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Full text of "British journal of entomology and natural history"

ISSN: 0952—7583 



'SiSl 



British Journal of 

ENTOMOLOGY 

and Natural History 



Volume 12 
1999 



APR 2 7 2001 



Published by the British 

Entomological and Natural History 

Society and incorporating its 

Proceedings and Transactions 



British Journal of Entomology and Natural History is published by the British 
Entomological & Natural History Society. Dinton Pastures Country Park, Davis 
Street, Reading, Berkshire. Berkshire RGIO OTH, UK. Tel: 01189-321402. The 
Journal is distributed free to BENHS members. 

Editor: 

M. R. Wilson. Ph.D, F.R.E.S., F.L.S. 

Department of Biodiversity & Systematic Biology 

National Museums & Galleries of Wales 

Cardiff CFl 3NP 

Tel: 02920 573263 

Fax: 02920 239829 

email: Mike. Wilson(rt nmgw.ac.uk 

Associate Editor: 
Richard A. Jones, B.Sc. F.R.E.S., F.L.S. 

135 Friern Road 

East Dulwich 

London SE22 OAZ 

Editorial advisory panel: 

D. J. L. Agassiz, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.E.S. 

R. D. G. Barrington, B.Sc. 

P. J. Chandler, B.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

B. Goater, B.Sc. M.LBiol. 

A. J. Halstead. M.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

R. D. Hawkins, M.A. 

P. J. Hodge 

T. G. Howarth, B.E.M.. F.R.E.S. 

L F. G. McLean, Ph.D., F.R.E.S. 

M. J. Simmons, M.Sc. 

P. A. Sokoloff, M.Sc, C.Biol., M.LBiol., F.R.E.S. 

R. E. Southwood, K.B., D.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

R. W. J. Uffen, M.Sc. F.R.E.S. 

B. K. West, B.Ed. 



©2000 British Entomological and Natural History Society 
Registered charity number: 213149 



Typeset by Dobbie Typesetting Limited, Tavistock. 
Printed in England by Henry Ling Ltd., Dorchester 



BRITISH JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY 
AND NATURAL HISTORY 

Index to Volume 12, 1999 

Compiled by David Young with the assistanee of 

P. J. Chandler. A. J.'Halstead. N. Hall. A. W. Jones, P. J. Hodge. 

J. J. Robbins and R. D. Hawkins 

Dates of publication 

Part 1 April 1999 

Part 2 August 1999 

Part 3 November 1999 

Part 4 December 1 999 



GENERAL 

Aculeate wasps and bees of" the Ainsdale Formby 

sand dunes on the Lancashire coast compared 

with other northern sites, i 
Aggregation behaviour in Philontluis cognutus 

at Burnt Wood. Staftbrdshire 6S 
Aggregation of over one million 16-spot 

ladybirds in a bramble hedge, and blushing" 

in two specimens. 89 
Agrihis simiaius new to Wales 41 
Announcements: 

British Entomological & Natural History Society 
Research Fund rear cover part 2 

Cornish Large Blue records — appeal for infor- 
mation 134 

Instructions to authors rear cover part 1 

Professor Hering Memorial Research Fund rear 
cover part 2 

Society's public liability insurance rear cover part 
3 

Theft of butterflies from the Society's collection 
117 
Annual Exhibition reports for 1998 

Actinaria 186 

Arachnida 186 

British butterflies 142 

British macrolepidoptera 147 

British microlepidoptera 152 

Coleoptera 169 

Dictyoptera 184 

Diptera 165 

Foreign lepidoptera 158 

Hemiptera 179 

Hymenoptera 180 

Illustrations 186 

Isopoda 186 

Neuroptera 185 

Orthoptera 184 

Plecoptera 185 

Raphidioptera 186 
Annual UK dipterists meeting 1998 26 
Book notice: 



Checklist of lepidoptera recorded from the 
British Isles 192 
Book Reviews 

Aquatic insects of northern Europe 

a ta.xonomic handbook: Volume 2 52 
Care and conservation of natural history collec- 
tions 190 
Checkered beetles 53 
Collembola of Fennoscandia and Denmark: part 

1. Poduromorpha 189 
E.xpedition field techniques: Insects and other 

terrestrial arthopods 188 
Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago 

187 
Handbooks for the identification of British 
insects. Vol 12. Checklists of insects of the 
British Isles (new series) part 1: Diptera 191 
Hoverflies of Surrey 55 
Insect pests of food premises 191 
Somerset Hoverflies 53 
Breeding record oi Scnomelopia excisa 137 
Buchanauii'Ua couiinua established in Britain 221 
Call for assistance with a new survey of the social 
wasps of Britain and Ireland for 1999/ 2000 31 
Catharosia pygiiuwa: a second record in Essex 88 
Creagdhuhhia mallochonim gen. and sp. n.. 

a remarkable new Scottish gnat with a discussion 
of its relationships. 121 
Crossoceriis ragahundus in Wales 25 
Editorial 

Articles still required 56 
Instructions to authors 56 
Society's website 56 
Entomological surveys of vertical river flood 
defence walls in urban London -brownfield 
corridors: problems, practicalities and some 
promising results 193 
Field Meetings of the BENHS 

California Countrv Park. Berkshire 16 June 1996 

42 
Dinton Pastures. Berkshire 17 May 1997 43 
Prescombe Down Nature Reserve. Wiltshire and 
Melbury Down, Dorset 21 June 1997 45 



Marks Hall Estate, Essex 2 August 1997 47 
Colaton Raleigh Common, Devon 48 
Denbies Hillside & Ranmore Common. Surrey 

20 June 1998 49 
Roborough Wood, Great Torrington. Devon 

4 July 1998 50 
Flanders Moss NNR. Perthshire 1 August 1998 
51 
Goiwcerus aciiicuniiiiUiiiis in a house at Ham. Surrey 

91 
Humming-bird hawk moth. Macroglossum 

steUatcinmu probing the ground 224 
Hypiilus queninus new to Gloucestershire 41 
Indoor Meetings of the BENHS 

7 April 1998 .^4 

12 May 1998 34 

9 June 1998 .35 

14 July 1998 36 

8 September 1998 38 

13 October 1998 40 

10 November 1998 241 
8 December 1998 241 

12 January 1999 242 
23 February 1999 243 
16 March 1999 244 

13 April 1999 245 

11 May 1999 246 

15 June 1999 247 

Micropygus vugans . a New Zealand fly in the 

British Isles 215 
Mordellistena secreta, a species new to Britain 227 
Nest desertion by blackbirds following defoliation 

of an ash tree by sawfly larvae 1 3 
New aberration of the Clouded Yellow Colias 

croceus 93 
New locality for Cosmowiiix cuudatus. with a note 

on its ecology 225 
Notes on the habitats of Hchnis ruficeps 235 
Notes on the occurrence of the planthoppers 

Rcplalus pauzcri and Asiraca claviconiLs 239 
Nysiiis senecionis feeding in large numbers on 

Guernsey fleabane 229 
Nysius senecionis in Norfolk 141 
Observations of some uncommon dung beetles 16 
Observations on rearing Luf'fia spp under controlled 

environmental conditions, with taxonomic 

notes 17 
Observations on the "guest ant" Formicoxeiuis 

uitiduhis in nests of the wood ants Formica nifa 

and F. lugul^ris in 1998 138 
Oeckdea ringdaidi in northern England 231 
Officer's reports for 1998 
BENHS research fund 113 
Council's report 104 
Curator's report 1 16 
Editor's report 1 18 
Librarian's report 1 14 

Professor Hering Memorial Research Fund 1 1 3 
Treasurer's report 106 
Opiuomvia gnapludii in Aniennuria dioica in Scot- 
land 1 1 
Orange Upperwing. Jodia croccago. survey — 

autumn 1999 / sprmg 2000 i35 



Plcwoplionis cacsiis imported into Cambridgeshire 

33 
Presidential Address — part 1 report 119 
Procas granulicollis discovered in Surrey 230 
Ptomaphagus varicornis in North Devon 234 
Rearing Dahlica triquetrella 29 
Recent British records of Gynmosoma nitens and 

some comments on its status in Britain 140 
Record of Ectenmius ruficoinis and its anthomyiid 

cleptoparasite breeding in southern Scotland 

Scarce wood-decay beetles in a river floodplain 

farmed landscape in the upper Thames valley 

213 
Specialist Hemiptera associated with mistletoe 237 
Sienamnui dehilc and Lusiiis sahulanim new to 

Lancashire 92 
Tawny mining bee. Andrcna Jiilva. at a South Wales 

field site and its associated organisms: 

Hymenoptera. Diptera. Nematoda and 

Strepsiptera 57 
Terrestrial invertebrates in site assessment: a local 

perspective 96 
Thomas Vernon Wollaston and the Madeiran 

butterfly fauna a re-appraisal 69 



CONTRIBUTORS 

Agassiz, D. J. L. .34 

Alexander. K. N. A. 41. 141, 165 

169, 179. 213. 230. 246 

Allen, A. J. W. 170 

Archer, M. E. I, 180 

Badmin, J. S. 180 

Bailey, K. E. J. 142, 158, plate 1 

Baker, B. R. 147 

Baker. P. J. 147 

Barnard. P. 185, 248 

Barnett. R. 147, 152 

Barrington, R. D. G. 142. plate 1 

Bland. K. P. 11, 51. 153, 232 

Booth. R. G. 171 

Bowdrey, J. P. 47, 172. 180, 181 

Brereton. T. 39 

Briggs, J. 237 

Britton. M. R. 153 

Brooks. S. 244 

Brotheridge. D. 147. 153 

Butcher. A. G. J. 147 plate II 

Butterfield. I. 96 

Callow, N. A. 241, 243 

Chandler, P. J. 42, 43. 53. 121. 166. 215 

Cheke, R. A. 13 

Clancy, S. P. 147, 153. plate II 

Clarke. J. 147 

Clements. D. 26. 52 

Collingwood. C. A. 92 

Collins. G. A. 137. 166. 181, plate II 

Cook, R. R. 147, plate II 

Corley, M. F. V. 158, plate II 

Crossley, R. 231 

Cuming. N. St. J. 172 

Dawson. J. 147. 153 



Deeming, J. C. 191 

Dennis. R. C. 143 

Denton, J. 16 

Dobson. A. H. 148, 153 

Dobson, J. R. 166 

Dyte, C. E. 191 

Evans, M. 147, 152 

Eversham, B. C. 33, 35, 36, 119. 173, 242 

Falk, S. 241, 242 

Fensome, B. 143, plate 1 

Ferguson, I. D. 34, 38 

Firmin, J. 47 

Formstone, B. 166 

Foster, A. P. 169, 179, 213 

Gill, N. 148, 153 

Goddard, D. G. 169, 179 

Hackett, D. S. 37, 38, 173, 184 

Hall, N. M. 148, 153. 160 

Hall, P. R. 144, 161 

Halsey, J. 148 

Halstead, A. J. 34, 35, 36, 148, 166, 173, 181, 243 

Harman, T. W. 148, 174 

Harmer, A. S. 93, 143 

Harper, M. 34 

Hart, C. 148, 153 

Harvey, M. C. 148, 154, 167, 174. 181 

Hawkins, R. D. 34. 35, 36, 38, 39, 40. 167. 181. 241. 

242, 243, 244, 247, plate II 
Hayward. R. 148. plate II 
Heckford. R. J. 154 
Henderson, M. 174 
Henwood, B. 150, 154, plate II 
Higgs, G. E. 154, 186 

Hodge, P. J. 154, 167, 174, 180, 182, 239, plate II 
Hollier, J. 237 
Honey, M. 248 
Hopkin, S. 189 
Ismay, J. W. 187 
Jeeves, M. B. 96 
Jenkins, A. 150, plate II 
Jones, A. M. 144, plate 1 
Jones, R. A. 89, 140, 193, 229. 239 
Judd, S. 243 
Kemp, R. J. 144, 161 
Kirby, P. 221, 225, 235 
Knill-Jones, S. A. 150, 155, 168, 180 
Langmaid, J. R. 155, 162 
Lee, M. 134 
Levey, B. 53, 175, 227 
Lewis, K. C. 176 
Lindsay, R. 40 
Lott, D. A. 96, 176 
Luckens, C. J. 162 
Luff, M. 37 
Manning, D. V. 155 
MarshalL T& V 182, 184, 185 
Martin, G. 162 

McCormick, R. 48, 50, 144, 150, 155 
McLean, I. F. G. 35, 38, 168, 241, 246, 248 
Menzies, I. S. 1, 176, plate I 
Meredith, S. L. 144, 245 
Merrifield, R. K. 39 
Miles. S. R. 40. 45. 242. 245. 246. 247 



Muggleton, J. 34. 36. 39. 241. 242. 247 

Nash, S. 1 50, 1 55 

Natural History Museum 151 

Nau, B. S. 243' 

O'Keeffe, D. 155 

Owen, J. 151, plate II 

Parker, M. 144. 168 

Parsons. M. S. 49. 135. 156, 241 

Paston, S. 248 

Pavett, P. M. 25, 175 

Paxton, R. J. 57 

Perry, I. 168 

Plant, C. W. 151, 156, 168, 178. 185 

Pohl. H. 57 

Pont. A. 35 

Ravenscroft. N. 247 

Revell. R. J. 163 

Revels. R. C. 146, 186. plate 1 

Richardson. J. A. 155 

Roberts. S. M. 182 

Robinson, N. A. 92, 138 

Rouse, A. 146, 152, 156, plate II 

Salisbury, A. 178 

Salmon." M. A. 69. 234. plate I 

Shardlow, M. E. A. 180. 183. 185. 186 

Sharpe. P. 156 

Sharpe. P. R. 173 

Simpson. A. N. B. 156 

Sims. I. 17. 29. 156 

Smith. D. A. 88 

Smith. I. F. 152. 158. 184 

Smith. M. N. 178. 183 

Smith, P. J. 68 

Softly, R. A. 35. 40. 146. 169. 241. 243. 244 

Springate. N. D. 13 

Stokes. D. 146. plate 1 

Tebbutt. P. 146. plate 1 

Tennent. J. 163 

Uffen. R. W. J. 35. 37. 183, 245 

Verdcourt. B. 91 

Wakeham-Dawson, A. 69, plate 1 

Waring, P. J. 152, 169 

Warne. B. J. 152, 158 

Webb. M. R. 68. 

Wedd. D. J. 152, 164 

White, J. 184 

Whitton. P. 179 

Williams, R. 55, cover parts 2 & 4 

Winokur, L. 224 

Wilson, H. A. cover part 3 

Wilson. M. R. 188. 190. cover part 1 

Wooldridge. D. B. 186 

Wright. S. 179 

Young, D. A. 146, 152 

Young, M. R. 158 



COLEOPTERA 

Abax parallelepipedus 38 
Abdera biflexuosa 170, 173 
A. quadrifasciata 176 
Abraeus granulum 170 
Aclypea opaca 172 



Acmaeodera cylindrica 175 

A. degener quattuordecimpunctata 175 

A. nigellata 175 

A. rubromaculata 175 
Acmaeoderella adspersula 175 

A. coarctata 175 

A. moroderi 175 
Acrotrichis lucidula 171 
Acupalpus consputus 179 
Acyclophorus wagenschieberi 176 
Adalia bipunctata 35, 91 

f. purpurea 36 
Adonia variegata 202, 210 
Agabus conspersus 178 
Agapanthia viilosoviridescens 45 
Agathidium confusum 171 
Agonum sp. 37 

A. dorsale 68 

A. ericeti 179 

A. piceum 37, 173 
Agrilus angustulus 48, 175 

A. elegans 175 

A. laticornis 178 

A. pannonicus 42, 174, 213, 214 

A. sinuatus41. 176. 213 

A. suJcicollis 174 

A. viridis 170 
Aleochara verna 176 
Amara apricaria 37 

A. curta 173 
Ampedus balteatus 36, 42 

A. cardinalis 37 

A. elongantulus 36, 44 

A. rufipennis 169 

A. sanguinolentus 36, 178 
Anacaena bipustulata 178 
Anaplophora glabripennis 179 
Anaspis septentrionalis 171, 176 
Anisodactylus binotatus 42, 179 
Anisosticta novemdecimpunctata 44, 91 
Anisoxya fuscula 213. 214 
Anobium sp. 201 

A. punctatum 201 
Anomala dubia 173. 178 
Anoplodera scutellata 172 
Anotylus mutator 177 
Anthaxia funerula 175 

A. marmottani hispanica 175 

A. millefolii polychloros 175 

A. nigrituia 175 

A. parallela 175 

A. scutellaris 175 
Anthicus angustatus 177 
A. scoticus 177 
A. tristis 177 
Anthrenus 190 

A. verbasci 36 
Anthribus fasciatu.s 175 
Aphanisticus emarginatus 175 
Aphodius equestris 42 

A. fimetarius 234 

A. granarius 42 

A, porcus 16 



A. rufipes 42 
Aplocnemus pini 173 
Atheta hybrida 171 

A. parens 172 

A. pervagata 178 
Atomaria lohsei 171 

A. morio 176 

A. scutellaris 171 

A. turgida 175 
Aulonothroscus brevicollis 172 
Badister bipustulatus 38 

B. dilatatus 44, 173 

B. unipustulatus 37, 173 
Bagous puncticollis 171 
Batrisodes venustus 176 
Baris analis 171 

B. scolopacea 172 
Bembidion fluviatile 179 

B. harpaloides 201 

B. inustum 175 

B. nigropiceum 170, 179 

B. quadripustulatum 37, 173, 179 

B. virens 170 
Biphyllus lunatus 201, 205 
Bitoma crenata 214 
Blaps mucronata 174 
Bledius arcticus 170 

B. dissimilis 170 

Blethisa multipunctata 37, 173 
Bostrychus jesuita 179 
Brachinus crepitans 172 
Brachygluta pandellei 171 
Bradycellus csikii 177 
Broschus cephalotes 38 
Bruchela rufipes 175 
Bruchidius varius 175 
Bruchus rufipes 45, 178 
Byctiscus betulae 177 
Caenocara sp. 172 

C. bovistae 172 
Calathus metallicus 176 
Calomicrus circumfusus 170 
Cardiophorus vestigialis 170 
Cassida murraea 174 

C. sanguinosa 175 

C. vibex 45 
Cathormiocerus attaphilus 175 
Catopidius depressus 172 
Cetonia aurata 38 
Ceutorhynchus rapae 45 
Choleva glauca 172 
Chrysolina americana 174. 177 

C. oricalcia 174. 178 

C. polita 45 
Cicindela sylvatica 173 
Cicones undatus 48, 172 
Cidnopus minutus 45 
Clonus nigritarsis 170 
Coccinella magnifica 178 

C. septempunctata 30, 91, 174, 202 
Coelambus impressopunctatus 44 
Colenis inimunda 178 
Colobopterus haemorrhoidalis 42 



Colydium elongatum 174 

Conopalpus testaceus 213 

Copelatus haemorrhoidalis 44 

Corticeus unicolor 176 

Cossonus parallelepipedus 213, 214 

Cryptarcha imperialis 178 

C. strigata 176 

Cryptocephalus aureolus 49. 178 

C. biguttatus 175 

C. bipunctatus 174 

C. hypochaeridis 46 

C. nitidulus 177 

C. parvulus 177 

C. querceti 176 

Cryptolaemus montrouzieri 1 73, 243, 244 
Cryptophagus populi 172 
Ctesias serra 41, 213, 214 
Cymbiodyta marginella 44 
Cyphon kongsbergensis 176 
Demetrias imperialis 172 
Dermestes murinus 1 73 
Donacia bicolor 174 

D. obscura 177 
Dorcatoma dresdensis 171 

D. flavicornis 178 

D. serra 178 
Drilus flavescens 39 
Dromius angustus 173 
Dryophilus anobioides 174 
Dytiscus circumcinctus 170 
Endomychus coccineus 45 
Enochrus melanocephalus 178 
Epiphanis cornutus 37, 170 
Epuraea fuscicollis 176 
Euconnus duboisi 172 
Euophryum confine 202 
Euplectus bonvouloiri 172 

E. diiponti 172 
E. infirmus 172 
E. karsteni 172 
E. kirbyi 172 

E. nanus 172, 76 

E. piceus 1 72 

E. punctatus tholini, 176 177 
Euryporus picipes 177 
Geotrupes mutator 16 

G. pyrenaeus 16 

G. spiniger 16 

G. stercorarius 16 
Glischrochilus hortensis 173 

G. quadriguttatus 173 
Gnathoncus buyssoni 178 
Gnorimus nobilis 170, 178 
Gnypeta ripicola 171 
Grammoptera ustulata 178 

G. variegata 175, 176 
Graptodytes bilineatus 170. 178 

G. granularis 178 
Grypus equiseti 42 
Gyrophaena joyi 178 
Halacritus punctum 171. 177 
Haliplus confinis 202 

H. heydeni 178 



H. laminatus 178 
Hallomenus binotatus 178 
Halyzia sedecimguttata 42. 202 
Harpalus affinis 37 

H. ardosiacus 179 

H. azureus 

H. honestus 170 

H. rufipes 37 

H. rupicola 173 

H. serripes 179 

H. servus 172 

H. tenebrosus 170, 179 
Helochares lividus 44, 178 
Henosepilachna argus 176, plate 1 
Hydaticus seminiger 178 
Hydroglyphus pusillus 178 
Hylisolexai 170, 172, 173, 174 
Hypomedon debilicornis 172 
Hypulus quercinus 41, 169 
Ilybius subaeneus 178 
Ips sexdentatus 171 
Ischnomera sanguinicollis 214 
Julodis onopordi fidelissima 1 75 
Kalcapion semivittatum 201 
Korynetes caeruleus 173 
Laccobius sinuatus 178 
Lampyris noctiluca 49 
Laricobius erichsoni 171 
Larinus planus 46 
Latridius consimilis 172 
Lebia cyanocephala 177 
Leiodes picea 170 
Leistus rufomarginatus 38 
Leptura scutellata 174 
Limnobaris pilistriata 42 
Lionychus quadrilltim 1 72 
Lissodema cursor 170 
Lixus scabricollis 175 
Longitarsus dorsalis 174 

L. nigerrimus 171 

L. quadriguttatus 170 
Lucanus cervus 36, 202 
Lymexylon navale 170, 172. 174. 178 
Lytta vesicatoria 37 
Magdalis barbicornis 170 

M. cerasi 172 

M. memnonia 175 
Malthinus frontalis 173 
Masoreus wetterhalli 172 
Medon dilutus 177 

M. pocoferus 177 
Melanophthalma curticoUis 177 

M. distinguenda 177 

M. suturalis 177 
Melasis buprestoides 173 
Meligethes rotundicollis 202 
Microlestes minutulus 172 
Microscydmus minimus 176 

M. nanus 176 
Molorchus umbellatarum 49 
Mordellistena acuticollis 178 

M. berbera 227 

M. brevicauda 178 



M. parvuloides 174. 177 

M. pentas 227. 228. 229 

M. pseudoparvula 174. 177 

M. pumila 227, 229 

M. secreta 227. 228, 229 
Mycetochara humeralis 37, 176 
Mycetophagus atomarius 174 

M. multipunctatus 214 

M. populi 170 
Nacerdes meianura 202, 208 
Nebria brevicollis 38 

N. gyllenhali 38 

N. Hvida 179 

N. salina 38 
Nephus quadrimaculatus 170, 171, 176 
Neuraphes plicicollis 176 

N. talparum 172 
Notaris scirpi 172, 202 
Notiophilus sp. 37 
Oberea oculata 171 
Ochthebius exaratus 173 
Ocypus nero 171 
Odacantha meianura 172 
Oedemera lurida 45 
Olibrus affinis 203 

O. flavicornis 178, 202 
Omaloplia ruricola 170 
Onthophagus coenobita 46 

O. joannae 46 

O. vacca 178 
Oodes helopioides 44 
Opilo mollis 172 
Oreodytes alpinus 170 
Osphya bipunctata 169 
Otiorhynchus crataegi 177 

O. nodosus 174 

O. pusillus 176 

O. scaber 174 
Oulimnius rivularis 170 
Oxylaemus variolosus 173, 177 
Oxythyrea funesta 38 
Paederus sp. 45 
Panagaeus bipustulatus 173 
Panspoeus guttatus 174 
Paralister neglectus 174 
Pediacus dermestoides 173, 214 
Phaedon concinnus 170 
Phalacrus brunnipes 172 
Philonthus cognatus 68 

P. mareki 176 
Phloeopora nitidiventris 171 

P. testacea 171 
Phloiotrya vaudoueri 1 73 
Phyllodecta laticollis 241 
Phymatodes testaceus 41, 214 
Phytoecia cylindrica 45 
Pilemostoma fastuosa 177 
Placusa complanata 171 

P. depressa 171 
Plagiodera versicolora 45, 202 
Plateumaris braccata 172 

P. sericea 174 
Platycis minuta 174, 214 



Platystomos albinus 179 
Pleurophorus caesus 33 
Pogonocherus fasciculatus 177 
Prionocyphon serricornis 173 
Prionus coriarius 174, 177 
Prionychus ater 41 
Procas granulicollis 220 
Pselactus spadix 202 
Pseudocistela ceramboides 170 
Pseudopasilia testacea 170 
Psylliodes luridipennis 177 
Ptenidium brenskei 171 
Pterostichus sp. 37 

P. anthracinus 173 

P. cristatus 38 

P. foveolatus 176 

P. gracilis 37, 173 

P. lepidus 170 

P. macer 179 

P. madidus 37 

P. morio carpathicus 176 

P. pilosus 176 
Ptilinus pectinicornis 33. 201 
Ptinella britannica 171 
Ptinus sexpunctatus 178 

P. subpilosus 173 
Ptomaphagus subvillosus 234, 235 

P. var. sericatus 234 

P. varicornis 234, 235 
Quedius brevicornis 178 

Q. alpestris 176 

Q. cincticoUis 176 

Q. coUaris 176 

Q. subunicolor 176 

Q. tnstis 234 

Q. unicolor 176 
Ramphus oxyacanthae 172 
Rhantus frontalis 178 
Rhinocyllus conicus 170 
Rhizophagus oblongicollis 177 
R. parallelocollis 176 
Rhynchaenus pratensis 170 
Rhynchites aequatus 45 

R. cavifrons 173 

R. nanus 173 

R. olivaceus 173 
Rhytideres plicatus 176 
Rhyzobius chrysomeloides 176 

R. litura 176 
Rugilus geniculatus 170, 171 
Saperda carcharias 171, 177 

S. populnea 177 

S. scalaris 176, 177 
Saprosites mendax 173 
Scarodytes halensis 178 
Scopaeus laevigatus 171 

S. minutus 171 
Scybalicus oblongiusculus 176 
Scydmaenus rufus 170 
Scymnus frontalis 36 
Selatosomus bipustulatus 173 
Silpha atrata 45 
Silvanus bidentatus 173 



Sphenoptera rauca 175 
Stegobium paniceum 201 
Stenelmis canaliculata 170 
Stethorus punctilluni 176, 202 
Stenus sp. 68 

S. excubitor 176 
Strangalia quadrifasciata 174 
Strophosoma faber 178 
Synchita humeralis 170, 172 

S. separanda 172 
Tachyporus pusillus 234 
Tachys parvulus 179 
Taenapion urticarium 201 
Tanymecus palliatus 175 
Taphrorychus bicolor 170 
Tetratoma ancora 173 
Tetropium castaneum 177 
Thanasimus formicarius 48 
Thea vigintiduopunctata 91 
Trachodes hispidus 170, 176 
Trachyphloeus asperatus 170 
Trachys coruscus 1 75 

T. minutus 48 
Trechus micros 179 

T. rubens 179 
Trichonyx sulcicollis 172 
Trichosirocalus barnevillei 172 
Trinodes hirtus 170 
Tropiphorus terricola 175 
Trypophloeus asperatus 171 
Tychius breviusculus 171 
Tytthaspis sedecimpunctata 89, 90 
Uleiota planata 170, 172, 176 
Variimorda villosa 49, 178 
Xantholinus angularis 172 
Xestobium rufovillosum 41, 245 
Zeugophora subspinosa 241 
Zyras haworthi 174 

DIPTERA 

Acanthiophilus helianthi 167 
Acomoptera 132, 133 
Acrocera globulus 51 
Acrometopia wahlbergi 26 
Agathomyia cinerea 168 

A. unicolor 168 

A. woodella 168 
Aglaomyia 130, 132, 133 

A. gatineau 130 
Anapausis rectinervis 166 

A. soluta 166 
Anasimyia interpuncta 169 
Aphrosylus sp. 38, 39 

A. ferox 39 

A. raptor 39 
Apolephthisa 133 

Asilus crabroniformis 16, 26. 27. 167 
Atylotus fulvus 166, 168 

A. latistriatus 168 
Boletina 132. 133 

B. ingrica 130 

Bombylius major 57, 60, 62, 203 
Brachicoma devia 60. 63 



Brachyopa dorsata 169 

B. pilosa 247 
Brachypalpoides lentus 167, 169 
Brachypalpus laphriformis 247 

B. valgus 169 
Braula coeca 166 

B. schmitzi 166 
Calamoncosis glyceriae 45 
Caliprobola speciosa 169 
Campiglossa producta 168 
Campsicnemus 215. 218 
Catharosia pygmaea 88 
Cephalops perspicuus 168 
Ceriana conopsoides 169 
Chalcosyrphus eunotus 169 

C. nemorum 43 
Cheilosia canicularis 169 

C. griseiventris 168 

C. scutellata 167 

C. semifasciata 168 
Chetostoma curvinerve 166. 167 
Choerades marginatus 167 
Chorisops nagatomii 203 
Chrysogaster solstitialis 48 

C. virescens 43 
Chrysops sepulcralis 166 
Chrysotoxum bicinctum 233 

C. cautum 247 

C. elegans 169 

C. fesdvum 169, 203, 244 

C. octomaculatum 168, 247 

C. vernale 169 
Cistogaster globosa 140 
Cleigastra apicalis 45 
Cliorismia rustica 26 
Coelophthinia 133 
Coelosia 132 
Conops quadrifasciatus 169 

C. strigatus 48 
Contarinia pyrivora 45 
Cosmetopus dentimanus 26 
Creagdhubhia mallochorum 121 / 133 
Criorhina asilica 169 
Ctenophora flaveolata 166 

C. ornata 165, 167, 169 
Demoticus plebejus 47 
Dialineura anilis 166 
Dicranomyia lucida 43 
Dioctria atricapilla 45 

D. baumhaueri 43 
D. cothurnata 166 
D. oelandica 167 
D. rufipes 43 

Dioxyna bidentis 165 
Drepanocercus 132 

D. ensifer 133 

D. spinistylus 133 
Dziedzickia 132, 133 
Ectophasia crassipennis 169 
Ectrepesthoneura 130, 132, 133 
Episyrphus balteatus 48 
Eriothrix prolixa 47 
Eristalinus sepulchralis 169 



Eristalis sp. 243 

E. arbustorum 169 

E. horticola 169 
Eudicrana 132 
Eupeodes sp. 169 

E. lapponicus 54 

E. latilunulatus 167. 203 
Euphylidorea aperta 43 
Eustalomyia festiva 233. 234 

E. hilaris 43 
Eutolmus rufibarbis 167, 168 
Exorista tubulosa 46 
Fannia hamata 60, 63 

P. tuberculata 168 
Goniglossum wiedemanni 168 
Grzegorzekia 121/133 

G. collaris 121/133 
Gymnosoma nitens 140. 141 

G. rotundatum 140. 167 
Hadroneura 133 
Haematopota grandis 165, 166 
Heiophilus trivittatus 169 
Hilara hybrida 168 

H. lugubris 167 
Homoneura tesquae 203 
Hydrodromia stagnalis 203 
Lapposyrphus 169 
Lejops vittatus 169 
Leucophora 63 

L. obtusa 57, 60, 62, 63 
Lipsothrix nervosa 26 
Machimus rusticus 168 
Megamerina dolium 167 
Megaselia giraudii 174 
Meliscaeva cinctella 233 
Merodon armipes 169 

M, equestris 45 
Metalimnobia quadrimaculata 167 
Metasyrphus corollae 48 
Microdon analis 169 

M. mutabilis 169 
Micropygus sp. 215, 216, 218 

M. vagans 215, 217, 218 
Myennis octopunctata 166 
Myolepta potens 54 
Myopa fasciata 167 
Myopites inulaedyssentericae 166, 1 
Neoascia annexa 169 

N. unifasciata 169 
Neoitamus cothurnatus 26 

N. cyanurus 43 
Nephrotoma cornicina 166 
Ochthera mantis 167 
Odontomyia hydroieon 26 
Oedalea hoimgreni 231 

O. ringdahli 231 
Oestrus ovis 166 
Ogcodes gibbosus 167 

b. pallipes46. 167 
Ophiomyia gnaphalii 11, 12 
Oxyna parietina 203 
Pamponerus germanicus 166 
Paracrocera orbiculus 51, 167 



Paratinia sp. 132 
Parheiophilus versicolor 45 
Parochthiphila corona ta 168 
Pelecocera tricincta 168 
Pherbellia cinerella 203 
Phoenikiella 129, 130. 132, 133 

P. phoenix 121/ 132 
Phthinia 133 
Phytomyza gnaphalii 1 1 

P. kyffhusana 1 1 
Pilaria fuscipennis 43 
Pipiza bimaculata 167 

P. fasciata 169 

P. festiva 169 

P. lugubris 168 
Pipizella annulata 169 
Platycephala umbraculata 168 
Platycheirus discimanus 166 

P. granditarsus 233 

P. occultus 167 

P. splendidus 168 
Platypalpus luteolus 167 
Platypeza aterrima 168 

P. consobrina 168 

P. hirticeps 168 
Pocota personata 35 
Polylepta 133 

Prionocera subserricornis 166 
Prosena siberita 46 
Protoclythia modesta 168 

P. rufa 168 
Pseudolimnophila sp. 43 
Psilota anthracina 167 
Ptychoptera minuta 43 
Rhagio scolopaceus 167 

R. strigosus 167 
Rhamphomyia gibba 167 
Rhingia campestris 233 
Rivellia syngenesiae 43 
Sapromyza bipunctata 48 

S. opaca 46 
Scatella stagnalis 203 
Senometopia excisa 137 

S. intermedia 137 

S. pollinosa 137 
Sepedon sphegea 203 
Sericomyia 43 

S. silentis 244 
Solva marginata 165 
Speolepta 133 
Sphegina elegans 43 

S. sibirica 168 
Sphiximorpha subsessilis 169 
Spiriverpa lunulata 26 
Stratiomys chamaeleon 26 

S. potamida 166 
Sympycnus 215, 218 
Synapha 133 
Syntemna 133 
Syntormon sp. 203 

S. filiger 168 
Syrphus ribesii 48 
Tabanus cordiger 166 



Tanyptera atrata 166. 167 

T. nigricornis 166 
Tephritis conura 167 
Terellia vectensis 168 

T. winthemi 168 
Tetragoneura 130, 133 
Thecophora atra 46 
Thereva handlirschi 166 
Thyridanthrax fenestratus 166 
Tipula grisescens 166 

T. helvola 166 

T. livida 166 

T. maxima 43 

T. melanoceros 166 

T. vernalis 45 

T. yerburyi 43 
Trigonometopus frontalis 45 
Tropidia scita 169 
Trypeta artemisiae 168 
Urophora spoliata 168 
Volucella bombylans 244 

V. inflata 169 

V, zonaria 167, 168 
Xanthogramma sp. 45 

X. pedissequum 203, 244 
Zodion cinereum 167 

Z. notatum 165 



HEMIPTERA 

Aelia acuminata 45, 204 
Anthocoris sp. 204 

A. visci 237, 238 
Aphanus rolandri 179 
Aphis fabae 203 
Aptus mirmicoides 35 
Asiraca clavicornis 48, 239, 240 
Balanococcus diminutus 174 
Buchananiella continua 221, 222. 223 
Cardiastethus fasciiventris 221, 222 
Centrotus cornutus 45 
Cicadula persimilis 225, 226 
Cosmotettix caudatus 225, 226 
Cyphostethus tristriatus 243 
Deraeocoris flavilinea 180, 204, 211 
Dicranocephalus medius 179 
Dolycoris baccarum 243 
Dulouriellus ater 179. 222 
Elasmucha grisea 243 
Empicoris culiciformis 204 
Enoplops scapha 180 
Eurygaster sp. 243 
Fieberiella sp. 180. plate 2 
Globiceps juniperi 179 
Gonocerus acuteangulatus 35, 91 
Hebrus pusillus 235. 237 

H. ruficeps 235. 236, 237 
Holcostethus vernalis 242, 243 
Hydrometra gracilenta 180 

H. stagnorum 180, 204 
Idiocerus decimusquartus 204 

I. stigmaticalis 204 
Lyctocoris campestris 204 
Metapoplax ditomoides 204 



Nezara viridula 243 

Nysius senecionis 141, 204, 211, 229, 230 

Odontoscelis fuliginosa 1 79 

O. Imeola 179 
Orius sp. 204, 221 
Orthops viscicola 237, 238 
Palomena prasina 30. 40. 243. 244 
Picromerus bidens 243 
Placotettix taeniatifrons 239 
Podops inuncta 141 
Psylla visci 237, 238 
Pulvinaria vitis 204 
Reptalus panzeri 239, 240 
Rhacognathus punctatus 43 
Sciocoris cursitans 141 
Sigara dorsalis 204 
Stephanitis rhododendri 239 
Stictopleurus punctatonervosus 180 
Xylocoridea brevipennis 222 

HYMENOPTERA 

Aglaostigma fulvipes 45 
Alastor atropos 180 
Allodynerus rossi 180 
Alysson lunicornis 182, 184 
Ammophiia sabulosa 9. 48, 49 
Ancistrocerus nigricornis 2, 9 

A. parietinus 9 

A. parietum 9 

A. scoticus 9 
Andrena sp. 57. 59. 61, 62, 63, 64, 65. 244 

A. argentata 181, 183 

A. barbilabris 10 

A. clarkella 10. 244 

A. denticulata 10 

A. ferox 181, plate 2 

A. flavipes cover part 2 

A. fulva 10. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63, 64, 65 

A. fuscipes 183 

A. haemorrhoa 10 

A. hattorfiana 181 

A. nigriceps 183 

A. nigroaenea 10 

A. nigrospina 181 

A. ocreata 181 

A. praecox 245 

A. scotica 10, 34, 45, 62, 65 

A. tibialis 181, 183 

A. vaga 65 
Anoplius concinnus 184 

A. infuscatus 9 

A. nigerrimus 9. 184 

A. viaticus 182. 244 
Anthophora plumipes 181 
Apanteles glomeratus 77 
Aphaereta minuta 174 
Apis mellifera 10, 166, 204 
Arachnospila anceps 9 

A. trivialis 9 

A. wesmaeli 9 
Argogorytes fargei 180 
Astata boops 184 

A. pinguis 9 



Athalia rosae 1S3 
Auplopus carbonarius 205 
Bethylus boops 204 
Blennocampa phyllocolpa 43 
Bombus sp. 45, 204 

B. bohemicus 183 

B. campestris I S3 

B. humilis 183 

B. hortorum 10, 183 

B. lapidarius 10 

B. lucorum 10 

B. muscorum 183 

B. pascuorum 10, 34 

B. pratorum 10 

B. rupestris 183 

B. soroeensis 183 

B. subterianeus 243 

B. sylvarum 183 

B. terrestris 10, 34, 183 
Ceratina cyanea 182 
Cerceris arenaria 48 

C. quadricincta 181 
Ceropales maculata 9. 182 
Chelostoma florisomne 43 
Chrysis comparata 180 

C. dichroa 180 

C. fulgida 182, plate 2 

C. helleni 180, 182 

C. ignita 9, 205 

C. impressa 9 

C. viridula 181, 182 
Chrysogona gracillima 181, 182, 184 
Chrysura radians 182 
Cimbex femoratus 181 
Cleptes nitidulus 9 

C, semiauratus 181, 182 
Coelioxys conoidea 183 

C. elongata 10 

C. mandibularis 183 

C. quadridentata 2, 10 
CoUetes cunicularis 10 

C. floralis 181 

C. fodiens 10, 182 

C. marginatus 10, 183 

C. similis 10 

C. succinctus 10. 182 
Crabro cribrarius 9 

C. peltarius 9 

C. scuteilatus 43 
Crossocerus annulipes 9 

C. dimidiatus 25 

C. megacephaliis 9, 42, 232, 233 

C. quadrimaculatus 9, 25 

C. tarsatus 9 

C. vagabundus 25 

C. walkeri 182 

C. wesmaeli 9 

Cryptocheilus nolalus 181, 182, plate 2 
Dinotrema lineola 174 
Diodontus minutus 9 

D. tristis 9 

Diphyus quadripunctorius 241 
Discoelius zonatus 180 



Dolerus germanicus 45 
Dolichovespula adulterina 31 

D. media 31 

D. norwegica 31, 182 

D. omissa 31 

D. saxonica 31, 182, 184 

D. sylvestris 9, 31, 182 
Ectemnius sp. 205 

E. continuus 9 
E. dives 182 
E. lapidarius 9 

E. ruficornis 183, 232, 233 

E. sexcinctus 180, 182 
Epeolus cruciger 10, 183 

E. variegatus 10 
Episyron rufipes 9 
Eumenes coarctatus 183 

E. coronatus 180 

E. mediterraneus 180 
Euodynerus dantici 1 80 
Evagetes crassicornis 9 
Formica aquilonia 138 

F. exsecta 183 
F. fusca 92 

F. lemani 92 

F. lugubns 138, 139, 140. 183 

F. rufa 92, 138, 139, 171 
Formicoxenus 92, 138. 139, 140 
Gorytes quadrifasciatus 184 
Halictus rubicundus 10, 183 
Hedychridium ardens 9 

H. coriaceum 184 

H. cupreum9, 180 

H. flavipes 180 

H. valesiense 180 
Hedychrum niemelai 180, 181 
Heriades truncorum 181, 183 
Holopyga amoenula 180 
Homonotus sanguinolentus 182 
Hoplitis claviventris 10 
Hylaeus brachycephalus 180 

H. brevicornis 10 

H. communis 10 

H. cornutus 184 

H. difformis 180 

H. hyalinatus 10 

H. signatus 133, 184, 205, 241 

H. sinuatus 180 

H. variegatus 180 
Lasioglossum albipes 10 

L. brevicorne 183 

L. calceatum 10 

L. cupromicans 183 

L. fratellum 183 

L. laevigatum 2, 10 

L. malachurus 245 

L. nitidiusculum 10 

L. pauperatum 181 

L. punctatissimum 10 

L. quadrinotatum 181 

L. rufitarse 183 

L. viliosulum 10 
Lasius brunneus 184 



L. flavus92, 184 

L. fuliginosus 92, 184 

L. mixtus 92 

L. niger 92, 184, 205 

L. sabularum 92 

L. umbratus 92 
Leptothorax acervorum 92, 183 

L. interruptus 183 

L. nylanderi 183 

L. tuberum 183 
Lindenius albilabris 184 

L. panzeri 184 
Lissonota luffiator 23 
Loderus eversmanni 45 

L. vestigialis 45 
Macrophya annulata 45 

M. duodecimpunctata 45 

M. montana 45 

M. punctumalbum 14 
Megachile centuncularis 10 

M. circumcincta 10 

M. leachella 181 

M. maritima 10, 183 

M. willughbiella 10 
Melecta albifrons 181 
Melitta haemorrhoidalis 181 

M. leporina 183 

M. tricincta 184 
Mellinus arvensis 9 
Methocha ichneumonoides 182 
Microdynerus exilis 180, 205 
Mimumesa littoralis 182 
Mutilla europaea 181, 183 
Myrmica rubra 184 

M. ruginodis 92, 184 

M. sabuleti 92 

M. scabrinodis 184 

M. sulcinodis 183 
Myrmosa atra 9 
Nematus oligospilus 45 
Nomada sp. 61 

N. baccata 183 

N. fulvicornis 181 

N. marshamella 10 

N. panzeri 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65 

N. rufipes 10, 183 

N. signata 57, 61 
Nysson dimidiatus 183 

N. trimaculatus 183 
Oecophylla smaragdina 182 
Odynerus albopictus 180 

O. reniformis 180 
Omalus aeneus 182 

O. auratus 9, 205 

O. puncticollis 182 

O. violaceus 181, 182, 183 
Osmia aurulenta 10 

O. bicolor 49, 181 

O. caerulescens 10 

O. leaiana 10 
Oxybelus argentatus 9 

O. mandibularis 2, 9 

O. uniglumis 9, 49 



Pachyprotasis variegata 181 
Pamphilius varius 181 
Passaloecus corniger 9 

P. gracilis 9 

P. insignis 9 
Pemphredon sp. 205 

P. inornatus 9 

P. lethifer 9 

P. lugubris 9. 42, 182 

P. morio 9 
Perilitus coccinellae 174 
Philanthus triangulum 180, 182 
Podalonia affinis 9, 180 

P. hirsuta 9 
Polyrachis sp. 182 
Pompilus cinereus 9, 184 
Priocnemis agilis 184 

P. cordivalvata 184 

P. coriacea 181, 182 

P. parvula 9 

P. perturbator 45 
Psen bruxellensis 9 

P. equestris 9 

P. littoralis 9 
Pseudepipona herrichii 181, 182 
Psithyrus barbutellus 10 

P. bohemicus 10 

P. campestris 10 

P. rupestris 181 

P. sylvestris 10 

P. vestalis 10 
Pterocheilus phaleratus 180 
Sapyga quinquepunctata 181 
Sphecodes sp. 6 

S. crassus 181, 183 

S. ferruginatus 10 

S. geoffrellus 10 

S. iiiger 181, 183 

S. pellucidus 10 

S. scabricollis 183 

S. spinulosus 181 
Spilomena troglodytes 9, 184 
Stelis ornatula 10 

S. punctulatissima 183 
Stenamma debile 92, 184 
Stigmus pendulus 182 
Symmorphus bifasciatus 9 
Tachysphex nitidus 9 

T. pompiliformis 9 
Tetramorium caespitum 183 
Tiphia femorata 182 

T. minuta 181 
Trichrysis cyanea 42 
Tomostethus multicinctus 14 

T. nigritus 13, 14 
Torymus nitens cover part 4 
Vespa crabro 31, 48, 181 
Vespula sp. 63 

V. austriaca 31 

V. germanica 9, 31. 241 

V. rufa 9, 31, 182 

V. vulgaris 9, 31, 167, 242 
Xiphydria camelus 201, 205 



X. prolongata 183 
Xylocopa virginica 241 
Zaraea fasciata 182 



LEPIDOPTERA 

abruptaria, Menophra 160 
acanthadactyla, Amblyptiiia 154, 161, 162 
aceris, Acronicta 247 
acteon. Thymelicus 144 

ab. alba 143, 144 
adelphella, Sciota 156 
advenaria, Cepphis 152 

ab. fulva 151 
aegeria, Pararge 76. 80, 82, 143. 146, plate 1 

ab. cockaynei 144, 146 

ab. parviocellata 146 

ab. saturatior 146 
aeneana, Commophila 153 
aeriferanus, Ptycholomoides 155 
aerugula. Nola 147 
aetheriae. Melitaea 162 
agestis, Aricia 48 

ab. deleta 117 

ssp. cramera 163 
aglaja, Argynnis 47 

ab. post-fasciata 142 

ab. wimani 143, plate 1 
aglaja, Mesoacidalia 

ssp. lyauteyi 164 
agnorista, Abrostola 151 
albanica, Tetanocentria 160 
albedinella, Bucculatrix 157 
albicilia, Salebriopsis 152 
albimacula, Hadena 152 
albimaculea, Denisia 162 
albipuncta, Mythimna 147, 148, 150, 152, 165 
albipunctata, Cyclophora 49, 152 
albostigmata, Mniotypc 163 
albula. Meganola 148, 152 
alciphron, Heodes 

ssp. melibaeus 164 
alealis, Diaphania 163 
alicantaria. Idaea 161 
alpinella, Platytes 153 
alpium, Moma 50, 51, 150 
alyssumata, Idaea 159 
Amphipoea sp. 152 
anatipennella, Coleophora 157 
Ancylosis sp. 161 
anderidae. Phyllonorycter 157 
anella, Lamoria 161 
angustea. Eudonia 

ssp. acuminatella 162 
angustella. Nephopterix 158 
annae. Glossotrophia 160 
annularia. Cyclophora 

ab. obsoleta 151 

ab. sertaria 151 
antalus. Virachola 144. 161. 162 
antiqua. Orgyia 205 
antiquaria. Idaea 159 
aprilella. Metzneria 156 
aprilina, Diclionia 



ab. brunneomixta 151 

ab. semivirgata 151 
arenosella, Ancylosis 161 
areola, Xylocampa 247 
argiolus, Celastrina 143, 205 

ab. lilacina-lata 143 
argus, Plebejus 

ssp. argus 48 

ssp. caernensis 
ab. splendida 146 

ssp. hypochionus 164 
argyrogrammos, Pyroderces 160 
aridella, Pediasia 152 
arion, Maculinea 134, 245 
aristaeus, Hipparchia 81 

ssp. blachieri 162 
armigera, Helicoverpa 150, 152, 161 
artemisicolella, Coleophora 158 
asclepiadis, Abrostola 151 
asella, Heterogenea 151 
asellaria, Glossotrophia 160 
asialis, Botyodes 163 
asinalis, Mecyna 163 
atalanta, Vanessa 76, 80. 83, 205 

ab. klemensiewiczi 146 

ab. merrifieldi 142 
athalia. Mellicta 

ssp. celadussa 162 
atlantica, Plebicula 164 
atlanticum. Udea 162 
atlanticus, Agriphila 162 
atornaria, Ematurga 

ab. dentaria 151 

ab. praeclara 151 

ab. unicoloraria 147. 151. plate 2 
atra, Acanthopsyche 156 
atriplicis. Trachea 165 
atropos. Acherontia 150, 163. 186 
atrux, Agrotis 163 
attenuaria, Idaea 159 
aurata, Pyrausta 155 
aurinia, Eurodryas 

ab. atratus 142 

gynandromorph 144, plate 1 

ab. melanoleuca 144 

ab. sebaldus 142, 144 
aurofasciana, Olethreutes 154 
aversata, Idaea 151, 159 
baliodactylus, Merrifieldia 49, 156 
balteata, Syllepte 163 
bankiana, Deltote 147 
barbagiae, Pseudophilotes 164 
baton, Pseudophilotes 164 
beata. Eteobalea 160 
belemiata. Idaea 159 
bellargus. Lysandra 46. 47 
berbera, Amphipyra 

ssp. svenssoni 150 
betulae. Thecla 146, 245 

ab. unistrigata 146, plate I 
betuletana, Apotomis 51 
betulicola, Caloptilia 157 
biangulata. Euphyia 49, 51, 151 



bicuspis, Furcula 50, 152 

bifasciana, Olethreutes 156 

bifurcatus, Agdistis 161 

bigladiata. Idaea 159 

bipartila, Pseudozarba 161 

bipuiictalis.Herpetogramma 1 63 

bisclala, Idaea 51 

biskralis, Hyperlais 161 

bisulcella, Elachista 158 

biviella, Vitula 242 

blaesii, Idaea 159 

blandelloides, Caryocolum 155. 156 

blenna, Lacanobia 160 

biomeri, Discoloxia 147, 150. plale 2 

boeticus. Lampides 76. 80. 85 

botrana. Lobesia 1 54 

brassicae. Pieris 77 

ssp. wollastoni 69, 76, 77, SO 
britanniodactyla, Capperia 49 
bruguieralis, Dolicharthria 161 
brunnichana, Epinotia 51 
buettneri, Sedina 147. 148. 150 
butleri. Syllepte 163 
buvati, Tetanocentria 160 
caecimaculana. Pelochrista 50 
caesia. Hadena 

ssp. mananii 150 
caja, Arctia 150, plate 2 
calabra, Rhodostiophia 160 
c-album, Poiygonia 144, 146. 205. plate 1 

f. hutchinsoni 142 

ab. obscura 146 

ab. reichenstettensis 144, 146 

ab. suffusa 146 
calunetaria, Idaea 159 
Camilla, Limenitis 117, 186 
cancellalis, Epipagis 186 
capitella, Lampronia 158 
caradjai, Oegoconia 154 
cardamines, Anthocharis 

ssp. britannica 143 
albino 1 17 
gynandromorph 143 

ssp. hibernica 144 
carduella, Agonopterix 158 
cardui, Cynthia 39, 76, 80, 84, 142, 143, 205 
carphodactyla, Euleioptilus 153 
carpinella, Parornix 157 
carvalhoi, Idaea 159 
castrensis, Malacosoma 165 
centrostrigaria, Xanthorhoe 163 
cervantaria, Idaea 159 
cervinalis, Rheumaptera 1 52 
chaerophyllella, Epermenia 1 58 
chalcites, Chrysodeixis 163 
cheiranthi, Pieris 77 
choragella, Morophaga 153 
chrysippus, Danaus 76, 86, 146, 158 
chrysocomae, Hellinsia 1 53 
chrysolepidella, Eriocrania 156 
cidareila, Bucculatrix 157 
cilialis, Nascia 153 
ciiium, Spodoptera 163 



cinerosella, Euzophera 1 53 
cinxia, Melitaea 142, 164 
circuitaria. Idaea 159 
circumflexa, Cornutiplusia 163 
clathrata. Chiasmia 

ssp. clathrata 
ab. fasciata 151 
ab. obsoletissima 151 

ssp, hugginsi 150 
clavipalpis. Paradrina 163 
Cleopatra, Gonepteryx 78 

ssp. Cleopatra 163 

ssp. cleobule 78 
c-nigrum, Xestia 163 

ab. albinotica 151 
comae. Timandra 160 
comes, Noctua 152, 186, 247 
complana, Eilema 152 
compta, Hadena 152 
confusa, Macdunnoughia 148, 150 
conicolana, Cydia 156 
conigeralis, Uiopeza 163 
contaminella, Pediasia 153 
conterminana, Eucosma 1 56 
contigua, Lacanobia 49 
convexella, Ancylosis 161 
convolvuli, Agrius 150. 186 
coridon, Lysandra 117, 143 

ssp. caelestissima 164 
cornutella, Coleophora 162 
corylata, Electrophaes 40, 147 
cossus, Cossus 148 
costaestrigalis, Schrankia 49 
craceae, Lygephila 147, 150 
crassa, Agrotis 147, 165 
crassalis, Hypena 51, 151 
crassicervicella, Cosnioptcrix 160 
cribraria, Coscinia 

ssp. trivittata 165 
croceago, Jodia 1 35. 1 36 
croceus, Colias 39, 48, 76. 78. 80. 81. 93. 142. 

ab. alba 93 

var. cremonae 8 i . plate 1 

var. dawsoni 81, plate 1 

var. faillae 81, plate I 

var. geisleri 81. plate 1 

V. helice 81, 93, 146 

ab. helicinoides 81 

ab. pallida 81, 93 

var. radiata 81, plate 1 

ab. russwurmi 93, 94, 95 

ab. tergestina 81 
crocicapitella, Monopis 157 
cuculata, Catarhoe 50 
cuiiciformis, Synanthedon 147 

ab. flavocingulata 147, 152 
cuprella, Adela 157 
cupressata, Thera 148, 150 
cupressella, Argyresthia 34, 35 
curtula, Clostera 

ab. webbiana 151 
damone. Anthocharis 162 
dardoinaria, Crocallis 150 



dariusalis, Eporidia 163 
debiliata, Chloroclystis 51 
decolor, Scopula 160 
decolorella, Blastobasis 153 
decorata, Scopula 160 
decorella, Eudonia 

ssp. maderensis 162 
degeneraria, Idaea 159. 161. 165 
dejeani, Hyphoraia 160, 161 
delunella. Eudonia 154 
denticulella. Callisto 157 
deplana, Eilema 48 
Depressaria sp. 36 
deserticola, Melitaea 164 
desfontainii. Eurodryas 164 
deversaria, Idaea 159 
dilutaria, Idaea 147 
dimidiata, Idaea 159 
diniasalis, Botyodes 163 
dispar, Lymantria 147 
ditrapezium. Xestia 50 
divisella. Mompha 156 
divitella, Isidiella 160 
dohrnii, Eteobalea 160 
domestica, Cryphia 151 
dubiosa. Euplexia 163 
dubitata. Triphosa 150 
dumetata. Odontognophos 

ssp. hibernica 150, 152 
dysodea, Hecatera 147, 148, 150, 151, 152 
elinguaria. Crocallis 150 
elongaria, Idaea 159 
elongella, Caloptilia 157 
elpenor, Deilephila 39 
elymi, Chortodes 147 
emberizaepenella, Phyllonorycter 157 
empetrella, Scythris 155, 156. 158 
emutaria. Scopula 160 
epilobiella. Mompha 160 
epiphron. Erebia 

ssp. scotica 146 
erythrocephala. Conistra 151 
eugeniata, Idaea 159 
eupheme, Zegris 

ssp. maroccana 163 
euphrosyne, Boloria 39, 40, 162 

ab. pittionii 146 
exigua, Spodoptera 150. 152, 161, 163 
exilaria, Idaea 159 
extimalis, Evergestis 165 
exulans, Zygaena 247 
falsalis, Zebeeba 161 
fenestratella, Monopis 156 
ferchaultella Luffia 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 
22, 23, 24 

ferrugalis, Udea 162, 163 
filicivora, Psychoides 153. 156 
filipendulae, Zygaena 247 
fimbriata. Noctua 186 
fiordalisa. Vulcaniella 160 
flammea, Trigonophora 164 
flavalis, Mecyna 154 
flavicepsalis. Ulopeza 163 



flavicinctata, Entephria 148 
flexula, Laspeyria 51 
fluctuata, Xanthorhoe 151 
forficella. Harpella 162 
fortunata, Ascotis 163 
fovealis, Duponchelia 163 
fraxini, Catocala 150 
fuliginaria, Parascotia 151 
funebris, Anania 155 
furcata, Hydriomena 186 
fuscoalbalis, Dichocrocis 163 
fusconebulosa, Pharmacis 161 
galactodactyla, Pterophorus 155 
galathea, Melanargia 

ab. craskei 146 

ab. nigricans 143. plate 1 

ab. rubra 143, plate 1 

ssp. lucasi 164 
gallii, Hyles 152, 186 
gamma, Autographa 148, 163 
geminipuncta, Archanara 147, 148 
genistella, Pempelia 155 
geoffrella. Alabonia 44 
gerasimovi. Coccidiphila 160 
gerningana, Philedone 51 
gilvago, Xanthia 152 
gilvata, Uresiphita 163 
glyphica, Euclidia 44 
gnaphalii, Cucullia 160 
gnidiella, Cryptoblabes 156. 162 
grabowiella. Vulcaniella 160 
grandis, Schiffermuelleria 154 
griseata, Lithostege 147 
grisella. Achroia 158 
haematidea. Agrochola 148 
hastata, Rheumaptera 

ssp. nigrescens 152 
hecla, Colias 

ssp. sulitelma 163 
Helena, Cyaniris 164 
hesusalis, Phostria 163 
himmighoffeni. Eublemma 161 
hirtusalis, Ghesquiellerana 163 
hornigi, Monochroa 154, 155 
hostilis, Sciota 153 
humilis, Elachista 158 
hyale, Colias 76, 85 
hybernella, Urodeta 160 
hybnerella, Stigmella 157 
hyperantus, Aphantopus 146 

ab. arete 144 

ab. lanceolata 144, 146 
hyponoea, Cyclophora 160 
hypsea, Cethosia 165 
ibipennella, Coleophora 158 
icarus, Polyommatus 

ssp. icarus 205 
ab. radiata 144 

ssp. mariscolore 143. 144 
ab. obsoleta 143 
ab. post-obsoleta 143 
Idaea 159 
idas, Plebejus 



ssp. lapponicus 164 
imbecilla. Eriopygodes 152 
imitaria, Scopula 160 
imitella. Ancylosis 161 
imperialella. Dialectica 155 
implicitana. Cochylidia 158 
incarnatella. Rhigognostis 154 
incisaria. Idaea 159 
inconspicuella. Dahlica 17 
indica, Vanessa 83 

ssp. vulcania 76. 80. 83. 84, plate 1 
infirmaria. Idaea 159 
inquinata, Idaea 34 
insulariata, Gymnoscelis 163 
interjecta. Noctua 

ssp. caliginosa 186 
intermediella. Eteobalea 160 
io. Inachis 243 

ab. antigone 146 

ab. belisaria 146 

ab. exoculata 146 

ab. fischeri 142 

ab. prochnovi 146 
iris. Apatura 225 
irrorata. Scopula 163 
irrorella. Setina 50. 151 
islandicus. Stenoptilia 153 
janthe. Noctua 186 
japygiaria. Menophra 160 
jurtina, Maniola 143. 162. 164 

ab. fracta 142. 143 

gynandromorph 143 

ab. irregularia 143 

ab. postmultifidus 143 
karsandra. Zizzeria 164 
kuehniella. Ephestia 156 
labecula. Dryobota 164 
lacteana. Bactra 155 
lactearia. Jodis 165 
1-album. Mythimna 152 
lancealana. Bactra 154 
lantanella. Phyllonorycter 157 
lapidella, Luffia 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23, 24 
laricella. Coleophora 157 
lathonia. Issoria 76, 85. 142. 146. plate 1 
lathoniellus. Crambus 155 
latiferalis. Ulopeza 163 
latipennata. Eupithecia 163 
latreillei, Methorasa 163 
latreillella, Pancalia 160 
ledereriella. Coccidiphila 160 
leporina. Acronicta 147 
leucodactyla. Merrifieldia 49. 153 
leucogaster. Ochropleura 163 
leucographa, Cerastis 148 
leucographella. Phyllonorycter 153 
leucostigma. Celaena 

ab. fibrosa 148 
licarsisalis, Herpetogramma 158. 159, 161. plate 2 
lichenaria, Cleorodes 51, 147, 151 
lichenea, Eumichtis 148, 164 
ligula. Conistra 243 
ligustri. Craniophora 51 



limbirena. Ctenoplusia 163 
linearia. Cyclophora 51. 147 
litigiosaria, Idaea 159 
lividalis, Hypena 163 
livornica, Hyles 148 
lixella, Coleophora 50 
longaria, Idaea 159 
lonicerae, Zygaena 247 
loreyi, Mythimna 163 
loti, Zygaena 247 
lucens, Amphipoea 150 
lucernea, Standfussiana 150 
lucida. .Acontia 150, 165 
Luffia sp. 20 

lunaedactyla, Marasmarcha 153 
lundbladi, Gymnoscelis 163 
lundbladi. Pempeliella 162 
lunulana. Cydia 1 56 
lunularia. Selenia 147. 165 
lusohispanica, Idaea 159 
lutulenta, Aporophyla 150 

ab. sedi 152 
lutulentaria. Idaea 159. 161 
macularia. Pseudopanthera 147 

ab. fuscaria 151 

ab. quadrimaculata 151 
maderae. Idaea 163 
maderae. Menophra 163 
maderensis. Cryphia 163 
maderensis, Cyclophora 163 
maderensis, Gonepteryx 76. 78. 80. plate 
maderensis. Hipparchia 76, 80, 81, plate 1 
maderensis, Mesapamea 163 
maderensis, Udea 162 
malvae, Pyrgus 

f. taras 163 
margaritella. Catoptria 51 
margarodes, Pardomima 163 
marginata, Lomaspilis 165. 186 
marginepunctata, Scopula 147, 160 
martini. Plebejus 

ssp. martini 164 
maura, Mormo 205 
mayrella, Coleophora 158 
mediaria, Idaea 159 
megacephala. Acronicta 151 
melanops. Glaucopsyche 

ssp. algirica 164 
mendica. Diaphora 147 

f. rustica 147, 150, 152 
metzneriana, Eucosma 155 
micalis, Tebenna 154, 155, 156 
millieridactyla. Stenoptilia 153. 158 
miniata, Miltochrista 

ab. flava 152 
minimus, Cupido 47 

ssp. trinacriae 162 
minorata. Scopula 160 
minuscularia, Idaea 159 
miscella, Mompha 160 
misippus, Hypolimnas 76, 85 
monacha, Lymantria 

ab. atra 151 



moneta, Polychrysia 

ab. maculata 151 
inonodactyla. Emmelina 158 
morgane, Greta 

ssp. oto 146 
mueileriella, Phyllonorycter 157 
muralis, Cryphia 

f. impar 147 
murana, Eudonia 154 
muscaeformis, Bembecia 150 
napaea, Boloria 164 
napi, Pieris 146, plate 1 

ssp. sabellicae 
ab. fasciata 143 

ssp. thomsoni 
ab. fasciata 143 
nerii, Daphnis 186 
nesiotica, Pararotruda 162 
nickerlii, Luperina 

ssp. demuthi 147 
nielswolffi, Gypsochares 162 
nigropunctata. Scopula 151 
nitidana, Strophedra 156 
nivellearia. Scopula 160 
noctuella, Nomophila 163 
nubigena. Xenochlorodes 163 
numeralis, Udea 162 
nupta, Catocala 

ab. brunnescens 151 
nurag. Maniola 164 
nycthemeraria, Menophra 160 
oblitella. Ancylosis 153 
oblonga, Apamea 148 
obscurata, Gnophos 

ab. argillacearia 151 

ab. bicinctata 151 

ab. calceata 151 

ab. fasciata 151 

ab. obscuriata 151 

ab. saturata 151 
obsitalis, Hypena 151, 165 
obsoletaria, Idaea 159 
obstipata, Orthonama 51, 147, 1 
obtusa, Pelosia 147, 148 
obviella, Monopis 157 
occitanica, Melanargia 

ssp. pherusa 162 
ocellea, Euchromius 1 53 
ochraceella, Mompha 153 
ochrata, Idaea 159 
ochrearia Semiaspilates 38, 152 
ocularis, Tethea 164 
olivana, Olethreutes 158 
omissella, Leucospilapteryx 157 
ononaria. Aplasia 147 
ononidis, Parectopa 155 
oo, Dicycla 161 
ophiogramma, Apamea 151 
or, Tethea 

ab. albingensis 151 

ab. permarginata 151 
orana, Adoxophyes 156 
orbifer, Spialia 162 



i. 150, 165 



orbona. Noctua 152, 186 
orichalcea, Thysanoplusia 148, 150, 163 
ornata, Scopula 49, 50, 160 
osseola, Hydraecia 

ssp. hucherardi 151 
osteodactylus, Hellinsia 158 
ostrina, Eublemma 

ab. carthami 147 
ostrinaria, Idaea 159 
padella. Yponomeuta 51 
palarica, Erebia 164 
paleacea, Enargia 152 
palealis, Sitochroa 154, 155, 158 
paludella, Calamotropha 152 
paludum, Buckleria 48, 49 
pamphilus, Coenonympha 

ab. caeca 143, plate 1 
pandalis, Microstega 155 
paphia, Argynnis 142 

ab. confluens 144 
pariana, Choreutis 156 
parthenias, Archiearis 

ab. luteata 151 

ab. obscura 151 
partita, Galgula 163 
parva, Eublemma 147. 150 
parviangusta, Eudonia 161 
parvidactylus, Oxyptilus 49 
parvulipunctella, Batrachedra 160 
pavonia, Pavonia 186 
pellionella. Tinea 157 
peltigera, Heliothis 150, 152 
perlella, Crambus 154 

ssp. monochromella 154 
perlucidalis, Phlyctaenia 153 
perplexa, Hadena 

ssp. capsophila 150 
phalaromima, Pardomima 163 
phenice. Zebronia 163 
phlaeas, Lycaena 85 

ssp. eleus 

ab. cuprinus 144 
gynandromorph 146, plate 1 

ssp. phlaeoides 76, 80, 84, 85 
var. caeruleopunctata 85, plate 1 
f. obsoleta 85 
f. radiata 85 
phoebe, Melitaea 

ssp. occitanica 164 
picaepennis, Scythris 158 
piercei, Aethes 155 
pimpinellata, Eupithecia 147, 153 
piniaria, Bupalus 147 
pinicolella, Batrachedra 156 
plantaginis, Parasemia 46 
plebeja. Hada 147 

plecta, Ochropleura 151, 165, plate 2 
plexippus, Danaus 76, 80, 84 
plumularia. Anthometra 160 
poeyalis, Marasmia 186 
polycymalis, Syllepte 163 
polystidzalis, Conogathes 163 
pomonella, Cydia 39 



populetorum, Caloptilia 157 
populi, Laothoe 150, plate 2 
porata, Cyclophora 148 
Powellinia sp. 161 
predotaria. Idaea 159 
proboscidalis, Hypena cover part 3 
processionea, Thaumetopoea 150, 165 
profugella, Cataplectica 153 
pronuba, Noctua 163, 186 
pronubana, Cacoecimorpha 153 
pseudocanariensis. Agdistis 161 
pudoraria, Palpita 163 
pudorina, Mythimna 49, 147 
pulcherrimella, Cosmopterix 160 
pulveralis, Psammotis 153, 156 
pulveratella, Xystophora 155 
punctaria, Cyclophora 48 
punctidactyla, Amblyptilia 154 
punctifera, Lysandra 164 
puppillaria, Cyclophora 160, 163, 186 
purpuralis, Zygaena 247 
pusillidactylus, Lantanophaga 161 
putris, Axylia 147 
quadra, Lithosia 150 
quadripunctaria, Euplagia 165 
quercus, Quercusia 146, 224 

gynandromorph 144 
ramburialis, Diasemiopsis 1 56 
ramosaria, Cleta 160 
rapae, Pieris 76, 77, 80 
ravida, Spaelotis 148 
reaumurella, Adela 44 
recens, Orgyia 147 
recisella, AUoclita 160 
recurvalis, Hymenia 163 
recurvalis, Spoladea 163 
repandaria, Epione 186 
repandata, Alcis 

ab. conversaria 151 
retractalis, Syllepte 163 
rhamni, Gonepteryx 244, 245 
rhododactyla, Cnaemidophorus 156 
rhomboidea, Xestia 147, 151 
ripae, Agrotis 160 
rivularis, Hadena 161 
rosmarinella, Vulcaniella 160 
rostralis, Hypena 148 
rubi, Callophrys 49 
rubidata, Catarhoe 50, 151 
rubiginea, Conistra 147, 150 

ab. modestissima 151 
rumina, Zerynthia 

ssp. africana 163 
rupicola, Xanthorhoe 163 
rusticata, Idaea 159 

ssp. atrosignaria 147, 148 
rutae, Agrotis 163 

sacraria, Rhodometra 49, 147, 148, 150 
152, 160, 163 
salicella, Dasystoma 153 
salicorniae, Coleophora 153 
salopiella, Eriocrania 156 
sanguinalis, Pyrausta 162 



sannio, Diacrisia 49 
sardoniata, Idaea 159, 161 
sarronalis, Syllepte 163 
satyrata, Eupithecia 50, 150 
saucia, Peridroma 163 
scalella, Pseudotelphusa 155 
schuetzeella, Dioryctria 156 
scoriella, Eudonia 

ssp. wollastoni 162 
scribaiella, Cosmopterix 155 
segetum, Agrotis 163 
selene, Boloria 143 
semele, Hipparchia 81 
semiargus, Cyaniris 162 
semirubella, Oncocera 155 
senticetella, Gelechia 1 54 
sequella, Ypsolopha 157 
seriata, Idaea 159 
sericeata, Idaea 159 
serradaguae, Mythimna 163 
serricornis, Biselachista 51, 154 
sertorius, Spialia 162 
similaria, Parectropis 51 
similella, Denisia 162 
similella. Elegia 156, 158 
sinapis, Leptidea 

ssp. juvernica 144 
sinuella, Homoeosoma 1 58 
sociella, Aphomia 34 
somnulentella, Bedellia 158 
sorbiella, Argyresthia 1 56 
sororiata, Carsia 51 
sparganii, Archanara 147, 148 
spinosissimae, Stigmella 158 
sponsa, Catocala 152 
stachydalis, Phlyctaenia 49, 50, 153, 155 
statilinus, Neohipparchia 76, 83 

f. allionia 83 
stellatarum, Macroglossum 224, 225 
stereodoxa, Gisilia 160 
straminata, Idaea 148, 160 
striatella, Isophrictis 153 
strigillaria, Perconia 49 
strigulatella, Phyllonorycter 157 
subaquilea, Schiffermuelleria 154 
subdivisella, Mompha 160 
sublustris, Apamea 50 
subrufaria, Idaea 159 
subsericeata, Idaea 159 
subumbrata, Eupithecia 50 
suffumata, Lampropteryx 

ab. piceata 151 

ab. porrittii 151 
suppunctaria, Cyclophora 160 
swammerdamella, Nematopogon 44 
sylvata. Abraxas 137, 148, 150 
sylvata, Hydrelia 51 
sylvestraria, Idaea 49, 150 
syringaria, Apeira 51 
tages, Erynnis 

ssp. baynesi 144 
taurella, Ochsenheimeria 51, 153 
teixeirai, Noctua 163 



tenebrata, Panemeria 48 
testata, Eulithis 186 
testudinaria, Hyphoraia 160. 161 
testulalis, Maruca 163 
tetragonana, Epibiema 158 
tetrapunctella, Athrips 155 
thersites, Agrodiaetus 163 
tiliae, Mimas 34 
tineana, Ancyiis 155 
tithonus, Pyronia 

ab. anticrassipuncta 143 

ab. lanceoiata 143 

ab. multiocellata 143 

ab. obscurior 143 
tityus, Hemaris 150 
torquatella, Atemelia 51 
transversata. Philereme 50 
treitschkiella, Antispila 156 
tridens. Calamia 

ssp. occidentalis 150 
trifasciata, Argyresthia 156, 248 
trifolii, Lasiocampa 164 
trigeminella, Coleophora 153 
trigrammica, Charanyca 147 
tripartita, Abrostola 151 
triplasia, Abrostola 151 
triquetrella Dahlica 17. 29 
tritophus. Notodonta 151 
trochilella, Coleophora 153 
truncicolella, Eudonia 154 
trux, Agrotis 

ssp. maderensis 163 
tullia, Coenonympha 51 

ssp. davus 146 

ssp. polydama 146 

ssp. scotica 146 
tunbergella, Micropteri.x 156 
typhae, Nonagria 147 
tyres, Macrogastra 163 
uliginosellus, Crambiis 155 
ulmariae, Stigmella 156 
undalis. Hellula 153 
undulata, Rheumaptera 186 
unionalis, Palpita 154, 155, 158, 163 
unipuncta. Mythimna 147, 150, 163 
urticae, Aglais 205, 245 

ab. nigra 143 

ab. pseudoconnexa 142 

ab. semiichnusoides 143 
venosata. Eupithecia 

ssp. plumbea 150 
venustula, Elaphria 50, 152 
versicolor, Oligia 150, 161 
vespiformis, Synanthedon 147 
vestigialis. Agrotis 165 
vetulata, Philereme 50 
vetusta, Xylena 151 
viburnana, Aphelia 51 
viciae, Zygaena 247 
villica, Arctia 

ssp. britannica 147, 148, 152, plate 2 
viminetorum, Phyllonorycter 157 
virgata, Phibalapteryx 147 



virginiensis, Cynthia 76, 85 
vitellina, Mythimna 150, 165 
vulgata, Eupithecia 

ssp. clarensis 150 
vulpinaria, Idaea 159 
wockeella, Coleophora 155 
wollastoni. Phlogophora 163 
woodiana, Celypha 155, 237 
xenia, Phyllocnistis 156 
xeranthemi, Cucullia 161 
xiphia, Pararge 76, 80, 82, 83, plate 1 
zieglerella, Cosmopterix 160 
zohra, Cigaritis 

ssp. monticola 163 
zophodactylus, Stenoptilia 153, 154, 156 



OTHER INSECT ORDERS 

COLLEMBOLA 

Collembola sp. 201 
Metaphorura affinis 189 

DICTYOPTERA 

Campion sp. 184 
Ectobius pallidus 185 

E. panzeri 185 
Macropanesthia rhinoceros 185 

MECOFTERA 

Boreus hyemalis 242 

NEUROPTERA 

Euroleon nostras 185 
Necrophilus 185 
Nemoptera bipennis 185 
Palmipenna pilicornis 185 
Sisyra fuscata 206 

ODONATA 

Aeshna sp. 206 
Calopteryx splendens 206 
Coenagrion mercuriale 48 

C. puella 43 
Enallagma cyathigerum 206 
Libellula depressa 43 
Pyrrhosoma nymphula 43 

ORTHOPTERA 

Chorthippus parallelus 206 
Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa 33 
Platycleis albopunctata 184 
Stenobothrus lineatus 184 
Tetrix undulata 48 

PLECOPTERA 

Dinotoperea sp. 185 

RAPHIDIOPTERA 

Atlantoraphidia maculicollis 43 
Phaeostigma notata 43, 186 
Xanthostigma xanthostigma 186 



STREPSIPTERA 

Stvlops sp. 59, 64, 65 
S. melittae 57, 59. 64, 65 

THYSANLRA 

Lepisma saccliarina 206 
Petrobius sp. 206 

P. brevistylis 206 

P. maritimus 206 



MOLLUSCA 

Heli.x pomatia 49 
Hygromia cinctella 209 
Limax flavus 209 
Testacella haliotidea 35 
Thersites fraseri 182 

MYRIAPODA 

Polyxenus lagurus 207. 209 



OTHER ANIMALS 



ACTINARIA 

Nematostella vectensis 186 



OTHER PABULA 

Dung (various) 16, .33. 42. 46 
Honeybee combs 1 73 
Sheep's wool 234 



AMPHIPODA 

Gammarus sp. 209 
Orchestia gammarella 209 

ARACHNIDA 

Araneus diadematus 206 
Dismodicus elevatus 186 
Dolomedes fimbriatus 186 
Euophrys browning! 186 
Gnaphosa lugubris 186 
Haplodrassus minor 186 
Larinioides sclopetarius 206. 208 
Micaria pulicaria 206 
Pellenes tripunctatus 186 
Phlegra tasciata 186 
Salticus scenicus 207 
Segestria florentina 207, 209 
Sitticus inexpectatus 186 
Tetragnatha sp. 207 
Trachyzelotes pedestris 186 
Trichoncus affinis 186 
Zelotes lutetianus 186 

Z. petrensis 186 

Z. subterraneus 186 

AVES 

Aquila chrysaetos 121 
Athene noctua 16 
Corvus corone 1 3 
Emberiza calandra 46 
Garrulus glandarius 13 
Pica pica 13 
Turdus merula 13. 14 

ISOPODA 

Androniscus dentiger 207 
Armadillidium nasatum 186. 207 

A. vulgare 207 
Cylisticus convexus 186, 207 
Ligia oceanica 207 
Sphaeroma hookeri 207 

S. monodi 207 

S. rugicauda 207 

MAMMALIA 

Vulpes vulpes 16 



PLANTS 

Acacia 160 

Acer campestre 41 

A. pseudoplatanus 19, 37. 48. 172, 180, 202, 204, 
219 
Achillea millefolium 153. 172 
Agapanthus praecox 78 
Allium ursinum 219 
Alnus42. 48. 157. 204 

A. glutinosa 157. 171. 172 

A. incana 157 
Althaea 172 

A. officinalis 172 
Angelica archangelica 36, 202, 203, 204 
Antennaria dioica 11, 12 
Anthyllis vulneraria 47 
Antirrhinum 160, 161 
ApoUonias barbujana 76 
Arctium minus minus 1 55 
Artemisia maritima 141 

A. vulgaris 157. 158, 203 
Asclepias curassavica 84 

A. fruticosa 84 
Aster tripolium 141 
Beta vulgaris 1 75 
Betonica officinalis 155 

Betula 25, 39, 148, 157, 166, 167. 171. 172. 177. 181, 
182, 232, 243 

B. pendula 156, 172 
B. pubescens 155, 162 

Bidens tripartita 165 
Brachypodium pinnatum 47 

B. sylvaticum 82 
Brassica oleracea 77 
Bromus erectus 47 
Bryonia dioica 168 
Buddleja 204 

Buxus sempervirens 91 
Calluna 156, 179 

C, vulgaris 167, 182 
Campanula latifolia 184 
Campylopus 154 
Carduus 38, 160 

C. acanthoides 168 
Carex45. 154, 247 
C. acutiformis 202, 247 



C. caryophyllea 226 

C. ericetorum 226 

C. flacca 226 

C. hirta 225, 226 

C. spicata 226 
C. vesicaria 225 
Carpinus betulus 157. 173 
Centaurea scabiosa 1 56 
Cerastium fontanum 155, 156 

C. holosteoides 48 
Chamaecyparis 243 

C. lawsoniana 154 
Chamerion angustilblium 44 
Cirsium arvense 1 75, 239 

C. vulgare 170 
Cistus 160 

Coincya wrightii 177 
Conyza canadensis 230 

C. sumatrensis 229, 230 
Coronopus didymus 77 
Corydalis claviculata 220 
Corylus avellana 43, 156, 177 
Crataegus 176, 177, 213 

C. monogyna 41, 46. 154, 157, 167. 169 
Cupressus 34, 162 
Cytisus scoparius 85, 174 
Dicranum scopariiim 154 
Digitalis x mertonensis 181 
Dracaena draco 76 
Drosera rotundifolia 48 
Dryopteris affinis 68 
Epilobium montanum 1 56 
Equisetum 42 
Erica 76, 82, 179 
E. tetralix 175 

Eriophoruni angustiroiium 154 
Eucalyptus 80, 83 
Euphorbia 76 
Fagus sylvatica 37, 156. 167. 170. 171, 174. 176. 178. 

