 

Henwood, B.P. 213 

Hey, M. cover part 1 

HoarcD.I.B. Plate 11,204 

Hoare.R.J.B. 190,Plate 111 

Hodge, P.J. 200,204,207,209 

Houghton, D.W. 179 

Howton, D.H. 184,190,209 

Hoy, S. 82,83 

I ley, M. cover part 1 

Jenkins, A. 184 

Jones, A.M. Plate 11,179 

Jones, R.A. 6,48,77,80,82,86,89,92,93,120,138,142, 

144,154,160,169 
Kemp, R. 180 
King, G. 197 
Kitching, I. 80 

Knill-Jones, S.A. 7,180,184,191,205 
Kolaj.A. 184 

Langmaid,J.R. 1 91, Plate 111 
Langton, PH. 11 
Lees, DC. 88 



Lonsdale, D. 17,126,129 

Lott, D.A. 205 

MacKenzic Reid, I. 185 

Major, E. 125 

Manning, D.V. 185 

McCormick, R. 185,216 

McLean, I. F.G. 79,82 

Meredith, S. 84,86 

Merrifield, K. 140 

Middleton, A. P. 197 

Middleton, H.G.F. 185 

Miles, S.R. 19,85,140,143 

Morgan, J. 169 

Morris, M.G. 206 

Mugglelon,J. 86 

Murphy, F. 10 

Natural History Museum 194 

Owen, D.F. 185 

Owen, J. 186 

Page.K. 144 

Parker, M. 88,214 

Parsons, M. 76,78,79,93,186,191 

Payne, J. H. 180 

Perry, 1. 200 

Phillips, J.W. 186 

Piekles, A.J. 175,213 

Pittis, S. 221 

Plant, C.W. 100,138,186,201,211,212 

Porter, D.A. 207,209 

Porter, J. 180,186,192,210 

Pratt, C. 186 

Pullem, A. 138 

Robbins, J. 192,201,209 

Roberts, S. P.M. 119,209 

Quinn.R. 81 

Revels, R. cover part 3, 1 80 

Robertson, T.S. 97, Plate 1 

Rouse, T. 180,186 

Salt, D.T. 125 

Sawyer, N. 86 

Seanes,J.J. 185,187,Plate 111 

Scoble, M.J. 59 

Simmons, M.J. 187,192,201 

Simpson, A.N. B. 187,192 

Sims, I. 187,192 

Skinner, B. 142,187,193,Plale 111 

Slade, D.J. 112,158 

Softly, R. 79,86 

SokolotT, P. 213 

Spalding, A. 61 

Standing, PA. Plate 11,180 

Sterling, M.J. 187, 194, Plate 1 1 1 

Sterling, P.H. 187,194,Plate 111 

Stubbs.A.E. 121,171, Plate 11,201 

Tebbutt, P. Plate 11,180,187 

Teller, M.G. 202,207,210 

Trembath, D.A. 197 

Tremewan, W.G. Plate 11,181 

Tubbs, R.S. 181 

Turner, C. 73 

Uffen, R.W.J. 210 

Ward, J.W. 187,Plale 111 

Waring, P 78,82,84,86,90,94, 1 38, 140,14 1 , 1 56, 

198,213,214,217 
Wanie, B.J. 187 
Watson, C. 210 
Wcdd.D. 187 



Williams, R. covers part 2 and 4 
Wilson, MR. 158,159 
Winokur, L. Plate 1,102 
Wooldridge, D.B. 188 
Wyaltt, N.P. 33 
Young, D.A. 90,188,222 

COLEOPTERA 

Abdera quadrifaseiata 157 
Aclidium alcmmum 205 
Agapanthia villosoviridcscens 203 
Agonum ericcti 204 
A.sexpunelatum 204 
Agrilus Unicornis 203 
A.pannonicus 91 
A.sinuatus 202 
Altica brevicollis 207 
Amara anthobia 202 
A.apricaria 202 
A.biirons 202 
A.consularis 202 
A.equcstris 202 
A.eurynota 202 
A.l'ulva 202 
A.lusca 202 
A.lucida 202 
Amauronyx maerkcli 202 
Amphimallon oehraeeus 201 
A.solstitialis 93,202 
Anaglyptus mysticus 203 
Anthophagus alpinus 205 
Anthriscus sylvestris 80 
Aphodius contaminatus 203 
A.distinctus 202 
Apion genistae 204 
A.stolidum 207 
Aplocnemus pini 203 
Apteropeda globosa 201 
Arhopalus ruslicus 142,203 
A.tristis 142 

Athous campyloides 93,203 
Atlelabus nilens 203 
Auletobius convexifrons 206 
A.eylindricollis 206 
Bagous brevis 202 
Bcmbidion ascendens 205 
B.azurcscens 205 
B.bipunctatum 204,205 
B.oelomaculatum 138 
B pallidipcmie 204 
B.quadripustulatum 207 
Bitoma crenata 157 
Bolitochara mulsanti 204 
Boreaphihis velox 205 
Brachinus crepitans 142 
Broscus cephalotes 203 
Calathus ambiguus 202 
C.cinctus 202 
Carabus aural us 204 
C.glabratus 95 
Cardiophorus asellus 202 
Carpclimus nitidus 205 
C.obesus 205 
C.pusillus 205 
Cassida nebulosa 202 
Cathormiocerus altaphilus 206 
C.britannicus 206 



C.maritimus 206 
C.myrmecophilus 206 
C.socius 206 
Chactarthria similis 205 
Choragus shcppaixli 204 
Chrysolina americana 78,203 
C.banksi 86 
C.fastuosa 204 
C.orichalcea 203 
C.sanguinolenta 202 
Chrysomcla populi 203 
Cicindela campcstris 95,204 
C.maritima 201 
Cicones undata 92 
Cionus variegatus 206 
Cleonus pigcr 202 
Clytus arictis 93,203 
Coccinella quinqucpunclata 201 
Colydium elongatum 202 
Conopalpus lestaceus 203 
Copris lunaris 204 
Cryptarcha strigata 157 
Crypticus quisquilius 202 
Cryptocephalus aurcolus 89 
C.bigultatus 203 
C.bilincatus 89 
Cteniopus sulphurous 202 
Ctesias serra 75,157 
Curculio villosus 203 
Cychrus caraboides 203 
Cylindrinotus lacvioctostriatus 75 
Cymindis humcralis 205 
Dacnc bipustulata 82 
Dasytes niger 202 
Deleaster diehrous 201 
Deliphrum tectum 205 
Dcndroctonus mieans 136 
Derocrepis rufipcs 142 
Dirhagus pygmaeus 158,201,202 
Dorcatoma chrysomelina 75 
D.drcsdensis 137 
D. serra 157 

Dorcus parallclipipedus 203 
Drypta dentata 202 
Dyliscus marginalis 205 
Elaplirus uliginosus 204 
Elcdona agrieola 82,91,157 
Epitrix atropae 89 
Erichsonius signatieomis 205 
Emoporus lagi 9 1 , 1 36, 1 57 ,202 
Euehlora dubia 202 
Euhcptaulacus villosus 89 
Euryalea decumana 205 
Gabrius astutus 205 
G.nigrituloides 205 
G.pisciformis 205 
G.tirolcnsis 205 
Galeruea tanaccti 202 
Galerucella sagitlariae 138 
Gastrophysa polygoni 142 
Gaurotcs virginea 205 
Geodromicus kunzci 205 
Gcorissus crenulatus 201 
Gnorimus nobilis 204 
G.variabilis 202 
Gnypeta caerulea 205 
Goedromicus kunzei 205 



Grammoplcra varicgata 207 

Gyrophaena angustata 204 

Haliplus obliguus 207 

H.variegatus 207 

Hullomciuis binolatus 158,201 

Harpalus affinis 202 

H.attonualus 202 

H.anxius 202 

H.froelichi 202 

H.honestus 202 

H.puncticcps 202 

H.rubripes 202 

H.rufibarbis 202 

H.rufitarsis 202 

H.smaragdinus 202 

H.vemalis 202 

Heloehares puiictatus 203 

Helophorus dorsalis 201 

H.longitarsis 204 

Helops caeruleus 203 

Hespcrorhynchus hcspcrus 206 

Hetcrothops niger 202 

Hydnobius puiictatus 204 

Hygrogeus aemulus 205 

Hypera mcles 204 

Hyphydrus ovalus cover pari 4 

Ischnomera cyanca 157 

Ischnopoda balteata 205 

Kalcapion fortunatum 206 

Laemostenus terricola 202 

Laparocerus ellipticus 206 

L.cxcavatus 206 

Lapidapion canariense 206 

Lathrobium angustatum 205 

Lebia chlorocephala 89,142 

Leptura livida 203 

Lesteva monticola 205 

Liciiius depressus 202 

Lilioccris lilii 204 

Liogluta nitidiuscula 205 

Lionychus quadrillum 205 

Liparus germanus 204 

Lissodema quadripustulata 202 
Macrobrachonyx gouncllei 206 
Magdalis ccrasi 203 
Masoreus wcttcrhali 202 
Mccinus collaris 207 
Medon ripicola 205 
Melanimon tibialis 202 
Meligethes viduatus 204 
Membidion bipunctatum 205 
Mcsosa nebulosa 207 
Metabletus truncatellus 202 
Metoecus paradoxus 93,203,207 
Miarus micros 201 
Micropcplus marietti 205 
Microplontus triangulum 201 
Mogulones biondii 206 
M.pscudopollinarius 206 
Molorchus umbcllatarum 203 
Mordellistena neuwaldeggiana 93 
Mordellochroa abdominalis 80 
Mycetophagus piccus 201 
Nebria castanea 205 
N.jockischi 205 
Necrodes littoralis 95,144 
Neobisnius proccrulus 205 



N.prolixus 205 
Noliophilus aqualicus 95 
Notoxus monocerus 202 
Ochthcbius pusillus 204 
Ochthephilus longipcnnis 205 
Oeypus chevrolati 205 
O.ophlhalmicus 202 
O.picipennis 205 
Ocdemera nobilis 203 
Olophrum alpinum 205 
Omalium I'errugineum 205 
Omaloplia ruricola 89 
Oncomcra fcmorata 204 
Onthophagus cocnobita 203 
Oodcs hclopioides 204 
Orsodacne cerasi 80,203 

var: chlorotiea 80 

var: glabrata 80 

var: lincola 80 
O.lineola 80 
Otiorhynchus scabcr 205 
Oxylaemus variolosus 202 
Paederus balcanicus 205 
P.littoralis 142 
Panagacus bipustulatus 202 
P.cruxmajor 204 
Paralister purpurasccns 203 
Parcthelcus ncsicola 206 
P.pollinarius 206 
Pediacus dermcstoides 157 
Perapion ncofallax 206 
P.tubifcrum 206 
P.violaceum 206 
Philonthus eoerulesccns 205 
P.confinis 205 
P.montivagus 205 
P.palustris 205 
P.rubripennis 204 
P.rufimanus 205 
Phloeophagus lignarius 203 
Phyllobroliea quadrimaeulata 201 
Phytodecta decemnotata 91 
Phytoecia eylindrica 202 
Platyderus ruficollis 204 
Platypus cylindrus 203 
Plegaderus disseetus 201 
P.vulneratus 202 
Podabrus alpinus 91 
Podagrica fuscipes 142 
Polydrusus sericcus 203 
Prionocyphon serricomis 157 
Prionus coriarius 93 
Prionychus ater 157 
Pscphidonus kunzci 205 
Psylliodcs luteola 202 
P.sophiae 202 

Pterostichus kugelanni Plate 1 1 ,204 
P.mullipunctatus 205 
P.pumilio 205 
Pyrochroa serraticomis 203 
Quedius dubius 205 
Q.obscuripennis 205 
Q.punctatellus 205 
Q.vcntralis 157 
Rhinoncus albieinctus 138 
R.ruficollis 142 
Rhissotriehum tubulifcrum 206 



Rhb.ophagus nitidulus 92 
Rhynchacnus avcllanae 202 
Rugilus subtilis 204 
Scolytus intricatus 75 
S.scolytus 136 
Scopaeus gracilis 205 
S.lacvigatus 205 
Scymnus sehmidti 89 
Sclatosomus bipustulatus 204 
Scnnylassa halcnsis 142 
Silis ruficollis 
Silpha carinata 204 
S. laevigata 202 
Sirocalodcs mixtus 206 
S.nigroterminatus 206 
Sitona latipennis 206 
Smicronyx pauperculus 206 
S.reichi 89 

Stenagostus villosus 203 
Stenolophus teutonus 204 
Stcnopclmus rufinasus 206 
Stenus canescens 205 
S.fossulatus 205 
Stranglia aurulenta 204 
S.maculata 93 
Tachys sexstrialus 205 
Tachyusa baltcata 205 
Taeniapion allanticum 206 
T.delicatulum 206 
Tetratoma desmaresti 157 
T.fungorum 142 
Tctrops praeusta 203 
Tillus elongatus 91,142,201 
Tomoxia bucephala 202 
Trachyphloeus aristatus 201 
Trachys scrobiculatus 202 
Trichophya piliconiis 207 
Triplax aenca 142 
Tropiphorus tcrricola 204 
Tomoxia bucephala 89,93 
Trachyphloeus altemans 89 
Trichius zonatus 204 
Trichotichnus laevipennis 205 
Tychius colonnellii 206 
Typhacus typhoeus 203 ,204 
Xantholinus longivcntris 207 
Xestobium rufovillosum 157 
Xyleborus dryographus 91,92 
Xylotcrus domesticus 157 
Zcugophora subspinosa 91,142 
Zyras humeralis 207 

DIlTliRA 

Achanthiophilus helianthi 198,199,200 
Acroccra orbicula 199 
Agathomyia elegantula 199 
A.wankowiczii 198,199 
Agromyza prespana 74 
Agromyzidae 201 
Anasimyia contracta 199 
Anthalia beatricclla 200 
Anthomyiidae 201 
Anthomyza collini 167 
Arctophila superbiens 199 
Asilus crabroniformis 200 
Aulacigasler leucopeza 200 
Bcris fuscipes 166 



Bittacomorpha clavipcs Plate 11,201 

Brachyopa bicolor 200 

B.pilosa 91,198,200 

B.scutcllaris 198 

Braehypalpus laphriformis 91,199 

Callicera aurata 200 

Campsicnemus pcctinulatus 166 

Cecidomyiidae 201 

Cclcma ncglecta 167 

Chactorcllia loricate 200 

Chcilosia grossa 199 

C.impressa 89 

C.soror 92 

Chcilotrichia imbuta 166 

Chloromyia lonnosa 167,215 

Chrysoloxum sp. 201 

C.cauliim 199 

C.l'estivum 92 

C.vcrralli 199 

Cleigastra apicalis 166 

Clinoccra stagnalis 167 

Cncmacantlia muscaria 200 

Cocidomyiidae 201 

Coenosia albatella 201 

Colobaca distinela 200 

Conopidac 201 

Cosmctopus dentimanus 166 

Cricolopus vicrriensis 16 

Ctenophora flavcolata 198 

C.pectinicomis 91,200 

Dictenidia bimaculata 91,199,200 

Dichetophora finlandiea 199 

Dioclria oclandica 198 

Dolichopc/.a albipes 201 

Doliehopus campestris 166 

Doros profuges 199 

Drosophilidac 201 

Elachiptera pubeseens 166 

Empis woodi 200 

Epiphragma ocellarc 200 

Episyrphus baltcatus 87,215 

Erioptcra 1'useipcnnis 167 

E.fusculenla 167 

E.trivialis 167 

Eristalinus sp. 201 

Eumcrus sp 201 

E.sabulonum 198 

Eutolmus rufibarbis 200 

Fannia ringdahlana 201 

Ferdinandca cuprea 200 

F.ruficomis 200 

Helius flavus 166 

Hereostomus plagialus 166 

Hilara obscura 166 

H.morala 200 

H. woodi 166 

Lcpiogasicr guttiventris 200 

Limonia lucida 166 

Lipara lucens 43,45,46 

Lispc tentaeulata 167 

Mallola eimbicil'onnis 199,200 

Mcgasclia sp 1 13,1 15 

M.haraldlundi 113,114,115,116 

M.intercostata 114,115 

M.intonsa 117 

M.jameslamonti 115,116,117,118 

M.septentrionalis 115 



M.tcncripes 116,118,119 
Mctopia argcntala 33 
M.argyroccphala 33,34 
M.eampestris 33,34 
M.grandii 33,34 
M.staegerii 33,34 
Microdon devius 199 
Mycetobia pallipcs 199 
Myopa extricate 199 
Myopitcs cximia 157 
M. fraucnfcldi 157 
Nematoproctus dislendens 199 
Neoascia geniculate 166 
N.lemir 166 

Norellisoma spininiainim 167 
Nyctia hallcrata 200 
Odinia bolctina 200 
O.xanthocera 200 
Oehthcra mantis 199 
Opomyza pelrci 167 
Orellia falcate 198,199,200 
Ornilhomyia avicularia 199 
Orlhonovra brcviconiis 213 
Oxyecra morrisii 166 
O.pardalina 198,199 
Paragus sp. 201 
Parallclomma vittatum 201 
Paratrichocladius rufiventris 16 
Parydra aquila 166 
Pcdicia rivosa 96 
Phaonia cincta 200 
Phryxc vulgans 139 
Phytoltriomyza mclampyga 199 
Phytomyza archhicracii 74 
P.erigerophila 74 
Piliiria fnscipennis 166 
Platynochaetus rufus 201 
Platypalpus infectua 166 
P.lcucothrix 89 
P.pallidiconiis 166 
Portcvinia maculate 213 
Pscudopomyza atrimana 198,201 
Pyrophacna rosarum 199,215 
Rhagio lincola 95 
Rhcotany tarsus sp. 11,13,15 
R.ororus 15 
R. pentapoda 1 1,15,16 
R.photophilus 11,16 
R.riocnsis 12,13,14,15,16 
Sapromyza basalis 201 
S.opaca 166 
Sarcophagidac 33 
Sarcotachinella sinuate 200 
Sargus bipunctetus 84 
Scacva sp. 201 
Scatclla pallidum 167 
Scathophaga stcrcoraria 167 
Sccnopinus nigcr 198 
Sciapus laetus 200 
Sepsis cynipsca 167 
S.orthocncmis 167 
Spiniphora maculate 199 
Stratiomys longicomis 200 
Synechcs muscarius 166 
Syntonuon denticulatus 166 
S. pallipcs 167 
Systcnus scholt/ii 199 



Tanyplera atrata 199 
Tephritidae 201 
Tcrcllia longicauda 200 
T.vectcnsis 200 
Teuchophorus calearatus 199 
T.spinigerellus 166 
Thccophora alra 89,214 
Thcmira minor 167 
T.superba 166 
Thcreva nobililala 86,200 
Thrieops aculcipes 200 
Typhamyza bifasciata 199 
Ulidia erythrophthalma 200 
Urophora cardui 1 5 1 
U.euspidata 200 
U.spoliata 200 
Vanoyia tcnuicomis 166 
Volucclla pellueens 92 
V.zonaria 92 
Xylola segnis 215 
X.xanthocncma 199 

HEMIPTERA 

Agramma laeta 90 

Alydus calearatus 207 

Bothynotus pilosus 95 

Chorosoma schillingi 207 

Cinara piccae 135 

Coranus woodrofi'ei 207 

Cryptocoecus fagisuga 130-133,134,136 

Cyphostcthus tristriatiis 78 

Eurydema dominulus 143 

Globiccps dispar 95 

Kcrmes qucrcus 135 

Lasiacanlha capucina 207 

Liorhyssus hyalinux 207 

Microvelia pygmaea 207 

Neides tipularius 207 

Pachyixippa.tremulae 125 

P.vcsicalis 125 

Pachypappclla lactea 125 

P.xylostei 125 

Pemphigus sp. 141 

Physatocheila smrec/.ynskii 207 

Pineus pini 135 

Pionosomus varius 207 

Podops inuncla 207 

Polymcrus unilaseiatus 96 

Prociphilus spp. 141 

P.xyloslci 125 

P.imbricalor 134,135 

Pulvinaria regalis 135 

Pyrrhocoris apterus 142 

Saldula sallatoria 167 

Schirus luctuosus 90 

Stagona xylostei 125 

Syromastus rhombcus 207 

Thyrcoeoris scarabaeoidcs 90,207 

Trapczonolus ullrichi 207 

Tn>ilus luridus 86 

Tubcrolachnus salignus 135 

Xylocoris eursilans 91 

HYMKNOP1ERA 

Abia sp. 86 

Ammophila sabulosa 59,207,210 

Ancistrocerus ovivcnlris 58 



C.rybycnsis 207 

Chrysididac 50 

Chrysis angustula 58 

C.cyanca 58 

C.imprcssa 58 

C.ruddii 58 

Cimbcx fcmoratus 208 

Clcptcs scmiauralus 50,52,58 

Coelioxys clongata 210 

Colleles davicsaiius 210 

C.fodicns 59 

C.lialophilus 43 

C.similis 210 

C.succinctus 210 

Colletidae 50 

Crabro cribrarius 58 

C.pcllarius 58 

Crossocerus distingucndus 210 

C.elongatulus 58 

C.nigriUis 59 

C.ovalis 58 

C palmipcs 50,58 

Cquadrimaculatus 59 

C.tarsatus 59 

C. varus 59 

C.wcsmaeli 59 

Cynips divisa cover part 1, 1,2,3 

Dasypoda altercator 209 

Diodontus lupcms 59 

D.minutus 59,209 

D.lristis 59 

Di|X)gon subintemiedius 207 

Dolerus bimaculatus 208 

Dolichovespula media 83,209 

D.saxonica 83 

D.sylvestris 58 

Dryinidae 50 

Ectemnius cavitRins 207 

E.contiiuius 207 

Elampus panzeri 209 

Entomognathus spp. 59 

E.brevis 210 

Epeolus variegatus 59 

Episyron rufipcs 207,210 

Eumcnidae 50 

Eutomostethus gagathinus 208 
Evageles crassieornis 58 
Fonniea fusca 49 
F. rufa 83 

Gasteruption asseclator 47 
G.jaeulator 47 
Gonatopus sepsoidcs 58 
Gorytes bicinctus 210 
G.quadril'aseiatus 59 
G.tumidus 59 
Haliclidae 50 
Halictus nibieundus 59 
H.lumulorum 59 
Hedychridium 58 
Hardens 209 
H.roseum 209 
Hedyehrum nicinelai 209 
Heterartlirus nemonilus 208 
Hoplitis clavivenlris 4 
Hoplocampa lestudinea 208 
Hylaeus breviconiis 59 
H.eommunis 43,59 



H.comutus 210 

H.pectoralis 43,44,45,46,47 

Hyposoter clausus 80 

Janus femoratus 208 

Lasioglossum calccatum 59 

L.leucopum 59 

L.leucozonium 59 

L.malachurus 210 

L.nilidiusculum 59 

L.punctatissimum 59 

L.rufitarse 59 

L.villosulum 59 

Lasius brunncus 91 

L.fuliginosus 83 

L.nigcr 49,83 

Leptothorax nylandcri 82 

L.tuberum 207 

Lindcnius albilabris 59 

Lonchodryinus ruficornis 58 

Macrophya rufipcs 208 

Macropis europaea 209 

Megachile leachella 209 

M. versicolor 59 

M.willughbiella 210 

Mcgachilidac 50 

Mclilta haemorrhoidalis 210 

M.tricincta 210 

Mcllinus arvcnsis 59 

Mclorus colon 39 

Mimesa bruxellensis 209 

Mimumesa spooncri 43 

Mutilla europaea 209 

Mutillidac 50 

Myrmecina graminicola 207 

Myrmica atra 58 
M.ruginodis 4 
Myrmosa atra 209 
Nematus eaprcac 208 
N.ribcsii 52 
Noniada labriciana 59 
N.flavopicta 50,59 
N.fulvieomis 49,59,209 
N.goodcniana 59 
N.lcucophthalma 59 
N.marshainclla 59 
N.panzeri 59 
N.striata 59 
Nysson dimidiatus 209 
N.spinosus 59 
N.trimaculatus 50,59,210 
Omalus auratus 58,93 
Osmia lcaiana 59 
O.lcucomclana 4 
Oxybclus uniglumis 59 
Panurgus banksianus 59 
Paravespula germanica 58 
P. vulgaris 58 
Pareophora pruni 208 
Passaloeeu-s cremita 209,210 
P.singularis 59 
Pemphredon inornatus 59 
Philanthus iriangulum 208,209,210 
Pompilidae 50 
Pompilus cincreus 58 
Priocncmis cxaltala 58 
P.parvula 58 
P.pcrturbalor 58 



P.schioedtei 50,58 

Prosopis kriechbaumcri 43 

P.palustris 43 

Psen bicolor 49,59 

P.bruxcllensis 210 

P.dahlbomi 59 

P.equestris 59 

P.lutarius 59 

P. spooncri 43 

Pscudogonatopus distinclus 58 

Pscudopipona hcrrichii 209 

Psithyrus bohemicus 59 

P.vestalis 59 

Rhogogastcr chambersi 208 

R.genisla 208 

Rhopalum coarcLatum 59 

Scolia sp. 86 

Smicromyrme rufipes 209 

Sphccidac 50 

Sphccodcs cphippius 209 

S.fasciatus 59 

S.gcolTrcllus 209 

S.gibbus 59 

S.longulus 210 

S.monilicomis 59 

S.pcllucidus 59 

S.puncliceps 209 

S.reticulatus 209 

Stelis oniatula 209 

S.punetulatissima 209,210 

Symmorphus crassicornis 209 

S.mutincnsis 58 

Tachysphex pompiliformis 58,210 

T.unicolor 58 

Tenthredo arcuata 78 

Trypoxylon attenuatum 58 

T.figulus 58 

Vcspa crabro 83 

Vcspula austriaca 58 

V.rufa 58 

Xiphydria prolongate 82 

LEPIDOPTERA 

abbrcviata, Eupithccia 71,91 
abictaria, Eupithccia 183 
abictella, Dioryctria 188,215 
absinthiata, Eupithccia 68,71 
acanlhadactyla, Amblyptilia 188,191 
achatana, Ancylis 191 
Acraea sp. 197 
acroxantha, Tachystola 191 
acleon, Thymelicus 

ab.alba 179 

ab.viresccns 179 
acuta, Chrysodeixis 84,138,140 
adclphclla, Sciota 193 
adspcrsclla, Agonopterix 195 
adustala, Ligdia 91 
adustalclla, Dcpressaria 195 
advcnclla, Numonia 70 
aegcria, Parargc 9,10,85,Plalel,102,103,104, 

105,106,107,108,109,110,177,178,179 

ab.cockaynei 177 

f.drumensis 102,105,108,109 

ab.pallidior 179 

ab.parviocellata 178 

ab.schmidti 178 



ssp.oblila Plate 1,102,103,104,105, 

107,108,109,110 

ab.cockaynci Plate 1,102,107,108,109 

ssp.lircis Plate 1,102,103,104,105, 

106,107,108,109,110 

ab.eockaynei 102,107, 108,Plate 1 

ab.mesovcntro-s2/s5 bioeellata Plate 1, 

105,106,107 
acrugula, Nola 187 
aescularia, Alsophila 70 
aestivaria, Hemithea 70,91 
aethiops, Erebia 96 

ab.flavescens 180 

ab. purpurea 180 
aff'inis, Cosmia 184 
affinitata, Perizoma 7 1 , 1 86 
agathina, Xestia 71,184 
agenjoi, Nemapogon 195 
agenjoi, Peristomastix 194 
agestis, Arieia 178 

ab.glomcrata 181 
Agonoplerix sp. 195 
ahcnella, Hypoehaleia 90 
albicapitella, Swammerdamia 112 
albieapilella, Paraswammerdamia 70 
albieilla, Salebriopsis 140,189,193 
albicosta, Colcophora 70 
albipuncla, Mythirnna 63,71,181,186 
albofasciata, Xandrames 197 
albovenosa, Simyra 184 

albula, Meganola 62,65,66,68,69,71, 182,185,Plate 111 
albulata, Asthcna 71 
albulata, Perizoma 90 
albumella, Teleiodes 190,Plalelll 
alchemillata, Perizoma 68,71 
alfaeariensis, Colias 179 
algae, Archanara 184 
aim, Aeronicta 71 

ab.sul'fusa 181 
alniaria, Ennomos 71,185 
alpieola, Xestia 

ssp.alpina 184 
alpinella, Plalyles 189,191 
alsines, Hoplodrina 71,187,Plate 1 1 1 
alternaria, Semiothisa 68,71 
alternata, Epirrhoe 70 
amaniella, Pleurota 195 
amazonieus, Baeotus 197 
ambigiialis, Seoparia 70 
amparoclla, Pseudatemelia 195 
amydon, Agrias 197 
analis, Parallelia 197 
anglicella, Paromix 70 
angustana, Eupoccilia 70 
angustea, Eudonia 70 
angustiorana, Dilula 70 
aiikcrella, Neurolhaumasia 194,195 
annulifera, Psyra 197 
apiformis, Sesia 188 
aprilina, Dichonia 71 
arcnella, Agonopterix 70 
areola, Xylocampa 71 
argiolus, Celastrina 81,83,92 
argus, Plcbejus 181 

ab.nigreseens 180 
argyrana, Pammene 70 
armigera, Helicoverpa 195 



armigera, Heliothis 63,71,183,184,186,187 

ashworthii, Xestia 182 

asinalis, Meeyna 62,70 

asscelana, Cnephasia 70 

assimilella, Agonopterix 70 

asteris.Cueullia 183 

atalanta, Vanessa 39,83,85,92,213 

ab.eos 213 

ab.klemsicwiezi 177 

ab.virgata 178 
alaxella, Myrmeco/.cla 194,195 
atril'aseiella, Infureitinea 194 
atriplieis, Traehea 1 87 
auguslella, Denisia 195 
aurinia, Eurodryas 177,214 

ab.sebaldus 177,179 

ab.virgata Plate 11,179 
australis, Aporophyla 65 
autumnaria, Ennomos 182 
auxo Chaleosia 

ssp.albata 197 
aversala, Idaea 70,155 
azaleella, Caloptilia 189,193 
badiata, Antielea 70 
badiella, Dcpressaria 195 
bankiana, Deltote 181,183,187 
basaltinella, Bryolropha 191 
basifasciella, Tinea 194 
batis, Thyatira 70 
bellargus, Ly sandra 87,180 

ab.krodeli 180 

ab.parvipuncta 180 

ab.striata 180 
bembecifonriis, Sesia 63,70,214 
berbera, Amphipyra 140,182,Plate 111 

ssp.svenssoni 188 
berberata, Pareulype 220 
betularia, Biston 71,186 

ssp.cognataria 186 
betulinella, Nemaxera 1 9 1 , 1 92 
bieolorata, Heeatera 71 
bieostella, Pleurota 195 
bieniris, Hadena 71 

bidentata, Odontopera 71,181,188,Plate 111 
bil'asciaiia, Olethrcules 70 
biliiieata, Camptogramma 70,185 
binaevclla, Phyeitodes 90 
biparlitella, Trichophaga 194,195 
bipunctella, Ethmia 191,194 
bipunetosa, Agonopterix 191 
biriviata, Xanlhorhoe 183,220 
biselata, Idaea 70,155 

ab.fimbriolata 184 
blanda, Hoplodrina 71 
blandella, Brachmia 70 
blandella, Caryocolum 70,190 
blandelloides, Caryocolum Plate 1 1 1 
blandiata, Perizoma 185 
blomeri, Diseoloxia 186 
bombycina, Polia 182 
borelii, Gortyna 

ssp.lunata 188 
Brachmia sp. 195 
bradleyi, Mompha 190,194 
brassicae, Mamestra 71 
brassicae, Pieris 109,177,178 
ab.coerulca 179 



ab.flava 179 

brcvilinea, Photcdes 184,215 

brilannica, Thcra 71 

britanniodactyla, Cappcria 192 

brizella, Aristolelia 189,191 

brockcella, Argyrcsthia 70 

brongniardella, Acrocercops 193 

brumata, Operophtera 91 

bruniicata, Scmiolhisa 94 

bucephala, Phalcra 71 

caesia, Hadena 

ssp.mananii 183 

caesiata, Entephria 96,184,185,186 

caesiella, Swammerdamia 112 

caja, Arctia 182 

ab.fumosa 1 87 

e -album, Polygonia 83 

caliginosa, Acosmctia 196 

cambridgci, Euchromius 196 

Camilla, Ladoga 

ab.nigrina 177,181 
ab.oblilcrae 181 

cana, Eucosma 70 

canapcnnella, ElachisUi 70 

eanella, Gymnancyla 191 

caniola, Eilema 62,65,71 

captiuncula, Photcdes 

ssp.cxpolita 181,182 

capucina, Ptilodon 71 

cardainincs, Anthocharis 88,178 

cardui, Cynthia 86,178,215 

mclanic Plate 1 1 
carpinata, Trichopteryx 71 
casta, Psyche 215 
castanea, Xestia 96,185 
castaneae .Phragmataecia 1 82, 1 84 ,2 1 4 
caslrensis, Malacosoma 182 
Catocala sp. 93 
ccntaureala, Eupithccia 71 
ccrasana, Pandcmis 70 
cerasi, Orthosia 71,92,182,187 

mclanic 183 
ccrussella, Platytcs 70 
cespilalis, Pyrausta 192 
chalcitcs, Chrysodeixis 84,138,140,182,183 
chamomillae, Cucullia 65,67,68,71 
chenopodiata, Scotopteryx 68,70 
chi, Antitype 186 
chlorosata, Pctrophora 71 
choragella, Morophaga 74,192 
chrysidiformis, Bembccia 212 
chrysitis, Diachrysia 71 
chrysopterella, Rcisserita 195 
cinerea, Agrotis 187, Plate 1 1 1 
gynandromorph 183 
cingulata, Pyrausta 189 
ciniflonella, Exaeretia 188 
cinxia, Melitaea 8,10 

ab.wittei 180 
clavipalpis, Caradrina 68,71,186 
clavis, Agrotis 68,71,185 
cloacella, Ncmapogon 192,195 
clorana, Earias 62,63,64,69,71,185,215 

ab.flaviinargo 64,183 
clypcifcrella, Colcophora 194 
enieicolana, Epiblema 194 
c-nigrum, Xestia 71 



cognata, Thcra 183,184 

combinella, Pseudoswammerdamia 191 

comes, Noctua 7 1 , 1 86, 1 87 

comma, Mythimna 71 

complana, Eilema 65 

coinpunctella, Swammerdamia 1 12 

concinnata, Cliloroclysta 182 

confusa, Hadena 71,183 

confusalis, Nola 71 

confusella, Stigmella 95 

conigcra, Mythimna 

mclanic 181, Plate 111 
consimilana, Clepsis 70 
consonaria, Paradarisa 
('.nigra 184 
conspicillaris, Egira 185 
contaminclla, Pediasia 93,191 

ab.sticheli 191 
contigua, Laeanobia 186 
continuella, Stigmella 188 
convolvuli, Agrius 1 86 
coridon, Lysandra 8,10,178,181 
ah. caeca 178 
ab.disercta 178 
ab.fowleri 180 
ab.inaequalis 178 
ab.i-nigrum 180 
ab.parallela 178 
ab.postdiscoelongala 178 
ab.striata 179 
coronata, Phlyctaenia 70 
corylata, Electrophaes 71 
coryli, Colocasia 71,185 

mclanic 185 
costalis, Hypsopygia 70,189 
costella, Scrobipalpa 70 
craccac, Lygcphila 65 
crassa, Agrotis 187 
crassinotata, Problcpsis 197 
cratipennella, Coleophora 192 
crcnata, Apamea 71 
crepuseularia, Eetropis 71 
cribnimalis, Maerochilo 215 
croccalis, Ebulea 70 
erocella, Adela 191 
croccus, Colias Platel 1,179,180,181 

f. he lice 179 
cnida, Orthosia 91 

ab.haggarti 184 
crypta, Euxoa 142 
cuculata, Catarhoc 70,90 
cuculipennclla, Caloptilia 193 
cucullatella, Nola 91 
culiciformis, Synanthedon 183 
eulmclla, Chrysoteuchia 70 
cuprcssata, Thcra 185,186,187 
cursoria, Euxoa 183 
cyanzimarmorella, Stenoptinca 194,195 
daucella, Deprcssaria 70 
deccploria, Lithacodia 175 
decimalis.Tholera 71 
decolorclla, Blastobasis 189,191 
decoratus, Marumba 197 
decrepitalis, Udea 213 
defoliaria, Erannis 91,184 
degeerclla, Neinophora 70 
deluneUa, Eudonia 192,196 



denotata, Eupithecia 

ssp.jasioneata 65 
dentaria, Selenia 71,91 
derivata, Anticlea 70 
detrimentella, Pseudatemelia 195 
diana, Choreutis 190 
didymata, Pcn/.oma 94 
dil'finis, Tclciopsis 68,70 
diluta, Pempeliella 70 
dilutaria, Idaca 138,182,186 
dimidiata, Idaca 70,182 
dimidioalba, Hcdya 70 
discordeila, Colcophora 1 88 
dispar, Lyeaena 138 

ssp.batavus 139 

ab.radiata Plate 1 1 
dispar, Lymantria 182,188 
dissoluta, Archanara 184,215 
distans, Oxiplilus 191 
distinctaria, Eupithecia 62,65,71,181 
dodonaea, Drymonia 187, Plate 1 1 1 
dodoneata, Eupithecia 71,91 
domeslica, Cryphia 181,184,186 

ab.sulTusa 186 
dominula, Callimorpha 194 

ab.medionigra 185 
douglasclla, Deprcssaria 195 
dromedarius, Notodonta 71,187 
dubitella, Phyllonorycter 193 
dumerilii, Luperina 142 
dumetata, Odonlognophos 

ssp.hibemiea 183 
duplaris, Ochrnpaeha 70 
efformala, Aploeera 185 
elinguaria, Crocallis 71,187 

ab.restricta 187 

ab.unicolor 182,185 
elpenor, Deilephila cover part 2,71,184 
elutella, Ephestia 191 
cmargaiia, Aclcris 70 
embcrizaepenella, Phyllonorycter 193 
eremita, Dryobotodes 186 
cricella, Pleurota 195 
ericinella, Aristotelia 70 
crinaceclla, Deprcssaria 195 
erula, Euxoa 142 
eugeon, Prenes 164 
euphrosyne, Boloria 

ab.edna 1 77 
evonymaria, Arliora 198 
exanthemata, Cabcra 71 
exclamationis, Agrotis 7 1 , 1 82, 1 83, 1 84, 1 85 
exigua, Spodoptera 183,185,187 
expallidata, Eupitliecia 185 
extersaria, Paradarisa 186 
extimalis, Evergestis 189,192 
cxulans, Zygaena 

ssp.subochraeca 184 
fagana, Pseudoips 71 
fagaria, Dyseia 182 
fagivora, Parornix 193 
falcataria, Drcpana 70 
I'alconipcnnella, Caloptilia 193 
talsella, Catoptria 188,192 
fascclinclla, Pcdiasia 189 
fasciaria, Hylaea 71,96 
fasciuncula, Oligia 71 



favicolor, Mythimna 187 
ferchaultclla, Lul'fia 192 
ferrago, Mythimna 71,196 

f'.argyristis 196 
ferrugalis, Udea 63,70 
ferrugata, Xanthorhoe 70 
ferruginea, Rusina 71 
fibulella, Adela 192 
filicivora, Psyelwidcs 192 
lirmala, Thcra 71 
flammca, Panolis 71 
flammcalis, Endotrieha 68,70 
flavago, Gorlyna 7 1 
llavalis, Mecyna 190 
llavicaria, Therapis 198 
flavieineta, Polymixis 71 
tlavicinctata, Entepltria 184,185 

ssp.nificinctata 184 
llavinigra, Ariehanna 197 
flaviventris, Synanthedon 182 
flavofasciata, Peri/.oma 68,71,90,184 
tlorcscens, Gaurena 

ssp.albomaculata 197 
floslactala, Scopula 70,184 
fluctuata, Xanthorhoe 70,182,186 
fluxa, Photcdes 215 
I'orficella, Sehocnobius 188 
lormicacformis, Synanthedon 182 
formosa, Oneoeera 188 
formosella, Epieallima 195 
forsterana, Lozotaenia 70 
fueosa, Amphipoea 

ssp.paludis 181 
fuliginaria, Paraseolia 93,186,181 
fuliginosa, Phragmatobia 71 
tulvalis, Udea 191,193 
fiilvata, Cidaria 71 
furcata, Hydriomena 71,94,184,185 
furuncula, Mcsoligia 68,71 
furva, Apamea 

ssp.britannica 181,182,186 
fusealis, Opsibotys 90 
fuscatella, Lampronia 189 
t'uscella, Niditinca 194,195 
fuseovenosa, Idaca 70,138 
galathea, Mclanargia 1 O.Plate 1 1 , 1 80, 1 95 

ab. nigricans 180 
galiata, Epirrhoe 65,68,70,90,181 
gamma, Autographa 39,40,63,71,186 

ab.gammina 185 
geminipunela, Archanara 67,71,181 
gcmmil'cra, Ginshachia 197 
genieulea, Agriphila 68,70 
genistella, Oneoeera 191 
geometriea, Grammodes 197 
germmana, Painmcne 191 
gcryon, Adscita 181 
gibbosella, Psoricoptcra 93,189 
gigantella, Schoenobius 188,192,193,215 
glareosa, Paradiarsia 68,71 
glaucata, Cihx 70 
globulariae, Adscita 89,90,186 
glyphica, Euclidia 214 
gnoma, Phcosia 71 
goedartella, Argyrcsthia 95 
gothiea, Orthosia 71,91 

ab.gothicina 182 



gozmanyi, Euchromius 196 
graminis, Ceraptcryx 93 
granclla, Ncmapogon 195 
griscalis, Herminia 71 
griseata.Timandra 70 
griseola, Eilema 71 
grossulariata, Abraxas 71,155 

ab.dohmii 184 
hacmatidca, Agrochola 78,182,184 
hamana, Agapela 70 
harpagula, Sabra 86 
hastiana, Acleris 70,191 
haworthii, Celaena 215 
hebetclla, Plcurota 195 
Hclicoverpa sp. 195 
heparana, Pandemis 70 
hcraeliana, Agonopterix 70 
hereuleella, Alabonia 195 
hcrminata, Diplodoma 192 
hcterodactyla, Pselnophorus 78 
hcxadaclyla, Alucila 70 
hicroglyphica, Baonsa 197,Plalc 1 1 1 
hilarella, Phyllonorycter 193 
honcstalis, Actenia 196 
honorella, Plcurota 195 
hortulata, Eurrhypara 70 
humuli, Hepialus 70 
hyalc, Colias 179 
hylas, Cephonodes 197 
hypcrantus, Aphantopus 180,215 
icarus, Polyommatus 8,10,178 

ab.livida 178 

mclanic Plate 11,181 

ub.radiata 178,180 
iotcritia, Xanlhia 91 

ab.flavesccns 181 
imbecilla, Eriopygodes 186 
imbuta, Alphaca 197 
imclla, Monopis 194 
iniitaria, Scopula 70 
immundana, Epinotia 70 
immutata, Scopula 70,215 
impure, Mythimna 71 
incamatalis, Orthopygia 196 
incarnatana, Epiblcma 190 
ineerta, Orthosia 71 
iiicertalis, Anarpia 196 
inopiana, Phtheochroa 70,190 
inomatella, Brachmia 194 
inquinatclla, Agriphila 189,192,Platc 1 
insccurclla, Epcnrtcnia 90,190 
insulana, Earias 64,183 
insulare, Atcliotum 194,195 
intcrjecta, Noctua 71 
io, Inachis 85,215 

ab.belisaria 180 
ipsilon, Agrotis 63,71,186,187 
iridicolor, Iotaphora 197 
iris, Apatura 86 
irrorella, Sctina 187 
janetta, Syntherata 197 
janthina, Noctua 71 
jota, Autographa 71 
jubata, Alcis 185 
junctella, Caryocolum 190,192 
junipcrata, Thera 85 
junipcrclla, Dichomeris 194,Plate 1 1 1 



jurtina, Maniola 10,215 

ab.pallidula 180 
Kasyniana sp. 195 
kollarclla, Odites 195 
lacticinia, Nyctemera 197 
lacunana, Olethrcutes 70 
lacustrata, Dipleurina 70 
1-album, Mythimna 62,63,64,65,67,68,71 
lamisca, Plutodcs 197 
lanccalana, Bactra 70 
lancealis, Perinephcla 70,193 
lancstris, Eriogaster 184 
lapidata, Coenocalpc 82,185 
lapponica, Stigmella 95 
lassclla, Coleophora 190,191,194 
lasscrrei, Powcllinia 198 
latruncula, Oligia 71 
lavinia, Doxocopa 197 
legcri, Charaxcs 220 
leporina, Acronicta 71 
leucographa, Ccrastis 

mclanic 1 82 
Icucographella, Phyllonorycter 188,193 
leucostigma, Celaena 215 

ssp.scotica 186 
leucotreta, Cryplophlcbia 191 
libatrix, Scolioptcryx 71 
lichenaria, Cleorodes 71 
lichenea, Eumichtis 68,71,186 
lienigialis, PyraLis 189 
licnigianus, Leioptilus 192 
liguslri, Craniophora 71 
ligustri, Sphinx 71,187,214,215 
limacodcs, Apoda 181,187 
limbala, Evergestis 189,Plnte 1 1 I 
lincala, Hyles 

ssp.livomica 188 
lineolea, Coleophora 188 
lineola, Thymclicus 

ab.antiordcns 180 
linga, Miltochrista 197 
linneela, Glyphipteryx 191 
literosa, Mcsoligia 71 
lithoxylaea, Apamea 71 
litoralis, Mythimna 62,65,68,71 
lilloralis, Lobesia 70,190 
lixella, Coleophora 90 
longana, Cnephasia 190 
lonicerae, Zygaena 187 

ssp.jocclynac 185 
loreyi, Mythimna 63,71 
lota, Agrochola 71 
loti, Zygaena 

ssp.scotica 184 
lubricipeda, Spilosoma 71,188 
lucclla, Ypsolopha 194 
lucens, Amphipoea 182 
lucemea, Standlussiana 65 
lucida, Acontia 186 
lucidella, Monochroa 189 
lucina, Hamearis 214 

ab.semibrunnea 181 
lucipara, Euplexia 71 
lunaedactyla, Marasmarcha 90 
lunaris, Batia 195 
lunularia, Selenia 187 
luridana, Piercea 189,190 



luridata, Scotoptcryx 

ssp. plumbaria 94,184 

luridcola, Eilcma 71 

lutatclla, Brachmia 189 

luteago , Hadena 

ssp.barrettii 62,65,68,71 

lutcolata, Opisthograptis 71 

lutcum, Spilosoma 71 

lutosa, Rhizedra 67,71 

lutosclla, Exaeretia 195 

lutulenta, Aporophyla 181 

lychnitis, Cucullia 182,187 

machaon, Papilio 215 

maculana, Epinotia 188 

macularia, Pscudopanlhcra 198 

maillardi, Polyphacnis 

ssp.assimilis 188 

malvac, Pyrgus 10 

manuelaria, Pcribatodcs 182 

marcella, Dcprcssaria 195 

mareunella, Infurcitinea 194,195 

margarilacca, Chcrsolis 198 

margarilata, Campaca 71,91 

marginana, Endotlicnia 70 

marginata, Lomaspilis 71 

marginella, Dichomeris 190,191 

margincpunciata, Scopula 1 83 

maritima, Phycitodcs 62,68,70,191 

maritimus, Chilodes 185 

ab.bipunctata 185 
ab.nigristriata 185 
marmorea, Numonia 192 
maronesis, Callieore 197 
mature, Thalpophila 183,196 

f.provincialis 196 
maturata, Parallelia 197 
maura, Monno 71 
megaecphala, Acroniela 71 
mcndica, Diarsia 71,181,182,187,Platc 111 
mcnyanthidis, Acronicta 94 
merccdella, Epicallima 195 
mcrcurella, Eudonia 70,196 
mcrdella, Protcrospastis 194,195 
meticulosa, Phlogophora 71 
micacea, Hydraecia 71 
micella, Argolamprotes 190 
microdactyla, Adaina 215 
miniata, Miltochrista 71 
mitterbacheriana, Ancylis 189 
molcsla, Cydia 192 

molliculana, Cochylis 190, 191, Plate I 1 1 
monacha, Lymantria 71 
monilifcra, Narycia 192 
monoglypha, Apamca 71 
monlanata, Xanthorhoe 70 
morellus, Morophaga 194 
morpheus, Caradrina 71 
morrisii, Photedcs 185,187 
moulTctclla, Athrips 190 
mundana, Nudaria 65 
mundella, Bryotropha 194 
munitata, Xanthorhoe 96,185 
muralis, Cryphia 71 
murariella, Tinea 195 
murieolclla, Novotinea 194,195 
murinata, Minoa 186 
muscaeformis, Bcmbecia 62,65,70,182,185 



muscerda , Pelosia 1 83 , 1 84,2 1 4 

myrtillana, Rhopobota 70 

naevana, Rhopobota 96 

natiala, Euptthccia 71 

nanatella, Agonopterix 195 

napi, Pieris 88,92,215 

nebulata, Euchoeca 71,184,215 

nebulosa, Polia 71 

nera, Hesperocharis 197 

nervosa, Agonopterix 70,195 

neustria, Malacosoma 65,70 

nevadellus, Nemapogon 194 

n i, Trichoplusia 184 

nickcrlii, Luperlna 183, Plate 1 1 1 
ssp.gucneei 1 82 
ssp.lcechi 65 

nigra, Aporophyla 71 

nigricans, Estigmcnc 197 

nigricans, Euxoa 65 

nigricantella, Monopis 194,195 

nigricomella, Bucculatrix 193 

nigripunctella, Tenaga 195 

nigrivcnella, Mussidia 189,Plate 111 

nigropnncUita, Scopula 184 

nisella, Epinolia 70 

nilida, Agrochola 198 

noctuella, Nomophila 63,70 

notana, Acleris 191 

nupta, Catocala 93,185 

obductella, Pempelia 89,90 

obclisca, Euxoa 65 

obeliseata, There 71,183 

obfuscatus, Gnophos 185,186 

obscurata, Gnophos 65 

obsitalis, Hypena 37,38,39,40,41,183,185, 

obsolete, Mythimna 185,187 

obslipala, Orllionama 63,70,183 

oblusa, Pelosia 182,184,187,214 

occulta, Eurois 185 

occllana, Agonopterix 70 

occllana, Spilonota 70 

ocellata, Cosmorhoe 70 

oeellea, Euchromius 196 

ochrcaria, Aspitates 65 
ochroleuca, Ercmobia 185 
oculea, Amphipoea 68,71 
oditis, Leucochlaena 65 
oleracea, Lacanobia 68,71,182 
olivalis, Udea 70 
olivata, Colostygia 185 
ononidis, Parcctopa 188,189 
oo, Dicycla 196 

f.sulphurago 196 
operculella, Phthorimaea 190 
ophiogramma, Apamea 1 88 
or, Telhca 

ssp.hibemica 183 
orbona, Noctua 182 
orsladii, Elachisla 188 
osscana, Eana 96 
osseola, Hydraecia 

ssp.hucherardi 185,188 
padclla, Yponomeuta 70 
palealis, Sitochroa 188,189,191 
paleana, Aphclia 191 
pallens, Mythimna 71 
pallidata, Evergestis 189 



palpina, Pterostoma 71 
palumbella, Pcmpclia 191 
palustrclla, Monochroa 189 
pamphilus, Coenonympha 180 
pandora, Pandoriana 86 
panoquinoidcs, Panoquina 

ssp.errans 163 

ssp.eugcon 161,162,163,164 

ssp.panoquinoidcs 161,163 
paphia, Argynnis 87,220 

ab.conflucns 178 

ab.ocellata 87,Platel 1,179,180 
paralellaria, Epione 86 
parasitella, Triaxomcra 192 
parenthesclla, Ypsolopha 70 
pariana, Chorculis 193 
palustrana, Olethrcutes 95 
pasiuana, Cnephasia 188 
pavonia, Pavonia 94,215 
pectinalaria, Colostygia 71 
pcltigcra, Hcliothis 183,185,186,187 
pcnnaria, Colotois 1 83 , 1 84 
pentadactyla, Pterophorus 70 
peribolata, Scotopteryx 182 
pcrlclla, Crambus 70 
permulana, Aclcris 191,194 
pcrottcti, Esligmcnc 197 
perplcxa, Hadena 65,71,182 

ssp.capsophila 183 
pcrsicariac, Melanchra 71,181 
pcrsonella, Nemapogon 192 
philodocc, Colias 177 
phlacas, Lycacna 10,97,98,Plale 1,178 

ab.alba 97,99 

ab.auronilens 97,98, 100,Plalc 1 

ab.cuprinus 1 79 

ab.obsolela 97,98,99 .Plate 1 

ab.pallidula 97,98,99, Plate 1 

ab.partimauroradiata 97,98,99, Plate 1 

ab.radiata 97,98,99,Plale 1,180 

ab.subradiata 97,98,100 
phragmitella, Chilo 215 
phragmitidis, Arenostola 185,215 
pilosaria, Apochcima 91,182 
pinastri, Hyloicus 65 
pinclla, Catopiria 70 
piniaria, Bupalus 67,71 
pinivorana, Rhyaeionia 191 
plagiata, Aglacmorpha 197 
planella, Plcurota 195 
plecta, Ochroplcura 71 

ab.rubricosta 181 
plumigera, Ptilophora 187 
podana, Archips 70 
populata, Eulithis 94,184 
populetorum, Caloplilia 93,191 
populi, Laothoe 71 
poreellus, Deilephila 71 
porphyrea, Lycophotia 71 
postvitlana, Epiphyas 70,189 
potatoria, Philudoria 70 
practermissa, Parallelia 197 
prasina, Anaplcctoidcs 71 
primaria, Theria 91 
pnscilla, Liptena 220 
proboscidalis, Hypcna 7 
procellata, Melanthia 182 



proccrella, Bisigna 189 
promissa, Catocala 188 
pronuba, Noetua 71,155 
pronubana, Cacoccimorpha 190 

gynandromorph 1 8 1 
protasella, Pleurola 195 
proximum, Caryocolum 189 
prunata, Eulithis 155 
pruni, Strymonidia 178 
pruniana, Hcdya 70 
pnmivorana, Cydia 190 
pseudospretella, Hofmannophila 70 
psi, Acronicta 71 
pterodactyla, Stcnoptilia 95 
pudibunda, Callileara 71,181 
pudorina, Mythimna 183,215 
pulehclla, Sorilia 197 
pulchellata, Eupithecia 71 
pulcherrimella, Depressana 195 
pulehrina, Autographa 71 
punctalis, Synaphe 188 
purpuralis, Zygacna 

ssp.calcdonensis 185 

ssp.sabulosa 183 
purpurea, Agonopterix 195 
pusaria, Cabera 71 
pusillata, Eupithecia 96,184,188 
puta, Agrotis 71,185 
putnami, Plusia 

ssp.graeilis 183,184,215 
putreseens, Mythimna 62,65,71 
pulris, Axylia 71 
pygarga, Protodcltote 71,182 
pygmina, Photedes 185 
pyramided, Amphipyra 71,140 
pyri, Stigmella 190 
pyritoides, Habrosyne 70 
quadrimaculana, Endothcnia 191 
quereana, Careina 70,195 
quereus, Lasiocampa 

ssp.eallunae 94 

ssp quereus 70,184,215 
quereus, Qucreusia 179 

ab.cacrulescens 179 
quinqucguttclla, Phyllonorycler 193 
ragusaella, Neurnthauinasiu 194,195 
ramburicllus, Euehromius 196 
nimella, Epinolia 95 
raneidella, Athrips 191 
rapac, Picris 10 

gynandromorph 181 
reetangulala, Chloroelystis 71,91 
rectilinca, Hyppa 185 
remissa, Apamea 71 
repandana, Aerobasis 193 
repandaria, Epione 71 
rcpandala, Aleis 71,182,194 

f.eonvcrsaria 184 
retinclla, Argyresthia 70 
relusa, Ipimorpha 184,188 
revayana, Nycte*)la 71 
rhododaelyla, Cnaemidophorus 213 
rhomboidaria, Pcribalodes 71 
rhomboidella, Hypatima 70 
ribeata, Deileptcnia 183 
ridens, Polyploea 91 
riguata, Cataclysme 198 



ripae, Agrotis 62,65,68,71,187,188 
rivala, Epirrhoe 187 
roborella, Phycita 70 
rosaecolana, Epiblcma 70 
rostralis, Hypcna 78 
rotundella, Agonopterix 195 
ruberata, Hydricmiena 185 
nibi, Callophrys 7,10,88 
rubi, Diarsia 71,184 
rubi, Macrothylacia 70 
nibidalis, Orthopygia 196 
rubidata, Catarhoe 62,65,70,187 
nibiginata, Plcmyria 215 
rubiginata, Seopula 182 
rubiginca, Conistra 62,71 
nibricosa, Cerastis 71 
rufa, Coenobia 93,215 
rufata, Chesias 94 
nil'ieomis, Drymonia 71,91,188 

mclanic 182 
rufifasciata, Gymnoscclis 71 
rufipennella, Caloptilia 193 
nimieis, Aeronicla 71,181 

scmi-mclanic 182 
ruralis, Plcuroptya 70,191 
ruricolclla, Nemapogon 192,194 
rutana, Agonopterix 195 

sacraria, Rhodomctra 63,70,93,181,182,183,184,185,187 
salicella, Dasystoma 190 
salieicolella, Phyllonorycter 193 
saligna, Phyllocnistis 193 
sambuearia, Ourapteryx 71,85 
sannio, Diaerisia 186 
saucia, Peridroma 63,71186,187 
saxicola, Phycilodes 68,70 
saxifragac, Kesslcria 188,189 
schuetzcclla, Dioryctria 191 
scoliacformis, Synanlhcdon 182,185 
scolopacina, Apamea 71,184 
seopariella, Agonopterix 195 
scriplella.Teleiodes 190 
serophulariae, Cueullia 182, Plate 1 1 1 
swalis, Mesapamea 71 
seeboldi, Saragossa 198 
segctum, Agrotis 71 
semifascia, Caloptilia 193 
sehestediana, Proehorcutis 189 
selene, Boloria 214 

ab./cta Plate 11,177 
semele, Hipparchia 

ab.holonops 180,181 

ab.monoeellata 180,181 
semii'aseiana, Apotoinis 189 
senex, Thumatha 215 
sentieetclla, Gelcehia 191 
sequax, Tcleiodes 189 
sericealis, Rivula 71 
serrula, Lasioeampa 198 
scxalata, Pleraphcrapteryx 71 
signatana, Epinotia 192 
silaceala, Ecliptopera 70 
silelti, Numenes 197 
similis, Euproetis 85,181 
simplieiala, Eupilheeia 65,68,71 
simulans, Rhyaeia 184 
sinapis, Leptidea 214 
sinuclla, Homoeosoma 70,189,193, Plate 111 



sobrina, Paradiarsia 96,182 
sociella, Aphomia 70,191 
somnulentclla, Bcdcllia 188 
sororcula, Eilema 185 
sororculella, Gelechia 188 
sororiata, Carsia 94 
spadicearia, Xanthorhoe 70 
sparganclla, Orthotaelia 188 
sparsana, Acleris 191 
sparsata, Anticollix 214 
spartiella, Anarsia 70 
spheeiformis, Synanthedon 182 
sphinx, Brachionycha 181 
splendana, Cydia 70 
statices, Adscita 186 
steinkellneriana, Scmioscopis 191 
stellatarum, Macroglossum 185 
stepliensiana, Cnephasia 70 
straminea, Coehylimorpha 70 
slraminea, Mythimna 184,215 
straminella, Agriphila 70,95 
stratiolala, Parapoynx 191 
stietiealis, Margaritia 189 
striana, Celypha 68,70 
strigana, Lathronympha 191 
strigilis, Oligia 71 
strigulalclla, Pliyllonoryeter 158 
suasa, Lacanobia 

ab.dissimilis 184 
subeaudata, Plutodes 197 
subfasciclla, Cedestis 95 
subl'usca, Scoparia 191 
subfuscata, Eupilheeia 71 
sublustris, Apamea 90 
subpropinquella, Agonopterix 70,195 
subsericeata, Idaea 68,70 
subtusa, Ipimorpha 187 
subumbrata, Eupilheeia 90,184 
succcdana, Cydia 70 
sulTumata, Lampropteryx 70 
sulphurella, Esperia 195 
suspecta, Parastiehtis 96,215 
swammerdamella, Nemalopogon 70 
sylvata, Abraxas 186 
sylvcstris,Thymelieus 7,10 
syringaria, Apeira 71,186 
taenialis, Sehrankia 62,71 
tamariealis, Lepidogma 196 
tapetzella, Trichophaga 195 
tarsipennalis, Henninia 71 
temerata, Lomographa 71 
templi, Dasypolia 65 
tenuiata, Eupithceia 71 
ternatella, Braehmia 195 
teslacea, Lupcrina 68,71,142,183 
thapsiella, Agonopterix 195 
thontcella, Bueeulalrix 191 
tiliae, Mimas 183 
tipuliformis, Synanthedon 187 
tithonus, Pyronia 9,10,180,215 

ab.eacca 178 

ab.cxcessa 180 

ab.obsoletissima Plate 11,178 

ab.postobseura 180 
togata, Xanthia 71 
tortuosa, Asota 197 
trabcalis, Emmelia 198 



translueens, Tinea 194,195 
trapezina, Cosmia 71 
trcmula, Phcosia 71 
triangulum, Xestia 71 
tricolor, Eterusia 197 
tridactyla, Pterophorus 189 
tridens, Calamia 

ssp.occidentalis 188 
trifolii, Disccstra 68,71 

melanic 181, Plate 111 
trifolii, Lasiocampa 

ssp.flava 

ab.obsoleta 181 
trifolii, Zygaena 

ssp.decrcta 186 
trigemina, Abrostola 71 
trigrammica, Charanyea 71,181 
tringipennella, Aspilapteryx 188,193 
triplasia, Abrostola 71 
tripunclaria, Eupithecia 184 
tristella, Agriphila 70 
tritici, Euxoa 65,68,71,142 
truncata, Chloroclysta 71,185 
trux, Agrotis 62,65,71 
tullia, Coenonympha 

ab.coekaynci 181 

ab.impupillala 181 
turionella, Blastesthia 191 
typhae, Nonagria 71 

ab.fraterna 184 
typica, Naenia 71 
uddmanniana, Epiblcma 70 
umbra, Pyrrhia 90 
umbrana, Acleris 190 
uncula, Eustrotia 184,215 
unionalis, Palpita 192 
urtieae, Aglais 85 

ab.semiichneusoidcs 180 
ustella, Ypsolopha 70 
utonella, Biselachista 190 
vaceinii, Conistra 71,184 
varicoloraria, Paehyodes 197 
variegana, Acleris 70 
v-ata, Chloroclystis 71 
venata, Ochlodes 92,215 

ab.t'uscus Plate 11,180 
venosata, Eupithccia 71 

ssp.fumosae 183 
vcrbascalis, Atiania 192 
verbasci, Cucullia 90 182 
versicolor, Oligia 71 
versurclla, Coleophora 188 
vestigialis, Agrotis 65,68,71 
velusla, Xylena 184 
vibicana, Rhodostrophia 198 
vibumana, Aphelia 191 
vinculellus, Euchmmius 196 
vinula, Ccrura 71 
viretata, Acasis 71 
virgaureata, Eupithccia 68,71,213 
viridaria, Phytomelra 214 
viriplaca, Hcliolhis 183,186 
vitalbala, Horisme 185 
vitcllina, Mylhimna 63,71,184,186 
vulgala, Eupithccia 71 
vulpecalis, Aetenia 196 
wauaria, Semiothisa 155 



weaverella, Monopis 188,192 
xanthographa, Xestia 71,91 
xanthomista, Polymixis 62,65,71 
xanlhosoma, Pseudatamclia 195 
xenias, Kasyniana 195 
xylostella, Plutella 70 
zellcri, Melissoblaptcs 193 
zernyi, Rcisserita 195 
zeta, Apamea 

ssp.assimilis 185 
ziczac, Eligmodonta 71 
zocgana, Agapeta 70 

OTHER INSECT ORDERS 

DERMAPTERA 

Forficula auricularia 96 
Labia minor 210 

EPHEMEROPTERA 

Ephemera lineata 75,76 

MECOPTERA 

Panorpa cognata 211 

NEUROPTERA 

Euroleon nostras 21 1 
Hemerobius atrit'rons 211 
Micromus angulatus 211 
Myrmclcon formicarius 211 
Osmylus fulvicephalus 211 
Pseetra diptera 2 1 1 
Wesmaelius betulinus 96 

ODONATA 

Coenagrion mercuriale 166 
C.puella 211 
Ischnura elegans 215 
Sympetrum nigrescens 210 
S.striolatum 83,211,215 

ORTIIOPTERA 

Conocephalus dorsalis 210 
Leptophyes punctatissima 92 

Meeonema thalassinum 92 
Mclanoplns sprelus 18 
Slenobothnis lincatus 210 
Tetrix undulala 91 

S1PIIONA1TERA 

Ceratophyllus farrcni farreni 21 I 
C.hirundinis 21 1 
C.rusticus 212 

Ctenocephalides fclis lelis 211 
Monopsyllus anisus 211 
Spilopsyllus cuniculi 211 

OTHER ORDERS 

ARACHNIDA 

Ercsus sp. 86 

Euscorpius earpathicus candiota 21' 
Nuclenea umbratica 75 
Segestria Horentina 86,212,213 



AVES 

Circus aeruginosus 215 
Locustella naevia 215 
Picus viridis pluvius 63 
Tetrao urogallus 95 

BACTERIA 

Borrelia burgdorferi 80 

ISOPODA 

Annadillidium pictum 76 

REPTILIA 

Lacerta vivipara 95 

PLANTS 

Abies sp. 141 

Acersp. 135,199,209 

A.campcstre 91,190,193 

A.pseudoplatanus 193 

Achillea sp. 68 

A.filipendulina 210 

Aesculus hippocastanum 135,157,199,200 

Alnussp. 199,200 

A.glutinosa 61 

A.incana 158 

Ammophila arenaria 61,62,68 

Angelica sp. 47 

Anthemis sp. 68 

Anneria maritiinu 66,67,189 

Aslcraceae 4 

Atriplex sp. 66,67,68 

Azolla sp. 206 

Betulasp. 66,189,200 

B.pendula 88,96 

B.pubeseens 61 

Buddlejasp. 92,187 

Calluna vulgaris 61,66,94 

Campanula sp. 210 

C.rotundifolia 4 

Cardamine praicnsis 88 

Carex vesicaria 190 

Centaurea sp. 199 

C.cyanus 4 

Ceraslium sp. 190 

Ceralina cyanea 209 

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 78 

Chenopodium 66 

Chrysanthemum 78 

Cicuta virosa 213 

Cirsium arvense 151,190,209 

C.oleraceum 115 

Cislus monspeliensis 206 

Clematis 74 

Clinopodium vulgare 4 

Conifer sp. 66 

Conyza canadensis 74 

Corylus avellana 140 

Crassula helmsii 138 

Crassulaceae 206 

Crataegus sp. 141,200 

C.monogyna 91,140,193 

Crocosmia x eroeosmillora 61 

Cuscuta sp. 206 

Cynodon dactylon 163 

Cytisus scoparius 94 



Dactylis glomerata 102 

Daucus sp. 210 

D.carota 47 

Dryopteris sp 213 

Echium sp. 206 

E.vulgare 4 

Elatine hexandra 138 

Emex spinosa 206 

Epilobium hirsutum 190,194 

Erica cinerea 61 

Erigeron acer 74 

E. canadensis 74 

E. uniflorum 74 

Euonymus sp. 198 

Eupatorium cannabinum 5,215 

Fagus sp. 1 92 ,200,20 1 ,202,203 

F.grandiflora 134 

F.sylvatica 73,78,91,130,131,132,134,136,137,157,193 

Fnigaria 66 

Frangula alnus 215 

Fraxinus excelsior 141,157,192 

Fumaria sp. 206 

Galeopsis sp. 68 

G.telrahit 204 

Galium sp. 68 

Genista anglica 204 

Gramineac 66 

Heracleum sp. 210 

H.sphondylium 47 

Helianthemum 189 

Heliehrysum sp. 140 

Heracleum sphondylium 203,204 

Hieracium sp. 197 

Hippocrepis comosa 9 

Hypochoeris sp. 4 

Inula crithmoides 157 

I.hirta 210 

Iris pseudacorus 6 1 , 167 

Jasione montana 202 

Juncus sp. 82 

J.articulatus 192 

J.bufonius 190,191,194 

Junipenis sp. 78 

Lamium album 198 

Larix sp. 141 

Leontodon sp. 47 

L.hispidus 4 

Lcucanthemum vulgare 7,193 

Ligustnim vulgare 193 

Lilium pyrenaicum 204 

Linum catharticum 4 

Lonicera sp. 140,141 

L.periclymenum 66,193 

Lotus corniculatus 4 

L.glaucus 206 

Lygos monosperma 206 

Lysimachia vulgaris 209 

Lythrum salicaria 139 

Malus sp. 208 

M.sylvestris 207 

Malva sylvcslris 86 

Mercurialis annua 206 

Mimosa eamporum 163 

M.pudica 163 

Mycelis muralis 78 

Odontites 189,210 

O.vema 190 



Ocnanthe crocata 66 

Ononis spinosa 90 

Oreoptcris sp. 213 

Origanum vulgarc 89,90 

Osmunda regalis 215 

Parietaria sp. 206 

P.judaica 37,38,39,40,41,189 

Pcrsicaria amphibia 138 

Phalaris arundinacca 167 

Phragmites australis 43,45,66,67,139,167,215 

Picea sp. 141 

P.abies 125 

P.silchensis 125 

Picris echioides 190,191 

Pinus sp. 14 

P.eanariensis 206 

P.sylvcslris 94 

Planlago lanceolata 193 

P. maritima 201 

Populussp. 116,141,200 

P.cancsccns 141 

P.tremula 86,91 

Potcnlilla sp. 66 

P.anscrina 61 

P.crecta 4,82 

Preplans 61 

Prunella vulgaris 4 

Prunusspp. 92,140 

P.spinosa 91,190,204,208 

Pseudolsuga sp. 141 

Pteridium aquilinum 61 

Pulicaria dysenterica 66 

Pyracantha coceinea 188,193 

Pyrus pyraster 190 

Quereus spp. 66,74,75,91,157,158,192,193,194199,200, 

201,202,203,207 
Q.pctraea 189 
Ranunculus acris 4,82,88 
R. bulbosus 4 
Reseda lutea 207 
Rhinanlhus sp. 4 
Rhododendron simsii 193 
Ribes nigrum 187 
Rosa sp. 3 
R.canina 190,213 
R.rugosa 61 
R. spinosissima 4 
Rosmarinus officinalis 78,203 
Rubiaceac sp. 198 
Rubussp. 61,68,200,206 
R.cacsius 66 
R.l'ruticosus 1,5,47 
R.idaeus 207 
Rumcx acclosella 68 
R. hydrolapathum 139,140 
Salix sp. 63,66,68,115,193,198,203 
S.caprea 193 
S.cincrca 61,91,213 
S.l'ragilis 193 
S.rcpcns 193 
Sambucussp. 204,210 
Scrophularia 206 
Scutellaria minor 189 
Senccio sp. 4,68 
S.jacobaea 61,209 
Silene sp. 68 
S. maritima 66 



S.uniflora 66,68 

Smymium olusalrum 209 

Solcira solcirolii 40 

Solidago virgaurea 213 

Sonchus arvensis 47 

S.aspcr 208 

Sporobolus jacqucmontii 163 

S.virginicus 163 

Stclis ornatula 209 

Stellaria graminca 190,192 

S.media 189 

Taraxacum spp. 67,68 

Thcsium humifusum 190 

Thuja sp. 78 

Thymus sp. 4 

T.polytrichus 66 

T.praccox 66 

Tilia sp. 135 

T.cordata 189 

Tragopogon sp. 200 

Tripleurospcrmum marilimuii 66,67,68 

Triticum acstivum 74 

Trolliussp. 200 

Typha sp. 66 

Ulcx europacus 61,88 

Umbelliferac 203 

Urtica sp. 206 

U.dioica 37,38,39,40 

Vaccinium myrtillus 94,96 

Verbascum thapsus 90 

Veronica chamaedrys 4 

V officinalis 4 

Viciasp. 68,206 

LICHENS 

Lichen sp. 66 

FUNGI 

Bjcrkandera adjusta 192 
Coriolus versicolor 192 
Ganodenna adspcrsum 137,192 
G.applanatum 199 
Inonotus dryadeus 74,157 
Lactiporus sulphurcus 91,157,158,201 
Nectria coceinea 130 
Ophiosloma novo-ulmi 136 
Piptoporus betulinus 192 
Polyporus squamosus 192 
Pscudolrametes bctuliiius 192 
Stercum hirsutum 194 
Tyromyccs slipticus 192 

OTHER PABULA 

Hymenoptera nests 66 
Mole's nest 202 
Rabbit midden 203 



t>un 

% U T 

JANUARY 1995 



ISSN 0952-7583 



Vol. 8, Part 1 



BRITISH JOURNAL OF 

ENTOMOLOGY 

AND NATURAL HISTORY 




Published by the British 

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Proceedings and Transactions 



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BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 1 

THE DISTRIBUTION AND HABITS OF THE SMALL 

CARPENTER BEE CERA TINA CYANEA (KIRBY, 1802) 

(HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) IN BRITAIN 

George R. Else 

Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, 
Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD. 

Introduction 

Ceratina cyanea (Kirby, 1802) is a small, almost hairless metallic blue or blue-green 
bee. It is the sole representative of its genus in north-west Europe, though numerous 
species occur further south, around the Mediterranean. The genus is especially well 
represented in North Africa (Daly, 1983), the Levant, and south-west Asia. Formerly 
it was considered to be one of the great rarities among the British bee fauna and 
few collections, either museum or private, contained specimens. It is listed as 'rare' 
by Falk in his account of the scarce and threatened bees of Great Britain (1991). Falk 
defines a 'rare' taxon as one with a small population that is not at present endangered 
or vulnerable, but is at risk; such species are estimated to exist in only 15 or fewer 
10-kilometre squares since 1970. However, a reappraisal of the status for this species 
would seem to be in order as it has been reliably recorded since 1970 from 18 
10-kilometre squares (Fig. 1) and, in the western Weald (from which most recent 
records originate), from thirty-three 2-kilometre squares (Fig. 2). 

While collecting aculeate Hymenoptera on Oxenbourne Down, a reserve of the 
Hampshire and Isle of Wight Wildlife Trust, 6 kilometres south of Petersfield, 
Hampshire, on 14.vii. 1972, I encountered a dead female C. cyanea wedged between 
the split ends of a dry bramble (Rubus fruticosus L. sensu lato) stem. On sorting 
out my catch at home later that day I found I had collected another female. These 
were the first records of the species from Hampshire. 

C. cyanea has long been known both to nest and overwinter in dead, dry stems 
(e.g. Smith, 1846; Shuckard, 1866). Prior to my finding this bee, I had not sought 
stem nests of any aculeate. However, Danks' excellent account of the biology of British 
stem-nesting aculeate Hymenoptera (1971) (which contains a key to the nests of these 
species) proved to be invaluable as an introduction to the subject, and the key briefly 
described the nest of this bee. On further visits to Oxenbourne Down on 23. ix and 
7.x. 1972 I searched for suitable stems and found a number of dead, cut bramble stems 
which each had an obvious burrow in the exposed pith. On opening these stems, some 
were found to contain overwintering adults of both sexes of C. cyanea; in some 
instances a stem contained several individuals. 

Locating occupied stems is undoubtedly the easiest way of finding this very local 
bee, as more can be found in this way than by searching for specimens visiting flowers. 
Furthermore, the adult occurs in every month of the year, although the flight period 
extends only from May to August or early September. 

British habitat and distribution 

In Britain C. cyanea is a strongly thermophilous species, being confined to warm, 
sheltered sites, particularly those which are exposed to the sun for much of the day, 
and where the soil heats up quickly. Thus, the bee is associated with scrub on the 
south-facing slopes of chalk downland (there are no reports of the species from north- 
facing slopes), open rides in woodland on chalk, disused sand pits, and the 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 




Fig. 1. British distribution of Ceratina cyanea. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 




Fig. 2. Distribution of Ceratina cyanea in Sussex. 

edges of heathland. The species is sometimes locally common in suitable 
stems. 

Although C. cyanea occurs as far north as southern Sweden (Erlandsson, 1954; 
Janzon & Svensson, 1988), recent British records (post- 1970) of the species are entirely 
from south-east England. Records (Figs 1 and 2) are known from the following 
counties: eastern Hampshire, West Sussex, Surrey, north Kent and south Essex. There 
are older, confirmed records from Avon and Suffolk, and unsubstantiated reports 
in the literature from south Cornwall (Clark, 1906, 1907), Devon (Smith, 1876), and 
Hereford & Worcester (Saunders, 1896). All post- 1970 records have been confirmed. 

Life-cycle in southern England 

The following account is based on a personal study carried out on Oxenbourne 
Down in 1972-73. Unfortunately no figures of the immature stages suitable for 
publication were prepared at that time. However, as no other, detailed observations 
on the nesting biology of this species seem to have been published, the following 
contribution may be of interest. 



The nest 

Both sexes become active during May, when the presence of mounds of fresh, fine, 
pith fragments directly beneath the cut ends of dead stems betray the presence of 
females engaged in nest building. Mating also seems to occur at this time. Nest burrows 
are excavated only in dead, broken stems in which the pith has been exposed; common 
examples are those of bramble and rose (Rosa species). Such stems usually become 
broken by the action of large herbivores, or as a result of scrub-clearance. In my 
experience preferred stems lie on, or are suspended close to, the ground in sunlit 
situations. Female C. cyanea will often accept as nest sites cut, loose pieces of dead 
Rubus stems ('trap-nests') laid out on short turf in open areas. Stems of sufficient 
length (e.g. about 30 cm or more) will sometimes attract two females, each excavating 
a nesting burrow from opposite ends of the stem. 

The nest burrow varies from about 57 to 1 10 mm in length and is usually characterized 
by a constriction just within the entrance. An occupied nest has been illustrated by 
Westrich (1989). Smith (1846) observed C. cyanea entering stems excavated by the 



4 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

small megachiline bee Hoplitis claviventris (Thomson) [as Osmia leucomelana] and 
thought it probable that the former species may use a ready-made burrow as a nest 
site; this, however, has not been confirmed and seems unlikely. 

Cells are 7-9 mm in length and 3 mm in width, and are separated from one another 
by pith fragment partitions, these being about 1 mm wide. Male and female cells are 
not segregated within the nest. Sometimes the last cell to be built (i.e. that nearest 
the nest entrance) has no outer partition. In such an instance the female sometimes 
remains just within the nest burrow and guards her brood; she may remain with it 
until the young adults emerge. 

Each cell is provisioned with a roughly brick-shaped pollen loaf; one typical loaf 
measured 6 mm long, 4 mm wide and 3 mm deep. Loaves have a shallow dorsal 
depression and, of those examined on the study site, were always bright yellow in 
colour. The entire ventral surface of the provision probably lies on the side of the 
cell nearest the ground (most stems containing nests of this species are usually 
horizontal or nearly so). 

C. cyanea is polylectic. An analysis of pollen in loaves from three Oxenbourne 
nests by G. Clarke produced the following results (the percentages were calculated 
by identifying 200 pollen grains from each sample and halving the results). Nest 1: 
yellow-rattle (Rhinanthus species) 37%; cinquefoil (Potentilla cf. erecta (L.)) 
24%; buttercup (Ranunculus cf. acris L.) 20%; Asteraceae (probably a cat's ear 
(Hypochoeris species)) 15%; cornflower (Centaurea cyanus L.) 2%; and purging flax 
(Linum catharticum L.) 2%. Nest 2: Asteraceae (probably a cat's ear (Hypochoeris 
species)) 48%; yellow-rattle (Rhinanthus species) 29%; buttercup (Ranunculus cf. 
acris) 15%; and birdsfoot-trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) 8%. Nest 3: Asteraceae 
(probably a cat's ear (Hypochoeris species)) 50%; cinquefoil (Potentilla cf. erecta) 
21°/o; yellow-rattle (Rhinanthus species) 9%; buttercup (Ranunculus cf. acris L.) 8%; 
and Asteraceae (ragwort, or near (cf. Senecio species)) 6%. The lowest percentages 
may only indicate grains fortuitously picked up whilst the females were drinking nectar, 
or wind-blown grains contaminating a major pollen source. Bees have also been 
observed (in various British localities) at bulbous buttercup (Ranunculus bulbosus 
L.), bramble (Rubus), common tormentil (Potentilla erecta (L.)), burnet rose (Rosa 
spinosissima L.), viper's bugloss (Echium vulgare L.), common speedwell (Veronica 
officinalis L.), germander speedwell (V. chamaedrys L.), thyme (Thymus species), 
wild basil (Clinopodium vulgare L.), self-heal (Prunella vulgaris L.), harebell 
(Campanula rotundifolia L.) and rough hawkbit (Leontodon hispidus L.), but it is 
not known whether the bees were foraging from these, or simply visiting them for 
nectar. An Oxenbourne Down specimen was collected carrying an unidentified orchid 
pollinium attached to the upper portion of the clypeus (S. P. M. Roberts (pers. comm.). 
He has also observed individuals of Ceratina curcubitina (Rossi) carrying orchid 
pollinia on their faces in Crete). 

The immature stages 

The egg is laid on the posterior part of the pollen loaf, with its base glued to the 
inner side wall of the cell. The egg is elongate, strongly curved and rather translucent; 
except for the transparent apices. It is about 4 mm long and slightly less than 1 mm 
wide at its mid-point. Following oviposition the cell is sealed with a partition of pith 
fragments. 

The larva lies on a membranous pad (usually stained by the pollen and is therefore 
sometimes difficult to see) which is about 2 mm long and 1 mm wide. Part of this 
pad is firmly attached to the provision, with the remaining posterior portion attached 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 5 

to the cell wall. The larva is firmly attached to the pad and while the feeding phase 
continues it is most difficult to remove a larva from the pad without causing injury. 
The pad seems to be composed of the accumulation of the exuviae from earlier instars. 

The fully grown larva is faintly brownish in colour (caused by food in the gut) and 
possesses a fleshy, slightly raised lateral ridge which extends from the first to the 
penultimate segment; at this instar the spiracles are distinct. The mandibles are strongly 
sclerotized, brown, narrow and unidentate, the tooth extending a little beyond the apex 
of the mandible. With the exception of the mandibles, the prepupa (a fully fed larva 
which has voided the excrement it accumulated during its development) is entirely white 
and is about 6 mm in length. Its trunk, including the head capsule, is weakly sclerotized; 
the head bears a pair of prominent antennal tubercles. The lateral ridge characteristic of 
the mature larva has been lost and the spiracles may be indistinct. The thoracic segments 
are swollen, their intersegmental divisions being only weakly defined. The surface of the 
thorax is smooth and almost devoid of wrinkles, except in the immediate vicinity of the 
spiracles. The abdominal intersegmental divisions are obvious, except for that between 
the last two segments. Michener (1953) draws attention to the absence of body tubercles, 
the unidentate mandible and the distinct antennal tubercle of Ceratina larvae. 

The larva spins no cocoon and remains quiescent for a few days prior to pupation. 
The most noticeable feature of the pupa is its long glossa and galea. 

Parasitoids 

I have found a larva of an ichneumonid wasp (possibly Aritranis signatorius (F.)) 
in the act of devouring a C cyanea larva. Unfortunately the wasp larva died in its 
cocoon. 

In mainland Europe, Malyshev (1968) records Aritranis heliophilus Tschek [as A. 
mediterraneus Tschek ] (a species not known from Britain) as a parasitoid of C. cyanea. 
Daly et al. (1967) review the natural enemies of Ceratina species in North America; 
Daly (1983) describes those parasitoids recorded from Ceratina nests in Iberia and 
Tunisia. 

The hibernaculum 

The new generation of bees emerges from the pupa by August or early September 
and may occasionally be found visiting flowers at this time. The autumn and winter 
months are spent as an adult within a hibernaculum. This may be the cleaned-out 
parental nest, as has been noted in other Ceratina species found in temperate regions 
(Daly, 1983). The hibernaculum resembles a nest but lacks partitions. Burrow lengths 
of hibernacula vary: I have found the mean length of 21 hibernacula to be 78 mm 
(range 25-170 mm); the internal diameter is 3-4 mm. Usually a little pith adheres 
to the walls, but the burrow contains no pith fragments. Most hibernacula that I have 
found were in bramble stems, but others were in hemp agrimony (Eupatorium 
cannabinum L.), and one in a dead Apiaceae stem. Adults of both sexes occupy the 
hibernacula from September to May, either singly or in small groups (rarely more 
than six individuals to a stem). They always enter the burrow head first and remain 
in this position throughout the winter. 

Females in particular are usually long-lived, with an adult life-span of almost a 
year. One hibernaculum which I collected in late January contained an apparently 
old, diapausing female which may have been overwintering for a second time (its 
age was assessed by its discoloured and abraded wings). If this was correct, then the 
specimen must have been about 18 months old when collected. 



6 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Acknowledgements 

I am grateful to the Hampshire and Isle of Wight Wildlife' Trust (formerly the 
Hampshire and Isle of Wight Naturalists' Trust) for permission to collect aculeate 
Hymenoptera on Oxenbourne Down in 1972-73, to G. H. L. Dicker, M. Edwards 
and P. Harvey for their records of this species, and to G. Clarke (formerly of the 
Department of Botany, The Natural History Museum, London) for identifying the 
pollens present in samples which I submitted to him for analysis. S. P. M. Roberts 
very kindly prepared the distribution maps (drawn on DMAP). 

References 

Clark, J. 1906. The bees, wasps and ants of Cornwall. Rep R. Cornwall Polytech. Soc. 1906: 

92-130. 
Clark, J. 1907. Hymenoptera Aculeata In: The Victoria county history of Cornwall. 
Daly, H. V. 1983. Taxonomy and ecology of Ceratinini of North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula 

(Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Syst. Ent. 8: 29-62. 
Daly, H. V., Stage, G. I. & Brown, T. 1967. Natural enemies of bees in the genus Ceratina 

(Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 60: 1273-1282. 
Danks, H. V. 1971. Biology of some stem-nesting aculeate Hymenoptera. Trans. R. Ent. Soc. 

Lond. 122: 323-399. 
Erlandsson, S. 1954. Ceratina cyanea Kirby, eine thermophile Art der fennoskandischen Fauna 

(Hym. Apidae). Opusc. Ent. 19: 211-212 
Falk, S. 1991. A review of the scarce and threatened bees, wasps and ants of Great Britain. 

Research and Survey in Nature Conservation. No. 35. The Nature Conservancy Council, 

Peterborough. 
Janzon, L. & Svensson, B. G. 1988. 1 10 ax med trabiet Ceratina cyanea (Hym., Anthophoridae). 

Ent. Tidskr. 109: 19-23. 
Malyshev, S. 1968. Genesis of the Hymenoptera and the phases of their evolution. Methuen 

& Co, Ltd, London. 
Michener, C. D. 1953. Comparative morphological and systematic studies of bee larvae with 

a key to the families of hymenopterous larvae. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bull. 35: 987-1102. 
Saunders, E. 1896. The Hymenoptera Aculeata of the British Islands. L. Reeve & Co., London. 
Shuckard, W. E. 1866. British Bees: an introduction to the study of the natural history and 

economy of the bees indigenous to the British Isles. L. Reeve & Co., London. 
Smith, F. 1846. Description of the British species of bees belonging to the genera Chelostoma, 

Heriades, Ceratina, Eucera, Panurgus, and Anthidium; with observations on their economy 

etc. Zoologist 4: 1445-1454. 
Smith, F. 1876. Catalogue of British Hymenoptera in the British Museum. Part I. Andrenidae 

and Apidae. London. 
Westrich, P. 1989. Die Wildbienen Baden- Wurttembergs. Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co., Stuttgart. 



BOOK REVIEW 

Australian beetles, by J. F. Lawrence and E. B. Britton, Melbourne University 
Press, 1994, x+ 192 pages, hardback, Aus $39.95, about £28.— For anybody imagining 
that this book could only be of interest to someone going to visit Australia, think 
again. This book is of international interest in putting together in concise and available 
form the authors' thoughts on the higher classification of the Coleoptera. The text 
is highly illustrated with line figures and there are several coloured plates to whet 
the appetite with bright exotic forms. This is a must for coleopterists. 

Richard A. Jones 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 7 

A FURTHER STUDY OF THE BEHAVIOURAL PATTERNS OF SIX 
SPECIES OF BRITISH BUTTERFLY WHILST IN COPULA 

S. A. Knill- Jones 

Roundstone, 2 School Green Road, Freshwater, Isle of Wight PO40 9AL. 

Between 1989 and 1994 I have been fortunate enough to observe six species of British 
butterfly in copula and now describe their behavioural patterns. This follows my earlier 
observations on 6 other species (Knill-Jones, 1989). 

Small skipper (thymelicus sylvestris poda) 

At 1 1 .23 a.m. on 4.viii. 1991 I was walking to Golden Hill, Freshwater when I came 
across a pair of small skippers (Thymelicus sylvestris Poda) in copula at rest on an 
oxeye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare Lam.). The female was facing due west and the 
male north 15 degrees east as they basked in warm hazy sunlight. They remained 
motionless except for the opening and closing of their wings in that position until 
12.30 p.m., six minutes prior to separation, when they both quickly altered their 
positions in two movements ending up with the female facing north 10 degrees east 
and the male due west. 

When I first noticed them their wings were closed, but after 5 minutes they opened 
their wings and except for four occasions at intervals of 20 minutes when they both 
had their wings closed for about 5 minutes, their wings remained partially opened 
whilst they were in copula. The female's wings were open from 10 to 45 degrees whereas 
the male on two occasions around noon had its wings nearly fully open at 75 degrees. 
Occasionally both sexes, with the female more frequently, would briefly close their 
wings for a few seconds especially when the wind blew them. The female did show 
some other movement when after each period of about 15 minutes had passed it would 
roll its head & antennae whilst its forelegs remained static. 

At 12.36 p.m., after 6 minutes preparation when they changed positions on the 
flower, they separated with the male flying off first, leaving his mate feeding on the 
daisy with her wings partially open until she flew off five minutes later. 

They remained in copula for 1 hour and 13 minutes. 

Green hairstreak (CAllophrys rubi l.) 

May 31st, 1994 was a warm, cloudless, sunny day when Brian Warne and myself 
visited Compton Down with a view to observing the butterflies there. While walking 
up a footpath towards the down Brian disturbed a pair of Callophrys rubi (L.) in 
copula which had been resting on a sycamore and they flew a few yards before alighting 
on a long blade of grass at 11.48 a.m. After a little bodily movement they settled 
down with the female facing due west and the male facing east south east. Throughout 
the whole time in copula their wings remained tightly closed and they only opened 
them to fly away after separation. 

At 12.10 p.m. the female briefly moved its front legs and at 12.12 p.m. the male 
did likewise. Throughout their time together similar slight leg movements were made 
at intervals of between 10 and 20 minutes. At 12.22 p.m. and 12.35 p.m. they both 
moved their positions slightly before resorting to their initial ones. At 12.49 p.m. the 
female moved to west north west and the male east south east and at 1.02 p.m. they 
moved again, rotating with the position of the sun to north west and south east 
respectively. At 1.50 p.m. there was a gust of wind which caused them to alter their 



8 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

position with the male facing directly up the blade and its mate down the grass blade. 
Now there was also some bodily movement shown by the female and at 2.37 p.m. 
they moved a further inch up the grass blade. At 2.40 p.m. there was considerable 
bodily movement as they tried to separate and 5 minutes later they successfully parted 
and the male flew off. The female remained motionless for a further 2 minutes and 
at 2.47 p.m. it flew off into the distance. I had observed them in copula for 2 hours 
and 57 minutes. 

Common blue (polyommatus icarus rott.) 

Shortly before noon on a warm sunny day on 9.ix.l991, whilst walking on Tennyson 
Down, I noticed a pair of Polyommatus icarus Rott. flying together over some old 
thistle heads. At 1 1 .54 a.m. they settled on a small thistle head and mated. Soon the 
male was facing due east with its wings open and the female faced due west with 
its wings closed. After 3 minutes the male closed its wings before opening them again 
two minutes later. It continued this movement of its wings for 10 minutes until it 
finally closed them. Except for a brief moment when facing south its wings remained 
closed for the final 20 minutes. The sun was fully out all the time and there was a 
cloudless sky. The female however had its wings closed for the whole time whilst 
they were in copula except for 4 minutes at 12.10 p.m. when facing due south, 
her wings were held at an angle of 45 degrees. 

Approximately every 5 minutes they would change position on the flower head 
and each faced all the main points of the compass for 3 to 5 minutes. Both sexes 
opened their wings when facing south directly towards the sun. About 5 minutes before 
separation there was considerable movement as they rotated several times around 
the thistle attempting to find a new position. When they were static their abdomens 
pulsated rhythmically giving considerable movement. 

At 12.25 p.m. they both opened their wings (they separated). The male flew off 
almost immediately to a nearby thistle. Its mate remained on the original flower for 
2 minutes before departing. They had been in copula for 31 minutes. 

Compared to Lysandra coridon Poda., P. icarus remained in its original resting 
place for the whole duration whereas L. coridon moved its position once after being 
disturbed. The time spent in copula was four times longer with L. coridon. 

Glanville fritillary (MELITAEA cinxia L.) 

On 1 l.vi. 1994, a warm sunny day apart from the occasional passing cumulus clouds, 
I went to Compton Bay with a view to seeing a pair of Melitaea cinxia in copula. 
My visit was rewarded and at 10.38 a.m. I noticed a pair flying together; after a minute 
they had mated. They flew a couple of yards and I observed that the larger female 
carried the male in flight. They settled on a blade of grass and after a few minutes 
the male ended up facing south south west and the female north west. They stayed 
there until 11.04 a.m. when the male changed its direction to face due south. Their 
wings were mainly open and up until 1 1 .54 a.m; there was considerable opening and 
closing of the wings. Throughout the whole time in copula the male remained the 
passive partner with its wings being closed for a far longer period than its mate. The 
female opened and closed its wings far more often. Between 12.14 p.m. and 1.00 p.m. 
they both kept their wings closed except for an occasional flap. 

At 1.00 p.m. they moved about 15 feet to a grass flower where the female held 
its wings fully open and the male held its wings at an angle of 75 degrees. At 1.02 p.m. 
there was considerable movement and they flew a few more feet and alighted on a 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 9 

yellow flower of the horseshoe vetch (Hippocrepis comosa L.) where they began to 
feed at about 10 minute intervals. At 1.10 p.m. there was further bodily movement 
and their position changed through an angle of 180 degrees before finally coming 
to rest with the male facing due west and the female east north east. During this time 
their wings remained open until 1.40 p.m. when the male closed its wings and its mate's 
were fully open. This situation continued until 2.34 p.m. when there was considerable 
movement and they flew off together, quickly separating in mid-air. 

They had been in copula for 3 hours and 55 minutes, the longest that I have observed 
for any butterfly. 

Speckled wood (pararge aegeria l.) 

At exactly mid-day on 17. iv. 1989 I came across what I thought was a single Pararge 
aegeria L. attempting to fly. I put my finger under it and realized that it was a pair 
in copula which on being disturbed, flew for several feet until they settled onto another 
blade of grass. The male rested with its wings folded and faced north west in the 
sun whilst the female faced downwards in a south easterly direction with its wings 
also folded. The male remained motionless with its wings closed even though the sun 
was fully out, although the female made three rapid movements when it opened and 
closed its wings. After 5 minutes both of the butterflies flapped their wings as they 
separated. The male left first and the female about 20 seconds later. 

It is difficult to say how long they had been in copula before I found them amongst 
the grass but it seems that this species is in copula for only a short time, probably 
less than a half an hour. I have often seen them flying together in pairs and I have 
observed this courtship behaviour continuing for about 30 minutes, but I have yet 
to witness them actually mating. 

Gatekeeper (pyronia tithonus l.) 

At 3.22 p.m. on 28.vii.1991 on the way to Golden Hill, Freshwater I noticed a pair 
of Pyronia tithonus (L.) in copula at rest in the afternoon sunshine on a blackberry 
leaf. After 2 minutes they flew 3 feet to another piece of bramble and I observed 
that the female carried the male whilst in flight. At rest the female faced due east 
and the male faced west 10 degrees north. Between 3.24 p.m. and 4.17 p.m. they flew 
to five different resting places, three of which were on blackberry and two on 
blackthorn. On two occasions they changed perches when they were disturbed by 
a bee, but they moved of their own free will on the other occasions. On all except 
two occasions the female faced due east and the male west 10 degrees north. Once 
the female faced west 10 degrees north and the male due east when they flew to a 
bramble flower and for a brief period of 5 minutes the female faced south 10 degrees 
east and the male due north at another resting place. 

There was no opening and closing of the wings by either sex during the whole time 
in copula except when the male opened its wings on being disturbed by a bee and 
when on one occasion it opened its wings several times after alighting on a new bramble 
leaf. There was no such movement in spite of the bright afternoon sunshine, when 
the temperature in the shade was over 70 degrees, which is an unusual feature in 
comparison to other species of butterfly that I have observed. 

At 4.17 p.m. they moved for the last time alighting on a blackberry leaf and 
remained there motionless until 5.02 p.m. when they separated. The male flew off 
first; its mate followed 4 minutes later having remained motionless with its wings 
closed for 3 minutes before a hoverfly disturbed it. She opened her wings and flew 
off a minute later. They remained in copula for 1 hour 40 minutes. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



I give below a table of the durations, in order of the length spent in copula, for 
the 12 species that I have observed over the last 11 years. 



Date 



Species 



Time 



Duration 



1 7 . i v . 1 989 Pararge aegeria L . 

9.ix.l991 *Polyommatus icarus Rott. 

13.V.1984 Pyrgus malvae L. 

4 . viii . 1 99 1 Thymelicus sylvestris Poda 

3.vii. 1984 Maniola jurtina L. 

7.vii. 1984 Melanargia galathea L. 

28.vii.1991 Pyronia tithonus L. 

1 2 . ix . 1 984 Pier is rapae L . 

27.vii.1984 *Lysandra coridon Poda 

3 1 . v . 1 994 Callophrys rubi L . 

26. ix. 1983 *Lycaena phlaeas L. 

1 1 . vi . 1 994 *Melitaea cinxia L . 



12 noon-12.05 p.m. 
11. 54 a.m. -12. 25 p.m. 
12.28-1.00 p.m. 
1 1.23 a.m. -12. 36 p.m. 
3.05-4.25 p.m. 
10.45 a.m. -12.20 p.m. 
3.22-5.02 p.m. 
4.30-6.15 p.m. 
10.40 a.m. -12.45 p.m. 
11.48 a.m. -2.45 p.m. 
11.35 a.m. -2.40 p.m. 
10.39 a.m. -2. 34 p.m. 



5 min 

31 min 

32 min 

1 h 13 min 
1 h 20 min 
1 h 35 min 
1 h 40 min 

1 h 45 min 

2 h 5 min 

2 h 57 min 

3 h 5 min 
3 h 55 min 



*denotes a species in which the actual mating to the time of separation was observed. 

Except for Melitaea cinxia L. when separation took place in mid-air it was always 
the male which left first whilst the female remained static for a minute or two before 
flying off. 

Acknowledgements 

I should like to thank my mother for reading and commenting on the manuscript 
and to Brian Warne for his patience while I was observing Callophrys rubi L. 

Reference 

Knill-Jones, S. A. 1989. A study of the behavioural patterns of six species of British butterflies 
whilst in copula. Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist., 2: 139-141 



BOOK REVIEW 

The book of the spider by Paul Hillyard. London, Hutchinson, 1994, 196 pages, 
26 plates, numerous figures in text, £16.99, hardback. — Although the author works 
on spiders at the Natural History Museum in London, this is a popular rather than 
an academic collection of interesting facts and entertaining anecdotes on a variety 
of arachnological topics. 

He discusses arachnophobia and its causes but without coming to any conclusion. 
Also he mentions some of the modern treatments to ameliorate this condition. He 
passes on to folklore and then ballooning, venomous spiders (actual and believed), 
a brief account of a spider's life and some especially interesting types of spider, uses 
of spider silk and various webs, South American spiders and finally a brief history of 
arachnology from Aristotle to the present day with accounts of the lives and works 
of some welLknown arachnologists. 

This is a book for those who are mildly interested in spiders, rather than for those 
who prefer a more academic treatment. It may well act as an antidote to the irrational 
fear of spiders. It would certainly intrigue the young. Alternatively it would make 
a good bedside book. 

The book is pleasantly printed and produced. I think that it is a pity that the 
illustrations in the text are frequently unlabelled and unexplained. 

Frances Murphy 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 11 

RHEOTANYTARSUS RIOENSIS (DIPTERA: CHIRONOMIDAE), 

A NEW SPECIES OF THE PENTAPODA GROUP 

FROM THE CANARY ISLANDS 

Peter H. Langton and Patrick D. Armitage* 

3 St Felix Road, Ramsey Forty Foot, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE1 7 1 YH and *The Institute 
of Freshwater Ecology, River Laboratory, East Stoke, Wareham, Dorset BH20 6BB. 

Rheotanytarsus species of the pentapoda group are characterized by the form of 
two structures of the male hypopygium: the narrow, elongate apices of the gonostyles 
turned downwards at the tip, and the narrow, gently sinuate or curved appendage 2a. 
The form of the flattened plates at the tip of appendage 2a appear to be good species 
discriminators, but these are usually indistinguishable in normal mounts as they project 
nearly vertically from the shaft of the appendage, are very thin and nearly transparent. 
In general, in this genus pupal structure provides confirmation of specific identity. 

The described west Palaearctic species of the pentapoda group are pentapoda 
(Kieffer) and photophilus (Goetghebuer). Specimens of all stages of a further species 
of this group were collected by PDA from an irrigation conduit on Tenerife. 

Terminology follows that of Sasther (1980), except that the flattened setae on the 
pupa are referred to as taeniae (singular taenia, adjective taeniate), a replacement 
term for the misnomer 'filament'. 

Abbreviations used. AR antennal ratio: in adults, ratio of length of apical 
flagellomere divided by the combined length of the more basal flagellomeres; in larvae, 
length of basal segment to combined length of the remaining segments. LR leg ratio: 
ratio of metatarsus length to tibial length. BR bristle ratio: ratio of length of longest 
seta of tarsal segment 1 divided by minimum width of tarsal segment 1. VR venarum 
ratio: ratio of length of Cu to length of M. 

Description 

Holotype male deposited in Zoologische Staatssammlung, Munich; paratypes also 
in the University of La Laguna, Tenerife, The Natural History Museum, London, 
and in the authors' collections. 

Adult male, total length 2.1-2.7 mm (n = 6). Head including appendages brown, 
eyes black; thorax brown, scutellum and halteres pale; anterior legs pale at base of 
femur, progressively more brownish to metatarsus, thereafter brown; posterior legs 
only weakly darkened to tarsus with tibial combs conspicuously black; abdomen 
brownish, a little darker posteriad. 

Head. AR 0.8-1.2 (m= 1.0, n= 11). 7 or 8 temporal setae; 2 postocular setae; 19-27 
clypeal setae. Lengths of palp segments: 30-55, 30-40, 93-130, 103-138, 160-215 /un 
(n = 9). 

Thorax. 7-11 dorsocentral setae (n = 9) extending from anterior edge of dorsiventral 
muscle attachment to scutellum; occasionally there may be 1-3 additional setae in the 
humeral area. 20-26 (n = 8) biserial acrostichals ending at mid-thorax. 1 prealar seta. 
8 scutellar setae. Wing length 1.46-1.75 mm (n = 8), 3.4-3.7 times as long as broad. Anal 
lobe absent. Costa not produced. VR 1.32-1.44 (n = 8). Membrane and veins with dense 
macrotrichia from near base to tip. Legs: lengths (in yum) and proportions (n = 6): 

tar 5 LR BR 

120-150 1.8-2.0 2.2-3.4 

60-70 1.3-1.5 3.0-5.7 

85-100 1.2 4.5-6.1 



leg 


fem 


tib 


tar 1 


tar 2 


tar 3 


tar 4 


1 


760-830 


380-460 


780-900 


420-470 


300-350 


270-310 


2 


690-790 


500-620 


300-350 


150-180 


110-130 


80-100 


3 


760-880 


630-750 


420-510 


260-330 


240-270 


150-180 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



Anterior tibia with a peg-like spur apically; mid and hind tibia with a pair of small apical 

combs, each with an outwardly curved spur about twice the length of the comb setae. 

Abdomen. Tergites and sternites with setae arranged in anterior and posterior 

transverse bands; a longitudinal lateral row also present on tergites; setal numbers: 



tergite: 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


anterior band 


8 


7-9 


6-10 


7-8 


8-9 


posterior band 


11 


8-10 


9-11 


5-10 


6-10 


lateral row 


5 


5 


5(6) 


4 


3 


sternite: 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


anterior band 


5 


5 


6-7 


6-8 


14-15 


posterior band 


5 


7 


6-8 


6-10 


10-14 



Hypopygium (Fig. 1). Anal tergite with 6 very short setae spreading forwards from 
between the anal point combs, 5 or 6 about 18 /im long setae on each side of the anal 
point base, and 3 slightly longer setae immediately below the anal point. Anal point 
contracted to the posterior extent of the combs, thereafter slightly swollen to the 




Fig. 1. Rheotany tarsus rioensis. Male hypopygium dorsal and appendage 2a lateral. Scale = 0.1 mm. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 13 

rounded apex; anal combs high. Gonostyles swollen, contracted strongly in distal 
quarter, the narrow, gradually narrowing apex bent downwards at tip. Appendage 
1 with 2 inner marginal setae, 5 or 6 dorsal setae and 1 ventral seta directed inwards. 
Appendage la peg-shaped, reaching, or not quite reaching, the inner apical margin 
of appendage 1 . Appendage 2 somewhat clubbed apically, where there is a patch of 
setae dorsally, most of which are curved forwards. Appendage 2a narrow, nearly parallel- 
sided, with setae on inner margin from near base; at apex with three flat extensions. 

Adult female, length 1.7-2.2 mm (n = 6). Colour as in male. 

Head. Antennal flagellomere lengths: 70-100, 53-60, 63-68, 58-63, 75-88 /un 
(n = 5). 6-9 temporal setae. 2 postorbital setae. 21-26 clypeal setae. Lengths of palp 
segments: 20-35, 30-45, 103-115, 108-120, 166-200 /mi (n = 5). 

Thorax. Dorsocentral setae: 8-9 from anterior margin of dorsiventral muscle 
attachment to scutellum; in addition a humeral patch of 3-6 setae connected to the 
posterior dorsocentrals by one or two intermediate setae. 20-24 biserial acrostichal 
setae. 1 prealar seta. 8 scutellar setae. Wing (Fig. 2), length 1.44-1.60 mm (n = 5); 
3.1-3.4 times as long as broad. Anal lobe slight. Costa not produced. VR 1.4-1.5. 
Legs: lengths (in /ira) and proportions (n = 3): 



leg 


fern 


tib 


tar 1 


tar 2 


tar 3 


tar 4 tar 5 


LR 


BR 


1 


640-680 


380-390 


690-740 


380 


270-280 


240 120 


1.6-1.7 


2.8 


2 


610-650 


420-500 


280-290 


130-150 


100-110 


60-80 60 


1.3-1.5 


3.8-5.3 


3 


670-700 


560-630 


380-390 


220-240 


200-210 


120-130 80 


1.1-1.2 


5.0 



Tibial spurs and combs as in male. 

Genitalia (Fig. 3). Cerci with a sharp, nearly right-angled point dorsally, gently 
curved posteriorly and strongly curved ventrally to base. Seminal capsules 70 /xm long. 
Notum 2.1 times as long as seminal capsules. Gonapophysis VIII with ventrolateral 
lobe broad, weakly rounded, and dorsomesal lobe strongly projecting, smoothly 
rounded. 

Pupa (Rheotanytarsus Pe2 Langton 1991), length 3.0-3.9 mm (n=10). 
Cephalothorax brownish, somewhat darker anterodorsally, around the base of the 
wingsheaths and ventrally at the base of the legsheaths; wing sheaths margined with 
brown. Abdomen very pale brown, laterally darker, these lateral bands intensifying 
posteriad. Anal segment brown, anal lobes with a median colourless band. 

Cephalothorax. Frontal setae and cephalic tubercles absent. Frontal apotome 
granulate towards apex. Thoracic horn (Fig. 4a) 225-265 ^m long (n = 9); 6.6-8.9 
as long as broad, without setulae or points. Nose of wingsheaths prominent. Lateral 




Fig. 2. Rheotanytarsus rioensis. Female wing. Scale = 0.1 mm. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 




Fig. 3. Rheotanytarsus rioensis. Female genitalia ventral and cercus lateral. Scale = 0.1 mm. 



antepronotal setae about 80 /xm long, narrow taeniate; median antepronotal seta 
narrow taeniate. Precorneal setae length: 35-40 /tm (setaceous); 75 /an (narrow 
taeniate); 100-160 ^m (narrow taeniate). Dorsocentral setae bristle-like; lengths 15-25; 
28-50; 15-18; 30-50 /tm. Suture with a narrow band of granules along margin. 

Abdomen (Fig. 4b). Tergites II— VI with a pair of dark brown point patches 
anteriorly, twice as broad as long on tergite II, progressively reduced and more circular 
on following segments; point patches small, e.g. little more than 0.1 length of tergite 
on IV. Tergites III— V covered with minute shagreen points arranged in more or less 
transverse rows, less extensive on II; on VI and VII this fine armament is progressively 
reduced posteriorly; tergite VIII with antero-lateral shagreen patches only. 70-89 hooks 
in hook row of tergite II. Segment VIII with a single posterolateral brown spur. Chaetotaxy: 





I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII IX 


dorsal 


3 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


1 


lateral 





3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 28-36 


ventral 


2 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


1 



Larva, length 3.9 mm. Greenish-pink in life, smudged brownish posteriorly. Head 
brown, mentum and apices of mandibles dark brown. 

Antenna (Fig. 5e), segments 80, 23, 7.5, 5, 5 /*m long; AR 2.0. Antennal seta on 
first segment at 0.55-0.7 from base; ring organ at base of first segment; blade about 
as long as second segment, accessory blade about half as long as blade. Lauterborn 
organs on segment 2 reaching tip of antenna. Mentum (Fig. 5d) with anterior outline 
weakly convex: teeth generally very worn (Fig. 5a); median tooth simple, weakly 
shouldered laterally; the inner four of the five lateral pairs of teeth about equal in 
size, the outermost much smaller. Ventromental plates (Fig. 5d) about six times as 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 





Fig. 4. Rheotanytarsus rioensis. Pupa: a. thoracic horn and precorneal setae, b. abdominal 
segments II and III dorsal. Scale = 0.1 mm. 



wide as long, nearly touching medially. Mandibles (Fig. 5b) with outer tooth extending 
as far as inner apical tooth; three inner teeth. Labrum (Fig. 5c), labral lamella with 
about 24 teeth, pecten epipharyngis undivided, with about 16 teeth. Maxillary palp 
as in Fig. 5f. 

Systematic considerations 

The hypopygium of only one previously described Rheotanytarsus species possesses 
appendage la (digitus) in common with rioensis: an African species, ororus Lehmann 
(Lehmann, 1979). It is, however, not a member of the pentapoda-group, for its styles 
are not markedly narrowed and bent downwards at their tips. (The generic description 
and key in Cranston et al. (1989) require emendation to include the presence of 
appendage la in some species.) The pupa of rioensis is similar to that of pentapoda 
(Langton, 1991), but differs from all previously described Rheotanytarsus in the 
extensive shagreen of many of the abdominal segments, necessitating emendation of 
the generic description in Pinder & Reiss (1986). Very few females and larvae of this 
genus have been described; those of rioensis show no striking differences to allow 
separation. 

Ecology 

Known only from Tenerife, Canary Isles. 

Adults were collected from a swarm over an open conduit on 15.xii.1983 in Barranco 
del Rio at an altitude of 480 m. Subsequent collections at the same place on 14.xii. 1985 
included adults (males and females) and pupae with associated larvae. The conduit 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 




Fig. 5. Rheotany tarsus rioensis. Larva: a. characteristically worn mentum, b. mandible, c. 
labrum, d. mentum and ventromental plates, e. antenna, f. maxillary palp. Scale = 0.1 mm. 



was rectangular in cross-section, about 0.6 m wide with a water depth of about 0.25 m. 
The water velocity was between 0.5 and 1.0 m s 1 . Algae covered the sides and base 
of the conduit which had no loose substratum. 

Two other species of Chironomidae were also found at the same site: 
Paratrichocladius rufiventris (Meigen) and Cricotopus vierriensis Goetghebuer. 

Two further records of this species are known from collections made by Malmqvist 
et al. (1993) in riffles in the natural stony bottomed stream in Barranco del Rio at 
an altitude of 1450 m on 2.xi. 1991 and in the stream Ijuana at an altitude of 770 m 
on 16. iv. 1991. The specimens were identified from pupal material. 

Acknowledgements 

We are grateful to Mrs A. M. Matthews for the original drawing of the male 
genitalia, and to Dr F. Reiss for advice and the loan of the types of Rheotanytarsus 
photophilus and pentapoda. 

References 

Cranston, P. S., Dillon, M. E., Pinder, L. C. V. & Reiss, F. 1989. 10. The adult males of 

Chironominae (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the Holarctic Region— Keys and diagnoses. Ent. 

Scand. Suppl. 34: 353-502. 
Langton, P. H. 1991. A key to pupal exuviae of West Palaearctic Chironomidae. 386 pp. Privately 

published. 
Lehmann, J. 1979. Chironomidae (Diptera) aus Fliessgewassern Zentralafrikas (Systematik, 

Okologie, Verbreitung und Produktionsbiologie). I. Teil: Kivu-Gebiet, Ostzaire. Spixiana 

Suppl. 3: 1-144. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 17 

Malmqvist, B., Nilsson, A. N., Baez, M., Armitage, P. & Blackburn, J. 1993. Stream 
macroinvertebrate communities in the island of Tenerife. Arch. Hydrobiol. 128: 209-235. 

Pinder, L. C. V. & Reiss, F. 1986. 10. The pupae of Chironominae (Diptera: Chironomidae) 
of the Holarctic region — Keys and diagnoses. Ent. Scand. Suppl. 28:299-456. 

Saether, O. A. 1980. Glossary of chironomid morphology terminology (Diptera: Chironomidae). 
Ent. Scand. Suppl. 14: 1-51. 



BOOK REVIEW 

Insect conservation biology by M. J. Samways. London, Chapman & Hall, 1994, 
xvi + 358 pages, hardback, £37.50. — The growing popularity of conservation in western 
countries has not been matched by a public awareness of the nature and relative scale 
of the damage that human activities inflict on different forms of wildlife. Vertebrate 
taxa receive most of the attention, but this book assembles a body of compelling 
evidence to show that the risk of extinction is greater for insect species, not only because 
there are immensely more of them, but also by virtue of their often exacting habitat 
requirements. The first chapter illustrates the evolutionary adaptation of insects to 
almost every terrestrial ecosystem. The author draws on some interesting data; for 
example in a survey of Seram rainforest, over half the estimated 43.3 million individual 
arthropods in one hectare were Collembola, reflecting the importance of habitats in 
the soil. The very success of insects, which has produced perhaps 10 million extant 
species, belies the vulnerability of many species which are so closely adapted to 
geographically restricted biotopes that even a slight change can wipe them out, often 
to the point of total extinction. In the tropics, both the diversity of species and the 
threats to them may seem to make British conservation issues pale into insignificance. 
However, despite our relatively small insect fauna, our ratio of species to land area 
appears to be surprisingly high by world standards. 

The remaining introductory chapters describe the many ways in which insect habitats 
have been damaged, while also outlining the aims and responsibilities of national 
and international organizations which seek to ameliorate this loss. A central problem, 
which has a chapter of its own later in the book, is the fragmentation of biotopes. 
This is less serious for relatively mobile animals, especially birds, whose requirements 
often seem uppermost in the minds of those who influence conservation policy. 
Fragmentation prevents species from re-colonizing suitable sites following chance local 
extinctions. In the longer term it could also prevent species from keeping pace 
geographically with climate change or other large-scale events (as many did during 
past glaciations). When fragmentation and other problems are viewed in the context 
of tropical ecosystems, current conservation efforts seem inadequate in scale and often 
inappropriate in emphasis. 

The author goes on to examine ways in which conservation could become more 
effective by taking proper account of insect population ecology. The ability of species 
to disperse in a fragmented landscape must be understood in order to determine the 
optimum size and shape of reserves and the value of different types of 'corridor' 
between otherwise isolated habitats. He stresses the need to think about very small-scale 
'micro-sites' within biotopes, which are essential for survival. Studies on single species 
show that their different developmental stages and sometimes the two sexes have greatly 
different micro-site requirements. This does not necessarily mean that we must tinker 
with sites to help favoured species, since a broader-brush management of the landscape 
can achieve diversity in a way that is compatible with the economic use of the land. 

Although there are still places where the protection of natural ecosystems is the main 
objective of conservation, there are many other parts of the world where the 



IS BR. J. F.NT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

sympathetic management of agricultural and other 'disturbed' land is important. The 
author describes systems of 'adversity agriculture' in which populations of vulnerable 
species can often fall below a 'minimum viable level', leading to local or even total 
extinctions. This has happened even to former pest species such as the Rocky Mountain 
grasshopper (Melanoplus spretus) in North America. The risk of extinction is lower 
in 'agroecology' systems, in which areas of natural vegetation can support a high 
proportion of the local insect fauna while serving as refugia for natural enemies of 
crop pests. There are, however, no absolute rights and wrongs in agricultural methods. 
Burning, for example, is very harmful to many species, but others depend on it. 
Similarly, although biological control is often a 'green' alternative to the use of 
chemical pesticides, it can be disastrous when the agents released are able to persist 
and to attack non-target species. 

The author looks at the pros and cons of 'restoration ecology' and concludes that 
it is worthwhile in some cases, as when trees are planted for agroforestry in deforested 
tropical areas, or when herb-rich grassland is re-established in temperate farmlands. 
Restoration strategies can be helped by knowing the specific requirements of individual 
species, but the most vulnerable species are usually less able to recolonize the restored 
sites than widespread ones with greater tolerance of varied conditions. Some of the 
vulnerable species get special attention and can be artificially re-established, but the 
author sees this as a last resort. 

The rate at which insect species are being lost worldwide, according to one estimate 
quoted by the author, could be 19 per hour over the next 30 years. Such figures serve 
both to stimulate concern about individual species and to emphasize that attempts 
to save a favoured few cannot address a problem of such proportions. The need is 
for an 'umbrella' approach which can take account of both small-scale and large- 
scale elements of the landscape. To the extent that individual species can be helped, 
there is a need to improve methods of assessing their status; for example by recording 
the number of habitat sites per 10-km square; not just mapping a dot for the entire 
square. Attention also needs to be focused on species which are good indicators of 
diversity and which can be recorded efficiently in site surveys, rather than on taxa 
which happen to enjoy the most popularity. On a global scale, it is important to identify 
the regions of 'mega-diversity' and endemism where efforts should be concentrated. 

By concentrating on the biology behind conservation, this book helps to identify 
the most urgent uses to which time and money should be devoted. However, the author 
admits that such an analysis is not supported by human attitudes towards insects, 
which often involve taxonomic favouritism or hypocrisy, as exemplified by those who 
are less aware of their own daily mass slaughter of insects than of the sadism of pulling 
the wings off a fly. Governments that ignore the wider conservation issues may pass 
laws to protect species against collecting or trade, but the result is often a high black 
market price. 