247 
Filipendula ulmaria 1 56 
Frangula alnus 182 
Fraxinus excelsior 13, 14, 15, 37, 40, 41, 169 

F. mandschurica var japonica 14 
Galium aparine 44 
Genista tenera 85 
Gentiana anglica 46 
Glechoma hederacea 182 
Glyceria maxima 37, 44, 45 
Gnaphalium 1 1 
Gymnadenia conopsea 47 
Halimium 160 
Hedera 135, 171, 176, 177 

H. helix 154 
Helianthemum 160 
Helichrysum 160 
Heracleum sphondylium 49 
Hippocrepis comosa 47 
Hamulus 160, 205 
Hypochaeris radicata 78 
Impatiens glandulilera 39 
Inula conyza 177 
Iris 167 



1. pseudacorus 174 
Isatis tinctoria 162 
Juglans nigra 176 
Juncus 172 

J. acutiflorus 168 

J. articulatus 236 
Juniperus 154, 243, 248 
Knautia arvensis 181 
Larix 162, 175 

L. decidua 157 
Laurus azorica 76 
Lavandula 160 
Lemna 235 

Leontodon autumnalis 203 
Ligustrum 14, 37, 49 

L. californicum 14 

L. ovalifolium 14 
Limonium vulgare 168 
Linaria 160 
Liriodendron 165 
Lonicera 173 

L. periclymenum 157 
Lotus corniculatus 95 

L. pedunculatus 85 
Lupinus albus 85 
Luzula 219 

Lygos monosperma 175 
Malus sylvestris 157 
Matricaria inodora 184 
Medicago sativa 95 
Mercurialis perennis 40 
Myrica gale 168 
Nothofagus 175 
Odontites 184 
Oenanthe crocata 36 
Parietaria 160, 165 
Persicaria 154. 155 
Phalaris 219 

Phormium tenax 174. 244 
Phragmites australis 37. 155. 168. 173 
Phoenix dactylifera 128 
Phormium tenax 244 
Phyllitis scolopendrium 153 
Picea 177 
Picris 203 

Pimpinella saxifraga 153 
Pinus 68, 137, 156. 167, 171. 173. 181. 182 

P. pinea 175 

P. sylvestris 121. 127, 156, 171, 177 
Plantago albicans 160 

P. coronopus 175 
Platanus x hispanica 1 56 
Poa 82 

P. trivialis 82, 83 
Polytrichum 235 

P. commune 242 

P. Ibrmosum 242 

P. juniperinum 242 
Populus 37, 204 

P. canescens 156, 182 

P. nigra 213 

P. tremula 171, 177 

P. trichocarpa 241 



Potentilla reptans 49 
Primus 180 

P. persica 162 

P. spinosa40. 157. 245 
Pteridiuni aquilinum 39. 40. 82. 220 
Pulicaria 154 

P. dysenterica 166. 168. 174 
Pyracantha 153 
Pvrus 45 

Quercus 18. 19, 37, 40, 41, 42, 43. 48, 148. 154, 158, 
160, 162, 169, 170, 172, 173, 174, 176, 177, 178, 
179, 182, 184, 213. 219. 247 

Q. ilex 164 

Q. petraea 135 

Q. robur 135, 157. 220 

Q. suher 175 
Ranunculus 247 

R. tkaria 168 
Reseda 183, 184. 205 

R. lutea 175 
Rhamnus glandulosa 78 
Rhododendron 166. 219. 239 
Rosa 43. 167. 172 
Rosmarinus 160 
Rubus 89. 90. 247 

R. tVuticosus 68. 220 
Rumex 44, 161 

Salix 37, 135. 166. 169, 171. 174. 177. 182. 184, 202, 
204, 213, 214, 244, 245 

S. tVagilis 213, 214 

S. viminalis 157, 168 
Sarothamnus scoparius 247 
Saxifraga adscendens 154 

S. cespitosa 154 

S. hypnoides 153, 158 
Senecio 158, 174. 229, 230 
Seriphidium maritimum 172 
Serratula linctoria 168 
Silene maritima 141 
Sinapis arvensis 202 
Smyrnium olusatrum 170 



Solidago virgaurea 174 
Sorbus aucuparia 40, 172 
Sphagnum 41. 179, 235. 236. 237 
Stachys officinalis 1 55 

S. sylvatica 154 
Succisa pratensis 170 
Swida 156 
Symphytum 44. 155 
Syringa 177 

Tanacetum vulgare 175 
Thymus 47. 245 
Tilia48. 170. 182 

T. vulgaris 157 
Trifolium pratense 175 

T. repens78, 95, 155 
Tropaeolum niajus 77 
Typha latitblia 172, 202 
Ulmus 171, 172 

U. glabra 137. 157 
Urtica 201, 206 

U. dioica 44. 84 

U. morifolia 84 
Vaccinium myrtillus 1 54 
Verbascum nigrum 1 70 
Viburnum lantana 157 
Viola 39. 160 
Viscum album 155. 237 

ALGAE 

Diplococcus 21, 29 



LICHENS 

Lecanora conizaeoides 21 
Parmelia alabratula 21 



29 



FUNGI 

Boletus scaber 167 
Bovista plumbea 172 
Daldinia concentrica 201, 205 
Ganoderma 1 7 1 



APRIL 1999 

<PVr 



ISSN 0952-7583 



Vol. 12. Part 1 



BRITISH JOURNAL OE 

ENTOMOLOGY 

AND NATURAL HISTORY 




c^TOMo/ 




BRITISH JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY 

Published by the British Entomological and Natural History Society 

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P. J. Hodge B. K. West, B.Ed. 



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BR. J ENT. NAT HIST.. 12: 1999 



THE ACULEATE WASPS AND BEES (HYM 
ACULEATA) OF THE AINSDALE-FORMBY/SAND 
ON THE LANCASHIRE COAST COMPARE 
NORTHERN SITES 




Michael E. Archer 

University College of Ripon & York St. John, York Y031 7E. 

The main aims of this paper are, firstly, to give an account of the aculeate wasps 
and bees of the sand dunes of Ainsdale-Formby on the Lancashire coast, secondly, 
determine if the species list of the Ainsdale-Formby sand dunes is sufficiently 
complete to make comparisons with other sites, and thirdly, having shown the 
species list is sufficiently complete, to carry out comparisons at the community level 
with other north and north midland English sites. 

The Ainsdale-Formby sand dunes are situated to the west of Ainsdale and 
Formby. Within the Ainsdale-Formby sand dunes the following sites have been 
sampled for aculeate wasps and bees: Birkdale Sandhills LNR (SD3013); Ainsdale 
Sandhills LNR (SD2912); Ainsdale Sand Dunes NNR (SD2911); National Trust 
Formby Point (SD2707); Lifeboat Road Formby Point (SD2706); Ravenmoels LNR 
(SD2706). These sites cover an area of about 940 ha, about 45% of the 2 100 ha of the 
Sefton sand dunes (Atkinson & Houston, 1993). 

The Ainsdale-Formby sand dunes consist of fore, yellow and grey dunes with wet 
and dry slacks and a small amount of salt marsh. Dune heath, shrubs (including sea- 
buckthorn), pine and deciduous trees are also present. Many of the pines on the 
seaward side are dead and, with extensive bramble patches, provide aerial nesting 
sites for aculeates. The bordering habitats are urban. 

Sources of records 

The earliest records are given by Gardiner (1907), probably produced by B. 
Cooke, from the latter part of the nineteenth century. Although detailed localities are 
not given, ten species of solitary wasps and five species of solitary bees are from the 
Ainsdale-Formby sand dunes. All these species have been found subsequently. 

Records have been obtained from specimens at the museums of Liverpool, Leeds 
and Manchester. Records from Liverpool museum were supplied by T. Mawdsley 
and C. Clee. The records are from 20 collectors (1930 1988) of whom H. Britten 
(1930-1964), C. M. Jones (1950 1969) and C. OToole (1962-1969) are the most 
important. Other specimens were examined by me at the museums of Leeds 
(A. Norris) and University of Manchester (C. Johnson). Relatively few records (from 
five collectors, 1907-1951) were found at Leeds. At Manchester, records from eight 
collectors (1906-1959) were found. The most important were those of H. Britten 
(1921-1947). Most museum records were derived from the following sites: National 
Trust Formby Point; Ainsdale NNR; probably Ainsdale LNR; and a few records 
from Birkdale LNR. 

Kenneth-Booker (no date) produced a list of 60 aculeate wasp and bee species 
recorded during 1976 at Ainsdale NNR. This list was extended by five species in a 
letter sent to G. R. Else during 1981. Another listing of 79 aculeate wasp and bee 
species, covering the years 1975-1980, was sent to me by W. Kenneth-Booker {pers. 
comm., 1989). C. OToole sent a list of 73 aculeate wasp and bee species recorded 
from Ainsdale NNR {pers. comm., H 



2 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

I visited the Ainsdale-Formby sand dunes on eleven days during 1983 1989. My 
visits were mainly to Ainsdale LNR, Ravenmoels LNR, Lifeboat Road Formby 
Point and National Trust Formby Point. I also have identified specimens collected 
by A. Godfrey from a visit to Ainsdale NNR during 1990. 

In summary, 31 collectors have provided records from the Ainsdale Formby sand 
dunes from 1906 until 1990, with a few records from the latter part of the nineteenth 
century. Most records were made from April until September with a few records 
from February, March and October. 

Names and the ordering of species in Appendix 1 are according to Kloet & Hincks 
(1978). However, where there have been name changes since Kloet & Hincks the new 
species names are used but the old species are indicated in brackets. 

Species present 

A total of 110 species (94 solitary and 16 social species) has been recorded 
(Appendix 1). Since 1970, 19 of these species have not been recorded (Appendix 1). 
Most of these 19 species probably are still present, but the following species, with 
appropriate reference in brackets, almost certainly will have been lost: Ancistrocerus 
nigricomis (Curtis) (Archer, 1988), Oxyhehis mandihularis Dahlbom (Edwards, 1977), 
Lasioglossum laevigatum (Kirby) and Coelioxys qiiadridentata (L.) (Else, in prep.). 

Species AREA relationship 

One of the problems in the study of any site is the difficulty of knowing when the 
species list is sufficiently complete so that comparisons with other sites may 
reasonably be carried out. One way to resolve this is the use of the species-area 
relationship, where the number of species and the area of sites, both expressed as 
natural logarithms (In), can show a positive linear relationship (Usher, 1986). If the 
number of species in relation to the area of a site falls within the range of other sites 
which show a statistically significant species-area relationship, then the site may 
reasonably be compared with other sites. If the number of species in relation to the 
area of a site falls below the values of the other sites then this could indicate either 
many more species could be found at that site, or that the site consists of habitats 
which are particularly unfavourable for aculeate wasps and bees. 

As an example of a favourable site where the species list is not sufficiently 
complete. Archer (1996c) found that the number of species of solitary aculeate wasps 
and bees from Sark fell well below the species-area relationship shown by the other 
Channel Islands. He suggested that about a further 35 species could be found on 
Sark to bring its number of species relative to its area to the level of species area 
relationship of the other islands. I. C. Beavis {pers. comm., 1997) has subsequently 
succeeded in finding 29 of the estimated 35 species on Sark. 

Bog and closed woodland may be unfavourable habitats for aculeate wasps and 
bees and would be expected to have fewer species than the area of a site would 
indicate. For example, Askham Bog with an area of 49 ha should have about 71 
species of solitary wasps and bees as calculated from the species-area relationship 
indicated in Fig. 1 . Archer (1987) found that only 31 species have been recorded from 
this site, which is only about 44% of the number of species expected. Much of 
Askham Bog consists of bog and closed woodland. 

The species-area relationship will be investigated with data from 18 sites from the 
north and north midlands of England (Table 1). Restriction of the comparison sites 
to north and north midlands sites is necessary because it is known that species-area 



BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST., 12: 1999 



^4, 

CO 
o 4 

Q. 
CO 

Z 3. 

5 3. 



3.4 



■ 


■ 




1 




■ .bA-F 




■ ■ ■ 




^ ■ ■ 




■ 


■ 




■ 
f 1 f 


■ i \ \ 1 i 1 1 \ 1 



-4-202468 
Ln Area (ha) per Site 



10 



Fig. 1. A species-area relationship plot of 19 sites from the north and north midlands of 
England. A-F. Ainsdale-Formby sand dunes. 






4 


CO 




(D 


3.5 


Q. 




(D 




1- 
O 


3 


o 




CO 




>» 


2 5 


.■ti 




OJ 




3 

a 


2 


w 





o 


1.5 







a. 




CO 


1 



A-F 



-20246 
Ln Area (ha) per Site 



8 



10 



Fig. 2. A species quality score-area relationship plot of 19 sites from the north and north 
midlands of England. A-F, Ainsdale-Formby sand dunes. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 



Table 1. Grid references (G.R.), habitat characteristics*, cleptoparasitic loads (CL) and aerial 
nester frequencies (AF) of the solitary species, of 18 north and north midland English sites 









CL 




AF 




— Reference 








Site name 


G.R. 


Habitat 


Wasps 


Bees 


Wasps 


Bees 


to Archer 


Allerthorpe Common SE74 


S 


16.9 


32.8 


45.3 


16.3 


1989 


(pre-coniferized) 
















Blaxton Common 


SE60 


S 


15.0 


26.5 


43.1 


13.9 


1995 


Burton Leonard 


SE36 


Ca 


16.7 


25.8 


68.0 


13.0 


1997 


Lime Quarries 
















Charnwood Forest 


SK41, 
SK51, 
SK50 


S 


18.1 


27.0 


71.2 


22.2 


1992b 


Cave Wold 


SE93 


Ca 


16.7 


32.4 


56.0 


13.0 


1997 


Cornelian Bay 


TA08 


CI 


16.7 


21.7 


56.0 


11.1 


Unpub. 


Crow Wood 


SK69 


S 


16.9 


28.9 


20.4 


9.4 


1995 


Duncombe Park 


SE68 


Ca 


20.0 


17.2 


84.4 


16.7 


1993 


Holmehouse Wood 


SE04 


CI 


10.3 


31.6 


53.8 


7.7 


Unpub. 


Keswick Fitts 


SE34 


Si 


22.2 


30.0 


67.9 


21.4 


Unpub. 


Pompocali 


SE34 


S 


20.0 


36.6 


20.0 


8.0 


1985 


Risby Warren 


SE91 


S 


17.2 


29.4 


12.5 


8.3 


1994 


Sherwood Forest 


SK66 


S 


17.6 


25.0 


47.6 


19.4 


1996e 


Shipley Glen 


SE13 


s 


15.6 


34.9 


56.6 


7.1 


1996d 


Skipwith Common 


SE63 


s 


13.2 


35.5 


42.4 


30.0 


1992a 


Spurn Point 


TA41 


s 


16.2 


25.6 


38.7 


17.2 


Unpub. 


Strensall Common 


SE65 


s 


18.0 


35.0 


41.5 


8.0 


1988 


Swincarr Plantation 


SE65 


s 


16.7 


34.8 


0.0 


6.7 


1984 



*S sandy, Ca calcareous, CI clay. Si silty. 



relationship varies with latitude (Archer & Burn, 1995, Archer, 1996c). The species- 
area relationships are based on the species of solitary wasps and bees. 

The species area relationship of the 19 sites, including the Ainsdale-Formby sand 
dunes, is shown in Fig. 1. The dot for the Ainsdale-Formby sand dunes falls within 
the range of the 18 sites, and so the species list from the Ainsdale-Formby sand dunes 
can be considered sufficiently complete to make valid comparisons with other sites. 

The correlation coefficient of the species-area relationship of the 19 sites indicates 
a highly significant linear relationship (r = 0.88, p< 0.001) with 77% of the variation 
of the number of species between sites being explained by the variation in the area of 
the sites. The species area regression equation is: In number of spe- 
cies =3.84 +0.1 l*ln area (ha). Two other statistics from this regression equation 
are: 1. the number of species of solitary aculeate wasps and bees expected to be found 
on one ha is 47 (anti-ln 3.84) and, 2. to double the number of solitary species of 
aculeate wasps and bees the area would need to be increased about 475-fold (2 raised 
to the power of 1/0.11). 

Possible reasons why the number of species should increase with increase in area 
are discussed by Archer & Burn (1995). 

The 19 sites used for Fig. 1 are mainly sandy sites but also include calcareous sites: 
Burton Leonard Lime Quarries and Cave Wold, Duncombe Park; clay sites: 
Holmehouse Wood and Cornelian Bay; and silty river margin sites; Keswick Fitts 
(Table 1). Clearly the traditional belief that sandy sites have a higher species richness 
than non-sandy sites is not upheld. Probably what is more important is for a site to 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 5 

have the particular resources needed by aculeate species. Morris (1997) gave a list of 
such resources: bare, dry and friable soil in sunny situations for subterranean nesters; 
dead plant stems or dead wood in sunny situations for aerial nesters; and ruderal 
plant communities and particular flower species as a source of pollen for oligolectic 
bees. To this list may be added other specific nesting sites, such as snail shells, rock 
surfaces in sunny situations, crevices in walls or other bare surfaces; specific nest 
building materials needed by some species, e.g. resin, cottony down of leaves, petals, 
clay: specific types of prey for the larvae of species of solitary wasps; and sources of 
nectar, either floral or extra-floral. It is possible for non-sandy, as well as sandy sites 
to contain these resources. 



Species quality 

Information about the status and quality scoring (Archer, 1996a) of aculeate 
wasps and bees is given in Shirt (1987), Falk (1990, and Archer (1996b, 1997a, 
1997b, 1998a). Archer's national statuses (Appendix 2) will be used since these 
statuses use the new information from the Newsletters of the Bees, Wasps and Ants 
Recording Society (BWARS) and consider all species, not just the RDB and 
nationally scarce species. Caution must be exercised in the use of quality scoring 
since the status of a species is not fixed and needs to be kept under constant review. 

The very rare, rare and scarce species are the high quality species. Seventeen high 
quality species have been recorded from the Ainsdale-Formby sand dunes, although 
only 14 species have been recorded from 1970 onwards (Appendix 1). 

Each solitary species can be given a status value, so that a quality score for the 
Ainsdale-Formby sand dunes can be calculated (Table 2). Dividing the quality score 
by the number of species gives the species quality score. The species quality score for 
both All Records and 1970 Records Onwards is the same (3.8, Table 2). 

How does this species quality score compare with those from the other 18 sites? 



Species quality score-area relationships 

A plot of species quality scores versus the area (in natural logarithms) for the 19 
sites from the north and north midlands of England, including the Ainsdale-Formby 
sand dunes, is shown in Fig. 2. The correlation coefficient is not significant (r = 0.45, 
p>0.05), and only 20% of the variation of species quality scores between sites is 

Table 2. The Archer national quality scores of the species of solitary wasps and bees recorded 
from the Ainsdale-Formby sand dunes, for All Records (AR) and 1970 Onwards Records (OR) 
(Species quality score 3.8 for All Records and 1970 Onwards Records) 









No. 


species (B) 


Quality Scores (A*B) 
















Status 


Value 


(A) 


AR 


OR 


AR 


OR 


Universal 


1 




51 


44 


51 


44 


Widespread 


2 




25 


19 


50 


38 


Restricted 


4 




1 





4 





Scarce 


8 




8 


6 


64 


48 


Rare 


16 




6 


6 


96 


96 


Very Rare 


32 




3 


2 


96 


64 


Total 






94 


77 


361 


290 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 



explained by the variation in the area of sites. These observations would seem to 
indicate that species quality scores are relatively independent of site area. 
Nevertheless, within the geographical area of the north and north midlands of 
England, the species quality score for the Ainsdale-Formby sand dunes is the highest 
yet recorded (Fig. 2). The reason for this high score, at present, is unknown. 



Cleptoparasitic load 

The cleptoparasitic load (CL) is the percentage of aculeate species that are 
cleptoparasites (or parasitoids) on other host aculeates. Wcislo (1987) showed that 
parasite behaviour among aculeate Hymenoptera correlated with geographical 
latitude. Thus the parasitic rates are higher in temperate regions as host populations 
are more synchronized in their life-history characteristics. From a review of the 
literature Wcislo (1987) found the CLs in Europe for bees varied between 16% and 
33%, a range of 17%. 

The CLs for the solitary bees from north and north midlands sites vary between 
22% and 37% (Table 1) (except for Duncombe Park), a range of 15%. The range of 
values of CL for the English sites is similar to the wider European sites (Wcislo, 
1987). The low CL for Duncombe Park is due to the loss of all Sphecodes species 
from this site (Archer, 1993). The CL for the solitary species of bees from the 
Ainsdale Formby sand dunes (Table 3) falls within this range. 

Wcislo (1987) gives no CL values for wasps. However, for the north and north 
midland sites, CL values for the solitary wasps have been found to vary between 10% 
and 22% (Table 1). The narrow range of this variation indicates that the argument 
Wcislo (1987) developed for the bees also applies to the solitary wasps. The CL for 
the solitary species of wasps from the Ainsdale-Formby sand dunes (Table 3) falls 
within this range. 

Archer & Burn (1995) discussed why the CLs for the solitary bees are higher than 
the CLs for the solitary wasps. They argue that it is probably a consequence of food- 
chain relationships. 



Aerial nester frequency 

The aerial nester frequency (AF) is the percentage of host aculeate species that 
have aerial nest sites. Aerial nesters used old beetle burrows in dead wood, central 
stem cavities, e.g. bramble, old snail shells, or crevices in cob walls, old mortar or 
exposed on the surface of rock or other hard material. Subterranean nesters nest in 
the soil, usually in burrows dug by themselves, but sometimes holes and crevices are 
used after being altered. 

Table 3. The relative frequency of the cleptoparasitic (or parasitoid) species among the species 
of solitary wasps and bees recorded from Ainsdale-Formby sand dunes 

Cleptoparasitic Load 
No. hosts (H) No. cleptoparasites (C) CL = 100*C/(H + C) 

Solitary wasps* 45 8 15.1 

Solitary bees 30 10 25.0 

*Cleptes nitidulus excluded as not a parasitoid of an aculeate. 



BR J ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 7 

Table 4. The nesting habits of the host species of sohtary wasps and bees recorded from 
Ainsdaie-Formby sand dunes 

No. aerial No. subterranean Aerial nester frequency 

nesters (A) nesters (S) AF= 100*A(A + S) 

Solitary wasps 18 27 40.0 

Solitary bees 7 23 23.3 



The AFs for the solitary wasps from the north and north midlands sites vary 
between 0% and 84%, and for the solitary bees between 7% and 22% (Table 1). For 
the Ainsdale Formby sand dunes the AF for the solitary wasps falls into the middle of 
the range of the English sites, but for the solitary bees the range is extended slightly 
upwards (Table 4). The Ainsdale-Formby sand dunes are relatively richer in aerial- 
nesting solitary bees. An investigation of why this should be so remains to be done. 

The AF for the solitary wasps is higher than the AF for the solitary bees (Table 4). 
Why should this be so? 

Archer (1990) found that the summer abundance of solitary wasps was more 
sensitive to summer weather conditions than solitary bees. Solitary wasp abundance 
was positively related to higher mean temperature and hours of sunshine and 
decreases in rainfall. Lomholdt (1975) showed that aerial nester frequency increased 
with increasing latitude for the solitary wasps (Sphecidae. 28% in France and 79% in 
northern Norway) along a decreasing warmth gradient. Perhaps the species of 
solitary wasps in order to take advantage of any warmth tend to have aerial nesting 
sites, since such sites are likely to warm up earlier in the day and stay warmer for a 
longer period of time than subterranean nesters? No investigation of this hypothesis 
has taken place. 

Summary 

In comparison with the other sites from the north and north midlands the 
community of species of solitary wasps and bees from the Ainsdale Formby sand 
dunes: 

• Has the expected number of species for the area of the site, and so can properly be 
compared with the other sites. 

• Has a higher species quality score than the other sites. 

• Has similar cleptoparasitic load to those of other sites as predicted by Wcislo 
(1987). 

• Has an average aerial nester frequency (AF) for the solitary wasps and a higher 
AF for the solitary bees. 

References 

Archer, M. E. 1984. The solitary bees and wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of a sand-pit at 

Swincarr Plantation, near York. Naturalist 109: 23-25. 
Archer, M. E. 1985. The wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of Pompocali, near Leeds: 

The first 27 visits. Naturalist 110: 49-51. 
Archer, M. E. 1987. The aculeate wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of Askham Bog. 

Bull. Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 8: 22-23. 
Archer, M. E. 1988. The aculeate wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of my local patch: 

Strensall Common, the first 70 visits. Naturalist 113: 25-30. 



8 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

Archer, M. E. 1989. The wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of Allerthorpe Common 

before and after coniferisation. Naturalist 114: 129-136. 
Archer, M. E. 1990. The solitary aculeate wasps and bees (Hymenoptera, Aculeata) of an 

English suburban garden. Entomologist's Gaz. 41: 129-142. 
Archer, M. E. 1992a. Aculeate wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of Skipwith Common 

and a comparison of Skipwith Common with Allerthorpe and Strensall Commons. 

Naturalist 117: 19-25. 
Archer, M. E. 1992b. A comparison of the sohtary wasps and bees (Hym., Aculeata) of 

Charnwood Forest, Leicestershire and Lydford Moorland, Devon. Entomologist's mon. 

Mag. 128: 51-57. 
Archer, M. E. 1993. The aculeate wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of Duncombe Park 

in Watsonian Yorkshire. Naturalist 118: 37-44. 
Archer, M. E. 1994. The aculeate wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of Risby Warren in 

Watsonian Lincolnshire. Trans. Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union 23: 123-131. 
Archer, M. E. 1995. Aculeate wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of Blaxton Common in 

Watsonian Yorkshire with the introduction of a new national quality scoring system. 

Naturalist 120: 21-29. 
Archer, M. E. 1996a The use of solitary wasps and bees in site assessment for wildlife 

conservation, in Eyre, M. B. (ed.). Environmental Monitoring. Surveillance and Conserva- 
tion using Invertebrates. E.M.S. Publications: 14-17. 
Archer, M. E. 1996b The status and quality coding of the species of mason wasps 

(Hymenoptera: Eumeninae). BWARS Newsletter, Autumn 1996: 4-5. 
Archer, M. E. 1996c. The aculeate wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of Herm and Sark, 

Channel Islands. Entomologist's Gaz. 47: 53-59. 
Archer, M. E. 1996d. The aculeate wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of Shipley 

Glen in Watsonian Yorkshire with a "then" and "now" comparison. Naturalist 121: 

53-59. 
Archer, M. E. 1996e. The aculeate wasps and bees (Hym., Aculeata) of Sherwood Forest in 

Nottinghamshire and the development of a national quality assessment scheme. 

Entomologist's mon. Mag. 132: 35^4. 
Archer, M. E. 1997a. Status and quality coding of species — Part 2. BWARS Newsletter. Spring 

1997: 4-5. 
Archer, M. E. 1997b. Status and quality coding of species of Aculeate Hymenoptera — Part 3. 

BWARS Newsletter. Autumn 1997: 8. 
Archer, M. E. 1997c. The aculeate wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of two calcareous 

localities in Watsonian Yorkshire: Burton Leonard Lime Quarries and Cave Wold. 

Naturalist 122: 45-52. 
Archer, M. E. 1998a. Status and quality coding of species of aculeate Hymenoptera — Part 4. 

BWARS Newsletter. Spring 1998: 9-10. 
Archer, M. E. 1998b Species profile and map of British distribution of Ancislrocerus nigricornis. 

BWARS Newsletter. Spring 1998: 22-23. 34. 
Archer, M. E. and Burn, J. T. 1995. The aculeate wasps and bees of Crow Wood, Finningley in 

Watsonian Yorkshire, with the introduction of a new national quality scoring system. Br. 

J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 8: 49-59. 
Atkinson, D. and Houston J. (eds.). 1992. The sand dunes of the Sefton Coast. National 

Museums and Galleries on Merseyside. 
Ball, S. 1996. Red Data Books. ISR News 5: 2-5. 
Edwards, R. (ed.). 1998. Provisional atlas of the aculeate Hymenoptera of Britain and Ireland. 

Part I. Biological Records Centre, Huntingdon. 
Else G. R. In prep. British Bees. Hymenoptera, Apoidea. 
Falk, S. 1991. A review of the scarce and threatened bees, wasps cmd ants of Great Britain. Nature 

Conservancy Council, Peterborough. 
Gardiner, W. 1901. A list of Hymenoptera Aculeata so far observed in the counties of 

Lancashire and Chesire. Trans. Liverpool Biol. Soc. 15: 363-423. 
lUCN Species Survival Commission. 1994. lUCN Red List Categories. lUCN Council, Gland, 

Switzerland. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12; 1999 9 

Kenneth-Booker, W. no date. A list of aculeate Hymenoptera (with notes on habitats and 

ecological relationships) observed in 1976, on the Ainsdale sand dunes National Nature 

Reserve, Lancashire. Unpublished report. 
Kloet, G. S. and Hincks, W. D. 1978. A check list of British Insects, part 4. Hymenoptera, 

revised by Fitton, M. G. et al. Hain/hks Idem. Br. Insects 11(4). 
Lomholdt, O. 1975. The Sphecidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Ent. 

Scand. 4: 1-224. 
Morris, R. K. A. 1997. The fauna of a small London grass heath, with comments on the use of 

site quality scores for site evaluation. London Naturalist 76: 105-127. 
Pienkowski, M. W. (ed.). 1993. A contribution to development of a system to assess nature 

conservation quality and to set targets for the national action plan required by the 

Convention on Biological Diversity. JNCC Report No. 163. 1-216. 
Shirt, D. B. (ed.). 1987. British Red Data Books: 2. Insects. Nature Conservancy Council, 

Peterborough. 
Wcislo, W. T. 1987. The role of seasonality, host synchrony and behaviour in the evaluations 

and distributions of nest parasites in Hymenoptera (Insecta), with special reference to bees 

(Apoidea). Biol. Rev. 62: 515-543. 
Usher, M. B. 1986. Wildlife Conservation Evaluation. Chapman and Hall, London. 



Appendix i 

A list of the aculeate Hymenoptera recorded from the Ainsdale-Formby sand 
dunes. V = very rare, R = rare, S = Scarce, RE = Restricted, W = Widespread, 
U = Universal species — see Appendix 2 for definitions. *Species not recorded from 
1970 onwards. 

Chrysididae — Omalus aiiratus (L.) (W), Hedychridhtm ardens (Latreille in Coquebert) 
(U), H. iiipreuin (Dahlbom) ( = iiifegrion) (S), C. igriita (L.) (U), C. impressa Schenck 
(U)*. Cleptes nitidulns (Fab.) (R). 
Mutillidae — Myrmosa atra Panzer (W)*. 

Pompilidae — Priocnemis parvula Dahlbom (U), Pompihis cinereus (Fab.) (U), 
Arachnospila anceps (Wesmael) (U), A. trivialis (Dahlbom) (W), A. wesmaeli 
(Thomson) (R), Evagetes crassicomis (Shuckard) (U), Anoplius nigerrimiis (Scopoli) 
(U), A. infuscatiis (Vander Linden) (W), Episvron rufipes (L.) (W), Ceropales maculata 
(Fab.)(R). 

Euinenidae — Ancistrocerus nigriconiis (Curtis) (W)*, A.parietimis (L.) (U), A.parietum 
(L.)(U), A. scoticus (Curtis) (U)*, Symmorphiis bifascatiis (L.) { = inutinensis) (U). 
Vespidae — Dolichovespula sylvestris (Scopoli), Vespula rufa (L.), V. germanica 
(Fab.), V. vulgaris (L.). 

Sphecidae — Astata pinguis (Dahlbom) (U), Tachysphex pompiliformis (Panzer) (U), 
T. nitidus (Vander Linden) { = unicolor) (S), Crabro cribrarius (L.) (U), C. peharius 
(Schreber) (U), Crossocerus tarsatus (Shuckard) (U), C. wesmaeli (Vander Linden) 
(U), C. annulipes (Lepeletier & BruUe) (U), C megacephalus (Rossius) (U), C. 
quadrimaculatus (Fab.) (W), Ectemnius lapidarius (Panzer) (U), E. continuus (Fab.) 
(U), Oxybehis argeutatus Curtis (S)*, O. mandibidaris Dahlbom (S)*, O. unigliimis 
(L.) (U), Psen littoralis (Bondroit) (V), P. bruxellensis (Bondroit) (R), P. equestris 
(Fab.) (U), Spilomena troglodytes (Vander Linden) (W)*, Pemphredon lugubris (Fab.) 
(U), P. inornatiis Say (U), P. lethifer (Shuckard) (U), P. morio Vander Linden (S), 
Diodontus mimitus (Fab.) (U), D. tristis (Vander Linden) (W), Passaloecus corniger 
Shuckard (W), P. gracilis (Curtis) (W)*, P. insignis (Vander Linden) (W), Ammophila 
sabulosa (L.) (W), Podalonia affinis (Kirby) (R), P. hirsuta (Scopoli) (S), Mellinus 
arvensis (L.) (U). 



10 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

Colletidae — Colletes fodiens (Geoffroy in Fourcroy) (W), C. marginatus Smith (S), 
C. similis Schenck (W)*, C. succinctus (L.) (U)*, C. cuniciilaris (L.) (V), Hylaeus 
communis Nylander (W), H. brevicornis Nylander (W), H. hyalinatus Smith (W)*. 
Andrenidae — Andrena clarkella (Kirby) (U)*, A. fulva (Miiller in AlHoni) (U), 
A.scotica Perkins (U), A. nigroaenea (Kirby) (U), A. denticulata (Kirby) (U). 

A. haemorrhoa (Fab.) (U)*, A. barhilahris (Kirby) (U). 

Halictidae — Hcdiclus nibicundiis (Christ) (U), Lasioglossum laevigatum (Kirby) (RE)*, 
L. albipes (Fab.) (U), L. calceatiim (Scopoli) (U)*, L. nitidiusciduni (Kirby) (U), 
L. punctatissimum (Schenck) (W), L. vdlosuhim (Kirby) (U), Sphecodes ferruginatits 
von Hagens (S), S. geoffrellus (Kirby) ( =fasciatus) (U), S. peUucidus Smith (U). 
MegachiHdae — Stelis ornatida (Klug) (R), Osmia caerulescens (L.) (W), O. leaiana 
(Kirby) (W), O. aurulenia (Panzer) (W), Hoplitis claviventris (Thomson) (W), 
Megachile centuncularis (L.) (U)*, M. wdlughbiella (Kirby) (U), M. circiimcincta 
(Kirby) (U), C. maritima (Kirby) (W), Coelioxys quadridentata (L.) (V)*, C elongata 
Lepeletier (U). 

Anthophoridae — Nomada marshameUa (Kirby) (U), N. rufipes Fab. (U), Epeohis 
cruciger (Panzer) (W), E. variegatus (L.) (U). 
Apidae — Bombus hicorum (L.), B. terrestris (L.), B. lapidarius (L.), B. pratorum (L.), 

B. hortorwn (L.), B. pascuonim (ScopoH), Psithyriis barbutellus (Kirby)*, P. bohemicus 
(Seidl), P. campestris (Panzer), P. sylvestris Lepeletier, P. vestalis (Geoffroy in 
Fourcroy)*, Apis mellifera L. 

Appendix 2 

The national statuses of species of solitary aculeate wasps and bees according to 
Archer, for England, Wales and Scotland, but excluding Ireland and the Channel 
Islands. 

Very rare — Species found in 1-15 10 km squares, 1970 onwards. 

Rare — Species found in 16-30 10 km squares, 1970 onwards. 

Scarce — Species found in 31-70 10 km squares, 1970 onwards. 

Restricted, Widespread and Universal species are found in more than 70 km squares, 
1970 onwards. 

Restricted — Species only found in the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (I.T.E) Land 
Classification groups 1 and 2 (Pienkowski et al., 1996)(Southern England, South- 
west and Southern Coasts). Roughly this is about half of England. 

Widespread — Species found in I.T.E. Land Classification groups 3 and 4 (Midland 
Lowlands and Central Coasts) besides groups 1 and 2. Roughly this is about three- 
quarters of England, lowland Wales and south-west Scotland. Northumbria is 
excluded. 

Strictly these definitions of restricted and widespread species are for southern 

restricted and widespread species. In practice northern restricted and widespread 

species can occur. 

Universal — Species found throughout England, Wales and more extensively in 
Scotland, including further I.T.E. Land Classification groups 5 and 6 (Low 
Moorlands and Northern Uplands), but particularly groups 7 and 8 (Northern 
Lowlands and North-western Seaboard). 

It is hoped that the statuses above, with those of Shirt (1987) and Falk (1991), and 

the lUCN statuses (lUCN Species Survival Commission 1994, Ball 1996) will be 

harmonized in the near future. 



BR, J, ENT. NAT, HIST.. 12: 1999 1 1 

OPHIOMYIA GNAPHALII HERING (DIPTERA: AGROMYZIDAE) 
IN ANTENNARIA DIOICA IN SCOTLAND 

K. P. Bland 

National Museums oj Scotland. Chambers Street. Edinburgh EH J IJF. 

While collecting near the entrance to Gleann Mor (NO0076), Fealar, Perthshire 
(VC 89) on 25. ix. 1997, a rosette of the plant Antennaria dioica was found, in which 
several of the leaves contained basal mines. Later careful dismanthng of the rosette 
revealed that some 9 leaves were mined, apparently by a single larva moving from 
leaf to leaf. Each leaf had between 2 and 4 broad diverging feeding tracks extending 
from the petiolar up into the lamina of the leaf. These tracks rarely went more than 
two-thirds of the way up towards the leaf apex. The frass was concentrated in the 
petiolar part of the mine (Fig. 1 ). Positioned vertically at the centre of the rosette was 
a single vacated agromyzid puparium. 

Two species of leaf-mining agromyzid are known from Antennaria dioica in 
Europe, namely: 

Ophiomyia gnaphalii Hering, 1949 

Phytomyza kyfflntsana Hering, 1928 

= gnaphalii Hering, 1963 — for synonymy see Spencer (1990). 
Both species also mine Gnaphalium sp.. The differences in the mines of the two 
species in Gnaphalium sp. are discussed by Hering (1949). However, Spencer (1972) 
describes the mine of O. gnaphalii in Gnaphaliiini as an "external stem mine" without 
any reference to the mine extending into several leaves. The mine of O. gnaphalii in 
Antennaria dioica was first described by Buhr (1960) and later by Spencer (1990). The 
mine of P. kyffJmsana (under the name P. gnaphalii) in A. dioica is discussed by 
Hering (1963). On the basis of these descriptions and consultation of the appropriate 
mines in the Hering Herbarium (The Natural History Museum, London), the Fealar 
mines belonged to Ophiomyia gnaphalii. Furthermore Dr K. A. Spencer confirmed 
that the puparium was that of an Ophiomyia species. The eight lobed posterior 
spiracles of the puparium of O. gnaphalii (Fig. 2) have not previously been described 
or illustrated, but differ conspicuously from those off*, kytfhusana which have 16-18 
lobes each (de Meijere, 1937; Hering, 1963). The mines and puparium are now in the 
collections of The National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh. 




Fig. 1. Part of the mine of Ophiomyia gnaphalii in a leaf of Anteimaria dioica from Fealar. 



BR J ENT NAT HIST.. 12: 1999 





Fig. 2. (a) Scanning electron micrograph of a dorsal view of the right posterior spiracles of the 
puparium of Ophiomyia gnaphalii. (b) Diagram of the same posterior spiracles, to the same 
scale, with the eight individual spiracular openings indicated by arrows. The scale bar represents 
10 /<m. 

The present record of O. gnaphalii is the first record of the occurrence of this 
species in Antennaria dioica in Britain and only the second British record. It was first 
recorded in Britain from a single feinale fly taken on 18. vi. 1902 at Ross, 
Herefordshire by Colonel Yerbury (Spencer, 1972). Abroad, the species seems to 
be known only from Germany. 

Acknowledgements 

I am very grateful to the following people: Stephen Mitchell and Colin Warwick 
(Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies) for the scanning electron micrograph, 
Kenneth Spencer (Cornwall) for advice and examination of the puparium, James and 
Chloe Teacher for their kind hospitality at Fealar, Michael von Tschirnhaus 
(University of Bielefeld) for help with literature and translation and Kevin Tuck 
(Natural History Museum, London) for assistance with Hering's Herbarium 
specimens. 



References 

Buhr, H. 1960. Bemerkenswerte ober neue Gallen und Minen aus Thiiringen. Mitt, tliiiring.-hot. 

Ges. 2: 56-150. 
Hering, E. M. 1949. Neue Palaearktische Agromyziden. Notul. cut. 29: 18-32. 
Hering, E. M. 1963. Neue Blattminen-Studien HI. (Dipt., Lep.). Dent. ent. Z (N.F.) 10: 

221-250. 
Meijere, J. C. H. de 1937. Die Larven der Agromyzinen. Dritter Nachtrag. Tijdscfir. Ent. 80: 

167-243. 
Spencer, K. A. 1972. Diptera, Agromyzidae. HaiidlT. Ident. Br. In.sects 10 5(g). 
Spencer, K. A. 1990. Host specialisation in tlie World Agromyzidae (Diptera). Kluwer Academic 

Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 444 pp. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST , 12: IW9 13 

NEST DESERTION BY BLACKBIRDS FOLLOWING DEFOLIATION 
OF AN ASH TREE BY SAWFLY LARVAE 

Robert A. Cheke 

Natural Resources Institute, Uuiversitv of Greenwich. Central Avenue. Chatham Maritime, 
Chatham. Kent ME4 4TB. 

Neil D. Springate 

cjo Department of Entomology. Natural History Museum. Cromwell Road. London SW7 5BD. 

In late May 1993, a pair of blackbirds Tardus merula L. built a nest, at a height of 
about 7 m, in an ash tree Fraxinus excelsior L. (Angiospermae: Oleaceae) in an urban 
garden at the rear of a block of flats in Tooting, south-west London. When nearing 
completion, the nest was almost invisible amongst the foliage. However, as had 
occurred during the early summer of 1992, the tree was attacked by innumerable 
sawfly larvae (Insecta: Hymenoptera), which proceeded to defoliate the tree from the 
ground upwards. 

Although it was not possible to rear the larvae to adults, many were collected in 
70% ethanol. With the aid of a key to larvae (Lorenz & Kraus, 1957) and 
comparisons with material in the Natural History Museum (NHM), London, they 
were identified as Tomostethus nigritus (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae, 
Blennocampinae). Specimens and photographs of the larvae and the affected tree 
have been deposited at the NHM. 

At first, both sexes of the blackbirds benefited from feeding on the larvae but, 
soon, they were overwhelmed and, by 4th June, the pair was defending a nest wholly 
exposed in an almost bare tree. Nevertheless, the female persevered and at 18.30 
hours was sitting in the nest, presumably on eggs, but this could not be confirmed. At 
09.30 on the following day the female was again sitting tight. At 10.50 the male was 
feeding on the larvae at the top of the tree and at 10.55 the female was observed 
pecking at larvae, whilst still in the nest. She then left the nest to feed in the bare 
branches before returning, activities repeated throughout the day, and was last seen 
on the nest at 17.00 that evening. The following day both birds were feeding in the 
tree and, at 13.15, the female inspected the nest but did not sit in it. The female was 
again present in the tree at 13.00 on 7 June but, thereafter, the site was abandoned. 
The birds appeared to have given up their nesting attempt, perhaps for fear of 
predation (principally by domestic cats) in their exposed position, but it was also 
possible that the nest had been visited by renowned egg thieves, such as jays Garndus 
glandarius (L.), magpies Pica pica (L.) or carrion crows Corviis corone L., (all 
Passeriformes: Corvidae), all of which are common in the area. In 1997, the tree was 
felled, preventing further investigation. 

T. nigritus belongs in a small genus of Holarctic sawflies of about 12 species, 
placed in the tribe Tomostethini of the Blennocampinae (Benson, 1952), with their 
main region of diversity in eastern Asia (Smith, 1969). British species are keyed in 
Benson (1952) and those from the Nearctic in Smith (1969). T. nigritus has a wide 
distribution throughout the Palaearctic, occurring from the British Isles (Eire and 
Northern Ireland excepted) (O'Connor et al., 1997) in the west, to eastern Siberia, 
Kamchatka, Sakhalin, Korea and Japan (Honshu) in the east; and from Sweden and 
Finland in the north to North Africa and Turkey in the south (Tsinovskij, 1953; 
Benson, 1968; Novak, 1976; Zhelokhovtsev, 1988; Hirashima, 1989; Liston, 1995; 
Zhelokhovtsev & Zinovjev, 1997). 



14 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

The known larvae of Tomostethus are associated with Oleaceae and Jughmdaceae 
(Benson, 1952); those of T. nigritus have been recorded from F. excelsior L. (Benson, 
1952) and from F. mandschurica Rupr. var. japonica Maxim, in northern Japan 
(Okutani, 1967), both species belonging to section Fraxinus sensu Vassilijev 
(Vassilijev, 1952, as 'sect. Bumelioides'). Zirngiebl's suggestion (cited in Hoop, 
1983) that the larvae may feed on Ligustriini L. is unconfirmed. The distribution of T. 
nigritus considerably exceeds the natural range of these two species, but seems to fall 
within the present range of sect. Fraxinus as a whole, allowing for timber plantings 
beyond the natural range in Russia (L. Springate, pers. convn.), suggesting 
exploitation of a wider range of hosts but only within that section. 

T. nigritus is univoltine, with adults active between April and June, often alighting 
on opening buds of ash (Benson, 1940, 1952). Eggs are laid in small, pocket-Uke, 
openings on the newly-developing leaves (Novak, 1976). Larvae are gregarious and 
early instars may be found from May to June (Lorenz & Kraus, 1957). These 
perforate the leaves and feed, leaving only a small area between the veins; later instar 
and mature larvae consume the entire leaf, apart from the mid-rib (Novak, 1976). 
Thus, its pattern of damage to leaves appears to be quite different from that of 
another defoliator of Fraxinus spp., Macrophya punctwnalbuni (L.) (Tenthredinidae: 
Tenthredininae) which is characterised by 'rasping" marks on the leafs upper 
epidermis caused by the adult insect, and circular holes made by the larvae, when it 
attacks Ligustrum ovalifolium Hassk. (cited as L. californicum hort. ex Decn.), the 
common hedging privet, a native of Japan (Wheeler & Hoebeke, 1994). T. nigritus 
was, however, classified as a leaf-edge feeder in a recent study on the feeding activity 
of some European sawflies (Heitland & Pschorn-Walcher, 1993). but the reason for 
this placement is unclear. Four and five larval instars are recorded for the males and 
females, respectively (Mrkva, 1965; Novak, 1976). Mature larvae drop from the ash 
trees, spin a light green pupal case (darkening to black, subsequently) and over- 
winter in the soil, emerging the following spring. Adults and larva are illustrated and 
other aspects of the species" biology, including its behaviour and range of 
parasitoids, are discussed in detail by Mrkva (1965). 

T. nigritus is renowned as a species which may occur as an outbreak, for example, 
at Shirley, near Southampton, Hampshire during 1937 (Benson, 1952). The 
destructive defoliation by its larvae has been known for more than a century 
(Kaltenbach, 1874) and, in many parts of its range, it was and is considered a serious 
pest, for example, in western Europe (Escherich, 1941; Francke-Grosmann, 1953; 
Klausnitzer, 1978), southern Russia (Sharov, 1956), SakhaHn and Korea (Novak, 
1976). However, its outbreaks appear to be sporadic rather than regular, as are those 
of the related Nearctic species, T. multicinctus (Rohwer), which was considered to 
have become a light-to-medium outbreak only thrice during 59 years in the states of 
Minnesota and Wisconsin (Haack & Mattson, 1993). 

Although sawflies and other herbivorous insects can defoliate trees to the point of 
destruction (e.g., Berryman, 1987; Gauld & Bolton, 1988; Larsson et ai, 1993), it is 
unlikely that the defoHation per se enforced desertion by the nesting pair of 
blackbirds. No accounts of other birds abandoning their nests after having had them 
so completely exposed to predators and egg-thieves, following the actions of insect 
herbivores, have been traced. Given the widespread distributions of both T. nigritus 
and its hosts within Fraxinus noted above, it is surprising that such events have not 
been recorded, even more so when sawfly, tree and nesting bird are common in urban 
environments. However, it is possible that birds nesting in the upper crowns of 
coniferous trees may encounter similar defoliations by other species of gregarious 
sawflies (e.g., species of Pamphiliidae and Diprionidae) and Lepidoptera. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 15 

Acknowledgements 

Lawrie S. Springate (Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh) is thanked for providing 
information on the distribution of Fraximis and for checking botanical nomencla- 
ture, as is David Sheppard (English Nature, Peterborough) for supplying 
information and literature on Tomostethus. 



References 

Benson, R. B. 1940. Sawflies of the Berkhamsted district, with a list of the sawflies of 

Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire, and a survey of the British species (Hymenoptera 

Symphyta). Trans. Herlfordsliire Nat. Hist. Soc. and Field Club, 21: 177-231. 
Benson, R. B. 1952. Hymenoptera, Symphyta, Section (b), Handhks. Ident. Br. Insects, 6(2b): 

51-137. 
Benson, R. B. 1968. Hymenoptera from Turkey: Symphyta, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), 

Entomology, 22: 1-207. 
Berryman, A. A. 1987. The theory and classification of outbreaks, in: P. Barbosa and J. C. 

Schultz (eds). Insect Outbreaks (San Diego: Academic Press), pp. 3-30. 
Escherich, K. 1941. Die Forstinsekten Mitteleuropas, 5(2) [Hymenoptera (Hautfliigler)], (Berlin: 

Paul Parey), pp. 209^16. 
Fabricius, K. 1804. Systema Piezatorwn. secundum ordines. genera, species, adiectas synonymis. 

locis, observationibus. descriptionibus (Braunschweig: C. Reichard), 440 pp. 
Francke-Grosmann. H. 1953. Symphyta (Chalostogastra, Tenthredinoidea) Holz-, Halm- und 

Blattwespen (Siigewespen) in H. Blunck (ed.), Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten, 5(2/1) 

(Berhn: Paul Parey), pp. 166-216. 
Gauld, I. D. and Bolton, B. 1988. The Hymenoptera. [London/Oxford: British Museum 

(Natural History )/Oxford University Press], xii-l-332 pp. 
Haack, R. A. & Mattson, W. J. 1993. Life history patterns of North American tree-feeding 

sawflies, in M. Wagner and K. F. Raffa (eds), Sawfly life history adaptations to woody 

plants. (San Diego: Academic Press), pp. 503-545. 
Heitland, W. and Pschorn-Walcher, H. 1993. Feeding strategies of sawflies, in M. Wagner and 

K. F. Raffa (eds), Sawflv life history adaptations to woody plants. (San Diego: Academic 

Press), pp. 93-118. 
Hirashima, Y. 1989 (ed.). [A check list of Japanese insects] (Fukuoka: Kyushu University, 

Faculty of Agriculture, Entomological Laboratory), 1767 pp. [In Japanese.] 
Hoop, M. 1983. Die Nahrungspflanzen der Pflanzenwespen (Symphyta, Hymenoptera) 

Schleswig-Holsteins, Faunistisch-Okologische Mitteilungen, Supplement 4: 1-52. 
Kaltenbach, J. H. 1874. Die Pftanzenfeinde cms des Klasse der Insekten. Stuttgart: Julius 

Hoffmann, viii + 874 pp. 
Klausnitzer, B. 1978. Hautfliigler, in R. Fritzsche (ed.). Pflcmzenschddlinge, 9 (Leipzig: 

Neumann Veriag), 212 pp. 
Larsson, S, Bjorkmann, C. and Kidd, N. A. C. 1993. Outbreaks in diprionid sawflies: why some 

species and not others?, in M. Wagner and K. F. Raffa (eds), Sawfly life history adaptations 

to woody plants (San Diego: Academic Press), pp. 453^83. 
Liston, A. D. 1995. Compendium of European sawflies. (Gottfrieding: Chalastos Forestry), 

191 pp. 
Lorenz, K. and Kraus, M. 1957. Die Larvalsystemadk der Blattwespen (Tenthredinoidea und 

Megalodontoidea), Abhandlungen zur Larvalsystematik der Insekten 1: 1-339. 
Mrkva, R. 1965. Pripevek k morfologii, bionomii a poznani parazitu pilatky jasanove 

(Tomostethus nigritus [Fabr.]), Prdce vyzkumnych ustavu lesnickych CSSR, 30: 33-64. 
Novak, V. 1976. Atlas of in.secis harmful to forest trees, 1 (Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing 

Company) 125 pp. 
O'Connor, J. P., Liston, A. D. and Speight, M. C. D., 1997. A review of the Irish sawflies 

(Hymenoptera: Symphyta) including a checklist of species. Bulletin of the Irish 

Biogeographical Society, 20, 1-99. 



16 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

Okutani, T. 1967. Food-plants of Japanese Symphyta (II), Japanese Joiinud of applied 

Entomology and Zoology 11: 90-99. [In Japanese] 
Sharov, A. G. 1956. [The black ash sawfly (Tomostettnis nigritiis ¥.). a pest of ash in 

afforestations], Zoologicheskij Zhiirnal, 35: 719-723. [In Russian] 
Smith D. R. 1969. Nearctic sawflies I. Blennocampinae: adults and larvae (Hymenoptera: 

Tenthredinidae), Technical Bulletin. Agricultural Research Service. United States Department 

of Agriculture. No. 1397, ii+ 179 pp. 
Tsinovskij, Ya, P. 1953. Nasekomye Lalvijskoj SSR: rogokhvosty I pilil'shchiki (Riga: 

Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk Latvijskoj SSR). 208 pp. 
Vassiljev, V. N. 1952. Oleaceae. In: B. K. Shishkin and E. G. Bobrov, (eds). [Flora USSR], 

18, (Moscow & Leningrad: Izadatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR) pp. 483-525. [In 

Russian] [English translation: 1967 (Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations) 

pp. 356-387.] 
Wheeler, A. G. Jr. and Hoebeke, E. R. 1994. First records from the Canadian maritime 

provinces of three European insects injurious to ornamental plants, Proc. Ent. Soc. of 

Wash., 96: 749-756. 
Zhelokhovstev, A. N. 1988. Podotryad Symphyta (Chalastogastra)-sidyachebryukhie, in G. S. 

Medvedev (ed.) Opreditel' Nasekomykh Evropejskoj Chasti SSSR, 3(6): 7-234. 
Zhelokhovtsev, A. N. and Zinovjev, A. G. 1997. [A list of sawflies and horntails (Hymenoptera, 

Symphyta) of the fauna of Russia and the adjacent territories. II], Entomologicheskoye 

Obozreniye, 75: 357-379. [In Russian] 



SHORT COMMUNICATION 



Observations of some uncommon Dung Beetles — Geotrupes pyraneiis (Charpentier) 
(Geotrupidae) (Na) is locally abundant on Thursley NNR, Surrey (SU94), where it is 
regularly found near dog and horse dung along the bridleways and paths in late May 
and June. In 1998 a second emergence occurred in late August, when adults were 
again active and abundant on the 27th, and many dead and moribund individuals 
were picked up by Wendy Denton and Julia Fry on the 30th. This is the first time I 
have encountered this species in late summer, despite monthly visits to Thursley for 
over 10 years. It is intriguing that this should happen in a relatively poor summer, and 
not in any of the long series of warmer ones over the study period. A single specimen 
was picked up dead in the New Forest in August (Roger Booth, pers. cotmv.). 

Aphodius porcus (Fab.) (Scarabaeidae) (Nb): I found a single female at 
Cholderton, N. Hants (SU2442) on l.x.98. I excavated a Geotrupes burrow 
(probably made by G. spiniger (Marsham)) in an improved pasture field. The 
burrow went down at an angle of c.30° to a plug of moulded cow dung the size of a 
golf ball which was placed on the interface of the loose soil and hard chalk bedrock 
at c. 30 cm. On opening this dung I found a small round, pea-sized cavity in which 
was found the female A. porcus and the remains of a Geotrupes larva. This species has 
been reported as being a cuckoo parasite of Geotrupes stercorarius (L.) (Chapman. 
1869, Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 5: 273-6), and may also overwinter in the 
burrows. Geotrupes spiniger was exceedingly abundant on the Cholderton Estate, 
with adults under most large dung pats, and a female G. mutator (Marsham) (Nb) 
was also found under 'sloppy' sheep dung. 

Fox (Vulpes) and Little Owl (Athene noctua) pellets in the vicinity appeared to be 
made up almost entirely of the remains of Geotrupes adults. 

Thanks to Dr David Clements & Dr Martin Drake for organising this work. 
Countryside Council for Wales for funding the research into the Hornet Robberfly 
Asilus crabronifortnis, and Henry Edmonds for allowing us to work at Cholderton. — 
Dr JONTY DENTON, 26 Bow St, Alton, Hants GU34 INY. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 17 

OBSERVATIONS ON REARING LUFFIA SPP. (LEPIDOPTERA: 

PSYCHIDAE) UNDER CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTAL 

CONDITIONS, WITH TAXONOMIC NOTES 

I. Sims 

WRC. Henley Road. Medmenham, Marlow. Bucks SL7 2HD. 

This note describes some observations made while rearing the two British 
"species" of moth belonging to the genus Liiffta Tutt, namely Liiffia ferchaultella 
(Stephens) and L. lapidclla (Goeze). These observations were made during work to 
assess the suitability of L. ferchaultella for monitoring the toxicological effects of 
atmospheric pollution (Sims and Reynolds, 1999). They may contribute to the 
question of the uncertain taxonomic status of these moths. 

The two moths shared many features of their life cycle, such as the numbers of ova 
laid and the duration to their hatching, the anatomical structure and behaviour of 
their larvae, pre-pupation behaviour, total duration of their life cycles, and the 
duration of life cycle stages. Furthermore, the number of larval instars was the same 
in both cases. These observations suggest that L. ferchaultella is a parthenogeneti- 
cally reproducing form of L. lapidella. 

However, differences between the two moths were noted. These included the size 
of ova, larvae, pupae and ovigerous females, the larval diets and sites chosen for 
pupation; and the mobility, "calling"' behaviour and external anatomical structure of 
female moths. These observations support the argument that L. ferchaultella is a 
separate species from L. lapidella. 

Taxonomic status 

Hiittenschwiler (1985) states that it is unclear what status should be afforded L. 
ferchaultella: whether it should be regarded as a species distinct from L. lapidella or as a 
form of that species. The moth representing L. ferchaultella reproduces parthenogen- 
etically, producing only apterous female imagos. L. lapidella reproduces sexually, 
producing both winged males and apterous females. McDonogh (1939) proposed that 
the British distribution of L. ferclmultella is dictated by altitude and climatic factors, but 
Narbel-Hofstetter (1964) showed that the European distributions of these moths overlap 
in several areas (Fig. 1). Meyrick (1928) believed that populations of the sexually 
reproducing lapidella occasionally produced parthenogenetic populations oi^ ferchaul- 
tella which die out over time. Seller (1929) studied parthenogenetic and bisexually 
reproducing psychid moth material described as Solenobia triquetrella (Hiibner). This 
material is now recognised as the parthenogenetic Dahlica triquetrella (Hiibner) and the 
bisexual D. inconspicuella (Stainton), moths whose taxonomic status was equally as 
uncertain as that under consideration here. Seller suggested that the bisexual moth 
{inconspicuella) is being replaced by the parthenogenetic moth {triquetrella). Tutt (1899) 
believed that L. ferchaultella and L. lapidella are distinct species, the view held by 
McDonogh (1941) who summarised these various positions thus: 

Meyrick Type: 

1) There must be continuous structural variation from the bisexual form to the most 
extreme parthenogenetic form. 

2) There may be differences in the geographic distributions of the two forms. 

3) Parthenogenetic females are likely to breed with males of the parent stock. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 




:^^ Luffia ferchaultella 
^^ Luffia lapidella 

Fig. 1. The European distribution of Luffia ferchaiilu'lla and L. lapidella (adapted from Narbei- 
Hofstetter, 1964). 



Seller Type: 

1) There should be no differences in structure between the two forms. 

2) The geographic distributions will probably be identical. 

3) Parthenogenetic females are likely to breed with males of the parent stock. 

Tutt Type: 

1) Structural variation between the two forms will almost certainly be discontinuous. 

2) The geographic distributions will probably be different. 

3) Parthenogenetic females may not be able to mate with males of the other form. 

Henderickx (1987) describes finding pupal exuviae and winged male adults on the 
trunks of two oak trees near Mol, Belgium, in 1980 and 1986, among a parthogenetic 
population of L. ferchaultella. He compared their genitalia with those of male L. 
lapidella from Switzerland and Spain and found minor differences in the degree of 
chitination. However, he was unable to decide if the specimens from Mol represented 
L. lapidella or male examples o^ ferchaultella. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 19 

Rearing 

Larvae of L. ferchaiiltella were collected from the trunks of deciduous trees, mostly 
oak and sycamore, in Oaken Grove near Henley-on-Thames, Buckinghamshire 
(SU769855) on 17.vii.l995. Larvae of L. lapidella were collected from lichens on 
rocks near Marazion, Cornwall (the UK locality where they were first discovered by 
Smith. 1983), on 21.ix.l995. Larvae of both moths were segregated and reared in 
transparent Perspex boxes under controlled conditions of temperature (mean 20.8, 
range 20.6 to 21.0 C) and photoperiod (14 hours light, 10 hours dark, no dawn/dusk 
period) using a Gallenkamp illuminated incubator. 



Adult emergence 

Luffia ferchaidteUa and L. lapidella are stated to emerge from their pupae in the 
early morning in nature (Hattenschwiler, loc. cit.). With both L. ferchaidteUa and 
lapidella, all emergences (a total of over 100 ferchaultella, all females, and around 40 
lapidella, evenly split between males and females) occurred within the first hour or 
two of the light cycle. Immediately following emergence, the ferchaidteUa females 
commenced oviposition in the old pupal exuviae within their larval cases. However, 
with female lapidella, pairing was found to be an essential prerequisite to oviposition. 
Prior to mating, virgin lapidella females were observed to "call" for a mate in the 
manner described by McDonogh (1941). On introduction of a male to a female, 
pairing occurred almost instantly and lasted from 30 seconds to one minute. Pairing 
one male with several females was not attempted. Spontaneous pairings were 
avoided as pupae were isolated prior to emergence and it was found that no eggs, 
fertile or otherwise, were laid by virgin females of lapidella. This calling behaviour 
was never seen with ferchaidteUa. Pairings between female ferchaidteUa and male 
lapidella were attempted on two occasions, without success. The female moths did 
not adopt calling postures and the males showed no interest in them. This 
observation supports the "Tutt Type" proposed by McDonogh (1941). 

Newly emerged lapidella females were three or four times larger than fresh 
ferchaidteUa females. These comparisons were made immediately after eclosion, as 
once oviposition commenced the adults shrank rapidly as the ova left their 
abdomens. Females of both lapidella and ferchaidteUa did not voluntarily leave the 
surface of their larval cases after eclosion, and if physically removed to even a short 
distance were unable to return to them. However, lapidella females were more active 
than those oi ferchaidteUa, spontaneously moving around on their cases while calling 
for a mate. 

After oviposition, females of both "species" survived for two or three days, 
eventually shrivelling and remaining attached to their cases or falling from them. 
Male lapidella survived for a similar period. 

The published descriptions of the external anatomy of female lapidella and 
ferchaidteUa differ in that female examples of lapidella have seven to nine antennal 
segments and three to four tarsal segments, while female ferchaidteUa have six to 
eight antennal segments and one to three tarsal segments (Hattenschwiler, loc. cit.). 
This was the case for females reared during this project, another point in favour of 
the "Tutt Type". However, McDonogh (1943) states that the adult morphology of 
L. ferchaidteUa, in terms of antennal and tarsal segment number, was influenced by 
the laboratory conditions under which he held larvae. By rearing larvae of both 
"species" under controlled environmental conditions, any environmentally induced 
morphological differences should be eliminated. 



20 



BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST., 12: 1999 



McDonogh (1941) illustrated the genitalia of female L. lapidella and L. ferchaiiltella 
and found no obvious differences. These structures were compared using material 
reared during this work, with the same outcome, except that lapidella material was 
somewhat larger than ferchaultella. 



OVIPOSITION 

With both "species", oviposition was completed within 24 hours and usually by 
the end of the light cycle. On average, between 30 and 40 ova were produced by 
females of each "species"; in each case the ovum had a soft chorion without obvious 
sculpturing and was of an opaque grey/yellow colour when first laid. The only 





_, L. ferchaultella 




L. lapidella 




Figs 2-5. Early stages of Luffia spp. 2. Pupa showing position of ova and hair scales. 3. First 
instar and fully grown larva (fifth instar) showing banding on case due to different coloured 
lichens/algae. 4. Pre-pupation larval case with valves cut for eclosion of adult. 5. Larval case 
shrunken by contraction of reinforcing silk, to form a pupation chamber. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 21 

difference appeared to be one of size, lapidella ova being noticeably larger than those 
oi ferchaultella. 

For both "species", the ova were packed into the rear three-quarters of the pupal 
exuviae, the anterior portion of the exuvia being filled with hair scales from the 
female moths" anal tuft (Fig. 2). Batches of fenhaultella ova collected from the wild 
have been observed to be predated by thrips and mites, so the presence of these hair 
scales may afford the ova some protection by hindering the access of such predators. 

With both "species", four or five days before eclosion of the larvae, their 
darkening head capsules became visible through the chorion and subsequently 
through the wall of the pupal exuviae. Hatching of the ova at this temperature (20 C) 
occurred at around 30 days for both "species", the young larvae immediately 
building silk-lined cases coated with lichen and algae. 



Larvae 

The larvae of both "species" passed through five instars, separated on the basis of 
the widths of their head capsules, and were full grown by about 60 days (20'C). No 
diapause occurred, although with ferchaultella the third instar lasted approximately 
twice as long as any of the others. With larvae of lapidella. the third instar, although 
less protracted than that of ferchaultella, also lasted longer than any of the other 
four. This indicates that the third instar may be the stage at which overwintering 
occurs in the natural state. 

The larvae of both moths enlarged their cases as they grew, preserving a record of 
the material they had been feeding on in the form of differently coloured bands of 
algae and lichen laid down on the exterior of their cases (Fig. 3). Larvae of both 
moths accepted algae (Diplococciis sp.) and lichen (Lecanora conizaeoides) growing 
on wood, and encrusting lichen (Parmelia glabra tula) growing on rocks. However, 
rearing lapidella larvae was successful only if lichens from rocks were offered, while 
larvae of ferchaultella preferred lichens and algae growing on wood. First instar 
larvae of lapidella offered lichen and algae on wood failed to produce adults, most 
dying in their third instar. First instar larvae of ferchaultella offered rock lichen also 
died before reaching maturity. Both were successfully reared on their preferred diets, 
lichen and algae on wood for ferchaultella, and lichen on rocks for lapidella. 