The extensive bibliography testifies to the great deal of work that has gone into 
producing this book. Its emphasis on fundamental issues and on scientific evidence 
will complement other recent works which have concentrated more on practical 
conservation. A subject like this is intrinsically hard to divide into distinct sections, 
but there could perhaps have been less overlap and repetition of ideas. It required 
a good index, and the one provided here is certainly comprehensive, although it fails 
to list all the entries for some important topics. The author's commitment to the cause 
makes this much more than a dry academic treatise, but it will perhaps be more useful 
to students, research workers and policy makers than to the amateur conservationist. 

D. LONSDALf- 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 19 

REPORT OF THE DISCUSSION MEETING HELD ON 12 MAY 1992 

TO CONSIDER INVERTEBRATE CONSERVATION IN THE 

UNITED KINGDOM 

Stephen R. Miles 

At the beginning of this meeting a handout entitled "Invertebrate conservation — 
major discussion points", produced by the author, was provided to each participant 
to focus on the major issues within this subject; this is reproduced below. A brief 
introduction was also given to the meeting, explaining the history and role of the 
Joint Committee for the Conservation of British Invertebrates, by Helen Smith, its 
Conservation Officer. An introduction to the Wildlife Link organization was provided 
by Steve Brooks, the JCCBI representative. 

Stephen Miles, BENHS representative to JCCBI, then read out a paper reviewing 
the existing status of invertebrate conservation in the UK, suggesting a change to 
the status quo, in that a single invertebrate conservation membership organization 
should be formed. This paper is also reproduced below. 

Invertebrate conservation— major discussion points 

1. Do you consider that invertebrate conservation is well served by: 

a. the Joint Committee for the Conservation of British Invertebrates, (JCCBI) 
which is mainly a national advisory organization for policy and project 
formulation; 

b. governmental organizations, e.g. English Nature, and the Scottish and 
Welsh successors to the former Nature Conservancy Council and the 
Joint Nature Conservation Committee (custodians of the Invertebrate Site 
Register); 

c. the main non-governmental conservation organizations, e.g. the county wildlife 
trusts, World Wide Fund for Nature, Woodland Trust, the National Trust and 
Butterfly Conservation; 

particularly as to how the organizations that have reserves, manage them for 
insect conservation or promote the well-being of the invertebrates within them? 

2. Do we need to worry about the retention of invertebrate habitats and their 
appropriate management? At each of this society's annual exhibitions, exciting new 
discoveries of species found in new localities are exhibited each year, despite some 
reported losses. Even species new to Britain are a regular occurrence. 

3. How many county trust nature reserves have been specifically set up to safeguard 
invertebrate habitats? Is it unrealistic to expect any to be set up just for what is 
perceived to be the narrow field of invertebrates? 

4. As well as the JCCBI, which is only a committee, is there a need for a separate 
organization specifically set up to campaign for the conservation of invertebrate 
habitats? 

5. Or should the existing entomological societies take on this role through the 
JCCBI? (As in theory they do at present). 

or 

Should the JCCBI be somehow reconstituted into a national invertebrate 
conservation trust? 
or 

Should it be suggested that Butterfly Conservation broaden its role to take on all 
insects, or even all invertebrates? 



20 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

6. How does Butterfly Conservation's mainly anti-collecting stance on Lepidoptera 
fit in with the necessity to collect voucher specimens of nearly all other groups of 
invertebrate species, as well as many moths? 

7. Do we as entomologists promote our subject and educate others in its complexities 
sufficiently? 

8. Does the JCCBI need to advertise itself more to entomologists and to the general 
nature conservation community? 

9. How can invertebrate conservation be funded in the non-governmental 
organization sector? Clearly there should at least be one general invertebrate 
conservation organization to which people can make donations or leave legacies. 

10. Would invertebrate conservation benefit from having a demonstration reserve 
where the special management techniques that ensure that a wide variety of habitat 
niches are continually available could be readily seen by other natural history 
organizations? 

11. Would the Balfour-Browne Club (the water-beetle organization) defend a site 
containing rare solitary bees and wasps, or Butterfly Conservation promote the 
conservation of a site containing no interesting butterflies? In effect with a multiplicity 
of order- or family-based entomological conservation groups is the advance of 
invertebrate conservation hindered? 

Review of the existing status of invertebrate 
conservation in the uk 

As one of the two current representatives for this society to the Joint Committee 
for the Conservation of British Invertebrates I considered that it was about time the 
society's membership was consulted for their views on the way invertebrate 
conservation is organized and promoted in this country. Personally I have been 
somewhat dissatisfied with the extent to which invertebrates and their special habitat 
needs are considered by the mainstream conservation organizations. The positive 
publicity which invertebrates other than butterflies receive in the natural history press 
appears to me to be absolutely minimal. But unlike most other species groups the 
lack of a specific membership organization representing the promotion of the 
conservation of all invertebrates seems to be the major omission. Birds have the RSPB, 
plants have Plantlife. Apart from JCCBI, which is after all only a committee, what 
do invertebrates have? 

To look at the organization of invertebrate conservation I suggest we will need 
to examine the following points. 

Have the existing bodies that work either directly or indirectly to secure and promote 
the conservation of invertebrate habitats and their appropriate management succeeded 
in this role? 

Could or should the entomological community in the UK and Europe be better 
organized or focused in our conservation role? Can we afford to be complacent; can 
we assume that all the niches invertebrates inhabit will always be represented, at least 
somewhere in Europe. 

Existing bodies able to influence invertebrate conservation 

The existing bodies in this field in the UK are principally the statutory government 
bodies: English Nature, Countryside Council for Wales, Scottish Natural Heritage 
and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee. In the voluntary sector there is the 
JCCBI itself, the British Entomological and Natural History Society, the Amateur 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 21 

Entomologists' Society, the Bal four-Browne Club (for water beetles), the British 
Dragonfly Society, Butterfly Conservation and lastly the Initiative for Scottish Insects. 
The county trusts network through the Royal Society for Nature Conservation are 
also relevant as are the National Trust and the World Wide Fund for Nature. 

Are these bodies effective? I will comment briefly on their performance and propose 
some questions worth exploring on some of them. 

You have heard about the JCCBI; may I remind you however that it is primarily 
an advisory and policy group and it is rarely able to do anything to defend specific 
sites. It does have a very valuable role though as a forum for airing views on legislation 
and other political issues likely to affect invertebrate conservation. I believe it is not 
as effective as it could be due inevitably to the fact that it lacks a firm financial 
foundation and as a consequence is not staffed on a full-time basis. If JCCBI is to 
continue more effectively in the future how can the funding problem be resolved? 

I am not sure that the entomological community fully supports the JCCBI, or that 
they would feel it necessary to support any other type of organization that might be 
set up to promote invertebrate conservation. Perhaps entomologists are mainly lone 
workers, as many people have suggested to me, not feeling the need to co-ordinate 
their activities in the same way that the ornithologists have in recent years. 

If we look at the statutory organizations, as they have only recently been completely 
reorganized by the government following the dismembering of the former Nature 
Conservancy Council, it is perhaps too early to say whether they will be as effective 
as the latter body appeared to be. The present plans to do without an entomologist 
in the headquarters of Scottish Natural Heritage do not bode well for the future 
though. To the outsider the old NCC achieved a lot as a unified body; certainly insect 
conservation appeared to be successfully promoted by some of the BENHS's own 
distinguished members employed by it. The "Research and Survey in Nature 
Conservation Series" reviews of different invertebrate groups are useful in synthesizing 
the requirements for habitat management of the invertebrate fauna. The one-day 
workshops arranged for staff of other nature conservation organizations to attempt 
to advise them on how to adopt the special management requirements of invertebrates 
are examples to us all of the sort of promotion work that needs to be done. I 
understand these events are being continued in England at least, by one of NCC's 
successor bodies, English Nature. 

The designation of certain SSSI's has been considerably assisted following the receipt 
of knowledge about sites representing important invertebrate assemblages through the 
Invertebrate Site Register scheme. However I understand that not all the best sites for 
invertebrates will be designated SSSI, firstly because in some cases their vegetation 
features are not correspondingly as good. Secondly it is said to be more difficult to 
defend SSSI's designated purely on invertebrate interests only. If this is truly the 
situation is the JCCBI or the entomological community sufficiently well organized 
and do we hold sufficient data to be able to challenge this? I believe we do not. 

The British Butterfly Conservation Society or Butterfly Conservation as it is now 
known, from its inception nearly 25 years ago, is arguably the most successful non- 
governmental insect conservation organization in this country. Of course it has obvious 
advantages; it is dealing with a small species group which are probably the most 
popular group of insects world-wide. Perhaps its members can be more active in a 
conservation sense, as they are mostly observers or other types of sympathizers to the 
cause of butterfly conservation. Thus as non-collectors they do not have to be involved 
with curation activities or concerned about taxonomic problems, leaving more time for 
active involvement in butterfly promotion and site management. The acquisition by 
Butterfly Conservation of its own reserves has also been a significant step forward. 



22 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Regarding the county wildlife trusts, how many of their in excess of 2000 reserves 
are devoted to invertebrate conservation you may ask? Our president writing nearly 
20 years ago in an article entitled "Insect conservation and a county trust" (AES 
Conservation Group Bulletin 4, 1971), summarized the typical position of a county 
trust then, in this case the Gloucestershire Trust; none of its reserves were specifically 
devoted to insects. Its primary aim was to acquire at least one example of the major 
habitat types present in the county. Has this situation improved in the intervening 
period in better favour of invertebrates throughout the wildlife trusts' network? 

The National Trust appears to me to have improved its record on invertebrate habitat 
management. Provided its management committees and land agents take notice of 
the entomological advisers to its Biological Survey team, it will be well placed to 
continue to assist the conservation of the invertebrate habitats in its ownership. 
Members should note a member of this team sits as an observer at the main JCCBI 
meetings. 

What improvements are needed in invertebrate conservation? 

The JCCBI does not appear to campaign for site retention; should it change or 
must we rely on the hope that the county wildlife trusts will by chance save sites holding 
important invertebrate assemblages? Could the JCCBI do more? For example should 
its future remit include advising landowners of nature conservation sites, on how to 
manage them appropriately for invertebrates? Are we as entomologists organized in 
such a way as to be able to influence the trusts and government organizations in the 
procurement of important invertebrate sites? Are these organizations maintaining 
the appropriate conditions on their existing reserves for the invertebrate inhabitants? 

In a speech nearly 2 years ago (28 November 1990) the departing chairman of the 
Nature Conservancy Council, Sir William Wilkinson, highlighted the gradual decline 
in interest of SSSIs through lack of adequate management. A paper I have seen suggests 
that there is a high representation of nationally important invertebrates on National 
Nature Reserves and SSSIs. Have we voiced our concern that these special sites are 
managed appropriately for their invertebrate interest? While I have great respect for 
the abilities of the staff of the government nature conservation organizations, I believe 
we rely too much on them. Are they too constrained now by a government policy 
which does seem less than committed to the national series of SSSIs particularly since 
the break up of the old Nature Conservancy Council? At present, however, I have 
little confidence in the ability of entomologists as a group, as we are currently 
organized, outside of the government organizations, to have any influence in 
safeguarding the well-being of important invertebrate sites. 

I believe there is considerable scope for us to have greater influence in the future 
over these matters provided we are organized in some way under a single umbrella 
group, but one that is not just a committee. Surely this would command more respect 
for entomologists if we could actively campaign for site retention and correct 
management as well. Certainly then we could not only give more support to the 
Government's invertebrate conservation advisers but also be a more influential force 
in non-governmental nature conservation. At present JCCBI appears often to just 
lend its name to other groups' campaigns. Should we in fact become a little more 
strident? 

The setting up of a new organization would be a major undertaking, as the existing 
entomological societies often find it difficult to fill their functional voluntary positions. 
Reorganization of the JCCBI is probably the best option. Additionally in either case 
there would be major problems with funding. It is also important here, to make the 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 23 

observation that if any of us wished to leave some wealth or land specifically to the 
invertebrate conservation cause, apart from butterflies, there is no organization to 
which such resources could be left in our wills. This should change. 

There is one further important point I would like to make and that is that there 
is a growing anti-collecting sentiment in the wider world and perhaps particularly 
within Butterfly Conservation, RSPB, and in Europe in Germany influenced by 
extreme "Green" politics. There is a danger here, I believe, in that those groups who 
look down on the formation of natural history collections and even despise the modest 
insect collector are going to be seen as making all the running in invertebrate 
conservation initiatives. Entomologists or the main entomological organizations that 
fully acknowledge the need for specimen collection do need to become more involved 
in invertebrate habitat conservation. 

It should also be borne in mind that it is more politically expedient to prohibit 
collecting and thus the collector than to act to save invertebrate habitats. And the 
collector is of course the main person able to feed back information about species 
declines. 

Conclusion 

The platform of success of the Amateur Entomological Society's recent habitat 
conservation book (Fry, R. & Lonsdale, D., 1991, Habitat conservation for insects — a 
neglected green issue), and of the Royal Entomological Society's 15th symposium 
publication The conservation of insects and their habitats (Collins, N. M. & Thomas, 
J. A., eds) are the flagships on which an invertebrate conservation organization could 
go forward. These publications plus the invertebrate and insect "red data books" 
and the NCC's invertebrate species reviews reveal that we have a large amount of 
knowledge to make a start in seeking a higher profile for invertebrates and their 
habitats; it is time we invested more effort in such activities. 

Our insect survey expertise can form the basis for the designation of SSSIs as in 
the recent case of Richmond Park being named in the press as one of the most 
important UK sites for beetles. Although the species survey is essential and one of 
the foundations of our interest I believe we need to combine it with more efforts 
in the public relations and political lobbying aspects of entomology which most of 
us appear to avoid. Perhaps there is an obvious reason for our lethargy which I am 
too naive to see, but if we don't take command of the situation it will be manipulated 
by others to the detriment of entomology. 

In a paper given to the 3rd European Congress of Entomology in 1986 (Velthius, H. W., 
ed.), the dipterist Martin Speight said, "the one group within Europe's population 
that might be expected to be promoting conservation of Europe's entomofauna is 
the entomologists. But do entomologists promote insect conservation?" he asked. 
It seems he was convinced they did not. For his next statements were to this effect. 

"Among amateur entomologists in particular there is a tendency to use insects as 
an escape from the trials and tribulations of normal human existence, to practice 
as it were, zen through the art of entomology". 

Although Martin's comments are perhaps slightly off-putting and extreme I think 
he is making an important point. He went on to say "if entomologists are not prepared 
to put time and effort into the promotion of insect conservation, they can hardly 
expect other people to do so". 

Finally for those entomologists who are not already aware of it they should know 
that nature conservation was pioneered in this country by an insect collector, Charles 
Rothschild. He founded the Society for the Promotion of Nature Reserves in 1912, 
the forerunner of the Royal Society for Nature Conservation. It is ironic isn't it that 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



80 years later, of the major natural groups, invertebrate conservation could be said 
to be the least financially supported and organized in this country in a unified sense. 
However perhaps this discussion meeting will re-assure me that all is well and that 
I am being pessimistic — as usual, as Council would say. 



Discussion session 

Despite the range of points provided in the handout and in the preliminary papers, the 
meeting appeared to settle down to the consideration of seven major topics. These 
were: habitats; the county wildlife trusts and their reserves; the multiplicity of different 
entomological groups; the Joint Committee for the Conservation of British Invertebrates 
(JCCBI); Government agencies, SSSIs and information collection; SSSIs; and, finally, 
collecting. 

Habitats 

Frances Murphy said achievement of balance in invertebrate conservation is 
difficult; the management of one group of invertebrates may be to the detriment of 
others. Habitat conservation is better than purely caring for individual species, thereby 
political lobbying for the retention of these habitats is essential. 

Stuart Ball indicated that in entomology there was still much work to be done on 
finding out where species occur. This was the great value of the Invertebrate Site Register 
scheme as information fed to the scheme, such as where the best invertebrate 
assemblages occurred, led to its use in assisting site management plans. He also felt 
that a single invertebrate conservation group promoting invertebrate habitats for 
conservation would not be effective. It was a far better approach to base reserves 
on habitat types and manage them to maintain the broad assemblage associated with 
that habitat. In future, he thought, emphasis should be placed on habitats not well 
represented in existing reserves. 

The county wildlife trusts and their reserves 

A disparate collection of views was expressed regarding invertebrate conservation 
and the county wildlife trusts as follows. 

Ian Ferguson cited the observation that most interesting insect species invariably 
seem to occur outside reserves. 

Martin Drake mentioned that county wildlife trusts tend to purchase reserves of 
SSSI quality, often because they desired representative types of each major habitat 
type present in their county. 

Roger Morris stated that entomologists need to be on the boards of management 
of their local wildlife trusts and trust reserves to influence and advise in favour of 
sympathetic management for invertebrates. 

David Lonsdale mentioned that local entomologists are often active within their 
local wildlife trust but central groups, like JCCBI, don't hear of their activities, perhaps 
this represents a lack of coordination between entomologists. 

Multiplicity of different entomological groups 

Knowledge of what occurs on any one site needs to be shared. 
Steve Brooks maintained that the British Dragonfly Society believe that they are 
good at achieving this and able to influence conservation landowners in the process, 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 25 

despite being a small organization themselves. He felt that mass membership is not 
desirable within organizations as it can dilute the knowledgeable members and reduce 
influence. In this context he did not believe that Butterfly Conservation would become 
the main organizer of invertebrate conservation in the UK, because of their lack of 
specialists in the other orders. 

Stuart Ball felt that small active organizations like the Balfour-Browne Club 
were very effective. 

Stephen Miles had asked during his address "Should there be a unified 
invertebrate group to promote invertebrate conservation?" If so he felt it must not 
duplicate what others were already doing. This approach was not felt by the 
conservation professionals from English Nature and the Joint Nature Conservation 
Committee, present at the meeting, to be likely to be effective. It was maintained 
that a "mega" invertebrate society would still not stop loss of sites. There are three 
general entomological societies in the UK. It was felt that there was no need for any 
others. 

A major concern of the meeting was that Butterfly Conservation could take 
over as the main conservation organization for invertebrates, as it is keen to 
take on a wider role. The meeting felt that Butterfly Conservation would not be able 
to take on this responsibility. However the general opinion was that it might set the 
agenda for the issue of insect collecting. Butterfly Conservation is viewed as a large 
society of non-specialists, as is the RSPB, however that organization is also very 
successful. 

The need for special interest groups organized by taxon was therefore justified as 
they can work with other larger groups, like the RSPB, and influence them. This 
should be the way forward. 

John Muggleton felt that more interest in the conservation of invertebrate 
assemblages needs to be shown by other entomological societies. Furthermore a 
specific society dedicated to promoting reserves for insect/invertebrate conservation 
alone might lead to more appropriate management for insects rather than 
other things. 

Joint Committee for the Conservation of British Invertebrates (JCCBI) 

The view of some at the meeting was that this committee should promote itself 
and its products more, as it was not well-known. For instance many people had not 
heard of the "code for insect collecting" or the "code for insect re-establishment", 
both produced by the committee. However JCCBI's limitations in not being a society 
were a problem, it could not publish its own activities without its own funds. It was 
pointed out that it was up to individual societies who finance some of JCCBI's activities 
to publish the details of the committee's activities. But it was also recognized that 
most societies normally want to promote their own activities, not those of a third 
party, especially if promotion costs money. 

David Lonsdale said that the AES Conservation Committee feeds ideas to 
JCCBI. It had promoted various ideas in attempts to raise funding for the 
JCCBI because he considered that JCCBI should have a full-time conservation 
officer. He also recognized that JCCBI needed to move forward from discussion 
to action. 

To be effective JCCBI needs to be able to act quickly, much more so than at present; 
its purpose, it was considered, should be to influence and educate people in the merits 
of invertebrate conservation. But it could not concern itself with sites or it would 
very quickly be bogged down in paperwork. 



26 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Government agencies, SSSIs and information collection 

Ian Ferguson perceived that invertebrates were well down the list of priorities 
for these agencies. They act to announce SSSIs but the designation is then perceived 
as being ignored by the government. Countryside legislation is seen as excellent but 
can so often be overruled, even against the government's own expert advisers, the 
countryside agencies, English Nature etc. 

Others felt that organizations like English Nature were "tied by the leg", unable 
to tell a landowner what to do positively. These organizations have limited budgets, 
their staff are not necessarily expert on every order, they need information to be 
channelled to them efficiently by entomologists through the wildlife trusts and local 
and national recording schemes. 

Roger Morris said there was a perception that many entomologists were not keen 
on sending information in to these organizations because they saw this whole process 
as a chore. What was the role of entomologists, were they collectors or 
surveyor/consultants? Were they interested in the wider issues of legislation and 
conservation? 

Peter Chandler confirmed that he just wanted special sites to be still extant, not 
lost to development or other threats. 



SSSIs 

Some members felt these should be based more on invertebrate assemblages rather 
than as traditionally they are perceived, just on plant communities. 

In relation to landowners the SSSI system appeared coercive but "environmental 
sensitive areas" were seen more positively as co-operative systems. However the 
problem still remains that SSSI designations are largely ignored by government when 
it suits them. Habitat management of SSSIs was seen as a priority. Overall the SSSI 
system is seen very positively with many sites being successfully defended at public 
enquiries but Martin Drake inferred that one weakness was that designations cannot 
enforce appropriate management, they can only ban specified harmful practices. 



Collecting 

Butterfly Conservation was perceived as having an anti-collecting attitude, which 
may be its worst attribute in the eyes of other entomologists. Collecting was seen 
as not absolutely necessary for butterflies but essential for the learning process of 
correct identification for all other groups. The case for collecting needs to be strongly 
and favourably stated by all entomologists, the meeting decided. 

Conclusions 

Habitat management and conservation of broad assemblages of invertebrates, birds, 
animals and plants was seen as the focus, a holistic approach; it being considered 
as a trap for the unwary to concentrate on management just for a few single species 
of invertebrates. Specialist interest groups based on taxon were still desirable; overall 
the meeting appeared to conclude that there was no need for a single dominant 
invertebrate conservation group. 

The British Entomological and Natural History Society was identified as having 
a future additional role: to promote invertebrate conservation more, perhaps through 
including more articles on this topic in its journal. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 27 

EDITORIAL 

House style 5: County names in records 

Accurate presentation of records is of vital importance, and details of locality are 
arguably the most vital. The overriding consideration must be whether or not someone 
reading of an insect's discovery can identify the locality. This is not so that collectors 
can rush off to the same place to make further captures, but to aid distribution and 
recording schemes which may take place years into the future. 

A grid reference is the nearest we can get to pin-pointing the exact spot, but rows 
and rows of grid reference numbers make poor reading, and offer little insight into 
patterns of distribution. The traditional compromise has always been: (i) the locality 
(be this a named wood, hill, river, lake etc); (ii) the nearest village, town, city or 
district, and (iii) the county or vice-county. 

Localities, villages and towns rarely change their names, though many appear more 
than once across the country. Access to a gazetteer will clear up many misunderstandings 
before they occur. Counties on the other hand have proved troublesome, particularly 
their borders. With the interest in county lists, promulgated particularly since the 
Victoria county histories, has also come the confusion created by boundary changes, 
the creation and the abolition of various administrative areas. With the possible 
dissolution of Avon and Humberside and the restructuring of Yorkshire into a form 
resembling its former Ridings, more confusion looks on its way. 

The vice-county system 

In an attempt to overcome some of this confusion and standardize recording, the 
British vice-county system created by Watson (1852) was formalized in Dandy (1969). 
Vice-counties for Ireland, HI to H40, were created by Praeger (1896, 1901) and Ragge 
(1965) gives a list of these together with an explanation of the subsequent changes 
used by recent Irish biogeographers. A complete list of British and Irish vice-counties 
is given in several publications, notably Druce (1932) and appears at irregular intervals 
in Watsonia, the journal of the Botanical Society of the British Isles. 

The 'Watsonian' system remains well known and moderately well understood and 
forms the basis for much biological recording. However, individual entomologists 
do still go their own ways; among recent 'county' lists some stick rigidly to vice-county 
boundaries (e.g. Duff, 1993) while others have overridden these artificial frontiers 
by creating other equally artificial perimeters (e.g. Plant, 1993). 

In putting forward records in the journal, the vice-county scheme would seem to be 
the best, but it is impossible to lay down the law about how individuals record their 
finds. The following list of abbreviations, expanded and revised from the list given 
by Buck (1959), is supplied in the interests of conserving space on the printed page. 
Watsonian vice-counties, together with modern and old administrative areas are listed. 
As will be quite clear from Dandy's (1969) maps and accompanying text, the strict vice- 
county boundaries are sometimes significantly different from modern-day 'equivalents'. 

Sometimes, the terminology of modern equivalents can seriously upset understanding 
of the original vice-counties. South of the River Thames, 'London' is divided between 
West Kent (VC16) and Surrey (VC17). According to Dandy (1969) West Kent includes 
'the south-eastern part' of London and Surrey 'the south-western part'. But the modern 
London postcodes 'SE' and 'SW' do NOT correspond. Nunhead Cemetery, London 
SE15 is actually south-western in the Watsonian sense and hence in 'Surrey'. For many 
border localities, examination of old Ordnance Survey maps may be necessary. 



28 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Capitalization of cardinal points 

The cardinal points, north, south, east and west, and their Various combinations, 
do not ordinarily take capital letters when spelled out in full. Thus: the north part 
of the wood, the northern slope of the downs, the north-easterly direction of the wind. 
However, if part of a place name, a capital letter is required, thus: West End, East 
Sussex, North America, West Devon but [the] south [of] Devon, South Coast (of 
England) but south coast of Ireland (and elsewhere). 

Punctuation of abbreviations 

In the following list, Salop and Hants (and by analogy Northants) are not followed 

by a full stop because they are not abbreviations, but are older names for their 

respective counties. Middx is not followed by a full stop because it is a contraction 

rather than an abbreviation. 

Richard A. Jones 

References 

Buck, F. D. 1959. The style of the house. Proc. S. Lond. Ent. Nat. Hist. Soc. 1958: 116-117. 
Dandy, J. E. 1969. Watsonian vice-counties of Great Britain. R&y Society, London. 38 pp, 2 maps. 
Druce, G. C. 1932. The comital flora of the British Isles. Buncle, Arbroath, pp. i-xxxii, 1-406, 

1 map. 
Duff, A. 1993. Beetles of Somerset. Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, 

Taunton, 270 pp. 
Plant, C. W. 1993. Larger moths of the London area. London Natural History Society, London. 

292 pp. 
Praeger, R. L. 1896. On the botanical subdivisions of Ireland. Irish Nat. 5: 29-38, 1 map. 
Praeger, R. L. 1901. Irish topographical botany. Proc. R. Irish Acad. 3rd series 7: i-clxxxviii, 

1-410, 8 maps. 
Ragge, D. R. 1965. Grasshoppers, crickets and cockroaches of the British Isles. Warne, London. 
Watson, H. C. 1852. Cybele Britannica. Vol. 3, pp. 524-528. 

List of county name abbreviations 

Where it is not desired to spell the names of counties in full, the following 
abbreviations should be used. Watsonian vice-counties (VCs) may differ significantly 
from modern administrative boundaries. Reference to Dandy (1969) is advised. 

Note: many counties take their names from county towns, the names of which 
should not be abbreviated. Thus Aberdeenshire may be abbreviated to Aber., but 
Aberdeen (the city) should always be spelled in full. Confusion is also possible because 
the corresponding Watsonian vice-county names are South and North 'Aberdeen', 
not South and North Aberdeenshire. In the following list, vice-county numbers are 
given and the Watsonian vice-county names when these are necessary. 

[VCs 92, S. Aber. and 93, N. Aber.] 

[VC52, (East Anglia should be abbreviated 
to E. Anglia)] 

[Most of the mainland is VC 98, Main Argyll, 
others are VC 101, Kintyre, VC 102, S. Ebudes, 
VC 100, Clyde Is. of Bute and Arran] 

[VC H37] 

[VC75] 

[also known as Forfar, VC90] 

[VC H39] 

[a modern administrative area] 



Aberdeenshire 
Anglesey 


Aber. 
Angl. 


Argyllshire 


Argyll. 


Armagh 

Ayrshire 

Angus 

Antrim 

Avon 


Arm. 

Ayr. 

Angus 

Antrim 

Avon 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



Banffshire 


Banff. [ 


Bedfordshire 


Beds. 


Berkshire 


Berks. 


Berwickshire 


Berw. [ 


Borders 


Borders [ 


Brecknockshire 


Breck. [ 


Breconshire 


Brecon. [ 


Buckinghamshire 


Bucks. 


Buteshire 


Bute. [ 


Caernarvonshire 


Caer. [ 


Caithness 


Caith. [ 


Cambridgeshire 


Cambs. [ 


Cardiganshire 


Card. 


Carlow 


Carlow [ 


Carmarthenshire 


Carm. [ 


Cavan 


Cavan 


Central 


Central [ 


Channel Islands 


Chan. Is. [ 


Cheshire 


Ches. [ 


Cheviotland 


Chev. [ 


Clackmannan 


Clack. 


Clare 


Clare [ 


Cleveland 


Cleve. 


Clwyd 


Clwyd [ 


Clyde Isles 


Clyde Is. [ 


Cork 


Cork [ 


Cornwall 


Corn. [ 


Cumberland 


Cumber. [ 


Cumbria 


Cumbria [ 


Denbighshire 


Denb. [ 


Derbyshire 


Derbys. [ 


Derry 


Derry [ 


Devon(shire) 


Devon [ 


Donegal 


Don. 


Dorset 


Dorset [ 


Down 


Down 


Dublin 


Dublin 


Dumfriess & 


Dumf. & [ 


Galloway 


Gall. 


Dumfriesshire 


Dumf. [ 


Dunbartonshire 


Dunb. [ 


Durham 


Dur. [ 


Dyfed 


Dyfed [ 



VC94] 

VC30] 

VC22] 

VC81] 

modern administrative region of south-east 
Scotland comprising several former counties] 

alternative name for Breconshire, not to be con- 
fused with Breckland, the Breck of East Anglia] 

VC42] 

VC24] 

part of VC100, Clyde Is.] 

mainland part is VC49, Caernarvon, 

Anglesey is VC 52] 
VC 109] 
VC29] 
VC46] 
VCH13] 
VC44] 
VC H30] 
modern administrative area comprising 

several former counties] 
although technically part of the British Isles, 

sufficiently foreign to warrant separate status] 
VC58] 
VC 68, the northern part of Northumberland] 

VC H9, includes Aran Isles] 

modern administrative county of Wales, 
comprising several former counties] 

VC 100, comprising Bute, Arran and other 
islands of Argyllshire] 

VCs H3, W. Cork, H4, Mid Cork and H5, 
E. Cork] 

VCs 1, W. Corn, and 2, E. Corn.] 

VC70] 

modern administrative county] 

VC50] 

VC57] 

VC H40] 

VCs 3, S. Devon and 4, N. Devon] 

VCs H34, E.Don, and H35, W. Don.] 

VC9] 

VC H38] 

VC H21] 

modern administrative area comprising several 

former counties] 
VC72] 
VC 99, Dunbarton, not to be confused with 

Dumbarton the county town] 
VC 66, to distinguish city from county, use 

Co. Dur. if necessary] 
modern administrative county] 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



East Anglia 


E. Anglia 


East Lothian 


E. Loth. 


Easterness 


Easterness 


Ebudes 


Ebudes 


Edinburghshire 


Edin. 


Elgin(shire) 


Elgin. 


Essex 


Essex 


Fermanagh 


Ferm. 


Fife(shire) 


Fife 


Flintshire 


Flint. 


Forfarshire 


Forf. 


Galway 


Gal. 


Glamorgan(shire) 


Glam. 


Gloucestershire 


Glos. 


Grampian 


Gramp. 


Greater London 


Gt. Lond. 



Greater Manchester Gt. Mane. 
Gwent Gwent 



Haddingtonshire 


Hadd. 


Hampshire 


Hants 


Hebrides 


Hebr. 


Hereford & 


Heref. & 


Worcester 


Worcs. 


Herefordshire 


Heref. 


Hertfordshire 


Herts. 


Highland 


Highland 


Humberside 


Humb. 


Huntingdonshire 


Hunts. 


Inverness-shire 


Inv. 


Isle of Man 


I.o.M. 


Isle of Wight 


I.o.W. 


Isles of Scilly 


I.o.S. 


Kent 


Kent 


Kerry 


Kerry 


Kildare 


Kild. 


Kilkenny 


Kilk. 


Kincardine(shire) 


Kinc. 


King's County 


King's Co 


Kinross 


Kinr. 



[combination of several VCs] 
[also known as Haddingtonshire, VC82] 
[ VC 96, the north-east part of Inverness-shire] 
[various isles of Argyllshire and Inverness-shire, 

VCs 102, S. Ebudes, 103 Mid Ebudes, 

104, N. Ebudes] 
[VC83, also known as Midlothian] 
[VC95, also known as Morayshire] 
[VCs 18, S. Essex, 19, N. Essex] 

[VC H33] 

[VC85, includes Kinross-shire] 

[VC51] 

[VC90, also known as Angus] 

[VCs H15, S. E. Gal., H16, W. Gal. and 

H17, N. E. Gal.] 
[VC41] 

[VCs 33, E. Glos. and 34, W. Glos.] 
[modern administrative area comprising 

several former counties] 
[modern administrative area comprising 

parts of several former counties] 
[modern administrative area] 
[modern administrative county] 

[VC82, also known as E. Lothian] 

[VCs 11, S. Hants and 12, N. Hants; VC 10 

is Isle of Wight] 
[Outer Hebrides are VC 110] 
[modern administrative area] 

[VC36] 
[VC20] 
[modern administrative region of Scotland 

comprising several former counties, not to 

be confused with 'the Highlands', a more 

general term] 
[modern administrative region] 
[VC31] 

[VCs 96 Easterness, 97 Westerness] 
[VC71] 
[VC10] 
[also known as the Scilly Isles; part of VC1, 

W. Corn.] 

VCs 15, E. Kent, 16, W. Kent] 

VCs HI, S. Kerry and H2, N. Kerry] 

VC H19] 

VC Hll] 

VC91] 

former name for Offaly, VC HI 8] 

part of VC85, Fife] 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



Kintyre 
Kirkcudbrightshire 

Lanarkshire 

Lancashire 

Laois 

Leicestershire 

Leitrim 

Leix 

Limerick 

Lincolnshire 

Linlithgowshire 

Londonderry 
Longford 
Lothian 
Louth 

Main Argyll 

Mayo 

Meath 

Merionethshire 

Merseyside 

Middlesex 

Midlothian 

Monaghan 

Monmouthshire 

Montgomeryshire 

Morayshire 

Nairnshire 

Norfolk 

Northamptonshire 

Nottinghamshire 

Northumberland 

Northumbria 

Offaly 
Orkney Isles 
Outer Hebrides 
Oxfordshire 

Peebleshire 
Perthshire 

Pembrokeshire 
Powys 



Kintyre 
Kirk. 

Lan. 

Lanes. 

Laois 

Leics. 

Leit. 

Leix 

Lim. 

Lines. 

Linlith. 

Lon. 
Longf. 
Loth. 
Louth 

Main 

Argyll 
Mayo 
Meath 
Merion. 
Mersey. 
Middx 
Midloth. 
Monag. 
Mon. 
Montg. 
Moray. 

Nairn. 

Norf. 

Northants 

Notts. 

Northumber. 

Northumbria 

Offaly 
Ork. Is. 
Out. Hebr. 
Oxon. 

Peeb. 
Perth. 

Pemb. 
Powys 



VC 101, part of Argyllshire] 
VC73] 

VC77] 

VCs59, S. Lanes., 60 W. Lanes.] 
VC H14] 

VC55, includes Rutland] 
VC H29] 

former name for Laois, VC H14] 
VC H8] 

VCs53, S. Lines., 54, N. Lines.] 
VC 84, Linlithgow, also known as West 
Lothian] 
alternative for VC H40, Derry] 
VC H24] 

VC H31] 

VC98] 

VCs H26, E. Mayo and H27, W. Mayo] 
VC H22] 

VC48] 

modern administrative region] 

VC21] 

also known as Edinburghshire, VC83] 

VC H32] 

VC35] 

VC47] 

also known as Elginshire, VC95] 

part of VC96, Easterness] 

VCs 27, E. Norf., 28, W. Norf.] 

VC32] 

VC56] 

VCs 67, Northumber. S., 68 Cheviotland] 



VC H18] 
VC 1 1 1 ] 
VC110] 

VC23] 

VC78] 

VCs 87, W. Perth, 88, Mid Perth, 89, East 
Perth] 
VC45] 
modern administrative county] 



Queen's County Queen's Co. [former name for Laois, 

VC H14] 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



Radnorshire 


Rad. 


VC43] 


Renfrewshire 


Renf. 


VC76] 


Roscommon 


Rose. 


VC H25] 


Ross & Cromarty 


R. & Crom. 


VCs 105, W. Ross, 106, E. Ross] 


Roxburgh(shire) 


Rox. 


VC80] 


Rutland 


Rut. 


part of VC55, Leics.] 


Selkirk(shire) 


Selk. 


VC79] 


Shetland Isles 


Shet. Is. 


also known as Zetland, VC 112] 


Shropshire 


Salop 


VC40] 


Sligo 


Sligo 


VC H28] 


Somerset 


Som. 


VCs 5, S. Som, 6, N. Som.] 


Staffordshire 


Staffs. 


VC39] 


Stirling(shire) 


Stirl. 


VC86] 


Strathclyde 


Strath. 


modern administrative region] 


Suffolk 


Suff. 


VCs 25, E. Suff., 26, W. Suff.] 


Surrey 


Surrey 


VC17] 


Sussex 


Sussex 


VCs 13, W. Sussex, 14, E. Sussex] 


Sutherland 


Suther. 


VCs 107, E. Suther., 108, W. Suther.] 


Tayside 


Tay. 


modern administrative region] 


Tipperary 


Tip. 


VCs H7, S. Tip. and H10, N. Tip.] 


Tyne & Wear 


Tyne & Wear 


modern administrative region] 


Tyrone 


Tyr. 


VC H36] 


Warwickshire 


War. 


VC38] 


Waterford 


Wat. 


VC H6] 


Westerness 


Westerness 


VC 97, north-east part of Inverness-shire 


Western Isles 


Western Is. 


modern administrative region] 


West Lothian 


W. Loth. 


also known as Linlithgowshire, VC 84] 


West Midlands 


W. Midi. 


modern administrative county] 


Westmeath 


Westmeath 


VC H23] 


Westmorland 


Westmor. 


VC69] 


Wexford 


Wex. 


VC H12] 


Wicklow 


Wick. 


VC H20] 


Wigtownshire 


Wig. 


VC74] 


Wiltshire 


Wilts. 


VCs 7, N. Wilts., 8, S. Wilts.] 


Worcestershire 


Worcs. 


VC37] 


Yorkshire 


Yorks. 


VCs 61, S.-E. Yorks., 62, N.-E. Yorks., 



63, S.-W. Yorks., 64, Mid-W. Yorks., 65, 
N.-W. Yorks.] 



Zetland 



Zetl. 



VC 112, also known as Shetland Isles] 



Past Presidents 



J. R. Wellman (dec.) 


1941 


A. B. Farm, f.e.s. (dec.) 


1942 


J. P. Barrett, f.e.s. (dec.) 


1943 


J. T. Williams (dec) 


1944 


R. Standen f.e.s. (dec.) 


1945-6 


A. Ficklin (dec.) 


1947 


V. R. Perkins, f.e.s. (dec.) 


1948 


T. R. Billups, fe.s (dec.) 


1949 


J. R. Wellman (dec.) 


1950 


W. West, l.d.s. (dec.) 




R. South, f.e.s. (dec.) 


1951 


R. Adkin, f.e.s. (dec.) 


1952 


T. R. Billups, fe.s. (dec.) 


1953 


J. T. Carrincton, f.ls. (dec.) 


1954 


W. H. Tugwell, ph.c. (dec.) 


1955 


C. G. Barrett, f.e.s (dec.) 


1956 


J. J. Weir, f.ls., etc. (dec.) 


1957 


E. Step, f.ls. (dec.) 


1958 


T. W. Hall, f.e.s. (dec.) 


1959 


R. South, f.e.s. (dec.) 


1960 


R. Adkin, f.e.s. (dec.) 


1961 


J. W. Tutt, f.e.s. (dec.) 


1962 


A. Harrison, f.ls. (dec.) 


1963 


W. J. Lucas, b.a., f.e.s (dec.) 


1964 


H. S. Fremlin, mi.cs., l.r.c.p., f.e.s. (dec.) 


1965 


F. Noad Clark (dec.) 


1966 


E. Step, f.ls (dec.) 


1967 


A. Sich, fes (dec.) 


1968 


H. Main, b.sc ., fes (dec.) 


1969 


R. Adkin, f.e.s (dec.) 


1970 


A. Sich, f.e.s. (dec.) 


1971 


W. J. Kaye, fes (dec.) 


1972 


A. E. Tonge, fes (dec.) 




B. H. Smith, b.a , fes (dec.) 


1973 


Hy. J. Turner, f.e.s. (dec.) 


1974 


Stanley Edwards, f.ls , etc (dec.) 


1975 


K. G. Blair, b.sc, f.e.s. (dec.) 


1976 


E. J. Bunnett, ma. (dec.) 


1977 


N. D. Riley, f.z.s., f.e.s. (dec.) 


1978 


T. H. L. Grosvenor, f.e.s. (dec.) 


1979 


E. A. Cockayne, d.m., f.r.c.p., f.e.s. (dec.) 


1980 


H. W. Andrews, f.e.s. (dec.) 


1981 


F. B. Carr (dec.) 


1982 


C. N. Hawkins, fes (dec.) 


1983 


K. G. Blair, b.sc, f.z.s., f.e.s (dec.) 


1984 


T. H. L. Grosvenor, fes (dec.) 


1985 


C. G. M. De Worms, ma, ph d , 


1986 


a. i.e., f.r.e.s., m.b.o.u (dec.) 


1987 


T. R. Eagles (dec.) 


1988 


E. E. Syms, f.r.e.s (dec.) 


1989 


M. Niblett (dec.) 


1990 


F. J. Coulson (dec.) 


1991 


F. Stanley-Smith, f.r.e.s. (dec.) 


1992 


H. B. Williams, lld., fr.es (dec.) 


1993 


E. A. Cockayne, d.m., f.r.c.p., f.r.e.s. (dec.) 


1994 



F. D. Coote, f.r.e.s. (dec.) 

S. Wakely (dec.) 

R. J. Burton, l.d.s , r.c.s.eng (dec.) 

Stanley N. A. Jacobs, f.r.e.s, (dec.) 

Capt. R. A. Jackson, r.n., f.r.e.s. (dec.) 

L. T. Ford, b.a. (dec.) 

Col. P. A. Cardew (dec.) 

J. O. T. Howard, m a (dec.) 

Air-Marshal Sir Robert Saundby, 

k.b.e., cb., m.c, d.f.c, a.f.c, f.r.e.s. (dec.) 

T. G. HoWARTH, M.B.E., F.R.E.S., F.Z.S 

E. W. Classey, F.R.E.S. 

F. Stanley-Smith, f.r.e.s. (dec.) 

Stanley N. A. Jacobs, s.b.st.j., f.r.e.s. (dec.) 
F. D. Buck, a.m.i.ptg.m., fr.es. (dec.) 
Lt-Col. W. B. L. Manley, f.r.e.s. (dec.) 

B. P. Moore, b.sc, d.phil., f.r.e.s. 

N. E. Hickin, ph.d., b.sc, f.r.e.s (dec.) 

F. T. Vallins, a.c.i.l, f.r.e.s (dec.) 
R. M. Mere, f.r.e.s. (dec.) 

A. M. Massee, o.b.e., d.sc, f.r.e.s. (dec.) 

A. E. Gardner, f.r.e.s. (dec.) 

J. L. Messenger, b.a., f.r.e.s. (dec.) 

C. G. Roche, f.c.a., f.r.e.s. 
R. W. J. Uffen, f.r.e.s. 

J. A. C. Greenwood, o.b.e., f.r.e.s (dec.) 
R. F. Bretherton, cb., ma., f.r.e.s. (dec.) 

B. GOATER, B.SC , F.R.E.S 

Capt. J. Ellerton, d.sc, r.n. (dec.) 

B. J. MACNULTY, B.SC , PH.D., F.R I.C.S., F.R.E.S. (dec.) 

Col. A. M. Emmet, m.be., T.D., ma 

Prof. H. E. HlNTON, PH.D., B.SC. 

f.r.s., f.r.e.s. (dec.) 
J. M. Chalmers-Hunt, f.r.e.s. 

C. Mackechnie Jarvis, F.L.S., f.r.e.s. 
M. G. Morris, ma., ph.d., f.r.e.s. 
W. G. Tremewan, m. i. biol. 

R. Tubbs, o.b.e., f.r.i.b.a., f.r.e.s. 

G. Prior, f.l.s., f.r.e.s (dec.) 
Rev. D. J. L. Agassiz, ma 
R. Fairclough, f.r.e.s. 

A. E. STUBBS, B.SC, F.R.E.S. 

J. Heath, f.r.e.s. (dec.) 

B. R. Baker, b.sc, a.m.a., f.r.e.s. 

P. A. SOKOLOFF, M.SC, M.I.BIOL., F.R.E.S 

P. J. Baker, ceng., f.r.h.s. 
J. M. Chalmers-Hunt, f.r.e.s. 
Prof. J. A. Owen, m.d., ph.d., f.r.e.s. 
I. F. G. Mclean, ph.d., f.r.e.s. 
Mrs F. M. Murphy, b.sc 

C. W. Plant, b.sc, f.r.e.s. 
A. J. Halstead, m.sc 

J. MUGGLETON, M.SC PH.D. M.I. BIOL., F.R.E.S. 

D. Lonsdale, ph.d, b.sc 

P. M. Waring, ma., ph.d., f.r.e.s. 



ANNOUNCEMENT 



Bedfordshire butterflies and moths — I am taking part in an historical review of 
Bedfordshire Lepidoptera since the beginning of the century when the Victoria County 
History was published and have been looking for early records. Recently I was very 
pleased to find a few specimens taken by W. G. Nash who collected in the early part 
of this century. His collection was sold in the 1930s and some of it came into the 
BENHS collections and thence to members as "duplicates". I would be most interested 
to hear from anyone who has any of his specimens or indeed any others from 
Bedfordshire in their collection. Charles Baker, 3 Holywell Close, Studham, Dunstable, 
Beds., LU6 2PB. 



BRITISH JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY 
VOLUME 8, PART 1, JANUARY 1995 



ARTICLES 

1 The distribution and habits of the small carpenter bee Ceratina cyanea (Kirby, 1802) 
(Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Britain. G. R. Else 

7 A further study of the behavioural patterns of six species of British butterfly whilst in copula. 
S. A. Knill-Jones 

1 1 Rheotanytarsus rioensis (Diptera: Chironomidae), a new species of the pentapoda group 
from the Canary Islands. P. H. Langton and P. D. Armitage 



PROCEEDINGS AND TRANSACTIONS 

19 Report of the discussion meeting held on 12 May 1992 to consider invertebrate conservation 
in the United Kingdom. S. R. Miles 

27 Editorial. County names in records 



BOOK REVIEWS 

6 Australian beetles 
10 The book of the spider 
17 Insect conservation biology 



MARCH 1995 

& KIT 



ISSN 0952-7583 



Vol. 8, Part 2 



BRITISH JOURNAL OJ 

ENTOMOLOGY 

AND NATURAL HISTORY 



i&Jff IS 


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Published by the British 

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Rev. D. i. L Agassi/, m.a 
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Bradford 
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P. J. H 



MAR 6 1996 

Libraries. 



Editorial Committee: 

Ph.D. T. <Y Howard), li.l-.A 

I. F. G McLean, Ph.D„ F.R.E.S. 

Mrs F. M. Murphy, B Sc 

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f. k. h. Southwood, K.B., D.Sc., F.B E S 

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Reading, Berkshire RG3 6FB, 

Orders lor hooks and back numbers of the Journal and Proceedings to the Sales Secretary: 
R. D. Hawkins, 30d Meadowcroft Close, Horley, SlUTe) RH6 9EL. 

General Enquiries to the Secretarv: R. F. McCormick, 36 Paradise Road, Teignmouth, 
rn TQ14 8NR. Tel: 01626-779543. 

• illustration: The elephant hawkmoth, Deilephtla elpenor (E.j. Photo: Robin 
Williams. 

NOTE: The Editor invites submission of photographs for black and white reproduction 
on the front cover . of the journal. The subject matter is open, with an emphasis on aesthetic 
value rather than scientific novelty. Submissions can be in the form of colour or black 
and white prints or colour transparencies. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 33 

BRITISH SPECIES OF METOP1A (DIPTERA: SARCOPHAGIDAE) 
WITH TWO SPECIES NEW TO BRITAIN 

Nigel P. Wyatt 

Department of Entomology, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD 

and Steven J. Falk 

Herbert Art Gallery and Museum, Jordan Well, Coventry CV1 5QP. 

The flesh-flies (family Sarcophagidae) are medium sized to large silvery or yellowish- 
grey pollinose flies, usually with tessellate, spotted or banded patterns on the abdomen. 
The world fauna consists of approximately 2500 species, of which 56 were included 
in the most recently published checklist of the British fauna (Kloet & Hincks, 1976); 
however this total has now increased to 59 following subsequent additions and 
amendments (Rognes, 1986; Pape, 1987; Wyatt & Sterling, 1988; Wyatt, 1991). Four 
subfamilies are recognized by Verves (1986) of which two, the Sarcophaginae and 
Paramacronychiinae, have mainly necrophagous or parasitic larvae (either with 
invertebrate hosts or acting as agents of myiasis in mammals), while the other two, 
Macronychiinae and Miltogrammatinae, are mainly cleptoparasites with their larvae 
developing within the nests of aculeate Hymenoptera. 

Sarcophagids are represented by a substantially larger number of species in 
Continental Europe than in the British Isles: for example, Pape (1987) gives accounts 
of 30 species of Miltogrammatinae recorded in Fennoscandia and Denmark, while 
only nine are known from Britain (Kloet & Hincks, 1976) including only two species 
of Metopia: M. campestris (Fallen) and M. argyrocephala (Meigen). Here we record 
a further two species of Metopia, M. staegerii (Rondani) and M. grandii Venturi, 
both of which are widely distributed in the western Palaearctic and eastwards, and 
we provide a key for their identification. 

There is a key to British Sarcophagidae (Emden, 1 954 — as a subfamily of Calliphoridae), 
but this now requires updating. Some species may be more easily identified by using 
more recently published keys to the western Palaearctic fauna, such as that by Pape 
(1987) which includes most of the British species including all of the Miltogrammatinae, 
and provides illustrations of the diagnostic characters for species of Metopia. Verves 
(1986) regards staegerii as a junior synonym of argentata Macquart, the latter being 
an older name, which may therefore be preferred in future publications. 

Key to British species of metopia 

1. Middle tibia with 1 av seta. Male: fore tarsus with very long posterior hairs, the 
longest up to 4 times the width of the tarsus itself; frons with broad dark frontal 
vitta approximately 3.3 times as broad as fronto-orbital plates, thus lacking an 

extensively silver frons M. campestris (Fallen) 

Recorded from nests of Pompilidae, Vespidae and Sphecidae. England, Wales, 
Scotland (north to Sutherland), Ireland, generally distributed. 

— Middle tibia without av seta. Male: fore tarsus without or with only short hairs 
on posterior surface 2 

2. Abdomen: syntergite 1+2 lacking median marginal setae. Male: dark frontal 
vitta 3.5 times as broad as fronto-orbital plates, thus lacking an extensively 

silver frons M. grandii Venturi 

Hosts unknown. Southern England and Wales, northwards to Glamorgan, 
Worcestershire and Norfolk. 



34 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

— Abdomen: syntergite 1 + 2 usually with a pair of median marginal setae, but these 
occasionally weak or absent. Male with broad contiguous, fronto-orbital plates, 
obliterating the median vitta, thus frons extensively silver (females of following 
species presently inseparable) 3 

3. Male: fore tarsus with long curled hairs on posterior surface, the longest 1.5 times 

the width of the tarsus M. staegerii (Rondani) 

Hosts unknown. Fairly widespread but local, England: Devon, Suffolk, Norfolk, 
Oxon; Scotland: Forfar, Moray. 

— Male: fore tarsus without long hairs on posterior surface 

M. argyrocephala (Meigen) 

Recorded from nests of Vespidae, Sphecidae and Apidae. England, Wales, Scotland 
(to Moray Firth), generally distributed. 

M. argyrocephala and M. campestris remain the two most frequently encountered 
British species, with a wide distribution encompassing both inland and coastal areas. 
These two Metopia species are cleptoparasites of various aculeates; Pape (1987) cites 
that both M. argyrocephala and M. campestris are recorded from a variety of ground- 
nesting aculeate species, especially sphecids, but also a few vespids, apids and 
pompilids. There are no published biological data available yet for M. staegerii or 
M. grandii, but it is likely that their biology is similar, but perhaps with differences 
in the range of host species, or in the preferred location of the host nest. 

Metopia staegerii rondani, 1859 

This species is predominantly recorded from coastal dunes, but it has also been 
taken at inland sites with sandy soil in Oxfordshire and Suffolk. At Winterton Dunes 
in east Norfolk males were observed to be especially common basking on birch shrubs 
on mid dune while others were on hind dune areas together with M. argyrocephala, 
and at Elvedon Holiday Village in the west Suffolk Breck a solitary male was collected 
with a series of M. argyrocephala on chalk heath with scrub and conifer plantations. 

Females of M; staegerii cannot be separated from those of M. argyrocephala. All 
current British records are based on males. 

Material examined and other records (BMNH: The Natural History Museum, 
London; OUM: Hope Entomological Collections, Oxford University Museum). S. 
Devon: Dawlish Warren (SX9676), two males, 29.vi.1957 and 26.vii.1962, G. M. 
Spooner (BMNH). N. Devon: Maiden Down (ST0716), two males, 9-16.vii.1949, 
E. C. M. d'Assis Fonseca; 9.vii.l949, J. Cowley (BMNH); Braunton Burrows 
(SS4534), 21. vi. 1987, S. J. Falk. Oxon: Shotover (SP5606), 6.viii.l903, A. H. Hamm 
(OUM). W. Suffolk: Elvedon Holiday Village (TL8080), one male, 23.vii.1994, S. 
J. Falk. E. Norfolk: Winterton Dunes (TG4920), 7.vii.l993, S. J. Falk. England: 
one male, no locality or date, A. Piffard (BMNH). Forfar: Monifieth (N04932), 
6.vi.l915, 24.vi.1917, A. E. J. Carter (OUM). Moray: Culbin Sands (NH9862), 
14. vi. 1984, J. H. Cole (pers. comm.). Also occurs widely elsewhere in the western 
Palaearctic east to the Altai Mountains. 

Metopia grandii venturi, 1952 

This species has been recorded mainly from inland sites. At Sot's hole in 
Staffordshire a male was found resting on oak foliage beside a sandy bank, whereas 
another male collected at Woodbastwick Fen in East Norfolk was found on bramble 
foliage in an area of damp woodland and fen with little light soil in the vicinity. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 35 

Material examined and other records. S. Devon: River Tamar, one male, 10.vii.1949, 
E. C. M. d'Assis Fonseca (BMNH). Somerset: Dunster (SS9943), one male, 24.V.1953, 
E. C. M. d'Assis Fonseca (BMNH). W. Kent: Woolwich Wood, one male, 30.vii.1953, 
E. C. M. d'Assis Fonseca (BMNH). E. Norfolk: Woodbastwick Fen (TG3316), 
5.vii.l993, S. J. Falk. Herefordshire: Stoke Wood (S053), one male, 24.vii.1902, 
J. H. Wood (BMNH). Worcestershire: Wyre Forest, one male, 3.vi.l934, C. J. 
Wainwright (BMNH). Staffordshire: Sot's Hole, West Bromwich (SP0192), one male, 
8.viii.l986, M. Bloxham. S. Glamorgan: Kenfig Hill, one male, 5.vi.l903 (SS7981), 
Col. J. W. Yerbury (BMNH). Also occurs widely elsewhere in the Palaearctic region, 
from western Europe to Japan. 

The authors recommend that all British records of Metopia species are reappraised. 

Acknowledgements 

Thanks are due to John Ismay and Jonathan Cole for providing extra records of 
M. staegerii, and to Mike Bloxham for the extra record of M. grandii. 

References 

Emden, F. I. van, 1954. Diptera Cyclorrhapha Calyptrata (1), section (a): Tachinidae and 

Calliphoridae. Handbk. Ident. Br. Insects 10(4a): pp. 133 
Kloet, G. S. & Hincks, W. D. 1976. A checklist of British insects (second edition), part 5: Diptera 

and Siphonaptera. Handbk Ident. Br. Insects 11: pp. 139. 
Pape, T. 1987. The Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Ent. Scand. 

19: pp. 203. 
Rognes, K. 1986. The systematic position of the genus Helicobosca Bezzi with a discussion of 

the monophyly of the calyptrate families Calliphoridae, Rhinophoridae, Sarcophagidae 

and Tachinidae (Diptera). Ent. Scand. 17: 75-92. 
Verves, Y. G. 1986. Family Sarcophagidae. In: Soos, A. & Papp, L. (Eds). Catalogue of 

Palaearctic Diptera, Volume 12, Sarcophagidae-Calliphoridae, pp. 58-193. 
Wyatt, N. P. 1991. Notes on Sarcophagidae (Dipt.), including one species new to Ireland, one 

new to science from England and Malta and a change in the British list. Entomologist's 

Mon. Mag. 127: 1-6. 
Wyatt, N. P. & Sterling, P. H. 1988. Parasites of the brown-tail moth Euproctis chrysorrhoea 

(L.) (Lep., Lymantriidae), including two Diptera (Tachinidae, Sarcophagidae) new to Britain. 

Entomologist's Mon. Mag. 124: 207-214. 



BOOK REVIEW 

Die Schmetterlinge Osterreichs (Lepidoptera). Systematisches Verzeichnis mit 
Verbreitungsangaben fiir die einzelnen Bundeslander, by P. Huemer & G. Tarmann. 
Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck, 1993, 224 pages, Price OSch 200, 
(about £12). — Although Austria is some distance across Europe from Britain, this 
nicely-produced list of the Lepidoptera of that country will be of great interest to 
British lepidopterists, for several reasons. 

Following some introductory remarks, a list of superfamilies, families and 
subfamilies is given, with the number of Austrian representatives in each category: 
this makes a useful and readily accessible comparison with our own fauna. For 
example, the list gives 207 Austrian Coleophoridae, 45 Sesiidae, 310 Pyraloidea, 25 
Hesperioidea, 187 Papilionoidea, 463 Geometridae and 582 Noctuidae in a total 
lepidopterous fauna of nearly 4000 species. The sequence of superfamilies, which 



36 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

reflects the result of recent research, may come as a surprise to some of us: for instance, 
Cossoidea, Sesioidea, Zygaenoidea and Choreutoidea are placed just before the 
Tortricoidea; Urodoidea, Schreckensteinioidea, Epermemoidea, Alucitoidea, 
Pterophoroidea and Copromorphoidea are placed between Tortricoidea and 
Pyraloidea; and the Lasiocampoidea and Bombycoidea (which includes Sphingidae) 
come before the butterflies. 

The main list is attractively presented and easy to read, but all taxonomic categories 
are in italics. Reference back to the introductory list, in which Roman characters 
are usefully employed, suggests this may have been inadvertent. The species are 
numbered, giving a total of 3963 species, and a table to the right of the species list 
indicates records of each species in the 10 Austrian provinces (Lander) — an extremely 
interesting bonus. The sequence of species in some families may be unfamiliar and, 
although in line with some recent studies, is still controversial and unlikely to be the 
last word. There appears to be general agreement at present that the most satisfactory 
arrangement of Noctuidae commences with Herminiinae and concludes with Agrotis, 
and Huemer and Tarmann adhere to the sequence proposed by Fibiger & Hacker 
(1990). Another change which is adopted here is in the pyrales, in which a sound 
overview remains a problem. The Pyraloidea are composed of two taxa accorded 
full family ranking: Pyralidae comprising Galleriinae, Pyralinae and Phycitinae, and 
Crambidae in which Crambinae, Nymphulinae, Schoenobiinae, Scopariinae, 
Heliothelinae, Evergestinae, Odontiinae, Glaphyriinae and Pyraustinae are included. 

A consequence of intensive research into some taxonomic groups has resulted in 
a proliferation of genera which this reviewer considers unfortunate. Other workers 
have made sensible use of the subgenus to indicate differences between groups of 
species, for example in Zygaenidae and Noctuidae. No subgenera are indicated in 
the presently reviewed work, but full play is made with novel genera, particularly 
those proposed by Beck and by Berio for Noctuidae, and a number of them refer 
to British species. Thus in Sesiidae, we now have Pyropteron chrysidiformis and 
Synansphecia muscaeformis, and in Noctuidae Pyramidcampa pyramidea and 
P. berbera, Loscopia scolopacina, Leucapamea ophiogramma, Eremobina 
pabulatricula, Melanarta melanopa, Coranarta cordigera, Aneda rivularis 
( = cucubali), Colonsideridis albicolon, Putagrotis puta and more. Apart from 
devaluing the rank of genus, cross-reference to other recently published lists is made 
more difficult, especially when no generic synonymy is given. A further plethora of 
irritating changes results from the concept that the species name is adjectival to, and 
not in apposition to, the generic name, affecting particularly certain Geometridae, 
in genera such as Perizoma. 

Subspecific rankings are used sparingly; it would have been helpful to include the 
nominotypical combination, with author and date, in square brackets, where this does 
not occur in Austria, e.g. with 3900 Standfussiana lucernea and 3912 Xestia alpicola. 

There is a useful list of species which have been incorrectly reported from Austria 
in the past, an extensive table of annotations concerning unconfirmed records, a very 
full bibliography and separate indices for species and for higher taxa. 

Misprints are annoying in any work, but an abomination in a definitive check list. 
They are very difficult to eliminate altogether, and even this carefully-produced work 
has its share, such, aptly, as 2866 hulimiata for humiliatal 

This is the first list of the Lepidoptera of Austria to have been written, and is a 
valuable addition to the published faunas of the European countries. 

B. Goater 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 37 

THE LIFE CYCLE, DISTRIBUTION AND HABITS OF HYPENA 

OBSITALIS (HUBN.) (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) IN 

DEVONSHIRE 

Anthony H. Dobson 

282 Britten Road, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG22 4HR. 

This is an account of further studies into the life cycle, distribution and habits of 
Hypena obsi talis (Hiibn.) (the Bloxworth snout) since the discovery of a colony by 
the author on the Torbay coast (Dobson, 1991). The same field work techniques that 
were used during the 1990 to 1994 investigations were also used in the same area during 
1947 to 1959 when the author's home was in Torquay, suggesting very strongly that 
the species did not then occur in the Torbay area. Alas now living in Hampshire, 
it has not been possible to carry out a weekly survey throughout the year, but the 
data provided should illustrate the moth's life cycle and habits in Devonshire. 

Following the discovery of the colony on 2 and 3.viii.l990, Dr Barry Henwood 
obtained a female obsitalis on 8.viii at the same location (Henwood, 1991). Of the 
four larvae received in the post from him, two were fed with Parietaria judaica L. 
and the others with Urtica dioica L.; the former two were reared successfully and 
resulting imagines emerged on 15.ix.1990, but the latter two struggled and died before 
pupating. As the imagines had been set for exhibiting, the cycle through to the 
following year could not be studied. 

In the Channel Islands the imago has been recorded in every month of the year 
except February during 1960 and 1963 and on 8.H.1972 over 200 were counted 
overwintering in an old German bunker (Emmett & Heath, 1983). It has also been 
found in garden sheds, garages and other buildings (Skinner, 1984). To find possible 
overwintering sites, the location was visited on 19. i. 1991. Using a beating tray and 
a stick, an attempt was made to find or dislodge specimens from possible hiding places: 
low hedges, tangled undergrowth, scrub on upper cliff slopes, rabbit holes and deep 
crevices in the cliff just above the beach, but without success. 

From the August 1991 breeding of ova and larvae sent through the post by Barry 
Henwood and Bernard Skinner, seven specimens were retained for overwintering. 
From 12 to 17.ix the imagines were put into a clear plastic box, dimensions 
279 x 159 x 102 mm with Parietaria judaica L., tissue and a small cotton wool ball 
soaked in red wine steeped in sugar to give the moths sustenance. The plastic box 
was placed on the raised carpeted floor of a wooden shed in Basingstoke. However 
on 21. ix, the maximum day temperature in the shade outside the shed was 23.5 °C 
and because the imagines were so lively, the container was kept for a week during 
daylight hours in a cool bedroom and at night in the shed. At dusk on 29. ix five 
were lively when disturbed, one was crippled and one dead. At dawn on 5.x, when 
the temperature was 6 °C and the imagines in a state of torpor, the five healthy 
imagines were transferred to another container with similar contents. It was then 
discovered that two ova had been laid on a piece of tissue. The imagines then remained 
in a state of torpor. After a hard frost outside, minimum temperature of - 3.5 °C, 
during the night of 6/7. xii, they were examined next morning and found still alive, 
though in torpor. With even severer frosts forecast, newspaper was wrapped around 
the container, which was placed on boxes about a metre off the floor. During the 
night of 10/1 1. xii the minimum temperature outside was - 8.5°C, and the next day 
three imagines were dead and the ova collapsed. A bag of potatoes covered with 
newspapers in the shed was also frosted. The following night there was another severe 
frost, minimum temperature - 8 °C, during which the remaining two succumbed. 



38 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

From observations of the imagines in the shed, at 15 °C or higher outside temperature, 
the moths were very alert and any movement in the shed would result in them flying, 
particularly at dusk. From 14 °C down to 7 °C they were quiet and would not fly 
unless the container was tapped and below 7 °C outside temperature, they were in 
a state of torpor. In the protection of the shed they survived an outside temperature 
of -3.5 °C, but in their habitat it is feared they would not survive a temperature 
lower than -5°C in their overwintering site. It has been found since that the shed 
temperature is 1 °C warmer on a cold night than the outside temperature. The probable 
overwintering sites would be in a deep cover of scrub, ivy and vegetation, because 
of a lack of suitable buildings in most locations. The species can survive the winter 
in south Devonshire with its milder climate and close proximity to the sea. However, 
if the south Devonshire coast were to experience a severe winter, the species would 
die out. 

The next step was to find when overwintering imagines would awaken. A careful 
watch was kept on the weather forecasts and in recording temperature, making an 
allowance for the south Devonshire coast. The temperature at dusk first reached 16 °C 
on 14. v. 1992. On 24. v with a dusk temperature of 16 °C the location was visited from 
dusk onwards. No imagines were in flight. Parietaria and Urtica were swept vigorously 
to check if there were any larvae. One female was swept out from a thick growth 
of Parietaria deep within the hedge and close to the thick vegetation on the other 
side. The following night also with optimum weather conditions for most other species 
with many moths again in flight, not one obsitalis was seen, probably due to the 
temperature being only 13 °C. Then a return to Hampshire had to be made. Bob 
Heckford (pers. comm.) informed me later that on 12. vi. he saw two worn imagines 
at two locations. On 20. vi another evening visit was made, but no imagines were seen. 
The Parietaria that had not been cut by the council workmen was searched randomly 
for ova and then tapped with a stick over a beating tray but no ova or larvae were 
found. So it appeared that overwintering specimens were reappearing during late May 
to early June and the ova probably overlooked. 

With a long illness in 1993, the author was unable to visit Devonshire, but with 
improved health in 1994, was determined to find first brood larvae, the second brood 
larvae having been found on 22.viii.1992 in another location (Pickles, 1993). An 
estimation had to be made for suitable dates for finding the larvae. Breeding the 
second brood in captivity took 5 days for the ovum, 16 days for the larva, 16 days 
for the pupa, resulting in a total of 37 days (Henwood, 1991). Calculating 
forward from imagines seen on 12. vi, larvae should be found from 17. vi to 3.vii. 
Calculating back from imagines on 2.viii (Dobson, 1991) and ll.viii (Henwood & 
Skinner, pers. comm.), larvae should be found from 2 to 17.vii and from 10 to 27.vii 
respectively. A holiday to south Devonshire was booked for the week 16 to 23.vii. 
Unbeknown to the author, Roy McCormick made visits to three of the locations and 
David Wedd made one to the second location during 1994. Their records have been 
added to the 1994 results. 

To protect the species, locality and local feature designations and map references 
have been omitted. All locations listed are within the Torbay Borough Constituency 
Boundary and are on or near an imaginary north-north-west to south-south-east line 
spanning 10.5 km. Height and distance measurements are either based as accurately 
as possible on Ordnance Survey map data or estimated. 

First location: hedgerow with good growth of Parietaria judaica L. up to 1.25 m 
in height amongst Urtica dioica L. and other herbage beneath a canopy of shrubs 
and trees; aspect — east and shaded, 105 m above sea level and 220 m from the sea; 
known history — female, early viii.1991 (B. P. Henwood, pers. comm.), imagines 1992 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 39 

(Clarke, 1993), 9.vi. 1994 none (R. F. McC), 17.vii. 1994 Parietaria and Urtica searched 
and beaten, foliage disturbed, none, though probably in pupal stage, if there (A. H. D). 

Second location: horizontal cleft in cliff, third of way up from beach between scree 
and scattered herbage below and overhanging rock above with restricted Parietaria 
growth with nearby dense herbage and foliage against cliff, also adjacent footpaths 
with Parietaria growth along sides and with empty and inhabited buildings nearby; 
aspect — cliff, north-north-east and shaded, paths, various and sunny or shaded, 
30 to 10 m above sea level, 15 to 40 m from the sea; known history — 22.viii.1992, 
larvae from which imagines were bred from 16. ix. 1992 (Pickles, 1993), 7.vi.l994 
none, 17.vii. 1994 cliff site, tapping some Parietaria onto beating tray produced 
one larva in third and three in fourth instars, edge of path beneath fencing, one fifth 
instar larva on Parietaria (A. H. D.) (third instar larva died in the next instar, 
parasitized, the cocoon posted to Dr A. A. Allen, who bred on 5.viii.l994, a female 
Metorus colon (Hal.) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a species attacking a wide range 
of lepidoptera larvae and which does not seem attached to a particular habitat or 
larval strategy), the fourth and fifth instar larvae produced imagines on 2 and 
3.viii.l994), 3.viii.l994 imago and larvae, 13 and 22.viii.1994 larvae (R. F. McC), 
25.viii.1994 larvae in last instar, which produced imagines which laid third brood 
ova in September, and worn imagines (D. J. W.). 

Third location: rocks and sparse herbage near path at base of cliffs; aspect — east 
and sunny until mid-afternoon, seen 7 m above sea level, 12 m from sea; known 
history — 12. vi. 1992, worn imago (R. J. H.), 19.vii.1994 whole area searched above 
and below cliffs, which are now too dangerous to climb, no Parietaria in sight, deep 
clefts in upper cliffs for overwintering imagines. Nearest Parietaria found on wall of 
car park 400 m away as the crow flies, full grown larvae of Autographa gamma (L.) 
beaten out and a larva in its second instar which looked like obsitalis, but proved 
to be gamma in the third instar. 

Fourth location: coastal path with mostly low compact hedges with lush growth of 
Parietaria in places, but many plants next to path were cut down by council workmen 
during the first half of June, 1994; a derelict garden shed found nearby, but most of 
roof missing so little protection for overwintering imagines; low thick scrub down to 
cliffs, danger of cliff fall to part of path; aspect — south-west to south-east, sunny 
except for one continuously shaded patch of Parietaria, 20 to 35 m above sea level, 
five to 50 m from the sea; known history — 2 and 3.viii.l990, 12 imagines (Dobson, 
1991), 8.viii.l990, female (Henwood, 1991), 29.vii.1991, male (A. H. D.), ll.viii.1991 
two females (B. P. Henwood & B. F. Skinner), 6.ix.l991, imago (Heckford, 1992), 
24.V.1992, female (A. H. D.), 12. vi. 1992, one worn imago, (R. J. H.), 10.vi.1994 
none (R. F. McC.) (temperature not high enough for flight), morning 19.vii.1994 
using beating tray under Parietaria produced larvae of Vanessa atalanta (L.) and 
Autographa gamma (L.), but no obsitalis. Towards end of beating session a male 
flew out of a bush. Parietaria growing in the shady area was collected to feed larvae 
back at the cottage, later when checking the foodplant before putting it into larvae 
containers, three scattered ova under one leaf later produced gamma larvae and 
two singleton ova under other leaves produced obsitalis larvae; night 20/2 l.vii. 1994 
pre-dusk to 22.00 hours, seven imagines, one female ovipositing on Parietaria near 
where ova had been found, at 00.05 hours, one imago and at 00.45 hours, two imagines 
in flight (A. H. D.); 3.viii.l994 none, 26.viii.1994 larvae (R. F. McC). 

Fifth location: cliff top site, short grass with Parietaria growing at base of walls; 
aspect — various and sunny, except in shade cast by walls, 52 m above sea level, 120 m 
from the sea; known history — 28.vii.1989, one female at M. V. light (Henwood, 1991) 
and believed to have been a migrant, the first confirmed county record, 22.vii.1994 



40 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

a brief visit at 22.30 hours, two females, one ovipositing on Parietaria, and a male 
seen (A. H. D.). 

From a few ova, ex female secured on 20.vii.1994, second«brood imagines were 
bred on 21 and 22.viii.1994. The two kept for overwintering have been going into 
and out of torpor with the range of temperature experienced. They are still alive today 
(9.x. 1994) but now in torpor with the overnight temperature in the shed having dropped 
to 2 °C. To facilitate recharging the contents of the plastic box when the temperatures 
were higher, the box was kept in the refrigerator overnight so that at 5 °C next morning 
the imagines were in a state of torpor. 

Regarding flight habits, the original statements (Dobson, 1991) still remain true, 
though the moth will fly after midnight. The species usually ignores light; only two 
of the 1994 imagines flew towards torch light. The species was attracted neither to 
Barry Henwood's bulb over a sheet nor to Dobson's actinic (Heath) trap, 1.5 and 2 m 
respectively from the imagines' flight paths. 

Abroad, Urtica dioica is a recorded foodplant and the I ford, Dorset specimen was seen 
amongst nettles (Emmett & Heath, 1983). In south Devon, the only foodplant appears 
to be Parietaria judaica; however, the few Urtica plants seen could have been worked 
at the wrong time or overlooked in preference to Parietaria with which the author was 
having success. It is still advisable for others to work both plants. In captivity the species 
has been reared successfully on Soleira soleirolii (Dandy) (Riley, 1992). The ovum and 
larva in the early instars could be confused with Autographa gamma (L.). The ovum of 
gamma in its development turns to a shade of pale green similar to obsitalis. Its larva in 
the first two instars is like obsitalis in its stance at rest, colour and markings but it has 
three pairs of prolegs compared to the four pairs of obsitalis. The larva does seem to 
prefer shady places (Seitz, 1914). The pupa of obsitalis has not yet been found in the 
wild on mainland Britain; in captivity the larva spins a flimsy cocoon amongst leaves 
of Parietaria out of which the pupa can fall, when the leaves are moved. 

The life cycle in Torbay will now be compared with statements in literature. It was 
believed that obsitalis was 'single-brooded, flying from August to October and after 
hibernation in May and June' (Skinner, 1984). From the data, there appears to be 
a staggered awakening from the overwintering state from late May to mid-June. This 
could be the result of weather and variation between the aspects and micro-climates 
of the locations. The earliest first brood cycle commenced with ova laid in early June 
resulting in imagines about 17.vii as witnessed in locations four and five. The latest 
first brood cycle with ova laid at the end of June resulted in imagines emerging in 
early August and with larvae on 17.vii as witnessed in location two. The second brood 
imagines emerge from late August to mid-September with a flight period until mid- 
October, earlier or later according to the temperature. All these cycles can be affected 
by the weather; in 1990, June was the dullest, coolest and wettest for many years 
resulting in the first brood imagines flying in early August in location four. Could 
there be a third brood? Dobson and Wedd have experienced ova of a third brood 
being laid in captivity, but there is no evidence yet of it taking place in nature in 
the British Isles. In Continental literature there is some confusion over the broods, 
probably the result of an extended ovipositing period and overlapping broods; in May 
and June and in August and September. Observed in May and December in Portugal, 
the larva lives in April and May and in the late summer (Spuler, 1908); south of France, 
southern Europe, north Africa and Asia Minor, moth from April to September, 
sometimes later according to terrain, larva in Spring (Culot, 1914-17); localities chiefly 
in southern France, June, July to October (Lhomme, 1923-35); in Alsace, Valais 
and southern Alps to 1000 m, mostly common in two to three not clearly separated 
generations from early June, overwintering to mid-May, the moth comes into houses 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 41 

to overwinter, larvae from May and in the autumn (Forster & Wohlfahrt, 1971); 
throughout the whole year, often captured in caves and dark places (Calle, 1983); 
Greece, flight period March to December, two or three generations, adults of autumn 
generation overwinter in caves, holes and buildings (Hacker, 1989). The flight periods 
do vary according to terrain and latitude, hence June to October in France and March 
to December in Greece. Could Spuler's statement imply that ova overwintered or 
did he overlook a March flight? The earlier authors appear to have been unaware 
of overwintering. A number of sites for overwintering on the Continent and the 
Channel Islands have been mentioned but as yet none has been found in Devon and 
it is hoped that further work will be carried out by others to resolve this. However 
the Rye, Sussex specimen of 6.iii. 1983 being disturbed in a garage, flew and resettled 
on a beam (Tweedie, 1983) (the previous September being good for migrant moths, 
followed by a very mild winter, strongly suggest that the specimen overwintered). 
It has been suggested that obsi talis occurred in south Devon, in the late 19th century, 
but the only statement that has been found is the late Captain Stidston's: 'In my 
own collection there are eight specimens rather old and worn. I recognise my setting 
of early collecting days and therefore may have been taken in the South Hams district 
but, of course, the record cannot stand' (Stidston, 1952). The species is now established 
in Torbay and further to the south Roy McCormick (pers. comm.) has found larvae 
on 16.viii. 1994 in a location by the mouth of the River Dart. David Wedd (pers. 
comm.) has found larvae common on Parietaria in an open site on the north Cornwall 
coast, but it is very doubtful if this colony was established by the 1943 migrant specimen 
at Boscastle, for the extremely low temperatures of the 1947 severe winter would have 
wiped out any colonies in the south-west. If such weather does not recur, the future 
prospects for this species on mainland Britain are good. Parasitism is low at present 
and the colonies, being on or close to cliffs, should be safe from development. It 
should be found in more localities, where its foodplant occurs, from Land's End 
to the Isle of Purbeck. 

Acknowledgements 

I should like to thank Dr A. A. Allen for his help with identifying the parasite, 
B. Goater and A. J. Pickles for loosely translating and providing Continental 
references, and Dr J. H. Clarke, R. J. Heckford, Dr B. P. Henwood, R. F. 
McCormick, A. J. Pickles, B. F. Skinner, Miss M. A. Turner and D. J. Wedd for 
their help in supplying records and/or information. 

References 

Calle, J. A. 1983. Noctuidos Espaholes. Madrid, Vol. 1, p. 171. 

Clarke, J. H. 1993. [Examples of summer and autumn broods of Hypena obsitalis (Htibn.). 

Exhibit at BENHS Annual Exhibition, 1992.] Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 6: 54. 
Culot, J. 1914-17. Noctuelles et geometres d'Europe. Geneva, Vol. 2, Noctuelles, pp. 225-226. 
Dobson, A. H. 1991. Hypena obsitalis (Hiibn.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) temporarily established 

in Devonshire. Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 4: 64. 
Emmet, A. M. & Heath, J. (Eds). 1983. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Harley Books, Colchester, Vol. 10, p. 387. 
Forster, W. & Wohlfahrt, T. A. 1971. Die Schmetterlinge Mitteleuropas: Eulen (noctuidae). 

Stuttgart, Vol. 1, p. 310. 
Hacker, H. 1989. Herbipoliana. Mark Tleuthen, Germany, Vol. 2, die noctuidae Griechenlands, 

p. 408. 
Heckford, R. J. 1992. [Hypena obsitalis (Hiibn.) from Torbay. Exhibit at BENHS Annual 

Exhibition, 1991.] Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 5: 56. 



42 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Henwood, B. P. 1991 Hypena obsitalis (Hiibn.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) bred in Devon; 

Entomologist's Gaz. 42: 81-83. 
Lhomme, L. 1923-35. Catalogue des lepidopteres de France et de Belgique. Le Carriol, Vol. 

1, p. 337. 
Pickles, A. J. 1993. Larvae of Bloxworth snout Hypena obsitalis (Lep: Hypeninae) in Devon. 

Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 105: 37. 
Riley, A. M. 1992. A new larval foodplant for captive rearing of Hypena obsitalis Hiibner, 

the Bloxworth snout. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 104: 82. 
Seitz, A. 1914. Macrolepidoptera of the world. Stuttgart, Vol. 3, Palaearctic Noctuidae, 

pp. 435-436. 
Skinner, B. 1984. Colour identification guide to moths of the British Isles. Viking, London, p. 156. 
Spuler, A. 1908. Die Schmetterlinge Europas, Stuttgart, Vol. 1, p. 330. 
Stidston, S. T. 1952. A list of the Lepidoptera of Devon. Devonshire Association Entomological 

Section, Torquay, part 1 and introduction, p. 49. 
Tweedie, M. W. F. 1983. The Bloxworth snout: Hypena obsitalis Hbn in 1983. Entomologist's 

Rec. J. Var. 95: 126. 



ANNOUNCEMENT 



Microlepidoptera of Middlesex: an appeal for records. — Following on from the 
success of the recent publication of Larger moths of the London area the London 
Natural History Society now proposes to work towards publication of a checklist 
of the microlepidoptera of Middlesex. It is expected that this exercise may take about 
5 years to complete. 

The term Middlesex involves the entire vice-county 21 and thus includes all the 
London boroughs north of the River Thames with the exception of the five lying 
east of the River Lea; these five are in South Essex. Middlesex also incorporates some 
areas which lie in the current administrative county of Hertfordshire, notably the 
Potters Bar area. Records are actively sought from appropriate persons for all those 
families generally regarded as "micros" — thus including the Psychidae which were 
formerly referred to as "macros", as well as those which are sometimes referred to 
as "mesolepidoptera" (Tortricidae, Alucitidae, Pyralidae and Pterophoridae). 

Records should include the species name, the Bradley and Fletcher code number 
(to avoid nomenclatural confusion) the date where possible and the locality. Records 
will be assumed to relate to imagines unless "mine", "larva" or other qualifying 
statements are given alongside. Localities will ideally involve a place name and a four 
figure grid reference. Place names should be those appearing on the Ordnance Survey 
maps; precise localities, such as the names of nature areas or ecology parks in London 
are desirable, but if these do not appear on OS maps the nearest locality should always 
be given. Where a grid reference can not be obtained, a precise address as it appears 
in one of the various published books of street maps of London should be used. Site 
lists will ideally be presented in log book order to facilitate data entry. Overnight 
trap dates should be given according to the example 23/24 August or 23 August, and 
not as 24 August. Approximate counts and sexes are desirable for immigrants. 
Confidentiality of selected records may be requested. Records are required from all 
time, not just the present period. 

Records should be addressed to C. W. Plant, 14 West Road, Bishop's Stortford, 
Hertfordshire CM23 3QP, who will happily provide more detailed information. All 
communications will be acknowledged and records from outside Middlesex contained 
in mixed lists will always be forwarded to appropriate recorders unless directions are 
given to the contrary. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 43 

THE DISTRIBUTION AND HABITS OF THE BEE HYLAEUS 
PECTORALIS FORSTER, 1871, (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) 

IN BRITAIN 

George R. Else 

Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5 BD. 

R. C. L. Perkins (1900) described Prosopis palustris as a species new to science, 
which had been collected at Wicken Fen, Cambridgeshire, and in similar localities 
in Suffolk. Both this name and Prosopis kriechbaumeri Forster, 1871, are now 
regarded as junior synonyms of Hylaeus pectoralis Forster, 1871. For many years 
following its discovery in Britain, this small bee was found only in a number of wetland 
sites in East Anglia (particularly at Wicken Fen). There is also an unconfirmed record 
from Matley, New Forest, Hampshire, in August 1901 (Morley, 1903). 

On 26.vii.1972 I collected both sexes of a Hylaeus in fenland adjacent to the River 
Alver at Browndown, near Lee-on-Solent, Hampshire, which I assumed were large 
individuals of//, communis Nylander. However, it soon became apparent that these 
were H. pectoralis. Further visits to the site in 1972, and in later years, demonstrated 
that it was well established in this locality. In subsequent years I also reared numerous 
specimens of the bee from nests, built in the galls of the chloropid fly Lipara lucens 
Meigen, collected in the same area. From 1973 onwards I searched for the species in 
other, similar wetland localities in the county and found a further 17 sites. Most of these 
localities are on the coast, but some are also inland (including Matley, corroborating 
Morley's old record). Searches by me in suitable localities in other counties produced 
records from Dorset, Essex, the Isle of Wight, Suffolk, and West Sussex. Further 
recent records by others are from Cambridgeshire, Norfolk, Suffolk, Surrey and West 
Sussex. In addition, there are pre-1970 records from Northamptonshire, Suffolk and 
north Norfolk. All records (for most of which there are voucher specimens in The 
Natural History Museum, London) are shown on the distribution map (Fig. 1). 

H. pectoralis is a good example of an "Anglo-Dutch" or "Doggerland" species. 
Before Britain became separated from mainland Europe (c. 6000 years ago) it was 
joined to the Continent by a largely swampy land bridge, through which the Rhine 
flowed northwards. Some species of insects which occurred on the banks of the river 
are, in Britain, still mainly confined to south-east England. These "Doggerland" 
species also include the bee Colletes halophilus (Verhoeff) and the sphecid wasp 
Mimumesa spooneri (Richards) [sometimes cited as Psen spooneri] (Richards, 1964). 

Habitat, nesting habits and parasitoids 

H. pectoralis is associated with stands of the common reed, Phragmites australis 
(Cav.). Perkins (1900) described the bee as "burrowing in the dry stems of reeds". 
More recently J. P. Field (pers. comm.) reared a specimen from a bundle of cut, 
dead Phragmites stems suspended as "trap nests' from a pole within a reed bed. 
However, the majority of nests have been found in the vacated, spindle-shaped galls 
of Lipara lucens. These galls are located on the apices of the flower stems of the 
Phragmites, their development inhibiting flowering (Fig. 2). In a gall containing a 
larva of L. lucens the ensheathing leaves are tightly pressed together (forming a sharp 
apical point) and are green in colour. L. lucens overwinters within a puparium in 
the cavity which it created as a result of its larval feeding activity within the basal 
half of the gall (Fig. 3). By this time the gall has generally assumed a brown coloration, 
following the death of the leaf sheaths. The adult fly emerges in the early summer 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 




Fig. 1. British distribution of H. pectoralis. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 




Fig. 2. Old gall of Lipara lucens Meig. on Phragmites australis (Cav.) stem. Browndown, 
Hampshire (G. R. Else). 

and it is only then that the gall becomes available for use as a nest site by the bee. Old 
galls, which may contain nests of this bee, can further be recognized by their frayed tips. 
The female H. pectoralis apparently always removes the fly's empty puparium from 
the gall chamber, as this has never been found in one containing a nest (those without 
such a nest contain the eclosed puparium, unless the L. lucens larva was parasitized 
or eaten by a bird). The female bee builds its nest within the gall chamber, the cells 
sometimes extending into the apical leaf sheathing. The nest entrance is between the 
leaves which form the apex of the gall, and is generally not clearly visible. The galls 
of L. lucens vary considerably in size, and this dictates the number of cells each can 
contain, the usual range being from two to eight, as the cells are constructed as a 
linear series (Fig. 4). Those cells destined to contain female progeny are generally the 
first to be built (i.e. the cells furthest from the nest entrance), whereas males are found 
in those built nearest the nest entrance. In common with those of other British Hylaeus, 
cell linings are formed from a secretion of the female's salivary glands, the viscous 
liquid being spread on to the inner walls of the gall with the bee's short, bilobed glossa; 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 




Fig. 3. Opened gall chamber of L. lucens gall with puparium of this species in situ 
(G. Dickson). 




Fig. 4. Occupied cells of Hylaeus pectoralis Forster in gall of L. lucens. (G. Dickson). 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 47 

the cell partitions are constructed in similar fashion. On drying, the secretion produces 
a thin, transparent, cellophane-like membrane which is impermeable to water (it also 
ensures the cells retain the semi-liquid pollen/nectar provision). British pollen sources 
are not known, but the species is probably polylectic (as in Germany (Westrich, 1989)). 
In Britain individual bees have been observed visiting bramble (Rubus fruticosus L., 
sensu la to), angelica (Angelica species), hog weed (Heracleum sphondylium L.), wild 
carrot (Daucus carota L.), hawkbit (Leontodon species) and field milk-thistle (Sonchus 
arvensis L.) flowers. 

A provisioned nest is sealed with a substantial plug of compacted, finely shredded 
reed leaf fragments which often extends up into the leaf sheath of the gall. This plug 
immediately betrays the presence of a nest when a gall is opened by carefully tearing away 
the outer leaf sheathing. H. peel oralis overwinters as a prepupa within its cell; the larva 
does not spin a cocoon. A photograph of an opened nest also appears in Imms (1971). 

I have reared both the evanioid wasps Gasteruption assectator (L.) and G. jaculator 
(L.) from nests of this bee. No other parasitoids seem to have been recorded. 

Acknowledgements 

I am most grateful to M. Edwards and S. Falk for their records of this species, 
and to S. P. M. Roberts for preparing the distribution map of Hylaeus pectoralis 
(drawn on DMAP). G. Dickson kindly permitted the use of his photographs (Figs 
3 and 4) to illustrate this paper. 

References 

Imms, A. D. 1971. Insect natural history. Collins New Naturalist, London. 

Perkins, R. C. L. 1900. Prosopis palustris, sp., nov., an addition to the British Hymenoptera. 

Entomologist's Mon. Mag. 36: 49-50. 
Morley, C. 1903. Insects, especially parasitic Hymenoptera, noticed in the New Forest in August, 

1901. Entomologist's Mon. Mag. 39: 25-29. 
Richards, O. W. 1964. The entomological fauna of southern England with special reference 

to the country around London. Trans. Soc. Br. Ent. 16: 1-48. 
Westrich, P. 1989. Die Wildbienen Baden-WQrttembergs. Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co, Stuttgart. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

The butterflies' fly-past by Clive Simson. Leeds, Peregrine Books, 27 Hunger Hills 
Avenue, Horsforth, Leeds LS18 5JS, 1994, xviii-h 127 pages, £19 (post free), hardback. 
— 'This book is in no way a textbook'. So begins, and ends, the author's first sentence, 
and for this much we should be forever thankful. Were it otherwise, what gems from 
many an entomological encounter, what field-notes from past years and what other 
pleasures we should have missed. These, together with carefully detailed observations 
from the wider field of natural history, liberally populate this unusual book — and 
all is achieved without the aid of a single dot-distribution map. 

But I have jumped the gun, for the stage is set by a foreword written in forthright 
style by Wilson Stephens, Editor of The Field from 1951 to 1977. Here, one or two 
sacred cows are, of necessity, put to slaughter, but in a well reasoned, open and totally 
honest fashion, a manner which is matched by each page of the ensuing fly-past. 

The author admits to having chosen unusual chapter headings. What, I wonder, will 
the reader make of 'Big Fritz and little Fritz', 'Purple is for Caesar', 'A brown study', 
'Putting on the Ritz', 'Birth of the blues', 'Streaking', 'Buddleia bugs', 'All white' and 
'Skip for joy'?. All these, in the author's inimitable style, relate to groupings of the 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



fifty-five species of our native butterflies, a 'native' being interpreted as one which must 
regularly be present in some form throughout the year. In writing of these fifty-five 
species, many accurate observations are made of the various life stages and inevitably 
details are given of successful captures with the net. What is so refreshing is to find these 
captures chronicled in such an honest way— no pussy-footing here — specimens have not 
just been recorded, they have actually been taken. I have no intention of opening a 
contentious can of worms generously sprinkled with hot potatoes, for many people 
'have a thing' about butterflies. Far better, let the author's wise words speak for 
themselves: 'Of course, moderation is the key word. I do not believe that butterfly 
collecting in moderation, can seriously affect butterfly populations. There is no need 
for a long series of a species, all looking the same, so prevalent in Edwardian times. 
What is essential is the conservation of habitat and the careful control of chemicals.' 
There is more, but to know how much more you should read the book. 

On a point of detail we read T have released every female iris I have bred'. How 
fortunate this was for the brood of binocular-carrying enthusiasts, assembled under 
the watchful eye of the ever present warden, in that wood near Oxford. In the following 
few seconds they learned more from a man who knows his craft than from many 
an hour spent in scanning the oak tops. Books written in this style have been absent 
for far too long. In the 30s I treasured J. H. Bell's Days with a butterfly net, then 
came the first of the P. B. M. Allan classics to be followed later by his others, and 
now, Clive Simson offers us a new one to savour. 

Butterfly illustrations have not been lacking in recent years. Some are fine, clinically 
executed examples of set specimens, others are best termed fanciful and leave much 
to be desired. The eight delightful colour plates by Mandy Shepherd which grace this 
book are truly alive and match the spirit of the words upon the pages. This spirit 
('butterflies are beautiful; they are fun') pervades the book and has full rein when 
novel methods are required to assist the lepidopterist in reaching new ground. Over 
the years I too have tried a few innovations, yet surely only Clive Simson could have 
thought of seeking the aid of an ex-RAF inflatable dinghy! 

Happy paddling to you Sir, albeit these days with the paddle of memory. Your 
invitation to review this delightful book has been accepted with great pleasure. 

Brian R. Baker 



Colour guide to hoverfly larvae (Diptera: Syrphidae), by G. E. Rotheray, Dipterists' 
Digest number 9, Derek Whiteley, Sheffield, 1994, 156 pages (including 16 colour 
plates), £11.95, paperback.— After an introduction discussing how to recognize 
hoverfly larvae and how to find them, short illustrated keys lead variously to species 
or genus. Generic accounts give a brief description of overall appearance, offer some 
confirming characters and give notes on the varying biologies of these curious and 
fascinating creatures. There is an extensive reference list. However, the main reason 
people will buy this book is for the colour plates which show the larvae of 76 species. 
Most of these are photographed in life, although a few are of preserved specimens. 
Opposite these are further explanatory notes and diagrammatic sketches. There are 
also a few colour photographs of habitats and larval damage. 

I found the layout somewhat underdesigned and the headings are not as clear as 

they could have been. Since the generic accounts are sadly in alphabetic rather than 

taxonomic order the index to genera is redundant and an index to species would have 

been much more useful. On the whole though a neatly produced and useful book 

and excellent value. „ 

R. A. Jones 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 49 

THE ACULEATE WASPS AND BEES OF CROW WOOD, 

FINNINGLEY IN WATSONIAN YORKSHIRE, 

WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF 

A NEW NATIONAL QUALITY SCORING SYSTEM 

Michael E. Archer 

University College of Ripon & York St John, York Y03 7EX 

and John T. Burn 

l Sycamore Avenue, Armthorpe, Doncaster, South Yorkshire DN3 3HQ. 

Crow Wood has been found to be an excellent locality for aculeate wasps and bees, 
having 135 recorded species, nine species of national importance, and 15 species of 
regional significance. 

Crow Wood, an area of about 152 ha, is situated immediately to the south of 
Finningley (VC63, SK6697). The region has sandy acid soils of remnant heathland. 
At present, Crow Wood consists of old sand and gravel pits gradually being filled 
with waste materials, coniferous afforestation, regenerating woodland with flowery 
areas, open sandy surfaces, some of which are used as motor-cycle and go-kart tracks, 
grassland, and arable farming. The dry open areas with ditches and mounds of sand 
and gravel provide nesting areas for many aculeate wasps and bees. 

About 50 visits have been made to Crow Wood, mainly during May, June, July, and 
August, with a few during March, April, and September. Most visits were made by 
J.T. Burn (1971-1991: in excess of 36 visits to a sample area of about 18 ha) and 
M.E. Archer (1986-1989: 10 visits to a sample area of about 55 ha). Collecting was 
by visual observation, but J.T. Burn also collected by sweeping low mixed vegetation. 
A smaller number of visits were made by J.H. Flint (1965) and P. Skidmore (1973). 

Biological names are according to Kloet & Hincks (1978), except for the Dryinidae 
which are according to Olmi (1984, 1989). 

This paper was written by M. E. Archer (M.E. A.). The contributions of J.T. Burn 
were the many records from his large number of visits, and all information relating 
to the Bethylidae and Dryinidae. 

Results— species present at Crow Wood 

A full list of recorded species is given in the Appendix. The taxonomic distribution 
is given in Table 1, at the family level. The 135 species represent about 46% of the 
aculeate wasp and bee species (including the bethylids and dryinids) of Watsonian 
Yorkshire. In addition the following ant species (Formicidae) have been recorded: 
Myrmica ruginodis Nylander, Formica fusca L., Lasius niger (L.). 

The accumulated records from any locality can be analysed to understand the 
ecological relationships of the recorded species and the conservation value of the 
locality in a regional or national context. This paper assesses ecological relationships 
with the concepts of cleptoparasitic load and aerial nester frequency and conservation 
value with the aid of regional and national quality scores and species quality scores. 

Quality assessment of solitary species 

Two species are nationally rare or 'red data book species' (Falk, 1991). Both of 
these, Psen bicolor (RDB2) and Nomada fulvicornis (RDB3), reach the northern 
boundary of their British distribution in Watsonian Yorkshire. 



50 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Table 1 . The number of species of aculeate wasps and bees recorded 
from Crow Wood. 



Family No. 



species 



Solitary wasps 

Dryinidae 14 

Iklhylidae 2 

( In ysididae 7 

Mulillidae 1 

Fompilidae 12 

Eumenidae 4 

Sphecidae 36 

Total solitary wasps 76 

Solitary bees 

< olk-lidae 3 

Andrenidae 17 

Halictidac 13 

Megachilidae 2 

Anlliophoridae 10 

I iii.il solitary bees 45 

filial solitary wasps & bees 121 

Social wasps and bees 

Vcspidae 5 

Apidae 9 

Total social wasps & bees 14 



Seven species are nationally scarce or notable species (Falk, 1991). Andrena tibialis, 
which is a category A scarce species, reaches the northern boundary of its British 
distribution in Watsonian Yorkshire. The other six species, which are category B 
species, are either at the northern boundary of their distribution (Cleptes semiauratus, 
Priocnemis schioedtei, Nysson (rimaculatus, Andrena hwnilis, Nomadu flavopicta), 
or are more widespread in Britain (CrossocertiS palmipes). 

Fifteen species are rare in the context of Watsonian Yorkshire (Archer, 1993a); 
these are indicated in the Appendix. 

There are 27 species of solitary wasps and bees, which although not rare in 
Watsonian Yorkshire, have a local distribution being more or less restricted to sandy 
habitats (Archer, 1994a). Seventeen of these local species (indicated in the Appendix) 
are found ;ii (row Wood. 

The 105 species of solitary wasps and bees can be considered to have a common, 
frequent, occasional or rare status in Watsonian Yorkshire (Archer, 1993a) (Table 
2). The dryinid and bethylid species cannot be given a status as insufficient information 

Table 2. The regional coding of the 105 species of solitary wasps and 
bees recorded from Crow Wood (Dryinids and Bethylids excluded). 

Status No. species 

Common 39 

Frequent 31 

i )i casional 20 

Rare 15 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 51 

exists on their distributions. By giving each species a value depending on the above 
statuses, including a higher value for the nationally scarce and rare species, a regional 
quality score of 416 can be calculated by the addition of the status scores (Table 3). 
Dividing this quality score by the 105 species gives a regional species quality score of 4. 

Table 3. The regional status scheme of the 105 species of solitary wasps and bees recorded at 
Crow Wood. 

Status Status value No. species Status score 
(A) (B) (AxB) 

Common 
Frequent 
Occasional 
Rare 

Nationally scarce 
Nationally rare 

105 416 

Summation of status value times number of species gives a final regional quality score of 416. 
Dividing this by the number of species (105) gives a regional species quality score of 3.96, 
approximately 4. 



Ball (1992) proposed a methodology for scoring the value of invertebrates at sites 
in a national context. Archer (in press) has adopted this methodology for use in 
Watsonian Yorkshire. Using the Ball methodology on the 105 Crow Wood species, 
a national quality score of 274 and a national species quality score (274 ■*■ 105) of 2.6 
can be calculated (Table 4). 

Table 4. The Ball (1992) national status evaluation of the 105 species of solitary wasps and 
bees recorded at Crow Wood. 



1 


38 


38 


2 


31 


62 


4 


19 


76 


8 


8 


64 


16 


7 


112 


32 


2 


64 



Status 


Status value 


No. species 


Status score 




(A) 


(B) 


(AxB) 


Common 


1 


62 


62 


Local 


2 


26 


52 


Regional notable 


4 


8 


32 


Scarce B 


8 


6 


48 


Scarce A 


16 


1 


16 


Rare 


32 


2 


64 




105 


274 



Two objections can be raised against the Ball methodology. First, many regions 
of England and Wales lack a list of regionally notable species making it sometimes 
impossible to apply Ball's methodology. Secondly, a national scheme should logically 
give a species status based upon that species' importance in a national and larger 
geographical setting but not in a smaller or regional distribution. 

To overcome the above two objections M.E.A. suggests the following scheme in 
which the statuses of 'common', 'local' and 'regionally notable' of Ball are replaced 
by: 'universal', 'widespread' and 'restricted'. At present there is no objective way 
of assigning a 'universal', 'widespread' or 'restricted' status to the species of the British 
aculeate Hymenoptera. From personal experience M.E.A. has therefore assigned 



52 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

British aculeate Hymenoptera one of these three statuses based upon abundance and 
distribution within England and Wales. Ireland, the Channel Islands and Scotland 
have not been included: little information is available on Irish distributions of aculeate 
Hymenoptera; fauna of the Channel Islands relates more to France than the British 
Isles; and Scotland's cooler climate greatly reduces diversity. A 'universal species' 
would therefore refer to a common species found throughout England and Wales, 
usually with some extension into Scotland. A 'widespread species' would be one found 
in about three-quarters of England and Wales, usually either with a distribution in 
Wales, southern and midland England or in northern and western England and Wales. 
A 'widespread species' would also be found throughout England and Wales but either 
with a local distribution or a less-than-common abundance. A 'restricted species' would 
be one mainly found in about one-half of England and Wales, and usually confined 
to southern England and East Anglia. The status of a species may not be fixed and 
can change as its range or abundance changes. As such the statuses of species need 
to be kept under constant review. Using this new methodology for the 105 Crow Wood 
species a national quality score of 266 and a national species quality score (266^- 105) 
of 2.5 can be calculated (Table 5). 

Table 5. The Archer national status scheme of the 105 species of solitary wasps and bees recorded 
at Crow Wood. 

Status Status value No. species Status score 
(A) (B) (AxB) 

Universal 
Widespread 
Restricted 
Scarce B 
Scarce A 
Rare 

105 266 



CLEPTOPARASITIC LOAD 

The cleptoparasitic load (CL) is the percentage of aculeate species that are 
cleptoparasites (or parasitoids) on other host aculeates (Table 6). A more-or-less 
complete list of species in a locality should be made before the CL is calculated to 
avoid possible bias of either host or cleptoparasitic species. Cleptes semiauratus, 
dryinids and bethylids are not considered as they are parasitoids on non-aculeate hosts. 
C. semiauratus is a parasitoid on the cocoons of sawflies, e.g. Nematus ribesii (Scop.). 
The two bethylid species are parasitoids on lepidopterous larvae. B. cephalotes has 
been recorded using hollowed-out plant stems to shelter its larvae while feeding on its 
paralysed host. Dryinids are predators and parasitoids of Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha. 

Table 6. The relative frequency of the cleptoparasitic species among the solitary wasps and bees 
from Crow Wood. 

No. No. Cleptoparasitic 

hosts cleptoparasites load 

(H) (C) CL = 1 00 X C/(H + C) 

Solitary wasps 49 10 16.9 

Solitary bees 32 13 28.9 



1 


56 


56 


2 


39 


78 


4 


1 


4 


8 


6 


48 


16 


1 


16 


32 


2 


64 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 53 

The CL for the species of solitary bees is higher than the CL for the species of solitary 
wasps. 

Aerial nester frequency 

The aerial nester frequency (AF) is the percentage of host aculeate species that have 
aerial nest sites. Again a more-or-less complete list of species in a locality should be 
made before the AF is calculated to avoid possible bias of either aerial or subterranean 
nesters. Aerial nests are often in old beetle burrows in dead wood, or the central cavities 
of stems such as those of bramble. Subterranean nesters nest in the soil, usually in 
burrows dug by themselves, but sometimes in crevices or pre-formed burrows. The 
AF for the species of solitary wasps is higher than the AF for the species of solitary 
bees (Table 7). 



Table 7. The nesting habits of the host solitary 


wasp 


and bee 


species 


; from Crow Wood. 


No. aerial 

nesters 

(A) 


No. 


subterranean 
nesters 
(S) 


Aerial nester 

frequency 

AF=100xA/(A + S) 


Solitary wasps 10 
Solitary bees 3 




39 
29 




20.4 
9.4 



Discussion. Quality assessment 

The regional and national status schemes of Ball and Archer respectively can be 
applied to other sandy habitats in Watsonian Yorkshire (Archer, 1984, 1985, 1988, 
1989, 1992b, in press), Lincolnshire (Risby Warren, Archer, 1994b), Nottinghamshire 
(Sherwood Forest, Archer, in press) and Leicestershire (Charnwood Forest, Archer, 
1992a). These sites are compared in Table 8. These sandy habitats vary greatly in 
size from the sand pit at Swincarr Plantation to the eroded Precambrian mountain 
range of Charnwood Forest. The number of species of aculeate wasps and bees varies 
from 35 species at Swincarr Plantation to 147 species at Charnwood Forest. The 
records are from recent times except for the records from pre-coniferized Allerthorpe 
Common which date from the 1920s until the 1950s and Charnwood Forest which 
date from the beginning of the twentieth century until the present. Since species status 
depends upon the current distribution and abundance of species, species only recorded 
in earlier times could be assigned the wrong status if the distribution or abundance 
of a species has changed. 

The national quality and species quality scores derived from the Ball and Archer 
status schemes respectively, for each locality, are of a very similar or even of the 
same value (Table 8). Crow Wood on its species quality score is ranked fourth on 
the Ball scheme and equal fourth with Strensall Common on the Archer scheme, out 
of the eleven data sets. Both schemes would seem suitable as a national status scheme, 
but the Archer scheme is preferred for the reasons given earlier. 

In the context of Watsonian Yorkshire, and considering the number of species, 
regional quality score, regional species quality score, and the number of national scarce 
and rare species (Table 8), Crow Wood is ranked second in importance behind pre- 
coniferized Allerthorpe Common. Since pre-coniferized Allerthorpe Common is no 
longer in existence, Crow Wood must now be considered the most important sandy 
locality for aculeate Hymenoptera in Watsonian Yorkshire. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



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BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 55 

For the eight Yorkshire localities the regional species quality score and Archer 
national species quality score from each locality show a significant linear positive 
relationship (correlation coefficient, r = 0.84, p<0.0l). Similarly, the regional quality 
score and Archer national quality score from each locality show a highly significant 
linear positive relationship (a - = 0.98, p< 0.001). These relationships, in non- 
mathematical terms, indicate that the ranking — the order of the eight localities (best, 
2nd, 3rd . . . 8th) — based on the regional scores are similar to the rank order based 
on the Archer national scores. At present these relationships cannot be explored outside 
Watsonian Yorkshire as regional statuses for other parts of England are not yet 
available. 

The regional species quality score and regional quality score are higher for each 
locality than the Archer national species quality score and Archer national quality 
score (Table 8) because there are four, rather than three, statuses before the national 
scarce species (Tables 3 and 5). 

The three most popular criteria for the evaluation of wildlife importance are 
diversity, rarity, and area (Usher, 1986). The current investigation measures diversity, 
rarity, and area (Usher, 1986). The current investigation measures diversity by species 
richness, or the number of species; rarity by the species quality scores, and the number 
of national scarce and rare species; and area by the area of each locality in hectares 
(Table 8). Quality scores combine diversity and rarity in one measurement. 

There are some measurement problems in these criteria. It is difficult to know if 
the species list for a locality is complete. Rarity status is not a static parameter as 
the distributions and abundances of species change with time, sometimes in cycles. 
The area of a locality is not always easy to measure, particularly when its boundaries 
are not clear because the surrounding habitats are similar to those on the locality, 
e.g. as at Blaxton Common, and Risby Warren. 

For each of the 1 1 locations in Table 8 the number of species shows a highly 
significant linear correlation with both the number of nationally scarce and rare species 
(r = 0.94, p< 0.001) and the Archer national quality scores (r = 0.95, p< 0.001). Thus, 
the larger the diversity the increased chance there is of finding nationally scarce and 
rare species. These relationships are probably a reflection of a species-area relationship 
when the number of species increases as area increases. A plot of number of species 
as a natural logarithm (In) versus area in hectares as a natural logarithm (In) gives 
a highly significant linear relationship (a - = 0.86, p< 0.001). Removing the data for 
coniferized Allerthorpe Common, which is a damaged habitat (Archer, 1989), increases 
the significance of the species-area relationship (r = 0.90, p< 0.001), (Fig. 1) and gives 
the species-area regression equation. lnS = 3.87 + 0.11 xlm4, where S= number of 
species and A =area in hectares. Thus the larger the area of the locality the more 
species are present. 

The positive relationship between diversity and rarity on sandy heathland habitats 
is probably related to the thermophilic requirements of aculeate wasps and bees. Dry 
sandy habitats, particularly with sheltered banked open areas facing southwards, are 
able to warm up quickly in sunlight, and provide excellent nesting and foraging 
resources. With an increase in area of such sandy habitats, environmental heterogeneity 
will tend to increase so that more species will be able to find their specific resources 
which are more likely to persist from year to year. Disturbance of sandy habitats 
by rabbit burrowing, public pressure within limits or the digging of sand pits increases 
the habitat's suitability for aculeate wasps and bees. 

Ball (1992) showed a negative relationship between diversity and rarity for lowland 
peat bog habitat. Peat bogs have low species richness but many of the species are 
restricted to peat bogs. Since peat bogs are a rare habitat the bog specialities are rare 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



or 




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Pre-con. Forest / 






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./ Plantation 

i 


I ! 1 l l 



2 4 

Ln Area (ha) 



10 



Fig. 1 . The number of species as a natural logarithm (ln) versus area (ha) as a natural logarithm 
(ln) of the species of solitary wasps and bees recorded from sandy habitats in Watsonian Yorkshire 
and elsewhere in England. The regression line is given by ln S = 3.87 + 0.1 1 xln/1, where 
S= number of species and A = area in hectares. 



species. Disturbance of a peat bog by peat cutting or increasing drainage increases 
diversity, but the rare species tend to be lost. 

Thus the relationship between diversity and rarity may be positive or negative. This 
observation has implications for the conservation of wildlife. The aim of increasing 
diversity within a particular habitat may or may not be suitable, depending on the 
type of habitat and group of organisms to be conserved. 



Cleptoparasitic load 

Wcislo (1987) showed that the amount of parasitic behaviour among aculeate 
Hymenoptera correlated with geographical latitude, being higher in the temperate 
compared with the tropical regions. If this is the case, since England and Wales occupy 
less than 6° of latitude then the CLs for localities in England and Wales should have 
similar values. Table 9 shows the CLs for the 11 data sets of sandy habitats. The 
CLs of the solitary wasps all have a similar value (range 13.2-20.0) as do the solitary 
bees (range 25.0-36.6). The higher CL for the solitary bees versus the solitary wasps 
is a function of the British fauna and is probably a consequence of food-chain 
relationships. Host solitary wasp species are the less numerous secondary consumers 
and thus less likely to support cleptoparasitic species, while the host solitary bee species 
are the more numerous primary consumers and thus more likely to support 
cleptoparasitic species. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



Table 9. A comparison of the cleptoparasitic loads and nesting habits of the species of solitary 
wasps and bees of sandy habitats in Watsonian Yorkshire and elsewhere in England. 





Cleptoparasitic loads 


Aerial nester 
Wasps 


frequency 




Wasps 


Bees 


Bees 


Sherwood Forest 


17.6 


25.0 


47.6 


19.4 


Pre-coniferized 










Allerthorpe Common 


16.9 


32.8 


45.3 


16.3 


Charnwood Forest 


18.1 


27.0 


71.2 


22.2 


Crow Wood 


16.9 


28.9 


20.4 


9.4 


Strensall Common 


18.0 


35.0 


41.5 


19.2 


Coniferized 










Allerthorpe Common 


13.9 


35.9 


20.0 


8.0 


Pompocali 


20.0 


36.6 


12.5 


0.0 


Blaxton Common 


15.0 


26.5 


43.1 


13.9 


Risby Warren 


17.2 


29.4 


12.5 


8.3 


Skipwith Common 


13.2 


35.5 


42.4 


30.0 


Swincarr Plantation 


16.7 


34.8 


0.0 


6.7 


British Isles 


17.8 


26.0 


44.9 


19.0 



Aerial nester frequency 

The AFs of the species of solitary wasps (range 0.0-71 .2) and solitary bees (0.0-30.0) 
from the 1 1 data sets are rather variable (Table 9). Much of the variation of AFs is 
dependent on the availability of aerial nesting sites (Archer, 1993b), but the higher 
solitary wasp aerial nester frequency of Charnwood Forest could be related to its 
higher altitude, where average temperatures and amounts of sunshine would be 
reduced. Under such weather conditions, aerial nesting sites are likely to warm up 
quicker and be warmer for a longer time than subterranean sites. Lomholdt (1975) 
showed that aerial nester frequency increased with increasing latitude for Sphecidae 
(28% in France and 79% in northern Norway) along a decreasing warmth gradient. It 
is unlikely that much of the variation of AFs is dependent on the availability of 
subterranean nesting sites because all localities under study are sandy habitats and 
personal investigation has shown that such habitats are very favourable to subterranean 
nesters. 

The higher AFs for solitary wasps compared with solitary bees are a function of 
the British fauna and are probably a consequence of the cooler English climate. It 
is known that the activities of solitary wasps are more affected by weather conditions 
than those of solitary bees in England (Archer, 1990b) so that as explained by the 
altitude effect, solitary wasp species are more likely to be successful as aerial nesters. 

References 

Archer, M.E. 1984. The solitary bees and wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of a sand-pit at 

Swincarr Plantation, near York. Naturalist 109: 23-25. 
Archer, M.E. 1985. The wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of Pompocali near Leeds: 

the first 27 visits. Naturalist 110: 49-51. 
Archer, M.E. 1988. The aculeate wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of my local patch: 

Strensall Common, the first 70 visits. Naturalist 113: 25-30. 
Archer, M.E. 1989. The wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of Allerthorpe Common before 

and after coniferization. Naturalist 114: 129-136. 
Archer, M.E. 1990a. The aculeate solitary wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of 

Leicestershire. Trans. Leicester Lit. Phil. Soc. 84: 9-25. 



58 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Archer, M.E. 1990b. The solitary aculeate wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of an English 

suburban garden. Entomologist's Gaz. 41: 129-142. 
Archer, M.E. 1992a. A comparison of the solitary wasps and bees (Hym., Aculeata) of 

Charnwood Forest, Leicestershire and Lydford Moorland, Devon. Entomologist's Mon. 

Mag. 128: 51-57. 
Archer, M.E. 1992b. Aculeate wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of Skipwith Common 

and a comparison of Skipwith Common with Allerthorpe and Strensall Commons. Naturalist 

117: 19-25. 
Archer, M.E. 1993a. Recorder's fourth report on the Aculeate Hymenoptera in Watsonian 

Yorkshire and the development of a quality scoring system. Naturalist 118: 13-15. 
Archer, M.E. 1993b. The aculeate wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of Duncombe Park 

in Watsonian Yorkshire. Naturalist 118: 37-44. 
Archer, M.E. 1994a. Recorder's fifth report on the Aculeate Hymenoptera in Watsonian 

Yorkshire. Naturalist 119: 73-77. 
Archer, M.E. 1994b. The aculeate wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of Risby Warren 

in Watsonian Lincolnshire. Trans. Lincolnshire Naturalists Union. 23: 123-131. 
Ball, S. 1992. The importance of the invertebrate fauna of Thome and Hatfield Moors: an exercise 

in site evaluation. Thome & Hatfield Moors Papers 3: 34-65. 
Falk, S. 1991 . A review of the scarce and threatened bees, wasps and ants of Great Britain. 

Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough. 
Kloet, G.S. & Hincks, W.D. 1978. A Check List of British Insects. Part 4: Hymenoptera, revised 

by M.G. Fitton et al. Handbks Ident. Br. Insects 11(4): 126-140. 
Lomholdt, O. 1975. The Sphecidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Ent. 

Scand. 4: 1-224. 
Olmi, M. 1984. Revision of the Dryinidae (Hymenoptera). Mem. Am. Ent. Inst. 37: 1-946, 

947-1913. 
Olmi, M. 1989. Supplement to the revision of the world Dryinidae (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea). 

Frustula Ent. (N.S.) 12: 109-395. 
Usher, M.B. 1986. Wildlife conservation evaluation. Chapman and Hall, London. 
Wcislo, W.T. 1987. The role of seasonality, host synchrony, and behaviour in the evaluations 

and distributions of nest parasites in Hymenoptera (Insecta), with special reference to bees 

(Apoidea). Biol. Rev. 62: 515-543. 

Appendix. Aculeate wasp and bee species recorded from Crow Wood 

* Yorkshire rare species. ** Yorkshire local species. 

Dryinidae. Aphelopus melaleucus (Dalman), A. serratus Richards, Anteon arcuatum (Kieffer), 
A. brachycerum (Dalman), A. ephippiger (Dalman), A. flavicorne (Dalman), A. fulviventre 
(Haliday), A. gaulei (Kieffer), A. jurineanum Lat., A. pubicorne (Dalman), A. tripartitum Kieffer, 
Lonchodryinus ruficornis (Dalman), Gonatopus sepsoides Westw., Pseudogonatopus distinctus 
(Kieffer). 

Bethylidae. Bethylus cephalotes Forster, B. fuscicornis (Jurine). 

Chrysididae. Omalus auratus (L.), Chrysis angustula Schenck, C. ruddii Shuck.**, C. impressa 
Schenk, Chrysis cyanea (L.), Hedychridium ardens (Lat.)**, Cleptes semiauratus (L.)*. 

Mutillidae. Myrmosa atra Panz. 

Pompilidae. Priocnemis exaltata (F.), P. perturbator (Harris), P. parvula Dahlbom, P. 
schioedtei Haupt, Pompilus cinereus (F.)**, Arachnospila anceps (Wesm.), A. trivalis (Dahlbom), 
A. spissa (Schi0dte), Anoplius concinnus (Dahlbom), A. viaticus (L.)**, A. infuscatus 
(V.d.Lind.)*, Evagetes crassicornis (Shuck.). 

Eumenidae. Ancistrocerus parietinus (L.), A. oviventris (Wesm.), A. scoticus (Curt.), 
Symmorphus mutinensis (Baldini). 

Vespidae. Dolichovespula sylvestris (Scop.), Vespula austriaca (Panz.), V. rufa (L.), 
Paravespula germanica (F.), P. vulgaris (L.). 

Sphecidae. Astata pinguis (Dahlbom), Tachysphex pompiliformis (Panz.)**, T. unicolor 
(Panz.)*, Trypoxylon attenuatum Smith, F., T. figulus (L.), Crabro cribrarius (L.)**, C. peltarius 
(Schreb.)**, Crossocerus elongatulus (V.d.Lind.), C. ovalis Lepel. & Brulle, C. palmipes (L.)*, 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 59 

C. tarsatus (Shuck.), C. varus Lepel. & Brulle, C. wesmaeli (V.d.Lind.), C. nigritus (Lepel & Brulle), 

C. quadrimaculatus (F.), Lindenius albilabris (F.), Entomognathus brevis (V.d.Lind.), Rhopalum 
coarctatum (Scop.), Oxybelus uniglumis (L.)**, Psen dahlbomi (Wesm.), P. bicolor Jurine*, 
P. equestris (F.)**, P. lutarius (F.)*, Pemphredon inornatus Say, Diodontus luperus Shuck.*, 

D. minutus (F.)**, D. tristis (V.d.Lind.)**, Passaloecus singularis Dahlbom, Ammophila sabulosa 
(L.)**, Mellinus arvensis (L.)**, Nysson spinosus (Forster), N. trimaculatus (Rossius)*, Gorytes 
quadhfasciatus (F.), G. tumidus (Panz.), Argogorytes mystaceus (L.), Cerceris arenaria (L.)*. 

Colletidae. Colletes fodiens (Geoff.), Hylaeus communis Nylander, H. brevicornis Nylander*. 

Andrenidae. Andrena clarkella (Kirby)**, A. fulva (Miiller), A. jacobi Perkins, A. bicolor 
F., A. angustior (Kirby), A. nigroaenea (Kirby), A. haemorrhoa (F.), A. tibialis (Kirby)*, A. 
barbilabris (Kirby)**, A. chrysosceles (Kirby), A. humilis Imhoff, A. minutula (Kirby), A. 
saundersella Perkins, A. subopaca Nylander, A. ovatula (Kirby)*, A. wilkella (Kirby), Panurgus 
banksianus (Kirby)*. 

Halictidae. Halictus rubicundus (Christ), H. tumulorum (L.), Lasioglossum leucozonium 
(Schr.), L. calceatum (Scop.), L. nitidiusculum (Kirby), L. punctatissimum (Schenck), L. rufitarse 
(Zett.), L. villosulum (Kirby), L. leucopum (Kirby), Sphecodes fasciatus von Hagens, S. gibbus 
(L.), S. monilicornis (Kirby), 5. pellucidus Smith**. 

Megachilidae. Osmia leaiana (Kirby), Megachile versicolor Smith. 

Anthophoridae. Nomada fabriciana (L.), TV. flavopicta (Kirby)*, N.fulvicornis (F.)*, N. 
goodeniana (Kirby), N. leucophthalma (Kirby)**, N. marshamella (Kirby), N. panzeri Lepel., 
N. striata F., Epeolus variegatus (L.), Anthophora furcata (Panz.). 

Apidae. Bombus lucorum (L.), B. terrestris (L.), B. lapidarius (L.), B. pratorum (L.), B. 
hortorum (L.), B. pascuorum (Scop.), Psithyrus bohemicus (Seidl), P. vestalis (Geoff.), Apis 
mellifera L. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

The insects: an outline of entomology by P. J. Gullan and P. S. Cranston. Chapman 
& Hall, London, 1994, xiv + 491 pages, £24.99, paperback.— The history of 
entomology has been one of increasing fragmentation and specialization. General 
texts, like this one, serve primarily to inform students; but also they provide a means 
by which specialists can update themselves by access to a modern framework for insect 
science. The writers have succeeded in compiling a well-integrated book, attractively 
presented and very reasonably priced. 

The volume is divided into 15 chapters. After an introduction on the importance 
and diversity of insects, which incorporates a table with brief characterizations 
of the 29 orders recognized, there follow seven chapters dealing, broadly speaking, 
with structure, function and development. External anatomy is reviewed briefly 
in chapter 2, followed (chapter 3) by a treatment of internal anatomy and related 
physiological function. Sensory systems and the main components of insect behaviour 
are described in chapter 4. Reproduction is the subject of a chapter (5) to itself and 
incorporates the relevant aspects of behaviour, morphology, physiology and the 
diversity of modes of reproduction (e.g., parthenogenesis, neoteny, polyembryony). 
It is followed, logically enough, by insect development and life histories (chapter 6), 
which considers not only the expected topics such as ontogeny, voltinism and 
polymorphism, but also examines how an understanding of certain environmental 
factors affecting development can be applied to model predictively insect abundance 
and distribution. 

Chapter 7, on insect systematics, phylogeny and evolution, is followed by eight 
chapters, shifting the course of the book to somewhat broader entomological themes. 
The first two of these chapters (8 and 9) deal with aspects of insect biology in particular 
habitats — the soil (including also litter, carrion and dung) and water. Chapter 10 is 



60 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

about insects and plants, 11 addresses insect societies, 12 concerns predation and 
parasitism, and 13 examines insect defence. In the final chapters, the writers turn 
their attention to insects of medical and veterinary importance (14) and to pest 
management (15). 

Two underlying aspects of this book are particularly attractive. One is the way 
in which the writers bring to the fore the dynamics of insect biology. Wherever possible 
technical detail, which is abundant, is portrayed in the light of the 'problems' that 
insects face and the 'solutions' to those problems. The other is the very evident 
enthusiasm Gullan and Cranston have for communication, a quality apparent in the 
thoughtful planning of the structure of the book, the care that has gone into selecting 
the illustrations (drawn by Karina Hansen Mclnnes), the use of boxes for special topics, 
and the clarity of the prose. The writers, rightly, have no inhibition about making 
extensive use of Latin and Greek-based terminology; rather they demonstrate, by the 
use of pithy definitions in the text supported by an effective glossary, just how succinct 
and elegant technical language can be — giving the lie to that trite generalization that 
scientists cannot write. 

Although both writers are systematists, they deliberately avoid treating the 
insects order by order. Their taxonomic background has, however, been used to 
great effect in structuring whole-organism entomology into a lucid text and in 
illustrating the biological concepts with which they deal by a wide variety of insectan 
examples. 

Potential buyers may wonder, not unreasonably, how this book compares with 
another volume from Australia-based entomologists Systematic and applied 
entomology (1994, edited by I. D. Naumann), which is an abridged version of the 
second edition of Insects of Australia. They may be reassured. Although, inevitably, 
there is some overlap, the works differ significantly in content, balance and approach. 
The greater part of The insects is theme-based, and the style more analytical than 
descriptive. Systematic and applied entomology is a multiauthor work that takes a 
more taxon-based line and will probably have a more specialized readership. 

Malcolm J. Scoble 



Insects: life cycles and the seasons by John Brackenbury. Blandford, 1994, 192 
pages, £19.99, hardback. — The five chapters of this book cover various aspects of 
the lives and behaviour of insects. Each chapter has a short introductory section but 
most of the text is in the form of descriptive captions to the 215 colour illustrations. 
Three of the pictures are incorrectly identified. No. 22 primrose, Primula farinosa, 
is cowslip, P. veris L., No. 171 a click beetle is the wasp nest beetle, Metoecus 
paradoxus (L.), and No. 26 shows the larvae of a bibionid fly rather than a crane 
fly. The text contains some personal observations on insect behaviour made by the 
author but this is a book primarily for enjoying the photographs rather than for 
reading. 

Apart from a few habitat photographs, the illustrations are close-up views of a 
wide range of insects and a few spiders. They are shown feeding, mating, overwintering 
and in motion. Those showing insects leaping or in flight are particularly impressive. 
Ladybirds and other shiny insects have, however, caused the author some problems 
by showing a reflection of the ring flash used to illustrate the subject. 

A. J. Halstead 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 61 

THE MOTHS AT CARLYON BAY, CORNWALL 
RECORDED 1989-1993 

Adrian Spalding 

Tremayne Farm Cottage, Tremayne, Praze, Camborne, Cornwall TR14 9PH. 

Introduction 

Carlyon Bay is the name given to a complex of beaches south-east of St Austell, 
Cornwall. There are three beaches called (from west to east) Crinnis, Shorthorn and 
Polgaver beach. Crinnis Beach is heavily used by holidaymakers, attracted to the site 
by the presence of Cornwall Colliseum, a leisure park with facilities for adults and 
children. Fewer people use Shorthorn Beach, which is further from car parking 
facilities. The long walk required to reach Polgaver Beach means that the site is only 
sparsely used (it is now a designated nudist beach). In past years, a small train took 
passengers across Shorthorn Beach to the western edge of Polgaver beach, but this 
train stopped running in 1992 following major storm damage to the track. 

Crinnis Beach consists of a narrow strip of sand backed by a large car park, behind 
which rise tall cliffs which contain interesting plant communities. Shorthorn Beach 
is a wilder place. At the western end is a wide flat area above the beach with many 
kinds of grasses and low-growing plants such as Potentilla reptans L., P. ansehna 
L. and Senecio jacobaea L. Just above the beach to the east of this area there is a 
small area of dune dominated by Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link, backed by a narrow 
belt of trees (mainly Salix cinerea L. and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) with abundant 
Rubus sp. and Crocosmia x crocosmiflora (Lemoine ex Burb & Dean). A small adit 
flanked by Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertner runs to the sea. The tracks of the railway 
enscribe a large circle round a hollow with Salix cinerea growing in places in standing 
water. Between this woodland and the faulted shales of the cliff lies a small heathy 
area with some Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull, Erica cinerea L., Ulex europaeus L. and 
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. 

Polgaver Beach is similar in many ways to Shorthorn Beach, although the dunes 
are higher with more Ammophila arenaria. The garden introduction Rosa rugosa 
Thunb. ex Murray is abundant here (first recorded here in 1922). On the inland edge 
of the dunes grow Salix cinerea and some Alnus glutinosa, leading down into a dune 
slack with wetland plants such as Iris pseudacorus L. Behind a large seasonal pond 
(often dry in summer) is more willow growing on grassy ground rising up to the high 
cliffs here. These coastal habitats are rare on the south-east coast of Cornwall. 

The history of Carlyon Bay beach 

The St Austell area is well known for its associations with the china clay industry. 
North of the town lies the lunar landscape of the china clay tips, white conical hills 
composed of the waste quartz-sand and undecayed granite, left over after the extraction 
of kaolin (china clay). 100 years after the foundation of the china clay industry, china 
clay operations were established on four sites north of Carlyon Bay around 1865. 
For the next 80 years or so the fine sand and mica residue was carried away from 
the open mine areas by a system of leats and natural streams, all flowing eventually 
into a single stream crossing what is now the golf course and then into an adit which 
discharged this residue onto Shorthorn Beach (Grigg, pers. coram.). In the late 1950s, 
some of the mine residue was contained on site, but discharges continued from some 
sites until the mid-1970s. Today, the stream still has a milky appearance. The 



62 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

deposition of this residue has built up the beach, which is largely composed of coarse 
grains of quartz. The sand is too coarse for Ammophila arenaria, which just sits on 
top in the areas of finer sand. The areas behind these dunes have been built up by 
the deposition of china clay waste dredged up from the sea bed near Par Harbour 
(Lees, pers. comm.). These areas retain moisture even in the driest summer. 

Although these beaches are of recent industrial origin, they have become rich in 
wildlife. There has been much recent interest in the colonization by nature of industrial 
sites (see Box, 1993, 1994). In Cornwall ECC International Ltd are running an on- 
going land reclamation programme (Wardell Armstrong, 1993). The importance of 
the site for wildlife was recognized by South West Water who in 1992 constructed 
a new sewage pipe across Polgaver Beach into the sea. Although much of the habitat 
was destroyed during the construction work, restoration work has now taken place 
to reinstate the dunes and the willow carr. Unfortunately, no account was taken of 
the moths of the site during this work. 

Methods 

The collecting and recording was done by several people (particularly Bill Kittle 
and Phil Boggis) over a 4-year period, especially in 1992 and 1993. Records were also 
contributed by Abigail and Simon Boggis, Clarence Brind, David Evans, John 
Gregory, Paul Siddons, Lee Slaughter and myself. Bill Kittle has had a long association 
with the site and it was he who first drew my attention to its excellence for moths. 
Surveying was mainly carried out by lamping and torchlight searching for larvae. 
Some larvae were bred through by Bill for later identification. Critical species were 
examined by Paul Siddons and myself. 



Results 

A detailed list of the species recorded at Carlyon Bay 1989-1993 is given in the 
Appendix; 331 species were recorded. 

Seventeen nationally notable species (see Ball, 1986, updated by Waring, 1993) were 
recorded, comprising three notable A species, 13 notable B species and one notable 

Table 1. Nationally important species found at Shorthorn and Polgaver Beach 1989-1993. 



Name 



Classification 



Habitat 



Agrotis ripae Hiibn. 
Agrotis trux Hiibn. 
Bembecia muscaeformis Esp. 
Catarhoe rubidata D.&S. 
Conistra rubiginea D.&S. 
Earias dor ana L. 
Eilema caniola Hiibn. 
Eupithecia distinct aria H.-S. 
Hadena luteago barret tii Doubl. 
Mecyna asinalis Hiibn. 
Meganola albula D.&S. 
Mythimna lit oralis Curt. 
Mythimna /-album L. 
Mythimna putrescens Hiibn. 
Polymixis xanthomista Hiibn. 
Phycitodes maritima Tengst. 
Schrankia taenia! is Hiibn. 



Notable B 
Notable B 
Notable B 
Notable B 
Notable B 
Notable B 
Notable B 
Notable B 
Notable A 
Notable B 
Notable B 
Notable B 
Notable B 
Notable A 
Notable A 
Notable 
Notable B 



sand-dune 

cliff 

rocks/cliff 

cliff 

woodland 

damp woods 

cliffs 

coastal areas 

cliffs 

cliffs 

coastal areas 

sand-dunes 

coastal areas 

cliffs 

cliffs 

cliffs/beach 

damp woodland 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



Table 2. All species recorded at Carlyon Bay classified 
according to habitat (excluding migrant species). 

Habitat Species numbers 

Dry woodland 40 

Sand-dune 32 

Cliff 30 

Scrub 24 

Wet woodland 22 

Wetland 10 

Conifer woodland 7 

Generalist species 153 

Total 318 



Table 3. Migrant species found at Shorthorn and Polgaver Beach 1989-1993. 

Agrotis ipsilon Hufn. dark sword-grass 

Autographa gamma L. silver Y 

Earias clorana L. cream-bordered green pea 

Heliothis armigera Hiibn. scarce bordered straw 

Mythimna albipuncta D.&S. white-point 

Mythimna l-album L. L-album wainscot 

Mythimna loreyi Dup. the cosmopolitan 

Mythimna vitellina Hiibn. the delicate 

Nomophila noctuella D.&S. rush veneer 

Orthonama obstipata F. the gem 

Peridroma saucia Hiibn. pearly underwing 

Rhodometra sacraria L. the vestal 
Udea ferrugalis Hiibn. 

species (Table 1). The mix of notable species comprises an interesting collection of 
cliff (nine species), sand-dune (two species) and woodland (three species) species. In 
fact, out of the total 331 species recorded, I have calculated that 30 were cliff species, 
32 were sand-dune species, 62 were woodland species (including 22 wet woodland 
species), 24 were scrubland species and 10 were wetland species (Table 2). 

The status of Phycitodes mahtima has recently been revised by Parsons (1993) and 
is now provisionally classed as notable (a downward revision from notable status B), 
i.e. its distribution is insufficiently known for detailed classification. 

Bill Kittle found signs of larvae of Sesia bembeciformis Hiibn. feeding in willow 
on Polgaver Beach, but there was heavy predation by green woodpeckers and this 
moth may no longer be present here. 

The beach has proved to be of exceptional value for migrants during this period, 
when 13 migrant species were recorded (Table 3). 

Discussion 

Migrants 

We did well for migrants at the site. Although moths may arrive at the site at 
random, they are likely to stay at Carlyon Bay where there are nectar sources and 
hiding places, thus increasing the chance of encounters by visiting entomologists. They 
can only leave the site by flying out to sea or upwards over the steep cliff. Some 



64 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

migrants may breed here. For example, Mythimna l-album is probably a temporary 
resident here; although most specimens were recorded in September and October, 
the single found here on 19. vi. 1992 may well have been a first-brood specimen. 

A single specimen of Earias clorana was caught by Bill Kittle at mercury vapour 
light at Shorthorn Beach on 13.vi.92. It was an unusually marked form, subsequently 
determined by Barry Goater as ab flavimargo de Joannis. E. clorana is unknown 
from Cornwall and generally rare in the south-west. (A single clorana caught near 
Exeter by A.H. Dobson on 26.vi.92 was thought to be a migrant). It was therefore 
at first thought that this specimen was Earias insulana (Boisd.) (the Egyptian 
bollworm), the third British (and first Cornish) record of this rare migrant. It was 
exhibited as this species (Skinner, 1993), at the 1992 B.E.N.H.S. Annual Exhibition. 

Work by Roy McCormick has shown that E. clorana occurs commonly on at least 
one coastal site in Devon. It is therefore possible that this species is breeding at Carlyon 
Bay, where the damp willow woodland provides a suitable habitat. However, Goater 
(1994) writes that the British populations of E. clorana are apparently invariable apart 
from size, and Martin Honey (pers. comm.) suggests that ab flavimargo has not 
apparently been recorded in Britain within breeding populations. Examples of ab 
flavimargo such as that taken on 25. vi. 1992 by S.A. Knill-Jones on the Isle of Wight 
(and exhibited at the 1994 B.E.N.H.S. Annual Exhibition (Knill-Jones, 1995) are 
certainly migrants. Ab flavimargo has been recorded from Brittany and it is therefore 
likely that the singleton recorded at Carlyon Bay was a migrant from France. 

Habitats and national importance 

Table 2 classifies moths according to habitats which can be found at Carlyon Bay. 
All the species recorded at Carlyon Bay can fly and therefore may have come from 
neighbouring areas, but I consider this site to be largely a closed community (apart 
from migrants) surrounded as it is by cliffs on one side and the sea on the other. 

Carlyon Bay is of some importance in national terms (Tables 1 and 4), but no red 
Data Book species were recorded there. Emmet (1991) allocated species to the principal 
habitats in which they are commonly found. He divided maritime habitats into five 
subsections (salt-marsh, sand-dune, cliff and undercliff, shingle beach and 'other 
maritime situations'). I have calculated from this list that there are a total of 358 
maritime species (excluding all butterflies and migrant species) found in Britain and 
Ireland, not counting those generalist species that can be found anywhere. Several 
of these species can be found in more than one of these habitats, so that adding up 
the number of species in each of these habitats gives a total of 451 species. A small 
proportion (average 13%) of these have been recorded at Carlyon Bay (Table 4). It 

Table 4. Numbers of moth species found in maritime habitats. 



Habitat type 


Britain 
& Ireland 


Carlyon 


Bay 


% of total 
for Britain & 




nos* 


nos 




Ireland 


Salt-marsh 


57 


4 




7 


Sand-dune 


133 


23 




17 


Cliff and undercliff 


119 


23 




19 


Shingle beach 


50 


5 




10 


Other maritime situations 


92 


10 




11 


Totals 


451 


64 




average 13 



* According to Emmet & Heath (1991) habitat classification. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 65 

would be useful to compare the proportion of maritime species here with those at 
other coastal sites. This would allow us to build up a picture of the relative importance 
in national terms of coastal sites for moths. 

Some of the moths recorded here (e.g. Cucullia chamomillae and Malacosoma 
neustria) have no close association with maritime habitats according to Emmet & 
Heath (1991), although all can be found regularly in coastal situations in Cornwall. 
This shows how regional variations in habitat preference can modify the overall picture 
(and also explains why the species totals in Table 2 differ from those in Table 4). 

Local importance 

The interest of the site lies mainly in the juxtaposition of widely different habitats 
and the moths that live there. I estimate that there are 32 resident macro-moths found 
in Cornwall which are restricted to coastal areas (Table 5). Of these 18 (56%) have 
been recorded at Carlyon Bay, making it a very important coastal site for Lepidoptera 
in local terms. 



Table 5. Resident Macro-moths in Cornwall with a distribution largely 
restricted to the coast. 



Species name 



Recorded at Carlyon Bay? 
(Y = yes N = no) 



Agrotis ripae Htibn. 
Agrotis trux Htibn. 
Agrotis vestigialis Hufn. 
Aporophyla australis Boisd. 
Aspitates ochrearia Rossi 
Bembecia muscaeformis Esp. 
Catarhoe rubidata D.&S. 
Cucullia chamomillae D.&S. 
Dasypolia templi Thunb. 
Eilema complana L 
Eilema caniola Hubn. 
Epirrhoe galiata D.&S. 
Eupithecia denotata jasioneata Crewe 
Eupithecia distinctaria H.-S. 
Eupithecia simpliciata Haw. 
Euxoa nigricans L. 
Euxoa obelisca D.&S. 
Euxoa tritici L. 
Gnophos obscurata D.&S. 
Hadena luteago barret tii Doubl. 
Hadena perplexa D.&S. 
Hyloicus pinastri L. 
Leucochlaena oditis Hubn. 
Luperina nickerlii leechi Goater 
Lygephila craccae D.&S. 
Meganola albula D.&S. 
Mythimna l-album L. 
Mythimna litoralis Curt. 
Mythimna putrescens Hiibn. 
Nudaria mundana L. 
Polymixis xanthomista Hiibn. 
Standfussiana lucernea L. 



Y 
Y 
Y 

N 
N 
Y 
Y 
Y 
N 
N 
Y 
Y 
N 
Y 
Y 
N 
N 
Y 
N 
Y 
Y 
N 
N 
N 
N 
Y 
Y 
Y 
Y 
N 
Y 
N 



66 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Meganola albula D.&S. (Kent black arches) 

Paul Siddons and I found two specimens (one male and one female) of Meganola 
albula at mercury vapour light at Shorthorn beach on 10.vii.92. This is the only site 
so far in Cornwall for this species. I had been hoping for some time to find this 
nationally scarce species on the Cornish coast as it has been recorded both sides of 
Cornwall on the Isles of Scilly and in Devon (Heath & Emmet, 1979). In fact, the 
records for Scilly are all pre-1980 (Waring, 1992). The only records I can find for 
Scilly were in 1956, 1957 and 1959 from Tresco, Bryher and St Agnes (per the Cornish 
Biological Records Unit). Nevertheless, the discovery (although accidental) of M. 
albula here shows that distribution maps can be used to provide clues to where species 
may be found. 

In Britain, Meganola albula is a southern species largely confined to the coast but 
occasionally found inland in woodland clearings. The open woodland habitat here 
looks ideal. The main foodplant in Britain is considered to be Rubus caesius L. 
(Skinner, 1984), but I could find no trace of this plant here (although Lousley (1971) 
states that there are several records for the Isles of Scilly). The moth is also known 
to feed on Potentilla and Fragaria, but Bill Kittle and I found no sign of larvae on 
these plants during spring 1993. In fact, we saw no adults in 1993 despite extensive 
trapping on the site. Unfortunately, a large part of the site had been bulldozed to 
make a road for construction vehicles and it may be that M. albula no longer occurs 
here (Spalding, in press). 

Foodplants 

The list of larval foodplants associated with the species recorded at Carlyon Bay. 
(Table 6) shows the plant species that are likely to occur here. New (1991) suggests 

Table 6. Number of moth species (excluding migrants) associated with particular 
foodplants at Carlyon Bay. 



Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Bernh. 




1 


Lonicera periclymenum L. 




1 


Oenanthe crocata L. 




1 


Typha spp. 




1 


Betula spp. 




2 


Thymus polytrichus A. Kerner ex Borbas ( = 


= T. praecox) 


2 


Phragmites 




2 


Tripleurospermum maritimum (L.) Koch 




2 


Armeria maritima (Miller) Willd. 




3 


Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull 




4 


Silene uniflora Roth ( = 5. maritima) 




4 


A triplex /Chenopodium 




4 


Lichen spp. 




7 


Conifer spp. 




7 


Quercus spp. 




8 


Salix spp. 




21 


Gramineae 




33 


General polyphagous species 




20 


Polyphagous on herbaceous plants 




48 


Polyphagous on trees and shrubs 




48 


Others 




98 


[Hymenoptera nests 




1] 




Total 


318 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 67 

that there may be a complicated relationship between butterflies and hostplant diversity 
and this is likely to be true of moths. Plant diversity is high at Carlyon Bay because 
of the number of different habitats and their associated plants, the early successional 
stage of the dune vegetation which is constantly changing and the recent disturbance 
of the area which has led to colonization by so-called 'weed' species. 

However, some moths have occurred at Carlyon Bay despite the apparent absence 
of their foodplant. I could find no sign of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel 
in Carlyon Bay, although two moths (Archanara geminipuncta and Rhizedra lutosa) 
associated with this foodplant were recorded there. It is well known that Rhizedra 
lutosa can be found at some distance from its foodpant (Skinner, 1984), but Archanara 
geminipuncta is generally considered to be less mobile. In fact, Phragmites probably 
occurred here in previous years near the adit (D. Gibbon, pers. comm.). 

The abundance of a foodplant at a site has no apparent bearing on the number 
of moth species that feed on it. Armeria maritima (Miller) Willd. is abundant here 
but only three moth species feed on it. Conifer trees are scarce, yet seven moth species 
with conifer-feeding larvae were present on the site, including Bupalus piniaria which 
is particularly rare in east Cornwall. 

The community of sand-dune moths at Carlyon Bay 

I have calculated from foodplant associations and other factors that there are 32 
species associated with the sand-dunes at Carlyon Bay (Table 7), excluding generalist 
species found in a wide variety of situations. (The figure of 32 differs from Emmet's 
23 out of 133 (Table 4) because it is based on local knowledge). These species form 
a maritime community of moths, apparently a random assemblage of species but 
probably linked together by a variety of factors such as the structural diversity, 
historical continuity and maritime aspect of the site, as well as the presence of shared 
food resources, (e.g. seven species feed on grasses). No attempt was made to assess 
the abundance of species on this site. 

The ecology of most (perhaps all) of the species found here is so poorly understood 
that we cannot say with certainty which (if any) factors are common to all or most 
of the species. Several of these species form guilds sharing a common foodplant (e.g. 
three species feed on A triplex and two on Taraxacum), but may utilize different parts 
of the foodplant at different times of year. The foodplant resource at this site is 
probably sufficient for the guilds of moths here so that interspecific competition for 
food is unlikely. (Porter et al (1992) says that there is no clear-cut case of competitive 
exclusion among British butterflies, but it is possible that competitive exclusion is more 
common among British moths because there are so many more species on a site such as 
this.) The moths are here partly because their larval foodplants are present. Their 
national distributions may be linked to the distribution of the foodplants, but there are 
other limiting factors such as the prevalence of parasites etc. Moths such as Mythimna 
l-album are probably confined as breeding populations to the frost-free areas on the 
warm southern cliffs. In Cornwall, Cucullia chamomillae is largely confined to the 
coast, despite the fact that its foodplant (Tripleurospermum maritimum) is widespread 
throughout the county. For these species, the restricted coastal distribution implies 
that factors other than the availability of foodplant limit their distribution. 

Numbers of species 

The total of 331 species represents the results of several nights trapping; 83 
Geometridae and 1 18 Noctuidae were recorded. However, some families such as the 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



Table 7. Sand-dune moths at Carlyon Bay. 



Molh 



Foodplant 



Species name 



Close coastal 
association? 



Species 



Close coastal 
association? 



Agriphila geniculea Haw. Y grasses N 

Agrotis clavis Hufn. Y herb, plants N 

AgTOtis ripae Hubn. Y dune plants Y 

Agrottk vestiglalis Hufn. Y grasses etc N 

Amphlpoea oculea L. Y grasses N 

Caradrina clavlpalpls Scop. n grasses N 

Celypha strlana D.&S. N Taraxacum N 

Cucullia chamomlllae D.&S, y Trlpleuroapermum N 

Discestra trlfolU Hufn. N A triplex tic. N 

Endotrlcha flammealis D.&S. N polyphagous N 

Epirrhoe galiata d.&s. Y Galium N 

Eumichtis lichenea Hubn. N polyphagous N 

Eupithecia absinthiata ( I N polyphagous N 

Euptthecia slmpltclata Haw. Y A triplex tic. N 

Eupithecia virguureata Doubl. N Senecio etc. N 

In m>, i tritici L. Y polyphagous N 

/iflfoea subsericealu Haw. N Taraxacum N 

lladena luttttgO buncttu Doubl. Y Silenc ttmjlora Y 

Tacanobia olerucea L. Y Atrip/ex etc. N 

Luperina testacea d.&s. Y grasses n 

Meganola albula D.&S. Y Rubus etc. N 

Mesoligia furuncula D.&S. Y grasses N 

Mythinma I album I Y grasses N 

Mythlmna litoralia Curt. Y Ammophila Y 

Turadiursia glareosa Isp. N polyphagous N 

Perizoma alchemillata L. N Galeopsis N 

Perizomu Jlavofasciata Thunb. Y Silent spp. N 

Phyciludes maritime Tenglt. Y Achillea tic. N 

Phycltodes saxicola Vaugh. Y Anthemis etc. N 

Scotopteryx chenopodiata L. Y K/c/a etc. N 

Semiothisa alternaria Hubn. n Sa/Zx etc. N 

Teleiopsis diffinls Haw ■. N Rumex acetoselia N 



(iracillariidae, Coleophoridae and Elachistidae (one species each) were under-recorded, 
indicating an over-reliance on the attractiveness of light to moths on our part. It is 
likely that there are many more species still to be found on the site. 



Summary 

The national importance of a site such as Carlyon Bay for moths may be evaluated 
according to the number of nationally notable species present. However, this method 
concentrates on a small proportion of the total number of species and ignores the 
communities of moths present. An alternative method is to calculate the proportion 
of species present which are representative of the types of habitat available to the 
moths. Emmet's classification of all British species allows us to do this on a national 
scale. On this basis, Carlyon Bay has 13% of the maritime species of Britain. Carlyon 
Bay also has 56% of the Cornish maritime macro-moths, making it important in local 
terms. Taking one habitat (sand-dune), this site has 17% of the sand-dune species 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 69 

nationally, but with local knowledge we can list 32 species with close links to this 
habitat. Many species are here partly because their larval foodplants are present, but 
the disparity between the distribution of foodplants and of moths indicates that factors 
other than the availability of foodplant limit the distribution of these sand-dune moths. 

Acknowledgments 

I wish to thank all the people who accompanied me on the moth collecting trips 
in Carlyon Bay as well as those who provided additional moth records, especially 
Bill Kittle and Phil Boggis. Dave Gibbon and Steven Lees of Wildlife Woodlands 
provided information about the history of the site, as did Mr Grigg of ECC 
International Ltd. I also thank Frank Smith for preparing the genitalia slide of Earias 
clorana and Barry Goater, Martin Honey and Roy McCormick for valuable 
information on this species and others within the Earias genus. 

Clarence Brind 

I I .vii.92 was the night we made the first capture of Meganola albula for Cornwall. 
Clarence Brind shared this moment with us. It was unfortunately the last moth trip 
I went on with Clarence, who died on 8.H.93. Clarence was well known in Cornwall 
and beyond as a real enthusiast for all kinds of wildlife. During the course of his 
life, he built up a huge collection of insects from around the world stored in several 
hundred large display boxes. Unfortunately, I never knew Clarence as well as I would 
have wished, but I was privileged to accompany him on several nocturnal mothing 
trips and will always remember his sense of humour, his knowledge and above all 
his keen appreciation of the beauty of all living things. 

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Wildlife 4: 273-279. 
Box, J. D. 1994. Conservation or greening? The challenge of post-industrial and derelict sites. 

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Emmet, A. M. 1991. Life history and habits of the British Lepidoptera. In: Emmet, A. M. 

& Heath, J. (Eds). The moths & butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. 7, Part 2, 

pp. 61-304. Harley Books. Colchester. 
Goater, B. 1994. The genus Earias Hiibner (1825) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Britain and Europe. 

Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 106: 233-239. 
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Knill-Jones, S. A. 1995 [Exhibit at 1994 B.E.N. H.S. Annual Exhibition.] Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 

8: in press. 
Lousley, J.E. 1971. The flora of the isles of Scilly. David & Charles. Newton Abbot. 
New, T. R. 1991. Butterfly conservation. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 
Parsons, M. S. 1993. A review of the scarce and threatened pyralid moths of Great Britain. 

UK Nature Conservation, no. 11. JNCC, Peterborough. 
Porter, K., Steel, C. A. & Thomas, J. A. 1992. Buttterflies and communities. In: Dennis, R. 

L. H. (Ed.). The ecology of butterflies in Britain. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 
Skinner, B. 1984. Colour identification guide to moths of the British Isles. Viking, 

Harmondsworth. 
Skinner, B. 1993. [Exhibit at 1992 B.E.N. H.S. Annual Exhibition.] Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 6: 57. 
Spalding, A. (in press). Lepidoptera recording: responses to habitat degeneration and destruction, 

with particular reference to Cornwall. In: Spalding, A. & French, C. N. (Eds). Proceedings 

of the 1993 NFBR Conference. NFBR. Institute for Cornish Studies, Redruth. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



Wardell Armstrong, 1993. Landscaping and revegetation of china clay wastes. Summary report. 

HMSO, London. 
Waring, P. 1992. Moth Conservation Project, News Bulletin 4. JNCC, Peterborough. 
Waring, P. 1993. National Moth Conservation Project, News Bulletin 5. Butterfly Conservation. 



Appendix. List of species recorded from the study area 

Hepialidae. Hepialus humuli L. 

Incurvariidae. Nematopogon swammerdamella L., Nemophora degeerella L. 

Gracillariidae. Parornix anglicella Stt. 

Sesiidae. Sesia bembeciformis Hiibn., Bembecia muscaeformis Esp. 

Yponomeutidae. Argyresthia brockeella Hiibn., Argyresthia retinella Zell., Yponomeuta 
padella L., Paraswammerdamia albicapitella Scharf., Ypsolopha parenthesella L., Ypsolopha 
ustella CI., Plutella xylostella L. 

Coleophoridae. Coleophora albicosta Haw. 

Elachistidae. Elachista canapennella Hiibn. 

Oecophoridae. Hofmannophila pseudospretella Stt., Carcina quercana F., Depressaria daucella 
D.&S., Agonopterix heracliana L., Agonopterix subpropinquella Stt., Agonopterix arenella 
D.&S., Agonopterix ocellana F., Agonopterix assimilella Treit., Agonopterix nervosa Haw. 

Gelechiidae. Aristotelia ericinella Zell., Teleiopsis diffinis Haw., Scrobipalpa costella Humph. 
& Westw., Caryocolum blandella Dougl., Anarsia spartiella Schr., Hypatima rhomboidella L., 
Brachmia blandella F. 

Tortricidae. Phtheochroa inopiana Haw., Cochylimorpha straminea Haw., Agapeta hamana 
L., Agapeta zoegana L., Eupoecilia angustana Hiibn., Pandemis cerasana Hiibn., Pandemis 
heparana D.&S., Archips podana Scop., Clepsis consimilana Hiibn., Epiphyas postvittana Walk., 
Lozotaenia forsterana F., Ditula angustiorana Haw., Cnephasia stephensiana Doubl., Cnephasia 
asseclana D.&S., Acleris variegana D.&S., Acleris hastiana L., Acleris emargana F., Celypha 
striana D.&S., Olethreutes lacunana D.&S., Olethreutes bifasciana Haw., Hedya pruniana Hiibn., 
Hedya dimidioalba Retz., Endothenia marginana Haw., Lobesia littoralis Humph. & Westw., 
Bactra lancealana Hiibn., Epinotia imtnundana F.v.R., Epinotia nisella CI., Rhopobota 
myrtillana Humph. & Westw., Epiblema uddmanniana L., Epiblema rosaecolana Doubl., 
Eucosma cana Haw., Spilonota ocellana D.&S., Pammene argyrana Hiibn., Cydia succedana 
D.&S., Cydia splendana Hiibn. 

Alucitidae. Alucita hexadactyla L. 

Pyralidae. Chrysoteuchia culmella L., Crambus perlella Scop., Agriphila straminella D.&S., 
Agriphila tristella D.&S., Agriphila geniculea Haw., Catoptria pinella L., Platytes cerussella 
D.&S., Scoparia ambigualis Treit., Dipleurina lacustrata Panz., Eudonia angustea Curt., Eudonia 
mercurella L., Eurrhypara hortulata L., Perinephela lancealis D.&S., Phlyctaenia coronata Hufn., 
Ebulea crocealis Hiibn., Udea olivalis D.&S., Udea ferrugalis Hiibn., Mecyna asinalis Hiibn., 
Nomophila noctuella D.&S., Pleuroptya ruralis Scop., Hypsopygia costalis F., Endotricha 
flammealis D.&S., Aphomia sociella L., Numonia advenella Zinck., Phycita roborella D.&S., 
Pempeliella diluta Haw., Homoeosoma sinuella F., Phycitodes saxicola Vaugh., Phycitodes 
maritima Tengst. 

Pterophoridae. Pterophorus pentadactyla L. 

Lasiocampidae. Malacosoma neustria L., Lasiocampa quercus quercus L., Macrothylacia 
rubi L., Philudoria potatoria L. 

Drepanidae. Drepana falcataria L., Cilix glaucata Scop. 

Thyatiridae. Thyatira batis L., Habrosyne pyritoides Hufn., Ochropacha duplaris L. 

Geometridae. Alsophila aescularia D.&S., Hemithea aestivaria Hiibn., Timandra griseata 
Peters. Scopula imitaria Hiibn., Scopula immutata Linn., Scopula floslactata Haw., Idaea biselata 
Hufn., Idaea fuscovenosa Goeze, Idaea dimidiata Hufn., Idaea subsericeata Haw., Idaea aversata 
L., Rhodometra sacraria L., Orthonama obstipata F., Xanthorhoe spadicearia D.&S., 
Xanthorhoe ferrugata CI., Xanthorhoe montanata D.&S., Xanthorhoe fluctuata L., Scotopteryx 
chenopodiata L., Catarhoe rubidata D.&S., Catarhoe cuculata Hufn., Epirrhoe alternata Mull., 
Epirrhoe galiata D.&S., Camptogramma bilineata L., Anticlea badiata D.&S., Anticlea derivata 
D.&S., Lampropteryx suffumata D.&S., Cosmorhoe ocellata L., Ecliptopera silaceata D.&S., 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 71 

Chloroclysta truncata Hufn., Cidaria fulvata Forst., Thera firmata Hiibn., Thera obeliscata 
Hiibn., Thera britannica Turn., Electrophaes corylata Thunb., Colostygia pectinataria Knoch, 
Hydriomena furcata Thunb., Perizoma affinitata Steph., Perizoma alchemillata L., Perizoma 
flavofasciata Thunb., Eupithecia tenuiata Hiibn., Eupithecia pulchellata Steph., Eupithecia 
venosata ¥., Eupithecia centaureata D.&S., Eupithecia absinthiata CI., Eupithecia vulgata Haw., 
Eupithecia subfuscata Haw., Eupithecia simpliciata Haw., Eupithecia distinctaria H.-S., 
Eupithecia nanata Hiibn. Eupithecia virgaureata Doubl., Eupithecia abbreviata Steph., Eupithecia 
dodoneata Guen., Chloroclystis v-ata Haw., Chloroclystis rectangulata L., Gymnoscelis 
rufifasciata Haw., Euchoeca nebulata Scop., Asthena albulata Hufn., Trichopteryx carpinata 
Borkh., Pterapherapteryx sexalata Retz., Acasis viretata Hiibn., Abraxas grossulariata L., 
Lomaspilis marginata L., Semiothisa alternaria Hiibn., Petrophora chlorosata Scop., 
Opisthograptis luteolata L., Epione repandaria Hufn., Apeira syringaria L., Ennomos alniaria 
L., Selenia dentaria F., Odontopera bidentata CI., Crocallis elinguaria L., Ourapteryx sambucaria 
L., Biston betularia L., Peribatodes rhomboidaria D.&S., Aids repandata L., Cleorodes lichenaria 
Hufn., Ectropis crepuscularia D.&S., Bupalus piniaria L., Cabera pusaria L., Cabera exanthemata 
Scop., Lomographa temerata D.&S., Campaea margaritata L., Hylaea fasciaria L. 

Sphingidae. Sphinx ligustri L., Laothoe populi L., Deilephila elpenor L., Deilephila 
porcellus L. 

Notodontidae. Phalera bucephala L., Cerura vinula L., Notodonta dromedarius L., 
Eligmodonta ziczac L., Pheosia gnoma ¥., Pheosia tremula CI., Ptilodon capucina L., Pterostoma 
palpina CI., Drymonia ruficornis Hufn. 

Lymantriidae. Dasychira pudibunda L., Lymantria monacha L. 

Arctiidae. Miltochrista miniata Forst., Eilema griseola Hiibn., Eilema caniola Hiibn., Eilema 
lurideola Zinck., Spilosoma lubricipeda L., Spilosoma luteum Hufn., Phragmatobia 
fuliginosa L. 

Nolidae. Meganola albula D.&S., Nola confusalis H.-S. 

Noctuidae. Euxoa tritici L., Agrotis vestigialis Hufn., Agrotis segetum D.&S., Agrotis clavis 
Hufn., Agrotis exclamationis L., Agrotis trux Hiibn., Agrotis ipsilon Hufn., Agrotis puta Hiibn., 
Agrotis ripae Hiibn., Axylia putris L., Ochropleura plecta L., Noctua pronuba L., Noctua comes 
Hiibn., Noctua janthina D.&S., Noctua interjecta Hiibn., Paradiarsia glareosa Esp., Lycophotia 
porphyrea D.&S., Peridroma saucia Hiibn., Diarsia mendica F., Diarsia rubi View., Xestia c- 
nigrum L., Xestia triangulum Hufn., Xestia xanthographa D.&S., Xestia agathina Dup., Naenia 
typica L., Anaplectoides prasina D.&S., Cerastis rubricosa D.&S., Discestra trifolii Hufn., Polia 
nebulosa Hufn., Mamestra brassicae L., Melanchra persicariae L., Lacanobia oleracea L., 
Hecatera bicolorata Hufn., Hadena perplexa D.&S., Hadena luteago barrettii Doubl., Hadena 
confusa Hufn., Hadena bicruris Hufn., Tholera decimalis Poda, Panolis flammea D.&S., 
Orthosia cerasi F., Orthosia incerta Hufn., Orthosia gothica L., Mythimna ferrago F.,Mythimna 
albipuncta D.&S., Mythimna vitellina Hiibn., Mythimna impura Hiibn., Mythimna pallens L., 
Mythimna lit oralis Curt., Mythimna l-album L., Mythimna comma L., Mythimna putrescens 
Hiibn., Mythimna loreyi Dup., Cucullia chamomillae D.&S., Aporophyla nigra Haw., 
Xylocampa areola Esp., Dichonia aprilina L., Polymixis flavicincta D.&S., Polymixis xanthomista 
Hiibn., Eumichtis lichenea Hiibn., Conistra vaccinii L., Conistra rubiginea D.&S., Agrochola 
lota CI., Xanthia togata Esp., Acronicta megacephala D.&S., Acronicta leporina L., Acronicta 
alni L., Acronicta psi L., Acronicta rumicis L., Craniophora ligustri D.&S., Cryphia muralis 
Forst., Amphipyra pyramidea L., Mormo maura L., Rusina ferruginea Esp., Euplexia lucipara 
L., Phlogophora meticulosa L., Cosmia trapezina L., Apamea monoglypha Hufn., Apamea 
lithoxylaea D.&S., Apamea crenata Hufn., Apamea remissa Hiibn., Apamea scolopacina Esp., 
Oligia strigilis L., Oligia versicolor Borkh., Oligia latruncula D.&S., Oligia fasciuncula Haw., 
Mesoligia furuncula D.&S., Mesoligia literosa Haw., Mesapamea secalis L., Luperina testacea 
D.&S., Amphipoea oculea L., Hydraecia micacea Esp., Gortyna flavago D.&S., Nonagria typhae 
Thunb., Archanara geminipuncta Haw., Rhizedra lutosa Hiibn., Charanyca trigrammica Hufn., 
Hoplodrina alsines Brahm, Hoplodrina blanda D.&S., Caradrina morpheus Hufn., Caradrina 
clavipalpis Scop., Heliothis armigera Hiibn., Protodeltote pygarga Hufn., Earias clorana L., 
Pseudoips fagana ¥., Nycteola revayana Scop., Colocasia coryli L., Diachrysia chrysitis L., 
Autographa gamma L., Autographa pulchrina Haw., Autographa jota L., Abrostola trigemina 
Werneb., Abrostola triplasia L., Scoliopteryx libatrix L., Rivula sericealis Scop., Hypena 
proboscidalis L., Schrankia taenialis Hiibn., Herminia tarsipennalis Treit., Herminia grisealis D.&S. 



72 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

ANNOUNCEMENTS 

BENHS Expedition — This Society is contemplating organizing an 'expedition' to 
Belize, Central America. As members will realize, this is the first time such an 
ambitious project has been raised and it is very much a pilot scheme. If successful, 
however, the intention is for further projects in the future. 

The BENHS is already active throughout the British Isles, and has even arranged 
exchange field meetings with entomologists in Europe. Why then go to the Carribean? 
Belize is a former British dependent territory and despite its now independent status, 
it maintains strong links with the United Kingdom, for example the Natural History 
Museum is at present establishing a field research station there. 

The aims of the BENHS enterprise are: to raise the profile of the Society so that it is 
seen to be actively involved in current entomological issues (in this case conservation and 
sustainable management of tropical rainforest); to establish links with other national 
and local groups; to form working partnerships in an international framework, and to 
provide members with opportunities to contribute and develop their skills in developing 
nations where conservation issues are pressing, but local expertise and funds are lacking. 

The expedition will seek to investigate the macro-lepidopterous fauna of a 
sympathetically managed tropical fruit enterprise and compare it with adjacent 
undisturbed forest. 

At present it is envisaged that four members will take part in the expedition, for two 
weeks of fieldwork and travel, some time between October 1995 and February 1996. 

If anyone is interested in taking part, they should contact the field meetings secretary, 
Paul Waring, with particulars, to include: means of financing individual expenses (flight, 
accommodation etc), experience and expertise in the Lepidoptera, physical fitness 
and health, evidence of a commitment to spend often long months working up material 
and publishing results. — Paul Waring, 1366 Lincoln Road, Werrington, Peterborough, 
Cambridgeshire PE4 6LS. 



The Professor Hering Memorial Research Fund — The British Entomological and 
Natural History Society announces that awards may be made from this Fund for 
the promotion of entomological research with particular emphasis on: 

(a) leaf-miners 

(b) Diptera, particularly Tephritidae and Agromyzidae 

(c) Lepidoptera, particularly Microlepidoptera 

(d) general entomology 

in the above order of preference having regard to the suitability of applicants and 
the plan of work proposed. 

Awards may be made to assist travelling and other expenses necessary to fieldwork, 
for the study of collections, for attendance at conferences, or, exceptionally, for the cost 
of publication of finished work. In total they are unlikely to exceed £600 in 1995/96. 

Applicants should send six copies, if possible, of a statement of their qualifications, of 
their plan of work, and of the precise objects and amount for which an award is sought, 
to Dr M. J. Scoble, Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell 
Road, London SW7 5BD, as soon as possible and not later than 30 September 1995. 

Applications are also invited from persons wishing to borrow the Wild M3 stereo- 
microscope and fibre optics illuminator bequeathed to the Fund by the late Edward 
Pelham-Clinton, 10th Duke of Newcastle. Loan of this equipment will be made for 
a period of up to 6 months in the first instance. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 73 

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS 

Observations of Bombus terrestris (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) feeding on 
honeydew — The foraging of bumblebees for nectar and pollen from flowers is well 
documented (Alford, 1975; Betts et al, 1986; Prys- Jones & Corbet, 1987) particularly 
in relation to foraging strategies (Prys- Jones & Corbet, 1987). The foraging of 
bumblebees is not restricted to flowers but has been reported from extra-floral nectaries 
on certain plants such as the field bean and the sunflower (Alford, 1975). Bumblebees 
have also very occasionally been observed visiting aphids and some other plant-sucking 
insects; this was particularly notable for the species Bombus lucorum (L.) and Bombus 
terrestris (L.) (Alford, 1975; Free & Butler, 1959). The following observations detail an 
occurrence of aphid honeydew foraging. 

On the 16. vi. 1991 in the Tonbridge area of Kent, several individuals of Bombus 
terrestris were observed patrolling the leaves of a beech tree (Fagus sylvatica L). Each 
bumblebee was observed until it passed out of sight. A total of eight individuals active 
around the beech tree were observed in detail. The behaviour of the bumblebees was 
consistent between individuals. The following is a description of the typical behaviour 
of the foraging bumblebees. 

The beech tree was approached rapidly and purposefully by the bumblebees. Nearing 
the tree they slowed and hovered around patches of leaves. This hovering would centre on 
anything from a couple of leaves to as many as several dozen. Close examination revealed 
the majority of these leaves to be curled and distorted in the manner typical of aphid 
damage. A fair proportion of these leaves were infested with aphids. Particular leaves 
were targeted by the bumblebees and they were investigated more closely by the bee. 

The close investigation took the form of a slower hovering flight around the leaf 
during which the antennae brushed the air close to the leaf surface. A few seconds later 
the bee would land on the underside of the leaf and touch the leaf surface with its 
antennae. After this it was usual for the bee to extend its proboscis and feed off the leaf 
surface. The period of feeding varied from less than 10 seconds to in excess of 1 
minute. The leaf patches fed on always possessed honeydew and frequently had resident 
aphids. The extent of honeydew being taken directly from the aphids was doubtful 
but feeding took place within millimetres of individual aphids on several occasions. The 
bumblebees appeared to spend more time feeding on the leaves that held active colonies 
of aphids. 

Deserting the leaf of feeding the bees would hover slowly, carefully inspecting the 
surrounding leaves. This search of narrow radius would continue until an adjacent 
leaf was landed on or the bee lost interest. The bumblebees' interest would, however, 
not be totally lost as they would resume a rapid searching flight close to the tree, 
frequently closing in on patches of leaves and repeating the detailed searching 
behaviour and occasionally to resume feeding on honeydew. The bumblebees would 
always leave the tree with the same rapid flight with which they approached. The 
beech tree, about 5 metres tall, regularly had several B. terrestris patrolling 
simultaneously. — Clive Turner, 19 Pew Tor Close, Tavistock, Devon PL19 8QJ. 

References 

Alford, D. V. 1975. Bumblebees. Davis-Poynter, London. 

Betts, C, Laffoley, D., Cribb, P. (Eds) 1986. The hymenopterist's handbook. The Amateur 

Entomologist, Volume 7. 
Free, J. B. & Butler, C. G. 1959. Bumblebees. Collins, London. 
Prys- Jones, O. E. & Corbet, S. A. 1987. Bumblebees. Naturalists' Handbooks 6. Cambridge 

University Press. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 74 

Two species of Agromyzidae (Diptera) new to the British fauna — Preparatory to 
publishing a report on the Diptera of the Kenfig National Nature Reserve, Glamorgan, 
I wish to formally record two species as yet unrecorded from the British Isles. Material 
is deposited in the collections of this museum, which will be publishing the full report 
in early 1995. 

Agromyza prespana Spencer. 

Described (Spencer, 1957: 35) from Macedonia. Spencer (1976: 136), in recording 
it from Sweden, cited its known distribution as being 'widespread in Europe from 
Macedonia (type series) through Austria to northern Germany (Berlin) but uncommon 
and local' and commented on its immature stages and biology as a leaf-miner of wheat, 
Triticum aestivum L. I collected a single male by sweeping on coastal dunes at the 
Kenfig N. N. R. on 1 l-13.vi. 1990. 

Phytomyza erigerophila Hering. 

Described (Hering, 1927: 174) from Germany. Spencer (1976: 412) placed 
Phytomyza archhieracii Hering 1927: 173, also from Germany, as a junior synonym 
of it, commenting that 'although archhieracii has page priority over erigerophila, the 
latter name has been more widely used and I therefore treat archhieracci as junior 
synonym'. Spencer (1976: 412-413) further recorded this species from Denmark, 
Norway, Finland and near Grenoble, S. France, giving rearing records as being from 
leaf-mines on blue fleabane Erigeron acer L. and E. uniflorum L. in Norway and 
the latter host in S. France. Dr Spencer and I swept a large series of both sexes, mainly 
from Clematis, on the Merthyr Mawr dunes, Glamorgan on 16.vii.1986. I obtained 
a further male by sweeping a solitary pine tree, to which it might have been attracted 
by aphid honeydew, on the central dune area of the Kenfig N. N. R on 16. ix. 1993. 
It should be pointed out that Erigeron canadensis L., which has now been transferred 
to the genus Conyza, occurs widely in South Wales as an alien and is there becoming 
a common species. I must thank Dr Spencer for identifying the Merthyr Mawr 
material. — J. C. Deeming, Department of Zoology, National Museum of Wales, 
Cathays Park, Cardiff CF1 3NP. 

References 

Hering, M. 1927. Beitrage zur Kenntis der Okologie und Systematik blattminierender Insekten 

(Minenstudien VIII). Zool. Angew. Ent. 13: 156-198. 
Spencer, K. A. 1957. Two new European species of Agromyzidae (Dipt.) Entomologist's Mon. 

Mag. 93: 35-36. 
Spencer, K. A. 1976. The Agromyzidae (Diptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Ent. 

Scand. 5: 1-606 (pp. 1-304 separately bound under Part 1, pp. 305-606 under Part 2). 



An interesting saproxylic fauna at Snelsmore Common, Berkshire. — Snelsmore 
Common is best known as Berkshire's largest and finest remaining area of heathland, 
but, as with so many old commons, there is also an old pasture-woodland interest 
associated with old trees around its fringes. This was well demonstrated during a brief 
visit on 9.vii.l994 when a number of interesting insects were found in association 
with the older trees along the lanes and droves approaching from the south. 

The most interesting find was the nationally scarce moth Morophaga choragella 
D. & S. (Lepidoptera: Tineidae). Large numbers of empty pupal cases were found 
attached to pieces of Inonotus dryadeus (Pers.ex Fr.) Murr. bracket fungi which had 
been broken off from the base of an old oak at about SU 456703. Suspecting this 
moth, some of the fragments were retained to see if further moths would emerge, 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 75 

which duly did a few days later. There are a few previous records from the county 
for this species, but this is a new locality (B. R. Baker, pers.comm). Remarkably, 
it is not known from Windsor Forest and Great Park, although occurs close by at 
Silwood Park. 

There is a concentration of large old field oaks immediately to the north-west of 
Donnington Castle (SU 460693) and these were also inspected for insects. The largest 
tree held a population of the dermestid beetle Ctesias serra (F.) beneath loose bark 
on its trunk, and a single specimen of the scarce anobiid beetle Dorcatoma 
chrysomelina Sturm was found crawling over cuboidal red-rot exposed in the 
heartwood of another overmature tree alongside Castle Wood. These two species are 
of restricted occurrence nationally due to their requirement for large old trees, and 
the Dorcatoma is otherwise only known in the county from Windsor. Fallen oak 
branches contained the beetles Scolytus intricatus (Ratz.) and Cylindrinotus 
laevioctostriatus (Goeze) and the spider Nuctenea umbratica (Clerck). 

My thanks to J. M. Chalmers-Hunt and B. R. Baker for information about the 
moth, and to A. P. Foster for confirming its identity. — K. N. A. Alexander, 14 
Partridge Way, Cirencester, Gloucestershire GL7 1BQ. 



Ephemera lineata Eaton (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae) at Reading, Berkshire. — In 

August 1953 when operating a makeshift light trap at Tilehurst, just to the west of 
Reading, I trapped two large ephemerids and, thinking August rather late to see 
mayflies, both were kept for future reference. The insects were added to the meagre 
collection of Ephemeroptera at Reading Museum and given no further thought until 
1958. Early that year, a keen young freshwater biologist, G. Harrisson, a pupil at 
Leighton Park School, came to us and asked to see the Ephemeroptera collection. 
The drawer had an immediate effect upon our visitor who could not restrain himself 
from executing several jumps of delight! It appeared that the Tilehurst specimens 
were Ephemera lineata Eaton, known previously from the River Thames near Reading, 
Laleham, Teddington and Weybridge, but not recorded since 1901. Kimmins's FBA 
key (1954) added 'scarce in collections'. We decided to try and discover lineata nymphs 
and on 29. v hired a boat from the Tilehurst stretch of the Thames and, with the aid 
of a grab borrowed from Reading University, sampled the silty shoals for most of 
the afternoon. This proved totally unsuccessful. On 31 .vii.1958 by arrangement with 
the then Thames Conservancy, a plug-in was obtained at Mapledurham Lock, about 
three miles upstream from Reading, and a Robinson trap operated there for three 
nights. This was again unsuccessful as far as E. lineata was concerned. Soon afterwards 
Harrisson went off to Cambridge but maintained his interest in Ephemeroptera and 

I learned later that he had discovered E. lineata somewhere near his parents' home 
on the River Wye. This is reflected by Macan's comment in his 1961 key to ephemerid 
nymphs when referring to E. lineata: 'Rare. R. Wye and R. Thames'. By 1974 I had 
moved to my present address at Caversham Heights, less than half a mile north of 
the Thames, and on the humid night of 9.vii. 1981 (minimum temperature 16 degrees 
centigrade) was delighted to trap a further specimen. Another was trapped on 
13.vii. 1987. My wife Heather noted another on our window on 23.vii.1991 and on 

I I .viii. 1991 , as we were walking home over Caversham Bridge just before midnight 
we noted many sub-imagines (50 plus) sitting nearby on a brightly lit shop window. 
Most recently, 12.vii. 1994 another very humid night, a similarly large number of 
E. lineata, duns and spinners, were attracted to a mercury vapour lit sheet operated 
on our back lawn. 



76 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

I do not know whether one can read into this series of events an improved water 
quality of the River Thames at Reading, but can say with certainty that there has 
been a marked rise in the status of E. lineata there. — B. R. Bajcer, 25 Matlock Road, 
Caversham, Reading, Berkshire RG4 7BP. 

References 

Kimmins, D. E. 1954. A revised key to the adults of British Ephemeroptera. FBA Scientific 

Publication No. 15. 
Macan, T. T. 1961 . A key to the nymphs of British Ephemeroptera. FBA Scientific Publication 

No. 20. 



Armadillidium pictum Brandt (Isopoda: Armadillidiidae) new to Gloucestershire. — 

The finding of a number of pill woodlice (Armadillidium sp.) which appeared to 
be the Red Data Book A. pictum was mentioned in the field meeting report for 
Symonds Yat and Wye Gorge, 13 September 1992 (Alexander, 1993). Their identity 
has now been confirmed by David Bilton. 

This pretty woodlouse is otherwise known from two distinct areas of the British 
Isles: north-west England (north Lancashire, Westmorland, mid-west Yorkshire) and 
central Wales (Breconshire and Radnorshire). The Gloucestershire specimens were 
found beneath loose bark on a fallen dead branch, probably beech, above The 
Slaughter. The branch was tangled up amongst other foliage, etc, and the woodlice 
were actually found at about 1 m above ground level. This situation is very similar 
to that described for one of the Welsh localities and in mainland Europe, and unlike 
the rocky terrain favoured by the species in the north-west (Bratton, 1991; Harding 
& Sutton, 1985).— K. N. A. Alexander, 14 Partridge Way, Cirencester, Glos. GL7 1BQ. 

References 

Alexander, K. N. A. 1993. BENHS Field Meeting: Symonds Yat and Wye Gorge, 13 September 

1992. Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 6: 87. 
Bratton, J. 1991. Armadillidium pictum In: Bratton, J. (Ed.). British red data books: 3. 

Invertebrates other than insects. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, pp. 113-114. 
Harding, P. T. & Sutton, S. L. 1985. Woodlice in Britain and Ireland: distribution and habitat. 

Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Huntingdon. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

Rarity, by K. J. Gaston. Population and community biology series 13. Chapman 
& Hall, London, 1994, 205 pages, £17.99, hardback. — The Population and community 
biology series aims to explore many facets of population biology and the processes 
that determine the structure and dynamics of communities. This volume aims to review 
and provide a synthesis of the diverse topic of rarity. As stated on the back cover 
of this book 'Population and community biology [books] have been based largely 
on studies of abundant and widespread species. Most species are neither.' Despite 
this, the volume, which has obviously been well-researched, has been able to draw 
on a large selection of published references. 

The topic is covered by eight chapters. The first of these examines what is meant 
by rarity, including extracts of definitions from the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary 
(1983), criteria that have been utilized by a range of studies to delineate rare species, 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 77 

and a selection of categories from schemes classifying species on the basis of threat. 
The next two chapters discuss abundance and range size and are liberally illustrated 
with relevant graphs and scatter diagrams. Spacial dynamics, temporal dynamics and 
the causes of rarity are covered in the following chapters, with topics such as geographic 
range structure, rarity and persistence over time and colonization ability all being 
discussed. However, it is the next chapter, covering conservation and rarity, that is 
probably the most immediately relevant to many members of this society. This is 
followed by a concluding chapter which asks 'Where next?' covering how the study 
of rarity can be improved and the main issues which remain to be resolved. 

Except for some minor errors in proof-reading, e.g. an inverted map on page 111, 
this book has been well produced, is well printed and has a clear format. The text 
includes many examples of entomological and non-entomological studies. Most 
chapters end with concluding remarks, although I feel it would also have been useful 
to provide a concise summary. As a volume, it would seem primarily aimed at, and 
written for, the ecologist rather than the field naturalist. However, this summary of 
the topic has many aspects which are widely relevant as well as thought-provoking, 
and could prove useful source material for those wishing to take their field studies 
further. 

Mark Parsons 



Die Kafer Mitteleuropas, volume 14, (supplement volume 3), edited by G. A. Lohse 
and W. H. Lucht, Krefeld, Goeke & Evers, 1994, 404 pages, hardback, DM182 (about 
£75). — In theory, this third supplemental volume finishes the series, but for the fact 
that a Schlussband (concluding volume) is in preparation for 1995, and a whole series 
of spin-offs on larvae and ecology are also now being produced. However, this current 
volume concludes the supplemental analysis of the beetles covered in volumes 9 to 
1 1 — the Phytophaga. There is little new on on the Cerambycidae (8 pp), appart from 
a long list of generic name changes affecting the previously large genera Leptura, 
Strangalia etc. In the Chrysomelidae (126 pp) there are numerous additions and 
changes, in particular long new keys for Chrysolina and Longitarsus with numerous 
aedeagus figures of Longitarsus and other flea beetles. In the Apionidae (62 pp), a 
new key raises previous Apion subgenera to full generic status. Other families covered 
are Bruchidae (8 pp), Urodonidae (2pp), Anthribidae (lp), Scolytidae (27 pp), 
Platypodidae (2pp), Cimberidae (1 p), Nemonychidae (1 p), Rhynchitidae (1 p), 
Attelabidae (1 p) and Curculionidae (53 pp). 

Richard A. Jones 



Invertebrate zoology, by E. E. Ruppert and R. D. Barnes, 6th edition, Orlando, 
Saunders College Publishing (Harcourt Brace), 1994, 1114 pages, paperback, 
£17.50. — This standard work on invertebrates continues to represent excellent value 
and an excellent introduction to all those creepy crawlies which are not insects. 
Arranged taxonomically, from protozoa to insects, echinoderms and protochordates, 
each chapter begins with brief review essays on particularly relevant topics introduced 
by each phylum or class as it is brought up. The coverage is international and although 
brief for each group, gives a clear and well-illustrated introduction to the wider study 
of invertebrates. 

Richard A. Jones 



78 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

BENHS INDOOR MEETINGS 

14 June 1994 

The President, Dr P. Waring announced the death of Mr R. I. Lorimer, an 
Orkney lepidopterist who had been a member since 1948. 

Dr Waring showed a specimen of the southern chestnut Agrochola haematidea 
(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) which had been raised from the egg stage. This was first 
discovered breeding in Sussex by Mr G. Haggett in 1990. It is possibly an overlooked 
resident species as there are no records of it being taken as a migrant. Dr Waring 
also showed some colour transparencies taken at the recent well-attended Dinton 
Pastures workshop on clearwing moths, and at the light trapping evening. 

Mr A. J. Halstead showed some live specimens of the juniper shield bug 
Cryphostethus tristriatus (F.) (Hemiptera: Acanthosomatidae). They were found 
feeding in some numbers on the developing female cones on a tall hedge of Lawson's 
cypress, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murray) Pari., at the RHS Garden, Wisley, 
Surrey. At one time this bug was thought to feed on juniper only but a number of 
records have been made of it feeding on garden conifers, including Chamaecyparis 
and Thuja. 

Mr Halstead also showed three live specimens of the leaf beetle Chrysolina americana 
L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). They were found separately on 12 and 20. v. 1994 
and l.vi.1994 on some pot-grown plants of rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis L, at 
the RHS Garden, Wisley, Surrey. These plants had been propagated from cuttings 
taken from Wisley plants in October 1992 and had been standing in the open near 
a glasshouse since spring 1993. This beetle is a native of southern Europe and north 
Africa. The finding of three specimens over a period of 3 weeks suggests this beetle 
may have successfully bred on the plants during the previous summer. 

Mr G. Boyd showed a live female buttoned snout, Hypena rostralis (L.) 
(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) taken in his Cambridge garden on the 13. vi. 1994. The larvae 
feed on hops but the exhibitor was not aware of this plant near his garden. This appears 
to be an unusually northern record for this moth. The President noted that it seems 
to have declined since its distribution was shown in Moths of Great Britain and Ireland 
and it is now found mainly in the London area and coastal regions. 

Mr M. Parsons showed a specimen of the very local plume moth Pselnophorus 
heterodactyla (Miiller) (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae). It was found as a larva on wall 
lettuce in dark woodland near a beech trunk at Cronham Wood, Glos. A search of 
Chadworth Woods failed to find it. Beirne (1952) in British pyralid and plume moths 
describes it as an 'exceedingly local species in the Cotswolds of Gloucestershire'. 
Occasional specimens have been recorded in Norfolk, Perthshire and Cumberland. 

Mr A. J. Halstead said he had taken a female sawfly Tenthredo arcuata Forster 
on an ox-eye daisy in the wild flower meadow at Highgrove House, near Tetbury, 
Glos., on 7.vi.l994. 

Dr P. Waring noted that light trapping for moths had generally been poor due 
to low temperatures. He thought it was the worst year since 1987. Mr R. Uffen said 
it has also been a poor year for Diptera. 

Dr Waring displayed some literature produced by Butterfly Conservation as part of 
their woodlands campaign. He drew attention to a 'mothathon' being conducted by 
Dominic Couzens who will light trap at various places in Surrey between 14 and 
21.vii. 1994. Mr Couzens was seeking sponsorship for the Surrey Wildlife Trust. 

Concern has been expressed recently about the proposed release of a genetically 
engineered virus which incorporates genes from a scorpion. The virus has affected 
over 50% of the moth species tested. It seems likely that approval for the virus's 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 79 

experimental use on cabbages will be given; further details of this matter can be 
obtained from Dr Waring. 

The main business of the evening took the form of a discussion on a national review 
of the scarcer British microlepidoptera. The discussion was introduced by Mark 
Parsons, who outlined the various category statuses ranging from RDB1 (endangered) 
to nationally notable (scarce). He also described the objectives of the Invertebrate Site 
Register scheme and the processes that go into producing a species group review. This 
involves producing annotated species lists, consulting specialists, collating their 
comments to produce an updated annotated list, collating information on species 
identified as scarce, compiling data sheets on these species, sending the data sheets to 
specialists for their comments, and finally publishing the revised data sheets. The 
starting point for assessing scarcity are sources such as Victoria vice-county history lists, 
English Nature records, Scottish Insect Record Index, literature sources, museum 
collections, amateur records and national and local record centres. Mr Parsons described 
some microlepidoptera whose status has changed since the 1970s. He queried whether 
recording by vice-counties was appropriate and whether habitat association and species 
assemblages might be better. The review does not cover immigrant species and the 
question of when a temporary resident becomes a long-term resident needs to be resolved. 

Opening the discussion, Dr Waring commended the recently published review of 
the scarcer pyralid moths which updates the information given in Barry Goater's 1986 
book British pyralid moths. Dr Waring noted that books such as this tend to stimulate 
people to take up insects they would previously not have bothered with. The surge 
of new recording activity can exceed that of earlier workers and may give a misleading 
impression that some species are becoming more common. Mr Parsons replied that 
the pyralids had been reasonably well recorded in the past. Dr Waring noted that 
there were no distribution maps in the pyralid review and wondered if they could 
be included in future reviews. Mr Parsons thought this would be possible although 
some records were too vague to be placed accurately on a map. Dr Waring suggested 
that species associated with quality habitats should also be incorporated into the review, 
even if they were themselves below notable status. It is possible that these common 
species may show changes in abundance which may also occur with scarcer species. 

Mr R. Softly noted that dots on maps showed where a species occurs but give 
little other information. A dot may represent anything from a single moth to thriving 
breeding colonies. Dr S. Ball said that it was possible to produce maps with a variety 
of symbols which would indicate the quality and quantity of the records. Mr Softly 
said that dot maps are sometimes in reality a distribution map of recording activity, 
with distortions in the apparent distributions being the result of particularly keen 
recorders operating in some localities. He queried whether the current recording level 
was good enough to offer support in site evaluations. 

Dr Waring stressed the need for a locally important category for species that 
are uncommon in some parts of the country but too widespread elsewhere to fit 
into any of the existing status categories. He believed that dot maps based on 10-km 
squares are important for showing distributions and that they stimulated further 
recording activity. Much of the distribution data has and is being supplied by 
amateur entomologists who should press for the information to be published. 

Dr I. F. G. Mclean said there was a need to revitalize moth recording following 
the ending of the national scheme. The scheme operated by Dr Waring is restricted 
to a relatively small number of the scarcer species. It would be necessary to spread 
the work load produced by a wider scheme. Computer programs such as the Recorder 
package could help with this. Computer systems need to be compatible so that 
information can be transferred. 



80 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Dr S. Ball noted that a national review of the scarcer microlepidoptera was just 
one of several projects that were in the pipeline. Others include a new 'red data book' 
with revised categories, and national reviews for sawflies and some Diptera families. 
These projects are all competing for a limited amount of finance and staff time. 

The discussion closed with some suggestions as to how the recording of micro- 
lepidoptera could be encouraged. It was agreed that there is a need for an organized 
microlepidoptera recording scheme. To support this there should be a newsletter for 
the exchange of information and to carry items that would assist in identifications, 
as is done with the Diptera Recording Schemes. The BENHS could help by publicizing 
the names and addresses of county or taxa recorders. It could hold workshops at 
Dinton Pastures or at field study centres to help newcomers to the subject. Through 
its journal it could publish articles to keep up the recording momentum, possibly with 
a review of the year featuring notable microlepidoptera records. It could also publicize 
lists of material wanted/help offered as is done by dipterists. Existing local recorders 
should be incorporated into a national scheme. Persons to act as coordinators will 
be required. Council should consider obtaining a computer with the Recorder program. 

12 July 1994 

The Vice-President, Dr M. Scoble, in the chair. 

Mr R. A. Jones showed six specimens of the leaf beetle Orsodacne cerasi (L.). 
These were var. chlorotica Lat. which is all testaceous, var. lineola Lac. which has 
head, thorax and suture darker and var. glabrata F. which is entirely dark. This beetle, 
extremely variable in size and colour, was very common on cow parsely, Anthriscus 
sylvestris (L.) Hoffm., at Leigh Woods, Bristol, on 2.vi.l994. Over 50 individuals 
were counted in a few minutes as they 'swarmed' on the umbels. Previously, this 
beetle was considered rare. However, it is now regarded as the more common of the 
two British Orsodacne species, hence it is not accorded the 'notable B' status of its 
congener O. lineola (Panz.) which is not gregarious. The flower beetle Mordellochroa 
abdominalis (F.) was also common on the flowers, over 35 being counted. 

He also showed an unidentified ichneumon cocoon beaten from an oak tree in 
Nunhead Cemetery, 30. vi. 1994. The remains of the host caterpillar were still attached, 
the head capsule standing proud on top of the mottled grey cocoon. This was 
subsequently identified as probably Hyposoter clausus (Brischke) (Ichneumonoidea: 
Campopleginae) on its usual host Agriopis aurantiaria (Hiibn.) by Dr M. R. Shaw. 

Mr A. J. Halstead showed a copy of the June 1994 Health and Safety 
Commission Newsletter which contains a distribution map of ticks infected with 
Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease in humans. The map 
shows that infected ticks are widespread throughout England, Wales and Scotland. 

The following persons have been approved as members by Council: Michael Guye, 
Nicholas Steven Gordon, Gordon B. Corbet, Gareth Matthes and David Graham Maund. 

Dr Ian Kitching spoke on the use of computer programs to map biodiversity and 
identify priority areas for conservation. He discussed the reasons for conserving 
biodiversity and the problems involved in deciding how to achieve this. Staff at the 
Natural History Museum in London have developed a world map computer program 
to help in analysing data. Dr Kitching showed how this could be used to assess the 
conservation needs of owls, tiger beetles and hawk-moths in Thailand. These groups 
of animals were chosen as their status and distribution in Thailand is reasonably 
well known. The computer program can select the richest site and identify other 
complementary areas. These other sites are not necessarily the next most species-rich 
sites as these may largely duplicate what is found at the best site. By 'removing' species 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 81 

common to the best and other sites, the program shows which areas are needed to 
conserve the greatest range of species. In this way Thailand's 18 species of owls could 
be protected by conserving six sites, its 178 hawk moths in 14 sites and its 103 species 
of tiger beetles in 30 sites. 

If the program is to be of value, it needs to be based on good quality recording. 
This is lacking in many parts of the world, where recording may be heavily biased 
towards known good sites in the more accessible areas. 



13 September 1994 

The Vice-President, Mr A. J. Halstead, in the chair. The chairman welcomed 
members of the LNHS; 34 members and friends attended. 

The Vice-President announced the deaths of Mr J. Newton and Mr I. G. Farwell. 

Mr A. J. Halstead showed a mystery object: a bone, 21 cm long, 43 mm wide 
at the middle and 74 mm at the widest end, found lying on a flower bed at the RHS 
Garden, Wisley, Surrey. It was presumably from a mammal, possibly a pig, and is 
likely to have come to the Garden with some farmyard manure used as mulch. 

The bone appeared to have been flattened on one side and at the broadest end 
a hole 7 mm in diameter had been drilled through it. The same end had a 22 mm 
deep, 6 mm wide groove apparently cut into it, the base of which was about 15 mm 
from the centre of the hole cut into it. 

Dr D. S. Hackett exhibited two larvae of the holly blue Celastrina argiolus (L.) 
from Hearne Road, Kew, Middlesex (TQ 193779), both found on ivy flower buds. 
This butterfly is not uncommon, even in central London, but the larva can be hard 
to see as it is green and slug-shaped and, in the second generation, occurs on ivy 
flowers which may be high up on a tree or a wall. When small the larva also hides 
amongst the buds. The feeding damage often gives it away as the larva eats into a 
bud and hollows it out, then moves away, leaving a neat round hole. Also present 
was an egg and egg shell remnants of the same butterfly. 

Dr Hackett also showed a female Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, and exuvia. 
It was found on the foreshore at Kew, Middlesex (TQ194777). A fresh-water crab 
originally from China, it was first reported in the Thames in 1936 (it is also found 
in the Humber). It is recognized by its squarish body and four marginal teeth and, 
in larger specimens, by its 'furry' claws. Ingle (1986; London Naturalist 65: 101-105) 
described it as a contentious immigrant, possibly arriving as larvae in ships' ballast 
water. However, as small and large individuals can be found at low water, Dr Hackett 
suggests that it is breeding successfully. It is a burrowing crab alleged to undermine 
river banks and has been reported to reach plague proportions in Europe. 

The following persons have been approved as ordinary members of the society by 
Council: Gerald Michael Tonks, Wendy Monica Jupe, John Robert Gerald Storer, 
Peter R. Howell and Simon Hodge. Mr N. Sawyer signed the obligations book and 
was welcomed to the Society by the Vice-President. 

The first part of the lecture was given by Rachel Quinn and covered the topic 
'biodiversity in Britain — where is it?' This part of the lecture covered what is meant by 
biodiversity and touched upon the history of the Biological Records Centre and the type 
of information held by that organization. National and regional species patterns for 
butterflies and Odonata showed that there were few species in the north-west of Great 
Britain with more species in the south-east. Conversely, the pattern for liverworts 
was the reverse. This was probably because of the climate requirements of these groups. 
A graph was shown illustrating the fact that the diversity of butterflies and Odonata 



H2 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

generally decreased from Dorset to East Anglia with some variation in counties in 
between. This could largely be explained by the regional differences in available habitats. 

It was asked if the biodiversity of some groups of insect, such as butterflies, could 
be used as indicator groups of species for a range of other species in Great Britain. 
It was shown that there was a 40% coincidence between butterfly and Odonata 
'hotspots'. For larger groups of insects all the biodiversity 'hotspots' contained scarcer 
species. There was a small number of scarcer species absent from these 'hotspots'; these 
were cither species which occurred in just one or two 10-km squares or were northern 
species. Past and future changes in patterns of biodiversity were also briefly discussed. 

Dr I. F. (J. M< I.i.an took the next section of the lecture: 'biodiversity — how do 
we keep it?' Dr McLean briefly covered the history of the UK's approach to 
conservation from the 'put a fence round it' approach, through the use of science 
and fortress SSSIs, to the 1981 Wildlife and Countryside Act and the trend in the 
1990s towards positive management. The main points of the Biodiversity Action plan 
were covered and what this means in Great Britain. The membership of the steering 
group of this plan was shown to comprise a wide range of organizations. The different 
sorts of countryside designation were mentioned including SSSIs. This latter grouping 
was often fragmented parts of habitat which were effectively islands. Dr McLean 
described a new conservation approach, the 'prime biodiversity areas', which looks 
at clusters of the range of designated sites. Also covered by this part of the lecture 
was the role of natural history societies in conservation. 

A keen and useful discussion followed for about an hour after the lectures. This 
discussion covered most of the topics of the lectures and even touched upon world 
population levels! 

10 October 1994 

Dr S. Hoy showed a small captive nest of the ant LeptOthoraX nylanderi (Fdrster). 

The President, Dr P, M. Wakin<,, showed slides of a recent trip to the Scottish 
uplands in search of the slender-striped rufous, Coenocalpe lapidata Hiibn., and to 
discover its foodplant in the wild. Me visited two sites at Trinafour and Lairg. Adults 
were found at dusk resting on Junius stems and could possibly have been associated 
with either Ranunculus acris L. or Potentilla erecta (L.) Raeuscn. Two freshly emerged 
adults were found in a single clump of ./uncus, with only R, acris below, but no females 
were seen egg-laying. The larval foodplant remains unconfirmed but a list of candidate 
species has been compiled. 

Mr R. A. JONES showed four interesting insects from the Gordano Valley NNR, 
Avon, (V( (>, North Somerset), taken on 6.vii.l994. These were: Eledona agricola 
(Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), several hundred of which were found in an 
old powder-dry fungus on oak; Ducnc btpustulata ( Thunb.) (Coleoptera: Erotylidae), 
a single specimen in the same fungus; Sills ruficollis (F.) (Coleoptera: Cantharidac), 
a male swept from dyke side vegetation, once considered very local but now 
more widespread; and Xiphydriu prolongate (Geoff, in Fourc.) (Hymenoptera: 
Xiphydriidae), a single specimen with damaged wings crawling up a sallow trunk. 

Two new members were announced: John L. R. Ledbury and Derek H. Howton. 
Mr Kent Lee of Hour Kong was welcomed to the meeting. 

The President reminded members that as field Meetings Secretary he would 
hkc to be approached with ideas for the 1995/19 l )(> field season, particularly for 
localities away from the well-served south. Me also reported that the A.E.S. had 
just published a facsimile reprint of Tult's Practical hints for the field lepidopterist. 
Me also showed the latest issue of the children's newsletter of the Bug Club and 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 83 

announced that the national pyralid moth recording scheme had just issued its first 
newsletter. 

Several members had seen late butterflies, including commas, red admirals and 
holly blues. Other insects recently seen on the wing were hornets and the dragonfly 
Sympetrum striolatum (Charp.). 

The main portion of the evening was given over to two short lectures. 

Dr S. Hoy reviewed the different 'Ants in Britain', starting with the generalization 
that they were simply wasps without wings. Once given their own superfamily, they 
are now grouped in a single family, the Formicidae, within the Vespoidea. Worldwide 
there are between 9000 and 10 000 species described, with 15 000 to 20 000 anticipated. 
On the British mainland there are 46 species recorded with four more from the Channel 
Islands. Considering that there are 300-400 species in Europe, Britain's fauna is rather 
depleted, indeed 47 ant species have been recorded from a single South American 
tree. British ants are a reasonably 'easy' and compact group to study though they 
do show wide diversity of biology, behaviour and ecology. 

Ants are characterized by the possession of an alitrunk; this is not a true thorax 
and contains the first segment of the abdomen. Thus the gaster is not a true abdomen. 
All have a node or petiole between the alitrunk and gaster, with either one or two 
segments. 

Dr Hoy went on to describe and comment on various ant species. The common 
black pavement ant, Lasius niger (L.), has recently been 'split', two species being 
identified in Germany and the status of the species in Britain remains to be determined. 

Semisocial parasitism is shown in 16 British ant species; a queen enters a host nest, 
takes over the egg laying and eventually only the 'parasite' occurs. Lasius fuliginosus 
(Lat.) exhibits hyperparasitism, parasitizing other parasites. 

The large mounds of the wood ant, Formica rufa L., are well known and sometimes 
combine to form 'supercolonies' with trackways between several nests. 

Dr Hoy finished with some slides of ants swarming and lecking around him in a 
cloud and used these images as a metaphor for the abundance and widespread 
occurrence of ants and to encourage further study of them. 

Before Dr M. E. Archer gave his lecture he briefly illustrated the invasions by 
Dolichovespula media (Retz.) and D. saxonica F. into Britain. Since its first discovery 
in Sussex in 1980, D. media has spread to S. Devon and N. Yorks. Since 1987, D. 
saxonica has expanded in two patches, one in Surrey the other in Norfolk, suggesting 
either two invasions or two recording groups. These recent immigrations were possibly 
linked with the re-expansion of the hornet, Vespa crabro L., to its previous range 
north into the Midlands. Scandinavian research has suggested that this might reflect 
a change in the July isotherm. 

Dr Archer then considered the use of quality scoring of aculeate Hymenoptera to 
determine the relative importance of natural history sites. By assigning a score to 
individual species, high scores for rare species and low scores for common species, 
and summing these scores it was possible to construct a final quality score for individual 
localities. By dividing this score by the number of species an index of quality could 
be achieved which took into account the amount of recording done at a site and the 
completeness of the species list. 

Six rarity statuses were commonly given: 'common', 'local', 'regionally notable', 
'notable A', 'notable B' and 'red data book'. Of these, the most problematical was 
'regionally notable', because no strict definitions or criteria have been published. Dr 
Archer suggested replacing the three lower statuses with 'universal' (i.e. throughout 
Britain and common), 'widespread' (i.e. throughout Britain but uncommon) and 
'restricted' (i.e. only found in a narrow region). 



84 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

These were still rather subjective, but he had tried out the two scoring schemes 
at selected Yorkshire sites and they had given the same ranking for the sites regardless 
of scoring system. 

Other indices of natural history interest particularly relevant for the aculeates were 
'cleptoparasite load' and 'aerial nester frequency'. Cleptoparasitism ranged from 15.5 
to 20% in solitary wasps and 25 to 36.6% in bees. It was higher in temperate regions 
than in the tropics, possibly because host/cleptoparasite life cycles were more closely 
synchronized in a more seasonal climate. Aerial nester frequency, ranging from 
to 92.9% in wasps and to 36.7% in bees, was linked to availability of dead wood 
and stems, and increases if sandy soil is absent and subterranean nesting becomes 
difficult. At higher altitudes, temperatures are lower and sunshine is less; aerial nests 
warm quicker than underground nests, but this appears to affect only wasps since 
furry bees seem to be less sensitive to local weather and temperature conditions. 

7 November 1994 

The President, Dr P. M. Waring, showed some pinned examples of the Tunbridge 
Wells gem, Chrysodeixis acuta (Walker), and the golden twin-spot, C. chalcites (Esper) 
(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) he had collected in Africa. These infrequent migrants to 
Britain are difficult to separate and the President drew attention to the dark curved 
line at the fore wing tip that is a feature of acuta. It was noted that both illustrations 
in Bernard Skinner's book, Moths of the British Isles, are of chalcites as this species 
also has black anal tufts in the male*. 

Mr A. J. Halstead showed some live specimens of the New Zealand flatworm, 
Artioposthia triangulata (Dendy) collected from farmland near Dunoon, Argyllshire. 
This soil-dwelling planarian was first recorded in Britain in 1963 (northern Ireland) 
and 1965 (Scotland). It is now widespread in those regions and has spread to England, 
but not apparently to Wales yet. Initially it was regarded as a curiosity but is now 
causing great concern. The flatworm is a voracious predator of earthworms and in 
some parts of northern Ireland and western Scotland it has virtually wiped out the 
earthworm population. This will have long-term adverse effects on soil drainage, 
aeration and the incorporation of organic matter into the soil. It will also affect animals 
such as badgers, foxes, moles, shrews and many birds which include earthworms as 
an important part of their diet. The demise of earthworms will also affect many insects 
and other invertebrates that depend on them for food. 

The flatworm will become widespread and it is likely to be distributed by the trade 
in garden plants. It will not necessarily be a major problem throughout Britain. In 
its native New Zealand it is confined to ancient woodland at the southern end of 
South Island (i.e. the coolest area of New Zealand). The heaviest infestations in Britain 
are in the cooler, high rainfall areas. Elsewhere earthworms are surviving even though 
the flatworm has been present for many years. 

Dr D. Hackett showed some live specimens of slugs believed to be Umax flavus 
L. (Stylommatophora: Limacidae) which he regularly finds near a compost heap at 
his Crouch End, London N8, home. This is a synanthropic but local species. 

Mr S. Meredith showed a specimen of the soldier fly Sargus bipunctatus (Scop.) 
(Dip: Stratiomyidae) collected in Northampton on l.xi.94 when it had alighted on 
his coat. 

♦During a discussion of these points at the meeting of 13 December 1994. Mr C. W. Plant drew 
attention to his own observations on these species (Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 1991; 4: 59-60) suggesting 
that genitalia dissection was necessary to ensure accurate identification. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 85 

The President passed on the thanks of his wife Rachel for the flowers presented 
to her at the Exhibition Dinner. 

He then drew attention to the fact that a member of the Society had fallen foul 
of the authorities in the Aragon region of Spain while moth trapping. He had set 
up his light on a piece of open land but was soon interrupted by the police, who 
confiscated his four boxed specimens and released the 50 other moths and hundreds 
of chironomid midges in the trap. Although he had fully cooperated with the police, 
this member heard via the British Consulate after his return to Britain that he was 
liable to be fined for causing distress to insects. It seems that new laws have recently 
been enacted in Spain that make life difficult for entomologists. A letter has been 
sent to the Spanish authorities asking for details of the legislation. The President 
has also written a reference for the member, who is a responsible person who actively 
records moths and provides lists for interested parties. Similar restrictive regulations 
occur in Germany and there are proposals for restrictions on collecting in France. 
Such legislation has no real benefits for conservation and discourages recording work. 

The President said that the field meetings exhibit shown at the Annual Exhibition 
had also been taken to meetings organized by Butterfly Conservation and Derbyshire 
Entomologists and would also be shown elsewhere. He wished to give the Society's 
field meetings a higher profile and wanted to encourage recording at sites which may 
be under threat. Suggestions of suitable meeting places and leaders should be passed 
to Dr Waring. 

Mr S. Miles reported that the Joint Council for the Conservation of British 
Invertebrates is to have a new format. At some meetings the constituent bodies would 
report on their activities and interests; other meetings would deal with matters arising 
from these reports. He made available for inspection some reports presented at a 
recent general meeting. These included details of the quinquennial review of Schedule 
5 invertebrates protected under the Wildlife and Countryside Act. Any comments 
on additions or deletions should be passed to Mr Miles. 

Several members reported insects seen in the recent mild weather. Dr Waring noted 
a small tortoiseshell in his garden at Werrington, Cambs., on 5.xi and light trapping 
at Mucklens Wood had yielded 20 moths including four juniper carpets, Thera 
juniperata (L.). This once nationally scarce moth is now widespread on garden junipers. 
An 8-year-old boy, Will Bloodworth, had brought a swallowtail moth, Ourapteryx 
sambucaria (L.), to Dr Waring for identification on 3.xi. Mr. R. Softly reported that 
a speckled wood butterfly had been seen at the Gunnersbury Triangle, London, 
on 3.xi. Mr N. A. Callow had seen a peacock on 4.xi and Dr D. Hackett a red 
admiral on 6.xi. 

Mr A. Halstead said that a fresh male specimen of the yellow-tail moth, Euproctis 
similis (Fues.), had been taken in a Rothamsted trap at RHS Garden, Wisley, Surrey, 
on 3/4. xi. He also referred to the mystery bone he had exhibited at the 13.ix.94 
meeting. Colin Plant had shown the bone to a colleague in the Newham Museum 
Service. It has been identified as the metatarsal bone of a cow. The smoothing of 
the bone and the drilled hole indicate it may have been used in conjunction with rope 
or leather work, perhaps with a harness. Worn bone is very smooth and provides 
a largely frictionless surface. It was apparently common practice to use bones to ease 
the movement of ropes etc. over sharp corners up to about 100 years ago. 

Members then reviewed the Annual Exhibition and Dinner. The exhibition and 
dinner organizer was unable to attend the meeting. The consensus of those present 
was that the exhibition has gone with its usual smoothness. The numbers attending 
and the numbers of exhibits were slightly down; the dinner attendance was slightly 
up. Mr P. Chandler reported on the Diptera exhibits. Dr Waring took the 



l:J< J l-r.j tJAJ HISI , 8: 1W5 

opportunity to thank him for the work he has done in collating the invertebrate records 
ai Dinton Pastures and for his recent article on the subject. Mr Halstead reported 
on the Hyrru noptera and Otbei orders exhibit. He noted that while our exhibition 
is well supported compared with members' exhibits ai the AES exhibition, there are 
still members who do not exhibit because 'they have not laken anything worthwhile'. 
• ouraged to show exhibit! loi their educational side rather than 
concern i Sting Ofl scatce species. Dr Waring said iliai some of the Lepidoptera exhibits 
showed loiiu s o( i ommon moths or collections of locally interesting moths which 
art pel necessarily uncommon in a national context. 

Sonii dl v DSSion toolt place on alternative venues where parking and access might 
be easier. 1 be AJ-.S venue at Kempton Pari m < course would suit some people but 
poor lighting and heating would be problems in late October. Mr R. Hawkins nott d 
thai HO name badges were available ai t Ik Exhibition. The provision of stick -on labels 
iVOUUJ be an easy and cheap tfU 9JM Oi allowing members to find the owners of 
interesting exhibit*. Ml H lONI noted thai some exhibitors fail to put their names 
on then exhibit*. Some art non members and may also fail to provide any nob 
publication with their exhibits rhe meeting gave a tou ol thanks to Mr M. Simmons 
ioi organizing the Exhibition and Dinnt i I ht r« then followed a slide evening. 

Mr K. A )■. I various animals seen during a recent visit to Sri 

... These included get ItO lizard*, frogs, snails with th< mantle growing over their 
shells, harvestman spiders in abundam e on tree trunks in Kandy Botanic Garden and 
various flies, bugs, spiders and aculcai. hymenoptera. 

Pi \> 11/ < i iii showed slides ol yariOUS mollis and butterflies photographed 

i/ in north I <Ondon and I Omwall I hi Be included a painted lady larva fei ding 

On ommon mallOW. Also shown were I he leal bi Stlet hi yjjlum batik ;i (I'.J, the larvae 

ol ii.< th rt v\d fly, Therevo nobilitoto 'i }, found under oak bark, a web of the spider 
Segestria flon mm,, (Ro i) and a view of itfi head end showing its distinctive bottle- 
n langs. 
Mr N. Sawyi !■ howed Udt • -I various adults and larvae of lepidoptera he had 

photogi apht 'i in I ui 1 • / and Greeet 

Mil' '-'/in, howed lidt taken in early summer on the Macedonian coast ol 
Greeci rhest int luded the pandora fritillary butterfly and a solitary wasp, & olio 
sp., on fioweis ol thistlei and an Bream sp pidei 

In I ML/001 BTON showed some slides taken in September in Southern France. 

n,. ■ included a paii ol mating praying mantids. a series oi pictures showed the 

i trying UJ Strikt al the male, while the male kept out ol danger by pressing 

its body closely against thi femalt abdomen fhis suggests that reports of the female's 
cannibali tit tendencies are not jusl the result ol abnormal behaviour patterns observed 
vith captivt mantids, Also shown wert pictures of large soldier-fly maggots in a 
shallow muddy pool and oi a drainagi • hannt I b< fort .md after a heavy storm. 

Mr s. Meredith showed a series ol pictures ol a shield bug nymph, possibly 
//.//A, luridusQ > feeding on a caterpillar in late July \t Bentley Woods, Wilts, 
i,, i, .1,1 photograph d a ft male sawiiy, Abio sp and a purplt i mpt roi butterfly. The 
lattei va feeding on •« cypress and pr< >umably getting honeydew from aphids. 

i <i p. Waring showed a site in Aberdeen hirt i" had surveyed to asses* the status 
of th< darl bordered beauty moth, Epione paralellario (D ftS.^ rhis was found 
in good numben in 1994 at a site when il eemedtobt associated vith regenerating 
coppiced aspen Atanothei Itt fvhert It had been recorded in the 1950* and when 
only matun aspen now occurs, tht moth was not found Hi also showed pictures 
oftht Wyt Valley, Glo*., and the scarct hool tip moth* Sabro harpagula (E*p.) thai 
i,, ,i tronghold in thi woods there. Tht Forestry Commission will be extracting 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 7: 1994 87 

conifers from the woods this winter but intend to leave most of the small-leaved lime, 
which is the larval food plant. 

Mr N. A. Callow showed a very diverse range of subjects taken in Britain and 
overseas. Some of these were close-up shots of subjects such as the claw of a stag 
beetle, a bluebottle's face and an anthocorid bug biting the photographer's skin. Some 
of Mr Callow's insects had been photographed in his compost heap or on rotting 
apples he had set out to attract suitable subjects. Some of his slides showed examples 
of insect behaviour, including an ant dragging a dead hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus 
(Deg.), a parasitic wasp laying eggs in a yellow composite flower, and a solitary bee 
occupying its tunnel in a drilled piece of wood and facing a nearby cleptoparasitic fly. 



OBITUARY 
Ian Guy Farwell 

The death is announced of Ian Guy Farwell on 26th August 1994 at the age of 
seventy-four. Ian became a member of our society in 1947, and although he was not 
often able to attend ordinary meetings he was a devotee of the Annual Exhibition, 
forming part of a group of members from the Lymington area of Hampshire who 
looked forward to the annual pilgrimage by train, when a carriage would be taken 
over and filled with bug talk and the faint ambrosial aroma of naphthalene. 

Ian was most interested in butterflies and the larger moths and in his younger days 
collected varieties keenly. His fieldcraft was rewarded with several outstanding 
butterflies of which the most notable were probably two halved gynandromorph 
Argynnis paphia (L.) taken in the New Forest in 1939, and a male and female var. 
ocellata of the same butterfly in 1941 . He also took a wonderful Lysandra bellargus 
(Rott.) at Hod Hill, a favourite collecting ground. This specimen is figured by 
Russwurm on plate 15 of the 'new' South. As time went on, Ian turned to photography 
as a way of recording the butterflies and moths which he found, building up a large 
collection of slides over the years, although he never abandoned the net completely. 

In addition to the Lepidoptera, Ian was a general naturalist of the old school with 
a particular interest in, and knowledge of birds. For many years he was a stalwart 
of the Lymington Natural History Society, leading many field trips to the local 
marshes, the Isle of Wight, and his beloved New Forest. He communicated his 
enthusiasm to many and took a particular delight in introducing newcomers to the 
New Forest; friendly evenings at his home listening to his anecdotes and swapping 
bug stories will long remain in my memory. 

His interests were varied, and included a love of classical music and an involvement 
with local parish activities and work for such organizations as the scouting movement. 
Ian lived all his life in and around Lymington and was a printer working for the local 
firm of Kings Booksellers for most of his life. He served with the Royal Hampshire 
Regiment during the War, seeing action in North Africa and Italy and bringing back 
stories of exotic insects and animals in unlikely situations. 

Ian is survived by his wife Hazel, son Peter and daughter Avis to whom we extend 
our sympathy. 

A. J. Pickles 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 88 

BENHS FIELD MEETINGS 

Tadnoll Heath, Dorset, 23 May 1993 . 

Leader: Mick Parker. Six members turned up for this meeting on a Dorset Trust 
for Nature Conservation Reserve. The conditions were fine and sunny but rather 
windy. The assembled group took the main path through the reserve which is mainly 
dry heath, leading to a small copse of birch, Betula pendula Roth, and gorse Ulex 
europaeus L., scrub which afforded some shelter from the wind. Here large numbers 
of green hairstreak, Callophrys rubi (L.), congregated. Further down the track we 
entered meadowland with cuckoo flower, Cardamine pratensis L., and meadow 
buttercup, Ranunculus acris L. being dominant with attendant orange tips. 
Anthocharis cardamines (L.) and green-veined whites, Pieris napi (L.). Unfortunately 
the wind was too strong to note anything on the swaying flowers. Sweeping became 
the order of the day but resulted in a rather disappointing list. The hoverfly list reached 
16 species, all common. The meeting ended with members dispersing to sheltered areas 
of the reserve, but no worthwhile species were taken as a result. 

Mount Caburn NNR, Glynde, Sussex, 19 June 1993 

Leader: David C. Lees. A small but diverse assemblage of members (see Fig. 1) 
turned up for the field meeting at the NNR of Mount Caburn, near Glynde, E. Sussex, 
greeted by good sunny daytime weather. This site has been monitored for butterflies 
for the last 9 years but other insects are less well known, and so it was good to 
have a mixture of beetle, moth and fly expertise. The night meeting for light 
trapping attracted just one member (Derek Coleman) in addition to the 
leader. The light was not visible from Glynde so no local interest in the goings-on on 




Fig. 1. Three members and a visitor perch on the precipitous forget-me-not covered slopes 
of Mount Caburn. Left to right: A. W. Jones, D. C. Lees, P. J. Hodge and R. A. Jones. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 




Fig. 2. Omaloplia ruricola, one of several of these small chafers found flying across the turf. 
This specimen is of the dark form, without the paler discs of the elytra. Photo: R. A. Jones. 



this iron age hill fort was stirred up, in marked contrast to a memorable 
evening in 1992 (when 'Did aliens land on Mount Caburn?' subsequently appeared 
on a Sussex Express placard). 

It was pleasing to turn up nine scarce or notable beetles, plus one RDB3 beetle, 
Smicronyx reichi (Gyll.), and one notable empid fly. The mordellid beetle Tomoxia 
bucephala Costa was neatly netted by Richard Jones as we returned to the cars just 
outside the reserve next to a house which had a quantity of felled timber. Mount 
Caburn was confirmed as one of the few Sussex sites for the phycitine pyralid Pempelia 
obductella (Zell.) spinnings being locally common among marjoram. The night was 
clear and temperatures dropped quite rapidly, only 55 species in 1 1 families being 
observed. The highlight of the night meeting was the seldom observed nocturnal flight, 
unique among British zygaenids, of males of the scarce forester moth just after 1 1 p.m. 
(Jackson, R. A. 1959. Some observations on Adscita globulariae (Hb,) the scarce 
forester: Lepidoptera (Zygaenidae), Entomologist 92: 111-115). 

Total species recorded were: Coleoptera 53 spp. in 16 families; Diptera 28 spp. 
in 8 families; Hemiptera 10 spp. in 4 families, and Lepidoptera 58 spp. in 12 families. 

In the list that follows, more interesting or notable species only are given. 
Conservation status ratings are given as appropriate. 

Coleoptera. Carabidae: Lebia chlorocephala (Hoffmannsegg) Nb. Scarabaeidae: 
Euheptaulacus villosus (Gyll.) Na, Omaloplia ruricola (F.) Nb (Fig. 2). Coccinellidae. 
Scymnus schmidti Fiirsch Nb. Chysomelidae: Cryptocephalus aureolus Suff. Nb, C. 
bilineatus (L.) Nb, Epitrix atropae Foud. Nb. Curculionidae: Trachyphloeus alternans 
Gyll. Nb, Smicronyx reichi (Gyll.) RDB3. 

Diptera. Empididae: Platypalpus leucothrix (Strobl) N. Syrphidae: Cheilosia 
impressa Loew. Conopidae: Thecophora atra (F.). 



90 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Hemiptera. Cydnidae: Sehirus luctuosus Muls. & Rey (on forget-me-not), 
Thyreocoris scarabaeoides (L.). Tingidae: Agramma laeta (Fall.) (on sedges). 

Lepidoptera. Zygaenidae: Adscita globulariae (Hiibn.). Na. Epermeniidae: 
Epermenia insecurella (Stt.). Coleophoridae: Coleophora lixella Zell. Pyralidae: 
Phycitodes binaevella (Hiibn.), Pempelia obductella (Zell.) (larvae on Origanum 
vulgare L.), Hypochalcia ahenella ([D. & S.]), Opsibotys fuscalis ([D. & S.]). 
Pterophoridae: Marasmarcha lunaedactyla (Haw.) (larva on Ononis spinosa L.). 
Geometridae: Catarhoe cuculata (Hufn.) (1), Epirrhoe galiata ([D. &. S.]), Perizoma 
flavofasciata (Thunb.), P. albulata([D. &. S.]), Eupithecia subumbrata ([D. &. S.]). 
Noctuidae: Pyrrhia umbra (Hufn.), Cucullia verbasci (L.) (larvae on Verbascum thapsus 
L.), Apamea sublustris (Esp.). 

Dinton Pastures Country Park, Berkshire, 23 April 1994 

Leaders: Paul Waring and David Young. The first field meeting of the year 
was held at Dinton Pastures in the late afternoon and evening of 23 April. 
The leaders were joined by 15 members and friends, most of whom stayed on 
from Brian Baker's very successful clearwing workshop, which was attended 
by over 40 people. We started with a walk round the park, during which trees 
and shrubs were beaten for larvae, before we retired for a most enjoyable meal 
in the local pub, the Jolly Farmer, just half a mile up the road from the entrance to 
Dinton Pastures. Afterwards the park staff provided a pick-up truck which 
greatly assisted us in reaching the less accessible parts of the park with light- 
traps, generators and other equipment. We were also supplied with walkie-talkie 




Fig. 1 Dinton Pastures nocturnal session, 23 April 1994. Left to right: Martin Harvey and Martin 
Townsend examining beating tray by light of Robinson trap, with David Gibbs onlooking, Paul 
Waring with radio and Peter Chandler pooting from light trap. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 91 

radios so that the various mothing groups could be kept informed as the moths 
arrived. The moon clouded over and the temperature at dusk was 9 °C, after 
a dry day but at 21.50 hours there was a clap of thunder and the rain began. 
We kept on trapping until the increasingly heavy rain forced us to pack up. 
As in many places at this date in 1994, numbers of moths were low, with light 
trap catches struggling to get into double figures. Only nine species of larger 
moths were recorded at light but ten more were added as larvae. Moth species recorded 
as adults included, in order of appearance, the lunar marbled brown Drymonia 
ruficornis (Hufn.), common Quaker Orthosia cerasi {¥.), Hebrew character Orthosia 
gothica (L.), early thorn Selenia dentaria (F.), frosted green Polyploca ridens 
(F.) scorched carpet Ligdia adustata (D. & S.), brindled pug Eupithecia abbreviata 
Steph., oak-tree pug Eupithecia dodoneata Guen., and small Quaker Orthosia 
cruda (D. & S). 

Species recorded as larvae included the winter moth Operophtera brumata (L.), 
green pug Chloroclystis rectangulata (L.) and early moth Theria primaria (Haw.) from 
blackthorn Prunus spinosa L., the common emerald Hemithea aestivaria (Hiibn.) 
mottled umber Erannis defoliaria (CI.), pale brindled beauty Apocheima pilosaria 
and short-cloaked Nola cucullatella (L.) from common hawthorn Crataegus monogyna 
J acq., the light emerald Campaea margaritata (L.) from field maple Acer campestre 
L., the sallow Xanthia icteritia (Hufn.) from grey willow Salix cinerea L. agg. and 
a larva of the square-spot rustic Xestia xanthographa (D. &. S.) was found on an 
unidentified grass-stem after dark. 

Peter Chandler collected some Diptera from the light traps and these are being added 
to the records for the site (see Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 7: 1 18-126). Two ground-hoppers 
Tetrix undulata (Sow.) jumped onto Gavin Boyd's sheet and one was retained and 
later identified by him. 

Aldbury Common, Hertfordshire, 11 June 1994 

Leaders: Keith Alexander and Andy Foster. A group of nine members and friends 
spent the morning on Aldbury Common and moved across to Frithsden Beeches for the 
afternoon. The day was memorable for the large numbers of the hover fly Brachyopa 
pilosa Coll. present, particularly at Frithsden, and even Brachypalpus laphriformis (Fall.) 
was plentiful at Aldbury. These are nationally scarce relict old forest species and amply 
rewarded the selection of these areas of the National Trust's Ashridge Estate as sites of 
considerable potential for such insects. The uncommon deadwood-breeding craneflies 
Ctenophora pectinicornis (L.) and Dictenidia bimaculata (L.) were also noted in both areas. 

The large old beeches and oaks of Aldbury Common also produced a good range 
of nationally scarce beetles associated with decaying timber, including Tillus elongatus 
(L.) on a standing dead beech which had lost most of its bark, Eledona agricola 
(Herbst) in the remains of the bracket fungus Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull, ex Fr.) on a 
live ancient oak, Xyleborus dryographus (Ratz.) in galleries within the bark of felled 
beech trunks, exit holes of Agrilus pannonicus (Pill. & Mitt.) in the bark of a further 
old oak, and a single Ernoporus fagi (F.) which was caught in a sweep net. Foliage- 
feeding beetles included the scarce Zeugophora subspinosa (F.) and Phytodecta 
decemnotata (Marsh.) on aspen. The most interesting soldier beetle of the day was 
Podabrus alpinus (Payk.) which appears to be the first modern record for the county. 
Other orders were not totally neglected and included brown tree ant Lasius brunneus 
(Latr.) and the sub-cortical bug Xylocoris cursitans (Fall). 

Diptera were very much the feature of Frithsden Beeches, with other orders making 
a poorer showing. In addition to the Brachyopa pilosa, Mycetophilidae were also 



92 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

particularly well-represented. Beetles did however include the uncommon Rhizophagus 
nitidulus (F.) as well as Xyleborus dryographus. 

We would like to thank the National Trust Countryside Manager Graeme Cannon 
for stimulating the visit and the Area Warden Don Otter for his company on the day. 

Nunhead Cemetery, London SE15, 9 July 1994 

Leader R. A. Jones. Two members and one visitor joined the leader on a warm 
and sunny day when ten species of common butterfly were on the wing and visiting 
flowers. Nunhead Cemetery is on the very edge of 'Surrey', VC 17, in the central 
tetrad 'M' of the 10-km square TQ37 and ironically several of these records were 
new! These included the large skipper, holly blue, green-veined white and red admiral. 
Roger Hawkins was similarly looking for new Orthoptera records and both the oak 
bush cricket, Meconema thalassinum (De Geer) and speckled bush cricket, Leptophyes 
punctatissima (Bosc) were found. Buddleja bushes attracted the large hoverfly 
Volucella zonaria (Poda) and males of V. pellucens (L.) hovered above the party. 

A small Prunus tree in a clearing seemed to be attracting a number of specimens 
of Chrysotoxum festivum (L.) to its leaves where they rested a short time, darting 
out and back again as if examining passing insects. The few specimens captured were 
males, suggesting, perhaps, that they were waiting for females. An unusual find was 
Cheilosia soror (Zett.) a scarce chalk downland species, the larvae of which have been 
reported from truffles. Nunhead's claim to fame, the Colydiid beetle Cicones undata 
Guer.-Men., associated with the sooty bark disease fungus on dead and dying 
sycamores, was present at a number of sites. Some interesting beetles found 




Fig 1. Posing in front of some overgrown Victorian monuments in Nunhead Cemetery, left 
to right: R. A. Jones, A. J. Halstead, A. W. Jones and R. D. Hawkins. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 




Fig. 2. The summer chafer Amphimallon solstitialis found roosting at a path edge on 
overhanging vegetation. Photo: R. A. Jones. 

included the longhorns Strangalia maculata (Poda) and Clytus arietis (L.), the click 
beetle Athous campyloides Newman and the summer chafer, Amphimallon solstitialis 
(L.). The Cemetery's first rubytail wasp record was for Omalus auratus (L.) and 
Andrew Halstead recorded 13 species of sawfly. 

Richmond Park, Surrey, 6 August 1994 

Leaders: Mark Parsons and Graham Collins. This meeting was the third annual 
meeting at Richmond Park and proved to be popular, with ten members and guests 
attending. Our intention was to attempt to relocate the crimson underwings {Catocala 
spp.) last recorded from the park at the end of the previous century. Large quantities 
of sugar were applied and many light traps run but, needless to say, there was no 
sign of even Catocala nupta L. (red underwing). The moths provided a few additions 
to the park list and included the migrant Rhodometra sacraria L. (vestal); Parascotia 
fuliginaria L. (waved black), still increasing its range in Surrey; Coenobia rufa Haw. 
(small rufous); and Cerapteryx graminis L. (antler), in rather greater numbers than 
is usual in the south-east of England. More interesting species amongst the 
microlepidoptera were: Pediasia contaminella Hiibn., Psoricoptera gibbosella Zell., 
and Caloptilia populetorum Zell. Probably the most spectacular catch of the evening 
were two specimens of the huge longhorn beetle Prionus coriarius L., a species only 
recorded from the park on one previous occasion this century, that last year. Other 
interesting beetles included: Tomoxia bucephala Costa, Metoecus paradoxus L., and 
Mordellistena neuwaldeggiana Panz.; the latter probably new to vice-county 17, 
Surrey. We would like to thank the park authorities for their assistance in holding 
this meeting. 



94 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Abernethy Forest RSPB reserve, Inverness-shire, 13 August 1994 

Leader: Paul Waring. This was a joint meeting with Butterfly Conservation, as 
part of their Landrover-sponsored Woodland Campaign, and also included the 
Highland Biological Recording Group. This meeting was hosted by the RSPB, whom 
the BENHS assisted in the purchase of this reserve. The meeting provided an 
opportunity for BENHS members to explore the Caledonian pine forest, birch 
woodland and heather moorland which this reserve now protects. 

During the afternoon the party of 14 explored Tulloch Moor on the southern edge 
of the forest (NH9616, altitude 200 m). The twin-spot carpet Perizoma didymata (L.) 
was numerous amongst the heathers, freshly emerged Manchester treble-bars Carsia 
sororiata (Hiibn.) and worn July belle Scotopteryx luridata plumbaria (F.) were seen. 
Three nearly full grown larvae of the light knotgrass Acronicta menyanthidis (Esp.) 
were found basking on the ling heather Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. A full-grown 
emperor moth larva Pavonia pavonia (L.), of the pink-warted rather than yellow- 
wart ed form, was seen and several larvae of the northern oak eggar Lasiocampa 
quercus callunae Palmer, two of which had died of a virus disease. Some stands of 
bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. amongst the pines Pinus sylvestris L. were searched 
for adults of the Rannoch looper Semiothisa brunneata (Thunb.), which had been 
plentiful two weeks previously, but the only moths seen in the search were numerous 
northern spinach Eulithis populata L. and July highflyer Hydriomena furcata 
(Thunb.), the larvae of which also feed on bilberry. In addition larvae of the broom- 
tip moth Chesias rufata (F.) were found by Mike Britton, on broom Cytisus scoparius 
(L.) Link growing between Nethy Bridge and the Loch Garten Osprey Centre. 




Fig. 1. The afternoon group at Abernethy Forest, 13 August 1994. Left to right: Steve Moran, 
Gordon Ramel, Stewart and Ruth Taylor, Mike Britton, Robert Hoare, Mr & Mrs Rich Austin, 
Jimmy McKellar, Gus Jones, Dr MacBean and Gary Roberts (Paul Waring behind camera). 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 95 

Micro-lepidoptera seen during the day included mines of Stigmella lapponica 
(Wocke) and S. confusella (Wood) (Nepticulidae) which were abundant on the birch 
trees on Tulloch Moor. The Yponomeutid Argyresthia goedartella (L.) was beaten 
in numbers from the birches. Two or three of the plume moth Stenoptilia pterodactyla 
(L.) were encountered by the car-park at Tulloch Moor along with the pyrale Agriphila 
tristella (D. &. S.). The Tortricoid Olethreutes palustrana (Lien. & Zell.), very much 
a northern species, was seen on the Moor. 

A single Cedestis subfasciella (Steph.) (Yponomeutidae) was disturbed from a pine 
tree in Abernethy Forest, several Epinotia ramella (L.) were flushed from birches 
and Agriphila straminella (L.) was seen amongst the trees. 

A number of beetles (Coleoptera) and bugs (Hemiptera) were recorded on the Moor, 
of which the more noteworthy were the green tiger beetle Cicindela campestris L. and 
the Carabids Carabus glabra tus Payk. and Notiophilus aquaticus (L.) the first two as 
dead remains. Fourteen species of Hemiptera were recorded including the local mirid 
Globiceps dispar (Boh.). The common lizard Lacerta vivipara Jacq. was seen and 
a predated egg-shell of the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus L. was found amongst the 
heathers (det. Stewart Taylor). 

In the grounds of Abernethy Forest Lodge (NJ020160, altitude 300 m) at the end 
of the afternoon, the local mirid bug Bothynotus pilosus (Boh.) was amongst ten 
species of Hemiptera recorded and two pupae of the silphid beetle Necrodes littoralis 
(L.) were found by Steve Moran under a brick in a small dumping area. The pupae 
were reared and an adult emerged on 19.viii. 1994. The common rhagionid fly Rhagio 
lineola F. was on the wing. 

At dusk the party was swelled by another two guests and a Robinson trap and two 
Heath traps were set up in the edge of the pine forest at Rynettin, (NJ015143, altitude 




Fig. 2. Exploring Tulloch Moor, 13 August 1994. 



96 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

320 m) where scattered silver birch Betula pendula Roth, and bilberry were present 
among the heathers. The main objective was to see if the cousin german Paradiarsia 
sobrina (Dup.) occurs in this part of the site. Four of these*moths were recorded, 
all at the Robinson trap, even though it was a cold night (5 °C at dusk and 3 °C when 
we packed up at midnight). Several grey mountain carpet Entephria caesiata (D. & 
S.), juniper pug Eupithecia pusillata (D. & S.) and neglected rustic Xestia castanea 
(Esp.) and singletons of the red carpet Xanthorhoe munitata (Hiibn.) and suspected 
Parastichtis suspecta (Hiibn.) were noted amongst other moths in the traps but the 
only moth to food bait was a single barred red Hylaea fasciaria (L.) on one of the 
wine ropes. The discovery of the cousin german among scattered old birch is of interest 
because the species is thought by some authorities to prefer areas of young regrowth, 
which was not so much in evidence here. 

Several specimens of the tortricoids Eana osseana (Scop.) and Rhopobota naevana 
(Hiibn.) were seen flying at dusk and coming to the light traps and the latter was 
also common on Tulloch Moor. The Scotch argus butterfly Erebia aethiops (Esp.) was 
present in some numbers over a wide area, especially on the edges of the forest adjacent 
to moorland, as at Rynettin. 

About 30 species from the other invertebrate orders were recorded at Rynettin, 
ranging from common ones such as the common earwig Forficula auricularia L. and 
the lacewing Wesmaelius betulinus (Strom) to the somewhat local cranefly Pedicia 
rivosa (L.) and mirid bug Polymerus unifasciatus (F.) 

Acknowledgements. I would like to thank Stewart Taylor, site manager for the 
RSPB, and Steve Moran of the Highland Biological Recording Group for their help 
in organizing this field meeting. It was part of the Butterfly Conservation Woodland 
Campaign which was sponsored by Landrover who provided a vehicle for Gary 
Roberts, one of BC's press officers, to attend the meeting and assist with local 
transport. Landrover are also sponsoring the RSPB. The meeting was featured in 
a short advance piece in the Highland and Moray edition of the Press and Journal 
of 9 August 1994. 

I would like to thank everyone who supported this meeting and made it such an 
enjoyable one. Robert Hoare determined the micro-lepidoptera, Gordon Ramel the 
hoverflies (Syrphidae) and ants (Formicidae), and Steve Moran the other invertebrates. 

The records of this meeting have been sent to: Stewart Taylor, RSPB, Abernethy 
Forest Lodge, Nethy Bridge, Inverness-shire PH25 3EF; Steve Moran and Jimmy 
McKellar, Highland Biological Recording Group, Inverness Museum and Art Gallery, 
Castle Wynd, Inverness IV2 3ED; James Stewart, local Lepidoptera recorder, 15 
Strathspey Drive, Grantown-on-Spey PH26 3EY, and Gordon Ramel, The Bug Club, 
24 East John Walk, Exeter EX1 2EW. 



ANNOUNCEMENT 



The J. V. Blachford collection of Coleoptera.— Readers of the British Journal of 
Entomology and Natural History may like to know that the ownership of this collection 
has changed. Because the University of Bath has found it difficult in recent years 
to find the resources to care properly for the Blachford Collection, the decision was 
taken earlier this year to pass the collection on to the Bristol City Museum. 

For those interested, the appropriate contact there is: Mr R. J. Barnett, City of 
Bristol Museum and Art Gallery, Queen's Road, Bristol BS8 1RL. 



BRITISH ENTOMOLOGICAL AND NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 

Officers and Council for 1995 

President: 
M. J. Scoble, B.Sc, M.Phil., Ph.D., F.R.E.S. 

Vice-Presiden ts: 

P. M. Waring, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.E.S. 
C. Hart, B.Sc. 

Treasurer: Secretary: 

A. J. Pickles, F.C.A., F.R.E.S. R. F. McCormick, F.R.E.S. 

Curator: Librarian: 

P. J. Chandler, B.Sc, F.R.E.S. I. R. Sims, B.Sc, C.Biol., M.I.Biol. 

Lanternist: Editor: 

M. J. Simmons, M.Sc R. A. Jones, B.Sc, F.R.E.S., F.L.S. 

Building Manager: 
P. J. Baker, C.Eng., F.R.H.S. 

Ordinary Members of Council: 

G. Collins I. F. G. McLean 

C. M. Drake M. K. Merrifield 
J. Firmin J. M. Muggleton 
A. Jenkins M. Parsons 

D. Lonsdale D. Young 



Contents continued from back cover 

BOOK REVIEWS 

n l Die Kafer Mitteleuropas, volume 14 (supplement volume 3), edited by G. A. Lohse 
and W. H. Lucht. R. A. Jones 

77 Invertebrate zoology, by E. E. Ruppert and R. D. Barnes. R. A. Jones 

ANNOUNCEMENTS 

42 Microlepidoptera of Middlesex: an appeal for records 
72 BENHS Expedition 

72 The Professor Hering Memorial Research Fund 
96 The J. V. Blachford collection of Coleoptera 



BRITISH JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY 
VOLUME 8, PART 2, MARCH 1995 . 