Larvae of both "species" were identical in colour and darkened noticeably on 
entering their third instar. Prior to this they were creamy white and opaque with a 
plain darkened prothoracic plate. On assuming their third instar the chitinised plate 
on the prothoracic segment acquired a pale grey triangular marking in the dorsal 
position. This marking and the plate were of similar colour and shape for both 
"species", and persisted to the end of the final instar. The structure of the larval head 
capsules and true walking legs was compared microscopically. There were no 
obvious differences in chaetotaxy or in the shape of the mandibles, antennae or other 
chitinised parts of comparable instars. The pale ocelli present on the sides of the head 
capsules were also identical. However, a major point of difference was that the cases 
of final instar lapidella larvae were approximately twice the size of those of full- 
grown ferchaultella larvae, and the larvae themselves were similarly larger. 

The importance of moisture to the successful rearing of both "species" was 
realised at an early stage. Larval growth was maximised if the substrate was sprayed 
with a fine mist of distilled water twice a week. On spraying, the larvae became very 
active and were observed to search for droplets of water which they drank once 
located. Drinking proceeded as a series of ingestions rather than a steady intake. 



22 BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST., 12: 1999 

characterised by a pulsed decrease in droplet size. Larvae imbibed several small 
droplets or part of a larger one, the amount ingested increasing as the larvae grew. 
The literature suggests that larvae of both "species" may be found feeding on 
lichens and algae growing on rocks and wood in nature. As far as can be ascertained 
this is not the case: all adults resulting from larvae collected from lichen on sunny 
exposed rocks in Cornwall corresponded to lapidella, while larvae collected from 
shaded damper tree trunks in Buckinghamshire produced adults typical of 
ferchaultella. This distribution supports McDonoghs "Tutt Type". However, in 
culture the larvae of both moths behaved similarly, feeding exposed on their 
substrates but tending to shelter out of direct illumination when not feeding, 
indicating no preference for habitat type. Liijfia lapidella is stated to prefer dry sunny 
habitats whi\e ferchaultella favours shady situations with high humidity (Hattensch- 
wiler, loc. cit.). This was the case with the pupation sites chosen by cultured larvae. 



Pre-pupation behaviour 

Prior to pupation the larvae of both "species" loosely affixed their cases to the 
substrate before turning round within the case and using their mandibles to cut three 
or four evenly spaced longitudinal slits in its anal end (Fig. 4). This procedure 
commenced at the rear opening and the cut proceeded towards the fixed "head end" 
of the case. These cuts were around one fifth to one sixth of the length of the case and 
formed "valves' to facilitate the subsequent emergence of the imago. The larvae then 
reverted to their original head-down position, detached their cases from the substrate 
and wandered until they found suitable sites for pupation. Here their behaviour 
differed significantly. With ferchaultella, such sites were usually within a crevice or 
crack in the surface of tree bark and shaded from direct illumination. Larvae of 
lapidella affixed their cases prior to pupation in exposed situations in full 
illumination. Once the pupation site had been selected, the larvae of both "species" 
affixed their cases firmly to the substrate with white silk. They then inverted their 
position so that they were again facing the recently prepared exit at the free end of 
the case. The cases were then reinforced by an additional lining of white silk, forming 
a pupation chamber. Pupation occurred within these chambers, the additional silk 
lining having shrunk such that the cases became bottle-shaped (Fig. 5). 



Pupae 

The pupal stage was of similar duration for both "species", eclosion of the adults 
occurring after about 20 days at this temperature. There appeared to be no visible 
differences in the structure of female pupae between the two "species", (but see Figs 
28 and 29 in McDonogh, 1941). However, only pupal exuviae were examined, 
making comparison of the headplates and leg sheaths difficult as these were distorted 
or lost on eclosion of the adults. 



Duration of the life cycles 

In nature both ferchaultella and lapidella are univoltine, but under these 
environmental conditions their life cycles were reduced to four months, ova to ova 
(Fig. 6). In both cases the stages in the life cycles were of similar duration. 



BR J. ENT. NAT. HIST , 12: 1999 



2 day duration : 

Adults Eggs; 
Pupation hatch laid : 

(60 days) , (30 days) , . (30 days) 

I \ LJ 1 

f 4 months (120 days) t 

Eggs hatch Eggs hatch 

Fig. 6. Duration of life cycles for both moths under controlled environmental conditions. 

Distribution 

As far as is known, in the UK L. lapidella is restricted to the area around 
Marazion in Cornwall (Smith, he. cit.) and to the Channel Isles, where it occurs 
together with L. ferclundtella (McDonogh, 1941). The ability o[ lapidella to survive 
the rigours of winter away from the inild maritime climates of the Cornish coast and 
the Channel Isles was investigated by placing ten newly hatched (hence parasite free), 
first instar lapidella larvae on an isolated lichen-encrusted rock in Buckinghamshire 
in June 1995. Four of these survived the winter of 1995/96, an unusually long and 
cold one compared with those experienced previously in this area. These survivors 
were removed in April 1996 and subsequently reared under the controlled 
environmental conditions already described. From these, one male and one female 
duly emerged, both typical examples of lapidella. This 20% survival shows that 
climate may not be the controlling factor in the distribution of lapidella. This is 
supported by a male exainple, probably of lapidella, reared from a case found near 
Saffron Walden, Essex (Emmet, 1998). 

Parasitism 

Many parasitic Hymenoptera were reared from larvae of both "species" collected 
from the wild. These have been examined by Dr M. R. Shaw at the National 
Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh. One species, Lissonola luffiator Aubert, appears 
to have an interesting biology. This solitary endoparasitic ichneumon was obtained 
only from larvae of fercluniltella, though this does not necessarily mean that lapidella 
larvae are iinmune from its attack. All of the 20 or so imagos of this parasite that 
emerged were females. Furthennore, an infected host larva appears to have its life 
cycle altered by the presence of the parasite in one of two ways. Either the growth of 
an affected larva is greatly accelerated when compared with that of its healthy peers, 
or pupation of the host in summer is prevented by the parasite, the host larva 
entering a second winter. Either of these strategies would account for the presence of 
abnormally large ferehaultella larvae overwintering on trees at the same time as 
smaller second or third instar larvae. If collected during November or December and 
kept indoors, these large, active and apparently healthy larvae, bearing a remarkable 
resemblance to larvae of lapidella due to their size, invariably produce females of this 
parasitic wasp. Many of these large overwintering larvae were collected in the hope 
of obtaining lapidella from areas outside its known UK distribution, but all 
produced parasitic wasps of this species. 



24 BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST.. 12: 1999 

Discussion 

This project has demonstrated that the "species" we know as L. lapidella can 
survive in areas of the UK outside its Cornish range, while the record of a male from 
Essex indicates that L. lapidella may either be extending its range in the UK or that it 
is present at a low density over a wider area than is currently known. 

The observations made during the rearing of these moths may be summarised 
thus: 

• No differences were observed between lapidella and ferchaultella as regards 
oviposition. The number of ova laid, their positioning within the pupal exuvia, 
surface structure, colour and period to hatching were the same for both "species". 

• Anatomically, larvae of lapidella and ferchaultella appeared identical. Their 
chitinised structures and chaetotaxy were similar. Furthermore, they behaved 
similarly in the culture vessels and had the same number of instars, with the third 
instar being the point at which their colour darkened. This instar was protracted in 
both cases. 

• The procedures for preparation of their cases prior to pupation were the same. 

• Female pupal exuviae of both "species" appeared to have similar anatomical 
structures and eclosion of the adults occurred at the same point in the light cycle. 

• The total duration of their artificially shortened Ufe cycles was similar under these 
controlled conditions, as was the duration of the individual life cycle stages. 

These observations suggest that L. ferchaultella is a form of L. lapidella. 

Apart from the obvious difference in their modes of reproduction, the main 
differences between these "species" were the larger size of lapidella ova. larvae and 
pupae, their preferred larval diets, the different pupation sites chosen, the larger size 
of lapidella females, their greater mobility and calling behaviour, and differences in 
the external anatomy of female imagos. It is also possible that these "species" are 
host to different assemblages of parasites, but this may be due to the geographic 
ranges of the parasites and needs further investigation before any definitive statement 
can be made. These observations suggest that L. ferchaultella and L. lapidella are 
distinct species. 

It is clear that the taxonomic status of these moths cannot be determined on the 
basis of these observations alone. Taken as a whole, the weight of evidence tends to 
support McDonogh's "Tutt Type", i.e. that lapidella and ferchaultella are distinct 
species. However, this question will probably only be resolved by the application of 
biochemical techniques as outlined by Cook (1996), for example gel electrophoresis 
and/or chromosomal studies. 

Populations of these moths were not adversely affected by the removal of larvae 
for this work, as twice the number of larvae removed were returned (parasite and 
disease free as they had been reared under laboratory conditions) to their original 
localities during the winter of 1996. Great care was taken to avoid mixing the stocks 
prior to their release. 



References 

Cook, J. M. 1996. A beginner's guide to molecular markers for entomologists. Antenna, 20: 53-62. 
Emmet, A. M. 1998. [A male Liiffia from Saffron Walden, Essex. Exhibit at BENHS Annual 
Exhibition 1996] Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist., 10: 156. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 25 

Hattenschwiler, P. 1985. Psychidae. In Heath, J. and Emmet, A. M. (Eds), The moths and 

butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland 2. 460 pp., 123 text figs, 223 distr. maps, 16 pis. 

Colchester. 
Henderickx, H. 1987. Morphologic ct discussion du statut de quelques specimens males de Luffia 

au sein d'une population parthenogenetique (Lep., Psychidae). Alexanor, 15: 141-149. 
McDonogh, R. S. 1939. The habit, distribution and dispersal of the Psychid moth, Luffia 

ferchaultelUu in England and Wales. J. Anim. EcoL, 8: 10-28. 
Mcbonogh, R. S. 1941. The morphology of Luffia ferchaultella (Stephens) and a comparison 

with Luffia lapidella (Goeze) (Lep., Psychidae). Trans. Sac. Br. Ent.. 7: 191-209. 
McDonogh, R. S. 1943. The variation in adult structure of Luffia ferchaultella (Stephens) 

(Lepidopt., Psychidae). Trans. R. Ent. Sac. Lond., 93: 149-172. 
Meyrick, E. 1928. A revised handbook of British Lepidoptera. vi, 914 pp. London. 
Narbel-Hofstetter, M. 1964. La repartition geographique des trois formes cytologiques de 

Luffia. Mitt, schweiz. ent. Ges., 36: 275-288. 
Seller, J. 1929. Ergebnisse aus der Kreuzung parthenogenetischer und zweigeschlechtlicher 

Schmetterlinge. I. Die Keimdriisen der Intersexen F-Raupen. Arch. Entwmech.. 19: 543-576. 
Sims, L R. and Reynolds, P. J. 1999. The effects of atmospheric pollution on a lichenophagous 

lepidopteran. Ecoto.xicology and Environmental Safety. 42: 30-34. 
Smith, F. H. N. 1983. Luffia lapidella Goeze (Lep.: Psychidae) in Cornwall. Entomologist's Rec. 

J. Var., 95: 53-57. ' 
Tutt, J. W. 1899. Luffia lapidella, Goeze, a British species — Notes on Luffia pomonae. 

Entomologist's Rec. J. Var., 11: 207-208. 



SHORT COMMUNICATION 



Crossocerus vagabundiis (Panzer) (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) in Wales — This is the 
rarest of our four black and yellow Crossocerus species, holding RDBl status. In the 
past this species was widespread, if local, in the south of England and had been 
recorded from 25 vice-counties (Falk, 1991). It has not been reported as occurring in 
Wales. In 1953 it was recorded from Parley Heath, Dorset and was not recorded 
again until recently, when the species was found at a number of sites in Hampshire. 
The species is associated with damp lushly vegetated areas where it preys upon 
craneflies. Nesting occurs in dead wood, often in the galleries of beetle larvae (Falk, 
1991). On the 7.viii.l998. while collecting in birch scrub along the margins of 
Crymlyn Bog (SS687943), Glamorgan, specimens of Crossocerus dimidiatus (Fab.) 
and C. quadriniaculatus (Fab.) were collected. Whilst determining the specimens taken, 
a single male C. vagabimdus (Panzer) was found amongst the C. cjuadrimaculatus. 
Superficially to the naked eye it looked very like C. quadriniaculatus and certainly was 
not noticed to be anything other than that species in the field. — P. M. PAVETT, 
Department of Biodiversity and Systematic Biology, National Museum and Galleries 
of Wales, Cathays Park, Cardiff CFl 3NP. 

REFERENCE 

Falk, S. (1991) A review- of the scarce and threatened bees, wasps and ants of Great Britain. 
JNCC, Peterborough. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 



ANNUAL UK DIPTERISTS MEETING, 14-15 NOVEMBER 1998, 
NATIONAL MUSEUMS AND GALLERIES OF WALES, CARDIFF 

David Clements 

The 1998 meeting of UK Dipterists Forum, an organisation affiliated to the 
BENHS, was marked by two departures from those of previous years. For the first 
time since its inception in the early 1970s the meeting was held somewhere other than 
the Natural History Museum in London and, secondly, the meeting was spread over 
a whole weekend, rather than being a one-day event as in the past. The 1998 meeting 
was hosted by the entomology section of the National Museums and Galleries of 
Wales (NMGW) in Cardiff, and comprised a day of presentations, exhibitions and 
Forum business on the Saturday, followed by a series of workshops, informal 
meetings and access to the museum collections on the Sunday. 

About 80 Forum members attended on the Saturday, which was held in the 
museum's recently-refurbished and well-equipped committee rooms. The morning 
commenced with a brief introduction and welcome to the museum by Dr Mike 
Wilson, Head of Entomology, who congratulated all those involved in the 
production of a new and state-of-the-art British Diptera checklist (Chandler 1998 
(Ed.) Haudbk. Ident. Br. Insects (NS) 12(1)), stocks of which were brought directly, if 
not actually hot, from the presses to the meeting by the editor that morning. Dr Liz 
Howe then took over proceedings as chairwoman for the morning session. These 
commenced with an overview by Dr Roger Morris of English Nature on the 
hoverflies of Surrey, in which he described the findings of a 15-year project to map 
the Surrey syrphid fauna. He went on to describe how the Surrey Wildlife Trust had 
managed to fund the publication of a series of fairly lavish county invertebrate 
atlases, by commencing firstly with the popular groups (i.e. butterflies, moths and 
dragonflies) for which outside sponsorship could be found comparatively easily, then 
using the profits from sales of these to fund the subsequent production of 
publications on the less-popular groups, the latest being the Hoverflies of Surrey 
(Morris 1998). 

This was followed by a talk by Dr Mike Howe of the Countryside Council for 
Wales (CCW), who gave an introductory overview of Diptera in Wales describing 
the distributions and habits of a number of species which are of particular 
conservation concern. These included some that are in the UK Biodiversity Action 
Plan (UK BAP), such as Asilus crabrouiformis L. (Asilidae), Odoutomyia hydroleon 
(L.) (Stratiomyidae), Lipsothrix nervosa Edwards (Limoniidae), Cliorismia rustica 
(Panzer) and Spiriverpa lunulata (Zett.) (Therevidae), and some which have the bulk 
of their UK distribution in Wales, such as Stratiomys chamaeleon (L.) (Stratiomyi- 
dae), Acrometopia wahlbergi (Zett.) (Chamaemyiidae), Cosmetopiis dentimanus 
(Zett.) (Scathophagidae) and Neoitannis cothurnatus (Meigen) (Asilidae). He also 
gave a brief review of recent CCW-commissioned survey work relevant to Diptera, 
such as the Welsh Peatland Invertebrate Survey (originally undertaken in the 1980s 
under the direction of the then Nature Conservancy Council), the Welsh Parkland 
Survey (undertaken in conjunction with NMGW and Liverpool Museum), a survey 
of exposed riverine sediments (in conjunction with the Environment Agency and 
English Nature) and an on-going study to determine the coastal soft-cliff resource in 
Wales, an important habitat for many specialist Diptera. 

A joint presentation was then given by Drs Geoff Hancock and Graham Rotheray 
of the Royal Museums in Scotland, describing the results of a recent expedition to 
study the dipterous fauna of water-holding bromeliads in Trinidad. The audience 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 




Dr Lloyd Knutson (centre) and his wife, Mara, with John Deeming. 



was treated to a mouth-watering slide show of exotic and spectacular species, 
especially of hoverflies, many of which were previously little-known or undescribed. 
The appearance of odd venomous spiders and snakes during the expedition evidently 
added further spice to proceedings. 

The last presentation of the day was given by David Clements, who described an 
on-going project funded by the Countryside Council for Wales and English Nature 
to investigate the biology and breeding requirements of the hornet robberfly, Asiliis 
crabroniformis L. This formerly widespread species has suffered a widespread and 
rapid decline over the whole of its European range, and is consequently a UK BAP 
'Short List' species. Together with co-workers Drs Peter Skidmore and Jonty 
Denton, much work has been done in describing the early stages and oviposition 
behaviour, including close-up video recording of egg-laying, some of which was 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 




The 1998 cake, prepared by Diane Henshaw. 



shown. However, searches for mature larvae in the field, which are believed to be 
associated with geotrupine beetle larvae, have so far met with failure. The project will 
continue in 1999. 

Saturday afternoon commenced with the AGM of the Forum and a discussion of 
the future for the various Diptera recording schemes, followed by informal 
discussions and examination of the many exhibits, full details of which will be 
published in a forthcoming issue of the Forum's 'house-magazine', Dipterists Digest. 
After much consideration, a prize for best exhibit was awarded by the Forum 
committee to Dr Malcolm Smart for his display of British and foreign Asilidae. The 
prize of a book was very kindly donated by Ian Johnson of Pemberley Books, who 
also attended the meeting with a large stand of new and second-hand Diptera 
literature for sale throughout the weekend. 

Saturday's proceedings were rounded-off by the traditional Dipterists' Supper, 
which was held in the adjacent main building of the University of Wales. This 
excellent event was attended by over 60 Forum members, and graced as in previous 
years by a superbly-decorated cake prepared by Mrs Diane Henshaw. This year the 
cake honoured the work of Dr Lloyd Knutson, the distinguished Sciomyzidae 
specialist now happily retired to France after a long entomological career in various 
countries and dispositions. The Forum was delighted that Dr Knutson and his wife 
Mara were able to attend the event, and he was duly invited to cut the cake after first 
identifying its crowning decoration, a portrait of the sciomyzid PherbelUa knutsoni 
Verbeke, originally described from Wales. 

On the Sunday, about 40 Forum members returned to the museum to attend 
workshops on the identification of British and European Cheilosia (Syrphidae), given 
by Steven Falk; the identification of British picture-winged flies (Ulidiidae and 



BR. J. ENT NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 29 

Platystomatidae), given by David Clements, and on the preparation and examination 
of Diptera genitalia, given by Dr John Deeming. Dr Stuart Ball also gave a 
demonstration of the new 'Recorder' software package, and various computer 
developments including 'Syrph the Net', a hoverfly web-site run by Dr Martin 
Speight. The remainder of the day was taken up with informal discussion and 
identification of specimens, with many members making use of the large British and 
foreign Diptera collections held by the museum. 

Altogether it was a very successful and well-attended event, made the more so by 
the excellent facilities provided by the museum and the university. Grateful thanks 
are extended to Mike Wilson, John Deeming and the staff of the museum, Dr Mark 
Jervis and the catering service at the University of Wales, Diane Henshaw, Ian and 
Julie Johnson and all of the presentation and workshop contributors. The event was 
organised by David Clements, and Anne Clements and Mark Pavett very kindly 
helped out on the day. 



SHORT COMMUNICATION 



Rearing Dahlica triquetrella (Hiibner) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). — On 18.iii.l997 
Dennis O'Keeffe sent me some pupae of the local psychid Dahlica triquetrella from a 
site near Orpington in Kent. This moth has a very localised distribution in the British 
Isles, being known only from West Kent (VC 16) (where these pupae came from) and 
Westmorland and North Lancashire (VC 69) {MBGBI 2: 135). In the UK it 
reproduces parthenogenetically, only apterous females being known, although 
winged males occur in continental Europe. The larvae construct portable cases which 
they enlarge as they grow, camouflaging the exterior with sand, frass, dead insects 
and plant debris. Pupation occurs in the larval case and the female moths lay their 
ova in the old case beneath their pupal exuviae. 

A total of 8 adult moths hatched between the 1 and 10.iv.l997, always very early in 
the morning. They immediately proceeded to lay ova in their old larval cases. Indeed 
it proved hard to prevent oviposition due to the early hour of their eclosion. I 
retained the ova but did not expect to be able to rear any resultant larvae past their 
first instar. 

A total of 212 larvae (average approximately 26 per adult) hatched between 24 and 
30.iv.l997. In an attempt to rear these I prepared two Perspex larval boxes with a 
2 cm layer of finely sieved John Innes No. 3 potting compost and pieces of dead bark 
with a growth of the lichen Lecanora conizaeoides and terrestrial epiphytic algae of 
the genus Diplococcus. The larvae were placed on the bark but soon wandered off 
onto the sieved compost. Here they constructed miniature elongate silken cases, 
roughly triangular in cross section and coated externally with dusty soil particles. 

Evidence of their feeding on the lichen and algae, in the form of faecal pellets, was 
hard to find. However, some green-coloured frass was eventually located but it soon 
became apparent that the larvae had little or no interest in the algae as a pabulum. 
Consequently I added some dead dried micromoths to their boxes and almost 
immediately the larvae began feeding on these. Before long, each piece of moth 
thorax and abdomen was ringed with larval cases, the minute larvae were evident 
protruding from these and struggling to attain a position from which to feed. To 
prevent desiccation I sprayed the larvae about every 10 to 15 days with a fine mist of 
water, but feeding them on freshly killed insects reduced the need for this and the 
subsequent risk of mould developing in the damp atmosphere. 



30 BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST . 12: 1999 

I kept the larvae indoors all year in an unheated room with a natural photoperiod. 
However, the temperature of this room was considerably higher than environmental 
temperatures for at least seven or eight months of the year (October to May). They 
fed up slowly, enlarging their cases and decorating these with sand, peat, frass and 
parts of dead insects (mostly legs and elytra). The larvae showed a marked preference 
for Lepidoptera, Hemiptera (especially smelly shield bugs) and most Coleoptera with 
the exception of red and black ladybirds (7 spot) which they actively avoided. 
Diptera, in the form of crane flies, were also eaten, but not avidly. 

The sieved peat was renewed in July 1997 as there was evidence of infestation by 
mites. New pieces of bark were included to provide a solid substrate for the larvae to 
crawl on. This procedure was repeated in December for the same reason. 

Second instar larvae were seen on 26. v. third instars on 19.vii. and fourth instars 
on S.viii. Final instar (fifth) larvae were evident on 26.viii.1997. These stages were 
separated on the basis of their head capsule sizes. Late in October the larvae began to 
climb the walls of their boxes and attach their cases loosely to the angles of the lids 
and to the walls. Others were found loosely attached and hanging from the 
undersides of pieces of bark. Once attached in this way they remained without 
feeding, despite fresh food being added periodically over the winter. In January the 
larvae began to perambulate and on the 12th of that month I opened five cases and 
found that all still contained larvae. By late February 1998 most larvae had attached 
their cases firmly with white silk to the wood and box lids and on opening one case I 
found it contained a pupa. 

In an attempt to stimulate pupation and eclosion of the adults, about this time I 
left the boxes exposed to bright sunlight indoors. This was a mistake as many 
mortalities occurred due to over-heating. Despite this, adults began to emerge on 
20. ii. and by 23.iii. 1998 a total of ten females had emerged. 

Due to the females' urge to oviposit immediately post eclosion, and assuming an 
average brood size of 25 ova per female, I estimated that these ten adults would 
produce around 250 ova. Larvae began to hatch on 4.iv., and by 20. iv. a total of 
around 200 had emerged. It is interesting to note that the timing of the life cycle 
stages of this species were unaffected by the larvae being kept in captivity. Adults 
emerged from reared pupae at the same time of year as those from wild pupae. 
Oviposition and larval eclosion were similarly timed too, despite the temperature of 
the room the larvae were reared in being higher than environmental temperatures for 
most of the year. This indicates that the duration of these various stages in this 
species is probably influenced more strongly by photoperiod than by temperature. 

I attempted to feed the Ft larvae on dead insects as before but this time was 
unsuccessful. I found that all the larvae had died in their first instar, two or three 
days after I had fed them with two freshly killed adult green shield bugs Palomena 
prasina (L.) from my garden. I can only presume that the bugs contained some toxin 
that killed the larvae, as a killing agent had not been used. Fortunately I did not 
attempt to feed the F, larvae on this species of bug. — I. SIMS, 2 The Delph, Lower 
Barley, Reading, Berkshire RG6 3AN. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 31 

Call for Assistance with a New Survey of the Social Wasps of Britain 
and Ireland for 1999/2000 

It has been 20 years since the last survey of social wasps was carried out by the Bees, 
Wasps and Ants Recording Scheme (BWARS) in conjunction with the Biological 
Records Centre at Monks Wood. Since then BWARS has become a formally 
constituted Society, i.e. the Bees, Wasps and Ants Recording Society (still referred to 
as BWARS) engaging in many important recording activities. Currently the society is 
working on a set of Provisional Atlases of all British aculeates, including the social 
wasps. Therefore, it is important to obtain updated information on the current status 
and distributions of British social wasps so they can be included in the new atlases. 
Some key reasons for this are that since the last survey, which recorded seven species, 
there have been 2 new additions to the list: 

Original list 

Hornet Vespa crabro L. 

Common wasp Vespula vulgaris (L.) 

German wasp V. germanica (Fab.) 

Red wasp V. nifa (L.) 

Cuckoo wasp V. aiistriaca (Panzer) (brood parasite of V. nifa) 

Tree wasp Dolichovespula sylvestris (Scop.) 

Norwegian wasp D. nonvegica (Fab.) 

The 2 new additions 

Median wasp D. media (Retzius) 

Saxon wasp D. saxonica (Fab.) 

It is possible that by now their brood parasites (D. oniissa Bischoff, and D. adidterina 
du Buysson respectively) may have followed. In addition, some people are suggesting 
that the common wasp may be declining and that the Norwegian wasp is retreating 
northwards. Therefore, an extensive re-survey of Britain and Ireland is urgently 
needed to answer the following questions: 

• Have any new species (D. omissa and D. adidterina) colonized? 

• What is the current position of the median and Saxon wasps? 

• Have either the median or Saxon wasps reached Ireland or Scotland? 

• Is the common wasp actually declining? Is the Norwegian wasp retreating 
northwards? 



How CAN YOU HELP? 

If you find any dead wasps or kill one for any reason during the spring/summer of 
1999 and 2000, could you please note when and where (as precisely as possible) it 
was found (see below) and then send the DEAD wasp (e.g. in a matchbox etc.), 
along with the other details, clearly marked WASP SURVEY to the appropriate 
co-ordinator. Alternatively, if you are 100% certain you can precisely identify 
social wasps, then send the record, however, if in any doubt whatsoever please send 
the dead wasp. To allow for easy processing of records please use the format 
outlined below. Please don't worry about the condition of the wasps — it should be 
possible to identify them even if they have been swatted, as long as all parts are 
kept together. 



32 BR. J. ENT NAT. HIST , 12: 1999 

For an information pack on the present 9 species please send an A5 SAE (26p) 
enclosing two unused 1st class stamps (to cover printing costs) to Tom Ings (address 
below). 

Please note that because of the large volume of specimens we expect to receive we will 
only be able to reply with information about the wasps and return specimens for 
those interested if a specific request is made and the appropriate postage and suitable 
packaging is included. 

Format for records 

DATE: DD/MM/YYY (e.g. 22/4/1998) 

LOCALITY: Nearest town (please include street name/postcode) or village (e.g. 

Redlynch) 

GRID REFERENCE: If possible give an Ordnance Survey 6 figure reference, (e.g. 

SU204205) 

SPECIES NAME: Where relevant (NB only IF you can ACCURATELY identify 

(100% certainty) the wasp, but if you are in ANY doubt send the specimen) 

NAME OF COLLECTOR: Who caught/found the wasp 

NAME OF IDENTIFIER: Where relevant (e.g. Tom Ings) 

OTHER INFORMATION: Other useful information (e.g. whether male/worker/queen 

(only needed if not supplying specimen), was it from a nest?, was it visiting flowers, 

catching prey? etc.) 

Regional co-ordinators 
BRITAIN (England, Scotland and Wales): 

Tom Ings, Department of Biological Sciences. Science Laboratories, South Road, 

DURHAM, DHl 3LE 

E-mail: [t.c.ings(rt'durham. ac.uk] 

NORTHERN IRELAND: 

Brian Nelson, Ulster Museum, Botanic Gardens, BELFAST, BT9 5AB 
E-mail: [brian. nelson. um(rt' nics.gov.uk] 

REPUBLIC OF IRELAND: 

Colm Ronayne, 33 Dublin Road, SKERRIES, Co. Dublin, Ireland 
E-mail: [colmronayne@tinet.ie] 

This information can also be found on the internet at: 
Http://www. durham.ac.uk/~dbl3tci/waspsurv. html 



BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST., 12: 1999 33 

SHORT COMMUNICATION 

Pleurophorus caesus (Creutzer) (Col.: Scarabaeidae: Psammobiini) imported into 
Cambridgeshire. — On 10 March 1997, I found an elongate blackish-brown beetle, 
3 mm long and about 1 mm wide, adhering to a stick of celery in my kitchen in 
Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire (VC31, Hunts.)- To the naked eye, it resembled a 
scolytid or anobiid, and as my house is infected with a low density of Ptiliuus 
pectiniconiis, it might have been passed over as a female of that species. Closer 
inspection revealed that it was an unusually elongate scarabaeid, and it keyed readily 
in Jessop (1986) and Britton (1956) to Pleurophorus caesus (Creutzer). It appears 
even more elongate and parallel-sided than the illustrations in Harde (1981) or 
Jessop (1986) suggest; it is well portrayed in Reitter (1909). I am grateful to Darren 
Mann for confirming the identification. 

P. caesus was recorded rarely but widely in Britain last century (Fowler, 1890). 
Jessop mentions records for Scilly, Cornwall, Bristol and Southport (Merseyside), to 
which Hyman (1992) adds Glamorgan. The Red Data Book (Shirt, 1987) lists it as a 
species not recorded since 1900, and the latest record of which I am aware is from the 
Isles of Scilly in 1890 (Hyman, 1992). The species is apparently common around the 
Mediterranean and the Black Sea (D. J. Mann, pers. comm.). Like most 
psammobiines, it feeds on decaying vegetation as well as on dry cow dung, and is 
probably associated with dry, sandy soils. 

The celery in question was recently purchased from the local Tesco superstore. It 
had been imported from Torre Epachepo, Murcia, Spain, transported by refrigerated 
lorry. Examination of the remainder of the store's Spanish celery stocks on the 
evening of 10 March failed to produce any further specimens, and subsequent 
batches of celery were of Israeli origin, and devoid of Coleoptera. 

As a casual importation, this record is probably of little consequence except to 
show that rare or, indeed, extinct native species are occasionally transported by 
commerce. This process is familiar among larger insects: for example, most recent 
records of the mole-cricket Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa L. are thought to be accidental 
imports (Marshall & Haes, 1988); but it is seldom reported for more cryptic species. 
The other purpose of this note is to remark that P. caesus looks superficially 
sufficiently unlike a dung-beetle to be passed over in the field — or the kitchen. — 
BRIAN C. EVERSHAM, Wildlife Trust for Beds, Cambs & Northants, Lings 
House, Billing Lings, Northampton NN3 8BE. 

References 

Britton, E. B. 1956. Coleoptera Scarabaeoidea. Handbooks for the Identification of British 

Insects, 5 (11). 
Fowler, F. W. 1 890. The Coleoptera of the British Islands, vol. 4. London: Reeve. 
Jessop, L. 1986. Dung beetles and chafers. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea. New edition. Handbooks 

for the Identification of British Insects, 5 (11). 
Harde, K. W., ed. Hammond, P. M. 1981. A field guide in colour to beetles. London: Octopus. 
Hyman, P. S., revised Parsons, M. S. 1992. A review of scarce and threatened Coleoptera in 

Britain. 1. Peterborough: JNCC. 
Marshall, J. A. and Haes, E. C M. 1988. Grasshoppers and allied insects of Great Britain and 

Ireland. Colchester: Harley. 
Reitter, E. 1909. Fauna Germanica. Die Kdfer des Deutschen Reiches. II. Stuttgart: Lutz. 
Shirt, D. B. 1987. British Red Data Books, 2: Insects. Peterborough: NCC. 



34 BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST , 12: 1999 

BENHS INDOOR MEETINGS 

7 April 1998 

Mr A. J. Halstead showed a mass of silk tubes spun as a hibernaculum by larvae 
of the bee moth, Aphomia sociella (L.) (Lep: Pyralidae). The caterpillars feed during 
the summer in the nests of social wasps or bumblebees. The specimens were found in 
a shed at Speen, near Newbury, Berks., with the remains of a bumblebee nest nearby. 

Mr R. D. Hawkins showed three insects that he had collected as road 
casualties at Horley, Surrey. These were queen bumblebees, Bombus terrestris 
(L.) and B. pascuonim (Scop.), and a mining bee, Andrena scotica Perkins. He 
noted that car kills were likely to have a greater effect on insect populations 
than the activities of insect collectors. This may be particularly true in areas of 
intense agriculture where the roadside verges may be the main source of flowers 
for foraging bees. 

Dr J. MuGGLETON recorded either a very late or a very early emergence of a fresh 
brick red form of the lime hawk moth, Mimas tiliae L., at a light trap in his garden in 
Staines, Middx., on 17.xi.97. 

Mr I. D. Ferguson reported he had taken a male green form of this moth at a 
light on 30.iii.98 in his garden at Orpington, Kent. 

Dr M. Harper spoke on the management of woods for Lepidoptera. When he 
moved from London to Ledbury, Glos. he became interested in Haugh Wood which 
is an outlying part of the Forest of Dean. It is an SSSI that is owned by Forest 
Enterprise and has largely been planted with conifers. Dr Harper has been able to 
persuade Forest Enterprise to open up some parts of the wood and restore them to a 
coppice cycle with broad-leaved trees and shrubs. Eight areas of about 1 ha have now 
been cleared of conifers and the subsequent flora and fauna has been recorded. The 
floral composition varies according to the soil conditions but in some areas up to 26 
species of woody plants have been recorded two years after clearance. When an area 
is felled the wood is stacked in wig wams to leave the ground clear for plant 
recolonization. These stacks provide an important habitat for fungi and insects. Tree 
stumps also have their associated invertebrate fauna. Coppicing increases the floral 
diversity and also creates sheltered open spaces within the wood where the warmer 
microclimate encourages insect activity. 

Dr Harper showed slides of the plants, butterflies, moths and other insects that 
have been recorded in the coppiced areas. His talk was an excellent example of the 
significant habitat improvements that can be brought about through the cooperation 
of a knowledgeable entomologist and a sympathetic landowner. 

12 May 1998 

The President, Mr B. C. Eversham, announced the death of the butterfly 
illustrator, Gordon Beningfield. 

Mr A. J. Halstead showed some live geometrid moths, Idaea mqiiinata (Scop.), 
found emerging in a house at Stoke D'Abernon, Surrey. The larvae had been feeding 
on dried flowers, including sunflowers, which had been grown in the householder's 
garden the previous summer. 

Dr D. J. L. Agassiz showed some cocoons of Argyrest/iia cupressella Walsingham 
(Lep: Yponomeutidae) and larval feeding damage on cypress shoots. Most 
Argyresthki spp. spin their cocoons on the ground; A. cupressella presumably 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST . 12: 1999 35 

often does so but many larvae coming down from high branches construct 
cocoons among the fohage. usually against a stem where a shoot branches away 
from it. A. cupressella is a North American species first recorded in Britain in 
1997. It is found commonly at Kessingland near the Suffolk coast and northwards 
towards the Norfolk border, but apparently not yet in Norfolk. 

Mr R. Softly showed two examples of predatory bugs Aptiis mirmicoides (Costa) 
(identification by R. D. Hawkins) found in an actinic light trap a few nights 
previously. 

Mr R. D. Hawkins showed a specimen of the coreid bug Gonocerus acute- 
angulatus (Goeze) found on 8. v. 98 on a roadside verge at Horley, Surrey. This scarce 
bug was restricted to the Box Hill area but seems to be spreading. Horley is a new site 
record and is 12 km south-east of those previously known. 

Mr B. C. EvERSHAM showed a live specimen of a predatory slug, Testacella 
haliotidea Draparnaud. This infrequently seen subterranean slug was found in the 
garden of Mr Ian Dawson at Little Paxton, Cambs., on 12.iv.98. 

The following persons have been approved by Council as members: Dr Alan 
Butler, Ms Debbie Evans, Mr Iain Gillespie, Mr Malcolm Lee, Mr Kevin McGee, 
Mr Simon Miles, Mr Steve Preddy and Mr Bull. 

Mr R. W. J. Uffen reported that he had seen the bumblebee mimic hoverfly 
Pocota personata (Harris) near some 150-year-old trees in parkland at Welwyn, 
Herts., that has recently been declared a Local Nature Reserve. 

Dr I. F. G. McLean outlined recent changes made to the Wildlife and 
Countryside Act. Details will be given in an article in the Journal. 

Dr Adrian Pont gave a talk entitled 'Reflections on the history of Dipterology'. 
The modern classification system was devised by Linnaeus in the 18th century but 
his studies were based on the work of earlier naturalists. Aristotle in the 4th century 
BC recognized flies as a distinct group in the animal kingdom and divided them into 
biting and non-biting types. His writings remained influential for nearly 2000 years 
and the study of flies did not really begin until the 17th century. This was helped by 
inventions such as the printing press and microscopes. Seventeenth century 
entomologists, such as Francesco Redi, Johannis Swammerdam, Anton Leeuwen- 
hoek and Robert Hook made studies of life cycles, dipteran anatomy and illustrated 
flies. The Aristotelian theory of spontaneous generation of fly maggots was 
disproved. John Ray developed the concept of arranging flies into genera of species. 
Other early dipterists included Johan Goedart and Rene Reaumur. Linnaeus 
published the first edition of his Systema Naturae in 1735. He gradually refined his 
naming system, arriving at the binomial system in the eleventh edition. Christian 
Fabricius adopted the Linnaean system and, like Aristotle, used mouthparts as the 
basis for his classification. Other workers who made contributions to the study of 
flies in the 18th and 19th centuries were Baron Charles De Geer, Prof. Wiedeman, 
Hoffmansegg, Illiger, Zetterstedt, Macquart and Meigen. The last mentioned is the 
founder of modern European dipterology. He began studying flies in 1790 and by 
1818 had written a seven-volume work on European Diptera. 



9 June 1998 

Mr A. J. Halstead showed a live specimen of the two-spot ladybird, Adalia 
hipunctata (L.), which had the red of both elytra darkened almost to the point of 
being entirely black. It is uncertain whether this is a melanic form or the result of 



36 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

some injury. The ladybird was found on the flower of angehca (Angelica archangelica 
L.) in a garden at Knaphill, Surrey. The insignificant flowers of this umbeUifer also 
attracted large numbers of museum beetle, Anthremis verbasci (L.), when the plants 
came into flower in May. 

Dr J. Muggleton noted that Dr M. Majerus has recently described a melanic 
form of the two-spot ladybird, f. purpurea, which was of a dark purplish black 
colour. This might be similar to the specimen exhibited. 

Mr R. D. Hawkins showed three species of click beetles of the Ampedus 
genus which have red and black elytra. These were Ampedus halteatus (L.) and 
A. elongantulus (F.), both from Bagmoor Common, Surrey, and A. sauguirwlentus 
(Schrank) from Cobbett Hill, Surrey, all taken in May 1998. 

Dr J. Muggleton showed a small caterpillar with yellow and black markings 
living in a silk tunnel spun amongst the flowers of water dropwort, Oenanthe crocata 
L., growing on the bank of the River Thames at Staines, Middx. Mr Hawkins 
thought the caterpillar to be a Depressaria sp. (Lep.: Oecophoridae). 

Dr J. Muggleton distributed some leaflets and survey forms published by the 
People's Trust for Endangered Species in connection with their survey into the 
distribution and abundance of the stag beetle, Lucamis cervus (L.). 

Mr A. J. Halstead spoke on "Mining the Society's Archives" in which he showed 
a selection of transparencies from the Society's extensive photographic collection. 
This is in the process of being reorganized to make it more accessible. The collection 
has been accumulated over the years as a result of legacies and donations and was 
housed in a variety of boxes, trays and folders. While there is some order and 
cataloguing of some of the Lepidoptera slides this was conspicuously absent from the 
other orders. Some sorting of the Lepidoptera slides remains to be done but most of 
the Hemiptera, Neuroptera, Odonata, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and 
Hymenoptera have been sorted and transferred to transparent polypropylene 
hanging files. These have been arranged in taxonomic order in a four-drawer filing 
cabinet in the library section of the Pelham-Clinton building at Dinton Pastures. The 
collection is available to members who need slides to illustrate lectures. Mr Halstead, 
who has spent many hours sorting out the collection, urged anyone who borrowed 
slides to return them promptly and put them back in their correct places. There are 
certain types of picture that are poorly represented in the collection: these include 
sHdes of habitats, host plants and BENHS members engaged in entomological 
activities. Further donations of this type of material would be most welcome. 



14 July 1998 

Mr R. D. Hawkins showed two beetle larvae. The first was a larva of a species of 
Scymnus (Coccinellidae), possibly S. frontalis F., found by Mrs G. Jeffcoate on 
13.vii.l998 in a clay pit at Holmwood, Surrey. The second was an unknown red- 
brown larva with spines and hairs. It was found crawling over chalk grassland at 
Park Downs, Banstead, Surrey on 7.vii.l998. 

Mr B. C. Eversham showed some scarce wetland ground beetles (Carabidae) 
found at Pitsford Reservoir, north of Northampton. The reservoir was created in the 
1950s, and is now owned by Anglian Water pic. Its margins are managed as a 
Wildlife Trust reserve. On three visits this year, with a local coleopterist Mr Peter 
Sharpe, 53 species of ground beetle have been recorded, including 10 wetland species 
which are classed as Notable B, some of which are likely to prove new to the county. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST . 12: 1999 37 

Five species were exhibited: Blethisa midtipunctata L., a large and distinctive species 
with a brassy sheen and dimpled elytra. This species is usually found among rich, fen 
vegetation including marshes and lake shores; it was frequent among Glyceric! and 
Phragmites litter just below the strandline. Bembiclion cjiiadripustiilatiim Serville, 
which occurred in small numbers in shallow, temporary pools on clay soil in a 
woodland ride. A very local species with a south-eastern distribution, which appears 
to be new to Northants. Pierostichus grcicilis Dejean, one of many species of black 
Ptcrostichus found in wetlands; this is local but widespread, and usually found on 
clay soils. Agomim piceitm L., although not classed as nationally scarce, this species is 
local and widely scattered. It was by far the most abundant Agonwn among Glycerin 
maxima adjacent to willow carr beside the reservoir. BacHster imipustidatus Bonelli, a 
striking red and black wetland beetle, was unusually abundant in the rich vegetation 
of the reservoir shore, probably the most abundant larger ground-beetle. A species 
apparently new to Northants. It is somewhat puzzling that a man-made wetland 
should support so many scarce species. The answer seems to be that several small 
streams with marshy margins fed the valley in which Pitsford Reservoir lies, and the 
surrounding grassland had never been subject to fertilizer or pesticide applications. 

Mr R. W. J. Uffen showed a live Lytta vesicatoria (L.) (Spanish Fly) (Coleoptera, 
Meloidae) found in a shallow sandpit near Bovingdon, Dorset on 4 July 1998. There 
was no nearby source of the adult beetle's preferred foods of ash or privet. The site 
had been praised for its aculeate fauna on a visit the previous day by members of the 
Dipterists Forum and Bees Wasps and Ants Recording Society, but Messrs Halstead, 
Perry and Uffen, visiting the pit on their way home, were frustrated by indifferent 
weather. 

Dr D. S. Hackett showed specimens of three beetles from Millwards Park, 
Hertfordshire, all taken on 5 July 1998. These were Epiphams cormitiis Eschscholtz 
(Eucnemidae), originally from the USA but now widespread in Britain and found on 
poplar and sycamore, Ampeclus cardinalis (Schiodte) (Elateridae) found on an oak 
trunk and the first record from Hertfordshire, and Mycetochara Inimercdis F. 
(Cistelidae), beaten from beech foliage. 

The following persons have been approved as members by Council: Mr Lawrence 
Brown, Miss Jenni Johnstone, Mr Paul Lee, Mr John D Stanney and Mrs Carol A. 
Williams. 

Dr Martin Luff spoke on "British Ground Beetles — Facts and Fancies". There 
are currently 349 species of Ground Beetles (Carabidae) found in Britain, but there is 
a constant turnover of species with seven species lost and nine gained since 1970. The 
carabids range in size from 1 mm to 25 mm and with a few exceptions, such as those 
belonging to the genus Notiophdiis, have a very similar body plan. Dr Luff then 
continued by describing the biology of the species, most of which feed on other 
insects and invertebrates. There are exceptions with some plant-feeding species such 
as Harpcdus rufipes DeGeer which feeds on seeds. The adults may be present 
throughout the year or may show marked seasonality with, for example, H. afjinis 
Schrank having a bimodal activity pattern, Amara apricaria PaykuU appearing in the 
autumn and Pierostichus madidus F. peaking in mid-year. The great majority of 
species are nocturnal. The eggs are often enclosed in soil capsules which seem to 
protect them from fungal attack. The larvae are soil dwelling. The carabids are useful 
for environmental monitoring and a standard protocol for carabid trapping has been 
devised. This uses polypropylene pots, containing blue antifreeze as a preservative, 
for pitfall traps. Nine traps are used per site and are placed, in a row, two metres 
apart. Sampling is carried out continuously from April to October and the traps 
examined at two to four week intervals. The catch from all the traps at one site is 



38 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

pooled. Dr Luff gave some examples to illustrate the usefulness of the trapping 
protocol. One example was that of Nchria brcvicollis F. and A^. salina Fairmaire 
which are difficult to separate morphologically but which occupy different habitats 
with A^. salina being found at higher altitudes. A trapping exercise in a river valley on 
the Scottish border demonstrated the habitat separation of the two species. Data 
from the Carabid Mapping Scheme suggested a decline in many species. For only 96 
species was their occurrence greater post- 1970 compared with pre- 1970. The 
occurrence of 239 species was greater pre- 1970 than post- 1970. One site which has 
been monitored for eleven years has shown a decline in species from 45 at the start of 
the period to 30 at the end. Maps showing various distribution patterns were shown. 
Aha.\ parallclcpipcdii.s Filler & Mitterpacher is unusual in that it is found everywhere 
except the extreme north-east. Badister hipustidatiis Fab. has a common type of 
distribution in that it is widespread in the south but is restricted to coastal habitats in 
Scotland. There are also a few species that are coastal in the western part of their 
range. In contrast Broschus ccphalotes L. is almost exclusively coastal and only 
occurs inland in hot, dry summers. Some species have a northern distribution. Nebria 
gyllenludi Schonherr is a north and north-western species and another northern 
species, Ptcrosticlnis crista tus Dufour, is restricted largely to the north-east. Leistus 
rufoniarginalus Duftschmid is an example of a species which has spread rapidly from 
a few southern sites in the 1960s to Cumbria and the Isle of Man in 1998. 
Distribution patterns in Britain often do not agree with continental distribution 
patterns but it is not known why this should be. 

8 September 1998 

Dr D. S. Hackett exhibited a specimen of the Cetoniine beetle Oxythrca fimesta 
(Poda) (Col.: Scarabaeidae) found on a nature reserve at Chalk Farm, north 
London. According to Jessop (Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects, 
5(11), 1986) the species is doubtfully British. The most recent records are from 
Lancashire. This specimen was found feeding on a thistle flower and was the only one 
seen. It is not known whether it was a vagrant or is breeding in the area. The larvae 
would be in plant roots or dead wood like other Cetoniines. The adult can be 
recognized by its black non-metallic (slightly metallic in this case) colour and white 
pubescent markings, including those on the pygidium, and its smaller size than 
Cetonia aurata L. The elytra are notched for elytra-down flight. 

Mr R. D. Hawkins wondered whether, at a time of climatic warming, the cetoniid 
exhibited by Dr Hackett could be an example of a continental European species 
colonizing warmer London habitats first. 

Mr 1. D. Ferguson exhibited a live full grown caterpillar of what appeared to b© 
Semiaspihttes ochrearia (Rossi), the Yellow Belle. This is normally a double brooded' 
species occurring in the larval state in June and July and again from September 
through to the following April. It was swept from the dunes at Sandwich Bay, Kent 
on 2.ix.l998. Adult females were seen the same day thus larvae should have been, at 
best, recently hatched. The larva was a Geometrid, colour pale straw with black 
speckles, with prominent anal points and measuring 38 mm, thus matching the 
description of 5. ochrearia. Further, when disturbed, it curled its head under its body 
to form a figure "2'\ a feature of this species. This could be evidence of an attempted 
third brood. Two other examples were found but had been "stung" by a parasitoid; 
one was sent to Dr Mark Shaw in Edinburgh. 

Dr I. F. G. McLean exhibited two specimens of Aphrosyhis (Diptera; 
Dolichopodidae) from groynes at Cromer, Norfolk on the 9.viii.l998. These were 



BR J ENT NAT HIST., 12; 1999 



Aphro.syliis raptor Haliday and A. ferox Haliday. On the first day of a family holiday 
based in North Norfolk, an excursion to the beach at Cromer at low tide revealed 
some characteristic predatory Diptera on groynes covered with barnacles and 
seaweeds. Males of the genus Aphrosylus have flattened, spatulate palpi which are 
'silvered' on one face. These palpi catch the light and flash brightly as the flies scurry 
across exposed intertidal substrates. The role of these visual signals, whether in 
courtship or some other behavioural interaction is not yet known. Most Aphrosylus 
species are typically found on rocky coasts, but on the sandy beaches o^ North 
Norfolk they can evidently survive on the artificial hard exposures provided by 
wooden groynes, which have been erected here as coastal defences. 

It was announced that Mr Brian Nelson of Belfast had been elected an Ordinary 
Member and that the Invertebrate Con.servation Centre of the Zoological Society of 
London had been elected a Corporate Member of the BENHS. 

On behalf of the LNHS, Miss Ruth Day reported on the planning application by 
the London Borough of Havering for development of part of the Inner Thames 
Marshes SSSI including part of Rainham Marshes. The London Wildlife Trust was 
putting in a counter planning application for a nature reserve and the RSPB was 
applying for Heritage Lottery funding to buy the land for the nature reserve. The 
LNHS and BENHS had written to the RSPB in support of their bid for funds. 

Mr R. K. Merrifield reported that he had found a larva of the Elephant Hawk- 
moth (Dcilcpliila clpcnor L.) feeding on Himalayan Balsam (Inipaticiis ii/aiuliilifcra 
Royle). 

Mr R. D. Hawkins said that the beetle larvae he had exhibited at the previous 
meeting had been provisionally identified by Dr R. G. Booth as Drilus fiavcsvcns 
Geoffr. (Coleoptera: Drilidae). The larva had now eaten a snail, which appeared to 
confirm the identification. Remarking on a poor season for Lepidoptera, Mr 
Hawkins said that there had not even been any codling moth (Cydia ponioiwlla L.) 
larvae in his apples. 

Dr J. MUGGLETON reported seeing at least two specimens of the clouded yellow 
butterfly (Colias crocciis Geoffr.) flying on the abandoned route of the Winchester 
by-pass at Bar End, Winchester on 22.viii.1998. In what seemed to have been a poor 
year for migrant butterflies the only other migrant he had seen had been a very worn 
specimen of the Painted Lady butterfly (Cvnthia ccirdui L.) in central Manchester on 
19.vi.l998. 

Dr Tom Brereton gave the Brad Ashhy Memorial Lecture on "New aspects of 
conserving the pearl-bordered fritillary'\ work carried out by Butterfly Conservation 
and funded by a grant from ICI. 

The work involved a national review of the status of the pearl-bordered fritillary 
butterfly (Boloria euphrosyne L.) and an investigation of its population structure and 
habitat requirements. A survey had been carried out by Butterfly Conservation local 
branch recorders with help from other conservation bodies, and over 700 sites had 
been visited. In the past the butterfly had been recorded from 850 10 km squares but 
today it was found in less than 200 10 km squares. It had disappeared from at least 
half of these squares in the past fifteen years. There were now around 350 colonies at 
250 sites. The habitat of one-third of the colonies was a mosaic of bracken, grass and 
scrub; one-half of the colonies were in woodland clearings and the remainder were in 
open woodland. 

The breeding sites typically have a dry, short, sparse vegetation with plenty of 
I'iola and leaf or bracken litter. In the past coppice clearings were an important 
habitat but now the clearings formed by rides, pylon lines and young conifer 
plantations are important. There are three types of open woodland habitat: birch. 



40 BR. J. ENT NAT HIST . 12: 1999 

oak and woodland characterized by the presence of ash, rowan and dogs mercury, 
the latter being a newly discovered habitat type. 

The pearl-bordered fritillary is a species of traditionally managed countryside and 
cannot compete with intensive cultivation or the improvement of marginal hill land. 
The abandonment of hill grazing is another factor in its decline but in some places 
over-grazing can be a problem. Its decline from woodland clearings follows them 
becoming too shaded as the result of a lack of coppicing, the maturing of conifer 
woodland and rides becoming overgrown. The rate of decline appears to be less in 
Scotland where more traditional land management prevails but proposed schemes to 
encourage the natural regeneration of woodland in Scotland may pose a new threat. 
The second phase of the programme will be to make progress with conservation 
work. Immediate action is needed at sites where the buttertly is about to become 
extinct. This may involve leaving, rather than removing, bracken and the 
continuation of grazing regimes or their replacement by cutting and burning. 
Incentives can be offered to farmers via the countryside stewardship initiative, which 
can give financial support to help maintain sites. In woodland fresh clearings need to 
be created, but a long term future in woodland can only be assured if regular 
coppicing is reintroduced. In this respect it is worth noting that the Forest Authority 
has a scheme for encouraging coppicing, whereas for other sites grants may be 
available from the Forest Authority for woodland improvement which could include 
the removal o[' conifers. 



13 October 1998 

Mr R. D. Hawkins showed an unnamed geometrid caterpillar that he had swept 
from blackthorn suckers growing out of grass (later named by G. A. Collins as the 
broken-barred carpet Elcctrophacs corylata Thunb). 

The following persons have been approved by Council as members: Miss Helen 
Ball, Mr Lee Bullough, Mr Mark Ciardener, Dr Aubrey .lones, Capt. Francis Lowe, 
Mr i'eter Maton, Mr Steven Nash and Dr Raymond Wilson. 

Mr S. R. MlLi;s showed a copy of a report produced by English Nature of a 
symposium held on veteran trees entitled "Parkland the way forward". Copies can 
be obtained by telephoning 01733 455101. 

Mr R. Softly noted that there seemed to be few orb-web spiders compared with 
the same time last year. Dr J. Muggleton confirmed this, saying that this year he had 
received no phone calls on this subject, whereas last year he had had as many as 
seven a day. Mr A. Halstead noted that the green shield bug Palonwna pra.siini (L.) 
was also less abundant this year. 

Dr Richard Lindsay spoke on "Bogs, bugs and battles". In particular he talked 
about the Flow Country area o\' north Scotland and the battle to change people's 
perception of the value of this extensive blanket bog, which covers much of Caithness 
and Sutherland. Small areas were protected as nature reserves but the rest was widely 
regarded as a wasteland of no particular value. The speaker was part of a team which 
in the 1980s began surveying the whole area to assess its conservation value. As there 
are few roads in the area this involved spending many days camping out with rain 
expected two days out of three. While the survey was taking place, large areas of bog 
were being drained by deep ploughing for planting with conifers. Tax benefits for 
forestry at that time made this a profitable venture for people paying the top rates of 
tax. Some pop stars and other show business personalities were prominent investors 
in these new plantations. The wettest areas were being left unplanted but their 
ecology was being changed by drainage of the surrounding land. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST , 12: 1999 41 

In order to survey the blanket bog, it was necessary to produce new descriptive 
terms to define the micro-habitats, such as hummocks, sphagnum hollows, ridges 
and pools, both temporary and permanent. The distribution of Sphaguwn species 
and other plants in these habitat types was recorded. Blanket bog is a globally rare 
habitat and the Flow Country has unique features that make it different from 
blanket bog elsewhere in Europe. Peat bogs elsewhere in Europe often have trees and 
are fed by snow-melt water. The Flow Country is virtually without trees, except 
where planted, and is kept wet by high rainfall. A party of experts from the 
International Mire Conservation Group was invited to visit the Flow Country. They 
agreed that the area was of great conservation importance. 

This view was put to the Prime Minister and the Department of the Environment, 
urging a change in policy for the area. This was picked up by the press and other 
media, and it was also discussed in the House of Lords. The government responded 
by asking the Nature Conservancy Council to prove that the whole 400,000 hectare 
area was of global importance and gave them a year to do so. The team made use of 
the then new technology of computer mapping to present their information. This was 
used to show the distribution of rare plants and animals, and the effects that forestry 
and other land uses was having. The system was also able to produce models of likely 
future effects if drainage and forestry was allowed to continue. A well-produced case 
won the argument and the threat of more forestry effectively came to an end when 
Nigel Lawson withdrew the forestry tax benefits in his 1988 budget. The Flow 
Country is currently being proposed as a World Heritage Site. 



SHORT COMMUNICATIONS 



Agrilus sinuatm (Olivier) (Col., Buprestidae) new to Wales. — An exploration of the 
ancient parkland of The Hendre (S0463135), a few miles to the west of Monmouth 
in VC35 (Monmouthshire), 10.iv.l998, resulted in the discovery of the characteristic 
D-shaped exit holes of Agrilus sinuatus in a mature hawthorn. This is an addition to 
the Welsh list. Other wood decay Coleoptera noted during the visit include Ctesias 
serra (Fab.) (Dermestidae), Xestohium rufovillosum (Degeer) (Anobiidae), Prionychus 
ater (Fab.) (Tenebrionidae) and Phymatodes testaceus (L.) (Cerambycidae), all from 
ancient oaks and all of very localised occurrence in Wales. 

My thanks to The Rolls of Monmouth golf club for permission to enter the site. — 
KEITH N. A. ALEXANDER, 14 Partridge Way, Cirencester, Gloucestershire GL7 
IBQ. 



Hypiihis quercinus (Quensel) (Col., Melandryidae) new to Gloucestershire. — 

Amongst the invertebrates found by the Gloucestershire Invertebrate Group in 
Pinbury Park (SO952052), near Edgeworth in E. Gloucestershire, 21.vi.l998, was a 
single specimen of Hypulus quercinus. It was found in a large decaying oak snag by 
John Harper. Pinbury Park includes a large concentration of ancient parkland oaks, 
plus a few ashes and field maples, all currently enveloped within mixed secondary 
woodland. This find represents the first wood decay species of any particular note 
from the site.—KEITH N. A. ALEXANDER, 14 Partridge Way, Cirencester, 
Gloucestershire GL7 IBQ. 



42 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

BENHS FIELD MEETINGS 

California Country Park, 16 June 1996 

Leader: Peter Chandler. After a series of field meetings, workshops and numerous 
other recording visits to Dinton Pastures since the Society became estabhshed there 
in 1992 it was decided to investigate its sister Park, also operated by Wokingham 
District Council. 

This is a very different area. It includes Longmoor Lake, a water body of longer 
standing than the gravel pits at Dinton Pastures, which provides a focus for the 
recreational areas of the Park. The lake occupies a central position in the Park, which 
is otherwise extensively wooded. To the east there is higher ground with drier woods 
but this meeting was confined to the areas to the north-west of the lake, which is a 
low lying wetter area dominated by alderwoods. It includes the permanently wet 
alder swamp area termed the "Everglades", which is traversed by boardwalks. There 
is also an enclosed area of heathland, adjoining these woods, which is being actively 
managed to restore it and is lightly cattle grazed to limit regrowth of scrub. These 
areas constitute Longmoor Bog, which is an SSSI and local nature reserve. 

The day of the meeting itself was marked by excessively high temperature and 
humidity, which limited activity both of insects and the six members who attended. 
We initially found that the day had fortuitously coincided with a BBONT event, 
resulting in a chance encounter with Brian Baker by the Lake. We then proceeded 
through the narrow belt of woodland separating the lake from the heathland. Much 
of the morning was spent in this area, from which we took the boardwalk winding 
through the alder swamp to emerge in one of the drier grassy glades on the east side 
of the woods. Here there is a small artificial pond, by which we broke for a much 
needed lunch stop. Four of the party proved refreshed enough to proceed further in 
the afternoon, when we investigated the more mixed drier woods adjacent to the 
stream before it enters the swamp, crossing two scrubby rides (one of them with 
pylons) and a recent clearing, finally reaching another area of alderwoods at the 
north end of the site. We then returned more directly through the glades to the lake. 

At the time of the visit the heathland had recently been cleared of pines and 
appeared overgrazed; there was concern expressed that pollution of the surface 
waters might become a problem. Subsequent visits have tended to suggest that this 
was a temporary phenomenon and grazing pressure does not seem to have had any 
obvious adverse effects. There is a dead standing pine trunk in the area which is a 
focus for wood nesting aculeates. Pemphredou liigubri.s (Fab.), Crossocenis 
megacephalits (Sphecidae) and Trkhrysis cyanea (L.) (Chrysididae) were recorded. 

The cattle were considered beneficial by Roger Hawkins, who was surprised to find 
four species of dung beetles (Scarabaeidae), Aphodius ecpiestris (Panz.), A. graiuirius 
(L.), A. riifipes (L.) and Colohoptents haemovrhoidalis (L.), in their dung. He also 
recorded Anisodactyhis biuotatiis (F.) (Carabidae) both on the heathland and in leaf 
and twig fitter in the northern clearing. 

About 45 species of Coleoptera were recorded on the day, including five species 
each of Elateridae (among them Ampediis bcdteatus (L.) on the heathland) and 
Cantharidae. Other finds included Grypus equiseti (Fab.) on horsetails (Roger 
Hawkins) and Limnobaris pilistriata (Steph.) (Malcolm Storey) (Curculionidae) in 
the swamp and fresh emergence holes of AgrUus pannonicus (Piller & Mitterpacher) 
(Buprestidae) in a fallen oak trunk in the northern woods (Andrew Halstead). 
Halyzia 16-guftata (L.) (Coccinellidae) was beaten from an oak by the car park and 
in the woodland glades. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST , 12: 1999 43 

The boggy pools on the open heathhind were attracting both Sericomyia species 
(Syrphidae). Other hoverflies noted in this area included Chrysogaster virescens 
Loew. Sphegina elegans Schummel was present in the woods. The hoverfly 
Chalcosyrphus nemorum (Fab.), which develops in dead wood, was observed by 
the pond where we had lunch. The sphecid wasp Crabro scutellatiis (Scheven) 
(Sphecidae) was also seen in flight by this pond. 

This is a particularly good site for craneflies. Both Pseudolimnophila species 
(Limoniidae) and Ptychoptera minuta Tonn. (Ptychopteridae) were present in 
numbers in the swamp areas where Tipula nuixima Poda (Tipulidae) was an obvious 
inhabitant. T. yerhiiryi Edw. and Dicranomyia hiciiia de Meij. (Limoniidae) were also 
recorded by John Dobson. Other alderwood species found were Euphylidorea aperta 
(Verr.) and Pilaria fuscipennis (Mg.). 

Eustalomyia hilaris Fall. (Anthomyiidae), a cleptoparasite of dead wood nesting 
solitary wasps, was observed ovipositing in a pine log in the northern clearing by 
Andrew Halstead, where he also swept the bee Chelostoma fiorisomne (L.) 
(Megachilidae). On the return walk through the grassy glades, which are managed 
for marsh orchids, Rivcllia syngenesiae (F.) (Platystomatidae) was found to be 
present in numbers. The asilids Dioctria baumhaueri Mg. and D. nifipes (De Geer) 
were about on the heathland and Neoitamus cyanwiis (Loew) was seen in the woods. 

Ten species of Heteroptera recorded by Roger Hawkins included the predatory 
shieldbug Rhacognalhiis piinctatus (L.). which was swept by Andrew Halstead in the 
pylon ride. 

The heathland pools were attracting dragonflies; Pyrrhosoma nymphula (Sulzer), 
Coenagrioii puella (L.) and LiheUula depressa L. were observed. Sixteen species of 
sawflies were recorded on the day and in addition leaf rolls o{ Blennocampa phyllocolpa 
Vikasaari & Vikberg were found on wild Rosa. Among other miscellaneous records 
were two species of snakeflies (Raphidioptera), Raphidia uotata F. recorded in the 
swamp by Malcolm Storey and R. maculicollis (Steph.) noted by Andrew Halstead. 

Being previously unfamiliar with the site, I had made three reconnaissance visits 
earlier in June 1996, when some interesting species had been found and since this 
meeting I made three further visits in 1996 and another three in 1997 so the Diptera 
are now becoming well known with a rather different range of species to Dinton 
Pastures. Future visits to improve knowledge of other orders in this interesting area 
would be valuable. 



Dinton Pastures, 17 May 1997 



Leader: Peter Chandler. This meeting was arranged to investigate the areas newly 
added to Dinton Pastures Country Park, to the west of Bader Way. This area is 
divided into seven compartments for the purposes of the Management Plan and 
recording was based on these areas. The Society had been asked to advise the 
Country Park on the conservation of one small part of this area defined as a relict 
wet meadow (compartment 2). With this in mind, the meeting was attended by two 
representatives of the Society's conservation advisory committee, Stephen Miles and 
Raymond Uffen. Altogether nine members were present and records were gathered 
of all the major orders. 

The day was mainly fine with some bright periods. The itinerary began at the 
northern end, starting from the car park adjacent to the Aviation Museum. In the 
morning the first three compartments were covered. At the northern end is an 
extension of Sandford Mill Copse (otherwise known as Bader Copse) 
(compartment 1). This is mainly dense dry oak and hazel woodland, but the northern 



44 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

part has recently been coppiced and is now quite open; to tlie south it slopes down to 
an alderwood and stream which borders the "grassland" site (compartment 2), which 
is sandwiched between the copse and the Northern Lake, otherwise known as 
Redwood Lake (compartment 3). This lake has a dense wooded margin and a narrow 
area of scrubby ground between this and the road. Lunch was had at the south end of 
this lake at the edge of a wider area of scrub and grassland (compartment 4). The 
afternoon took us rapidly through this and past a small copse (compartment 5) into 
an area of "relict ancient grassland" (compartment 6). a generally lusher area but with 
apparently poor flora of which grazing following annual cutting in July is proposed. 
More time was spent on the margin of the Southern Lake (compartment 7), which has 
a fringe of high woodland and a margin of carr and marsh vegetation. 

Having completed the tour of the new areas, the party reached the bank of the River 
Loddon at the point opposite the newly constructed "park and ride" area, which has 
replaced an interesting area of marginal vegetation just outside the park limits. A more 
rapid return journey followed the west bank of the Loddon past the varied grassland 
and fen areas of Mortimer's Meadows. This enabled those members not already 
familiar with the Park to compare some of the other habitats with the new areas. 

The species found in area 2, including some widespread species which are already 
known from other parts of the Park, are particularly noted below. This area was 
evidently originally part of the water meadows and retained some Glyceria and other 
marsh vegetation around the fringes. However, it had evidently been subject to spoil 
dumping, perhaps when the adjacent road was built. This had resulted in the greater 
part of the area now being covered with ruderal weed species, especially comfrey 
{Symphytum sp.), nettles {Urtica dioica), cleavers {Galium aparine), rosebay 
{Chamerion angiisiifolium) and docks {Rumex sp.). The value of this flora for 
common Lepidoptera species was noted and it was considered that restoration of 
marsh conditions to benefit plants other than Glyceria would be difficult with the low 
water table now prevailing. It was concluded that a minimum of management 
involving maintaining the area free of scrub encroachment would be the most 
appropriate solution for this area. 

The 33 species of Lepidoptera recorded by Gavin Boyd included 10 additions to 
the list for the Park, mostly "micros". Among these Alabama geojfrella (L.) 
(Oecophoridae), which is a dead wood feeder, was recorded in Sandford Mill Copse. 
In the same area Adela reaumwella (L.) and Nematopogon swammerdamella (L.) 
(Incurvariidae) were on the wing. Eight species of common butterflies were observed 
during the day and Euclidia glyphica (L.) (Noctuidae), also known from Mortimer's 
Meadows, was about in areas 4 and 6. 

Coieoptera were well recorded, 74 species being noted. A "Notable A" click beetle 
Ampedus elongantuliis (F.) (Elateridae), associated with dead wood, was recorded by 
Andrew Halstead. It was sitting on a grass stem near the concrete drainage channel 
by the road at the junction of areas 2 and 3. Two "Notable B" ground beetles, 
Badister dilatatus Chaudoir and Oodes helopioides (Fab.) (Carabidae) were found by 
Ian Hoare at the margin of the Southern Lake. The water ladybird Anisosticta 19- 
punctata (L.) (Coccinellidae) was found by both Lakes. 

Eight species of water beetles were recorded from the Southern Lake, a useful 
addition to the range of insects recorded in the Park. These included the "Notable B" 
Helochares lividus (Forster) (Hydrophilidae) recorded by Matthew Smith and several 
local species, among them Cymhiodyta marginella (Fab.) (Hydrophilidae), Coelam- 
bus impressopimctalus (Schaffer) and Copelatus haemorrhoidalis (Fab.) (Dytiscidae). 
Three further species were found in a water trough for cattle in the enclosed part of 
Mortimer's Meadows. 



BR J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 45 

Other beetles found included the brightly marked Eudomychus coccineus (L.) 
(Endomychidae) by both Lakes and the cerambycid Agapanthia villosoviridescens 
(De Geer) from the longer vegetation at the edge of area 4 bordering the copse of 
area 5; this develops in stems of umbeUiferous plants like another species previously 
recorded in the Park. Phytoecia cylindrica (L.) but is an interesting addition to the 
Dinton list, which is known to have been spreading to new areas in recent years. 
Among a good list of species for area 2 were two species of Paedenis (Staphylinidae), 
found in other fenny parts of the Park, Silplui atrata L. (Silphidae), Cidnopiis 
mimitus (L.) (Elateridae), Oedemcra liirida (Marsham) (Oedemeridae), Bniclnis 
nifjpes Herbst (Bruchidae), Chrysolina polita (L.). Cassida vibex L. and Plagiodera 
verskolora (Laicharting) (Chrysomelidae), Rhynchites aequatus (L.) (Attelabidae) 
and the "Notable B" weevil Ceitthorhynchus rapae Gyll. (Curculionidae). 

Seventeen species of sawflies were recorded by Andrew Halstead. Those in area 2 
were Aglaostigma fulvipes (Scop.), Loderus eversmanni (Kirby), Macrophya 
diiodecimpunctata (L.) and Nematus oligospilus Foerster (Tenthredinidae). South of 
Redwood Lake, Loderus vestigialis (Klug) and Dolerus germanicus F. were present. 
Macrophya awndata (Geoff.) was found in Sandford Copse and M. moutaua (Scop.) 
in area 6. 

Matthew Smith recorded the six common Bombus and two Psithyrus species 
(Apidae). Solitary species were few but Andrena scotica Perkins (Andrenidae) was 
recorded in areas 1 and 4. Priocnemis perturbator (Harris) (Pompilidae) was recorded 
by Gavin Boyd, who noted that the left forewing venation was aberrant in that the 
third submarginal cell was divided in two by an extra horizontal vein, the right wing 
being normal. 

Few Hemiptera were recorded but Aelia acummata (L.) (Pentatomidae), which is 
common in the Park, was noted in area 2 and Centrotus cornutus (L.) (Membracidae) 
in area 4. 

Nothing unusual was found among the Diptera recorded. The few hoverflies 
included both species of Xanthogranima and the bulb fly Merodon equestris (Fab.) in 
areas 2 and 3; Parhelopluliis versicolor (Fab.) was present in area 6, suggesting that it 
had developed in the Southern Lake. The asilid Dioctria atricapUla Mg. was about in 
the longer grassy parts of area 6 and the cranefly Tipida verualis Mg. (Tipulidae) was 
numerous in area 4. Andrew Halstead drew attention to galled fruitlets caused by 
Contarinia pyrivora (Riley) (Cecidomyiidae) on an isolated pear {Pyrus) in area 4. 
Flies found in the wetter parts of area 2 included Calamoncosis glyceriae Nartshuk 
(also in area 7), which develops in Glyceria (Chloropidae), Cleigastra apicalis (Mg.) 
(Scathophagidae) and Trigonometopus frontalis (Mg.) (Lauxaniidae), both associated 
with Carex. 

A report including the recommendations mentioned above regarding the 
conservation of area 2, together with comments on the management of some of 
the other compartments, was submitted to the Country Park by Stephen Miles and 
produced a positive response from the park management. 



Prescombe Down National Nature Reserve, Wiltshire, and Melbury Down, Dorset 

21 June 1997 

Leader: Stephen Miles. — This Conservation Working Group meeting was 
proposed by the leader to assist in record gathering for an area that appears to be 
poorly recorded on most dot maps of species. Additionally, as a double site meeting. 



46 BR. J. ENT NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

it gave the opportunity to contrast the management regimes operating at the two 
sites in terms of the entomologist's point of view. 

Prescomhe Down 

Six members inckiding the leader assembled at Prescombe Farm to be met by our 
guide, Linda Smith, from the local English Nature office. On entry to the start of the 
reserve, we were immediately alarmed by what appeared to be overgrazing, and the 
low height (2.5 to 5 cm) of the grazed sward and absence of chalk downland flowers, 
the sheer uniformity of the site. I think this site did not conform to our visions of what 
a National Nature Reserve should be! Probably at least 120 head of cattle of all ages 
were present on the 167 acres. The striking thing was that they appeared to have access 
to the whole site with no areas demarcated as off-limits by temporary electric fencing, 
thus preserving some longer grass roosting sites and flowers for nectar seeking insects. 

At least the sward was a little longer when we reached the south west facing scarp 
slopes. Here the first interesting insects were seen, two worn adonis blues, Lysandra 
hellargus Rott., which in fact do require a rather low sward. Maximum numbers of 
eggs have been found, according to past research, where the turf height was between 
one and three centimetres high, (BUTT, 1986). However, even this publication 
recommends rotational grazing of compartments to achieve this. 

Two examples of the spider parasite, the fly Ogcodes pallipes Latreille 
(Acroceridae), were taken by different members, one of whom remarked that he 
had taken it from a swarm flying around a hawthorn branch of a tree growing in an 
isolated clump. This is a notable species which when all conditions are favourable 
sometimes occurs following mass emergences, (Oldroyd, 1969). 

There were three dipterists, two coleopterists and one hymenopterist present; 
however, the site and the wet weather precluded any solitary bees and wasps from 
being found. Further interesting Diptera found were the lauxaniid, Saproinyza opaca 
Becker, taken by Adrian Plant, the conopid, Thecoplwra atia (Fab.) by Mick Parker 
and the tachinids, Exorista tubulosa Herting and Prosena siherita (Fab.), the last of 
which according to Peter Chandler, their captor, is more usually associated with 
heathland situations. 

Ian Hoare remarked in his notes for the day that half the species he had taken were 
coprophilic, so that the cattle, by their dung, were adding to the diversity of species! 
The more interesting beetles were Onthophagus coenobita (Herbst), O. joamiae 
Goljan (Scarabaeidae), Cryptocephalus hypochaeridis (L.) (Chrysomelidae) and 
Larimis planus (Fab.) (Curculionidae). 

The early gentian Gentiana unglica (Pugsley) was readily seen on the thin soils of 
the steeper slopes of this unimproved grassland. Corn buntings were also seen by 
Adrian Plant. 

Thanks are due to English Nature's Central Wiltshire Branch staff members, 
David Burton for making the arrangements and especially to Linda Smith for her 
guidance on the site on the day, and to the landowner. 

Melhiiry Down 

Several heavy showers were experienced during the afternoon and these probably 
adversely influenced the species seen and collected. One member observed a specimen 
of the wood tiger moth Parasemia plantaginis (L.) which is a fairly typical denizen of 
this type of site, though more scarce nowadays. This site was richer in numbers of 
Lepidoptera than Prescombe Down due, presumably, to the lack of summer grazing. 



BR. I ENT. NAT HIST.. 12: 1999 



This was exemplified by the species composition of tachinid flies, which included 
species more characteristic of chalk grassland. These included the local species, 
Eriothrix prolixa (Mg.) and Demoticus plehejus (Fall.), the latter being scarce and 
confined to downland, both are parasites of Lepidoptera. 

Several dark green fritillary Argynnis aglaja L. butterflies were seen to emerge from 
the adjacent northerly beech plantations and to fly into the lower slopes of the chalk 
grassland. Even after recent rain they could be seen perching on grass stems. The 
food-plants of a number of typical chalk downland butterflies could be readily 
found, such as horseshoe vetch Hippocrepis coniosa L., but the grassland was 
probably too long for the adonis blue, none of which were seen. 

One experienced member felt that in spite of the steepness of the site there was a 
surprising lack of bare ground that might normally be expected to result from this 
type of slope. As a consequence of this and the perceived limited grazing it was felt 
that the site was in danger of invasion by coarse grasses. Indeed two such grasses 
were present. Upright brome Bromiis erectus Hudson occurs throughout the site at 
worrying densities. Tor grass Brachypodium pinnatwn (L.), however, was fortunately 
limited to the level areas at the top of the slope adjacent to the road. 

Of course the longer grassland is valuable in providing shelter and roosting sites 
for the insects of short turf. We do not really know what this site is being managed 
for. It may be that the limited grazing is being used to preserve the special interest 
alluded to in the National Trust handbook, where the site is described as botanically 
rich. Further to the west there was evidence of good quality chalk grassland with 
patches of horseshoe vetch Hippocrepis comosa L. and large anthills with coverings 
of thyme {Thymus sp.). The flowerheads of some large patches of kidney vetch 
Anthyllis vulneraria L. were searched for the eggs of the small blue butterfly, but none 
were found. One specimen of the fragrant orchid Gyniiuuleiiia conopsea (L.) was seen 
in the grid square ST89I9. 

It had been hoped to attract lepidopterists to the site for an evening meeting of 
light-trapping but owing to the adverse weather — heavy squally showers, strong 
westerly wind and cold temperatures — no lepidopterists arrived. 

Thanks are due to Graham Heard for giving permission for the meeting to go 
ahead, and also to Simon Evans, both of The National Trust. 



References 

Butterflies Under Threat Team (BUTT). Focus on Nature Conservation No. 17. Tlw Management 
of Cluill< Grassland for Butterflies. Peterborough: Nature Conservancy Council 1986. 

Oldroyd, H. Handbool<s for the Identification of British Insects. Diptera Brachyeera. Section (a) 
Tabanoidea and Asiloidea. London: Royal Entomological Society 1969. 



Marks Hall Estate, Essex, 2 August 1997 
(Joint Colchester Natural History Society/British Entomological Society Meeting) 

Leaders: Joe Firmin & Jerry Bowdrey. The Estate, situated near Coggeshall (TL82) 
in north Essex (VC19) comprises an interesting mosaic of deciduous woodland, some 
partly conifer plantation, interspersed with areas of acid grassland and wetland areas 
with alder carr, several ponds and a large ornamental lake. Part of the area is being 
developed as an arboretum and the whole is managed by the Phillips Trust. 

Three members of BENHS and six from CNHS attended the daytime session 
which was conducted in bright sunshine. It was intended to visit Grange Wood but 



48 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST . 12: 1999 

the attractions of Alder Carr (TL8325) which we passed en route to the wood, were 
too much to resist. The alders had recently been coppiced and the ground flora had 
responded to increased light levels. Insects were abundant but hoverflies, particularly 
Episyrphus halteatus (Deg.), Metasyrphus corollae (F.) and Syrphus rihesii (L.) 
predominated, swarming at every flower and making other species difficult to pick 
out, although Gavin Boyd was able to find Chrysogaster solstitialis (Fallen). 
Jonathan Cole also took the Notable lauxaniid Sapromyza hipimctata Meigen at this 
site. Amongst the butterflies was Aricia agestis (D.&S.) (brown argus), a species 
which has made a dramatic come-back in Essex in recent years. 

Moving on to Lily Wood (TL8326) for lunch, Tetrix umhdata (Sowerby) (common 
groundhopper) was found beside a small pond. Nigel Cuming and Dan Hackett beat 
the buprestid Trachys mimitus (L.) from Tilia and vacuum sampling of a dry sparsely 
vegetated area produced the Notable planthopper Asiraca clavicGrnis (Fab.). 

After lunch, three of us stopped to examine a stack of logs cut for charcoal 
burning. A sycamore log infested with sooty bark disease produced Cicones undatus 
Guerin-Meneville, believed to be new to the County. After enjoying refreshments at 
the visitor centre some of the group returned to examine one of the last surviving 
ancient oaks where Vespa crabro L. (Hornet) were seen at a sap run, whilst in the 
arboretum Jonathan Cole took the nationally Notable conopid Conops strigatus 
Wiedemann. 

Daytime recording ended with a look at a different log pile where another 
buprestid, Agrilus angustulus (lUiger) and the clerid Thanasimus formicarius (L.) were 
found. The sandy soil around the log pile had nests of the sphechids Ammophila 
sabulosa (L.) and Cerceris arenaria (L.). The evening moth session, held in woodland 
at TL8325 attracted 17 observers and recorded a total of 87 species. Cyclophora 
punclaria (L.) (maiden's blush) and Eilema deplana (Esper) (buff footman) were 
among the 21 species new to the site. 



Colaton Raleigh Common, 20 June 1998 



Leader: Roy McCormick. — This two-part meeting started fine with very Httle 
wind. While I was waiting for the rest of the people to arrive, I spent time looking for 
seed heads of Cerasthim holosteoides Fr. (common mouse-ear chickweed) for the 
larvae of Panemeria tenebrata (small yellow underwing) but I was too early. By the 
time I returned to the car park, people had started to arrive. We finished up with 
twelve of which six were Butterfly Conservation (B.C.), three BENHS and two 
Devon Moth Group members plus the Warden, Doug CuUen. We all got into convoy 
behind Doug and we were led onto the site; as the year had been so wet we were 
advised to put our wellies on. Doug and the B.C. members wanted to have a look at 
the site where Plebejus argus (L.) (silver-studded blue) breeds and they also wanted to 
do a count of specimens seen; we saw the species in good numbers and they were 
reasonably fresh with males and females flying. We made our way to a swampy 
heathland area so that Doug could show us the successful management for a rare 
species of dragonfly that had been discovered, Coenagrion mercwiale (Charp.) 
(Southern damselfly), which was seen in good numbers; Doug tells me that the 
species is now to be seen on four sites in Devon. While we were on the swampy heath. 
Bob Heckford, Tony Pickles and I looked for signs of larvae of Buckleria pallidum on 
Drosera rotimdifolia L. (sundew). Several signs of eating were found, along with a 
larva of something else (the larva was in a poor condition and died), but no pahidum. 
Other interesting species seen included one Colias croceus (Geoffr.) (clouded yellow) 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 49 

and a few Callophrys rubi (L.) (green hairstreak). The session finished around 
5.30 pm with the people who came having had a good afternoon. Those of us who 
needed a meal made our way to Otterton, which is a couple of miles away. 

The night part of the meeting started with a new batch of people plus a few of the 
afternoon ones turning up at the same car park so that we could be led again onto 
the site by Doug Cullen. This time we had three B.C.. five BENHS and five DMG 
members; some of these belonged to the other organisations attending. We were led 
back to the site and traps were placed in the woodland and heath areas with one trap 
being placed next to the patch of woundwort that was seen last year; this was to try 
and find Phlyctaenia stachydalis (Germar) but without success. There were around a 
dozen traps operating but because the night was clear the going was slow, but 
temperatures remained at around 15'^C with a dew coming down early. Despite the 
conditions we managed to record 130 species, including the few daytime ones. Bob 
Heckford identified most of the Microlepidoptera, which came to 45 species 
including the pyralid and plume moths; there were only 3 species of butterflies with 
82 macromoths. The more interesting of the total were one Biickleria paludum 
(Zeller) adult on damp heath, one Capperia britauuiodactyla (Gregson) seen in the 
woodland, two Cyclophora albipunctata (Hufnagel) (birch mocha) on the edge of the 
heath, several Idaea sylvestraria (Hiibn.) (dotted border wave) on the heath, one 
Rhodometra sacraria (L.) (vestal) on the heath, several Euphyia biangitlata (Haworth) 
(cloaked carpet) in both types, a few Perconia strigUlaria (Hiibn.) (grass wave) on the 
heath, several Diacrisia sannio (L.) (clouded bufO on the heath, several Lacanobia 
contigua) (D.&S.) (beautiful brocade) on the heath, several Mythimna pudorina 
(D.&S.) (striped wainscot) on the damp heath and one Schrankia costaestrigalis 
(Stephens) (pinion-streaked snout) on the heath. By around 01.30 there was little 
coming in so we set about packing up and we were ready to depart by around 02.30; 
Tony Pickles opted to stay for the rest of the night; he was in the woodland and 
added a few species to the list for his trouble. 



Denbies Hillside & Ranmore Common, Surrey, 20 June 1998 

Leader: Mark Parsons. — Sunny, but breezy, conditions welcomed the five 
members and two friends who attended the afternoon part of the meeting at this 
classic site, which is also known as Westcott Downs. A range of Orders was observed 
during the afternoon with records including species of Hemiptera, Orthoptera, 
Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera, along with a single Mollusc 
species (the Roman snail Helix pomatia, live and empty shells being found). Amongst 
the Coleoptera, perhaps the longhorn Molorchus umbellatarum (Notable A) was the 
most interesting. The leaf beetle Cryptocephalus aureohis (Notable B) and the 
mordellid Variimorda villosa (Notable B) were recorded, with at least eight examples 
of the latter species seen on hogweed flowers. The larva of the glow-worm Lampyris 
noctiluca was also recorded. Amongst the Hymenoptera, Osmia bico/or (Notable B) 
was observed visiting the flowers of creeping cinquefoil and wild privet. Rather 
surprisingly the solitary-wasp Oxybelus uniglumis and the sand-wasp Ammophila 
sabulosa were recorded, although both species are more usually associated with 
sandy substrates as opposed to chalk downland. Of the moths, a number of examples 
of the lace border Scopula omata (Scopoli) (Notable A) were put up during the 
afternoon. Several species of plume moth were also seen, including Merrifieldia 
baliodactylus (Zeller) (larvae and a single adult), M. leucodactyla (D.&S.) and 
Oxyptilus parvidactylns (Haworth), with both the last species flying in numbers. In 



50 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

the evening four members and two friends attended, giving a total of six members 
and two friends attending over the day. Six mercury vapour light-traps and two 
actinic light-traps were operated on what was a starlit night, but with a gentle warm 
breeze. A very respectable total of 109 species of macrolepidoptera were recorded 
over the evening (with an additional three species seen only during the afternoon 
session bringing the total to 112 species). Additionally about 70 species of 
microlepidoptera were noted over the day as a whole. Amongst the species seen in 
the evening session were several that are considered nationally scarce or are scarce in 
Surrey. These included Coleophora lixella (Zeller); the tortricid Pelochrista 
caecimaculaua (Hiibner) (Notable); further examples of the lace border Scopula 
ornata; a single ruddy carpet Catarhoe rubidata (D.&S.) (Notable B) (Collins G. A. 
(1997) The Larger Moths of Surrey, Surrey Wildlife Trust) states that this moth "is 
only known from 14 examples in the last 20 years" in Surrey); several royal mantle C 
cuculata (Hufnagel); a single brown scallop Philereme vetulata (D.&S.); a single dark 
umber P. transversata (Hufnagel); the satyr pug Eupithecia satyrata (Hiibner); the 
shaded pug E. subumhrata (D.&S.); a single alder kitten Fwcula bicuspis 
(Borkhausen) (Notable B); the triple-spotted clay Xestia ditrapezium (D.&S.); 
several reddish light arches Apamea subhistris (Esper); and about six rosy marbled 
Elaphria vemistula (Hiibner). However, the highlight of the evening was a single 
example of the dew moth Setina irrorella (L.) (Notable A), a species which had not 
been seen in Surrey since 1987 (Collins, 1997) and one of the target species for the 
field meeting. As a consequence of this record a further trip was made to the site, on 
the 4th July 1998, when over 30 examples were seen, suggesting the presence of a 
healthy colony. 

This proved to be a very productive and enjoyable field meeting to a site which 
does not appear to have been recorded particularly well in recent years. It is good to 
know that many of the species which were known from the site historically are still 
present. I would like to take this opportunity to thank David Kennington and John 
Cranham of the National Trust for permission to hold this field meeting and for 
allowing vehicular access to the site. All records from the meeting have been 
forwarded to the N. T. Biological Survey Team and to David Kennington. 



Roborough Wood, Great Torrington, 4 July 1998 

Leader: Roy McCormick. — The evening was dry and reasonably warm and by the 
appointed hour we had ten people, eight of these being Devon Moth Group (DMG) 
members with five belonging to BENHS as well; there were also two Butterfly 
Conservation members with one of these belonging to DMG. We made our way to 
the wood, suggesting trapping sites to those who had equipment. Adrian Henderson 
decided that there were too many traps, including his own, so he suggested that he 
find somewhere else, other than Roborough Wood, to run his traps; this turned out 
to be very fortuitous as he discovered where Moma alpiitm (Osbeck) (scarce merveille 
du jour) was in Devon; he saw three that night near to Great Torrington. [I went 
back the following night to the same locality but at a different site nearby and found 
another three. This find brought in as many specimens in the two nights as had been 
seen previously from 1865 to 1956; a further two were seen in 1984 and 1994.] Back 
in Roborough Wood, the trap sites were well spread out so a lot of walking was done 
between traps but the list expanded rapidly as it was a pleasant night with a 
minimum temperature of around 14 C; specimen numbers were low as in the last 
year but some interesting species were seen, the best of these being: one Phlyctaenia 



BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST , 12: 1999 51 

stachydalis (Germar), one Cyclophora linearia (Hiibner) (clay triple-lines), two 
Orthonama obstipata (Fab.) (gem), two Euphyia hiaugidata (Haworth) (cloaked 
carpet), several Chloroclystis dehiliata (Hiibner) (bilberry pug), around twenty 
Hydrelia sylvata (D.&S.) (waved carpet), one Apeira syringaria (L.) (lilac beauty), 
two Cleorodes lichenaria (Hufnagel) (brussels lace), one Paractropis simUaria 
(Hufnagel) (brindled white-spot), four Craniophora Ugustri (D.&S) (coronet), one 
Laspeyria flexida (D.&S) (beautiful hook-tip) and several Hypena crassalis (Fab.) 
(beautiful snout). However, there was no sign of our target species, Moimi alpium 
(scarce merveille du jour) in Roborough Wood. At around 01.30 and with very little 
coming in it was decided to call it a night, so we upped sticks and left around 02.30 
after a final check round the other traps, the others had all come to the same 
conclusion as they too were packing up. The final tally was 120 species (with 28 of 
these being micromoths). The full list has been lodged at Dinton Pastures. 



Flanders Moss NNR, Perthshire, 1 August 1998 

Leader: Keith Bland. — The venue of this field meeting was the large area of 
lowland raised peatmoss called Flanders Moss (NS6397), just west of Stirling. The 
weather was almost ideal with plenty of sunshine but with only sufficient breeze to 
curtail midge activity. Unfortunately only four intrepid entomologists, namely Mike 
and Betty Clementson, David Horsfield and the leader were available to enjoy these 
conditions. The day was spent in good, old-fashioned, net-in-hand recording. Then, 
after a break for evening nourishment, two generator-operated M.V. lights were run 
over sheets. 

Some 40 species of lepidoptera were noted by day with a similar additional number 
being recorded at light. A total of 80 species of lepidoptera is a very respectable count 
for a habitat dominated by heather, sphagnum and birch. On the open moss the 
pyralid, Catoptria margaritella (D.&S.) was the commonest lepidopteran, with the 
bilberry tortrix Aphelia viburnana (D.&S.) and the manchester treble-bar Carsia 
sororiata (Hiibner) also tiresomely abundant. Closer to the birches the tortricids 
Epinotia hrwmichaua (L.) and Apotomis betidetana (Haworth) dominated. The 
clearance of colonising birch scrub in this part of the moss had been a little over- 
enthusiastic, thus mines of Atemelia torquatella (Lienig & Zeller) were scarce. The 
pristine condition of the few Philedoue genungana (D.&S.) and Coenonympha tidlia 
(Miiller) (large heath) seemed to suggest that both were just starting to emerge. On 
the other hand, a very worn specimen of the local Biselachista serricornis (Stainton) 
indicated that its season was past. The highlight of the day occurred with a slow, 
laboured fly-past by a fresh female Ochsenheimeria taiirella (D.&S.) as lunchtime 
sandwiches and parachutist-watching were being given priority! This appears to be 
the first confirmed Scottish record for this species. Visitors to the M.V. lights held 
few surprises. It was nice to see several Idaea biselata (Hufnagel) (small fan-footed 
wave), never a common species in Scotland, and a surprise in a habitat of this nature 
to find a single Yponomeuta padella (L.) on the sheet. 

Diptera were the centre of David Horsfield's attention, with a good set of records 
again being obtained but not without a great deal of careful searching. However, it 
was a fly with an attitude, namely an acrocerid, Acrocera globulus Panzer, the 
humpback or balloon fly, that headed the fly celebrity list of the day. A parasite of 
wolf-spiders, this was only the third Scottish record. Among the muscids, several 
local species were taken but none of them unexpected. 



52 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

BOOK REVIEWS 

Aquatic Insects of North Europe — A Taxonomic Handbook: Volume 2. edited by 
Anders Nilsson. Apollo Books, 1997, 440 pages, A4 hardcover, 550.00 Danish 
Kroner. — This volume completes a comprehensive multi-author review of the 2800- 
odd freshwater aquatic insects of northern Europe, which is taken to include Denmark, 
Scandinavia, Finland and Fennoscandian Russia. Volume 1, published in 1996, dealt 
with the smaller orders and the Coleoptera, whilst this larger second volume is almost 
entirely taken up by the Diptera, together with the Odonata. All families which contain 
truly aquatic representatives are covered, in some cases including the terrestrial 
representatives as well but more usually comprising only the aquatic elements. 

As with the earlier volume, a simple glance at the author list indicates the quality 
to be expected, taking in as it does so many well-known names from amongst the 
European dipterological community. These include, inter alia, Hugo Andersson 
(Ptychopteridae, Scathophagidae), Milan Chvala (Tabanidae), Christine Dahl 
(Culicidae), Rudolf Rozkosny (Stratiomyidae, Sciomyzidae), Ken Smith (Immature 
stages), Riidiger Wagner (Psychodidae, Dixidae, Thaumaleidae, Empididae) and 
Anders Nilsson himself, who contributed the introduction to adult Diptera as well as 
editing the work. 

Volume 2 commences with a chapter on the Odonata, with excellent new keys to 
adults and larvae (including small larvae) of all species. This covers all of the British 
species except the widespread, southern Ceriagrion tenellum, the rare and localised 
Coenagrion hmulatum, C. mercuriale and Sympetnim nigrescens, and some of the 
extinct and rare vagrant species. These deficiencies are well covered elsewhere, 
however, and do not represent an undue detraction. 

The Odonata are followed by two chapters introducing adult and larval Diptera 
respectively, with keys to families, and a further 22 chapters covering some 24 
families of Diptera. Each chapter typically comprises a brief introduction and review 
of known biology, highlighting gaps in knowledge, morphology of life stages and 
methods for collection, preservation, study and rearing. This is followed by keys to 
adults and, in many cases, larvae and other life stages, references to other relevant 
literature sources and a checklist indicating national distributions. Many of the keys 
run to species-level, although some of the keys to larger families run to genera only, 
with references to relevant key-works to species. The volume is illustrated 
throughout by some 2055 monochrome line drawings, laid out in 195 clear plates. 

It is an exceptional piece of work, bringing together and consolidating a very great 
deal of material which was previously scattered in the literature. Whilst there are 
necessarily some differences in scope and coverage between the families, the overall 
standard is consistently high. The keys are clear and well-illustrated, and in the 
families I looked at in detail, appeared to cover most of the British species. Users in 
Britain will find this an extremely valuable tool, although they will need to be 
watchful when using the keys to species as there are often situations where we have 
additional species present. This perhaps represents the main deficiency of the work 
from a British standpoint, falling as we do just outside of the faunistic range covered. 
It remains necessary to have access to, and knowledge of, the British literature in 
order to make certain that all of the possibilities have been checked. So, in a typical 
family such as Dixidae, for example, the handbook excludes mention of the British 
species Dixa iiehulosa. Dixella attica and D. filicoruis. for which it is necessary to turn 
to Henry Disney's 1975 Freshwater Biological Association key, as well as Dixella 
graeca which was added to the fauna in 1992 {Entomologist's mon Mag 128: 165-169). 
Only the former of these references is mentioned in the handbook bibliography. 



BR J. ENT. NAT. HIST . 12: 1999 53 

Nevertheless, the handbook is Hkely to become a first source of reference when deahng 
with aquatic insects in Britain, and on the plus side includes reference to many boreal 
species not so far recorded from Britain but which may be awaiting recognition. 

In recent use I found that I had little difficulty in running down material with a 
high degree of confidence, bolstered by the good provision of confirmatory 
characteristics. The literature references and taxonomy are well up to date. The 
standard of editing is also very high. Whilst some minor infelicities in grammar and 
spelling are perhaps to be expected, this is truly an English language work and 
generally reads very well. Inaccuracies are rare. The volume I saw came with a short 
corrigenda listing six errata, and itself listed 5 corrections to volume 1, evidence of 
conscientious checking by the authors and publishers. 

I recommend the work wholeheartedly. Volume 1 is available at 450.00 DK, and 
the two volumes are available together at 900.00 DK, all plus postage, direct from 
Apollo Books, Kirkeby Sand 19, DK-5771 Strenstrup, Denmark. Prices quoted by 
British dealers vary, but generally come in at around £65 and £75.00, plus postage, 
for volumes 1 and 2 respectively. 

David Clements 



Checkered Beetles. Illustrated Key to the Cleridae of the Western Palaearctic by 
Roland Gerstmeier. Margraf Verlag, Weikersheim, Germany, 1998, 257 pages, 372 
drawings and maps, 128 coloured photographs, hard cover, DM 93.00 ( + 7% VAT). 

This book is a very useful addition to the growing number of bilingual well- 
illustrated guides to European Coleoptera. It includes a brief synopsis of the 
systematics and biology of the Cleridae and Thanerocleridae, and dichotomous keys 
to the 124 species known from the W. Palaearctic, with brief descriptions of each 
species and a synopsis of its distribution, and in some instances a distribution map. It 
also includes colour photographs of almost all the genera and most of the species 
known from the region. 

For those of us who collect Coleoptera in the Mediterranean region, where 
Cleridae are more common than they are in N. & C. Europe, this book will be a 
valuable guide. However, as the author points out, a number of genera, especially 
Trichodes, the most commonly collected and speciose genus in the Mediterranean 
region, are in need of revision, and the key to Trichodes species will be difficult to use 
without having material for comparison available. I attempted to identify some of 
my Trichodes using the key and had difficulties at couplets 14, 15 and 40 where no 
illustrations of the diagnostic characters referred to are given. Also on none of the 
Trichodes photographs is there an indication of the sex of the specimens. As the 
author points out, females in this genus are often difficult to assign to species, and 
when comparing the colour patterns of specimens with the photographs I would have 
liked to know if I was comparing the same sex. Another minor criticism is that there 
is no indication of the actual size of the specimens on the colour plates, although the 
size range of each species is given at the beginning of each species description. 

Despite these slight shortcomings this book will be a valuable addition to the 
bookshelf of anyone interested in W. Palaearctic Coleoptera. 

Brian Levey 



Somerset Hoverflies by E. T. and D. A. Levy. 74 pp & 7 pages of plates of which 4 
are in colour, paperback. Privately published by the authors in 1998, supported by a 



54 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

grant from Somerset Wildlife Trust. Available from the authors at 9 Chilton Grove, 
Yeovil, Somerset BA21 4AN. £6.00 plus £1.00 postage and packing (UK). 

This is the second atlas of hoverflies produced by these authors, who published 
"Dorset Hoverflies" in 1992. It is based on fieldwork by the authors since 1976 and 
examination of specimens in local and national museum collections. Published data 
was checked as far as practicable and information from many other collectors and 
recorders was incorporated. 

Following a general account of the biology of hoverflies, the history of recording in 
Somerset is described, with brief biographical details of six earlier collectors. The 
plates include black and white photographs of five of these collectors and four 
localities. An account is given of the geographical features of Somerset, with more 
detail on 12 of the "special localities" including lists of the significant species recorded 
from each of them; suggestions are made as to the possible course of future recording. 

Myolepta potens Harris, which has been recorded this century only from the 
Somerset Levels and Bristol district, is the only British syrphid not to have been 
recorded in recent years and may now be extinct in Britain. The Somerset localities 
and the potential survival of the species are discussed, but despite continued 
availability of larval habitat (rot-holes), the loss is noted of some other species found 
at its main locality, Loxley Wood, in the 1940s by John Cowley. Another rare species 
Eupeodes (as Lapposyrphus) lapponicus (Zett.), found by Cowley in Devon, was 
discovered by the authors at a locality just within the southern border of Somerset. 

The main part of the text comprises 10 km square maps with records marked on a 
tetrad basis for each of 200 species known to occur in Somerset, of which 186 have 
been recorded since 1980. A brief account is given of each species with details of the 
first known record for the county. The suprageneric classification and order of 
species follows that in British Hoverflies by A. E. Stubbs and S. Falk, but an attempt 
was made to update nomenclature from various sources including articles in 
Dipterists Digest (to which an apostrophe has intruded). The authors are to be 
commended for making this attempt, which is explained in a section entitled "The 
confusion of Latin names presently used", but this is not entirely successful and there 
are some inconsistencies in the use of names. They have followed some recent works 
in using the n'eLVWQ festivum in Xanthogramma and their Chrysotoxum arcuatum (L.) is 
evidently the festiviim of Stubbs & Falk, not their arcuatum, although this is not 
stated (a current application to ICZN, to restore the earlier usage in these genera, 
will hopefully resolve this problem). 

Other nomenclatural changes will be apparent to syrphid enthusiasts, but the most 
significant is the raising of all subgenera to generic rank; this is presumed to be 
anticipation on the part of the authors that this might happen, as it is not explained 
in the text. 

A more detailed map of the county shows the 1 km squares including the 864 
localities from which hoverflies have been recorded in the county. The four colour 
plates include twenty photographs of adult hoverflies, mostly of the more frequent 
species, but including E. lapponicus mentioned above and Callicera aurata (Rossi). 
The locations and dates for these photographs are not given, but C aurata must have 
been photographed outside the county as the only Somerset record cited was made in 
1916. 

Details of 18 national and local societies and conservation bodies are included in 
an appendix, with more detail of the funding body. A map showing the location of 
Somerset woodlands is provided on the rear cover. 

This publication is the result of a considerable amount of work by the authors and 
their collaborators. The Levys are to be congratulated for having brought together 



BR J ENT. NAT HIST.. 12: 1999 



present knowledge on the distribution of hoverflies in their county and having 
presented it in this informative and easily used format. 

Peter Chandler 



Hoverflies of Surrey, by Roger K. A. Morris, hard cover. 244 pp. ISBN 
0952606534. Published 1998 by Surrey Wildlife Trust, School Lane, Pirbright, 
Woking, Surrey GU24 OJN. Tel: 01483-488055. £15 + £2.70 p&p. 

This is a most scholarly, and at the same time highly readable and useful hardback, 
produced to the highest standards. Although it is based on the best scientific 
observations and approaches, it is easy to follow and should suit both the expert and 
the newcomer. I have only one grumble and that is that the superb photographs were 
not reproduced to a larger size to show the intricate detail and colours even better. 

Hoverflies really took off as a special interest group some years back when Alan 
Stubbs and Steve Falk produced their seminal work which made identification much 
more possible. Roger Morris acknowledges his debt to this event but it must be said 
he has moved on and added to knowledge with this fine volume. 

On looking at the wealth of information included, it is difficult to imagine the 
amount of work to produce it in an easily understood and readable form, as well as 
the immense amount of effort which went into the fieldwork. This covered the whole 
area, not just the places favoured by the surveyors. The detail of this coverage is well 
illustrated by the maps shown for virtually all species. These are based on two- 
kilometre squares and provide a very real idea of the hoverfly population of this well- 
favoured county. 209 of the 270 or so British hoverflies have been found here, with a 
further 5 doubtful records. This is rendered even more memorable when it seems that 
all except 11 of these have been recorded since 1980. 

This volume is the fourth of a series on the county's invertebrate groups, which 
must serve to encourage groups in other counties to have a go. It is vital that we find 
out more about our invertebrates and spread the knowledge to the general public if 
we are to retain the species in the future. A volume such as this carries out these aims 
admirably in its wide coverage of the subject, clear writing without more jargon than 
is strictly necessary, and excellent, eye-catching illustrations. 

Roger Morris has devoted 1 3 years to the life of hoverflies in Surrey, as well as acting 
in a national capacity running the National Hoverfly Recording Scheme. The 
information gained is presented in clear form in the book and involved over 30,000 
records. It includes sections on Surrey, its soils, geology, vegetation and important 
sites, all illustrated with easily-understood maps. There is an introduction to hoverflies, 
their structure, biology and conservation. Then comes the main body of the book with 
its species-by-species coverage of: number of records; Surrey and national status; flight 
times; peaks; followed by comments on the species, its associations, locations and type 
of habitat in the country, flowers visited, records; tetrad distribution map. 

One of the interesting developments has been the change from pure recording to a 
much more comprehensive look at the life of the various species. The most noticeable 
here is the inclusion of much data on which flowers are visited by the hoverflies. 

This book is a great effort and it can only be hoped that the recording continues in 
this disciplined manner and in due course an up-dated and expanded version will be 
produced. It is to be recommended to anyone who is interested in hoverflies. I hope that 
other counties will be moved to produce such studies in the same methodical detail. 

Robin Williams 



56 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

EDITORIAL 

Instructions to authors 

It has been some years since "Instructions to authors" have been given and this 
issue presents (inside back cover) an updated version. Some particular changes have 
been discussed at Council. A short Abstract is now required for main articles. 
Perhaps a more fundamental change is to request that journal titles in the references 
are given in full. There has been no update of the "World List of abbreviations" for 
many years and none appears to be in preparation. (It is also a work probably few 
have access to.) At the same time there has been a wide variety of new journals 
without agreed abbreviations. Even agreed abbreviated versions were rarely followed 
anyway! Many Journals have adopted the use of the full titles and an increasing 
number of articles are submitted in this way. There were some misgivings that full 
titles would lead to longer papers and waste of space. A detailed analysis of the 
articles published in Volume 1 1 of the British Journal of Entomology and Natural 
History and the extra space needed for full titles showed that very few extra lines 
would be needed. The majority of these extra lines would be accommodated within 
the present page layout (i.e. there was already a little space on the same page). I hope 
that prospective authors will not find it too difficult to include the full titles of 
Journals. I should be able to assist with any that might cause problems. 

SOCIETY'S WEBSITE 

http://www.benhs.org.uk 

I hope that members with internet access have checked what is available at the new 
website address (transferred from its earlier site). Many may just wish to check 
Society details and news but it is also just the starting point for investigating the 
astonishing amount of entomological information that is now available. One site that 
might be looked at is 'Gordon's Entomological Home Page' (www.insect.world.com). 
There you will find over 200 separate files dealing with a huge diversity of topics in 
great detail and with useful bibliographies. There are now also some sites covering 
online catalogues to collections and even those listing humorous scientific names 
(http://www.best.com/~atta/taxonomy.html). Something for everyone in fact and 
with local call lines at around £2 an hour cheaper than some other pastimes! 

Articles still required 

As members will have noticed the last issue of Volume 1 1 combined parts 3 and 4. 
This was an attempt to catch up and provide a better schedule for issues in 1999. It 
was also a response to the lack of articles under consideration for a time last year. I 
am pleased to say that a number of articles has been submitted in the past months 
and the next issue is almost ready for typesetting. However, there is a continued need 
for articles, short communications and also field meetings reports. Perhaps only half 
of the field meetings that are organised by the Society are reported on. Reports need 
not be long but they do mark the event. 



BRITISH JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY 

Instructions to Authors 

Papers and short communications published in the British Journal of Entomology 
and Natural History are intended to reflect the interests of the membership, but 
manuscripts from non-members are also welcome. All aspects of invertebrate biology 
are covered although priority will be given to British and Palaearctic insects. 
Contributions dealing with conservation are welcomed. 

General: Contributions should be double spaced on one side of A4 paper, with 
3 cm margins either side to allow for marking up. Layout should follow Journal style 
for either articles or short communications. Apart from scientific names, which may 
be either underlined or given in italic, no other marks should be made to define the 
typeface. 

Three copies of the text and figures are required; the additional copies may be 
photocopies. 

Disk copies of the text are invited only upon acceptance. Guidance on format will 
be given as required. 

Nomenclature: use the most up-to-date available. Include the Order in the title and 
family or subfamily where appropriate. After the first use of a specific scientific name 
give the author's name, which should not be abbreviated except for Linnaeus as L. 
and Fabricius as Fab. Where required these should be placed in parentheses. This 
should apply not only to insect names but to the names of plants, non-insect 
invertebrates and other animals. 

Abstract: A short abstract should be provided describing the nature of the results. 

Figures and Tables: Line figures and half tones are accepted. Size of lettering, 
thickness of lines and density of shading, stippling and hatching must take into 
account likely reduction to fit into the Journal page size. Colour illustrations may be 
accepted where they add to the text: please contact the Editor. In the text use the 
abbreviations Fig. e.g. Fig. 2; and Figs e.g. Figs 3-6. 

Tables should be prepared on separate sheets; avoid vertical lines, use horizontal 
lines sparingly. Legends for figures and tables should be given on a separate sheet. 

References: In the text, references should be given as author and date (e.g. Allan. 
1947); multiple references should be given in date order; where there are more than 
three authors they should be cited e.g. Jones et ai, 1996. References should be given 
in alphabetical order at the end of the article. Journal titles should be given in full. 
Examples: 

Allan, P.B.M. 1947. A moth-hunters gossip. 2nd edn. Watkins and Doncaster. London. 149 pp. 
Baker, P. 1994. The modified status of Strymonidia w-albwn (Knoch) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) 

in north west Surrey. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 7: 25-26. 
Jones, R. A. 1994. [Bilobed inflorescences of Plantago lanceolata L. Exhibit at BENHS Annual 

Exhibition 1993.] British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 7: 179 
Stubbs, A. E. 1987. O.xycera dives. In Shirt. D. B. (Ed.) British red data books: 2 Insects. Nature 

Conservancy Council, Peterborough, pp. 304-305. 
Stubbs,, A. E. & Falk, S. J. 1983. British hoverfiies: an illustrated identification guide. BENHS. 

London, pp. 191-192. 

Offprints: Authors of main articles receive 25 free offprints taken directly from the 
Journal. These may contain other matters such as short communications or book 
reviews used as 'fillers". Extra copies may be ordered when proofs are returned. 

Whilst all reasonable care is taken of manuscripts and other material, neither the 
Editor nor the Society can accept responsibility for any loss or damage. 



BRITISH JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY 
VOLUME 12, PART 1, APRIL 1999 

ARTICLES 

1 The Aculeate wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of the Ainsdale-Formby sand dunes 

on the Lancashire coast compared with other northern sites. M. E. Archer 
1 1 Ophiomvia gnapluilii Hering (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Antewuiria dioicu in Scotland. 

K. P. Bland 
13 Nest desertion by blackbirds following defoliation of an ash tree by sawfly larvae. 

R. A. Cheke & N. D. Springate 
17 Observations on rearing Luffia spp. (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) under controlled environmental 

conditions, with taxonomic notes. L Sims 

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS 

16 Observations of some uncommon dung beetles. J. Denton 

25 Crossocerus vagabwulus (Panzer) (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) in Wales. P. M. Pavett 
29 Rearing Dahlica triquetrella (Hiibner) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). I. Sims 

33 Pleiirophorus caesus (Creutzer) (Col.: Scarabaeidae: Psammobiini) imported into 

Cambridgeshire. B. C. Eversham 
40 Agrilus sinuatus (Olivier) (Col.: Buprestidae) new to Wales. K. N. A. Alexander 

40 Hypuhis quercuuis (Quensel) (Col.: Melandryidae) new to Gloucestershire. 
K. N. A. Alexander 

PROCEEDINGS AND TRANSACTIONS 

33 BENHS Indoor Meetings: April-October 1998 

41 BENHS Field Meeting Reports 

REPORTS AND REQUESTS 

26 Annual UK Dipterists Meeting, 14-15 November 1998, National Museums and Galleries of 
Wales, Cardiff. D. Clements 

31 Call for assistance with a new survey of the social wasps of Britain and Ireland for 1999/2000 
56 Editorial 

BOOK REVIEWS 

52 Aquatic insects of North Europe — A taxonomic handbook: Vol. 2 ed by A Nilsson. 
D. Clements 

53 Checkered Beetles by R. Gerstmeier. B. Levey 

53 Somerset Hoverflies by E. T. & D. A. Levy. P. Chandler 
55 Hoverflies of Surrey by R. K. A. Morris. R. Williams 



AUGUST 1999 

\ 



ISSN 0952-7583 



Vol. 12, Part 2 



BRITISH JOURNAL OF 

ENTOMOLOGY 

AND NATURAL HISTORY 




^^#™«o,„^ 







BRITISH JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY 

Published by the British Entomological and Natural History Society 

and incorporating its Proceedings and Transactions 

Editor: M. Wilson, Ph.D., F.R.E.S., F.L.S. Department of Biodiversity & Systematic Biology, 
National Museums & Galleries of Wales, Cardiff CFl 3NP. {Tel: 01222 573263, Fax: 01222 
239009) email: Mike. Wilson(nmmgw. ac.uk. 

Associate Editor: Richard A. Jones, B.Sc, F.R.E.S., F.L.S. 135 Friern Road, East Dulwich, 
London SE22 OAZ. 

Editorial Committee: 

D. J. L. Agassiz, M.A„ Ph.D., F.R.E.S. T. G. Howarth, B.E.M., F.R.E.S. 

R. D. G. Barrington, B.Sc. L F. G. McLean, Ph.D., F.R.E.S 

P. J. Chandler, B.Sc, F.R.E.S. M. J. Simmons, M.Sc. 

B. Goater, B.Sc, M.LBiol. P. A. Sokoloff, M.Sc, C.Biol., M.LBiol., F.R.E.S. 

A. J. Halstead, M.Sc, F.R.E.S. T. R. E. Southwood, K.B., D.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

R. D. Hawkins, M.A. R. W. J. Uffen, M.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

P. J. Hodge B. K. West, B.Ed. 



British Journal of Entomology and Natural History is published by the British Entomological and 
Natural History Society, Dinton Pastures Country Park, Davis Street, Hurst, Reading, Berkshire 
RGIO OTH, UK. Tel: 01189-321402. The Journal is distributed free to BENHS members. 

© 1999 British Entomological and Natural History Society. 

Typeset by Dobbie Typesetting Limited, Tavistock, Devon. 
Printed in England by Henry Ling Ltd, Dorchester, Dorset. 

BRITISH ENTOMOLOGICAL AND NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 
Registered charity number: 213149 

Meetings of the Society are held regularly in London, at the rooms of the Royal Entomological 
Society, 41 Queen's Gate, London SW7 and the well-known ANNUAL EXHIBITION is 
planned for Saturday 27 November 1999 at Imperial College, London SW7. Frequent Field 
Meetings are held at weekends in the summer. Visitors are welcome at all meetings. The current 
Programme Card can be had on application to the Secretary, J. Muggleton, at the address given 
below. 

The Society maintains a library, and collections at its headquarters in Dinton Pastures, which 
are open to members on various advertised days each month, telephone 01189-321402 for the 
latest meeting news. The Society's web site is: http://www.BENHS.org.uk 
Applications for membership to the Membership Secretary: A. Godfrey, 90 Bence Lane, Darton, 
Barnsley, South Yorkshire S75 5DA. 

Subscriptions and changes of address to the Membership Secretary: R. D. Hawkins, 30d 
Meadowcroft Close, Horley, Surrey RH6 9EL. 

Non-arrival of the Journal, faulty copies or other problems arising from distribution of the 
Journal or notices to the Distribution Secretary: D. Young, 9 Marten Place, Tilehurst, Reading, 
Berkshire RG31 6FB. 

Orders for books and back numbers of the Journal and Proceedings to the Sales Secretary: G. 
Boyd, 91 Fullingdale Road, Northampton NN3 2PZ. Tel: 01604 410056. 
General Enquiries to the Secretary: J. Muggleton, 30 Penton Road, Staines, Middlesex TW18 
2LD. Tel: 01784-464537. email: jmuggleton(a compuserve.com 

Cover illustration: Solitary bee, Amirena flavipes female, photo: R. Williams. 

NOTE: The Editor invites submission of photographs for black and white reproduction on the 
front covers of the journal. The subject matter is open, with an emphasis on aesthetic value 
rather than scientific novelty. Submissions can be in the form of colour or black and white 
prints or colour transparencies. 



BR. J ENT NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 ; 

THE TAWNY MINING BEE, ANDRENA FUL VA (MULLER) 

(HYMENOPTERA, ANDRENINAE), AT A SOUTH WALES FIELD 

SITE AND ITS ASSOCIATED ORGANISMS: HYMENOPTERA, 

DIPTERA, NEMATODA AND STREPSIPTERA 

Robert J. Paxton' & Hans Pohl- 

^Zoologisches Institut, Universitdt Tubingen. Auf der Morgenstelle 28, D-72076 Tubingen, 

Germany 
^Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt, Zoologische Abteihmg. Friedensplat: 1 , D-64283 

Darmstadt, Germany 



Abstract The fossorial solitary bee Andrena fulva was studied at one of its nesting 
aggregations in Cardiff, South Wales, and rates of parasitism by its natural enemies 
(Hymenoptera, Nomada panzeri; Diptera, Bombylius major, Leucophora obtusa) were 
quantified over six years. This was done by placing nets over the previous year's nest 
entrances and collecting all host bee offspring and associated organisms as they first 
emerged in spring, and by dissecting host bees and their associated organisms. 
Cleptoparasitism by the cuckoo bee A'^. panzer i averaged 18% (ie 18% of A. fulva 
offspring were replaced by a A'^. panzeri offspring). Other natural enemies were 
seemingly of lesser prevalence {B. major: 3% parasitism; L. obtusa: 3% 
cleptoparasitism). Numerical sex ratios of host and parasites did not differ from 
1:1. First instar exuviae of Stylops melittae were positively identified within the 
haemocoel of one A^. panzeri female. This is the first report of any stage of a 
strepsipteran within a nomadiine bee. However, there was no evidence of S. melittae 
adults in either A. fulva or A^. panzeri, suggesting that both bee species were 
inadequate hosts for S. melittae at this field site in S. Wales. 

Introduction 

Andrena comprises a large genus of ground-nesting bees with a primarily Holarctic 
distribution (Michener, 1979). Approximately 65 species of Andrena are found in 
Britain (Fitton et al., 1978). Some of these are relatively common members of our 
spring fauna, though in a recent review over half of the British Andrena species were 
considered scarce or threatened (Falk, 1991). One member of the genus, Andrena 
fulva (Miiller) ( = Andrena armata (Gmelin)) (Hymenoptera, Andreninae), a 
harbinger of spring, may nest in dense aggregations in lawns of city parks and 
gardens in England and Wales (an aggregation existed up to the 1990s immediately 
in front of the Natural History Museum, London) as well as in Central Europe (e.g. 
Klausnitzer, 1976; Gusenleitner, 1985). A nesting female produces a characteristic 
miniature 'volcano' of soil, a tumulus, above its nest entrance (Fig. 1). Its nesting 
habits and locations, along with its deep red dorsal covering of hair, mean that 
A. fulva is commonly encountered and recognized. 

Bees and their nests are known to host a wide range of associated insects, 
particularly from the orders Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera, some parasitic 
and others commensal (e.g. Batra, 1965; Paxton et al., 1996). Yet, despite the 
abundance and accessibility to observation of A. fulva, surprisingly little has been 
reported on its biology and associated organisms (cf. Gusenleitner, 1985). It is 
known to be the sole host of the rare cleptoparasitic bee Nomada signata Jurine 
(Hymenoptera, Anthophorinae) (Westrich, 1989) and to be one of several hosts of 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 




Fig. 1. An Andrena fuha female (wing length circa 10 mm) emerges from its tunnel entrance 
around which there is a tumulus or 'volcano' of soil, material that she has removed from her 
nest during its construction. Photo: RJP (with permission, I BRA). 



another cleptoparasite bee, Nomada panzeri Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Anthophor- 
inae) (Richards, 1946; Gusenleitner, 1985). 

Strepsiptera comprise an order of 550 plus described species that are 
entomophagous endoparasites, attacking members of the following taxa: Zygento- 
ma, Mantodea, Blattodea, Ensifera, CaeJifera, Sternorrhyncha, Auchenorrhyncha, 
Heteroptera, Hymenoptera, and Diptera (Kinzelbach, 1978; Kathirithamby, 1989). 
Though they have a worldwide distribution and have for long attracted the attention 
of entomologists, they remain an understudied and enigmatic group. Their sexual 
dimorphism is extreme. The winged, short-lived males have a bizarre appearance 
whilst females are larviform and neotenic, most species remaining embedded within 
the abdomen or gaster of their hosts. A strepsipteran larva has a planidial primary 
larval stage that subsequently develops as an internal parasite of the juvenile stages 
of a host (Kinzelbach, 1978; Kathirithamby, 1989). Species identification, 
particularly of females, is difficult. Even the taxonomic position of the order is 
unclear, and has been debated since its erection by Kirby in 1813. The group was 
earlier considered to be related to, even a part of, the Coleoptera (Crowson, 1981; 
Lawrence & Newton. 1995). Kristensen (1991) suggested that the Strepsiptera are not 
members of the Endopterygota; he placed them as "Neoptera incertae sedis". 
Molecular phylogenetic analyses have more recently suggested that the Stepsiptera 
and Diptera are sister clades and therefore probably more closely related (Chalwatzis 
et al., 1996; Whiting et al., 1997). 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 



Members of the stylopid genus Stylops are parasites of bees of the genus Andrena 
(Kinzelbach, 1978). Though Stylops are only sporadically encountered, they can be 
locally common, and have been implicated in the demise of nesting aggregations of 
their Andrena hosts (Theobald, 1892). Given the difficulties of stylopid species 
identification, little is known of their host specificity, though it is clear that some Stylops 
species can parasitize more than one Andrena species (Bohart, 1936; Kinzelbach, 1978; 
Pohl & Melber, 1996). Differences in the proportions of the female cephalothoraces, in 
the shape of the aedeagi of the males, and in the first instar larvae indicate that S. 
melittae from the Western Palaearctic is not a homogenous species (Kinzelbach, 1978; 
Borchert, 1963; Pohl, 1998), though the precise species status of morphologically 
disparate specimens is not clear. For this reason, we follow Kinzelbach (1978), who 
synonymized all described Stylops species from the Western Palaearctic. 

Our study was designed to document the organisms associated with A.fulva at one 
of its nesting aggregations in the suburbs of Cardiff, Glamorgan, S. Wales, and to 
quantify rates of parasitism of its natural enemies. During the study, first instar 
larval stages of Stylops melittae Kirby 1802 (Strepsiptera, Stylopidae) were 
encountered in A'^. panzer i, a cleptoparasite of A. fulva; this is the first report of 
any stage of a Stylops found within a nomadiine bee. 

Material and methods 

Andrena fulva nests are often aggregated in a spatially discrete area of apparently 
suitable ground and, though the species is univoltine, with adults living but a few 
weeks in spring, aggregations persist over many years (Gusenleitner, 1985). Andrena 
fulva was studied for six consecutive years (1988-1993) at one such aggregation in 
Cardiff (field site 'Heol Don\ ST149797). 

The life cycle of A. fulva is typical of other vernal Andrena species; adults 
overwinter underground within their natal cells then emerge in the following spring, 
males to mate and females to provision their own offspring with self-collected pollen 
and nectar (Westrich, 1989). Each female constructs her own brood cells at the end of 
her own self-dug tunnel into the ground. Bees were collected as they first emerged 
from their natal cells in spring using cages of fine nylon netting (emergence traps) 
placed over the entrances of the previous year's nests (Fig. 2). Offspring generally 
first emerge in spring through their natal tunnel rather than excavating a new gallery 
from their natal cell to the soil surface. 

Emergence traps were put out over individual nests in spring, well before the 
emergence of any bees, and they were examined one or more times per day 
throughout the emergence and flight period. All host bees and any associated 
organisms emerging from A. fulva nests into emergence traps were recorded and 
either released immediately or returned to the laboratory for further study. 
Emergence trap data provide one means of quantifying rates of parasitism for 
those brood parasites that have a life cycle and spring emergence behaviour similar 
to those of their host. Little is known of the Hfe cyle of some of the Diptera 
associated with A. fulva at Heol Don and their mode of egress from host cells and 
nests in spring. Therefore the use of emergence traps may give only an approximate 
estimate of the importance of these organisms as putative parasites of A. fulva. 

All emerging bees were examined visually for the presence of Strepsiptera 
protruding through their gasters, namely female cephalothoraces or male puparia. 
Additionally, some males and females of both A.fulva and A^. panzeri were dissected 
under insect saline and their gastral tissues examined with the aid of a binocular 
microscope ( x 40 magnification) for the presence of internal parasites, including 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 



netting ,^ 



metal ring 



•* *. tumulus of excavated soil 
*.' ,,. metal ring 




Fig. 2. Cross-sectional view of an Andrena fulva nest in spring with emergence trap /// situ to 
collect all emerging offspring and associated organisms. 

Strepsiptera. Other adults of A. fulva and N. panzeri were collected from Heol Don 
after emergence, visually inspected, and then dissected and also examined for 
parasites. 



Results and discussion 

The host bee, Andrena fulva 

A total of 402 A. fulva was collected from emergence traps across the six years of 
their use at Heol Don, with a numerical sex ratio not significantly different from 1 : 1 
(X" = 0.020, df=l, n.s.; Table 1). Generally, a non-biased sex investment ratio is 



Table 1. Numbers of host Andrena fulva bees and their natural enemies collected from 
emergence traps across six years at Heol Don, Cardiff. The per cent parasitism by natural 
enemies assumes that one host bee is replaced by one enemy. 





role 


number of adults 


emerging 




species 


females 


males 


un 


known 


% parasitism 


Andrena fulva 
Nomada panzeri 
Bombylius major 
Leucophora oblusa 
Brachicoma devia 
Fannia hamata 


host bee 

cleptoparasitic bee 
parasitic fly 
cleptoparasitic fly 
? parasitic fly 
? parasitic fly 


203 
44 

7 
7 
1 


199 
51 

5 
8 

1 


4 

1 




17.9% 
3.0% 
3.0% 
0.4% 

0.2% 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 



expected in solitary insects such as A.fulva, though the sex ratio varies from male- 
biased through to female-biased in other solitary bees (Crozier & Pamilo, 1996). 



The cuckoo bee, Nomada panzeri 

The cuckoo bee A'^. panzeri (Fig. 3) was abundant at Heol Don, where A.fulva 
represented its major host. It was often seen to enter burrows of A. fiilva. 
Nomada signata, though found elsewhere in Cardiff (RJP, pers. obs.), was never 
encountered at Heol Don. Like its host, A'^. panzeri is univoltine and overwinters 
as an adult, ready to emerge in the following spring in the same fashion as its 
host, through the host mother's tunnel entrance. In addition to A. fulva, 95 
N. panzeri were collected from emergence traps; the numerical sex ratio of the 
cuckoo bee at emergence was also not significantly different from 1:1 (x" = 0.260, 
df=l, n.s., Table 1). 

One or more Nomada females lay eggs within host cells, only one of which survives 
to consume the host egg or larva and the provisions of pollen and nectar which its 
host mother had stored in its cell (Westrich, 1989). Thus one, and only one, Nomada 
offspring can develop within a host cell, always replacing the host offspring (Rozen, 
1991). Assuming one individual of all other parasites collected in the emergence traps 
likewise replaced one host offspring, parasitism of A. fulva brood cells by A^. panzeri 
can be calculated to have averaged out at 17.9% across the six years of study. 




Fig. 3. A Nomada panzeri female (wing length circa 8 mm), a common cleptoparasitic bee of 
Andrena fulva at Heol Don, sits ominously over a tunnel of its host. Photo: RJP. 



62 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

Though a well known cleptoparasite of A. fulva and other members of the genus 
Andrena (Richards, 1946), the rate of parasitism by N. panzeri has not previously 
been quantified. Clearly, cleptoparasitism by A^. panzeri represents a considerable 
cost to its host, A. fulva, at Heol Don. 

Dipteran associates 

Female bee flies, Bombylius major Linnaeus (Diptera, Bombyliidae), were 
occasionally observed over the Heol Don nesting aggregation, hovering 5- 15 cm 
above A. fulva nest entrances and flicking dust-covered eggs towards the ground with 
a bobbing motion of the apex of the abdomen. Such oviposition behaviour is typical 
of bee flies (e.g. Andrietti et al., 1997; Stubbs, 1997), whose larvae (planidia) crawl to 
underground host bee cells where they consume host larvae or prepupae (Bohart et 
al., 1960). Bombylius major is thought to be a parasite of numerous fossorial bee 
species (Askew, 1971). Empty exuviae of B. major were often found protruding 
above the soil surface within the nesting aggregation at Heol Don, suggesting that 
their owners had parasitised A. fulva cells beneath. Excavation of one A. fulva nest at 
Heol Don revealed two larvae of B. major within host cells, thus confirming this bee 
fly as a parasite of A. fulva. Interestingly, both bee flies required two years to reach 
adulthood, suggesting they may have a two- or multi-year life cycle, as also seems to 
be the case for B. major parasitizing Andrena scotica Perkins 1916 in Sweden (Paxton 
et ai, 1996). 

Estimating the rate of parasitism by B. major of A. fulva has three complications. 
Firstly, it is not known whether just one host bee larva/prepupa suffices for the 
development of a bee fly or whether several are required (see Batra, 1965). Secondly, 
bee fly larvae make their exit from subterranean host cells not through the host 
mother's tunnel but more Hkely by burrowing vertically upwards through the soil 
immediately above a host cell using large proximal and distal spines (e.g. Bohart et 
al., 1960). Thirdly, as suggested above, B. major most likely has a multi-year life cyle, 
a feature which may be common in temperate bombyliids (Bohart et al., 1960). They 
are therefore unlikely to be captured within emergence traps placed over the previous 
year's host nests. The 3.0% parasitism of A. fulva offspring by B. major (Table 1) is 
therefore probably a large underestimate. Other bombyliids are considered to inflict 
greater brood mortality on their host bees (e.g. at least 5.8% for a halictid bee. 
Packer, 1988). The numerical sex ratio of B. major at emergence was not significantly 
different from 1:1 (x- = 0.168, df= 1, n.s.). 

The sateUite fly Leucophora obtusa (Zetterstedt) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) was 
often encountered around the nesting aggregation of A. fulva at Heol Don, and it 
has been previously recorded following A. fulva in Britain (Copeman, 1921; 
described therein as Hammomyia (Hylephila) unilineata Zett.). At Heol Don, a 
female satellite fly would pursue a female A. fulva returning to its nest carrying 
pollen provisions, 'shadowing' the host bee in flight by a distance of 
approximately 5-10 cm until the host entered its nest. Leucophora obtusa then 
followed one of two approaches to gain access to the bee's nest and, presumably, 
to oviposit within it. Either it would immediately follow the host bee into its nest 
(Fig. 4). presumably to inspect the nest's contents, reverse out of the nest, then 
re-enter the nest in reverse, presumably to oviposit. Alternatively, it would sit 
motionless at 2-6 cm distance from the host nest, head pointed at its entrance. 
After approximately 20-30 minutes, the host bee usually re-emerged and flew 
away on another pollen or nectar provisioning flight, whereupon the satellite fly 
ran up to the host nest, inspected it and oviposited within it as described above. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 




Fig. 4. A female of the anthomyiid satellite fly Leucophora obtusa (wing length circa 5 mm) 
enters head first a tunnel of its host, Andrerui ftilva, at Heol Don, possibly to inspect its contents. 
Photo: RJP (with permission, Entomologisk Tidskrift). 



Though other Leucophora species are known to 'shadow' other presumed host bee 
or wasp species, there is little information on their oviposition strategies with 
which to compare these observations of L. obtusa (see Paxton et al., 1996). 
Certainly L. obtusa has been reported to parasitise several Andrena species 
(Hennig, 1976). 

Satellite fly larvae eat the pollen mass with which host bee larvae have been 
provisioned (Hennig, 1976); they are cleptoparasites. Leucophora obtusa offspring 
probably emerge from overwintering through their host's tunnel and collect in 
emergence traps. Assuming L. obtusa has the same life cycle as that of A. fulva, its 
rate of parasitism was low at Heol Don, at an estimated 3.0% (Table 1). It is likely 
that more than one L. obtusa could have developed on the provision mass of one host 
bee cell (see Knerer & Atwood, 1967) and therefore the estimate of 3.0% may itself 
be an overestimate. For other bee species, Leucophora cleptoparasitism has been 
shown to be higher (e.g. 7.2% for one population of halictid bees in the USA, 
Eickwort et al., 1996). The numerical sex ratio of L. obtusa at emergence was not 
significantly different from 1:1 (x'^ = 0.125, df=l, n.s.). 

Two other fly species were collected in very low numbers from emergence traps 
(Table 1). Brachicoma devia Fallen (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) is a known parasite of 
bumble bee larvae (Alford, 1975). Fannia hamata Macquart (Diptera, Fanniidae) 
larvae are commensal in wasp {Vespula spp.) nests (Spradbery, 1973); other Fannia 
spp. larvae consume detritus in wasp and bumble bee nests (Spradbery, 1973; Alford, 
1975). It is not clear whether these irregular associates of A. fulva nests were indeed 
parasites of the bee's brood. 



64 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

Nematoda 

Dissection of 159 female and 9 male A. fulva revealed 3 mermithid nematodes, one 
in each of three female bees. Mermithids are generalist parasites of soil-dwelling 
insects and have been previously recorded as parasites of other fossorial bees (Batra, 
1965). No other organisms, such as diplogasterid nematodes (GibUn-Davis et al., 
1990; Erteld, 1995), were recorded in association with A. fulva. 



Strepsiptera 

All bees collected from emergence traps were without external signs of 
stylopisation. An additional 91 female and 73 male A. fulva and an additional 10 
female and 1 1 male A'^. panzeri, collected as free-flying adults from around Heol Don, 
showed no external signs of stylopisation. During casual observation, other adults of 
A. fulva and A'^. panzeri were never seen with external signs of stylopids at Heol Don 
across the six years of study. 

Dissection of 13 female and 6 male A'^. panzeri revealed 2-30 dark brown spheres 
approximately 1 mm-^ in diameter within the gastral haemocoels of three of the 
females, each of which had been collected from Heol Don as a free-flying adult. 
Spheres were brittle and opaque so their contents could not be determined. Careful 
inspection by microscopy ( x 400 magnification) of brown flecks in the adipose tissue 
of one of the females containing dark spheres revealed the exuviae of two first instar 
larvae of Stylops melittae (Fig. 5), each approximately 0.23 mm in body length, and 
lacking any internal structures. 

Only first instar exuviae of strepsipterans can be found in hosts because the second 
instar larva remains in its exuvia (Kathirithamby, 1989; H.P, pers. obs.). The 
encapsulation and melanisation of juvenile stage parasites by host insects is a well 
characterized immune response (Kraaijeveld & van Alphen, 1994). We hypothesize 
that the dark spheres that were found within A'^. panzeri haemocoels may represent 
encapsulated stylopids. 

Though there are several cases of errant first instar larvae of Strepsiptera been 
found in non-specific hosts (e.g. in a first instar larva in an aphid. Prior, 1976; or in a 
phlebotomid, Rageau, 1951), this is the first report of any stage of a Stylops having 
been found inside an insect other than an Andrena host. Given the small size of 
stylopid first instar larval exuviae and their location, embedded within gastral 
adipose tissue, it may be the case that stylopids in other dissected bees {A. fulva: 159 
females, 9 males; A'^. panzeri: 10 other females, 9 males) were overlooked in this study. 

How is it that exuviae of stylopid first instar larvae were to be found inside 
N. panzeri adults? Primary larvae of Stylops are deposited onto flowers as host 
Andrena females, bearing a gravid Stylops female within their gasters, walk 
lethargically across blossoms (Linsley & MacSwain, 1957). Stylops larvae are 
assumed to climb onto other bees that subsequently visit the same flowers and are 
transported by them, possibly within the honey crop (Linsley & MacSwain, 1957; 
Batra, 1965). If the vector of the Stylops is a host female then, when the host bee is 
back at its nest, Stylops larvae climb onto or are deposited onto host provisions and 
subsequently enter the host egg or first instar larva to continue their own 
development (Linsley & MacSwain, 1957; Kathirithamby, 1989). For S. melittae 
to have been found within the haemocoelic tissue of A'^. panzeri adults implies that the 
stylopid first instar larvae must have entered a A'^. panzeri larva, presumably soon 
after it had itself consumed the original A. fulva egg or larva within a brood cell. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 




Fig. 5. An empty exuvia of a Stylops melittcie first instar larva within adipose tissue of an adult 
Nomada panzeri. Total length of exuvial cavity: 0.23 mm. The head capsule has become partially 
detached from the rest of the exuvia. Photo: HP. 

Each A^. panzeri carrying dark spheres, including the individual in which 
S. melittae first instar exuviae were positively identified, contained spermatozoa in 
its spermatheca and mature oocytes in its ovarioles, suggesting that all were 
reproductively active. Host Andrena bees containing mature Stylops females in their 
gasters are effectively sterile, mating but not producing mature oocytes nor 
provisioning cells within a nest (Smith & Hamm, 1914; Linsley & MacSwain, 
1957). It appears that A^. panzeri was an inadequate host for 5'. melittae. 

British A. fulva have occasionally been recorded as having been successfully 
stylopised by S. melittae (Perkins, 1892, 1918a,b; Kinzelbach, 1978). In Germany, 
A. fulva is also an often reported host of S. melittae (Ulrich, 1956; Borchert, 1963; 
Saure, 1994; Kuhlmann, 1998). Within Berlin, there is one supposed 'host race' of 
S. melittae which parasites only Andrena vaga Panzer (Borchert, 1963) despite the 
presence of A. fulva at the same location. At our Welsh field site, S. melittae 
parasitizes A. scotica, where hosts infected with female S. melittae visit the same 
blossoms as A. fulva females. That there was no evidence of Stylops imagines in 
A. fulva at Heol Don despite the existence of S. melittae within its cuckoo bee and in 
the local environment suggests that A. fulva, too, may be an inadequate host for this 
putative 'host race' of S. melittae at this field site. A considerable step forward in the 
systematics of Stylops species can only be made with greater series of males and first 
instar larvae derived from different host bees. 



Acknowledgements 

Many thanks go to the Gillard Family for their generosity, encouragement and 
permission to work in their garden, to Dr John Deeming (National Museum of 
Wales, CardifO for the identification of flies and enthusiasm over matters dipteran, 
to Profs. Robert Pickard and Mike Claridge (Cardiff University) for facilities and 



66 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

support, to Prof. Kinzelbach (University of Rostock) for information about 
Strepsiptera, and to Dr David Hunt (CAB Institute of Parasitology) for 
identification of mermithid nematodes. We also thank the referee and editor for 
comments on the manuscript. 



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68 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

SHORT COMMUNICATION 

Aggregation behaviour in Philonthus cognatus Stephens (Col,: Staphylinidae), at 
Burnt Wood, Staffordshire — On the morning of 3 and 4. ix.l998 whilst undertaking a 
survey of the epigaeal beetle fauna at Burnt Wood, Staffordshire (SJ736534), I 
observed a mass aggregation of beetles, Philonthus cognatus (Col.: Staphylinidae), on 
the low vegetation adjacent to one of the rides bordering an area of coniferous 
plantation woodland {Pinus sp.). Walking a 30 m transect along the ride I recorded 
616 of what appeared to be, and later proved to be, individuals of the same species of 
staphylinid beetle at rest on low vegetation. They were aggregated at a height of no 
more than 40 cm, particularly on Rubus fruticosus, Dryopteris affinis and the low 
sward of mixed common grasses, with some individual pieces of vegetation yielding 
between 40-50 individuals. 

Even the slightest contact with the vegetation initiated a mass escape response 
whereby all the beetles spontaneously dropped to the ground amongst the dense 
vegetation. Adding these escapees to the recorded figure would produce an estimate 
of numbers in excess of one thousand along this transect. This aggregation behaviour 
was also observed at two other locations within the reserve, one on the opposite side 
of the ride, and one on an adjoining ride, giving an overall estimate in excess of 2,500 
individuals. These figures were surprising as in the previous three months, whilst 
pitfall trapping a number of areas within the reserve, the overall total of carabid, and 
staphylinid beetles trapped had numbered less than 500 individuals. 

Aggregation behaviour has been observed in other staphylinid species on the 
continent, particularly in Stenus spp., with occurrences also recorded for some 
Aleocharinae and Omaliinae (Lecoq, 1991, 1993; Orousset, 1993). Agonum dorsale 
Pontoppidan (Col.: Carabidae) have also been observed in aggregations, over- 
wintering in the base of hedgerows in the south of England (N. Sotherton, pers. 
comm.). and although as yet there is no positive evidence as to why this occurs, it is 
possible that an aggregation pheromone is responsible for initiating this behaviour. 
However, this did not appear to be a typical overwintering aggregation, and the lack 
of physical contact between individuals suggests that this was not mating behaviour 
either. P. cogttatus are however voracious predators of aphid species (Dennis & 
Wratten, 1991) and therefore it is possible that this aggregation is linked to prey 
searching behaviour, although there is as yet no evidence to support this hypothesis, 
leaving this behaviour, to date, unexplained. Thanks to Jonathan Webb of the 
Staffordshire Wildlife Trust for his assistance in confirming the beetle determina- 
tion.— Philip J. Smith, 437 Stone Road, Trentham, Stoke-on-Trent ST4 8NG & 
Mark R. Webb, Biology Division, School of Sciences, Staffordshire University, 
College Road, Stoke-on-Trent ST4 2DE. 

References 

Dennis, P. & Wratten, S. D. 1991. Field Manipulation of Populations of Individual Staphylinid 

Species in Cereals and Their Impact on Aphid Populations. Ecological Entomology 16(1): 

17-24. 
Lecoq, J. -CI. 1991. Observation d'un Comportement Rare Chez un Staphylin: Le Gregarisme 

(Col.: Staphylinidae). L'Entomologiste 47 (3): 173. 
Lecoq, J. -CI. 1993. Gregarisme des Staphylins: Suite (Col.; Staphylinidae). L'Entomologiste 49 

(1): 38. 
Orousset, J. 1993. Note De Chasse. Compliments D'Information Concernant le "Gregarisme" 

Chez les Staphylins. Bulletin de Liaison de L' Association des Coleopteristes de la Region 

Pahsienne, 17th Septembre 1993, 17: 50. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 69 

THOMAS VERNON WOLLASTON AND THE MADEIRAN 
BUTTERFLY FAUNA— A RE-APPRAISAL 

Michael A. Salmon 

Avon Lodge, Woodgreen. New Forest, Hampshire SP6 2AU. 

Andrew Wakeham-Dawson 

Mill Laine Farm. Offliam. Lewes, East Sussex BN7 3QB. 

Abstract. In 1847, the British entomologist T. V. Wollaston visited Madeira and 
commenced a study of the invertebrate fauna of that island. He returned several 
times and his work culminated in the publication of Insecta Maderensia in 1854. Two 
years later he published On the Variation of Species with especial reference to the 
Insects, a text which clearly anticipated On the Origin of Species by means of Natural 
Selection by his friend Charles Darwin. Although Wollaston made only a small 
collection of Madeiran butterflies, he is remembered by the endemic subspecies of 
Pieris brassicae L. that bears his name. The present authors visited Madeira on a 
number of occasions during the period May 1997-August 1998 to survey 
Lepidoptera in the Parque Ecologico do Funchal, part of a long-term project to 
provide information for a field guide to the Lepidoptera of the park. This paper is an 
extension of that survey and presents data on all the Madeiran butterflies. 

Introduction 

'The island being resorted to by so many invalids,' wrote Professor Henry 
Moseley, on visiting Madeira in 1872 (Moseley, 1880), 'the cemetery forms a 
conspicuous feature in the scenery.' With this statement the scene is set, for almost 
150 years ago the young T. V. Wollaston (1822-1878) Fig. 1, an ailing consumptive 
of 25 summers, first set sail for Madeira in the hope that constant sunlight and an 
equable climate might result in a cure for his tuberculosis. However, the truth is that 
few such individuals survived long. In travelling south, Wollaston was merely 
following that long line of Victorian invalids despatched overseas by doctors who 
were, themselves, unable to offer any effective treatment. Indeed, there was Uttle 
hope of a cure, for the days of definitive anti-tuberculous medication were yet to 
come, but Wollaston, initially at least, did rather well. He was so taken by the beauty 
of the island, the friendliness of its inhabitants and the starthng mountain scenery, 
that he returned on a number of occasions. While there he seized every opportunity 
to further his interest in entomology, and three prolonged visits to that island, 
undertaken at different periods of the year, supplied the basis for the most important 
of his written works — the monumental Insecta Maderensia (1854). This quarto 
volume of 677 pages was illustrated with exquisite coloured drawings by Professor 
J. O. Westwood FRS, and describes Madeiran insects in minute detail together with 
other works (e.g. Wollaston, 1858) (Fig. 2). 

All that happened a very long time ago, and since then a not inconsiderable 
number of other naturalists have also made their way to the North Atlantic Islands 
of Macaronesia and some of them have studied the butterfly fauna of Madeira. 
Indeed, for a country with less than 20 butterfly species Madeira would appear to 
have received a great deal of attention. Many of these later authors, however, wrote 
little more about the entomology of Madeira and its neighbouring islands, Porto 
Santo and the Ilhas do Desertas, than short annotated lists of the species recorded. 



70 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

and as far as the Coleoptera were concerned, such papers have often turned out to be 
no more than extensions of Wollaston's original works. So, was Wollaston an 
important figure and, if so, what did he actually achieve? 

WOLLASTON'S EARLY LIFE 

Thomas Vernon Wollaston was born on 9 March, 1822, at Scotter, Lincolnshire, 
the youngest son of Major Wollaston of Shenton Hall, Nuneaton. He was directly 
related to both William Wollaston (1659-1724), author of the Religion of Nature 
Delineated, and Dr William Hyde Wollaston FRS (1766 1828), the celebrated 
chemist who first discovered the metallic elements rhodium and palladium. Educated 
at the Grammar School, Bury St Edmunds, and Jesus College, Cambridge, he took 
his BA in 1845, and his MA in 1849. It was while at Cambridge that Wollaston first 
developed an interest in entomology, stimulated by the teaching and example of his 
mentors. Professor C. C. Babington FRS and, in particular, the Revd Hamlet Clark 
(1823-1867) (Fig. 3), a fellow undergraduate, who was elected Vice President of the 
Entomological Society of London in 1864. During his early years at Cambridge, 
Wollaston, with Hamlet Clark and the Revd J. F. Dawson organized collecting trips 
to the fens and Suffolk breckland. In 1843, Wollaston published his first 
entomological paper — a short account of the beetles found near Launceston — and 
it appears that from then onwards he was to devote most of his hfe to a continuous 
study of entomology and natural history. Under the guidance of Professor 
Babington and Hamlet Clark, Wollaston was soon elected a Fellow of the 
Cambridge Philosophical Society and then, in 1847, to Fellowship of the Linnean 
Society. Although his main interest was in the Coleoptera, Wollaston studied many 
other orders of insects as well as making studies of the botany of Madeira and its 
land shells. At least two species of Lepidoptera are named after him. There is Httle 
doubt that Wollaston's work on the North Atlantic Islands did much to stimulate 
others who were interested in the various endemic forms that inhabited them. What 
he achieved was to make people think. 