ARTICLES 

33 British species of Metopia (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) with two species new to Britain. 
N. P. Wyatt and S. J. Falk 

37 The life cycle, distribution and habits of Hypena obsitalis (Hiibn.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) 
in Devonshire. A. H. Dobson 

43 The distribution and habits of the bee Hylaeus pectoralis Forster, 1871, (Hymenoptera: 
Apidae) in Britain. G. R. Else 

49 The aculeate wasps and bees of Crow Wood, Finningley in Watsonian Yorkshire, with the 
introduction of a new national quality scoring system. M. E. Archer and J. T. Burn 

61 The moths at Carlyon Bay, Cornwall recorded 1989-1993. A. Spalding 



SHORT COMMUNICATIONS 

73 Observations of Bombus terrestris (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) feeding on honeydew. 
C. Turner 

74 Two species of Agromyzidae (Diptera) new to the British fauna. J. C. Deeming 

74 An interesting saproxylic fauna at Snelmore Common, Berkshire. K. N. A. Alexander 

75 Ephemera lineata Eaton (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae) at Reading, Berkshire. 
B. R. Baker 

76 Armadillidium pictum Brandt (Isopoda: Armadillidiidae) new to Gloucestershire. 
K. N. A. Alexander 



PROCEEDINGS AND TRANSACTIONS 

78 BENHS Indoor Meetings, 14 June to 7 November 1994 

87 Obituary of Ian Guy Farwell. A. J. Pickles 

88 BEHNS Field Meetings 

BOOK REVIEWS 

35 Die Schmetterlinge Osterreichs (Lepidoptera). Systematisches Verzeichnis mit 
Verbreitungsangaben fur die einzelnen Bundeslander, by P. Huemer and G. Tarmann. 
B. Goater 

47 The butterflies' fly-past, by C. Simson. B. R. Baker 

48 Colour guide to hoverfly larvae (Diptera: Syrphidae), by G. E. Rotheray. R. A. Jones 

59 The insects: an outline of entomology, by P. J. Gullan and P. S. Cranston. M. J. Scoble 

60 Insects: life cycles and the seasons, by J. Brackenbury. A. J. Halstead 

76 Rarity, by K. K. Gaston. M. Parsons 

Continued on inside back cover 



3 9* 5"S^ 

SEPTEMBER 1995 



ISSN 0952-7583 



Vol. 8, Part 3 



BRITISH JOURNAL OF 

ENTOMOLOGY 

AND NATURAL HISTORY 




Published by the British 

Entomological and Natural History 

Society and incorporating its 

Proceedings and Transactions 



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BRITISH JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY 

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E. S. Bradford Mrs F. M. Murphy, B.Sc. 

P. J. Chandler, B.Sc, F.R.E.S. M. J. Simmons, M.Sc. 

B. Goater, B.Sc, M.I.Biol. T. R. E. Southwood, K. B., D.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

A. J. Halstead, M.Sc. R. W. J. Uffen, M.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

R. D. Hawkins, MA. B. K. West, B.Ed. 

P. J. Hodge 



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BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 97 

A BREEDING EXPERIMENT WITH THE SMALL COPPER 

BUTTERFLY, LYCAENA PHLAEAS (L.) 

(LEPIDOPTERA: LYCAENIDAE) 

T. S. Robertson 

348a Nine Mile Ride, Wokingham, Berkshire RGU 3NJ. 

In his classic book on butterflies, Ford (1945) discussed a hypothetical case in 
which the aberration obsoleta (a known recessive) and the aberration alba (which he 
considered also probably a recessive) were mated together and then inbred to give, in 
the F 2 generation, wild-type, obsoleta, alba and the double recessive obsoleta + alba in 
a 9 : 3 : 3 : 1 ratio. 

So far as I am aware, no-one has been able to perform such an experiment. In 1989 
and again in 1991, 1 was able to carry out some small-scale breeding experiments that 
bear some resemblance to Ford's case, using wild females caught in the Wokingham 
area of Berkshire. 

In two small-scale breeding experiments on Lycaena phlaeas, the aberration 
obsoleta appeared to act as an incomplete recessive to the wild type. The aberration 
radiata appeared to be distinct from obsoleta, although their heterozygotes, 
appearing dissimilar, are both referable to partimauroradiata. The double recessive 
pallidula + radiata was obtained. 

Nomenclature 

Since the strict rules on priority in zoological nomenclature are no longer enforced 
at the level of subspecific aberrations, some names that are commonly used and 
which are reasonably descriptive of the aberrations are used. These are as follows: 

ab. obsoleta Tutt — with the hind-wing copper band absent (although some traces 
can usually be detected in the interneural spaces between the veins). 

ab. radiata Tutt — with the hind-wing copper band replaced by thin lines on the 
nervures. 

ab. partimauroradiata — with the hind-wing copper band broken up, but not as 
extreme as radiata. 

ab. alba Tutt — with the copper colour of the fore and hind wings replaced with 
silver. 

ab. pallidula Leeds — with the copper colour of the fore and hind wings replaced by 
a brassy or cream colour. 

ab. subradiata Tutt — with fine copper-coloured rays extending along the nervures 
inwards from the hind-wing copper band. 

ab. auronitens Schultz — with a copper suffusion on that part of the hind wing 
which is normally dark brown, sometimes incorporating the ab. subradiata. 

Methods 

The 1989 experiment 

A female ab. partimauroradiata (as in Plate I, Figure 1) was captured at 
Wokingham, Berks., in May 1989, and when she had laid about 50 eggs in captivity 
she was released at the point of capture. An F,, but no F 2 , was raised (Robertson, 
1990). 



98 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

The 1991 experiment 

A female showing, rather weakly, the characters partimauroradiata, subradiata and 
auronitens was captured, in rather worn condition, at Finchampstead, Berks., in June 
1991 (Plate I, Figure 1). She laid a small number of eggs and died a few days later. 
An Fj of seven adults was reared and one mating followed. An F 2 was reared, and 
the numbers of the different forms of adults were recorded. No matings were 
obtained in this generation (Robertson, 1992). 



Results 



The 1989 experiment 

The 39 F, adult offspring reared from the captured female partimauroradiata 
showed a range of variation from wild-type (with fully developed hind-wing bands) 
to obsoleta (Plate I, Figures 2-4). Twenty were referable to obsoleta, but all had 
traces of copper remaining on the hind wings. However, this was in the interneural 
spaces rather than on the nervures, which distinguishes it from ab. radiata. Most of 
the remaining 19 butterflies showed more or less reduction or breaking up of the 
bands (ab. partimauroradiata); a few showed wild-type markings. 



The 1991 experiment 

The Fj from the Pj female partimauroradiata + subradiata + auronitens consisted of 
4 male and 3 female wild-type adults. The F 2 from the single mating consisted of 37 
butterflies, none of which showed the subradiata or auronitens characters that were 
present in the P, female. However, two forms which had not been detected in the P, 
or F, occurred, separately and in combination. These were radiata (Plate I, Figure 8) 
and pallidula (Plate I, Figures 9-12). Forms with hind-wing bands varied from wild- 
type through partimauroradiata and could not be classified as such with certainty, so 
were scored as 'with bands'. Although variable, pallidula and normal copper colour 
were reasonably distinguishable and were scored accordingly. The radiata form was 
clearly distinguishable and differed from the obsoleta forms of the 1989 experiment in 
that it did not have any interneural traces of copper. Males and females were in 
about equal numbers and occurred in both varietal forms. The results of the 1991 
experiment are summarized in Table 1 . 

Table 1. The phenotypes of the F2 of the 1991 experiment with Lycaena phlaeas 



Ground colour 

Copper Brassy 


Total 




Hindwing band 
with bands 20 
bands replaced by rays 6 

Total 26 


8 

3 

11 


28 

9 

37 




The ratio 20 : 8 : 6 : 3 is achieved. This concurs with the predicted ratio of 9 : 3 : 3 : 
8.65 : 3.46 : 2.59 : 1.30). There is no statistical difference, yl (3 degrees of freedom) = 
0.95>P>0.8. 


1 (as 
= 0.52, 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 99 

Discussion 

Taken together, the two experiments suggest that obsoleta and radiata are distinct 
from one another. In their heterozygous state, both are incomplete recessives and are 
referable to partimauroradiata but still differ (Plate I, Figures 1 and 7), so this name 
can represent two different mutations. 

The 1989 experiment gave an almost exact 1 : 1 ratio for obsoleta to 'with bands' 
{partimauroradiata + wild-type) suggesting that the expression of obsoleta in the 
heterozygote is variable, and that the P, female was heterozygous for obsoleta and 
had mated in the wild with a homozygous male obsoleta. The P, cross would be 
represented by: 

Ooxoo 

The F, would then be 50% Oo and 50% oo, conforming to the result obtained. 

An alternative explanation for the F, in the 1989 experiment is that not one but 
two gene complexes were involved, with obsoleta dominant to radiata and both 
recessive to the wild-type. The cross to lead to the F, would be: 

RrOo x RRoo 

The F, would have the following genetic make-up: 

RROo RROo RrOo RrOo 
RRoo RRoo Rroo Rroo 

The gene combinations shown in the upper line would give wild-type and 
partimauroradiata, and those of the lower line obsoleta (o being dominant over r), 
again a 1 : 1 ratio as obtained in the experiment. 

As neither obsoleta nor radiata are common, their occurrence together is not 
particularly likely, and the single-gene mechanism is perhaps the more probable one. 

The 1991 experiment resembles that of Ford (1945) in some respects, except that it 
involves pallidula and radiata rather than the more extreme alba and obsoleta which 
Ford discussed. 

To get the results obtained, the cross to give the F, must have been: RrPp x RRPP 
or RrPP x RRpp. 

The following genetic make-ups, for example, could be present in the F,: 
RrPP RrPp RRPp RRPP 

In whatever combinations of R and P, the result would still produce all wild-type 
(apart perhaps for some partimauroradiata) and to get the result obtained in the F 2 
generation the F, cross would be: RrPp x RrPp. It was fortunate that with only seven 
butterflies in the F, this mating must have taken place. 

The complete genetic make-up of the F 2 would be as follows: 

RRPP RrPP RrPP rrPP 

RRPp RrPp RrPp rrPp 

RRPp RrPp RrPp rrPp 

RRpp Rrpp Rrpp rrpp 

Examination of this make-up reveals a 9:3:3:1 ratio for wild-type: 
pallidula : radiata : pallidula + radiata. 

It has been shown that both obsoleta and radiata are incomplete recessives, and 
that even in the heterozygous condition remain distinct. The brassy coloured 
pallidula is a complete recessive and is probably not the heterozygote of the silvery 
alba. The double recessive of radiata with pallidula indicates that these are non-linked 
genetically. 



100 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

The forms auronitens and subradiata, present rather weakly in the P, of the 1991 
experiment, did not appear in the Fj or F 2 , and either are not controlled in a simple 
Mendelian fashion, or, more probably, were lost when only one mating was obtained 
from the very small F, reared. 

Acknowledgements 

The valuable comments on the manuscript made by M. J. Simmons were greatly 
appreciated, as was the photography by D. E. Wilson, without which it would have 
been difficult to convey the results of this study. 

REFERENCES 

Ford, E. B. 1945. Butterflies. The New Naturalist. Collins, London, pp. 177-185, PL 29. 
Robertson, T. S. 1990. [Lycaena phlaeas L., ab. obsoleta Tutt. Exhibit at BENHS Annual 

Exhibition 1989.] Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 3: 65. 
Robertson, T. S. 1992. [Lycaena phlaeas L., abs. Exhibit at BENHS Annual Exhibition 1991.] 

Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 5: 53. 



REVIEW 

Entomological bygones or historical entomological collecting equipment and 
associated memorabilia by J. M. Chalmers-Hunt. Arch. Nat. Hist. 1994; 21: 
357-378 — Being asked to review for this journal a paper appearing in another 
journal, particularly one which was essentially a catalogue of items, has presented 
quite a reasonable challenge. Nevertheless, the equipment and other memorabilia 
associated with field entomology is a much neglected subject and, were it not for the 
genuine passions of gentlemen such as my friend Michael Chalmers-Hunt, important 
historical material such as this may well be lost for ever, save within the pages of 
ancient, dusty entomological books. One wonders how many of today's entomol- 
ogists have actually heard of a forceps net, let alone know what one looks like or how 
to use it. And who today could afford, or would even wish to use, a hand-crafted 
mahogany and brass killing bottle? 

The paper catalogues some 200 items of entomological memorabilia in the 
Chalmers-Hunt collection. They range from nets and beating trays to pooters, 
collecting boxes, setting boards and even curious light sources for attracting moths 
on dark nights. Who in his right mind would, today, wander around the local woods 
with a "bull's-eye oil-burning lantern" and seriously hope for a large "bag" of 
moths? Ah . . . those were the days (so they tell me!). 

Chalmers-Hunt is one of a diminishing breed of true collectors. Not only does he 
amass the objects of his desire, but also books, journals, manuscript catalogues, 
diaries and notebooks, equipment and, indeed, absolutely anything else that is in any 
way associated with his chosen entomological subject. In the Chalmers-Hunt 
collection, now housed at the British Museum (Natural History) [which name I shall 
continue to use until it is formally altered by Act of Parliament] we have, probably, 
the most comprehensive collection of entomological equipment. Chalmers-Hunt is to 
be congratulated not only for accumulating the material that goes to form his 
collection, but also for cataloguing it and having the good sense to ensure its survival 
by gifting it to a national, rather than a local, museum. 

C. W. Plant 



PLATE I 



A BREEDING EXPERIMENT WITH THE SMALL COPPER BUTTERFLY, LYCAENA PHLAEAS (L.) (LEPI- 
DOPTERA: LYCAENIDAE).T.S. ROBERTSON 
Figs 1 -4 Lycaena phlaeas, Berks. ,1989. 
Figs 5-12 Lycaena phlaeas, Berks., 1991. 



F, female 
partimauroradiata 



P, female 

partimauroradiata 

+auronitens 



F 2 female pallidula 



F 1 female obsoleta 



F 2 female wild type 



10 
F 2 female pallidula 



F, male obsoleta 



F 2 male 
partimauroradiata 



F 2 male 
pallidula+radiata 



F, female obsoleta 



8 
F, female radiata 



12 
F 2 male 
pallidula+radiata 



UNDERSTANDING SIZE AND PATTERN VARIATION IN MAINLAND BRITAIN PARARGE AEGERIA L. (LEPI- 


DOPTERA: SATYRIDAE). LWINOKUR 






Figs 13-17 Pararge aegeria tircis. 






Figs 18-21 Pararge aegeria oblita. 






13 


16 


19 


Low-altitude F, female 


High-altitude F, male 


F, female ex-diapause pupa 


mesoventro-s2/s5 biocellata 


cockaynei 




14°Cand16 hdaylength 






14 


17 


20 


High-altitude F 2 male 


Low-altitude F 2 female 


F, female ex-direct 


mesoventro-s2/s5 biocellata 


cockaynei 


developing pupa 




14°Cand16 hdaylength 


14°Cand16 hdaylength 


15 


18 


21 


High-altitude F 2 female 


F, male cockaynei 


F, female showing pattern 


mesoventro-s2/s5 biocellata 




modification 


+cockaynei, room temp. 




20°Cand16 hdaylength 


and winter daylength 







102 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

UNDERSTANDING SIZE AND PATTERN VARIATION IN 

MAINLAND BRITAIN PARARGE AEGERIA L. 

(LEPIDOPTERA: SATYRIDAE) 

Leonard Winokur 

School of Animal and Microbial Sciences, Reading University, PO Box 228, Reading RG6 2AJ. 

The Speckled Wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria L., is represented in England, 
Wales and N.E. Scotland by subspecies tircis Butler, and in N.W. Scotland by 
subspecies oblita Harrison (Thomson, 1980). Adult P. a. oblita are larger than P. a. 
tircis (Thomson, 1980; Brakefield & Shreeve, 1992), but latitudinal size variation 
within mainland Britain has not been extensively examined. Thompson (1952) 
reported an altitudinal cline in Snowdonia, culminating at high altitude in large, 
prominently marked specimens and designated form drumensis, but no further 
investigation into the form has been conducted. 

The present paper examines latitudinal and altitudinal size variation in the species 
within mainland Britain, comparing cohorts from S. England, low and high altitude 
in N. Wales, and N.W. Scotland, at 14°, 17° and 20°C under 16 hours (16 h) 
daylength. The environmental and hereditary factors underlying the clines, and the 
adaptive significance of the size variation, are considered. A new eyespot aberrant 
from N. Wales is characterized and the gene frequency at each altitude is estimated. 
The occurrence of ab. cockaynei Goodson (Russwurm, 1978) and 'spring brood' 
forms (Robertson, 1980a) among N. Wales P. a. tircis and P. a. oblita undergoing 
pupal diapause at 14°C is discussed, and an explanation of form drumensis is 
proposed. The present findings represent a more extensive account of P. aegeria 
specimens presented at the 1993 BENHS Annual Exhibition, and complement a 
study into clinal variation in life history traits (Sibly et al, in prep.). 

Materials and methods 

Adult P. aegeria were collected from the Isle of Appin, Scotland (56° 32' N, 
5° 24' W) on 14.viii.1992, at 50-60 m above mean sea level (amsl) (Gorswen, 
53° 13' N, 3° 51' W) and 200-220 m amsl (Hafod-y-cae, 53° 13' N, 3° 54' W), from 
the S.E. face of Tal-y-fan mountain, N. Wales, between 17-21. viii. 1992, and from the 
west of Salisbury Plain, S. England (51° 13' N, 1° 39' W) on 4.ix.l992. They were 
transferred to the laboratory 9 days after capture (Scotland), 2-6 days (Wales) or 1 
day after capture (England). 

Pairs were maintained in 2 Vz " diameter card tubs lined with untreated tissue and 
covered with fine-mesh netting secured with elastic. Adults were fed 5% vol/vol 
unmodified honey solution from cotton pads placed on the netting. Pads were 
replaced daily. When females started ovipositing on the netting and tissue, the males 
were killed. Oviposition was continued in the laboratory at 20°C. 

Ova from each female were collected daily and divided between 14°, 17° and 20°C 
constant temperature regimes under 16 hours light : 8 hours dark photoperiod 
provided by fluorescent lighting of spectral composition approximating daylight. Egg 
samples from a given female were held in 3" x 2" x 1 " transparent perspex boxes until 
hatched. Ten larvae per female per temperature (30 per female) were segregated (i.e. 
one larva per box) to similar boxes containing excess cultivated cock's-foot grass, 
Dactylis glomerata L. The 30 larvae per female were randomly collected to ensure 
that they reflected the genetic make-up of the total egg batch; the excess larvae were 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



dispersed elsewhere. Boxes containing pupating larvae were cleared of food and 
oriented so that the prepupae hung vertically. Representative adults were killed and 
preserved. 



Latitudinal variation 

At all three temperatures, adults of P. a. oblita were the largest and S. England P. 
a. tircis the smallest, indicating a progressive increase in size with distance north. 
Within each stock, adults were noticeably larger at 17° than 20°C, following the 
general tendency of ectotherms to attain greater mature weights at lower 
temperatures, and probably related to slower growth under cold (Atkinson, 1994). 
However, adults were slightly smaller at 14° than 17°C, especially in S. England tircis 
but this difference became less marked with latitude. 

In P. aegeria, the photoperiodic cue governing developmental strategy comprises 
the interval sunrise to sunset, and possibly also morning and evening twilights, 
during the first and final larval instars (Nylin et al, in press). At the latitudes 
compared here, daylengths of 16 h or more prevail through May to July, when the 
collected animals would have been larvae (Goddard, 1962). Mean daily temperature 
in 1992 declined by ~1°C per degree increment in latitude (Table 1). Given the 
temperature gradient alone, field-collected adults would be expected to be larger at 
the more northerly sampling sites, as found by Brakefield & Shreeve (1992). 
However, the persistence at each culture temperature of a latitudinal size cline in the 
adult form predicted on the basis of a latitudinal gradient in field temperature, 
suggests that developmental strategies originally governed by temperature alone have 
become genetically determined. This suggests that selection could act on individuals 
whose size is 'adaptive' in the respective environment, to build up a genetic pattern in 
which individuals attain similar sizes even when 'transplanted' to alternative 
environments, a process Waddington (1961) termed 'genetic assimilation' and 
defined as 'an increase in the importance of heredity in the extent to which a 
character is determined by heredity and by the environment'. 

The speckled wood basks in sunshine to raise body temperature to levels enabling 
flight (Shreeve, 1986). In N.W. Scotland where air temperatures are cooler (Table 1) 
and cloud cover is more prevalent (Thomson, 1980), large specimens would retain 

Table 1. Periods in 1992 comprising daylengths (sunrise to sunset, and including morning and 
evening civil twilights) or 16 h or more at the three sampling sites, and mean (±SD) daily 
temperatures (°C) at proximal weather stations over the corresponding periods. 





S. England 


N. Wales 


N.W. Scotland 




Salisbury Plain 


Tal-y-fan Mountain 


Isle of Appin 


>16h day: 


24.v-18.vii 


18.v-25.vii 


9.v-3.viii 


> 16 h day + twilights: 


30.iv-12.viii 


26.iv-16.viii 


20.iv-22.viii 




Middle Wallop 


Colwyn Bay 


Greenock MRCC 




51° 9' N, 1° 34' W 


53° 17' N, 3° 43' W 


55° 58' N, 4° 48' 




90 m amsl 


36 m amsl 


5 m amsl 


Temperature (°C) April: 


— 


10.0 ±3.4 


9.1 ±2.9 


May: 


14.0 ±6.8' 


13.5±5.9 


12.6±5.3 


June: 


15.9 ±6.5 


14.6±4.2 


15.2±4.1 


July: 


17.0±4.6 


15.7±3.7 


14.9±3.9 


August: 


18.1 ±5.1 


15.6±3.2 


14.3±3.1 



'Includes data for 30.iv.1992. 



104 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

body heat for longer thereby maximizing oviposition and mate locating activity; 
larger males may also be better at defending territories (Davies, 1978). The smaller 
size of Hampshire specimens may result from their faster larval growth (Sibly et al, in 
prep.), not only facilitated by warmer summer temperatures, but possibly adaptive in 
minimizing their period of exposure to predation, parasitism and disease (Smith et al, 
1987), and in enabling rapid population recovery following losses through drought 
(Thomas & Webb, 1984); P. aegeria is at least bivoltine throughout its British range 
(Goddard, 1962; Thomson, 1980). 

The smaller sizes of adult P. aegeria attained at 14° than 17°C, especially in the 
case of S. England P. a. tircis, would appear to violate the expected increase in size 
with cooling temperature (Atkinson, 1994). A tentative explanation is that larvae are 
less efficient at utilizing food at 14°C than 17°C. In S. England, as the season 
progresses, daylengths of 16 h or more prevail and air temperatures rise (Table 1), 
and incident sunlight enables the larvae to utilize metabolic resources efficiently. In 
N.W. Scotland, where temperatures are cooler and cloud cover is more prevalent, 
larval physiology in P. a. oblita may be adjusted to utilize metabolic resources more 
efficiently at cooler temperatures. In the present study where daylight was simulated 
by a cold light source, the metabolic efficiency of P. a. tircis at 14°C (compared to 
that at 17°C) may have been considerably more compromised in the absence of 
supplementary radiant heat. Indeed the smaller size attained by P. a. tircis at 14° 
than at 17°C despite larval growth being the more protracted at 14°C (Sibly et al, in 
prep.), would concur with this hypothesis. 

Nylin & Svard (1991), in a study of museum specimens, found that P. a. tircis in 
Sweden, showed a decrease in size with distance north; they also found a decrease in 
size northwards from central Europe. Although contradicting the findings of 
Brakefield & Shreeve (1992), Nylin & Svard (1991) argue that at more southerly 
latitudes, specimens should be larger because of the greater prevalence over the year 
of air temperatures above a critical temperature for larval growth, and hence a longer 
growing season. 

However, one might expect growth to be faster under the higher temperatures, 
resulting in smaller adults but more annual generations. Moreover, under hot 
regimes (and especially in central Europe where a more 'continental' climate prevails 
than further west), larvae may aestivate to survive food stress during drought, with 
protracted larval durations but less time spent growing. Since a number of low 
altitude N. Wales male P. a. tircis at 20°C showed larval periods of 9-10 weeks 
(compared to the norm of 4-5 weeks) yet if anything emerged lighter in weight (Sibly 
et al, in prep.), their protracted development may represent such a strategy. 
Although corresponding larval durations were undergone at 20°C by a number of 
female P. a. oblita, such 'slow' individuals emerged heavier than the faster growing 
ones (Sibly et al, in prep.) indicating a different strategy and suggesting that even 
under hot summers P. a. oblita would continue to emerge larger than English P. a. 
tircis. 

Latitudinal size trends in P. aegeria are further complicated by shifts in voltinism 
(Nylin & Svard, 1991), and where the species is multivoltine, by seasonal differences 
in climate (Robertson, 1980a). The author proposes that rather than the butterfly 
showing a simple latitudinal cline, the smallest adults result where conditions are 
most extreme. Accordingly one would expect smaller adults under Continental and 
'Arctic' than oceanic conditions. By way of example N.W. Scotland P. a. oblita enjoy 
an 'oceanic' climate with cool summers and largely frost-free winters (Thomson, 
1980). In N. Sweden P. a. tircis suffers more extreme conditions. It experiences cooler 
summers and winter temperatures that rarely rise to levels allowing larval growth 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 105 

(Nylin & Svard, 1991). Here, the species is univoltine, the larvae aestivating when 
summer temperatures are cool (rather than the adult emerging the same season) and 
pupating in the autumn (Wiklund et al, 1983). Swedish univoltine populations lie at 
the northern limit of the species range (Brakefield & Shreeve, 1992), where 
aestivation may help the larva cope with less efficient nutrient utilization, and the 
early autumn pupation may enable the animal to withstand winter frosts. Under the 
Continental conditions of central Europe where there are extremes of heat, and 
especially where associated with drought, aestivation may enable larvae to survive 
food shortages. With more oceanic regimes such as in N.W. Scotland, hot summers 
may be less prone to drought, and hence larval diapause less critical to survival. 
Indeed, the protracted development and heavier weight of 'slow' P. a. oblita at 20°C 
(compared to 'fast' P. a. tircis) (Sibly et al, in prep.), accords with this hypothesis. 
Detailed examination of the temperature ranges over which temperature, larval 
period and adult size show direct correlation (in the present study between 17° and 
20°C), of individual instar durations and dimensions, and of larval growth curves, 
would further clarify the factors determining latitudinal size trends in non-migratory 
species such as P. aegeria. 

Altitudinal comparisons 

There was no obvious difference in adult size between low and high altitude N. 
Wales P. a. tircis at any of the study temperatures. Sibly et al (in prep.) similarly 
found no significant differences in body weight (nor in other components of life 
history), suggesting that the larger size (and more extensive pale markings) of the 
high altitude 'drumensis' forms described by Thompson (1952), may have been 
simply a consequence of their having developed under cooler temperatures than their 
low altitude counterparts (Geiger, 1965; Table 1). Some features of the present N. 
Wales samples are now considered to determine further the nature of any altitudinal 
effects. 



Spot-pattern aberration 

Two of the 21 wild high-altitude females and one of the 21 wild low-altitude 
females originally taken between 17 and 21.viii.1992 displayed an eyespot or ocellus 
element (Schwanwitsch, 1935) in ventral forewing space 2 additional to that in space 
5. The phenotype does not appear to have been previously documented. Since the 
forewings correspond to the mesothoracic segment (Sibatani, 1980), it is suggested 
that the phenotype be designated mesoventro-s2/s5 biocellata ab. nov. (Plate I, Figs. 
13-15). The phenotype appeared at all three temperatures among the F, of both 
stocks and in both sexes, indicating that the allele is autosomal (i.e. not carried on the 
sex chromosomes), and since the low-altitude ab. mesoventro-s2/s5 biocellata female 
#9 yielded all wild-type F, (12 in all), also recessive; a dominant allele would predict 
at least 50% biocellata phenotypes among the F, (Falconer, 1981). 

GENOTYPE FREQUENCIES, LOW ALTITUDE. Calling the wild-type allele 
t W and the recessive biocellata allele 'b\ low-altitude female #9 was probably bb and 
the male most likely WW. Low-altitude wild-type female #5, however, yielded 9 out 
of the 30 F, of which 3 (33%) were aberrant; low altitude female #5 was probably 
Wb, and the male most likely Wb (a bb male would predict a 1 : 1 ratio of aberrant to 
wild-type). Of the 19 remaining low-altitude females, only 9 yielded an F, generation. 
These were wild-type and yielded all wild-type offspring. If these females were Wb 
they would necessarily have paired with WW males, while if WW they could have 



106 BR. i. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

paired with WW, Wb or bb males. Minimum and maximum estimates of biocellata 
allele frequency within the low-altitude parent sample can be estimated using the F[ 
results of these 11 females. Based on the assumption of 9 WWx. WW pairings (lower 
estimate) and 9 WWxbb (upper estimate) and taking into account females #5 
(Wb x Wb) and #9 (bb x WW), the following can be expected. 

Lower estimate. The lower estimate assumes 9 WWx WW, 1 Wbx Wb and 1 
bb x WW pairings, involving ( 1 x bb) + (2 x Wb) + ( 1 9 x WW) genotypes comprising 4 
'6' and 40 l W alleles, and hence a biocellata gene frequency of 4/44 (9.1%) with 3/22 
(13.6%) of individuals carrying the gene. 

Upper estimate. The upper estimate assumes 9 WWxbb, 1 WbxWb and 1 
bbxWb pairings, involving (10x66) + (2x Wb) + (10 x WW) genotypes comprising 
22 '/>' and 22 'W alleles, and hence a biocellata gene frequency of 22/44 (50%) with 
12/22 (54.5%) of individuals carrying the gene. 

GENOTYPE FREQUENCIES, HIGH ALTITUDE. High altitude meso\entro-s2\ 
s5 biocellata females #1 and #5 were most likely bb. Both yielded aberrant F, (3 out 
of 15 individuals (20%) and 11 out of 26 (42%) respectively), the male parents 
therefore having been most likely Wb (bb would predict an all aberrant F, and WW 
an all wild-type F,). The lower than expected frequency of biocellata phenotypes 
predicted from a bbxWb cross may indicate a greater mortality among bb 
genotypes. The 13 remaining females to yield F, were wild-type and yielded all wild- 
type offspring. 

Lower estimate. The lower estimate of biocellata gene frequency in the high- 
altitude population assumes 13 WWx WW and 2 bbxWb pairings, involving 
(2 x bb) + (2x Wb) + (26 x WW) genotypes comprising 6 '£>' and 54 ' W alleles, and 
hence a biocellata gene frequency of 6/60 (10%) with 4/30 (13.3%) of individuals 
carrying the gene. 

Upper estimate. The upper estimate of biocellata gene frequency in the high 
altitude population assumes 13 WWxbb and 2 bbxWb pairings, involving 
(\5xbb) + (2x H^) + (13x WW) genotypes comprising 32 l b* and 28 'W alleles, 
i.e. a biocellata gene frequency of 32/60 (53.3%) with 17/30 (56.7%) of individuals 
carrying the gene. 

Population structure and gene flow 

Since the field collected males from both altitudes displayed wild-type pattern 
when the biocellata gene is autosomal (i.e. not sex-linked), the actual gene and 
genotype frequencies in the wild populations probably lie nearer the lower estimates. 
However, the occurrence in samples from both altitudes of similar lower and upper 
estimates, suggests that individuals along the altitudinal gradient function as a single 
population. Although the sampling sites represented separate woodlands, each 
woodland was contiguous between 30 and 200 m amsl. Furthermore, maximum 
separation between these woodlands was ~400 m, yet female P. aegeria can disperse 
up to 600 m and traverse open terrain (Da vies, 1978). Thus, while genetic 
assimilation has been implicated in the evolution of high-altitude forms elsewhere 
(Shapiro, 1976), gene flow between low- and high-altitude P. a. tircis in N. Wales 
may limit such altitudinal differentiation here. 

Pupal diapause 

Among the high altitude stock at 14°C, 6 of 87 F, individuals (7%) underwent 
pupal durations greater than 28 days indicative of diapause (Lees & Tilley, 1980). Of 
these 6 high-altitude diapause pupae, 3 males and 1 female (67%) emerged as ab. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 107 

cockaynei Goodson, in which the dark underside wing areas tend to merge and 
appear more uniform, contrasting vividly with the remaining pale markings and 
eyespot pupils (Russwurm, 1978: Plate 32) (Plate I, Figs 16-17). Diapause pupae 
appeared in the low altitude stock however, only after two generations at 14°C (2 
diapause pupae, total of direct developing pupae not ascertained). 

An earlier study using S. England P. a. tircis under 16 h daylength (Winokur, 
1992), had found that the offspring of individuals reared at 18°C yielded only direct 
developing pupae at both 14° and 18°C, but that if the parents were briefly chilled as 
pupae to — 2°C, then some of the offspring reared at 14° (but not 18°C) underwent 
diapause to emerge as ab. cockaynei. Since British P. a. tircis typically form diapause 
pupae only under daylengths of 1 1 h or less irrespective of temperature (Lees & 
Tilley, 1980), it was concluded that pupal diapause and pattern modification at 14°C 
with 1 6 h daylength depended on the parents having experienced pupal frost, thereby 
implicating some parental effect. Considering again the N. Wales low altitude P. a. 
tircis, it is proposed that diapause in the F 2 at 14°C with 16 h could similarly have 
been conditioned by the parents too having developed at 14°C. While Colwyn Bay 
meteorological station (36 m amsl) recorded a July mean of 15.7°C (Table 1), higher 
altitudes would be expected to be cooler (Geiger, 1965), hence a number of the high- 
altitude parental sample (collected at 200-220 m amsl) might have developed at 14°C 
(or cooler). Higher altitudes would also be expected to suffer more prevalent winter 
frosts (Geiger, 1965), and while this would be of more direct consequence to 
individuals of generation 1 , sporadic summer frosts at high altitude cannot be ruled out. 

P. a. tircis meso\entro-s2js5 biocellata. F 2 from a high altitude F] mesoventro-s2/s5 
biocellata female reared at 20°C (female #1.4), were cultured indoors from 11.x. 1992 
in 5" diameter translucent perspex tubs, under natural daylength but away from 
direct sunlight, and replenished with cut foodplant at two-day intervals. Room 
temperature was not recorded but might be expected to be warmer than in the field. 
Only three pupae diapaused, yielding two 'early spring' form males (Plate I, Fig. 14); 
and a cockaynei female (Plate I, Fig. 15) which may have been 'forced' by indoor 
temperature. 

Diapause comparisons with subspecies oblita 

Of the P. a. oblita F, at 14°C, 36 of 52 pupae (70%) diapaused, but of 24 diapause 
adults preserved only 3 males and 1 female (17%) were ab. cockaynei (Plate I, 
Fig. 18); the remainder were typical 'early spring' forms (Plate I, Fig. 19). Direct 
developing P. a. oblita were of the late spring/summer form that typify the 2nd brood 
(Plate I, Fig. 20; Robertson, 1980a), suggesting that 'early spring' phenotype in P. 
aegeria is linked to pupal diapause; Unking of vernal phenotype to diapause is known 
in other species (Shapiro, 1976). 

Aberrant pattern in North Wales (and S. England) P. a. tircis, may have resulted 
from the 16 h daylength being atypical of times in their season when prevailing 
temperature is 14°C or less (Table 1). Hence the atypically long photoperiod may 
have 'forced' pupae that at 14°C or less would normally have been diapausing under 
shorter associated daylengths. 

At the latitude occupied by P. a. oblita on the other hand, daylengths of 16 h or 
more persist later into the season, when concomitant temperatures would be cooler 
than further south (Table 1) thereby leaving less time for the animals to complete the 
life cycle before winter. Hence in P. a. oblita, one might expect the critical 
photoperiod for pupal diapause to be shifted to longer daylengths than for more 
southern P. a. tircis (cf. Nylin et al, in press); with 16 h daylength therefore being 



108 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

closer to the normal photoperiodic cue for diapause in P. a. oblita and so less likely 
to result in aberrant wing pattern. 

Understanding ab. cocka ynei and 'drumensis' forms 

The incidence of ab. cockaynei among the respective cohorts points against 
chance genetic mutation, and suggests that development of the phenotype does not 
depend on a particular genotype per se, but rather is a structured response of the 
wing developmental physiology to a variety of atypical cytogenetic-environmental 
interactions. Several examples of cockaynei are known e.g. Rothschild-Cockayne- 
Kettlewell collection, British Museum (Natural History), and it may represent a 
'recurrent' aberration (cf. Shapiro, 1975). P. aegeria larvae often pupate in exposed 
locations and show little inclination to seek shelter (Cole, 1962), and cockaynei 
individuals may represent the progeny of animals subjected to frost as young 
pupae. The parental frost exposure might result in the progeny larva undergoing 
protracted growth, but nevertheless reaching the final instar under daylengths of 
16 h or more. While 16 h daylength would normally cue direct pupal development, 
the parental history could result in the individual undergoing atypical diapause, the 
adult possibly emerging in late autumn if temperatures permit but otherwise 
perishing as a pupa; the specimen figured by Russwurm (1978) was taken in 
November. 

Should the progeny larva not reach the final instar until later in the autumn, the 
shorter daylength itself would cue pupal diapause and associated 'early spring' 
phenotype. The parental history may further protract the diapause, so that the 'early 
spring' form thus emerges later than the usual April-May of generation 1 part i 
(Goddard, 1962) as with 'drumensis' which Thompson (1952) reported as flying 
above the tree line in June. 

In the present study, diapause individuals from high altitude P. a. tircis and 
Scottish P. a. oblita, also grew more slowly as larvae and produced heavier adults 
(Sibly et al, in prep.). Thus protracted larval development in putative 'drumensis' (P. 
a. tircis) individuals could account for their larger size. Indeed, Thompson's 
specimens may have resembled vernal P. a. oblita (Plate I, Fig. 19), for N. Wales 
P. a. tircis and P. a. oblita diapause animals showed similar pupal durations and 
male weights (Sibly et al, in prep.). 

Alternatively, drumensis may simply have constituted an unusually late generation 
1 part ii, which flies in late May/June (Goddard, 1962) and typically comprises the 
largest adults of all the broods (Robertson, 1980a). Such drumensis may have 
resembled somewhat 'late spring' P. a. oblita specimens (Plate I, Fig. 20), though 
without Thompson's specimens for comparison further field work is required to 
reliably characterize the form. Reasons for the absence of subsequent reports include 
the failure to conduct any further planned studies, and it is therefore important not 
to discount a priori the natural occurrence of 'drumensis'. Second, since its 
occurrence would appear to depend on prevailing climate, fluctuations in the 
prevailing weather between years (Shreeve, 1986) may result some years in the form 
being absent. Third, being described from atypical habitat (open grassland/moor, 
pers. obs.) where recorders are unlikely to be monitoring the species, it is liable to be 
overlooked. Finally, its June flight period means that collectors in search of fresh 
voucher specimens, and breeders in search of gravid females, would likely have 
completed their activities. 

Whether an individual undergoes a "cockaynei 1 or 'drumensis' '-type life cycle, may 
also depend on the emergence (part i or ii) from which it derived and hence the time 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 109 

available to complete larval development, and on underlying genetic differences in 
growth rate (Robertson, 1980b). Similar considerations would apply to the offspring 
of second generation individuals developing under cool summers. 

Evolutionary considerations 

P. aegeria probably reached Britain from Europe when the ice retreated after the 
Loch Lomond readvance of c. 10 000 B.P. (Dennis, 1977), though the history of 
subspecies oblita is not firmly established since the species can undergo dramatic 
changes in distribution over much briefer time scales, as within the present century 
(Barbour, 1986). However, while winter frost is rare in N.W. Scotland (Thomson, 
1980), populations colonizing the region from the south would experience cooler and 
shorter summers and correspondingly longer daylengths, possibly resulting in a 
proportion of the progeny undergoing i cockaynei and ' drumensis' life cycles. 
Individuals undergoing the normal strategy would be likely to emerge too late in the 
season to breed, but those undergoing the 'drumensis' strategy could yield progeny 
the following spring that in turn develop under a cool summer. Under such recurrent 
seasons, a strategy initially conditioned by parental effect might come to be 
intrinsically determined, and under the prevailing seasonal daylengths, show a 
concomitant shift in the critical photoperiod for pupal diapause to longer 
daylengths; although the precise mechanism by which such shifts in the 'norm of 
reaction' come about is a matter for investigation. In Scotland, P. a. tircis appears to 
be extending its range down the Great Glen from deciduous forest in the north-east 
to cooler pine forests more south-west. An examination of responses along the cline 
to particular climatic regimes could help us understand whether there is a rapid 
adaptation in the species to minor climatic shifts (Barbour, 1986). 

One of Waddington's (1961) experiments selected for l bithorax' flies (where the 
metathorax develops wings in place of halteres) produced by exposing the eggs to 
ether, but Ho et al (1983) obtained similar increases in the incidence otbithorax using 
highly inbred lines of negligible genetic variability and without applying selection; 
moreover, despite reduced fecundity and survival in bithorax. These findings appear 
to involve progressive changes in maternally imposed organization of the egg surface 
cytoplasm, which may further condition changes in nuclear gene expression (Ho et 
al, 1983). Since a study on pupal chilling in P. aegeria had shown more extreme 
development of 'cockaynei features among the F, at 14°C than in the cold-treated 
parents (Winokur & White, in prep.), comparable cytoplasmic effects could be 
involved in mediating lepidopteran evolution; although induced changes in sperm 
chromosomal DNA could represent a possible mechanism (cf. Vuillaume & 
Berkaloff, 1974). 

Vuillaume & Berkaloff, working with the large white butterfly, Pieris brassicae L., 
had found that larvae administered LSD failed to undergo the usual pupal diapause 
under daylengths of 9 h or less, but that their progeny were resistant to 
corresponding doses of the drug. They suggested that LSD activates a detoxifying 
mechanism in the parent butterfly that is passed on to its offspring. Moreover, since 
the resistance of the progeny to LSD proved greater when just the male parent had 
been treated than when the female alone had been treated, Vuillaume & Berkaloff 
suggested that inheritance of the detoxification mechanism is mediated via induced 
changes in sperm chromosome structure. 

Alternatively, adaptation might involve the process of gene amplification, in which 
multiple copies of appropriate DNA sequences are generated and incorporated 
within the genome (see Pollard, 1988). Gene amplification, for instance, is known to 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



be involved in the rapid acquisition by insect populations of insecticide resistance, 
and appears to be part of the physiological repertoire of all cells (Ho, 1988). 
Moreover, the environmental stimulus may actually stabilize those cells in which the 
appropriate genes are being amplified, in which respect the environment, rather than 
selecting for a pre-existing genetic variant, is selecting for a cytogenetic response (Ho, 
1988). For example, it was above suggested that in P. a. oblita, adult size was 
compromised to a lesser degree by rearing at 14° versus 17°C than in P. a. tircis, 
because the former had become metabolically adjusted to enable more efficient 
growth at lower temperatures. Should this have involved the amplification of genes 
appropriate for efficient nutrient assimilation and metabolism, and also present in 
P. a. tircis but in a lesser complement (as opposed to selection for a gene just 
improving metabolism at 14°C), then this would explain P. a. oblita continuing to 
attain the greater size at 17° and 20°C. However, when egg yields and fertility were 
compared, performance was severely compromised at 14°C compared to 17°C 
in P. a. oblita (Sibly et al, in prep.), the reverse of what might be expected should P. 
a. oblita be carrying the greater metabolic gene complement. An alternative 
explanation therefore, is that in S. England, where the hotter summers and more 
intense solar radiation force high metabolic rates with a concomitant risk of tissue 
damage, P. a. tircis has responded by amplifying genes appropriate for coping with 
rapid metabolic turnover. Not only would this protect such individuals from heat 
stress, but the amplified complement of metabolic genes may enhance the allocation 
of metabolic resources to other functions such as reproduction. Should this have 
involved genes also present in P. a. oblita only in lesser complement (as opposed to a 
gene enhancing performance specifically at 20°C), then this would explain P. a. tircis 
continuing to grow faster (and accordingly to produce smaller adults) yet remaining 
more fecund than P. a. oblita at also 17° and 14°C. The initial adjustment to warmer 
conditions however, would likely have required a shift in the allocation of metabolic 
resources from growth (and reproduction) to cytogenetic restructuring, leading to an 
initial loss of condition, as occurs with flax plants transplanted between culture 
media (Cullis, 1983). Indeed, it is noteworthy that among P. a. oblita undergoing 
larval aestivation at 20°C (warmer than normally experienced in the field, Table 1), a 
number of individuals showed varying degrees of wing pattern abnormality (Plate I 
Fig. 21), indicative of developmental stress. Furthermore, a shift in resource 
allocation to cytogenetic restructuring could explain why rearing at 20°C did not 
bring fecundity up to the level exhibited by P. a. tircis. However, cytogenetic 
and molecular studies will be required before firm conclusions are drawn. Such 
considerations, as well as those pertaining to the spatial and temporal heterogeneity 
of ancestral environments (Sibly & Atkinson, 1994), are particularly critical if the 
success of introduction attempts necessitating stock of disparate origin, the capacity 
of species to expand their ranges, and the impact of rapid climatic shifts as with 
global warming, are to be accurately predicted. 

Reciprocal crosses between stocks (e.g. oblita female x tircis male, tircis 
female x oblita male) with pure crosses as controls, and between cohorts reared 
under different culture regimes (e.g. 14°C female x20°C male, 20°C female x 14°C 
male) could identify more specifically the roles of maternal (cytoplasmic) effect, 
genotype, and environment, in determining life history strategy and consequently 
adult size and pattern. A high incidence of pattern abnormalities in such crosses 
might disclose nuclear/cytoplasmic incompatibilities, important in predicting the 
effects of mixing between locally adapted populations, as could occur between P. a. 
tircis and P. a. oblita south-west of the Great Glen. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 1 1 1 

Acknowledgements 

The present study was funded under Natural Environment Research Council 
(UK) small grant GR9/706, awarded to Professors Robert H. Smith and Richard M. 
Sibly. I also thank Dr Roger L. H. Dennis, Dr George Thomson, Tom Murray 
Gibson and David J. Jones for advice on field site locations, and Mrs Viv Rimmer 
and John Millard for technical assistance. Climatic data were provided by The 
Meteorological Office and Nautical Almanac Office. 

REFERENCES 

Atkinson, D. 1994. Temperature and organism size — a biological law for ectotherms? Adv. Ecol. 

Res. 25: 1-58. 
Barbour, D. A. 1986. Expansion of the range of the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria L. 

in north-east Scotland. Entomologists' Rec. J. Var. 98: 98-105. 
Brakefield, P. M. & Shreeve, T. G. 1992. Diversity within populations. In Dennis, R. L. (Ed.). 

The ecology of butterflies in Britain. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 178-216. 
Cole, L. R. 1962. Autumn pupae of Pararge aegeria (L.) (Lep., Satyridae) in a natural 

environment. Entomologist's Mon. Mag. 98: 179. 
Cullis, C. A. 1983. Environmentally induced DNA changes in plants. CRC Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 

1: 117-131. 
Davies, N. B. 1978. Territorial defense in the speckled wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria): the 

resident always wins. Anim. Behav. 27: 961-962. 
Dennis, R. L. H. 1977. The British butterflies: their origin and establishment. Classey, Faringdon. 
Falconer, D. S. 1981. Introduction to quantitative genetics. 2nd Edition. Longman, London. 
Geiger, G. 1965. The climate near the ground (Translated by Scripta Technica Inc.). Harvard 

University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
Goddard, M. J. 1962. Broods of the speckled wood (Pararge aegeria aegerides Stgr.) (Lep. 

Satyridae). Entomologist 95: 289-307. 
Ho, M.-W. 1988. On not holding nature still: evolution by process, not by consequence. In: Ho, 

M.-W. & Fox, S. W. (Eds). Evolutionary processes and metaphors. John Wiley and Sons, 

Chichester, pp. 117-144. 
Ho, M.-W., Tucker, C, Keeley, D. & Saunders, P. T. 1983. Effects of successive generations of 

ether treatment on penetrance and expression of the bithorax phenocopy in Drosophila 

melanogaster. J. Exp. Zool. 225: 357 368. 
Lees, E. & Tilley, R. J. D. 1980. Influence of photoperiod and temperature on larval 

development in Pararge aegeria (L.) (Lepidoptera: Satyridae). Entomologist's Gaz. 31: 

3-6. 
Nylin, S., Gotthard, K., Wickman, P.-O. & Wiklund, C. (in press). Life cycle regulation and life 

history plasticity in the speckled wood butterfly: are reaction norms predictable? Biol. J. 

Linn. Soc. 
Nylin, S. & Svard, L. 1991. Latitudinal patterns in the size of European butterflies. Holarctic 

Ecol. 14: 192-202. 
Pollard, J. W. 1988. New genetic mechanisms and their implication for the formation of new 

species. In Ho, M.-W. & Fox, S. W. (Eds). Evolutionary processes and metaphors. John 

Wiley and Sons, Chichester, pp. 63-84. 
Robertson, T. S. 1980a. Seasonal variation in the Pararge aegeria (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: 

Satyridae): a biometrical study. Entomologist's Gaz. 31: 151-156. 
Robertson, T. S. 1980b. Observations on Pararge aegeria (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Satyridae) 

in 1979. Entomologist's Gaz. 31: 211-213. 
Russwurm, A. D. A. 1978. Aberrations of British butterflies. Classey, Farringdon. 
Schwanwitsch, B. N. 1935. Evolution of the wing-pattern in palaearctic Satyridae III. genus 

Pararge and five others. Acta Zool. 16: 145-281. 
Shapiro, A. M. 1975. Natural and laboratory occurrences of "elymC phenotypes in Cynthia 

cardui (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). J. Res. Lepid. 13: 57-62. 
Shapiro, A. M. 1976. Seasonal polyphenism. Evol. Biol. 9: 259-333. 



112 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Shreeve, T. G. 1986. The effect of weather on the life cycle of the speckled wood butterfly 

Pararge aegeria. Ecol. Ent. 11: 325-332. 
Sibatani, A. 1980. Wing homoeosis in Lepidoptera: a survey. Dev. Biol. 79: 1-18. 
Sibly, R. M. & Atkinson, D. 1994. How rearing temperature affects optimal adult size in 

ectotherms. Functional Ecol., 8: 486-493. 
Sibly, R. M., Winokur, L. & Smith, R. H. (in prep.). Interpopulation variation in phenotypic 

plasticity in the speckled wood butterfly (Parage aegeria L.). 
Smith, R. H., Sibly, R. M. & Mailer, H. 1987. Control of size and fecundity in Pieris rapae: 

towards a theory of butterfly life cycles. J. Anim. Ecol. 56: 341-350. 
Thomas, J. A. & Webb, N. 1984. The butterflies of Dorset. Dorset Natural History and 

Archaeological Society. 
Thompson, J. A. 1952. Butterflies in the coastal region of North Wales. Entomologist's Rec. J. 

Var. 64: 161-166. 
Thomson, G. 1980. The butterflies of Scotland — a natural history. Croom Helm Ltd, London. 
Vuillaume, M. & Berkaloff, A. 1974. LSD treatment of Pieris brassicae and consequences on 

the progeny. Nature 251: 314-315. 
Waddington, C. H. 1961. Genetic assimilation. Adv. Genet. 10: 257-294. 
Wiklund, C, Persson, A. & Wickman, P.-O. 1983. Larval aestivation and direct development as 

alternative strategies in the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria, in Sweden. Ecol. Ent. 

8: 233-238. 
Winokur, L. 1992. Stable changes in voltinism strategy and their implications. Nota Lep. Suppl. 

4: 36-56. 
Winokur, L. & White, R. J. (in prep.). Wing pattern variation in Pararge aegeria L. 

(Lepidoptera: Satyridae): natural selection or constructive reciprocity? 



SHORT COMMUNICATION 



Swammerdammia compunctella H.-S. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), in Merthyr 
Tydfil, Glamorgan, S. Wales. — Whilst curating G. Fleming's collection of 
Lepidoptera (accession number NMW. 1927.644) in the National Museum of Wales, 
Cardiff, I came across a series of Swammerdammia that he had named as 5". caesiella 
(Hiibn.). The series was collected from the area of Merthyr Tydfil between 1920 and 
1926, in the months of June and July. Of the twenty specimens, 18 were 
re-determined by myself as S. albicapitella (Scharf), and the remaining two as 
S. compunctella (H.-S.). My determinations were confirmed by David Agassiz at the 
1994 BENHS exhibition. 

It would appear that S. compunctella has not previously been recorded in 
Glamorgan (VC41), and possibly not even from Wales (Agassiz, 1987). It would 
therefore be useful to search for the larvae in the spring on young Rowan trees. 

It is also worth noting that the G. Fleming collection contains a great number of 
micro-Lepidoptera, mostly from South Wales, the records of which have probably 
never been published. 

The full data from the two specimens are: Merthyr Tydfil, 22. vi. 1925, and Merthyr 
Tydfil 25.vi.1926.— D. J. Slade. c/o National Museum of Wales, Cathays Park, 
Cardiff CF1 3NP. 

REFERENCE 

Agassiz, D. J. L. 1987. The British Argyresthiinae and Yponomeutinae. Proc. Trans. Br. Ent. 
Nat. Hist. Soc. 20: 1-26. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 113 

TWO NEW SPECIES OF MEGASELIA (DIPTERA: PHORIDAE) 

FROM EUROPE 

R. H. L. Disney 

Field Studies Council Research Fellow, University Museum of Zoology, Downing Street, 

Cambridge CB2 3EJ. 

The genus Megaselia Rondani is the largest in the family Phoridae, probably 
including more than half the species of the present-day phorid fauna. Not only the 
boundaries of the genus but also the recognition of the species is still far from 
satisfactory. The problems and the identification literature for the world are reviewed 
elsewhere (Disney, 1994). The present priority is to characterize clearly the males and to 
provide illustrations of the male hypopygia. The most recent treatment of European 
species is a key to the males of species recorded from the British Isles (Disney, 1989). 

This paper describes two new species, which were collected in Germany and were 
sent to me by Dr Sabine Prescher and Dr Gisela Weber. In addition the male 
hypopygia of two poorly known species are illustrated. 

The specimens have been mounted on slides in the standard manner recommended 
for male phorids (Disney, 1983, 1994). The type material has been deposited in the 
Cambridge University Zoology Museum. 

Descriptions of species 
Megaselia haraldlundi sp. no v. 

Type locality, Germany, near Adenau. 

Type material, holotype male, Germany, Eifel mountains, Nordrhein-Westfalen, 
near Adenau, 20.v-3.vi.1990, in emergence trap in spruce forest. Leg. Mechthild 
Engel, deposited in Cambridge University Museum of Zoology; 1 male paratype 
with holotype. 

Etymology. The species is named after Harald Lund. 

Diagnosis. Lower supra-antennal bristles strong, but a little shorter than upper 
pair, frons dull, labella with only sparse spines below, palps largely pale yellow, two 
notopleural bristles, scutellum with two hairs and two bristles, mesopleuron bare, 
epandrium with more than 20 hairs on left side, anal tube a little shorter than 
epandrium and brownish yellow, hairs of proctiger slightly more robust than those 
on cerci, hypandrial lobes with short hairs, legs mainly pale yellowish brown with 
darker apex to hind femur, hairs below basal half of latter longer than those of 
anteroventral row of outer half, hind tibia without differentiated anterodorsals, 
costal index about 0.47, costal section 1 longer than sections 2 + 3, costal cilia long, 
vein Sc free, haltere knob essentially yellow. 

Description (male only) 

Frons brown, with bristles positioned as Fig. 3. The lower supra-antennals are 
robust but a little shorter and more slender than the upper pair. Four bristles on 
cheek and four stronger ones on jowl. Frons with dense microtrichia (i.e. dull) and 
50-60 hairs. Palps pale yellow very lightly tinged brown and with seven bristles, the 
longest being at most 0.09 mm long. The brown, subglobose, third antennal segment 
somewhat large (greatest diameter 0.16 mm). Arista brown, the basal segments about 
2.5 x as long as broad, the first being fractionally longer, and swollen basal section of 



114 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

third segment being just over 3 x as long as broad. Pubescence of third segment short. 
Proboscis pale dusky yellow, including labrum, whose greatest breadth is about 
0.1 mm. Labella a little expanded, but with only a few scattered pale spines below 
apart from dense patch apicolaterally. Thorax brown, being darkest on top and more 
chestnut on sides. Each side of scutum with a humeral, two notopleurals, an intra- 
alar, a postalar and a prescutellar dorsocentral bristle. Scutellum with an anterior pair 
of hairs, at most as strong as those at rear of scutum, and a posterior pair of bristles. 
Mesopleuron bare. Abdomen with brown tergites with scattered short hairs, which 
are a little longer posterolaterally on 1-5, especially on 2. Posterior row of tergite 6 
much stronger and longer (Fig. 1). Internally with four rectal papillae. Venter 




Figs. 1-2. Megaselia, left faces of male hypopygia: (1) M. haraldlundi; (2) M. intercostata. Scale 
bars = 0.1 mm. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 115 

pale greyish yellow, but with darker transverse bands on flanks below sides of tergites. 
Ventrally with scattered hairs on segments 3-6, the longest being at rear of 6 in the 
middle. Hypopygium with brown epandrium, paler hypandrial lobes, a pale brownish 
yellow anal tube, and as Fig. 1 . 

Legs pale yellowish brown, with darker brown at apex of hind femur and along 
dorsal face of hind tibia. All five fore tarsal segments with a well-developed 
posterodorsal hair palisade. Front metatarsus more than 5 x as long as broad. Dorsal 
hair palisade of middle tibia extends three-quarters of its length. At least six of the hairs 
below basal two-thirds of hind femur are longer than those of anteroventral row in 
distal half. Hind tibia with about a dozen differentiated posterodorsal hairs, of which 
the seven lowest are more spine-like. The dorsal hair palisade is deflected onto anterior 
face just before last posterodorsal spine. Spines of apical comb of posterior face all 
simple. Wing 1.8-1 .9 mm long. Costal index 0.47. Costal ratios 3.17-3.35:1.84- 
1.85 : 1. Costal cilia 0.13-0. 14mm long. Veins yellowish to brownish grey. Membrane 
lightly tinged brownish grey. Vein Sc clearly ending before reaching R,. A small hair at 
base of vein 3. Axillary ridge with four bristles, the outermost being as long as costal 
cilia of section 3. Vein 4 originates just beyond fork of vein 3. Haltere with brown stem 
and pale yellow knob, which may be lightly tinged grey. 

Similar species 

In the keys to British Megaselia (Disney, 1989) this species readily runs to couplet 
225 and then by a return loop to couplet 159 and to M. septentrionalis (Schmitz). 
This species and M. haraldlundi are evidently sibling species. The latter tends to be a 
little smaller and with much paler legs and palps. The size difference is best indicated 
by the length of the hind femur, which is less than 0.85 mm in M. haraldlundi, but 
more than this in M. septentrionalis. The hypopygia are similar (cf Fig. 1 with fig. 398 
in Disney, 1989), but differ in small details. For example the hairs of the 
posterolateral extremity of the left side of the epandrium below the anal tube of 
M. haraldlundi are the shortest hairs, but in M. septentrionalis the hairs in this 
position are among the longer hairs on the side of the epandrium. The anterior 
scutellars are stronger in M. septentrionalis. 

Megaselia septentrionalis was originally described from a single female (Schmitz, 
1919). A male was included in the keys of Schmitz & Delage (1981), but the description 
is cut off in mid sentence, after the characterization of the antenna; this work having 
remained unfinished ever since. The inclusion in the key to British species, therefore, 
provides the best available published characterization of the male of this species. 

Megaselia intercostata (Lundbeck, 1921) 

Material examined, 1 male, Germany, Thuringen, Apfelstadter Ried nature 
reserve, 1-1 5. vi. 1985. Leg. Jorg Weipert. 

Lundbeck (1922) provides a description, with a figure of the wing, of this species. 
The male hypopygium is depicted in Fig. 2, a suitable specimen for illustration 
having not been available when writing the key to British Megaselia (Disney, 1989). 

Megaselia jameslamonti sp. nov 

Type locality, Germany, Thuringen. 

Type material, holotype male, Germany, Thuringen, Apfelstadter Ried nature 
reserve, 12— 26.ix.1985, moist meadow with Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop., Salix and 



1 16 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Populus, in yellow bowl-trap. Leg. Jorg Weipert, in University Museum of Zoology, 
Cambridge, England. 

Etymology. The species is named after James Lamont. 

Diagnosis. Lower supra-antennal bristles subequal to upper pair, frons dull, palps 
brown, three notopleural bristles, scutellum with two hairs and two bristles, 
epandrium with less than a dozen hairs on left side plus one longer bristle-like hair, 
anal tube pale brown and clearly longer than epandrium, hairs of proctiger little if 
any stronger than hairs of cerci, left lobe of hypandrium very short, it and right lobe 
with short hairs, legs mainly brown, hairs below base of hind femur longer than those 
of anteroventral row in distal half, hind tibia without differentiated anterodorsal 
hairs, costal index 0.48-0.49, costal section 1 longer than sections 2 + 3, costal cilia 
short, vein Sc free, haltere knob brown. 




Figs. 3-6. Megaselia males. (3) M. haraldlundi frons, with bristles represented by basal sockets 
only; (4) M ' . jameslamonti frons; (5) M. teneripes, posterior face of hind femur and tibia; (6) M. 
teneripes frons. Scale bars = 0.1 mm. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 117 

Description (male only) 

Frons brown, with bristles positioned as Fig. 4. The lower supra-antennal bristles 
subequal to upper pair. Three bristles on cheek and two stronger ones 
on jowl. Frons with dense microtrichia (i.e. dull) and 54-60 hairs. Palps brown, 
with a very short vestigial basal segment. Distal segment a little inflated in basal 
half and with 8-9 differentiated bristles, the longest being 0.11mm in length. 
The brown, subglobose, third antennal segment large (greatest diameter 0.16 mm). 
Arista brown and short-haired. Labrum pale brown, its greatest breadth about 
half diameter of third antennal segment. Labella relatively narrow, pale whitish 
yellow but tinged pale brown above, with only a few scattered pale spines 
below. 

Thorax brown to almost black on top. Each side of scutum with a humeral, 
three notopleurals, an intra-alar, a postalar and a prescutellar dorsocentral 
bristle. Scutellum with an anterior pair of fine hairs (shorter and finer than 
those at rear of scutum) and a posterior pair of bristles. Mesopleuron with 11-12 
hairs and a bristle at hind margin that is longer than anterior notopleural bristle. 
Abdominal tergites brown with scattered short hairs, which are a little longer at 
hind margins. Venter brownish grey with scattered hairs below on segments 3-6. 
Hypopygium with brown epandrium and hypandrium apart from paler posterior 
lobe of right side, with a paler brown anal tube, and as Fig. 7. 

Legs brown, but tarsi and front tibia paler, being pale yellow lightly tinged brown. 
All five fore-tarsal segments with a well developed postero-dorsal hair palisade. 
Front metatarsus a little thickened, being about 4.5 x as long as greatest breadth, 
and ventrally with a single longitudinal row of differentiated truncated hairs. Dorsal 
hair palisade of middle tibia extends only about 0.6 of its length. Five or six 
hairs below basal half of hind femur are longer than those of anteroventral row 
in distal half. Hind tibia with about 14 differentiated posterodorsal hairs, the 
six or seven in middle being the most robust. The dorsal hair palisade is deflected a 
little onto anterior face from position of penultimate posterodorsal hair. 
Spines of apical comb of posterior face all simple. Wing 1.59 mm long. Costal index 
0.48-0.49. Costal ratios 4.10:2.05:1. Costal cilia 0.08-O.09mm long. Veins grey 
to yellowish grey. Membrane only lightly tinged grey. Vein Sc fades away before 
reaching Rj. No hair at base of vein 3. Axillary ridge with two, well spaced, 
bristles, the outermost being longer than costal cilia of section 3. Vein 4 originates at 
or just beyond fork of vein 3, but its base is obscure. Both stem and knob of haltere 
brown. 



Similar species 

In the keys to British species (Disney, 1989) M. jameslamonti runs to couplet 
48. Neither lead applies, although lead 2 is to be preferred. If one proceeds 
it runs to couplet 58 and then by a return loop to couplet 47; neither lead applies, 
because of the details of the hypopygium. A note at couplet 48 directs one to 
couplet 60, if neither lead of 48 applies. It will then run readily to couplet 126,but 
neither lead applies because of its long anal tube. In the keys of Schmitz 
(1957a) M . jameslamonti will run to couplets 19-22 on page 432. The species covered 
by these couplets are also included in my keys to British species except for 
M. intonsa Schmitz. The latter resembles M. jameslamonti but it has a shorter costal 
index, different costal ratios, longer costal cilia, and differences of detail in the 
hypopygium. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 




Figs. 7-8. Megaselia, left faces of male hypopygia. (7) M.jameslamonti; (8) M. teneripes. Scale 
bars = 0.1 mm. 



Megaselia teneripes Schmitz, 1957b 

Material examined, 1 male in Museum Koenig, Bonn, labelled "Dolomiten 
grasteilenpaB. S. Hang + 2540 m, 3/7/56 Klebelsberg" (or perhaps "Klobolsberg") 
"Meg. teneripes". 

Schmitz (1957b) described a single female from the Spanish Sierra Nevada. The 
hitherto undescribed male has been remounted on a slide and is characterized below. 
The male closely resembles the female in its overall brown coloration and slender 
femora and tibiae (e.g. Fig. 5). The frontal bristles are disposed as in Fig. 6. The 
brown labrum much narrower than greatest diameter of third antennal segment (0.09 
and 0.17 mm respectively). The brown labella relatively short and narrow, with only 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 119 

a few pale spines below. The hypopygium as Fig. 8. As in the female, there are only 
two notopleural bristles. There is no notopleural cleft. Anterior scutellars reduced 
to small hairs, at most as long as hairs at rear of scutum. Apical comb on posterior 
face of hind tibia with all spines simple (Fig. 5). Wing similar to female (fig. 8 in 
Schmitz, 1957b), with strong vein Sc reaching and fusing with R,. A minute hair at 
base of vein 3. Six well developed bristles on axillary ridge. 

Similar species 

In my keys (Disney, 1989) the male of M. teneripes runs to couplets 273 and 274. 
The details of the hypopygium and slender hind femora will readily distinguish it 
from the species of these couplets. 

Acknowledgements 

I am grateful to Dr H. Ulrich (Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und Museum Koenig, 
Bonn) for the loan of the specimen in his care and for his hospitality during a visit 
to Bonn. My work on Phoridae is currently funded by a grant from the Leverhulme 
Trust (London), made to Dr W. A. Foster for a Research Associate, and a grant 
from the Isaac Newton Trust (Trinity College, Cambridge). 

The new species are named after Harald Lund and James Lamont, who responded 
to an appeal for funds made by our local church 

REFERENCES 

Disney, R. H. L. 1983. Scuttle flies Diptera Phoridae (except Megaselia). Handbk Ident. Brit. 

Insects 10(6): 1-81. 
Disney, R. H. L. 1989. Scuttle flies Diptera Phoridae genus Megaselia. Handbk Ident. Brit. 

Insects 10(8): 1-155. 
Disney, R. H. L. 1994. Scuttle flies: The Phoridae. Chapman & Hall, London. xii + 467pp. 
Lundbeck, W. 1921. New species of Phoridae from Denmark, together with remarks on 

Aphiochaeta groenlandica Lundb. Vidensk. Meddr. Dansk. Naturh. Foren. 72: 129-143. 
Lundbeck, W. 1922. Hypocera, Phoridae. Diptera Danica 6: 69-455. 
Schmitz, H. 1919. Uber einige Phoriden der Oldenbergschen Sammlung. Ent. Ber. Ned. Ent. 

Ver. 5: 185-196. 
Schmitz, H. 1957a. Phoridae. In: Lindner, E. (Ed.). Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region 

4(33) (Lieferung 196): 417^64. 
Schmitz, H. 1957b. Zoologisch-systematische Ergebnisse der Studienreise von H. Janetschek 

und W. Steiner in die spanische Sierra Nevada 1954. IV. Phoridae (Diptera). Sber. Ost. 

Akad. Wiss. 166(5 + 6): 231-247. 
Schmitz, H. & Delage, A. 1981. Phoridae. In: Lindner, E. (Ed.). Die Fliegen der palaearktischen 

Region 4(33) (Lieferung 325): 665-712. 



LETTER TO THE EDITOR 



Capital letters for English names. — Both of us were wondering about the Journal's 
policy regarding the use of capital letters. We know that you are keen to avoid 
moving towards the German position, where every noun is capitalized, and we both 
heartily agree with this policy. Where we are unsure concerns the titles of articles 
which we are quoting. If an author used capitals in a paper or book title and we are 
quoting such a publication, we feel that we should use capitals exactly as he did. 
Similarly, in our paper {Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 7: 59-65), we quote Sladen who referred 



120 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

to Bombus ruderatus as the 'Large Garden Humble-bee' we would like to think that 
Sladen's original usage might have been allowed to stand (as indeed it has). 

Regarding the English names of wild flowers: originally when, we wrote the paper, 
we used capital letters in both parts of the English binomial, e.g. "Deadly 
Nightshade", "Long-stalked Orache", "Lesser Water-plantain" and "Narrow- 
leaved Everlasting-pea". This system is recommended in the English names of wild 
flowers, by J.G. Dony, S.L. Jury and F. Perring (2nd edn, B.S.B.I., 1986). This 
system is used to distinguish between a specific identification, e.g. "Spear Thistle", 
Cirsium vulgare, and the general name "thistle" which could refer to various 
members of several genera. 

We hope you will not think us presumptuous in writing on this matter, but wonder 
whether the current policy might be in need of a rethink. — Stuart Roberts, 22 
Belle Vue Road, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP1 3YG and George Else, Department of 
Entomology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD. 



Reply from the Editor. — Capital letters are overused and often misused, and I must 
admit that I have come down rather hard on them. In most cases, however, capital 
letters serve no purpose and often interrupt the flow of thought when one is reading a 
sentence. But to take the points in order. 

Capital letters can be used to good stylistic effect on the cover and title page of a 
book — take for example the Society's own book on hoverflies. However, when 
quoting this publication in text or in a reference list, a decision must be made which 
words to capitalize. Examination of the original book is useless, since all the letters of 
the book's title are capitals. It would be daft to list the book as it appears on its own 
title page with six words totalling 49 capital letters. Similarly, the title of the article 
by Else and Roberts is composed entirely of upper case letters in the original, but in 
quoting it in a reference list, this would not be followed. 

It may be seen as ironic that the reference style of the Journal, occasionally 
reproduced on the inside back covers, suggests that article and book titles should 
carry only initial captial letters for the first word while journal titles have all words 
capitalized. This is especially ironic since the "World List" suggests journal titles 
should have lower case for adjectives and hence "Br. J. Ent. nat. Hist.'" However, the 
current practice (Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist.) is regarded as "more modern" by scientific 
publishers. 

Whether or not other authors have used capital letters is no guide to how we 
should use them now. At certain periods, and in certain popular books, capital letters 
are used with abandon for all and sundry. However, I am intrigued to discover that 
botanists have adopted an "official" system. 

What should entomologists do? Faced with names such as small white and large 
white, it might be suggested that they deserve capital letters whereas the general term 
"white" does not. But then what of the peacock butterfly? The birds peahen, peacock 
and peafowl do not ordinarily take capital letters, so why should the butterfly? 

At present, I have adopted a style in which capital letters are zealously guarded 
against unless truly a "proper" noun. Thus New Forest burnet, Portland ribbon 
wave and Roesel's bush-cricket. However I recently came unstuck on the cousin 
german moth, initially capitalizing it as a cousin from Germany, until it was pointed 
out to me that it was a corruption of the French cousin germain, meaning simply a 
first cousin. 

Having said all this, I would be interested to hear the opinions of readers. — 
Richard A. Jones, 13 Bellwood Road, Nunhead, London SE15 3DE. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 121 

THE DIPTERISTS' FORUM: A MODEL FOR OTHERS TO FOLLOW? 

Alan E. Stubbs 

181 Broadway, Peterborough, Cambridgeshire PE1 4DS. 

One of the features of recent decades has been the proliferation of invertebrate 
recording schemes. Some of these are very active, providing the support that is 
needed in terms of assistance with identification, new keys, field meetings and other 
events that bring people together, and in particular, newsletters that maintain 
enthusiasm for a common purpose. 

Directly or indirectly, various new societies have been generated. The Balfour 
Brown Club (water beetles) is a prime example. The British Dragonfly Society grew, 
in large part, out of the success of the dragonfly recording scheme. Apart from 
insects, one only has to look at the BRC atlas on terrestrial and freshwater molluscs 
to appreciate what a dynamo recording has been in the Conchological Society, and 
the British Arachnological Society was begun by enthusiasts for recording in the 
field. 

A further element in this growth has been the increasing range of identification 
keys and books that have opened up taxonomic groups that were previously fraught. 
With groups such as butterflies, dragonflies and grasshoppers, which are suitable for 
the general naturalist (including ornithologists suffering from boredom in the mid- 
season lull in birds), the relationship between good books and adherents is obvious. 
One only has to look to moths to see this effect. A decline in popularity followed a 
decline in plate quality in the last edition of the book by South, and the marked rise 
in popularity followed publication of better illustrated books. 

On the back of this enthusiasm for insects, conservation has become a growing 
concern. Butterfly Conservation has gained a large membership, taking the lead with 
the butterfly recording scheme, whilst the British Dragonfly Society, with its 
recording base, is developing its own conservation role. 

So where does this leave a long-standing traditional society such as the BENHS? 
In my own experience, from virtual isolation as an entomologist, it was a revelation 
to attend a 'South London' meeting in 1966 and find such activity going on, 
unbeknown to me, only half a mile from my office. Since that date, lures for 
allegiance from recording schemes and new societies have arisen, yet, apart from 
Lepidoptera, the Society is becoming less and less central to the action. The Society 
has taken no lead in recording, or for that matter conservation, which are the two 
main growth points in entomological activity. The chances are that the isolated 
entomologist of today will discover recording schemes, or conservation orientated 
societies, and not the BENHS. 

The move to Dinton Pastures was from the outset seen as providing new 
opportunities, such as the workshop meetings and open days at the weekend for 
access to the collections and library. Many of us hope that other opportunities can be 
found that will increase the relevance of the Society to entomologists. 

As regards Diptera, the Society already has about 80 members who are solely 
dipterists or include flies in wider entomological interests. The Society has published 
British hoverflies, which has been a success in stimulating study of these insects and 
focused attention on the Society, including drawing in more dipterists as members. 
The BENHS journal has published papers on Diptera and some dipterists have 
played a prominent role in the society, not least Peter Chandler as Curator. 
However, the main action, centred on recording schemes, has been outside the 
Society. 



122 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Hence at a time when the dipterists find it necessary to set up their own 'society', 
the concept of affiliation to BENHS as the Dipterists' Forum has emerged as an 
option with considerable merits. 

THE DIPTERISTS' FORUM 
Origin of concept 

After 21 years, the Diptera recording schemes have reached the point where a 
formal organization has become essential. To the present we have managed to get all 
our circulars and newsletters produced free but at long last we have had to face up to 
collecting subscriptions, and there are other previously free services to be covered. 
Hence we have to set up an administration and also spread the tasks more equitably. 
Thus we may as well go the full hog and form a society. 

This was discussed at the recording schemes annual meeting in November 1993. 
Whilst there was support for starting a society there was also considerable concern at 
this further step in fragmenting entomology into isolated disciplines. Quite a few 
dipterists have wider entomological interests. Hence it was put to the meeting that we 
should consider affiliation with a parent national society, with BENHS as the most 
compatible option. Since various other recording groups watch for how the dipterists 
operate, it was possible that this could start a momentum towards bringing 
entomology together again. 

A small working party was set up which produced a consultation document for 
scheme organizers, outlining the implications and options. With unanimous support, 
the relevant parts of the consultation document were sent to BENHS Council to seek 
affiliation. A meeting was held at Dinton Pastures in April 1994 to discuss the 
implications with representatives of Council, and having clarified various points, 
Council agreed to affiliation at its July meeting. The Forum held its inaugural AGM 
in November 1994 and is now functioning as intended. 

Objectives 

(a) To foster the study of Diptera, linking with other disciplines where there is a 
relationship with other animals and plants. 

(b) To promote recording of all aspects of the natural history of flies, including the 
advancement of distribution mapping. 

(c) To encourage and support amateurs, in harmony with professionals in 
museums, institutes and universities. 

(d) To promote conservation of flies. 

(d) To organize indoor meetings, workshops, field meetings and other relevant 
events. 

(0 To disseminate news and information via newsletters and publications. 

(g) To focus on the flies of the British Isles, whilst maintaining an interest in 
Europe and elsewhere. 

Our journal, Dipterists Digest, has an increasing list of foreign subscribers and 
there is a great deal of interest abroad in how British dipterists organize themselves. 

Background history 

The Forum has evolved out of the launch of the Cranefly Recording Scheme in 
1973. Even the first indoor meeting had people coming from as far as Scotland and 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 123 

the first week-long field meeting in 1974 had 14 people. Newsletters were produced. 
Soon there were 80 people registered, with a quarter of that number attending week- 
long field meetings. A need was clearly being met, but it was soon apparent that the 
popularity was not so much craneflies as bringing together people with a wider 
interest in Diptera. 

The demand was for a hoverfly recording scheme. In 1976 such a scheme, 
together with recording schemes for a few other groups of flies, was launched. All the 
meetings and events were run under the auspices of the Central Panel of Diptera 
Recording Scheme organizers, with a coordinator who produced a Bulletin of the 
Diptera recording schemes. Most of the schemes produced newsletters, some 
quite vigorously, and indeed there are newsletters for various study groups which are 
not running recording schemes as such. In the last 2 years we have run 
residential workshops based at Preston Montford Field Centre in Shropshire, with 
over 30 people attending for the two themes so far, hoverflies and pictured-wing flies. 

We encourage the study of flies well beyond the recording schemes, and indeed on 
field meetings it can be amazing the range of insect groups which are being recorded 
in response to requests for material. The recording schemes, inevitably, are in various 
states of advancement. Provisional BRC atlases have been published for two groups 
of craneflies (long-palped craneflies and Ptychopteridae), for Sepsidae and with 
selected maps for larger Brachycera (robber flies etc.). Sets of maps have also been 
produced for snail-killing flies, meniscus midges and selected mosquitoes and various 
other flies. 

Increasingly we are looking to our own resources to computerize data for atlas 
production. The Hoverfly Recording Scheme now has well over 200000 records 
processed on computer, with many more records in hand. 

It is important to emphasize two things. Firstly, we are concerned with all aspects 
of improving knowledge on the identification, life history, behaviour and ecology of 
flies; distribution maps are but one output of our combined recording effort. 
Secondly, the existence of the national schemes has been a stimulus to various county 
or district recording schemes and some of these have already produced excellent 
atlases. 

At present there are 12 recording schemes and study groups: craneflies (Tipulidae 
si, Trichoceridae, Ptychopteridae and Anisopodidae), meniscus midges (Dixidae), 
mosquitoes, fungus gnats, chironomid midges, hoverflies, larger Brachycera (robber 
flies, soldier flies, horseflies etc.), Dolichopodidae & Empidae, Pipunculidae, 
Conopidae, snail-killing flies, Tephritidae (pictured-wing flies), and Sepsidae. 

The annual meeting in the autumn, held at the Natural History Museum in 
London, attracts about 80 (it used to be over 100 until costs of travel became so 
high), with people still coming from as far afield as Scotland, plus one or two from 
Europe, especially for the event. We have a morning series of lectures and in the 
afternoon exhibits, demonstrations and discussion topics. A separately run 
Dipterists' Dinner is held in the evening, a buffet with 40 to 50 attending. 

In the last 21 years we have held a week-long field meeting over a wide geographic 
area; sometimes there have been twin-centred fortnights. In a week we expect to 
cover anything up to 100 sites within up to 30 10-km squares. We also hold 
long-weekend autumn field meetings and various one-day meetings. Over the years 
we have dramatically increased knowledge of ecology and distribution of flies by 
blitzing under-recorded areas, including the addition of about 50 species to the 
British list. 



124 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

The enthusiasm for the recording schemes gave confidence for the launch of a 
refereed journal, Dipterists Digest, run as a separate venture but now being brought 
into Forum publications. 

The advantages of affiliation to BE NHS 

The Forum will in any event have to set up its own structure and administration 
which will to all intents and purposes amount to a society. Affiliation is an elastic 
term for the present since it will take time to sort out with the Charities 
Commissioners whether an affiliated Forum is within BENHS charitable status. 
Hence, it will be a loose affiliation for an initial period of 3 years. It would be an 
undue imposition to require all recording scheme dipterists to join BENHS, though 
80 are already members, and the hope is that more will join. Hence the affiliation is 
with the Forum, not individual members, but we are looking to something much 
more meaningful than a token label. 

So what is the advantage? It cuts both ways, since there is advantage to both 
BENHS and the Forum. 

The Forum brings to the Society an active group of field-orientated entomologists, 
with considerable experience in running events and producing information which has 
been a successful catalyst in helping people find their feet in entomology and in 
generating enthusiasm for common objectives. Not least it brings to the Society a 
major locus in national recording schemes. It is not a case of dipterists trying to take 
over, but it means that the Society gains a broader image than catering largely for 
Lepidoptera. It also further enhances its image as a national society (the South 
London connection still within memory). The hope is that the Society will gain more 
affiliations and be stimulated into meeting the needs of members of all disciplines. 
Field meetings should become more viable as greater numbers of entomologists are 
invited and there is increased expertise to call on for running workshops at Dinton 
Pastures. The collection and library are more likely to be strengthened as Forum 
members recognize the value of Dinton Pastures. The long-term prospects for the 
Society to be offered key works for publication is enhanced. 

The advantage of affiliation to the Forum is the wish of many of its members to be 
part of a multi-disciplinary entomological society rather becoming yet another 
isolated part of entomology. The BENHS has a membership of kindred spirits and is 
the only national society with a collection, library and day workshop facilities, 
notably available at weekends. There has already been the successful relationship in 
publishing British hoverflies. With the Forum setting out without a cushion of money 
in the kitty, it is reassuring to find that the Society can provide limited bridging loans 
if the need arises (we expect to balance the books each year). There is also the benefit 
of the advice of entomologists used to running the Society, and potential advantages 
of an umbrella society such as the charitable status that these days is difficult and 
expensive to obtain by new groups such as the dipterists. 



Conclusion 

The affiliation, in the first instance, is for 3 years. We think it will work well and 
hopefully everyone will find that the Forum concept will prove a stimulus within and 
outside the Society. 

Martin Drake has joined BENHS Council to represent the Dipterists' Forum and 
Peter Chandler is BENHS Council's representative on the Dipterists' Forum 
committee. Alan Stubbs is the Dipterists' Forum Secretary. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8. 1995 125 

SHORT COMMUNICATION 

Some records of root-aphids (Aphidoidea: Pemphigidae) feeding on spruce (Picea 
spp.) in Britain. — Over the past few years there has been some interest in the root- 
aphid fauna of Sitka (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) and Norway spruce (Picea 
abies (L.) Karsten) two of Britain's most important forestry trees. Aspects of their 
taxonomy (Stroyan, 1975, 1991; Carter & Danielsson, 1991), complicated life- 
cycles (Carter & Danielsson, 1993) and interactions with air pollutants have been 
studied (Salt & Whittaker, 1995). However, little is known of their distribution in 
Britain. The following records are based on identifications of adult apterous 
virginoparae collected from roots just below the surface of the needle litter. We 
are grateful to R. Danielsson and C. Carter for help with identifications of some 
of this material. 

Pachypappa tremulae (L.): 2.xi.89 SD68, Old Park, Cumbria, P. abies & 
P. sitchensis; 17.X.90. SU854298, Iron Hill, W. Sussex, P. abies; 14.V.91 NS68, 
Carron Valley Forest, Strathclyde, P. abies; 15.V.91 NY67, Spadeadam Forest, 
Cumbria, P. abies. 

Pachypappa vesicalis Koch: 14.viii.90 SD68, Old Park, Cumbria, P. sitchensis; 
17.X.90. SU864298, Iron Hill, W. Sussex. P. abies; 13.V.91 SE88, Dalby Forest, 
N. Yorks, P. sitchensis; 13.V.91 NX78, Barr Hill, Dumfries & Galloway, P. sitchensis; 
13.V.91 NX66, Laurieston Forest, Dumfries & Galloway, P. abies; 13.V.91 NX36, 
Bennan Plantation, Dumfries & Galloway, P. sitchensis; 14.V.91 NT20, Craik Forest, 
Borders, P. abies & P. sitchensis; 14.V.91 NS68, Carron Valley Forest, Strathclyde, 
P. sitchensis; 14.V.91 NS49, Loch Ard Forest, Central, P. sitchensis; 15.V.91 NY67, 
Spadeadam Forest, Cumbria, P. abies & P. sitchensis. 

Pachypappella lactea (Tullgren): 7.x. 89 SD45, Bailrigg, Lanes, P .sitchensis; 
2.xi.89 NY61, Bank Moor, Cumbria, P. sitchenis; 2.xi.89 SD68, Old Park, 
Cumbria, P. sitchensis, 22.iii.90 SD38, Astley's Plantation, Cumbria, P. sitchensis; 
8.ix.90 SE20, Langsett S. Yorks, P. sitchensis; 13.V.91 SE88, Dalby Forest, N. 
Yorks, P. abies. 

Prociphilus (Stagona) xylostei (De Geer): 25.X.91 SU82, Iron Hill, W. Sussex, 
P. abies; 2.xi.91 SD68, Old Park, Cumbria, P. sitchensis; 14.V.91 NT20, Craik Forest, 
Borders, Picea abies; 15.V.91 NY67, Spadeadam Forest, Cumbria, P. abies. — D. T. 
Salt, Division of Biological Sciences, Lancaster University, Lancaster LAI 4YQ & 
E. Major, Forestry Authority, Alice Holt Research Station, Wrecclesham, 
Farnham, Surrey GUM 4 AH. 

REFERENCES 

Carter, C. I. & Danielsson, R. 1991 Two spruce root aphids Pachypappa vesicalis and 

Pachypappella lactea new to Britain with keys to the morphs from Picea roots. 

Entomologist 110: 66-74. 
Carter, C. I. & Danielsson, R. 1993 New and additional records of gall-forming aphids of the 

family Pemphiginae in Britain. Entomologist 112: 99-104. 
Salt, D. T. & Whittaker, J. B. 1995. Populations of root-feeding aphids in the Liphook forest 

fumigation experiment. Plant Cell Environ. 18: 321-325. 
Stroyan, H. L. G. 1975 The life cycle and generic position of Aphis tremulae L. (Aphidoidea: 

Pemphiginae), with a description of the viviparous morphs and a discussion of spruce root 

aphids in the British Isles. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 7: 45-72. 
Stroyan, H. L. G. 1991 Some loose ends in the British aphid fauna (Homoptera: Aphidoidea). 

Entomologist 110: 24-28. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

THE 1993 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS— PART 1 REPORT 

David Lonsdale 

Forestry Authority Research Station, Alice Holt Lodge, Wrecclesham, Farnham, 
Surrey GU10 4LH 



During my year as President I have been very much aware of the lengthy service 
that many of my predecessors rendered to the Society before their presidencies. I can 
claim no such deserving record, and so feel all the more honoured for having been 
nominated for this post. The President has to do a certain amount of work behind 
the scenes, as well as simply being there to chair meetings. However, the really hard 
work of routine management and of coping with the past year's particular exigencies 
has been done by the Society's officers, some of whom have given their reports this 
evening. My thanks are due to all of them, and indeed to all members of Council. 
Special thanks are due to the retiring Assistant Treasurer, Geoff Burton, who 
concludes ten years' service early in 1994. The awkward cases that crop up in the 
handling of members' subscriptions have added considerably to Geoff's workload, 
and he is to be congratulated for tackling these problems with efficiency and 
perseverance. 

It has been my sad duty to announce the deaths of ten members during the year. I 
regret that I was not able to find out very much about the interests and achievements 
of some of these deceased members. 

Lt. Col. Gordon Eastwick-Field, who died on 29 April 1993, joined the Society in 
1978. He set up a Lepidoptera study group at Aldermaston, and recorded species 
there over many years. He was also involved in the establishment of a national moth 
recording network, and designed a refrigerated moth trap for use in surveys. 

Mr W. G. Vosper died in the Spring of 1993, having been a member since 1969. 
His main interest was in the Lepidoptera. 

Mr P. W. Brown died on 25 May 1993. He had joined in 1988, with interests in 
Lepidoptera and general entomology. 

Mr Michael F. W. Tweedie died in the Summer of 1993, having been a member 
since 1953. He was a well known naturalist who will be remembered for his work as a 
photographer and radio broadcaster. Until several years ago he had enjoyed a fairly 
regular attendance of the Society's meetings, at which he was a speaker on a number 
of occasions. He also contributed regularly to the Annual Exhibition, especially in 
the field of macro-moths, and was on the Society's editorial panel until 1991. 

Mr C. S. H. Blathwayt, whose death was notified to us in June 1993, was a 
lepidopterist and had been a member since 1949. 

Mr A. Crowhurst, who died in the late summer of 1993, having joined the Society 
in 1988, was a coleopterist. 

Mr F. Wright, whose death was notified to us in September 1993, joined the 
Society in 1987. 

Mr Peter W. Cribb died on 30 October, having been a member since 1970. He was 
an all-round naturalist whose special interest and considerable expertise was in 
European butterflies, which he studied throughout southern Europe. He organized 
many collecting trips which were attended by various members of the Society. He 
was also a regular contributor to the Annual Exhibition and was a speaker at indoor 
meetings. He will be particularly remembered for his pioneering work for insect 
conservation, conducted partly under the auspices of the Amateur Entomologists' 
Society, to which he gave outstanding service. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 127 

Mrs Katie Emmet died on 23 December 1993. Long before joining the Society in 
1984, she began to attend its meetings and exhibitions regularly with her husband, 
Lt. Col. A. M. Emmet, a past President and honorary member. She was a good field 
naturalist, who contributed to Maitland Emmet's outstanding work on the micro- 
lepidoptera and elucidated the life cycles of a number of species. 

Mr C. B. Ashby died early in January 1994. Brad Ashby had been a member of the 
Society since 1965, providing considerable service which culminated in his becoming 
a Trustee in 1987. In this role he did more than was required of him, especially by 
regularly attending Council meetings over the last few years of major change in the 
Society's affairs, on many occasions providing valuable guidance. During the storage 
of the Society's library, he arranged for our members to have access to the library of 
the London Natural History Society, one of several other organizations that he 
served. He also secured for us the donation of a notable collection of Lepidoptera by 
the Swedish entomologist Stig Torstenius. As well as serving the Society in these 
special ways, Brad contributed very much as an active naturalist, regularly attending 
meetings, and providing exhibits. The Society was represented at his funeral by Mr 
Eric Groves who was a long-standing friend. 

We have already stood in memory of these members at previous meetings, and so I 
will not ask you to do so now. 

I have mentioned that Council has been concerned not only with routine 
management, but also with special tasks. One such area of activity has been created 
by the need to comply with the new charity law, as you have heard in the Hon. 
Treasurer's report. This has involved re-drafting the Society's byelaws, as well as re- 
investing part of its assets. Special thanks are due to Tony Pickles for all the hard 
work that he has done to ensure the successful implementation of these changes. 

We have this evening heard about our new Headquarters, the Pelham-Clinton 
Building at Dinton Pastures Country Park in Berkshire. On 27 June 1993, following 
completion of the building in the previous August, I had the pleasure of welcoming 
Professor Sir Richard Southwood who carried out the formal opening ceremony. It 
was an opportunity to thank all the individuals and organizations who contributed 
to the success of our move to Berkshire. Their various roles have been documented in 
our Journal, but I would like once again to give especial mention to Peter Chandler, 
who has overseen every stage of the commissioning, construction and equipping of 
the building. I am aware that he is, to this day, still coping with what we hope are 
teething troubles with the air conditioning system. Council has recognized his 
contribution by nominating him for honorary membership. This honour is also 
accorded to Stephen Miles, who has worked very hard and with great care to 
re-house our library and to update its indexing system. 

The opening ceremony at Dinton Pastures was itself a great success, with 
everything going according to plan under glorious sunshine. I must thank all the 
Council members who worked so efficiently to ensure the smooth running of the 
event, especially Dr Ian McLean who master-minded the operation. 

Another special occasion at Dinton Pastures was the visit in May of a group of 
French entomologists who had welcomed a party of the Society's members to France 
in 1992. They greatly enjoyed their visit, and their comments made us very much 
aware of the exceptional heritage that is enjoyed by natural history societies in 
Britain, not least our own Society. 

With the acquisition of the Pelham-Clinton Building, the range of our activities 
has widened. In particular, we have begun a series of workshop meetings, which have 
been well attended and very well received. Also, members' access to our Library and 
Collections has been restored and improved, with the twice-monthly system of 



128 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

opening that is now in operation. Finally, the value of the Dinton Pastures site for 
wildlife is reflected in our involvement in the recording of species there, and in 
providing advice on conservation management. 

The need for invertebrate conservation is receiving much wider attention than was 
the case several years ago, and there are increasing calls on the expertise of our 
individual members to supply information that is of great value in identifying sites 
and species that require special attention. Apart from the work of individual 
members, our Society as a whole is represented on the Joint Committee for the 
Conservation of British Invertebrates (JCCBI), and thus on Wildlife and Country- 
side Link. We are indebted to Stephen Miles and Frances Murphy for giving up their 
time to represent us, and it must be hoped that the JCCBI, which is now in dire need 
of resources, can continue. I should add that the Society also makes occasional 
donations to conservation bodies, most recently in the case of the Royal Society for 
the Protection of Birds, which received £250 towards the purchase of a reserve at 
Cantley Marshes. 

Although our Society is represented on outside conservation committees, there is 
no stated BENHS policy on conservation which could guide our representatives 
when they are asked to respond to initiatives from other organizations. The only 
options are as follows: to take up Council's time with detailed discussion of these 
issues, to let individual Council members represent our conservation interests at their 
purely personal discretion, or to do nothing. I feel that our Society now needs to 
consider whether it wishes to play more of a corporate role alongside other non- 
governmental bodies. The wish of some of these bodies to be involved in invertebrate 
conservation is not always matched by their ability to receive advice from naturalists 
who have relevant knowledge and ideas. The Council will welcome the views of 
members on this matter, particularly with regard to the question posed by Stephen 
Miles as to whether we should form a conservation group or committee. This matter 
will be discussed during 1994, and may have been resolved by the time that this 
address is published. 

In one area, the Society already has a conservation policy; I refer here to our 
definition of what is acceptable for display at our Annual Exhibition. Apart from 
upholding the law concerning scheduled species, we discourage the display of long 
series of others that are endangered. However, the wording of our guidelines has not 
been precise enough to ensure that exhibitors will be beyond reproach regarding the 
collection and display of such species. It is, in any case, hard to define the term "long 
series". Even for the many species for which collecting cannot intelligently be seen as 
a threat, we should not encourage their collection on a scale that shows no respect 
for them as living things. To these ends, Council is reviewing the guidelines that have 
been in existence for some years, and which were slightly strengthened before the 
1993 Exhibition. It is hoped that the new guidelines will reflect the responsible 
attitude that most field entomologists already adopt, while in no way detracting from 
the need to collect specimens where appropriate. 

I feel privileged to have been President at a time when the Society has been 
emerging with renewed vigour from a period of change. We have been able to 
continue our traditional activities, and have now embarked on a range of new ones 
that can only add to the strength of the Society. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 129 

THE 1993 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS— PART 2 

SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE PROS AND CONS 

OF BEING A BARK-FEEDING INSECT 

David Lonsdale 

Forestry Authority Research Station, Alice Holt Lodge, Wrecclesham, Farnham, 
Surrey GU10 4LH. 

The bark of woody plants offers special advantages for insects that use it as a food 
source. Under its outer corky layer (periderm), it contains relatively succulent tissues 
(phloem and in some cases cortex) which are a much better source of carbohydrates 
and amino-acids than the underlying wood. It can therefore be compared 
nutritionally with leaves and young shoots, but it provides a resource that is not 
available to insects that feed on the green tissues of deciduous trees; that is, a habitat 
in which survival and even development can take place throughout the year, given a 
sufficiently mild winter climate. 

Although bark is one of the few year-round food sources available to 
phytophagous insects in woodlands, it is a strongly defended tissue in many woody 
plant species. The need for defences against bark-feeding insects becomes clear when 
we consider how important bark is for a tree's survival. The evolutionary success of 
trees and shrubs has depended on their ability to form and maintain a long-lived 
woody cylinder, which in turn depends on the presence of a largely intact covering of 
bark. The bark overlies the vascular cambium which lays down annual rings of both 
bark and wood, and its own inner layers include the phloem which is essential for the 
translocation of sugars and other assimilates. The outer bark (periderm), provides a 
vital protection for all the perennial parts of the plant, preventing excessive moisture 
loss and the entry of pathogenic micro-organisms. If an area of bark is killed or 
removed, it can usually be replaced only through the rather slow process of 
occlusion, which involves the inward growth of new tissues from around the edge of 
the damaged area. 

As I have mentioned, the protection of the woody cylinder by bark needs to be 
long-term. Since some tree species can live for several or even many centuries, the 
need for good defences against attack by bark-feeding insects and micro-organisms is 
paramount. Defences in bark can be broadly divided into chemical and structural 
types. Chemical defences make bark tissues unpalatable or toxic, while structural 
defences take the form mainly of physical barriers. There is some overlap between 
these two categories, as I shall explain later. As with all forms of defence, including 
human armaments, there is a price to be paid in the diversion of resources which 
might otherwise fuel faster growth. In the case of trees, fast growth has advantages 
for competition for space within the forest canopy. To some extent, trees can 
minimize their defence expenditure by producing certain kinds of defence only after 
damage begins to occur. These reponsive defences contrast with pre-formed ones, 
which are an unavoidable cost to the plant. As I shall show, using some specific 
examples, the dual system of "strategic" and "tactical" defence can involve both 
chemical and structural mechanisms. 

The effectiveness of defence mechanisms in bark is demonstrated by the fact that a 
largely intact covering of bark is the norm, even on old trees. However, bark is too 
good a source of nutrients for its defences to have gone unchallenged. Thus, bark- 
feeding insects have evolved strategies by which the defences of bark can to some 
extent be overcome or evaded. The resulting interactions between bark-feeding 



130 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



insects and their hosts are fascinating, and I hope that this will be apparent from the 
examples that I will mention. 

The role of both pre-formed and responsive defences is illustrated by the first of 
my examples, which is the colonization of the bark of beech, Fagus spp. by the beech 
scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind. As a sucking insect, C. fagisuga removes 
materials in solution from individual cells of the cortex without ingesting structural 
components of the cells, which might be toxic or unpalatable to a biting insect such 
as a bark beetle. However, most sucking insects can feed on bark only if the outer 
corky layer is thin enough to allow insertion of their mouthparts into the cortex or 
phloem. For C. fagisuga on beech bark (Fig. 1), the penetrative depth of 1-2 mm is 
sufficient to allow feeding over most of the bark surface. Additionally, this insect's 
food source becomes enhanced by the stimulation of a gall-like growth of the cortical 
cells that surround the tip of its mouthparts (Hartig, 1878). In some cases, infestation 
is so heavy and continuous over the bark surface that the stem takes on a 
whitewashed appearance owing to the presence of the insect's white, woolly wax 
secretion (Fig. 2). In such cases, the growth of the tree is impaired, and the wood of 
the stem grows abnormally (Fig. 3) (Lonsdale, 1983). Heavy infestations also 
predispose the tree to a potentially lethal attack ("beech bark disease") by the fungus 
Nectria coccinea (Pers. ex. Fr.), which is otherwise usually incapable of causing much 
damage to beech trees (Lonsdale & Wainhouse, 1987). 

The vulnerability of thin-barked trees like beech to attack by sucking insects may 
explain why other tree species normally develop a thick, rough bark as a pre-formed 
defence. Also, since a thick corky layer is a good thermal insulator and shock 
absorber, it helps to protect trees against injury from extremes of temperature (e.g. 
through sunscorch or forest fire) and from mechanical damage. Nevertheless, there 




Fig. 1. Longitudinal section through bark of beech, Fagus syhatica, showing penetration of 
mouthparts (stylets) of the beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 




Fig. 2. A heavy infestation of a beech stem by the bark-sucking insect Cryptococcus fagisuga, 
Queen Elizabeth Forest, Hampshire. The white woolly wax secreted by the insects is 
conspicuous. 



are advantages in having a thin bark. As, I have already mentioned, there is a place 
for economy in defence expenditure, and such an economy is achieved by minimizing 
the thickness of the outer corky bark. A thin corky layer also allows light to 
penetrate to the living cells beneath, so that the bark can contribute to 
photosynthesis. In the case of beech, chlorophyll can indeed be seen in the bark 
even of large old stems. 

Of course things are not so simple that we can divide trees and shrubs simply into 
thick-barked and thin-barked species. Even in thick-barked species, at least the 
young twigs have a thin smooth bark. Like those of thin-barked species, they are at 
this stage enveloped by a simple primary periderm which expands to accommodate 
their increasing diameter. This smooth expansion ends sooner or later when the 
characteristic thick bark (rhytidome) starts to form through the development of 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 




Fig. 3. Abnormal wood anatomy, with local reduction in annual ring width and parenchyma- 
like xylem cells, seen in a transverse section in the region of a colony of Cryptococcus fagisuga. 
The bark is at the right of the picture. 



overlapping secondary periderms which arise in the outer phloem. In species where 
this "mature" bark forms only after many years, sucking insects have the 
opportunity to colonize the surface of stems of semi-mature trees. Even after this 
stage, there may still be localized sites in natural fissures where such insects can 
persist, and I shall mention an example of this later. 

Although some tree species such as beech can retain a thin primary periderm 
throughout their lives, they also retain the ability to form a thickened bark 
("pathological rhytidome") in response to injury. Thus, they can benefit from the 
advantages of reducing expenditure on cork production and from retaining 
photosynthetic capacity in the bark, while also being able to switch on a defensive 
response if necessary. A pathological rhytidome can often be seen in beech after 
several years' attack by C. fagisuga (Kunkel, 1968; Lonsdale, 1983; Ostrofsky & 
Blanchard, 1983). The resulting thickened, furrowed bark is more reminiscent of an 
elm or an ash than a beech. 

When a beech stem forms a pathological rhytidome in response to prolonged 
feeding by C. fagisuga, the insect's feeding sites become restricted to the bases of 
fissures which form between the corky ridges of the rhytidome (Kunkel, 1968; 
Lonsdale, 1983). Even before this stage is reached, however, the initial feeding sites 
become unavailable due to the necrotic breakdown of the gall-like zones which 
previously served as enhanced food sources. It is this necrotic reaction which seems 
to trigger the development of "wound periderms" which eventually give rise to the 
pathological rhytidome. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



133 



LI - 




— PI 

— P2 






**% ;e^ 




Ll — 
L2 — 




<2£» 







Fig. 4. Drawings of transverse sections of bark from beech trees whose resistance to attack by 
C. fagisuga was apparently high (above) or low (below); from Lonsdale (1983), ■ suberized 
tissue, lignified tissue, □ 'soft' tissue. 



Although the primary periderm of beech is too thin to deter feeding by C. fagisuga, 
this does not mean that the bark as a whole lacks pre-formed defences. Within the 
living tissues beneath the periderm, there are heavily lignified cells (stone-cells) which 
provide a partial barrier to the penetration of the sucking mouthparts (Ehrlich, 
1934). Lignin is a major structural constituent of wood, but its occurrence in other 
plant tissues is often associated with defence. Since colonization of beech by 
C. fagisuga can become very heavy despite the presence of lignified cells, the 
defensive role of lignin in beech did not at first attract much interest following the 
work of Ehrlich (1934). In the 1970s, David Wainhouse, one of my colleagues at 
Alice Holt Research Station, began to investigate genetic variation in resistance to 
C. fagisuga. He identified a number of beech clones of either high or low genetic 
resistance (Wainhouse & Howell, 1983), and I examined these to see whether they 
showed any obvious differences in bark anatomy. 

I found that most of the relatively resistant trees identified by David Wainhouse 
had either a fairly unbroken sheet of stone-cells just beneath the corky periderm 
(Fig. 4), or a generally high content of such cells (Lonsdale, 1983). The resistant and 
susceptible clones could in most cases be distinguished anatomically by reference to 
an index, calculated from the relative thicknesses of the "soft" (parenchymatous) and 
"hard" layers of bark, and from the overall density of lignified cells (Fig. 5). Even 



134 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



X 

CD 

C 



14-i 
13- 
12 
11 

10 
9 



to 8 

O 
<D 

° 7 

CO 

co 6 

E 
>> 

•C 

o 

c 

0) 

l_ 

CO 
Q_ 



5- 



3- 



'resistant' 
'susceptible' 



^«Hllll 



Individual trees, ranked 

Fig. 5. Index values of the depth and accessibility of outer parenchyma (feeding zone) in beech 
trees with apparently high and low resistance to C. fagisuga attack; adapted from Lonsdale 
(1983). 



Bark accessibility index = 



100 (PI + P2y 



(%L1 x %L2) {PI + P2 + L1) 



(PI, P2, Ll = 
where= \%Ll, %L2 = 



= depths in /xra of the corresponding layers in Fig. 4 
percentage lignin content of layers LI and L2 



relatively susceptible trees showed some ability to use lignin defensively, by laying 
down new lignin in the cell walls of tissues attacked by the insect. 

Since, in a few cases, David Wainhouse found beech trees with an anatomically 
"susceptible" bark type which were quite resistant to attack by C. fagisuga, it was 
clear that other factors (probably chemical ones) were also contributing to resistance. 
The chemical explanation is borne out to some extent by another of his findings; that 
individual clonal lines of this parthenogenetic insect become adapted to their 
particular host trees (Wainhouse & Howell, 1983), a phenomenon known as 'host- 
tracking' (Edmunds & Alstad, 1978). 

In North America, where C. fagisuga has the status of an introduced pest on the 
American beech, Fagus grandifolia (Ehrh.), this relative of the European beech also 
supports other bark-sucking insects. These include the beech blight aphid, 
Prociphilus imbricator Fitch, which can occur on main stems (Baker 1972), but 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



135 




Fig. 6. The beech blight aphid, Prociphilus imbricator, Tunxis Forest Massachusetts. 



often seems to prefer thin-barked twigs and even leaves (Fig. 6). Dense colonies of 
this woolly aphid are quite spectacular, since their members respond to disturbance 
by waving their abdomens, which bear long tufts of the insects' waxy secretion. 

The feeding preferences of P. imbricator show that the age and thickness of bark, 
even on a thin-barked species like beech, affects food quality. If we look at tree 
species which normally develop a rhytidome, we tend to find bark-sucking insects 
largely confined to their twigs and small branches. Well known examples of such 
insects include the pine woolly aphid, Pineus pini (L.), and the large willow aphid, 
Tuber olachnus salignus (Gmelin) (Bevan, 1987). In the case of spruces, the periderm 
of the main stem tends to remain fairly thin until the tree has reached a considerable 
size, and thus allows feeding by the great black spruce bark aphid, Cinara piceae 
(Panz.). 

Among those sucking insects that can occur even on thick-barked stems, though 
only in fissures, is the oak scale or "pox", Kermes quercus (L.). The oak scale, whose 
waxy capsules are visible as small shiny spheres, is associated with a dieback of oak 
in some parts of Britain. The prevalence of this disorder in the Forest of Wyre in 
Worcestershire has given it the name "Wyre pox". Another well known scale insect 
that is seen on thick-barked trees is the horse chestnut scale, Pulvinaria regalis 
Canrard. Its hosts include several genera of broadleaved trees apart from Aesculus, 
these including Acer, and Tilia. The adult females of this insect are found on the 
main stem and large branches of the host, but this is merely their final resting place 
where they lay their eggs under a conspicuous waxy secretion. The immature stages 
feed in the crown of the tree, where there are soft shoots and thin-barked twigs and 
branches. 



136 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

As I have mentioned, the solid constituents of bark tissues often include 
substances which deter feeding by biting insects, even on tree species that are 
susceptible to attack by bark-sucking insects. However, there js a major group of 
biting insects that are common in the bark of tree species belonging to many plant 
families. I refer to the bark beetles, which belong principally to the family Scolytidae. 
Many such beetles only attack environmentally stressed or moribund individuals, 
which are probably less able to manufacture anti-feeding materials as a defensive 
response. One of the most notorious bark beetles is the greater elm bark beetle, 
Scolytus scolytus (F.), which is one of the main vectors of the fungi which cause 
Dutch elm disease, Ophiostoma (Buism.) Nannf. and O. novo-ulmi Brasier. The 
transmission of these fungi occurs when beetles which have bred in the bark of 
moribund victims of the disease emerge and migrate to twig crotches of healthy trees, 
where they eat the young bark in their "maturation feeding" phase. 

It is interesting that the lignin story crops up in relation to bark beetle attack, as 
well as in the case of the sucking insect, C.fagisuga, which I have already mentioned. 
Following my work on the stone-cells of beech bark, my colleague, David 
Wainhouse found that stone-cells in the bark of spruce, Picea spp., confer some 
resistance to the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans Kug. This Eurasian 
beetle is not native to Britain, but was apparently imported here in the early 1970s on 
logs from the Continent (King & Fielding, 1989). It is rather unusual among bark 
beetles in that it can attack perfectly healthy trees. It does so by feeding communally, 
and also by virtue of its large size, both being attributes which help to overcome 
induced host resistance in the form of resin secretion. David Wainhouse has shown 
that the stone-cells in the bark of relatively resistant individuals of spruce confer 
partial protection by occurring in a layer which confines the larvae to a relatively 
narrow zone of soft tissue either above or below this layer. This confinement, 
perhaps together with the ingestion of some of the nutritionally poor stone-cells 
themselves, reduces the growth potential and survival of the larvae (Wainhouse et al., 
1990). 

In many other relationships between trees and bark beetles, the size of larval 
galleries is probably determined by the thickness of the phloem layer that is available 
for feeding: either the total thickness of the soft zone of the phloem, or the thickness 
of a layer delimited by stone-cell barriers. This may account for the small size of bark 
beetle species which are able to feed in tree species with prominent stone-cell layers, 
such as Ernoporus fagi (F.) in beech. 

These examples are just some of those for which research — led by an economic 
need — has revealed something of the fascination of the relations between bark- 
feeding insects and their hosts. I am sure that there must be many others for which 
field observations suggest the existence of equally interesting interactions. 



REFERENCES 

Baker, W. L. 1972. Eastern forest insects. U.S. Dept. of Agric. Miscellaneous Publication. 

No. 1175., Washington, D.C. 
Bevan, D. 1987. Forest insects. Forestry Commission Handbook No. 1. HMSO, London. 
Edmunds, G. F. & Alstad, D. N. 1978. Coevolution in insect herbivores and conifers. Science 

199: 941-945. 
Ehrlich, J. 1934. The beech bark disease: a Nectria disease of Fagus, following Cryptococcus fagi 

Baer. Can. J. Res. 10: 593-692. 
Hartig, R. 1878. Die krebsartigen Krankheiten der Rothbuche. Z. Forst-und Jadgwesen 9: 

377-383. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 137 

King, C. J. & Fielding, N. J. 1989. Dendroctonus micans in Britain — its biology and control. 

Forestry Commission Bulletin 85, HMSO, London. 
Kunkel 1968. Untersuchungen iiber die Buchenwollschildlaus Cryptococcus fagi Bar. (Insect, 

Coccina), einen Vertreter der Parenchymsauger. Z. Ang. Ent. 61: 373-380. 
Lonsdale, D. 1983. Wood and bark anatomy of young beech in relation to Cryptococcus attack. 

Proc. Conf. I.U.F.R.O. Beech Bark Disease Working Party, Hamden, Conn., USA, 1982. 

USD A Forest Service General Technical Report WO-37: 43^9. 
Lonsdale, D. & Wainhouse, D. 1987. Beech bark disease. Forestry Commission Bulletin 69, 

HMSO, London. 
Ostrofsky, W. & Blanchard, R. O. 1983. Characteristics and development of necrophylactic 

periderms in mature bark of American beech. Proc. Conf. I.U.F.R.O. Beech Bark Disease 

Working Party, Hamden, Conn., USA, 1982. USDA Forest Service General Technical 

Report WO-37: 69-80 
Wainhouse, D., Cross, D. J. & Howell, R. S. 1992. The role of lignin as a defence against the 

spruce bark beetle Dendroctonus micans: effect on larvae and adults. Oecologia 85: 257-265. 
Wainhouse, D. & Howell, R. S. 1983. Intraspecific variation in beech scale populations and in 

susceptibility of their host Fagus sylvatica. Ecol. Ent. 8: 351-359. 



SHORT COMMUNICATION 



Dorcatoma dresdensis Herbst (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) new to Gloucestershire. — On 

28.xi.1993, I collected a large piece of the bracket fungus Ganoderma adspersum 
(Schulz.) Donk. which had fallen from an ancient beech along the southern parish 
boundary of Rendcomb (SP 022089), E. Glos. The beech is one of a series along this 
boundary and which extend up the slope from Conigree Wood, an ancient woodland 
which has been much modified by Victorian plantings. The fungus was kept in a 
plastic box in a cool room and re-examined the following summer. Some 14 
specimens of Dorcatoma dresdensis were found to have emerged, together with a few 
Cis and a parasitic wasp. This is the first time that this Dorcatoma has been reported 
from the county, although it is known from the adjoining counties of Oxfordshire 
(Cornbury Park in 1986, P. Hyman, pers. comm.) and Worcestershire (Whitehead, 
1992), in both cases also on the Cotswold Limestone country. The Rendcomb 
locality is within 1 km of one of the county's best sites for saproxylic beetles, 
Rendcomb Park. 

The species is otherwise only known from a thin scattering of ancient pasture- 
woodland sites in southern and eastern England. It was given red data book category 
1 (endangered) status in Welch (1987) but this has since been revised to 'notable A' in 
Hyman & Parsons (1992), i.e. is believed to be confined in Britain to 30 or fewer 
10 km squares. The reasons for the extent of the down-grading are not clear as I am 
only aware of records from about 10 other localities this century, with Windsor, 
Burnham Beeches and the New Forest being the only other records since 1980. RDB 
category 3 (Rare) seems to be more appropriate. — K. N. A. Alexander, National 
Trust, 33 Sheep Street, Cirencester, Gloucestershire GL7 1QW. 

REFERENCES 

Hyman, P. S. & Parsons, M. S. 1992. A review of the scarce and threatened Coleoptera of Great 

Britain. Part 1. UK Nature Conservation, No. 3. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, 

Peterborough. 
Welch, R. C. 1987. Dorcatoma dresdensis. In: Ed. D. B. Shirt. British red data books: 2. Insects. 

Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough, pp. 197-198. 
Whitehead, P. F., 1992. The Coleoptera fauna from Broadway, Worcestershire. Entomologist's. 

Mon. Mag. 128: 47-50. 



138 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

BENHS INDOOR MEETINGS 

13 December 1994 

The President, Dr P. Waring, announced the deaths of Mr R. G. T. St Leger and 
Mr W. E. Minnion. 

Dr Waring showed colour photographs of the silky wave moth, Idaea dilutaria 
(Hiibn.) and the dwarf cream wave, /. fuscovenosa (Goeze). The former is a scarce 
species, being known from Durdham Common, near Bristol, and at Great Orme, 
Caernarvonshire. They can be confused, especially at sites such as Great Orme where 
both occur together. Dr Waring noted that the silky wave appeared to be a more 
active species and flew more readily than the dwarf cream wave. 

Mr R. A. Jones showed three beetles from Powdermill Reservoir, near Brede, East 
Sussex, taken on 23.viii.1994. These were the ground beetle Bembidion octomacu- 
latum (Goeze), the weevil Rhinoncus albicinctus Gyll. and the leaf beetle Galerucella 
sagittariae (Gyll.). On a previous visit to the reservoir, on 23. vi. 1992, Mr Jones 
discovered the Bembidion, the first British specimens for 105 years. These were 
exhibited at the BENHS indoor meeting of 8 September 1992. Several other 
coleopterists have since visited the site and confirmed a strong colony. Judging from 
previous records, this is the first time a colony of the beetle has been recorded in 
Britain, other occurrences being only singletons. Subsequently a Norfolk specimen 
was found in 1993 and a 1926 Wicken Fen record unearthed. A recent trip to the lake 
revealed that water levels had dropped many feet and much of what was once open 
water was now an exposed and sun-baked mudflat. Mr Jones showed slides of the 
half-drained lake, now a waist-high jungle of amphibious bistort, Persicaria amphibia 
(L.) Gray. Despite this change to the habitat the beetle was still present on the wet 
mud around the feeder stream which was reduced to a trickle after the long hot 
summer. Feeding on the Persicaria were Rhinoncus albicinctus, first discovered in 
this, its second, British locality by Mr P. J. Hodge in 1992 and countless millions of 
Galerucella sagittariae. Mr Jones showed slides of the gregarious larvae of the 
Galerucella and of two semi-aquatic plants exposed by the falling water levels: the 
six-stamened waterwort, Elatine hexandre (Lapierre) DC. and the New Zealand 
pigmyweed, Crassula helmsii (Kirk) Cockayne. 

On hearing the minutes of the 7 November meeting read Mr C. W. PLANT noted 
that he had shown, at an earlier indoor meeting, a similar exhibit on the difficulty of 
separating chrysodeixis acuta (Walker) and C. chalcites (Esp.) to that shown by Dr 
Waring on 7th November. He believed that these species can only be separated 
reliably on male genitalia characters. Examination of specimens in collections 
indicate that all male specimens of acuta taken in Britain in recent years are, in fact, 
chalcites, and it is doubtful whether acuta should be on the British list. 

Dr Helen Marcan-Hill, Mr Kent Hing Kun Li, Ms Jacklyn Louise Ryrie, Mr 
Roger Clive Kendrick, Mr Stephen H. Hind, Dr Keith Murray Harris and Mr Peter 
Verdon have been elected as members. 

Mr C. W. Plant announced that he was going to produce a list of the micro- 
lepidoptera of Middlesex. Apart from a brief list produced by Cockerill in 1891 there 
is no publication that covers this topic. He anticipated the project would take about 
five years to complete and he would be pleased to receive both old and recent records 
for Middlesex. 

Dr Andrew Pullen spoke on the prospects for the conservation and restoration 
of the large copper, Lycaena dispar (Haw.), in north-west Europe. The British strain 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 139 

of this butterfly became extinct in about 1850 and the Dutch strain ssp. batavus (Ob.) 
has been introduced at Wood Walton Fen since 1927. The large copper is widespread 
in Europe but is in decline due to drainage schemes and loss of habitat, especially in 
north-west Europe. In Holland it has declined to just one stronghold at Weeribben 
National Park. Dr Pullen has been investigating means of conserving the remaining 
populations in Holland, with the longer-term aim of restoring viable populations to 
suitable sites in Holland and Britain. This has involved studies into the butterfly's 
biology. 

In northern Europe the large copper has one generation a year, unlike the two or 
three generations achieved in warmer areas. Eggs are laid singly or in small groups, 
usually near the mid-rib on the upper side of water dock leaves, in July and August. 
The newly hatched larvae crawl to the underside of the leaves where they graze the 
lower epidermis and create distinctive slot shaped "windows" in the foliage. The 
young larvae overwinter in curled dry leaves between September and March, but not 
necessarily at the base of the plant as widely reported in the literature. Feeding 
commences again during April and May, with pupation in June and adult emergence 
in July. 

Earlier studies at Wood Walton Fen have shown that overwintering mortality can 
be as high as 95%. Experiments to identify the causes of larval mortality at various 
times of year have been conducted over a three-year period. This involved caging 
some host plants with netting to exclude birds and mammals, some plants with 
smaller mesh netting to also exclude invertebrate predators and parasites, with other 
plants fully exposed as controls. Comparisons were also made between water docks 
growing in reed beds with those in more exposed positions in waterside situations, 
and between larval mortality at Wood Walton and Weeribben. The studies showed 
that invertebrate predation is a significant factor for young larvae and that 
unseasonal flooding during the larvae's active periods can be catastrophic. About 
50% of the mortality at Wood Walton is unexplained by predation. Laboratory 
studies suggest there can be a high mortality of larvae between hatching and starting 
to feed. This may be an indication of in-breeding and consequent lack of vigour in 
the Wood Walton stock. 

Studies of larval mortality in the dispausing period show that predation is not 
important, although significant losses do occur over winter. Winter survival is 
significantly higher at the Dutch site, where over 70% survived during the study 
period, whereas at Wood Walton the best achieved was 38%. Future experiments 
will involve taking Wood Walton stock to Weeribben and vice versa to see whether 
this difference is maintained. If it is, it would support the view that Wood Walton 
stock has become weakened by in-breeding. Flooding has been more frequent at 
Wood Walton in recent years and this may be an important factor in the different 
mortality rates at the two sites. Vertebrate predators take significant numbers of post 
diapause larvae and a few were killed by the tachinid fly, Phryxe vulgaris (Fallen). No 
significant differences were detected between waterside and reed bed plants. 

It is possible that the Wood Walton site is too small and isolated to sustain a viable 
population of the large copper. Its numbers fall to very low levels without 
supplementary captive rearing and release. The possibility of releasing the butterfly 
into the Norfolk Broads, where the Bure, Ant and Yare river system provides a 
potentially large linked habitat, is being investigated. A study of the Weeribben site 
has been undertaken to identify important habitat features and management 
techniques. At Weeribben the males choose large open fen meadow areas when 
establishing their territories. These meadows have few nectar plants which are thinly 
distributed amongst sparse Phragmites. Flowering spikes of purple loosestrife are 



140 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

always used by the males as resting posts in the centres of their territories. Similar 
habitats occur in the Norfolk Broads, e.g. at Upton Broad, but these are smaller 
areas than at Weeribben. The highest numbers of eggs were laid on waterside dock 
plants in warm sunny positions, although plants in other situations are also used. If 
an attempt to introduce the large copper into the Broads is made, eggs will be taken 
from Weeribben water dock plants in fens that are due to be mown in order to avoid 
depleting the population. Dr Pullen summarized the management requirements for 
the large copper as: (1) having food plants in sunny open positions; (2) having active 
plant growth at egg laying time to provide good quality food for the young larvae; 
(3) lowest-lying sites will be prone to fatal floodings; (4) large open summer-cut 
marshes are required for mating territories, and (5) a network of sites is desirable to 
allow dispersal to new sites at the right stage for colonization. 



10 January 1995 

The President, Dr P. Waring showed two colour transparencies to indicate the 
difference between the copper underwing moths, amphipyra pyramided (L.) and A. 
berbera Rungs (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The first slide showed a berbera larva 
together with the female moth from which it had been reared. The second slide 
showed a final instar larva of both species together and Dr Waring indicated the 
diagnostic features. The most obvious feature is the red-tipped caudal horn in 
berbera, which is yellowish-green in pyramidea. Dr Waring noted that when beating 
for larvae it was always pyramidea larvae that he found. He suggested that pyramidea 
larvae feed in the shrub layer, especially on hawthorn, hazel, honeysuckle and 
blackthorn, while berbera may be feeding higher in the tree canopy. 

Dr Waring also showed a slide of a pyralid moth Salebriopsis albicilla (H.-S.) 
attracted to an MV light at the BENHS field meeting at Westbury Wood, Glos. Both 
sexes of the scarce moth were recorded. The specimen photographed was a male and 
Dr Waring noted that as it rested on the trap it waved its white-based antennae 
alternately. 

Mr K. Merrifield showed a glass-topped display case containing an arrange- 
ment of dry seeds and flowers. On examining this closely Mr Merrifield had noticed 
that there were some as yet unidentified lepidopterous larvae busy devouring the 
Helichrysum flower heads. 

Referring to the minutes of the meeting of 13 December 1994, Dr Waring asked 
Rev D. Agassiz to comment on whether the noctuid moth Chrysodexis acuta Walker 
had ever been taken in Britain. Rev Agassiz thought that one had been taken in the 
1950s but not in recent years. He noted that Chrysodeixis chalcites Esper was a 
glasshouse pest species in Europe and was therefore more likely to reach Britain than 
acuta, which is North African. The specimen photographed as acuta in Barnard 
Skinner's book Moths of the British Isles, is now known to be chalcites. 

Mr S. Miles said that the Joint Committee for the Conservation of British 
Invertebrates was preparing consultation papers for the quinquennial review of the 
Wildlife and Countryside Act. Butterfly Conservation had submitted a paper 
proposing that all British butterflies with Red Data Book or notable status should be 
put under Schedule 9. This would mean that bred specimens could not be released 
into the wild except under licence. The President noted that this was an attempt to 
regulate rather than prevent the release of the scarcer species. Comments were 
invited. Mr R. Softly said he had no objections to this provided everyone was made 
aware of the regulations and that licences were not difficult to obtain. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST , 8: 1995 141 

Mr Clive Carter spoke on the subject of gall-forming aphids and adelgids on 
trees, rather than his original title of the importance for wildlife of canopy gaps in 
forests. A gall is defined as a growth abnormality induced in the plant by the 
influence of an animal or pathogenic organism. Gall formation involves the 
production of tissues different from those found in a normal leaf or stem, and so 
abnormalities such as simple leaf rolls, leaf mines and spun leaves are excluded from 
this definition. Aphids and adelgids have sucking mouthparts, and, as they feed, they 
secrete saliva into the plants. Some species secrete growth hormone mimic 
compounds that induce the growth of gall tissues. 

Insects of the Adelgidae family are all associated with conifers and a number of the 
species found in Britain have come originally from overseas and are found on exotic 
conifers. Like aphids, many adelgids alternate between two host plants. The primary 
host on which they overwinter is a spruce, Picea sp., and they migrate to other 
conifers such as larch Larix sp., silver fir Abies sp., douglas fir Pseudotsuga sp. or 
pines Pinus sp. The gall forming generation occurs on spruce during the spring. The 
gall is initiated by a female feeding near a dormant bud during the late winter. She 
lays a batch of eggs covered by fluffy white waxy wool and these hatch at bud burst. 
The bases of the developing leaves are swollen and the newly hatched nymphs crawl 
into them. Shoot extension is halted by the adelgids' feeding activities and a globular 
gall develops with nymphs feeding inside in a series of hollow chambers. The gall 
dries up and cracks open in late summer to release the winged adults. In some 
adelgids occurring in Britain the gall forming generation is scarce and the insect is 
found throughout the year in its non-gall forming state on its alternative conifer host 
plant. Dr Carter showed slides of various adelgid galls and described the life cycles of 
the causal insects. 

Amongst the tree aphids it is those of the Pemphigidae family which are mostly 
responsible for galls on trees. The Pemphigus genus has poplars as its primary host 
and migrates to herbaceous plants in the summer. They induce galls on the petioles 
or leaf veins of poplar leaves in the spring. They secrete waxy filaments from their 
abdomens and this forms a coating around the honeydew excreted by the aphids 
within the galls. This enables the aphids to keep dry and avoid drowning in their 
excrement. 

Aphids in the Prociphilus genus have a variety of trees as their primary host and 
these include Populus, Fraxinus, Lonicera and Crataegus spp. During the summer 
these aphids migrate to the roots of conifers. In 1986 the speaker had investigated 
poor growth in a sitka spruce plantation in south Wales. The roots were found to be 
heavily infested with a north American species which was likely to be overwintering 
on poplars. Such trees are scarce in the locality of the plantation. Grey poplar trees, 
Populus canescens, with galled leaves were found later many miles to the north of the 
plantation. Conifers for commercial plantations are raised in nurseries, often long 
distances from their ultimate planting site. If seedlings become infested with root 
aphids in the nursery they will be carried to the plantation site and this may explain 
infestations in areas where the alternative host plant is absent. Dr Carter closed his 
talk by showing some slides of aphid galls on apple and elm. 



28 February 1995 

The President Dr P. Waring passed round some empty lepidopterous pupal cases 
found on a birch trunk and asked if anyone could recognize what sort of moth had 



142 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

emerged. No one could name the moth but it was confirmed that they were not 
clearwing pupal cases. 

Mr A. J. Halstead showed some live specimens of the firebug, Pyrrhocoris 
apterus (L.) (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae). These had been sent in for identification at 
RHS Garden, Wisley from a private garden at Ripley, Surrey on ll.ii.95. Four live 
and two dead specimens had been found on a yew tree purchased from a garden 
centre at Lyne, near Chertsey, Surrey. P. apterus is a common plant bug in the 
warmer parts of Europe and it lives gregariously on a wide range of plants. It had 
presumably been imported with nursery stock since, although it has previously been 
recorded in Britain, it seems unable to sustain itself under our climate. 

Mr R. A. Jones showed specimens of the two British Arhopalus species 
(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). These were A. rusticus (L.) from Tunstall Forest, East 
Suffolk, 25.vii.93 and A. tristis (F.) from Harbridge, South Hampshire, 25.vii.77. The 
two British species of this genus were added to the British list at the beginning of the 
century and were both regarded as rare natives, found in the relic heartlands of 
Scotland {A. rusticus) and the New Forest {A. tristis). However, in the ensuing 90 
years both species have spread widely. A. tristis occurs in much of England, but is less 
common than A. rusticus which, after a slow start in the West Country, has recently 
spread to almost the entire south-east. On the Continent, A rusticus is distributed 
further north into Scandinavia than A. tristis which appears to be quite sporadic in 
occurrence. Although the two species closely resemble each other and both vary 
tremendously in size, there are distinct and obvious differences in the tarsi and eyes. 

Mr Jones also showed 13 species from seven diverse beetle families showing 
remarkable similarity in their colour schemes — reddish fore-parts but metallic blue 
elytra. Hardly any of these species occur together, so he wondered how mimicry 
could possibly have evolved. These were: Carabidae: Lebia chlorocephala (Hoff- 
mannsegg), Brachinus crepitans (L.); Staphylinidae: Paederus litoralis Grav.; 
Erotylidae: Triplax aenea (Schaller); Tetratomidae: Tetratoma fungorum F.; Cleridae: 
Tillus elongatus (L.); Salpingidae: Rhinosimus ruficollis (L.): Chrysomelidae: 
Zeugophora subspinosa {¥.), oulema melanopa (L.), Gastrophysa polygoni (L.), 
Sermylassa halensis (L.), Derocrepis rufipes (L.), Podagrica fuscipes {¥.). 

Mr B. SKINNER showed a unicolorous form of Dumeril's rustic, Luperina dumerilii 
Dup. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) taken at the Lizard, Cornwall on 7.ix.83. The 
specimen lacked the pale whitish stigma and subterminal shading found in most 
specimens and was initially identified as an aberrant form of the flounced rustic. 
Luperina testacea (D. & S.). 

Rev D. Agassiz showed some specimens of the white-line dart, Euxoa tritici L. 
(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). This is believed to be a complex of three species in Europe 
and it is likely that all three taxa are resident and widespread in Britain. These are E. 
tritici (L.), the majority of specimens, usually with the "white line"; E. eruta (Hiibn.), 
forms with the ground colour largely speckled; E. crypta (Mann), generally smaller, 
dark brown forms, occurring late in the season. There are differences in the genitalia; 
in males chiefly in the everted vesica, but also in the ratio of the length of the sacculus 
extension to other processes; in the females in the shape of the bursae and the 
ovipositors. Examples determined by Michael Fibiger were shown but these were not 
confirmed and the status of the names used still requires confirmation. All three taxa 
can be found in the same locality. Members were encouraged to examine their series 
and make careful observations and descriptions of the larvae. 

Leslie Alan Wiles, Michael George Sexton, Jonathon Stewart Brock and Maxwell 
V. L. Barclay have been elected as ordinary members, and Robert Graham as a 
junior member. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 143 

Mr S. Miles made available for inspection a booklet produced by the Biodiversity 
Challenge Group. This is made up of various NGOs and the document provides an 
alternative agenda to the government's programme on biodiversity. 

The Ordinary Meeting then closed and was followed by the Annual General 
Meeting and the President's Address. 



Minutes of the Annual General Meeting of the Society 

held at the Royal Entomological Society of London's rooms 

at 6.30 pm on 28 February 1995 

Chairman: The President, Dr P. Waring. Present: 32 members. 

Minutes of the last Annual General Meeting were read and signed. 

The Secretary read the Council's report, followed by the Treasurer who read his 
report. The Treasurer then invited questions on his report but there were none. The 
Editor, Librarian and Curator then read their reports and Dr M. Scoble read the 
report of the Hering Memorial Fund. The President proposed the adoption of the 
reports, this was seconded by Mr D. Young and passed unopposed. 

The President then read the names of the Officers and Members of Council 
recommended by the Council for 1995/96 and, as no other names had been 
submitted, he declared the following duly elected: President M. J. Scoble, Vice- 
presidents P. Waring and C. Hart, Treasurer A. J. Pickles, Secretary R. F. 
McCormick, Editor R. A. Jones, Curator P. J. Chandler, Librarian I. R. Sims, 
Lanternist M. J. Simmons, Building Manager P. J. Baker, Ordinary Members of the 
Council J. Muggleton, D. Lonsdale, I. F. G McLean, G. Collins, C. M. Drake, D. 
Young, R. K. Merrifield, M. Parsons, A. Jenkins and J. Firmin. 

The Secretary then read bye-law 26(d) and invited motions or questions. There 
was none. 

The President then read his report and gave his address. 

The President then installed the new President, Dr M. J. Scoble. 

The President proposed a vote of thanks to the retiring President, and this was 
seconded by Mr Stubbs. The President asked for permission to publish the 
Presidential address, and this was given. 

Mr B. Skinner gave a vote of thanks to the retiring Officers and Council. 

The President proposed the election of Mr R. A. Bell and Mr D. O'Keeffe as 
auditors for the coming year, with Council being empowered to appoint registered 
auditors under the Charities Act if necessary. This was seconded by Mr Jones and 
passed unopposed. 

The Meeting closed at 9.30 pm. 

The new President, Dr M. J. Scoble, invited comments on the exhibits. Mr E. 
Bradford recalled that he had found another red and black plant bug, Eurydema 
dominulus (Scop), earlier last year and he had made drawings of their distinctive 
banded eggs which are laid in rows of six. Mr A. Stubbs suggested that the red and 
metallic blue colour of the diverse beetles shown by Mr Jones might be warning 
colouration to indicate they are distasteful to would-be predators. He suggested that 
Mr Jones might experiment by eating a few. Without showing much enthusiasm for 
this proposal, Mr Jones pointed out that some of the beetles spend much of their time 
under bark or in other concealed places where the risks of predation are reduced. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



14 March 1995 



Mr A. J. Halstead showed an unusual colour form of a burying beetle, Necrodes 
littoralis L. On 27.vii.93 a brown example of this normally all black beetle was taken 
in a Rothamsted light trap at RHS Garden, Wisley, Surrey. Despite the killing fluid 
used in this type of trap, the beetle survived for several days and showed no signs of 
developing its usual colour. A typical example, also taken in a Rothamsted trap at 
Santon Downham, Suffolk on 21.ix.87, was shown for comparison. 

Neil Arthur Robinson, Ronald H. Carpenter, Simon Curson, Ronald H. Harvey, 
Colin Nichols and David Colin Neville have been elected as ordinary members. 

The President Dr M. J. Scoble, drew attention to a meeting being held on 4th 
May at the Natural History Museum by the UK Systematics Research Forum. The 
purpose of the meeting is to set priorities for the study of systematics and training. 
Anyone interested in attending should contact Prof Stephen Blackmore; also any 
systematicists not yet registered with the UK Forum should get in touch so that their 
database can be made more complete. 

Kevin Page spoke on the subject of ammonites. This large group of marine 
animals became extinct at about the same time as the dinosaurs but has left behind a 
rich fossil record. Ammonites show some similarities to the modern animal, Nautilus; 
both have (or had) air-filled chambered shells which the animals can regulate to 
allow them to rise or sink in the water. Ammonite fossils can be found in suitable 
rock strata in various situations such as coastal cliffs, land slips, quarries and 
cuttings created by road works. The species assemblages of ammonite fossils can be 
used to date and classify rock deposits. Ammonites often occur in large and small 
forms, and it is likely, that like modern squids, ammonites were sexually dimorphic 
with the larger forms being females. Dr Page showed some slides of a number of 
notable ammonite sites in Britain, France and Spain. Also shown were some of the 
wild flowers and insects found at these sites. 



BOOK REVIEW 

Systematic and applied entomology: an introduction, edited by I. D. Naumann, 
Melbourne University Press (UK: UCL Press, London), 1994, viii + 484 pp, softback, 
Aus$ 44.95, £24.95 — Although an Australian publication, the coverage is interna- 
tional and represents a highly attractive and well-produced summary of current 
entomological theory and knowledge. The book begins with general chapters on 
insect structure, biology, phylogeny and applied study. Then follow 32 chapters on 
the 32 orders of insects recognized by the authors. The editor candidly admits that 
these chapters are abridged from the huge (and hugely expensive) The insects of 
Australia (Melbourne University Press, 2nd edn, 1991), but they maintain a thoroughly 
general stance, offering biological details wholly relevant to study anywhere in the 
world, including the United Kingdom. The only concession to an antipodean audience 
is a brief paragraph in each chapter outlining a few special features of the Australian 
fauna. Of special interest is each order's world-wide classification, offering a modern 
listing of all known suborders, superfamilies and families irrespective of which part of 
the world they might occur in. Eight superb colour plates offer a taste of what the 
Australian fauna has to offer and the text is copiously illustrated throughout with line 
drawings and half-tones. Apart from the fact that all the page numbers in the first page 
of the contents list are wrong, this is an excellent introductory text for the general 
entomologist, A-level student or undergraduate. 

R.A. Jones 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 145 

OFFICERS' REPORTS FOR 1994 

COUNCIL'S REPORT 

The Society's membership stood at 729 at the end of the year, a small increase on 
the numbers for the previous year; 44 new members were elected during the year, 12 
were struck off for non-payment and 1 member resigned. Six deaths were reported to 
the Society during 1994. 

The Council met 7 times during 1994 and, on average, 15 members attended each 
meeting. Less of the Council's time was taken up discussing Dinton Pastures, (the 
Pelham-Clinton Building), but there are still ongoing problems with the air 
conditioning and alarm systems. The two Council members who have taken the 
brunt of attending for engineers' visits have been our Curator, Mr Peter Chandler, 
and our Building Manager Mr Peter Baker. Our thanks go to these hard working 
members of Council, and to any other members who have helped with this work. 
Because of the death of Mr C. B. Ashby, a replacement Trustee had to be found. A 
special meeting was arranged on the 10 May 1994 and Rev D. Agassis was elected by 
vote at this meeting and by postal ballot; the ballot also covered the increase in the 
number of Honorary Members to 12 and this matter was passed by a majority in the 
postal ballot and unanimously at this special meeting. Other topics that have taken 
up a lot of Council time have been the formation of a Dipterist's Forum affiliated to 
the BENHS; there will be an article about this affiliation published in the Journal. 
The formation of a conservation group within the BENHS has been initiated. Two 
meetings have taken place and further information will be distributed with the 
Journal; we have also discussed ongoing environmental issues. 

There were 1 1 indoor meetings held at the rooms of the Royal Entomological 
Society which included the joint meeting with the London Natural History Society. 
In general, attendances at indoor meetings were improved with around 25 or more 
people coming to each meeting; this was probably because of the hard work put in by 
our Indoor Meeting Secretary, Dr McLean, in arranging speakers for these events. 
Six workshops were arranged at the Pelham-Clinton Building, and these proved to be 
very popular; along with these, three moth trapping evenings at Dinton Pastures 
were carried out in order to increase our knowledge of the Lepidoptera of the area. 
The Pelham-Clinton Building was opened on a Sunday every second week during the 
months of January to April and October to November and every 2nd Sunday of the 
month from May to September and December; in the main these were poorly 
attended and the Council will be reviewing the open day frequency at a future 
Council meeting. The poor attendance on open days shows a marked contrast to the 
interest of the membership in the other organized events; this interest makes it 
rewarding for the hard-working Council Members involved and our new premises a 
moderate success. A full programme of meetings and events is being prepared for 
1995/96. 

The Society continued to represent members' interests in the field of conservation 
and Mrs F. M. Murphy and Mr S. R. Miles take an active part as the Society's 
representatives on the Joint Committee for Conservation of British Invertebrates. 
The Society also paid an annual subscription of £60 to Wildlife and Countryside 
Link as part of the joint payment contributed by all the major entomological groups 
to this countryside policy forum and conservation promotion organization. 

Eighteen field meetings were held in wide-ranging areas of the countryside, 
including the moth trapping events at Dinton Pastures Country Park. Attendance at 
these varied widely. We would like to thank Mr Roger Morris our outgoing Field 
Meetings Secretary, for all his hard work in arranging these meetings; Mr Morris has 



146 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

had to retire due to other commitments and his position will be taken over by Dr 
Paul Waring. A full list of field meetings for 1995, arranged by Dr Paul Waring, has 
been distributed. 

A successful Annual Exhibition was organized by Mr Michael Simmons and was 
attended by 200 members and 103 visitors, around the same numbers of members 
who attended the previous year with an increase in the number of visitors. There 
were around 1 75 exhibits with the usual slant on the Lepidoptera but with a welcome 
increase in the other orders. The Council reinforced its guidelines to stop 
controversial exhibits from being shown at our Exhibition. The aim is to stop long 
series of any species from one locality from being shown, unless for a special reason. 
Mr Michael Simmons organized the Annual Dinner for the first time and made a 
great success of a job that was suddenly thrust upon him; an increase in the numbers 
of members and companions sat down to a meal that was enjoyed by all. 

Roy McCormick 



Treasurers report 

1994 has been the first full year of normal occupation of Dinton Pastures and it is 
now possible to see how the actual costs compare with our estimates. Our budget for 
running the Society was £14000 and at first sight the actual cost of £18 555 seems 
excessive. However there were two exceptional items, firstly the expenditure of £2300 
on equipment, a water softener and a new computer, principally for the library, but 
having implications for other activities of the Society. Secondly, the financial 
implications of the water leak we suffered. The leak was in the length of mains 
leading to the building but for which we are responsible. As a result we had to pay 
the water authorities £1700 and some £500 for repair costs. The bankruptcy of our 
builders has not made it possible to claim successfully. 

Taking away these items our expenditure has not been vastly higher than 
anticipated, but the worrying feature which remains is the cost of controlling the 
humidity and temperature of our premises. There have been continuing problems in 
this area most of which have cost money, either for increased electricity costs, for 
repair, or for the water softener, which we are advised may relieve problems but costs 
£984 in the short term. 

This year the cost of producing the magazine was reduced to £5700 due to a hold 
over to next year, and because some costs of the supplement were included last year. 
Once again a grant of £1000 towards the cost of colour plates has been made from 
the Bequest Fund. 

Turning to income we see a sharp increase in subscriptions resulting from the 
increase in rates and the effects of covenanting which has provided a further £600 
reclaimed from the exchequer. Investment income is slightly down but in assessing 
this the nature of our new investments has to be considered. The theory is that 
income for the most part is accumulated within the bonds until we require it. 
Unfortunately the value of our investments has fallen during the year in common 
with the stock exchange, although there have been encouraging signs of recovery 
towards the end of the year. Fortunately we consider these investments to be long 
term, and the current value is not a problem to us. The value of our investments 
overall still exceeded their cost by some £30 000 at the balance sheet date. 

I am pleased to report that the Society is in a strong financial position with a 
balance sheet value of £348 000 and a value taking into account the unrealized profits 
of investment of nearly £380000. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8. 1995 



147 



Income and expenditure account 
year to 31st December 1994 



1994 



1993 



General account 

Subscriptions 

Interest and dividends 

Redemption surplus 

Donations and bequests 

Surplus on Christmas cards 

Surplus on cabinets and collections 

Total income 

Headquarters services 

Insurance 

Headquarters security and maintenance 

Council rooms and expenses 

Equipment 

Members meetings and exhibitions 

Administration 

Library 

Donation to RSPB 

Subscriptions and donations to other 

societies 
Honorariums 
Cost of dinner 

Cost of running society 



Publications account (free to members) 

Sales 

Bequest fund grant for plates 

Production of journal 

Distribution costs 

Net cost of journal 

Deficit (surplus) on membership 

Special publications (for sale) 
Sales 

Opening stock 
Publication costs 
Distribution and general costs 
Closing stock 

Surplus on sale of special publications 



Transferred to Hering fund 
Transferred to bequest fund 
Transferred to general fund 
Transferred to special publications fund 





10,249 




7,990 




10,181 




11,512 




— 




57 




1,339 




1,330 




130 




85 




23 




700 




(21,922) 


(21,674) 


4,811 




3,687 




935 




692 




1,807 




1,348 




1,981 




1,699 




2,328 




— 




2,345 




1,503 




2,534 




1,512 




960 




1,165 




— 




250 




173 




340 
340 




181 


18,055 


205 








12,751 




(3,867) 




(8,923) 


(1,267) 




(1,344) 




(1,000) 




(1,000) 




6,402 




6,775 




1,572 




1,844 






5,707 




6,275 




1,840 




(2,648) 


(6,128) 




(1,786) 




9,088 




4,000 




128 




5,532 




871 




362 




(5,021) 




(9,088) 






(1,062) 




(980) 




778 




(3,628) 


643 




564 




8,170 




7,451 




(11,242) 




(5,367) 




1,651 


(778) 


980 








3,628 



148 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



Balance sheet as at 31st December 1994 



1994 



1993 



Employment of capital 

Leasehold property 

Additions 

Opening amortization 

Amortization 



Quoted investments 
General fund 
Hering fund 
Investment bonds 

Current assets 

Special publications 

Christmas cards 

Sundry debtors and payments 

in advance 
Bank capital reserve account 
Business reserve deposit 
Bank societies reserve account 
Bank current account 





154,736 

(2,210) 
(2,210) 




144,432 
10,304 

(2,210) 




150,316 




152,526 




28,036 

3,540 

139,000 




28,036 

3,540 

139,000 


5,021 

50 

3,149 




9,088 

289 

3,591 




14,200 

4,468 
2,424 




11,327 
8,070 




29,312 




32,365 





Current liabilities 

Sundry creditors and accrued expenses 



2,048 
(2,048) 



2,724 
(2,724) 



Net current assets 



27,264 
348,156 



29,641 
352,743 



Capital employed 








General fund 








Opening balance 


39,590 




39,589 


Transfer from bequest fund 


11,242 




5,367 


Transfer from income and expenditure 


(11,242) 




(5,367) 


account 




39,590 




Housing fund 


152,526 




144,432 


Contributions from other funds 


— 




10,304 


Amortization 


(2,210) 




(2,210) 



150,316 



39,589 



152,526 



Special publications fund 
Opening balance 
Surplus from sales 



29,495 
1,651 



31,146 



28,515 
980 



29,495 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



149 



Bequest fund 

Opening balance 

Income 

Grants & expenditure 



tiering memorial fund 
Opening balance 
Income 
Expenditure 



126,191 
8,170 
(12,242) 




136,411 
7,451 
(17,671) 






122,119 




126,191 


4,942 
643 
(600) 


4,985 


4,878 
564 
(500) 


4,942 




348,156 




352,743 



Accounting policies 

(a) The accounts are prepared under the historical cost convention. 

(b) The costs of building and equipping leasehold premises at Dinton Pastures Park 
have been capitalized. The total cost of these premises which were completed 
during the year to 31st December 1993 are being amortized over the term of the 
lease. The first amortization charge was made in 1993. 

(c) The value of the library, collections, ties, back numbers of Proceedings and 
Journals and the computer system is not included in these accounts. Current 
expenditure on such items is written off to the income and expenditure account. 

(d) Donations and legacies are brought into account when they are received by the 
Society. 

(e) Surplusses (or deficits) arising on the special publications fund which accounts 
for publications primarily for sale are transferred to that fund to finance future 
publications. 



Investments 


Book value 


at cost 


Market value 




General & bequest 


Hering memorial 




1230 Shell T&T 25p Ord. 


477.79 


771.83 


8561 


750 Unilever 5p Ord. 


248.45 




8685 


6272 M&G Charifund Units 


19091.17 


1147.24 


51556 


2450.90 Treas. 9 1/2% 1999 


771.22 


1621.21 


2523 


3863.71 Treas. 8 3/4% 1997 


36876.94 




3890 


3882.90 Treas. 9% 1994 


3759.57 




3883 




28036.14 


3540.28 


79098 


Investment bonds 


Total 






Hendersons 


58000.00 




49253 


Sun Life 


56000.00 




49599 


Barings 


25000.00 




21293 




139000.00 


120145 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



Fund movements 

Amortization on the leasehold premises at Dinton Pastures has been charged to the 
Housing Fund. A grant has been made from the bequest fund towards the cost of 
coloured plates published in the Journal and towards the general running expenses of 
the Society. 

Make up of funds 
The funds are represented by the following assets: 



Housing fund 

Leasehold premises 

Special publications 

Stock 

Cash deposits 

Hendersons bond 

Barings bond 



Hering fund 
Investments 
Cash deposits 



150,316 

5,021 
12,125 
10,000 

4,000 

31,146 



3,540 
1,445 

4,985 



Bequest fund 
Hendersons bond 
Sun Life bond 
Barings bond 
Cash deposits 



General fund 
Barings bond 
Investments 
Current assets 



48,000 
56,000 
18,119 

122,119 

2,881 

28,036 

8,673 

39,589 



The audit of these accounts marks the end of an era as it is the first time for over 15 
years that Col. Dougie Sterling has not been associated with the preparation of the 
accounts either as treasurer or auditor. We have been fortunate in obtaining the 
services of Dennis O'Keeffe who has performed the audit together with our long 
serving joint auditor Reg Bell and I extend my thanks to these gentlemen. 

Mark Telfer took on the onerous task of Assistant Treasurer at the beginning of 
1994 and has done splendid work in re-organizing the computer system and carrying 
out a smooth transfer and I would also like to extend my thanks to him. 

A. J. Pickles 



Report of the auditors to the members 

We have examined the financial statements attached which have been prepared in 
accordance with the recomendations of SORP 2. 

We have audited the financial statements annexed in accordance with approved 
Auditing Standards. 

In our opinion the financial statements which have been prepared under the 
historical cost convention give a true and fair view of the state of the Society's affairs 
at 31st December 1994 and of its income and expenditure for the year then ended. 

D. O'Keeffe 

R. A. Bell 



Professor Hering memorial research fund 

The committee agreed to support two applications to the Fund for 1995. Mr 
Roland Johansson (Vaxjo, Sweden) was awarded the sum of £300 to help with the 
cost of a visit to the Natural History Museum, London, to study and illustrate types 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 151 

of Australian Nepticulidae. Mr Johansson is well known for his studies and excellent 
colour illustrations of microlepidoptera. His work on the Australian Nepticulidae 
forms part of a collaborative study with colleagues from Canberra and Leiden. 

Dr Sergej Sinev (Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg) was awarded £300 
to further his work on Russian microlepidoptera. The funds will be used to support 
fieldwork in the far east of Russia, particularly for the collection of immature stages, 
to enable Dr Sinev to make his work on keys to Russian Microlepidoptera more 
complete. 

Reports have been received on the results of work of the two projects funded last 
year. Michael Bonsall, Imperial College, London, who is working on the parasitoid 
complexes of Tephritidae on thistles, has reared and identified several species of 
parasitoids from various tephritid flies. The data will be used to compare the host- 
parasitoid associations on the various hostplants. 

The study of Dr Alan Gange (Royal Holloway College) involving the tephritid fly 
Urophora cardui, which forms galls on the thistle Cirsium arvense, has shown that 
significantly larger galls and greater numbers of live larvae were found on thistles 
treated with fungicide to reduce mycorrhizal infection. Application of fertilizer, to 
increase nitrogen levels, seems to counteract the effect of the fungicide. This work is 
the first report of the protective effect of a mycorrhiza against insect herbivory. 
Chemical studies are currently in progress to examine whether mycorrhizal infection 
is altering the nitrogen-carbon balance in the plant. 

Malcolm J. Scoble 

LIBRARIAN'S REPORT 

The major occupation in the Library this year has been to specify and purchase a 
personal computer. This, it is hoped, will not only benefit the running of the library 
but assist the Society in many other ventures. With the help of a small committee a 
proposed specification was produced. I then set myself the task of examining possible 
equipment, not only obtaining brochures but also visiting demonstration sites. This 
culminated in the purchase of an Elonex PC-450 model in mid-December 1994. With 
the help of Graham Collins' expertise, the library program database disks were 
converted in January 1995 from 5.25 inch format to 3.5 inch format and transferred 
to the new computer. The computer was finally installed at Dinton Pastures on the 
12th February. 

As the result of a kind offer by Frances Murphy and her husband a single sheet 
photocopier has also been installed at the Society's rooms. 

A further tranche of book purchases, originally recommended by the library 
committee in 1993, with subjects ranging from European Noctuidae to field keys for 
Neuroptera, was completed this year. Thanks are due to Andrew Halstead for 
arranging these purchases. 

One exchange journal arrangement was agreed during the year, this was with 
Sociedad Entomologica Aragonesa for their journal Zapateri. 

Moves are being suggested to dispose of some of the older items in our library to 
lighten the insurance load. Depending on the extent of disposal to be contemplated I 
believe this to be a retrograde step. Potentially it could diminish the interest in the 
library from those who would not normally get the opportunity to see these types of 
items, let alone borrow them by special permission, which is still feasible. 

I am still concerned with those members who don't return books they have 
borrowed, due perhaps to an unwillingness to make the effort to visit Dinton 
Pastures a second time. It is the responsibility of all members to make arrangements 



152 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

to return books they have on loan, once they have received a request from the 
librarian to do so. 

During the year I placed an advertisement in the Society's journal for a 
replacement librarian following the announcement of my resignation in last year's 
report. I am glad to say that Mr Ian Sims, a resident of the Reading area, has 
volunteered to take on these responsibilities from today. I shall be still concerned 
with the library for a little time yet in order to ensure that the transition runs 
smoothly, particularly the aspect of the use of the computer for library work. I wish 
Ian success and hope that the members, the library committee and Council will 
support him in this endeavour. 

Special thanks are due this year to Graham Collins, Ken Merrifield, Stuart Ball, 
Ian McLean and Peter Verdon for giving me advice leading to the specification of the 
Society's computer requirement. 

Thanks are due, for books donated to the library during the past year, to Brian 
Baker and also to the Biodiversity Challenge Group. 

Finally I would like to thank all those who have helped me over the past twelve 
years in the library, particularly the understanding shown during the traumatic 
period of reported losses when the books were in store and for the help received at 
the installation of the books to Dinton Pastures. 

S. R. Miles 



Curators report 

In the reports for the past two years I have referred to the ongoing rearrangement 
of the beetles, involving uniting the Massee and Henderson collections into a single 
entity. Progress on this has continued as time allowed and the layout according to 
John Owen's revised check list has now been completed in 86 drawers. It will now be 
easier to assess the gaps in this collection and determine how they can best be filled. 
Notes provided by Peter Hodge on recent splits and synonymy in the Coleoptera, as 
well as likely areas of confusion, are invaluable in indicating where revision is 
essential, and assistance of specialists will be sought to resolve the identity of such 
material. Some help has already been given by Keith Alexander on the Cantharidae 
and David Moore on the Elateridae. 

This has now freed the two cabinets (40 and 20 drawer respectively), formerly 
housing the Massee collection for the arrangement of the European butterflies to 
begin in due course. It has also freed two Hill units, which after repapering will be 
used to begin the projected new layout of the British moths. 

Preliminary work on the moths has continued with selection of suitable material 
from the Mackworth-Praed collection, begun by Peter Baker and being continued by 
David Moore, who has offered to make a start on the moth arrangement later in 
1995. 

During 1994, the Society was offered Michael Tweedie's collection of Lepidoptera, 
excluding the cabinets. Due to lack of space for rehousing them at the time it was 
initially agreed that we would take specimens of value to our collection, which 
included most of his micro moths (an area in which we are still weak) and a smaller 
number of the macros. This initial selection was made by Bernard Skinner and I am 
most grateful to him for this valuable contribution. A cabinet of Geometridae passed 
to Barry Goater and it is understood that Barry has selected a representative 
collection to pass to Guy Sircoulomb, a member of the Societe Entomologique 
d'Evreux, who specializes in Geometridae, in continuation of the links already 
established between our two Societies. The residue was then obtained for us by Peter 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 153 

Baker but most of necessity became duplicates and the greater part were immediately 
donated to the Northamptonshire Natural History Society to assist in building their 
Lepidoptera collection. 

Some further donations of sawflies have been made by Andrew Halstead, and due 
to the additions made by him our collection now includes 200 species of this group. 

It is expected, with the changes in organization of the Lepidoptera collections, that 
a number of the older cabinets will become available for sale over the next few years 
as they are cleared. It is then hoped to replace them with additional ten-drawer units 
for the eventual rehousing of the Diptera, Hymenoptera and those smaller orders 
still awaiting arrangement. 

Use has been made of the collections during four of the workshop meetings held 
during 1994, and microscopes and table space have been fully utilized on these 
occasions. On the other hand attendance at the open days has been very variable and 
it may be necessary to reduce their number unless there is fuller use of the library and 
collections on each occasion. Anyone who has not already visited the building would 
be welcome to attend any of the open days or workshops. It is hoped that the 
associations with Dipterists' Forum and BWARS will increase use of the collections 
of those orders and it is also hoped that coleopterists will be encouraged to attend 
now that the beetle collection has been updated. 

There have been some further occasional upsets over the air conditioning system, 
despite some modifications to the design carried out during the year as well as the 
addition of a water softening facility in an effort to reduce the impact of lime scale on 
the rehumidifying component of the system. This was initially successful but due to a 
neglect in routine maintenance there has been renewed malfunctioning in recent 
months and the hardness of the water has proved too great for water softening to 
fully solve the problem. The required parameters have nevertheless been consistent 
for most of the time and regular maintenance visits by the contractor have now been 
resumed. Consideration is still being given to the longer term operation of the air 
conditioning, but it is as yet unclear whether beneficial changes to its mode of 
operation can be achieved. 

Our initial inability to accept the Tweedie collection in its entirety under the 
arrangement described above, led some members to express concern that we should 
have a formalized Collections Policy. Any member with views on this subject should let 
me know. 

I am grateful to all those already mentioned for their assistance and 
encouragement during the year. 

Peter Chandler 



Editors report 

I hope it will come as no surprise when I say that the Journal continued on its 
merry way in 1994, as per usual. There were, however, two small detours from its 
normal annual path. Although four colour plates were printed, only three were 
actually published in 1 994; the fourth is being held over to accompany two papers on 
butterfly genetics which will appear in 1995. And the Journal published a 
supplement, its first in a more or less continuous publishing history of 110 years. 

This was actually quite a departure from standard procedure since the contents of 
this special supplement were actually the proceedings of a completely different 
society — the National Federation for Biological Recording, the NFBR. There is no 
formal link between that group and the BENHS, so how did our Journal become 
involved in issuing their notes? 



154 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

As it turned out, the subject of the NFBR annual meeting in question was 
invertebrate recording' and how such recording could be used in site evaluation and 
monitoring, quite a vogue topic and one which the BENHS Council thought 
worthwhile supporting. Many of the delegates to that NFBR meeting and some of 
the speakers were also members of the BENHS and all of the papers presented were 
of potential interest to BENHS members, many of whom are already involved with 
local and national recording schemes and surveys. 

The cost of producing the supplement was to some extent defrayed by the fact that 
the guest editor, Paul Harding from the Biological Records Centre, was able to take 
all of the authors' papers, and generate the camera-ready copy from his own 
department. The printing costs were also partly met by a special grant from the 
NFBR. In this way the supplement was produced with only a minimal cost to the 
BENHS, but, I hope, with great benefit. The supplement was circulated to many 
organizations and it further raised the Society's profile among a wide variety of 
bodies involved with invertebrate recording. It also offered readers a deeper insight 
into just how important is the work of the field entomologist. 

The supplement aside, the Journal continues relentlessly. There is always a steady 
supply of papers to publish, though I am always happy to receive more of the shorter 
communications which will usually enjoy very rapid publication indeed. I'll close 
with a thank you to the 14 listed members of the Editorial Committee who referee, 
revise or proof-read all the material, and without whose help I would find the job of 
Editor a burden instead of a joy. 

Richard A. Jones 



BOOK REVIEW 

Ground beetles in the Yorkshire Museum, by Michael Denton, Yorkshire 
Museum, 1993, 84 pages, paperback, and Flies in the Yorkshire Museum, by 

Andrew Grayson, Yorkshire Museum, 1994, 160 pages, paperback. — Both of these 
small books were published and issued free to anyone sending a stamped and 
addressed envelope, and have been produced with local backing to promote the 
Museum and its collections. 

The ground beetles were primarily collected by Herbert Willoughby Ellis (1869— 
1943) and represent a portion of his collection of 80000 beetle specimens. For each 
species, a brief entry records the number of specimens in the collection and 
comments on the contemporary and present status as well as local and national 
distribution. A short biography describes how Ellis corresponded with all the 
eminent coleopterists of the day and the comprehensiveness of this current reference 
collection reflects this. 

The flies were collected mainly by Percy Hall Grimshaw (1869-1939) a former 
keeper of natural history of the Royal Scottish Museum where his main 
collection is housed. The systematic list gives full data for the collection's 801 
specimens. 

The books are rather generously laid out and could probably have been 
adequately printed with two-thirds or half their actual number of pages. Nevertheless 
they are attractive and useful publications and succeed in their aim of raising 
awareness of the Museum's collections. 

Richard A. Jones 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST, 8: 1995 155 

LETTER TO THE EDITOR 

Habitat preference in the Lepidoptera and patterns of distribution in light-traps. — 

I was most interested to read the results of Majerus et al. (1994) concerning light- 
trapping comparisons in woodland and grassland. As they report, I also found 
significant and persistent differences in the abundance of particular species when 
comparing two or more habitats within woodland, and readers will not be surprised to 
read of greater differences between woodland and open grassland where there are likely 
to be differences relating to shelter and wind speed as well as habitat type. In fact, 
interesting comparisons between catches in grassland and woodland were reported by 
Hosny (1953, 1955, 1959) way back in the infancy of mercury vapour light traps. 

As Majerus et al. discuss, reasons for these patterns of distribution can be expected 
to relate to various factors. Amongst these are the relatively weak flight of many 
geometrids and the dependence of a large proportion on woody perennials for food 
as larvae. No British geometrid moths feed as larvae on grasses, unlike the larvae of 
many of the noctuids, and low herbaceous plants of open conditions are also 
exploited widely by noctuids, many of which are strong fliers, able to fly higher and 
in windier conditions than most geometers. 

Just as with butterflies, presence of the larval foodplant is not enough to guarantee 
the presence of the moth. Very often the situation in which the plant is growing 
proves to be important, with some species of larvae occurring more frequently in 
sunny situations, others in shade, and with differences between abundance or density 
on mature trees and shrubs and on regrowth. Some results illustrating these 
differences are given in Waring (1990). 

A particularly interesting example in the British context is provided by Shaw 
(1991) who found larvae of the magpie moth, Abraxas grossulariata, and the V moth, 
Semiothisa wauaria, only on gooseberry bushes growing in sunny locations, while 
those of the phoenix, Eulithis prunata, were found only on more or less fully shaded 
gooseberry bushes in woodland understorey. 

My Ph. D. thesis (Waring, 1 990) includes many other examples, some of which clearly 
relate to local differences in the availability of particular species of plants and even to 
the proximity of a single tree or bush. However, as Bowden (1982) suggests, and I 
found, some apparent patterns of distribution can be artifacts of the trapping 
technique, such as differences in the visibility of individual traps or the degree of 
shading and contrast between the light-trap and its background. In Waring (1990) I 
explored several different methods of evening out and correcting for such factors using 
species expected to have uniform distribution. By looking at the ratio in which moths 
actually occur in traps and comparing the distributions of other species against this 
empirical ratio, it was hoped that it might be possible to correct for the resultant 
combination of all the factors which might be biasing trap results, such as one site being 
siightly warmer, windier or more shaded than another. Needless to say, the results 
depended on which species I selected as my bio-indicator: the large yellow underwing, 
Noctua pronuba, riband wave Idaea aversata and the small fan-footed wave /. biselata. 
In practice I found that in the real world each of these species let me down sooner or 
later, appearing to favour one habitat in preference to another. 

For many species the pattern of distribution between habitats was the same no 
matter what method of analysis I chose, the latter affecting only the degree of 
difference in the comparisons. I repeat the advice I gave in Waring (1989) to all moth 
recorders interested in using light-traps for looking at differences between habitats 
and management regimes — make things easy for yourself — try and ensure that all 
traps which you wish to compare with each other are operated under an open sky, or 



156 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

all under tree canopy, and that they are visible for about the same distance. This 
makes the comparisons much simpler and the results much more easy to interpret. 
For other tips on the practicalities of light-trapping, readers may find Waring (1994) 
and the references listed there of interest. 

Lastly, I am sure readers will look forward to reading the results of Dearnaley et 
al. (referred to as "in prep." in Majerus et al. 1994 pi 29 para. 4) when this study is 
published. There is already a large body of literature reporting that the effectiveness 
of light-traps is influenced by trap design, bulb height and the height of the trap 
above ground. It is also known that the performance of bulbs deteriorates with age 
and use. Just for the record, all the traps in the experiments reported by Waring 
(1989, 1990) were operated on the ground. All the tubes and bulbs for the traps were 
purchased new at the start of the experiments and the tubes in the actinic light traps 
were replaced at the start of each year. In all comparisons the traps were operated all 
night in order to sample as large a range of moths and their possible times of flight as 
possible. These and other experimental details, including dates and sites, are given in 
full in Waring (1990).— Paul Waring, Windmill View, 1366 Lincoln Road, 
Werrington, Peterborough PE4 6LS. 

References 

Bowden, J. 1982. An analysis of factors affecting catches of insects in light traps. Bull. Ent. Res. 

72: 535-556. 
Hosny, M.M. 1953. Studies on the activity and abundance of macrolepidoptera in relation to 

environment. Ph.D thesis (unpublished). University of London. 
Hosny, M.M. 1955. Notes on the effect of some secondary environmental conditions on the 

activity of nocturnal Macrolepidoptera. Bull. Soc. Ent. d'Egypte 39: 297-314. 
Hosny, M.M. 1959. A review of results and a complete list of Macrolepidoptera caught in two 

ultra-violet light traps during 24 months, at Rothamsted, Hertfordshire. Entomologists' 

Mon. Mag. 95: 226-236. 
Majerus, M., Grigg, A., Jones, G, Salmon, F., Strathdee. A. and Dearnaley N. 1994. Factors 

affecting habitat preferences in the Lepidoptera. Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 7: 129-137. 
Shaw, M. R. 1991. Magpie moth, Abraxas grossulariata (L.), (Lep., Geometridae) and other 

caterpillars on Gooseberry, Ribes uva-crispa, in south Cumbria. Entomologists' Rec. J. Var. 

103: 272-273. 
Waring, P. 1989. Comparison of light-trap catches in deciduous and coniferous woodland 

habitats. Entomologists' Rec. J. Var. 101: 1-10. 
Waring, P. 1990. Abundance and diversity of moths in woodland habitats. Ph.D. thesis 

(unpublished). Oxford Polytechnic (now Oxford Brookes University). 
Waring, P. 1994. Moth traps and their use. Br. Wildlife 5: 137-148. 



SHORT COMMUNICATIONS 



Deadwood Coleoptera from two important Denbighshire parklands, including five 
species new to Wales. — Two National Trust owned historic parks, Chirk and Erddig, 
have received very little attention from entomologists in the past, but have now 
proved to be of considerable interest for their deadwood fauna. Both were visited in 
1993 as part of the Trust's national programme of biological survey. The park at 
Chirk originated as a 14th century hunting park, while the early history of Erddig is 
not yet known. 

Erddig Park (SJ326482) straddles the Black Brook immediately above its 
confluence with the Clywedog River and therefore encompasses ancient river-cliff 
woodland within its present bounds. Amongst the more interesting finds are a 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 157 

Tetratoma desmaresti Lat. found beneath bark of a dead lower branch on an old oak, 
23.vi, a Prionocyphon serricornis (Muller, P. W. J.) swept at the base of a wooded 
river-cliff section in Big Wood, 24. vi, and a dead Prionychus ater (F.) beneath loose 
bark on the trunk of a mature ash, and a Quedius ventralis (Aragona) under loose 
bark with congealed sap on a horse chestnut trunk, both 28. vi. 1993. Other species of 
lesser note include Ctesias serra (F.), Bitoma crenata (F.), and Xestobium rufovillosum 
(Deg.). A subsequent visit, on 26.iv.1994, added an elytron of Ischnomera ? cyanea 
(F.) found beneath loose bark on an oak, and A. P. Fowles took a Ernoporus fagi 
(F.) from beech bark. 

Chirk Castle Park (SJ269381) was visited on 19.vii. 1993. The old deer park 
includes a large concentration of ancient oaks, partly within a matrix of secondary 
birch, oak, beech and sycamore, partly in conifer plantation and including a large 
area of open bracken with some hawthorns. The most important find here was 
Dorcatoma serra Panz., which was tapped from a bracket of Inonotus dryadeus on an 
oak. Ctesias serra was found on another old oak. The neighbouring Baddy's Park is 
a large area of sheep pasture studded with overmature oak and hawthorn, plus a few 
field maple. The most interesting find here was Abdera quadrifasciata (Curt.) which 
was tapped from a dead lower branch of an old spreading oak. Eledona agricola 
(Herbst) was typically found in Laetiporus sulphureus bracket on an oak, and other 
species noted include Cryptarcha strigata (F.), Prionychus ater, Pediacus dermestoides 
(F.) and Xestobium rufovillosum. A dead tree in the Home Park was riddled with 
borings of a Xyloterus sp., most probably X. domesticus (L.). This is clearly an 
important old Border parkland and would merit further investigation. 

Of these beetles, Abdera quadrifasciata, Dorcatoma serra, Ernoporus fagi, Quedius 
ventralis, and Tetratoma desmaresti are new to Wales, and Cryptarcha strigata, 
Eledona agricola, and Prionychus ater new to North Wales. 

These findings bring both sites into the top league of Welsh parklands. The 
"Alexander index" for both parks currently stands at 13, a total surpassed in Wales 
only by Dinefwr Park (Alexander & Pavett, 1992) and Powis Castle Park, with 
indices of 25 and 17 respectively. Old Cilgwyn, Ceredigion also has 13, while 
Gregynog Great Wood stands close at 12. Welsh parks are however currently the 
subject of a major survey by the Countryside Council for Wales. 

My thanks go to Adrian Fowles of the Countryside Council for Wales for his 
comments on an earlier draft of this note. — K. N. A. Alexander, National Trust, 
33 Sheep Street, Cirencester, Gloucestershire GL7 1QW. 

Reference 

Alexander, K. N. A. & Pavett, P. M. 1992. The beetles of Dinefor Castle Estate. Dyfed Inv. 
Group Newsl. 25: 1-9. 



Myopites eximia Seguy (Diptera: Tephritidae) new to Devon. — While in S. Devon 
on holiday, I collected some dead flowerheads of golden samphire, Inula crithmoides 
L., growing from rock crevices low down on the rocky coast on the south side of Bolt 
Tail (SX 669394), 14.xi.1993. In due course, a single specimen of this red data book 
(Shirt, 1987) species emerged (called M . frauenfeldi Schiner in that publication). 

M. eximia is only known from western and south-western Europe (White, 1988), 
and in Britain has only so far been reported from south-eastern England, as far west 
as Dorset (Falk, 1991). The foodplant is much more widespread than this, occurring 
from the Mull of Galloway southwards along the Atlantic coats of Europe and 
across the Mediterranean (Clapham et al., 1989). Falk (1991) associated the species 



158 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

with saltmarsh and coastal shingle banks. While the foodplant is perhaps most 
frequent in these habitats in the south-east, it is very characteristic of the splash zone 
of rocky cliffs in the south-west and it is perhaps no surprise that it has now been 
found at a rocky south-western site. — K. N. A. Alexander, 14 Partridge Way, 
Cirencester, Gloucestershire GL7 1BQ. 

References 

Clapham, A. R., Tutin, T. G., & Moore, D. M. 1989. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge 

University Press. 
Falk, S. 1991. A review of the scarce and threatened flies of Great Britain. Research and survey in 

nature conservation No. 39. Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough. 
Shirt, D. B. (Ed.) 1987. British red data books: 2. Insects. Nature Conservancy Council, 

Peterborough. 
White, I. M. 1988. Tephritid Flies. Diptera: Tephritidae. Hanbk Ident. Br. Insects 10(5a). Royal 

Entomological Society, London. 



Dirhagus pygmaeus (F.) (Eucnemidae) and Hallomenus binotatus (Quen.) (Melan- 
dryidae): two beetles new to Wales. — These two deadwood beetles were discovered 
new to Wales in the course of National Trust Biological Survey fieldwork during 
1994. A dead Hallomenus binotatus was found within a bracket of the fungus 
Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) growing on oak in Graigllech Woods (SN848119), 
Brecon., 26.vii.1994. Although reasonably widespread across much of England and 
Scotland, it does appear to be much rarer in the south-west, being unknown in 
Devon and Cornwall for instance. A male and a female Dirhagus pygmaeus were 
swept within the extensive woodlands of the Bishopston Valley (SS568878), Gower, 
Glam., 22. vi. 1994. The distribution of this species in Britain is rather curious, but it 
occurs right across the southern counties, in the West Midlands and the north, and 
its discovery in Wales is therefore no real surprise. Brackeny oakwoods are a very 
typical habitat and there is no shortage of such in Wales. — K. N. A. Alexander, 
National Trust, 33 Sheep Street, Cirencester, Gloucestershire GL7 1QW. 



A winter emergence of Phyllonorycter strigulatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: 
Gracillariidae). — A large number of Phyllonorycter mines, situated on the underside 
of the leaves of grey alder (Alnus incana L.), were collected from a supermarket car 
park in the eastern suburbs of Cardiff, in early November. They were taken indoors 
with the intention of placing them into individual storage for the winter, but began to 
hatch within a few days. After one week, forty adults and one parasitoid 
(Pteromalidae) had emerged. The moths were later identified as P. strigulatella 
(Zeller, 1846), by the authors. This would appear to be a new record for Glamorgan 
(VC41), and is possibly new for Wales. 

P. strigulatella is described as being bivoltine (Heath & Emmet, 1985), with the 
adults on the wing in early May, or late July and August. The autumn larval stage is 
thought to be completed in October, leaving the pupae to survive the winter. It seems 
unusual for the moths to have emerged so quickly upon being brought indoors, 
especially since the autumn was reasonably mild prior to collection. — D. J. Slade & 
M. R. Wilson, National Museum of Wales, Cathays Park, Cardiff CF1 3NP. 

Reference 

Heath, J. & Emmet, A. M. 1985. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland 2: 
294-368. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 159 

BOOK REVIEWS 

Invertebrates of Wales: a review of important sites and species, by Adrian Fowles. 
JNCC and Countryside Council for Wales, 1994, 157 pages plus 16 colour plates, 
£24.50, hardback. — Britain has the best known invertebrate fauna in the world, the 
result of over 1 50 years' accumulation of the records of field collecting. We are now 
in a position to use this knowledge, however incomplete it may sometimes seem, to 
evaluate the rich variety of natural sites in Britain for conservation purposes. 
Invertebrates of Wales, by the invertebrate ecologist for the Countryside Council for 
Wales (CCW), Adrian Fowles, is an attempt to present an overview of the range of 
habitats in Wales, to describe their conservation status and highlight some of the key 
invertebrates. The bulk of the book is divided into three sections, corresponding to 
the three regions formerly administered by the Nature Conservancy Council; North 
Wales, Dyfed-Powys and South Wales. Within these sections the habitats 
represented, e.g. woodlands and coastland are described drawing upon examples 
of both the fauna present and also particular localities. These localities are drawn 
together into an appendix of notable sites for conservation of invertebrates in Wales. 
Here 93 sites are listed for which current information indicates the localities are of 
notable significance. Some of these sites are SSSIs and other national nature reserves. 
I would have greatly valued a complete list and brief account of the SSSIs and NNRs 
in Wales. Naturally many of these would not have been originally designated for 
their invertebrate fauna. In his position in CCW Adrian Fowles would be able to 
produce such a site inventory. This would, however, have produced an entirely 
different sort of book. Also, valuable as such an inventory would be, I suspect, 
however, the author may feel that such a list would polarize and concentrate 
recording to these sites at the expense of work at other potentially important sites. 
This is an important issue — should we concentrate recording and collecting at 
protected sites or those that might benefit from formal designation? 

I felt that the emphasis in this book on the conservation aspects of habitats 
overlaps to some extent with Peter Kirby's Habitat management for invertebrates: a 
practical handbook (JNCC & RSPB, 1992) (which strangely is not listed in the 
bibliography). Both describe habitats and the invertebrates that may be present, 
although obviously Kirby's book has a different purpose and coverage and 
Invertebrates of Wales concentrates on one large area and its habitats. It is possible 
to make comparisons in the way information is given. The style of presentation in the 
two books is considerably different and I find Kirby's book much easier to browse 
because it is broken up with many sub-headings and spaces between paragraphs, 
notably lacking from Fowles's. That aside I find myself asking when would I use 
Invertebrates of Wales and which audience was it written for? There is much useful 
information but it is not easily accessible. The introductory material is not especially 
helpful to someone wanting rapid information on the status of sites and recording 
coverage in Wales. Just how well recorded are the Lepidoptera, Odonata or 
Orthoptera in Wales? Fowles does not really tell us. I couldn't find a statement as to 
the number of SSSIs or NNRs in Wales or a proportion of the total land under such 
protection (or in a National Park) compared with other parts of the British Isles. The 
Invertebrate Site Register could have been more thoroughly introduced for the 
uninitiated. The photographs, especially those of habitats, are excellent and will 
certainly encourage interest in recording in Wales. 

The book is completed by a selected bibliography of around 150 references, which 
serve to highlight papers containing information on Welsh Invertebrates. This may 
be too selective since it does not include any general works or list any of the excellent 
series of JBCC guides "Reviews of the scarce and threatened . . ." 



160 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST, 8: 1995 

Over 30 of the references given are relatively recent articles in newsletters or 
unpublished reports (or reports produced in low numbers). This serves to emphasize 
the increasing importance of newsletters for publication of such information as long 
as they are widely available. (But are all journals easily available?) I am more 
concerned about the general availability of information in "unpublished" reports but 
that is another matter! Kirby's book includes an appendix listing recording schemes 
and record centres, societies, further reading, invertebrate identification guides and 
works on invertebrate conservation and habitat management. I would have thought 
a similar appendix could have been usefully included in Invertebrates in Wales. Only 
a list of organizations associated with the conservation of invertebrates in Wales is 
given by Fowles. 

This book should certainly be widely available, used and consulted, although as 
mentioned above the lack of sub-headings does not make it easy browsing. It should 
certainly raise the profile of invertebrate conservation in Wales. Unfortunately the 
price, at £24.50 for an A4 hardback, may make many amateurs think twice about a 
personal purchase even with the excellent photographs 

M. R. Wilson 



BOOK REVIEW 

Agricultural entomology, by D. S. Hill, Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, USA and 
Cambridge, UK, 1994, 636 pp, hardback, $89.95 (about £60).— Although there are 
many books in the field of agricultural entomology, there are few that claim to take a 
global view of this agricultural scene. Plenty concentrate on particular crops, 
particular pests or particular regions, but the author has set his sights high to try and 
cover the subject across international borders. A short introduction considers some 
of the current problems with agriculture, especially those of poverty, emphasis on 
cash crops, the need for land reform, erosion and over-population. It is these 
underlying causes which aggravate the developing world and make straightforward 
entomological problems into devastating and life-threatening plagues. Illustrated by 
examples from Africa and elsewhere, the theories behind our ideas of insect 
distribution, ecology and population dynamics are put into a farming perspective. 
The majority of the book is given over to order-by-order accounts of major pest 
species, from the minor nuisance of the firebrat eking out a living on bakery floors to 
migratory locusts ravaging the African plains. All important groups and major 
species are listed with details of their geographic range and pest status. Along with 
pests of farming, forestry, livestock and humans, beneficial insects receive welcome 
coverage since it is often the balance with natural enemies which causes insect 
outbreaks. We are rather sheltered in the United Kingdom, and we get upset by a few 
lily beetles making holes in our prize blooms, but looking through the book it is 
sobering to consider just how many of the creatures we like to study do great damage 
to the world's crops. Despite the rather bland quality of the paper, most of the large 
number of illustrations are crisp and clear and only a few rather sketchy figures leave 
something to be desired. For a book which lists specific insect pests it is strange that 
authors' names are not given for the specific names. Entomologists concerned with 
agriculture will find the book a useful reference and summary and perhaps also a 
teaching aid, but although the book is large, and hence very good value, its 
moderately high price will put it beyond the reach of many of the neediest workers in 
Third World countries where a book like this will be the greatest benefit. 

R. A. Jones 



INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS 

General. Contributions must be typed double-spaced on one side only on A4 paper with 3-cm 
margins either side to facilitate marking up. Layout should follow that of the Journal, but apart 
from underlining scientific names, no marks should be made to define typeface. 

Two copies of typescripts and figures are required, the second copy can be a photocopy. 
Authors who have prepared their article on word processor are invited to supply a disk also. 

Nomenclature. Use the most up-to-date nomenclature available. After first use of a specific 
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nomenclature. This should apply not only to insect names, but also to the names of plants, non- 
insect invertebrates and other animals. 

Figures and tables. Line figures and half-tones are accepted. Size of lettering, thickness of 
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References. In the text, references should give author and year, (e.g. Allan, 1947); multiple 
references (e.g. Kendall, 1982; Smith, 1989; Baker, 1994) should be listed in date order. But 
references should be listed in alphabetical order at the end of the article. Book titles take only an 
initial capital letter. Journal titles are abbreviated in the style of the World List, but with each 
word taking an initial capital. Examples: 

Allan, P. B. M. 1947. A moth-hunter's gossip. 2nd edn, Watkins and Doncaster, London, p. 149. 
Baker, P. 1994. The modified status of Strymonidia w-album (Knoch) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in 

north west Surrey. Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 7: 25-26. 
Jones, R. A. 1994. [Bilobed inflorescences of Plantago lanceolata L. Exhibit at BEHNS Annual 

Exhibition 1993.] Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 7: 179. 
Kendall, P. 1982. Bromius obscurus (L.) in Britain (Col., Chrysomelidae). Entomologist's Mon. Mag. 

117 (1981): 233-234. 
Pratt, C. R. & Emmet, A. M. 1989. Polygonia. In: Emmet, A. M. & Heath, J. (Eds). 77i<? moths and 

butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Harley Books, Colchester, Vol.7, Parti, pp. 212-215. 
Smith, K. G. V. 1989. An introduction to the immature stages of British flies: Diptera larvae, with 

notes on eggs, puparia and pupae. Handbk Ident. Br. Insects 10(14): 1-280. 
Stubbs, A. E. 1987. Oxycera dives. In: Shirt, D. B. (Ed.). British red data books: 2. Insects. Nature 

Conservancy Council, Peterborough, pp. 304-305. 
Stubbs, A. E. & Falk, S. J. 1983. British hoverfiies: an illustrated identification guide. BEHNS, 

London, pp. 191-192. 
West, B. K. 1994. The time of appearance of Lancanobia oleracea L. (Lep.:Noctuidae) in the British 

Isles. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 106: 81-84. 

Offprints. Authors of main articles qualify for 25 free offprints taken directly from the 
Journal. These may contain extraneous matter such as short communications or book reviews 
used as 'fillers'. Extra copies must be ordered when proofs are returned. 

ANNOUNCEMENT 

Public liability insurance. — It has come to the notice of the Society that some organizations 
issuing permits to enter their land to study insects are now asking that all those issued with such 
a permit should have public liability insurance, typically for two million pounds cover. 

This may at first sight seem a somewhat daunting requirement. The Society has consulted its 
insurance brokers and it emerges that many members who have household insurance may already 
have public liability insurance included. It is suggested that if in doubt the policy document should 
be consulted. We discovered however that for a nominal sum the Society could extend its own 
public liability insurance to cover members of the Society while engaged on entomological 
pursuits. We have taken this option and are pleased to inform all members that they now have 
public liability cover of two million pounds while engaged on their own field work, research and 
entomological study in addition to such activities arranged by the Society. Typically this would 
give cover against claims by third parties for injury caused in the course of such pursuits. A copy of 
the schedule to the policy is available for inspection at Dinton Pastures. — A. J. PICKLES, Hon. 
Treasurer, 2a Park Avenue, Lymington, Hampshire S041 9GX. 



BRITISH JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY 
VOLUME 8, PART 3, SEPTEMBER 1995 

ARTICLES 

97 A breeding experiment with the small copper butterfly, Lycaena phlaeas (L.) (Lepidoptera: 

Lycaenidae). T. S. Robertson 
102 Understanding size and pattern variation in mainland Britain Pararge aegeria L. (Lepidoptera: 

Satyridae). L. Winokur 
113 Two new species of Megaselia (Diptera: Phoridae) from Europe. R. H. L. Disney 
121 The Dipterists' Forum: a model for others to follow? A. E. Stubbs 

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS 

112 Swammerdammia compunctella H.-S. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) in Merthyr Tydfil, 
Glamorgan, S. Wales. D. J. Slade 

125 Some records of root-aphids (Aphidoidea: Pemphigidae) feeding on spruce (Picea spp.) in 
Britain. D. T. Salt and E. Major 

137 Dorcatoma dresdensis Herbst (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) new to Gloucestershire. K. N. A. 
Alexander 

1 56 Deadwood Coleoptera from two important Denbighshire parklands, including five species new 
to Wales. K. N. A. Alexander 

157 Myopites eximia Seguy (Diptera: Tephritidae) new to Devon. K. N. A. Alexander 

158 Dirhagus pygmaeus (F.) (Eucnemidae) and Hallomenus binotatus (Quen.) (Melandryidae): two 
beetles new to Wales. K. N. A. Alexander 

158 A winter emergence of Phyllonorycter strigulatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). D. J. 
Slade and M. R. Wilson 

PROCEEDINGS AND TRANSACTIONS 

126 The 1993 Presidential address— Part 1. Report. D. Lonsdale 

129 The 1993 Presidential address — Part 2. Some observations on the pros and cons of being a 
bark-feeding aphid. D. Lonsdale 

138 BEHNS indoor meetings, 13 December 1994 to 14 March 1995. 
145 Officers' reports for 1994 

145 Council's report 151 Librarian's report 

146 Treasurer's report 152 Curator's report 
150 Prof. Hering fund report 153 Editor's report 

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 

119 Capital letters for English names. S. Roberts and G. Else 

155 Habitat preference in the Lepidoptera and patterns of distribution in light traps. P. Waring 

BOOK REVIEWS 

100 Entomological bygones or historical entomological collecting equipment and associated 

materials, by J. M. Chalmers-Hunt. C. W. Plant 
144 Systematic and applied entomology: an introduction, edited by I. D. Naumann. R. A. Jones 
154 Ground beetles in the Yorkshire Museum by M. Denton and Flies in the Yorkshire Museum 

by A. Grayson. R. A. Jones 

159 Invertebrates of Wales: a review of important sites and species by A. Fowles. M. R. Wilson 

160 Agricultural entomology by D. S. Hill. R. A. Jones 



OCTOBER 1995 ISSN 0952-7583 Vol. 8, Part 4 



BRITISH JOURNAL OF 

ENTOMOLOGY 

AND NATURAL HISTORY 




Published by the British 

Entomological and Natural History 

Society and incorporating its 

Proceedings and Transactions 



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P. J. Chandler, B.Sc, F.R.E.S. M. J. Simmons, M.Sc. 

B. Goater, B.Sc, M.I.Biol. T. R. E. Southwood, K. B., D.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

A. J. Halstead, M.Sc. R. W. J. Uffen, M.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

R. D. Hawkins, MA. B. K. West, B.Ed. 

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BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 161 

PANOQUINA PANOQUINOIDES EUGEON SKINNER 

(LEPIDOPTERA: HESPERIDAE) FROM THE WINDWARD 

ISLANDS, LESSER ANTILLES 

David Corke 

Department of Environmental Sciences, University of East London, Romford Road, 
London E15 4LZ*. 

Panoquina panoquinoides panoquinoides Skinner (1891) is widespread in the 
southern part of the USA and the northern West Indies but is usually restricted to 
coastal habitats (Spencer Smith et al., 1994). The subspecies P.p.eugeon (Godman & 
Salvin, 1896) seems to be unique to the Windward Islands but it is not known to 
which subspecies the population that inhabits Trinidad (Riley, 1975) belongs. It is 
presumably the nominate form, as on the mainland of South America. Barcant 
(1970), in a monograph of Trinidad butterflies, does not list the species at all and nor 
is Trinidad listed as a locality by Spencer Smith et al. (1994). 

Distribution records 

P.p.eugeon was described from specimens collected on Union Island, Grenadines 
and Granville & St George's parishes in Grenada (Godman & Salvin, 1 896). Spencer 
Smith et al. (1994) give records from the following Grenadine Islands: Bequia, Caille, 
Mayreau and Palm. 

My own investigations on St Lucia (April 1983, June/July 1986, May/June 1989) 
and St Vincent (May 1989) were incidental to a survey of reptile populations and the 
preparation of conservation management plans for endangered reptile species 
(Corke, 1987, 1992). St Lucia has an excellent guide book to its butterflies (Hunt & 
Mitchell, 1979) and with one exception I saw no species in St Lucia that were not 
included in that guide and in the habitat types already associated with the species. 
The sole exception was a small brown hesperid which was quite common on the 
halophytic grassland just above the beach on Maria Major island at the extreme 
southern tip of St Lucia (see fig. 1). I could not identify these specimens beyond the 
level of genus using Riley (1975) [P.p.eugeon is not figured]. The find was announced 
as a new species for St Lucia (but not identified) in Geoghegan & Renard (1985). 
Specimens were seen on the Maria Islands on each of my three visits in the 1980s. 

The same species was found in very similar conditions at Milligan Cay off the 
extreme south of St Vincent in May 1989. My work on reptiles tended to pay especial 
attention to small islets, so there is no reason to suppose that P.p.eugeon will not be 
found on the coastal mainland of St Lucia & St Vincent. 

With the publication of Spencer Smith et al. (1994) the identification problem was 
resolved. The specimen from Maria Major (April, 1983) in Fig. 2 is quite clearly 
P.p.eugeon. 

Figure 3 summarizes the known distribution of the two subspecies of 
P .panoquinoides in the Lesser Antilles. It is likely that the species will be discovered 
on most of the islands north of St Lucia but where the transition from P.p.eugeon to 
P. p. panoquinoides will occur is pure conjecture. 

Larval foodplants 

The larva of P.p.eugeon is unknown and thus its likely foodplants can only be 
guessed at by what is known for other subspecies. P. p. panoquinoides on Jamaica were 

*Email:CORKE@uel.ac.uk Fax:0181-849-3641. 



162 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 




Fig. 1. Maria Major Island, St Lucia, seen from the north. The coastal grassland on the leeward 
side of the island is the only habitat for P.p.eugeon. [photo: David Corke] 




■ » »■■ « ■ ■ '■■ > ■ ■ ■ ■■■' — — tmm 



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' m m :,:' ■■ ■ i .un " ' vm w *f »w 'mH 



IH111I 



Fig. 2. The first specimen of P.p.eugeon collected (in 1983) from the Maria Islands, St Lucia. 
Scale lines 1 mm intervals. [Photo: David Corke] 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



163 




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Fig. 3. Map of the Lesser Antilles showing islands and island banks (from Lazell, 1972) and the 
known distribution of Panoquina panoquinoides panoquinoides (p) in the Leeward Islands and of 
Panoquina panoquinoides eugeon (e) in the Windward Islands. 

reared on Cynodon dactylon although the eggs were found on Mimosa pudica (Brown 
& Heineman, 1972). P.p.errans from California feeds also on C. dactylon and also on 
Sporobolus virginicus (Comstock, 1930). 

On the Maria Islands, which have been thoroughly surveyed botanically (Fournet, 
1982), Sporobolous virginicus and S. cLjacquemontii occur as does a species of 
Mimosa (cf. camporum) but Cynodon is absent. 



Flight times 

The type specimens of the species were captured in October (Godman & Salvin, 
1896). I saw adults flying in all months from April to July. As with many tropical 
species, P.p.eugeon may fly throughout the year. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



IS P.P.EUGEON A GOOD SPECIES? 



The taxon was originally named as a full species (Prenes eugeon Godman & Salvin, 
1896). Riley (1975) says "It could well be a distinct species". Spencer Smith et al. 
(1994) consider that description of the larva is necessary before assessing this 
suggestion. Certainly the adults are quite distinct in terms of wing pattern. 

Entomologists holidaying in the islands of the Lesser Antilles could help greatly 
with further distribution records and studies of egg-laying and larval morphology. 
Only then will the question of specific status be resolved. 

Summary 

The skipper butterfly Panoquina panoquinoides eugeon (Godman & Salvin, 1 896) is 
reported, for the first time, from St Lucia and St Vincent. In both cases the species 
was inhabiting a tiny island close inshore to the main island. 

The known distribution of the subspecies in the Windward Islands, to which the 
taxon is probably unique, is mapped. 

The possibility that the taxon merits specific status is discussed. 

Acknowledgements 

I am extremely grateful to the staff of the St Lucia National Trust (Robert 
Devaux) and of CANARI (Yves Renard) for helping my work on St Lucia in many 
practical ways. On St Vincent Brian Johnson and his staff at the St Vincent & 
Grenadines Division of Forestry were exceptionally helpful. Financial assistance was 
provided by WWSF (USA), the Herpetological Conservation Trust (UK), the 
Vincent Wildlife Trust (UK) and British Airways. 

REFERENCES 

Barcant, M. 1970. Butterflies of Trinidad and Tobago. Collins. 

Brown, F. M. & Heineman, B. 1972. Jamaica and its butterflies. Classey. 

Comstock, J. A. 1930. Studies in Pacific coast Lepidoptera (continued). Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci. 

29: 135-142. 
Corke, D. 1987. Reptile conservation on the Maria Islands (St Lucia, West Indies). Biol. 

Conserv. 40: 263-279. 
Corke, D. 1992. The status and conservation needs of the terrestrial herpetofauna of the 

Windward Islands (West Indies). Biol. Conserv. 62: 47-58. 
Fournet, J. 1982. Compte-rendu de la mission a Sainte-Lucie. Ministere de 1' Agriculture, 

Republique Francaise. 
Geoghegan, T. & Renard, Y. 1985. Maria Islands Nature Reserve: interpretive guide. St Lucia 

National Trust. 
Godman, F.D. & Salvin, O. 1896. On the butterflies of St. Vincent, Grenada, and the adjoining 

islands of the West Indies. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 513-520. 
Hunt, D. & Mitchell, G. 1979. A recognition guide to the insects of St Lucia 1: butterflies. St 

Lucia Naturalists' Society. 
Lazell, J. D. 1972. The anoles (Sauria, Iguandiae) of the Lesser Antilles. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 

Harvard 143: 1-115. 
Riley, N. D. 1975. A field guide to the butterflies of the West Indies. Collins. 
Skinner, H. 1891. A new species of Pamphila. Ent. News 2: 175. 
Spencer Smith D., Miller, L. D. & Miller, J. Y. 1994. The butterflies of the West Indies and 

Southern Florida. Oxford University Press. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 165 

THE EFFECTS OF CATTLE POACHING ON INSECTS LIVING AT 
THE MARGIN OF THE RIVER ITCHEN, HAMPSHIRE 

C. Martin Drake 

English Nature, Northminster House, Peterborough PE1 1UA. 

An important factor affecting the entomological interest of stream and river 
margins is the amount of disturbance to the banks. Streams with a natural flow 
regime are subjected to annual disturbance by high flows, resulting in regularly 
regraded shores and eroding banks. This disturbance has been much reduced as a 
result of bank reinforcement and flood alleviation work. One mechanism that can 
partially replace the natural process is trampling (poaching) by cattle. Trampling 
promotes a diverse fauna at the margins of ponds and ditches on soft substrates 
(Biggs et al., 1994; Dolman, 1993; Drake, in press). However, it is also known that 
trampling harms the specialized beetle fauna of the shoals of stony rivers and the 
bare shores of rivers draining catchments on rocky substrates (Lott, 1992). Between 
these two extremes of still waters on soft sediments and rivers on hard rocks, there is 
presumably a change in best management practice for insects of the margins. For 
instance, it is uncertain what the best recommendation is for chalk streams. 

A brief survey was undertaken to see whether there was an obvious answer to this 
problem. The reasons for looking at chalk streams is that fishing syndicates blame 
cattle trampling for damaging salmonid fishing (Summers, 1994), but it is likely that 
low flows of the recent droughts are more culpable than a change in the response of 
the rivers to disturbance by cattle. Several chalk streams, including the River Itchen, 
are currently being notified as Sites of Special Scientific Interest so the information 
will be useful when advising on conservation management. 

Sites and methods 

Six sites along the River Itchen were selected to include banks with and without 
cattle access. They were visited on 8 and 9 July 1994. Full details of the sites are given 
in Drake (1995). Briefly, they were four stations at the Itchen County Park (grid 
reference 41/4617), four stations at Twyford Moors near Colden Common (41/4722), 
two stations at Winnall Moors SSSI (41/4830 and 41/4930), one station at each of 
Itchen Stoke (41/5432) and Ovington Mill (41/5631), and three stations on the 
Candover Stream, a tributary of the Itchen near Abbotstone (41/5634). 

Insects were sampled at the water margin using a sweep net, supplemented by 
direct capture using a pooter. Although a wide range of taxa was taken, only flies, 
caddis and dragonflies were identified in all samples. Occasional beetles, bugs, 
crickets and stoneflies were identified. 

Species were allocated to simple habitat groups based on their known biology. The 
categories were streams, ponds, water margins, fen and other wet places but not 
necessarily the water edge, grassland and woodland. The habitat of some species was 
unknown and others were "tourists" in the river margin context, although they may 
have been specific to other habitats such as heathlands. 

Results 

Two hundred and forty species were identified, dominated by 210 flies. Craneflies 
(Tipuloidea) were not kept in their separate stations and were later identified by Alan 
Stubbs. A full species list is given in Drake (1995). Four red data book (RDB) species 
and 12 nationally scarce species were recorded (Table 1). One of these, the 



166 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

scathophagid fly Cosmetopus dentimanus, was the second British record (Drake & 
Ball, in press). Nine of the nationally rare or scarce species are associated with water 
margins. These species were found most often on unfenced water margins although a 
few were also found along fenced sections. Another three species are found in 
fenland or wet grassland and one in grassland, and these were found mainly along 
fenced sections of stream-bank. None of the rare or scarce species was found with 
any great frequency. The southern damselfly Coenagrion mercuriale was present at 
three of the four sampling stations at Itchen County Park where it has a thriving 
colony (Mayo & Welstead, 1983, and subsequent observations) and the empid Hilara 
woodi was found at two stations at Twyford Moors and at the Candover Stream. 
Two craneflies normally found in carr woodland, Limonia lucida and Pilaria 
fuscipennis, may have strayed from their more typical habitat. 

Some nationally uncommon species were frequently recorded. The sepsid Themira 
superba (Hal.), whose larvae probably feed in dung-enriched wet mud, was 
particularly common at most trampled sites but absent from fenced margins. 
Parydra aquila (Fallen), an ephydrid whose larvae probably live in shallow water or 
saturated margins, was also found mainly at trampled stations. Two dolichopodids 
had contrasting preferences, Dolichopus campestris Meig. being found only at fenced 
stations, whereas Syntormon denticulatus (Zett.), in common with most other 
dolichopodids, was present mainly at trampled sites. Several other frequently 
recorded species were probably no more frequent at trampled sites than at fenced 
ones: the hoverfly Neoascia tenur (Harris), the empids Platypalpus pallidicornis 
(Collin) and Hilara obscura Meig., the dolichopodid Teuchophorus spinigerellus 
(Zett.) and the scathophagid Cleigastra apicalis (Meig.). The location of capture of 
craneflies was not known so their association with fenced or unfenced margins could 
not be assessed. However, Helius flavus (Walk.), a species associated with emergent 

Table 1. Nationally scarce (notable) and rare (red data book, RBD) species recorded from 
several sites along the Itchen valley. National statuses are denned in Ball (1994) and were 
obtained from Recorder (Ball, 1992); the prefix "p" indicates a provisional status. ICP — Itchen 
Country Park; TM — Twyford Moors; WM — Winnall Moors; IS — Itchen Stoke; OM — 
Ovington Mill; CS — Candover Stream. 

Status ICP TM WM IS OM CS 



ODONATA 
Coenagiidae 
DIPTERA 
Tipulidae 



Stratiomyidae 



Hybotidae 

Empididae 
Dolichopodidae 

Syrphidae 
Lauxanidae 
Chloropidae 
Scathophagjdae 



Coenagrion mercuriale (Charp.) RDB3 

Limonia lucida (de Meijere) Notable 

Pilaria fuscipennis (Meig.) Notable 

Cheilotrichia imbuta (Meig.) Notable 

Beris fuscipes Meig. Notable 

Oxycera morrissii Curt. Notable 

Vanoyia tenuicornis (Macq.) Notable 

Platypalpus infectus (Collin) pRDB3 

Syneches muscarius (F.) pRDB2 

Hilara woodi Collin Notable 

Hercostomus plagiatus (Loew) Notable 

Campsicnemus pectinulatus Loew Notable 

Neoascia geniculata (Meig.) Notable 

Sapromyza opaca Becker Notable 

Elachiptera pubescens (Thalh.) Notable 

Cosmetopus dentimanus (Zett.) RDB1 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



Table 2. The mean percentage (±95% confidence limits) of species in four habitat groups at 
fenced and unfenced margins, n = number of stations. 

Number of species Unfenced (n = 10) Fenced {n = 4) 



Water edge species 


80 


51.3±7.3 


36.8 ±9.9 


Fen species 


33 


14.8±3.9 


17.5 ±7.4 


Grassland species 


36 


20.0 ±3.7 


24.3 ±8.3 


Tourists 


22 


9.5 ±5.0 


12.5 ±6.7 



plants, was widespread, showing that its habitat was not eliminated by grazing, for 
example at the Candover stream which had a broad fringe dominated by yellow iris 
Iris pseudacorus L. and reed canary grass Phalaris arundinacea L. 

There were differences in the frequency of occurrence of some common species 
between fenced and unfenced stretches. Water-margin species that were most often 
found on trampled margins were the saldid bug Saldula saltatoria (L.), a predatory 
species that hunts over bare mud, the empid Clinocera stagnalis (Hal.) whose larvae 
probably develop on saturated margins or in shallow water and whose adults sit 
about on muddy margins, the dolichopodid Syntormon pallipes (F.), the ephydrid 
Scatella paludum (Meig.) whose larvae develop in saturated mud and whose adults 
abound on its surface, the muscid Lispe tentaculata (Deg.) whose adults hunt on bare 
mud, the sepsid Themira minor (Hal.) and the scathophagid Norellisoma spinimanum 
(Fallen). The only species in this water-margin group that was obviously more 
frequent at fenced sites was Anthomyza collini Andersson, which is an anthomyzid 
inquiline of galls of other Diptera in tall emergent plants such as common reed 
Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin., so it is not surprising that this species was not 
favoured by grazing. The craneflies Erioptera fusculenta Edw., E. fuscipennis Meig. 
and E. trivialis Meig. are usually abundant at sites with bare mud (A. Stubbs, pers. 
comm.) and were numerous at trampled sites including Candover Stream and Itchen 
Country Park. They were absent from Itchen Stoke where there was limited bare 
mud, but instead bare chalk where the bank was grazed. 

Among the grassland species that showed clear differences in occurrence between 
fenced and unfenced sites were the sepsids Sepsis cynipsea (L.) and S. orthocnemis 
Frey, and the scathophagid Scathophaga stercoraria (L.), which all develop in cattle 
dung, and the soldierfly Chloromyia formosa (Scop.) whose larva is a detritivore in 
grassland; all were more frequent where stock had access. Species that were more 
abundant at fenced sites were the opomyzid Opomyza petrei Mesnil and perhaps also 
the chloropid Cetema neglecta Tonnoir, both of which have grass-mining larvae. 

In general, most of the common species were not obviously distributed differently 
between fenced and unfenced sites, even though their biology suggests that they might 
prefer one type to the other. However, casual observations made while collecting the 
samples suggested that some grassland species were more numerous in the taller 
vegetation by fenced margins, and that some water-margin species were particularly 
abundant at trampled sites, even though a few individuals were also found at fenced sites. 

Because sampling effort was uneven, the numbers of species in each of the habitat 
groups was expressed as a percentage of the total recorded, and these were compared 
between fenced and unfenced margins. Most groups were represented by too few 
species to show any real differences, but species of water edge, fen and grassland, and 
tourists were numerous (Table 2). The sample from Ovington Mill was excluded 
because the site was atypical, being next to scrubby, ungrazed fen. Although none of 
the mean values were significantly different, there was a notably larger percentage of 



168 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

water-edge species along unfenced margins than along fenced margins. There was a 
similarly large, although non-significant, difference in the percentage of uncommon 
and scarce water-edge species alone between unfenced and fenced margins 
(17.4 ± 7.6% and 11.0±12.1%, respectively). The percentages of fenland and 
grassland species were much the same for both groups of sites. 

Discussion 

The survey showed that the river-edge fauna contained some nationally rare or 
scarce species. Most of these were found on unfenced margins where cattle had 
trampled the edges and partially grazed the taller vegetation. Unfenced margins also 
supported a slightly greater proportion of water-margin species, both common and 
uncommon, than did unfenced edges. Few species of note seemed to be more 
frequent at fenced sites and none was apparently confined to these. 

Mild trampling helps to restore some of physical diversity lost through flood 
defence work and other modifications made to improve conditions for salmonid 
fishing. If the river was allowed to develop a natural pool and riffle structure, there 
would be plenty of areas of bare silt left by normal deposition processes, and perhaps 
areas of sparse vegetation suppressed by annual inundation. These features would be 
interspersed with margins dominated by tall vegetation, forming a linear matrix where 
each species would be able to find its niche. Fast-flowing water and a clean, silt-free 
bottom, suitable for fish and aquatic invertebrates that require these conditions, would 
also be present. In the absence of a natural flow regime, allowing stock access to parts 
of the banks replaces this natural variation, at least in the structure of the bank where 
much of the invertebrate interest of these rivers lies. It is not suggested that the whole 
length of the river should be subjected to trampling or that it should be heavy and 
damaging, as undoubtedly it is along some stretches of this river. Only one station in 
this survey had been damaged by trampling (at Itchen Country Park) and all the 
others had a more diverse physical structure as a result of the cattle's activity. Low- 
intensity grazing along, say, half of the river's length would achieve the desired result. 

The tentative conclusion that lightly cattle-trampled margins are superior habitat 
to fenced margins for river-edge species needs to be tested more rigorously using a 
wider selection of lowland rivers and invertebrate groups. 

Acknowledgements 
I thank Dr Jon Cox for instigating this survey and arranging access. 

REFERENCES 

Ball, S. G. 1992. Recorder: an environmental recording package for Local Record Centres. 

Peterborough: English Nature. 
Ball, S. G. 1994. The Invertebrate Site Register — objectives and achievements. Br. J. Ent. Nat. 

Hist. 7(Suppl. 1): 2-14. 
Biggs, J., Corfield, A., Walker, D., Whitfield, M. & Williams, P. 1994. New approaches to the 

management of ponds. Br. Wildlife, 5: 273-287. 
Dolman, P. 1993. Trampling of pond margins. Br. Wildlife 4: 243-244. 
Drake, C. M. 1995. A brief survey of the insects of river banks with or without grazing along the 

River Itchen. English Nature Research Reports No 135. Peterborough: English Nature. 
Drake, C. M. in press. Factors influencing the species richness of aquatic invertebrates in 

grazing marsh ditches. In: J. Harpley (cd.) Nature conservation and the management of 

drainage system habitat. International Centre of Landscape Ecology, Loughborough 

University. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 169 

Drake C. M. & Ball, S. G. in press. The second record of Cosmetopus dentimanus (Zetterstedt) 

(Diptera: Scathophagidae). Dipterist 's Digest. 
Lott, D. 1992. A survey report on the terrestrial beetles of riparian habitats along the River 

Soar near Loughborough, Leicestershire, March-October, 1991. Unpublished report, 

Leicestershire Museums Service, Leicester. 
Mayo, M. C. A. & Welstead, A. R. 1983. Coenagrion mercuriale (Charpentier) on the flood 

plain of the River Itchen and River Test in Hampshire. J. Br. Dragonfly Soc. 1: 20-21. 
Summers, D. 1994. Livestock and stream banks. Enact 2: 21-23. 



LETTER TO THE EDITOR 



County names. — I was interested to read the editorial on county names {Br. J. Ent. 
Nat. Hist. 1995; 8: 27-32). For over 30 years I have kept all my records of insects on 
5"x3" filing cards (over 50000 of them by now!) and have always filed them in 
drawers under the vice-county names. I take no notice of the modern administrative 
county names as they cover too big an area. It is almost useless to have a record 
simply listed as "Gwynedd" when this county stretches for 100 miles from N. 
Anglesey to S. Merioneth. 

Referring to Gwynedd, which includes Anglesey, Caernarfonshire and Merioneth, 
I am puzzled by the omission of this name from the list when Clwyd, which covers 
Denbighshire and Flintshire in North Wales (not "several" former counties) is 
included. Also baffling is the reference to Caernarfonshire as the mainland part of 
VC 49; this vice-county is only mainland, apart from Bardsey Island at the tip of the 
Lleyn Peninsula, and one or two tiny little islets. The reference at this point to 
Anglesey is confusing; while it is now included in Gwynedd, it was never part of 
Caernarfonshire. 

One of the name problems I have found, especially in the older journals, is the use 
of "Caernarfon" (or "Caernarvon"), "Flint" and "Denbigh" where it is not at all 
clear from the context whether the reference is to the town of Flint or the county of 
Flintshire. To avoid this confusion I always abbreviate the counties as Caerns., 
Flints, and Denbs., which makes it quite clear that one is not referring to the county 
towns. The terminal s is used in this way in, for example, the abbreviation of 
Bedfordshire so as not to confuse it with the town of Bedford. Of course this 
confusion would not arise if grid references and more details were added, but they 
are not always provided. — Joan Morgan, School of Biological Sciences, University 
of Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW. 

Reply by the Editor. — My thanks to Joan Morgan for her astute observations. Of 
course, Gwynedd should have been in the list of names, but luckily is short enough 
not to warrant any abbreviation. Hopefully references to Denbigh and Caernarfon 
(or Caernarvon) will always signify the towns, while Denb. and Caer. the vice- 
counties. However, the possible confusion over Flintshire would be solved by 
accepting Flints, as the vice-county abbreviation. Buck's original list was only of 
"suggested abbreviations" and this is all I can claim for my revision. Although I 
hope the list can form a basis for conserving space in the journal, it must to some 
extent remain up to individual authors to try and avoid needless confusion between 
similar sounding place names. — Richard A. Jones, 13 Bellwood Road, Nunhead, 
London SE15 3DE. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



BENHS WORKSHOP 



8 April 1995, The National Network for Recording Britain's Moths: 
the way forward 

The accompanying photograph shows some of those who attended the 
penultimate workshop of the BENHS 1994/5 season at Dinton Pastures. On this 
occasion the subject was the National Network for Recording Britain's Moths. The 
workshop consisted of an introductory session explaining how the network was set 
up and operates, the importance of county recorders, other sources of information 
and some of the products of the network to date, including a draft atlas of Britain's 
rarer macros. A range of nationally scarce species were discussed for which members, 
together with local branches of Butterfly Conservation and other moth groups, could 
help develop our knowledge of their distribution and habits. Techniques for finding 
these moths were demonstrated. In the afternoon there were several sessions 
demonstrating computer databases and their advantages in sorting data and plotting 
maps. This included a problem-solving session for more experienced users. In 
parallel there were informal presentations and discussion groups by several county 
moth recorders and Butterfly Conservation officers dealing with their work and ways 
of developing moth recording in the future. 

Council would like to thank all leaders of this year's workshops, all members who 
attended and Ian McLean, Indoor Meetings Secretary, for putting together such an 
interesting and wide-ranging programme and ensuring that the workshops have run 
smoothly on the day. 




BENHS workshop, 8 April 1995. Left to right, standing: G. Collins, G. Revill, J. Clarke, D. 
Coleman, I. Rutherford, S. Jeffcoate, P. Winter, R. Barnett, M. New, M. Albertini, — , — , R. 
Soutar, S. Lucas, P. Fleming; front: G. Jeffcoate, S. Carson, R. Kendrick, A. Pym, I. Sims, P. 
Waring. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 171 

A CORRECTION TO BUTTERFLY CONSERVATION'S CLAIMED 
ATTITUDES IN INVERTEBRATE CONSERVATION 

Alan E. Stubbs 

181 Broadway, Peterborough, Cambridgeshire PE1 4DS. 

On 12 May 1992 BENHS held a discussion meeting to consider invertebrate 
conservation in the United Kingdom (Miles, 1995). The meeting covered a lot of 
ground and was clearly a valuable occasion for views to be expressed. In the 
published report there are a number of statements about the attitudes of Butterfly 
Conservation which misrepresent its position, most certainly in today's context. As 
one who has been closely involved with both societies, particularly so with the issues 
raised, the National Conservation Officer has asked me to reply. 

Butterfly Conservation as a society 

Under its former public name of British Butterfly Conservation Society, it began 
over 25 years ago in a small way, reflecting the attitudes of those who founded the 
society. The constitutional motives were laudable but there was an image problem in 
some quarters. Nonetheless, worthwhile advance was made and the Society grew, 
attracting in some of the entomologists with good expertise who were keen to see the 
society adapt to the challenges ahead. 

Few outside Butterfly Conservation will be fully aware of just how profound a 
change has taken place. A Director was appointed with office support and a 
membership drive trebled the membership to 10 000 in three years. That post has not 
been refilled; instead emphasis has been focused on building up a team of 
professional conservation staff. Thus in very recent years, there has been the 
appointment of a National Conservation Officer, Martin Warren (a leading butterfly 
conservation researcher), an Assistant Conservation Officer, Paul Kirkland (with 
much experience in site management and formerly with Cumbria Wildlife Trust) and 
a Projects Officer, Linda Barnett (a moth specialist who is drawing up action plans 
for 25 butterflies and national and regional action plans for butterflies as a whole). 
These three are based in the Society's Dorset office. In addition, Paul Waring is 
working half-time on the national review of scarce macro moths, via a contract with 
the society from the Joint Nature Conservation Committee. 

There is a great deal of other expertise that the society can draw on, including 
professional researchers and some quite remarkable amateur research specialists. 
There are now 26 branches of the society in the UK effecting local action, some with 
considerable expertise, others still developing. Until the national action plan is in 
place in about three years time there will be some variation in priorities. It would 
take many pages to spell out all that the society is doing, such as being the lead 
society for a new butterfly atlas in the closing years of the century, called the 
Millennium Project. 

The society has an executive committee that attends to the business end of things. 
There are other committees for the advancement of various functions. These include 
the conservation committee to whom the scientific staff are directly responsible. All 
policies concerned with entomological conservation are the province of this 
committee, with a membership of wide expertise. I am on that committee and see 
my role as ensuring that the wider context of policies is evaluated. 

It is important to add two points. Firstly, the constitution of Butterfly Conservation 
embraces 'Lepidoptera', and the direct promotion of moth conservation is now 



172 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

being advanced vigorously at both national and branch levels. The conservation of 
fauna and flora as a whole is allowed for but the emphasis is on the Lepidoptera. 
Secondly, the society is now accepted as belonging to the ranks of leading 
conservation agencies, for instance being a full partner in the authorship of 
Biodiversity challenge, a review document setting out targets for conservation, and 
largely accepted by government within the framework for conservation over the 
next ten years (the other partners were FoE, PlantLife, RSPB, Wildlife Trusts and 
WWF). Thus Butterfly Conservation has gone well beyond its original butterfly 
role. In the case of Biodiversity challenge, the opportunity to ensure the needs of all 
invertebrates were taken into account was covered by deploying a member with 
wide invertebrate conservation experience, in this case, myself. 

Butterfly Conservations attitude to collecting 

A society whose purpose is conservation either picks up the image that it is against 
all collecting or it is accused of hypocrisy if its members are collecting. With 10 000 
members, most of whom joined because they like to see butterflies alive, those who 
collect are in the minority. 

In the paper published by BENHS, both the opening address and the discussion 
sessions expressed concern about the anti-collecting attitude of Butterfly Conserva- 
tion. That is understandable, indeed it would be far more worrying if the accusation 
was one of the hypocrisy of unnecessary collecting. 

Everyone knows collecting is a fraught issue and that it is impossible to please all 
the people all the time. Butterfly Conservation has been addressing this issue to 
determine where, within its membership, the boundaries should come. The 
conservation committee has devised a policy, which should be published shortly, 
and if it is seen as closely resembling the stance that you know I have been favouring 
over the years, then I admit to being the person who drafted the text. 

The Butterfly Conservation guidelines closely follow the JCCBI code on collecting, 
which all leading entomological societies have endorsed. That code asks for restraint 
with regard to scarce species, and advises there should be no collecting at all with 
regard to the most vulnerable species. The justification for taking moths for 
identification and vouchers is upheld, as indeed are such purposes within 
invertebrates as a whole. The society is somewhat tougher in that it cannot endorse 
the collecting of butterflies for collecting's sake and effectively has a hands off policy 
with all the rare and scarce species, including scarce races etc. The guidelines do, 
however, allow for some flexibility with common species, in particular the finding 
and keeping of a few caterpillars to learn about their life history. There is room for 
openness for those with special needs. 

The membership will be asked to accept these guidelines. The predominant anti- 
collecting members have to see the justification for taking and killing insects. Those 
in favour of some flexibility have to know that their reasonable needs, which are 
necessary to support the conservation efforts via survey and study, are understood 
and accepted within the society. 

Hopefully other entomological societies will feel comfortable with a fellow society 
adopting the needs and purpose of these guidelines. The one point that Butterfly 
Conservation has to be tougher on is butterfly collecting, which is anathema these 
days in so many conservation circles. I led a BENHS discussion meeting on this topic 
(Stubbs, 1982) which concluded that there was no general justification that would 
hold the respect of the conservation movement. Anyone with particular needs ought 
to discuss these openly with local conservation bodies and site owners. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 173 

Would Butterfly Conservation promote the conservation of a site 
containing no interesting butterflies? 

This was question 1 1 of the opening address by Stephen Miles. It will be evident 
from the above account that about 2400 species of moths come directly within the 
society's ambit, and macro-moths are already getting serious treatment. When 
deciding on the case for making a Butterfly Conservation reserve, or in the 
management or defence of a site, all invertebrates are taken into account, indeed the 
society welcomes collaboration with other specialists. However, the constitution and 
resources of the society require it to concentrate on the Lepidoptera. Most sites have 
some potential for Lepidoptera, and it is always helpful to have real bullets to fire. 
More generally, the society sees its remit as including support of the wider efforts to 
ensure a future for habitats of importance for plants and animals. This was the case 
with Biodiversity challenge and will no doubt increasingly be the case on many site- 
related issues. 



Butterfly Conservation and its wider role 

As expressed in Stephen Miles's report, 'a major concern of the meeting was that 
Butterfly Conservation could take over as the main conservation organization for 
invertebrates, as it is keen to take on a wider role'. Part of that concern was that 'it 
might set the agenda for the issue of butterfly collecting'. The commentary continued 
'Butterfly Conservation is viewed as a large society of non-specialists, as is the RSPB, 
however, that organization is very successful'. 

Well, it is for others to take their view based on what they see and hear of Butterfly 
Conservation. The points not already covered need to be put in perspective. 

We all want entomologists to be better understood and the needs of entomologists, 
and the future of invertebrates, to be taken seriously in all the quarters that matter. 
There are two ways in which this can be accomplished. There is personal 
responsibility, to get involved with the conservation bodies and to utilize one's 
expertise to good effect. There is also corporate responsibility through the 
entomological societies to which we belong, including our influence on non- 
entomological societies and the official arms of local and central government, 
including the wildlife agencies (these issues were addressed in Stubbs, 1982). 

What is the track record over the last 25 years? The three leading national 
entomological societies have made little headway on the ground in influencing 
conservation until recently. All credit to the Amateur Entomologists' Society for at 
least having a conservation group and for publishing its well-received book on insect 
conservation (Fry & Lonsdale, 1991). BENHS has only just begun a conservation 
group. The Royal Entomological Society has tended to duck potentially 
controversial conservation issues. As a member of all three, and as such part of 
that blame could rest on me, the memberships have not shown a strong desire to roll 
up their shirt sleeves and take action for conservation. The Joint Committee for the 
Conservation of British Invertebrates (JCCBI), of which I was a founder member 
and one-time representative of BENHS, has hardly been a driving force for joint 
action by the societies, except with regard to codes, and it is now trying to re-vamp 
itself after a near-death experience. The Nature Conservancy Council did much 
behind the scenes to get entomology onto a serious footing, and over 2000 people 
have submitted information to the Invertebrate Site Register which has had an 
immense impact on site evaluation, management and defence. The ISR continues to 
run and after a lot of pressure, all four subsequent agencies have entomological 



174 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

specialists, but they have not got the capacity to get involved on the ground in all the 
local issues that concern, or should concern us. When entomologists want action, 
they must take action. 

If Butterfly Conservation emerges as the largest voluntary entomological 
organization, with a conservation constitution and professional entomological 
staff, and a national network of branches to co-ordinate and effect local action, is 
one to applaud or say how dreadful this day has become? In the real world, Butterfly 
Conservation is in the strongest position to take forward a coherent national action 
plan for Lepidoptera, indeed is already doing so, but this can only be fully effective if 
lepidopterists as a whole give their support to this venture. It is not a question of 
Butterfly Conservation taking over, for there has been little that other societies have 
done to take over. For instance at Wildlife Link in the last year or so, it is Butterfly 
Conservation representatives (as full members) that have been covering for 
invertebrates in the absence of a JCCBI representative for other societies. If 
Butterfly Conservation is invited into partnership with other leading conservation 
societies, as with Biodiversity challenge, this can only be to the wider good of 
increasing the profile and acceptability of the entomological cause; indeed all 
societies were invited to be part of the action through their names being up front as 
endorsing the document. 

Hopefully other societies will be encouraged that it is possible to generate a large 
membership, and resources to take action, when conservation is given a high profile. 
Butterfly Conservation is not trying to take over but it is, for the present, finding 
itself in a position of opportunity to provide some cover whilst other societies 
develop their conservation groups. Butterfly Conservation has no current intention 
of becoming an all-invertebrates society, the Lepidoptera needing plenty of attention. 
In the longer term who can say, but all societies should even now be working more 
closely together in order to draw upon their strengths and cover for each other over 
any weakness, since the conservation battle does not wait for ideal structures. 

REFERENCES 

Fry, R. & Lonsdale, D. (Eds.) 1991. Habitat conservation for insects — a neglected green issue. 

The Amateur Entomologist 15. Amateur Entomologists' Society. 
Miles, S. R. 1995. Report of the discussion meeting held on 12 May 1992 to consider 

invertebrate conservation in the United Kingdom. Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 8: 19-26. 
Stubbs, A. E. 1982. Conservation and the future for the field entomologist. Proc. Trans. Br. Ent. 

Nat. Hist. Soc. 15: 55-67. 



ANNOUNCEMENT 



A National Pyralid Recording Scheme has recently been launched. The first 
newsletter, which contains full details of how to contribute to the scheme, is available 
from Tony Davis, The Rangers House, Cricket Hill Lane, Yateley, Camberley, 
Surrey, GUI 7 7BB. An SAE would be appreciated. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



OBITUARY 

Basil Joseph MacNulty Ph.D., b.Sc, f.r.i.c, f.r.e.s. 

Basil MacNulty died suddenly on 12th April 1994 at his home in Rhossili, on the 
Gower Peninsula. He was born on 14th June 1915 and spent his early childhood in 
Leighton Buzzard. When he was ten the family moved to Wimbledon where he later 
attended Wimbledon College before going on to London University. Basil read 
chemistry and remained there until 1939 taking his Ph.D. and teaching. Shortly 
before the outbreak of war he joined the War Office, working in research and 
development of explosives, initially at Woolwich and later in South Wales when the 
establishment was evacuated from London. 

It was while involved in this war work that Basil met and married his wife Dodo as 
well as developing his abiding love for the Gower Peninsula. After the war his career 
with the Ministry caused him to be posted at different times to The Woolwich Arsenal, 
Runcorn in Cheshire and Waltham Abbey where the family lived for 19 years, but 
perhaps the posting of most interest to him, certainly entomologically, was to Nigeria 
between 1952 and 1958. Here he worked in the Tropical Testing Establishment and was 
able to make an extensive collection of West African insects, especially Lepidoptera 
and Coleoptera. He was later to publish much material based on this period. 

Basil's interest in insects had begun, as for so many of us, at a very early age, with 
the pursuit of butterflies, and there are family stories of his early collecting from the 
age of six. During the period that he lived in Waltham Abbey he had started 
collecting beetles as well as Lepidoptera and this added interest was to flourish. 
During the time he spent in London he worked the Home Counties extensively with, 
the then revolutionary, M.V. light and was rewarded on 13th June 1952 at Worth 
Forest with one of the very few Lithacodia deceptoria Scop, ever taken. 

Basil, who was an honorary member of our Society, first joined in 1931 and was 
prominent in our affairs for many years. He was a long-serving member of Council 




Basil MacNulty, 1915-1994. 



176 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

acting as Secretary between 1961 and 1968 and then as President in 1970. He will be 
especially well known to the majority of our members for his work over many years 
in organizing the annual dinner, and to those stalwarts who regularly attend for the 
introduction, after a long campaign, of the toast to "the founding fathers". This 
annual toast won against the prevailing tradition of no speeches will surely continue 
as an affectionate tribute to Basil. Over the years that Basil stood up to propose this 
toast it developed its own traditions with a feigned reluctance to rise, and the annual 
retelling of the story of the search for knotgrass by two of our founders. 

Basil, was also a long-standing fellow of the Royal Entomological Society which 
he joined in 1957, and a keen supporter of the Amateur Entomologists' Society. Basil 
had two retirements, from his Ministry of Defence career in the mid-seventies when 
he moved on to research at Leeds University, and finally in 1983. Basil was able to 
join his wife in the house at Rhossili which they had bought in 1974 and assist her 
with running her guest-house. 

He worked here on a list of the moths of the Gower as well as devoting much time 
to the, as yet unpublished, volume of The moths and butterflies of Britain and Ireland 
on geometers, drafting sections on Sterrhinae and Ennominae. Basil was keenly 
interested in the structure of pupae of Lepidoptera and encouraged his friends to let 
him have the exuviae of species they were breeding. Again his work on this area 
remained unpublished at his death. His presidential address to our Society was on 
the little-studied association of mites with insects. Amongst the numerous articles 
and notes which he contributed to the entomological press over the years may be 
mentioned in particular the series "Outline life histories of some West African 
Lepidoptera" which was published between 1966 and 1970 in our "Proceedings and 
Transactions" as then was, and a series published in the Bulletin of the Amateur 
Entomologist's Society entitled "So you want to study beetles". 

All his notes and unfinished entomological research were passed to the National 
Museum of Wales together with the British part of his collection which numbered 
some twenty thousand specimens of Lepidoptera and beetles. The West African 
collections went to the Natural History Museum at South Kensington and contained 
6000 specimens and much biological information. 

Basil was a gregarious man with a love of good food and wine as well as company and 
could usually be found at the annual social gatherings of our society and its sisters deep 
in conversation. I well remember an occasion when my wife and I had been collecting 
with him on the Gower, a memorable night when we had watched phosphorescence on 
the sea, and carried generators nearly a mile over soft sand, returning to his home for 
him to open a bottle of Chateau Yquem at two in the morning! 

Despite living so far from London, Basil kept involved with Society affairs to the 
end, always attending the Annual Exhibition and that of the AES as well as paying 
frequent visits to the Natural History Museum in connection with his research. He 
attended a Council Meeting to discuss dinner arrangements as recently as 1993. He did 
however feel somewhat cut off from other collectors and was always keen to go out 
collecting with those who visited him in Gower, confessing on the last such occasion I 
visited him that it was the first time that year that he had been out with the 'engine'. 

Basil enjoyed a wide range of interests and was an accomplished actor and keen 
member of amateur dramatic societies in his younger days, on one occasion touring 
Ireland with a theatrical company. He wrote poetry and several plays for relaxation, 
one of which was produced in Croydon. 

Basil was such a well known member of the entomological fraternity that he will 
long be remembered both for the work he performed and for his good fellowship and 
humour. We extend our sympathy to his family in their loss. 

A. J. Pickles 




Plate II. ANNUAL EXHIBITION 1994 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 177 

1994 ANNUAL EXHIBITION 

Imperial College, London SW7— 22 October 1994 

The following account of exhibits has been compiled by R. D. G. Barrington 
(British butterflies), B. Elliot (British Macrolepidoptera), J. M. Chalmers-Hunt 
(British Microlepidoptera), B. Goater (Foreign Lepidoptera), P. J. Chandler 
(Diptera), P. J. Hodge (Coleoptera), R. A. Jones (Hemiptera), A. J. Halstead 
(Hymenoptera and other orders), and R. Dyke (illustrations). The photographs for 
the two colour plates were taken by D. E. Wilson and the cost of printing these plates 
was met by a grant from the Hammond Memorial Fund. 



British butterflies 

Bailey, K. E. J. — A bred series of what may prove to be a new aberration of 
Eurodryas aurinia Rott. in which the fulvous markings are darkened to deep red and 
the normally pale markings reduced to a grey colour. These characteristics are 
apparent on both surfaces. This form was first noticed in the pupal stage because 
those pupae that were to produce aberrations were 'black and white', lacking any 
orange markings at all. This makes it one of the very few recorded aberrations in 
Butterflies in which the gene/s involved affect the coloration of more than one stage 
in the life cycle (others have been found in Pier is brassicae L. and the American 
species Colias philodoce Godt.). The exhibitor is maintaining the stock to investigate 
the genetics. 

Mr Bailey's experiments with temperature shocks on the pupae of butterflies has 
extended successfully now from the nymphalids to the smaller fritillaries. Included 
from the current year's work were a marvellous, almost entirely black, Boloria selene 
L. ab. zeta Mots. (Plate II, Fig. 7) and an extreme B. euphrosyne L. ab. edna Lobb 
with long silver streaks on the underside of the hindwings. These were produced by 
cold-shocking both late larvae and the new pupae. A series of E. aurinia ab. sebaldus 
Schultz were produced by cold-shock to the pupae only. Extreme, temperature- 
induced, forms of Vanessa atalanta L. ab. klemsiewiczi Schille and Ladoga Camilla L. 
ab. nigrina Weymer were also shown. 

A series of variations of Pararge aegeria L. ab. cockaynei Goodson including 
several of a curious form having the third spot in the hindwing band enlarged and the 
rest absent or nearly so (in cockaynei, all the spots usually tend towards 
obsolescence). 



PLATE II. ANNUAL EXHIBITION 1994 
1: Colias croceus, male, ab. nov. bred Sawley, Hants, 9.X.1994, A. & Harmer. 2: 
Lycaena dispar ab. radiata, bred 2nd brood, 1994, P. A. Standing. 3: Pyronia 
tithonus ab. obsoletissima, bred F 3 , 1994, R. C. Dennis. 4: Cynthia cardui 
melanic, Uffington, Oxon, 7.viii.1994, E. W. Classey. 5: Argynnis paphia ab. 
ocellata, Hampshire, 1994, A. M. Jones. 6: Ochlodes venata ab. fuscus, Dorset, 
15.vi.1994, P. Tebbutt. 7: Boloria selene ab. zeta, cold shock, bred 1994, K.EJ. 
Bailey. 8: Eurodryas aurinia ab. virgata, bred 1994, A. M. Jones. 9: Polyommatus 
icarus melanic, Isle of Skye, 27.vi.1993, W. G. Tremewan. 10: Bittacomorpha 
clavipes, Ontario, Canada, 8. viii.1994, A. E. Stubbs. 11: Melanargia galathea, Mt 
Venteux, Provence, France, 12.vii.1994, H. J. Elston. 12: Pterostichus kugelanni, 
Bicton Common, Woodbury, S. Devon, D I. B. Hoare. 



1 


2 


3 




4 


5 


6 7 


8 


9 10 


11 


12 





178 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Barrington, R. D. G. — Two forms of Pararge aegeria L. showing variation in 
the eye-spot size. A captured male ab. parviocellata Lempke had the hindwings spots 
almost entirely absent and a bred female ab. schmidti Dioz had them considerably 
enlarged. The latter was bred in the F 2 brood from an extreme female captured in 
Wiltshire in September 1993. Apart from the exhibited specimen only typical 
examples and minor forms were bred in both Fj and F 2 broods. This would seem to 
be a multifactorial form. 

Aberrations of Lysandra coridon Poda including males ab. parallela B. & L. and 
ab. postdiscoelongata B. & L. and females ab. inaequalis Cockayne, ab. discreta B. & 
L. and ab. caeca B. & L. A male E. aurinia ab. virgata Tutt and a bred aberration of 
Aglais urticae L. having the hindwing red band almost eliminated by dark scaling 
and with large blue lunules on all wings. This was the only aberration to emerge from 
a large brood reared under natural conditions. 

Britton, M. R. — Polyommatus icarus Rott. and forms of Aricia agestis L. from 
Yorkshire. 

CALLOW, M. — A female aberration of Pararge aegeria with enlarged areas of pale 
markings on the forewings (the same form as that illustrated on the Annual 
Exhibition plate for 1989 which has been shown to be controlled by a recessive gene). 
This specimen emerged in an F 2 generation of 81 insects from type stock. It was the 
only aberration in the brood. 

Two male Anthocharis cardamines L. showing homoeosis, with thin streaks of 
underside hindwing coloration on the underside of one forewing. This is 
the most frequently recorded form of homoeosis in the species. Five specimens 
emerged from 300 pupae. Although homoeosis has been shown to be an 
inherited form in some other animals this has not yet been proved in butterflies. 
Attempts have been made to breed from homoeotic forms in both Lycaena phlaeas L. 
(up to the F, brood) and Pieris brassicae L. (up to the F 2 ), but no further 
aberrations were bred. It may yet be shown to have a heritable basis or it may occur 
due to a genetic imbalance between the parents. A bred Strymonidia pruni L. 
with a streak of orange on the underside of the right forewing. This had the 
appearance of a homoeotic form but was more likely to be an instance of 
uneven development of the pattern. A captured Argynnis paphia L. ab. confluens 
Spuler. 

Classey, E. W. — An aberration of Cynthia cardui L. taken at Uffington, 
7.viii.l994 in which the outer third of the forewings was predominantly black (Plate 
II, Fig. 4). 

Dennis, R. C. — Specimens from an F 3 generation of Pyronia tithonus L. ab. caeca 
Tutt. Details of the first two broods were given in the report of exhibits for the 1993 
Annual Exhibition. The parents for the F 3 lacked the double white pupils of the 
apical spots and had the hindwing spots obsolete. The F 3 included a male of the very 
rare obsoletissima Leeds with the forewing eyespot absent on one side and 
represented by just a pin-prick on the other. There are very few recorded examples 
of this form (Plate II, Fig. 3). 

Some bred aberrations of Anthocharis cardamines L. from the collection of the late 
Reg Griffiths. This included two fine gynandrous examples, one a mainly female 
insect with a streak of male apical orange on each forewing, the other almost halved 
but with some female coloration in the apical area of the male side. 

FENSOME, B. — Two male Polyommatus icarus Rott ab. livida Gillmer with grey 
uppersides but typical undersides bred from ab. radiata Courv. stock, and a selection 
of bred ab. radiata forms. A wild captured male showing radiata on the hindwings 
and a good male radiata on all wings from S. Lines. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 179 

A captured male Lysandra coridon Poda ab. striata B. & L., a pale male 
Lycaena phlaeas L. ab. cuprinus Peyer taken in May 1994 and a curious Pararge 
aegeria L. with all markings darkened and indistinct, captured in Bedfordshire, 
March 1994. 

Harmer, A. S. — A female Thymelicus acteon L. ab. alba Bolton taken in Dorset, 
August 1994 which was used for breeding, and a male ab. virescens Tutt from the 
same locality. 

Three remarkable male examples of Colias croceus Geoff, showing a complete 
absence of yellow and pink pigmentation (Plate II, Fig. 1). The result is 
that the ground-colour of the uppersides is creamy white on the forewings and 
yellow-grey (similar to f. helice Hiibn.) on the hindwings. The black borders are 
normal. On the underside forewings the ground-colour is again creamy-white and the 
border area yellow-grey. On the hindwings the normal greenish-yellow coloration is 
replaced by yellow-grey giving a blueish appearance. The hindwing discoidal spot is 
white on both surfaces. Yellow pigment is similarly lacking in the marginal hair, 
body hair, legs and antennae. These were bred from a typical female captured at 
Sawley, Hants on 4.viii.l994 by Arran Harmer. A crippled female of the same form 
emerged from this brood and other examples of the aberration coloured up but failed 
to emerge. 

F. helice is a sex-linked form restricted to the female and the present insects 
represent a quite separate aberration. It bears a significant resemblance to an 
aberration of Colias alfacariensis Berger shown at the 1991 Annual Exhibition by D. 
Wedd, and photographed for the exhibition plate. There are also similarities with the 
well known ab. coerulea Gardiner of Pieris brassicae L. (a recessive). 

A form equivalent to f. helice occurs in many species of Colias in different parts of 
the world, always restricted to the female. Very rare white male forms have been 
found in a few species in USA and Asia. When bred these have proved to be 
controlled by a recessive gene which affects both sexes equally and is unrelated to 
helice. If this form has been recorded before in C. croceus then it is certainly 
extremely rare. There do not appear to be any references to such an insect in the 
literature and it is likely to be a new aberration in this species. 

HOUGHTON, D. W. — A male Pieris brassicae L. ab. flava Kane taken on the 
Thames Embankment near the power station at Dartford, Kent in August 1949. 
Colias croceus Geoff, and Colias hyale L. were common in the area and this very rare 
aberration was thought to be just another croceus f. helice Hiibn. until it was in the 
net. 

Jones, A. M. — A bred series of Eurodryas aurinia Rott ab. virgata Tutt (Plate II, 
Fig. 8) probably bred from a pair of virgata parents, although the strain was mixed 
in with type stock. Pairings between aberrations have been achieved and the stock 
carefully segregated. An extreme female ab. sebaldus Schultz from the same stock. 
K. E. J. Bailey has shown this to be a temperature-induced form, and as this 
specimen was reared in a greenhouse it is likely that it experienced unnatural 
temperatures. 

A bred gynandromorph of Quercusia quercus L. being predominantly female but 
with half of the left forewing male and some male scaling in the borders of both 
right-hand wings. A female ab. caerulescens Lempke with an orange patch at the anal 
angle of the hindwing upper surface. 

A good captured male Argynnis paphia L. ab. ocellata Frings (Plate II, Fig. 5) 
with very dark hindwings and a halved gynandromorph. The latter was spotted in 
the field when it was noticed that the visible upperside was of a different sex to the 
displayed underside. A credit to sharp observation. A male Aricia agestis L. ab. 



180 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

pallidior Ober with cream lunules and an unusual male having the black centres to 
the lunules absent from the underside and so resembling Lysandra coridon ab. fowleri 
South. 

Kemp, R. — Lycaena phlaeas L. ab. radiata Tutt having the hindwing orange band 
replaced with thin streaks. Taken near Aylesbury, Bucks in September 1994. This is a 
recessive form. 

Knill-Jones, S. A. — A female Plebejus argus L. ab. nigrescens Tutt from 
Hampshire, July 1994 and second brood examples of Colias croceus Geoff, from 
Compton Down, I.o.W., October 1994. 

Payne, J. H. — The results of temperature experiments, including a good Argynnis 
paphia L. ab. ocellata Frings, Aglais urticae L. semiichneusoides Pronin and Inachis io 
L. ab. belisaria Ober. 