During his undergraduate days, Wollaston was opposed to the theory of evolution 
but later, as a friend of Charles Darwin, he came to accept that some forms which 
could hardly be regarded otherwise than as individual species might have a 
recognizable derivative origin. Wollaston admired Darwin for his accurate field 
observations, but his own observations convinced him that there was no evidence 
that one species ever evolved into another. He concluded that species were separately 
created according to some divine plan, the details of which could be elucidated by the 
study of natural history. He insisted that his thesis stemmed not from religious belief 
but from observation and application of the inductive scientific method (Cook, 
1995). In 1856, he published On the Variation of Species with especial reference to the 
Insects, a text which clearly anticipated Darwin's The Origin of Species by means of 
Natural Selection {\S59). 

Wollaston dedicated the work to his friend: "Whose researches, in various parts of 
the world, have added so much to our knowledge of Zoological geography." Darwin, 
in turn, sent him a complimentary copy of the Origin of Species. In spite of their 
conflicting views Wollaston and Darwin remained good friends, although the 
former's criticism of The Origin of Species clearly strained the relationship. Wollaston 
was quite unable to accept the central theme of Darwin's message (Anon, 1860). "A 
cold shuddering comes over us at what we are compelled to regard as a glorious non 
sequitur, and that, too, from premises which we cannot admit!" Darwin responded to 
this in a letter to his son William: "There was a rather fierce attack on it in Annals of 



BR J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 



Nat. History by my friend Wollaston. ... By Jove the Book has made row enough, & I 
shd [sic] now like to get on quietly with my work." Although Darwin would rather not 
have become involved he was provoked into retaliation. In July 1860, he wrote to 
Professor Westwood, who was attempting to raise money to purchase Wollaston's 
collections of Madeiran land and freshwater shells: "I have spent so much money lately 
that I am not willing to subscribe for the purchase of Wollaston's collections for your 
Museum."' (Burkhardt, et al. 1993). 

In the introductions to his various works on the fauna of the Atlantic islands 
Wollaston put forward his own hypothesis that the endemic Coleoptera could not be 
satisfactorily referred to any geographical area now existing, but rather to some 
Atlantic region of which they were the sole representatives of modern times. This 
view remained unchallenged until the latter half of the present century when a 
number of authors, including Mayr (1969), Bush (1975 and 1982), and Cain (1984), 
individually addressed the twin problems of evolution and speciation. More recently, 
Owen and Smith (1993a), who visited the North Atlantic Islands on a number of 
occasions, reviewed more than 300 publications on the butterfly fauna of 
Macaronesia, and postulated that this fauna consisted of four elements: a.) endemic 
taxa related to existing ones on the neighbouring continents; b.) relict endemic 
descendants of an extinct Saharan fauna; c.) recent (mostly post-fourteenth century) 
immigrants from Europe and East Africa; d.) cosmopolitan migrants. They 
suggested that an unknown but substantial number of species, mainly from 
Laurisilva which covered much of the island of Madeira, had probably become 
extinct since the islands were colonized by Europeans in the fourteenth century. They 
were able to show that the number of species and the number of endemic forms on 
each of the North Atlantic Islands were positively correlated with vegetation density 
and negatively correlated with distance from the nearest continent. 

Wollaston in Madeira 

Two years after graduation, during the autumn of 1847, Wollaston developed early 
symptoms of severe pulmonary disease. His doctors advised him to seek a milder 
chmate from the harsh British winter months ahead — advice that led him to 
convalesce in Madeira during the winter of 1847-1848. It was here that over the next 
few years, in spite of appalling ill health, he took every possible opportunity to study 
the entomology and natural history of the island. The result was the accumulation of 
a massive collection of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and other orders of insects, as well as 
the first scientific collection of Madeiran land shells. On his return to England, 
Wollaston agreed to continue convalescence but this time in the West Country. He 
left his elegant town house in Park Lane, London; purchased property in Devon; 
married the youngest daughter of a close friend; wrote a slim volume of poems — Lyra 
Devoniensis (1868); only to die a few years later, at the age of 57, of pulmonary 
haemorrhage, the consequence of tuberculosis. He was buried at Teignmouth, Devon. 

Madeira was not the only island that Wollaston visited. He seemed fascinated by 
islands, and visited, among others, the Canaries, the Cape Verdes, St Helena and 
Lundy. At each place he collected assiduously, his illness permitting, and produced 
detailed lists of species which included many that were new to science. In St Helena 
he specialized in the Cossonidae (Coleoptera), collecting from that island no less than 
54 separate species, and this interest ultimately led to the description of 255 new 
cossonid species — world-wide — which was approximately 180 more than all other 
coleopterists had achieved. Looking back to those far off times one is immediately 
struck by the strength of purpose that Wollaston showed while engaged in these 



72 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

Studies. His illness was at times so severe that he suffered an almost unremitting 
battle to keep going. He once wrote "The constant warfare between physical 
incapacity and will was a curious feature, even at Madeira, where half my work was 
actually written in bed, and when suffering more or less from bleeding of the lungs; 
or else while sitting in a chair in the garden, basking in the sunshine." But Wollaston 
was obviously made of stern stuff. In the preface to Insecta Maderensia he wrote, "In 
May of 1850,. . . having procured a tent, I again set sail for the island, — prepared to 
take up my abode, during the hotter period, in districts as yet but imperfectly 
explored; and by applying myself in good earnest (at elevations, moreover, difficult 
of access except at that pecuhar season), I conceived that I should be in a position, at 
the close of my third sojourn, to attempt a more lengthened and systematic treatise 
than I had at the beginning ventured to contemplate". 

During the 1850s, the expatriate community in Funchal was sizeable, (averaging 
around 500 adults in the summer months and 700 in winter (Nash, 1990), and 
Wollaston found within it a number of devoted friends. One of these, John Gray, a 
wealthy business man and amateur coleopterist, invited him to join his yacht, the 
Miranda, for excursions to remote parts of the island, and later to the Canaries 
archipelago and Cape Verde Islands. Among his companions on these trips was 
Richard Thomas Lowe, another Cambridge man and Chaplain to the Enghsh 
Church in Funchal. Revd Lowe was a keen naturalist, particularly interested in 
botany as well as the Mollusca. Unfortunately his practice of attempting to convert 
expatriate parishioners to the ways of the Roman Church led him into deep waters. 
When news of these heretic practices came to the ears of parliament. Lord 
Palmerston was provoked to announce that there was a 'scandal in Madeira.' He 
dispatched an envoy, the Archbishop of Cape Town, to Funchal at once, hoping that 
mediation might put an end to these 'vile practices.' The Archbishop, however, failed 
in his mission and Palmerston ordered Lowe's immediate resignation, an order that 
Lowe just as quickly rejected. Through all this Wollaston continued to support Lowe 
and, together, they organized further collecting trips to remote and inaccessible parts 
of the island. We wonder if the Archbishop of Cape Town was persuaded to develop 
an interest in the natural history of Madeira. 

Wollaston was totally captivated by the beauty of Madeira although, in 1854, 
journeys to the more central parts of the island must have been extremely difficult. 
Travel on horseback, tramping for hours over ill-defined rocky tracks into the 
evergreen Laurisilva, or attempting to land on the more remote parts of the coastHne 
were all fraught with danger, especially to a man so physically unfit but Wollaston 
revelled in the challenge and readily accepted the difficulties that beset him along the 
way. He may well have been mindful of the words of Charles Kingsley ( 1 8 1 9-1 875), a 
fellow naturalist and author of The Water Babies — indeed, these two would appear 
to have had much in common. "The naturalist," wrote Kingsley, should be "strong 
in body; able to haul a dredge, climb a rock, turn a boulder, walk all day, uncertain 
where he shall eat or rest; ready to face sun and rain, wind and frost, and to eat or 
drink thankfully anything, however coarse or meagre . . ." On his trips, Wollaston 
was usually accompanied by his wife, a knowledgeable lepidopterist, and Portuguese 
porters who were responsible for bringing daily supplies. He was able to describe in 
glowing terms the joys of camping out in wildest Madeira. There is something 
amazingly luxurious in betaking oneself to Tent-hfe, after months of confinement 
and annoyance (it may be entirely, — partially it must be) in the heat and noise of 
Funchal. We are then perhaps more than ever open to the favourable impressions of 
an alpine existence; — and who can adequately tell the ecstasy of a first encampment 
on these invigorating hills! To turn out, morning after morning, in the solemn 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 73 

Stillness of aerial forests, — where not a sound is heard, save ever and anon a 
woodman's axe in some far-off tributary ravine, or a stray bird hymning forth its 
matin song to the ascending sun; to feel the cool influence of the early dawn on the 
upward sward, and to mark the thin clouds of fleecy snow uniting gradually into a 
solid bank, — affording glimpses the while, as they join and separate, of the fair 
creation stretched out beneath; to smell the damp, cold vapour rising from the deep 
defiles around us, where vegetation is still rampant on primaeval rocks and new 
generations of trees are springing up, untouched by man, from the decaying carcases 
of the old ones; to listen in the still, calm evening air to the humming of the insect 
world (the most active tenants of these elevated tracts); and to mark, as the daylight 
wanes, the unnumbered orbs of night stealing one by one on to the wide arch of 
heaven, as brilliant as they were on the first evening of their birth; — are the lofty 
enjoyments, all, which the intellectual mind can grasp in these transcendent heights.' 

In 1890. Mrs Wollaston presented George Baker with the greater part of her late 
husband's collection of Madeiran Lepidoptera. It contained 1 1 butterfly species and 
a much larger number of moths. Wollaston's original account (1858) consists of little 
more than short descriptive paragraphs, in Latin, of the various species, but Baker 
(1891) transcribed these, added notes of his own, and put forward his own theory 
that humidity of climate might be largely responsible for variation in certain species 
(see also Stainton, 1859). 

From July 20-August 3, 1998, the authors visited Madeira under the auspices of 
the Madeiran scientific funding body — CITMA — to survey Lepidoptera in the 
Parque Ecologico do Funchal. This was part of a long-term project started in May 
1997, to provide information for a field guide to the Lepidoptera of the Park, and to 
provide base-line information against which the effects of the attempted re- 
establishment of native vegetation (Laurisilva) on the butterfly fauna could be 
assessed (Wakeham-Dawson & Warren, 1998a). We were accompanied by 
entomological colleagues from the Natural History Museum (London) and the 
University of Warwick. The authorities of the Parque Ecologico do Funchal put the 
Casa do Barreiro (970 m.), one of the park houses used to accommodate visitors, at 
our disposal and we were able to visit most parts of the island to examine localities 
mentioned as specific in the literature. Although the butterflies of Madeira are well 
documented, a number of changes, some highly significant, have occurred during the 
past thirty years. It is with this in mind that we have re-examined the status of the 
butterfly fauna as it appeared on this visit, and in relation to Madeira's Oceanic 
existence (MacArthur & Wilson. 1967). 

The Funchal Ecological Park 

The Parque Ecologico do Funchal was founded in 1994 as a centre for 
environmental education. It is situated above Funchal, the capital city of Madeira, 
on the southern side of the island (Fig. 4). The Park covers an area of about lOkm-^; 
its lowest point is 500 m. above sea level and it rises to over 1800 m. near Pico de 
Arreiro. The range of elevation together with a number of steep gullies within the 
Park, allows the area to support an interesting assemblage of endemic plants and 
animals (Wakeham-Dawson & Warren, 1998b). 

One of the main aims of the Park authorities is to fell invasive Eucalyptus and 
Acacia, and replace them with Laurel trees. The hope is that native Laurel forest 
(Laurisilva) can be re-established. Laurisilva once covered most of Madeira and is a 
relic of the forests that covered southern Europe in the Tertiary Period (Press & Short, 
1994). From sea-level (especially on the dry south side of the island) to c. 300 m. there 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 




Fig. 1. Thomas Vernon WoUaston (1822-78). 




Fig. 2. Beetles sketched by T. V. WoUaston 

1846. (Courtesy Mun. Museu Funchal). Fig. 3. Revd Hamlet Clark (1823-67). 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 



PICO DO AREIRO 
(1810 m.) 



1000 m. 
I 




Ribeiro Frio- 



Centro de Recepcao 
" (1125 m.) 



CASA DO BARREIRO 
(970 m.) 



PARQUE ECOL<5gICO DO FUNCHAL 



Seixai Parque Ecologico 

Sao Vicente 'do FuDChal 




Raba^al 

Encumeada 

Ribeira Brava 



FllNCHAL 

MADEIRA 



Fig. 4. Map of the Funchai Ecological Park (Parque Ecologico do Funchal). 



76 BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST.. 12: 1999 

was dry Laurisilva consisting of Apollonias harhujaua (Cav.) Bornm. with Euphorbia 
spp. and Dragon trees {Dracaena draco (L.) L.). From 300m. to about 1200m.: humid 
Laurisilva of Lauras azorica (Seub.) Franco, etc., and from 1200m. to the summit of 
the island: Erica spp. (Tree Heathers) Laurisilva. Today, the scene is rather different. 
The humid Laurisilva is now restricted to the north and the dry Laurisilva is now 
almost totally replaced by urban development or agriculture (Press & Short, 1994). 
The humid Laurisilva is kept wet by condensation of water from the frequent sea fogs 
that form over the higher regions of the island. Much of the original area of Laurisilva 
on Madeira has been destroyed, and the Park's project may make a valuable 
contribution to the conservation of this important habitat type. According to Nash 
(1990) Joao Gon9alves Zarco, the Portuguese explorer who discovered Madeira in 
1419, found the island covered with dense forest (in Portuguese, the word Madeira 
means wood). In order to clear the ground for the first settlement he caused fire to be 
put to the trees. There is a local legend that the whole of the island burned for seven 
years but this is probably no more than a legend. 

Check-list of the madeiran butterflies 
(arranged in the order that they are discussed below) 

Pieris rapae (L.) small white. 

Pieris brassicae ssp. wollastoni Butler, madeiran large white. (W) Endemic subspecies. 

Gonepteryx maderensis Felder madeiran brimstone. (W) Endemic species 

Colias crocea (Geoffroy) clouded yellow. (W) 

Hipparchia maderensis Baker, madeiran southern grayling. (W) Endemic species. 

Pararge xiphia Fab. madeiran speckled wood. (W) Endemic species. 

Pararge aegeria (L.) speckled wood 

Neohipparchia statilinus (Hufnagel) tree grayling. (US) 

Vanessa atalanta (L.) red admiral. (W) 

Vanessa indica ssp. vulccmia Godart. Indian red admiral. (W) 

Danaus plexippus (L.) monarch or milkweed butterfly. 

Cynthia cardui (L.) painted lady. (W) 

Lycaena phlaeas ssp. phlaeoides Staudinger. small copper. (W) 

Lampides boeticus (L.) long-tailed blue. (W) 

Colias hyale (L.) pale clouded yellow. (US) 

Cynthia virginiensis (Drury). american painted lady. (US) 

Issoria lathonia (L.). queen of spain fritillary. (W) (OS) 

Hypolinmas misippus (L.) false plain tiger. (US) 

Danaus chrysippus (L.) plain tiger. (US) 

W = specimens in the T.V.WoUaston Collection (1847-1850) 
OS = occasional vagrant 
US = uncertain status 

Pieris rapae (L.) 

The small white is a relatively recent addition to the Madeiran fauna. Although 
there is the record 'of a possible sighting' in 1909 (Swash & Askew, 1982), it was not 
until December 1971 that a specimen was actually captured and not until 1974 that the 
species became definitely established. In July of that year a massive invasion occurred 
which Wolff (1975) suggested might have originated in Portugal and been driven by 
the prevailing Trade Wind towards Madeira. Why, Wolff asks, when similar climatic 
conditions must have occurred many times in the past, did sudden colonization not 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 77 

occur until 1974? This question has not been answered. We found the Small White to be 
very common throughout the Parque Ecologico do Funchal (Table 1) and at the 
northern end of the island, inland from Seixal, and in the wooded laurel-covered valleys 
near Raba9al. It could be seen flying from sea-level to an altitude of at least 1300 m. It is 
also common on the island of Porto Santo. We observed females ovipositing on 
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) and Chagas (Tropaeolum majiis L.) during July and 
August 1998. It has also been observed in Madeira laying on Coronopus didymus (L.) 
Sm. (Wakeham-Dawson, 1998). No named aberrations were observed. 



Pieris brassicae ssp. woUastoni Butler 

Since Wollaston first collected this butterfly in mid-Victorian times — and he 
collected a considerable series (Baker, 1891) — it has continued to decline in numbers 
and must now be regarded as extinct. This decline appears to be long-standing. Both 
Wollaston and Baker thought this subspecies was little more than a melanic variation 
of Pieris brassicae L., forming a natural transition between P. brassicae and the 
endemic Canary Island P. cheirauthi Hiibner. Felder (1862), who published a list of 
the insects collected by scientific members of the frigate Novara, thought that this 
subspecies was P. cheirauthi, but Kudrna (1973), after critical examination of the 
genitalia of P. brassicae, cheirauthi and wollastoui, stated that there was sufficient 
evidence to consider wollastoui as a subspecies of P. brassicae. The male genitalia are 
illustrated in Fig. 5a, for comparison with illustrations by Higgins (1975). 

Swash & Askew (1982) pose the question as to whether the decline in numbers of 
Pieris brassicae ssp. wollastoui and the increase in P. rapae might be inter-related; the 
decline of the former facilitating colonization by the latter, and the establishment of 
P. rapae possibly resulting in the final decline of P. brassicae wollastoui. This seems 
unlikely, however, as both taxa co-exist throughout much of Europe. It therefore 
remains a subject for debate. Another possibility is that a parasite arrived on the 
island and destroyed the P. brassicae wollastoui population. In the United Kingdom 
95% of P. brassicae larvae are parasitized by the wasp Apauteles glomeratus L, and 
the population only survives because of the regular influx of migrants from the 
Continent (Cribb, 1983). 

Although Martin (1941) found P. brassicae wollastoui at Santo da Serra, Oehmig 
(1977) at Pico Arreiro and Aguas Mensas, and Gardner & Classey (1960) at Raba9al, 
Chao das Feiteras and Caramujo, de Worms (1964) observed only a single specimen 
in 1964, at Monte, c. 700 m. above Funchal. Since then there have been only scattered 
sightings. Wolff (1975) reported a number of specimens in 1973 and 1974, and Swash 
& Askew (1982), various isolated sightings at Porto da Cruz, Ribeiro Frio, Funchal 
and Santa Cruz. They concluded that 'the only sizeable population located was in the 
valley leading to Faja da Nogueira where, in July and August, several specimens 
were seen near the river and a few at greater altitude up to about 1000 m.' Two years 
later. Lace & Jones (1984) reported seeing the Large White at Boca da Risco on the 
north coast, but Owen and Smith (1993a), who visited the island five times during the 
1990s, were unable to find either adults or larvae. One of the present authors (A.W- 
D), in six visits to Madeira since 1997, has been no more successful. In an extensive 
search during July 1998 we found no evidence that this butterfly still flies on 
Madeira. Resident entomologists have not seen this species in recent years and have 
been aware of a decline in P. brassicae wollastoui that appears to have matched the 
increase in P. rapae (Antonio M. F. Aguiar, pers. comm.). 



BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST.. 12: 1999 



Gonepteryx maderensis Felder 

This species (Plate 1, H), well known to Wollaston in the 1850s, is endemic to 
Madeira and formerly widely distributed and abundant. It was first described by 
Felder (1862) who thought it was no more than a variety of G. cleopatra L. Some thirty 
years later. Baker (1891) suggested that it formed a connecting link between the 
Mediterranean Gonepteryx cleopatra L. and Gonepteryx cleopatra ssp. cleobiile from 
the Canaries. More recently, Kudrna (1975) has accorded both it and cleobiile specific 
status. This action is supported by Brunton et al. (1996) who studied seven species of 
Gonepteryx under ultraviolet light to reveal their ultraviolet reflectance patterns. They 
were able to show that G. maderensis differed from other species in that the ultraviolet 
pattern on the underside of female specimens was typical of Gonepteryx males. 

The literature suggests that over the past 25 years the madeiran cleopatra has 
declined steadily in numbers. Kudrna (1975) described G. maderensis as local and 
uncommon at higher elevations in mountains; Gardner & Classey (1960) thought it 
might be restricted to certain northern parts of the island; while Swash & Askew 
(1982) reported sightings at Faja do Cedro Gordo, near Faja da Nogueira, and the 
Botanical Gardens at Ribeiro Frio. Manley & Allcard (1970) found this species at an 
altitude of 1200 m. However, the Madeiran Cleopatra may in fact be more common 
than it appears, as it rarely comes down from the forest canopy. It is probably 
widespread but not common in March, May and July in areas of Laurisilva between 
400-1000 m. In July 1998 we observed small numbers flying about the laurel forest at 
Chao da Ribeiro. This species was seen at Chao da Ribeiro near Seixal on the north 
coast in March (John Smit, pers. comm.) and again in May (W), and a female was 
seen ovipositing high up in the Laurisilva canopy on leaves of Rhamniis glandulosa 
Alton on 24.vii.1998. A male was observed nectaring at Hypoclweris radicata L., and 
both sexes were observed feeding at Agapanthiis praecox Willd. flowers by the 
roadside near Ribeiro Frio and at several locations near the Encumeada Pass. A 
single male was seen in the Funchal Ecological Park on 30.vii.l998 (Table 1). This 
butterfly had probably flown south west from Ribeiro Frio with the prevailing wind 
(Duarte Camara, pers. comm.). This is encouraging because it suggests that the 
species may be able to re-colonise naturally in the Park, once Laurisilva is 
established. The male genitalia are illustrated in Fig. 5b. 



Colias crocea (Geoffroy) 

In July and August 1998, the Clouded Yellow was second only to the Madeiran 
Southern Grayling in abundance. It occurred at all altitudes from sea-level up to 
1800 m. and was often observed flying in the streets and gardens of Funchal. A 
female was observed laying single eggs on the upper surface of the leaves of Trifolium 
repens L. in shaded areas near small cabbage fields at Seixal. We also noticed that a 

PLATE I MADEIRAN BUTTERFLIES 
A: Hipparchia maderensis Male. B: Hipparchia maderensis Female. C: Hipparctiia 
maderensis Female underside. D; Pararge aegeria Male. E: Pararge aegeria Male 
Dwarf Var. F: Pararge xiphia Female. G: Pararge xiphia Female underside. 
H: Gonepteryx maderensis Male. I: Lycaena plilaeas ssp. phlaeoides var. 
caeruleopunctala. J; Vanessa indica vulcania. K: Colias crocea var. cremonae. 
L: Colias crocea var. dawsoni. M: Colias crocea var. geisleri. N: Colias crocea var. 
radiata. O; Colias crocea male Dwarf var. P: Colias crocea var. failiae. 



A 


B 


C 


D 


F 


G 


E 






H 


I 


J 


K 


L 


M 


N 


O 


P 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 




82 BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST., 12: 1999 

wings closed if the passing butterfly was a male or a mated female. Unmated females 
were pursued by several males and some pairs were observed mating in flight. Males 
were also observed drinking from wet mud. Oviposition was not observed. In July and 
August 1998, this was the most abundant butterfly on the island, with the sexes in 
approximately equal numbers. It was common in open grassy areas and pine woods 
above 1000 m. in the Park and other similar habitats across the island. It was also 
present in Erica-rich Laurisilva at Raba9al below 600 m. Previously, Kudrna (1997) 
reported it at 1700 m. on Pico do Arieiro and at 1000 m. on Eira do Serrado, while 
Swash & Askew (1982) found it to be common between Pico do Arieiro and Pico 
Ruivo, and beside the track from Pico Ruivo to about halfway to Encumeada. They 
concluded that it was the most abundant butterfly at altitudes in excess of 1600 m. 

Pararge xiphia Fab. 

The madeiran speckled wood (Plate 1, F & G) is endemic to Madeira. In 1891. Mrs 
Wollaston reported it to be 'one of the commonest species in Madeira at intermediate 
elevations, and wasted examples may be found throughout the winter, especially in the 
district above Funchal, called "the Mount." ' [Monte] (Baker, 1891). It is of interest to 
recall that the district known as Monte was much favoured by expatriate Britons and 
invalids seeking homes on the island. More recently. Swash & Askew (1982) found this 
species to be common near Portela and in the Ribeiro Frio-Faja do Nogueira region, 
but absent at low altitudes and near the coast. Although P xiphia is widely distributed 
and common above 500 m., it is most abundant in Laurisilva — and in this habitat can 
even be found flying when low clouds shroud the landscape in dense fog. 

In July 1998 we found P. xiphia to be abundant in the Parque Ecologico do 
Funchal, especially along the edge of woodlands, where it flew in company with the 
european speckled wood {P. aegeria (L.). Males were seen perching on bracken 
{Pteridium acpdlimim (L.) Kuhn) fronds, or trees in the Laurisilva, waiting for 
females to approach. A number of males were also seen engaging in vertical spiral 
flights with other males intruding upon their territories. The resident male would 
usually return to its original perch once the intruder had been driven off. These spiral 
flights were similar to, but not so prolonged as those of P. aegeria. Females appeared 
extremely selective about where they would lay their eggs: flying into dark excluded 
places and often testing a potential food-plant with their ovipositor, but not 
depositing an egg. However, females were observed ovipositing in shaded areas of 
the Laurisilva forest on Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) and Poa trivialis L. 
(especially dead leaves at the base of tussocks) at Faja da Nogueira, Ribeiro Frio and 
Portela during July and August, 1998. One female was seen positioning a single egg 
on the underside of a dead fern (pteridophyte) frond above a levada (man-made 
watercourse). The eggs were very pale green, smooth to the naked eye, and about 
twice the size of P. aegeria ova laid on Poa sp. in southern England. The male 
genitalia are illustrated in Fig. 5c. 

Pararge aegeria (L.). 

The first Madeiran specimen of the european speckled wood was captured at 
Ribeiro Frio in 1976, by N. D. Riley (Higgins, 1977), since when it has become 
widely distributed (Plate 1, D & E) and abundant through much of the island from 
sea-level to about 1000 m. (Owen & Smith, 1994). It may, however, be absent from 
the Ilhas do Desertas and Porto Santo. In July and August, 1998, we found it to be 
quite common in the Parque Ecologico do Funchal, especially in wooded areas where 



BR. J ENT NAT HIST., 12: 1999 83 

the scattered vegetation was interspersed by patches of dappled sunlight. It is widely 
distributed in gardens and Eucalyptus forest, especially below 1000 m., and it is less 
common in Laurisilva. A dwarf male specimen was taken in which the wingspan 
measured 30 mm. (average wingspan for males = 46-50 mm.). As with P. xiphia we 
observed males performing vertical spiral flights. Although a female was observed 
apparently searching for suitable egg-laying locations near clumps of Poa trivialis L.. 
in a shaded area near a levada at Raba^al, oviposition was not seen. 

Neohipparchia statilimis (Hufnagel) 

The tree grayling has been recorded from Madeira on one occasion. In the 
Zoological Museum of the University of Copenhagen there is a single specimen 
labelled: Madeira, Nogueira, Camara de Cargo, 1000 m., 23.viii.1974, E.Traugott- 
Olsen leg. (Karsholt, 1988). This was examined by Lionel Higgins who stated it to be 
of the form allioiiia (Fab.). As no other specimens have been recorded it may have 
been a misplaced specimen, although Karsholt suggests that the single specimen was 
probably a vagrant from the Iberian peninsula where the form allionia occurs 
(Higgins & Hargreaves, 1983). 

Vanessa atalanta (L.) 

The red admiral has probably never been a common species on Madeira. We saw 
no evidence of it in the Park during July and August 1998 but we did see worn 
specimens in the Botanical Gardens during this period. The three specimens in the 
Wollaston collection were taken in company with V. indica at Monte, above Funchal 
(Baker, 1891). More recently the species has been recorded from Pico das Pedras in 
April and Faja da Nogueira during July by Swash & Askew (1982), who also found it 
sparingly on Deserta Grande (Ilhas do Desertas) and Porto Santo. 

Vanessa indica vulcania Godart ( = occidentalis Felder) 

The Indian red admiral (Plate 1, J), which Owen & Smith (1993b) reported as well- 
established and common on Madeira, indeed more abundant than F. atalanta, is 
perhaps most often seen during April and May. It has been recorded from Machico, 
Santa Cruz, Santo de Serra, Porto da Cruz, Faial and Sao Jorge (Swash & Askew, 
1982) as well as the botanical gardens at Ribeiro Frio. We observed a single specimen 
at Raba9al in July 1998. The occurrence of this butterfly on Madeira, however, 
constitutes an enigma. 

Field (1971) showed that of five separate subspecies of V. indica, four were 
restricted to South or East Asia, while V. indica ssp. vulcania Godart was confined to 
Macaronesia in general and Madeira and the Canary Islands in particular. Why 
should the Macaronesian populations be separated from the other subspecies by 
thousands of miles? The distribution of Vanessa indica. worldwide, has been 
discussed in considerable detail by Leestmans (1978) and Shapiro (1992). Leestmans 
was able to examine 40 examples of V. indica and V. indica vulcania from the Belgian 
National Collection and a further 12 V. indica vulcania from his own collection. 
V. vulcania appeared to be phenotypically constant and Leestmans suggested that it 
deserved full specific status on account of significant differences in the structure of 
the genitalia between it and Asian V. indica. 

So how did V. indica vulcania first reach Macaronesia? Three possibilities have 
been suggested, (l) V. indica vulcania may have evolved from specimens accidentally 
introduced from India by early Portuguese traders. (2) It may have migrated to 



84 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

Macaronesia from Asia, although there is Httle evidence that this butterfly is 
migratory. (3) It may be a rehct, now endemic to Madeira and the Canaries, from the 
time when Laurisilva covered much of southern Europe (Tertiary Period). 

Shapiro (1992) suggests that although the traditional view has been that 
Portuguese traders introduced' the butterfly during the past 500 years, this is 
unlikely to be correct. The phenotypic characters of V. indica vulcania from 
Macaronesia are just not consistent with a relatively recent introduction from the 
Portuguese trading centres in southern India or Sri Lanka. From an examination of 
biogeography and ecology Shapiro suggests that it is not possible to rule out an 
autochthonous origin as a relict of the once wide-spread Tertiary broad-leaved 
forests preserved in Macaronesia as Laurisilva. He goes on to add. The very 
different time scales of the two hypotheses [500 years or several million years ] 
suggest that genomic comparisons would allow easy discrimination between them.' It 
is likely that future DNA analysis will provide a more accurate indication of this 
Macaronesian butterfly's ancestry. 

V. indica vulcania has also been recorded from the neighbouring island of Porto 
Santo, where a century earlier, Alfred Russel Wallace (1889) quoting Wollaston, 
stated that specimens invariably tended to be smaller than those found on Madeira. 
Manley & Allcard (1970) noted that Stichel (in Seitz, 1906) also described Madeiran 
specimens of this species as being smaller and darker than those from the Canary 
Islands, but were unable to substantiate this. It is possible therefore that Stichel was 
referring to specimens from Porto Santo. In the Canary Islands the foodplant is 
Urtica morifolia Poir, where it occurs abundantly as a component of the ground flora 
of laurel forests (Owen & Smith, 1993b). However, U. morifolia is an uncommon 
plant on Madeira (Press & Short, 1994), where Manley and Allcard (1970) state that 
the larvae feed on U. dioica L. 

Danaiis plexippiis (L.) 

The monarch is not uncommon in the streets of Funchal, the botanical gardens at 
Ribeiro Frio, and a number of areas below 1000 m. on the warmer south side of the 
island. Occasional specimens were seen in the Parque Ecologico do Funchal during 
July and August 1998 (Table 1). Owen & Smith (1989) have shown that the Monarch 
tends to select introduced species of Asclepias such as A. curassavica L. or A. 
fruticosa L. to lay its eggs on rather than native species. This would probably account 
for its being seen most frequently in Funchal gardens where these ornamental plants 
are grown. 

Cynthia cardiii (L.) 

Most authors suggest that C. cardui is seen frequently on Madeira but. during July 
and August 1998, we observed two specimens only in the Parque Ecologico do 
Funchal. Antonio M. F. Aguiar {pers. comm.) has evidence that this species breeds in 
Madeira as well as appearing as a regular migrant. 

Lycaena phlaeas ssp. phlaeoides Staudinger 

The small copper is represented on Madeira by the subspecies phlaeoides 
Staudinger. The fore-wing markings are darker than in the nominotypical form, 
with some enlargement of the submarginal spots. In extreme examples the copper 
band of the hindwings is reduced in size and sometimes almost obliterated. The 
underside is characterized by a band of grey scaling in the outer discal area. The 



BR J. ENT. NAT HIST., 12: 1999 85 

small copper is common in all habitat types in the Parque Ecologico do Funchal, 
even at altitudes of 1 500 m., where it flies in the moorland gullies. We observed it also 
at Raba^al in July 1998. It has also been recorded from Acada do Cedro Gordo, 
Balcoes, near Camacha and between Pico Ruivo and Encumeada (Swash & Askew, 
1982). There is considerable variation in Madeiran specimens. In 1891. Baker 
recorded pale specimens, while Cockerell (1923) commented that a specimen from 
Porto da Cruz was 'ordinary phlaeas, not dark at all." In July 1998 we captured a 
number of extremely dark examples — undoubtedly L. phlaeas ssp. phlaeoidcs — in the 
Parque Ecologico do Funchal which included the following named forms: 

f. caeruleopimctata Ruhl, several specimens of this common aberration were 
observed, although none of these was extreme (Plate 1, 1). In no case were there more 
than four pale blue submarginal spots to the hindwings. 

f. obsoleta Tutt, a single specimen was observed in which the copper band on the 
hindwings was absent. 

f. radiata Tutt, a single specimen in which the copper marginal band on the hind 
wings was divided into wedge-shaped rays. 

Lampides boeticus (L.) 

The long-tailed blue appears to be common and widely distributed on Madeira up to 
an altitude of about 1200 m. Females were observed laying on Genista teuera (Jacq. ex 
Murray) near Seixal; Lupinus alhiis L. (grown as a crop) near Encumeada; Lotus 
peduucidatus Cav. in the Faja da Nogueira, and Cytisus scopariiis (L.) Link at a 
number of locations during July and August, 1998. See also Wakeham-Dawson (1998). 

Colias hyale (L.) 

This species is strongly migratory and Cockerell (1923) records that Malcolm Burr 
had seen specimens in the collection at the Seminario in Funchal. No details of these 
are known and it is presumed that they originated from Spain or the Mediterranean 
Islands. 

Cynthia virginiensis (Drury) 

Godman (1870) mentions the american painted lady from Madeira but, curiously, 
not from the Canary Islands where it has been regularly recorded. It is possible that 
he confused the two island masses as no further records have been reported. 
Although Higgins & Riley (1970) included this record from Madeira, it has been 
omitted from the more recent editions. 

Issoria lathonia (L.) 

Although the queen of spain fritillary has been recorded from Madeira on a 
number of occasions — indeed. Baker (1891) described it as abundant — its 
appearance would appear to be dependent upon migration from Portugal, North 
Africa or even the Canary Islands. The Municipal Museum at Funchal has two 
specimens (nos. 1910 and 1911), but these carry no collection data. 

Hypolimnas misippus (L.) 

As with Colias hyale, Malcolm Burr is reported by Cockerell (1923) to have seen 
specimens of the false plain tiger in a collection at the Seminario in Funchal. It is not 
known whether these specimens still exist, or details as to the localities and dates of 



86 BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST.. 12: 1999 

their capture. In the Municipal Museum at Funchal there is a single specimen that 
was taken at Quinta Fe, Funchal, 12/11/1950. 

Danaus chrysippus (L.) 

There is a single reputedly Madeiran specimen (No. 23907) in the C. H. C. 
Pickerings Collection at the Funchal Natural History Museum. Unfortunately the 
specimen carries no other data. It is possible that this butterfly migrated from the 
mainland of Africa, or the Canary Islands (a distance of approximately 300 miles), 
where it occurs on Tenerife, Palma and Gomera. 

Acknowledgements 

We gratefully acknowledge the help given to us by Duarte B. Camara, Director do 
Parque Ecologico do Funchal and his staff. We are also indebted to the Librarian at 
the Municipal Museum, Funchal, for allowing us to examine and copy from T. V. 
Wollaston's original notebooks, and to Peter Brown for taking the colour 
photograph. We thank Mr G. Bentley, Registrar, The Royal Entomological Society, 
for granting us permission to include the photographs of T. V. WoUaston and Revd 
Hamlet Clark. We are grateful to Laura Warren and the students of Brinsbury 
College, West Sussex, for their hard work in mapping the habitat preference of 
butterflies in the Ecological Park. We are grateful to John Tennent for helpful 
criticism of the manuscript, and to our colleagues, Geoff Martin (Natural History 
Museum, London), Linda Barnett and Craig Emms (University of Warwick). We are 
especially grateful to CITMA for providing funding to support our research. 

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Mayr, E. 1969. The biological meaning of species. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 1: 

311-320. 
Moseley, H. N. 1880. Notes by a Naturalist on H. M.S. Challenger. London. 
Nash, R. 1990. Scandal in Madeira. The Book Guild, Lewes, Sussex. 

Oehmig, S. 1977. Die Tagfalter Madeiras. Entomologische Zeitschrift, 87: 169-176, 189-199. 
Olivier A. & Coutsis, J. G. 1997. A revision of the Superspecies Hippcuchia azorina and of the 

Hipparchia aristaeus group (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Nota Lepidopterologica, 20: 150-292. 
Owen, D. F. & Smith, D. A. S. 1989. Utilization of alien Asclepiadaceae as larval food-plants 

by Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Danaidae) on the Atlantic Islands. Entomologist, 

108: 158-164. 
Owen, D. F. & Smith, D. A. S. 1993a. The Origin and History of the butterfly fauna of the 

North Atlantic Islands. Boletin do Museu Municipal do Funchal, (Proceedings of 

Manchester N. Atlantic Islands Conference), Supp. 2: 211-241. 
Owen, D. F. & Smith, D. A. S. 1993b. Habitat and food-plants of Vanessa indica (Herbst) 

(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) on the Canary Islands and Madeira. Entomologist, 112: 

187-190. 
Owen. D. F. & Smith, D. A. S. 1994. Colonization of Madeira by Pararge aegeria (L.): evidence 

for a founder effect (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Satyrinae). Linneana Belgica, 14: 247-256. 
Press, J. R. & Short, M. J. 1994. Flora of Madeira. HMSO. London. 
Seitz, A., 1906. Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde. 1: 1-379, pis. 1-89. Stuttgart. 
Shapiro, A. M. 1992. How did Vanessa indica (Herbst) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) get to the 

Canary Islands and Madeira? Entomologist. Ill: 10-21. 
Smith, D. A. S. & Shreeve, T. G. 1993. The systematics, behaviour and habitats of the Madeiran 

grayling (Genus Hipparchia: Lepidoptera, Satyrinae). Boletim do Museu Municipal do 

Punched, Supp. 2: 279-283. 
Stainton, H. T. 1859. Notes on Lepidoptera collected in Madeira by T.V.Wollaston Esq. Annals 

cmd Magazine of Natural History, 3: 209-214. 



88 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST , 12: 1999 

Swash, A. R. & Askew. R. R., 1982. A Survey of Madeiran Butterflies, 1981. Boletim do Museu 

Municipal do FimchcA. 34: 60-66. 
Wakeham-Dawson, A., 1998. Larval host-plants oi Artogeia rapae (L.) and Lampides hoeticus 

(L.) on the island of Madeira (Lepidoptera: Pieridae and Lycaenidae) in May 1998. 

Entomologist's Gazette, 49: 218. 
Wakeham-Dawson, A. & Warren, L., 1998a. Conservation of butterflies (Lepidoptera: 

Rhopalocera) in the Parque Ecologico do Funchal, Madeira. Programme of the III 

Symposium Fauna and Flora of the Atlantic Islands, September 21-25, 1998: 257-258. 

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Wakeham-Dawson, A. & Warren, L. 1998b. Conservation of butterflies and other endemic 

species in the Funchal Ecological Park, Madeira. British Journal of Entomologv and 

Natural History, 10:210-213. 
Wallace, A. R., 1889. Darwinism. London. 
Wolff, N. L., 1975. On the sudden mass occurrence in 1974 of Pieris rapae L. (Lep. Pieridae) in 

Madeira. Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal. 29: 26-32. 
Wollaston, T.V. 1854. Insecta Maderensia. Van Voorst, London. 
Wollaston, T. V. 1858. Brief diagnostic characters of undescribed Madeiran Insects. Annals and 

Magazine of Natural History. 3: 1-22. 
Worms, C. G. M. de, 1964. Madeira in the spring, April 1964. Entomologist's Record and 

Journal of Variation, 76: 252-254. 



SHORT COMMUNICATION 



Catharosia pygmaea (Fallen) (Diptera: Tachinidae): a second record in Essex — 

Whilst sorting through some pan-trap material collected by Peter Harvey during 
surveys of Rainham marsh, Essex, and passed to me by Colin Plant, I came across 
a very distinctive tachinid which was unfamiliar to me. It failed to key in Belshaw 
(1993) but keyed readily to the genus Catharosia in McAlpine (1987). Reference to 
the excellent tachinid bibliography on the website http://res.agr.ca/ecorc/isbi/ 
biocont/biblio.htm compiled by James E. O'Hara disclosed that Falk (1998) had 
added this species to the British list from a ruderal site in Warwickshire. Falk's 
paper enabled me to confirm the description that the Rainham specimen was the 
same species. The single male specimen was captured at the eastern end of the old 
silt lagoons on Rainhain marsh, TQ5279, between the 25. viii. and the 6.ix.l998. 
The pan trap was set by Peter Harvey amongst flower-rich ruderal vegetation. My 
thanks go to Peter Harvey for permission to publish this note. — D. A. Smith, 12 
Tring Gardens, Harold Hill, Romford, Essex RM3 9EP. 

References 

Belshaw, R. 1993. Tachinid Flies (Diptera:Tachinidae). Handbooks for the Identification of 

British In.u'cts 10: 4a(i). 
Falk, S. 1998. Catharosia pygmaea (Fallen) (Diptera:Tachinidae) new to Britain. British Journal 

of Entomology and Natural History 11: 1-5. 
McAlpine, J. F. (Ed.) 1987. Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Vol. 2. Agriculture Canada 

Monograph 28. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12; 1999 89 

AGGREGATION OF OVER ONE MILLION 16-SPOT LADYBIRDS 
IN A BRAMBLE HEDGE, AND "BLUSHING" IN TWO SPECIMENS 

Richard A. Jones 

135 Friem Road. East Diihvich. London SE22 OAZ. 

Abstract. — An unusual aggregation of the 16-spot ladybird, Tytthaspis sedecim- 
punctata (L.) is described, in which over 1 million individuals might have been 
involved. Among them were individuals of a red orange form. 

Introduction 

The 16-spot ladybird, Tytthaspis sedecimpunctata (L.), is well known for its 
overwintering aggregations, and although it is not in the same league as some New 
World coccinelids which congregate by the bushel, it is regularly found in clusters of 
several hundreds. Occasionally, overwintering masses number in their thousands and 
in his recent New Naturalist volume, Majerus (1994: Plate lOf) makes a point of 
illustrating a Suffolk gorse bush where upwards of 30,000 individuals of this species 
have been known to overwinter. 

I have often found a handful, perhaps a few score, of 16-spots gathered together 
during very early spring — at the base of a fence-post, or against a grass tussock — but 
I was amazed to discover a bramble hedge in which I estimated over one million 
individuals were sheltering. 

Overwintering aggregations 

On 22. iv. 1998, whilst carrying out an ecological survey of Woodlands Farm, near 
Bexley in Kent (TQ450768), I noticed several accumulations of the 16-spot ladybird 
in a bramble hedge. Initial curiosity became incredulity as it soon became apparent 
that the accumulations were very many and very extensive. 

The long bramble hedge (Fig. 1) ran along the top of a large open field that had 
once been arable, but which had lain fallow for several years. It was exposed and 
rather windswept, but was south-facing and warm in the spring sunshine. The 
bramble growth arose slowly and obliquely from the grass edges of the field, with a 
shallow sloping border rather than the abrupt bulging form characteristic of many 
blackberry bushes. 

Examination showed that this shallow hedge edge had a fringing band about half a 
metre wide which was about 10 to 20 cm deep. This low edge was dotted with a vast 
number of clusters of 16-spot ladybirds. They were huddled together on leaves 
(Fig. 2) and also on the stems, particularly where one stem crossed another (Fig. 3). 

A quick estimate showed that there was a group of ladybirds every 10 or 20 cm in 
each direction across the shallow half-metre border. Clumps ranged from 10 to 
maybe 1 50 individuals. I carried out a rough count over a few metres and estimated 
at least 200 ladybirds per linear 10 cm along the hedge. After walking the half- 
kilometre field boundary to confirm that the ladybirds were indeed gathered along its 
entire length, I calculated that it appeared to house at least one million individuals. 

The year 1997 was very dry and warm, and judging from the numbers of 16-spot 
ladybirds in the hedge, this species had a very good season. The hedge in which they 
were overwintering ran in a zigzag along the northerly edge of the field and, at least 
on the day of the field visit, the prevailing wind was southerly, directly off the field 
and onto the hedge. It is tempting to suggest that the beetles lived out in the field 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 





Fig. 1 . The half-kilometre bramble hedge running along the top of a large field. It slopes up 

very gently from the grass of the meadow. 

Figs 2—4. T. sedeciiupimctata aggregations. 

Fig. 2. Accumulation of about 50 overwintering on a bramble leaf. They closely matched the 

patches of dead leaf in their beige coloration. 

Fig. 3. Accumulation of about 35 overwintering on a bramble stem. Their pale colour equally 

closely matched the buff of the woody stems. 

Fig. 4. Single reddish form, one of two specimens found in the hedge, amidst normal 16-spot 

ladybirds overwintering. 

during the summer and that the bramble boundary was the logical place for the 
overwintering ladybirds to end up. 

I was rather surprised to find ladybirds still congregated in overwintering masses in 
late April, but later discovered (M. Majerus, pers. convn.) that because it is a mildew 
feeder, the 16-spot often does not become active until later in the year than other 
species. Also the previous fortnight had been very cold and wet. When I revisited the 
site on 13.V.1998, there was no sign of the ladybird congregations, and only a very 
few specimens in the sweep net as I searched the nearby edges of the field. 



"Blushing" 

The largest of the clusters that I noticed contained about 150 ladybirds, but there 
were also many groups of 5 to 10 and also singletons walking about on the bramble. 
Despite the notionally strong black and beige patterns of the beetles, they were 
nevertheless quite cryptic, camouflaged against the inottled and slightly faded leaves, 
and blending in well with the drab beige of the brainble steins. In the 50 or so groups 
that I examined closely I kept a keen look-out for any dark specimens, knowing that 
this species does very rarely have melanic forms. None was found, but, amongst the 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 91 

knots of 16-spots were the odd 7-spot, 2-spot and 22-spot ladybirds. In addition, 
there were two specimens of a reddish orange form (Fig. 4). 

I have it on good authority (M. Majerus, pers. comm.) that no such colour form is 
named, and anyway it is unlikely to be a true variety. Instead, it may be 
physiologically somehow analogous to the "blushing" seen in the water ladybird, 
Anisosticta novemdecimpunctata (L.). In that species, overwintering specimens are 
also a drab beige, making the insect well camouflaged against dead reed stems and 
leaves, but during spring, it acquires a pinkish red background colour (Majerus, 
1994: Plate 12c, d). Majerus suggests that this development of red pigment is due to 
the need for a brighter warning coloration as the beetles become more active, more 
obvious and more vulnerable to predators. 

The reddish form of the 16-spot ladybird is obviously not a common colour 
variety, and one wonders why it was shown in what appeared to be less than one- 
hundredth of a per cent of the Bexley specimens. It could be a throwback or some 
evolutionary potential bubbling under, or it may simply be an artefact of the 
metabolic changes undergone by an overwintering insect as it prepares for activity 
once again. 

Acknowledgements 

My thanks to the trustees of the Woodlands Farm Trust for inviting me to survey 
the farm, and to Mike Majerus for his comments on this article and for his 
enthusiasm which spurred me on to write it. 

Reference 

Majerus, M. E. N. 1994. Ladybirds. The New Naturalist volume 81. London, Harper Collins. 



SHORT COMMUNICATION 



Gonoeeriis acuteangulus (Goeze) (HemipteraiCoreidae) in a house at Ham, Surrey — 

My colleague G. P. Lewis brought me a live bug he had found in mid-December 1998 
at TQ 1747 16 in his house at Ham, into which he had just moved. It had been noted 
whilst he was unpacking boxes, including some from Ecuador where he had recently 
been working. Since the insect was unfamiliar to me there seemed a possibility it 
might have been introduced, but it soon became apparent from the literature that it 
agreed closely with Gonocenis acuteangulus and I then remembered that R. D. 
Hawkins had told me how this bug, for so long apparently restricted to box bushes 
on Box Hill, had been turning up further afield (see also 1997 Annual Exhibition 
report in Br. J. Eut. Nat. Hist. 11: 110 (1998)). Even so the disparity between the four 
descriptions and the three illustrations I examined made me uncertain until I actually 
showed the specimen to Roger at Dinton Pastures and compared it with authentic 
material. One illustration showed the legs to be coarsely hairy, whereas the 
indumentum is scarcely visible under high power. One of the most obvious characters 
not mentioned by anyone (not even Douglas & Scott, whose attention to detail is far 
superior to all subsequent efforts) is the dazzling yellow abdomen revealed when the 
hemielytra are raised. Whilst the insect was with me for investigation it became active 
and I put a cherry tomato in its container; feeding was noticed on several occasions 
over a period of three weeks. It was released near the point of capture on 
15. ii.l999. — B. Verdcourt, Royal Botanic Gardens. Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 
3AB. 



92 BR. J. ENT, NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

SHORT COMMUNICATION 

Stenamma debile (Forster) and Lasius sabularum Bondroit (Hymenoptera: 
Formicidae) new to Lancashire — The uncommon ant Stenamma dehile (Forster) 
(Dubois, 1993) was discovered at Gait Barrows National Nature Reserve 
(SD483775) on 21/04/98. A small nest containing a few workers and brood was 
found under a stone in a shaded area of woodland not far from a flourishing colony 
of Lasius fuligmosiis (Latr.)- The Stenamma locality is about 200 km north of the 
nearest known record in Wales. In England the furthest north that this species has 
been taken is the Wyre Forest near Button Oak, Worcestershire, and there is an old 
record for Ayleston, Leicestershire. The locality at Gait Barrows seems quite suitable 
for this species with many loose boulders and stones in shaded woodland. Robinson 
(1998) drew attention to the relative abundance oi Formicoxenus nitidiihis (Nyl.) in 
nests of Formica riifa L. at Gait Barrows where most nests of the wood ant contained 
this small inquiline. Other Myrmicine ants seen include Leptothorax acervoriim 
(Fab.) with several nests located under small stones and in moss. Myrmica species 
were few with only M. sahuleti Meinert taken once in a stony bank and M. ruginodis 
Nyl. generally abundant. 

Formicine species included polygynous nests of Formica rufa with several egg- 
laying queens seen in the top layer of a single nest. Formica fusca L. was abundant 
under stones and in stumps in open ground and in one small nest a small queen, 
possibly a microgyne, was taken. The head width of this specimen measures 1.65 mm 
compared with the normal range of 1.85-2.1 mm. F. lemani Bondroit also occurs on 
the reserve under stones in partial shade. Lasius niger (L.) was dominant throughout 
the limestone pavement area. L. flavus (Fab.) is common along the fringes of the 
pavement area and on a later visit on June 12 many large nests were seen in sandy 
soil in the lower part of the reserve near Hawes Water Lake. A very interesting 
discovery on the later June visit was a specimen of Lasius sabularum Bondroit under 
a deep stone below a rocky bank. This species was revived from synonymy by Seifert 
(1988) and has only recently been added to the British list (Skinner & Allen, 1996). It 
has characters somewhat intermediate between L. umbra tus (Nyl.) and L. mixtus 
(Nyl.) and the senior author has specimens from Devon, Dorset and Boscombe, 
Wilts. There are also queens of this species from Oxfordshire, Surrey and 
Middlesex.— Cedric A. Collingwood, 18 Milton St, Skipton BD23 2ED & Neil 
A. Robinson, 3 Abbey Drive, Natland, Kendal LA9 7QN. 

References 

Dubois, M. B., 1993. Whats in a name? A clarification of Stenamma westwoodii, S. debile and 

S. lippalum. Sociobiology 21; 299-334. 
Robinson, N. A., 1998. Observations on the "Guest Ant" Formicoxenus nilididus (Nylander) in 

nests of the 'red wood ant' Formica rufa L. in 1997. British Journal of Entomology and 

Natural History 11: 125-12?,. 
Seifert B., 1988. A revision of the European species of the ant genus Chthonolasices. 

Enlomologisclie Abliandlungen Staatliches Museum fiir Tierkunde, Dresden 51: 143-180. 
Skinner, G. J. and Allen, G. W., 1996. Ants. Naturalists' Handbooks 24; 83 pp. Richmond 

Publishing Co. Ltd. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST., 12: 1999 93 

A NEW ABERRATION OF THE CLOUDED YELLOW 
COLIAS CROCEUS (GEOFFROY) (LEPIDOPTERA: PIERIDAE) 

Alec S. Harmer 

Covertside. Sway Road, Lyniingtoii. Hampshire S04J 8NN. 

Abstract. — A new aberration ab. riisswiiriui Harmer of the clouded yellow, Colias 
croceus (Geoff.) is described. A series was bred from a typical female captured near 
Lymington, Hampshire in 1994. 

Introduction 

The clouded yellow is a regular migrant to the British Isles, arriving most years 
and in varying numbers, the last immigration of exceptional note being 1983. In this 
species the female is dimorphic; the rarer of the two forms has the ground colour 
creamy white and is called f. helice Hiibner {pallida Tutt). It is inherited as a sex- 
controlled dominant gene, expressed only in the female. Intermediate shades occur, 
from pure white ground colour {alba Lempke) to the typical orange-yellow. There 
are ninety-nine named aberrations of C croceus, as at 1972 (Howarth, 1984). 

In describing the white or creamy-white ab. pallida Tutt, F. W. Frohawk 
(Frohawk, 1934) states These palest forms occur only in the female; no such 
coloured male is known to exist'. Although the male upperside of ab. russwurmi 
bears a superficial resemblance to these female forms, there is no evidence to suggest 
a genetic relationship exists between them; rather that it is due to complete loss of 
yellow and pink pigmentation. 

A typical female C. croceus captured on 4.viii.l994. near Lymington, Hampshire, 
produced a brood of about thirty-two imagines. Approximately thirteen of these, of 
which only four (three males and one female) emerged successfully, were of an 
aberrant form not previously described and not represented in either the National 
Collection of British Lepidoptera (RCK) or the European Collection, held at the 
Natural History Museum, London. It would appear to be a new aberration that is 
characterized by a complete absence of yellow and pink pigmentation to wings, 
body, antennae and legs. On the underside, the hindwings and borders to the 
forewings are creamy grey, creating a pale blue effect. The name ab. russwurmi is here 
proposed. 

Description 
ab. russwurmi ab. nov 

Male. On the upperside of the forewings the normal golden yellow is entirely 
absent and is replaced by a creamy white; the discoidal spot and marginal borders are 
black; the basal and costal irroration as normal. The normal ground colour of the 
hindwings is replaced by creamy white, heavily dusted with grey scales; the discoidal 
spots are white, encircled in grey; the borders to the wings are black. The hairs to the 
body are silvery white; cilia white chequered with black. 

The underside of the forewings has the normal yellow ground colour replaced by a 
creamy white somewhat paler than the upperside, especially to spaces 1 and 2, and 
extending over the marginal borders, creating a pale bluish appearance; the costal 
irroration and the discoidal and marginal spots are black. Spaces 9 and 10 are 
densely covered with black scaling uniting with the two black spots — normally 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 




Fig. 1. Clouded Yellow, Colias croceiis ab. russwurmi ab. iiov. Top row (centre). Male, 
upperside (emerged 9.x. 1994). Bottom row (left). Male, underside, (emerged 3.x. 1994); (right). 
Male, underside (emerged 9.x. 1 994). (Photo: D. Wilson). 




Fig. 2. Clouded Yellow, Colias croceus ab. russwwmi ab. twv. (Photo: A. S. Harmer). 
Underside of male shown in Fig. 1 . Top row (centre). All specimens bred from typical wild 
female taken on 4.viii.l994, Sowley, near Lymington, Hampshire. The original examples of this 
aberration are in the author's collection. 



BR. J ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 95 

reddish brown — in these spaces. A narrow blackish border extends from the apex 
down the outer margin as far as space 2. 

The normal greenish yellow of the hindwings is replaced by creamy white heavily 
dusted with grey to give an overall pale bluish appearance. The costal spot in space 8 
is accompanied by dense grey scaling which extends towards and along the apex. 
Both the costal spot and the marginal spots are a much darker, duller reddish brown 
than normal, almost black. The pupils of the discoidal spot are silvery-white 
encircled in a dull reddish brown. 

Hairs to the underside of the body yellowish grey; cilia silvery white and antennae 
light brown. 

Female. As above, the normal yellow spots in the borders replaced by creamy 
white. 

The aberration has been named after the well-known butterfly artist, collector and 
a dear personal friend, Mr A. D. A. Russwurm, who will be celebrating his 95th 
birthday in June 1999. 

Discussion 

This aberration was bred from a typical female caught by my son Arran Harmer at 
Sowley, near Lymington, Hampshire, on the 4.viii.l994. The larvae were kept outside 
and reared on birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus coniiculatus), white clover (Trifolium repens), 
and lucerne {Medicago sativa). They were brought indoors when the weather began 
to deteriorate and the first few larvae had pupated. The first male ab. russwurmi 
emerged on 3 October followed by two more on 9 October. A slightly crippled female 
emerged on 8 October. An unsuccessful attempt was made to breed from her and she 
now exists only as an extremely worn specimen. 

The exact number of the ab. russwurmi in the brood is not known. Possibly a 
further 10 more coloured up in the pupa and subsequently failed to emerge, or 
otherwise had difficulty in extricating their wings from the pupa: the slight cihal 
damage sustained by some of the males during emergence may indicate that the gene 
responsible for ab. russwurmi has a deleterious effect upon this critical stage. It is not 
thought the difficulty in emergence was due to environmental factors as typical 
imagines did so without difficulty. The three males that did emerge successfully also 
seemed particularly weak. The brood consisted of 12 normal males, 7 normal 
females, 1 1 (approximately) male ab. russwurmi, and 2 female ab. russwurmi. 

Acknowledgements 

I should like to thank David Wilson for the photograph of the set specimens, 
Graham Howarth for his expert advice, and David Carter and Jim Reynolds for their 
assistance at the Natural History Museum, London. 

References 

Frohawk, F. W. 1934. The complete book of British butterflies. Ward, Lock & Co., Ltd. p. 335. 
Harmer, A. S. 1995. [Exhibit at BENHS Annual Exhibition 1994] British Jowmtl of Entomology 

and Natural History, 8 (4): Plate IL Fig. 1. and p. 179. 
Howarth, T. G. 1984. Revised edition. Colour identification guide to butterflies of the British 

Isles. Viking, p. 28. 



96 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

TERRESTRIAL INVERTEBRATES IN SITE ASSESSMENT: A LOCAL 

PERSPECTIVE 

D. A. LOTT,' I. BUTTERFIELD- AND M. B. JEEVES'* 

^Leicestershire Museums, Arts & Records Service. County Hall, Glenfield, Leicester LE3 STB 

-English Nature, The Mailings, Wharf St, Grantham NG31 6BH 

^Leicestershire and Rutland Wildlife Trust, 1 West St, Leicester LEI 6UU. 

Abstract. The use of terrestrial invertebrates to evaluate sites of local importance for 
nature conservation is reviewed using Leicestershire as an example. Numerical scores 
of saproxylic assemblages based on local rarity, national conservation status and 
dependence on habitat continuity achieved similar rankings. However, the selection of 
locally important sites using the presence of local red data book species as a threshold 
criterion reduces problems of ranking sites on the basis of non-comparable data and is 
simpler to implement. Habitat structures of importance mainly for invertebrates are 
identified together with suitable quality indicator groups for targeting in surveys. 
Different target groups are required when assessing sites for educational use. 
Assessing site management options requires a more comprehensive approach. 

Introduction 

The increasing recognition of the contribution that invertebrates make to global 
biodiversity in terms of sheer numbers of species has highlighted both the importance 
and the difficulties of invertebrate conservation. In Britain, sophisticated systems for 
the use of aquatic invertebrates in assessing river systems have now been developed 
(Wright et al., 1993) and terrestrial invertebrates are becoming more widely 
employed for site assessment at national level. They feature, albeit briefly, in the 
guidelines for selecting Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) (NCC, 1989) and, 
more substantially, in the national Biodiversity Action Plan (Anon, 1995). However, 
their use for site assessment at a county or regional level is patchy, because of the 
lack of local knowledge and expertise to cover such a wide range of taxonomic 
groups. Consequently, habitat features of importance for invertebrates are often 
inadequately considered in assessments of wildlife sites below SSSI level. However, 
the use of invertebrates in site assessment has a potentially valuable contribution to 
make in three areas: 

1. site quality evaluation and selection of sites for protection, 

2. site interpretation for education, 

3. predicting the impact of site management options. 

These three types of assessment are often confused when designing invertebrate 
surveys and interpreting data. This paper concentrates on how invertebrates can be 
used in local site quality evaluations with special reference to Leicestershire, a largely 
lowland, agricultural county. Other forms of site assessment are briefly mentioned in 
order to illustrate how they require a different approach. 

Current practice in local site quality evaluation 

In many counties, large areas of countryside have been surveyed in order to assess 
their value for nature conservation. Sites of value from a county level perspective are 
given a local designation and usually receive some measure of protection under 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 97 

development plans produced by planning authorities according to the Town and 
Country Planning Act (1981) supplemented by planning policy guidance from 
central government (Collis & Tyldesley, 1993). These locally designated sites are 
variously termed Sites of Importance for Nature Conservation (SINCs) or County 
Wildlife Sites and they represent a tier of protection below statutorily protected Sites 
of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs). Some idea of their prevalence in the countryside 
can be gauged from the fact that, in Leicestershire, they outnumber SSSIs by a factor 
of approximately 100:1. In urban areas, they often represent the only form of 
protection given specifically for nature conservation. Nature conservation bodies 
have also used the evaluations for prioritising conservation action through the 
acquisition of land for nature reserves and, more recently, through the implementa- 
tion of local Biodiversity Action Plans (e.g. Jeeves et al., 1998) and targeting of 
environmental land management grant schemes such as Countryside Stewardship. 

In Leicestershire, site evaluations have been based on phase 1 habitat surveys 
(Anon, 1990) supplemented by information on the presence of quality indicator 
species (Wyatt, 1991). This methodology is mainly designed to identify sites of 
interest for higher plants. For some sites, additional information has been used 
including lists of invertebrate species supplied mainly by amateur naturalists through 
the Leicestershire Biological Records Centre, although very few sites have been 
designated for invertebrates alone. 



Species attributes of use in site assessment 

The distribution of invertebrate information is patchy, both geographically and 
taxonomically, but there are a number of species attributes with the potential to be 
used to select quality indicators. These attributes include rarity, habitat specificity 
and level of threat. 

Threatened species and other species of conservation value are listed in the 
national red data books (Shirt, 1987; Bratton, 1991 ) or national conservation reviews 
(e.g. Falk, 1991a; 1991b; Kirby, 1992a; 1992b; Hyman & Parsons, 1992; 1994; 
Parsons, 1995) and are given various grades of conservation status. In Leicestershire, 
a series of local red data books have also been produced (Lott, 1995a; McPhail & 
Morris, 1997). In addition to species of national conservation status, these contain 
species which are under threat at the local level, where such information is available. 
The criteria for selection of species in all these lists are largely based on rarity, but 
also include declining ranges and threatened habitats. 

Foster (1996a) discussed the quantification of species attributes for water beetles 
so that site scores can be calculated from combinations of individual species scores. 
These procedures can also be applied to terrestrial groups. 

National conservation status has been used as the basis for scoring individual 
species of aculeate bees and wasps (Archer, 1996) and beetles associated with 
decaying wood (saproxylic beetles) (Fowles, 1997). Rarity scores have been assigned 
to individual species of ground beetles on the basis of their range size measured in the 
number of 10 km O.S. grid squares occupied according to data provided by the 
national recording scheme (Eyre & Rushton, 1989). 

Eyre (1996) assigned regional rarity scores to ground beetle species in north-east 
England on the basis of tetrad (2x2 km squares) occupancy. In Leicestershire, there 
is sufficient data to assign similar scores on the basis of 1km square occupancy to 
beetles, macro-Lepidoptera, dragonflies, spiders and woodlice, but not to other 
important taxa such as two-winged flies and aculeate bees and wasps. 



98 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

Dependence on habitat continuity has been used to assign scores to saproxyhc 
beetles. Harding & Rose (1986) allocated saproxylic beetles to three lists according to 
their strength of association with a continuity of dead wood at a site. These three lists 
have been used to assign habitat quality indicator scores to individual species 
(Harding & Alexander, 1994). 

In practice, all these different attributes usually give broadly similar results for site 
evaluation. Table 1 shows the site scores and rankings derived from saproxylic beetle 
lists from ten sites in Leicestershire. Three sets of scores were calculated from three 
different species attributes as detailed in Table 2. Rankings are broadly consistent 
(Kendall's coefficient of concordance, W = 0.65, p<0.05). The advantages of using a 
substantial species list are illustrated by the inflated habitat continuity score for 
Beacon Hill which was caused by the presence of a single high-grade indicator in a 
short list. 



Site ranking and quality thresholds 

There are two frequently used methods for calculating site scores from individual 
species scores. 

1. Summation: the sum of all saproxylic species scores is used to calculate the 
Index of Ecological Continuity (Harding & Alexander, 1994). The disadvantage of 
this method is that the score depends heavily on sampling effort (Fowles, 1997). 

2. Averaging: the mean score of all species present was used by Eyre & Rushton 
(1989) in order to reduce the undesirable influence of sampling effort on site scores. 

Even after eliminating the influence of sampling effort, seasonal fluctuations and 
variations in sampling methods can still lead to difficulties in comparing species lists 
from different sites. Table 3 compares the scores of saproxylic species collected by 
five different sampling methods at a site in Leicestershire and there is a large 
variation between them. Omission of the Tullgren funnel samples would 
substantially alter not only the cumulative score but also the mean species score. 
Results are also highly dependent on the skills of the surveyors. A false identification 
of just one high-scoring species can lead to a large error in the site rarity index. 



Table 1. Saproxylic quality scores from ten Leicestershire sites using three different species 
attributes as listed in Table 2. 







Mean species scores 




Rankings 








No. 


Local 


National Habitat 


Local 


National Habitat 




Site 




spp. 


Rarity 


Status Continu 


ty Rarity 


Status 


Continuit> 


Mean 


Donington Park 




116 


7.31 


2.77 1 


58 


1 


1 


1 


1 


Bradgate Park 




88 


6.79 


1.33 1 


32 


3 


4 


3 


3.3 


Swithiand Wood 




71 


6.73 


1.58 1 


18 


4 


2 


7 


4.3 


Buddon Wood 




107 


6.53 


1.44 1 


30 


5 


3 


5 


4.3 


Burley Wood 




90 


6.27 


1.29 1 


31 


6 


5 


4 


5 


Ulverscroft Nature 


Res. 


86 


6.82 


1.07 1 


16 


2 


8 


8 


6 


Croxton Park 




70 


6.22 


1.13 I 


24 


7 


6 


6 


6.3 


Beacon Hill 




16 


3.13 


1.06 1 


50 


10 


9 


2 


7 


Boathouse Walk Plantn 


25 


3.56 


1.08 1 


04 


9 


7 


10 


8.7 


Barrow Gravel Pits 




19 


4.84 


1.05 1 


11 


8 


10 


9 


9 



BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST,. 12: 1999 



Table 2. Species scores developed from a) local rarity based on number of grid squares 
occupied in Leicestershire, b) national conservation status (Hyman & Parsons, 1992; 1994), c) 
saproxylic indicator grade (Harding & Rose, 1986). 



Species 






Habitat Continuity 


score 


Local Rarity index 


National Status index 


index 


1 


recorded in >31 10km squares 


not listed 


not listed 


2 


recorded in 16 to 31 squares 


Nationally scarce grade b or 
ungraded 


grade 3 


4 


recorded in 8 to 15 squares 


Nationally scarce grade a 


grade 2 


8 


recorded in 4 to 7 squares 


Red Data Book list 3 


grade 1 


16 


recorded in 2 to 3 squares 


Red Data Book list 2 




32 


recorded in 1 square 


Red Data Book list 1 





Similarly, lack of experience in field surveyors can lead to rare species being 
overlooked. 

These difficulties become overwhelming when ranking sites of a similar quality. 
Small aberrations in sampling can have a large influence on the precise ranking of a 
site. However, detailed ranking of sites is rarely required for conservation purposes. 
The setting of a simple threshold value to qualify sites for designation, reduces many 
of the ranking problems due to sampling bias, and a threshold is often all that is 
needed when selecting sites for conservation priority. 

New draft criteria for selecting SINCs in Leicestershire include the presence of a 
breeding or hibernating population of an invertebrate species which qualifies for 
inclusion in the Leicestershire Red Data Book. In tests, this criterion has proved 
workable, provided that short-term, artificial sites such as dung heaps and arable 
fields are excluded. The potential simplicity of this approach makes it easy to operate 
and easy to understand and avoids many of the pitfalls associated with ranking sites 
on the basis of non-comparable sampling programmes. It also gives invertebrates the 
same importance as other groups such as higher plants. 

In other regions, there may need to be further modifications of this criterion. It is 
common practice for local red data books to include nationally scarce species even 



Table 3. Variations in species scores achieved by different sampling methods used to collect 
saproxylic beetles at Donington Park (including Boathouse Walk Plantation), Leicestershire 
(based on Lott, 1995b). 

No. of indicator species 

Mean 
Total no. Cumulative species 

species Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 score score 



Sampling method 



Beating branches 
Searching fungal fruiting bodies 
Grass trap in tree hollow 
Searching under bark 
Tullgren funnel extraction from 
rotten wood 



30 


2 




4 


10 


0.33 


32 






7 


7 


0.22 


34 




1 


2 


4 


0.12 


37 




1 


5 


7 


0.19 


36 


3 


3 


4 


19 


0.53 



Whole site 



140 



19 



42 



0.3 



100 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

when these are relatively common in the region. This is entirely appropriate when the 
region is the national centre of distribution for the species, but, unfortunately, the 
current list of nationally scarce species includes several that have either recently 
increased their range or been under-recorded in the past (Eyre, 1998). The use of 
nationally scarce species to designate SINCs may cause more problems in other parts 
of the country than in Leicestershire. However, it is feasible to design local red data 
book selection criteria so that they could be used to identify SINCs effectively. 



Invertebrate groups and habitats relevant to site quality evaluation 

Because there are so many species of invertebrates, it is quite impossible to 
commission a complete inventory survey for every local site. It is necessary to select 
target groups for each site in order to achieve maximum benefit from limited 
resources. Different invertebrate groups vary widely in their suitability for site 
quality evaluation. Foster (1996b) listed the attributes required for a taxonomic 
group to be used at a national scale. These can be adapted for local purposes as 
follows. Target groups should: 

• contain a large number of quality indicator species, 

• cover the required range of habitats and microhabitats, 

• be easy to sample over an extended season, 

• be easy to identify and have a well understood taxonomy, 

• add significantly to information obtained from other groups. 

Table 4 shows that, in Leicestershire, beetles, moths, spiders and flies all contain a 
sufficient number of potential site quality indicators to make them candidates for 
survey and use in site evaluation, if the criteria for selecting local red data book 
species are used to select site quality indicators. On the other hand, although over 

Table 4. Numbers of invertebrate species qualifying for inclusion in the Leicestershire Red 
Data Books. Insufficient data prevents the designation of locally significant flies, ants, bees and 
wasps (based on Lott, 1997). 





Recording 






No. 




No. spp. 


Total no. spp. 




effort 


No. 


National 


Nationally 


with local 


with conservation 


Group 


in Leics. 


RDB spp. 


scarce 


spp. 


status 


status 


Beetles 


high 


25 




269 




64 


358 


Butterflies & moths 


high 


2 




33 




62 


97 


Spiders 


high 


4 




14 




35 


53 


Flies 


limited 


4 




44 







48 


Aculeate bees & wasps 


low 


1 




10 







11 


Plant bugs 


high 







4 




1 


5 


Dragonflies 


high 







4 




1 


5 


Woodlice 


high 


1 




1 




1 


3 


Caddis-flies 


low 


2 












2 


Grasshoppers 


high 












2 


2 


False scorpions 


high 


1 












1 


Molluscs 


high 







1 







1 


Freshwater crustaceans 


limited 












1 


1 


Total invertebrates 




40 




380 




167 


587 



BR. J. ENT. NAT, HIST.. 12: 1999 101 

200 species of plant bugs have been recorded in Leicestershire, very few of them can 
be regarded as good site quality indicators. 