PORTER, J. — Examples of Pyronia tithonus L. ab. excessa Leeds from S. Devon 
and a female ab. postobscura Leeds. Obsolete forms of Aphantopus hyper antus L. and 
a large female Coenonympha pamphilus L. with the outer part of the forewings 
distinctly pale. Erebia aethiops L. ab. flavescens Tutt with the orange bands paler 
than type and a male ab. purpurea Sibille having the hindwings spotting obsolete 
(Aviemore). 

Lysandra bellargus Rott. abs parvipuncta Tutt and krodeli Gillmer. 

Revels, R. C. — A captured female Melanargia galathea L. with extra black 
scaling, appearing to be transitional to ab. nigricans Culot; 40 ova were obtained. A 
good male Polyommatus icarus Rott. ab. radiata Courv. — one of several of this type 
seen in one locality in July and August 1994. A female Maniola jurtina L. ab. 
pallidula Leeds. 

Further breeding from an aberration of Pyronia tithonus L. having broad borders 
to the forewings and the hindwing orange absent or nearly so. The F, and F 2 broods 
were exhibited in 1993 and the form was shown to be dominant. Further examples 
were shown, being the result of crossing female aberrations with wild males showing 
extra spotting. Two batches were reared. One produced a brood of 91 insects of 
which 60 were aberrations (1 1 showing extra spotting) and the other a brood of 72 
insects comprising 34 type (two with some extra spotting) and 38 aberrations. 
Pairings have been obtained between some of the more extreme aberrations. 

Rouse, T. — A bred Lysandra coridon Poda ab. i-nigrum B. & L., from a type 
parent. A male L. bellargus Rott. bred in the F 5 generation from Folkstone, Kent 
with two streaked spots on underside of the left hindwing and a female ab. striata 
B. & L., both from type stock. 

Aglais urticae L. ab. semiichneusoides Pronin captured flying around a Budleia 
bush with about 50 typical specimens at Densole, Kent on 10.x. 1994. 

Standing, P. A. — Three ab. wittei Geest of Melitaea cinxia L. and a form with 
reduced black markings in the centre of the forewings. 

A fine female Lycaena dispar batavus Ober ab. radiata B. & L. (Plate II, Fig. 2) 
bred in the second brood, August 1994. This developed under natural conditions. 
The spotting was streaked outwards on all wings on the underside and on the 
upperside forewings. This strain has shown tendencies towards this form over the 
years. Also shown was another transitional female. A captured female Hipparchia 
semele L. from Dorset, July 1994 being ab. holonops Brouwer on one side and 
monocellata Lempke on the other. 

Tebbut, P. — An outstanding melanic aberration of Ochlodes venata Br. & Grey 
(Plate II, Fig. 6). This was an extreme ab. fuscus Frohawk which was virtually black 
but with the patterning still visible. Captured in Dorset, June 1994. A male 
Thymelicus lineola Ochs ab. antiordens Lempke, with all darker markings replaced 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 181 

with pale brown. This may be an albinistic form. Two Ladoga Camilla L. ab. obliterae 
Robson & Gardner and one ab. nigrina Weymer. 

A most unusual Aricia agestis L. ab. glomerata B. & L. very similar to the example 
of Lysandra coridon Poda illustrated on the exhibition plate for 1991. This is very 
possibly a unique aberration in agestis. Hamaearis lucina L. ab. semibrunnea 
Osthelder and a gynandromorph of Pieris rapae L. being a mainly female insect but 
with male streaks on the left side. A good Coenonympha tullia L. ab. cockaynei 
Hopkins and ab. impupillata Lempke, lacking the pupils to the spots. A female Colias 
croceus Geoff, lacking the yellow spots in the black border and having the hindwing 
discal lunule pear-shaped. A female Plebejus argus L. with the hindwings and base of 
forewings blue and no lunules. 

Tremewan, W. G. — A further showing of the remarkable melanic variety of 
Polyommatus icarus Rott that was exhibited at the 1993 exhibition and figured on the 
exhibition plate. This form, which is equally aberrant on the underside (Plate II, 
Fig. 9), was taken on the Isle of Skye on 27.vi.1993. 

Tubbs, R. S. — A drawer showing Mr Tubbs's researches into the genetics of 
Hipparchia semele L. abs monocellata Lempke/ holonops Brouwer. This is a recessive 
form also associated with a rayed effect in the orange markings. Three strains were 
shown. The first was representative of an F 2 from an original holonops female 
captured by R. C. Revels in Dorset in 1975. This included a full male holonops and 
others with reduced spotting. The other two strains were from parents with the 
spotting much reduced, both parents taken by R. S. Tubbs in Dorset in 1979. The 
offspring included monocellata males and 'rayed' females. 



British macrolepidoptera 

Bradford, E. S. — Some moths taken from Penn Hill, Whitstable, Kent: 
Archanara geminipuncta Haw., 13.viii.94, Mythimna albipuncta D. & S., 12.viii.94; 
Parascotia fuliginaria L., 27.iii.94; Rhodometra sacraria L., 24.viii.94; Apoda 
limacodes Hum., 28.vi.94. Deltote bankiana F., 14.vii.94; Amphipoea fucosa Freyer 
ssp. paludis Tutt, 29.vii.94. Also a further specimen of R. sacraria from Child's 
Forstal Wood, East Blean, Kent, 29.viii.94. 

Britton, M. R. — A selection of characteristic Lepidoptera of Yorkshire limestone 
including both sexes of Adscita geryon Hiibn. Photedes captiuncula expolita Staint., 
Apamea furva britannica Cockayne, Epirrhoe galiata D. & S., and Eupithecia 
distinctaria H.-S. 

Brotheridge, D. J. — An extreme melanic example of Discestra trifolii Hufn. 
from Wroughton, Wilts, on 9.viii.l992 (Plate III, Fig. 3). 

Butcher, A. G. J. — A series of specimens comparing varieties and aberrations 
with typical examples. Included were, Lasiocampa trifolii flava Chalmers-Hunt ab. 
obsoleta, Calliteara pudibunda L., intermediate form, Ochropleura plecta L. ab. 
rubricosta., Euproctis similis Fuessl. with suffused forewings, Diarsia mendica F. 
resembling ssp. thulei Stoud., a pale form of Melanchra persicariae L., a 
gynandromorph Noctua pronuba L., dark Brachionycha sphinx Hufn., a possible 
melanic Mythimna conigera D. & S. (Plate III, Fig. 11), Xanthia icteritia Hufn. ab. 
flavescens, Acronicta alni L. ab. suffusa, an example of Aporophyla lutulenta D. & S. 
resembling ssp. lunebergensis Freyer, forms of Acronicta rumicis L., Charanyca 
trigrammica Hufn., a yellow form of Cryphia domestica Hufn., and Odontopera 
bidentata Clerk. 



182 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Amongst Geometridae shown were a var. of Idaea dimidiata Hufn., Melanthia 
procellata D. & S. with suffused forewings, four temperature-affected Rhodometra 
sacraria L., melanic forms of Odontopera bidentata CI., Apocheima pilosaria D. & S. 
and Alcis repandata L. were shown. Two selected bred varieties of Ennomos 
autumnaria Werneb. were also shown. 

Clancy, S. P. — Migrants taken in the Dungeness area in 1994. These comprised 
Scopula rubiginata Hufn., 4.viii.94 (Lydd), Scotopteryx peribolata Hiibn., 6.ix.94 
(Greatstone), Peribatodes manuelaria H.-S., 4.viii.94 (New Romney), Lymantria 
dispar L., 4.viii.94, Polia bombycina Hufn., 25.vi.94 (Greatstone), Chrysodeixis 
chalcites Esp., 29.ix.94. In addition, five specimens of Amphipoea lucens Freyer were 
exhibited from the Dungeness area in 1992/1993. 

A number of aberrations were also exhibited and included: Malacosoma castrensis 
L., lacking cross-lines; an aberrant Xanthorhoe fluctuata L., an Arctia caja L. with 
reduced dark scaling, a Meganola albula D. & S. with reduced markings (Plate III, 
Fig. 5), an obsolete example of Agrotis exclamationis L., a dark specimen of 
Lacanobia oleracea L., a melanic Cerastis leucographa D. & S., a striking semi- 
melanic aberration of Acronicta rumicis L., and a specimen of Protodeltote pygarga 
Hufn. with reduced scaling in the distal part of the forewing. 

Clarke, J. — A selection of Lepidoptera taken or bred in 1994 including: 
Apameafurva britannica Cockayne from Sychnant Pass North Wales; Dyscia fagaria 
Thunb.; Chloroclysta concinnata. Steph from Arran, 27.vi.94; Paradiarsia 
sobrina Dup. from Carrbridge, Inverness-shire; Xestia ashworthii Doubl. at light, 
from Sychnant Pass, North Wales; Agrotis cinerea D. & S., a mixed gynandromorph 
from Swanage, Dorset (Plate III, Fig. 9); Drymonia ruficornis Hufn., a melanic 
example from Lingfield Surrey; Orthosia cerasi F., taken at Lingfield, Surrey on 
3.xi.93; a variety of Diarsia mendica P. from Lingfield Surrey; from Norfolk, 
Phragmataecia castaneae Hiibn. and Pelosia obtusa H.-S.; Idaea dilutaria Hiibn. 
from Great Orme, North Wales; Agrochola haematidea Dup. bred from Sussex 
and an example of Crocallis elinguuria ab. unicolor Prout from Carrbridge, 
Inverness-shire. 

Also exhibited was a case of Sesiidae bred in 1994 complete with larval workings. 
Species included were: Synanthedon formicaeformis Esp., S.flaviventris Staud., from 
southern Surrey and Ashdown Forest; Bembecia muscaeformis Esp. from Devon and 
S. scoliaeformis Borkh. from Rannoch Scotland. 

In a separate exhibit, was the second adult British record of Cucullia scrophulariae 
D. & S. This was captured on 18.vi.94 in Dorset (Plate HI, Fig. 12). For comparison, 
it was displayed alongside C. lychnitis Namb. and C. verbasci L. 

Cook, R. R. — An exhibit of species taken or bred in 1994: Chloroclysta 
concinnata Steph. from Monamore Glen, Arran; Synanthedon spheciformis D. & S., 
bred from Bastley Heath, Hants, vi.94; Idaea dilutaria Hiibn. from Great Orme, North 
Wales; Luperina nickerlii gueneei Doubl. from Prestatyn, North Wales, viii.94; Noctua 
or bona Hufn., bred from larvae found at Icklingham, Suffolk; Xestia ashworthii 
Doubl., from Sychnant Pass, North Wales, vi.94; Hadena perplexa D. & S., bred from 
larvae, Hurst Castle, Hants, Apameafurva britannica Cockayne, from Sychnant Pass, 
North Wales; Orthosia gothica L., ab. gothicina H.-S., bred from larvae, Kincraig 
Inverness, hi. 94. 

Also exhibited were Agrochola haematidea Dup. from Sussex with photographs of 
larvae taken by P. Davey. 

CORLEY, M. F. V. — A dull brown specimen of Amphipyra berbera Rungs with the 
hindwing lacking the normal copper coloration from Blandon Heath, Oxon on 
22.vi.1993 (Plate HI, Fig. 2). 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 183 

CRAMP, P. J. — An example of Mythimna pudorina D. & S., from Godshill I.o.W. 
12.vii.94, new to the island. 

DOBSON, A. H. — Examples of Cucullia asteris D. & S., bred from larvae found at 
Calshot 17.viii.93; a melanic Orthosia cerasi F., from Penn Wood 28.iii.94; 
Xanthorhoe biriviata Borkh. from River Itchen; Spodoptera exigua Hiibn., at m.v. 
light Greywell Moors, 16.viii.94; Agrotis exclamationis L., with black suffusion in the 
median area of the right forewing, from Yorkshire; Photedes captiuncula expolita 
Staint., from Grassington, Yorkshire; Heliothis peltigera D. & S., from Starcross, 
Devon; also several Hypena obsitalis Hiibn., from Torbay including two live second 
brood females. 

Emmet, A. M. — An example of Scopula marginepunctata Goeze from Saffron 
Walden Essex, taken at m.v. light, 20.viii.94. Also Heliothis viriplaca Hufn. from 
Saffron Walden Essex, taken at m.v. light 6.viii.94, probably a wanderer from 
Breckland. 

Also, exhibited was a possible example of Plusia putnami gracilis Lempke from 
Ahakista, Co. Cork, taken at m.v. light, 16.vi.94. 

Foster, A. P. — A specimen of Eupithecia abietaria Goeze, taken at m.v. light in a 
conifer plantation at Pontneddfechan, Breconshire, 18.vii.94. 

Gill, N. — The following moths: Odontognophos dumetata hibernica Forder, 
Hadena caesia manani Gregson, H. perplexa capsophila Dup., Zygaena purpuralis 
sabulosa Trem., Tethea or hibernica Turner, and Thera cognata Thunb., were taken 
in, or bred from, Ireland in 1994. 

Also, from Shetland, were Hadena confusa Hufn. and Eupithecia venosata fumosae 
Gregson, bred from larvae taken in 1992. 

GOATER, B. — An exhibit of cases of Luperina nickerlii Freyer from Britain and 
Europe (Plate HI, Figs. 15-18) with a varied series of Luperina testacea D. & S. This 
exhibit is to be the subject of a paper in the Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist, that will 
demonstrate that the saltern race of Essex and Kent is a good sub-species. 

Also exhibited were western European species of Earias to show that specimens of 
E. insulana Boisd. taken in southern England in 1992 were in fact E. clorana L. f. 
flavimargo de Joannis. 

HALL, N. — Bred Deileptinia ribeata CI. from Bernwood Oxon, 31.vii.94, the night 
of a B.E.N.H.S. field meeting. An aberrant Agrotis exclamationis L., from Earley 
Reading 24.vii.94. Normal and dark forms of Thalpophila matura Hufn. from 
Birmingham, 22.vii.94. Also two Synanthedon culiciformis L., exhibited plus their 
emergence stump from Dinton Pastures, collected 23.iv.94. 

Harman, T. W. — Example of Heliothis armigera Hiibn., Westbere, Kent, 2.X.94; 
H. peltigera D. & S., Turville Heath, Bucks. Also exhibited on behalf of F. Solly: 
Chrysodeixis chalcites Esp., Kingsgate, Kent, 14.x. 94; Euxoa cursoria Hufn., 
Kingsgate, Kent, 13.viii.94 and Pelosia muscerda Hufn., Kingsgate, Kent, 
31.vii.94, also one specimen of Deltote bankiana F., Dover, Kent 13.vii.94. 

Hart, C. — A noctuid larva found 7.x. 94 in a packet of mange-tout purchased in a 
Supermarket in Horsham, West Sussex. Its origin was Zambia. The larva was 
probably of Heliothis armigera Hiibn. 

Haywood, B. — Some immigrant Lepidoptera taken in 1994: Spodoptera exigua 
Hiibn., from Abbotskerswell, Devon, 10.vii.94 and Lyme Regis, Dorset, 2.vii.94; 
Orthonama obstipata F., Abbotskerswell, Devon, 25.ix.94. 

Haywood, R. — A selection of Lepidoptera taken or bred in Slough mainly during 
1994. These consisted of: Rhodometra sacraria L., to m.v. light, Slough, 6.viii.94; 
Thera obeliscata Hiibn., a dark form of the first brood at m.v. light, 26.vi.94; Colotois 
pennaria L., with large white 'eyes' on the forewing and a pale right hindwing; Mimas 



184 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

tiliae L., with two distinct shades of green in the central band; six Lacanobia suasa D. 
& S., bred from Slough parent of ab. dissimilis Knoch, April 1994; four specimens of 
Cryphia domestica Hufn. taken between 30.vii and 6.viii.94, demonstrating the wide 
variety of forms in Slough; two Cosmia affinis L., a welcome visitor to the garden 
trap this year; finally an example of Heliothis armigera Hiibn. bred from a larva 
which probably emanated from a bunch of chrysanthemums in the house. 

HOWTON, D. H. — Paradarisa consonaria Hiibn f. nigra Bankes, an example found 
on Ranmore Common, Surrey on a beech trunk, 10. v. 86; an unknown sphingid 
found in a crate of grapes in August 1992, Hinckley Leicestershire; Orthosia cruda D. 
& S., ab. haggarti Tutt, taken 16.iii.91 on Geddington Chase, Northants, this was 
amongst 120 'normal' specimens. 

Jenkins, A. — Zygaena exulans subochracea White, a series taken at Braemar. One 
specimen had yellow legs, yellow spots on thorax and yellow colouring to main vein 
in the upper wings. Zygaena loti scotica Rowl.-Br., a series from the Isle of Mull with 
one specimen having middle and inner spots united. A series of Xestia alpicola alpina 
Humph. & Westw., from Grampian, taken at m.v. light on two nights, none flying 
before 1 a.m. Bred Archanara algae Esp from Sussex, from pupae found. Pelosia 
obtusa H.-S., taken at m.v. light in Norfolk. Photedes brevilinea from Norfolk also at 
m.v. light. Also the following bred species: Alcis repandata L., of the conversaria 
form from South Wales; Agrochola haematidea Dup. from Sussex, and Eriogaster 
lanestris L. from Norfolk. 

Knill- Jones, S. A. — An exhibit largely of moths from Freshwater, Isle of Wight, 
consisting of Eupithecia tripunctaria H.-S., 3.vii and 4.viii.94; Euchoeca nebulata 
Scop., 2.vii.94, Conistra vaccinii L., a grey aberration, 10.ii.94; Diarsia rubi View., an 
aberration taken 17.viii.94; Rhodometra sacraria L., l.viii and 12.x. 94; Apamea 
scolopacina Esp., 31.vii.94; Rhyacia simulans Hufn., 18.vii.94; new to the Isle of 
Wight; Trichoplusia ni Hiibn., new to the Isle of Wight; Scopula nigropunctata Hufn., 
5.viii.94, new to Hampshire and the Isle of Wight; Xestia agathina Dup., 15.ix.94; 
Ipomorpha retusa L., 20.viii.94; Autographa gamma L., two aberrations taken 1 l.viii 
and l.ix.94; a dwarf Deilephila elpenor L., with a wingspan of only 46 mm taken 
30.vi.94; Nonagria typhae Thunb. ab.fraterna 15.viii.94; Archanara dissoluta Treits., 
typical and melanic, 25.vii and 6.viii.94; three Agrotis exclamationis L., aberrations; 
Abraxas grossulariata L., ab. dohrnii, 1 l.viii. 94; Heliothis armigera Hiibn., 14.x. 94; 
Mythimna straminea Treits., 16.vi.94; a bred series of Lasciocampa quercus L., 
showing variation 1993-94. From other parts of the Isle of Wight, the following 
moths were shown: a series of Eupithecia subumbrata D. & S., Compton Down, vi.94; 
Perizoma flavofasciata Thunb., Redcliff Bay, 23.vi.94; Scopula floslactata Haw., 
Cranmore, 6.vi.94; Idaea biselata Hufn. ab. fimbriolata Steph., Afton Reserve, 
8.vii.94; Erannis defoliaria CI., Cranmore; Scotopteryx luridata plumbaria F., 
Cranmore, 9.vi.94; Mythimna vitellina Hiibn., a dark form, Cranmore, 4.xi.93; 
Colotois pennaria L., a pale form, Cranmore, 5.xi.93. Also from further afield: Xylena 
vetusta Hiibn., and Entephria flavicinctata Hiibn from Bunessan, Isle of Mull, 20- 
23.ix.94. 

Kolaj, A. — A sample of moths bred from larvae beaten from various plants in 
and around Aviemore including: Entephria flavicinctata ruficinctata Guen., Thera 
cognata Thunb., Hydiomena furcata Thunb., Entephria caesiata D. & S., Eupithecia 
pusillata D. & S., and an unusual form of Eulithis populata L. 

A sample of moths taken during a very hot week in the Norfolk Broads including: 
Eustrotia uncula CI., Pelosia muscerda Hufn., P. obtusa H.-S., Archanara dissoluta 
Treits., Simyra albovenosa Goeze, Photedes brevilinea Fenn., Plusia putnami gracilis 
Lempke and Phragmataecia castaneae Hiibn. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 185 

In addition, also exhibited were: Macroglossum stellatarum L. and Heliothis 
peltigera D. & S. from Warwickshire; Hydraecia osseola Stdgr.; Colocasia coryli L., 
including melanic forms from Bucks.; Thera cupressata Geyer, from Dorset and 
Agrotis clavis Hufn., from Suffolk. 

Mackenzie Reid, I. — A series of Agrotis exclamationis L. demonstrating its 
variability from Claverdon and Bearley, Warwickshire. A specimen of Ennomos 
alniaria L. from Warburg N. R., Bucks. Also a specimen of Aplocera efformata 
Guen., taken 18.viii.90 from Bearley, Warwickshire. 

Manning, D. V. — A specimen of Rhodometra sacraria L., without forewing 
streak taken 18.viii.94, Ampthill Park, Bedfordshire. 

MCCORMICK, R. — The following species bred or captured during 1993/94: 
Synanthedon scoliaeformis Borkh., from Rannoch; Bembecia muscaeformis Esp., 
from Start Point; Colostygia olivata D. & S., from Babbacombe; Coenocalpe 
lapidata Hiibn., from Trinafour, Tayside where it was found commonly; 
Eupithecia expallidata Doubl., at light, Holne Chase and Dawlish Warren, Devon; 
Alois jubata Thunb., Holne Chase; Photedes morrisii Dale, from Charmouth 
Dorset; Hypena obsitalis Hiibn., several specimens from Dartmouth to Watcombe, 
Devon. 

The following species considered to be unusual for Devon or near its borders were 
captured: Hydriomena ruberata Freyer from Teignmouth (and was also seen at 
Dawlish Warren); Horisme vitalbata D. & S., several seen Dawlish Warren; Eilema 
sororcula Hufn., from Teignmouth, Devon; Meganola albula D. & S., seen commonly 
at Dawlish Warren; Mythimna obsoleta Hiibn. from Exminster Marshes, Devon; 
Photedes pygmina Haw., a striated specimen from Holne Chase; Eremobia ochroleuca 
D. & S., from Dawlish Warren; Arenostola phragmitidis Hiibn., a pair from several 
seen at Dawlish Warren; Chilodes maritimus Tausch., from Dawlish Warren and 
Exminster Marshes including ab. nigristriata Stdgr., and ab. bipunctata, Haw.; 
Calocula nupta L., one specimen from Dawlish Warren; Earias dor ana L. found 
commonly at Dawlish Warren. 

The following migrants appeared in the garden trap at Teignmouth: Rhodometra 
sacraria L., Spodoptera exigua Hiibn., Heliothis peltigera D. & S., and Autographa 
gamma L. ab. gammina Stdgr. 

The following species were bred this year from various localities: Chloroclysta 
truncata Hufn., bred from larvae swept at Feshiebridge, Inv. Hydriomena furcata 
Thunb., bred from larvae swept at Feshiebridge; Crocallis elinguaria L., an ab. 
unicolor Prout bred from a larva also swept at Feshiebridge; Xestia castanea Esp., a 
pair of dark red specimens swept at Mooremore, Aviemore; Egira conspicillaris L., 
part of a series of typical specimens bred from a female caught at Kynaston, 
Hereford. 

Finally, a series of Agrotis puta Hiibn., and A. clavis Hufn., showing the variety of 
forms occurring in South Devon. 

Middleton, H. G F. & Scanes, J. J. — During a visit to Scotland 1 1-1 5.vii. 1994, 
the following species were taken in the Isle of Skye: Zygaena purpuralis caledonensis 
Neiss, Zygaena lonicerae jocelynae Trem. and Camptogramma bilineata bilineata L. 

From Perthshire, the following species were taken: Entephria caesiata D. & S., 
Gnophos obfuscatus D. & S., Entephria flavicinctata Hiibn., Xanthorhoe munitata 
munitata Hiibn., Perizoma blandiata blandiata D. & S., Hydriomena ruberata 
Freyer, Eurois occula L., Hyppa rectilinea Esp. and Apamea zeta assimilis Doubl. 

Owen, D. F. — An exhibit to confirm the prediction of Owen and Clarke (Oikos 
67: 393-^402) that the medionigra phenotype of Callimorpha dominula L., was 
temperature-controlled. The studies were made in 1993 at the famous Cothill, 



186 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Oxfordshire colony and a similar result obtained at the nearby locality of North 
Hinksey. 

Another exhibit highlighted the interesting parallel decline in frequency of 
melanism in Bistort betularia L. in England and the U.S.A. where the North 
American subspecies Biston betularia cognataria occurs. 

Owen, J. — A specimen of Acontia lucida Hufn. taken at m.v. light at Dymchurch, 
Kent on 6.viii.94. 

Parsons, M. — The following specimens were exhibited: Parascotia fuliginaria L., 
Great Bookham Common, Surrey. 21.vii.94; Minoa murinata Scop., Sapperton, E. 
Glos., 3.vii.94. Xanthorhoe fluctuata L., Rayner Park, Surrey, 31.viii.94, a variety 
with reduced and suffused markings; Paradarisa extersaria Freyer, a dark example 
from Richmond Park, Surrey, 4.vi.94; two pale examples of Gnophos obscuratus 
D. & S. from Cow Gap, 29.vii.94; four examples of Cryphia domestica Hufn., 
showing the range in variation in this species in the capital. 

PORTER, J. — A male Thera cupressata Geyer from Dorset, 15.X.94; a dark example 
of Noctua comes Hiibn. and three forms of Celaena leucostigma Hiibn. ssp. scotica 
Coch., from Argyllshire, 14.viii.94; two pairs of Antitype chi L. from Kinross-shire 
on 9 and 16.viii.94; a dark female Eumichtis lichenea lichenea Hiibn. from the Essex 
coast, 1 .x.94, and Caradrina clavipalpis Scop, with dark marginal areas from Surrey 
22.X.94. 

Phillips, J. W. — A selection of Macrolepidoptera captured or bred during 1994 
mainly as a result of a trip to North and South Wales. They comprised: Abraxas 
sylvata Scop., Tintern; Discoloxia blomeri Curt:, Tintern; Eriopygodes imbecilla F., 
from South Wales, Idaea dilutaria Hiibn., Great Ormes Head; Apamea furva 
britannica Coch., Great Ormes Head; Apeira syringaria L., bred from Tintern; 
Entephria caesiata D. & S., from North Wales. From other areas: Heliothis peltigera 
D. & S., bred ex. larvae, Pagham, W. Sussex and Zygaena trifolii decreta Ver. from 
Arne, Dorset. 

Plant, C. — Eleven examples of Cryphia domestica Hufn. showing a variation 
from typical to melanic. Six slightly differing examples were shown, three from 
Bishop's Stortford, Herts., 12.viii.88 and 18.vi.89, two from East Ham, S. Essex, 
6.vii.82, and 4.vii.85 and one from Romford, S. Essex, 1982. Four differing examples 
approximating to ab. suffusa Tutt all from East Ham. Finally, a melanic form, the 
name of which has not been traced, in which the entire forewings are darkened except 
for a pale sub-basal fascia not reaching the dorsum and a pale pre-tonal patch taken 
at Enfield, Middx on 21 .vii.1994 by Ms Anna Hughes. 

Also exhibited were Perizoma affinitata Steph., a suffused dark form in which 
forewings are a suffused brown all over apart from the white part-median line and 
the upper sides of the hind wings are entirely grey with the whitish fascia barely 
discernible. This was captured in Rushey Mead Nature Reserve near Bishop's 
Stortford, 2.vi.94. Also from the same reserve, Heliothis viriplaca Hufn., a typical 
Breckland Moth, on 6.viii.94. 

Pratt, C. — An aberration of Dryobotodes eremita F. from the Arundel area, in 
appearance being somewhat similar to a small Lacanobia contigua D. & S. 

Rouse, T. — The following species taken at Densole and Dungeness, Kent: 
Peridroma saucia Hiibn., Mythimna vitellina Hiibn., Agrotis ipsilon Hufn., Heliothis 
armigera Hiibn., H. peltigera D. & S., Autographa gamma L., Mythimna albipuncta 
D. & S., Agrius convolvuli L. 

The following species were bred during 1934—94: Adscita statices L., bred from a 
female taken at Odiham, Hants; Adscita globulariae Hiibn., bred from a female taken 
at Whinless Down, Kent; Diacrisia sannio L., bred from a female taken at Whinless 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 187 

Down, Kent; Deltote bankiana F., bred from a female taken at Whinless Down, 
Kent; Rhodometra sacraria L., bred from a female taken at the Warren Kent, lastly 
an example of Trachea atriplicis L., taken at Densole, Kent, being the first record for 
the British Isles since 1986. 

Scanes, J. T. — A selection of macro moths from the summer of 1994; Photedes 
morrisii morrisii Dale from Charmouth Dorset; Epirrhoe rivata Hiibn. and Catarhoe 
rubidata D. & S., from Seatown, Dorset; Spodoptera exigua Hiibn. and Mythimna 
favicolor Burr, from Keyhaven, Hants; Agrotis ripae Hiibn., from West Wittering; 
Agrotis cinerea D. & S., from Kings Somborne, Hants; Spodoptera exigua Hiibn., 
from Tolworth, Surrey and an aberrant Drymonia dodonaea D. & S., from Ashtead 
Surrey, taken at m.v. light, 26.vi.94 (Plate III, Fig. 10). 

Two moth aberrations were exhibited on behalf of Mr A. D. A. Russwurm. They 
were: Diarsia mendica mendica F. at m.v. light, 22.vi.94 and Notodonta dromedarius 
L. at m.v. light, 9.vii.94, both at Brockenhurst. 

Simmons, M. — An exhibit of migrant moths taken in E. Sussex during 1994: 
Heliothis armigera Hiibn., H. peltigera D. & S., (which was recorded three times on 
15.vi, 7.vii and 7.viii.94), Agrotis ipsilon Hufn., Peridroma saucia Hiibn., Rhodometra 
sacraria L., all taken at light in Crowborough. Another species, Spodoptera exigua 
Hiibn. was taken at light in Normans Bay. 

Simpson, A. N. B. — An example of Mythimna obsoleta Hiibn., to m.v. light at 
Upton Warren, Worcestershire on l.vii.94, the first VC37 record. 

Sims, I. — A varied exhibit of Synanthedon tipuliformis CI., bred from Ribes nigrum 
emerging on 27.iv.90; Ptilophora plumigera D. & S., to m.v. light, Pheasant Wood, 
Hambledon, Bucks., 26.xi.91; Setina irrorella L., an imago from Inishmore, Galway, 
Eire, l.vi.91; Cucullia lychnitis Namb., bred from larvae from Medmenham, Marlow, 
Bucks., these emerged on 9.vi.93 after having been fed on Buddleia in 1992 in 
captivity. Craniophora ligustri D. & S., to m.v. light Medmenham, Marlow, Bucks., 
16.vi.93; Ipimorpha subtusa D. & S., to m.v. light. Ashley Hill Forest, Knowl Hill, 
Reading, Berks., 21.vii.94. 

Skinner, B. F. — Pelosia obtusa H.-S., two males and two females from Catfield, 
Norfolk, July 1994; Hoplodrina alsines Brahm, an albino male from Dungeness, 
Kent, 8.vii.94 (Plate III, Fig. 13); Nola aerugula Hiibn., a male from Greatstone, 
Kent, 12.vii.94, being the fifteenth Kentish record this century; Agrotis crassa Hiibn., 
from Portland Bird Observatory, Dorset, 4.viii.94 being the sixth English record this 
century. 

Sterling, M. J. & P. H. — An exhibit of Zygaena lonicerae Schev., from Cume 
Down, near Weymouth, Dorset, VC9, 6.vii.94, to demonstrate occurrence which is 
widespread in the County despite report in M.B. G.B.I, vol. 2. 

Tebbut, P. — An example of Arctia caja L. ab. fumosa Horhammer. 

Ward, J. W. — An aberrant Diarsia mendica F. from Geddington Chase, 
Northants on 20.vi.1988 (Plate III, Fig. 1), a melanic specimen of Orthosia cerasi 
F. bred ex pupa, l.iv. 1976 from Warkton, Northants. 

Warne, B. J. — An aberration of Selenia lunularia Hiibn., taken at Binstead, 
I.o.W., 2.vii.94. 

Wedd, D. — An exhibit of species bred or captured 1993—4. From Henley-on- 
Thames, Oxon: Heliothis peltigera D. & S., two from a series bred from a 
female captured in May; Apoda limacodes Hufn., to actinic light in Henley; Crocallis 
elinguaria L., varied colour forms including a buttered ab. restricta, from 
Bude, Cornwall, normal and also several round-winged specimens which emerged 
from F 2 generation from Prawle Point, Devon, from a female captured by Brian 
Baker. 



188 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

From Ireland, the following captured at Dromore Park, Co. Clare: Amphipyra 
berbera svenssoni Fletcher, Ipimorpha retusa L., Apamea ophiogramma Esp. and 
Spilosoma lubricipeda L. From Inch, County Kerry: Hyles lineata livornica Esp. from 
Duncormick, Co. Wexford: Odonoptera bidentata CI., F 2 specimens, Agrotis ripae 
Hubn., examples of the S. E. Irish form. 

From Scotland: Eupithecia pusillata D. & S. a varied series from Feshiebridge; 
Polyphaenis maillardi assimilis Doubl., two specimens from Achlean, Inv. and a dark 
female from Kilmahoy, near Cullander, Inv.; Noctua comes Hubn., from Findhorn, 
Morayshire — a range of colour forms. 

From South Devon and North Cornwall, a series of Hypena obsitalis Hubn. 

Finally, an exhibit of Calamia tridens occidentalis Cochayne, varying from wild- 
caught specimens from Aglish, Burren, Co. Clare to results of breeding the moth at 
different temperatures. 

WOOLDRIDGE, D. B. — An example of Thera cupressata Geyer, taken Freshwater, 
I.o.W., 13.vii.94. 

YOUNG, D. — From the New Forest, a Lymantria dispar L., captured 5.viii.94 
along with other common migrant species; Drymonia ruficornis Hufn., an aberrant 
specimen with area between ante- and post-median lines whitish yellow, taken 
25.iv.94. 

From Reading, Sesia apiformis CI. boxed from a poplar trunk at Reading from 
7.15-7.30 a.m. 27. vi to l.vii.94. Hydraecia osseola hucherardi Mab., from Kent, 
7.ix.94. Catocala promissa D. & S. from the New Forest. Agrotis ripae Hiibn., a 
short-series bred from larvae from Wittering, W. Sussex. Gortyna borelii lunata 
Freyer, found to be reasonably common this year in Essex. 



British microlepidoptera 

Bland, K. P. — Stigmella continuella Staint., vacated leafmines in birch, found 
10.ix.1994 at Camghouran (NN5455), Rannoch, new to Perths. (VC88) and only 
third Scottish vice-county. Kessleria saxifragae Staint., Invernaver NNR (NC6960), 
Suther., 8.viii.l994, new to VC108. Coleophora discordella Zell., Bettyhill (NC7062), 
Suther., to light, 9/10.viii.l994, new to VC108. Elachista orstadii Palm,3c?c?,l?, 
Williamshope, Glen Kinnon, Selk., taken 29.V.1994, new to VC79, the female 
appears to be the first British example taken. Exaeretia ciniflonella L. & Z., 
Camghouran (NN5455), Rannoch, Perths. (VC88), a rare species which is rarely 
captured; this specimen was on the wing in quite heavy autumn rain, 10.ix.1994. 
Gelechia sororculella Hiibn., Apigill Wood (NC7157), Suther., taken by Tony 
Simpson, ll.viii.1994, new to VC108. Epinotia maculana F., near Persie House 
(N01455), Perths., taken 24.ix.1994, new to VC89. 

Bradford, E. S. — Monopis weaverella Scott, Childs Forstal Wood, East Blean, 
Kent, at light, 23.viii.1994. Phyllonorycter leucographella Zell., Pean Hill, Whitstable, 
Kent, specimens bred from Pyracantha coccinea, 20-25.iv.1994. The following all 
taken at light, Seasalter Marshes, Whitstable, Kent, 10.vii.1994: Orthotelia 
sparganella Thunb., Schoenobius gigantella D. & S., S. forficella Thunb. The 
following 16 species all taken at light at Pean Hill, Whitstable, Kent: Aspilapteryx 
tringipennella Zell., 23.vii.94; Parectopa ononidis Zell., 24.vii.94; Bedellia somnulen- 
tella Zell., 29.viii.94; Coleophora versurella Zell., 27.vii.94; C. lineolea Haw., 20.vii.94; 
Cnephasia pasiuana Hiibn., 22.vii.94; Synaphe punctalis F., 1 l.vii.94; Dioryctria 
abietella D. & S., 19.vii.94; Sitochroa palealis D. & S., 25.vii.94; Amblyptilia 
acanthadactyla Hiibn., 4.ix.94; Catoptria falsella D. & S., 23.viii.94; Oncocera 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 189 

formosa Haw., 15.vii.94; Platytes alpinella Hiibn., ll.vii.94; Bisigna procerella D. & 
S., 12.vii.94; Monochroa palustrella Dougl., 4.vii.94; Psoricoptera gibbosella Zell., 
31.vii.94. From Ellenden Wood, Whitstable, Kent, Ancylis mitterbacheriana D. & S., 
specimens bred from Quercus petraea L., 12-24. iv. 94. 

Britton, M. R. — Species from Yorkshire limestone. Teleiodes sequax Haw., 
Kilnsey, Grassington, Wharfedale, Yorks., bred ex spinnings in rock-rose, 13.vi.94, 
emerged 10.vii.94 onwards. Pterophorus tridactyla L., top of Dib Scar, Bastow 
Wood, Grassington, Wharfedale, Yorks., 4.vii.94. Pyrausta cingulata L., Dib Scar, 
Bastow Wood, Grassington, Yorks., 16.vii.94. 

Clancy, S. P. — The following taken in the Dungeness area: Pediasia fascelinella 
Hiibn., 30.vii.1994; Margaritia sticticalis L., 31 .vii.1994 (Greatstone); Mussidia 
nigrivenella Rag., 12.viii.1994 (Plate III, Fig. 7), and Agriphila inquinatella D. & S., 
27.vii.1994 (Plate III, Fig. 8). 

COLENUTT, S. — Evergestis limbata L., Chale Green, I.o.W., 23 and 30.vii.1994, 
new to Britain (Plate III, Fig. 4). 

CORLEY, M. F. V. — Monochroa lucidella Steph., Pucketty Farm, Faringdon, 
Oxon., 13.vii.94, new to VC22. Brachmia lutatella H.-S., Lulworth, Dorset, 1994, 
netted in the evening; this was Waters' 1926 locality. Aristotella brizella Treits., 
Portland Bill, Dorset, 22.vii.1994, disturbed from Armeria maritima (Miller) Willd. 
Caryocolum proximum Haw., Pucketty Farm, Faringdon, Oxon., bred from Stellaria 
media (L.) Vill, 7.vii.l994, the first VC22 record since an undated Reading record in 
the Victoria County History (1906); this food plant has been recorded on the 
Continent, but not previously in Britain, Spinnings are inconspicuous — only one was 
found; Phalonidia luridana Gregs., Portland, Dorset, 22.vii.1994, netted at dusk 
flying over a trackside with abundant Odontites. 

Cramp, P. J .—Evergestis pallidata Hufn., Godshill, I.o.W., 24.viii.1994. E. 
extimalis Scop, Godshill, I.o.W., lO.viii. 1994. 

DOBSON, A. H. — Homoeosoma sinuella F., Torquay, 20.vii.94, an aberration with 
blackish median band (Plate III, Fig. 6). Ephiphyas postvittans Walk., Torquay, bred 
from larva swept from Parietaria judaica L. on 19.vii.94. Blastobasis decolorella 
Woll., Basingstoke, Hants (VC12), disturbed from vegetable refuse. Sitochroa 
palealisD. & S., Starcross, S. Devon, 5-7.viii.94. Salebriopsis albicilla H.-S., Welshbury 
Hill, Glos., at m.v. trap under Tilia cordata Miller during field meeting of 25.vi.94. 

Emmet, A. M. — Lampronia fuscatella Tengst., two reared from galls in twigs of 
birch from Mildenhall, W. Suff. (VC26), 18-20.iv.1994, the first specimens from 
Suffolk. Galls were found at the same locality in 1988, but no moth emerged. 
Caloptilia azaleella Brants, Saffron Walden, Essex, at m.v. light, 18.viii.1994, new to 
N. Essex (VC19). Parectopa ononidis Zell., Saffron Walden, Essex, at m.v. light, 
5.viii.l994, the second record from north-west Essex. Kessleria saxifragae Staint., 
Baureenagh Mountain, Co. Kerry, reared 2-12. vii.1994. The locality, 1000 feet 
above sea-level, was discovered in the 1960s by the late R. M. Mere and E. C. 
Pelham-Clinton. Epiphyas postvittana Walker, Saffron Walden, Essex, at m.v. light, 
22.ix.1994, new to north-west Essex. Where it becomes established, this Australian 
species tends to become a pest. Apotomis semifasciana Haw., Monreith, Wig., at m.v. 
light, 15.vii.1994, the second record from Scotland. Hypsopygia costalis F., a typical 
specimen and two varieties, one from Wicken Fen, Cambs., 5.viii.l970, in which the 
yellow costal spots are greatly enlarged and another from Saffron Walden, Essex, at 
m.v. light, 8. vii.1994, in which the yellow costal spots are amalgamated. 

Foster, A. P. — Prochoreutis sehestedeana F., Tretio Common, Pemb., 13.vii.94, 
sweeping wet heath with Scutellaria minor Hudson; first county record. Pyralis 
lienigialis Zell., Cricklade, Wiltshire, 24.vi.94, at m.v. light in garden. 



190 l«R J INI NAT. HIST., ft 1995 

HARPER, M. W. 'Teleiodes alburnella Zell (Plate III, Fig. 23), Kincraig, Inv., a 
short scries of specimens caught by day on I7.vii.1994, showing a very well-marked 
form and unlike the less well-marked form from Pngland; distribution appears to be 
disjunctive with no records from midland and southern Scotland. Caryocolum 
futlCtella Dougl., specimens bred from mines in leaves ol \ Slelluriu graminia L., and a 
single tenanted mine in a species of Cerustium; larvae were also found in May/June 
with l)r A. N. Simpson in a meadow in Worcestershire, having first captured two 
pOSt-hibernated moths in April 1994, which were Hying by day in the same locality. 
liiseluehistu UtOltella Frey new to Scotland (gen. del. confirmed by I)r K. P. Bland), 
in June 1994 several tenanted mines found in Curex vesieuriu L. in a small marsh near 
Kincraig, Inv., from which a short series of bred moths is shown, together with 
examples of the mines and a pupa. 

Hi (Ki OKI), R. J. Epermenia insecure/la StainP, Portland, Dorset (VC9) bred 
from Thesium humifusum DC, 4vii.l994 (locality courtesy of Dr P. II. Sterling). 
( 'oleophora lussellu Stand., Slepe Heath, Dorset (VC9) bred from .luncus hufonius L., 
7 27.V.I994; llarlland Moor, Dorset bred from same 15 & 22.V.1994 (both localities 
with Drs J. R. Langmaid and P II Sterling), Wylch Neath, Dorset 17. vi. 1994. 
Ar^olutnprotes micella D. & S., Lyme Regis, Dorset (VC9) X.vii.1994, one at light. 
Phthorlmaea operculella /ell., Plympton, Plymouth, new to Devon (VC3) (exhibitor's 
garden), ll.vii.1994, one at light. Mompha bradleyl Riedl, Stratford-upon-Avon 
(V('<8) bred from galls on Eplloblum hirsutum P., 4 22. ix. 1993. Pierced luridana 
OregS., Portland, Dorset (VC9), 30.vii.1994, Portland, bred from seeds of Odontites 

verna (Bellardi), 2 4ix.l994, previously unrecorded foodplant. Cochylis molliculana 

Zell., Portland, Dorset 24. vi. 1991, earliest known British specimen; Portland 
24. vi. 1994; Portland, bred from Tieris eehioides L. 1 1 & I2.viii.1994, foodplant 
previously unknown (see also exhibit ol Dr J. R. I-angmaid). Aeleris umhrana Hubn., 
Ileybrook Bay, Devon (VC3) bred from Prunus spinosu P. 17 27.x. 1993. Cydia 
prunivorana Rag., Plympton, Plymouth, Devon (VC3) (exhibitor's garden) l.vii.1994, 

three at light. 

HOARB, R. J. B. Stigmelld pyri Glitz, one bred from a mine on Pyrus pyraster 
Burgsd. Collected 8.ix.93 at Pxeter University Campus, new to Devon VC3. A few 
vacated mines were found on the same tree later in the month, but they appeared to 
be confined to a single branch, Cliorculis diunu lliibn., one on Cirsiutn arvcn.se (P.) 
Scop. Bower in afternoon sun at its only known British locality. Glen Affric, Inv., 
17.viii.94. Dusystoma salicella lliibn., two females bred from larvae on Prunus 
spinosu I.., collected at BranSCOmbe, new to Devon VC3 on 18.ix.93, the moths 
emerging on 24.iii.94. Teleiodes seriptella lliibn., two shown of live bred from larvae 
on Acer campestre P., found at Lillesdon near Taunton, Somerset VC5 on 5.ix.93. 
Caryocolum blandelloides ECarsholl (Plate III, Pig. 22), three Hying at dusk on sand 
dunes at Poch Fleet NR, East Sutherland VC107, 23.viii.94; determined on genitalia, 
new to Britain. Epiblema incamatana lliibn., one Hying at dusk, Stockbridge Down, 
Hants, VC12, 30.vii.94, the third Hampshire specimen, and the second from this 
locality, where the foodplant is presumably Rosa eaninu P. Mccyna flavalis D. & S., 
Stockbridge Down, one at dusk, 30.vii.94, an infrequent species on the mainland of 
I lanipshire. 

How ion, I). 11. First county records for Northamptonshire* and Soke of 
Pelei borough VC32. Species shown: Athrips niouffutellu P., Teleiodes alhurnelht 

/ell, Dichomeris marginella P., Trachysmia tnopiana Haw., Cacoecimorpha 
pronubana lliibn., Cnephasia longana Haw., Lobesia Httorulis Humphr. & Westw. 
For the most recent list of Microlcpidoptera of VC'32, it is necessary to go back to 
the records of Puslace Wallis published in the ./ Northampton Nut. Hist Soe. 1908 to 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 191 

1912. David Manning is currently compiling a list, and some examples of new 
records for the county are shown. The exhibitors hope that anyone who is not 
already providing records for David Manning will do so. 

Knill-Jones, S. A. — All the following specimens were taken at m.v. light at 
Freshwater, I.o.W. unless stated otherwise. Scoparia subfusca Haw., uniform grey 
ab., 7.viii.94. Udea fulvalis Hiibn., 17.viii.94. Acleris sparsana D. & S., 30.ix.94. 
Pseudoswammerdamia combinella Hiibn., 13.vi.94. Aphelia viburnana D. & S., 3 & 
5.vii.93, new VC record. A. paleana Hiibn., 9.vii.94, new VC record. Pempelia 
palumbella D. & S., 4.vii.94. Endothenia quadrimaculana Haw., 6.viii.94. Rhyacionia 
pinivorana L. & Z., 24.vi.85. Adela croesella Scop., Tennyson Down, I.o.W., 15 and 
21.vi.85, 19.vi.89. Ancylis achatana D. & S., 9.vii.93. Acleris hastiana L., 21.L94. A. 
notana Don. Blastesthia turionella L., 25.V.91, new VC record. Cryptophlebia 
leucotreta Meyrick, found indoors, 29.ix.89, new VC record. Dioryctria 
schuetzeella Fuchs, 16.vii.85, new county record. Lathronympha strigana F., 
23.vi.92, new VC record. Dichomeris marginella F., 8.vii.89, new VC record. 
Semioscopis steinkellneriana D. & S., 12.iv.90. Amblyptilia acanthadactyla Hiibn., 
found indoors, 9.X.94. Gymnancyla canella D. & S., St Helens, I.o.W., 26.vii.94. 
Platytes alpinella Hiibn., 12.vii.94. Oncocera genistella Dup., Cranmore, 
I.o.W., 13.vii.94. Pleuroptya ruralis Scop, ab., Cranmore, I.o.W., 14.vii.94. 
Sitochroa palealis D. & S., Compton Down, I.o.W., 21.vii.94. Pediasea contaminella 
Hiibn., three including one ab. sticheli Constant, St Helens, I.o.W., 26.vii.94. 
Phycitodes maritima Tengst., St Helens, I.o.W., 26.vii.94. Parapoynx stratiotata L., 
4.viii.94. 

Langmaid, J. R.—Coleophora lassella Staud., a series of four bred from Juncus 
bufonius L. together with larval cases, Hartland Moor, Dorset; cases appeared from 
foodplant randomly gathered 26.vii.93, moths emerged 17.v^4.vi.94 and another on 
23.vii.94, the first time the species has been bred in this country (see also exhibits by 
R. J. Heckford and P. H. Sterling). Tachystola acroxantha Meyrick, a specimen 
taken in an m.v. trap belonging to M. T. M. Roberts at Portsmouth, 1 .vii.94; new to 
Hampshire. Ethmia bipunctella F., Southsea, one taken at m.v. light, 31. vii.94; fourth 
Hampshire record. Blastobasis decolorella Woll., Portsmouth, one of several 
specimens taken at light, 8. vii.94; new to Hampshire. Cochylis molliculana Zell. 
(Plate III, Fig. 21) a series of four bred from Pier is echioides at Portsmouth in 1994; 
larvae and pupae were found in the seedheads of the foodplant on 1 .viii and moths 
emerged 4-27. viii; a specimen which was not exhibited was taken at m.v. light at 
Southsea, Hampshire, 21. viii. 93, and found, on dissection of the genitalia to be this 
Mediterranean species, new to Britain. 

Parsons, M. — E. Sussex: Agonopterix bipunctosa Curt., Milton Hide, larvae 
27.V.1994; Pammene germmana Hiibn., Milton Hide, 27. v. 1994; Oxyptilia distans 
Zell., Camber Sands, 25.V.1994. E. Kent: Aristotelia brizella Treits., Nagden 
Marshes, 22.viii.1994; Acleris permutana Dup., singletons from Hythe Ranges, 
6.vii.l993 and Dungeness 8.vii. 1993. Surrey: Bucculatrix thoracella Thunb., 
Richmond Park, 29. iv. 1994; Nemaxera betulinella F., Great Bookham Common, 
21 .vii.1994; Caloptilia populetorum Zell., Richmond Park, 6. viii. 1994; Athrips 
rancidella H.-S., Raynes Park, 15. vii.1994 and Richmond Park, 15. vii.1994; Gelechia 
senticetella Stgr. Raynes Park, 13. vii.1994, 3. viii. 1994; Glyphipteryx linneela Clerk, 
Raynes Park, 22.vi.1994; Pediasia contaminella Hiibn., Richmond Park, 6.viii.l994; 
Sitochroa palealis D. & S., Richmond Park, 21. vii.1994; Aphomia sociella L. and 
Ephestia elutella Hiibn., bred from larvae found feeding on the remains of dead 
insects from the base of an "insect-o-cutor", Richmond Park, viii. 1994. E. Glos.: 
Bryotropha basaltinella Zell., Hilcot End, 2. vii.1994. 



192 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

PORTER, J. — Evergestis extimalis Scop., 24. ix. 1994; Anania verbascalis D. & S., 
18.vii.1994; Palpita unionalis Hiibn., 24.ix.1994 all from the Kent coast, and another 
P. unionalis from Dorset on 5.x. 1990. 

Robbins, J. — An album containing specimens of the leaf mines of the families 
Eriocraniidae, Nepticulidae, Tischeriidae, Incurvariidae, Heliozelidae, Bucculatrici- 
dae, Lyonetiidae, Gracillariidae, Coleophoridae and Momphidae. The mined leaves 
were collected between 1988 and the current year exclusively from within the 
boundaries of the Exmoor National Park. A total of 1 38 species were represented 
and an index was included in a pocket within the back cover of the album. 

Simmons, M. — Pyralid moths from E. Sussex, 1994. From Norman's Bay: 
Schoenobius gigantella D. & S., Evergestis extimalis Scop., Pyrausta cespitalis D. & 
S., Numonia marmorea Haw. From Crowborough: Agriphila inquinatella D. & S., 
Catoptria false lla D. & S. 

Simpson, A. N. B. — Eudonia delunella Staint., Tregroes, near Llandysul, 
Ceredigion, Dyfed, 29.vii.94, at light. Capperia britanniodactyla Gregs., Hartlebury 
Common, Worcs. VC37, bred from larvae collected 30. v. 94. Leioptilus lienigianus 
Zell., Upton Warren, new to Worcs., VC37, l.vii.94. Cydia molesta Busck, bred from 
nectarine purchased in Worcester ix.94. Epinotia signatana Dough, Mill Meadow, 
Drakes Broughton, new to Worcs., VC37, 14.vi.94. Caryocolum junctella Dough, 
Wyre Forest NNR, female caught flying in evening 27.iv.94; three bred from 
Stellaria graminea L. v. 94 from same site; first VC record. Coleophora cratipennella 
Clemens, bred from cases collected from Juncus articulatus L., River Cole, Sparkhill, 
Birmingham on 10.ix.93; first record for VC37. 

Sims, I. — Adela fibulella D. & S., River Lodden, Lower Earley, Reading, Berks., 
adults 30.V.94. Diplodoma herminata Geoff., Hainault Forest, Chigwell Row, Essex, 
adult and case, oak trunk, ll.iv.93, hatched 30.iv.93; case, hornbeam trunk, 13.ii.93. 
Narycia monilifera Geoff., Medmenham, Marlow, Bucks., adults and cases, fence 
post, 18.iii.92, hatched 3.V.92; Lower Earley, Reading, Berks., 14.iv.90, oak trunk 
adults hatched lO.v.90. Luffia ferchaultella Steph., Lower Earley, Reading, Berks., 
adults end cases on oak trunk 12.iv.90, hatched 16.vi.90. Morophaga choragella D. & 
S., Burnham Beeches, Slough, Berks., mining in the fungus Ganoderma adspersum 
(Schulz) Donk, growing on beech trunk, 14.X.90, hatched (forced) 31.xii.90; Hainault 
Forest, Chigwell Row, Essex, mining in the fungus Polyporus squamosus (Huds.) Fr. 
(dryad's saddle) on ash trunk, 3.xi.92, hatched 6.i.93 (forced); Medmenham, 
Marlow, Bucks., mining in the fungus Pseudotrametes gibbosa on dead wood, 9. ix.94, 
hatched 12.xi.94. Psychoides filicivora Meyrick, Woody Bay, Martinhoe, Devon, on 
Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott, 15.viii.93, hatched 20.viii.93; Great Torrington, 
Devon, 20.ix.90, hatched 12.xi.90 (forced). Nemapogon personella P. & M., Burnham 
Beeches, Slough, Bucks., mining in the fungus Piptoporus betulinus (Bull) Karsten, 
14.x. 90, hatched 29.xii.90 (forced). N. cloacella Haw., Ashley Hill Forest, Knowl 
Hill, Reading, Berks., mining in the fungus Piptoporus betulinus 27.ii.94, hatched 
17.vi.94; Hainault Forest, Chigwell Row, Essex, in dead wood and the fungus 
Tyromyces stipticus, 6.xi.92, hatched 12.iii.93 (forced). TV. ruricolla Staint., Hainault 
Forest, Lambourne End, Essex, mining in the fungus Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quel., 
30.xii.93, hatched 25.ii.94 (forced); Hainault Forest, Chigwell Row, Essex, in fungus 
Coriolus versicolor, 28.xii.93 hatched 20.ii.94 (forced). Nemaxera betulinella Fabr., 
Hainault Forest, Chigwell Row, Essex, 28.xii.93, hatched 20.ii.94 (forced). 
Triaxomera parasitella Hiibn., Ashleyhill Forest, Knowl Hill, Reading, Berks., 
mining in the fungus Piptoporus betulinus, 27.iii.94, hatched 19.iv.94; Hainault 
Forest, Chigwell Row, Essex, mining in the fungus Bjerkandera adjusta, 28.xii.93, 
hatched 16.ii.94 (forced). Monopis weaverella Scott., Savernake Forest, Wiltshire, at 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 193 

m.v., 20.V.91. Bucculatrix nigricomella Zell., Lower Earley, Reading, Berks., cocoons 
26.iv.94 on Leucanthemum vulgare Lam., hatched 13.vii.94, heavily parasitized with 
50 larvae producing 12 moths and 30 Hymenoptera. Caloptilia cuculipennella Hiibn., 
Medmenham, Marlow, Bucks., mine on Ligustrum vulgare L., 7.ix.94, hatched 
15.ix.94. C. rufipennella Hiibn., Medmenham, Marlow, Bucks, on Acer pseudopla- 
tanus L. 18.viii.94, hatched 7.ix.94. C. azaleella Brants, Rosemoor RHS Gardens, 
Great Torrington, Devon, mines on Azalea {Rhododendron simsii), 20.ix.90, hatched 
20.x. 90. C. falconipennella Hiibn., Medmenham, Marlow, Bucks., mines 10.x. 94, 
hatched 14.x. 94. This appears to be a new record for VC24. Field-work and 
subsequent rearing has also shown it to be present in VC22 (Berks., at Twyford and 
Lower Earley), VC12 (N. Hants., at Eversley) and VC23 (Oxon., at Henley-on- 
Thames). All appear to be new county records, and located in the valleys of the River 
Thames and its tributaries. Perhaps it is extending its range, or maybe it has always 
been present here and has had a good year. It would be a good one to look out for at 
Dinton Pastures, the Lower Earley site is within 2 miles. C. semifascia Haw., 
Pheasant Wood, Hambleden, Marlow, Bucks., on Acer campestre L., 10.vii.94, 
hatched 22.vii.94. Aspilapteryx tringipennella Zell., Lower Earley, Reading, Berks., 
on Plantago lanceolata L., 23.vii.94, hatched 30.vii.94; very heavily parasitized with 
200 mines producing two moths and 185 Hymenoptera. Parornix fagivora Frey, 
Pheasant Wood, Hambleden, Marlow, Bucks., on Fagus sylvatica L. 19.x. 91 and 
9.X.93, hatched 14.ii.92 and 12.ii.94 (both forced). Acrocercops brongniardella F., 
River Lodden, Lower Earley, Reading, Berks., on Quercus sp. 17.viii.91, hatched 
3.ix.91 (still present here, and in Essex in 1994). Phyllonorycter leucographella Zell., 
Wickford, Essex, mines on Pyracantha coccinea Roemer, 26.iii.89 and 25.ii.90, 
hatched 23.iv.89 and ll.iv.90 (heavily parasitized in this area, with 100 mines 
producing four moths and 70 Hymenoptera; as a result far less common here in 
1994). P. salicolella Sire, Ashley Hill Forest, Knowl Hill, Reading, Berks., on Salix 
caprea L., 2.xii.90, hatched 21. Hi. 91 (forced); Burnham Beeches, Slough, Bucks., 
14.X.90, hatched 22.iii.91 (forced). P. dubitella H.-S., Medmenham, Marlow, Bucks., 
on Salix caprea, 26.x. 92, hatched 16.ii.93 (forced); Pheasant Wood, Hambleden, 
Marlow, Bucks., on Salix, 31.X.92, hatched 8.H.93 (forced). P. hilarella Zett. Ashley 
Hill Forest, Knowl Hill, Reading, Berks., on Salix caprea, 2.xii.90, hatched 15.iv.91; 
Burnham Beeches, Slough, Bucks., on Salix, 14.X.90, hatched 16.iv.91. P. 
quinqueguttella Staint., Braunton Burrows, Devon, on Salix repens L., 29.ix.90, 
hatched 15.iv.91. P. emberizaepenella Bouche, Wangles Copps, Woodly, Reading, 
Berks., on Lonicera periclymenham L., 23.ix.89, hatched 3.iv.90; Chigwell Row, 
Essex, cocoon, 3.x. 88. Phyllocnistis saligna Zell., Medmenham, Marlow, Bucks., on 
Salix fragilis L., 17.vii.92 and 4.viii.94, hatched l.viii.92 and 8.viii.94; mine on S. 
fragilis 11.x. 89 (unusual in being on upper-side). Choreutis pariana CI., on Crataegus 
monogyna Jacq., River Lodden, Lower Earley, Reading, Berks., 30.V.94, hatched 
19.vi.94. 

Skinner, B. — Udea fulvalis Hiibn., Highcliffe, Hampshire, three bred 
specimens ex female vii.1993 together with photographs illustrating life history. 
Salebriopsis albicilla H.-S., Welshbury Hill, Glos., caught males, vi.1994, 
together with photographs illustrating life history. Melissoblaptes zelleri Joannis, 
male with discal spots united, Greatstone, Kent, 14.vii.94. Homoeosoma sinuella ¥., 
male with banded forewing, Stoke Saltings, Kent, 24.vii.94 Acrobasis repandana F., 
melanistic male, Ham Street, Kent, 13.vii.94. Sciota adelphella F.v.R., short 
series bred from southeast Kent. Schoenobius gigantella D. & S., melanistic male, 
Stoke Saltings, 24.vii.94. Perinephele lancealis D. & S., albino male, Ham Street, 
13.vii.94. 



194 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Sterling, M. J. & P. H. — Nemapogon ruricolella Staint., Charborough Park, new 
to Dorset VC9, bred from larvae feeding in Stereum hirsutum on oak bark, collected 
28.iv.94, emerged from 26. v. 94. Ypsolopha lucella F., Stoke Common, Bucks., VC24, 
one bred from larva on oak collected 30. v. 94, and one adult (of many) beaten from 
oak 16.vii.94. Coleophora lassella Stdgr., Arne, Dorset, VC9, bred from cases made 
from Juncus bufonius L., collected 26.vii.93, emerged v.94. C. clypeiferella Hofm., 
Weymouth, new to Dorset VC9, at light 3/4.viii.94. Ethmia bipunctella ¥., 
Weymouth, at light, 3/4.viii.94. Bryotropha mundella Dougl., Fanore, Co. Clare 
VC H9, smoked out 13.vi.94. Dichomeris juniperella L. (Plate III, Fig. 20), Achlean, 
Cairngorms, vi.77,det.K.Sattler. Brachmia inornatella Dougl., Wicken Fen, Cambs., 
at light 17.vi.94. Mompha bradleyi Reidl, Stapleford, Herts, (collected 21.viii.93) and 
Woodwalton Fen, Hunts, (collected 3.ix.93), bred from flower stem galls on 
Epilobium hirsutum L. Acleris permutana Dup., Leagh South, Co. Galway, VC HI 5, 
18 & 21.viii.94, at light. Epiblema cnicicolana Zell., Charmouth, Dorset, VC9, 
7.vii.94, two of many at rest on fleabane. 



Foreign lepidoptera 

The Natural History Museum — (1) Two drawers of Noctuidae recently 
received by the Museum, one containing material from Argentina, the other with 
material from Mongolia, Turkey, Turkmenia and parts of the former USSR, all in 
very fine condition. (2) Three drawers from the Inoue Collection of South-East Asian 
Lepidoptera, presented to the Museum in 1992. (3) Two drawers of Alcis repandata 
L. and two drawers of Callimorpha dominula L. from the National Collection of 
British Lepidoptera (R.C.K.). These species are currently the subject of research 
projects funded by the Cockayne Fellowship. 

The Entomology Department of the Natural History Museum receives 
approximately 25 000 specimens annually. Since January 1994, the start of the 
Museum's electronic registration system, the Lepidoptera collections have received 
over 4000 pinned specimens. The majority of these have been collected by staff of the 
Museum's research divisions for particular projects. Two drawers of specimens 
shown at this Exhibition were a representative sample of some of the material 
obtained by staff of the Collections Management Division, either by exchange or for 
assistance with research projects for colleagues abroad. Part of the Museum's vital 
role is the enhancement of collections by obtaining well documented, legally collected 
material from areas that are inaccessible to Western collectors, too distant to be 
economically viable, or regions in which the Museum has no current research 
priorities. The material from Argentina was presented in return for colour 
transparencies of some type material which was needed for identification purposes. 
The other drawer consisted of part of a larger collection of specimens presented by 
fellow noctuid workers at the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, in 
return for assistance given on their last visit to the Natural History Museum. 

CORLEY, M. F. V. — (1) Tineidae from Portugal. Eighteen species of Tineidae 
collected in Algarve, Portugal in recent years: Morophaga morellus Dup., Ateliotum 
insular e Rebel, Peristomastix agenjoi Petersen, Myrmecozela ataxella Chret., 
Novotinea muricolella Fuchs, Infurcitinea marcunella Rebel, /. atrifasciella Stdgr, 
Stenoptinea cyaneimarmorella Mill., Nemapogon nevadellus Caradja, Neurothaumasia 
ankerella Mann, N. ragusaella Wocke, Monopis nigricantella Mill., M. imella Hiibn., 
Trichophaga bipartitella Rag., Proterospastis merdella Zell., Niditinea fuscella L., 
Tinea translucens Meyr., T. basifasciella Rag. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 195 

Most of these were taken at mercury vapour light, but Tinea translucens (a 
southern species only recently recorded in the Iberian Peninsula from near Seville) 
and Niditinea fuscella were taken indoors. Novotinea muricolella was flying in late 
afternoon in March on a rocky hilltop. 

Stenoptinea cyanaemarmorella is a poorly known species. MBGBI mentions only 
four British specimens and illustrates it badly. This is the first record for the Iberian 
Peninsula. In life, the recorder did not at first recognize it as a tineid: although the 
head is tineid-like, the scale-tufts and resting position, with wings held flat and only 
partly overlapping, are not. 

Besides the last species and T. translucens, several other species were new records 
for Portugal: A. insular e, M. ataxella, I. marcunella, N. anker ella, N. ragusaella, 
M. nigricantella and P. merdella. At present, only seven other species of 
Tineidae have been recorded from Algarve, namely Reisserita zernyi Petersen, R. 
chrysopterella H.-S., Tenaga nigripunctella Haw., Nemapogon granella L., N. 
cloacella Haw., N. agenjoi Petersen and Tinea mur arietta Stdgr. Records of 
Trichophage tapetzella L. probably all refer to T. bipartitella. 

(2) Oecophoridae from Portugal. Twenty-four species of Oecophoridae sens. lat. 
taken in Algarve: Denisia augustetta Hiibn., Batia lunaris Haw., Epicallima formosella 
D. & S., Esperia sulphurella F., Carcina quercana F., Pleurota ericella Dup., 
P. amaniella Mann, Pseudatamelia xanthosoma Rebel, P. amparoella Vives, 
Agonopterix thapsiella Zell., A. c.f. adspersella Koll., A. nanatetta Staint., A. 
scoparietta Hein., A. purpurea Haw., A. subpropinquella Staint., A. rotundella Dougl., 
Exaeretia lutosella H.-S., Depressaria marcella Rebel, D. badiella Hiibn., D. 
douglasella Staint., D. adustatella Turati, D. erinaceella Stdgr, Kasyniana xenias 
Meyr. and Odites kollarella Costa. 

In Vives Moreno's 1991 catalogue of Iberian Microlepidoptera these species are 
assigned to Oecophoridae, Xylorictidae and Depressariidae. The exhibitor does not 
argue the rights and wrongs of this arrangement, but points out that Vives Moreno 
includes only one species (Odites kollarella) in Xylorictidae, although three other 
Iberian species belong to this family: two are placed by him in a new genus Kasyniana 
in Oecophoridae sens, str., and one is left in Brachmia in Gelechiidae! It has not yet 
proved possible to name all the Agonopterix species. 

Of the species exhibited, Esperia sulphurella is day-flying. One of the Pseudatemelia 
amparoella specimens was also taken by day. P. xanthosoma comes to light readily, 
but also has a flight at sunrise. The remainder were taken at light or reared from 
larvae or pupae. 

There is an old unlocalized record of Pleurota amaniella from Portugal. Vives 
Moreno rejected this and omitted the species from his list. Agonopterix nanatetta is 
given only for the Balearic Islands in his list. Both species of Pseudatamelia, 
Agonopterix thapsiella, A. adspersella (if correct), A. purpurea, A. rotundella, 
Depressaria douglasella, D. adustatella and D. erinaceella are new records for 
Portugal. There are records from Algarve of 12 other species: Epicallima mercedella 
Stdgr, Alabonia herculeella Wals., Pleurota bicostella Clerck, P. protasella Stdgr, P. 
honorella Hiibn., P. hebetella Rag., P. planella Stdgr, Pseudatemelia detrimentella 
Stdgr, Agonopterix rutana ¥., A. nervosa Haw., Depressaria pulcherrimella Staint. 
and 'Brachmia' ternatella Stdgr. 

Elston, H. J. — A selection of Lepidoptera taken in July 1994 in the Alpes 
Maritimes and Luberon areas of Provence in Southern France including a dark 
Melanargia galathea L. (Plate II, Fig. 11). 

Hackett, D. — A drawer illustrating problems in identification on external features 
of African species of Helicoverpa Hardwick closely related to H. armigera Hiibn. 



196 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Hall, N. — Heterocera from France and Spain, selected for exhibition 
because of their taxonomic interest or because they are on the British List. (1) 
Dicycla oo L. bred from a female obtained at St. Laurent du Pape, Ardeche. On two 
occasions French oo had been kept for eggs, and each time a mere 4 were laid after 
keeping the moths in darkness in a pill-box, offering them diluted honey solution 
every 24 h for 2-3 days. The eggs were laid on the sides of the boxes, not in the 
corners, and were easy to see. They were kept through the winter out of doors, in 
their boxes, in a meat safe. The first batch was lost through predation by other insect 
larvae, but the second lot, kept in a tighter fitting box, survived, and hatched on 
26-27.iv.1994. All four were kept separate. They were provided with opening oak 
buds, into which they bored, and three were lost because they literally 
disappeared, and could not be found even by dissecting the buds under a binocular 
microscope. After a while, both buds and the larvae within succumb to mould 
fungus. In retrospect, it would have been better to search for precociously opened 
oak foliage on which to feed the larvae. The surviving larva took to such foliage, and 
promptly made a spinning in one of the leaves, while still in its first instar. Thence it 
was easy to re-find and transfer to fresh food, and was reared without trouble. (2) 
Two other specimens of D. oo, from Arlanzon. Prov. Burgos, Spain, one of the plain 
yellow form sulphurago Stdgr and the other yellow with very faint markings. (3) Very 
dark specimens of Thalpophila matura Hufn. f. provincialis Culot from Osse-en-Aspe, 
Pyr. Atl., France, 4.viii.l994. Other specimens from Britain, including dark ones, 
were shown for comparison. (4) Four specimens of Acosmetia caliginosa Htibn. from 
sea cliffs near Llanes, Prov. Asturias, Spain, between 9 & 13.viii.1987, and two others 
from Osse-en-Aspe, an inland site at c. 800 m altitude on 4.viii.l994. It was 
suggested that the species is probably double-brooded in Spain and Southern 
France. (5) Two specimens of Mythimna c.f. ferrago F. from Beniarres, Prov. 
Alicante, Spain, lO.viii. 1994 and Simat, Prov. Valencia, on 16.viii.1994. Two British 
specimens of M. ferrago and two others from Southern France and Northern 
Spain, of the pale f. argyristis Ramb. usual in southern Europe were shown for 
comparison. The specimens from Southern Spain looked like neither, but it is 
difficult to see what else they can be. (6) Five species of Euchromius Guen.: E. ocellea 
Haw., St Martin de Londres, Herault, France, 26.vi.1994; E. vinculellus Zell., 
Beniarres, 10.viii.1994; E. gozmanyi Blesz., La Albufera, Prov. Valencia, Spain, 
28.vi.1994; E. cambridgei Zell., La Albufera, 28.vi.1994, and E. ramburiellus 
Dup., St Martin de Londres, 26.vi.1994. (7) Four Scopariinae: Anarpia incer talis 
Dup., Sierra Nevada, Prov. Granada, Spain, 2700 m, 3.vii.l994; Eudonia mercurella 
L., Pradena, Prov. Segovia, Spain, 5.vii.l994; E. delunella Staint., St Laurent du 
Pape, Ardeche, France, 25.vi.1994, and an unidentified species from Sierra de Baza, 
Prov. Almeria, Spain, 2000 m, l.vii.1994. (8) Lepidogma tamaricalis Mann, from 
Ontinena, Prov. Huesca, Spain, 5.vii.l991, apparently not previously recorded from 
Spain. (9) Actenia vulpecalis Rag. from Pto de la Mora, Prov. Granada, Spain, 
12.vii.1991, det. M. Shaffer. These were exhibited for reference when considering 
other similar or related specimens from both France and Spain that were exhibited 
for the purpose of discussion. Two of these were identified with certainty as 
Orthopygia rubidalis D. & S. and O. incarnatalis Zell., the others probably A. 
vulpecalis and A. honestalis Treits., with some narrow-winged females presenting 
particular problems. It was pointed out that A. honestalis was not in Leraut's 
Checklist (1980) for France, and that A. vulpecalis appears in neither the French nor 
Spanish checklists, but should be in the latter as there are specimens from Spain in 
the B.M. (N.H.). (M. Shaffer, pers. comm.). (10) A selection of other species from 
localities in France and Spain. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 197 

HARMAN, T. W. — A selection of exhibits of Lepidoptera from around the World. 
(1) Australia. Syntherata janetta White (Saturniidae), a series to show variation 
within the species; bred from cocoons found on small shrubs growing on the beach at 
Holloways Beach, Cairns, Queensland, April 1993. (2) Nepal. Some interesting 
moths, including the following. Zygaenidae: Chalcosia auxo albata Moore, Eterusia 
tricolor Hope, Soritia pulchella Koll.; Geometridae: Iotaphora iridicolor Butl., 
Xandrames albofasciata Moore, Arichanna flavinigra Hamps., Pachyodes varicolor- 
aria Moore, Psyra annulifera Walk., Problepsis crassinotata Prout, Plutodes lamisca 
Swin., P. subcaudata Butl.; Sphingidae: Cephonodes hylas L., Marumba decoratus 
Moore (the second record for Nepal and the most westerly record of this species); 
Notodontidae: Ginshachia gemmifera Moore; Lymantriidae: Numenes siletti Walk. 
Arctiidae: Asota tortuosa Moore, Aglaemorpha plagiata Walk., Nyctemera lacticinia 
Cram., Miltochrista linga Moore, Alphaea imbuta Walk.; Noctuidae: Baorisa 
hieroglyphica Moore, Grammodes geometrica F., Parallelia maturata Walk., P. 
praetermissa Warr., P. analis Guen. and Gaurena florescens albomaculata Werny. (3) 
A specimen of Baorisa hieroglyphica (Plate III, Fig. 19) 'twinned' with a copy in 
sugar-icing by Anne Finch! 

King, G.— Over 30 specimens of F, and F 2 generations of the Indian arctiid, 
Estigmene perotteti Guerin. The original female was found in Bombay, Western 
India, in June 1994. Several ova were laid, and the subsequent larvae fed on a wide 
range of plant species. The original specimen was identified by the B.M. (N.H.) as 
E. nigricans Moore, but as a result of breeding out three different forms in the F, 
generation, an examination of the male genitalia was deemed necessary. In 
September, 1994, an additional form was observed: the cream-striped form is the 
most frequent, but these specimens were black and grey, the usual pink areas being 
replaced by grey. Only four examples were bred, and unfortunately no pairings were 
obtained. A female was exhibited. In the most recent emergence, October 1994, 
specimens have appeared with irregularly shaped or broken stripes. In addition to set 
examples, 3rd instar larvae were shown, feeding on hawkweed (F 3 ), and two live 
imagines were also exhibited. 

Middleton, A. P. — A selection of butterflies obtained during visits to Portugal 
(Sintra region) in 1993 and Poland (Bydgoszcz region) in 1994. 

Trembath, D. A. — Five drawers of butterflies collected in the south-eastern and 
western Andean region of Venezuela during June, 1993, illustrating the wonderful 
diversity and colour of the butterflies of the Neotropical region. Relatively little 
serious work has been done on the fauna of Venezuela, and some of the species 
shown were of unusual interest. Drawer 1 contained 29 species of ithomids, many of 
which can be collected in dull weather along paths in the forest. Sometimes they 
occur in great abundance, with several species occurring together: the exhibitor 
found 1 1 species within a few minutes in one area at Rio Frio in the Andean region. 
Drawer 2 was devoted to heliconids, including some rare and local forms; there is still 
controversy over the status of some forms and subspecies. Drawer 3 contained 
Acraea and nymphalids, showing the tremendous range of shape and colour among 
these butterflies; included were Baeotus amazonicus Riley, male and female, a very 
rare subspecies of Agrias amydon Hewitson female, Callicore maronesis Oberthur and 
the brilliantly coloured Doxocopa lavinia Butler — a very rare un-named subspecies. 
Drawer 4 showed 29 species of pierid, a fascinating group of great interest to 
collectors, especially many of the little-known high-altitude species. Unfortunately, 
bad weather hindered collecting during the exhibitor's stay in the high-altitude region 
of San Cristobel. One notable species taken there was Hesperocharis nera 
Fruhstorfer, thought to be a rarity in Venezuela. Drawer 5 contained Papilionidae 



198 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

and Morpho, the latter particularly magnificent. The large Morpho species fly at 
canopy height across the valleys until they meet wide paths or roads which they then 
invariably follow, flying at a height of between 7 and 10 metres. Very considerable 
skill and fitness are then required to capture them, aided by the use of shiny blue 
lures. The sight of them is unforgettable. 

Waring, P. — (1) A reference collection of moths found in the Pyrenees and 
southern Spain during October. In the south, there are numerous semi-desert species 
which fly in late autumn, avoiding the intense heat of the summer, such as 
Lasiocampa serrula Guen., Powellinia lasserrei Oberthur and Saragossa seeboldi 
Stdgr. (2) Some interesting moths from the Palava Protected Landscape area in the 
Czech Republic, 4— 9. ix. 1994, during the biennial SEL Congress which was held at 
Lednice, near Brno, including the Geometridae Rhodostrophia vibicaria Clerck, 
widespread in Europe but absent from the British Isles; Cataclysme riguata Hiibn., a 
southern and central European species associated with xerothermic habitats where 
the larvae feed on species of Rubiaceae (bedstraws); Therapis flavicaria D. & S., a 
south-east European species which resembles Pseudopanthera macularia L. The larva 
feeds on Lamium album L. The one specimen seen came to m.v. light on the edge of 
riverine woodland just north of Lednice on 9.ix.; Artiora evonymaria D. & S. is an 
eastern European relative of the 'thorns', which extends into Austria and Germany 
but not further west. It was common locally on the Palava hills; the moths could be 
found at night fluttering round spindle (Euonymus) bushes, or settled upon them, 
more rarely at light. Noctuidae were represented by Chersotis margaritacea Vill., one 
of a rather large and diverse genus without a single representative in Britain which 
was fairly common at light in the Palava hills; Agrochola nitida D. & S., widely 
distributed in central Europe. The individual shown came to a wine rope hung on a 
riverside willow (Salix sp.) just north of Lednice on 5.ix.; Emmelia trabealis Scop., 
formerly resident in the Breckland of East Anglia, but no evidence of breeding since 
1960. Widespread in warm, dry habitats in Europe and abundant in the Palava hills, 
the one shown came to light there on 4.ix. A map was displayed alongside the 
exhibit,, indicating the location of sites worked. 



DlPTERA 

Among the wide range of species exhibited, it was evident that the tephritids 
Achanthiophilus helianthi (Rossi) (4 exhibitors) and Orellia falcata (Scop.) 
(3 exhibitors) must have been on the increase in 1994; both are usually rarely seen but 
are closely tied to their food plants, Centaurea nigra L. and Tragopogon respectively. 
A third British record of Pseudopomyza atrimana Meig. (Pseudopomyzidae) from a 
new locality was particularly encouraging. The platypezid Agathomyia wankowiczii 
(Schnabl) appears to be a recent introduction; the galls exhibited confirm that it has 
become established at one Kentish site but British examples of the insect itself have 
yet to be seen. 

Alexander, K. N. A. & Foster, A. P. — Flies found in 1994 by the National 
Trust's Biological Survey: Ctenophora flaveolata (F.) (Tipulidae), open beech pasture 
woodland, Ebworth Farm, Glos., 9.v; Oxycera pardalina Meig. (Stratiomyidae), tufa 
spring, Dinefwr Deer Park, Carms., 18.vii; Dioctria oelandica (L.) (Asilidae), Colby 
Lodge, Pembs., woodland glade, 13.vi; Scenopinus niger (Deg.) (Scenopinidae), dead 
standing oak, Dinefwr Park, Carms., 27.vi; Brachyopa pilosa Collin (Syrphidae), 
fallen beeches, Aldbury Common and commonly at Frithensden Beeches, Herts., 
11. vi; B. scutellaris R.-D., woodland ride, Woodchester Park, Glos., 6.vi; Eumerus 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 199 

sabulonum (Fall.) (Syrphidae), St David's Head, Pembs., 22/23. vi and Nicholaston 
Burrows, Gower, 19.vii; Brachypalpus laphriformis (Fall.) (Syrphidae), Aldbury 
Common, Herts., 11. vi; Myopa extricata Collin (Conopidae), Ebworth Farm, Glos., 
6.v; Ochthera mantis (Deg.) (Ephydridae), wet heath, Mynachdy'r-Graig, Cards., 
28.vi. 

Boyd, G. — A selection of Syrphidae, Stratiomyidae and Conopidae collected in 
1994, among them the following Syrphidae: Xylota xanthocnema Collin, Aldbury 
Common. Herts., 11. vi; Pyrophaena rosarum (F.), Dinton Pastures, Berks., 4.vi; 
Chrysotoxum verralli Coll, Cambridge, in garden, 30.vii; C. cautum (Harris), 30.v. 

Chandler, P. J. — (1) Agathomyia wankowiczii (Schnabl) (Platypezidae), male, 
female from Denmark (previously exhibited at 1992 Annual Exhibition) and 
brackets of the perennial fungus Ganoderma applanation (Pers.) Pat. galled by its 
larvae, from Beechen Wood, Lullingstone, Kent, 19. vi. 1994; it had been found there 
in 1993 by Joyce Pitt who had recorded fungi there for 20 years and had not seen it 
there before; one bracket had 3 years of galled layers, but it is probably a recent 
introduction — the first and only other British record was from Bouldermere, Wisley, 
Surrey, 23.ix.1990 (Spooner, B. M., 1991, Cecidology 6(2): 80-81). 

(2) Diptera newly recorded from Dinton Pastures in 1994: Acrocera orbicula (F.) 
(Acroceridae), Mortimer's Meadows, 3.vii; Teuchophorus calcaratus (Macq.) 
(Dolichopodidae), Sandford Copse, 19.vii, abundant by muddy creek; Agathomyia 
elegantula (Fall.) (Platypezidae), Sandford Copse, 30.vii; Spiniphora maculata 
(Meig.) (Phoridae), Mungell's Pond, 9.iii and Sandford Copse, 27.iii; Cheilosia 
grossa (Fall.) (Syrphidae), Mungell's Pond, 19.iii (collected by Roger Morris); 
Anasimyia contracta Torp & Claussen (Syrphidae), Mungell's Pond, 25.vi; 
Achanthiophilus helianthi (Rossi) (Tephritidae), Mortimer's Meadows, 30.vii; Orellia 
falcata (Scop.) (Tephritidae), Mortimer's Meadows, 25.vi; Typhamyza bifasciata 
(Wood) (Anthomyzidae), on Typha stems at Mungell's Pond, 24.vii; Ornithomyia 
avicularia (L.) (Hippoboscidae), hedge south of Black Swan Lake, 9.vii; 
Phytoliriomyza melampyga (Loew) (Agromyzidae), Sandford Copse, lO.vii, its leaf 
mines on Impatiens glandulifera Royle are common in the Park. 

(3) Nematoproctus distendens (Mg.) (Dolichopodidae), the first male found in 
Sandford Copse, 16.vii.1994; only 2 females were found in 1993 but in 1994 many 
females were found around the shady creek in the wood (Fig. 5 in Chandler, P. J., 
1994, Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 7: 118-126). 

Collins, G. A. — Three Syrphidae found in 1994: Doros profuges (Harris), 
Mickleham, Surrey, 12.vi; Microdon devius (L.), Chipstead Valley, Surrey, 12.vi; 
Brachypalpus laphriformis (Fall.), Underlaid Wood, Westm., 28. v. 

GODFREY, A. — Diptera found in 1994: Tanyptera atrata (L.) (Tipulidae), Brown 
Moss, Chesh., 23.v and Boveney Brook/Sturt Common, Wyre Forest, Worcs., 22.v; 
Dictenidia bimaculata (L.) (Tipulidae), male, female reared ex rotten oak debris, 
Ashtead Common, Surrey, collected 19.iv, emerged in v and vi; Mycetobia pallipes 
Meig. (Anisopodidae), male reared from pupa in sap runs on horse chestnut, 
Hognaby, Spilsby, Lines., collected 2.vi, emerged 21. vi; Oxycera pardalina Meig. 
(Stratiomyidae), female swept from turfaceous seepage, Moccas Park, Heref., l.vii; 
Systenus scholtzii (Loew) (Dolichopodidae), 2 males, 2 females reared ex rot hole in 
cleft of twin trunked sycamore, Pot Riding Wood SSSI, W. Yorks., collected iii, 
emerged iv-v; Mallota cimbiciformis (Fall.) (Syrphidae), female reared 15.vi from rot 
hole in alder, Shrawardine Pool, Salop; Arctophila superbiens (Muller) (Syrphidae), 
male on Centaurea flowers, former railway line, Smytham, Great Torrington, Devon, 
4.vii; Dichetophora finlandica Verbeke (Sciomyzidae), apparently first rearing from 
outside laboratory, ex puparia found in empty shell of Cernuella species, collected iv 



200 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

from fore dunes, Gibraltar Point, Lines., male, female emerged 7.vi; Colobaea 
distincta (Meig.) (Sciomyzidae), Stanley Bank Nature Reserve, St Helens, Mersey- 
side, 29. ix; Aulacigaster leucopeza (Meig.) (Aulacigastridae), v-vii at horse chestnut 
sap, Chatsworth Park, Derbys., Moccas Park, Heref. and Powis Castle Park, Wales; 
Odinia xanthocera Collin (Odiniidae), Devil's Spittleful, Kidderminster, Worcs., 
female, 26. v.; O. boletina (Zett.), Bretton Park, W. Yorks., 25.vi; Cnemacantha 
muscaria (Fall.) (Lauxaniidae), grassland, Roundton Hill Nature Reserve, Wales, 
25.v; Sarcotachinella sinuata (Meig.) (Sarcophagidae), male, Stowford Moor, Great 
Torrington, Devon, 4.viii; Phaonia cincta (Zett.) (Muscidae), 2 males reared from rot 
hole in alder, Shrawardine Pool, Salop, emerged 24. vi; Thricops aculeipes (Zett.) 
(Muscidae), 2 males on Trollius flowers, Arncliffe, N. Yorks., 11. vi. 

Hackett, D. — A selection of Syrphidae and other flies, mainly associated with 
dead wood, including: Ctenophora pectinicornis (L.) (Tipulidae), reared from under 
poplar bark, Trent Park, Middx, collected 15.X.93, emerged 23.xii.93; Dictenidia 
bimaculata (L.) (Tipulidae), reared ex rotten beech stump in vi.94; Epiphragma 
ocellare (L.) (Limoniidae), reared 26.ii.94 ex rotten birch trunk, Queen's Woods, N. 
London; Mallota cimbiciformis (Fall.) (Syrphidae), at Rubus, Totteridge Fields, 
Barnet, 18.vi; Brachyopa pilosa Collin (Syrphidae), on beech log, Frithstone Beeches, 
Herts., 11. vi; Thereva nobilitata (F.) (Therevidae), reared 24.vi, from larva under 
loose bark of standing dead oak, Hampstead Heath, N. London, collected 1. vi.94. 

HALSTEAD, A. J. — Ten species of Diptera found in 1994: Leptogaster guttiventris 
Zett. (Asilidae), Zealand Cross, Salisbury Plain, Wilts., 22.vii; Nyctia halterata 
(Panz.) (Sarcophagidae), Mungell's Pond, Dinton Pastures, Berks., 25.vi; Ulidia 
erythrophthalma Meig. (Otitidae), Cheverell Down, Salisbury Plain, Wilts., 19.vii; 
seven species of Tephritidae from Salisbury Plain, Wilts.: Achanthiophilus helianthi 
(Rossi), 1 female, Netherhaven Down, 18.vii; Chaetorellia loricata (Rond.), Haxton 
Down, 19.vii; Orellia falcata (Scop.), Haxton Down, 19.vii; Terellia longicauda 
(Meig.), on flowers of Cirsium eriophorum (L.) Scop., its food plant, Alton Down, 
18.vii; T. vectensis (Collin), Netherhaven Down, 18.vii and Orcheston Down, 21.vii; 
Urophora spoliata (Hal.), Netherhaven Down, 18.vii (two latter on their food plant 
Serratula); U. cuspidata (Meig.), Robin's Hood Ball, 18.vii. 

Harman, T. W. — Callicera aurata (Rossi) (Syrphidae), in office of Canterbury 
Environmental Education Centre, Kent, 21.ix.1994. 

Harvey, P. R. — Insects from sites in south Essex, threatened by housing 
development: (1) from Mill Wood Pit, Thurrock: Eutolmus rufibarbis (Meig.) 
(Asilidae) and Stratiomys longicornis (Scop.) (Stratiomyidae); (2) from Ferry Fields, 
near Tilbury: Asilus crabroniformis L. (Asilidae) (other recent Essex records of the 
latter were mentioned, from the nearby horse-grazed Broom Hill and Ferry Fields). 

HAWKINS, R. D. — Ferdinandea ruficornis (F.) (Syrphidae), in a green lane 
alongside woodland, Driver's Green, near Outwood, Surrey, 21.iv.1994; the 
commoner species F. cuprea (Scop.) was exhibited for comparison. 

Hodge, P. J. — Achanthiophilus helianthi (Rossi) (Tephritidae), Crade Hill, 
Alfriston, E. Sussex, 23.vii.1994, on Centaurea nigra L. at margin of arable field. 

Perry, I. — Diptera found in 1994: Anthalia beatricella Chandler (Hybotidae), at 
Crataegus flowers, Denny Wood, New Forest, 23. v; Empis woodi Collin (Empididae), 
Wandlebury, Cambs., 12.v; Hilara morata Collin (Empididae), shaded ditch on 
Cavenham Heath, Suff., 18.vi; Sciapus laetus (Meig.) (Dolichopodidae), Pennard 
Hill, Glam., freshwater seepages flowing onto saltmarsh, 8.vii; Brachyopa bicolor 
(Fall.) (Syrphidae), male hovering by sap flow on birch, Cavenham Heath, Suff., 
14.v; Orellia falcata (Scop.) (Tephritidae), around the food plant Tragopogon, Kenfig 
Burrows, Glam., 30. vi; Achanthiophilus helianthi (Rossi) (Tephritidae), Rhossili, 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 201 

Glam., 2.vii; Pseudopomyza atrimana Meig. (Pseudopomyzidae), Denny Wood, New 
Forest, 22. v, third British record; Sapromyza basalis Zett. (Lauxaniidae), Millwoods, 
Glam., 5.vii; Parallelomma vittatum (Meig.) (Scathophagidae), Cwm Ivy Woods, 
Glam., 29. vi; Fannia ringdahlana Collin (Fanniidae), first English records from the 
New Forest: Denny Wood, 22. v and Millyford Bridge, 23. v; Coenosia albatella 
(Zett.) (Muscidae), Whiteford Burrows, Glam., 29.vi and Oxwich, 5.vii, swept from 
bare sand on dunes. 

Plant, C. W. — Twelve species of Syrphidae from Malta, iv.1994, including a 
possibly new species of Eumerus; 3 other species of Eumerus and 3 species of Paragus 
were included in the exhibit, with 1 species each of Scaeva, Chrysotoxum, Eristalinus 
and Platynochaetus — P. rufus Macq., noted for its "incredibly long arista". 

ROBBINS, J. — An album containing specimens of leaf mines caused by larvae of 
Diptera, collected from 1989 to 1994 in Exmoor National Park, mostly identified (in 
some cases provisionally) from their mines: 101 species of Agromyzidae, 6 species of 
Anthomyiidae, 2 species each of Tephritidae and Drosophilidae, and 1 species of 
Cecidomyiidae. 

Simmonds, M. J. — Six species of Conopidae from E. Sussex and Kent. 

STUBBS, A. E. — Bittacomorpha clavipes (Ptychopteridae) (Plate II, Fig. 10), a 
"phantom crane-fly" from Canada, collected in viii.1994; this has white banded tarsi 
which detract attention from the dark body while the insect is flying along shaded 
woodland streams. The British Dolichopeza albipes (Strom) (Tipulidae), which occurs 
in the same habitat and which uses a similar ploy, was exhibited for comparison. 



COLEOPTERA 

Alexander, K. N. A. & Foster, A. P. — A selection of the more interesting 
beetles found during the work of the National Trust's Biological Survey in 1994. 
Cicindela maritima Lat. & Dej. (Carabidae), Nicholaston Burrows, Gower, W. 
Glam., 19.vii.1994; Georissus crenulatus (Rossi) (Hydrophilidae), St David's Head, 
Pemb., 16.vi.1994, cliff seepage; Helophorus dorsalis (Marsh.) (Hydrophilidae), 
Woodchester Park, Glos., 7.vi.l994, woodland rut puddle; Plegaderus dissectus Er. 
(Histeridae), Hardwick Hall, Derbys., 8.viii.l994, moist oak bark; Deleaster dichrous 
(Grav.) (Staphylinidae), Cwm Hoffnant, Card., 30.vi.1994, streamside stones; 
Amphimallon ochraceus (Knoch) (Scarabaeidae), Paviland Cliff, Gower, W. Glam., 
22.vii.1994, limestone grassland; Dirhagus pygmaeus (F.) (Eucnemidae), Bishopston 
Valley, Gower, W. Glam., 22.vii.1994, male and female swept, new to Wales; Tillus 
elongatus (L.) (Cleridae), Aldbury Common, Herts., ll.vi.1994, on dead standing 
beech trunk; Coccinella quinquepunctata L. (Coccinellidae), Dinefwr, Carm., 
18.vii.1994, river shingle; Mycetophagus piceus (F.) (Mycetophagidae), Williams 
Clough, Kinder Estate, Derbys., 11. viii.1994, red-rotten oak; Hallomenus binotatus 
(Quen.) (Melandryidae), Peter Nook Wood, Kinder Estate, Derbys., lO.viii. 1994, 
and Graigllech Woods, Brecons., 26.vi.1994, new to Wales, in both cases 
from bracket fungus Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Bond & Singer on oak; 
Phyllobrotica quadrimaculata (L.) (Chrysomelidae), Tretio Common, Pemb., 
13.vii.1994, lesser skullcap on wet heath; Apteropeda globosa (111.) (Chrysome- 
lidae), Bishopston Valley, Gower, W. Glam., 22.vii.1994, swept and Woodchester 
Park, Glos., 22.vii.1994, swept in shady ride; Trachyphloeus aristatus (Gyll.) 
(Curculionidae), Pwll Caerog, Pemb., 12.vii.1994, at roots of sea plantain; 
Microplontus triangulum (Boh.) (Curculionidae), Woodchester Park, Glos., 
31.V.1994 swept from limestone grassland; Miarus micros (Germ.) (Curculionidae), 



202 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Letcha Cliff, Cornwall, 16.V.1994, on sheep's-bit; Ernoporus fagi (F.) (Scolytidae), 
Aldbury Common, Herts., ll.vi.1994, beech bark. 

Allen, A. W. J. — Nine species of Coleoptera collected, in Dorset between 
1992 and 1994. Plegaderus vulneratus (Panz.) (Histeridae), Chetterwood near 
Manswood, ST 90, x.1992 one under bark of dead conifer; Heterothops niger 
Kraatz (Staphylinidae), Cranbourne, SU 01, iii.1994, one in a mole's nest; 
Trachys scrobiculatus Kiesenwetter (Buprestidae), in a wood near Ashmore, ST 9 1 , 
vi.1993, one swept from a grassy clearing, first post-1969 record for Dorset; Dirhagus 
pygmaeus (F.) (Eucnemidae), Chetterwood near Manswood, ST 90, vi.1993, one 
swept in a clearing, new to Dorset; Colydium elongatum (F.) (Colydiidae), near 
Alderholt, SU 01, vi.1992, under bark of dead beech; Lissodema quadripustulata 
(Marsh.) (Salpingidae), Chetterwood near Manswood, ST 90, vi.1992, one swept; 
Tomoxia bucephala Costa (Mordellidae), near Alderholt, SU 01, vi.1992, on a dead 
oak; Psylliodes luteola (Miiller, O. F.) (Chrysomelidae), Tadden near Wimbourne, 
ST 90, viii.1993, one swept from vegetation beside grassy field, and near Wimbourne, 
SU 00, viii.1993, plentiful at the edge of a wheat field, and ix.1994, in the hedge 
beside the same field, the first post- 1969 record for Dorset; Cassida nebulosa L. 
(Chrysomelidae), Crichel, SU 00, vi.1992, one swept. 

Copestake, D. R. — Eleven species of British Coleoptera collected between 1992 
and 1994. Calathus cinctus Mots. (Carabidae), Hitchcopse Pit, Oxon., 5.x. 1994; 
Harpalus honestus (Dufts.) (Carabidae), St Bee's Head, Cumbria, 22.V.1994; Drypta 
dentata (Rossi) (Carabidae), Eypesmouth, Dorset, 31 .viii.1994; Amauronyx maerkeli 
(Aube) (Pselaphidae), Wisely Common, Surrey, 17.ii.1994, in grass tufts by pond; 
Gnorimus variabilis (L.) (Scarabaeidae), Windsor, Berks., emerged vi.1994, bred from 
larva; Agrilus sinuatus (Ol.) (Buprestidae), Bushy Park, Middlesex, 21.vii.1994; 
Dasytes niger (L.) (Melyridae), Brinken Wood, New Forest, South Hampshire, 
9.vi.l994; Oxylaemus variolosus (Duf.) (Colydiidae), Windsor, Berks., 18.vi.1994; 
Lissodema quadripustulata (Marsh.) (Salpingidae), Windsor, Berks., 18.vi.1994; 
Bagous brevis Gyll. (Curculionidae), Brockenhurst, S. Hants, 9.vi.l993; Rhynchaenus 
avellanae (Don.) (Curculionidae), Windsor, Berks., 9.vi.l992, a specimen with black 
tarsi and antannae. 

Eversham, B. C. & Telfer, M. G. — Coleoptera recorded from a Breckland road 
verge near Lakenheath Warren during 1993 and 1994. 

(1) Seed-eating Carabidae of the genera Amara and Harpalus. A. anthobia Villa; A. 
apricaria (Payk.); A. bifrons (Gyll.); A. consularis (Dufts.); A. equestris (Dufts.); A. 
eurynota (Panz.); A.fulva (Miiller, O. F.); A.fusca Dej.; A. lucida (Dufts.); H. affinis 
(Schr.); H. anxius (Dufts.); H. attenuatus Steph.; H. froelichi Sturm; H. puncticeps 
(Steph.); H. rufibarbis (F.); H. rubripes (Dufts.); H. rufitarsis (Dufts.); H. smaragdinus 
(Dufts.); H. vernalis (Dufts.). 

(2) Other notable Coleoptera. Calathus ambiguus (Payk.) (Carabidae); Laemos- 
tenus terricola (Herbst) (Carabidae); Licinus depressus (Payk.) (Carabidae); 
Panagaeus bipustulatus (F.) (Carabidae); Masoreus wetterhali (Gyll.) (Carabidae); 
Metabletus truncatellus (L.) (Carabidae); Silpha laevigata F. (Silphidae); Ocypus 
ophthalmicus (Scop.) (Staphylinidae); Aphodius distinctus (Miiller, O. F.) (Scar- 
abaeidae); Amphimallon solstitialis (L.) (Scarabaeidae); Euchlora dubia (Scop.) 
(Scarabaeidae); Cardiophorus asellus Er. (Elateridae); Melanimon tibialis (F.) 
(Tenebrionidae); Crypticus quisquilius (L.) (Tenebrionidae); Cteniopus sulphureus 
(L.) (Tenebrionidae); Notoxus monocerus (L.) (Anthicidae); Phytoecia cylindrica (L.) 
(Cerambycidae); Chrysolina sanguinolenta (L.) (Chrysomelidae); Galeruca tanaceti 
(L.) (Chrysomelidae); Psylliodes sophiae Heikertinger (Chrysomelidae); Cassida 
nebulosa L. (Chrysomelidae); Cleonus piger (Scop.) (Curculionidae). 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 203 

Hackett, D. — Thirteen species of Coleoptera found during 1994. Broscus 
cephalotes (L.) (Carabidae), Southgate, Gower, W. Glam., 17.vii.1994, under stone, 
Typhaeus typhoeus (L.) (Geotrupidae), Hampstead Heath, Middlx, 18.x. 1994, female 
in sandy soil under rabbit midden; Aphodius contaminatus (Herbst) (Scarabaeidae), 
Hampstead Heath, Middx, 24.ix.1994, in soil; Agrilus laticornis (111.) (Buprestidae), 
Queen's Wood, Middx, 29.vii.1994, in light trap; Stenagostus villosus (Fourc.) 
(Elateridae), Coldfall Wood, Middx, emerged 24.iv.1994, bred from larva found 
under oak bark; Athous campyloides Newm. (Elateridae), Railway Fields Nature 
Park, Harringay, Middx, 6.vii.l993; in light trap; Aplocnemus pini Redt. (Melyridae), 
Queen's Wood, Middx, 22.ii.1994, under oak bark; Helops caeruleus (L.) 
(Tenebrionidae), Lesnes Abbey Wood, W. Kent, iii.1994, under bark; Pyrochroa 
serraticornis (Scop.) (Pyrochroidae), Astonbury Wood, Herts., 5.vi.l994; Oedemera 
nobilis (Scop.) (Oedemeridae), near Park Mill, Dinton Pastures C. P., Berks., 
25.vi.1994, on hogweed; Arhopalus rusticus (L.) (Cerambycidae), Graffham, W. 
Sussex, emerged 24. iv. 1994, bred from pine log; Phloeophagus lignarius (Marsh.) 
(Curculionidae), Hanger Lane Hill, Middx, viii.1994, from beech heart rot; Platypus 
cylindrus (F.) (Platypodidae), Hampstead Heath, Middx, 19.V.1994, from oak. 

Halstead, A. — Some local Coleoptera taken in 1994. Paralister purpurascens 
(Herbst) (Histeridae), RHS Garden, Wisley, Surrey, 29.iv.1994, in water trap; 
Conopalpus testaceus (Ol.) (Melandryidae), Richmond Park, Surrey, 6.viii.l994, at 
m.v. light; Metoecus paradoxus (L.) (Rhipiphoridae), Richmond Park, Surrey, 
6. viii.1994, at m.v. light; Molorchus umbellatarum (v. Schreb.) (Cerambycidae), 
Mortimer's meadow, Dinton Pastures C. P., Berks., 22. v. 1994, swept; Anaglyptus 
mysticus (L.) (Cerambycidae), Mortimer's meadow, Dinton Pastures C. P., Berks., 
22.V.1994, swept; Agapanthia villosoviridescens (Deg.) (Cerambycidae), Therfield 
Heath, Royston, Herts., 31. v. 1994, swept; Orsodacne cerasi (L.) (Chrysomelidae), 
Therfield Heath, Royston, Herts., 31. v. 1994, swept; Cryptocephalus biguttatus 
(Scop.) (Chrysomelidae), Wisley Common, Surrey, 23.vi.1994, swept; C. moraei 
(L.), White Downs, Surrey, 26.vi.1994, swept; Chrysolina americana (L.) 
(Chrysomelidae), RHS Garden, Wisley, Surrey, one of three adults found 
singly on Rosmarinus officinalis L. between 12.v and l.vi.1994; Polydrusus sericeus 
(Schall.) (Curculionidae), RHS Garden, Wisley, Surrey, 2.vi.l994, male and female 
swept. 

Henderson, M. — (1) Thirteen species of beetles from Wimbledon Common, 
Surrey. Cychrus caraboides (L.) (Carabidae), west of site of Brickfields Cottage, 
18.iii.1994, one over-wintering in rotten wood; Helochares punctatus Sharp 
(Hydrophilidae), Seven Posts Pond, 2.vi.l991; Dorcus parallelipipedus (L.) (Lucani- 
dae), woodland just north of the windmill, 16.vii.1994, at lepidopterist's sugar; 
Onthophagus coenobita (Herbst) (Scarabaeidae), Farm Bog, 23.iv.1989, in carrion in 
pit-gall trap; Agrilus laticornis (111.) (Buprestidae), north of windmill, l.viii.1992, 
beating oak; Leptura livida F. (Cerambycidae), near Brook Cottage, 29. vi. 1991, on 
umbelliferae; Clytus arietis (L.) (Cerambycidae) 2.vii.l987, on umbelliferae; Tetrops 
praeusta (L.) (Cerambycidae), near windmill, 19.V.1991, beating willow; Chrysolina 
orichalcea (Miiller, O. F. ) (Chrysomelidae), in neighbouring Cannizaro Park, 
25. vi. 1992, on Heracleum sphondylium L., Chrysomela populi L. (Chrysomelidae), 
near King's Mere, 9.vii.l994, feeding on willow; Attelabus nitens (Scopoli) 
(Attelabidae), near Seven Posts Pond, 2.vi.l991, beating oak; Magdalis cerasi (L.) 
(Curculionidae), near Seven Posts Pond, 2.vi.l991, beating oak; Curculio villosus F. 
(Curculionidae), north of windmill, 1. v. 1991, swept. 

(2) A selection of beetles collected by Dr A. S. Henderson in Provence, France, in 
1992 or on a joint collecting trip to Nanteuil-en-Vallee, near Poitiers, and the Central 



204 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

Massif, France, in July 1993. Carabus auratus L. (Carabidae), Le Mont Dore, 
Central Massif, 14.vii.1993; Cicindela campestris L. (Carabidae), Pueche der 
Dardailla, Provence, 28.iv.1992, a specimen with unusual bronzed colour from 
heathland; Silpha carinata Herbst (Silphidae), Col de la Croix St Robert, Central 
Massif, 14.vii.1993, at altitude of 1451 m; Typhaeus typhoeus (L.) (Geotrupidae), 
Provence, iv.1992; Copris lunaris (L.) (Scarabaeidae), Verdun sur Gorrone, Goronne 
Valley, 2.V.1992; Gnorimus nobilis (L.) (Scarabaeidae), La Folatiere, Nanteuil-en- 
Vallee, 12.vii.1993, on dwarf elder flower; Trichius zonatus Germ. (Scarabaeidae), La 
Folatiere, Nanteuil-en-Vallee, 16.vii.1993, on dwarf elder flower; Oncomera femorata 
(F.) (Oedemeridae), near Fontevraud l'Abbeye, 10.vii.1993, male and female; 
Strangalia aurulenta (F.) (Cerambycidae), La Folatiere, Nanteuil-en-Vallee, 
16.vii.1993. 

Hoare, D. I. B. — A selection of scarce ground beetles (Carabidae) taken 
during 1994. Elaphrus uliginosus F., Lower Test Marshes, S. Hants, 2.iv. 1994, under 
log; Bembidion bipunctatum (L.), Loch-na-Chait, Inv., 27. v. 1994, under stone; B. 
pallidipenne (111.), Constantine Bay, W. Corn., 6.vii.l994, on sand; Pterostichus 
kugelanni (Panz.) (Plate II, Fig. 12), Bicton Common, S. Devon, 28.iv.1994, under 
stone; Platyderus ruficollis (Marsh.), Fleet, N. Hants, 5.iii.l994, under log; 
Agonum ericeti (Panz.), Rothiemurchus, Inv., 23.V.1994 on track; Stenolophus 
teutonus (Schr.), Milford-on-Sea, S. Hants, 15.vii.1994, under stone near cliff trickle; 
Oodes helopioides {¥.), Emer Bog, S. Hants, 19.iii.1994, hibernating in rotten 
wood. 

Hodge, P. J.— A selection of notable Coleoptera taken during 1994 including two 
species new to Somerset and one species new to Sussex (*). Agonum sexpunctatum 
(L.) (Carabidae). Chailey Common, E. Sussex, TQ 3720, l.vi.1994; Panagaeus 
cruxmajor (L.) (Carabidae), Lough Mask, Co. Galway, M 0966, 20.V.1994, under 
stone; Helophorus longitarsis Wolls. (Hydrophilidae), Lewes, E. Sussex, TQ4211, 
6.x. 1994, abundant in clay-bottomed dew-pond; Ochthebius pusillus Steph. 
(Hydraenidae), Lewes, E. Sussex, TQ 4211, 15.x. 1994, in clay-bottomed dew-pond; 
Hydnobius punctatus (Sturm) (Leiodidae), The Coombe, Lewes, E. Sussex, TQ 43 1 0, 
15.x. 1994, several swept from chalk grassland; Rugilus subtilis (Er.) (Staphylinidae), 
The Coombe, Lewes, E. Sussex, TQ 4210, 30.iv.1994, one swept from chalk 
grassland; Philonthus rubripennis Steph. (Staphylinidae), River Barle near Dulverton, 
S. Som., SS 8730, 16.vi.1994, on shingle bank; *Gyrophaena angustata (Steph.) 
(Staphylinidae), Barle Valley near Dulverton, S. Som., SS 8730, 16.vi.1994, in fungus 
on old ash stump; * Bolitochara mulsanti Sharp (Staphylinidae), Barle Valley near 
Dulverton, S. Som., SS 8730, 16.vi.1994, in fungus on old ash stump; Selatosomus 
bipustulatus (L.) (Elateridae), Barle Valley near Dulverton, S. Som., SS 8730, 
15.vi.1994, one beaten from blackthorn; *Meligethes viduatus (Heer) (Nitidulidae), 
Pulborough Brooks RSPB Reserve, W. Sussex, TQ 0516, 20.vii.1994, plentiful on 
flowers of Galeopsis tetrahit L.; Lilioceris lilii (Scop.) (Chrysomelidae), Ringmer, E. 
Sussex, TQ 4412, 3.vii.l994, on Lilium pyrenaicum Gouan; Chrysolina fastuosa 
(Scop.) (Chrysomelidae), Pulborough Brooks RSPB Reserve, W. Sussex, TQ 0516, 
20.vii.1994, plentiful on Galeopsis tetrahit, Choragus sheppardi Kirby (Anthribidae), 
The Coombe, Lewes, E. Sussex, TQ 4210, 16.vii.1994, one swept from chalk 
grassland; Apion genislae Kirby (Apionidae), Chailey Common, E. Sussex, TQ 3720, 
l.vi.1994; several swept off Genista anglica L.; Tropiphorus terricola (Newm.) 
(Curculionidae), yateley Common, N. Hants, SU 8159, one swept from long grass; 
Hypera meles (F.) (Curculionidae), Bramshill Park, N. Hants, SU 7660, 21. vi. 1994, 
one swept off heathy grassland; Liparus germanus (L.) (Curculionidae), Hinxhill, E. 
Kent, TR 0543, 21.vii.1994, at roots of Heracleum sphondylium L. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 205 

Knill- JONES, S. A. — A specimen of Dytiscus marginalis L. (Dytiscidae), taken in 
a m.v. light trap at Freshwater, I.o.W. on 25.vii.1994. 

Lott, D. A. — Some beetles from mountain areas in Europe. (1) Massif Central, 
France. Bembidion ascendens Daniel (Carabidae), Neobisnius procerulus (Grav.) 
(Staphylinidae), River Sioule, Chouvigny, Puy de Dome, 1 1 .vii.1986; Bembidion 
azurescens Wagner (Carabidae), Tachys sexstriatus (Dufts.) (Carabidae), Lionychus 
quadrillum (Dufts.) (Carabidae), Carpelimus nitidus Baudi (Staphylinidae), C. obesus 
(Kiesenw.), C. pusillus (Kiesenw.), Paederus balcanicus Korge (Staphylinidae), 
Philonthus rufimanus Er. (Staphylinidae), River Allier, Maringues, Puy de Dome, 
13.vii.1986; Lesteva monticola Kiesenw. (Staphylinidae), Psephidonus 
( = Goedromicus) kunzei (Heer) (Staphylinidae), Stnus fossulatus R. (Staphylinidae), 
Quedius dubius (Heer) (Staphylinidae), La Grande Cascade, Mont Dore, Puy de 
Dome, 29.vi.1992. 

(2) Savoy Alps, France. Nebria jockischi Sturm (Carabidae), N. castanea Bon., 
Membidion bipunctatum (L.) (Carabidae), recorded at 2630 m, Pterostichus multi- 
punctatus (Dej.) (Carabidae), Trichotichnus laevipennis (Dufts.) (Carabidae), 
Cymindis humeralis (Fourc.) (Carabidae), Deliphrum tectum (Payk.) (Staphylinidae), 
Psephidonus ( = Geodromicus) kunzei (Heer) (Staphylinidae), Omalium ferrugineum 
Kraatz (Staphylinidae), Ochthephilus longipennis (Fairm.) (Staphylinidae), Philonthus 
montivagus Heer (Staphylinidae), Ocypus chevrolati Baudi (Staphylinidae), O. 
picipennis (Er.), Quedius punctatellus (Heer) (Staphylinidae), Q. dubius (Heer), Q. 
obscuripennis Bernh., Liogluta nitidiuscula (Sharp) (Staphylinidae), Val d'Isere, 
Savoie, 29.viii.1993 to 3.ix.l993; Olophrum alpinum Er. (Staphylinidae), Anthophagus 
alpinus (F.) (Staphylinidae), Hygrogeus aemulus (Rosen.) (Staphylinidae), Bonneval 
sur Arc, Savoie, 2530 m, 30.viii.1993. 

(3) Cantabrian Mountains, Spain. Lathrobium angustatum Boisd. & Lac. 
(Staphylinidae), Peurto de Piedrasluengas, Palencia, 8.vi.l990; Philonthus coerules- 
cens (Boisd. & Lac.) (Staphylinidae), Ischnopoda (=Tachyusa) balteata (Er.), Rio 
Torio, Felmin, Leon, 9.vi.l990; Gabrius nigrituloides Coif., Valporquero, Leon, 
9.vi.l990; Philonthus confinis Strand, A. (Staphylinidae), Puerto de Palombero, 
Cantabria, ll.vi.1990. 

(4) Sierra de Albarracin, Spain. Chaetarthria similis Woll. (Hydrophilidae), 
Gabrius tirolensis (Luze) (Staphylinidae), Euryalea ?decumana (Er.) (Staphylinidae), 
Rio Guadalavair, Albarracin, Teruel, 19.V.1994. 

(5) Pyrenees, Spain. Actidium aterrimum (Mots.) (Ptilidae), Boreaphilus velox 
(Heer) (Staphylinidae), Neobisnius prolixus (Er.) (Staphylinidae), Philonthus 
coerulescens (Boisd. & Lac.) (Staphylinidae), Torrent Capistol, Martinet, Lerida, 
15.V.1994. 

(6) Peurtos de Beceite, Spain. Carpelimus obesus (Kiesenw.) (Staphylinidae), 
C. pusillus (Grav.), Lathrobium angustatum Boisd. & Lac. (Staphylinidae), Medon 
ripicola (Kraatz) (Staphylinidae), Scopaeus gracilis (Sperk) (Staphylinidae), S. 
laevigatus (Gyll.), Erichsonius signaticornis (Muls. & Rey) (Staphylinidae), Gabrius 
pisciformis Fauv. (Staphylinidae), Barranco de feu, Castellon, 17.V.1994; Stenus 
canescens Rosen. (Staphylinidae), Philonthus palustris Bris. (Staphylinidae), 
rrimus (Herbst) (Staphylinidae), Herbes, Teruel, 18.V.1994. 

(7) Black Forest, Germany. Pterostichus pumilio (Dej.) (Carabidae), Micropeplus 
marietti Duval (Staphylinidae), Otiorhynchus scaber (L.) (Curculionidae), 
Dachsberg, 21-25.vii.1988; Gabrius astutus (Er.) (Staphylinidae), Gaurotes virginea 
(L.), (Staphylinidae), Ibach, 27.vii.1988. 

(8) Karkonosze, Poland. Quedius punctatellus (Heer) (Staphylinidae), Gnypeta 
caerulea Sahl. (Staphylinidae), Szrenica, 13.viii. 1994. 



206 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

MORRIS, M. G. — (1) The British species of Cathormiocerus Schoen. (Coleoptera, 
Curculionidae, Entiminae), mostly recent captures. The genus has a very restricted 
range, western Europe only. Cathormiocerus attaphilus Bris., Stoke Point, S. Devon, 
26.vii.1993 and 1 .viii.1994, RDB1, known only from here and The Lizard, Com., in 
the British Isles, C. britannicus Blair, Rinsey, Corn., 25.vii.1993 and Furzebrook, 
Dorset, 13.V.1994, RDB1, the Dorset captures represent a considerable extension of 
known range for this species, which is endemic to the British Isles, C. maritimus Rye, 
Lizard, Corn., 19. v. 1993, RDB3, although more widely distributed than most of the 
other species, it seems to be less common; C. myrmecophilus (Seidlitz), Cathole, S. 
Devon, 17.X.1987, and Stoke Point, S. Devon, 23 & 26.vii.1993, RDB3; C. socius 
Boh., near Ventnor, I.o.W., 13.iv.1977, and near Sandown, I.o.W., 15.V.1968, RDB2, 
confined to the Isle of Wight in the British Isles. 

(2) Cathormiocerus maritimus and C. myrmecophilus from Pointe du Raz, 
Finistere, Britanny, France, 21.iv.1994, found on maritime cliffs in situations very 
similar to those in Cornwall and S. Devon. 

(3) A selection of interesting weevils from the Canary Islands, where about 75% of 
the species are endemic; Tenerife, March 1993 (T), and Gran Canaria, March 1994 
(GC); Auletobius convexifrons (Woll.) (Attelabidae), (T), quite common by beating, 
especially Rubus; A. cylindricollis (Woll.), (T), fairly common; Perapion neofallax 
Warner (Apionidae), (T) and (GC), particularly on Emex spinosa, closely related to 
the European P. violaceum Kirby; Rhissotrichum tubuliferum (Woll.) (Apionidae), 
(GC) (and not found on (T), despite searching), a miniature version of the common 
Mediterranean P. tubiferum, on Cistus monspeliensis; Kalcapion fortunatum 
(Roudier) (Apionidae), (T) and (GC), on Mercurialis annua, L. generally common; 
Taeniapion atlanticum (Uyttenboogaart) (Apionidae), (T), on Urtica spp.; T. 
delicatulum (Woll.), (T), on Parietaria spp.; Lapidapion canariense (Wagner) 
(Apionidae), (T), abundant on shrubby legumes, particularly Lygos monosperma; 
Holotrichapion wollastoni (Chev.) ( — rotundipenne Woll.) (Apionidae), (T) and 
(GC), by sweeping Vicia spp.; Laparocerus excavatus Woll. and L. ellipticus Woll. 
(Curculionidae), two representative species of this species-rich genus, which is 
confined to the Canaries and Madeira; Sitona latipennis Gyll. (Curculionidae), (T) 
and (GC), very common and widely distributed, on various shrubby legumes; Cionus 
variegatus (Brulle) (Curculionidae), (T), on Scrophularia spp., a species little known 
to wingelmueller, the monographer of the genus (1937), pairs from two populations 
contrasting in the degree of black coloration were shown; Stenopelmus rufinasus Gyll. 
(Curculionidae), (GC), beaten from Pinus canariensis. The exhibitor could find no 
previous record of this North American, /4zo//a-feeding species in the Canaries; 
Smicr onyx pauper cuius Woll. (Curculionidae), (T), on Cuscuta sp.; Hesperorhynchus 
hesperus (Woll.) (Curculionidae), (T), associated with Crassulaceae, a particularly 
interesting genus endemic to the Canaries and Madeira, with five flightless species, of 
which this is the commonest; Mogulones biondii Colonnelli (Curculionidae), (GC), 
known on few specimens, described in 1990 as a subspecies of M. pseudopollinarius 
(Harald Lindberg) and raised to specific rank by Colonnelli (1992); M. 
pseudopollinarius (Harald Lindberg), (T), associated with Echium ssp., also known 
from La Palma; Parethelcus nesicola Colonnelli (Curculionidae), (T), allied to our P. 
pollinarius (Forst.) and like that species, feeding on Urtica spp.; Sirocalodes 
nigroterminatus (Woll.) (Curculionidae), (T) and (GC), the Canarian equivalent of 
our S. mixtus (Muls. & Rey), and, like it, feeding on Fumaria ssp.; Macrobrachonyx 
gounellei Pic (Curculionidae), (T), associated with Pinus canariensis, Canarian 
endemic anthonomine, generally scarce and occurring as isolated individuals; 
Tychius colonnellii Caldara (Curculionidae), (T), associated with Lotus glaucus, 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 207 

described in 1991, specimens were from the type locality where the species is quite 
common. 