Recent local reviews of invertebrate groups (Lott, 1995a; Crocker & Daws, 1996; 
McPhail & Morris, 1997) and of key habitats for conservation (Bowen & Morris, 
1995; Lott, 1997) have highlighted a range of habitat features of value for 
invertebrates. Often these are small scale features which are difficult to relate to more 
traditional habitat classifications. Several of these habitat features are of minor 
importance for the standard vertebrate and plant groups used for site conservation 
evaluation and so they have been somewhat neglected in the past. Therefore, 
invertebrate groups containing site quality indicators associated with these habitat 
features become a priority for use in site evaluation. Table 5 lists some habitat 
features in Leicestershire which are of importance mainly for invertebrates together 
with the invertebrate groups that are chiefly dependent on them. Aculeate bees and 
wasps are included on the basis of their importance in neighbouring counties (Falk 
pers. comm.). A higher local level of aculeate recording would undoubtedly discover 
species of conservation value associated with bare ground. Flies associated with 
mature trees are included, because their microhabitats are different from beetles. 

Several major invertebrate groups are missing from Table 5. Although there are 
many species of conservation interest among moths and spiders, they have mainly 
been recorded at woodland and grassland sites which are already recognised for their 
botanical interest. It is beetles, flies, bees and wasps that appear to have the capacity 
to fill gaps in the list of SINCs based on traditional floral assessments. On current 
knowledge, these are the most efficient target groups to use in surveys designed for 
site quality evaluation in Leicestershire. Other groups will be of use for other habitats 
outside Leicestershire. Reviews of invertebrate habitats of wider relevance in Britain 
include Fry & Lonsdale (1991) and Kirby (1992c). 



Invertebrate groups relevant to other types of site assessment 

Different species attributes are needed for use in site interpretation or for 
educational purposes. For example, the best subjects for inclusion in guidebooks and 
similar media are attractive species which are easily noticed by visitors. Butterflies, 
dragonflies and grasshoppers are all groups which meet these criteria. They are of 
limited use for site conservation evaluation in Leicestershire, because they contain 
too few site quality indicator species and they cover a limited range of habitats. 

Table 5. Habitat features of predominantly invertebrate interest in Leicestershire and 
appropriate target groups for their evaluation. 



Sites containing. . . 

mature trees (woods, parks, hedges) 

bare ground (heathland, quarries, urban demolition 
sites) 

undisturbed wetlands (especially temporary ponds, 
spring-fed flushes, small floodplain features) 
exposed riverine sediments 





No. indicator 


Target groups 


spp. 


saproxylic beetles 


81 


flies 


7 


aculeate bees & wasps 


5 


ground beetles 


22 


other beetles 


39 


ground & rove beetles 


41 


flies 


26 


riparian beetles 


38 



102 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

Nevertheless, they are often quoted in evaluation documents due to a confusion 
between these two site assessment functions. 

The diversity of invertebrates and their sensitivity to environmental change make 
them suitable candidates for selecting appropriate site management options and 
monitoring the impact of changes in site management (Eversham, 1994). Falk (1998) 
has developed a procedure for assessing the impact of site development on individual 
invertebrate species. A proper assessment of site management priorities should 
consider a much wider range of groups than an evaluation for the selection of sites of 
conservation importance. Butterflies and moths may be of limited use for site 
selection, but the decline of species associated with open woodland (Warren & Key, 
1991) warrants their consideration when drawing up woodland management plans. 
Unfortunately, two practical difficulties have prevented the use of invertebrate data 
at many sites which are managed for nature conservation. 

First, there is a lack of information on the invertebrate interest present at the 
majority of sites of local importance. Even where such information does exist, it is 
often confined to the more popular groups which may not give a true picture of 
conservation priorities. 

Second, non-specialists cannot translate site invertebrate data into management 
plans. Sites of conservation value are frequently represented somewhere by a 
forgotten file containing lists of invertebrates compiled by visiting naturalists. 
Usually, they appear to the site manager as a meaningless procession of scientific 
names. The interpretation of these lists can only be done by a small number of 
experts who are familiar with the specialist literature and whose competence is often 
Hmited to a small number of groups. There is a need to devise more effective 
procedures for incorporating the requirements of invertebrates into site management 
plans. 

Conclusions 

It is important to clearly estabUsh objectives for any assessment exercise because 
taxonomic groups vary widely in their suitability of use in achieving different 
objectives. 

Although local invertebrate records are neither taxonomically nor geographically 
comprehensive, existing species data can be used to select an initial schedule of sites 
of importance for invertebrate conservation by reference to the various fists of 
species of conservation status. Simple criteria for selection give adequate results and 
this reduces the resources required for survey and analysis. Consequently, there is 
little benefit to be gained from developing more complex systems and the priority in 
site selection should be more fieldwork to identify currently unrecognized sites which 
are worthy of conservation status for invertebrates. This can be accomplished most 
efficiently by looking for known habitat features of importance primarily for 
invertebrates and then surveying the invertebrates associated with them. In 
Leicestershire, beetles and flies have proved useful in the identification of important 
nature conservation sites which floral surveys have missed. Several well studied 
groups do not appear to generate extra sites. Other groups of terrestrial invertebrates 
cannot be used on current knowledge, although further work may find that aculeate 
bees and wasps are effective site quality indicators. 

The adoption of systems and procedures for accommodating invertebrate interest 
in site management plans is a much greater challenge for the invertebrate specialist 
than site quality evaluation. The habitat approach adopted by Kirby (1992c) has 
potential for prioritizing management objectives at sites where invertebrate data are 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 



absent, but species data may be required to resolve potentially conflicting priorities 
and. in any case, should provide a surer foundation for making decisions. The 
successful use of species data depends on selecting management options to meet the 
ecological requirements of species of conservation value in all taxonomic groups. 



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OFFICERS' REPORTS FOR 1998 

Council 's Report 



At the end of the year the Society's membership stood at 844, an increase of 29 on 
the previous year. Forty-eight new members joined the Society, seven resigned and 
ten were struck-off for non-payment of subscriptions. Two deaths were reported to 
the Society during the year. Mr K. A. Spencer completed 50 years continuous 
iTiembership of the Society at the end of the year and was elected a Special Life 
member. 

The Council met seven tiines during the year at Baden-Powell House and, on 
average, 14 members attended each meeting. During the year consideration has been 
given to improving the efficiency and reducing the running cost of the air 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12; 1999 105 

conditioning system in the Pelham-Clinton Building. A new maintenance company 
has been employed and electricity consumption has been much reduced. A final 
decision on a new temperature and humidity regime for the building has yet to be 
made. The Society has responded to a consultation paper from the Department of 
the Environment, Transport and Regions (DETR) on proposed amendments to the 
list of candidate Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) in the UK, and to another on 
the entomological content of the Wildlife and Countryside Act. The time given to 
reply to consultation papers is often very short and the Council is grateful to Mr 
Stephen Miles for co-ordinating the response to these two papers. A letter was sent to 
the RSPB in support of their plans for developing a nature reserve on the Inner 
Thames Marshes. 

A new initiative agreed by the Council is the involvement of the Society in 
collecting data on three heathland flies included on the short list of species requiring 
action under the UK Biodiversity Action Plan. The Society has set up a steering 
group to manage this research and has sought volunteers from the membership to 
carry out the investigation. The Society will provide half the funding for the project 
for a period of five years and will apply to English Nature for a grant for the other 
half. The Society's Conservation Working Group held an 'Insect Identification Day' 
in collaboration with the RSPB at their Minsmere reserve. Six Society members 
introduced around 60 RSPB members and members of the public to the insects of the 
reserve and the methods of identifying them. Many appreciative remarks were 
received from those attending. 

Eleven indoor meetings were held at the rooms of the Royal Entomological 
Society and seven workshop meetings were held in the Pelham-Clinton Building, 
which was also opened on fourteen occasions for members to consult the collections 
and hbrary. As a new venture Dipterists Forum and BWARS were invited to host 
two of the indoor meetings. The average number attending each indoor meeting and 
signing the attendance book remained at 19. The workshop meetings continue to 
prove popular with 17 people attending the Pyralid workshop and an average 
attendance of 12. It is good to see that the rooms are used by members coming from 
as far away as Yorkshire and Cornwall and, on average, ten people attended on each 
occasion the library and collections were opened. The numbers attending workshop 
and other meetings at the Pelham-Clinton Building are taken from those signing the 
visitors book, the actual numbers attending are likely to be slightly larger. The 
Council greatly appreciates the contribution of all this year's speakers and workshop 
leaders. A video microscope system has been purchased for use at workshops and 
will enable participants to view on a TV screen the identification characters seen 
under the microscope by the tutor. Dr I. McLean must be thanked for organizing the 
programme of meetings and the Council's thanks are also due to Mr P. Chandler for 
being present to open and supervise the Pelham-Clinton Building on nearly every 
occasion. 

The Annual Exhibition and Dinner were again held at Imperial College in South 
Kensington and 213 members and 68 visitors signed the attendance book for the 
exhibition. This was a slight increase on the numbers attending compared with 1997. 
An analysis of the figures suggests that members living furthest from London are 
more likely to attend than those living close by. Although attendance has remained 
much the same since Imperial College was first used as the exhibition venue in 1987, 
the number of exhibits has decreased in the past two years. In order to give members 
more time, after the end of the season, to prepare exhibits a member's suggestion that 
the exhibition should be held a month later will be given a trial in 1999. The 
exhibition venue remains under review but, given the good attendance figures, the 



106 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

Council is reluctant to make a change that would inevitably put a different group of 
members at a disadvantage. The meal provided by the College for the Annual Dinner 
was thought to have been the best for many years and the Society is very grateful to 
Mr M. Simmons for his faultless and unobstrusive organization of both the Dinner 
and Exhibition. 

David Young continues to ensure that the Society's Journal and notices are 
distributed to members and, in spite of some unpredictability with Journal delivery 
times, still manages to despatch material within a few days of receipt. This year Mr 
Young has also arranged for the Society to have its own web site and has ensured 
that the information displayed is kept up to date. 

Sales of the Society's publications are managed by Mr Gavin Boyd and 
approached £6000 this year. In spite of sales to individual members being much 
reduced, as there have been no new publications for several years, sales to 
commercial booksellers remained good. 

At the end of the year several members took part in the Society's third expedition 
to Belize and, because of the different season of the visit, the species list was 
considerably extended. A video film was made of the expedition and an edited 
version will be shown at a future indoor meeting. Earlier in the year there were 
twenty-nine field meetings organized by Paul Waring, ten of these were joint 
meetings with other societies. The meetings covered a wide range of localities and 
habitats from Perthshire to Devon and much useful data were collected. 

John Muggleton 



Treasurers report 

Last year I reported that the Society had spent more than it had received but this 
year we are back in surplus. We received £836 more than we spent and additionally 
there was an unrealised gain on investments of nearly £18,000. It is prudent to 
discount the investment gains as we have no intention of realising these assets at the 
moment but we must continue to try and spend our tangible income to further the 
Society's charitable aims. The overall net worth of the Society continues to increase 
but Council must always remember the strictures of the Charities Act that we have 
no business accumulating income without a specific future use in mind. 

I am encouraged to report that managing and administering the Society has cost 
slightly less than last year at £3,108 while our direct charitable expenditure has risen 
to £31,852. In addition we have spent just over £4,000 on equipment designed to 
enhance the facilities available to members, especially at workshops. Both the 
Research Fund and the Hering Fund have enjoyed more income than the grants 
made from them, so there is more available for suitable projects in 1999. 

Turning to the other funds it is pleasing to report that the Housing Fund, in 
addition to holding the leasehold at a written down value of £141,000 now has 
investments valued at £85,000 towards the next time we look for premises! Ambitious 
plans for publications are in hand for the next few years and the Special Publications 
Fund is in good heart to finance them with disposable assets of £53,000. 

As we, in our previous instar as the South London, entered the century we are now 
leaving, our financial position was very precarious. Publications were only possible 
with the aid of donations from anonymous benefactors, and the Society's guarantors 
still had to occasionally dig into their own pockets. The annual subscription was 
seven and six, which I calculate is considerably higher than today's twelve pounds 
fifty, but it still did not pay for the cost of the Proceedings. It seems from insurance 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 107 

records that the whole assets including library, collections and scientific equipment 
were valued at about five hundred pounds. In total the Society's funds now exceed 
£460,000 putting us in a strong financial position to maintain stability in a rapidly 
changing world and provide our members with increasing facilities while making a 
significant contribution to the study of entomology generally. 

Once again I thank Dennis O'Keeffe and Reg Bell for giving up their time to audit 
our accounts. 

A. J. Pickles 



Independent Examiners' Report 

We report on the accounts of the Society for the year ended 31 December 1998, 
which are set out below as follows. 



Respective Responsibilities of Trustees and Examiners 

As the Charity's Trustees you are responsible for the preparation of the accounts, 
you consider that the audit requirement of Section 43 (2) of the Charities Act 1993 
does not apply. It is our responsibility to state, on the basis of procedures specified in 
the General Directions given by the Charity Commissioners under Section 43 (7) (b) 
of the Act, whether particular matters have come to our attention. 



Basis of Independent Examiners' Report 

Our examination was carried out in accordance with the General Directions given 
by the Charity Commissioners. An examination includes a review of the accounting 
records kept by the Charity and a comparison of the accounts presented with those 
records. It also includes consideration of any unusual items or disclosures in the 
accounts, and seeking explanations from you as Trustees concerning any such 
matters. The procedures undertaken do not provide all the evidence that would be 
required in an audit, and consequently we do not express an audit opinion on the 
view given by the accounts. 



Independent Examiners' Statement 

In connection with our examination, no matter has come to our attention: 

which gives us reasonable cause to believe that in any material respects the 
requirements 

a. to keep accounting records in accordance with Section 41 of the. Act; and 

b. to prepare accounts which accord with the accounting records and to 
comply with the accounting requirements of the Act have not been met; or 

to which, in our opinion, attention should be drawn in order to enable a proper 
understanding of the accounts to be reached. 

D. O'Keeffe and R. A. Bell 



108 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

Notes to the accounts 
for the year ended 31 December 1998 

1. Accounting Policies 

The Accounts of the Charity are prepared in accordance with the Charities 
(Accounts and Reports) Regulations 1995, the statement of recommended practice. 
Accounting by Charities, and with applicable accounting standards. They are drawn 
up on the historical accounting basis except that investments held as fixed assets are 
carried at market value. 

1.1 Income 

Donations and legacies are accounted for as soon as their amount and receipt 
are certain. In the case of donations this is usually when they are received. All 
other income is accounted for under the accruals concept. Gifts in kind are 
valued at their estimated value to the Charity. 

1.2 Expenditure 

Expenditure is accounted for under the accruals concept. The irrecoverable 
element of VAT is included with the item of expense to which it relates. 
Depreciation is allocated over the expenditure headings on the basis of the use of 
the assets concerned. 

1.3 Tangible Fixed Assets 

Tangible fixed assets are stated at cost or trustees valuation less depreciation 
which is calculated at rates to write off the excess of cost over estimated residual 
values of individual assets over their estimated useful lives as follows 

Leasehold Buildings at Dinton Pastures l/70th of cost 

Fixtures and Equipment 10% of written down value 

1.4 Investments 

Fixed asset investments are stated in the balance sheet at mid market value at the 
balance sheet date. 

1.5 Stock 

Stock is valued at the lower of cost, including irrecoverable VAT, and market 
value and consists of publications and sundries held for resale. 

1.6 Restricted Funds 

Restricted funds are subject to specific conditions laid down by the donors as to 
how they may be used. 



2. Trading Income and Expenditure 

Trading income is derived from the sale of the British Journal of Entomology to non- 
members of the Society and from the sale of the Society's other publications and 
products, costs are those of printing and distributing these items. 



3. Sundry Income 

Sundry income has been derived from the sale of surplus insect cabinets and 
specimens and income from the annual dinner. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 



109 



4. Tangible fixed assets 



Cost 

At 1 January 1998 

Additions 

Disposals 

At 31 December 1998 

Depreciation 
At 1 January 1998 
Charge for year 
On disposals 

At 31 December 1998 

Net book values 

At 31 December 1998 

At 31 December 1997 



Leasehold premises represents the cost of building and equipping the headquarters at 
Dinton Pastures Country Park. The total cost of these premises which were completed 
during the year to 31 December 1993 are being amortized over the seventy year term of 
the lease. Fixtures and equipment includes a value for the library and collections as well 
as computers, microscopes and other ancillary equipment. 



5. Investments 

In accordance with accounting requirements investments are shown in the balance 

sheet at market value. 



Leasehold 


Fixtures 




Property 


& Equipment 


Total 


£ 


£ 


£ 


154736 


48928 


203664 


— 


4085 


4085 


154736 


53013 


207749 


11050 


9228 


20278 


2210 


4378 


6588 


13260 


13606 


26866 


141476 


39407 


180883 


143686 


39700 


183386 



M.V. 



1998 



Cost 



1997 



M.V. 



Cost 



Shell T & T 


4207 


1250 


6510 


1250 


Unilever 


4481 


248 


4941 


248 


M & G Charifund 


67003 


20238 


61471 


20238 


Treasury 1999 91 4 % 


2640 


2392 


2600 


2392 


Treasury 83 4 % 


3688 


3688 


3882 


3688 


Hendersons Bond 


64951 


58000 


59007 


58000 


Sun Life Bond 


65142 


56000 


56568 


56000 


Barings Bond 


24916 


25000 


24291 


25000 




237028 


166816 


219270 


166816 



6. Debtors 

Due within one year 



Trade debtors 
Recoverable taxation 
Prepayments and accrued income 



473 
4474 
2800 

7747 



561 
3714 
2398 

6673 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 



7. Cash at Bank and in Hand 

National Westminster Bank 
Capital Reserve 
Societies Reserve 
Current Account 
Eurocheque Account 
Cash waiting to be banked 



8. Creditors: amount falling due within one year 

Trade creditors 
Accruals 

9. Funds 

Analysis of net assets between funds 



1998 



1997 



5703 


25108 


13039 


5257 


6004 


1914 


582 


77 



35328 



1400 
4620 

6020 





Tangible 




Net 




Fixed 




Current 




Assets 


Investments 


Assets 


Endowment Fund: 








Bering Fund 


— 


15940 


— 


Restricted Funds: 








Housing Fund 


141476 


85444 


— 


Special Publications 


— 


53121 


8776 


Unrestricted Funds: 








Research Fund 


— 


34181 


— 


General Fund 


39407 


48342 


37476 



32356 



2342 
4299 

6641 



Total 



15940 

226920 
61897 

34181 

125225 



180883 



237028 



46252 



464163 



The Hering Fund was endowed to make grants out of income for research in specific 
areas of entomology. 

The Housing Fund consists of the property at Dinton Pastures and money put aside 
to finance its upkeep and eventual replacement. The funds were derived principally 
from bequests from the late Duke of Newcastle, Mr Crow and Mr Hammond. 

The Special Publications Fund finances the Society's publications other than the 
British Journal of Entomology and surpluses from such publications are credited to 
this fund to finance future publications. 

The Research Fund was set up in 1996 with funds derived from part of the old Bequest 
Fund which was closed with the intention of financing future grants for entomological 
research which would be authorized by Council but not so narrowly defined as those 
made by the Hering Fund. In 1997 the first grants were made from this Fund. 

10. Grants 

In addition to grants of £600 paid from the Hering Fund and £1003 from the 
Research Fund the Society has granted £2000 towards the Society's Third Expedition 
to Belize out of General Fund. 



A. J. Pickles 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 



Statement of Financial Activities 
for the year ended 31 December 1998 



Total 

Unrestricted Restricted Endowment Funds 

Funds Funds Funds 31.12.98 



Incoming Resources 



Subscriptions 


12128 


— 


Investment Income 


4813 


7284 


Bequests & Donations 


— 


— 


Trading Income note 2 


1161 


4090 


Sundry Income note 3 


7621 


— 



Total Incoming Resources 



25723 



Resources Expended 




Direct Charitable Expenditure: 




Cost of Journal & Distribution 


10490 


Cost of facility at Dinton Pastures 


— 


Members Meetings & 


3527 


Exhibitions 




Library & Curation 


3963 


Grants note 10 


3003 


Depreciation 


4378 



25361 



11374 



3681 



2210 



5891 



910 



910 



600 



600 



12128 
13007 

5251 
7621 



Total 

Funds 

31.12.97 



10410 
13409 



6523 



38007 30342 



10490 9289 

3681 3693 

3527 3789 

3963 693 

3603 6120 

6588 6629 



31852 30213 



Other Expenditure 
Management costs 
Trading costs 



note 2 



Total Resources Expended 

Net Resources before transfers 

Transfers between funds 
Net Incoming/Outgoing 

Resources 
Gains & Losses on Investment assets 
Realised 
Unrealised 

Net movement in Funds 

Fund Balances brought forward 
at 1st January 1998 

Fund Balances carried forward 
at 31st December 1998 



3108 



3108 



3357 



68 


2143 


— 


2211 


3162 


3176 


2143 


— 


5319 


6519 


28537 


8034 


600 


37171 


36732 


(2814) 


3340 


310 


836 


(6390) 


(2814) 


3340 


310 


836 


(6390) 



6570 


9945 


1243 


17758 


3669 


3756 


13285 


1553 


18594 


(2721) 


155650 


275532 


14387 


445569 


448290 


159406 


288817 


15940 


464163 


445569 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 



Summary Income and Expenditure Account 

1998 



Gross Income of continuing operations 
Total expenditure of continuing operations 

Net Income/Outgoings for the year 



1997 

30342 
36732 

(6390) 



Balance Sheet 
as at 31 December 1998 



Notes 



1998 



1998 



1997 



1997 



Fixed Assets 
Tangible Assets 
Investments 



180883 
237028 

417911 



183386 
219270 

402656 



Current Assets 

Stocks 

Debtors 

Cash at Bank and in hand 



Creditors: amounts falling due 
within one year 
Net current assets 





9197 


10525 


6 


7747 


6673 


7 


35328 


32356 



Net assets 



Funds 

Endowment Funds — Hering Fund 

Restricted Funds — Housing Fund 

Special Publications Fund 

Unrestricted Funds: 
Research Fund 
General Fund 



52272 



6020 



49554 



6641 





46252 




42913 




464163 




445569 




15940 




14387 


226920 




221735 




61897 


288817 


53797 


275532 


34181 




30877 




125225 


159406 


124773 


155650 




464163 




445569 



The accounts were approved by the Council on 4 February 1999 and signed on its 
behalf. 



BR J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 113 

BENHS Research fund 

The sum available for grants in 1998 was £1500, and four applications were 
received. Three awards were made as follows: 

1. Mr M. V. L. Barclay and Mr C. Lopez-Vaamonde, £418, to assist with a project 
on successional and seasonal changes in the saproxylic Coleoptera of a Berkshire 
woodland. This grant is for the first year of a longer study on the ecological 
requirements of the beetles of dead wood and their relevance to the conservation 
of these species. 

2. Dr A. J. A. Stewart, £405, to assist with the collection, collation and com- 
puterization of data on the distribution of Auchenorrhyncha. The award will 
enable a large back-log of distribution records of this important group to be 
completed so that distribution maps can be produced. It will also enable some 
under-recorded sites to be surveyed and data to be extracted from some museum 
collections. 

3. Mr J. Webb (Staffordshire Wildlife Trust), £180, towards a project on the 
distribution of ground nesting solitary bees and wasps in Staffordshire. This 
survey over three years will help to achieve the objectives of the Staffordshire 
Biodiversity Action Plan for these species. 

The Council invites applications for future awards and hopes that as the Fund 
becomes better known the number of applications will increase. As the Research 
Fund was undersubscribed the Council decided that £200 could be transferred to the 
Hering Memorial Fund which was oversubscribed. The balance of £300 would be 
available for future awards from the Research Fund. As a consequence the Hering 
Fund was able to award an additional £200 to Dr V. Zlobin (see Hering Fund 
Report). 

An interim report has been received from Mr J. E. Milner and Mr R. F. 
McCormick has sent the latest reports of the Devon Moth Group which 
acknowledge the support of the Research Fund; both were recipients of awards in 
1997. 

I should Hke to thank the members of the Research Fund panel for their time and 
careful consideration of this year's applications. 

John Muggleton 



Professor Hering memorial research fund 

The Committee agreed to make two awards from the Fund this year. The sum of 
£300 was granted to Dr Vladimir Zlobin of the Zoological Institute of the Russian 
Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg. It was agreed by the Council of the BENHS that 
this amount should be increased by a further £200 from the newly created British 
Entomological and Natural History Society Research Fund. Dr Zlobin will use the 
total sum of £500 to support a visit to London to study types of Agromyzidae housed 
in the Natural History Museum, London. 

Dr Ehsenda Olivella-Pedregal, from the Federal Biological Research Centre, 
Dossenheim, Germany, was awarded the sum of £300 to study the systematics and 
taxonomy of leaf-mining moths in European orchards. In particular, she plans to 
resolve taxonomic problems in species of the genus Phyllonorycter. Dr Olivella- 
Pedregal will use her grant to visit the Natural History Museum, London to study 
relevant types of this genus. 



114 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST, 12; 1999 

Professor Rimantes Puplesis, from Vilnius Pedagogical University, Lithuania, 
made a visit to Belize to collect Lepidoptera leaf-miners last year. Although his grant 
from the Fund was originally made for work in eastern Siberia, the Committee 
agreed to allow him to use it instead to support a month-long fieldtrip to Behze. This 
situation arose because Professor Puplesis was spending an extended period of time 
at the Natural History Museum, London, an institution with an active research 
programme in Belize. The visit proved to be extremely successful with over 400 
specimens of the moth family Nepticulidae being collected. Among this material 
about 50 new species are represented. The results of the research will be included in a 
review of neotropical Nepticulidae and submitted to the Bulletin of the Natural 
History Museum (Entomology series) for publication later in the year. Our 
taxonomic knowledge of neotropical Nepticulidae is conspicuously weak, so the 
grant has enabled an achievement of considerable importance. 

The microscope belonging to the Fund has continued to be lent to Mr David 
Morgan who is preparing illustrations for a book on bees, being written by Mr 
George Else. 

I am grateful to my colleagues on the Hering Fund Committee for their advice and 
support, and I record my thanks to Dr John Muggleton, who, as Secretary both of 
the BENHS and the Society's Research Fund, has also helped the Hering Fund 
achieve its ends over the last year. 

Mozuraitis, R., Buda, V., Borg-Karlson, A.-K., Ivinskis, P., Karalius, V., Laannmaa, M. & 
Plepys, D. 1998. New sex attractants and inhibitors for 17 moth species from the families 
Gracillaridae, Tortricidae, Yponomeutidae, Oecophoridae, Pyralidae and Gelechiidae. 
Journal of Applied Entomology 122: 441^52. 

Malcolm Scoble 



Librarians report 

Those of you who have visited the Pelham-Clinton Building at Dinton Pastures 
this year will have noticed that large portions of our journal holdings have been 
removed from the shelves and are not available for loan. This is because I have 
concentrated on getting unbound journal back numbers bound this year, and in July 
I sent a large consignment to the binders. This included our journal, the old 
Proceedings and Transactions as well as the new British Journal. I also sent a bound 
set of Proceedings and Transactions covering the "war years" for rebinding. This was 
in poor condition, in odd covers and is the only copy we possess of our own journal 
for this period. By necessity, it is very slim, a sad reflection on those infamous times. 
Also included in this batch were Annales Entomologica Fennici, Entomologica 
Fennica, Entomologist's Gazette, London Naturalist, Entomologist's Record, Entomo- 
logist's Monthly Magazine and Linneana Belgica. A list of fairly exacting 
specifications accompanied these items and I am pleased to report that the bound 
journals were returned safely to Dinton Pastures in December. A fine job was made, 
and these items are once again available for loan to members. However, this is not 
the end of this project as many more titles remain to be dealt with. Consequently, 
earlier this month I sent for binding a large consignment of the various journals 
published by the Royal Entomological Society, some of which had been wrongly 
collated in the past. I look forward to reporting a similarly successful outcome this 
time next year. 



BR J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 115 

I am also pleased that the new books I reported ordering this time last year have 
all arrived safely and are available for loan. I have produced a short article hsting 
these which should be published in our journal soon. 

After my report at the AGM last year, Raymond Uffen requested that I prepare 
some instructions on the use of the Society's electronic library database. This I have 
done, and a plastic-laminated copy is secured to the wall behind the access terminal. 
May I take this opportunity to ask anyone using these instructions who finds an 
error in them, or thinks that they could be clarified, to leave me a written note of 
their suggestion. I will review this and, where appropriate, amend the instructions 
accordingly. While on the subject of things laminated, visitors to the library will 
observe that we now have lists of subject-areas attached to the ends of the relevant 
shelves. These should aid you in locating the subject you are looking for and I hope 
you find them useful; I am in the process of preparing similar lists for the shelves 
holding bound journals. I wish to take this opportunity to thank Martin Albertini for 
producing additional shelf labels during the year. The fact that these were needed is 
testimony to how much the library has expanded its holdings in the past year or two. 

As a change to my usual reports I thought Fd include a few basic statistics this 
year to illustrate the increase in use that the library has seen since the move to Dinton 
Pastures (Fig. 1). 

1989 was the last full year that the Society was based at the Alpine Club. During 
that year a total of 85 library items were loaned, split roughly equally between books 
and journals. Our first full year at Dinton Pastures (1993) saw the number of loans 
equal those in 1989, the main difference being the greater proportion of book to 
journal loans (roughly 3/4 were books). From 1994, loans have increased steadily 
but, interestingly, the proportion of books is still outstripping that of the journals (2/ 
3 are books). The last full year for which figures are available (1998) shows that 
members borrowed a total of 179 items. Though membership numbers may have 
changed since 1989, this represents an increase in loans activity of 210% since our 



180 
160 
140 
120 

"O 

§1001 
o 

I 801 

6 
^ 60 



:ilN 



J 



m 



^ 



1989 



1993 1994 



1995 
Year 






1996 



^ 



m 



D Books 
■ Journals 



n Total 



1997 



1998 



Fig. 1. Library loans. 



116 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

days at the Alpine Club, and is good justification, if any is needed, for the difficult 
choice of location made by Council at that time. The low proportion of journal loans 
compared to books shows that members are taking advantage of the photocopy 
facilities which were not available at the Alpine Club. I am sure that without this 
facility many more journals would have been borrowed over this period. 

This year the library has benefited from donations of books from Matthew Smith, 
Mark Iley, Ian McLean, Paul Waring, Bernard Verdcourt, Brian Baker, John 
Bradley and Ian Wallace. As is customary, I wish to express my thanks to them for 
their generosity. I also wish to thank John Muggleton for his continuing help in 
logging the receipt of journals and updating the database in this respect. 

My main aim for the coming year is to continue the journal binding project. I also 
hope to attend more open days at Dinton Pastures than I have been able to this year. 
A long-term aim regarding the journals section remains the establishment of an 
electronic database of bound journals along the lines of the one we have for books, 
but I doubt that this will be achieved in the coming year. 

lAN Sims 



Curators report 

The past year has mainly seen continuity of the projects mentioned in last year's 
report. My main activity has been the completion of the new layout for European 
and other foreign butterflies. As mentioned these follow the arrangement in the 
recent European checklist. They include 350 species and have been accommodated in 
5 cabinets, totalling 145 drawers; in the last three drawers the small collections of 
Oriental Lycaenidae and American butterflies have been placed. 

Duplicate European butterflies have consequently been available, in a separate 
cabinet, for a few months now. Considering the relatively low rate of consultation of 
the main collection, I was surprised by the rapidity with which these have been 
raided, so anyone who seeks specimens should come soon. 

The Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae from the Bretherton collection have 
been transferred to the cabinet provided by the Reading Museum, so the four 
cabinets housing this collection are now all the property of the Museum. 

David Moore has continued work on the layout of the British Noctuids and will be 
completing this shortly. As the layout in Bradley & Fletcher order of the British 
macro-moths will then be complete, I will not mention this in next year's report so I 
thank David now for the considerable assistance he has given in arranging this 
collection to a high standard. I also thank Peter Baker for continuing to repaper 
drawers to be used in this layout. 

Consideration will now be given to revising the layout of the micro-moths. As Eric 
Bradford's collection is already arranged according to Bradley & Fletcher, this will 
form the basis for the new arrangement. We have many unnamed micro-moths, 
many of them sorted to family, so any volunteers to look at these or pick out 
specimens of value to the collections, will be welcomed. 

A collection of Coleoptera made by John Sankey has been received from his 
widow and I am grateful to John Owen for conveying this collection to me. It 
comprises nearly 1000 specimens arranged in storeboxes, many of them from Surrey. 
This material has been assessed by Jonty Denton, who has kindly picked out some 
specimens for addition to the collection, while extracting Surrey data. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 117 

Specimens have also been donated by Jonty Denton, Peter Grainger, Andrew 
Halstead, Tony Harman, Roger Hawkins, Matthew Smith and Bernard Verdcourt, 
to whom I am grateful for their continuing interest in improving the collections. 

The re-arrangement of the Lepidoptera collections mentioned has resulted in 
several cabinets becoming vacated. Seven cabinets and a number of storeboxes were 
sold during the year and several other cabinets will be available for sale shortly. As 
offers have already been made for some of these, anyone wanting a cabinet should 
contact me as soon as possible. The proceeds of sales are being used to purchase 
further new cabinets which will be obtained shortly, to enable the rehousing of the 
remaining Hymenoptera and the reorganization of the Diptera according to the new 
checklist. The plan is to eliminate the central block of cabinets to provide more space 
for open days and workshops and to enhance security. 

Finally, I would hke to thank members for keeping the floor relatively clean since 
the industrial cleaning operation last year and also Ian McLean for recent mopping 
activity. 

Peter Chandler 



Theft of butterflies from the society's collection 

It was brought to my notice by a member, in January 1999, that some aberrations 
were apparently missing from the Society's collection of British butterflies, This was 
not mentioned in my annual report, because it had yet to be confirmed and the 
numbers of specimens involved was not known. Since then the collection has been 
checked by David Moore, who was responsible for laying out the butterflies in their 
present arrangement, during the latter years at the Alpine Club. He has confirmed 
that several specimens are missing, in at least two instances other specimens, 
presumably from the Duplicate Collection, have been substituted for the missing 
specimens but in other cases it was more obvious as gaps and pinholes were 
apparent. Unfortunately, the Society does not have a record of the precise com- 
position of the collections so the total number of specimens stolen cannot be 
ascertained. 

While it was not possible to be sure of the full extent of the theft, the following 
specimens are certainly known to have been removed: 

Ab. deleta of the Brown Argus, Aricia agestis (Denis & Schiffermiiller) 
Ab. nigrina (entirely dark upper side) of the White Admiral, Limenitis Camilla (L.) 
Albino (no dark marking on forewing) of the Orange Tip, Anthocharis cardamines (L.) 
A bilateral gynandromorph of the Chalkhill Blue, Lysandra coridon (Poda) 
Several other Lycaenidae are also missing but their identity is uncertain. 

It is not known whether any specimens have been removed from the Bright 
collection, which chiefly comprises aberrations of the Common and Chalkhill Blues, 
as there is no record of its contents and there have always been many gaps (and 
pinholes) in this collection during the time that I have been Curator. The collection is 
laid out with labels for many aberrations that are not represented by specimens. It 
must, however, be considered possible that specimens have also been removed from 
this collection and any member visiting the building, who is familiar with this 
collection, will be asked if they can advise of any losses. 

The member, who first discovered these losses, was certain that the specimens had 
been present during his previous visit (in September 1997), so it would appear that 



118 BR J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

they were removed either late in 1997 or during 1998. This must have taken place 
during an open day or workshop meeting. Although I was present at all but one open 
day and at most workshops during this period, it is not of course possible to observe 
all visitors continuously and the layout of the collections room precludes simul- 
taneous observation of the entire room. 

In order to minimize the chance of any recurrence of this problem, the two Hills 
units containing British butterflies and the two cabinets housing the Bright collection 
are now being kept locked and any member wishing to view specimens in these 
collections should first contact the Curator and will be asked to sign a record book 
when asking for the relevant key. As I am occasionally absent during open days, 
anyone planning a visit specifically to see these collections would be well advised to 
inform me in advance (Tel: 01628-6641 1 1) as the keys will not be available during my 
absence. 

It is also planned to photograph the contents of these cabinets in the near future, 
so that a permanent record will be available to enable closer control of these 
specimens in the future. 

Peter Chandler 



Editors report 

Steady progress has been made through the year in attempting to catch up the 
publication times of issues of the Journal. However, general shortage of articles and 
short communications prevented a more rapid publication of individual parts. 
Volume 1 1 , parts 1 and 2 contained 64 pages each but towards the end of the year it 
was clear there was insufficient material to sustain this size of part. Accordingly parts 
3 and 4 were combined and published in January 1999. This should allow the parts of 
Volume 12 in 1999 to be published in a more timely fashion. Emphasis will be placed 
on more timely production to enable better co-ordination with other Society 
mailings. A revised "Instructions to Authors" has been agreed, which will be 
published in the first part of Volume 12. 

As well as reports of Society Indoor and Field meetings, the Annual Exhibition 
report and Officers" reports. Volume 1 1 included 22 articles. There were 8 on 
Lepidoptera, 5 on Diptera, 4 on Coleoptera, 2 on Hymenoptera, 1 Hemiptera paper 
and 1 on Isopoda. One paper was on broadly conservation issues. The majority of 
these articles are of broadly taxonomic content. This seems a reasonable balance 
across the Orders and probably reflects the interests of the Members although some 
groups are not covered at all. I would welcome more contributions on conservation 
matters and I would also welcome and encourage more formal reports from groups 
such as County Moth recording schemes, as well as BWARS and Dipterists Forum. I 
would also like to encourage those who organize field meetings but don't send 
reports to try and write something, however brief. We probably only receive reports 
of around half the field meetings that take place. We should also not forget that the 
Society's web site can easily carry information on current activities, as well as being a 
link into other web sites. 

The general lack of articles has meant that some can be published very quickly 
after review. However, I would prefer to have more ready in the pipeline to make 
planning future issues easier. I am not sure if some articles that might have been sent 
to the Society in the past are being published in specialist Newsletters. 



BR J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 119 

I would like to again take this opportunity to thank all those who have given their 
time in assisting the production of the Journal in the past year, not only in writing 
articles and communications but in reviewing other contributions. 

Michael R. Wilson 



THE 1998 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS— PART 1 REPORT 

Brian Eversham 

The reports published here confirm that the hard work which keeps the Society 
alive is done by its officers, and the President needs do little more than preside at this 
Annual Meeting and in Council meetings. 

Quiet efficiency characterises each officer: Secretary, Treasurer, Editor, Curator, 
Librarian, Lanternist and Field Meeting Organiser. Each has performed diligently, 
effectively and with good humour throughout the year. I should also highlight the 
role of key figures in the well-being of the Society: Roger Hawkins and Andy 
Godfrey ensuring membership matters are dealt with promptly, and not least Mike 
Simmons once again organising the Annual Exhibition and Dinner. Both were 
judged a great success, and I can now recommend Imperial College as a place to eat! 

I should also record our thanks to the Committees who have appraised 
applications to the Hering Memorial Fund and our Research Grants with probity, 
imagination, and good sense. And it has been a busy year for the Publications 
Committee. Under the chairmanship of Ian McLean, it has steered the new 
Brachycera book toward publication. Particular thanks to the authors, Alan Stubbs 
and Martin Drake, for their enormous efforts, and to the editing and typesetting 
team of Roger Morris, Peter Chandler and Malcolm Storey. It is by our publications 
that future generations will know the Society. I am sure the Brachycera book will do 
for soldierflies and horseflies what Stubbs & Falk did for hoverflies; and in doing so 
will enhance the Society's reputation still further. It should also help strengthen our 
partnership with Dipterist's Forum. I think the BWARS evening did. 

If publications form a tangible legacy for the Society, its diverse and 
geographically widely spread field meetings programme confirm our role as the 
foremost society ^ox field entomology in Britain. Congratulations to Paul Waring for 
maintaining the momentum. 

Likewise, our indoor meetings have maintained their customary excellence, as 
have the very popular workshops at Dinton Pastures. I am grateful to Ian McLean 
for his efficiency and insights — it was an especial pleasure to hear talks on 
shieldbugs, ground-beetles and peatbogs during my year in the chair. 

Another steady rise in membership, and one more member being elected to Special 
Life Membership after 50 years in the Society, suggest we are providing what our 
members want. Sadly, time, takes its toll, and I have to record four deaths which 
came to our notice this year. 

Mr M. G. Venton died on 14 January 1996. From Barnes in London, he was a 
lepidopterist, and a regular attender at indoor meetings until the early 1980s. He 
joined the Society in 1971, and exhibited and communicated at meetings throughout 
the 1970s. 

Mr J. E. Maskrey died in July 1997. Resident in Lymington, Hampshire, he 
worked on a County Council nature reserve there. He was a good all-round 



120 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

naturalist, especially interested in aculeate Hymenoptera and several families of 
Diptera. He had been a member since 1987. 

Major A. Bedford-Russell, of Porton, Wiltshire, died in October 1998; a member 
since 1960, he was an authority on butterflies. 

Finally, Mr R. G. Warren of Stoke-on-Trent has died at the age of 86. A very 
active lepidopterist, and county recorder, he was the author of the Atlas of the 
Lepidoptera of Staffordshire in 1981, and an updated county hst two years later. 



THE BRITISH ENTOMOLOGICAL AND NATURAL HISTORY 
SOCIETY RESEARCH FUND 

The following grants were made from the fund in 1998: Mr M. V. L. Barclay & Mr C. Lopez- 
Vaamonde, £418, to assist with a project on successional and seasonal changes in the saproxylic 
Coleoptera of a Berkshire woodland; Dr A. J. A. Stewart, £405, to assist with the collection, 
collation and computerization of data on the distribution of Auchenorrhyncha; Mr J. Webb, 
£180, towards a Staffordshire Biodiversity Action Plan project on the distribution of ground 
nesting solitary bees and wasps in Staffordshire. 

The Society now invites applications for grants to be awarded in December 1999. Awards are 
open to both members and non-members of the BENHS and will be made to support research 
on insects and spiders with reference to the British fauna, and with emphasis on: 

(a) the assistance of fieldwork on insects with relevance to their conservation, 

(b) work leading to the production of identification guides and distribution Hsts. 

Travel to examine museum collections and to consult taxonomic specialists would be 
included. The work and travel is not limited to the British Isles but must have a demonstrable 
relevance to the British insect or spider fauna. Preference will be given to work with a clear final 
objective (e.g., leading to publication or the production of a habitat management plan). Work 
of leaf miners and gall forming insects should be submitted to the Society's Professor Hering 
Memorial Research Fund. 

Individual grants are unlikely to exceed £400 and the total available for 1999 is £2000. 

AppHcants should send seven copies, if possible, of their plan of work, the precise objects, the 
amount for which an award is requested and a brief statement outlining their experience in this 
area of work, to Dr J. Muggleton, 30 Penton Road, Staines, Middlesex, TW18 2LD, as soon as 
possible and not later than 30 September 1999. Further information may be obtained from the 
same address (email, jmuggleton(g'compuserve.com). 



THE PROFESSOR HERING MEMORIAL RESEARCH FUND 

The British Entomological and Natural History Society announces that awards may be made 
from this Fund for the promotion of entomological research with particular emphasis on: 

(a) leaf-miners 

(b) Diptera, particularly Tephritidae and Agromyzidae 

(c) Lepidoptera, particularly Microlepidoptera 

(d) general entomology 

in the above order of preference having regard to the suitability of applicants and the plan of 
work proposed. 

Awards may be made to assist travelling and other expenses necessary for fieldwork, for the 
study of collections, for attendance at conferences, or, exceptionally, for the costs of pubhcation 
of finished work. In total they are unlikely to exceed £1000 in the year 2000. 

Applicants should send six copies, if possible, of a statement of their qualifications, of their 
plan of work, and of the precise objects and amount for which an award is sought, to Dr M. J. 
Scoble, Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London 
SW7 5BD, as soon as possible and not later than 30 September 1999. 

Applications are also invited from persons wishing to borrow the Wild M3 Stereomicroscope 
and fibre optics illuminator bequeathed to the Fund by the late Edward Pelham-Clinton, 10th 
Duke of Newcastle. Loan of this equipment will be made for a period of up to six months in the 
first instance. 



BRITISH JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY 
VOLUME 12, PART 2, AUGUST 1999 

ARTICLES 

57 The tawny mining bee, Andrena fiilva (Miiller) (Hymenoptera. Andreninae). at a South Wales 

field site and its associated organisms: Hymenoptera, Diptera, Nematoda and Strepsiptera. 

R.J. PA.XTON & H. POHL 
69 Thomas Vernon Wollaston and the Madeiran butterfly fauna — a re-appraisal. 

M.A. Salmon & A. Wakeham-Dawson 
89 Aggregation of over one million 16-spot ladybirds in a bramble hedge, and 'blushing' in two 

specimens. 

R.A. Jones 
93 A new aberration of the clouded yellow Colias croceus (Geoffrey) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). 

A.S. Harmer 
96 Terrestrial invertebrates in site assessment: a local perspective. 

D.A. LOTT, I. BUTTERFIELD & M.B. JEEVES 

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS 

68 Aggregation behaviour in Philontlnis cognatus Stephens (Col.: Staphylinidae) at Burnt Wood, 

Staffordshire. 

P.J. Smith & M.R. Webb 
88 Catharosia pygmaea (Fallen) (Diptera: Tachinidae): a second record in Essex. 

D.A. Smith 

91 Gonocerus aciiteangulus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in a house at Ham, Surrey. 
B. Verdcourt 

92 Stenamma dehile (Fdrster) and Lasiiis sahidurum Bondroit (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) new to 
Lancashire. 

C.A. CoLLiNGwooD & N.A. Robinson 

PROCEEDINGS AND TRANSACTIONS 

104 Officers" reports for 1998 

104 Council's report 

106 Treasurer's report 

113 BENHS Research Fund report 

1 1 3 Prof. Hering report 

1 14 Librarian's report 
1 16 Curator's report 

1 18 Editor's report 

119 The 1998 Presidential Address— Part 1. Report. 
B. Eversham 

ANNOUNCEMENTS 

ibc The British Entomological and Natural History Society Research Fund 
ibc The Professor Hering Memorial Research Fund 



November 1999 

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BRITISH JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY 

Published by the British Entomological and Natural History Society 

and incorporating its Proceedings and Transactions 

Editor; M. Wilson, Ph.D., F.R.E.S., F.L.S. Department of Biodiversity & Systematic Biology, 
National Museums & Galleries of Wales, Cardiff CFIO 3NP. (Tel: 02920 573263, Fax; 02920 
239009) email; Mike. WilsonfS nmgw.ac.uk 

Associate Editor; Richard A. Jones, B.Sc. F.R.E.S.. F.L.S. 135 Friern Road. East Dulwich, 
London SE22 OAZ. 

Editorial Commitlee: 

D. J. L. Agassiz. M.A.. Ph.D., F.R.E.S. T. G. Howarth, B.E.M., F.R.E.S. 

R. D. G. Barringlon, B.Sc. L F. G. McLean, Ph.D.. F.R.E.S 

P. J. Chandler. B.Sc, F.R.E.S. M. J. Simmons, M.Sc. 

B. Goater, B.Sc, M.LBiol. P. A. Sokoloff, M.Sc. C.Biol.. M.LBiol.. F.R.E.S. 

A. J. Halstead. M.Sc. F.R.E.S. T. R. E. Southwood. K.B.. D.Sc. F.R.E.S. 

R. D. Hawkins. M.A. R. W. J. Uffen, M.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

P. J. Hodge B. K. West, B.Ed. 



British Journal of Entomology and Natural History is published by the British Entomological and 
Natural History Society, Dinton Pastures Country Park, Davis Street, Hurst, Reading, Berkshire 
RGIO OTH. UK. Tel; 01189-321402. The Journal is distributed free to BENHS members. 

© 1999 British Entomological and Natural History Society. 

Typeset by Dobbie Typesetting Limited, Tavistock, Devon. 
Printed in England by Henry Ling Ltd, Dorchester, Dorset. 

BRITISH ENTOMOLOGICAL AND NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 
Registered charity number: 213149 

Meetings of the Society are held regularly in London, at the rooms of the Royal Entomological 
Society. 41 Queen's Gate. London SW7 and the well-known ANNUAL EXHIBITION is 
planned for Saturday 27 November 1999 at Imperial College. London SW7. Frequent Field 
Meetings are held at weekends in the summer. Visitors are welcome at all meetings. The current 
Programme Card can be had on application to the Secretary, J. Muggleton, at the address given 
below. 

The Society maintains a library, and collections at its headquarters in Dinton Pastures, which 
are open to members on various advertised days each month, telephone 01 189-321402 for the 
latest meeting news. The Society's web site is; http;//www. BENHS.org.uk 
Applications for membership to the Membership Secretary; A. Godfrey. 90 Bence Lane, Darton, 
Barnsley, South Yorkshire S75 5DA. 

Subscriptions and changes of address to the Membership Secretary; R. D. Hawkins, 30d 
Meadowcroft Close, Horley, Surrey RH6 9EL. 

Non-arrival of the Journal, faulty copies or other problems arising from distribution of the 
Journal or notices to the Distribution Secretary; D. Young, 9 Marten Place, Tilehurst, Reading, 
Berkshire RG31 6FB. 

Orders for books and back numbers of the Journal and Proceedings to the Sales Secretary; G. 
Boyd, 91 Fullingdale Road, Northampton NN3 2PZ. Tel; 01604 410056. 
General Enquiries to the Secretary; J. Muggleton, 30 Penton Road, Staines, Middlesex TW18 
2LD. Tel; 01784-464537. email; jmuggletona; compuserve.com 

Cover illustration; The snout, Hypena proboscidalis L. photo; H. A. Wilson. 

NOTE: The Editor invites submission of photographs for black and white reproduction on the 
front covers of the journal. The subject matter is open, with an emphasis on aesthetic value 
rather than scientific novelty. Submissions can be in the form of colour or black and white 
prints or colour transparencies. 




BR J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 121 

CREAGDHUBHIA MALLOCHORUM GEN. AND SP. N. (DIPTERA: 

MYCETOPHILIDAE), A REMARKABLE NEW SCOTTISH GNAT 

WITH A DISCUSSION OF ITS RELATIONSHIPS 

Peter J. Chandler 

43 East field Road, Bwnham, Slough, Berks SLl 7 EL 

Abstract. Two new genera are proposed, Creagdhubhia for a new species from 
Scotland. C. mallochorum sp. n., and Phoenikiella for a single Mtdiluw^ean species, 
Grzegorzekia phoenix Vaisanen. The relationships of these aenera witl^^er genera 
of Gnoristinae, including Grzegorzekia Edwards, whicp is here reS^i^d to 
G. collaris (Meigen), are discussed. 

Introduction 

On 17 May 1994, Graham Rotheray and David Robertson wel 
stages of saproxylic Diptera in an area of relict Caledonian pin^i^^jw ^vestri^ 
forest (NN6595), situated on a hilltop about 6km south-west oNsNewtonmoi 
Inverness-shire and about 1km west of Creag Dhubh (pronounced Craig DCrtt^r-Wnen 
they lifted some loose bark from a dead pine trunk, they were surprised to find an 
adult male fungus gnat which was subsequently passed to me for examination. The 
site was visited as part of the Malloch Society Saproxylic Diptera project. 

The gnat was predominantly dark grey in colour, slender bodied with long yellow 
legs and comparatively large bulbous brownish yellow genitalia. The wings (length 
5.2 mm) were narrow, yellowish with a faint dark patch over a median radial cell. 

It was soon reahsed that this was something unusual. The specimen ran in the keys 
by Hutson, Ackland & Kidd (1980) to the genus Grzegorzekia Edwards, which 
includes a single British and European species G. collaris (Meig.) and which was 
monotypic until Vaisanen (1984) described a second species, G. phoenix, from Tunisia 
and Israel. The Creag Dhubh specimen, however, differed in many respects from these 
species. It was, nevertheless, assigned provisionally to Grzegorzekia and was cited 
under that name in Note 1 in the new British Diptera check list (Chandler 1998). 

An attempt was made to find further material of the species, when I visited the site 
with its collectors on 18 July 1997. The location, reached after a steep climb through 
conifer plantations on the lower slopes, afforded spectacular views of the 
surrounding landscape which were enjoyed by eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), whose 
eyry surmounted a standing pine at the edge of the hilltop. However, although 41 
species of fungus gnats were recorded, the species sought was not found and it 
remains represented by a unique example. 

This species is here described as new and a new genus is also proposed for it. This 
is placed in context by discussion of the characters of Grzegorzekia species and 
recognition of this new genus and another for G. phoenix are justified. 

Creagdhubhia gen. n. 

A genus of Gnoristinae sensu Vaisanen (1986) with wing venation resembling that 
of Grzegorzekia Edwards, presently known only from the male. Adult slender 
bodied, with long slender antennae and legs, short proboscis and long narrow wings. 

Head with three ocelli, almost in line, with the lateral ocelli larger, ovate and 
situated their individual diameter from the eye margins. Antennae comprising 2+14 



122 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

segments, with long slender flagellomeres. Palpi normally developed, five segmented, 
with third palpomere bearing a round sensory pit dorsally, fifth palpomere long and 
slender. Eyes ovate, distinctly emarginate adjacent to antennal base. 

Thorax with long irregularly biserial acrostichals and dorsocentrals as well as long 
setae on sides of mesoscutum; long scutellar marginals and long setae on 
proepisternum; pleura including laterotergite, mediotergite and metepisternum bare. 

Legs slender with all setulae irregular; mid and hind tibiae with some stronger 
setae on shaft. Mid tibia of male slightly swollen basally, with elongate bare area on 
basal third, probably corresponding to the apparently sensory area in some other 
genera (see below). Hind tibia without apical comb. Tibial spurs 1:2:2. Empodium 
not developed. 

Wing membrane devoid of setae and macrotrichia. Vein Sc ending in costa, not 
setose. Vein sc-r present and situated beyond middle of vein Sc. Vein R4 present, 
vertical, forming a small rectangular radial cell. Vein R5 downturned apically, costa 
exceeding its tip by a short distance. Crossvein r-m oblique. Median fork with stem 
short but more than twice as long as r-m. Posterior fork with long stem, fork 
beginning basad of base of stem of median fork. Radial veins, veins of median and 
posterior forks and A, setose on the dorsal surface; other veins including stem of 
posterior fork bare. 

Male abdomen slender with anterior sternites (15) bearing a weakly sclerotised 
median furrow; segments 7 and 8 short but their sternites well developed, tergite 7 
shorter than its sternite and narrowed medially, tergite 8 narrow and about half 
length of sternite 8 laterally, strongly constricted medially. Tergite 9 large and broad, 
covering more than basal half of genitalia. Tergite 10 short, cleft medially, bearing 
pair of oval spinose cerci and well developed bilobed epiproct, basally articulating 
with bilobed hypoproct. Gonocoxites large and bearing basal (ventral) and apical 
lobes. Gonostylus present but small and weak, set between apical lobes of 
gonocoxites. Aedeagus and parameres situated close to ventral surface of 
gonocoxites. 

Etymology. The genus is named for the only known locality of the type-species. 

Type-species: C. mallochorum sp. n. 

Discussion 

Diagnostic characters of this genus in common with Grzegorzekia are Sc ending in 
costa, sc-r present and situated within apical third of Sc, R4 present and relatively 
close to Rs, posterior fork with long stem but forking at or before level of base of the 
stem of the median fork; lateral ocelli their diameter distant from the eye margins; 
tibial setulae irregular and no hind tibial comb; empodium rudimentary or absent. 
Some characters of the male genitalia are in common with G. coUaris but not with G. 
phoenix, e.g. well developed proctiger and the gonocoxites with lateral parts bearing 
a converging basal lobe ventrally and bilobed apically. 

It differs from both Grzegorzekia species in absence of setae on the stem of the 
posterior fork and from collaris in Sc also lacking setae. It resembles /'//oe«/.Y, but not 
collaris, in R4 not being closely approximated to Rs and in the posterior fork arising 
just before rather than immediately below the base of the stem of the median fork. 
Other differences from both Grzegorzekia species are the presence of the "sensory" 
area on male mid tibia, presence of gonostyli (although these are reduced) and 
presence of spinose setae on the cerci. The relationship between these three species is 
discussed below and the conclusion is drawn that the differences between G. collaris 
and G. phoenix are also sufficient to warrant generic separation and a new genus is 
described for the latter. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 



123 






Figs 1-3. Male wings. 1, Grzegorzekia collaris (Meigen); 2, Creagdhitbhia mallochorum sp. n.; 3, 
Phoenikiella phoenix (Vaisanen). 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 




Figs 4-5. Male genitalia of Creagdhubhia mallochorum sp. n. 4, lateral view; 5, dorsal view of 
tergites 9-10 and cerci. Abbreviations: cer = cercus, epi = epiproct, gc = gonocoxites, T = tergite. 
Scale line 0.2 mm. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 




Figs 6-12. 6-9, male genitalia of Creagdhubhia mallochorum sp. n.: 6, ventral view of 
gonocoxites, aedeagus and parameres; 7, ventrolateral view of gonostylus; 8, lateral view of 
hypoproct; 9, ventral view of hypoproct. Scale line 0.25 mm. Abbreviations: aed = aedeagus, 
al = apical lobe of gonocoxite, bl = basal lobe of gonocoxite, gap = gonocoxal apodeme, 
gc = gonocoxites. gon = gonostylus, pm = paramere. 

10-12, male mid tibia, dorsal view: 10, Creagdhubhia mallochorum sp. n.; 11, Grzegorzekia 
collaris (Meigen); 12, Phoenikiella phoenix (Vaisanen). Scale line 0.2 mm. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 




Figs 13-17. Grzegorzekia coUaris (Meigen): 13-16, male genitalia: 13, dorsal view of 
gonocoxites, aedeagus and parameres; 14, ventral view of gonocoxites, aedeagus and parameres; 
15, dorsal view of tergites 9-10 and cerci; 16, lateral view of cerci and proctiger. 17, ovipositor, 
lateral view. Abbreviations: as Figs 4-6 and hyp = hypoproct, S = sternite. Scale line 0.25 mm. 



Creagdhubhia mallochorum sp. n. (Figs 2, 4-10) 

Male. Head dark grey with pale setae. Antenna as long as the thorax, with short 
dark basal segments; first flagellomere pale at base, flagellum otherwise dark grey, 
covered with short pale hairs; flagellomeres elongate, first 4.5 x as long as broad, 
subsequent flagellomeres progressively shorter, terminal flagellomere 3 x as long as 
broad, with a small narrow apical protuberance. Palpus slender, about as long as 
height of eye, third and fourth palpomeres about twice as long as broad, dark grey; 
apical palpomere long, slender and paler; proboscis short. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 127 

Thorax entirely shining dark grey with three more shining blackish stripes on 
mesoscutum. Median row of acrostichals and rows of dorsocentrals between these 
stripes are long, pale and irregularly biserial. Long pale setae on sides of dorsum and 
irregular series of pale setae on scutellum, some a little more than scutellar length. 
Proepisternum with long pale setae. Pleura including laterotergite and mediotergite 
are bare. 

Legs yellow, with coxae slightly greyish; long setae on coxae pale, other leg setae 
dark. Femora with only irregular short setulae. Tibiae covered with irregular dark 
setulae, mid and hind tibiae with a few larger setae, which are shorter than tibial 
width. Mid tibia (Fig. 10) with basal two-fifths slightly swollen, with a narrow bare 
strip situated posterodorsally on second fifth, with a row of longer setulae on its 
anterior margin; beyond this area 3 anterodorsal setae and 1 posteroventral seta level 
with the last of these. Hind tibia with 2 anterodorsals, 3 posterodorsals and 3 short 
posteroventral setae near tip. Tibial spurs pale yellow; 1 = tibial width, 2 a little 
longer, 3 2.5 x tibial width. 

Wing (Fig. 2) long and narrow, pale yellowish with a faint darker patch over the 
radial cell, extending to the stem of the median fork. Costa and radial veins brown, 
Sc and other veins paler. Sc long, reaching costa level with base of Rs, crossvein sc-r 
at its apical quarter. Veins R, and R, long, parallel. Rj ending near wing tip, costa 
exceeding it by a quarter distance to M,. R4 vertical, forming a short radial cell 
subequal to crossvein r-m in length. Stem of median fork short, but more than twice 
as long as r-m and fork begins a little beyond level of R4. Veins M2 and CuA, slightly 
abbreviated from wing margin. Posterior fork long, beginning basal to base of stem 
of median fork. Vein A, long, reaching level of half length of CUA2. Haltere yellow. 

Abdomen shining dark grey with pale hairs; tergites 2-4 long, 5-6 progressively 
shorter, 7-8 short but distinct; tergite 7 narrowed to a third length of sternite 7 
medially; tergite 8 laterally about a third length of sternite 8 but strongly narrowed 
medially; sternites 1-5 weakly sclerotised with broad median and narrow submarginal 
furrows; sternites 6-8 more uniformly sclerotised. Genitalia large and mainly 
brownish yellow (Figs 4—9); basal part covered by tergite 9 (Fig. 5) which is large 
and dark grey, truncate apically, with median emargination. Cerci are large, ovoid 
and bearing strong spinose setae on the apical and internal surfaces. Proctiger well 
developed; epiproct (Fig. 4) with two strongly thickened lobes, closely apposed to the 
cerci; hypoproct (Figs 8-9) with a pair of strap-shaped processes, broadened and 
bearing 3 setae apically. Gonocoxites large with broad lateral lobes (Fig. 4, 6), each of 
these basally bearing a broadly rounded ventral lobe and apically bilobed with 
narrower setose ventral lobe and small quadrate gonostylus (Figs 6-7), articulating 
with inner surface between these apical lobes. Basally gonocoxites enclose aedeagus 
and parameres (Fig. 6), situated ventral to the gonocoxal apodemes, which are 
apically fused to the internal surface of the lateral lobes of the gonocoxites. 

Wing length 5.2 mm, body 5.5 mm, antenna 2.7 mm, hind leg 7.5 mm. 

Female. Unknown. 

HOLOTYPE male, Scotland: Inverness-shire, NN6595, near Creag Dhubh, south- 
west of Newtonmore, 17. v. 1994, under loose bark of dead Pinus sylvestris, G. E. 
Rotheray and D. M. Robertson, deposited in National Museums of Scotland. 

Etymology. The specific name refers collectively to the members of the Malloch 
Society, who have done so much to advance knowledge of the biology and 
distribution of Scottish Diptera. 

Biology. Little can be deduced as to the precise requirements of this species from 
the circumstances of the single find. However, it seems likely that the gnat had 
recently emerged from the pupa, which was probably situated under the pine bark. 



128 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

Development may also have taken place in this situation, although whether the larva 
is saproxylic or mycophagous awaits further investigation. 

Grzegorzekia coUaris is known to be associated with damp decaying wood of 
broad-leaved trees and several of the recently recorded sites are alderwoods; it is very 
local, but found throughout Britain. Details of the rearing by R. E. Evans were given 
by Hutson, Ackland & Kidd (1980) and Chandler (1993). Larvae hve on the surface 
of damp rotten wood, from which they retreat into a web, which is individual but 
may be in numbers together. Pupation takes place on the wood, without a cocoon. 
The biology of G. phoenix is unknown, but it was found in Tunisia at a locality with 
date palms {Phoenix dactylifera), hence the name. 

Characters of the species hitherto placed in grzegorzekia edwards 

As indicated above, G. collaris (Meig.) differs in many respects from 
C. mallochonim. The body and legs are less slender. The thorax is shining black, 
except for the yellow prothorax, so the mesoscutum is without distinct stripes. The 
abdomen is shining black with yellow basal markings on each segment, especially 
developed on tergites 3-4. The legs are entirely yellow, lacking the "sensory" area on 
mid tibia (Fig. 11). The wing (Fig. 1) is broader than that of mallochorum and is 
brownish apically as well as a spot over the radial cell; the latter spot is darker but 
more restricted to the vicinity of the cell than in mallochorum. Vein R4 is situated 
close to the junction of Rs with r-m and is variable in the extent of this proximity 
(even in two wings of the same individual), sometimes being fused with Rs before the 
junction, so radial cell more or less contracted and in some cases almost obsolete. 
Vein Sc is setose on the apical half and sc-r is situated closer to the base of Rs than in 
mallochonim or phoenix. 

The male genitalia of collaris also differ markedly in structure from mallochorum. 
They were figured by Hutson, Ackland & Kidd (1980) and by Soli (1997; Figs. 27, D- 
F, not C-F as stated), who indicated the homologies of the parts with other genera of 
Mycetophilidae. The figures provided here (Figs 13-16) illustrate the differences 
from mallochorum and phoenix, as well as the characters in common with these 
species. The most significant character is the loss of differentiated gonostyli, a 
character shared with G. phoenix. The weakly developed gonostyli in C. mallochorum 
may represent a stage in the loss of these structures. The genitalia are overall shorter 
and broader than in mallochorum; tergite 9 (Fig. 15) is similar proportionally but 
simple in structure and tergite 10 is a narrow medially constricted strip; the cerci are 
simply setose without spines. The proctiger (Fig. 16) is well developed, as in 
mallochorum, with a bilobed epiproct closely associated with the cerci and bilobed 
hypoproct articulating basally; the lobes of both epiproct and hypoproct are slender 
with a single apical seta. The lateral parts of the gonocoxites (Figs 13-14) are more 
deeply bilobed apically with the better developed dorsal lobe bearing spines and the 
basal (ventral) lobe is slender and curved with long apical setae (Fig. 14). The 
aedeagus and parameres (Figs 13-14) are proportionally much larger. Soli has 
apparently misidentified, as parameres, the slender processes extending beyond the 
apical margin of the gonocoxites (Figs 13-14). These processes are actually 
outgrowths of the gonocoxal apodemes and occupy the position of the missing 
gonostyli. 

Although the female of C. mallochorum is as yet unknown, females of collaris and 
phoenix are available. The ovipositor of collaris (Fig. 1 7) is short and dark coloured 
with yellow two-segmented cerci; sternite 8 bears a series of spinose setae on the 
straight-edged middle portion of its apical margin (the labia of Soli, 1997). 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 129 

Additional material of G. phoenix from Israel was reported by Chandler (1994) 
and this species has also been found in Malta (Gatt & Chandler in preparation). 
Fresh examination of the Israeli material, from which the figures included here have 
been drawn, permitted the conclusions reached here. This species was assigned to 
Grzegorzekia on the basis of the wing venation (Fig. 3). The most obvious differences 
from G. coUaris are the more distad position of R4, so that the radial cell is at least 
twice as long as broad, and the more basal position of the base of the posterior fork; 
distribution of setae on wing veins is similar to coUaris except for absence of setae on 
Sc; the wing is uniformly yellowish without darker markings. The body is dark 
brown with the apical margins of abdominal tergites yellowish; the legs are yellowish 
and similar in structure to coUaris, the male mid tibia (Fig. 12) lacking a "sensory" 
area and with stronger setae about as long as the tibial width. 

The male genitalia of G. phoenix were figured by Vaisanen in tergal, lateral and 
sternal views but not described by him. It was, however, obvious that gonostyh are 
absent, a character in common with G. coUaris. Here tergite 9 and the associated 
structures (Fig. 19) have been removed to figure the gonocoxites and aedeagal 
complex in dorsal view (Fig. 18). Tergite 9 is simple in structure as in coUaris but 
distinctly shorter than broad; tergite 10 narrow and weakly sclerotised; epiproct not 
clearly differentiated from cerci but hypoproct comprising a pair of apically tapered 
lobes bearing a single apical seta as in coUaris. The gonocoxites are also more simple 
in structure than in coUaris and maUochorum, with the basal part broadly rounded 
ventrally, lacking the basal lobe ventrally and with only a pointed dorsal lobe well 
developed apically. The relatively small aedeagus and slender apically broadened and 
internally pointed parameres are ventrally situated, enclosed within the broad basal 
lobes of the gonocoxites. 

Although Vaisanen (1984) described the female of^ phoenix, he did not figure it, so 
the ovipositor is figured here (Fig. 20). It is broadly similar in structure to that of 
coUaris, but differs in many details, especially the form of sternite 8, which lacks 
spinose setae. 

A new genus is proposed below for G. phoenix. 

Phoenikiella gen. n. 

A genus of Gnoristinae sensu Vaisanen (1986) with wing venation resembling that 
of Grzegorzekia Edwards. Adult slender-bodied, with long antennae and legs, short 
proboscis and wings broad, but a little narrower than in Grzegorzekia. 

Head with three ocelli, almost in line, with the lateral ocelli larger, ovate and 
situated their individual diameter from the eye margins. Antennae comprising 2+14 
segments, with long slender flagellomeres. Palpi normally developed, five segmented, 
with third palpomere bearing a round sensory pit dorsally, fifth palpomere long and 
slender. 

Thorax with long irregularly biserial acrostichals and dorsocentrals as well as long 
setae on sides of mesoscutum; long scutellar marginals and long setae on 
proepisternum; pleura including laterotergite, mediotergite and metepisternum bare. 

Legs slender with all setulae irregular; mid and hind tibiae with some stronger 
setae on shaft. Mid tibia of male without "sensory" area differentiated. Hind tibia 
without apical comb. Tibial spurs 1:2:2. Empodium not developed. 

Wing membrane devoid of setae and macrotrichia. Vein Sc ending in costa, not 
setose. Vein sc-r present and situated beyond middle of vein Sc. Vein R4 present, 
vertical, forming a small trapezoidal radial cell, longer than broad. Vein R5 
downturned apically, costa exceeding its tip by a short distance. Crossvein r-m 



130 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

oblique. Median fork with stem short but more than twice as long as r-m. Posterior 
fork with long stem, fork beginning level with or more usually basad of base of stem 
of median fork. Radial veins, veins of median and posterior forks, stem of posterior 
fork and A, setose; other veins including stem of median fork bare. 

Male abdomen slender with sternites bearing a weakly sclerotised median furrow; 
segment 7 not much shorter than 6, its tergite almost as long as sternite, segment 8 
shorter with tergite 8 narrow and about half length of tergite 7, but not constricted 
medially. Tergite 9 distinctly shorter than broad, covering less than basal half of 
genitalia. Tergite 10 narrow and weakly sclerotised; cerci not well differentiated from 
epiproct, both bearing several long simple setae; hypoproct bilobed, the lobes 
bearing an apical seta. Gonocoxites broadly rounded ventrally with a median cleft 
below aedeagus and no setose basal lobe; lateral lobes not bifid apically but tapered 
to a point; the long pointed processes of the gonocoxal apodemes, found in 
Grzegorzekia collaris, are lacking. Gonostylus absent. Aedeagus and parameres 
situated close to ventral surface of gonocoxites. 

Female abdomen broader than in male, laterally compressed apically; segment 8 
with tergite broad and narrow, about half length of tergite 7; sternite 8 longer, its 
apical margin with medial portion (labia) between rounded setose lobes (on ventral 
margin in Fig. 20) lacking spinose setae; tergites 9 and 10 short; cerci elongate, two 
segmented. 

Etymology. The genus is named to signify the distribution of the known species in 
the Levant and parts of the Mediterranean region colonised by the Phoeniceans. 

Type-species: Grzegorzekia phoenix Vaisanen. 

Relationships between genera discussed here and other gnoristinae 

When he described phoenix, Vaisanen (1984) suggested that it was intermediate in 
some characters between Grzegorzekia coUaris and the Nearctic genus Aglaomyia 
Vockeroth (1980), which was then monotypic and known only from the female. 
Characters in common between Grzegorzekia and Aglaomyia, which Vaisanen 
considered to represent a monophyletic group, included all of the non-genitalic 
characters cited above as being in common between Creagdhubhia and Grzegorzekia 
with the exception of the absence of vein R4 in Aglaomyia. More recently Zaitzev 
(1994) has referred the European species Boletina ingriea Stackelberg to Aglaomyia 
and the male of the Nearctic species A. gatineau Vockeroth has also been discovered. 
It is consequently now known that Aglaomyia has rather different male genital 
structure, with large gonostyli, and is probably not closely related to Grzegorzekia. 

Phoenikiella and Aglaomyia share a bare vein Sc (as does C mallochorum) but 
Vaisanen considered this a parallelism. He suggested that a bare metepisternum was 
a synapomorphy of collaris and phoenix, while they also shared several characters 
considered plesiomorphous with respect to Aglaomyia. 

These genera are placed in the Gnoristinae as defined by Vaisanen (1986), which 
largely corresponds to the tribe Gnoristini of Edwards (1925), with transfer of some 
genera both ways with the Sciophilinae sensu stricto. As suggested by the 
phylogenetic analysis of Palaearctic genera by Soli (1997), this group is probably 
more paraphyletic than other similar groupings within Mycetophilidae and 
recognition of this subfamily may not be justified. As presently constituted it 
comprises a diverse assemblage of genera, which includes some of those with the 
most plesiomorphous wing venation in the family. Indeed, two genera transferred 
here from the Leiinae by Vaisanen (1986), Tetragoneiira Winnertz and Ectrepestho- 
neura Enderlein, were concluded by Soli to represent the sister group of 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 



131 




T8 T9 TIO 




Figs 18-20. Genitalia of Phoenikiella phoenix (Vaisanen): 18, dorsal view of gonocoxites, 
aedeagus and parameres; 19, dorsal view of tergite 9, cerci and proctiger; 20, lateral view of 
ovipositor. Abbreviations: as Figs 4-6 and 13-17. Scale lines. Figs 18-19, 0.2 mm; Fig. 20, 
0.33 mm. 



132 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

Leiinae + Manotinae + Mycetophilinae, this entire group arising within the Gnor- 
istinae. It was. however, unclear from his results whether the restricted Sciophilinae 
and/or Mycomyinae (which are more clearly monophyletic groups) also arose within 
a group comprising "gnoristine" genera and the other subfamilies, or had sister 
group relationships with this large grouping. Soli considered that Paratinia Mik, 
retained in Sciophihnae by Vaisanen, was more closely related to some "gnoristine" 
genera, especially Drepanocercus Vockeroth. Eudicrana Loew, also considered by 
Vaisanen to represent a subfamiliar taxon, was not studied by SoH. 

Most generic divisions in the Gnoristinae were initially based on wing venation, 
although many have been subsequently supported by other structures including the 
male genitalia. Many of the genera include relatively few species, the genus Boletina 
Staeger being the only gnoristine genus with a large number of known species. Soli 
(1997) provided a modern revision of the moderate-sized genus Coelosia Winnertz but 
many other genera, including Boletina, are in need of revision. It is clear that some 
currently recognised genera, especially Dziedzickia Johannsen and Ectrepesthoneura, 
are paraphyletic and further genera will need to be recognised in these groups. 

Vaisanen (1984) considered the proposal of a new genus for phoenix, as he 
recognised that the differences between phoenix and collaris were sufficient to warrant 
this. However, he did not adopt this approach for several reasons: the suggested 
monophyly of these species within a group also thought to comprise Aglaomyia and in 
such cases he considered that enlargement of the concepts of existing genera was 
better than establishing new monotypic genera; also, in cases where there was 
unresolved polychotomy (such as the suggested trichotomy in this case), establish- 
ment of a new genus could be construed as a confession of ignorance. He did, 
however, also state the counter-argument that following such a solution can lead to a 
species being forgotten in a genus, in which it has been perhaps wrongly placed, and 
also suggested that proposal of subgenera might be a useful interim solution. 

I agree with the latter suggestions and it might have been appropriate for the taxa 
newly proposed here to be accorded subgeneric rank within a broadened concept of 
Grzegorzekia. This may prove to be an appropriate solution, in one or other case, 
when a thorough revision of "gnoristine genera" world-wide and of other 
"sciophiUne" genera as yet unstudied critically has been completed. However, as 
the differences between the three species considered in this paper are at least great 
enough to justify subgeneric status in a revised generic classification, I consider it 
desirable to provide names for them to draw attention to the need for them to be 
considered in such a revision. 

Grzegorzekia in the sense considered by Soli (1997) excludes mallochorum and 
phoenix because the characters which define it include a setose vein Sc. In the possible 
phylogenies represented in his Figs 44^6, it either occupies an isolated position or is 
placed in proximity to Drepanocercus and Paratinia; Aglaomyia was not studied. 
Although genitalia characters were not utilised in the phylogenetic analyses, they are 
fully discussed in the text and the absence of gonostyli is evidently unique to 
Grzegorzekia among the genera studied (also applying to Phoenikiella as indicated 
here). As suggested above, the weak development of gonostyli in Creagdhuhhia may 
indicate relationship with Grzegorzekia and Phoenikiella. Gonostyli are well 
developed in Drepanocercus and Paratinia, as in Aglaomyia; these genera also have 
R4 present, Drepanocercus being distinguished by the plesiomorphous character of 
the posterior fork arising near the wing base and Paratinia by the presence of setae 
on the wing membrane. 

Acomoptera Vockeroth, like Aglaomyia a Nearctic genus to which two Palaearctic 
species have now been referred, was also not included in Soli's analysis. This also has 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 133 

R4 present, but differs in the more basal position of sc-r and Rs so that the radial cell 
is longer and the posterior fork beginning a little beyond the base of the stem of the 
median fork and gonostyli are also well developed. The European species 
D.spinistyhis Soli, assigned to Drepanocercus by Soli (1993), appears intermediate 
between the genotype D. ensifer Vockeroth and Acomopteni. The basal portion of 
CuAi is also weak and the posterior fork not so clearly forking basally in spinistyhis 
as in ensifer. 

Some species of Synapho Meigen also have R4 present: the species dealt with in this 
paper run to the couplet including Synapha and Aglaomyia in the Nearctic key by 
Vockeroth (1981). Synapha differs from Grzegorzekia and Creagdhubhia by the 
characters used in the key by Hutson, Ackland & Kidd (1980). i.e. base of posterior 
fork well beyond base of stem of median fork, lateral oceUi less than their width from 
the eye margin and presence of a well developed empodium. 

There are four other gnoristine genera with R4 present, which differ from the 
above in having laterotergites setose: Apolephthisa Grzegorzek, which has Sc setose 
like G. collaris but sc-r absent and the posterior fork arising near the wing base, and 
three genera with Sc ending in R (probably due to the portion of Sc beyond the 
junction with sc-r being lost), Dziedzickia Johannsen, Hadroneura Lundstrom and 
Syntemna Winnertz, the second also with a long proboscis and the last also with the 
wing membrane bearing macrotrichia. Ectrepesthonewu mentioned above also has Sc 
ending in R and the posterior fork beginning near the wing base. 

The character of the "sensory" area on the male mid tibia also requires discussion, 
as this is one of the distinctions of Creagdhubhia from Grzegorzekia and Phoenikiella. 
The significance of this character is unclear, as it appears variously developed in 
several apparently unrelated genera but always in the same position at about the 
basal third of the tibia. It was described for Ectrepesrhoneura by Chandler (1980), 
who also figured it for some species of Tetragoneura, Synapha^ Coelophthinia 
Edwards and Polylepta Winnertz. These genera all have a conspicuous broad ovate 
or elongate area. It was also mentioned that a narrower slit-like area is present in 
Phthinia Winnertz and Speolepta Edwards and it is th^se latter which more closely 
resemble Creagdhubhia in this respect. Soh (1997) cited this character for all of the 
above mentioned genera except Tetragoneura and Synapha, where it is present in 
some species of each genus only; however, the genera concerned were widely 
dispersed in his postulated phylogenetic trees except for that in Fig. 46, where 
Speolepta, Coelophthinia, Phthinia and Polylepta are nested progressively as sister 
groups at the base of the Sciophihnae grouping. In his other two postulated trees, 
Coelophthinia and in one case Speolepta, both former gnoristine genera transferred to 
Sciophilinae by Vaisanen (1986) are associated with Mycomyinae. 

It should also be mentioned that some characters used to define genera in the 
Gnoristinae are not always of generic significance, such as presence or absence of 
setae on the laterotergite, both conditions of this character being found in 
Boletina. Spinose setae are present on the male cerci in many but not all species of 
Boletina, so this character is not unique to Creagdhubhia. An analysis of all 
characters for the world fauna will be necessary for a natural generic classification 
to be achieved. 



Acknowledgements 

I am particularly grateful to Graham Rotheray and David Robertson for referring 
the new species to me and for introducing me to the site where it was found. Amnon 
Freidberg kindly enabled me to re-examine the Israeli specimens. Several specialists 



134 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

on Mycetophilidae provided useful comments on figures circulated to them of the 
new species. 

References 

Chandler, P. J. 1980. The European and eastern Nearctic fungus-gnats in the genus 

Ectrepesthoneura (Mycetophilidae). Systematic Entomology 5: 21 -^\. 
Chandler, P. J. 1993. New rearing records of fungus gnats (Diptera: Mycetophilidae and allied 

families). Dipterists Digest 13: 29-35. 
Chandler, P. J. 1994. The fungus gnats of Israel (Diptera: Sciaroidea, excluding Sciaridae). 

Israel Journal of Entomology 28: 1-100. 
Chandler, P. J. 1998. (Ed.) Checklists of Insects of the British Isles (New Series) Part 1: Diptera. 

Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects Vol. 12. Part 1: xx + 234pp. Royal 

Entomological Society. 
Edwards, F. W. 1925. British fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). With a revised generic 

classification of the family. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1924: 

505-670. 
Hutson, A. M, Ackland, D. M. & Kidd, L. N. 1980. Mycetophilidae (Bolitophilinae, 

Ditomyiinae, Diadocidiinae, Keroplatinae, Sciophilinae and Manotinae) Diptera, 

Nematocera. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects Vol. 9. Part 3: 1-111. 

Royal Entomological Society. 
Soli, G. E. E. 1993. The first Palaearctic record of the mycetophilid genus Drepanocercus 

Vockeroth (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Entomologica scandinavica 24: I'i-ll . 
SoH, G. E. E. 1997. On the morphology and phylogeny of Mycetophilidae, with a revision of 

Coelosia Winnertz (Diptera, Sciaroidea). Entomologica scandinavica. Supplement 50: 1-139. 
Vaisanen, R. 1984. A new Mediterranean species of Grzegorzekia (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). 

Annales Entomologici Fennici 50: 55-57. 
Vaisanen, R. 1986. The delimitation of the Gnoristinae: criteria for the classification of recent 

European genera (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Annales zoologici fennici 23: 197-206. 
Vockeroth, J. R. 1980. New genera and species of Mycetophilidae (Diptera) from the Holarctic 

Region, with notes on other species. Canadian Entomologist 112: 529-544. 
Vockeroth, J. R. 1981. Mycetophilidae. pp. 223-247. //; McAlpine, J. F. et al. (Eds). Manual of 

Nearctic Diptera. 1. Agriculture Canada, Monograph 27, 674 pp. Ottawa. 
Zaitzev, A. I. 1994. [Fungus gnats of the fauna of Russia and adjacent regions]. Part 1. 287 pp. 

Moscow "Nauka" (in Russian). 



ANNOUNCEMENT 



CORNISH LARGE BLUE BUTTERFLY RECORDS— Appeal for information 

As part of a study on the former occurrence of the large blue Maculinea arion (L.) 
in Cornwall for our County Millennium Butterfly Atlas, I came across an Edwardian 
record on the national database for "Portreath", supplied by V. E. Shaw apparently 
from the private collection of A. Morton. This is the only record for the area, but is 
some 50 miles south of the normal range along the far north coast of Cornwall and 
round to Clovelly in Devon. Monk's Wood have no further details on either name. 
In order that I can track this record down, I would be grateful for any information 
on either V. E. Shaw, or the whereabouts of A. Morton's collection. I would also like 
to hear from anyone with information on Cornish Large Blues in old collections 
which have data labels showing specific locations other than Millook or Bude. 

If you have any information on the above, please contact me on 01208 880106 — 
Malcolm Lee, GuUrock, Port Gaverne, Port Isaac, Cornwall PL29 3SQ. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST.. 12: 1999 135 

THE ORANGE UPPERWING JODIA CROCEAGO (|D.&S.l) 
(LEP.: NOCTUIDAE) SURVEY— AUTUMN 1999/SPRING 2000 

Mark Parsons 

Butterfly Conservation. PO Box 444. Wareham. Dorset. BH20 5YA 

The orange upperwing is one of the UK government's Biodiversity Action Plan 
(BAP) priority species. Butterfly Conservation has been appointed the Lead Partner 
for this species. The initial aim of the Action Plan is to determine whether this moth 
is still present in Britain. 

Currently searches are undertaken in an unco-ordinated fashion. There is no 
overall view of the sites that are being surveyed and those that are not. There is also 
no indication of the amount of recording effort being undertaken, or techniques 
being used, in an attempt to try and re-find this species. 

The orange upperwing is thought to be an open woodland or woodland edge 
species, the larva feeding on pedunculate oak and sessile oak {Qiiercus robur and 
Q. petraea). The species is considered to be associated with small or coppice trees 
that retain their leaves over winter. It occurs as an adult from September to mid 
May and has been found at ivy blossom in the autumn and at sallow catkins in 
spring. It comes to light. The last definite record was from Sussex in 1984, 
although there is a more recent unconfirmed record from Hampshire. Other post- 
1980 reports are from Cornwall, Somerset, Surrey, Shropshire (unconfirmed) and 
Cardiganshire (unconfirm.ed), although records indicate a wider historic distribu- 
tion in the southern half of England and in Wales (based on information from P. 
Waring, in prep., Atlas of the Nationally Scarce and Threatened British Macro 
Moths. Joint Nature Conservation Committee). 

If you go looking for the orange upperwing this autumn or next spring, or are 
recording in an area where this species could appear, we would like to hear from you. 
Negative results are important, as this would give an indication of the amount of effort 
being undertaken and the sites being searched. Do not restrict yourself to the known 
localities or even habitats; for example heathland with scrubby oaks may be 
important for this species and it is a habitat that is comparatively under-worked at 
these times of year. Do not restrict yourself to light-trapping — try natural attractants, 
e.g. ivy or sallow blossom, or use other attractants such as sugar or wine-ropes. 

The data we would like to receive should be in the following format, giving all 
details where known: 

1. Name of site 

2. Six figure grid reference 

3. Vice-county (and vice-county number) 

4. Date of visit 

5. Duration of visit (to the nearest hour) 

6. Number of recorders 

7. Techniques used (including number and type of traps; sugar; ivy blossom; 
sallow catkins, broken down into number of hours spent on each, if possible) 

8. Habitat (broad description only, e.g. deciduous or mixed woodland; heathland 
etc.)* 

9. Weather conditions (max./min. temperature; overcast/clear; rain/dry; wind) 

* If the species is found we would like as full details as possible of the habitat conditions and a 
description of any obvious site management. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12; 1999 



2257 Orange Upperwing 
Jodia croceago 



O Before 1980 
+ Doubtful record 
1980 Onwards 
■ Larval record 
• Adult record 




Fig. 1. Jodia croceago. Recent distribution. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 137 

Please remember to get access permission to any site you are visiting. As there is a 
possibility of confusion with other species, take particular care over confirming the 
identification. If possible, take a photograph or retain the specimen. 

We would also like to hear from you if you have had experience of this species 
abroad. In particular, we would like to know about its habitat preferences. 

The results (including the important negative results) should be sent to Adrian 
Spalding at Tremayne Farm Cottage, Tremayne, Praze-an-Beeble, Camborne, 
Cornwall TR14 9PH (phone no. 01209 831517). If this survey proves successful and 
gives rise to interesting data, further species (particularly BAP species) may be 
targeted for similar surveys. 

We would like to thank both JNCC and Paul Waring for permission to use 
information from the forthcoming Atlas and to publish the provisional distribution 
map. 

Further information about this and other BAP priority species of moth, and how 
you can help, can be obtained by contacting Mark Parsons or David Green at 
Butterfly Conservation, UK Conservation Office, PO Box 444, Wareham, Dorset 
BH20 5YA. 



SHORT COMMUNICATION 



A breeding record of Senometopia excisa (Fallen) (Diptera: Tachinidae) — The 

tachinid Senometopia excisa is a rare species in Britain with only a doubtful breeding 
record. Belshaw (1993, Handbook for Identification of British Insects, Vol. 10, Part 
4a(i)) gives the known records as: Lynton, N. Devon, 29.vii.1895; and a further 
example as "?Painswick in Gloucs". It would appear that it is the identification of the 
specimen that is in doubt rather than the locahty, and that this individual was reared 
from the geometrid moth Abraxas sylvata (Scop.), a host species utilized by the 
tachinid's congener S. intermedia (Herting) (Belshaw, loc. cit.). 

On 1 1. ix.l998 I beat from wych elm (Ulnms glabra) a few larvae of sylvata in a 
wood near to Orpington, W. Kent, in a vain attempt to breed them. As on previous 
occasions the larvae died before pupation but one lar\ a produced a single tachinid 
larva which gave rise to S. excisa later that autumn. 

As far as I can determine, this Kent colony of sylvata is the only breeding colony in 
the whole of Kent, Surrey, Sussex and the London area, although isolated 
individuals of the moth turn up widely from time to time, and the moth was 
commoner in the past. Belshaw (loc. cit.) says that the fly parasitizes a range of 
lepidopterous larvae in Europe, although of what families and on what foodplants he 
gives no clues. The third species of Senometopia, S.pollmosa (Mesnil), is a parasite of 
various geometer larvae feeding on pine, and the females are attracted to the scent of 
this plant; it is possible therefore that excisa may use other larvae feeding on elm, 
although it is fair to say that there are no other species restricted to elm at this time of 
year in the south-east of England. Lepidopterists rearing sylvata would perform a 
valuable service by retaining any parasites reared froin its larvae so that we may 
better understand the biology of this rare species. I thank Peter Chandler for 
confirming the identity of the tachinid. — Graham A. Collins, 15 Hurst Way, 
South Croydon, Surrey CR2 7AP. 



i BR. J ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE "GUEST ANT" FORMICOXENUS 

NITIDULUS NYLANDER IN NESTS OF THE WOOD ANTS 

FORMICA RUFA L. AND F. LUGUBRIS ZETTERSTEDT IN 1998 

Neil A. Robinson 

3 Abbey Drive Natkmd. Kendal, Cumbria LA9 7QN 



Abstract. — Observations made in 1997 on Formicoxenus nitidulus (Nyl.) were 
extended during 1998, including occurrence with F. luguhris. The behaviour of males 
attempting to mate with a worker, after an apparent mating emergence on a nest of 
Formica rufa, is described. It is concluded that the males, which are wingless, 
continue to appear on the surface of a nest for the rest of the season after a mating 
emergence has taken place. Therefore what was judged to have been a synchronized 
emergence of males on numerous nests in 1997 may simply have been the 
consequence of earlier, but not necessarily synchronized, emergences. 

Introduction 

Formicoxenus nitidulus is a small (c. 3 mm) myrmecine ant which lives as an 
inquiline within the large mound nests of the wood-ant Formica rufa and related 
species (e.g. F. lugubris Zett. and F. aquilonia Yarrow). It nests in small colonies 
within the host's nest and therefore is seldom seen except when workers, males or 
winged queens emerge onto the surface of the nest. In 1998 I extended the 
observations, which I made in 1997 (Robinson, 1998). 

Occurrence with Formica rufa 

On 23.iv.1998 at Gait Barrows NNR, Lancashire (SD483774), when Cedric 
Collingwood delved into a nest of F. rufa to confirm that it contained numerous 
queens (Collingwood & Robinson, 1999), I found 2 workers o{ Formicoxenus on the 
inner nest material. These were the first workers I had seen, since all the individuals I 
had found on nests in autumn 1997 were males or, rarely, dealate queens. The earliest 
date on which I saw males in 1998 was 2 August, on the nest where in 1997 I had seen 
them emerging onto a limestone slab, which they did again on 27 August. The last 
date was 18 October. By this time all the nests were very wet and mostly inactive, 
after which further rain terminated observations. Between these dates I saw males on 
11 nests (as opposed to 16 in 1997), 8 of which were nests where I had not seen them 
before, though I was unable to find them on 5 nests where I had seen them in 1997. 
This supported my 1997 conclusion that they were present throughout the F. rufa 
population on the Reserve, but suggested that one could not rely on seeing them on 
the same nests every year. 

On 29.viii.1998 at Arnside Knott, Cumbria (SD452772), I saw males on the nest 
where I had first seen them in October 1996, and on 3 September I found them on 
only a second nest. On 24 September I examined 30 nests, including the ones on 
which I had seen males in 1997, spending my customary 5 minutes at each site, 
without success. I have begun to search other F. rufa sites for Formicoxenus. I found 
males on one nest at Heathwaite, a National Trust area of calcareous grassland, 
scrub and woodland adjoining the lower slopes of Arnside Knott, and on one nest in 
Underlaid Wood, Cumbria (SD485789). 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 139 

Behaviour of Formicoxenus males 

When examining the nests at Gait Barrows and Arnside Knott, I reahzed that the 
most Hkely explanation as to why I could usually rely on finding Formicoxenus males 
on nests where I had seen them earlier, while there were other nests where I did not 
see them at all, was that the males continue to appear on the surface of the nest after 
a mating emergence has taken place. The queens, which are winged, are believed to 
re-enter the nest after mating, or to fly other nests (Brian, 1977). The males however 
are wingless and are unlikely to leave the nest. My observations suggest that they 
continue to come out onto the surface of the nest, and run searchingly about, for the 
rest of the season. This has caused me to revise the conclusion I reached in 1997: that 
I had seen a synchronized emergence of males. It does appear that there had been a 
larger scale emergence of males in 1997 than in 1998, but the fact that I saw them on 
a large number of nests in the same period could have been the result of them 
continuing to appear after earlier, but not necessarily synchronized, emergences. 

On 29.viii.1998 at Heathwaite, I witnessed what appears to have been a mating 
emergence. On this site the F. rufa nests are concealed in scrub, unlike Arnside 
Knott, Vv'here they are mostly on woodland edges or beside paths. On a very large 
nest in the dense shade of a hazel-ash-yew clump, where a chink of sunlight 
penetrated, I saw a glistening knot of Formicoxenus, which I seized and tubed with a 
large pinch of the surface nest material. At home I found that the tube contained 5 
males, vigorously pursuing another individual, only slightly larger and similarly 
coloured, (orange thorax contrasting with red head and abdomen), which turned out 
to be a worker. I had found dealate queens in 1997 and they are noticeably longer 
than the males and uniformly red in colour. This worker was so like a male that it 
was not until it extruded its sting that I was quite sure of its identity. Holding the 
tube under a binocular microscope, I was able to watch the males' attempted mating 
behaviour. One would mount the worker, extending its lyre-shaped antennae over 
the worker's head, rapidly palpating her head and the inner sides of her antennae, 
while curling the tip of his abdomen round and under that of the worker, probing 
(unsuccessfully) with his everted genitalia. Quite often another male would mount on 
top of the first. The frenzied behaviour of the males suggested that a queen had 
originally been present, but evidently not in the sample which I had collected. I 
continued to see numerous Formicoxenus males on the surface of this nest on 
subsequent visits, until 27 September. 



Occurrence with Formica lugubris 

In the north west of England F. rufa is now mainly confined to limestone sites in 
the Arnside Silverdale AONB, which straddles the boundary between Lancashire 
and Cumbria. F. lugubris is an upland species which occurs in the Pennines, Scotland 
and in the Lake District where it has a very restricted distribution, being confined to 
woodlands in the Borrowdale and Duddon valleys. It closely resembles F. rufa. and is 
distinguished only by details of its hairiness (Bolton & Collingwood, 1975). However 
it has very different ecological preferences, being tolerant of wetter, and requiring 
cooler, conditions than F. rufa (Cedric Collingwood, pers. comm.). It also has a 
noticeably different colony structure, as its nests are much more commonly linked by 
trails into social complexes than those of F. rufa. 

In Borrowdale F. lugubris nests can be seen in the oak-birch woodlands along the 
narrow road from Lodore to Watendlath. On 17 September I examined 3 nests near 
Ashness Bridge (NY270197) for Formicoxenus, and 10 nests in Lodore Woods 



140 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

(NY269189) without success F. lugubris is common in woodlands in the Duddon 
valley, right up to Seathwaite. Walking down the valley from Seathwaite on 19 
September I saw numerous nests of F. lugubris in a great variety of situations, from 
sunny exposed slopes to damp shady woodlands, and found Formicoxenus males on 
one nest near Tongue Wooo (NY225963) {VC69). At Wallowbarrow (NY2 19964) 
(VC70) I also found males or one nest, and a slightly larger individual which proved 
to be a worker. This confirms the presence of Formicoxenus in nests of Formica 
lugubris in both vice-counties of Cumbria. 

References 

Bolton, B. & Collingwood, C A. 1975. Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Handbooks for the 

Identification of British Inserts, VI (3) (C). Royal Entomological Society. 
Brian, M. V. 1977. Ants. The New Naturalist Series. Collins. 
Collingwood, C. A. & Robinson, N. A. 1999. Stenamma debile (Forster) and Lasius sabularum 

Bondroit (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) new to Lancashire. British Journal of Entomology 

and Natural History, 12: 92. 
Robinson, N. A. 1998. Observations on the "guest ant" Formicoxenus nitidulus Nylander in 

nests of the red wood ant Formica rufa L. in 1997. British Journal of Entomology and 

Natural History, n-.nS-U'i. 



SHORT COMMUNICATIONS 



Recent British records of Gymnosoma nitens Meigen (Diptera: Tachinidae) and some 
comments on its status in Britain — On 18.vi.l998 I swept a small yellow-bodied fly 
around the derelict yard of Woodlands Farm near Bexley (TQ446765, vice-county 
16, West Kent). Although immediately recognizable as one of the globose tachinids 
(Phasiini) which parasitize heteropteran bugs, it wasn't until autumn that I got 
around to confirming its idert^ty. Using the key by Belshaw (1993), it easily worked 
to a male of Gymnosoma nitens, a red data book 1 species. 

Examining the Bexley specimen I thought it looked familiar and located two 
further specimens, both malos, in my collection. They were collected by sweeping 
near White Downs, Surrey, 15.viii.l977, along with a third specimen, a female, now 
in the collection of my father, A. W. Jones. At the time they had been misidentified 
using the key by van Emden ( 1954) as the similar-sized Cistogaster globosa (Fab.) the 
key did not include G. nitens. Two specimens were exhibited under this incorrect 
name at the 1977 BENHS annual exhibition (Jones, 1978). 

The single record for G. nitens Hsted by Belshaw (1993) — Happy Valley, near 
Boxhill, Surrey, 1956 — has since been added to. Plant (1996) and Plant & Smith 
(1996) reported two specimens from Grays, South Essex and one from Sandwich, 
Kent. In addition, the fly has turned up on other Essex sites on the north bank of the 
Thames Estuary (C. W. Plani, personal communication) and demons (1999) reports 
finding it in 1985 and 1996 i)i Kent. 

In a recent paper, Morris (1997) reviewed the status of Gymnosoma rotimdatum 
(L.), and reported that it too had recently become more widely and more often 
recorded. It started to appear more regularly in the 1950s, and during the 1970s, 80s 
and 90s has increased tremendously. Morris suggested the increase may be linked to 
the recent spate of hot dry summers. He did not give any further climatic information; 
the data he reported were collated by decade and it would be difficult to match precise 
yearly weather to this scheme. But his suggestion seems entirely feasible. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST., 12: 1999 141 

The recent increase in Gymnosoma nitens might well be linked to the same 
weather factors, indeed, it is probably easier to link this species' increased 
occurrence to the climate. The recorded years of its capture, 1956, 1977, 1985, 
1996. 1997 and 1998 were not necessarily just hot dry years in southern England, 
but perhaps more importantly they all followed very hot and dry years and 
subsequent mild winters. Our knowledge of the fly's life history is vague and 
patchy and it is based on only a handful of breeding records from the Continent. 
Nevertheless, these climatic elements fit what Httle we do know. It seems clear that 
hot dry summers ought to favour the host shieldbug, Sciocoris ciirsitans (Fab.), 
which judging from its ground-dwelling habits, its preferred chalky and sandy 
habitats and its southern and coastal distribution, is a warmth-loving species. 
Because Gymnosoma overwinters as a larva in its host bug, mild winters ought to 
occasion low mortality. 

Incidentally, according to Kirby (1992) the North Downs near Box Hill are a 
stronghold for the nationally scarce (notable) Sciocoris, so it is not surprising that the 
fly was first found here. The only specimen of this bug that I have ever come across 
was on the sandhills at Deal, very close to Sandwich where Plant & Smith (1996) 
recorded G. nitens. Although I did not find Sciocoris at Woodlands Farm, I did find 
the closely related Podops immcta (Fab.), another secretive ground-dwelling 
shieldbug. — Richard A. Jones, 135 Friern Road, East Dulwich, London SE22 OAZ. 

REFERENCES 

Belshaw, R. 1993. Tachinid flies. (Diptera: Tachinidae). Hcnidbooks for the Identification of 

British Insects 10(4a(i)). 
demons, L. 1999. The Phasiinae (Dip.: Tachinidae) of Kent with a confirmed host for Hemyda 

vittata (Me'xgcn, 1824). Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation 111: 27-35. 
Jones, R. A. 1978. [Exhibit at 1977 BENHS annual exhibition.] Proceedings and Transactions of 

the British Entomological and Natural History Society 11: 16. 
Kirby. P. 1992. A review of the scarce and threatened Hemiptera of Great Britain. Peterborough: 

Joint Nature Conservation Committee. 
Morris, R. K. A. 1997. The status of Gymnosoma rotundatwn (L.) (Diptera. Tachinidae) in 

southern England. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 10: 11-13. 
Plant. C. W. 1996. [Gynmosoma nitens exhibited at BENHS indoor meeting. 27 February 1996.] 

British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 9: 170. 
Plant, C. W. & Smith, D. 1996. Gymnosoma nitens (Tachinidae. Phasinae): second, third and 

fourth British records. Dipterists Digest 3: 47-48. 
van Emden. F. I. 1954. Diptera Cyclorrhapha. Calyptrata (I). Section (a) Tachinidae and 

Calliphoridae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects 10(4a): 26-27. 



Nysius senecionis (Schilling) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in Norfolk — Jones (1997. Br. 
J. Ent. Nat. Hist., 10: 2) urged the submission of notes on the expansion of this bug's 
range in Britain. Single specimens were found at two sites during the 1997 
programme of biological survey: Brancaster Marsh (TF782451), one swept from sea 
wormwood Artemisia maritima L. and sea aster Aster tripolium L. at the dune- 
saltmarsh fringe, 2.ix.I997; and Little Eye, Salthouse Marshes (TG078443), one 
beneath a mat of sea campion Silene maritima With, over sand and pebbles, 
8.ix.l997. I would like to thank Peter Kirby for confirming my identification. — 
Keith N. A. Alexander, Biological Survey Team, The National Trust, 33 Sheep 
Street, Cirencester, Gloucestershire GL7 IRQ. 



142 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

1998 ANNUAL EXHIBITION 
Imperial College, London SW7 — 31 October 1998 

The following account of exhibits has been compiled by A. M. Jones (British 
butterflies), G.A. Collins (British Macrolepidoptera), R.J. Heckford & M.R. 
Wilson (British Microlepidoptera). N. M. Hall (Foreign Lepidoptera), P. J. Chandler 
(Diptera), P. J. Hodge (Coleoptera), A. J. A. Stewart (Hemiptera), A.J. Halstead 
(Hymenoptera and other orders), R. Dyke (Illustrations). The photographs for the 
two colour plates were taken by D. E. Wilson and the cost of printing these plates 
was met by a grant from the Hammond Memorial Fund. 



British Butterflies 

Bailey, K. E. J. — Results of temperature experiments on larvae and freshly 
formed pupae. A series of Vanessa atalanta (L.) ab. merrifieldi Standfuss and a single 
extreme unnamed aberration, all from pupae chilled for 22 26 days; similar 
treatment with Inachis io (L.) has produced ah. fischeri Standfuss. Cynthia cardiii (L.) 
with extended pale markings to the underside from pupae held at 37" for 3 days, and 
a series with strongly aberrant forewings and less aberrant hindwings (a reverse of 
the usual situation), believed to have been caused when fresh pupae were accidentally 
exposed to overheating in the sun and then chilled for 15-20 days. Argynnis lathonia 
(L.) with glomerate markings from late final instar larvae chilled for 2 days and the 
fresh pupae cold shocked. Also a series of extreme melanics (Plate 1, Fig. 11) from 
larvae reared slowly in cool conditions, then accelerated by warmth and the pupae 
given hot and cold shocks. This may help to explain the occasional clusters of 
Argynnis aberrations (especially in A. paphia) that can occur after a heatwave. Also 
shown from various cold shock regimes was a series of Eurodryas awinia (Rott.) ab. 
sebaldus Schultz and a Melitaea cinxia (L.) similar to ab.fidla Quensel. 

The results of breeding from a female Aglais iirticae (L.) ab. pseudoconnexa 
Cabeau. Aberrations appeared in the Fj generation and selected pairings gave 
stronger examples in the F2 and a few obsolescent specimens. Some F2 pupae 
were chilled for 20-28 days and resulted in pseudoconnexa with increased melanic 
tendencies. Amongst the F2 was an extreme ground-colour aberration with pale 
forewings of a violet tint. The exhibitor believes that the frequency and depth of 
expression of pseudoconnexa in both generations indicate that it is due to a 
polygenic condition. 

A female Polygonia c-album (L.) f. hutchinsoni Robson, taken out of season on 
13. ix. 1997 amongst many normal hibernating specimens. From eggs laid, 50+ type 
specimens were reared later the same year; the female did not die but entered 
hibernation on 25.x. 1997 where she remained until 23. ii. 1998. More eggs were laid 
and several adults reared. The exhibitor wonders if this is a bizarre response to global 
warming? 

Also exhibited was a bred series of Colias croceus (Geoffroy) with reduced pale 
markings to the forewing borders in the Ft from a Devon female taken vi.l998. 
Further examples of the recessive ab. atratus Bailey of Eurodryas aurinia (Rott.) and 
a male Argynnis aglaja (L.) ab. post-fasciata Blaichier, captured Devon vi.l998. 

Barrington, R. D. G. — Breeding experiments showing the multifactorial basis 
of three aberrations. Maniola Jwtina (L.) ah. fracta Zweiglt, 2 females bred in an Fj 
generation of 118 insects. The original female (Dorset, July 1995) was transitional to 
fracta. The F, of 80 produced a graded series from type to specimens with narrowed 



BR. J ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 143 

hindwing median bands, but no fracta. The F2 was similarly graded but with some 
specimens transitional to and a small number of fully developed fracta. Pyronia 
tithoims (L.) ab. nniltiocellata Ober. a selection of specimens from the F2 of a 
miiltiocellata female from Devon, 1995. The F, of 49 graded from type to weak 
nniltiocellata. The F^ of 90 was similarly graded but with more extreme multiocellata. 
Some females also showed ab. lanceolata Leeds on the underside hindwings. Pieris 
napi thonisoni (Warren) ab. fasciata Kautz bred in the F2-F5 generations from an 
original female transitional to fasciata captured in the outer Hebrides in 1997. 
Inbreeding produced stronger marked specimens with each generation. From the F2 
onwards siblings showed a reluctance to pair and only one pairing was achieved each 
time to produce the F,, F4 and Fj generations. F4 females were easily paired with 
wild type Dorset males. This subspecies is generally single brooded; however it was 
possible to bring most of each brood through by rearing under constant light. 

Other bred specimens included an extreme Melanargia galathea (L.) ab. nigricans 
Culot (Plate 1, Fig. 10) exhibited with two wild-caught females similar to the original 
parent. 50% of the brood were nigricans. Celastrina argiolus (L.) ab. lilacina-lata 
Tutt, with darker blue shading and heavy dark borders, one of only 6 butterflies to 
emerge from 120 wild larvae, the remainder being parasitised. 

Wild-caught specimens included an extreme, and mint, male Argynnis aglaja (L.) 
ab. wimani Holmgren (Plate 1, Fig. 12) captured in Ireland in 1998. The upperside 
largely black, the underside forewings rayed with black between the veins and the 
hindwings with the outer row of silver spots nearly obsolete, the median row almost 
black and the basal spots extended. This was spotted at about 6pm on a cool, breezy 
day as it was hawking up and down a bank looking for a place to roost for the night. 
Also from Ireland was a good series of Polyommatns icarus nuiriscolore (Kane), 
including a female ab. post-ohsoleta Gillmer and a male ab. ohsoleta Gillmer, being 
entirely devoid of underside spotting. Another important aberration was a male 
Melanargia galathea (L.) ab. rubra Mosley (Plate 1, Fig. 6), a rare albinistic form. A 
short series of Maniola jurtina (L.) from Dorset and Somerset in 1998, including 2 
female ab. postmiiltifidus Lipscomb and ab. fracta Zweiglt. A gynandromorph, left 
side female, right forewing male, right hindwing mixed. A curious female ab. 
irregularia Leeds, the right forewing larger than the left and with streaks and splashes 
of brown and grey-brown colouration on the underside, the apical spot being split 
and with a large pupilled spot below. 

Dennis, R. C. — A two-part exhibit, the first comprised of teratological 
specimens. Three Lysandra coridon (Poda) each with a reduced hindwing size. 
Boloria selene ([D & S.]) a male with both right-hand wings reduced in size by about 
a third. A female Celastrina argiolus (L.) with small hindwings. A Maniola jurtina 
(L.) with differing wing shapes and an apical spot missing. A Cynthia cardui (L.) with 
both left-hand wings about half the normal size and with aberrant venation and 
markings. 

The second part comprised three good wild-caught Aglais urticae (L.), two ab. 
semiichnusoides Pronin from Sussex and an ab. nigra Tutt from Dorset. 

Fensome, B. — Various specimens bred and captured in 1998, including: 
Anthocharis cardamines (L.) 2 males with pale "orange tips" and a bred 
gynandromorph. Pieris napi (L.) 2 ah. fasciata Kautz and a dwarf female. Pararge 
aegeria (L.), a male lacking white spotting. Coenonympha pamphilus (L.), a pair of 
ab. caeca Ober. the female with unusual pale markings (Plate 1, Fig. 5). Pyronia 
tithonus (L.), 3 female ab. anticrassipuncta Leeds and a male ab. obscurior Schultz. 

Harmer, a. S. — An interesting series of Thymelicus acteon (Rott.) ab. alba 
Bolton, or ab. nov?, comprised of 3 pairs caught in Dorset. Fresh specimens did not 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 



accord with the descriptions of any known acteon aberrations; however one female 
kept for breeding in its worn state fits the description of ab. alba (no description 
exists for the male). It would seem highly likely that this series represents both male 
and female ab. alba. Further research is being undertaken. 

Polyommatus icarus (Rott) ab. radiata Courv. a good pair, bred from the 
combined stock of R. C. Revels and the late L. D. Young. Pararge aegeria (L.) ab. 
cockaynei Goodson. bred ex Lymington female. The larvae kept indoors and given 
extended artificial daylight length. 

Further results of breeding Aplumtopus hyperautus (L.) ab. lanceolata Shipp 
showing F3 specimens; these were not noticeably different to the F2, despite selective 
pairings. An extreme female was captured in the garden from stock released in 1997. 
Also exhibited were 2 females being combined ab. lanceolata and ab. arete Miiller. In 
1996 pairings were taken between male lanceolata and female arete, the F^ comprised 
of 120 specimens, 84 type, 24 arete, 12 lanceolata and the two combined arete I 
lanceolata which were amongst the last to emerge. 

Hall, P. R. & Kemp, R. J. — A female specimen of the lycaenid Virachola antaliis 
(Hopffer). This was reared January 1998 from one of a dozen larvae found during 
November 1997 in peaches imported from Mpumalanga, South Africa, at the 
airfreight handling depot, Colnbrook, Bucks. For further information see Foreign 
Lepidoptera section. 

Jones, A. M. — Eurodryas aurinia (Rott.), specimens bred in 1998 from stock 
maintained for the last 6 years. A male ab. melanoleiica Cabeau, and an extreme 
female ab. sebaldus Schultz bred under normal conditions. A bilateral gynandro- 
morph (Plate 1, Fig. 8), bred l.vi.l998. 

Quercusia quercus (L.), 2 gynandrous specimens, a male with a patch of female 
purple on the left forewing, and a female with streaks of male on the right forewing 
and left hindwing. Both bred vi.l998. A male Argynnis papliia (L.) ab. conjiuens 
Spuler, captured 13.vii.l998. 

Meredith, S. L. — Photographs of two aberrant Polygouia c-album (L.), both 
taken in the same Northants. woodland. The first with suffused hindwings seen on 
the 19.vii.l998, the second an extreme ab. reichenstettensis Fettig, seen on the 
21.vii.l998; this specimen had a strongly aberrant underside, the "comma" forming a 
malformed "D". 

McCoRMiCK, R. — A selection of butterflies taken at the Burren, Ireland between 
the 17 & 22. V. 1998. Erynnis tages haynesi (Huggins), from Cappaghmore. Leptidea 
sinapis juvernica (Williams), from Loch Coolorta and Cappaghmore. Anthocharis 
cardamines hihernica (Williams), from Loch Coolorta. Polyommatus icarus mar- 
iscolore (Kane), a pair taken at Flaggy Shore. 

Parker, M. — A female Lycaena phlaeas (L.) ab. cuprinus Peyer. taken 
30.viii.l998 in the Hurn Forest area, Dorset. 



PLATE 1 ANNUAL EXHIBITION 1998 

1: Pieris napi, bred, Fj, R. Revels. 2; Lycaena phlaeas. bilateral gyandromorph, bred, 
R Tebbutt. 3: HenosepHachna argus.West Molesey, Surrey, 1997, 1, S, Menzies. 4; Pieris 
napl, female, captured, Q Stokes. 5; Coenonympha pamphllus ab. caeca, captured, B. 
Fensome. 6: Melanargia galathea ab. rubra, captured 1998, R. D. G. Barrington. 7: 
Thecia betulae ab. unlstrlgata, bred, R Tebbutt. 8: Eurodryas aurinia, bilateral gyandro- 
morph, bred F6A. M. Jones. 9: Polygonia c-album. underside, temp experiment. D 
Stokes. 10: Argynnis aglaja ab. wimani, captured, Ireland, 1998, R, D. G. Barrington, 11; 
Argynnis lathonia. extreme melanic, temp, experiment, K. E, J. Bailey 12: Melanargia 
alathea ab. nigricans, bred, R. D. G. Barrington. 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 




6 


7 


8 


9 




10 


11 




12 



BR J ENT. NAT HIST.. 12: 1999 




146 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

Revels, R. C. — Continuing results of breeding Aphantopus hyperantus (L.) ab. 
lanceolata Shipp (originally from A. S. Harmer). About 15% of specimens bred 
showed an increased expression of the lanceolata characteristics, being more extreme 
than any others known to the exhibitor (this shows different results to those of 
A.S.H.). 

Two examples of Pieris napi (L.) bred in an Ft from a heavily marked female, 
taken 1997, showing a tendency towards albinism (Plate 1, Fig. 1). Further breeding 
is planned for 1999. A series of Colias croceus (Geoffroy) f. helice Hiibner, showing a 
range of colours from normal yellow to pale yellow and white. These originated from 
a Beds, female taken in June 1998; the F, produced 50% helice in August. 

Results of breeding Melanargia galathea (L.) ab. craskei Tubbs. A previously 
exhibited breeding experiment dating from 1974-79 and important in showing that 
craskei is caused by a dominant gene. 

Rouse, T. — A specimen of Dcmaus chrysippus (L.) taken in the exhibitor's garden 
at Densole, Kent on 16.viii.l998 and probably an escape. Boloria eiiphrosyne (L.) ab. 
pittionii Nitsche., a male taken in Kent 1997 and a less extreme specimen bred from a 
larva found at the same locality, emerging 14. v. 1998. An Argynnis lathonia (L.). with 
heavy black upperside spotting, bred in an F, generation from a female taken in Southern 
France. 

Softly, R. A. — A specimen of Greta morgane oto (Hewitson), taken at Hill 
Garden, Hampstead Heath, by the gardener Mr Les Willis. This species is a resident 
of Central and South America, and is commonly bred in butterfly houses in this 
country; it is likely that it is an escapee. The specimen was identified by G. Beccaloni 
and W. J. Reynolds of the Natural History Museum. 

Stokes, D. — An interesting selection of Polygonia c-album (L.) undersides, some 
with long white ''comets" replacing the usual "comma" (Plate 1, Fig. 9); these had 
less extreme upperside markings than those that had retained the "comma", bred 
from heat shocked pupae. A pair of Tliecla betulae (L.) from cold shocks, with 
reduced hair lines on the undersides. Quercusia quercus (L.), showing dark "striata" 
marks moving in towards the discoidal spots from the submarginal band, bred ex 
ova. A captured second brood female Pieris napi (L.) with the twin forewing spots 
missing (Plate 1, Fig. 4). 

Tebbutt, p. — Heat shocks on freshly formed pupae resulted in various named 
melanics. Inachis io (L.) ab. proclmovi Pronin., ab. antigone Fischer, ab. exoculata 
Weymer, and ab. helisaria Oberthur. Polygonia c-album (L.) ab. obscura Closs., ab. 
suffusa Frohawk and 2 ab. reichenstettensis Fettig. Vanessa atalanta (L.) specimens 
transitional to ab. klemensiewiczi Schille. The highlight of wild-caught and naturally 
bred specimens was a bilateral gynandromorph of Lycaena phlcieas (L.) (Plate 1, Fig. 
2), also an Aphantopus hyperantus (L.) with the right-hand hindwing underside 
predominantly black with yellow lines. A bred female Thecla betulae (L.) ab. 
unistrigata Schultz (Plate 1, Fig. 7), from wild ova. 

Also exhibited were two all-blue Plehejus argus caernensis (Thompson) ab. 
splendida Thompson from North Wales. A short series of Coenonympha tullia 
polydama (Haworth) and davus (Fabr.) from Lake District sites showing a wide range 
of variation. Selected aberrations of Pararge aegeria (L.) bred from hibernating pupae 
brought indoors in December and emerging over a 3 month period, including ab. 
parviocellata Lempke, ab. saturatior Crumbrugge, and ab. cockaynei Goodson. 

Young, D. — Colias croceus (Geoffroy) from Berkshire, bred from a strong 
colony found in a large field of lucerne in 1996. Coenonympha tullia scotica 
(Staudinger) and Erebia epiphron scotica (Cooke) from Ben Lawers, and Trinafore, 
Perthshire, vii.1998. 



BR J ENT. NAT. HIST. 12: 1999 147 

British Macrolepidoptera 

Baker, B. R. — Lepidoptera recorded from a coastal marsh near Dunster, S. 
Som., including Nonagria typhae (Thunb.), Archanara geimnipuncta (Haw.) and A. 
sparganii (Esp.); the latter species new to VC5. Aberrations from 1998 and earlier 
years: Electrophaes corylota (Thunb.), Exmoor, 1989: Pseudopanthera macularia (L.), 
Co. Clare, 1977; Biipahis piniaria (L.), Caversham, Berks., 1995; Acronicta leporina 
(L.), Exmoor, 1995; Hada plebeja (L.), Caversham, Berks., 1998; Charanyca 
trigraiwnica (Hufn.), Hartslock, 1998. 

Baker, P. J. — Aberrations and migrants taken in Devon including: Eublemma 
parva (Hb.), West Hill, S. Devon, 8.vii.l998. 

Barnett, R. & Evans, M. — On behalf of the Bristol and district moth group: 
Mvthimna piidorUui ([D. & S.]), Max Bog, N. Som., 2.vi.l995; Idaca dihitaria (Hb.), 
Avon Gorge, N. Som. and W. Glos., 1994. 

Brotheridge, D. — Migrants taken in 1998, dates and localities not given: 
Rhodometra sacraria (L.) and Mythimna albipuncta ([D. & S.]). 

Butcher, A. G. J. — Synanthedon vespiformis (L.), Sidney Wood, Surrey, 
20. vi. 1998, at mvl; Synanthedon culiciformis (L.) and ab. flavocingulata Spuler, 
reared from birch, Challock, E. Kent, iv.l998; Discoloxia blomeri (Curt.), typical and 
melanic, Tintern, Mon., 19.vi.l995 (Plate 2, Fig. 9). From Isle of Grain, W. Kent: 
Chortodes elvmi (Treits.), 10.viii.l998; Luperina nickerlii demuthi Goater & Skinner, 
1998. 

Clancy, S. — Lepidoptera from the Dungeness, Kent, area: Aplasta ononaria 
(Fuess.), New Romney, 20. vi. 1998; Cleorodes lichenaria (Hufn.), Dungeness, 
26.vii.1998; Selenia hinularia (Hb.), New Romney, 24.vii.1992, and Greatstone, 
10.viii.l998, second brood examples of migrant status; Lymantria dispar (L.), 
Dungeness, 20.vii.l998; Noki aevugida (Hb.), New Romney, 20. vi. and 22.vii.1998; 
Agrotis crassa (Hb.), Dungeness, 13.viii.l998 — new to Kent; Deltote bankiana 
(Fab.), Greatstone, 20. vi. 1998. Hecatera dysodea ([D. & S.]), reared from larvae 
found at Gravesend, W. Kent, 31.vii.l998. Aberrations: Orthonama obstipata (Fab.), 
a male lacking forewing band, Greatstone, 10.viii.l998; Cyclophora linearia (Hb.), 
banded female, near Gloucester, 15.vii.l998 (R. Thomas); Arctia villica britannica 
(Ob.), Dungeness, 28.V.1998 (Plate 2, Fig. 7); Mythimna unipuncta (Haw.), melanic. 
Lizard, W. Corn., 24.iii.1998 (M. Tunmore). 

Clarke, J. — Lepidoptera taken or reared in 1998, including: Conistra riibiginea 
([D. & S.]), St. Briavels, W. Glos., I.iv.l998; Eublemma ostrina (Hb.) ab. carthami, 
reared from larva, Slapton Ley, S. Devon, 22.viii.1998; Axylia putris (L.), albinistic 
form, Bodmin Moor, E. Corn.; Diaphora mendica (CI.), cross between f. rustica Hb. 
and typical English form. 

Cook, R. R. — Lepidoptera caught or reared in 1998: Pekisia obtusa (H.-S.), 
Cromes Broad, E. Norf., 19 and 20.vii.l998; Sedina buettneri (Hering), Dorset, 
28. ix. 1998; Orgyia recens (Hb.), reared from larvae from Blaxton, Yorks, 24. v. 1998; 
Chortodes elymi (Treits.), Caister Dunes, E. Norf., 18 and 22.vii.1998; Lygephila 
craccae ([D. & S.]), reared from larvae from Hartland Point, N. Devon, 17.vi.l998. 
Ematurga atomaria (L.) ab. unicoloraria Stdgr., Seckar Wood, Yorks., 23. v. 1998 
(Plate 2, Fig. 8). 

Dawson, J. — Moths from Cambridgeshire, dates and localities mostly not 
given: Phibalapteryx virgata (Hufn.) and Eupithecia pinipinellata (Hb.), south 
Cambs. chalk area; Xestia rhomboidea (Esp.), throughout; Cryphia muralis 
(Forst.) f. impar (Warren), Cambridge; Lithostege griseata ([D. & S.]), Fulbourn, 
Cambs., 26. v. 1997; Idaea rusticata atrosignaria Lempke; Scopida marginepunctata 



148 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

(Goeze); Spaelotis ravida ([D. & S.]), 9.viii.l997; Polymixis lichenea (Hb.), 
6.X.1998. 

DOBSON, A. H. — Orthonama ohstipata (Fab.), Braniley Frith Wood, Hants, 
13.x. 1998; Macdumwughia confusa (Steph.), Greywell, N. Hants, 2.x. 1998 — new to 
VC12; Cerastis leucographa ([D. & S.]), Bramley Frith Wood, Hants, n.d.; Thera 
cupressata (Geyer), Hants, reared from larva beaten 17.iv.l998; Agrochola 
haematidea (Dup.), eastern New Forest, 10.x. 1998. From Minsmere, E. Suffolk 
(B.E.N.H.S. field meeting), l.viii.l998: Apamea oblonga (Haw.); Celaena leucostigma 
(Hb.) ab. fibrosa Hb. 

Gill, N. — Moths taken in 1998: Pelosia obtusa (H.-S.), Norfolk Broads, 
20.vii.l998; Sedina buettneri (Hering), Dorset, 25. ix. 1998; Hecatera dvsodea ([D. & 
S.]), W. Kent, larvae viii.1998. 

Hall, N. M. — Rhodometra sacraria (L.), Earley, Berks., 6.ix.l998; Orthonama 
obstipata (Fab.), Avon Valley, Salisbury, S. Wilts., 27.vii.1998; Mythimna albipuncta 
([D. & S.]), Hastings Country Park, E. Sussex, 29. viii.1998; Abraxas sylvata (Scop.), 
Hastings Country Park, E. Sussex, 29.viii.1998; Idaea rusticata atrosiguaria Lempke, 
Hastings Country Park, E. Sussex, 9. viii.1998; Mythimna albipuncta ([D. & S.]), Rye 
Harbour, E. Sussex, 31. viii.1998. 

Halsey, J. — Autographa gamma (L.), four examples from a migration in v. 1998 
showing unusual Y markings. 

Halstead, a. J. — Larvae of Cossiis cossiis (L.) from Wisley Gardens, Surrey, 
ix.l998. Those exhibited had been found in a planted birch, and were very likely to 
have been imported, possibly from Germany. Two full grown larvae were also found 
which had emerged from an oak and were considered native — the first Wisley 
records for at least 26 years. 

Harman, T. W. — Hyles livornica (Esp.), Heme Bay, E. Kent, 20.ii.l998 (B. 
Matlock). 

Hart, C. — Thysanophisia orichakea (Fab.), Lizard, Corn., late ix.l998; Arch- 
anara sparganii (Esp.), Buckland, Surrey, 9.ix.l998. 

Harvey, M. — Entephria flavicinctata (Hb.), Snowdon, Caer., 18. ix. 1998 (det. 
M. R. Honey) — possibly first confirmed record from Wales; Archanara geminipuncta 
(Haw.), Maidenhead, Berks., viii.1998 (D. White); Idaea straminata (Borkh.), Upper 
Basildon, Berks., 30. vi. 1998; Cvclophora porata (L.), Windsor Forest, Berks., 
14.viii.l998. 

Hayward, R. — Lepidoptera taken in 1998 including: Rhodometra sacraria (L.), 
Slough, Bucks., 4.ix.l998; Orthonama obstipata (Fab.), Slough, Bucks., 14 and 
20.viii.l998; Meganola albula ([D. & S.]), Slough, Bucks., 20.vii.l998; Hypena 
rostralis (L.), Slough, Bucks., 6.vi.l998. Aberrations including: Arctia vUlica 
hritannica (Ob.), reared from Kent larva (Plate 2, Fig. 4). 



PLATE 2 ANNUAL EXHIBITION 1998 

1: Arctia villica bntannica. Folkestone Warren, E. Kent, 23.v.1998,T Rouse 2: Andrena 
ferox. Brockenhurst, Hants, 7.v,1998, G. A. Collins. 3; Cryptocheilus notatus. Bagmoor 
Common, Surrey, 19.viL1998, G, A, Collins. 4: Arctia villica britannica. Kent, R. Hayward. 
5: Chrysis fulgida. Bagmoor Common. Surrey 19.vi.1998, R. D. Hawkins. 6: Fieberiella 
sp. (2 specimens). Park Royal, Middx, 16.ix.1998, P J. Hodge. 7: Arctia villica britannica, 
Dungeness, 28.V.1998, S. Clancy 8: Ematurga atomaria ab. unicoloraria. Seckar Wood, 
Yorks, 23.V.1998, R.Cook. 9; Discoloxia blomeri. melanicform,Tlntern, Mon,19.vi.1995, A. 
G. J. Butctier. 10: Arctia caja ab., Kennack Sands,W Cornwall, 1.viii.1998, B. Henwood. 11 : 
Ochropleura plectra, J. Owen. 12: Laottioe popu//, Thorpeness, E. Suffolk, A. Jenkins, 13: 
Herpetogramma licarsosalis, Algarve, Portugal, l.x.1998, M. R V. Corley 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 




11 


12 




13 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 




150 BR J ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

Henwood, B. — Spodoptera exigiia (Hb.), Abbotskerswell, S. Devon, 2.x. 1998. 
An aberration of Arctia caja (L.), Kennack Sands, W. Corn., I.viii.l998 (Plate 2, 
Fig. 10). 

Jenkins, A. — Moths taken in 1998 including: Lygephiki craccae ([D. & S.]), at 
mvl, N. Devon; Crocallis elinguaria (L.), Thorpeness, E. Suff., an aberration 
superficially resembling Crocallis dardoinaria Donz. (Skinner, 1998, plate 43); 
Bemhecia muscaeformis (Esp.), reared from pupa, S. Devon; Diaphora mendica (CI.) 
f. rustica Hb., Hademi caesia mammii (Gregs.), Triphosa dubitata (L.), Calamia 
tridens occidentalis Cock., Hadena perplexa capsophila (Dap.), Odontognophos 
dumetata hihernica Forder, all from the Burren, Co. Clare; Hecatera dysodea ([D. 
& S.]), reared from larvae from north Kent; Sedina huettneri (Hering), flying at dusk, 
Dorset; Laothoe popidi (L.), orange aberration, Thorpeness, E. Suff. (Plate 2, 
Fig. 12). 

Knill-Jones, S. a. — Lepidoptera from Freshwater, I.o.W. including: Eupithecia 
satyrata (Hb.), 5.vi.l998 — new to VCIO; Oligia versicolor (Borkh.), 1 and 
6.vii.l997 — new to VCIO; Thaumetopoea processionea (L.), 1 and 6.ix.l998 — new 
to VCIO; Thera cupressata (Geyer), four in x.1998; Orthouama obstipata (Fab.), 14. v. 
and 19. vi. 1998; Rhodometra sacraria (L.), 20.vii.l998; Agriits couvolvuli (L.), 
3.x. 1998; Catocala fraxini (L.), 4.x. 1998; Heliothis peltigera ([D. & S.]), 23.vi.1998; 
Mythimna vitellina (Hb.), 8.ix.l998; Mythimna unipimcta (Haw.), 20. ix. 1998; 
Helicoverpa armigera (Hb.), five from 26 28. ix. 1998; Spodoptera exigiia (Hb.), 
9.V.1998; Idaea sylvestraria (Hb.), 9.vii.l998. 

McCORMiCK, R. ¥. — Hecatera dysodea ([D. & S.]), W. Kent, 1998, voucher 
specimens of the adult and photographs of the larvae. Moths from the Burren, Co. 
Clare, in May 1998, including: Hadena caesia mananii (Gregs.); Hadena perplexa 
capsophila (Dup.); Diaphora mendica (CI.) f. rustica Hb.; Hemaris tityiis (L.); 
Odontognophos dumetata hibernica Forder; Chiasmia clathrata hugginsi (Baynes); 
Eupithecia vulgata clarensis Huggins; Eupithecia venosata phimbea Huggins; and 
Lithosia quadra (L.), reared from larvae. Loch Coolorta. Moths recorded by the 
Devon moth group in 1998, including: Idaea sylvestraria (Hb.), Colaton Raleigh 
Common, S. Devon, 20.vi.l998; Discoloxia blomeri (Curt.), Ashcombe, S. Devon, 
9.viii.l998, Rousden, S. Devon, 2.vii.l998, and Lyd Valley, 18.vii.l998; Abraxas 
sylvata (Scop.), Lyd Valley, 18.vii.l998; Acherontia atropos (L.), in a bee hive, 
12.vii.l998; Standfussiana lucernea (L.), Hartland Point, N. Devon, 25.vii. and 
5.viii.l998; Aporophyla lutulenta ([D. & S.]), Exeter, S. Devon, x.1998; Conistra 
rubiginea ([D. & S.]), Stover Park, S. Devon, 31.iii.l998; Moma alpium (Osbeck), 
Great Torrington, N. Devon, 4.vii.l998; Amphipyra berbera svenssoni Fletcher, Stoke 
Woods, S. Devon, 29.viii.1998; Amphipoea lucens (Freyer), Dartmoor (det. B. 
Henwood); Eubtemma parva (Hb.), Lyd Valley, 20. vi. 1998, and Teignmouth, S. 
Devon, 20.vii.l998; Thysanoplusia orichalcea (Fab.), Bere Alston, S. Devon, 
24. ix. 1998 (R. Bogue); Macdunnoughia confusa (Steph.), Prawle Point. S. Devon, 
28. ix. 1998, Acontia lucida (Hufn.), Thorverton, S. Devon, 10.vii.l998 — probably 
imported with plants from Cyprus; Lygephila craccae ([D. & S.]), Hartland Point, N. 
Devon, 25.vii. and 5.viii.l998. 

Nash, S. — Migrant moths from Fernham, Berks: Catocala fraxini (L.), 
26.ix.1998; Agrius convolvuli (L.), two, 30.ix.l998; Helicoverpa armigera (Hb.), 
two, 27. ix. 1998; Mythimna vitellina (Hb.), 27. ix. 1998; Rhodometra sacraria (L.), ten 
between 30.viii. and 25. ix. 1998; Orthonama obstipata (Fab.), 31.viii.l998; and from 
Durlston Head, Dorset: Agrius convolvuli (L.), five, 18 24. ix. 1998; Helicoverpa 
armigera (Hb.), 24. ix. 1998; Mythimna albipuncta ([D. & S.]), 22.viii.1998; Mythimna 
vitellina (Hb.), four, 26. ix. 1998. Helicoverpa armigera (Hb.), reared from a larva 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 151 

found in a supermarket. Melanic forms of: Cryphia dowestica (Hufn.) and Acronicta 
megacephala ([D. & S.]), Swindon, N. Wilts.; Idaea averscita (L.), Durlston Head, 
Dorset, and extreme aberrations of Xanthorhoefluctuata (L.), Swindon, N. Wilts., all 
n.d. 

Natural History Museum — Some extreme varieties from the National 
Collection (R.C.K.): Tethea or ([D. & S.]), ab. alhiugensis Warnecke, Sunderland, 
1913, and ab. permarginata Hasebroek, Bromley, 1930; Archiearis parthenias (L.), ab. 
Ill tea fa de Hennin, Chingford, and ab. obscitra Prout, north Kent, 1908; Cyclophora 
annularia (Fab.), ab. ohsoleta Riding, Honiton, 1899, and ab. sertaria Dannehl, 
Dover, 1877; Lampropteryx siijjimiata ([D. & S.]), ab. porrittii Robson & Gardner, 
Dover, 1896, and ab. piceala Steph., Barnard Castle, 1917; Chiasmia clathrata (L.), 
ab. obsoletissima Cock., Gibraltar Point, 1971, and ab. fasciata Prout, Hazeleigh, 
1902; Cepphis advenaria (Hb.), ah. Jul v a Gillmer, east Surrey, 1928; Pseudopanthera 
macidaria (L.), ab. quadrimacidata. Highgate, ab. fuscaria Stdgr., Abbots Wood, 
1886, and an asymmetrical aberration. West Wickham Wood, 1877; Ematwga 
atomaria (L.), ab. praeclara Cock., Lancing, Sussex, 1939, ab. unicoloraria Stdgr., 
Burnley, Lanes., 1914, and ab. dentaria Stauder, east Kent, 1920; Gnophos obsciirata 
([D. & S.]), ab. bicinctata Fuchs, Lewes, 1909, ab. ob.scwiata Prout, New Forest, 
1900, ab. argdlacearia Stdgr., Babbacombe, S. Devon, 1903, ab. fasciata Prout, 
Folkestone, 1921; ab. satwata Prout, New Forest, 1899; and ab. calceata Stdgr., 
Lewes, 1921; Clostera curtula (L.), ab. webbiana Rebel, nr. Faversham; Lymantria 
tmmacha (L.), approaching ab. atra Linstow, New Forest, 1903 (possibly cross-bred); 
Xestia c-nigrum (L.), ab. albinotica Cock., Harpenden, Herts., 1950, and an 
asymmetrical aberration. Rye, Sussex, 1954; Dichonia aprdina (L.), ab. semivirgata 
Cock., Elgin, 1895, and ab. bnmneomi.xta Culot, Yorkshire, 1917; Conistra rubiginea 
([D. & S.]), ab. mode.sti.ssima Ob., Camberley, 1899; Polychry.sia moneta (Fab.), ab. 
inacidata Lempke, Boxmoor, 1912; Catocala inipta (L.), ab. bnimie.sceiLs Warren, 
Mitcham, 1892. 

Owen, J. — Lepidoptera from Dymchurch, E. Kent: Scapula nigropunctata (Hufn.), 
12.viii.l996, 9.viii.l997, and 23. vi. 1998; Apamea ophiogranvna (Esp.), melanics, 27. vi. 
and 14.vii.l998; Corustra erythrocepluda ([D. & S.]), 30.iii.l998; Hydraecia osseola 
hucherardi Mab., Il.ix.l998 — first here since 1974; Cleorodes lichenaria (Hufn.), 
5.vi.l998; Hypeiui crassalis (Fab.), 9.vii.l998; Notodorita tritoplms ([D. & S.]), 
23.vii.1998. Ochropleura plectra L., 17.V.1998, unusual form (Plate 2, Fig. 11). 

Parsons, M. S. — Heterogenea asella ([D. & S.]), Raynes Park, Surrey, 
7.viii.l998 — only Surrey record this century; Parascotia fuliginaria (L.), Raynes 
Park, Surrey 20.vii.l998; Hecatera dvsodea ([D. & S.]),' Gravesend, W. Kent, 
15.vii.l998, and Swanscombe, W. Kent, 18.vii.l998; Hypena ohsitalis (Hb.), 
Atherington, W. Sussex, 6.xi.l997 — new to VC13. Also from Westcott Downs, 
Surrey: Catarhoe rubidata ([D. & S.]), 20.vi.l998; Setina irrorella (L.), 20.vi.l998; 
Xestia rhomboidea (Esp.), 7.viii.l998. 

Plant, C. W. — An exhibit of Abrostola spp. Four species occur in Europe: A. 
tripartita (Hufn.), A. triplasia (L.), A. asclepiadis ([D. & S.]), and A. agnorista Dufay; 
of which examples of the first three were shown. It was suggested that either of the 
latter two might occur in Britain, examination of the male genitalia being the most 
reliable method of certain identification. Moths captured in 1998: Aids repandata 
(L.) ab. conversaria Hb., Froxen Copse, Arne, Dorset, 7 & 28. vi. 1998; Xylena vetusta 
(Hb), Stanmore Common, Middx., 16.x. 1998, captured by J. Hollingdale — the first 
VC21 record since 1880; Euphyia biangulata (Haw.), M.o.D. training area. Kirk., 
5.vii.l998 — new to Scotland. Hecatera dysodea ([D. & S.]), examples from Kent, 
Spain, and France. 



152 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST . 12: 1999 

Rouse, T. — Migrant moths: Helicovcrpa avmiiicra (Hb.), one often, Portland, 
Dorset, 27. ix. 1998; Heliolhis peltigera ([D. & S.]), Folkestone, E. Kent, 29.viii.1998; 
Mythinma alhipimcta ([D. & S.]), one of 28 taken in Kent between 13. v. and 
10.x. 1998; Rlwdometra sacraria (L.), Densole, E. Kent, l.ix.l998; Hyles gallii (RoU.), 
Sandwich Bay, E. Kent, 26.viii.1998 (R.A.B. Morton); Spodoptera exigiia (Hb.), 
Torquay, S. Devon, 1 l.viii.l998. Aberrations: Arctia villica hritannica (Ob.), 
Folkestone Warren, E. Kent, 23.V.1998 (Plate 2, Fig. 1); Aporophyla hitiilcnta ([D. 
& S.]) ab. sedi Guen., Folkestone Warren, E. Kent, 15.x. 1998; Synantlwclon 
culiciformis (L.) ab. ftavocmgulata Spuler, reared from larva, Orlestone Forest, E. 
Kent, ii.l998. Other Kentish moths: RheiiDiaplcra ccrvincilis (Scop.), Densole, E. 
Kent, 19.viii.l998; Hadcnci alhiniaciila (Borkh.), Folkestone Warren, E. Kent, 
25.ix.1998; Hecatcra dysodea ([D. & S.]), Gravesend, W. Kent, adult netted at dusk, 
16.vii.l998, and examples reared from ova found 26.vii.1998. 

Smith, I. F. — A photograph of Edema complana (L.) from Ravenshall, Kirk., 
4.viii.l997, accompanied by a set specimen. 

Waring, P. — An exhibit of ear moths, Aiuphipoea spp., comprising the four 
British species with notes on distribution and distinguishing features. Dissection of 
the genitalia is necessary for accurate identification. 

Warne, B. J. — Moths from the Isle of Wight including: Mylhhmui l-alhum (L.), 
Binstead, 4.vii.l998; Ccpphis advcnaria (Hb.), 14. v. 1998, "woodland"; Meganola 
alhula ([D. & S.]), 5.vii.l998; Elaphria vemislula (Hb.), 19. vi. 1998; Hadcmi compta 
([D. & S.]), 25. vi. 1998 — new to VCIO. 

Wedd, D. J., — Specimens taken or reared in England, Scotland, Ireland & Wales, 
1997-1998: (i) Cyclophora alhipimctata Hufn. A series of the large Scottish form from 
Loch Rannoch. (ii) Enargia paleacea Esp. A typical male and a short series from a 
crippled female found on a tree near Kincraig. (iii) Eriopygodes imhecilla F. Size 
reduction after 6 generations bred from a Monmouthshire female, (iv) Odontogno- 
plws dunu'tafa liihcrnica Forder. A typical pair and a fourth generation bred from a 
very small Burren female, (v) Diaphora mcndica CI. f. rustica from the Burren, 
darkening after six generations in captivity, compared with two intermediate males 
from Rosslare. (vi) Fwcula hiciispis Borkh. Two specimens bred from a new (private) 
Buckinghamshire locality, (vii) Noctua comes Hb. A bred series from the Findhorn, 
Morayshire, showing something of the colour-range in this species over two 
generations. The original parents (found in cop.) were male blackish, female 
reddish. 

Young, D. — Moths caught or reared in 1998: Semiaspilates ochrearia (Rossi), 
Greenham Common, Berks.; Mihochrista miniala (Forst.) ab. Jiava Bigneau, 
Orlestone Forest. E. Kent, 17. vii. 1998; Rhciimaplera hastata nigresceus (Prout), 
Trinafour, Mid-Perth; Noctua orhoiia (Hufn.), reared from larvae, Icklingham, W. 
Suff.; Xantliia gilvago ([D. & S.]), reared from larvae. Charing, E. Kent, and an adult 
taken at Dungeness, E. Kent, 27. ix. 1998; Catocala sponsa (L.), found resting on the 
ground amongst dead leaves. 

British Microlepidoptera 

[Nomenclature and classification follows the checklist of Bradley 1998] 

Barnftt, R. & Evans, M. An exhibit on behalf of the Bristol & District Moth 
Group. Calamatroplia palitdclla (Hiibn.), Keynsham, Bristol, ST6569, A. Bone, 
vii. 1996. Salehriopsis alhicUla (H.-S.). Leigh Woods, Bristol, ST5573, M. Evans/ 
E. Dean, 28. vi. 1995, confirms the presence of the species at this locality, 
reported in 1969. Pcdiasia arideUa (Thunb.), Gordano Valley NNR, North 



HR J l-NT NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 153 

Somerset, ST436729, M. Evans/E. Dean, 12.vii.l995. Hellida undalis (Fab.), 
Whitchurch, Bristol, ST67, R. Andrews, 13.x. 1995. Blastohasis decolorella (Woll.) 
Whitchurch, Bristol, ST67, R. Andrews 1995. Commophila aeneana (Hiibn.) 
Bristol, ST613704, M. Evans, 26.V.1998. Morop/iaga clwnigellu (D. & S.), Leigh 
Woods, ST5573, R. Barnett/A. Pym, 26.vii.1996. Amvlosis ohlitella (Zell.), 
Slimbridge, SO7204, N. Woodward, 24.V.1995. 

Bland. K. Y* .- Psychoidcs filicivoni (Mey.) Reared from P/iy/lilis scolopeiidrium 
on wall in Stockbridge, Edinburgh (NT2474; VCS3). Collected on 15.viii.l998, 
emerged 27. ix. 1998. New to Scotland. Ochsenhcinwria laiirclla (D. & S.) taken at 
Flanders Moss, Perthshire (NS6397; VC87) on l.viii.l998. First confirmed Scottish 
record. Coleophora trochdcdki (Dup.) reared from cases on Achillea millefolium 
collected at Kincraig Point, Fife (NT4699; VC85) on 28.iii.1998. Imagines emerged 
6-28. vi. 1998. New to VC85 and third Scottish site. Momplia ovhraceella (Curt.) 
appears to be becoming more common in S. E. Scotland. Two taken at light this year 
at Blackford, Edinburgh (NT2571; VC83); one on 9/10.viii.l998 and the other on 6/ 
7.ix.l998. 

Britton, M. R. — Phyllonorycter leucogvaplwlla (Zell.), mines found in several 
localities in York and in Leeds and appearing to be more prevalent on sheltered 
bushes; Cacoecimorplui prcmuhana (Hi^ibn), several males seen in September 1998 in 
York, a female caught Haworth, York, 24. ix. 1998 and males seen several days later. 
Cataplectica profugclla (Staint.), bred from larvae found on 14.viii.l997, emerging 
ll.vi.l998. Larva was pale ground colour with reddish-brown markings and louse- 
shaped. It was found while searching for Eupithecia pimpinellata (Hiibn.) larvae on 
burnet saxifrage near Askham Bog, York. 

Brotheridge, D. — Five species from Wiltshire: Coleophora trigeminella Fuchs; 
C. saliconiiae Wocke; Dasy stoma salieiella (Hiibn.); Isophrictis striatella (D. & S.); 
Euleioptilus carphodactyla (Hiibn.). 

Clancy, S. P. — Psammotis pulveralis (Hiibn.) from the Dungeness area of Kent, 4 
examples (out of 6 taken) 19.vii 20.vii.l998; Sciota hoslilis (Steph.), female. New 
Romney, 21. vi. 1998, the second migrant example of the species in the area; 
Euzophera cinerosella (Zell.), male at light, Lydd, 6.vi.l998; Euchromius ocellea 
(Haw.), Rye Harbour, East Sussex, P. Philpott, 24. ii. 1998; Phlyctaenia stachydalis 
(Germ.), Rye Harbour, East Sussex, P. Philpott, 30.vi.l998. 

Dawson, J. — a series of species local to the south Cambridgeshire (VC29) chalk 
area; Phlyctaenia perliicidalis (Hiibn.) and Nascia cilialis (Hiibn.) from the spring-fed 
fens within the chalk area. Also exhibited an unusual species to the county, Platytes 
alpinella (Huhn.) on 10.viii.l998. 

DOBSON, A. H. — Phyllonorycter leucographella (Zell.): specimens bred from mines 
collected from Pyracantha in the Brighton Hill district of Basingstoke (VC12) on 
17.1.1998. New county record for Hampshire. 

Gill, N. — A selection of plume moths taken or bred during 1997/98. Stenoptilia 
zophodactxius (Dup.) Allerthorpe Common, Yorks. (first Yorks. record since 1948); 
Merrifieliiia leucodactyla (D. & S.), Wharram, Yorks., 19.vii.l997 (new to VC61); 
Marasmarcha lunaedactyla (Haw.), Wharram, Yorks., 19.vii.l997; Stenoptilia 
millieridactyla (Bruand), now widespread in gardens in many parts of Yorks.; 
Hellinsia chrysocomae (Rag.) bred from Thornden Wood, Kent. 

Hall, N.M. — An unidentified scythridid taken by day at Greenham Common, 
Berks, 27. vi. 1998. Pediasia contaminella (Hiibn.), Hastings Country Park, East 
Sussex, 9.viii.l998. 