Porter, D. A. — Twelve species of Coleoptera collected between 1992 and 1994. 
Bembidion quadripustulatum Serv. (Carabidae), Powdermill Reservoir, E. Sussex, 
28. vi. 1992; Haliphns obliguus (F.) (Haliplidae), Heron Lake, Staines, Middx, 
13.vii.1994; H. variegatus Sturm, East Guldeford, E. Sussex, 20.x. 1993; Xantholinus 
longiventris Heer (Staphylinidae), Rye Harbour, E. Sussex, 10. v. 1992; Trichophya 
pilicornis (Gyll.), Drawsteignton, S. Devon, 21.iv.1992; Zyras humeralis (Grav.) 
(Staphylinidae), Drawsteignton, S. Devon, 21. iv. 1992; Metoecus paradoxus (L.) 
(Rhipiphoridae), East Runton, E. Norfolk, 18.viii.1994; Grammoptera variegata 
(Germ.) (Cerambycidae), Lyndhurst, S. Hants, 2.vi.l994; Mesosa nebulosa (F.) 
(Cerambycidae), Brockenhurst, S. Hants, 28. v. 1992; Altica brevicollis Foud. 
(Chrysomelidae), Troytown, Dorset, 3.ix.l993; Apion stolidum Germ. (Apionidae), 
Crewkerne, S. Som., 19.iv.1992; Mecinus collaris Germ. (Curculionidae), Grange- 
over-Sands, Westmor., 10.viii.1992. 



Hemiptera 

Alexander, K. N. A. & Foster, A. P. — A selection of the more interesting bugs 
found during the work of the National Trust's Biological Survey in 1994: Liorhyssus 
hyalinus (F.), coastal heath, St David's Head, Pemb., 16. vi. 1994; Pionosomus varius 
(Wolff, J. F.), Nicholaston & Penmaen Burrows, Gower, W. Glam., 19.vii.1994; 
Trapezonotus ullrichi (Fieber), second Welsh record, St David's, Pemb., 23. vi. 1994; 
Lasiacantha capucina Germ., under thyme on seacliff, Holestrow, Kynance, Corn., 
v.1994. 

Eversham, B. C. & Telfer, M. G. — Some interesting bugs from Breckland road 
verges: Thyreocoris scarabaeoides (L.), Podops inuncta (F.), Chorosoma schillingi 
(Schummel), Syromastus rhombeus (L.), Alydus calcaratus (L.), Neides tipularius (L.), 
Coranus woodroffei. 

Hodge, P. J. — Two species of bugs: Physatocheila smreczynskii China (Tingidae), 
New Forest, S. Hants, SU 1908, 18. ix. 1994, on old crab apple tree (Malus sylvestris 
Miller); Microvelia pygmaea (Dufour) (Veliidae), Chailey Common, E. Sussex, 
TQ 3821, 24.ix.1994, in shaded pond. 



Hymenoptera 

Alexander, K. N. A. & Foster, A. P. — Two uncommon ants found in 1994 
during the National Trust's biological survey. Leptothorax tuberum (F.), 22 and 
29.vii on limestone sea cliffs at Paviland and Pennard Cliffs, Gower, Glam.; 
Myrmecina graminicola (Lat.), 29.vi at Good Hope Farm, Strumble Head, Pemb. 

Boyd, G. — A selection of spider wasps and solitary wasps taken in 1994. Cerceris 
rybyensis (L.) and Ectemnius continuus (F.), both 20.vii at Cambridge; Argogorytes 
mystaceus (L.), flying over raspberry flowers 11. vi, Frithsden Beeches, Ashridge, 
Herts.; Ectemnius cavifrons (Thorn.) and Dipogon subintermedius (Magretti), on 
rotten oak, 2.vii at Croxton Park, Leics.; Cerceris arenaria (L.), male and female in 
cop on flower of Reseda lutea L., 9.vii; Ammophila sabulosa (L.), 6.viii; Episyron 
rufipes (L.), on a loose sandy bank, l.vii; Ectemnius continuus {¥.), 27.viii, the last 
four species taken in relic areas of Breckland heath, 1-3 miles south of Brandon, W. 
Suff. 



208 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



Bowdrey, J. P.- — A cynipid gall wasp new to Britain. Examples of galls found on 
prickly sowthistle, Sonchus asper (L.) at Fingringhoe, near Colchester, Essex, on 
19.viii.93. Adults emerged in July 1994 and were subsequently identified by Dr J. L. 
Nieves-Aldrey of Madrid as Aulacidea follioti Barbotin. 

Brock, J. P. — A display of ichneumonid parasites in the subfamilies Pimplinae 
and Xoridinae from Ashtead Common, Surrey and other sites around London. The 
species displayed were associated with both dead and live trees, and have as host 
insects various cerambycid beetle larvae, wood-nesting aculeate Hymenoptera and 
some wood-boring lepidopterous larvae. Malaise trapping has shown that some 
species thought to be rare are fairly common in some localities, where they may serve 
as indicators of good quality ancient woodland. 

Collins, G. A. — The bee wolf, Philanthus triangulum (F.) taken 30.vii.94 at 
Frensham Heights, Surrey. This formerly scarce sphecid wasp has recently become 
widespread in southern England. 

Halstead, A. J. — Some local sawflies taken in 1994 except where stated 
otherwise. Female Janus femoratus (Curt.), male Dolerus bimaculatus (Geoff.) and 
female Eutomostethus gagathinus (Klug), all swept from a boggy area of Chobham 
Common NNR, Surrey, 5.vi; female Rhogogaster genista (Benson), numerous on 
broom, 5.vi, Chobham Common NNR, Surrey; female Cimbex femoratus (L.) bred 
25. iv from a larva found on birch 20.vi.93, Chobham Common NNR, Surrey; female 
Heterarthrus nemoratus (Fall.), swept from birch, 15.vi, Chobham Common NNR, 
Surrey; female Athalia cornubiae Benson, col. C. W. Plant in a malaise trap in a 
garden, Bishop's Stortford, Herts., vi.93; male and female Rhogogaster chambersi 
Benson, swept from chalk grassland and female Pareophora pruni (L.) on blackthorn 
flowers, both 15.v at the Sheepleas, near West Horsley, Surrey; male Hoplocampa 
testudinea (Klug), on apple blossom, RHS Garden, Wisley, Surrey, 29. iv; female 
Nematus capreae (L.) netted by R. A. Jones and male Macrophya rufipes (L.), swept 
from long grass 9.vii at Nunhead Cemetery, SE15. 

Harvey, P. R. — Some interesting records from Mill Wood Pit, part of the 
Chafford Hundred and Lakeside development area at Thurrock, S. Essex. The 



PLATE III. ANNUAL EXHIBITION 1994 

1: Diarsia mendica, Geddington Chase, Northants, 20.vi.1988, J. W. Ward. 2: 
Amphipyra berbera, Blandon Heath, Oxon, 22.vii.1993, M. F. V. Corley. 3: 
Discestra trifolii, Wroughton, Wilts., 9.viii.1992, D. J. Brotheridge. 4: Evergestis 
limbata, Chale Green, l.o.W., 23.vii.1994, S. Colenutt (S. A. Knill-Jones). 5: 
Meganola albula, Dungeness, Kent, 15.vii.1994, S. P. Clancy. 6: Homoeosoma 
sinuella, Torquay, Devon, 20.vii.1994, A. H. Dobson. 7: Mussidia nigrivenella, 
Dungeness, 12.viii.1994, S. P. Clancy. 8: Agriphila inquinatella, Dungeness, 
Kent, 27.vii.1994, S. P. Clancy. 9: Agrotis cinerea, mixed gynandromorph, 
Swanage, Dorset, J. Clarke. 10: Drymonia dodonaea, Ashtead, Surrey, 
26.vi.1994, J. T. Scanes. 11: Mythimna conigera, Inverness-shire, 21.vii.1990, A. 
G. J. Butcher. 12: Cucullia scrophulariae, Swanage, Dorset, 18. v.1994, J. Clarke. 
13: Hoplodrina alsines, albino male, Dungeness, Kent, 8.vii.1994, B. Skinner. 14: 
Odontoptera bidentata, Hampstead, 12. v.1994, A. G. J. Butcher. 15-18: Luperina 
nickerlii, male (15) and female (16) nominotypical form, Prague, 
Czechoslovakia, and male (17) and female (18) undescribed subspecies, 
Essex, B Goater. 19: Baorisa hieroglyphica, Nepal, T. W. Harman. 20: 
Dichomeris juniperella, Achlean Cairngorms, vi.1977, M. J. & P. H. Sterling. 21: 
Cochylis molliculana, Portsmouth, Hants, bred, 20.viii.1994, J. R. Langmaid. 22: 
Caryocolum blandelloides. Loch Fleet, Sutherland, 23.vii.1994, R. J. B. Hoare. 
23: Teliodes alburnella, Kincraig, lnv.,17.vii.1994, M. W. Harper. 



1 


2 


3 


4 5 


6 


7 8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


17 


20 


16 


18 


21 
22 


19 




23 



Photo: D.E. Wilson. 




Plate III. ANNUAL EXHIBITION 1994 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 209 

exhibitor has surveyed this site, part of which has planning permission for housing, 
since September 1993. Over 40 nationally scarce, rare or vulnerable species have 
been recorded including the blue carpenter bee, Ceratina cyanea (Kirby) and Stelis 
ornatula (Klug). Both appear to be the only Essex records for many years. Other 
species exhibited included the chrysid wasp Hedychrum niemelai Linsenmaier and 
its host Cerceris quinquefasciata (Rossius), the bee wolf, Philanthus triangulum 
(F.); the solitary bees Andrena florea F., A. proximo (Kirby) and Nomada 
fulvicornis F. 

Hodge, P. J. — Three uncommon solitary bees taken in 1994. Male Andrena 
proxima (Kirby), 20.v on flowers of alexanders, Smyrnium olusatrum L., at 
Ranscombe Lane, Glynde, E. Sussex; female Stelis ornatula (Klug) taken on the 
wing, 20.vii, at Yateley Common, N. Hants; female Stelis punctulatissima (Kirby) on 
flowers of ragwort, Senecio jacobaea L., 22. viii, at Chailey Common, E. Sussex. 

Howton, D. H. — Workers of the social wasp Dolichovespula media (Retz.) taken 
at Weston Favell, Northants, 21 .v.93. This is a first county record for a wasp that has 
now colonized much of England, including several counties further north, such as 
Cambs., Warks. and Leics. in 1991-92. 

Porter, D. A. — A specimen of the melittid bee, Macropis europaea Warncke, 
taken on Lysimachia vulgaris L. flowers at Sheffield Park, E. Sussex, 6.vii.94. This 
may be a new vice-county record. 

Robbins, J. — A herbarium of mined leaves of various plants, some of which had 
been mined by the larvae of sawflies. 

Roberts, S. P. M. — Some scarce aculeate Hymenoptera taken in south east 
Dorset in 1991-94. Chrysididae: Elampus panzeri (F '.), 10.vii.94, Great Ovens Heath; 
Hedychridium ardens (Latr. in Coquebert), 13.vii.94, Sandford; H. roseum (Rossius), 
10.vii.94, Great Ovens Heath. Tiphiidae: Myrmosa atra Panz., male, 13.vii.94, 
Sandford and female 29.vii.94, Holton Heath (Defence Research Agency). 
Mutillidae: Mutilla europaea L., male and female, 13.vii.94, Sandford and on 
6. viii. 94 at Holton Heath NNR; Smicromyrme rufipes (F.), male and female, 
13.vii.94, Sandford. Eumenidae: Pseudepipona herrichii (Saussure), male and female, 
14.vii.91, Godlingston Heath NNR (possibly its only remaining British locality); 
Symmorphus crassicornis (Panz.), female, 13.vii.94, Sandford (first Dorset record 
since 1945). Sphecidae: Astata boops (Schr.), female with prey and male, Mimesa 
bruxellensis (Bond.), male and female, and Diodontus minutus Spooner, male and 
female, all 25.vii.94 at Kingsbridge Lakes; Nysson dimidiatus Jurine, female, 
13.vii.94, Sandford; Philanthus triangulum (F.), two females, one with Apis mellifera 
L. prey and a male, 6.viii.94 Holton Heath NNR (not previously recorded in Dorset 
since 1829); Passaloecus eremita Kohl, female, 10.vii.94, Gore Heath (new to Dorset, 
nests found by M. Edwards, G. R. Else and the exhibitor). Apidae-Andreninae: 
Andrena denticulata (Kirby), male, 30.vi.94, Corfe Bluff and female, 25.vii.94, 
Northport. Apidae-Halictinae: Sphecodes ephippius (L.), male; 5. geoffrellus (Kirby), 
male, S. puncticeps Thomson, two males, one melanic, S. reticulatus Thomson, all 
3.viii.94 on flowers of creeping thistle, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop, at Sandford. 
Apidae-Melittinae: Macropis europaea Warnke, male, 25.vii.94, Kingsbridge Lakes, 
female, 14.vii.92, Uddens, female, 4.viii.92, Tadnoll Lane, all on flowers of 
Lysimachia vulgaris L.; Dasypoda altercator (Harris), male, 29.vii.94, Wareham 
meadows, female 3.viii.94, Sandford. Apidae-Megachilinae: Stelis ornatula (Klug), 
female, 13.vii.94, Sandford, female, 29.vii.94, Holton Heath NNR; Megachile 
leachella Curt., male and female, 30.vi.94, Newton Gulley. 

A nest of the social wasp, Dolichovespula media (Retz.) from a maple tree in a 
garden in West Moors, Dorset, in 1991. This was the first nest of this species 



I'. IN I INI MA I III'; I a |99| 

i> ■ '.»')< 'I 111 I >-.i .- I ln< I iiitr.il 7/1 III Id- rx in hi I //.. .. .- mi ■•; (,l 1 1 r:l 1 1 I,m I ii, 1 1 1 1 i.i | , . - 1 1. 1 //i i 

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1)1 till. I' W I Soilll '."lil.il/ I,.. . ,.ii,| //.i.|,. in // .,1 J", .illy i. ii- in ||. ,1. 
Ii- -I. l!m I- .nnl I . .- > Lit. ii in 1994 '"'|.l //In i' || ■) I- ' I ' ,1 In I nv.< A iiiiimplnl,, 
,il,ul,,:,i (I >. .. ■ ii '/ /ii .nnl I i/ ( i.lm / II..1II1 ..nnl |,il. I |. 1 I . Imlmitliu. 

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..nnl I |i„|.|- N, 1, ..nnl |,il Qq\ ylr: hi, 111, In . (ROSSES), I /in * -.1 in / I I • .1 1 1. ... in I | ,1 1 
// 1 ..,,/) 1 1 mill, 11 I, 1 In I ( I'-, I .111.) 9 vii. « .<lin y I I' .1 III ..nnl pi I. f ,7, «•//•. , 11 rim, 1,1 (I.i, 

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ll.i.i.l, iiiii 11-,//. 1. ' '. /11 I'm I, .111;- 1 I *.i 1 t- .nnl 8.VJI, I I', fin-, i- I .il" . ft All, .111. 

II. il I 1,. ,...iii. ,1, tmyiiculu: (M.,i.i7/il/>. W, /in. J 1 1 K » » DOWfl HOtttt, l'nl.,1. 

11- ii . .nni / /11 1 ».nn inn /. w- 17//1,. ii- ii: . /•-.,/) inn-, ii,, r.r. (Bon,), S.viii.93, ( lid 

I*, ill- 1. 111 / I'll I'. nl '.li-.l /,i, /i| ./,/), ■ /,, ,1,11, ih/,, urn: (I'. .11/ i, 10 vii. ( . .lii< y Hi .illi 
r-.,llnl pil. ."> 71 . I Villi 1 -.I . I I. .illi .il .-, :. . 11 111 I Vi 11.I1.1 i.f . 1 I '.ill- III Inly I '■/,, :y,,,,i 1 ii/i/,, 
I I ) in :lnif 111 1 1 iiiii |, 1 'I ..nnl .nnl .illi.n I. i| I', I hm, 11: II" 7/' I'.. |f) /III. A In//- II ;• 1 .1 /- I 
-jii.il 1 y /',).,//.,,. 1/ . ), 1,111,1 /0I1I .'■! /I I I .ill ii I- 1 I i,i- I I .- ' n< -.tni|_- III l,< - 1 1- I n.l - 
111 -I' .nl \ ami, 11, 11 . M.lilln li,i,iii,,iili,,nl,ili. II ) 'V 7ii. I« ni.il' '. 111 \W iKllni -,l 
< Inn- Il Hill. Ilnilnl-I ll'.illi. II. il. .nnl iii.il- . II /in .il I >-.!-., 1, Mill l'- r -l-,n 

I*.- -I on floweri of iiii- i„ii ..mi < .ill- 1 Campanula ipp,\ M trlelncta (Kirby), 10 " 

in In l-l iii.iij'in I.i I..7/ AMI. my Nowri-. ',',', I I 1 1 1 . 1-- . Il.ll.. i.i. <),/,„, lilr: II-. 

Hytaeut earnutui Curt,, I9.vll on Htraelntm Bowtfi by footpath ••• Colney 

II. .ill. ..nnlpil I ,i.i. ■■.■I., nut ,,„,l,i, I, inn | (I- nl./i m.il- 'I /in < -,l.n / If. ill. nnl 

■i i-. ( -.in- / 1 1- ..ii. .I.- 1 |,.i < ... /... • i . , i., I,-.-, 1 1, i i . |, '.i i /i .ii colony "i Mtgoi hilt 
wlllughbh ii,i (Kirby) in i-imi nursery in Bishops Stortford, i wi - SttlU puneiula 
i, ima (Kirby) on im,i,i i, hi, i ii-. .'/■ i in garden, B.vlil, Welwyn; Callettt llmtltt 

'.- In in I |9 /ii < -.liny I I- illi -..nnl |.il. < ,l,,vu .,„„,. '.niilli. Hi vi. -.11 A, lull, ,1 
/ih/,, ,i,liiliii,i II.,//. 1. in 11111..1/ Ilr.li..).. '.I..1II-.1.I 1 :ii,,iii,Iii. (I ) .nnl In, I, , ,,,, 

In., ij„ . (Kirby), both females, I ix, Black Perk, i -<*»>- 1 • y. Bucks . Sphw udtk longulu 

/'.ii I I.) (' Hi vii ( -.In. y II- ill. ..in- 1 1 .1 1 Ami, ,n,i hm , pluila Mrpli ','. 7 Wlil|,|„ in I- II 

W.....I. Watford ii- r1 

WaIVOII. < A 111.1I. rliil.mllm: I, ,,im- iilum II ) I..I- 11 .il I' 11 .In y Mr.nl N.ilin- 

I'- ii 1 - neat Bishop's Stortford N i sse* (no date) fhis spheeid waip, which 

I III I .In- I Villi I n.i n , • I- • I.i' ' pin- 1- 1 1 1 1 . 1 .11 .;•- 111 i- - - nl y- .11 . .nnl 1 . - ..II- 1- -I 

..i..nf iin 1 harm ■ i ituary '" I 



( II .DMA I A 

p'.i'ni'. 1 a ipeclmen "i thi highland darter, Sympttrwn ntgresetru Lucai, 

1 . ... •> 1 ..1 1 .1. n 1 .-I, .1., Argyll 



< II' lll'H-ll I'A AMD I II I'MAI'I I l<A 

1 in. 11 -ii 11 ( ,v iin 1 p. m (, ., mrvey ol Insects foTJnd in roadeidi 
.1 . 1. 1 1 1. 1 1 1 n 1 n if m.i 1 - 1 1 < 1. 1 -.I. - 1 1993 ,iih 1 94 i" 11 Lekenheath Warren, Suffoil 
iin.. included (hi sti ipi winged grasshopper, SifnobolhruA linetitu* nvni/ > and thi 

In-i I .in;-' -I - -.11- In i-l | ../..-. . />//,(//) . ,/-■; .,)//-. ( I .ll ) I II- I- ... 1 - .11 '•'If, / ,ihi,l ,,,!,„„ 

( 1 1 appears to bi bssoi iated with r«l>l>n (iitippuiiji uml dnul vrgriniion »i th< itudy 

,1. 



BR. J. KNT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 21 1 

Neuroptera and mecoptera 

Collins, G. A. — Some local species taken in Surrey. Neuroptera: Psectra diptera 
(Burmeister) 4.viii.90, S. Croydon; Hemerobius atrifrons McLach., 14.iv.90, Netley 
Heath; Micromus angulatus (Steph.), 6.xii.93, Banstead. Mecoptera: Panorpa cognata 
Ramb., 25.vii.94, Westcott. The last two species were collected by R. D. Hawkins. 

Plant, C. W. — An ant-lion, Euroleon nostras (Fourc.) (Neuroptera: Myrmeleon- 
tidae): a species and family of insects possibly overlooked in Britain. Until this year 
this ant-lion was unknown in the British Isles apart from Jersey, although it is 
widespread elsewhere in Europe. During 1994 three adults were captured in a locality 
in E. Suff. (Mendel in press). The exhibitor showed two examples taken in Hungary, 
together with some British insects which might be confused with ant-lions. The giant 
lacewing, Osmylus fulvicephalus (Scop.) has similarly blotched wings but is mainly 
found near fast-moving streams and it has longer, simple filamentous antennae. E. 
nostras is likely to be found in areas where there is warm, loose dry sand, and it has 
shorter, stouter clubbed antennae. Some ant-lions do not have spotted wings. An 
example is Myrmeleon formicarius L. which was allegedly recorded at Gorleston, E. 
Suff., in 1931. It is possible that such ant-lions could be confused with certain teneral 
dragonflies and damselflies. These may fly in a similar manner to ant-lions. The 
antennae of dragonflies and damselflies are very short and thin, and easily 
distinguished from the stouter, club-tipped antennae of antlions. Examples of a 
damselfly, Coenagrion puella (L.) and a dragonfly, Sympetrum striolatum (Charp.) 
were displayed to show this difference. Larval pits are more likely to be encountered 
than adult ant-lions. They are constructed in soft dry sand, often at the edge of fields, 
but also at the side of sandy tracks and other areas that are subjected to trampling. 
Pits should be sampled by quickly penetrating the sand to a depth of about two 
inches with a one inch wide glass tube, used as a core sampler. The sand can be gently 
poured out until the larva is seen. Pupation occurs in the sand, in a circular silk 
cocoon to which sand grains adhere. An example of a cocoon with the translucent 
white pupal exuvium of E. nostras protruding was exhibited. 



Siphonaptera 

George, R. S. — Some charts showing the distribution of fleas in Scotland, 
Yorkshire and Lancashire + Cheshire. The Scottish chart indicated all the species, 
sub-species and hybrids on the British list (except the doubtfully British Monopsyllus 
anisus Roth.) and the numbers of forms recorded in each of the old counties of 
Scotland. Only the rabbit flea, Spilopsyllus funiculi (Dale) has been found in every 
county. The chart showed a record of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis fclis Bouche 
in the Orkneys. This is a new, unpublished record and is the most northerly in the 
British Isles. The other two charts for Yorkshire and Lancashire + Cheshire showed 
which 10-km squares have had fleas recorded and the numbers of flea forms in these 
squares. They indicated the paucity of recording and the need for more specimens to 
be submitted to the exhibitor for identification. Some species cards relating to 
Yorkshire were shown, indicating in which 10-km squares each species has been 
found. 

The exhibitor made available some information sheets on flea collection methods. 
This was illustrated with a display of flea collecting from birds' nests, which is mainly 
done in winter when nests are not in use. A tube of 5081 fleas in alcohol was shown 
that had been collected from a house martin's nest from Stogursey, Som. the 
dominant species in the nest was Ceratophyllus hirundinis (Curt.), with C. farreni 



212 BR J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

farreni Roth, and C. rusticus Wagner also present in substantial but smaller numbers; 
farreni and rusticus vary considerably in their relative proportions of the nest 
populations. In the past rusticus was considered quite rare, but now it is more 
frequent than farreni. 

Arachnida 

Hackett, D. — A female specimen of the spider Segestria florentina (Rossi) 
(Araneae: Segestriidae) found 17.X.94 at Thames Road, London W4. This large 
Mediterranean segestrid spider occurs at a few sea ports around Britain and was 
known by W. S. Bristowe to occur in the old walls of Westminster School, London, 
in the 1930s. This year Edward Milner, spider recorder in the LNHS, discovered it at 
Charterhouse, Cripplegate, the City. The specimen exhibited came from the Kew 
area, West London, so its true distribution in London is yet to be clarified. The web 
is funnel shaped, with cartwheel-like spokes radiating across the substrate (tree crack 
or wall crevice), this web type being characteristic of segestrids. This spider's clearest 
identifying feature is the metallic bottle-green fangs. In the field the spider can 
usually be tempted out to get a glimpse of the fangs by tickling the outer part of the 
web with a twig or other slender object. 

Plant, C. W. — A specimen of the scorpion, Euscorpius carpathicus (L.) ssp 
candiota Birula (Chactidae) collected on the Mediterranean island of Gozo, April 
1994. This small scorpion is frequent on Gozo and was found in groups of four or 
five individuals under boulders where the soil was damp. They seemed reluctant to 
move when uncovered and remained tightly pressed into soil crevices. 

Illustrations 

Clarke, J. H. — Bembecia chrysidiformis (Es.), captive breeding from ovum to 
imago in one year. Last year the exhibitor showed a poster illustrating the mating of 
this species in captivity with photographs of the calling female, a pair in copula, the 
female ovipositing and the one newly hatched larva that was observed. Further 
photographs illustrated his recent results. Most of the ova did hatch (as evidenced by 
their empty egg shells) but larvae were not seen. Presumably they hatched at night 
and made their way straight down to the rootstock. The project was expected to take 
two years but the exhibitor was able to report back in just one year. 

Initially the plants showed no outward signs of infestation. They were put in a 
shady corner of the garden and essentially ignored for the winter. During March 
inspection showed the docks in a very poor state indeed. On pulling off the crown of 
dead leaves from the most moribund plant (which showed no signs of life 
whatsoever) the exhibitor was amazed to see a fully grown sesiid larva staring up 
from the top of the rootstock. Dissection of this rootstock produced no less than 15 
fully grown larvae some of which were making their cocoons or silken emergence 
tubes; the root was totally replaced with tight packed grass and no viable portions 
remained. Other roots also contained larvae but not as many. Larvae were relocated 
into other docks and in due course emerged as adults. These were taken back to their 
original locality and released. One larva remained and as yet showed no signs of 
forming its emergence tube or cocoon; it would probably emerge in 1995. 

It seems that given sufficient food the species will preferentially keep to a one-year 
lifecycle but a small proportion will take two years. In the wild more may keep to a 
two-year cycle especially if feeding on a small shrivelled sorrel rather than a large 
lush great water dock. Having a lifecycle of variable length is an advantage in 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 213 

providing a buffer against adverse environmental factors which could seriously affect 
the reproductive success of a population in one season. 

Hackett, D. — Photographs of the spider Segestria florentina (Rossi), to 
accompany a dead specimen. 

Harley, B. H. — Colour photocopies of the colour plates (1-9) of Yponomeu- 
tidae, Epermeniidae, Schreckensteiniidae, Coleophoridae and Elachistidae for 
volume 3 of the moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland from drawings 
by Richard Lewington, with some monochrome drawings of coleophorid cases by 
the same artist. The work is to be published in 1995. 

HENWOOD, B. P. — Photographs of the larvae of Eupithecia virgaureata Doubl., a 
wild first brood larva found feeding on the leaves of grey willow (Salix cinerea L.) 
near Newton Abbot, Devon, and a wild second brood larva feeding on flowers of 
golden rod (Solidago virgaurea L.) at St Agnes Cornwall. The first brood larva is 
virtually unknown in the wild. 

Pickles, A. J. — Photographs of Microlepidoptera. Larva of Udea decreptialis 
(H. & S.) photographed in mid-August feeding under a slight web on the underside 
of a frond of lemon-scented fern Oreopteris limbosperma (All.) Larvae were found 
sparingly, on this species of fern only, at a locality which was close to a loch in 
central Scotland. The larva would not accept Dryopteris or other Oreopteris species 
in captivity. Larva, pupa and adult of Cnaemidophorus rhododactyla (D. & S.). The 
larva, which was just visible inside the characteristic slight spinning it had 
constructed around a flower bud, was feeding on Rosa canina (L.) and was 
photographed on 18.vi.1994 at an Essex locality. Larvae and pupae were found at 
about head height on all sides of the bushes. A pupa found at the same time was 
concealed in a similar spinning. 

Sokoloff, P. — A photograph of an unusual aberration of the red admiral, 
Vanessa atlanta L. The butterfly was characterized by bright orange suffusion from 
the fore- and hind-wing bands, covering the basal areas of all wings, and extending to 
the thorax and abdomen. The coloration resembled that of ab eos Fritsch, but was 
much more extensive. The marginal white spots on the fore and hind wings were also 
much enlarged. The insect was photographed at Hinksey Hill Top, Oxfordshire on 
27.viii.1994. 

Waring, P. — A display of photographs illustrating some of the field meetings of 
the Society during 1994 and the notable moths recorded. Ranging from Abernethy 
Forest, Inverness-shire, south to Whiteparish Common, Wiltshire, from the 
Mawddach Valley woodlands, Merionethshire, and Welshbury Hill, Gloucestershire 
in the west to Cantley Marshes and Catfield Fen in Norfolk, and including the home 
of the Society's building and collections, Dinton Pastures, Berkshire. 



Corrigendum to 1992 Annual Exhibition 

Since it would have constituted the first Irish record, Dr M. C. D. Speight has 
rightly queried the 'Orthonewa brevicornis Loew' from Co. Fermanagh, that was 
exhibited at the 1992 BENHS Annual Exhibiton (Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 1993; 6: 70). 
Dr Speight, to whom I am grateful, has subsequently examined the specimen and 
shown it to be Portvenia maculata (Fallen). — A. P. Foster, The National Trust, 33 
Sheep Street, Cirencester, Glos. GL7 1QW. 



214 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

BENHS FIELD MEETINGS 

Powerstock Common, Dorset, 11 June 1994 

Leader: Mick Parker. Seven members arrived for the daytime meeting to be met 
with warm and sunny conditions. An area near to the car park was the first to receive 
attention; part of this area, a birch and sallow copse had recently been cleared and 
the resulting logs had been left in piles. These logs showed extensive workings of the 
lunar hornet clearwing Sesia bembeciformis Hiibner and it is obvious that this species 
although rarely seen is common here. 

The group moved south into the wooded part of the reserve and through various 
clearings and rides and here amongst fourteen species of butterfly occurred four local 
species the marsh fritillary Eurodryas aurinia Rottemberg, the Duke of Burgundy 
fritillary, Hamearis lucina L., the small pearl-bordered fritillary, Boloria selene D. & 
S., and the wood white, Leptidea sinapis L. Two day flying moths were also noted, 
the burnet companion, Euclidia glyphica L. and the small purple-barred, Phytometra 
viridaria Clerck. All these species were to be encountered in greater numbers along 
the disused railway embankment which borders the reserve. The group then made 
their way along the southern edge of this embankment which becomes increasingly 
wooded and turned east and then north through damp oak woodland and continued 
through mixed woodland back to the car park. Over ninety species of Diptera were 
recorded, although most were common species the best record being the conopid 
Thecophora atra F. Twenty-eight species of Hymenoptera were also noted of which 
most were sawflies. Small numbers of Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, Neuroptera 
and Mecoptera were also added to the days list which now totalled one hundred and 
fifty one species, before the day ended several roe deer were seen and a stoat made an 
appearance. The moth trapping session began with a group often. Most of the group 
considered the embankment area the best option, and six of the eight traps were 
situated here. Unfortunately a clear sky and a falling temperature ensured the moth 
catch was low. All the species recorded were common and did little to excite although 
the privet hawk Sphinx ligustri L. made a spectacular entrance, despite the falling 
temperature. I was determined to stay to the bitter end, and bitter was the word; 
nevertheless the moth list reached sixty one species to make a grand total of two 
hundred and twelve insect species listed, thanks are due to the Dorset Wildlife Trust 
for permission to hold the field meeting and to the recorders who made it such a 
successful meeting. A full list has been forwarded to the D.W.T. and other interested 
groups. 



( 'u tticld Fen Butterfly Conservation Reserve, Norfolk, 16 July 1994 

Leader: Paul Waring. This joint BENHS/Butterfly Conservation meeting at the 
Butterfly Conservation reserve at Catfield Fen, Norfolk, on 16 July, set out to see if 
the small dotted footman Pelosia obtusa could be found in the more accessible parts 
of the fen which are currently being cleared of scrub and are now largely open reed 
and sedge-beds, some of which had been cut before the field meeting. This meeting 
was particularly well attended, with 35 people, including a contingent from the 
Norfolk Moth Group. 23 light traps were operated on the fen and moths seen 
included the reed leopard Phragmataecia castanea (only by Ken Saul's group), dotted 
footman Pelosia muscerda, dentated pug Anticollix sparsata (a worn singleton near 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 215 

the Hubbard's Marsh ligger), dotted fanfoot Macrochilo cribrumalis, cream-bordered 
green pea Earias clorana and a host of wainscots including the striped Mythimna 
pudorina, southern M. straminea, fen Arenostola phragmitidis, mere Photedes fluxa, 
Fenn's P. brevilinea and brown-veined Archanara dissoluta. Other moths of intereest 
included the oak eggar Lasiocampa quercus (a female), lesser cream wave Scopula 
immutata, blue-bordered carpet Plemyria rubiginata, dingy shell Euchoeca nebulata, 
privet hawk-moth Sphinx ligustri, round-winged muslin Thumatha senex, suspected 
Parastichtis suspecta, Haworth's minor Celaena haworthii, crescent Celaena 
leucostigma, small rufous Coenobia rufa, silver hook Eustrotia uncula, Lempke's 
gold spot Plusia putnami and the pyralids Chilo phragmitella, Schoenobius gigantella, 
Dioryctria abietella (det. J. Clarke) and several of the common china-mark moth 
species. Several fully grown larvae of the emperor moth Pavonia pavonia were found 
feeding on the leaves of alder buckthorn Frangula alnus. No small dotted footman 
were seen, even though 1 3 males and 2 females were seen at a nearby site on 1 5 July 
(Brian Elliot) and 10 males at the same site on 17 July. The small dotted footman 
were in an uncut reedbed, with thick reed litter lying like straw. Fenn's wainscot was 
the commonest moth here with about ten per trap on the latter night when the 
weather was indifferent and the temperature was 9° C (B. Skinner). Only one or two 
Fenn's wainscot were seen per trap at Catfield Fen BC reserve, suggesting that the 
habitat is much less suitable for both moths. However, there are other parts of the 
BC reserve, currently accessible only by boat, which still need investigation. The 
small dotted footman was also found in a thick reedbed with much standing litter on 
the nearby Catfield Fen National Nature Reserve on 21 July 1994 by Julian Clarke, 
when five adults were seen. 

During the daytime part of the meeting we were shown some small larvae of the 
swallowtail butterfly Papilio machaon by Vic Stares who is studying them on the fen 
as part of her research project at the University of East Anglia. One of the larvae was 
still at the stage where it resembled a bird-dropping; another had reached 3 cm in 
length. Other butterflies seen included adults of the large skipper Ochlodes venata, 
green-veined white Pieris napi, gate-keeper Pyronia tithonus, meadow brown Maniola 
jurtina, ringlet Aphantopus hyperanthus, a full-grown larva of the peacock butterfly 
Inachis io, and, at 07.00 hrs the following morning, while those of us who had slept in 
our cars had breakfast on site, a painted lady Cynthia cardui basked in the sun on the 
edge of the car-park. 

Other observations during the day-time part of the meeting included the royal fern 
Osmunda regalis and cowbane Cicuta virosa along dyke edges on the eastern 
boundary of the reserve and the plume moth Adaina microdactyla which is dependent 
on hemp agrimony Eupatorium cannabinum. A larval case of the common bag-worm 
Psyche casta was noted on a common reed Phragmites australis. A few of the 
common darter dragonfly Sympetrum striolatum and the blue-tailed damselfly 
ischnura elegans were on the wing. A marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus flew overhead 
at one point and a male grasshopper warbler Locustella naevia was singing busily in 
Hubbard's Marsh. Four species of flies were identified, by Gavin Boyd, including the 
syrphids Pyrophaena rosarum, Episyrphus balteatus and Xylota segnis and the 
stratiomyid Chloromyia formosa, all of which would be expected from the habitats 
present on the reserve. 

Records of over 130 species of moths were collected for this reserve as a result of 
this field meeting and the good coverage with light traps helped to give an indication 
of the distribution of species on the reserve. A copy of the full species list for all 
groups has been sent to Roland Rogers, organizer for the Norfolk Branch of 
Butterfly Conservation, who manage the reserve, and attention has been drawn to 



216 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

the requirements of the small dotted footman and the general wildlife value of 
derelict reedbeds thick with reed-litter so that examples of this habitat can be 
conserved on this interesting and diverse fen. The data have also been entered in full 
into the national data-base for the rarer British macro-moths and the Invertebrate 
Site Register (supported by the Joint Nature Conservation Committee). 

I would like to thank Roland Rogers and the Norfolk Branch of Butterfly 
Conservation for their help and interest during the organisation of this field meeting 
and all the entomologists who attended and helped to make it such an enjoyable 
event. 



BOOK REVIEW 

New life for old woods, the Land Rover woodlands campaign information pack run 
by Butterfly Conservation, Colchester Branch, £3.95. — The information pack is a 
glossy A4 folder with a poster guide of butterflies showing 16 species, a seven-page 
woodland management booklet relating to butterflies, a four-page woodland 
management leaflet relating to moths and 1 5 cards describing a mixture of common 
and scarce butterflies. 

The publication starts with a foreword on the inside cover which describes how 
our butterfly fauna has been disappearing over only a few decades and gives 
percentage figures of decline for 10 species. It goes into how numerous insects have 
been decimated by changing woodland management especially coppicing, which has 
virtually stopped in the 20th century, and how most butterflies have disappeared 
because they cannot tolerate heavy shade. It concludes by saying that the priority is 
to restore open areas by re-coppicing and to encourage an uneven age structure 
within our woodlands. 

The poster guide gives brief details of how to recognize the various families of 
butterflies; there are line drawings of the seven main groups with the names of the 
various species within each group and brief details of what each family looks like. 
The inside pages have sixteen photographs of butterflies which look as though they 
have been taken in the field; in the main, these are of excellent quality. 

The booklet, on woodland management for butterflies, describes how various 
butterflies need different types of habitat and emphasizes the fact that an uneven 
structure would be best for all the species that live in our woods. It considers 'why 
manage for butterflies', and examines the historical link with coppicing, before 
contemplating various managements for coppices, high forest and woodland rides. In 
all it is quite an informative part of the package and is interspersed with further 
photographs. 

The four page leaflet on woodland management for moths is less colourful but 
nevertheless it has similar objectives concerning the management of the woodland 
environment for moths. 

The fifteen cards describing the butterflies are in the last section. Each has a 
distribution map which compares historic and present day locations together with 
foodplant and species information, what habitats are required and how to recognize 
and to conserve the insects with line drawings of butterflies and foodplants. This 
informative package should be recommended reading for anyone interested in 
woodland management and its natural history. The hope is that the recommenda- 
tions are actively taken. 

Roy McCormick 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 217 

THE 1994 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS— PART 1 REPORT 

Paul Waring 

Windmill View, 1366 Lincoln Road, Werrington, Peterborough PE4 6LS. 

Ladies and gentlemen, it has been a great pleasure to be President of this Society 
during its 122nd year. The Society's Pelham-Clinton Building at Dinton Pastures is 
now very much up and running and much less of Council's time this year has needed 
to be spent on issues related to its construction and management. Although there are 
still jobs carrying over from the move, and there has been a continuing saga of minor 
problems with the air conditioning system which has never completely settled down to 
smooth running, the Building is largely fulfilling our hopes for it and is very much an 
asset rather than seeming a liability. In a large measure this is due to the efficient way 
that Peter Baker, as Buildings Manager, and Peter Chandler, as Curator, have dealt 
with the matters of running and maintenance as they have arisen. I would very much 
like to thank these two gentlemen for their efforts on behalf of the Society. They are 
just two examples of the devoted and conscientious work put in by the officers and 
members of Council to ensure the smooth running of the Society's affairs. Our Society 
is fortunate in having a very strong team on Council, with each person working hard 
so that the Society can continue to provide and develop the services offered to the 
membership and to facilitate activities and projects which members wish to advance. 
You have heard the Officers' reports and I would like to thank each and every one for 
their efforts on behalf of the Society. Their work has made my job as President feel 
like driving a well maintained luxury car rather than the humbler vehicle in which I 
arrive at field meetings! My year as President has very much involved working with a 
responsive Council and I have been able to see a number of my contributions 
encouraged and developed. The chairing of the Council meetings at Baden-Powell 
House and the Society's indoor meetings at the Royal Entomological Society has been 
a stimulating and enjoyable experience and it has been an honour to write and sign 
letters and papers on behalf of the Society and to address the Society at the Annual 
Exhibition and Dinner at Imperial College, London. 

Our officers have reported some of the high-lights and features of the 1994/5 term 
in their reports. I was pleased to see the results of the Society's growing body of 
fieldwork at Dinton Pastures reviewed to the end of 1993 by Peter Chandler and 
published in our Journal during 1994 (7: 118-126). The paper contains a detailed 
map of the site to aid future recording work. 

The Society's role in invertebrate conservation has been actively discussed 
throughout the year and continues to develop. A review by Stephen Miles of the 
outcome of a special meeting on the subject in 1992 was published in our Journal in 
January 1995 (8: 19-26) and Council is resolved to assist in the advancement of 
conservation objectives throughout the various activities of the Society. 

The Society's position on collecting and exhibition of threatened and scarce species 
was discussed and re-emphasized in the Journal (7: 141-144), and an up-dated list of 
"Red data book" macro-moths was included. 

Inter-relations with other entomological societies have been developed during the 
year, including a number of joint field meetings with Butterfly Conservation, about 
which more later, and the Society's activities have been promoted in more general, as 
well as entomological, publications. 

During the year the Diptera Recording Schemes set up a Dipterists' Forum to 
provide a new administrative structure for production of news-sheets, bulletins and the 
Dipterists' Digest and to continue to promote the study of flies and the mapping of 



218 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

their distributions throughout the British Isles. The group approached our society with 
a view to affiliation and to obtain financial help in getting started, mainly for small 
loans to make advance payments that would be recouped from sales and membership 
subscriptions. The affiliation has proceeded and similar arrangements are likely to be 
considered to assist and develop other special interest groups within entomology. 

Investment of the Society in a computer this year opens the way for improved 
indexing of the Library and Collections and much greater use of the data we hold, as 
well as enabling new activities. The purchase of the Recorder data-base will enable 
full species lists from field meetings and other work to be annotated and produced by 
and for members for recording schemes, land-owners and personal use, so don't miss 
the demonstration of this program at the workshop meeting on 8 April. 

At the end of 1994 I proposed to Council the idea of mounting a BENHS 
Expedition, which, if well-received, might become a regular event and an addition to 
the Society's activities. The idea is to visit British and former British dependent 
territories with a strong invertebrate conservation aim in mind and I shall expand on 
this in Part 2 of this Address. Council have approved this idea in principle and a 
notice to members will appear in the next issue of the Journal. 

I have also suggested the development of a BENHS "logo" to be attached to 
certain products of the Society for greater recognition of the Society's activities. Our 
member Rob Dyke is currently working on some designs to be put before Council. I 
hope the logo will take its place among those of other organisations and may be seen 
on the covers of the Surrey Invertebrate Atlases and similar projects which the 
Society is supporting. I trust this will not be seen by any members as an undesirable 
concession to the late 20th century but rather as part of a noble tradition extending 
back to heraldic crests and coats of arms, if you would prefer! 

Two problems with wide-reaching implications for field entomologists were 
reported by members during my term of office and I have responded to each on 
behalf of the Society. The first concerns a member who was recording moths at a 
light trap in good faith in a province of Spain, having a permit for a neighbouring 
province but having been previously informed that none was necessary for the area in 
which he was then working. This year he was charged for having contravened recent 
Spanish legislation which is said to prohibit capture of insects, even in live traps from 
which they are released after recording. A large fine was threatened. The gentleman 
in question has no connections with any trade in insects and has done a large amount 
of moth recording both in Britain and in Continental Europe which has been of 
direct benefit to nature conservation, including valuable surveys of nature reserves. 
Furthermore he does not take long series of any species from a site. He is well-known 
to me and I had no hesitation in providing a character reference. On behalf of this 
Society I wrote a very full letter to the Spanish authorities, which was kindly 
translated by a Spanish member of Societas europaea Lepidopterologica, explaining 
the valuable contribution that is being made by volunteer moth recorders including 
this man. I have also requested details of the legislation in question and addresses of 
the offices to which one must apply for any necessary permission so that we can 
advise our members of the correct procedure and facilitate their recording activity. I 
am pleased to report that all charges against the individual in question have been 
dropped. However, at the time of writing I have not received details of the contact 
points for permits. I hope this issue will be resolved shortly. 

The second worrying development occurred when another well-respected member 
of this Society applied to renew his natural history permit for 1995 for Forestry 
Commission sites in the South Downs District of Forest Enterprise, where he has 
already done agreat deal of recording work, the results of which he has written up 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 219 

and supplied freely to the district office. He was informed that from 1 January 1995 
an administrative charge would be levied by this Forest Enterprise District to deal 
with such permits and he was asked to pay £10, which, under protest, he duly did, at 
the same time reporting this matter to our Society and to his MP. Gravely concerned, 
I immediately contacted several members of the Forestry Commission and have 
established that this move is not a national ruling and is peculiar to South Downs 
District who originated the idea. My FC contacts were as concerned as I and were 
largely unaware of this insensitive development. It seemed quite ridiculous when at 
the same time other parts of the organization are offering grants to cover the travel 
costs of naturalists to encourage biological recording on FC holdings. Charging for 
natural history permits would severely undermine the credibility of the pro- 
conservation stance the FC has been endeavouring to develop and promote in recent 
years. At the time of writing, I have received an assurance from a senior officer (Mr 
R. Leslie, Regional Environmental Manager for Forest Enterprise South and West, 
Avon Fields House, Somerdale, Keysham, Bristol, BS18 2BD) within the FC that 
this matter will be cleared up and that it will not be necessary to pay for permits for 
genuine natural history recording. He has promised to see that our member receives 
a refund and a £50 grant for 1995. If any other members find themselves being asked 
to pay for such permissions, (please contact the regional environmental manager). I 
will be pleased to provide details of this FC contact so that he can investigate. 

During the year seven of our members have passed away, including several 
particularly well-known figures within this Society. 

Gaston Prior died on 1 April, after a protracted illness. He was a past President of 
this Society (1978), held posts on Council and was a frequent attender of indoor 
meetings and the Annual Exhibition. Gaston's great love was the larvae of pug 
moths Eupithecia spp. and he was engaged in a joint work on this group with Adrian 
Riley until Gaston's illness made further contribution impossible. Many members 
will recall his London days but it was on his retirement to Woodstock in 
Oxfordshire, that I first got to know Gaston. Following the move he immediately 
became involved with the Oxford University Entomological Society, Woodstock 
Museum and the Hope Collections, engaging in many days of voluntary curation 
work at the latter. During the late 1970s and mid 1980s I went beating larvae with 
Gaston on a number of occasions. He would always turn up with one of his proud 
possessions, an old beating tray that had once belonged to the late Baron Charles de 
Worms, for whom he held a great respect. Many times I would give him lifts back 
from Oxford to Woodstock and he would sit cursing, in his inimitable way, the local 
bus company for not operating a late service to get him back from evening meetings. 
Gaston would often refer to entomological work done in the forties and it was some 
time before I realized that he was talking about the 1840s! I would like to thank you 
Gaston, above all, for imparting to me a proper sense of historical perspective! 

Basil MacNulty died suddenly on 12 April, aged seventy nine, at his home in 
Rhossili, on the Gower Peninsula. Basil was an honorary member of the BENHS, a 
long-standing member of Council, Secretary between 1961 and 1968 and President in 
1970. He was perhaps best known to many current members as organizer of the 
Annual Dinner and proposer of the toast to "The Founding Fathers". Basil worked 
for many years as a research chemist in various parts of Britain, and, between 1952 
and 1958, in Nigeria, which enabled him to form a large collection of West African 
insects, especially Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. He later published many of the 
entomological results of his time in Africa. At the time of his death he was working 
on the larvae of African lasiocampid moths to complement his earlier work on 
African lymantriids and I often used to meet him at the Natural History Museum 



220 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

amongst cabinets of furry caterpillars. He also had a substantial involvement with 
the forthcoming volumes on geometrid moths for the series Moths and Butterflies of 
Great Britain and Ireland (Heath and Emmet, 1976 onwards), 

Ian (R.I.) Lorimer died suddenly on 31 May, aged seventy four, at his home in 
Orkney. Ian was perhaps best known to many as the author of The Lepidoptera of the 
Orkney Islands, published in 1983. He also wrote many of the sections on noctuid 
moths in volumes 9 and 10 of the Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. 
Ian started his involvement with Orkney long before he moved there permanently 
from London. He is fondly remembered for being tremendously helpful to other 
lepidopterists and welcomed visitors to Orkney. He wrote many detailed and helpful 
letters and sent lists of records to myself and others and did a great deal to promote 
the study of Lepidoptera in the northern Isles. 

Jack Newton died on 6 July, aged eighty-seven, after extended illness. Jack was 
probably best known to members as the author, with Guy Meredith, of the 
Macrolepidoptera of Gloucestershire, published in 1984 by the Cotteswold 
Naturalists' Field Club. The following year his supplement to Clutterbuck and 
Bainbridge-Fletcher's Microlepidoptera of Gloucestershire was published by the 
same Society. Jack was equally adept with both macro- and micro-moths and was 
the county moth recorder for Gloucestershire. He regularly attended our Annual 
Exhibitions, at which he presented some notable exhibits. I came to know Jack late 
in his life but enjoyed several long telephone conversations with him on various 
subjects and it was as a result of Jack's work that I discovered the colony of 
barberry carpet moths Pareulype berberata in Gloucestershire (Ent. Rec. 103: 287- 
292). Jack leaves behind an extensive body of data from many years of industrious 
recording in the county. His fine collection has been left to the Reading Museum 
and Art Gallery. 

Ian Guy Farwell died on 26 August aged seventy-four. He joined this Society in 
1947 and was a devotee of the Annual Exhibition. He was for many years a stalwart 
of the Lymington Natural History Society, leading many field trips to the local 
marshes, the Isle of Wight and his beloved New Forest and Communicating his 
enthusiasm to others. Ian was a general naturalist with a particular interest in 
butterflies and the larger moths, and he collected a number of striking aberrations 
including two halved gynandromorph silver-washed Fritillaries Argynnis paphia 
taken in the New Forest in 1939. 

Bill (W. E.) Minnion died in early September after an unsuccessful heart by-pass 
operation. Bill was a good friend of the late Bernard Goodban and together they 
were perhaps best known for the discovery of the balsam carpet moth Xanthorhoe 
biriviata in Britain. I first came across Bill as the author of a note he wrote in 1952 on 
the discoveries being made with the new mercury light traps (Ent. Rec. 64: 182). Bill 
was active in the Ruislip Natural History Society and gathered an impressive list of 
macro- and micro-lepidoptera for the area. 

Robert St Leger OBE died at the end of the year, aged sixty-eight. He had a long 
career in the Colonial Service where he gained a reputation as incorruptible and 
unflappable. He was a passionate lepidopterist and his postings enabled him to 
collect widely in the tropics. He amassed a huge collection of butterflies and moths — 
one of the largest in private hands in Britain — and this has been left to the Natural 
History Museum, London. His specialism was the butterflies of West Africa and the 
Caribbean and he discovered several new species and subspecies. Charaxes legeri was 
named after him and Liptena priscilla after his wife. 

The Society is always sad to lose members, for whatever reason, and some of the 
above were leading lights. We have already stood in memory of these people at 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 221 

previous meetings so I shall not ask you to do so now. At the same time it is 
encouraging that a steady stream of new members are coming into the Society and 
we hope that they will enjoy long membership and be able to make valuable 
contributions. 



BOOK REVIEW 

The butterflies and moths of Berkshire by B. R. Baker. Hedera Press, 1994, 
xxxi + 368 pp, 3 monochrome plates, 2 maps, A5, hardback, £25. — It would be hard 
to find another entomologist with credentials as impressive as those of Brian Baker 
to compile a new county list for the Lepidoptera of Berkshire (Watsonian vice- 
county 22), a venture originally inspired by the author's curatorial work on Reading 
Museum's Lepidoptera collections. A native of the county, he has served as Deputy 
Director of Reading Museum, President of the Reading and District Natural History 
Society, President of the British Entomological and Natural History Society as well 
as being involved in the founding of the Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and 
Oxfordshire Naturalists' Trust. 

The book's cover profile of the author states that "the field, laboratory and library 
studies resulting in his writing of The butterflies and moths of Berkshire have been the 
culmination of a life-time's work and dedication." There can be little argument with 
that nor with the superb quality of the end product. 

The foundation document for this new list is The Victoria county history of 
Berkshire published in 1906, which credited Berkshire with 1261 species of 
Lepidoptera. The subsequent addition of just over 400 species, bringing the total 
to a figure which represents almost two-thirds of the species-total for the British Isles, 
illustrates the entomological significance of the county. 

Deliberately intended as a companion volume to Barry Goater's The butterflies 
and moths of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight (1974), the format follows that of the 
earlier work. A welcome addition is the use of Bradley and Fletcher log-book 
numbers in the list of records and in the indexes, facilitating easy reference to species. 

The brief introductory chapters include notes on the geology and habitat-range of 
the county, comments on the assessment and presentation of the records and a 
bibliography. Especially enjoyable in this section are the cameos of early Berkshire 
lepidopterists. We see the remarkable dedication and expertise of these early 
collectors, who worked without the aid of high-tech equipment and ease of transport 
available to the modern entomologist. 

Some local lists are rather like telephone directories to use — name, location, 
number — and are about as interesting to read. Here however we have a wealth of 
data, exhaustively researched and meticulously presented, giving us a summary of 
both the historical and the current status and distribution. Presentation of data is 
locality-based (so much more interesting than dots in squares!) and an index of place 
names giving four-figure grid references is provided. As well as localities, dates 
recorded and recorders' names are listed. Occasional annotations to the records give 
comments on doubtful records, reasons for a species' decline or anticipation of 
possible wider distribution of a species in VC22. 

The author's own superb colour photographs of Apatura iris (L.), which adorn the 
book's covers, set the seal on a wonderfully impressive work of reference. 
Unquestionably the standard by which all other local lists should be judged. 

Stephen Pittis 



222 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 

DISTRIBUTION OF THE SOCIETY'S JOURNAL 

David Young, Distribution Secretary 
9 Marten Place, Tilehurst, Reading, Berkshire RG3 6FB 

Copies of this journal are distributed on publication to all members whose 
subscriptions are not in arrears. 

Approximately every 2 years the Society publishes a membership list which shows 
the names and addresses of all members resident in the United Kingdom and 
throughout the world, the list also giving brief details of their principal areas of 
interest or study. What the membership list does not show are the considerable 
numbers of universities, libraries, entomological and other organizations which also 
receive copies of the Journal. Taken together it can be seen that original papers 
published in the Journal are received by most of the principal scientific and academic 
institutions in the United Kingdom, Western Europe and North America in addition 
to some in the Far East, Australia and New Zealand. 

Under the Copyright Act 1911 publishers have an obligation to deposit one 
copy of each publication with the Legal Deposit Office of The British Library. Five 
other libraries: Bodleian Library, Oxford; Cambridge University Library; National 
Library of Scotland; Trinity College, Dublin, and National Library of Wales are also 
entitled to receive copies of publications under the terms of the same Copyright Act. 
For reasons which elude me this society deals directly with the National Library of 
Wales but uses the good services of the Copyright Libraries Agency (Mr A. T. Smail) 
for depositing copies with the other libraries mentioned. 

In a small number of cases the Society has exchange agreements with other natural 
history societies under which publications are exchanged without payment of annual 
subscriptions or cover charges. Such agreements are approved by Council and 
reviewed periodically by our Hon. Librarian. Copies of publications received are 
deposited in our Library at the Pelham-Clinton Building at Dinton Pastures. 

In other cases organizations pay for their copies of the Journal and are invoiced 
directly, or via their subscription agent, by our Hon. Sales Secretary. 

As none of the names of these organizations are listed in the biennial membership 
list, it may be of interest to members and authors to list them here. 

Universities 

Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, Berlin, Universita Cattolica, Piacenza, Italy. 

Germany. Universita di Bari, Bari, Italy. 

Leicester University, Leicester, England. Universita di Bologna, Bologna, Italy. 

Memorial University of Newfoundland, Universita degli Studi Di Roma, Roma, 

Newfoundland, Canada. Italy. 

Michigan State University, Michigan, Universities und Stadtbibliothek Koln, 

USA. Germany. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Universitetets Zoologisk Museum, 

Harvard University, USA. Copenhagen, Denmark. 

North Carolina State University, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Selangor, 

Raleigh, USA. Malaysia. 

Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, University of California, Berkeley, 

USA. California, USA. 

Trinity College, Dublin, Eire. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



University of Cambridge, Cambridge, 

England. 
University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, 

USA. 
University of Minnesota, St. Paul, 

Minnesota, USA. 



University of Oxford, Oxford, England. 
University of Toronto, Toronto, 

Ontario, Canada. 
Yale University, New Haven, 

Connecticut, USA. 



Libraries 



Albert R. Mann Library, Ithaca, New 

York, USA. 
British Library, Legal Deposit Office, 

W. Yorks. 
National Library of Scotland, 

Edinburgh, Scotland. 



National Library of Wales, 

Aberystwyth, Wales. 
Senckenbergische Bibliothek, Frankfurt, 

Germany. 
USDA National Agriculture Library, 

Beltsville, USA. 



Museums 



American Museum of Natural History, 

New York, USA. 
British Museum (Natural History), 

London, England. 
City Museum & Art Gallery, Bristol, 

England. 
Colchester & Essex Museum Resource 

Centre, Colchester, Essex, England. 
Dundee Museum, Dundee, Scotland. 
Field Museum of Natural History, 

Chicago, USA. 
Herbert Art Gallery & Museum, 

Coventry, England. 
Hope Department of Entomology, 

University Museum, Oxford, 

England. 
Horniman Museum, Forest Hill, 

London, England. 
Museo Civico di Storia Natural, Genoa, 

Italy. 
Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, 

Madrid, Spain. 



National Museum of Ireland, Dublin, 

Eire. 
National Museums of Scotland, 

Edinburgh, Scotland. 
National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, 

Wales. 
Naturhistorisch Museum, Wien, 

Austria. 
Naturhistorisk Museum, Aarhus, 

Denmark. 
North Herts Museums Service, Hitchin, 

Herts., England. 
Royal Albert Museum, Exeter, Devon, 

England. 
Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde, 

Stuttgart, Germany. 
Staatliches Museum fur Tierkunde, 

Dresden, Germany. 
United States National Museum, 

Washington D.C. USA. 



Entomological societies 



Alexanor, Saint-Cyr-la-Riviere, France. 
Amateur Entomologists Society, 

Orpington, Kent, England. 
American Entomological Society, 

Philadelphia, USA. 
Associone Romana di Entomologia, 

Roma, Italy. 
Balfour-Browne Club, Ayr, Scotland. 
Butterfly Conservation, Wareham, 

Dorset, England 



Derbyshire Entomological Society, 

Newhall, Burton-upon-Trent, 

Staffordshire, England. 
Entomological Society of Ontario, 

Ontario, Canada. 
Entomologische Gesellschaft, Munchen, 

Germany. 
Entomologische Verein Apollo, 

Kelkheim, Germany. 



224 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 8: 1995 



Lancashire & Cheshire Entomological 

Society, Liverpool, England. 
Lepidopterists' Society, Los Angeles, 

USA. 
Linneana Belgica, Vilvoorde, Belgium. 
Nederlandische Entomologische 

Vereinigung, Amsterdam, Holland. 
Royal Entomological Society of 

London, London, England. 
Sociedad Entomologia Aragonesa, 



Zaragoza, Spain. 
Societas Entomologica Fennica, 

Helsinki, Finland. 
Societe Entomologique de France, Paris, 

France. 
Tauschstelle Entomofauna, Miinchen, 

Germany. 
Vlaamse Vereniging voor Entomologie, 

Antwerpen, Belgium. 



Natural history societies 



Birmingham Natural History Society, 

Birmingham, England. 
Croydon Natural History Society, South 

Croydon, Surrey, England. 
Dorset Natural History Society, 

Dorchester, Dorset, England. 
Essex Field Club, Chelmsford, Essex, 

England. 
Hastings & East Sussex Natural History 

Society, Hastings, England. 
Leicester Literary & Philosophical 

Society, Leicester, England. 



London Natural History Society, 

London, England. 
Norfolk & Norwich Naturalists' Society, 

Norwich, Norfolk, England. 
Societe Jersiaise, St Helier, Jersey, 

Channel Isles. 
Societe Linneenne de Lyon, Lyon, 

France. 
Suffolk Naturalists' Society, Ipswich, 

Suffolk, England. 



Other organizations 



Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada. 

Biosis UK, York, England. 

C.A.B. International, Ascot, Berkshire, 

England. 
Countryside Council for Wales, Bangor, 

Wales. 
C.S.I. R.O., Canberra, Australia. 
Departimento di Entomologia e 

Zoologia Agraria, Portici, Italy. 
English Nature, Peterborough, England. 
Florida Department of Agriculture & 

Consumer Services, Gainesville, 

Florida, USA. 
IB Norgaard, Lyngby, Denmark. 
Institut fur Pflanzenschutzforschung, 

Berlin, Germany. 
Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de 

Belgique, Bruxelles, Belgium. 



Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Monks 

Wood, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, 

England. 
Landessammlungen fur Naturkunde, 

Karlsruhe, Germany. 
M.A.F.F., Harpenden, Hertfordshire, 

England. 
Mount Albert Research Centre, 

Auckland, New Zealand. 
Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, Eire. 
Swets Subscription Service, Abingdon, 

Oxfordshire, England. 
U.S. Department of Agriculture, 

Washington D.C. USA. 
Zoological Society of London, London, 

England. 



ACKNOWLEDGEM ENT 

I am grateful for the help and assistance given by Roger Hawkins, Hon. Sales 
Secretary, in the preparation of this short article. 



INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS 

General. Contributions must be typed double-spaced on one side only on A4 paper with 3-cm 
margins either side to facilitate marking up. Layout should follow that of the Journal, but apart 
from underlining scientific names, no marks should be made to define typeface. 

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insect invertebrates and other animals. 

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References. In the text, references should give author and year, (e.g. Allan, 1947); multiple 
references (e.g. Kendall, 1982; Smith, 1989; Baker, 1994) should be listed in date order. But 
references should be listed in alphabetical order at the end of the article. Book titles take only an 
initial capital letter. Journal titles are abbreviated in the style of the World List, but with each 
word taking an initial capital. Examples: 

Allan, P. B. M. 1947. A moth-hunter's gossip. 2nd edn, Watkins and Doncaster, London, p. 149. 
Baker, P. 1994. The modified status of Strymonidia w-album (Knoch) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in 

north west Surrey. Br. J. Em. Nat. Hist. 7: 25-26. 
Jones, R. A. 1994. [Bilobed inflorescences of Plantago lanceolata L. Exhibit at BEHNS Annual 

Exhibition 1993.] Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 7: 179. 
Kendall, P. 1982. Bromius obscurus (L.) in Britain (Col., Chrysomelidae). Entomologist's Mon. Mag. 

117 (1981): 233-234. 
Pratt, C. R. & Emmet, A. M. 1989. Polygonia. In: Emmet, A. M. & Heath, J. (Eds). The moths and 

butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Harley Books, Colchester, Vol. 7, Part 1, pp. 212-215. 
Smith, K. G. V. 1989. An introduction to the immature stages of British flies: Diptera larvae, with 

notes on eggs, puparia and pupae. Handbk Ident. Br. Insects 10(14): 1-280. 
Stubbs, A. E. 1987. Oxycera dives. In: Shirt, D. B. (Ed.). British red data books: 2. Insects. Nature 

Conservancy Council, Peterborough, pp. 304-305. 
Stubbs, A. E. & Falk, S. J. 1983. British hoverflies: an illustrated identification guide. BEHNS, 

London, pp. 191-192. 
West, B. K. 1994. The time of appearance of Lancanobia oleracea L. (Lep.:Noctuidae) in the British 

Isles. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 106: 81-84. 

Offprints Authors of main articles qualify for 25 free offprints taken directly from the 
Journal. These may contain extraneous matter such as short communications or book reviews 
used as 'fillers'. Extra copies must be ordered when proofs are returned. 



NEW PUBLICATIONS FROM THE AMATEUR ENTOMOLOGISTS' SOCIETY 
A COLEOPTERIST'S HANDBOOK (3rd Edition— 1991) 

A completely new publication to which leading British coleopterists have contributed 
chapters. Part I deals with the practical aspects of collecting, curating and studying beetles. Part 
II consists of chapters on each of the beetle families prepared by experts in each group. Part III 
considers beetle associations — with plants, ants and stored foodstuffs. Beetle larvae are dealt 
with in Part IV which describes and illustrates the morphology of family types, their habitats 
and methods of rearing. Part V gives advice on recording methods and on the conservation of 
Coleoptera. There is a detailed glossary and an index of genera referred to in the text. Each 
chapter has details of appropriate books and papers of reference. Hardback, 294 pp. Price £14 
including postage and packing. To order please send cheque or postal order made payable to 
"AES Publications" at The Hawthorns, Frating Road, Great Bromley, COLCHESTER C07 7JN. 
Tel 0206 251600. 



BRITISH JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY 
VOLUME 8, PART 4, OCTOBER 1995 

ARTICLES 

161 Panoquina panoquinoides eugeon Skinner (Lepidoptera: Hespiridae) from the Windward 

Islands, Lesser Antilles. D. Corke 
165 The effects of cattle poaching on insects living at the margin of the River Itchen, Hampshire. 

C. M. Drake 
171 A correction to Butterfly Conservation's claimed attitudes in invertebrate conservation. 

A. E. Stubbs 
222 Distribution of the Society's journal. D. Young 

PROCEEDINGS AND TRANSACTIONS 

170 BENHS workshop 

175 Obituary of Basil Joseph MacNulty. A. J. Pickles 

177 1994 Annual Exhibition, Imperial College, London SW7— 22 October 1994 

177 British butterflies 210 Odonata 

181 British Macrolepidoptera 210 Dermaptera 

188 British Microlepidoptera 211 Neuroptera 

194 Foreign Lepidoptera 211 Mecoptera 

198 Diptera 211 Siphonaptera 

201 Coleoptera 21 1 Arachnida 

207 Hemiptera 212 Illustrations 

207 Hymenoptera 

213 Corrigendum to 1992 Annual Exhibition report 

214 BENHS field meetings 

217 The 1994 Presidential Address— Part 1. Report. P. Waring 

LETTER TO THE EDITOR 

169 County names. J. Morgan 

BOOK REVIEWS 

216 New life for old woods, by Butterfly Conservation. R. F. McCormick 
221 The butterflies and moths of Berkshire by B. R. Baker. S. Pirns 

ANNOUNCEMENT 

174 A national pyralid recording scheme 



JANUARY 1996 



ISSN 0952-7583 



Vol. 9, Part 1 



BRITISH JOURNAL OF 

ENTOMOLOGY 

AND NATURAL HISTORY 




BRITISH JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY 

Published by the British Entomological and Natural History Society 
and incorporating its Proceedings and Transactions 

Editor: 

Richard A. Jones, B.Sc, F.R.E.S., F.L.S. 
13 Bellwood Road 

Nunhead 

London SE15 3DE 

(Tel: 0171 732 2440) 

(Fax: 0171 277 8725) 

Editorial Committee: 

Rev. D. J. L. Agassiz, M.A., Ph.D. T. G. Howarth, B.E.M., F.R.E.S. 

R. D. G. Barrington, B.Sc. I. F. G. McLean, Ph.D., F.R.E.S 

P. J. Chandler, B.Sc, F.R.E.S. M. J. Simmons, M.Sc. 

B. Goater, B.Sc, M.I. Biol. T. R. E. Southwood, K. B., D.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

A. J. Halstead, M.Sc. R. W. J. Uffen, M.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

R. D. Hawkins, M.A. B. K. West, B.Ed. 

P. J. Hodge 



British Journal of Entomology and Natural History is published by the British Entomological and 
Natural History Society, Dinton Pastures Country Park, Davis Street, Hurst, Reading, Berkshire 
RG10 OTH, UK. Tel: 01734-321402. 
The Journal is distributed free to BENHS members. 

© 1996 British Entomological and Natural History Society. 

Typeset by Dobbie Typesetting Limited, Tavistock, Devon. 
Printed in England by Henry Ling Ltd, Dorchester, Dorset. 

BRITISH ENTOMOLOGICAL AND NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 
Registered charity number: 213149 

Meetings of the Society are held regularly in London, at the rooms of the Royal Entomological 
Society, 41 Queen's Gate, London SW7 and the well-known ANNUAL EXHIBITION is 
planned for a Saturday in October 1996 at Imperial College, London SW7. Frequent Field 
Meetings are held at weekends in the summer. Visitors are welcome at all meetings. The current 
Programme Card can be had on application to the Secretary, R. F. McCormick, at the address 
given below. 

The Society maintains a library, and collections at its headquarters in Dinton Pastures, which 
are open to members on various advertised days each month, telephone 01734-321402 for the 
latest meeting news. 

Applications for membership to the Membership Secretary: A. Godfrey, 10 Moorlea Drive, 
Baildon, Shipley, West Yorkshire BD17 6QL. 

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Cover illustration: The forest bug, Pentatoma rufipes (L.), on an oak leaf. Photo: R. A. Jones. 

NOTE: The Editor invites submission of photographs for black and white reproduction on the 
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BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 

[E SOCIETY'S 'NEW LOGO 

Richard A. Jones 

ood Road, Nunhead, London SE15 3DE. 

It will not be long before members begin to notice a strange 
device adorning BENHS letterheads, notices, books, and yes, 
even the front cover of the Society's journal. At first sight it 
may appear vaguely familiar, but at the same time it will seem 
different and new. A few words of explanation are perhaps in 
order, for current members and hopefully, those in the future 
reading through their back issues trying to get a flavour of the 
history of the Society as it was towards the end of the 
twentieth century. 

At a recent Council meeting, it was suggested that the 
Society ought to have a readily recognized logo* which could appear on its 
letterheads, on official documents, on promotional material, on its publications or 
those from other organizations which it supported, on its journal, or even, and this 
was quite a radical suggestion, on tee-shirts, sweatshirts or other ephemera. Other 
entomological and natural history societies have their own emblems so why not the 
BENHS? 

There were various suggestions, but it was immediately pointed out that the 
Society already had a logo of sorts — the peculiar beast woven into the Society's 
official tie. However, this design lacked the name of the Society. After much debate 
and discussion on how to proceed it was decided to incorporate the insect in question 
with a typographic representation of the Society's name in some compact form. 
Having come to the Society's aid previously for designs of Christmas cards, cover 
illustrations for the journal and the like, Rob Dyke volunteered to draw up some 
design suggestions. In the mean time, I tried to do some research on a question that 
had long been at the back of my mind — what animal is it anyway? 

At first glance, the long-tailed moth-like insect is obviously a member of the exotic 
neuropteran family, Nemopteridae. These relatives of lacewings and ant-lions are 
characterized by broad forewings, long narrow hindwings and a lazy flapping flight. 
None occurs in Britain, so how could such a curious creature have been adopted by a 
'British' society? The exact answer is still lost in time, but a few details quickly 
emerged even though they were contradictory. 

The BENHS ties first appeared in the early 1960s when the Society was still the old 
'South London'. Barry Goater was a Council member at the time and remembers 
Arthur Smith being asked to come up with a design for the tie. The design was done, 
the ties made and we still have them today. According to Barry the question of the 
beast's identity was regularly asked at the time and Smith would earnestly reply that 
it was merely a stylized insect and was not meant to represent any particular species, 
from overseas, from Britain or even from South London. 



*The word logo is an abbreviation of logotype. In the days of hand typesetting, when each 
metal letter was laboriously selected from trays of type and laid out to form words, sentences 
and ultimately pages, only a limited number of typefaces was available. If a publisher wished to 
have a specially designed typeface for a particular trademark or colophon it was separately cast 
in metal as a complete word; this small, often decorative, word-block was called a logotype, 
from the Greek logos meaning word and typos meaning impression. 



2 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

However, John Bradley, who knew Smith well, could not imagine him drawing 
anything other than the precise anatomically perfect pictures for which he was well 
known, and is certain that it must have been a painstaking study of an individual 
taxon. At first, it was supposed that the insect in question was the Iberian species 
Nemoptera bipennis which appears in European field guides. But that species has a 
significantly different wing shape as do others in the family. 

Smith is no longer with us and any original sketches or drawings are gone. In order 
to create a new logo a new drawing must be made, but the mystery surrounding the 
exact nature of the insect still remains; a compromise must be made. 

The result, a new stylized version drawn by Rob Dyke, is an echo of Arthur 
Smith's original design, as it appears on the Society's ties, and also from a menu of 
the 1972 annual dinner — the Society's centenary. 

The logo will start to appear on documents, publications and wherever the Society 
has an input and by its very nature it will increase awareness of the Society in this 
visual age. 

Acknowledgements 

The thanks of the Society are due to Rob Dyke who drew the design and Shirley 
Wheeler a typographer and graphic artist who set the lettering. My thanks are due to 
Barry Goater and John Bradley for their help in trying to track down the memory of 
Arthur Smith. 



SHORT COMMUNICATION 



A second record of Ctenophora flaveolata (F.) (Diptera: Tipulidae) in Gloucester- 
shire. — On the morning of 9.V.1994 a single male of this species was swept from the 
edge of pasture woodland at Overtown, near Cranham Common in the Cotswolds, 
East Gloucestershire (VC33), grid reference SO900122. This represents the second 
record for this rare species in the county following its discovery at Cirencester Park 
Woods on 6.V.1990, also in VC33 but located approximately 10 km to the south-east 
of Overtown (Alexander, 1991). Godfrey (1994) has also reported the recent 
occurrence of this species from the neighbouring county of Oxfordshire. 

C. flaveolata appears to be associated with large over-mature trees, especially 
beech (Stubbs, 1987). Although the woodland at Overtown was dominated by a 
growth of fairly young sycamore with very little dead timber, apart from a few small 
branches, a few mature beech and ash trees were present together with some old moss 
covered stumps located in partial shade. It seems likely that these old rotten stumps 
will have provided suitable habitat for the larval development of C '. flaveolata — A. P. 
Foster, The National Trust, 33 Sheep Street, Cirencester, Glos. GL7 1QW. 

References 

Alexander, K. N. A. 1991. Ctenophora flaveolata (F.) (Diptera: Tipulidae) new to 

Gloucestershire. Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 4: 64. 
Godfrey, A. 1994. Ctenophora flaveolata (F.) (Diptera: Tipulidae) from the Warburg Reserve, 

Oxon. Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 7: 26. 
Stubbs, A. E. 1987. In: Shirt, D. B. (Ed.) British red data books: 2. Insects. Nature Conservancy 

Council, Peterborough, p. 296. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 3 

HETEROPTERA RECORDING IN WALES DURING 1993 AND 1994 

Keith N. A. Alexander and Andrew P. Foster 

The National Trust, 33 Sheep Street, Cirencester, Gloucestershire GL7 1QW. 



The work of the National Trust's Biological Survey Team took us to a wide variety 
of properties scattered across Wales for much of the 1993 and 1994 field seasons. 
During this time we found a good selection of the local specialities as well as some 
surprises. 

The following lists give details of the localities, and, where appropriate, additional 
comments on the distribution and habitat associations. Three species, Trapezonotus 
ullrichi (Fieb.), Pachybrachius luridus (Hahn) and Pionosomus varius (Wolff, J. F.), 
are of British Red Data Book status (Kirby, 1992a). 

South-western specialities 

Enoplops scapha (F.) (Coreidae). An adult plus numerous nymphs were found on a 
clump of sea mayweed growing on the face of head cliffs at Porthysgo on Llyn, 
Caernarvonshire (SH208264), 15.vii.1993. We are aware of no published records for 
this species from North Wales. However, there are two specimens from the region in 
the collections at Leicester Museum: Porth Ceiriad, Llyn (SH307248), 19.viii.1985, 
J. H. Matthias, and 'cliffs opposite S. Stack', Anglesey, 21. ix. 1980, P. Lucas. It was 
also seen in S. Wales during 1994 where it is well known. 

Dicranocephalus agilis (Scop.) (Stenocephalidae). Adults found on the very small 
area of sand dune behind Traeth Penbryn, Cardiganshire (SN293524), 30.vi.1994 — it 
is not listed for the county in Kirby & Lambert (1990). Nymphs were also found on 
Euphorbia paralias L. growing on head cliff at Deep Slade, Pwlldhu Head, Gower, 
Glamorganshire (SS562869), 25.vii.1994. It is best known in Cornwall and Devon, 
but with a good scatter of records from West Wales, especially the dunes of the 
Castlemartin Peninsula, Pembrokeshire (Kirby, 1992b), Carmarthenshire and 
Caernarvonshire (Kirby, 1991). 

Trapezonotus ullrichi (Fieb.) (Lygaeidae). This species was discovered new to 
Wales by P. Kirby & S. Lambert on 25.vi.1990 along the south coast of the St 
David's Peninsula at Caerfai, Pembrokeshire, SM760253 (Kirby, 1992b). Kirby 
(pers. comm.) has subsequently found it on Pendine Cliffs, Carmarthenshire 
(SN233078), a single male on an ox-eye daisy flower beside cliff path, 15. vi. 1993. A 
single adult was found by K.N. A. A. also on an ox-eye daisy flower in an area of 
notably flowery maritime grassland on Porthlysgi Cliffs at SM735235, 23.vi.1994. 
The association with ox-eye daisy appears to be characteristic (Alexander & Grove, 
1991). 

Coastal and heathland specialities 

Corizus hyoscyami (L.) (Rhopalidae). Well known from sand dunes in Pembroke- 
shire, but a small colony was found on dry seacliff grassland with the Trapezonotus at 
Porthlysgi Cliffs. These were similarly found on ox-eye daisy 'flowerheads. 

Liorhyssus hyalinus (F.) (Rhopalidae). One taken on coastal heath, St David's 
Head (SM733280), 16. vi. 1994; found in Pembrokeshire only once before, by S. Judd 
in 1985/86 (in Kirby, 1992b). 



4 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

Pionosomus varius (Wolff, J. F.) (Lygaeidae). A speciality of the coastal sandhills 
of Kent, Pembrokeshire and Gower. Previous Gower records relate to Pennard, 
Llangennith and Whiteford Burrows (Kirby, 1992a) and Three Cliffs Bay (Kirby, 
1993, in Fowles, 1995). The last locality is rather imprecise, "but the grid reference 
given, SS538877, indicates the Pennard Burrows side of the bay. We can now add 
Nicholaston and Penmaen Burrows (SS523879 and 535881, respectively) on the 
western side of the bay, leaving very few of Gower's dune systems where it has not 
been recorded. 

Plinthisus brevipennis (Latr.) (Lygaeidae). A single adult was found in open 
western gorse and bell heather heathland at Mynydd y Graig, Llyn, Caernarvonshire 
(SH225265), 16.vii.1993. Although a common and widespread species of dry sandy 
heaths across the southern half of England, this appears to be scarce in Wales. The 
only other modern record in the north also comes from Llyn: Mynydd Cilan, 1992, 
A. P. Fowles; otherwise there are only a few very old records from Anglesey and 
Denbighshire (M. J. Morgan, pers. comm.). Even in Pembrokeshire there is only one 
record (Kirby, 1992b). 

Wetland specialities 

Pachybrachius luridus (Hahn) (Lygaeidae). A single specimen of this Red Data 
Book (Kirby, 1992a) bug was taken by sweep-netting in an area of grazed mire at 
Bryn-y-Bont, Nantmor, Caernarvonshire (SH598461), 29. vi. 1993. This area is at the 
uppermost end of the Glaslyn Marshes and is underlain by shallow peats and 
estuarine silts, formerly part of the estuary, but long-since drained and brought into 
agricultural use. Good quality acid mires persist here however, and are rich in both 
characteristic mire plants and invertebrates. P. luridus is mainly a New Forest species 
in Britain but has been found at a handful of other sites, including one other Welsh 
locality, Ynys-hir, Ceredigion. The Ynys-hir record was first published by Kirby 
(1992a) but without the details. It was actually found by A. E. Stubbs as long ago as 
September 1972 close to the RSPB Reserve Warden's house (SN678961). The two 
localities appear to be very similar in character, being mires on estuarine silts, Ynys- 
hir being on the Dovey Estuary. 

Capsodes gothicus (L.) (Miridae). This bug was discovered in Pembrokeshire only 
as recently as 1988, at Cwm Dewi, Dinas (Alexander & Hawkins, 1993). We found it 
at two further sites along the north coast: Gernos (SN 122484) and Treseissyllt 
(SM886363) Cliffs. It was also taken in Ceredigion at Mynachdy'r-Graig 
(SN554742), on Lotus uliginosus Schkuhr on clifftop, 28.vi.1994. 

Pasture- woodlands 

Xylocoris cursitcms (Fallen) (Anthocoridae). Adults were found beneath bark on 
the stump of a recently felled ash, within pasture-woodland, Berth-lwyd Farm, 
Breconshire, (SN915134), 27.vii.1994; also seen at Dolmelynllyn, Merioneth 
(SH7222) and Erddig Park, Denbighshire (SJ326482). It has a thinly scattered and 
localized distribution throughout Wales, and is a good indicator of long-established 
pasture-woodland sites and ancient woodlands. 

ACKNOWLEDGEM ENTS 

Our thanks to: Pete Kirby for his help in compiling this article and for permission 
to publish his record for Trapezonotus ullrichi; to Adrian Fowles and Joan Morgan 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 5 

for additional information on North Wales records, and Derek Lott for information 
on the Enoplops species held at Leicester Museum. 

References 

Alexander, K. N. A. & Grove, S. J. 1991. Heteroptera recording in Cornwall and Devon during 

1989 and 1990. Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 4: 119 121. 
Alexander, K. N. A. & Hawkins, R. D. 1993. Additions to the list of Pembrokeshire 

Heteroptera. Dyfed Invertebrate Group Newsletter No. 27: 5-6. 
Fowles, A. P. 1995. Records of Red Data Book invertebrates in Wales — 1993. In: Welsh 

Invertebrate Review — 1993. Countryside Council for Wales, Bangor. 
Kirby, P. 1991. A provisional list of the Heteroptera of Carmarthenshire (VC44). Dyfed 

Invertebrate Group Newsletter No. 23: 6-17. 
Kirby, P. 1992a. A review of the scarce and threatened Hemiptera of Great Britain. UK Nature 

Conservation No. 2, JNCC, Peterborough. 
Kirby, P. 1992b. A provisional list of the Heteroptera of Pembrokeshire (VC 45). Dyfed 

Invertebrate Group Newsletter No. 25: 20-33. 
Kirby, P. & Lambert, S. J. 1990. A provisional list of the Heteroptera of Ceredigion (VC 46). 

Dyfed Invertebrate Group Newsletter No. 17: 1-9. 



BOOK REVIEW 

The Dryinidae and Embolemidae (Hymenoptera: Cbrysidoidea) of Fennoscandia and 
Denmark, by M. Olmi. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 30, Leiden, E. J. Brill, 
1994, 100 pp (including 38 colour plates), hardback, NLG 100, about £42.— This 
book deals with one species of Embolemidae, which has never been reared, and 34 
species of Dryinidae in four subfamilies, all parasitoids of Homoptera: Auchenor- 
rhyncha (various groups of Cicadomorpha and Fulgoromorpha). Professor 
Massimo Olmi's work has transformed the classification and species-level taxonomy 
of these two families over the past 1 5-20 years and he is widely respected as the world 
authority. As is usual for the Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica series, the work 
focuses strongly on the fauna of Fennoscandia and Denmark, but there is a large 
overlap with the British fauna, and it is plainly indicated in the section on 
distributional records that all but six of the treated species are recorded from the 
British Isles. Unfortunately it is not possible to tell that only five British species 
{Anteon pseudohilare Burn, Anteon reticulatum Kieffer, Anteon scapulare (Haliday), 
Mystrophorus formicaeformis Ruthe and the more doubtful Dryinus collaris (L.) ) are 
not included: a shame, perhaps for all users, that this faunal summary, so clearly 
showing which Fennoscandian or Danish species occur in Germany and the British 
Isles, does not extend to indicating which species known in those neighbouring 
countries have yet to be found in the area of focus. 

Following a short history of work on the two families in north-west Europe, there 
is a brief section on the classification of Chrysidoidea, and a more thorough 
treatment of morphology (well illustrated by line drawings and SEMs) and 
comparative biology that culminates in an interesting section suggesting the 
evolutionary ecology behind the extreme morphological specializations in the front 
legs of female Dryinidae (except Aphelopus) in relation to host capture. Then come 
the keys and species level treatments, in which line drawings of female chelae (except, 
of course, Aphelopus in which the structure is absent) and male genitalia are given for 
each species and whole insect drawings are supplied of several. A separate listing of 
host-parasitoid records is unfortunately presented bald, with no indication of origin, 



6 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

repetition of occurrence, or any level of verification that may (or not) have been 
applied, leaving the reliability and significance of the recorded associations poorly 
guaranteed. Thirty-eight very space-consumptive colour plates comprising six good 
photos depicting life history and 30 whole (plus a few paft) insect drawings of 
pleasing quality, a summary chart of distribution records for each included species 
by province within the four countries with records also indicated for Germany and 
Great Britain, and a bibliography of 150 references complete the work. 

Despite considerable earlier input from British workers into knowledge of their 
biology and systematics, these insects have not been winning the hearts and minds of 
most aculeate hymenopterists in Britain in recent years. Of course, they are small and 
inconspicuous, but there have been other reasons: except for Aphelopinae and 
notwithstanding Olmi's comprehensive but relatively scarce work on the world fauna 
published in 1984 and 1989 (from which progress can in fact be made), our 1978 
checklist and the previously existing British identification literature (e.g. Perkins, 
1976, Handbk /dent. Br. Insects 6 (3a), which is not easy to use with confidence) 
contain some pretty bad muddles, in Anteoninae especially. Olmi is a lumper rather 
than a splitter, and his classification sinks a number of generic names (in Dryininae 
and Gonatopodinae) based on differences appreciable only in the female sex, and the 
British list has also been affected by the sinking of several species-level nominal taxa, 
as well as unexplained new records of Aphelopus querceus Olmi and Anteon exiguum 
(Haupt) from Britain in the present work (see Burn, 1995, Entomologist's Mon. Mag. 
131: 139 140). To the British worker especially, a check-list of species in which the 
full synonymy was reconciled at a glance would have been a very helpful addition, 
though to be fair perhaps the Fennoscandians and Danes don't need the 
unscrambling so badly. The keys seem reliable and this mostly excellent and 
authoritative book should surely provide a good basis for hauling this interesting and 
bizarre group of parasitoids back into strong focus for British hymenopterists. 

Mark R. Shaw 

BOOK REVIEW 

Scuttle flies, the Phoridae, by R. H. I. Disney. London, Chapman & Hall, 1994, 
xii + 468pp, hardback, £67.50 Regular readers of this journal will have noticed 
several papers over the years by Henry Disney, on a group of small, easily 
overlooked, hunchbacked flies, the phorids. With the same author's two Royal Ent. 
Soc. handbooks on the family already published, it might be wondered what more 
this prodigious entomologist could find to say about these diminutive creatures. The 
answer is "quite a lot". In contrast to Spartan descriptive keys, his new book offers 
an in-depth biological study to "a family of Hies whose diversity of larval lifestyles is 
apparently without rival among insect families". There are parasites, parasitoids, 
predators and saprophage scavengers; some are potential biological control agents, 
others are pests; they are aquatic, terrestrial and there is at least one intertidal 
species. After an extensive analysis of different lifestyles, habits and general biology, 
there are two huge keys and identification notes to 229 world genera. More than half 
of these genera are still known from only one sex, so many will turn out to be the 
"missing" sex of a previously described genus. The book concludes with a short 
methods chapter on collecting and preserving and 50 pages of references. This is a 
book for the specialist rather than the general entomologist, but such a detailed 
treatment will mean that if you ever want to know anything about phorids, you will 
know where to go in the library. 

R. A. Jones 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 7 

ON A COLLECTION OF BOMBUS AND PSITHYRUS PRINCIPALLY 

FROM SUTHERLAND, WITH NOTES ON THE NOMENCLATURE 

OR STATUS OF THREE SPECIES (HYMENOPTERA, APOIDEA) 

D. B. Baker 

Hope Entomological Collections, University Museum, Oxford OX1 3PW. 

Introduction 

A small collection of Bombus and Psithyrus was made by the present author and 
Mrs M. W. Baker at Inchnadamph, Sutherland, between 29 September and 2 
October 1964. The majority of the specimens were collected from Centaurea on 
meadowland near the SE corner of Loch Assynt (grid ref. NC 253218) [abbreviated 
below to Inchnadamph A] and along the path following the stream, AUt Poll an 
Droighinn, running down from Beinn Uidhe, at an altitude of c. 500-1250 ft 
[Inchnadamph B]. A few specimens were collected in the Inchnadamph National 
Nature Reserve (where it had been intended to collect, but where few plants were still 
in flower), in Gleann Dubh, c. 750 ft (NC 276205) [Inchnadamph C]. For specimens 
collected elsewhere, full data are given. Despite the late date, 79 specimens 
representing seven species were taken. It was noted that workers of several species of 
Bombus remained active until well after sunset in spite of the cold: Freuchen & 
Salomonsen (1959: 193) record that in the Arctic, in June, Bombus species, which 
here fly even in rain and fog, 'fly the twenty-four hours of the day, although about 
midnight the number diminishes for a few hours' (see for more detailed observations 
on arctic Bombus, and further references, Friese, 1908). 

The opportunity has been taken of recording also the Bombus and Psithyrus taken 
by the late C.H. Jowett, Esq., and Miss P.H. Jowett on Mull and Iona in 1962 and 
1963. These records are enclosed in square brackets. 

Species treatments 
Bombus (Megabombus) hortorum (L., 1761) 

Material: Sutherland, Inchnadamph (A), 30.ix.1964, 1<J; 1.x. 1964, 1$. 

[Mull, Ross of Mull: Uisken, 2.ix.l962, at mallow, 3J; Uisken, 2 miles S. of 
Bunessan, 14.ix.1962, 1<J (all C.H. & P.H. Jowett); Uisken, 10.ix.1963, 36" 1$ (C.H. 
Jowett); Ardfenaig, 2 miles W. of Bunessan, 10.ix.1962, 2$ (C.H. & P.H. Jowett); 
Ardfenaig, 5.ix.l963, IS (C.H. Jowett). Iona, 5.ix.l963, at Centaurea nigra L., Iq* 
(C.H. Jowett).] 

Bombus (Thoracobombus) pascuorum septentrionalis Vogt, 1909 

Apis pascuorum Scop. 1763; 306; Carniolia [for the locality see Baker, 1994: 289, 
note (1) under Scopoli]. 

Apis agrorum ¥., 1787: 301; [$]; in Europae. Junior primary homonym of Apis 
agrorum Schrank, 1781. 

Bombus agrorum f. septentrionalis Vogt, 1909: 64, 75; Nordwest schottland. No 
type designated: proposed for a form of unspecified status ('In der Farbung 
steht dieser Gruppe Yfrey-gessnertiornizrv of agrorum] nahe: septentrionalis m. Wie 
valesianus . . .'). 

Bombus agrorum [Rasse] septentrionalis Kriiger, 1958: 338. 



8 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

Material: Sutherland, Inchnadamph (A), 29.ix.1964, \<$ 2?; 30.ix.1964, 1<J 49; 
1.x. 1964, 26*2$; 2.x. 1964, 2$. 

[Mull: Ross of Mull, Uisken, 2.ix.l962, at mallow, 4J 1$; Uisken, 2 miles S. of 
Bunessan, 14.ix.1962, lrf (all C.H. & P.H. Jowett); Uisken, 18.ix.1963, lrf 3$ (C.H. 
Jowett); Kintra, 1.5 miles N.W. of Fionnphort, 10.ix.1962, \$ (C.H. & P.H. Jowett); 
Kintra, 6.ix.l963, on Centaurea nigra L., 2$ 1$ (C.H. Jowett); Ardfenaig, 2 miles W. 
of Bunessan, 10.ix.1962, 2$ (C.H. & P.H. Jowett).]. 

Bombus (Thoracobombus) ruderarius ruderarius (Muller, 1776) 

Material: [Mull, Ross of Mull, Uisken, 10.ix.1963, 1$ (C.H. Jowett). Iona, 
5.ix.l963, at Centaurea nigra L., lie? (C.H. Jowett).] 

Bombus (Thoracobombus) laevis sladeni (Vogt, 1911) 

Bombus muscorum auctt. nee (L.) [The lectotype of Apis muscorum L., designated 
by Day (1979: 68), belongs to the species variously known under such names as 
cognatus Steph. (Saunders, 1884), venustus Smith (Saunders, 1896), solstitialis Panz. 
(Richards, 1927), variabilis Schmiedeknecht (1930), humilis 111. (Bischoff & Hedicke, 
1931), or helferanus Seidl (Pittioni, 1939). It is regrettable that Loken (1973: 146), 
although 19th century Scandinavian authors had correctly identified Linnaeus's 
species, elected to follow the misapplication of Linnaeus's name.] 

Bombus muscorum f. laevis Vogt, 1909: 63; Kleinasien. 

Bombus smithianus 'var., or race,' pallidus Evans, 1901: 47; <$; [Scotland:] 'taken by 
myself near Kingussie (Inverness-shire), Aberfoyle (S. W. Perthshire), and Elvanfoot 
(Lanarkshire), and also specimens from the Perth district, Dumbartonshire and 
Kirkcudbrightshire, kindly sent me by Messrs. Rodger, Malloch, and Service'. 
Invalid junior homonym of Bombus pallidus Cresson, 1863 [ = Bombus 
(Fervidobombus) pennsylvanicus (Degeer, 1773)]. 

Lectotype, by present designation, 3, labelled 'Elvanfoot/1 8.9.00' (endorsed 
' Bombus i 'smithianus <$\ the 'smithianus' overwritten on 'venustus') and 'W. Evans 
RSM/1971.55' [print], in Department of Natural History, National Museums of 
Scotland. Paralectotypes, in same collection: 11 dd, Scotland: Lanarkshire, 
Elvanfoot, 5.ix.l900 (3), ll.ix.1900 (1), 12.ix.1900 (2), 18.ix.1900 (1), ix.1900 (3) 
(all W. Evans); Dumbartonshire, Bonhill, 15.ix.1900 (J. R. Malloch); Kirkcudbright- 
shire, Southerness, viii.1895 (R. Service). 

Agrobombus muscorum . . . var. geogr. nov. sladeni Vogt, 1911:52; sex?; Siideng- 
land. 

Bombus muscorum celticus Yarrow, 1978: 15; nom.nov. for 'Bombus muscorum 
pallidus Evans (Bombus smithianus var. pallidus Evans, 1901)'. Yarrow failed to 
designate a lectotype for Evans's taxon. Since celticus was proposed as a replacement 
name, it has no independent type. 

Nomenclature: The name laevis was proposed by Vogt for a form of unspecified 
status 1 from Anatolia: 'An Muscorumformen finden wir in Kleinasien einen ganz 
kurzhaarigen Vertreter laevis m.: wie muscorum gefarbt = typicus, die Orangefarbe 
des Thorax auf einen runden Fleck beschrankt — ab. laesoides m.'. The taxon was 
later recognized by Richards (1935a: 79) as a subspecies of what he also knew as 
muscorum. That the nominotypical subspecies is not identical with the presumed 
Stammform is perhaps unfortunate, but by no means an uncommon accident of 
nomenclature. 

Bombus laevis exists in two groups of colour-forms, of erratic distribution, treated 
as species by some authors. Dark forms have been referred to 'smithianus'' [smithianus 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST, 9: 1996 9 

auctt. nee White] 2 , pale to 'muscorum' [muscorum auctt. nee (L.)]. There are, however, 
no significant structural differences between the two groups, and no apparent 
ecological or biological differences. Both groups are represented in the British Isles, 
each by several forms now treated as subspecies of laevis. The names allenellus, 
scyllonius and liepetterseni (the last a misapplication) 3 have been applied to dark 
forms occurring on islands off the British and Irish coasts, the names {pallidus = ) 
celticus, sladeni and orcadensis to pale forms inhabiting the British and Irish 
mainlands and (orcadensis) the Orkneys. 

The name pallidus was proposed by Evans for 'the variety having the hairs on the 
underside of the body, and on the legs, pale yellow instead of black'. Evans's 
description must be taken as referring exclusively to the male because, although he 
had material of both sexes, he was unable to distinguish the queens and workers from 
his 'venustus' (pale forms of muscorum and ? pascuorum): 'Besides these males I have 
females and workers from the same and other localities, which I cannot but regard as 
belonging to the same form, though the absence of any known structural differences 
between $ and $ of Smithianus and those of venustus precludes . . . absolute 
certainty of identification'. Dr M. R. Shaw sent for examination the series from 
Evans's collection standing as pallidus in the National Museums of Scotland. The 
series comprises 14 males, of which two are without data and are not accepted as 
syntypes, 8 queens and 6 workers. A lectotype has been selected as noted above and 
1 1 other males labelled as paralectotypes: since Evans did not identify any queens or 
workers as definitely belonging to pallidus, it would seem illogical to recognize any 
queen or worker pallidus in his series as syntypes. 

The name sladeni was proposed by Vogt for a variety with the 'Behaarung deutlich 
struppiger als die des typicus, weniger struppig als die von pallidus. Farbung die des 
typicus, aber Thoraxdorsum vorne und hinten ausgesprochen hellgelb behaart 
(Annaherung an die Farbung fulvofasciatus Friese meines muscorum laevis)' . 

Richards (1935a: 77) noted that pallidus (celticus) was doubtfully distinct from 
sladeni, and celticus and sladeni appear in fact to represent a north-south cline in 
coat and colour characters: the British mainland and Irish mainland laevis should be 
known as sladeni. The occurrence of Bombus laevis sladeni has been linked with 
marshy and similar habitats, but this is by no means always so: at Seaford, Sussex, 
for example, sladeni occurs on chalk downland in association with, among others, 
the deceptively similar muscorum anglicus [Bombus humilis anglicus Yarrow, 1978]. 

A summary of the British and Irish forms of laevis is given at Appendix 1. 

Material: Sutherland: Inchnadamph (A), 29.ix.1964, 1$ 1$; 30.ix.1964, 2$ 2$; 
1.x. 1964, 2$. 

[Mull, Ross of Mull, Uisken, 2.ix.l962, at mallow, 2$ 1$; Uisken, 2 miles S. of 
Bunessan, 14.ix.1962, 1$ (all C.H. & P.H. Jowett).] 

Bombus (Kallobombus) cardui cardui (Miiller, 1776) 

Apis cardui Miiller, 1776: 165; no locality specified [Denmark or Norway]. 
Apis soroeensis F., [1777]: 246; Habitat in Daniae nemoribus. Lectotype ?, 
Denmark: Sjaelland, designated by Loken (1966: 200). 

Nomenclature: Apis cardui was described by Miiller in the following terms: '1929. 
Ap. Cardui hirsuta nigra, ano albo. * + ' (signature a4: '. . . signo + a me, detectae 
indicantur'). 

Von Dalla Torre (1896: 549) gave cardui as a junior synonym of soroeensis, but 
Muller's work (title page dated 1776, preface dated 31 March 1776, addenda 



10 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

dated 1 8 June 1 776) appeared before Fabricius's (title page not dated, preface dated 
26 December 1776). The Scottish and Fennoscandian cardui belong to the 
nominotypical, white-tailed, form of the species. To be more exact, both Miiller's 
('hirsuta nigra, ano albo') and Fabricius's ('Apis hirsuta atra, aho albo . . . tota atra, 
solo ano nigro': lectotype designated by Loken, 1966) descriptions chanced to be 
based on the same melanic, white-tailed variant, although the ranges of both the N. 
W. European white-tailed 4 and the more widely distributed red-tailed {proteus 
Gerstacker, 1 869) subspecies of cardui overlap in Denmark with the presence of all 
grades of intermediates as well as melanic forms (Loken, 1973: 32). 



Material: Sutherland, Inchnadamph: (A), 30.ix.1964, 2^; 1.x. 1964, 1$; (B), 
1.x. 1964, 1$. 

[Mull, Ross of Mull: Uisken, 2.ix.l962, at mallow, \£; Uisken, 2 miles S. of 
Bunessan, 14.ix.1962, 1$ (both C.H. & P.H. Jowett); Uisken, 10.ix.1963, 3$; Kintra, 
6.ix.l963, at Centaurea nigra L., 2$ (all C.H. Jowett); Kintra, 1.5 miles N.W. 
Fionnphort, 10.ix.1962, 2$ (C.H. & P.H. Jowett).] 



Bombus (Bombus) magnus (Vogt, 1911) 

Terrestribombus lucorum f. magnus Vogt, 1911: 56; $ Nordschottland 
und . . . Orkneyinseln. 

Nomenclature: Saunders (1884; 244; 1896: 378) recognized, under the name 
terrestris L., but a single species of Bombus s. str. in Britain, and treated 'lucorum 
Smith' as a colour variety. Subsequently, two species of Bombus s. str. were 
generally recognized in Britain, B. audax Harris, 1780 [ = terrestris auctt.], 
represented by its nominotypical form 5 , and B. terrestris (L., 1758, nee auctt.) 
( = B.lucorum (L., 1761)), also represented by its nominotypical form. More 
recently a third form, B. magnus Vogt, 1911, described from Britain, has been 
recognized as of specific rank by various authors, e.g., Kriiger (1951-58, passim, 
but especially 1954: 264) and Loken (1973: 46), and this ranking is accepted here. 
B. magnus appears to be, in N. W. Europe, a relict form existing in populations 
peripheral to those of the more or less ubiquitous terrestris, and although a 
majority of recent British records, especially those from southern Britain, based on 
unreliable coat-colour characters, are suspect, the identity of the present series is 
unambiguous. B. magnus was 'described' by Vogt in the following terms: 'Das $ 
des Tb. [Terrestribombus] lucorum ist in Nordschottland und auf den Orkneyinseln 
so gross wie das von Tb. terrestris [i.e., audax] (forma nova magnus)'. To this 
meagre description subsequent authors have added various details, but the 
distinctions alleged have not been wholly convincing (Elfving, 1960: 31, was 
unable to separate Finnish magnus from (lucorum = ) terrestris in the presence of 
material determined by Kruseman) and even those made by Loken (1973: 14, key, 
couplet 11 and fig. 13A 14) are not entirely satisfactory 6 . However, in N. W. 
Scotland, where audax does not occur, magnus is distinguishable from terrestris by 
its larger size, by, in the queen, the colour pattern and especially the pinkish-yellow 
colour of the tail, and, in the male, by the genitalia. 

While the character may not be a practical one for routine determinations, 
differences in the endophalli of magnus, terrestris and audax confirm specific ranking 
of magnus (C. O'Toole: personal communication). 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 1 1 

Material: Sutherland, Inchnadamph: (A), 29.ix.1964, 4^; 30.ix.1964, 2<$ 1$; 
l.x.1964, 3c? 2$; (B), l.x.1964, ltf 2$ 1$; Inchnadamph, without exact locality, 29.ix- 
2.x. 1964, 6 J 3$ (not now held). 

The genitalia of 12 of the males were extracted and the lengths of the gonocoxites 
measured, taking the reference points indicated by Richards (1927: fig. 61). To ensure 
that the results would be strictly comparable with those published by Richards (1927: 
249), control measurements of series of audax and terrestris from southern England 
were made. The results indicated a population intermediate between the audax and 
terrestris populations sampled by Richards (Fig. 1). 

It is noteworthy that, as the figure indicates, in the series examined and in the series 
recorded by Richards there was no overlap between large examples of terrestris and 
small examples of audax, that the difference between the means for terrestris and 
audax was substantial; and that the mean value for the admittedly small sample of 
magnus («=12) fell approximately midway between the mean values for the other 
species and between the upper limit for terrestris and the lower limit for audax. The 
data on which Fig. 1 is based are given in Table 1 . 

It may be noted that, for the samples measured in connection with the present 
paper, SD and CV for widely separated populations of audax (Iran, N.W. Europe) 
were quasi-identical, SD 0.0408, 0.0424, CV1.9, 1.96; for terrestris (all populations) 
were 0.0489, 2.49; and for magnus were 0.0941, 4.6, indicating a higher degree of 
variability in that species — or in that population. A larger sample of the 
Inchnadamph population would be desirable, but no alien component appears to 
be present in the present one, which, apart from some variation in the colour of the 
clypeal hairs, appears homogeneous. Mayr (1969: 170) notes that zones of secondary 
intergradation between subspecies are often characterized by a greatly increased CV; 
and, of course, the boundaries, or areas of overlap, between a relict species surviving 
in populations peripheral to those of an invasive or usurping species (here the nearly 
ubiquitous terrestris), are likely to be shifting ones. 

Among the characters that have conventionally been used to separate males of 
audax and terrestris is the colour of the hairs of the clypeus, vertex, mesosomal 
episterna and pseudosternum, and first metasomal tergum. In audax these hairs are 
usually black, in terrestris yellow. In the present series, of five specimens with 
gonocoxites falling within the range of variation of terrestris, three have the 
coloration of audax while the other two are nearer audax than terrestris; and, of six 
falling within the range of variation of audax, the two largest, nearest the mean for 
audax, are those most resembling terrestris (hairs of the indicated areas 
predominantly pale, although still darker than in that species). This reversal suggests 
that coat pattern in the terrestris complex is an unreliable distinguishing character. 

As to any correlation between size and coat pattern of colour, the present small 
sample is inconclusive. Taking gonocoxite length as a measure of size, and the colour 
of the clypeal hairs as an index of the extent of pale coloration, no strong correlation 
is evident, although there is an apparent tendency for smaller specimens to be darker: 

Gonocoxite length (mm) 

1.93 1.93 1.93 1.98 2.01 2.01 2.05 2.09 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.21 
Colour of clypeal hair (b: black, pb: predominantly black, m: mixed, pp: predominantly pale) 
b mb b mmmmpbmpppp 

Of the 3 queens, two have the tail pinkish-buff and the thoracic collar extending 
well onto the mesepisterna, characters generally regarded as characteristic of magnus. 
The third has the white tail of southern British terrestris and the yellow thoracic 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 



audax 



terrtstris 



magnus 



1.9 



2.0 2.1 2.2 

millimetres 



2.3 



2.4 



Fig. 1. Length of gonocoxite in Bombus (Bombus) species, a: audax dalmatinus D.T., Iran 
(Mazandaran) [includes one ex. det. Yarrow as magnus but which is normal audax) [n= 14). b: 
audax virginalis (Geoffr.), Channel Is. (n = 6). c: audax audax (Harris), New Zealand [Nelson 
(Philpott): introduced] (n = 2). d: audax audax (Harris), England (Surrey, Hindhead: atypical, 
hairs of face pale) (w = 2). e: audax (Harris), England (south; Richards 1927: 249, as terrestris) 
(« = 49). f: audax (Harris), all populations (w = 73). g: magnus Vogt, Scotland (Sutherland, 
Inchnadamph) («=12). h: terrestris (L.), Austria (Niederosterreich, Steiermark, Karnten) 
(«=11). i: terrestris (L.), England (Norfolk, Mundford) (« = 3). j: terrestris (L.), Iran 
(Mazandaran) [det. Yarrow as magnus (3) or lucorum (1)] (/i = 4). k: terrestris (L.), England 
(south; Richards 1927: 249, as lucorum) (n = 40). 1: terrestris (L.), all populations (« = 57). 



collar extending less far onto the mesepisterna. The collar in all three examples is 
paler than in terrestris. 

Bombus (Pyrobombus) jonellus jonellus (Kirby 1802) 

Apisjonella Kirby, 1802: 338; S\ prope Londinum. Holotype S BMNH designated 
by Yarrow (1968: 11). 

Material: Sutherland, Inchnadamph: (A), 30.ix.1964, 2^; 1.x. 1964, 2^; (B) 
l.x.1964, lcJ; (Q, 30.ix.1964, 3(J. 
[Mull, Ross of Mull, Uisken, 10.ix.1963, 19 (C.H. Jowett).] 
These examples are referable to f. atrocorbiculosus Vogt, 1911. 



Psithyrus (Ashtonipsithyrus) campestris (Panz., 1800) 

Apis campestris Panz., 1800, 7 (74): pi. 11; [?]; in regione sylvarum sabulosa 
[Germany]. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 13 

Psithyrus campestris (Panz.) var. swynnertoni Richards, 1936. 110; 9; Cara Island. 
Type University Museum, Oxford. 

Material: [Mull, Ross of Mull, Kintra, 1.5 miles N.W. of Fionnphort, 10.ix.1962, 
2S (C.H. & P.H. Jowett.] These males are referable to the pale form (paralleling the 
pale form, Bombus pascuorum septentrionalis Vogt, of its host) described by Richards 
from Cara, off the Argyll coast, as swynnertoni. 



Table 1 . Length of gonocoxite in Bombus {Bombus) species. 



audax dalmatinus D.T. 




magnus 


Vogt 










Iran 








[nchnadamph 




no. 


length 


d 


d2 


3 


1.93 


0.11 


0.0121 










4 


2.01 


0.03 


0.0009 


1 


2.21 


0.06 


0.0036 


5 


2.13 


0.09 


0.0081 


2 


2.13 


0.02 


0.0004 


6 


2.21 


0.17 


0.0289 


3 


2.09 


0.06 


0.0036 


8 


2.01 


0.03 


0.0009 


5 


2.13 


0.02 


0.0004 


10 


2.13 


0.09 


0.0081 


6 


2.09 


0.06 


0.0036 


11 


2.09 


0.05 


0.0025 


7 


2.13 


0.02 


0.0004 


12 


2.05 


0.01 


0.0001 


8 


2.09 


0.06 


0.0036 


13 


2.13 


0.09 


0.0081 


10 


2.17 


0.02 


0.0004 


14 


1.93 


0.11 


0.0121 


11 


2.17 


0.02 


0.0004 


15 


1.98 


0.06 


0.0036 


12 


2.17 


0.02 


0.0004 


16 


1.93 


0.11 


0.0121 


13 


2.17 
2.17 


0.02 
0.02 


0.0004 
0.0004 


mean 


2M 


sum 




14 


0.0975 


18 


2.17 


0.02 


0.0004 






-(n-1) 


0.0089 


19 


2.21 


0.06 


0.0036 






SD 
CV 


0.0941 
4.6 


mean 


2T5 


sum 

-(n-1) 
SD 


01)216 
0.0017 
0.0408 














CV 


1.9 


terrestris (lucorum) 
















Austria 




audax, 


other popln; 






1 


1.97 


0.01 


0.0001 




Channel Is. 




2 


1.97 


0.01 


0.0001 


1 


2.23 


0.07 


0.0049 


3 


1.94 


0.02 


0.0004 


2 


2.19 


0.03 


0.0009 


4 


2.00 


0.04 


0.0016 


3 


2.15 


0.01 


0.0001 


5 


1.96 


0.00 


0.0000 


4 


2.17 


0.01 


0.0001 


6 


1.95 


0.01 


0.0001 


5 


2.17 


0.01 


0.0001 


7 


1.99 


0.03 


0.0009 


6 


2.17 


0.01 


0.0001 


8 


1.96 


0.00 


0.0000 




New Zealand 




9 


1.92 


0.04 


0.0016 


7 


2.17 


0.01 


0.0001 


10 


2.02 


0.06 


0.0036 


8 


2.15 


0.01 
Surrey 


0.0001 


11 


2.02 


0.06 
Norfolk 


0.0036 


9 


2.09 


0.07 


0.0049 


12 


1.83 


0.13 


0.0169 


i0 


2.09 


0.07 


0.0049 


13 


1.99 


0.03 


0.0009 




2l6 


sum 




14 


1.96 


0.00 
Iran 


0.0000 


mean 


0.0162 








-H«-l) 


0.0018 


15 


2.01 


0.05 


0.0025 






SD 


0.0424 


16 


1.87 


0.09 


0.0081 






CV 


1.96 


17 


1.95 


0.01 


0.0001 










18 


1.97 


0.01 


0.0001 


audax 


all populations 

2.15 sum 


0.0384 


mean 


L96 


sum 




mean 


0.0406 






-r- (n-1) 


0.0017 






- (n-1) 


0.0023 






SD 


0.0409 






SD 


0.0489 






CV 


1.9 






CV 


2.49 



14 BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST., 9: 1996 

Psithyrus {Allopsithyrus) barbutellus (Kirby, 1802) 

Apis barbutella Kirby, 1802: 343; $^; Barhamiae. 

Material: [Mull, Ross of Mull, Uisken, 2.ix.l962, at mallow, 2$ (C.H. & P.H. 
Jowett).] 

Psithyrus {Fernaldaepsithyrus) sylvestris Lepeletier, 1833 

Psithyrus quadricolor 'sous-var. B.' sylvestris Lepeletier, 1833: 377; <$; Les Pyrenees 
et les environs de Paris . . . de la collection de M. Latreille, actuellement en la 
possession de M. le general Dejean. 

Apathus silvestris Thomson, 1872. 

Material: Sutherland, Inchnadamph: SS, white-tailed: (A), 1.x. 1964, 1<J; 2.x. 1964, 
3c?; (B), l.x.1964, lrf (somatic mosaic); Allt nan Uamh (NC 254178), 2.X.1964, IS (f. 
carelicus Richards); SS, yellow-tailed: (A) 29.ix.1964, 2^; 30.ix.1964, 1(J (f. confinis 
Franklin); l.x.1964, 3^; 2.X.1964, 2J; $$ (A), 30.ix.1964, 1$; 2.X.1964, 2$; Inchnadamph, 
n.f.d., 1?. 

A mixed population: the females are typical sylvestris as defined by Richards 
(1929: 353), the males a varied series of typical (white-tailed and citrinus (Psithyrus 
quadricolor var. citrinus Schmiedeknecht, 1883) (yellow-tailed) forms. The series 
varies also in the relative proportions of the basal flagellar segments, in the form and 
degree of development of the subapical callus of S7, and in the form of the squama. 
The callus of S7 varies from being broad, weak and regular to being narrow and 
more or less impressed medially, i.e. sub-bituberculate (regarded as the typical 
condition by, e.g., Popov, 1931, Richards, 1929). It was suspected initially that two 
species might be represented, sylvestris and flavidus (Eversmann, 1852) but there is no 
correlation between the observed variations. Some examples would, however, be 
difficult to separate horn flavidus, a probable but insufficiently confirmed parasite of 
B. jonellus. In the palest male, A3 < 4; the hairs of the vertex are yellow and black 
mixed, of Tl yellow with a few black medially, of T2 and T3 medially black, of T3-5 
yellow, of T6 (a few black medially) and T7 orange, and the callus of S7 is broad and 
regular: this comes very close to flavidus Eversmann. 

The host of the Inchnadamph series is presumably B. jonellus. 

Psithyrus {Fernaldaepsithyrus) meridionalis Richards, 1929 

This species does not occur in Britain but the opportunity is taken of correcting 
errors in respect of the type locality. Richards (1929: 351) gave the type locality as 
'Styria, Tragop Oberort', a misreading of TragoB (Tragoss) Oberort (Austria, 
Steiermark, N.W. of Bruck an der Mur, at the foot of the Hochschwabgruppe). 
Loken, designating a lectotype (1984: 23), for some inexplicable reason transfers 
Styria to Yugoslavia. 

Summary 

Species of Bombus and Psithyrus collected in Sutherland and on Mull and Iona are 
recorded. Notes on the nomenclature of the British forms of Bombus laevis Vogt, 
1909, on the nomenclature of the species commonly known as B. soroeensis 
(F., [1777]), and on the status of B. magnus Vogt, 191 1, are given. The name agricolae 
is proposed for the Hebridean and Shetland form of Bombus laevis Vogt, hitherto 
known mistakenly as smithianus White or liepetterseni Loken. Lectotypes are 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 



designated for Bombus 'Smithianus var., or race, pallidus' Evans, 1901 [ = B. 
muscorum celticus Yarrow, 1978, = B. laevis celticus Yarrow] and Bombus smithianus 
allenellus Stelfox, 1933. Misstatements concerning the type locality of Psithyrus 
meridionalis Richards, 1929, are corrected. 



Acknowledgements 

For permission to collect on the Inchnadamph NNR in 1964 the author is 
indebted to English Nature (formerly the Nature Conservancy Council); for access to 
libraries, to the Librarian, Linnean Society of London (Miss G.L. Douglas), the 
Hope Librarian, University Museum, Oxford (Mrs. S. Newton) and the Librarians 
of the main and departmental libraries of the Natural History Museum, London 
(especially Mrs J. Harvey and Miss L. Mitchell); for the loan of, or access to, type 
material, to the Department of Natural History, National Museums of Scotland 
(Dr M.R. Shaw) and the Department of Entomology, the Natural History Museum, 
London (Mr T. Huddleston); and for information on Stelfox's type material, to the 
Natural History Division, National Museum of Ireland (Dr J. P. O'Connor). 



Notes 

'Vogt (1909:11) recognized four infrasubspecific categories: (a) var. geographica, 
equivalent to the modern concept of a subspecies: (b) Rasse, for forms of 
infrasubspecific rank (c.f. 1911: where the term is used for the colour-forms 
occurring within a single nest-colony); and (c) and (d), aberratio and aberratio 
extrema, for individual variations. In addition, he used forma, in an entirely modern 
sense, for forms of uncertain status (1911: 50, footnote 1). As the names laevis (1909: 
63) and magnus (1911: 56) were proposed for formae, these names, as well as sladeni 
(proposed for a. forma geographica, 1911: 52), are valid for subspecies attributed to 
Vogt. 

2 The use of the name smithianus for a Shetland insect represents a persistent 
misidentification. White (1852a: 158) proposed smithianus as a nom. nov. for arcticus 
Dahlbom, 1832, nee arcticus Kirby, 1821, as a result of Smith's having misidentified 
['immediately recognized'] as arcticus Dahlbom specimens taken by White in various 
Shetland localities. Dahlbom's arcticus is a pascuorum subspecies of Arctic 
Fennoscandia: [B. arcticus Dahlbom, 1832, =B. agrorum erlandssoni Kruseman, 
1950, = ]B. pascuorum smithianus White, 1852. 

Loken (1973: 1 14) treated Apis arctica Quen. in Acerbi, 1802, as a newly described 
species and as a senior synonym of Bombus (Alpinobombus) hyperboreus Schon. 1809, 
the latter name being retained and arctica considered a nomen oblitum. Apis arctica, 
however, appears not to have been intended as a new species: Acerbi (p. 250) stated 
'The following are to be found in the work of Fabricius' and included in his listing 
(p. 252) the three species Apis alpina, A. arctica, and A. lapponica. Apis arctica, 
described by Quenzel on p. 253 and illustrated at fig. 7 on pi. I, should, therefore be 
some Fabrician insect, but whether of O. Fabricius or of J.C. Fabricius is unclear. 
While Apis alpina [Apis alpina L., 1758] does appear in the former's Fauna Gronlandica 
(1780) and Apis lapponica was described by the latter in the Ent. Syst. (1793), no Apis 
arctica appears to have been described in any work of either author published prior to 
1802. It might be surmised therefore that one or the other Fabricius was in 
communication with either Acerbi or Quenzel and that arctica was a manuscript name 
given by him but not subsequently published (no arctica appears in J.C. Fabricius's 



16 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

Syst. Piez. (1804)). Apis arctica appears, therefore, to have been published by accident 
rather than by design, but is nevertheless a validly proposed name. 

3 Bombus laevis liepetterseni [Bombus muscorum liepetterseni Loken, 1973] is 
erroneously included in the Aculeata section of the revised Check List (Fitton et al, 
1978: 140): B. I. liepetterseni is confined to Norway, where it ocurs in coastal localities 
from 60° northwards. Presumably, the subspecies referred to was the hitherto 
innominate, pale, form of laevis from the Hebrides and Shetland, i.e., agricolae. 

4 Not the only white-tailed form; cf. cardui radoszkowskyi Dalla Torre, 1 890 {Bombus 
perplexus Radoszkowsky, 1884, nee Cresson, 1863). This subspecies was found to be 
one of the most abundant montane humble-bees in various localities in the Central 
Alborz (Iran), a single male taken at 1370m on 17.ix.1966, but all other specimens 
taken at between 2150 and 2450m, males from 24.viii to 7.x, females from 5.vii to 
24.viii, workers from 27.vii to 7.x, many at Salvia amasiaca (Freyn & Bornm.) Bornm. 

5 Bombus audax audax is principally distinguished from other subspecies by having, 
in the female, a buff rather than a white tail, but buff-tailed examples do occur 
sporadically in continental audax [virginalis (Geoffroy, 1785)] (cf. Vogt, 1911: 39; H. 
Miiller, 1944: 104) and the Sardinian audax sassaricus Tournier, 1890, is 
predominantly buff-tailed. Richards (1978: 417, as terrestris terrestris) notes that 
one Channel Is. (Alderney) female approaches the mainland British form. 

6 It is perhaps significant that in analysing geographical variation in 'Terrestri- 
bombus" species, Kriiger (1958: 294-303) did not attempt to differentiate between the 
males of lucorum (terrestris), magnus and burjaeticus (burjaeticus Kriiger, 1951: 143, 
1954: 277; from Transbaikal) in his tabulations. The recognition of numerous 
subspecies in terrestris, audax and magnus in the absence of fully adequate criteria for 
species recognition, and the recognition of supposed new species in the terrestris 
group, have been carried to extremes in some recent work. 

7 Caius Julius Agricola, whose fleet (first century ad.) explored the north-east coast 
of Britain as far as the Orkneys. 



References 

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Dahlbom, G. 1832. Bombi Scandinavia- Monographice Tractati et lonibcus [sic, for Iconibus] 
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Dalla Torre K. W. von. 1896. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et 
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Appendix 1 . British and Irish forms of Bombus laevis Vogt 
1. Pale, 'muscorum', forms [ = muscorum Richards, 1935a, 1935b] 

sladeni (Vogt, 1911): 52 [Ab. [Agrobombus] muscorum var. geogr.]; sex?; Sudeng- 
land'. 

pallidus Evans, 1901: 47 ['2?. Smithianus, var., or race, pallidus']; <$; Scotland: 
'taken by myself near Kingussie (Inverness-shire), Aberfoyle (S.W. Perthshire), and 
Elvanfoot (Lanarkshire), and also . . . from the Perth district, Dumbartonshire and 
Kirkcudbrightshire\ Invalid junior homonym of Bombus pallidus Cresson, 1863 
[ = Bombus (Fervidobombus) pennsylvanicus (Degeer, 1773)]. No type designated by 
Evans: for lectotype designation see p. 8. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 19 

celticus Yarrow, 1978: 15 [Bombus muscorum celticus]; nom. nov. for 'Bombus 
muscorum pallidus Evans {Bombus smithianus var. pallidus Evans, 1901)'. Yarrow 
failed to designate a lectotype for pallidus. 

Distribution: Mainland Britain and Ireland; Mull; Skye. 

orcadensis Richards, 1935a: 78 [Bombus muscorum orcadensis]; $, 'The male and 
worker are not distinguishable from pallidus''; Orkney Is: Holotype 9 (examined), 
labelled 'Orkney Is. [print], Mainland, Stennes. 15.vi.12 [MS], E.G.B. Meade-Waldo. 
1912-259. [print]' and 'B. muscorum orcadensis Rich. Type' [pencil, Richards], in 
BMNH [not registered]. 

Distribution: Orkney Is. 

2. Dark, 'smithianus\ forms [ = smithianus Richards, 1935a] 

agricolae 7 subsp. nov. 

[smithianus auctt., nee White, 1852; misidentification.] 

[smithianus smithianus Richards, 1935a; misidentification.] 

[liepetterseni Fitton et al. (1978) nee Loken, 1973; misidentification.] 

muscorum zetlandicus Yarrow, MS, in BMNH. 

Description; see Richards, 1935a: 79 [as smithianus smithianus]; 9?d*; Shetlands, 
Lewis, Tiree, Coll. 

Holotype: 9 labelled ' 51 91 ' [the entry 1851-91 in the British Museum's accessions 
register, referring to this one specimen, reads 'Bombus arcticus . . . Lerwick . . . 
Presented by A. White Esq re . . . the common Bombus of the Mainland of Shetland'], 
'var. smithianus White, [print]', and 'B. muscorum zetlandicus ssp. n. det. I.H.H. 
Yarrow HOLOTYPE 9\ B.M. Type Hym. 17 b 1276. 

Distribution: Inner and Outer Hebrides; Shetland; ? Ross [the Ross specimen 
recorded by Richards may simply have been a dark example in a sladeni population]. 

Yarrow's manuscript name is not adopted since the species has a wider 
distribution than the name implies. It is however given here since it may be 
encountered in other collections. 

allenellus Stelfox, 1933: 235 [Bombus smithianus allenellus]; J99; Ireland: Aran Is., 
Inishmore. Stelfox, 1934: 42. 

Stelfox's type series comprised 50 specimens, all bearing the National Museum of 
Ireland's printed label Tnishmore/Aran Islands/Co. Galway./C. W. Allen. July 
1932./62-1932.', standing over his manuscript label' 'Bombus Smithianus White, race 
allenellus Stelfox. 50 typical series arranged by A.W.S. 17.2. 1934. Described in I.N.J. 
Nov. 1933. A. W. Stelfox.'. Stelfox did not designate a type but labelled one 9 as 
'type', one S and one 9 as 'cotypes' (Dr J. P. O'Connor, personal communication). 
Stelfox's 9 'type' is now designated as lectotype of allenellus, his other syntypes as 
paralectotypes. 

Distribution: Aran Is. 

scyllonius Richards, 1935a: 81 [smithianus scyllonius]; holotype 9 Scilly Is.: St. 
Mary's, 10.ix.1904 ([Col. J.W.] Yerbury), B.M. Type Hym. 17 b 1214. 

smithianus subsp. innom., Richards, 1935a: 81 (Channel Is.: Alderney). 

Distribution: Scilly Is.: Channel Is. (Richards, 1978: 419 — Channel Is. form no 
longer regarded as subspecifically distinct from Scillies form). 



20 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

SHORT COMMUNICATION 

Rhynchaenus testaceus (Miiller) and Anthonomus rufus Gyll. (Coleoptera: Curculio- 
nidae) in Cornwall. — On recently sorting through some Coleoptera captured in 
Cornwall during the 1970s I discovered a specimen of R. testaceus that had been beaten 
from a young alder alongside the River Fal on 12.viii.1978 near Ruan Lanihorne, East 
Cornwall (VC2), grid ref. SW887422. I have been unable to trace any previous records 
for the county, indeed there appear to have been very few recent (post-1970) records for 
the whole of Great Britain: Collier (1989) reports its discovery in an alder plantation 
alongside the Little Ouse River, Norfolk in 1987 and informs me (in litt.) that he has 
subsequently recorded it in the Ministry of Defence, Stanford Training Area, Norfolk, 
where it was not uncommon in another small alder plantation during 1988; Morris 
(1993) provides a recent record from Holme Fen, Huntingdonshire, and Hyman & 
Parsons (1992), who assign R. testaceus to Red Data Book (vulnerable) status, also list 
the recent Norfolk and Huntingdonshire records. 

Five small, widely spaced alders were present on the flood plain of the River Fal 
when I revisited the Cornish site on 15.iv.1995 — much as I recall the site from 1978. 
All were beaten for R. testaceus without success, although it may have been too early 
in the year for the adult weevil since most of the trees were still in bud and only a few 
leaves were just beginning to open on each tree. Small numbers of adult Galerucella 
lineola (F.) were, however, present. Further south and east along the roadside 
towards Ruan Lanihorne village, more alders, both large and small, were beaten 
without finding R. testaceus, though again adults of G. lineola were present on all the 
trees. K. N. A. Alexander visited the area in early May 1995 but also failed to locate 
R. testaceus. 

During my return visit on 15.iv.1995 to search for R. testaceus another scarce 
weevil, Anthonomus rufus, was discovered when more than a dozen examples were 
beaten from blackthorn bushes adjacent to the bridge at grid ref. SW887421. 
Although A. rufus has previously been recorded in West Cornwall (VC1), where it 
does appear to be very localized; this may represent the first record of this species for 
East Cornwall (VC2). Among previous records for West Cornwall are: Porthcurno 
near Penzance, and Grochall on the Lizard in 1974 (Morris, 1976), on both occasions 
by beating blackthorn prior to flowering, and near Chyvarloe, grid ref. SW647237 on 
3.iv.l983 when I captured two examples, also from blackthorn bushes in bud. It may 
be significant that the Ruan Lanihorne examples were also beaten from blackthorn 
mainly in bud — adjacent bushes in full bloom failed to yield any specimens. 

I thank M. Collier for allowing me to quote his unpublished observation of R. 
testaceus and for a specimen of this species which confirmed the identity of the 
Cornish example, and Prof. M. G. Morris for alerting me to relevant literature. — 
A. P. FOSTER, 61 Pittsfield, Cricklade, Swindon, Wiltshire SN6 6AW. 

References 

Collier, M. 1989. Rhynchaenus testaceus Miiller (Col., Curculionidae) in Norfolk. Entomolo- 
gist's Mon. Mag. 125: 167. 

Hyman, P. S. & Parson, M. S. 1992. A review of the scarce and threatened Coleoptera of Great 
Britain. Part 1. U.K. Nature Conservation No. 3. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, 
Peterborough. 

Morris, M. G. 1976. The British species of Anthonomus Germar (Col., Curculionidae). 
Entomologist's Mon. Mag. 112: 19-40. 

Morris, M. G. 1993. A review of the British species of Rhynchaeninae (Col., Curculionidae). 
Entomologist's Mon. Mag. 129: 177-195. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 21 

THE 1994 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS— PART 2 

FIELD MEETINGS— A CELEBRATION OF SOME PAST 

GLORIES AND THE PRESENT ROLE OF FIELD MEETINGS 

AS AN INCREASINGLY VALUABLE PART OF OUR ACTIVITIES 

Paul Waring 

Windmill View, 1366 Lincoln Road, Werrington, Peterborough PE4 6LS. 

Introduction 

In preparing this Presidential Address I first looked back over those of the past 
Presidents I have known. We have enjoyed a great variety of topics and approaches in 
recent years. Some Presidents, like Colin Plant and Paul Sokoloff, delivered fine papers 
on a particular taxonomic group on which they were working. Peter Baker and John 
Owen focused on the insects of a particular site which they had surveyed in detail. Two 
years ago John Muggleton chose a subject dear to my heart (e.g. Waring, 1989a, 1990a, 
1 994a) when he shared with us his experiences of light-trapping for moths. Alan Stubbs 
and Ian McLean dealt with insect conservation issues. One topic I considered for my 
Address was the conservation work on some of Britain's endangered moths, but I have 
already spoken to the Society on this subject. Those who would have liked an update 
may care to refer to Waring (1990b & 1994b) for reviews of this subject and rest assured 
that I will continue to report the latest developments through the bi-monthly reports in 
British Wildlife magazine. Another topic which I know is of interest to many members, 
and with which many are actively involved, is the National Recording Network for the 
Rarer British Macro-moths (Waring, 1991a, 1992a) and the production of an atlas for 
the nationally scarce and threatened species (Waring, 1992a, b & in prep.). However, 
this is the topic for our special workshop meeting at Dinton Pastures on 8 April. 

I have chosen instead to speak here about the field meetings of our Society and to 
use this opportunity, as the Society's new Field Meetings Secretary, to celebrate some 
past meetings and promote this area of the Society's activities for the future. One of 
the attractions of this topic is that it involves everybody here and the whole of the 
membership, so I trust it will be of wide interest. My aim is to examine some field 
meetings I have attended, the results they produced and ways in which future 
meetings can be developed and promoted, both as a service to our members and to 
land-owners, managers and the general public. At the same time I hope to provide 
the opportunity for us to recall and re-live fond memories of pleasant days and 
nights in the field and to report on meetings which some may have missed. 

I have always considered the British Entomological and Natural History Society 
as the premier society for field entomology in Britain. The majority of the 
publications of this Society promote and assist the fieldwork of individuals and 
organizations in some way. Our journal is received by every member and for many it 
is the face of the Society and their main contact. Most issues carry one or more 
reports of field meetings. Our Annual Exhibition, the largest event in the Society's 
calendar, consists largely of exhibits of specimens, photographs and other results of 
recent fieldwork by members on an individual or combined basis. Both the 
Exhibition and the Dinner provide the opportunity to exchange results of fieldwork, 
initiate future plans and commiserate with each other on the appalling weather 
during a key part of the season and the insects and other wildlife we failed to find! 
Our meetings provide the chance for the lone moth trapper to tell of the night he was 



22 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

inundated with unbelievable numbers of rare immigrants on the coast. Another replies 
with his nocturnal encounter with the poacher or the courting couple or tells of the day 
his coleopterist friend found a species of beetle new to Britain in the bride's wedding 
bouquet! This is what our society is all about in my view, the combination of serious 
scientific research and recreational entomology. Above all, the Society provides 
opportunities to meet with other active field-workers and share skills. The field meeting 
is an especially characteristic feature of this Society which is worth cherishing. 

The first field meeting 

Do you recall your first field meeting with the Society? I trust it left a favourable 
impression and that the leader made you feel welcome. I think the first field meeting I 
attended was one led by the late Gaston Prior, in Wychwood Forest, Oxfordshire. 
This was back on 28 July 1984. I remember the excitement of getting the meetings 
card and seeing that there was a meeting arranged in my area and therefore not too 
difficult to get to, so out came the diary. The other exciting part about this particular 
meeting was that it was not a site that one could easily visit as a private individual. At 
the time there was great debate about the footpaths and access in the area or lack of 
them. As a youth I had often cycled past this splendid forest. I had ventured in twice. 
The first time I met no-one, but on the second occasion I had just reached the fish- 
ponds in the centre and was watching a Buzzard Buteo buteo at close quarters when a 
green Mini-moke appeared from over a rise and two large gentlemen with shot-guns 
politely asked me to leave and escorted me back to the entrance. 

Gaston's meeting was excellent. There was a good turn-out, about a dozen people or 
more, with these entomologists obviously making the most of this rare opportunity to 
see the Forest. The weather was favourable. By this stage I had purchased my first old 
banger and I remember loading it up with every conceivable bit of entomological and 
overnight kit, far too much to actually carry, but to equip me for every eventuality. As 
we gathered at the entrance I recognized John Campbell, whom I already knew as 
Oxfordshire county biological recorder at Woodstock Museum, and one or two other 
familiar local faces, but I got to know several more as a result of the meeting. I 
remember studying the way Charlie Gibson had managed to pack his generator and 
light-trap into a back-pack so that he could get straight onto site with all his kit in one 
go. I recall Gaston pointing out the diagnostic features of certain pug-moth larvae 
{Eupithecia spp.) 1 had swept. I remember John Campbell showing us the coppicing plot 
he was working on. At night we ran light-traps and I recall the excitement when Charlie 
found a four-spotted footman Lithosia quadra had entered his trap. This was the first 
any of us had seen in the Oxford area and the first I had ever seen. We spent the rest of 
the session speculating as to whether we had discovered an unknown colony, but we 
later found out from the Entomologists ' Record that there had been other records from 
scattered places during this period, suggesting an influx of immigrants. Lastly, I recall 
sleeping in my car and discovering that it was parked in something of a frost hollow. 
The car wouldn't start in the morning and I remember Patrick Boston giving me a hand 
to push-start it, and the relief when it eventually fired on all cylinders. 

I was fortunate to start off with such a good field meeting, but each one has added 
some useful or pleasant aspect to my experience. 

Distant field meetings 

The Wychwood example was local to me but our field meetings programme 
provides the opportunity to visit distant sites, in the knowledge that someone else has 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 23 

made the necessary arrangements at the other end. These long-haul trips can be more 
daunting for some members because of traffic and unfamiliar roads but I hope more 
people will be tempted. In this way the Society will be encouraged to hold a 
proportion of meetings in more remote places, which are less well recorded than the 
places where entomologists are thicker on the ground. A memorable long-haul field 
meeting for me was Dungeness, Kent, on 5 September 1987. This provided an 
opportunity to meet Bernard Skinner for the first time, as he was leading the meeting 
(Skinner, 1988). I saw the handsome caterpillars of the toadflax brocade Calophasia 
iunula for the first time, one of the local specialities of this area and a Red Data Book 
species. I collected one to photograph and rear but was also impressed by the 
restraint on the part of the members who were more experienced on this site. I 
remember someone, I think it was Rob Dyke, explaining to us that this was a 
localized insect, not uncommon on Dungeness but scarce on the surrounding coast. 
As a result we all thought very carefully about collecting any. I confined myself to 
one and I think hardly any others were removed. I remember distinctly us all 
gathering in a group to look at them and then walking away leaving the majority on 
the plants to continue feeding. I remember Bernard being very friendly and 
approachable and meeting a number of the members from the south-east for the first 
time. It was in fact a cold night and moths were few, migrants fewer, so there was 
plenty of time to get to know each other as we walked round the traps. It was also a 
full moon and I remarked that I thought it odd to have such a meeting at this phase 
of the moon and was this significant for movements of migrants, aware that the light 
traps would be less effective at catching them on moonlit nights than on dark ones. 
Bernard wryly remarked that he liked a bit of competition from the elements, but 
then explained that this was the only date offered to him when the programme was 
being organized. The other memory that stands out from this trip was departing 
from the site about 02.00 hrs to drive all the way back to Peterborough because my 
colleague had no sleeping gear and had arranged something for the following day. 
We were on the road at least three hours, perhaps more. I was virtually nodding off 
at the wheel for the last few miles. Fortunately, there was very little on the roads at 
this time but I resolved never to drive such a long way so late at night again. 

As a result of my first Dungeness experience, I decided that on any field meetings 
involving night work that I would lead, I would make arrangements for members to be 
able to sleep in their cars, off road, and where this could be arranged, make it clear in 
advance, so no one would feel the need to drive long distances when they were tired. 
This also means they can leave their traps and generators running all night and stay 
nearby, adding to the amount of data collected, with advantages all round. Staying in a 
local hotel or bed and breakfast is always an option for those able and willing to make 
the necessary arrangements in advance or to arrive on spec, but it is not as convenient 
for all-night trapping. I am also mindful of the fact that some members, particularly the 
younger ones and those that are out of work, may not be able to afford the costs of 
overnight accommodation. Besides, it can be a precious part of the experience to awake 
on site and inspect the traps at first light, with the chance of seeing a fox Vulpes vulpes or 
other wild creature and to enjoy birdsong and the first rays of the sun. 

Incidentally, field meetings at Dungeness have become something of a tradition in 
the Society of late, and you will be pleased to note that there are two in the 1995 
programme. Both are led this year by Sean Clancy, who lives on Dungeness. When I 
contacted him to arrange one he said fine, but please not another one in September, 
what about all the other months! He got his wish, there is a meeting in July this year, 
but, because the September meeting is popular we have retained it as well. Contact 
Sean for overnighting details. 



24 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

Now I'll move on to some of the field meetings I have led, partly because I have a 
good overview of what happened on site and, equally importantly, know what 
happened to the results. I can also be critical of any short-comings, knowing that I 
share the responsibility. I shall be illustrating the following accounts mainly with 
moth examples, because this is my speciality, but please do not take away the 
impression that field meetings are dominated by any particular order; we cover all 
groups of animals and plants and are keen to see all interest groups represented on 
meetings, hence the "natural history" part of the Society's title. 

Fens and Breckland in 1988 

The first BENHS field meetings I led were in 1988 when I organized two. These were 
at Chippenham Fen, Cambridgeshire, on 2 July and Cranwich Plantation, Norfolk, on 
23 July. The chances to visit Fens and Breckland proved popular and both meetings 
were very well attended. Ian McLean led the day-time session at Chippenham Fen and 
was joined by ten members. Many interesting species of flies were noted and we flushed 
two silver-barred moths Del tote bankiana, a speciality of this reserve. Twenty members 
gathered for the night session and, as they did so, there was a heavy rain shower just 
before dusk which I knew would not help the light-trapping. Here was I, leading my first 
meeting, responsible for all these people driving out to this fairly remote site and 
perhaps they weren't going to see many moths. I expect every leader feels this way on his 
first and even subsequent meetings. On this occasion, I knew the site well from working 
on it throughout the previous year, and I had encountered many interesting species of 
moths. What I wanted to find out from this field meeting was how widely distributed 
they were on the Fen. The meeting offered the chance to disperse lots of light-traps and 
their operators across the Fen and get an overview in one night which would take me 
many nights to build up working on my own and would cover parts of the site I had not 
sampled before. 

Well, the weather literally put a damper on the night and catches in individual 
traps were well down. I did not get the results I had hoped for, with species I knew to 
be widespread and common turning up only in small numbers and sporadically due 
to the small sizes of the samples in the traps. However, twenty-nine lights were 
operated that night and, owing to this large fire power, we ended up accumulating an 
impressive list of species, and most of the specialities were seen at least once. A full 
account was provided for the journal (McLean & Waring, 1989). The meeting 
seemed to be enjoyed by all and was a successful social occasion (Fig. 1) One group 
had come down from Derbyshire and were very pleased to see several wetland species 
and to experience the Fen, so much so that they requested details of the necessary 
contacts so that they could return on future occasions and continue to extend and 
up-date the moth list for the site. Subsequently, a full list of the species we recorded 
was supplied to the site manager and local Nature Conservancy Council (NCC) 
office as it then was, the data were entered onto the Invertebrate Site Register and the 
results were a substantial contribition to an unpublished report by a new member of 
this Society (Howton, 1991), who offered to compile all the records on file for me as a 
result of his interest in the site. 

The Chippenham Fen experience evidently did not deter people from attending 
field meetings led by Waring because several of the same faces turned up again just a 
couple of weeks later at Cranwich Plantation. For this meeting I had asked Gerry 
Haggett if he would join us. Many members will know that Gerry produced the book 
on the larvae of British Lepidoptera not figured by Buckler, which this Society 
published in 1981 but which is no longer available (Haggett, 1981). It is in fact a 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 




Fig. 1. One of the lights operated at Chippenham Fen, 2 July 1988. Left to right are: Alison, 
Meral and Allon Jenkins, Andrew Halstead and David Young. 



compilation of eleven illustrated papers published over a number of years in the 
Society's journal, the result of a life-time's work on larvae, some of it with the 
guidance of the late A.J. Wightman, who also worked extensively on this subject. Gerry 
and I had got to know each other a year or more previously due to a shared interest in 
the larvae of wainscot moths and were then engaged in what turned out to be an 
unsuccessful search for the viper's bugloss moth Hadena irregularis in Breckland in 
1988 and 1989, covering all the known sites for the larval food-plant (Waring, 1989b, 
1990b). I felt that the chance to search for moth larvae with Gerry would be a 
considerable draw to the day-time part of the meeting for members. I was disappointed 
therefore when only three members turned up for this part of the meeting. True, the 
weather forecast had been dodgy for the day but, as it turned out conditions were good 
and those of us present had a most enjoyable and productive time examining larvae 
with Gerry. I realized how fast he beats compared to me, which helps to explain why he 
ended up with a longer list of species. Seeing him at work was an insight I would not 
have got from any book. I remember him putting me on the spot when we came across 
the larva of the least black arches Nolo, confusalis, which I was having trouble 
identifying, and then him explaining the diagnostic features. 

The evening session at Cranwich Plantation was much better attended, rising to 
nine members in addition to the leaders and it was then that I realized how much our 
membership is orientated to light-trapping moths rather than day-time work on 
larvae or on other orders of insects. In discussing the higher attendances at this and 
other light-trapping sessions compared with day-time meetings, I have come to 
realize that other practical considerations are involved as well. For some there are 
family commitments to take into account, Saturday shopping or ferrying youngsters 



26 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

around. There is also the matter of time spent travelling to the venue and 
understandable difficulties in making an early start after a hard week at work and the 
time taken to load the vehicle etc. With this in mind, you will see that some of the 
1995 meetings start after lunch, to give people the chance of a comfortable drive and 
to reduce the length of the day when light-trapping is involved. Other meetings start 
in the morning because this time is best for encountering some Diptera and other 
insect orders. I have also come to realize, through field meetings, how little nocturnal 
work is undertaken by students of orders other than the Lepidoptera and that there 
can be a sort of day and night shift amongst members, with some turning up only for 
one or the other. Those that attended the night-time session at Cranwich enjoyed 
what many said was the best night of 1988. It was a truly incredible night. The moths 
were so numerous and varied that almost everyone had over a hundred species of 
macro-moths at each light-trap. New species continued to be added steadily 
throughout the warm dry night and virtually everyone stayed on, manning the traps 
until dawn, even if they had not intended to stay so long. A total list of 168 species of 
macro-moths alone was recorded for the night. Apart from manning my light, I spent 
a large part of the night visiting the other members and sweeping larvae with Gerry 
on the way, learning to recognize some of the numerous geometrid larvae on 
bedstraws Galium spp. in the process. The whole meeting was one of the most 
successful and productive I have witnessed and a great source of satisfaction for me. I 
prepared an account for the journal (Haggett & Waring, 1989) and sent the full list to 
the Forestry Commission as an addition to their records for this site and as a 
testimony of the level of interest in what some may regard as a very specialized part 
of the wildlife value of their holdings in Breckland. Gerry had prepared a set of 
management guidelines for these plantations which were established on Breckland 
heaths, and he emphasizes the values of the rides and open spaces as well as the trees 
and shrubs. I would like to feel that the results of our field meeting add to the weight 
of that case and provide a tangible demonstration of it. 

WOODWALTON FEN IN 1989 

Encouraged by the good attendance of my two field meetings in 1988 and the 
results at Cranwich in particular, I arranged two more in 1989. Both of these were at 
Woodwalton Fen, Cambridgeshire (old Huntingdonshire, VC 31). Both had the 
principal aim of locating the marsh moth Athetis pallustris which was a major 
speciality of the Fen in the 1930s through to the 1950s (e.g. Edelsten el al., 1944ab) 
but which has not been recorded from this site since the 1960s, in spite of several 
searches. When I moved to Peterborough in 1987, Woodwalton Fen had been one of 
the local sites 1 had most wanted to study. I had been there once before but had never 
had a chance to look for moths there. During 1987 I managed to run light-traps there 
during each month from early May to September in spite of a badly fractured arm 
resulting from when a car knocked me from my bike on the way to work, on the 
second week of my new job with the Nature Conservancy Council. I well remember 
carrying and starting generators with my left hand, due to the pain from the 
metalwork I carried around in my right arm until this was taken out in 1988. 

I failed to find the marsh moth at Woodwalton in 1987 and 1988 in spite of using 
all the techniques described by Edelsten and others, including the litter-pile method 
for the larvae, which I have used with success for this moth in Lincolnshire. At 
Woodwalton Fen I searched existing large piles (Fig. 2) of cut litter on the fen and 
arranged small piles at intervals along the droves which I later searched, all to no 
avail. As at Chippenham Fen, a field meeting offered the chance of getting numerous 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 






m 




Fig. 2. Bernard Skinner and others lifting litter piles for marsh moth larvae in Lincolnshire, 29 
September 1990. The same method was unsuccessful at Woodwalton Fen in 1987 and 1988. 



light traps out over the Fen and having people walking around with Tilley lamps 
searching for the moth. Now experienced in the ways of the Fen and how it is apt to 
turn very cold and unproductive at night in June, I picked two dates which would 
suit the moth, based on previous records, as an insurance against unfavourable 
weather. Of course Woodwalton Fen has many other attractions and it remains one 
of my favourite local sites for walks at all times of the year. 

Both the field meetings at Woodwalton Fen were well attended; for example we 
had 27 people and 31 lights, including five actinics, on 3 June. Many interesting 
insects were recorded and the meetings provided the opportunity to fill the 
Rothschild Bungalow (Fig. 3) in the centre of the Fen with entomologists regaling 
each other with stories, as in former days during the history of this famous Fen. The 
Bungalow was and is a great place to pass round specimens in pill-boxes and examine 
them without fear of losing them. Some of us spent the night in the Bungalow and 
others in cars at the entrance. Back in the 1980s the Bungalow used to be left open 
and was a welcome retreat from the rain or mosquitoes. There was a visitors' book 
into which I added the names of the more interesting moths I saw on each visit and I 
think some of us signed it on these field meetings, for posterity. Sadly, the Bungalow 
is now kept locked, following an incident of vandalism. Fortunately, the damage was 
minor and this fine thatched building remains available, by arrangement, for future 
entomological meetings and I hope it will continue to be so used. We did not succeed 
in finding the marsh moth and it has not been reported subsequently. I believe this 
moth is one feature of this Fen which has been lost, possibly as a consequence in some 
way of flooding in the 1960s or the increased wetness and possible over-nutrification of 
the Fen, from water-borne agricultural fertilizers and consequent changes in the 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9 1996 




Fig. 3. The Rothschild Bungalow at Woodwalton Fen. 



vegetation. Comments were collected from those who attended the meeting and had 
known the fen in the past. The field meeting enabled us to make comparisons that 
would be difficult to make on paper and without visiting the site together. It seems 
that places on the Fen where the marsh moth occurred, which had a sparse, dry field- 
margin quality when the Fen was drying out and becoming encroached with scrub in 
the 1950s, are now high luxuriant reed growth Phragmites australis. Other species of 
moth, like some of the reed-dependent wainscot moths, are doing very well as a result 
of present management. The continuing task is to find ways of maintaining all the 
species somewhere on the Fen, so that marsh carpet moths Perizoma sagittata and 
other specialities and their foodplants are not swamped, literally, by wainscot habitat. 

A memorable and welcome feature of these two meetings was the use of an Argo- 
cat, a balloon-tyred semi-amphibious vehicle that I was trained to drive for the 
meetings. We used the Argo-cat to transport generators and other heavy equipment 
to remote parts of the Fen and to collect up tired moth-trappers at the end of the 
session. This greatly improved our coverage of the Fen. We made sure, in particular, 
that the best stands of meadowsweet Filipendula ulmaria were light-trapped because 
this was a plant with which the marsh moth had been associated in the past. 

What we did discover as a result of the field meetings at Woodwalton was that the 
distribution of the concolorous moth Photedes extrema varies considerably on the 
Fen. At one time it was common along many of the droves but this was not our 
experience, though it remains widely distributed in small numbers. However, at the 
south-east corner of the reserve there is a field in which the larval foodplant 
Calamagrostis canescens remains abundant. On 17 June twenty-three concolorous 
moths were recorded here at one m.v. light mounted five feet (cl.5m) above ground 
when the moth was only reported in ones and twos elsewhere on the Fen. The 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 29 

concolorous started to arrive as soon as it was dark and continued to come until 
23.50 hrs, while the light was operated until 00.50 hrs (Peter Waite, pers. comm). This 
result, along with a full species list, was sent to the site manager of the reserve and 
attention was drawn to its importance so that it could be taken into account during 
habitat management work. The day-time part of the first of the two meetings was 
covered in our journal (Kirby, 1990). I presented an exhibit of photographs and 
results at our Annual Exhibition and reported the main results of the night work in 
Waring (1989b). I intended to do something more ambitious with the light-trap 
results and write a larger account for this Journal but more pressing matters and 
other work prevented this. I then passed the results to Barry Dickerson, the county 
lepidoptera recorder for vice-county Huntingdonshire, who spent some hours sifting 
them and now has a copy of the data for his own use. Like many other of the field 
meetings of our Society, an account has not yet appeared in the Journal. I take this 
opportunity of reporting the Woodwalton meetings here, belatedly. Being the guilty 
party, perhaps I might be allowed to offer the following advice to other leaders in a 
similar position. No matter what grand plans you may have for the data collected, 
and even if hardly anything was recorded and it rained all day and night, do put a 
few lines together for the journal at the earliest opportunity and mention if further 
material was collected and more results are likely to appear. There is always the 
temptation to wait for the specialist to provide the very last identification, which has 
to be done over the winter when fieldwork is less demanding. I have been waiting just 
over ten years for one hymenopterist to identify a small number of specimens! The 
greater the time that elapses between the field meeting and writing the report, the less 
likely it is to come to fruition. A preliminary report is better than nothing at all and 
gives a lead that can always be followed up in the future if necessary. 

Holme Fen in 1992 

Interest in having further field meetings in the Fens resulted in the Holme Fen 
meetings in 1992. This Fen is more a birchwood now, but it still has some wetland 
areas and some interesting dykes. At this stage I had become interested in the status 
of the oak eggar moth Lasiocampa quercus in the Peterborough area because I was 
intrigued to find it occurred in my back garden in Werrington, just north of 
Peterborough (Waring, 1994d). There are old records from Holme Fen but the 
county recorder had not seen the moth there in the many years he had been operating 
and considered it very rare in the county. During the meeting, which was well 
attended and a most enjoyable social occasion, we attempted to assemble males to a 
virgin female brought along for the purpose. We failed, I suspect because we did not 
get the female set up early enough in the afternoon. The moth was given to one of the 
party to try her at Woodwalton Fen, where she succeeded in attracting a mate, 
producing an important record for the county, if not on the field meeting. The best 
laid plans . . . The meeting was reported in full in Waring (1992c). 

Bernwood Forest in 1993 

On the 1993 field meeting at Bernwood Forest, on the border of Oxfordshire with 
Buckinghamshire, I returned to an old stamping ground in which I used to record 
butterflies during the 1970s and in which I light- trapped extensively during the 1980s 
while conducting the studies for my Ph.D. (Waring, 1990a). The main aim of the 
meeting was to check on the continued presence of as many species of moth as 
possible to get 1990s records and maintain recording activity. The past records for 



30 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

this site date back to the early years of this century and the list and the changes in the 
moth fauna were reviewed by Waring (1988, 1990a, c). The support for the meeting 
was superb and enthusiastic but the weather left a lot to be desired. Nevertheless, two 
new species were added to the historical list as a result of the meeting. One of these, 
the pine hawk-moth Hyloicus pinastri is almost certainly a new arrival to the wood 
since the 1980s. Two came to light in Waterperry Wood, in an area in which I 
frequently trapped during the 1980s. In addition to general coverage of the rest of the 
wood by myself and others at that time, the conifer-dependent species were the 
subject of special study (Hatcher, 1989) but the pine hawk was never found. The 
moth has been recorded in other places in Oxfordshire, in some of which it is 
resident, and now it may have colonized Berawood at last. The other addition to the 
historical list was the hornet clearwing Sesia apiformis which is now common in some 
of the planted poplars but may have been overlooked for some years. In addition to 
the results given in the field meeting report (Waring, 1993) and submitted to English 
Nature and the Forestry Commission, Peter and Di Sharpe have since found more 
trees tenanted by the hornet clearwing in the wood. This last snippet of information 
was gained in conversation on another field meeting somewhere else! 



Seven field meetings in 1994 

Up to 1993 I had led one or two field meetings a year, much like many other 
leaders. As part of my contribution during my Presidential year I decided to try out 
various other ideas relating to field meetings and ended up leading seven during 1994. 

One statement I had often heard was that you will get good turn-outs if you go to 
famous localities but you won't be able to get people out to investigate unknown 
sites. Now, of course, lack of records does not mean a poor site and sites without 
records are just the sort that need our attention. I was also interested to use field 
meetings to collect data from sites which are threatened in some way, where 
invertebrate data might help to defend a site against damage but where little 
information is to hand. These were some of the motives behind the meetings at 
Welshbury Wood, Gloucestershire, and Whiteparish Common, Wiltshire. 



Welshbury Wood in 1994 

Welshbury Hill is nothing if not off the beaten track. There appear to be no moth 
records whatsoever for this wood prior to the field meeting and it is virtually unknown 
entomologically . My wife and I visited this site once, in September 1 990, on a holiday in 
Gloucestershire, on the recommendation of Keith Kirby of English Nature's 
Woodlands section. The woodland on the top of the hill is full of small-leaved lime 
Tilia cordata and there is also an iron-age fort among the trees. No doubt the 
woodland has an interesting history. It is known to have been in existence since 
before 1600 and therefore qualifies as ancient. Recent work suggests that even some 
of the living stools of coppiced lime are much older than this! After our walk round I 
decided that one day I would return to this wood to search for the scarce hook-tip 
moth Sabra harpagula. This moth is currently unknown outside the Wye Valley on 
the nearby border of Gloucestershire and Monmouthshire and is dependent on 
small-leaved lime. In the winter of 1993/94 I wrote to the Forestry Commission who 
manage the site, sent an off-print of the successful field meeting on FC property at 
Berawood in 1993 and obtained permission for the meeting and a set of keys. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 31 

I am delighted to report that this meeting was very well attended indeed. Twenty-two 
people turned up and at least 1 9 lights were operated. We had a wonderful time mothing 
among the limes on this eerie site, to the accompaniment of a long-eared owl chick Asio 
otus calling like a squeaky gate and with the occasional sighting of badgers Meles meles. 
Preliminary reports have appeared in several places already (Brock, 1994; Waring 
1994e, 1995a) and the meeting and results were featured at our Annual Exhibition. The 
big news is that we discovered a colony of the small-leaved lime-dependent pyralid 
moth Salebriopsis albicilla which was not known to be resident outside the Wye Valley. 
Bernard Skinner had tipped us off to look out for this moth and in fact joined us for the 
night, even though he had suffered a stroke only weeks before. The discovery of this 
moth bodes well for the scarce hook-tip. However, we did not find the latter on this 
occasion, or in adjacent Flaxey Wood on the same night, or on return visits which 
Bernard and I made independently in the subsequent days, even though we had 
established that it was flying in the Wye Valley on the night before the field meeting. 

Unbeknown to me when planning the meeting, management of the limes was 
under discussion and debate by various concerned parties, including the Forestry 
Commission. I have since been able to help with advice on the best options for the 
moths, based on the work done and data collected on this field meeting. 

Whiteparish Common in 1994 

Whiteparish Common was threatened by a road-building proposal when I 
submitted it for inclusion in the 1994 field meetings programme. I knew of the site 
from a summer spent in south Wiltshire in 1983 when I was surveying nearby Bentley 
Wood and was aware of Roy Pitman's work in the area in the 1930s and 1940s from 
meeting him and from his records in the Wiltshire county list of Lepidoptera (de 
Worms, 1962). When I checked the Invertebrate Site Register and other files for 
information on the site, I found that there was nothing on the moths of the site since 
the 1950s. During my survey of Bentley Wood (Waring, 1984), I discovered all sorts 
of species that had not been reported from there for years and I felt sure that 
Whiteparish Common would perform likewise, particularly since Norman Hutch- 
inson of Fordingbridge had just succeeded in finding the triangle Heterogenea asella 
there. Norman kindly obtained permission from the private owner for us to hold the 
field meeting, which took place on 2 July. This date was hand-picked for certain 
nationally scarce species which were possibilities given the type of habitat and given 
records from comparable sites in the region. Members of this Society joined members 
of Butterfly Conservation and several local contacts for a day-time walk round the 
site and for light-trapping. Among other important species, we discovered the scarce 
merveille du jour Moma alpium at several places on the site. The presence of this Red 
Data Book species alone greatly strengthens the conservation case for preventing 
damage to these woodlands. A full list of the species we found was supplied to the 
owner and to a local site defence group and the results were quickly published 
(Waring, 1994e, 1995a), and will soon appear in this journal. Fortunately, the road 
proposals which threatened this site have since been dropped, though for reasons other 
than the moths I must admit. Nevertheless we have demonstrated the continuing 
presence of nationally scarce and threatened species at this site and this will have to be 
taken into account if any other proposals arise which threaten this site. 

Meetings throughout Britain 

Another statement I had heard was that meetings would flop if they were not held 
within easy striking distance of London and the south-east. After all, the Society has 



32 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

only recently grown out of being the old "South London" Society (back in 1968!). 
Well, if we are truly to be BRITISH, meetings should be held throughout Britain. I 
am sure that we could attract many more members to the Society from northern 
Britain if we were seen to be more active in these areas. 

Few people would disagree that Inverness-shire is hardly within a morning's drive 
of London, but this is where I arranged one of the field meetings. Actually, I wanted 
to hold it further north still, in East Ross, in some Caledonian pine forest which had 
never been worked for moths before. However, the owner was wary of allowing more 
than a couple of hand-picked and trusted people onto the site so it was clearly not 
appropriate for a field meeting. I arranged to light-trap this site with one other 
person and not to publish the results, so I visited it in advance of the field meeting, 
which I arranged for Abernethy Forest, courtesy of the RSPB. 

Our Society made a £1000 donation to the RSPB from the Hammond fund in 1988 
to help them buy the Abernethy Estate, which includes Caledonian pine forest, with 
capercaillies Tetrao urogallus and ospreys Pandion haliaetus, and heather moorland. 
This was the site about which John Owen gave his Presidential Address (Owen, 
19$9). My field meeting provided the opportunity for members to inspect the site and 
see what a worthwhile cause our donation has supported. But who would come? 
Well, several people as it happened. Mr and Mrs Rich Austin came all the way from 
the Channel Islands, but they also happened to have relatives in the area. Mike 
Britton, from Yorkshire, had arranged a holiday at Nethy Bridge and came along. 
Robert Hoare and Gordon Ramel came up from the south (Winchester and Exeter 
respectively). Meanwhile, I took the precaution of inviting the Highland Biological 
Recording Group to add some local support and they fielded three members. I had 
picked the date to coincide with the end of the Scottish Entomologists' week at the 
Bettyhill Field Station on the north coast of Sutherland, part of which I attended, 
and I hoped that some attenders might have joined us on their journey south. 
However, they were possibly exhausted after some days of fieldwork in Caithness 
and Sutherland and did not swell our numbers on this occasion. One of this group 
remarked that he was surprised to hear that the BENHS was holding a meeting here 
and had not thought to consult his events card! Lest anyone feel that this is in any 
way a criticism of a Scot and not politically correct in some way, I would add that, 
like most of the group I met at Bettyhill, the gent in question was an Englishman, up 
from Hampshire no less! 

The Abernethy meeting was also advertised as part of Butterfly Conservation's 
Woodland campaign of 1994. We had a productive daytime session in which 
invertebrates of a range of orders were recorded and I was particularly pleased to see 
larvae of the light knotgrass moth Acronicta menyanthidis . We did not see a 
capercaillie, though we encountered an egg-shell of this large game bird. In between 
the afternoon and evening sessions we watched the ospreys around the nest at Loch 
Garten. One species we particularly hoped to see at night was the cousin german 
moth Paradiarsia sobrina. At the request of the RSPB we visited a part of the Estate 
which has been little recorded entomologically and, although it was a cold night, it 
was a delight to see four cousin german moths among the other species at light. A full 
list and account of our results was sent to the RSPB and to the Highland Biological 
Records Centre for their data-bases, to the local Lepidoptera recorder and to the Bug 
Club for their magazine. The meeting was also featured in Butterfly Conservations^ 
Annual Review for 1994 (Waring, 1995a), British Wildlife (Waring, 1994e) and a full 
account can be found in our Journal (Waring, 1995c). 

As I left the RSPB's lodge on the fine morning of 14 August, the reserve warden, 
Stewart Taylor, said that our Society was very welcome to return to Abernethy and 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 33 

to use the Lodge for overnight accomodation. I would strongly recommend that we 
take up this offer. We could even book for more than one night to give members more 
time on the site. Abernethy is a real Highland experience, fine habitats to explore and the 
Lodge, which is the largest all-timber building in Scotland, has a special character of its 
own and excellent facilities for small parties of entomologists to work and dine in (Fig. 4). 

Joint field meetings 

Regarding joint meetings, some eyebrows were raised when I suggested I would like 
to hold several joint meetings with Butterfly Conservation. I am pleased to report that 
these went well and there will be more in 1995. Many members of Butterfly 
Conservation are keen on other aspects of natural history apart from butterflies and 
the interest and profile of moths within this society is growing and being developed all 
the time (e.g. Waring, 1991b, c, 1992e, 1994c). There was a very good response to an 
appeal in Butterfly Conservation News for records of certain of the less common day- 
flying moths (Waring, 1991c, 1992f) and I have had a number of letters of support, 
interest and feed-back from each of the other articles. A considerable number of people 
are long-time members both of BENHS and BC, myself included. 

There is a lot to be said for joint meetings with local societies and I am sure there is 
a lot of future potential here. In many ways it should be a courtesy to involve local 
societies if possible, when working in their area. From a purely practical view this is 
also likely to bolster numbers attending in areas where our membership is thin and 
make meetings in such places more viable. The field meetings in the Mawddach 
Valley Woodlands, Abergwynant, Merionethshire (Waring, 1994e), and at Cantley 
Marshes, Norfolk, were good demonstrations of this. 





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Fig. 4. The RSPB lodge at Abernethy. 



34 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

At one of my first Council meetings as junior Vice-President of our Society, I drew 
attention to the RSPB's appeal for the purchase of Cantley Marshes. I had visited 
other sites elsewhere in the Yare Valley and knew them to be excellent for wetland 
insects. I asked Council to consider a donation to this appeal, 6n the understanding 
that our Society would be able to explore the invertebrates of the site. I was delighted 
when the Council voted to back this idea and a donation was made. I then set about 
arranging a field meeting for members to inspect the site that they had helped to buy. 
There was a good turn-out from members, as I had hoped. The members of the 
Norfolk Moth Survey were also invited and turned up in droves! We ended up with 
over thirty people attending and we were able to cover the adjacent Buckenham and 
Strumpshaw Fens as well. Many nationally scarce and local species were recorded. 

A good reason for joint meetings is that it enables both societies to develop closer 
links and learn about each other's activities. Allies can be useful and I would like to 
think that the membership of many local or regional societies might be interested in 
joining our national society and enjoying the services it can offer. 

The only problem with leading seven field meetings in 1994 is that I ended up with 
the job of Field Meetings Secretary as a result! 

Field meetings in the future 

I am sure that the value of field meetings will continue to increase. It sometimes 
seems that in Britain so many people seem to be adopting a passive, stay at home, 
spectator and consumer approach to life, and an increasingly insular one with fewer 
social contacts. Field meetings provide an opportunity to break out of that, to get 
out, meet new people with similar interests and do something that is not man-made, 
charged by the hour and over-prescribed. Also, in a countryside where quality 
habitats are diminishing and permits and paperwork are necessary to visit many of 
the remnants, field meetings are a big help for the member who wishes to explore 
good sites without becoming personally involved in the bureaucracy. 

The need for the data we collect on field meetings has never been greater. The 
ability of this Society to hold successful field meetings which produce useful results 
counts very much in its favour. Such field meetings are one of the activities and 
products of the Society which other organizations and the general public can 
appreciate as being of worth. So the more we promote our work, the greater the 
advantages to the Society and its members. 

I would like to see some field meetings each year developed in various ways. We 
plan to have a proportion of future meetings devoted to sites which are threatened in 
some way or where data are needed to help with habitat management issues. I have 
incorporated these ideas in compiling the 1995 programme. The problem with 
threatened sites is that it can be difficult to obtain permission for the meeting. Four 
sites had to be excluded from the calendar in 1995 because permission could not be 
obtained. The Society needs to consider our course of action when we are concerned 
about a threatened site but cannot obtain permission to explore it. One option may 
be to publish details of the sites where permission has been requested and denied. 
This will at least promote the fact that we are concerned about the wildlife which 
may be at risk. Our informal conservation group, co-ordinated by Stephen Miles, 
will select some sites for attention each year and any members of the Society are most 
welcome to draw our attention to any others. 

In addition, I wonder if it may be possible to collect quantitative as well as 
qualitative information on some of our meetings. For example, it is sometimes useful 
to compare the numbers of individuals of particular species seen in different habitats. 



BR. J. BNT. NAT. HIST, 9 1996 



There can be very marked differences in numbers (Waring, 1989a; Majerus et <//., 
1994) even though the total species list for both may be similar and this can shed light 
on the effects of different management histories and other factors. Such comparisons 
depend on adopting standard methodology but this can be arranged on site during the 
field meeting. Waring (1989a & in press) provides some suggestions for light-trappers 
for example, and a standard method for beating larvae is discussed and developed in 
Waring (1990a). The accompanying diagram (Fig. 5) shows the results I obtained 
when I ran four identical actinic light traps all night over the same period in four types 
of managed habitat at Woodwalton Fen in 1987. I also replicated the experiment at 
Chippenham Fen at the same time. Both sites produced the same pattern of results. 
All four of the reed-dependent species shown were most abundant in the "tall 1011" 



n. 



Pyralid 
C. phragmitella 



LJ 











Fen Wainscot 
A. phragmitidis 




















1 1 

1 



Can Tallfen Cut Crazed 



Carr Tallfen Cut Grazed 



WiMjtJwalton Fen 



1 "InpjM-Tili.i 



Obscure Wainscot 
M. obsoleta 





-.._ 



Silky Wainscot 
C. maritima 



E53 



Carr TaUfun 



Carr Tallfen 



Fig. 5. Comparative catches of four fenland moth species at Woodwalton and Chippenham 
Fens in moth traps operated in different habitats. 



36 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

sites and uncommon or absent in the grazed areas, which conforms to expectations 
based on our knowledge of their ecology. Some species appear to be less tolerant of 
invading carr woodland or reed-cutting than others. The differences between catches 
can be very marked and each habitat is likely to have species which are most common 
there. Field meetings with numbers of people on site simultaneously provide an 
opportunity to collect good data about the habitat associations of our invertebrates 
by comparing different parts of the site and this opportunity should be exploited. 

A FEW TIPS FOR ORGANIZING YOUR FIELD MEETING 

(1) Permission. — If you have a site but do not know who to approach for 
permission to hold a field meeting, the owner or manager of the site can usually be 
established by contacting the local office of the appropriate government conservation 
agency (CCW, EN, SNH) or county wildlife trust, each of whom are in the telephone 
directory. In case of difficulty, the Head Office numbers are CCW: 01248 370444; 
EN: 01733 340345; SNH: 0131 4474784. 

(2) Site maps and other background information. — Most sites of obvious wildlife 
interest have some background information available on them which is not difficult to 
obtain. If the site has been notified as a site of special scientific interest (SSSI), you are 
home and dry. Vast amounts of work have been done in recent years, at tax-payers' 
expense, to compile site descriptions and site maps for SSSIs. The SSSI citation for the 
site, which includes a summary of these data, is a public document. The country 
government agencies given in (1) should be able to supply a few photocopies of this and 
the SSSI map. The map will be useful to members to find their way around the site. 
Marking up the map is much the best way to record where invertebrates and other 
wildlife were found. The meeting point and any "no-go" areas can also be marked. The 
wildlife trusts are often the best bet for information where non-SSSIs are involved. 

(3) Objectives for the meeting. — All the meetings I have organized have had 
specific objectives which provided some of the reasons why I organized the meetings 
in the first place. Having one or two specific objectives may help encourage people 
along. Having said that, simply recording as many species as possible is a perfectly 
valid objective, but do at least let people know in advance what habitats to expect. 

(4) Advertising the meeting. — This starts by compiling details for inclusion in the 
field programme. Follow the format in the 1995 programme and you cannot go 
wrong. Post it to the Field Meetings Secretary at any time before the middle of 
January of the year in which the meeting is to take place. We are going to aim to get 
the programme approved at the February council meeting and issued shortly 
afterwards, before people have a chance to book up their diaries with other events! In 
1995 we are also advertising the meetings to the Amateur Entomologists' Society, 
who do not have a field meetings programme of their own, and some of the meetings 
will be advertised to Butterfly Conservation. Try and get your meeting advertised to 
local naturalists' groups but be aware that some issue their meetings calendars earlier 
than ours, so make preliminary contact in the autumn if you can. In some cases you 
might be able to get a local expert out on site to say a few words of background 
information and point out some features of the site at the start of the meeting. 

(5) Safety. — Field meetings must be undertaken in a responsible fashion and all 
reasonable precautions taken to ensure they proceed safely. Members and guests are 
responsible for their personal safety and equipment. In addition our Society has 
insurance cover*. All fieldworkers would be sensible to have a basic first aid kit in the 
car or with their field equipment, to bandage any cuts etc. These kits can be obtained 
* See announcement in Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 1995; 8(3): inside back cover. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 37 

inexpensively from chemists. It is a good idea for the leader to have one to ensure 
that at least one kit is on site. 

(6) Recording and promotion of the results of the meeting. — The main report of 
the meeting is for the Journal. This provides a historical record of the more 
significant results and we have records of these going back to the earliest days of the 
Society. I have often thumbed through old reports for information and with 
computer indexing a real option now at Dinton Pastures, it will become much easier 
to find out if and when the Society has visited the site before and what was found. 
The reports have varied in format over the years and depending on the author. Some 
are no more than a paragraph, others include full species lists and occasionally one 
or more photographs. In general, I think the more information is included the better 
and the inclusion of photographs of the site, people and equipment greatly increases 
the value of the account, particularly when you look back on meetings after a few 
years or decades have elapsed. Off-prints of these reports are most useful for 
distributing to land-owners etc, and can be supplied to leaders. 

(7) Additional promotion of the results. — A lot can be done to benefit the Society 
if a short report of the meeting can be prepared the day after the meeting. A brief 
note of the most interesting records of the animals and plants that can be identified 
reliably in the field can be included in the various wildlife reports which appear in the 
bi-monthly British Wildlife (BW) magazine and can reach a wide but discerning 
audience numbering several thousand within eight weeks. Several of our members 
contribute to the reports in BW and may be able to include appropriate records if 
these are sent promptly, while they are topical. I have regularly featured moth 
records from field meetings in the reports I write for BW. Other magazines and 
papers may respond to a short report, which could lead to something more 
substantial on the activities of the society. I have found that coverage in the popular 
press can result in a very poor quality of reporting, and can generate a lot of follow- 
up correspondence which can be time-consuming for little apparent gain to 
entomology, conservation or the Society. However, it does serve to raise and keep 
issues in the public profile. Before embarking on any promotion, it is imperative that 
the person who gave permission for the meeting is consulted. Their views on 
publicity should be sought and appropriate arrangements made when applying for 
access permission if possible. Any publicity about the Society should be cleared in 
advance with Council, and as Field Meetings Secretary I am happy to act as an 
intermediary to Council, with a copy or call to our Secretary in case I am unavailable. 

(8) General responsibilities of the leader. — Once a field meeting has been arranged 
and advertised, the leader or a deputy MUST turn up at the appointed time, even if it 
is sheeting down with rain and no one has contacted them to say they are coming! 
There will always be people who come to field meetings at the last minute or who do 
not advise the leader in advance, and the weather may have been fine when they set 
off. Hardy souls are not put off by the weather or are prepared to gamble on an 
improvement later in the day. With modern traffic and delays on the road it can be 
difficult to arrive exactly at the appointed meeting time, particularly if coming from 
any distance. Cautious people will frequently arrive early because they have allowed 
for this, others may be detained, so I generally do not move far from the meeting 
point in the first half hour. The other main job for the leader is to keep a note of who 
attends and to compile the report for the Journal. If you get a list of names rather 
than count heads, you can chase people up for their records if they are tardy in 
sending them! The leader is not expected to be an expert on the site or an expert 
entomologist. Also, while he or she oversees the meeting, the leader is not a 
policeman. It is the responsibility of every person attending to ensure that property is 



38 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

not damaged, that any protected species are not removed or disturbed and that the 
JCCBI codes for collecting and establishment, which the Society endorses, are not 
contravened. It will become difficult for the Society to obtain permission for field 
meetings if large numbers of uncommon species are removed "as a result. 

Field meetings and expeditions in other countries 

Members of this Society have demonstrated their concern for insects and other 
wildlife in places outside Britian, via exhibits, presentations at our indoor meetings 
and in publications in our Journal. Many past and present members have had the 
opportunity to pursue entomology abroad, particularly in Continental Europe, and 
others would like to have the opportunity in the future. Collectively, members of our 
Society must gather a great deal of potentially useful data from Continental Europe 
but I must admit I have never been clear where to publish mine to make it available to 
others. Rightly or wrongly, I have not considered our Journal to be the right place. I 
have followed a policy of offering reports of my European trips to the Bulletin of the 
Amateur Entomologists' Society (AES), which has developed this type of report into a 
major feature of the journal. This feature of the AES Bulletin is in a large part due to 
the many examples provided over the years by Peter Cribb and that is where you will 
find mine (e.g. Waring & Thomas 1989, 1990, 1994). As a lepidopterist, I am also 
fortunate in the existence of Societas Europaea Lepidopterologica (SEL), which aims 
to promote the study of Lepidoptera throughout Europe. I have just been elected to 
the Council of SEL and I hope to use this opportunity to bring the BENHS closer 
together with SEL so that we are more aware of each other's activities and concerns. 
Certainly the Continental lepidopterists I have met are very keen to receive results of 
our trips and many are remarkably interested in what is happening in Britain. In 
addition, a European Society of Entomologists has recently been formed to improve 
communications between entomologists in general and this covers all orders of insects 
and branches of entomology. Lepidopterists and other entomologists in North 
America are also well organized into societies so that they can act collectively. 

What about insects in the tropics and further south? Everyone must now have 
some idea of the damage to tropical habitats and the pressures on those that remain 
and on the wildlife that they support. But what to do about it? An option open to all 
of us is to support organizations such as the Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF) 
and I trust that all of you are members of WWF. An Association for Tropical 
Lepidoptera has recently been formed, based in the USA and it produces the journal 
Tropical Lepidoptera, which provides reading material and an outlet in which to 
publish results, though authors are charged for each page they publish, which must 
discourage many. What if you wish to take things further, to develop your first-hand 
experience of tropical insects and get involved personally? It strikes me that now that 
the conservation of tropical habitats has become such a pressing concern, and now 
that transport around the world has become so much easier, it is time for our Society 
to offer what help it can. Britain has long had holdings in the tropics and subtropics 
and some of our members, such as the late Robert St Leger, have collected insects in 
these places in the past. British museums, such as the Natural History Museum, 
contain some of the finest collections of specimens, which our members and others 
have left to the nation as reference collections for use in identifying insects and for 
other studies. In examining reports of surveys of threatened habitats in the tropics, I 
am frequently surprised at the failure to include invertebrates in the survey, or the 
failure to identify properly to species any material that was collected. Often this is 
due to lack of time or expertise, or because it is felt that the invertebrates would 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 39 

contribute little extra to the conservation case because so little is known about their 
distribution and habits. We are losing species of invertebrates even before they have 
been described, and more needs to be done. 

In this context our Society surely has something very special if not unique to offer. 
Our membership includes some of the most active field entomologists in Britain. 
Others who may be less able to get out in the field, due to family commitments or 
advancing years, have skills such as sorting and mounting insects, preparation of 
genitalia dissections and experience in using identification guides which they could 
offer. These are just the sorts of skills and capabilities which are often so lacking in 
the tropical countries and which are so costly or time-consuming to develop. I know 
that I am not the only one who feels it almost a duty to extend my personal 
involvement and skills to help in the tropics. Through our Society we may be able to 
accomplish more together than working as individuals. Isn't that one reason why the 
Society exists in the first place? 

I would like to see this Society assist members to get involved in tropical work in 
the ways outlined. I would like to see more than just a one-off collecting visit by a 
few lucky individuals. If possible, long-term links with particular places should be 
developed so that the Society can contribute cumulatively and see the developing 
results of its involvement. This is easier to achieve as a Society than as an individual. 

One of my last contributions in my presidential year has been to sow the idea of 
mounting expeditions by the Society to current and former British dependent 
territories. As Richard Jones, Editor of our Journal, remarked at a recent Council 
Meeting, it seems rather appropriate that the Field Meetings Secretary should be 
planning an expedition. After all, is it not simply a field meeting in another country? I 
have selected Belize, formerly British Honduras, in Central America, as the destination 
for the Society's first expedition, and the provisional dates are to be two weeks in 
January-February 1996. Advantages in favour of Belize include political stability, a 
continuing close link with Britain, an economy which depends heavily on the success of 
"green" i.e. eco-friendly tourism, and a will to develop this by taking a strong pro- 
conservation line on development issues. Sadly, these are not features of many 
destinations where our help is needed. The Natural History Museum, London, has 
taken similar issues into consideration and is just completing a field station in Belize to 
facilitate fieldwork and the study of tropical rainforest in the country. It may be 
possible to incorporate this centre as a destination for the present and future 
expeditions by the BENHS to Belize, but the current expedition is not dependent on this 
facility. Dr Malcolm Scoble, our new President for 1995/96, works for the Natural 
History Museum and I know that one of his wishes during his time in post is to bring our 
Society and the Museum into a closer working relationship, because we have so much 
to offer each other. Consequently, I am hopeful not just that the proposed expedition 
will take place but that together we can develop possibilities for the future. 

Malcolm and I are both fortunate in that we have been able to gain some 
experience of pursuing entomology in the tropics and sub-tropics already. I thought I 
would conclude with a few brief illustrations from my own endeavours, to give you a 
flavour of the sort of experiences other members of the society may be able to share if 
my proposals come to fruition, and to rekindle the memories of members who have 
already been to such places. 

Sudan 

From January 1981 to March 1983 I lived and worked in southern Sudan on 
ecological impact studies of the construction of the Jonglei Canal. Details of the 



40 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

work and the implications of the canal for the people, domestic stock and wildlife 
which inhabit this area can be found in Howell et al. (1988). While in the Sudan I was 
able to carry out standard butterfly transect walks in the vicinity of our base camp in 
savannah and seasonally flooded grassland every week for over two years, in Jonglei 
Province. This enabled me to record seasonal variations in the species of butterflies 
and their numbers, as well as to collect wet and dry season forms. I also ran a 
Robinson-pattern mercury vapour light-trap every week and recorded moths and 
other insects. Much of this habitat would have changed, for better or worse, had the 
canal been completed. Shortly after we finished our project the civil war broke out 
and it has not been possible to conduct such studies since, not least because some of 
the areas I worked are littered with land-mines. A recent eye-witness tells me that the 
people ate all livestock and much of the wildlife in the area before starving and 
migrating as a consequence of the war. No doubt the vegetation will be changing as a 
result, possibly even improving, at least temporarily, for Lepidoptera, if larval 
hostplants are not being grazed as heavily as before. My standard counts provide a 
base-line and a repetition of them now would enable accurate assessment of any 
changes. 

I spent a few tranquil days motoring around the adjacent swamps in a house- 
boat while I was in Jonglei Province. I used to operate a Robinson trap on the roof 
of the boat while we were moored for the night. Perhaps I am the first to run a 
light-trap in these swamps? I was there to study fish breeding grounds, which were 
likely to be altered when the Canal extracted water from the system. Who knows 
how the moth fauna might have been affected by the canal? My work, taken in 
conjunction with predicted changes in the vegetation zones, might hold some 
clues. 

While in southern Sudan I made trips to the forests of Bangangai, on the border of 
Sudan with Zaire, and the Imatong Mountains, on the border of Sudan with 
Uganda. I reported my experiences of the butterflies and moths of Bangangai in 
Waring (1992d). The opportunity to see trees with huge buttress roots and watch 
large numbers of butterflies feeding at damp mud on the banks of streams in the 
forest was unforgettable. During the civil war from 1956 to 1973 and again during 
the current one, many people have retreated into the forests in this area for refuge, 
others to trade for arms at the border, and the large mammals in the area have been 
extensively hunted for food. Much of the true rainforest has been opened up by 
felling and shifting agriculture, such that species of the drier savannah woodland are 
invading and species dependent on rainforest are threatened. 

The British Overseas Development Administration has supported and operated a 
timber mill in the Imatong Mountains which has contributed to the felling of the 
forests there. The forests are full of exciting butterflies, moths and other insects, 
many of which have not been surveyed. Some special conservation areas were being 
discussed while I was there and I would love to find out what the current situation 
is and to have the opportunity to return and examine the Lepidoptera in more 
detail and contribute to their conservation. At least one species of butterfly I 
found, Pseudacraea acholica, is confined to the Imatongs I believe. On the peaks of 
the highest of the Imatongs, at over 10000 feet, are areas of what can only be 
described as moorland, with giant heathers. Here I saw numbers of the butterfly 
Issoria harming toni imatonga, a sub-species of fritillary endemic to the Imatongs. 
This butterfly has other sub-species confined to mountain tops elsewhere in East 
Africa. I also encountered a large lasiocampid larva which I know pleased the late 
Basil MacNulty. He was trying to identify it from my photographs at the time of 
his death. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 41 

Hong Kong 

A brief visit to Hong Kong in April 1993 provided the opportunity for me to get to 
grips with some of the wildlife that occurs in China and south-east Asia. All the large 
mammals and some species of birds have been lost from Hong Kong, but a great deal 
of invertebrate interest remains and it is on these grounds that conservation cases can 
be justifiably made. It was fantastic to run a light-trap in the forests of Tai Po Kau 
and to experience the arrival at the trap of Atlas moths Attacus atlas, Moon moths 
Actios selene and a host of other large moths, most of which I could not identify at 
that time. As each minute went by I had no idea what was going to arrive next; each 
arrival was of great interest, some were breath-taking in their appearance; it was a 
tremendous thrill. My wife and I were only in Hong Kong for three weeks and did 
not operate the light-trap every night. Nevertheless, it has taken me two years to 
identify all the species we recorded, working in my spare time. It would have taken a 
lot longer if I had not had help from various quarters nor access to the collections in 
the Natural History Museum. A paper on the hawk-moths (Sphingidae) we found 
was published in this Journal (Waring et al., 1994) and the results of this trip and 
visits to other countries have been the basis of a number of exhibits at our Annual 
Exhibition. We discovered a hawk-moth new to Hong Kong during our visit and this 
was illustrated in the Exhibition Report (Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 7: 145 & Plate 1). A 
second paper reporting all the other moths we saw is in preparation. 

In 1997 the British are due to return Hong Kong to China. What will happen to 
the habitats which have been conserved as national parks and other special areas 
during our lease of the Territory? The vast programme of building construction, the 
bulldozing and the destruction of native habitats now underway across the border in 
China, and the continuing development in parts of Hong Kong, lead to concern. Will 
I be able to go back to the woodlands of Tai Po Kau in a few years time and find the 
moth fauna intact? Will the woodlands still be there or will they have been consumed 
by the concrete and tarmac of the expanding city of Tai Po? I trust the new 
administration will take an enlightened view and value such places and the wildlife 
they support. I am ready to help in their conservation if I can be of any assistance. 

Concluding remarks 

I hope this address has revived a few fond memories and that you are all fired with 
enthusiasm to participate in the field meetings programme for 1995. I have put 
together a full and varied programme for this year, twisted the arms of various 
people, gently, into leading meetings on particular sites where information on the 
invertebrates is needed and where it will be used immediately it is gathered. I trust 
that all meetings will be well attended, enjoyable and productive. There are meetings 
on virtually every weekend from May to September so even our old adversary, the 
weather, cannot be bad on them all, can it? 

Finally, if you have any suggestions for sites where you would like to see a field 
meeting held, or would like to lead one, or have any suggestions of ways in which 
these meetings could be improved, do let me know. I am part way through compiling 
the 1996 programme but there are still some weekends available. 

I wish everyone a successful field season in 1995. 

References 

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north-west Surrey locality. Proc. Trans. Br. Ent. Nat. Hist. Soc. 19: 33^12. 



42 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

Brock, J. 1994. The very scarce hooktip moth. The first report by our new Moths Officer. 

Antennae — the Newsletter of the Gloucestershire Branch of Butterfly Conservation 11: 10-11. 
Chandler, P. 1994. Fieldwork at Dinton Pastures to the end of 1993. Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 7: 

118-126. 
Edelsten, H. M., Fryer, J. C. F. & Robinson, A. 1944a. Hydrillula palustris Huebner in England. 

Entomologist 77: 49-50. 
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England. Entomologist 77: 65-72. 
Haggett, G. M. 1981. Larvae of British Lepidoptera not figured by Buckler. British 

Entomological and Natural History Society, London. 
Haggett, G. & Waring, P. 1989. Field meeting. Cranwich Heath Plantation near Mundford, 

Norfolk, 23 July 1988. Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 2: 157-158. 
Hatcher, P. E. 1989. Host plants and nutrition in conifer-feeding Lepidoptera. PhD thesis, 

unpublished. Oxford Polytechnic. Oxford. 
Howell, P., Lock, M. & Cobb, S. (eds.) 1988. The Jonglei Canel — impact and opportunity. 

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 
Howton, D. H. 1991. Chippenham Fen National Nature Reserve. Provisional list of 

Lepidoptera. Unpublished report to Joint Nature Conservation Committee. 
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Majerus, M., Grigg, A., Jones, C, Salmon, F., Strathdee. A. & Dearnaley N. 1994. Factors 

affecting habitat preferences in the Lepidoptera. Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 7: 129-137. 
McLean, I. F. G. 1990. The 1988 Presidential Address. Part 2. What future for our 

entomological heritage? Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 3: 35-54. 
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Miles, S. R. 1995. Report of the discussion meeting held on 12 May 1992 to consider 

invertebrate conservation in the United Kingdom. Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 8: 19-26. 
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of the RSPB Loch Garten Reserve. Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 2: 17-28. 
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Skinner, B. F. 1988. Field Meeting report. Dungeness, Kent, 5 September 1987. Br. J. Ent. Nat. 

Hist. 1: 58. 
Sokoloff, P. A. 1985. Presidential Address. Part 2. An introduction to the Gelechiidae. Proc. 

Trans. Br. Ent. Nat. Hist. Soc. 18: 99-106. 
Stubbs, A. E. 1982. Presidential Address. Part 2. Conservation and the future for the field 

entomologist. Proc. Trans. Br. Ent. Nat. Hist. Soc. 15: 55-66. 
Waring, P. 1984. A survey of the butterflies and moths of Bentley Wood, Wiltshire. 

Unpublished report. Nature Conservancy Council. Newbury. 276pp. 
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file. Nature Conservancy Council. Newbury. Subsequent moth records have appeared in 

Bentley Wood Nature Records 1986, 1987, 1988 and 1989, a report produced by the 

Bentley Wood Trust. 
Waring, P. 1988. Hell Coppice/Shabbington Wood complex. Bernwood Forest, Buckingham- 
shire including Bernwood Meadows. Provisional annotated list of macromoths including 

all known historical records. Unpublished NCC report. Copies available from author. 
Waring, P. 1989a. Comparison of light trap catches in deciduous and coniferous woodland 

habitats. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 101: 1-10. 
Waring, P., 1989b. Wildlife reports: moths. Br. Wildlife 1: 47-48. 
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Oxford Polytechnic. 
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BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 43 

Waring, P. 1990c. The status in Bernwood Forest of moth species which are recognised as 

nationally uncommon. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 102: 233-238. 
Waring, P. 1 99 1 a. National review of the recording and conservation of the rarer British macro- 
moths. Entomologist's Record J. Var. 103: 193-196. 
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19-22. 
Waring, P. 1991c. Watch out for the rarer dayflying moths. Br. Butterfly Cons. Soc. News 48: 52-54. 
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in Britain, as reported by the National Network for Recording the Rarer British Macro- 
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September 1994. Bull. Amat. Ent. Soc. 54: 66-76. 



44 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

BOOK REVIEW 

The type-material of Diptera (Insecta) described by G. H. Verrall and J. E. Collin by 

Adrian C. Pont. Oxford University Museum Publication 3, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 
1995. £65, 223 pp, hardback. — As stated in the preface to this book, George Verrall 
and his nephew James Collin dominated the study of British Diptera for more than a 
century (from the 1860s to the 1960s). This work was begun to bring order to the 
joint Verrall-Collin collection at Oxford University Museum, and to identify all 
surviving syntypes of the species described by these authors. Few species described 
by them had holotypes designated and there have been few subsequent lectotype 
designations. 

The main part of the text deals in detail with all the specific names they proposed, 
77 by Verrall and 825 by Collin. These are dealt with in alphabetical order of specific 
name under each author, precluding the need for an index, and a full list of names is 
also given in systematic order. More than 10 000 specimens are dealt with in the 
species accounts. 

Adrian Pont has listed as syntypic all material established as extant which 
conforms to the distribution stated in the original descriptions, which was sometimes 
vague, necessitating inclusion of all specimens likely to have been examined by the 
author prior to the likely date of submission of the manuscript (rather than the 
publication date). 

The introductory chapters include biographical details of Verrall and Collin, 
which are invaluable in bringing together much information not previously available 
to dipterists. Verrall married into a Newmarket family, later setting up home there. 
Collin was the son of his wife's sister and became his secretary in the 1 890s, at this 
time evidently becoming infected by his uncle's enthusiasm for the Diptera. Both had 
ample leisure to pursue their studies and Collin's greater longevity extended the 
influence of this family over British dipterology through the first two-thirds of the 
present century. 

The small selection of photographs are well chosen to illustrate this section, 
although the family photographs are unfortunately undated. The latest photograph 
of Collin with C. N. Colyer, L. Parmenter and C. O. Hammond, three of the best 
known dipterists of his latter years, was taken at Chippenham Fen in the early 1950s 
(Cyril Hammond visited this site only on l.viii.51 and 2.vi.52 according to his diaries 
held by the Society). These collectors are not otherwise mentioned in the text as they 
did not contribute to the type material discussed. Appendix B does, however, include 
brief biographies of nineteen other dipterists who collaborated with Verrall or Collin, 
with details of the present location of their collections where known. 

The localities of British syntypes are listed in Appendix C, with their vice-counties 
and four-figure grid references. Curiously, Logie (a locality where many species were 
collected by Francis Jenkinson) is misplaced in Fife despite its regular designation of 
'Logie in Elgin' at least in the works of F. W. Edwards who referred to much 
Jenkinson material. As confirmed by the many central Highland species recorded 
there, Jenkinson's Logie is by the River Findhorn (grid ref. NH9646). 

This work was evidently meticulously researched and few errors or discrepancies 
have been noted. The synonymy and current nomenclature stated is based chiefly on 
the Palaearctic catalogue, so the latest accepted name is not always used. For 
example Suillia dumicola Collin is placed in synonymy with S. mikii Pokorny, 
following the catalogue despite Phil Withers' work (Proc. Trans. Br. Ent. Nat. Hist. 
Soc. 1987; 20: 91-104) establishing dumicola to be a good species. Some craneflies 
and other species are now placed in different genera from the catalogue. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 45 

Inevitably in such a detailed work there were some loose ends. Two of these can be 
resolved here. Attention is drawn to inaccurate citations of some type localities in the 
Palaearctic catalogue, largely due to the vague statements made in some of Collin's 
descriptions. However, under Xylota xanthocnema Collin, different localities were 
cited in the catalogue by Peck, said by Pont to be due to 'some kind of error'. 
Actually the data given by Peck was taken from Coe's description of the female 
{Entomologist's Mon. Mag. 1939; 75: 224). Under Pipunculus incognitus Verrall, 
reference is made to erroneous records of this species from Britain. The source of 
these records was actually due to Verrall himself {Entomologist 's Mon. Mag. 1912; 
48: 190-197) recording incognitus from Britain on the basis of specimens of 
Dorylomorpha beckeri Aczel, the correction being made in one of Collin's 
publications. 

The inclusion of manuscript names overlooked in British check lists adds to the 
completeness of this work and some other previously overlooked names are cited 
such as Psila uniseta Smith, a synonym of Chamaepsila limbatella (Zetterstedt). Some 
longstanding errors are corrected, such as the supposed Irish site for Discocerina 
nectens Collin proving to be Welsh. 

The immense detail of this work ensures that it will remain a valuable source work 
for all future researchers of the Diptera. 

Peter Chandler 



Insects and flowers — a biological partnership, by John Brackenbury. Blandford, 
1995, 160 pages, £20, hardback. — Many of the higher plants rely on insects for 
pollination and this is a relationship that has shaped the evolution of both insects 
and plants. In six chapters this largely photographic book explores the way in which 
insects and flowers exploit each other. The majority of the photographs, which are all 
in colour and of superb quality, feature bees and other hymenoptera but flies, beetles, 
lepidoptera, mantids and spiders are also featured. Each chapter begins with a short 
introductory text, followed by the pictures which have descriptive captions. 

The topics covered include flowers as a food source, the competition for pollen, 
flower types and pollination mechanisms, the structure of insect eyes and the way in 
which they see flowers and colours. In the final chapter the author goes further afield 
to consider adaptations of plants and insects to life in desert and semi-arid areas. 

With around 80 per cent of the book taken up with photographs it could fall into 
the 'coffee table' category but the text is well written and explains the many 
interactions between insects and flowers. 

A. J. Halstead 



SHORT COMMUNICATION 



A courtship phase of Lindenius albilabris (F.) (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). — A pair of 
Lindenius albilabris solitary wasps courted on a buttercup flower on Mardley Heath, 
Hertfordshire on the cold, windy morning of 8.vi.l995. The male sat on the female, 
flicking its overlapped wings like a tephritid fly. The male's front legs rested on the 
female's eyes, whilst the middle and hind legs gripped the sides of her thorax. The 
behaviour continued on the flower in a glass tube, but the female did not respond. — 
R. W. J. Uffen, 4 Mardley Avenue, Welwyn, Herts. AL6 OUD. 



46 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

OBITUARY 

Paul Neville Siddons, 1914-1994 

Paul Siddons died of inoperable cancer at his home in «Perranporth on 30th 
November, 1994. He was well aware of this diagnosis and bore his illness with great 
courage. He was born at Bath, Somerset on 1st August, 1914. Soon afterwards, the 
family moved to Newquay and his interest in natural history began at an early age. 
After education at the then Newquay Boys' School, he was employed as a clerk to 
the local gas company until 1941. Having volunteered for aircrew at the outbreak of 
war, his call-up into the Royal Air Force was delayed due to lack of training places. 
With posting to 44 Squadron, of Lancaster bombers, he flew 29 sorties over 
Germany and Italy between November, 1942 and April, 1943. On several occasions 
his skill as a navigator under extremely hostile conditions had undoubtedly brought 
aircraft and crew safely home. Following a period of instructing navigators and 
training glider pilots he took part in operations which included those on D-day and 
at Arnhem. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Medal in 1944, and later that 
year attained the rank of Flying Officer. After demobilization in 1946, he and his 
wife, Joan, came to live in Perranporth. As a Wayleave Officer with SW Electricity, 
the work not infrequently took him into otherwise not easily accessible parts of the 
county. He retired in 1979, and sadly, Joan died after a distressing illness in 1981. 

Paul was a most modest, sometimes almost diffident person, as reluctant ever to 
believe that his entomological achievements would be thought worth publishing as he 
was to speak of his wartime experiences. His interests included painting in oils, the 
cultivation of cacti and succulents, and several of the "other orders" of insects; but 
he was at his happiest when netting Microlepidoptera, for which he had the keenest 
eye, preferring this to their rearing. However, the necessary rearing of, for example, 
the Coleophoridae was a challenge he also enjoyed — and certainly overcame. His 
prime interest was in Cornwall, where his particularly thorough investigation of 
certain favourite localities revealed the presence of numerous species not 
previously — and in some cases, not since — recorded in the county. Examples are: 
at Ladock woods, Tischeria dodonaea Staint., Elachista humilis Zell., Teleiodes 
paripunctella (Thunb.), Epinotia fraternana (Haw)., Strophedra nitidana (F.) and 
Pammene germmana (Hiibn.); also Ochropleura leucogaster (Freyer), Radford's flame 
shoulder, on the same date as one recorded at Swanage, a shared 2nd British record; 
at the Ganncl, Newquay, the first mainland example of Nothris congressariella 
(Bru.); at Goss Moor, Biselachista serricornis (Staint.) and Donacaula mucronellus 
(D. & S.); a single SpUosoma urticae (Esp.), the water ermine, taken in 1971, gave 
credence to a likewise solitary specimen reported there in 1936. At Cligga Head on 
2nd July, 1986, within a few hundred yards of his home, he took a pair of Oxyptilus 
laetus (Zell.), with which, as with the leucogaster, he did allow himself to be 
exceedingly pleased! In 1945 he took 3 bath whites at Newquay while on a few days' 
leave, which luckily coincided with the "great invasion". In the early 1950s he bred 
two perfectly halved gyandromorphs of Pavonia pavonia (L.), the emperor moth, 
and, even more striking, a specimen in which the forewings are female and the 
hindwings male. The collection will remain in the county, and access to it can be 
arranged by contacting the Cornish Biological Records Unit at the Institute of 
Cornish Studies in Pool, Redruth. 

Paul's kindliness, dry sense of humour, knowledge and perhaps most of all, his 
companionship will be very greatly missed by all his friends; and to his daughter, 
Margaret and grandson, Robert, we extend our sincere sympathy. 

F. H. N. Smith 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 47 

BENHS INDOOR MEETINGS 

11 April 1995 

The Vice-President, Dr P. Waring showed an exhibit on rearing the oak beauty 
moth, Bistort strataria (Hufn.) and the slender-striped rufous, Coenocalpe lapidata 
(Hiibn.) (both Geometridae). A freshly emerged female B. strataria was found at 
15.10 hrs on 26.iii.95 at the base of an oak trunk, clinging to the bark in sun just 
above the grass around the roots, in Windsor Forest and Great Park SSSI, Berks. It 
was placed in a mating cage in his garden at Werrington, Cambs., but no males were 
attracted. On l.iv she was placed with two males from Bagley Wood and copulation 
was taking place by 23.00 hrs, which continued until the following afternoon. They 
separated at about 17.00 hrs and the female was placed in a plastic box with 
newspaper and twigs of hawthorn, oak, birch and sallow. At 9.00 hrs on 4.iv the 
female was seen placing turquoise eggs in crevices in the bark on the birch twig. 
Although no other twig was seen to be used for egg laying, when the female died on 
8.iv and the box was emptied, over 100 eggs were found in parallel rows in a long 
strip between the newspaper and the side of the box. 

Two males and females of C. lapidata were found at rest on Juncus on 30.ix.94 at 
Lairg, Sutherland, by searching after dark. Yellow eggs were laid by both females. 
Those from female A were kept over winter out of doors in an air-tight container. 
Hatched larvae were found when the pot was inspected on 12.iii.95. They were given 
buttercup and cultivated clematis leaves and brought indoors. Feeding holes were 
seen in the clematis leaves. Eggs from female B were kept over winter in a jar with 
moss and other vegetation from the Lairg site in case the eggs needed humid 
conditions. Many eggs disappeared, suggesting that the plant material concealed a 
predator, but hatched larvae were seen in mid-March after some buttercup leaves 
had been placed in the container. The larvae fed up rapidly and by 10. iv the largest 
were 25 mm long. Although young larvae seem to prefer clematis leaves, the older 
stages fed equally on clematis and meadow buttercup. Feeding takes place after dark. 
Dr Waring showed some slides of the Juncus flush habitat where the adult moths 
were found in Scotland. He also showed some slides of the four-spotted moth Tyta 
fluctuosa (D. & S.), the small eggar Eriogaster lanestris L. and the drab looper Minoa 
murinata (Scop). 

Dr Waring's final exhibit was a desiccated larva he had found in arid grassland in 
Sudan. It was about 35 mm long and 10 mm wide, and densely covered by dark hairs 
on its upper surface. It appeared to be a beetle larva but no one present at the 
meeting was able to state with confidence what family it might belong to. 

Mr R. A. Jones showed specimens of two wood-boring weevils found in a garden 
in Peckham, south-east London (VC17, Surrey) on 30.iii.95. Euophryum confine 
(Broun) is a native of New Zealand and was first recorded in Britain in 1948. For 
several years before that it had been confused with the other species exhibited, 
Pentarthrum huttoni Woll., which was then a very rare species. E. confine has spread 
rapidly and is now widespread throughout England. In London it is one of the most 
common and economically important woodworm beetles, although it only attacks 
wood that is damp and affected by fungal decay. P. huttoni was probably also an 
introduced species; 100 years ago it was only known from a few west-country ports 
where it was associated with wooden casks. It too has spread but not as vigorously as 
E. confine. It remains very local, although its provisional status of 'notable A 7 has not 
been confirmed. 

Mr Jones also showed some colour transparencies taken a few weeks previously in 
Florida, USA. They showed tree bark with many horizontal lines of puncture marks 



48 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

which were oozing sap. They had been made by a type of woodpecker, the yellow- 
bellied sapsucker, which feeds on the sap. 

Mr A. J. Halstead showed some colour transparencies of an unidentified moth 
bred from caterpillars boring in the growing corms of Cycldmen coum. Damaged 
corms had been sent to the exhibitor in October 1994 from a nursery near Caistor, 
Lines. The small pinkish-white larvae were sent to the Natural History Museum, 
where they were tentatively identified as gelechiid larvae. Adults emerged in March 
1995 and these were confirmed as Gelechiidae by Dr K. Sattler but further 
identification has not yet been possible. It is possibly a species orginating from 
Turkey/Greece which had been brought to Britain in imported corms. The 
photographs were provided by the Museum's photographer. 

Dr P. Waring said that he had not had a formal reply from the Forestry 
Commission over their policy of charging for collecting permits. He understood from 
a contact that two members had had their fees refunded and one had been given a 
small bursary towards travelling costs in connection with recording work. 

Dr I. F. G. McLean reported that on 2 April he had seen brimstone butterflies in 
abundance at Chippenham Fen, Cambs. Dr Waring said it was also numerous at 
Woodwalton Fen. He said that the recent Dinton Pastures workshop on moth 
recording schemes had been attended by about 30 people. 

Mike Edwards spoke on English Nature's recovery programme for the field 
cricket Gryllus campestris L. This has always been a scarce insect known from 
scattered sites in England but it had declined until it was down to one or two sites in 
Sussex. Before attempts could be made to increase its numbers and make 
introductions to suitably managed sites, it was necessary to investigate its biology. 
This showed that much of the published literature on the cricket's biology in Britain 
was erroneous. Some of the earlier records of the field cricket's occurrence and the 
associated biological data may have, in fact, referred to outdoor colonies of the 
house cricket Acheta domesticus (L). 

The speaker's studies of the field cricket were based on a site in a piece of storm- 
damaged woodland. He found that multiple matings take place and that females are 
often held in the males' tunnels. The male blocks the entrance with his body and 
males are sometimes found with their abdomens badly chewed where the female had 
tried to escape. Males do not always make burrows in the soil but will sometimes 
make pseudo-tunnels in the base of grass tussocks. Males can be located by tracing 
the sound of their stridulations but this is more difficult if they are not in a soil 
tunnel. The females lay large eggs in the soil surface. The young nymphs are 
gregarious in areas of bare soil and do not move into more vegetated areas until the 
4-5th instar. The young nymphs are generally free-living on the surface but they can 
make burrows, and may use burrows while they are moulting. The overwintering 
stage is usually the tenth instar nymph which does not diapause but needs cold 
winters to keep its fat reserves up. Poor wintering causes deformed adults with 
females having bent ovipositors and they are generally infertile. Successfully 
overwintered nymphs moult twice more in the spring before becoming adults in 
April and May. 

The field cricket is not, as is often stated, a meadow inhabitant but is an early 
colonist of disturbed ground. Approximately 50% bare ground seems to be ideal and 
cricket numbers decline when the ground becomes fully vegetated. Marking 
experiments show that the field cricket is not territorial and will change burrows 
frequently. A visit to Holland to compare field cricket sites there showed it occupied 
a wider range of habitats, such as grassy dunes, Deschampsia grassland and heather 
heathland. All of these sites have areas of bare soil. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 49 

Breeding colonies of field crickets were established at London Zoo from 
overwintered nymphs. They are being fed on a diet of fish food and bran. Keeping 
the nymphs successfully over the winter is difficult but the success rate is improving. 
In addition to the breeding tanks, an outdoor colony has been set up in an old 
marmot enclosure. Releases of nymphs have been made at some of the cricket's 
former sites, including Frensham Ponds, Iping Common and Arundel cricket 
ground. The last mentioned is a chalk site whereas most other localities have sandy 
soils. Sand warms up more quickly in the spring and this allows earlier development 
of the adult crickets. At Arundel, steps have been taken to rake out the thatch from 
the grassy slopes around the pitch in order to improve warming of the soil in the 
spring. Active management of cricket release sites is likely to be necessary in order to 
maintain the open ground habitat. This may involve controlled burning, scraping the 
soil or ploughing strips, or removing vegetation with the aid of a forage harvester. 

9 May 1995 

The President, Dr M. Scoble showed a pinned specimen of a bizarre wingless 
female moth taken in a pit-fall trap in March in the Kwazulu province of South 
Africa. The large moth is of an unknown family and its body is covered in spiny 
hairs. [See update in report of 13 June meeting.] 

Mr A. J. Halstead showed a specimen of the seven-spot ladybird, Coccinella 7- 
punctata L. found in his garden at Knaphill, Surrey. It had been killed by the 
braconid parasite Perilitus coccinellae (Schr.) which spins its silk cocoon between the 
legs of its host insect. He also exhibited two live insects taken at The Sheepleas SSSI, 
near West Horsley, Surrey. These were a notable B dead-wood-boring beetle, 
Ptinomorphus imperialis (L.) (Anobiidae) and a widespread sawfly, Macrophya 
alboannulata (Costa) (Tenthredinidae); the latter has larvae that feed on the leaves of 
elder Sambucus nigra L. 

The following persons have been elected as members: Gordon J. L. Ramel, 
Bernard S. Nau, Angela Bruce, 'Ditch' Townsend, Michael Saynor, Joseph A. 
Ashley, Malcolm W. Storey and Malcolm J. Taylor. The Pamber Forest Manage- 
ment Committee has become a corporate member. 

Dr D. Agassiz said that he hoped there would be further contact with French 
entomologists with a field meeting taking place in northern France in late May or June. 

Mr A. J. Halstead reported that on 13.iv.95 at 8 p.m. at the end of a warm sunny 
day he had seen a humming-bird hawkmoth in his garden at Knaphill, Surrey. It had 
flown several times along the west-facing wall of the house, showing an interest in the 
hanging tiles on the wall before flying off over the roof. 

Mr R. D. Hawkins said that he had recently heard crickets stridulating in a 
garden in Horley, Surrey, and thought they might be house crickets Acheta 
domes ticus (L). 

Dr I. F. G. McLean said that a brimstone butterfly had been seen laying eggs on 
alder buckthorn at Chippenham Fen, Cambs on 30.iv.95. 

Dr Brian Ferry described the geography and flora of Dungeness, while its insect 
fauna was covered by Roger Morris. Dungeness is by far the largest shingle beach 
in Britain and is about 2000 ha in area. It consists of a series of shingle ridges which 
have been laid down by the sea over thousands of years. Gravel from the southern 
edge of the beach is washed away by the sea and is deposited on the east coast. The 
ridges are formed when pebbles are piled up by wave action during storms. There is a 
succession of plants which develop on the ridges over a period of time. The first ridge 
closest to the sea on the east coast has a few ephemeral plants of the Chenopodiaceae 



JO III' I INI NAI HIM <» 1996 

family that grow in the strand line, The next two ridges furthei inland an- colonized 
by sea kale ( rambe maritima L and curled dock Rumex crispus I. I hese plants grow 
in pebbles with no soil and are fully exposed t<> '.;ilt spray Furthei inland the ridges 
are dominated by false <>;it grass Arrhenatherum elatius M . > Be%uv and sea i ampion 
Sllene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke, Aboul 14 is ridges inland the ridges an- taken 
ovei by broom Sarothamnus acoparius (L.) Wimmei Thislsan important plant as it 
provides a widei range of habitats foi inset ts, and when tin- short lived shrubs die 
they break down and provide an organic soil Broom covered ridges ran support 
about 50 species "i plants, including bryophytes, compared with 6 species on tin: 
preceding ridges Shepherd's cress Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.) R, Bi is an annual that 
grows in bare pati hes where broom has died and ( ollapsed Furthei inland broom 
disappears and the climax vegetation ol shingle heath, characterized i>y passes, 
mosses and in inn', develops i in: prim ipal grass is fine leaved sheep's fescue Festuca 
tenulfolla Sibth and amongst tin- interesting flowering plants to be found there are 
large stands <»i sheepsbit Jasione man/ana I.., English stonecrop Sedum anglicum 

1 1 nd, on and Nottingham i air I illy Silcnc milans I, I I ir soil on these old ndj'cs is very 
ai id with ;i ]»l I level ol less than 4, a lull 5 units lowei than tin ndj-es closest to the 

sea I ni the eroding southern i oast the predominant grass is red fescue Festuca rubra 
i i inn are also an. is oi prostrate blackthorn Prunus spinosa I. ., with its branches 
almost entirely obst ured by epiphytic lichens 

I hen- aie some natural wetlands al I hnij-eness hut Iheie ,ni- also pit 8 I rated hy 

gravel extraction, The disturbance <>i the ground mixes sand with tin- shingle and 

allows a )'ie;ilei diversity ol plants Kudeial plants sin h as yellow honied poppy 

Glaucium fiavum Crantz, biting stonecrop Sedum acre L., red valerian Centranthus 
mini (I ) i >( viper's bugloss Echium vulgare L and wild carrol Daucus carota L. 
an- frequent in such areas 

Rogei Morris described Duiigencss's resident insects based on experience famed 

during a two yeai invertebrate survey he had helped to carry oul then- As might be 
■ -|" ' ted tin- inset t fauna is< losely linked t<> the vegetation ami the coastal ridges are 

spet tea i i I he beetle Malachius marglnellus (Ol.) is frequent mi ( 'rambe Mower,, 

as are bibionid (lies Many centipedes ami spider, wen- ( aught in pit fall traps set m 

the shingle I heie is ;i ■ . | .< < ms ol jumping spidci lh.il liccpicnls whelk shells and is 
only found at I )imj'eiie ss in Britain I he j'.iassy ndj-es suppoil iu;iny ant tieStS and 

several Hadena spet ies oi moths an- found on sea campion Broom is the fust woody 
plant oi any size on the ridges ami provides a stun ime thai ensiles ;i widei range ol 
micro-habitats ha insects There an- some dead wood insects associated with the 
dying plants, whi< h also provide nest sites foi solitary wasps. Nottingham catchfly is 

the host plant foi the while spol moth lliultnn n/hiiiititiila Boikh. and Ihe case- 

bearing t aterpillars oi ( <>if<>i>h<>ra otitae Zcll in the disturbed areas, viper's bugloss 
supports hve nationally notable 01 i< 1 > 1 1 insects and wild carrot is tin- host plant 
oi ihe Sussex emerald Thalera fimbrialis Scop, The wetland anas support sallows 

which aie impoilanl neelai and pollen sources in the spun)' Ihnleen species ol 
bumble bees have been nionled al I )mij'cness and the sandy aieas aie impoi t.inl 
• lies foi lo.sonal bees and wasps Fine sand washed out by j-iavel exliat lions has 

1 reated some areas with dime like characteristics The water/sand interface at gravel 

pits is an interesting ana when- seveial seaiee beetles and dies have been neoided 

13 June 1995 

Hie President, 1 >i M Scobi 1 announced the death <>i Stanley Hanson who had 

been a niembei am e [949 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 51 

The President reported that the bizarre wingless female moth he had shown at the 
previous meeting had been identified by Martin Kruger of the Transvaal Museum as 
Cyrtojana trilineata Auriv. (Eupterotidae). 

Dr I. F. G. McLean showed some empid flies, Dryodromia testacea Rondani, 
found at Ivinghoe Common, Bucks., on the evening of l.iv.95. Both sexes were taken 
by sweeping flowering hawthorn, with more than 20 individuals being seen in about 
half an hour. This species belongs to the sub-family Hemerodromiinae and is 
unusual in this group by being yellow in colour and occurring in dry habitats, often 
with ancient trees. Most members of this group are dark in colour and are associated 
with fresh water. 

Mr A. J. Halstead showed an adult vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.). This 
is a widespread and destructive garden pest which has root-feeding larvae. The 
specimen shown was heavily encrusted with phoretic mites, something that is 
frequently seen on dung or carrion beetles but not generally on weevils. The vine 
weevil had been sent to the exhibitor by an organic gardener and it had presumably 
gained its mite passengers from farmyard manure used in the garden. 

The President announced that the Society had taken out a public liability policy 
that gives members cover for claims of up to £2m for losses or injuries sustained by 
third parties while members are engaged in field work. This is necessary as some land 
owners are asking for such cover before giving permission for entomologists to 
collect on their land. A copy of the insurance schedule is on display at the Pelham- 
Clinton building at Dinton Pastures and a note on the insurance will appear in the 
journal. 

Mr R. Uffen, referring to insurance cover for fieldwork, said that he had been 
asked to sign a piece of paper by the owners of a gravel pit that would have made 
him liable for unlimited damages. He had refused to sign. 

The President also reported that the Charity Commissioners were ready to register 
the Dipterists' Forum as a subsidiary charity of the BENHS. 

Mr B. Dickerson, who is Lepidoptera recorder for Huntingdonshire, said that 
one of his recorders had reported to him that a heart and dart moth Agrotis 
exclamationis L. and a spectacle Abrostola triplasia L. taken in a light trap were 
mating. They were found on the previous Saturday and were still together at 
9.30 p.m. on Monday 12.vi.95. 

Dr D. Agassiz said that he had found larvae of the gelechiid moth, Neofriseria 
singula (Staud.) at the base of sheeps sorrel, Rumex acetosella L. All of the plants 
with larvae were growing on active ant hills and he suggested that there may be some 
relationship between the moth larvae and ants. 

Dr E. Jarzembowski spoke on the fossil evidence for the rise and fall of insects. 
Insects are today an extremely successful class of animal; just over half of all 
described animals are insects and when undescribed species are taken into account 
the proportion may be much higher. The fossil record has more insect families than 
any other type of animals or plants. There are over 1200 fossil insect families of 
which about two-thirds are extant. Most fossil insects are found as fragments rather 
than whole insects and they can be overlooked, as fossilized wings can be mistaken 
for leaves. 

The earliest fossil hexapods occurred in the Devonian period and were apterous 
Collembola-type animals. The development of insects from earlier types of 
arthropods, such as the myriapods, is not shown by the fossil record but some people 
believe that a group of animals known as enthycarcinoids may be a link. Similarly the 
fossil record does not show insects in the process of evolving wings, but winged fossil 
insects are found as early as the Carboniferous period. The first winged insects included 



52 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

dragonflies, mayflies, crickets, grasshoppers and cockroaches. The next group 
developed in the Permian period and had more specialized wing structures. These 
included bugs, psocids and thrips. Also developing during the Permian period were the 
more advanced insects which included the Diptera, Coleoprera, Lepidoptera and 
Hymenoptera. These insects undergo complete metamorphosis and this allows a 
division of feeding strategies between the adult and larval stages. All of the major 
groups of insects known today were in existence before the end of the Palaeozoic era. 

The number of insect orders increased sharply at the beginning of the 
Carboniferous period, reached a peak in the Permian and then fell at the start of 
the Tertiary period. They then steadily increased again. Various theories have been 
put forward to explain the rapid radiation during the Carboniferous period. These 
include an increase in oxygen in the atmosphere and an increase in food sources to 
exploit due to the evolution of new plants. The number of insect families over the 
same period show a similar trend as the number of orders, although the line on a 
graph shows more pronounced fluctuations. There were marked extinctions of some 
families during the Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous periods. The 
rate of extinctions has declined in more recent times. 

Angiosperm plants began to develop rapidly during the Cretaceous period. Many 
insects declined in diversity at the beginning of this period, possibly because their 
food-plants were being displaced by the new flowering plants. Insect numbers later 
increased with bugs and Lepidoptera developing strongly in the Tertiary period, well 
after the angiosperms had become established. The first social insects, the termites, 
developed in the early Cretaceous, with ants appearing towards the end of this 
period. Bees are first found in the Tertiary period. The Tertiary is also an interesting 
time for changes in the geographical ranges of insects. The fossil distribution is often 
very different from the modern locations of extant species. 

Dr Jarzembowski closed his talk with an appeal for entomologists to take more 
interest in the fossil side of their subject. There is a need for people with knowledge of 
insects and insect structures to search for and identify fossil material. 

11 July 1995 

The President, Dr M. Scoble announced the death of a member Mr Maurice 
Jackson, who had been Yorkshire Macrolepidoptera recorder for many years. 

Dr I. F. G. McLean exhibited a live adult shore fly, Clanoneurum cimiciforme 
Haliday (Ephydridae), which resembles a plant bug, due to the wings being closely 
adpressed to the abdomen. The insect also progresses via sudden darting, skipping or 
jumping movements, atypical of most two-winged flies. This example was found at 
Holme Dunes NNR, a Norfolk Wildlife Trust reserve on the North Norfolk coast, 
on 10.vii.95. It was swept from a sand bank at the rear of saltmarsh. 

Mr G. Boyd exhibited a micro-moth tentatively identified as Ypsolopha 
?parenthesella (L.) (Yponomeutidae). This was beaten from vegetation at dusk in 
Southrey Wood near Bardney, Lincolnshire on 8.vii.95. The specimen does not fully 
conform to the illustrations for this species published by the BENHS some years ago, 
and was brought along to the meeting with the hope that an experienced 
microlepidopterist could confirm the provisional identification. 

The following were announced as new ordinary members: Mr Tony Francis 
Marshall, Mr Adrian Thome, Mr Ronald Gash, Mike Fox, Mr David G. Green, Ms 
Diane Susan Barker and Mr Stanley Dumican. 

Preliminary reports were received from field meetings held on 17.vi at Dinton 
Pastures and 24. vi at Dawlish Warren. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 53 

Due to the sudden illness of the invited speaker, Mr Rob Driscoll of Norwich 
Castle Museum, the President kindly stepped in and prepared an illustrated talk at 
very short notice. Dr M. SCOBLE spoke on the work of the Geometridae Research 
Group at the Natural History Museum. 

Dr Scoble began by introducing the work of the Geometridae Research Group 
which he leads at the Natural History Museum. Taxonomists are increasingly 
working in collaborative groups to tackle projects which require a mixture of skills 
and which would take many years for one specialist to complete. The Geometridae 
Research Group is an example of this approach, which includes taxonomic revisions, 
biological studies and database development within its scope. 

The characters shared by Geometridae were outlined, including the reduction of 
prolegs (resulting in the typical 'looping' mode of progression), with the appearance 
of different subfamilies being illustrated with excellent colour slides of living 
individuals and set specimens. Many adult geometrids are drab moths, but there are 
some striking and colourful exceptions from tropical regions and elsewhere. It was 
emphasized that more work is required to resolve the higher classification of the 
Geometridae; it is interesting to note that similar colour patterns are repeated in 
different subfamilies defined by morphological and other characters. Adult 
geometrids possess hearing organs at the base of the abdomen, close to the point 
of attachment to the thorax. These are consistent in structure throughout the family, 
except in some wingless females. 

The emerald moths are well-known because of their striking green coloration 
which gives them their English name. The pigment responsible for this green colour 
has been extracted, and has been called geoverdin. It is a substance degraded by light 
and may be derived from chlorophyll. Sophisticated biochemical techniques are 
increasingly used by taxonomists to generate additional characters for resolving the 
higher classification of many groups. 

Work on Geometridae in Costa Rica was illustrated by slides of the habitats, 
species and field facilities which visiting entomologists use to explore this diverse and 
fascinating fauna. Parataxonomists, who are trained in field and basic laboratory 
techniques, make a great contribution in obtaining material for study, and this 
approach has much potential for improving knowledge of the fauna of countries 
other than Costa Rica where there are shortages of trained entomologists and an 
urgent need for more knowledge of the resident insects. 

In conclusion, the Darwin initiative was introduced. This was established by the 
UK Government following the Earth Summit at Rio in 1992. It has been very 
successful in supporting international collaboration between British and overseas 
workers on biodiversity, and a Darwin fellow is currently investigating the 
Geometridae of Costa Rica. The lecture was followed by questions and discussion 
stimulated by a wide-ranging and stimulating talk. 

13 September 1995 
Joint meeting with the London Natural History Society 

Mr R. Softly, an honorary Vice-President of the London Natural History 
Society, took the chair for the joint meeting held at the Linnean Society's rooms. Mr 
Softly announced that Mr Plant's talk would be the first Brad Ashby Memorial 
Lecture. 

The deaths were announced of Frances Murphy, a former BENHS President and 
Secretary, Eric Bradford, an honorary member and former curator of the BENHS 
insect collection, and Hugh Michaelis, a microlepidopterist, who had been a member 
since 1951. 



54 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

Mr C. W Plant showed a selection of the large number of solitary bees and wasps 
with red data book or nationally scarce status that has been recorded at various sites 
along the eastern Thames corridor in Essex and Kent. The significance of this area 
along the River Thames to the east of London for the Hyme'noptera-Aculeata has 
only just been realized. The area is blessed with a number of former chalk quarries — 
long neglected and now with ecologically significant floras — and in many places these 
chalk exposures underlie Thanet sand deposits. Additionally there are a number of 
sand and gravel pits present, whilst elsewhere, Quaternary sands and gravels are 
present. Many of the pits on the Kent side of the river, including the famous 
Charlton Sand Pit, are now gone, either partially or totally, but on the Essex side 
many still remain, though almost all are under threat of development. A great many 
rare, vulnerable, endangered and nationally notable species have been discovered to 
breed here making it one of the most important areas of Britain for aculeates. One 
Essex site in particular — Mill House Wood Pit at Grays — has proved to have a 
nationally significant assemblage of bees and wasps, as well as the last remaining 
colony of grayling butterflies Hipparchia semele (L.) in the south-east of England (if 
one ignores the coastal colonies in Suffolk) and a large number of red data book 
Diptera. One hundred and sixty-eight Aculeata are so far recorded here including 38 
red data book or nationally notable species, due largely to the efforts of Peter 
Harvey, the Essex recorder for aculeates. The site is currently being built upon and 
will be obliterated in the next couple of years. It appears that English Nature is either 
unable or unwilling to intervene. Another site, Dolphin Quarry at Purfleet, Essex, 
has been extensively surveyed by the exhibitor and also has many nationally 
significant species. It too is to be developed, though in this case the proposals as they 
stand are compatible with nature conservation. The insects shown, mostly taken in 
1995, were: Aporus unicolor Spin. (Pompilidae), Hedychrum niemelai Linsenmaier 
(Chrysididae), Sphecodes reticulatus Thorn. (Halictidae) and Melitta tricincta (Kirby) 
(Melittidae) from Mill House Wood Pit, Grays, Essex; Cerceris quinquefasciata 
(Rossius) (Sphecidae), Philanthus triangulum (F.) (Sphecidae) and Sphecodes niger 
Sichel (Halictidae) from Dolphin Quarry, Purfleet, Essex; Lasioglossum malachurus 
(Kirby) (Halictidae) from Cuxton Chalk Pit, Rochester, Kent; Lasioglossum 
pauperatum (Brulle) (Halictidae) from Rainham Marsh, Essex; Nomadafucata Panz. 
(Anthophoridae) from Richborough, Kent; Hylaeus signatus (Panz.) (Colletidae) 
from Ebbsfleet, Kent. 

Mr Plant also showed a specimen of Nineta inpunctata (Reuter) (Neuroptera: 
Chrysopidae), a lacewing new to Britain. The example shown was a female taken at 
m.v. light on 26.vi.89 at Eastend Wood, Elsenham, North Essex. This species is 
confined to the Western Palaearctic and is only known from 15 sites. All records are 
from light traps and it may be associated with scrub woodland, particularly with 
small oaks. A paper adding Nineta inpunctata to the British list is in press 
{Entomologist's Gazette) and it is included in the exhibitor's forthcoming AIDGAP 
key to lacewings, which is currently at the testing stage. 

Mr D. Hackett showed specimens of the hoverflies Xanthogramma pedissequum 
(Harris) and X. citrofasciatum (Degeer). He had seen the former at three sites in the 
London area — Hampstead Heath, the Gunnersbury Triangle and Crouch End — 
during the summer. The scarcer X. citrofasciatum had been seen twice at one location 
in Tottenham. On one occasion a female was seen investigating an ant hill. 

B. K. West showed a series of the marbled carpet, Chloroclysta truncata (Hufn.) 
(Geometridae) illustrating the range of colour forms taken in his garden at m.v. light 
during 1994 and 1995. The forms were nigerrimata Schaw, perfuscata Haw., rufescens 
Strom., mixta Prout and saturata Steph. He also showed an example of f. russata 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 55 

Hiibn., which is common in East Kent and may reappear in the London area as 
melanism declines. 

Mr R. D. Hawkins showed a live adult specimen of the eared leafhopper, Ledra 
aurita (L.) (Cicadellidae) found at Farthing Downs, Coulsdon, Surrey on ll.ix.95. 
The specimen had been beaten from the new growth of coppiced hawthorn scrub. 

Mr F. Rockwood showed a colour transparency of a moth that had been bred 
from some small caterpillars found on bottlebrush flowers (Callistemon sp.) brought 
into Britain as cut flowers from Western Australia. It appeared to be a Eupithecia sp. 
(Geometridae). 

The following persons have been approved by Council as ordinary members: 
Michael Tickner, James Stollery and Matthew G. Sullivan. 

Mr S. Miles said that the Wildlife and Countryside Act was undergoing its third 
quinquennial review and comments are required by 30 September. Butterfly 
Conservation wants to increase the protection given to the marsh fritillary, giving 
it full protection instead of restrictions on its sale. 

Dr M. Scoble gave details of a course on the biology and taxonomy of parasitic 
Hymenoptera run by the Natural History Museum and Imperial College. It takes 
place at Silwood Park, Berks on 13-20 April 1996. 

Mr D. Hackett announced that he had recently become recorder for stag beetles 
in the London area and would be pleased to receive records. 

Mr C. W. Plant spoke on the subject of a red data list of Lepidoptera and other 
invertebrates in the London area. He outlined the history of publications listing 
scarce invertebrates. In 1983 the IUCN produced the first red data book which had 
just eight UK species, with the large blue butterfly being the only insect listed. The 
British red data books: 2. Insects and 3. Other invertebrates were published in 1987 
and 1991. These introduced the categories of endangered (RDB1), vulnerable 
(RDB2), nationally rare (RDB3), out of danger and endemic, with an appendix of 
extinct species. Additional categories of nationally notable A and B have been added 
for species which may be widespread but are known from small numbers of 10-km 
squares. 

Seven hundred and fifteen macrolepidoptera have been recorded in the London 
area. Three are RDB1, five are RDB2, 18 are RDB3, 45 are Notable A and 88 
Notable B, with 10 extinct. Almost 25% of London's moths come into some sort of 
category. National lists may not serve local needs. Some insects which are nationally 
uncommon may not be under threat in the London area. An example is Roesel's 
bush-cricket Metrioptera roeselii (Hag.), which nationally has notable B status, but is 
widespread throughout much of London. Some moths are either local or very local 
resident species in London. One hundred and four species are recorded in less than 
10 of London's 815 tetrads but 81% of these are not RDB or notable category 
species in Britain as a whole. 

Some insect populations have shown considerable fluctuations over the years. The 
royal mantle moth, Catarhoe cuculata (Hufn.) is restricted to chalk areas and is 
currently known from seven tetrads in southern London. In the nineteenth century it 
occurred in four tetrads but during the 1930s it underwent a rapid expansion before 
declining again. The bee wolf, Philanthus triangulum (F.) was once an RDB2 species 
but during the last 10 years has become widespread in southern England. Roesel's 
bush-cricket is another species currently expanding its range. Should these surges or 
declines in abundance, which may be only temporary, be counted as significant when 
considering distributions? 

Some moths do seem to be genuinely scarce and absent from some apparently 
suitable habitats. The southern wainscot Mythimna straminea (Treit.) is found in the 



56 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

east Thames corridor and Lea Valley but not in reed beds elsewhere in the London 
area. The pinion-streaked snout Schrankia costaestrigalis (Steph.) is currently known 
from seven widely scattered tetrads. The chimney sweeper Odezia atrata (L.) was 
formerly found across London but is now confined to meadow land in NW London. 

There is a need to highlight species and habitats under threat and to establish 
management regimes for these sites. Species assemblages can also be used to identify 
locally important sites. The speaker proposed some additional categories for a 
London RDB list. These are locally notable A — species threatened in the London 
area, having declined in recent years and likely to become extinct unless the reasons 
for the decline are remedied; locally notable B — found in less than 10 tetrads after 
surveys of suitable habitats; locally notable C — found in more than 10 but less than 
30 tetrads after surveys of suitable habitats. The surveys should look for evidence of 
breeding colonies rather than the simple occurrence of adult moths. 

The lecture was followed by a discussion on the desirability and practicalities of 
compiling a local RDB list for the London area. 



BENHS FIELD MEETINGS 

Black hill Mire, Helensburgh, Dumbartonshire, 20 May 1995 

Leader: Keith Bland. This was a joint field meeting with Butterfly Conservation to 
a fine raised peat-moss on the outskirts of Helensburgh. The moss is under threat 
from the pending extension of the neighbouring golf-course. In spite of the 
unpromising weather forecast five people attended. However the rain held off and 
the sun came out allowing several thriving colonies of Callophrys rubi L. to be 
located. Among the smaller moths Glyphipterix haworthana Steph. and Clepsis 
senecionana Hiibn. were active on the more open areas while Micropterix aureatella 
Scop., Ancylis myrtillana Treit. and A. uncella D. & S. preferred more shelter. Larger 
species were also evident; among the many Ematurga atomaria L. and Neofaculta 
ericetella Geyer that readily took to flight was the occasional Xanthorhoe designata 
Hufn. and X. spadicearia D. & S. Two magnificent male Saturnia pavonia L. were 
seen and a freshly emerged Acronicta menyanthidis scotica Tutt was discovered 
hardening off. Other imagines recorded were Syndemis musculana Hiibn., Epinotia 
tetraquetrana Haw., Pieris napi L., Aglais urticae L., Eupithecia nanata Hiibn., 
Lomaspilis marginata L. and a single vacated cocoon of Phragmatobia fuliginosa L. 
Larvae of Lampronia rubiella Bjerk., Hydriomena furcata Thunb. and Operophtera 
fagata Scharf. were also noted. 

A drop in temperature at dusk caused a poor response to light with only 
Lampropteryx suffumata D. & S., Selenia dentaria F. and Cerastis rubricosa D. & S. 
revealing themselves. Altogether some 25 species of Lepidoptera were recorded. 



New Forest, Hampshire, 12 August 1995 



Leader: Paul Waring. This was a joint field meeting with Butterfly Conservation 
and was assisted by Hampshire County Council. A total of 63 people attended the 
meeting, including a BBC film crew of eight and the resulting film was broadcast in 
the Nature Detective series on 3 September 1995. Eighteen members and friends 
came for the whole day and the rest turned up for the night work. The main 
objectives were to record whatever species of animals could be found in Frame Wood 
and on the surrounding heathland during the day-time and then in the evening to 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 57 

divide into small teams for wine-roping, sugaring and light-trapping at a number of 
pre-selected places dispersed throughout the Forest, with the primary aim of 
surveying the light and dark crimson underwings Catocala promissa (D. & S.) and C. 
sponsa (L.). 

During the day a number of species of interest were seen on the heathland between 
Frame Wood and Hatchet Pond, including several silver-studded blues Plebejus 
argus (L.) and grayling butterflies Hipparchia semele (L.), several female and some 
worn male bordered grey moths Selidosema brunnearia (Vill.), the beautiful yellow 
underwing Anarta myrtilli (L.), a grass emerald Pseudoterpna pruinata (Hufn.) and a 
larva of the small chocolate-tip Clostera pigra (Hufn.). This larva was about 5 mm in 
length when found between two leaves of creeping willow Salix repens L. which it 
had spun together. A few days later the pupa of a parasitoid formed within the larva, 
whose dead skin dried and tightened around it, and on 29 August a single reddish 
adult wasp was found to have emerged and was flying within the plastic box in which 
the larva had been kept alone. The wasp is now with Dr Mark Shaw, at the Royal 
Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, for identification. 

A water rail Rallus aquaticus L. was seen walking over boggy ground by Hatchet 
Pond while the party was looking for Hampshire purslane Ludwigia palustris (L.), 
which was found. Dragonflies included the emperor Anax imperator Leach, the 
common darter Sympetrum striolatum (Charp.) and the common blue damselfly 
Enallagma cyathigerum (Charp.). Several common lizards Lacerta vivipara Jacq. and 
three fledgling nightjars Caprimulgus europaeus L. were seen together on the 
heathland. 

By day in Frame Wood, a large caterpillar of the buff-tip Phalera bucephala (L.) 
was found wandering across a path, a range of larvae was beaten from the oaks 
Quercus robur L., including grey dagger Acronicta psi (L.), light emerald Campaea 
margaritata (L.), scalloped hazel Odontopera bidentata (Clerck) and peppered moth 
Biston betularia (L.) and we were serenaded by the wood crickets Nemobius 
sylvestris (Bosc.) which were moving about amongst the leaf litter. Long-winged 
conehead bush-crickets Conocephalus discolor (Thunb.) were reported by one of the 
paths. 

In the evening session, teams were sent out to six areas of mature oak woodland 
selected and visited the previous day by John Chainey and Paul Waring, each team 
equipped with light and sugar or wine-ropes, and accompanied by, or to be visited 
by, a radio operator from Hampshire County Council. In this way, stands of mature 
oak in the inclosures of Hursthill (H), Whitley Wood (W), Park Hill (P), Ladycross 
(L), New Copse (N) and Frame Wood (F), spread over a distance of some 12 by 
4 km, were covered simultaneously. The idea was to have all groups in 
communication by radio and mobile phone and to exchange news as it happened, 
but in the event the radios and phones, which only became available that evening, 
were not powerful enough for everyone to keep in touch, because of the tree cover. 
Only groups close together were able to speak directly to each other. Nevertheless 
this equipment was of some use. 

All groups were in place and sugar and wine-ropes set out before dusk. The BBC 
stayed with the largest group, in Frame Wood, and here a system of infra-red 
illumination coils and a special video camera and monitor were set up by Martin 
Harvey and Mike Bull of the Nature Conservation Bureau to demonstrate the use of 
infra-red radiation in observing moths unawares after dark on the wine-ropes. The 
system is the same as is used by night surveillance firms for security and was very 
successsful in viewing the copper underwings Amphipyra pyramidea (L.) and A. 
berbera Rungs which began to arrive at the bait, as many as a dozen per rope. It was 



58 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 9: 1996 

a warm night, 18.5°C at midnight falling to a minimum of 15.5°C, with a very light 
shower of rain just about dusk. 

The light crimson underwing was seen at all sites, the highest total being ten at one 
site (L), and the dark crimson underwing turned up at all but one site (N), as one or 
two individuals at each. This is a very encouraging result because lepidopterists had 
become concerned that the dark crimson underwing in particular had become 
restricted to a single small part of the Forest. The la