Hart, C. — Stenoptilia islandicus (Staud.) reared from mossy saxifrage {Saxifraga 
hypnoides) collected in Ben Lawers area. The foodplants of S. islandicus in Iceland 



154 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

and Scandinavia are considered to be Saxifraga cespitosa and S. adscendens. 
However, only S. cespitosa occurs in Britain and does not appear to occur in the Ben 
Lawers area where the moth is found. Three days of searching, together with 
Bernard Skinner, resulted in a single pupa attached to the tip of mossy saxifrage at 
about 800 m. The surrounding plant was damaged to the extent that the terminal 
buds of surrounding shoots had been eaten out, which is typical of the feeding 
pattern of this larva. A small very pale, female specimen emerged. 

Harvey, M. C. — Eudonia dehmella (Staint.) m.v.. Lord's Mead, Lower King- 
combe, Dorset, SY553994, ll.vii.l997. 

Heckford, R. J. — Rhigoguostis mcamatella (Steud.), Speybank VC96 10. ix. 1998 
(with M. R. Young); Biselachista serricomis (Staint.), Trowlesworthy Warren, Devon 
VC3 bred from stems of Eriophorum angustifolium 12 & 22.vii.1998, new to Devon. 
British literature states the larva mines leaves of Carex sp.; this is probably wrong 
and these are probably the first British bred specimens; Schiffermuelleria grandis 
(Desv.), nr. Canonteign Barton, Devon VC3 bred from dead stems of Hedera helix 
20. iv. & 4.V.1998; S. suhaqiiilea (Staint.), Haytor, Devon VC3 bred from cocoon 
amongst dead Vacciniiim myrtilliis 16.V.1998, never previously bred before as 
foodplant/life history had been unknown; Monochroa hornigi (Stand.), Elstead, 
Surrey VC17 bred from Persicaria sp. 22. v. 1998 (with J.R. Langmaid), larva not 
previously found in the British Isles; Gelechia senticetella (Stand.) Canvey Island, 
Essex VCI8 and Crayford, Kent and Dartford, Kent both VC16 bred from 
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 8.vi.l998, 29. vi. 1998 and 3.vi.l998 respectively, larva not 
previously found in the British Isles; Oegoconia caradjai Popescu-Gorj & Capu§e, 
Plympton, Plymouth, Devon VC3 (exhibitor's garden) bred from dead leaves of 
Juniperus sp. 23. vi. 1998; South Benfleet, Essex (VC18) bred from dead Quercus leaf 
I5.vii.l998; Olethreiites aurofasciami (Haw.), Hembury Woods, Devon VC3 
24.vii.1998, at light (with B.P. Henwood); Lohesia hotrana (D. & S.), Marsh Mills, 
Plymouth, Devon VC3 bred from plum bought at local supermarket 6.viii.l998, 
moth emerged 2.ix.l998, new to Devon; Bactra kmceakma (Hiibn.), Trowlesworthy 
Farm, Devon VC3 bred from stem of Erioplwnan angustifolium 29.vi.1998, 
previously unrecorded British foodplant; Cramhus perlella (Scop.), specimen close 
to ssp. monochromelku Aviemore VC95. 9.ix. 1998; Eudonia truncicoleUa (Staint.), 
Brisworthy Burrows, Devon VC3 bred from Campylopus sp. 5.vi.I998; Trowles- 
worthy Warren, Devon VC3 bred from Dicramim scoparium 23.vii, 29.vii and 
7.viii.l998; Ditsworthy Common. Devon VC3 bred from Dicranum scoparium 
l.viii.l998; Gutter Mire, Devon 26.viii.1998. These are areas of Dartmoor with a few 
Crataegus bushes and no woodland. Specimens determined as E. murana (Curt.) 
from similar habitats in southern England may well be misidentified truncicoleUa; 
Stenoptilia zophodactvlus (Dup.), TuUoch VC96 10. ix. 1998 (with M.R. Young) new 
to VC96. 

Henwood, B. — Tebenna micalis (Mann) reared I0.viii.l998 ex pupa on Pulicaria 
Porthallow, Cornwall. Sitochroa palealis (D. & S.) Abbotskerswell, Devon 
28.vii.I998. Palpita unionalis (Hiibn.) Abbotskerswell, Devon 21. ix. 1998. Palpita 
unionalis (Hiibn.) Kennack Sands, Cornwall 2.viii.l998. Olethreutes aurofasciami 
(Haw.) Hembury Woods, Devon 14.viii.l998. 

HiGGS, G. E. — Amhlyptilia acanthadactyla (Hiibn.) and A. punctidactyla (Haw.) 
bred from larvae feeding on the flowers of hedge woundwort (St achy s sylvatica) at 
sites in Yardley Chase and Pitsford Nature Reserve, Northants. 

Hodge, P. J. — A specimen of Mecyna flavalis (D. & S.), flying over short 
grassland near the cliff-top at Afton Down near Freshwater, Isle of Wight, SZ3685 
on 26.vii.1998. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 155 

Knill-Jones, S. a. — A selection of microlepidoptera from Freshwater, Isle of 
Wight. 

Langmaid, J. R. — Coleophora wockeella Zell. Larval cases, and one specimen 
bred from Stachys officinalis, Petworth, W. Sussex. Cases found 1.x. 1997, moth 
emerged 13. vi. 1998. Monochroa hornigi (Staud.). One specimen bred from Persicaria 
sp., Elstead, Surrey. Larva found 16. xi. 1997, moth emerged 24. v. 1998. Caryocolum 
hhmdclloides Karsholt. Six specimens bred from Cerastium fontanum, two from 
Embo (VC107), two from Littleferry (VC107) and two from Rosmarkie (VC106). 
Larvae found 27 & 28.vi.1998, moths emerged vii.1998. Cosmopterix scrihaiella Zell. 
Two specimens bred from Phragmites aiistralis, one from Portsmouth and one from 
Gosport, Hants. Mines found 29 & 30. ix. 1997, moths emerged 18. v. 1998. New to 
Hants. Scytliris empetrella K. & N. Two specimens taken at Findhorn, Morayshire 
26. vi. 1998. Bactra lacteaua Caradja. A series of six specimens taken at Plaitford, 
VC8, 31.vii. & 6.viii.l998. Second known locality in England, and new to VC8. 

Manning, D. V. & Richardson, J. A. — Pterophorus galactodactyla (D. & S.), 
autumn and spring feeding of the larvae on Arctium minus spp. mimis (lesser 
burdock), a newly recorded host plant. 

McCoRMiCK, R. — 1. Devon records. Tebemm micalis (Mann), larvae, pupae and 
empty pupa cases from Dawlish Warren, 18.viii.l998. Pseiidotelphusa scalella 
(Scop.), at light, Hembury Woods, 16. vi. 1996, new to Devon. Ptycholomoides 
cierifcramis (H.-S.), at light, Colaton Raleigh Common, 26.vii.1997, new to Devon. 
Crcimhus idiginoselliis Zell., seen in numbers at Colaton Raleigh Common, 
20.vii.l998 (also seen July 1997). Sitochroa palealis (D. «& S.), All Hallows School, 
nr Rousden, 13.viii.l998, and Thatcher Point, Torquay, 18.viii.l998; there are few 
records of this species in Devon. Phlyctaenia stachyckdis (Germ.), seen commonly at 
Bramble Wood nr Holsworthy, 30.vi.l998 (larvae found on 12.ix.l998), Great 
Torrington area, 4 & 5.viii.l998, and seen near the Lyd Valley on 18. vii.1998. 
Oncocera semirubella (Scop.), All Hallows School, nr. Rousden, 2. vii.1998 and 
13.viii.l998. Pempelia genistella (Dup.), one taken at All Hallows School, 
13.viii.l998; attempts to find the larvae at Dawlish Warren, where a number of 
adults have been seen, have so far failed. 

2. Species taken or bred from the Burren, Ireland 17-22.V.1998. Aethes piercei Ohraz. 
one of a number seen in Kinvara; Crambus lathonieUus (Zinck.), the brown Burren 
form of this species was seen at most locahties visited. Microstega pandalis (Hiibn.), 
two of the three specimens that came to light at Kinvara; Anania funebris (Strom.), 
the Irish form was taken at Cappaghmore and Loch-na-Bron, 22.V.1998. 

Nash, S. — Immigrant Pyralidae taken at Durlston Country Park, Swanage, 
Dorset including nine Pa/pita uniomdis Hiibn., 18-26.ix.l998 and Sitochroa palealis 
(D. & S.), 22. ix. 1998. An aberration of Pvrausta aurata (Scop.), Swindon, Wilts, 
10.viii.l998. 

CKeefe, D. — Celypha woodiana (Barr.), reared ex larvae on Viscum album. Stoke 
Orchard, Gloucs., collected 13.vi.l998, emerged 7-9.vi.l998. Eucosma metzueriaua 
(Treits.), Wilmington, Kent, 6^12. vi. 1998. Apparently established in this locality. 
Only 5 previous records for Britain. Ancylis tineana (Hiibn.), reared ex larvae on 
Betula pubescens, Rannoch, Perthshire, collected 22. ix. 1997, emerged 10-17. vi. 1998. 
Athrips tetrapunctella (Thunb.), Tulloch Moor, Inverness-shire, 24. v. 1998. Xysto- 
phora pulveratella (H.-S.), Tulloch Moor, Inverness-shire, 24. v. 1998. Coleophora 
wockeella Zell., reared ex cases on Betouica officinalis, nr Dunsfold, Surrey, collected 
14.x. 97, emerged 27 29. vi. 1998. Dialectica imperialella (Zell.), reared ex mines in 
Symphytum., Wicken Fen, Cambridgeshire, collected 15. ix. 1997, emerged 10- 
13.iv. 1998. Parectopa ononidis (Zell.), reared ex mines in Trifolium repens, Beltinge, 



156 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

Kent, collected 22.iv.l998, emerged 1 1-14.V.1998. Antispila trcitschkiella (F. v. R.), 
reared ex mines in Swida, Shoreham, Kent, collected 4.ix.l997, emerged 16- 
25. V. 1998. Accmthopsyche atra (L.), female bred from a case fixed to a pine trunk, 
Normandy, Surrey, emerged 18.V.1998. The female was taken to the site on 20. v. 1998 
at about 7 pm when she was 'calling' and a male assembled shortly after. First Surrey 
record this century. Phyllocnistis xenia Hering, reared ex mines in Populus canescens. 
Sandwich, Kent, collected 12.viii.l998, emerged 17 28.viii.1998. Now locally 
abundant in East Kent. Mompha diviselki H.-S., reared ex galls on Epilohium 
montanum, St Ives, Cornwall, collected 5.viii.l998, emerged 23.viii^.ix.l998. 

Parsons, M. S. — Dorset (VC9): Tchenna micalis (Mann), Charmouth, larvae coll. 
3.ix.l998. West Sussex (VC13): Tehenmi micalis (Mann), Atherington, larvae coll. 
4.x. 1998. East Sussex (VC14): Choreutis pariana (Clerck), foot of Beachy Head, 
Eastbourne, larvae coll. 6.ix.l998; Adoxophyes orana (F. v. R.), Icklesham, 
28.vii.l998, coll. I. Hunter; Diascmiopsis ramhurialis (Dup.), Icklesham, 29/ 
30.viii.l998, coll. I. Hunter; Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Haw.), Bexhill, larvae December 
1997, ex-pomegranates. Surrey (VC17): Monopis fenestratella (Heyden), Ashtead 
Common, 19. vi. 1998; Argyresthia trifasciata Stand., Raynes Park, 20.V.1998- 
23. V. 1998 (2nd to 5th British records); Argyresthia sorhiella (Treitschke), Denbies 
hillside, 20. vi. 1998; Olethreutes bifasciana (Haw.), Raynes Park, 6.vii.l998; Eucosma 
contermiiiana (Guen.), Raynes Park, 6.viii.l998; Strophcdra nitidaini (Fab.), Ashtead 
Common, 19.vi.l998; Cydia conicolana (Heylaerts), Raynes Park, 20. v. 1998; Elegia 
similella (Zinck.), Ashtead Common, 19.vi.l998; Cnaemidophorus rhododactyla 
(D. & S.), Denbies hillside, larvae coll. 25.V.1998 (first vice-county record); 
Merrifieldia baliodactyhis (Zell.), Denbies hillside, larvae coll. 25. v. 1998. Middlesex 
(VC21): Psychoides filicivora (Meyr.), Natural History Museum gardens, larvae coll. 
30.iii.l998, found amongst decaying London plane leaves (first time the larva has 
been found in the wild in the British Isles). 

Plant, C. W. — Tebenna micalis (Mann) examples from among many seen flying 
on SW coastline nr Kirkcudbright. First records for Scotland. 

Rouse, A. — Psammotis pidvcralis (Hiibn.) male and female at m.v., Dungeness, 
Kent, 20.vii.l998. Sciota adelphella (F. v. R.), Densole, Kent, 14.vii.l998; Dioryctria 
schuetzeella Fuchs, Orlestone, Kent, 8.vii.l998; Ephestia kiie/iniclla Zell. Folkestone 
Warren, Kent, 2.xii.l997. 

Sharpe, p. — Plume moths from Northants. 

Simpson, A. N. B. — Caryocolum bkmdelloides Karsholt, Loch Fleet, E. Suther- 
land, reared from larvae in seedheads of Cerastium fontamim coll. 27. vi. 1998. 
Batrachedra pinicolella (Zell.) beaten from Pimis sylvestris, Hartlebury Common, 
Worcs., 29. vi. 1998, first record VC37; Metzneria aprilella (H.-S.) bred from seedhead 
Centaurea scabiosa, Bredon Hill, Worcs., 2.vii.l998, confirms now resident in VC37. 
Stenoptilia zophodactrlus (Dup.), Knightsford Bridge, Worcs., I.ix.l998, first record 
VC37. Cydia homlaua (D. & S.), 24.V.1998, Knightsford Bridge, Worcs.. first record 
VC37. Scythris empetrclla K. & N., beaten from CaUwui 26.vi.l998, Findhorn dunes, 
Morayshire. 

Sims, I. — Micropterix tunbergella (Fab.) adults from beech (Eagiis sylvatica) 
trunks, Homefield Wood, Medmenham, Marlow, Bucks, 27. iv. 1998. Eriocrania 
chrysolepidella Zell. adults ex larvae in hazel (Coryliis avellana), Unhill Wood, 
Streatley, Berks, 5.V.1997, moths emerged 8.iii.l998. E. sa/opiella (Staint.) adults ex 
larvae in birch {Betula pendula). Bear Wood, Wokingham, Berks., 27. iv. 1997, moths 
emerged 2.iii.l998. Stigmella ulmariae (Wocke) adults and cocoon in mine in 
meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria), Medmenham. Bucks, 18.ix.l997. moths emerged 
6.iv.l998, new vice-county record. Also, mine in meadowsweet, Pensthorpe Nature 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST, 12: 1999 157 

Reserve, Fakenham, Norfolk, 19.viii.l998. New vice-county record. S. hyhnerclla 
(Hiibn.) adult ex larva mining hawthorn (Crataegus nionoi^yna). River Loddon, 
Lower Earley, Reading, Berks., 30. ix. 1995, moths emerged 10. v. 1996. Adela ciipirlla 
(D. & S.) adult at mv light, Ashley Hill Forest, Knowl Hill, Berks., 29.iii.1998, new 
vice-county record. Monopis ohvic/la (D. & S.) adult to house lights. Lower Earley, 
Reading, Berks., 23.vii.1998 and 21.ix.l998. M. cwckapitella (Clem.) adults by day, 
in flat, Whitley, Reading, Berkshire, 23.viii.90 and 20.vi.98. Tinea pcllionclla (L.) 
males — F2 generation ex female, my house. Lower Farley. Reading, Berkshire, 
16.vii.l997. Larvae fed on fur, feathers and wool, moths emerged l.vii.98. Females 
Fl generation, ex same female, moths emerged 20. ii. 1998. Larval cases and pupal 
exuvia Fl generation. Biicculatrix ulhedinclla Zell. adult and cocoon ex larva on 
wych elm (Vliniis glabra), Homefield Wood, Medmenham, Bucks., 23.vii.l997. 
emerged 15. v. 1998. B. cidarella Zell. adult and cocoon ex larva, alder (Almis 
gliitinosa). River Loddon, Lower Earley, Reading, Berks., 16.ix.l997, emerged 
6.V.98. Caloptilia popiiletonim (Zell.) adults, cocoon and pupal exuvia ex larvae on 
Betula, Hainault Forest, Chigwell Row, Essex, 22.viii.1998, emerged 9.ix.l998. 
Larval fold in leaf, Bear Wood, Wokingham, Berks., 29.viii.1998. C. elongella (L.) 
adults, larval fold, cocoon and pupal exuviae ex larvae on Almis, Medmenham, 
Marlow, Bucks, 15. ix. 1992, emerged 26. ix. 1992. C. hetulicola (Hering) adults, larval 
fold, cocoon and pupal exuvia ex larva on Betula, Syderstone Common, Syderstonc, 
Norfolk, 15.viii.l998, emerged 7.ix.l998. Paronii.x carpiiwlla (Frey) adult, larval 
folds and cocoon ex larvae on hornbeam (Carpiniis hetiiliis), Hainault Forest, 
Chigwell Row, Essex, 4.x. 1997, moths emerged 22. ii. 1998. Callisto denticulella 
(Thunb.) adult, cocoon, larval workings and parasites on crab apple {Mains 
sylvestris), Medmenham, Bucks., 20.vii.l996, emerged I5.iv.l997. Leucospilapteryx 
omissella (Staint.), adults, mines and cocoons ex larvae in mugwort (Artemisia 
vulgaris). River Loddon, Lower Earley, Berks., 16. ix. 1997, moths emerged 8.ii.l998. 
Phyllonorycter muelleriella (Zell.) adults ex larvae in oak {Quereiis rohur), Whitecroft, 
Forest of Dean, Glouc, 16. xi. 1997, moths emerged 24.ii.98; mines in oak, 
Cirencester Park, Cirencester. Glouc, I6.xi.l997. P. lantanella (Schr.) adults and 
mine ex larvae in wayfaring tree (Vihurimm lantana), Cirencester Park, Cirencester, 
Glouc, 16. xi. 1997, moths emerged 10.iii.l998. P. viniinctonini (Staint.) adult and 
mine ex larva in osier (Salix vimiiialis), reed bed, Woolhampton, Berks., 26.x. 1997, 
emerged I6.iii.l998. P. strigulatclla (Zell) adults (2), and first mine ex larvae in grey 
alder (Alnus iiicaiia), Medmenham, Marlow, Bucks, 27. xi. 1997, moths emerged 
13.ii.l998. First sighting here in six or seven years. Adults (5) ex larvae in grey alder, 
Baynes Wood Nature Reserve, Greenham Common, Berks., 16.xi.l997, moths 
emerged l.ii.l998. Adult (1) and second mine ex larvae in alder (Alnus glutinosa), an 
unusual food plant, Blacknest Wood, Brimpton, Berks., 10.xi.l997, moth emerged 
24.1 1.1998. Appears to be spreading, perhaps by using the commoner A. glutinosa. 
Also reared from grey alder on western edge of Swindon, Wiltshire, Feb. 1998. P. 
anderidae (Fletch.) adults ex larvae in birch, Litchet Plain, Blackbush, Hants., 
8.xi.l997, emerged 20.ii.l998; adults and mine ex larvae in birch. Upper Common, 
Buckleburry, Berks., 16. xi. 1997, emerged 18. ii. 1998. P. emherizaepenella (Bouche) 
adult, and mine, ex larva in honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum), Oldpond Copse, 
Reading, Berks., 7.x. 1997, emerged 28. ii. 1998. Ypsolopha sequella (Clerck.), adult, 
mv light, Ashley Hill Forest, Knowl Hill, Berks., 30.vii.l996. Coleophora laricella 
(Hiibn.), adults and cases, on larch (Larix decidua), Pinewood Studios, Iver, 
Bucks., 23. iv. 1998, emerged 8. v. 1998. C. <://?c///>t^///;c'//c/ (Hiibn.) adult, and case, on 
sloe (Prunus spinosa). River Loddon Lower Earley, Reading, Berks., 28. v. 1989, 
emerged 13.vi.l989; adult and case on lime (Tilia vulgaris). Oaken Grove, 



158 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

Medmenham, Berks., 1 l.vi.l998, emerged 27.vi.98. C. ihipennella Zell. adult and case 
on oak sapling. River Loddon, Lower Earley, Reading, Berks., 30. v. 1998, emerged 
20. vi. 1998. C. artemisicoklla Bruand. adults, larval feeding sites and cases on 
mugwort {Artemisia vulgaris). River Loddon, Lower Earley, Berks., 26. ix. 1997, 
emerged 15.vii.l998. Also recorded at Burnham Beeches, Slough, Berks. (VC24) and 
Homefield Wood, Medmenham, Bucks (VC24). Elachista Ininiilis Zell. adult, and 
pupal exuvium, ex larva mining grass. Stoke Row, Oxon., 9.V.1998, emerged 
10. vi. 1998. E. bisulcella (Dup.) adult and pupal exuvium ex larva mining grass. Stoke 
Row, Oxon., 9.V.1998, emerged 10.vi.l998. 

Smith, L F. — Photographs of larvae, pupae and imagines of: Bedellia 
sommilentella (Zell.), first records from VCs Cheshire and Derbyshire. Epermenia 
chaerophyllella (Goeze), first post- 1866 record from VC Derbyshire. Cochylidia 
implicitana (Wocke), first record from Scotland: Wigtownshire. Stenoptilia milli- 
eridactyla (Bruand), first larva found in a non-garden site on Saxifraga hypnoides in 
mainland Britain. Helleusia osteodactyhis (Zell.), larvae found on Senecio Jacohaea. 
Emmeliiui monodactyla (L.) two generations of larvae in 1998: May and August. 

Warne, B. J. — Pyralidae from Binstead, Isle of Wight: Sitochroa palealis (D. & S.) 
23.vii.1998; Palpita unionalis (Hubn.) 25. ix. 1998. Nephopterix angustella (Hubn.) 
2.vii.l998; Elegia similella (Zinck.) 20.vi.l998 (third lOW record). Homoeosoma 
sinuella (Fah.) 9.vii.l998. 

Young, M. R. — 1. Some scarce Scottish species. Lampronia capitella (Clerck): the 
Aberdeenshire locality for this species was destroyed in 1997. Are there any other 
current British sites for the species? Olethreutes olivana (Treits.), examples of the 
typical Scottish form compared with a smaller darker Yorkshire form. Achroia 
grisella (Fab.) Purgavie, Angus, 7.vii.l998, coll. R. Knill-Jones. This species has 
recently been very scarce in Scotland. 

2. Scarce species from the Inner Moray Firth coast. The coastal area running from 
Findhorn past the Black Isle to Golspie has a favourable climate, varied natural 
habitats and a range of interesting species. Stigmella spinosissimae (Waters), reared, 
Embo Links, Dornoch, emerged v. 1997; Coleophora mayrella (Hubn.), Littleferry 
Dunes, Golspie, 27. v. 1998; Agonopterix carduella (Hiibn.), Rosemarkie Coast, Black 
Isle, reared l.viii.l998; Scythris empetrella K. & N., Findhorn Dunes, Moray, 
26. vi. 1998; S. picaepennis (Haw.), Littleferry Dunes, Golspie, 27. vi. 1998; Epiblema 
tetragonana (Stephens), Rosemarkie Coast, Black Isle, 28. vi. 1998. 



Foreign Lepidoptera 

Bailey, K. E. J. — Danaus chrysippus L. taken near Kyrenia, North Cyprus, 
10.x. 1998. The exhibitor stayed in the area from 6.x to 16.x. A single example was 
noted on 8.x followed by increasing numbers along the north coast over several days. 
In some areas it became the most prolific butterfly. It was seen from the Kyrenia area 
as far east as the Kantara Pass. By 14.x it was becoming scarce, although several 
were seen in the Famagusta area on the south coast. They appear to have been part 
of a southward migration from Turkey. During this period there were frequent 
strong northerly winds. The exhibitor was resident in Cyprus during 1960-1962, and 
travelled widely, yet never saw a single example. 

CORLEY, M. F. V. — (1) Herpetogramma licarsisalis Walker, a Pyralid new to 
Europe (Plate 2, Fig. 13). A single specimen of this species was taken near 
Mexilhoeira Grande in Algarve, Portugal, in x.1997 by Adrian Gardiner, and 
subsequently named by Michael Shaffer at the Natural History Museum. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 159 

H. licarsisalis is a widespread species in the Old World tropics. The specimen was 
assumed to be a casual migrant. However, in ix.l998, MFVC found the moth to be 
frequent in a number of sites in central and western parts of Algarve; the eastern part 
was not visited. Single specimens were subsequently taken at Santo Andre on the 
west coast south of Lisbon, and in the Serra de Sao Mamade on the border with 
Spain, almost directly east of Lisbon. The larval foodplant in Portugal is not known. 
Since it was clearly well established in Southern Portugal, MFVC predicted that it 
would soon be found in Spain and Britain. In fact, Spanish specimens were being 
exhibited simultaneously by Hall (q.v.) and a single licarsisalis soon turned up in 
Britain. 

(2) Portuguese Sterrhinae. This subfamily of the Geometridae is one of the groups 
of Lepidoptera which show the greatest contrast between Britain and southern 
Europe. At present 96 species (including 59 Idaea) are known from Portugal 
compared with 42 (including 20 Idaea) from Britain, and this British total can only 
be reached by the inclusion of rare migrants, adventives and doubtful records. These 
moths thrive in the hot dry summers of southern Europe. The larvae can live on 
withered leaves, which are virtually the only leaves of herbaceous plants to be found 
in the southern summer. During the hottest and driest part of the year, from June to 
mid-September, temperatures can reach 40 "C. Few noctuids are flying but small 
flimsy geometers are abundant. 

Some species are very common and are found almost anywhere, but others are 
more local and are clearly ecologically specialised, though it is usually difficult to see 
what the requirements are. Some species are univoltine. but others have two or more 
generations in the year, giving rise to successively smaller and smaller moths as the 
pabulum desiccates. Some species vary very little, but a number have two colour 
forms and some show greater variation. Presence or absence of a median shade 
between two cross-lines occurs in a few species, as in British aversata. I. helemiata 
Mill., although not varying greatly in Portugal, is of a quite different form from 
those found in most of Spain and France, which resemble dimidiata. 

New species continue to be described from the Iberian Peninsula. Six Portuguese 
species of Sterrhinae were described in the 1970s or 1980s, and six other species have 
been added to the Portuguese list in the last eight years. More could await discovery. 
There is uncertainty about the taxonomic status of a few species. /. miniiscidaria 
Ribbe may be only a subspecies of/, seriata Schrank, and the position of/, vulpinaria 
H.-S. (supposed to be a synonym of/, nisticata D.&S.) remains in question. 

The identification of species in such a large genus as Idaea can be a problem. The 
examination of genitalia is often necessary, not just for certainty, but to get a pointer 
to possible identification. The genitalia of many species have not been figured, or are 
incompletely figured, even for males, and few females are figured at all. Culot is still 
useful for identification of the more distinctive species, but cannot be relied upon as 
so many species have been described since it was published. However, they do get 
easier to identify as the number of species one has not yet seen diminishes. 

35 Idaea species and 18 other Sterrhinae were exhibited: Idaea litigiosaria Boisd., 
/. hisohispanica Herb., /. sardoniata Homberg, /. mediaria Hb., /. sericeata Hb., /. 
antiquaria H.-S., /. ochrata Scop., /. vulpinaria H.-S., /. attemiaria Ramb., 
/. alyssumata Mill., /. circuitaria Hb., /. incisaria Stdgr, /. calunetaria Stdgr, /. 
belemiata Mill., /. elongaria Ramb., /. obsoletaria Ramb., /. blaesii Lenz & 
Hausmann, /. lutulentaria Stdgr, /. bigladiata Herb., /. longaria H.-S., /. 
minuscidaria Ribbe, /. carvalhoi Herb., /. dimidiata Hufn., /. subrufaria Stdgr, 
/. subsericeata Haw., /. cervantaria Mill., /. infirmaria Ramb., /. eugeniata Mill., /. 
predotaria Hartig, /. exilaria Guen., /. ostrinaria Hb., /. aversata L.. /. degeneraria 



160 BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST.. 12; 1999 

Hb., /. straminata Borkh., /. deversciria H.-S., Cleta ramosaria VilL, Anthonwtra 
plumularia Boisd., Cyclophora puppillaria Hb., C. hyponoea Prout, C. suppunctaria 
Zell., Timandra comae A. Schmidt, Scapula ornata Scop., S. nivellearia Ob., S. 
decorata D.&S., S. decolor Stdgr, S. marginepimctata Goeze. S. imitaria Hb, S. 
enmtaria Hb, S. minorata Boisd., Glossotrophia annae Mentzer, G. asellaria H.-S., 
Rhodostrophia calahra Petagna, Rhodometra sacraria L. 

(3) Portuguese Momphidae. Until recent times the family Momphidae included a 
number of groups of genera which are now treated as separate families. These 
families are Batachedridae, which is not represented in Portugal, although 
Batachedra parviilipiiiuiclla Chretien was recorded erroneously, Agono.xenidae, with 
only two species in Portugal, Momphidae in the strict sense, which is also poorly 
represented, mainly because of the scarcity of the willowherb family (Onagraceae), 
and Cosmopterygidae, which is relatively well represented. 

(i) Agono.xenidae: Tetanocentria hiivati Baldizzone, an autumn-flying species 
found in evergreen oak-woods. The foodplant is unknown, but all Agonoxenidae 
species for which the pabulum is known have larvae living in bark, in twigs or in 
berries. T. alhanica Rebel, known from a single disjunct site in Portugal, but 
otherwise found very locally in Central and Eastern Europe. 

(ii) Momphidae: Urodcta hyheniclla Stdgr. a cistus-feeding species. Moiupha 
miscella D.&S., which appears to be attached to Halwiiiim rather than Heliauthcnnim, 
and M. epilobiella Roemer. which feeds exactly as it does in Britain. Besides the three 
species exhibited. M. subdivisella Bradley is recorded, but requires confirmation. 

(iii) Cosmopterygidae: This is the largest family with 17 species recorded. 

Although many of them have metallic markings, the majority are night-flying. The 
exhibitor reported that one of them, Alloclita recisella Stdgr, appeared in small 
numbers at torch-light as soon as his mercury vapour light was turned off, whereas 
none had been seen before. 15 of the species were exhibited: Gisilia stereodoxa Meyr., 
larva on Acacia. Alloclita recisella Stdgr, life history unknown. Vidcaniclla 
grahowiella Stdgr, larva in a case on leaves of Lavandula. \'. rosinarinella Wals., a 
leaf-miner on Rosmarinus. V. fiordalisa Petry, larva possibly on Helichrysum. 
Eteobalea beata Wals. & E. intermediella Riedl, which as a group are reported from 
roots of Linaria & Antirrhinum. E. dohrnii Zell., larva in the roots of Plantago 
albicans. Isidiella divitella Const., larva in spun leaves of Helichrysum. Coccidiphila 
ledereriella Zell., larva reported from a number of plants, perhaps feeding on dead 
leaves. Reared by the exhibitor from pupae in seed capsules of Cistus. C. gerasimovi 
Danilevsky, larva on eggs of coccids. Pyroderces argyrogrammos Zell.. larva in seed- 
heads of various thistles. Co.smopteryx crassicervicella Chretien, life history unknown 
& C. pulcherrinu'lla Chambers, a leaf-miner on Parietaria (Urticaceae). The two 
species not available for exhibiting were: Cosnuiptery.x zieglerclla Hb.. a leaf-miner 
on Hamulus (Urticaceae), and Pancalia latreillella Curtis, mining petioles and 
rootstocks of Viola. 

Hall, N. M. — (1) A comparison of Meuophra abruptaria Thunb., M . japygiaria 
Costa & M. nycthemeraria Geyer, three of the commoner Menophra species in 
Europe. The display included upper sides and undersides of normal and melanic 
specimens of abruptaria. 

(2) Moths from France: (i) From He d'Olonne, Vendee, 21. v. 1998: Hyphoraia 
testudinaria Geoffroy. Lacanobia blenna Hb. (A very dark form, with two "'normar' 
blenna for comparison), (ii) From Ondres Plage, Landes, 14. vi. 1998: Agrotis ripae 
Hb. (A very weakly marked form), Cucullia gnaphalii Hb. 

(3) Moths from Spain: (i) Pays Basque: From Parque Garaio, Vitoria, Alava, 
26. v. 1 998: Hyphoraia dejeani Godarl (a Spanish endemic, which is in the red hst for Spain, 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 161 

but was nevertheless very common at Garaio), compared with testiidinaria which is a 
much commoner species looking very similar to dejecmi in the resting position when the 
hindwings are invisible. Oligia versicolor Borkh. (an attractive form). From Arminza, 
Vizcaya, 13. vi. 1998: Pharmacis fuscouebidosa DeGeer (an unusually patterned form), (ii) 
Aragon: From Ontinena, Huesca, 28 & 29. v. 1998: Cucullia xeranthemi Boisd., Hadena 
rivularis Fab. (a form with a tliickened subterminal white line). From Biel, Zaragoza: 
Dicycla oo L., bred from gravid female, (iii) Cataluna: From El Hospitalet del Infant, 
Tarragona: Pseudozarha hipartita H.-S., 5,6 & 8. v. 1998 (an uncommon noctuid moth; 
Calle, in Noctuidos Espanoles, states that there is a single generation in August/ 
September, but these are clearly a spring brood). Euhlemma hinmiighoffem Milliere, 1-^ & 
9.vi.l998 (a rare noctuid about which Uttle is known). Helicoverpa anuigera Hb. (bred 
from Antirrhinum). Idaea degeneraria Hb. (second brood, bred from gravid female). Idaeci 
sardoniata Homberg. 12-13. vi. 1997, 31. v & 3.vi.l998. (iv) Castilla y Laon: From 
Cebreros, Avila: Idaea hitulentaria Stdgr (bred from a gravid female; the larvae fed slowly 
over the winter on decaying dock leaves), (v) Andalucia: From Vera Playa, Almeria: Idaea 
alicantaria Reisser, 22.v. 1 996 & 1 9.vi. 1 997. ZebeebafalsalisH.-S. 1 8.x. 1998 (a form with a 
different jizz to "normal" Spanish fa Isalis). From Mini-Hollywood, Almeria: Hyperlais 
biskralis Chretien 17. v. 1993 (new to Spain & Europe). From Playa de los Genoveses, 
Almeria: Spodoptera exigua Hb. (a total melanic, compared with an unusually bright and 
colourful exigua from Gran Canaria). 

(4) Moths from Fuerteventura, Canary Islands: From Oliva Beach Apartments, 
Corralejo: Eudonia parviangusta Nuss,Karsholt & Meier, iii. 1998 (Not in the 
Klimesch & Arenberger checklist for the Canary Islands [K & A]). Lamoria anella 
D.&S., iii. 1998 (not in K&A). Dolicarthria bruguerialis Dup., iii. 1998 (Not in k&A). 
Ancylosis arenosella Stdgr, Ancylosis imitella Hampson, Ancylosis convexella & other 
Ancylosis spp. still to be identified. ii.l997 & iii. 1998 (Species of Ancylosis were 
extremely common at the apartments. Most were arenosella. a narrow-winged species 
which is very variable with many beautiful forms. Most of the Ancylosis species that 
were not arenosella were imitella. The imitella were slightly smaller and had a black 
central stripe on the thorax which made them easy to pick out. The range of patterns 
was at least as great as those of arenosella. K&A list nine Ancylosis spp. for the 
Canary Islands most of which have variable wing patterns). Agdistis bifurcatus Agjo, 
ii.l997. Agdistis pseudocanariensis Arnbrgr, ii.l997. Amblyptilia acanthadactyla Hb., 
ii.l997. Lantanophaga pusillidactylus Walker, ii.l997 (Plume moths were well 
represented at Corralejo in ii.l997, though hardly any were found in iii. 1998). 

(5) Herpetogramma licarsisalis Walker from the Canary Islands & Spain. These 
were displayed as "An unidentified Pyralid moth, presumably close to ruralis 
(Spilomelinae)". It was first encountered at Corralejo, Fuerteventura , xi.l997, where 
it was common and frequently found indoors, and then at Vera Playa, Almeria, 
18.x. 1998. However, M. Corley (q.v.) displayed what was clearly the same species 
found in Portugal in 1997, new to Europe, and his specimens had been identified at 
the BM (Nat. Hist). The species looks like a small dark ruralis, and males have a 
distinctive brush of black scales on the forewing costa, usually hidden on the 
underside. 

(6) An unidentified noctuid moth: 3 specimens from Oliva Beach Apartments, 
iii. 98. They appeared to be a species of Powellinia. 

Kemp. R. J. & Hall, P. R. A "Playboy" new to Britain. The first record of the 
South African Lycaenid butterfly Virachola antalus Hopffer. Peaches air-freighted to 
the UK from Mpumalanga (formerly part of the Transvaal) in South Africa during 
xi.l996 arrived at a handling depot in Colnbrook, Buckinghamshire. Inspection of 
the produce revealed frequent large entry holes originating at the calyx end of the 



162 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

fruit and ending internally around the stone. Around a dozen larvae were recovered 
from these fruits. One pupated and finally hatched in i.l997 and was identified as a 
female of the lycaenid butterfly Virachola (formerly Deudorix) cmtalus (Hopffer, 
1855). V. antalus is common in bush country throughout most of Africa except the 
southern tip. Its larval foodplants are varied and include bean pods and fruits of 
Leguminosae, Myrtaceae, Olacaceae, Umbelliferae and Rosaceae. In the case of the 
latter it can be a minor pest in orchards feeding on fruits of the peach and nectarine 
{Prumis persica). In South Africa its vernacular name is Brown Playboy presumably 
referring to the darker brown colour of the male and its fast and elusive habit. As far 
as the exhibitors are aware this is the first record for this species in Britain. 

Langmaid, J. R. — (i) Coleophora cormitella H.-S. One specimen, bred from 
Betiila puhescens, with its larval case, from Valkenswaard, Holland. Case found 
24.iii.1998, moth emerged 18. v. 1998. (ii) Denisia similella Hb. One specimen bred 
from a larva found under bark of Ciipressus sp., from Malle, Belgium. Larva found 
25.iii.1998, moth emerged 15.iv.l998. (iii) Denisia albimaculea Haw. One specimen 
from larva found under bark of Larix, from Valkenswaard, Holland. Larva found 
24. iii. 1998, moth emerged 22.iv.98. (iv) Harpella forficella Scop. One specimen bred 
from a rotting fallen branch of oak, from Malle, Belgium. Larva found 25.iii.1998, 
moth emerged 14. v. 1998. 

LuCKENS, C. J. — Butterflies from Sicily, 12-26.V.1998. 

The butterfly fauna of Sicily is especially interesting as it is Mediterranean with 
Afroiberian and Balkan affinities, and also provides a refuge for alpine species which 
normally occur much further north, (i) Melitaea aetheriae Hb. (Afroiberian). (ii) 
Anthocharis damone Boisd. & Spialia orbifer Hb., both "Balkan", damone was found 
almost wherever Isatis tinctoria (Woad) flourished in the Etna, Peloritani and 
Nebrodi ranges, orbifer, which appeared to be local and scarce, is a skipper which 
occurs eastwards from Austria and in the Balkan Peninsula, but is replaced by 
Spialia sertorius in Western Europe, including the whole of mainland Italy, (iii) 
Cyaniris semiargus Rott., an ''alpine" species, from the Madonie Mountains which 
rise to nearly 2000m. (iv) Cupido minimus trinacriae Verity, Melonargia occitanica 
pherusa Bosd. & Hipparchia aristaeus blachieri Fruhstorfer, three distinct Sicilian 
endemic subspecies, (v) Mellietea athalia celadiissa Fruhstorfer & Boloria euphrosyne 
L., which reach their southernmost limits in Sicily, (vi) Maniolajurtina L., a splendid 
very large form. 

Martin, G. — Lepidoptera from Madeira, 20.vii.98 to 2.viii.l998. 

The main intention of the visit was to survey the Lepidoptera of the Ecological Parque 
of Funchal. The base was Casa do Barreiro (970 m) from where one to three 125 Watt mv 
traps were run every night. An mv trap was also used at Casa de Ariero ( 1 593 m) for one 
night and in the Botanical Gardens in Funchal for two nights. Other records were 
obtained on day trips. 44 species of macrolepidoptera, 26 species of pyrale and two species 
of plume moth were recorded which is just over half the total for the island ( 142 to date). 
Although the fauna of Madeira is small, many species or subspecies are endemic to either 
Madeira or Macaronesia (Azores, Madeira, Canaries & Cape Verdes). All identified 
species were exhibited: (Abbreviations: ME = Madeiran Endemic, MacE = Macarone- 
sian Endemic B.-B. = Bethune-Baker) 

Pterophoridae: Amblyptilia acanthadactyla Hb., Gypsochares nielswolffi Arenber- 
ger & Gielis (ME). Pyralidae: Cryptobkibes gnidiella Mill., Pempeliella lundbladi 
Rebel (ME), Pararotruda nesiotica Rebel (MacE), Agriphila atlanticus Woll. (ME), 
Eudonia angustea acuminatella Stt. (ME ssp.), E. decorella maderensis Rebel (ME 
ssp.), E. scoriella wollastoni B.-B. (ME ssp.), Udea atlanticiim B.-B. (ME), U. 
ferrugalis Hb., U. numeralis Hb., V. maderensis B.-B. (ME), Pyrausta sanguinalis L., 



BR. J ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 163 

Uresiphitci gilvata F., Botyodes diniasalis Walk., Mecyna asinalis Hb., Palpita 
wiioualis Hb., Spodolea recurvalis F., Diiponchelia fovecdis Zell., Herpetogramma 
bipunctalis F., Nomophda noctiiella D.&S. Geometridae: Xenochlorodes nubigena 
Woll. (ME), Cyclophora puppdlaria Hb., C maderensis B.-B. (ME), Scapula irrorata 
B.-B. (ME), Idaea maderae B.-B. (ME), Rhodometra sacraria L., Xanthorhoe rupicola 
Woll. (ME), X centrostrigaria Woll. (Also found in N. America & Canaries), 
Eupithecia latipennata Prout (ME), Gynmoscelis insular lata Stt. (MacE), G. lundbladi 
Prout (ME), Menophra maderae B.-B. (ME), Ascolis fortunata Blachier (MacE). 
Sphingidae: Acherontia atropos L. Noctuidae: Cryphia maderensis B.-B. (ME), 
Hypena lividalis Hb., Autograplia gamma L., Cornutiplusia circumflexa L., 
Thysanoplusia orichalcea F., Ctenoplusia limbirena Guen., Chrysodeixis chalcites 
Esp., Galgula partita Guen. (Also found in N. America & Canaries), Paradrina 
clavipalpis Scop., Spodoptera exigua Hb., S. cilium Guen., Euplexia dubiosa B.-B. 
(ME), Phlogophora wollastoni B.-B. (ME), Methorasa latreillei Dup., Mniotype 
albostigmata B.-B. (ME), Mesapamea maderensis Pinker (ME), Mythimna loreyi 
Dup., M. unipuncta Haw., M. serradaguae Wolff (ME), Ochropleura leucogaster 
Freyer, Noctua promtba L., A'^. teixeirai Pinker (ME), Xestia c-nigrum L., Peridroma 
saucia Hb., Agrotis trux maderensis Pinker (ME ssp.), A. atrux Pinker (ME), A. rutae 
Rebel (ME), A. segetum D.&S. 

Revell, R.J. — A selection of Pyralidae captured at tungsten light at Bo, Sierra Leone, 
West Africa: Syllepte hutleri Dewitz, S. sarronalis Walk., S. balteata F., S. retractalis 
Hamps., S. polycymalis Hamps., Dichocrocis fuscoalbalis Hamps., Pardomima margar- 
odes Martin, P. phalaromima Meyr., Pyrausta ferrugalis F., Zebronia phenice Cramer, 
Macrogastra tyres Cramer, Ghesquiellerana hirtusalis Walk., Botyodes asialis Guen., 
Conogathes polystidzalis Hamps., Eporidia dariusalis Walk., Palpita pudoraria Hb., 
Phostria hesusalis Walk., Ulopeza latiferalis Walk., U. conigeralis Zell., U . jiavicepsalis 
Hamps., Diaphania alealis Walk, Maruca testulalis Geyer (The "Mung Moth", a 
cosmopolitan pest species which has been recorded in Britain on several occasions. The 
larva attacks the pods of various legumes.), Hymenia recurvalis F. (A tropical pest species 
which has been recorded in Britain on a few occasions.). 

Tennent. J. — Aberrant European and North African Butterflies: Two cases 
containing aberrant individuals collected during long periods in the field in 1991 1995 
(without looking for aberrations), together with normal individuals for comparison. 
The exhibit consisted of some quite extreme examples of normally variable species and 
aberrant specimens of species in which variation is infrequent or unrecorded. 
Hesperiidae: Pyrgus malvae L. A male with upperside forewing white spots extended 
and rayed (f. taras) (France 1995). Papilionidae: Zerynthia rumina africana Stichel Two 
specimens, one with extended black markings, the other asymmetrical with the left 
hindwing lacking black pigment (both Morocco, 1992). Pieridae: Colias liecla sulitelma 
Aurivillius A male with the orange-yellow upperside colour replaced by lemon yellow 
and a female with upperside submarginal markings reduced, giving it the superficial 
appearance of a lighly marked male (both Arctic Sweden, 1991). 
Gonepteryx cleopatra cleopatra L. A sexual mosaic, primarily female but with a band 
of male coloration on the left upperside forewing costal margin (Morocco, 1993). 
Although sexual mosaics and gynandromorphs are rare in nature, a surprisingly 
large number have been reported among cleopatra. Zegris eupheme maroccana 
Bernard! A male with pigment lacking from the upperside forewing apical orange 
patch (Morocco, 1992). Lycaenidae: Agrodiaetus thersites Cantener A sexual mosaic 
with the left side female and the right side female washed with male coloration 
(Spain. 1993). Aricia agestis crcmiera Eschscholtz A male with most underside spots 
obsolete (Morocco, 1992). Cigaritis zohra monticola Riley A female with underside 



164 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

spots reduced or obsolete, and white ground colour extended (Morocco, 1992). 
Variation in this species is rare. Cycmiris lielena Stdgr One male with underside 
forewing spots obsolete (Greece, 1991). Glaucopsyche mekmops algirica Heyne A 
male with basal spot of underside forewing series elongated to form a bar and a 
second male with underside forewing spots reduced and unh spots obsolete (both 
Algeria, 1993). Heodes alciphron melihaeus Stdgr A male with most submarginal and 
postmedian spots obsolete (Greece, 1995). Lysandra coridon caelestissima Verity A 
male with underside spots obsolete. L. pimctifera Ob. A series of five males and three 
females, with variation in underside spotting, ranging from "rayed" examples to a 
specimen with all spots except the upperside forewing discal spot obsolete 
(Morocco, 1991^). Plebejus argiis hypochiomis Ramb. A male with underside 
submarginal spots elongated (rayed) (Spain, 1994). P. idas lapponicus Gerhard 
Two males with most underside spotting obsolete, and a female with all spots 
elongated (rayed) (Arctic Sweden, 1993). P. martini martini Allard A male with 
underside forewing spots reduced and unh spots obsolete (Algeria, 1992). Plebicida 
atlantica Elwes One male and two females with underside spots enlarged (Morocco 
1992-3). Variation in this species is not often reported and females are rare in 
collections. Pseiidophilotes barhagiae de Prins & van der Poorten Three males with 
most underside spots obsolete (Sardinia, 1991). P. baton Bergstrasser A male with 
underside spots obsolete (Corsica, 1991). Zizzeria karsandra Moore Two males with 
some underside spots joined (rayed) (Tunisia, 1992). Nymphalinae: Boloria napaea 
Hoffmannsegg A female with the orange upperside markings dull and all black markings 
extended (Switzerland, 1995). Eurodryas desfontainii Godart A series of eight specimens 
exhibiting variation, often asymmetrical, mainly in respect of the confluence or absence of 
the upperside forewing median bands (Morocco, 1992-3), and a pair with the distinctive 
bright orange-red ground colour replaced by pale orange-yellow (Morocco, 1992). 
Melitaea cinxia L. Two males, one with upperside forewing black markings reduced and 
uph black markings extended and one with upperside black markings extended (Greece. 
1991). M. deserticola Ob. A male in which many of the underside black markings are 
reduced or obsolete and the underside hindwing white ground colour extensive (Tunisia, 
1993). M. phoebe occitanica Stdgr A male with the underside forewing median markings 
absent and the underside hindwing median band obscured with black spots (Morocco, 
1992). Mesoacidalia aglaja lyauteyi Ob. A male with upperside black submarginal and 
postmedian markings extended (Morocco, 1993). Satyrinae: Erebiapalarica Chapm. Two 
females, one with upperside postmedian ocelli enlarged and joined, the other with 
upperside ocelli obsolete and uph ocelli reduced to black spots in spaces 2 & 3 (Spain, 
1994). Maniola Jiirtina L. A male with slightly deformed wings in which orange upperside 
markings are asymmetrical and replaced by off-white (Spain, 1993). M. nurag Ghiliani A 
male with orange upperside markings replaced by pale yellow (Sardinia, 1991). 
Melanargia galathea lucasi Ramb. A male with upperside dark markings extended 
(Algeria,' 1992). 

Wedd, D. J. — Species found during two visits to Jersey, Channel Islands, in late 
x.1997 and early viii.1998, both times in brilliant sunny weather: (i) Dryobota 
labecida Esp. Widespread on Quercus ilex in late x.97 Captives laid numerous ova, 
but only after 5 or 6 days feeding on sugar water. Eggs were laid in neat rows along 
the veins of the leaves of potted ilex saplings. They hatched but did not feed 
successfully. Clearly, very soft new leaves are required, (ii) Trigonophora jiammea 
Esp. One of the commonest species in x.1997 to light everywhere, even to street 
lamps, (iii) Eumichtis lichenea Hb. Very numerous and with little variation, (iv) 
Lasioeampa trifolii D. & S. Many males at MV on the west coast; fewer elsewhere. 
Very similar to the form found in SW England. No females seen, (v) Tethea ocularis 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 165 

Hb. A distinctive second brood, viii.1998. (vi) Idaea ciegeneraria Hb. Newly emerged 
specimens, viii.1998. suggesting a second brood, (vii) Jodis lactearia L. Definite 
second brood; numerous, (viii) Lomaspilis mcirgiiiala L. Very variable and very 
numerous, (ix) Selenia himdaria Hb. A distinctive second brood, (x) Thaumetopaea 
processionea L. Resident on Jersey, flying mainly in August. Burrow took 3 females 
on 15. viii. 1998. but none would lay. Perhaps, like castrensis L., the female only flies 
after laying, (xi) Coscinia cribraria trivittata South. Numerous in several areas on the 
west coast, (xii) Euplagia qiiadripiinctaria Poda 25-30 to MV every night, and also 
flying at dusk and by day. Less than 5% were of the yellow form, and the 
intermediate salmon coloured form was rarer still, (xiii) Agrotis vestigialis Hufn. A 
distinctive form; common, (xiv) Trachea atriplicis L. Resident on Jersey; almost 
certainly double-brooded, (xv) Agrotis crassa Hb. More than 400 came to MV in 4 
nights in the Grouville area, yet crassa had previously been seldom seen on Jersey. 
Smaller numbers were seen elsewhere. The literature suggests that crassa likes 
marshy ground, yet the main locality for it on Jersey is the Grouville Golf Course. It 
is a lazy moth, flying little when captured. Several pairings were observed in the trap, 
(xvi) Ochropleura plecta L. An unusual ab.; abundant, (xvii) Mythimna albipimcta D. 
& S. One of the most abundant species with at least 3 broods a year; newly emerged 
imagines were flying in x.1997 and viii.1998. M. vitellina Hb. is also resident and 
numerous, (xviii) Acoutia lucida Hufn. One to Gorey Castle Light, the other to MV 
at Grouville. mid viii.1998. Both of these sites are on the east coast. A third specimen 
was photographed on the west coast, at the place where Burrow took the only other 
specimen to be recorded on Jersey in 1995. Hence, possibly resident, (xix) Orthonama 
obstipata F. Very numerous in viii.1998 to MV. but also flying by day in gardens, 
(xx) Evergestis extimalis Scop. Recorded in four different localities in viii.1998. In 
numbers at Grouville. Previously only recorded twice from Jersey, (xxi) Hypena 
obsitalis Hb. Everywhere on Jersey; only one seen at MV. but flying at dusk and even 
in daylight. 40+ in a German bunker on the west coast, and larvae at all stages on 
pellitory (Parietaria) near the entrance. The Jersey specimens were decidedly larger 
than those of mainland England, (xxii) Cethosia liypsea Doubleday Captured in 
bright sunlight at the edge of woodland at Rozel Bay, 10. viii. 1998. Identified by 
Mark Parsons & Phil Ackery at the BM (Nat. Hist.). An Indonesian species! 



DiPTERA 

There was an increase in the number of exhibitors this year and fewer exhibits in 
common with the annual meeting of Dipterists Forum, which was held two weeks 
later, for the first time in Cardiff. Several species recently recognised as new to the 
British fauna were included and the dead-wood-associated craneflies of the genera 
Cienophora and Tanyptera appeared in several exhibits. Observations were made on 
the little-known C. ornata Meig., rarely recorded outside Windsor and New Forests, 
in both these areas. 

Alexander. K. N. A. — (1) Two nationally scarce flies found in Gloucestershire 
in 1998: Zodion notation (Meigen) (Conopidae). Snows Farm, Slad. limestone 
grassland. 25. v; Dioxyua bidentis (Rob.-Des.) (Tephritidae), Ashleworth Ham, swept 
from Bidens tripartita, 13.ix. 

(2) Highlights from the National Trust's Biological Surveys in 1998: Solva 
niarginata Meig. (Xylomyidae), Leith Hill Place, Surrey, on Liriodendron trunk, 
16. vii; Haematopota grandis Meig. (Tabanidae), Mwche saltmarshes, Carm., 17. viii. 



166 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

Chandler, P. J. — The British species of Anapaiisis (Scatopsidae): examples of six 
species now known from Britain, with the addition of A. rectiuervis Duda (from 
Dinton Pastures Country Park, Berks., male in fen/carr at south end of Mortimer's 
Meadows, 27. v. 1993, and Woodwalton Fen, Hunts., 24. v. 1980, both sexes) and 
recognition that "^. soluta (Loew)" of previous authors comprises three species, of 
which both sexes can only be recognised by the structure of the terminalia, of which 
sketches of the salient features were also exhibited (these species are fully 
characterised and keyed by Chandler, 1999, Dipterists Digest {Second Series) 6: 1- 
19). 

Collins, G. A. — (1) Craneflies (Tipulidae) associated with dead wood: 
Ctenophora flaveolata (F.), Ridley Plain, New Forest, Hants., 7. v. 1998; Tanyptera 
atrata (L.), female ovipositing in a long-dead birch (Betida) stump, Bagmoor 
Common, Surrey, 27. v. 1998, and male, Pamber Forest, N. Hants., 13. v. 1995; T. 
nigricornis (Meig.), Blatchford Downs, Surrey, l.vi.l998. 

(2) Other RDB species found in 1998: Thyridanthrax fenestratus (Fall.) 
(Bombyliidae), Hankley Common, Surrey, 19.viii; Myennis octopunctata (Coquebert) 
(Ulidiidae), Beddington Sewage Farm, Surrey, 22.viii; Myopites imdaedyssentericae 
Blot (Tephritidae), a mainly coastal species found more widely in recent years, 
Ashtead Common, Surrey, reared from galls on fleabane (Pidicaria dysenterica), 
emerged 24. ii. 

DoBSON, J. R. — The two species of Braulidae now known to occur in the British 
Isles: Braida coeca Nitzsch, a ubiquitous species in honey-bee (Apis mellifera L.) 
colonies, and B. schmitzi Orosi-Pal, an addition to the British list, from a pooled 
sample — England and Wales, autumn 1994-spring 1995; its status is presently 
unknown. 

FORMSTONE, B. — Diptera from Wales, including some new national and county 
records: Prionocera subserricornis (Zett.) (Tipulidae), Gresford, Denb., lowland mire. 
13.viii.l998, new to Wales; Nephrotoma conuciua (L.) (Tipulidae), Gresford, Denb., 
plentiful at edge of an old sand quarry, some males resting on gorse, 2.viii.l998, new 
to North Wales; Tipula livida Wulp (Tipulidae), Marford Quarry, Denb., old sand 
quarry, 2.vi.l997, new to Wales; T. melauoceros Schumm. (Tipulidae), Gresford, 
Denb., several in lowland mire. 15.ix.l998; T. helvola Loew (Tipulidae), Gresford. 
Denb., pine plantation at site of a sand quarry, 29.vii.1998, new to Denbighshire; T. 
grisescens Zett. (Tipulidae), Esclusham Mountain, Denb., a pair //; copula on an 
upland bog, 7.iv.l998, second Welsh record; Tabanus cordiger Meig. (Tabanidae), 
Erddig Park, Denb, on bog by a stream in woodland, 9.vi.l992, new to 
Denbighshire; Haematopota grandis Meig. (Tipulidae), Whiteford Burrows and 
Oxwich Burrows, Glam., 15.viii.l998; Pamponenis germcmiciis (L.) (Asilidae), 
Pwllheli. Caern.. several in dunes, 24. v. 1994; Dicdineurct anilis (L.) (Therevidae), 
Morfa Harlech, Mer., on dunes, 10.vii.l997; Platycheinis discimanus Loew 
(Syrphidae), Gresford, Denb., at sallow (Scdix) blossom in disused sand quarry, 
30.iii.l998, new to North Wales; Chetostoma cwviuerve Rond. (Tephritidae), Clyne 
Park, Swansea, Glam., wing flicking on Rhododendron foliage. 18.viii.l998. new to 
Wales (further details of this and other recent records are given by Chandler, P.J., 
1998, Dipterists Digest {Second Series) 5: 107-108); Oestrus ovis L. (Oestridae), 
Llanerchaeron, Card., on wall of National Trust property, 14.viii.l997. 

Halstead, a. J. — Some scarce or local Diptera found in 1998: Stratiomys 
potamida Meig. (Stratiomyidae), St Gabriel's Farm, Golden Cap, Dorset. 30. vi; 
Chrysops sepulcralis (F.) and Atylotus fulvus (Meig.) (Tabanidae). Oakers Wood Bog. 
near Affpuddle, Dorset, 3.vii; Thereva lunidlirsclu Krober (Therevidae), Linn of Dee, 
S. Aber., 8.ix, on fence post; Dioctria cothurnata Meig. (Asilidae), Loscombe Nature 



BR J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 167 

Reserve, Loscombe. Dorset, 28. vi; Choerades marginatus (L.) (Asilidae), Whitmoor 
Common, Surrey, on pine (Piinis) trunk, 9.viii; Brachypalpoides lenliis (Meig.) 
(Syrphidae), RHS Garden, Wisley, Surrey, 5.vi, on wild rose {Rosa) flower; Psilota 
anthracina Meig. (Syrphidae), Warburg BBONT Reserve, Oxon., 9.v; VoluceUa 
zonaria (Poda) (Syrphidae), Wisley Village, Surrey, emerging from Vespula vulgaris 
(L.) nest in ground, 4.ix; Myopa fasciata Meig. (Conopidae), Horsell Common, 
Surrey. 9.viii; Zodion cinereum (F.) (Conopidae), Tadnoll Nature Reserve, near 
Tadnoll, Dorset, heathland edge, 3.vii; Acanthiophihis helianthi (Rossi) (Tephritidae), 
Knaphill, Surrey, 23. vi, on Iris leaf by garden pond; Tephritis conura (Loew) 
(Tephritidae), River Ardle at Enochdhu, Perths., male 6.ix and female 11. ix; 
Meganwriiui doliiini (F.) (Megamerinidae). Powerstock Common, Dorset, 28. vi; 
Ochthera mantis (De Geer) (Ephydridae), Albury Bottom, Chobham Common, 
Surrey, boggy pools, IS.viii. 

Harvey, M. C. — (1) Ctenophora ornata Meig. (Tipulidae), Highstanding Hill, 
Windsor Forest. Berks., SU936744, 14.viii.l998, a photograph of a male found in a 
mercury vapour trap; while in captivity awaiting photography, it appeared to 
actively seek moisture from damp wood when provided with a decaying log; the fly 
was released on the next day, onto a beech (Fagus sylvatica) trunk, where it sat for 
about ten minutes before flying off into the undergrowth and coming to rest on 
shaded damp leaf litter. 

(2) Diptera from Berks, and Oxon in 1998: Metalimnobia quadrimacidata (L.) 
(Limoniidae), Highstanding Hill, Windsor Forest, Berks., SU936744, 14.viii, feeding 
at sugar-rope applied to attract moths; Rhagio strigosus (Meig.) (Rhagionidae), male 
at Upper Basildon, Berks., SU58427610, 3.vii, male at Ashampstead Common, 
Berks., SU578748, 2.viii, and female at North UnhiU Bank. Berks., SU562832, 
8.vii — altogether over 150 individuals seen, mostly at Upper Basildon site, from 3.vii 
to 3.ix, males congregating on tree trunks in "downlooker fly" fashion, females less 
easy to find but two occurred on house windows (the common R. scolopaceiis (L.) 
was exhibited for comparison); Platycheirus occult us Goeldlin de Tiefenau, Maibach 
& Speight (Syrphidae), Cholsey Marsh, Berks., SU598854, 5.viii; Chetostoma 
curvinerve Rond. (Tephritidae), Kingwood Common, Oxon, SU695825, 21.vi 
(further details are published elsewhere as indicated under Exhibit by B. Formstone 
above). 

Hawkins, R. D. — A selection of the more spectacular and interesting flies 
collected during 1998 at Bagmoor Common, Surrey (SU9242), a Wildhfe Trust 
reserve consisting mostly of birch and pine woodland, acid grassland, bracken and 
restored heathland. Tanyptera atrata (L.) (Tipulidae), 15.v, black and brown forms 
of male flying around stump of dead birch; Asilus crabroniformis L. (Asilidae), 2.viii, 
female; Dioctria oelandica (L.) (Asilidae), 23. v; Eutolmus rufibarbis (Meig.) 
(Asilidae), 2.viii, female; Pipiza bimaculata Meig. (Syrphidae), 23. v, female beaten 
from hawthorn; Cheilosia scutellata (Fall.) (Syrphidae), 29.viii, female hovering over 
mushroom believed to be Boletus scaber; Eupeodes latihmulatus (Collin) (Syrphidae), 
29.viii, female at flowers of heather, Calhma vulgaris; Gymnosoma rotundatum (L.) 
(Tachinidae), 23. v, male. 

Hodge, P. J. — Eleven species of Diptera from southern England in 1998: 
Paracrocera orbiculus (¥.), Ogcodes gibbosus (L.) and O. pallipes Latr. (Acrocer- 
idae). Little Langford Down, Wilts., SU0434, 4.vii, all three British species of the 
family swept from chalk grassland; Platypalpus luteolus (Collin) (Hybotidae), 
Llangua, Gwent, S0388254, swept off bank of River Monnow, 3.vi; Rhamphomyia 
gibba (Fall.) (Empididae), Eelmoor Marsh SSSI. N. Hants, SU841534, 28.vi; Hilara 
lugubris (Zett.) (Empididae), Fleet Pond LNR, N. Hants.. SU8254, 16.vi, female 



168 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

swept from tree foliage above shaded stream; Pelecocera tricincta Meig. 
(Syrphidae), Eelmoor Marsh SSSI, N. Hants, SU840535, 28.vi, swept off bog 
myrtle (Myrica gale) in wet heathland, and Parkhurst Forest, Isle of Wight, 
SZ4790, 29. vi, heathy ride in young conifer plantation; Trypeta artemisiae (F.) 
(Tephritidae), The Moors NR, Bishop's Waltham, S. Hants, SU559169, 18.vi, 
female swept off osier {Salix species); Urophora spoUata (Hal.) and Terellia 
vectensis (Collin) (Tephritidae), Afton Down, Isle of Wight, SZ3685, 26.vii, on saw- 
wort (Serratula tinctoria) near cliff-top; Terellia winthemi (Meig.) (Tephritidae), 
Colley Hill, Reigate, Surrey, TQ2452, 12.vi, on welted thistle (Cardials 
acanthoides). 

Knill-Jones, S. a. — Volucella zonaria (Poda) (Syrphidae), Freshwater, Isle of 
Wight, 14.ix.l998. 

McLean, I. F. G. — Platypezidae from the autumn field meeting of Dipterists 
Forum in Heref., x.1998, eight species from Haugh Wood and Conigree Wood, 12.x: 
Agathomyia woodella Chandler, A. cinerea (Zett.), A. unicolor Oldenberg, Platypeza 
hirticeps Verrall and P. consobrina Zett. from Haugh Wood; Agathomyia unicolor, 
Protodythia modesta (Zett.), P. rufa (Meig.) and Platypeza aterrima Walker from 
Conigree Wood; this was the third confirmed British record for A. cinerea, which had 
earlier been confused with other species. 

Parker, M. — Diptera from Dorset in 1998: Atylotiis fulvus (Meig.) (Tabanidae), 
Oakers Bog, male taking nectar from Juncus acutiflorus, 25.vii; A. latistriatiis Brauer 
(Tabanidae), Newton Bay, Isle of Purbeck, 2.viii, male taking nectar from Limonium 
vulgare; Eutolnms riifiharhis (Meig.) (Asilidae), Merritown Heath, 2.vii, male in dry 
acid grassland and Newton Bay, Isle of Purbeck, 26.vii, saltmarsh edge; Machimus 
rusticus (Meig.) (Asilidae), Hod Hill, S.vii, swept from long grass; Cheilosia 
semifasciata Becker (Syrphidae), Piddles Wood, 9.v, female at Ranunculus ficaria 
flower; C. griseiventris Loew (Syrphidae). Wether Hill, male, 23. v; Chrysotoxum 
octomaculatum Curtis (Syrphidae), Isle of Purbeck, Newton Bay, 26.vii, female at 
Limonium vulgare flowers, and Grange Heath, 16.viii, female hovering over bare 
sand; Pipiza lugubris F. (Syrphidae), Warmwell Heath, female, 21. vi; Platycheirus 
splendidus Rotheray (Syrphidae), newly described by G. E. Rotheray (1998, 
Entomologist's Gaz. 49: 271-276), Mostertown Down, W. Dorset, two females on 
a wooded bank, 15.v and 24.vii. 

Perry, I. — Uncommon Diptera found in 1998: Hilara hybrida Collin (Empidi- 
dae), Ballinluig Island, River Tummel, Perths, 5.vi; Syntormon filiger Verrall 
(Dolichopodidae), Snettisham, Norf., 25.vii, swept from brackish marsh; Ceplialops 
perspicuus (de Meijere) (Pipunculidae), Holme Dunes, Norf., 8.viii, swept from 
Phragmites australis in dune slack; Cheilosia griseiventris Loew (Syrphidae). Holme 
Dunes, Norf., 8.viii, edge of dune slack, and Snettisham. Norf., IS.viii; Sphegina 
sibirica Stackelberg (Syrphidae), Black Wood of Rannoch, Perths., 2.vi. and 
Balnaught, Inv., 10. vi; Goniglossum wiedemanni {Meig.) (Tephritidae), Holme Dunes, 
Norf., 18.vii, swept from Bryonia dioica: Myopites irndaedyssentericae Blot 
(Tephritidae), Holme Dunes, Norf.. 8.viii. swept from Pulicaria dysenterica at edge 
of dune slack; Campiglossa producta (Loew) (Tephritidae). Holkham, Norf., 2.viii, 
and Studland, Dorset, 29. vi, both swept from dunes; Parochthiphila coronata (Loew) 
(Chamaemyiidae), Holme Dunes, Norf., ll.vii and 8.viii, swept from dunes; 
Platycephala umbraculata (F.) (Chloropidae), The Spittles, Dorset, 28. vi, swept 
from Phragmites australis; Fannia tuberculata (Zett.) (Fanniidae), Linn of Dee, S. 
Aber., 31. v. 

Plant, C. W. — (1) Possible mimicry between hoverflies (Syrphidae) and other 
flies; possible cases of mimicry where neither partner is apparently a danger to 



BR J ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 169 

predators, but the apparent mimicry extends beyond coloration to include 
behavioural traits: (a) Lejops vittatiis (Meig.) common around Lake Balaton, 
Hungary, 17.V.1997, and an unidentified sarcophagid fly from the same site, which 
behaves similarly and in flight looks almost identical to the hoverfly; (b) Eristalis 
arhustonim (L.) and E. horticola (De Geer), British specimens, and Ectophasia 
crassipeiinis (F.) (Tachinidae), Razac d'Eymet, France, 21. v. 1996, common on road 
verges with both Eristalis species and it was necessary to net the flies to tell them 
apart; (c) Eristalimis sepulchralis (L.), a British specimen shown with an unidentified 
calypterate from southern France, ix.l997, both species abundant on white umbels 
and the calypterate also observed to hover well. 

(2) Some common Hungarian hoverflies (Syrphidae), including some considered 
uncommon or rare in Britain, which are commonly encountered in suitable habitat in 
Hungary: Anasiniyia interpimcta (Harris), abundant in flood-plains of the Danube; 
Brachyopa dorscita Zett., common in ancient forest; Brachypalpoides lentiis (Meig.); 
Brachypalpus valgus (Panz.); Calipvohola speciosa (Rossi), very common in beech 
forest where it exhibits a territorial display flight in rays of sunlight above beech 
stumps, also taken in a Malaise trap amongst 5«//'.Y-invaded reeds at the edge of Lake 
Balaton; Chalcosyrplnts eunotus (Loew), in damp ancient woodland; Cheilosia 
canicularis Panz., frequent in woodland; Chrysotoxum elegans Loew; C. festivum 
(L.); C. vernale Loew; Ceriana conopsoides (L.), at sap runs on beech trunks; 
Criorhina asilica (Fall.), common on leaves of trees at edges of woodland rides when 
it is raining; Eupeodes (subgenus Lapposyrphus) species A sensu Stubbs, female at 
edge of beech forest by a lake; Helopliihis trivituitus (F.); Lejops vittatiis (Meig.), very 
common about reeds in ditches with scrub down one side but not the other, the flies 
being found opposite gaps in the scrub, flying about six inches below the tops of last 
year's dead reed stems in a characteristic manner; Merodoii armipes Rond., abundant 
on calcareous grassland; Microdon analis (Macq.), about cut stumps and associated 
ant nests on recently cleared woodland slope on calcareous soil; M. mutabilis (L.), 
very common in dry calcareous grassland, absent from wetter areas; Neoascia 
imffasciata (Strobl); A^. annexa (Miiller); Pipiza fasciata Meig.; P. [estiva Meig.; 
Pipizella anmdata (Macq.); Sphiximorpha subsessilis (Illiger), at sap runs on beech 
trunks; Tropidia scita (Harris); Voliicella inflata (F.), in almost every oak {Quercus) 
woodland. 

Softly, R. A. — Conops quadrifasciatus De Geer (Conopidae), Hampstead 
Heath, Middx. 

Waring, P. — Ctenophora omata Meig. (Tipulidae), a female from Whitley 
Wood, near Brockenhurst, New Forest, Hants., on the BENHS Field Meeting on the 
afternoon of 22.viii.1998. Three males were captured in light traps soon after dusk 
the same day at Anses Wood in the north-west of the New Forest. 



COLEOPTERA 

Alexander, K. N. A. — Three Red Data Book beetles found by members of the 
Gloucestershire Invertebrate Group during 1998. Ampedus nifipennis (Steph.) 
(Elateridae), Nottingham Hill, 26. iv. 1998, from decaying ash pollard (A. Taylor); 
Hypulus quercinus (Quens.) (Melandryidae), Pinbury Park, 21. vi. 1998, in old oak 
stump (J. Harper), new to Glos; Osphva hipunctata (F.) (Melandryidae), Alderley 
Wood, 23.V.1998, knocked off hawthorn blossom (K.N.A.A.). 

Alexander, K. N. A., Foster, A. P. & Goddard, D. G. — A selection of the 
more interesting beetles found during the work of the National Trust's Biological 



170 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

Survey Team in 1998. Abraeus granulum Er. (Histeridae), Blickling Park, E. Norfolk, 
26.vi.1998, in old decayed beech stump; Scydmaemis rufus Miiller, P. W. J. & Kunze 
(Scydmaenidae), Leith Hill Place, Surrey, 16.vii.l998, one beneath bark on old 
stump; Dytiscus circumcmctus Ahrens (Dytiscidae), Berrington Hall, Hereford, 
4.viii.l998, in parkland pond; Omaloplia ruricola (F.) (Scarabaeidae), Figsbury Ring, 
Wiltshire, 12.vi.l998, the scarce black form swept from calcareous grassland; 
Gnoritmis nobilis (L.) (Scarabaeidae), Croft Ambrey, Hereford, 6.viii.l998, beaten off 
foliage of ancient oak containing red rot; Agrilus viridis (L.) (Buprestidae), Witley 
Common, Surrey, 8.vi.l998, beaten off foliage of young oak; Cardiophonis vestigialis 
Er. (Elateridae), Salcombe, S. Devon, 21. vi. 1998, on flowers of Smyrniiim olusatrum 
along coastal footpath; Epiphanis cornutus Esch. (Eucnemidae), Blickling Park, E. 
Norfolk, 22.vi.1998, one at rest on exposed heartwood on side of hve oak; Hylis 
olexai (Palm) (Eucnemidae), Reigate Hill, Surrey, 20.vii.l998, swarming about cut 
end of beech trunk felled after Great Storm of 1987; Triuodes hirtus (F.) 
(Dermestidae), Hanbury Park, Worcs, 17.vi.l998, from dry rot hole in old dying 
oak; Lymexylon navale (L.) (Lymexylidae), Hatchlands Park, Surrey, 17.vii.l998, 
ovipositing in exposed heartwood on side of live oak; Uleiota planata (L.) 
(Cucujidae), Croft Castle Park, Hereford., 4.viii.l998, beneath sappy bark on 
recently fallen oak trunk; Mycetophagus populi F. (Mycetophagidae), Studley Park, 
Mid West York, 22. iv. 1998, beneath sappy bark on recently fallen lime; Synchita 
humeralis (F.) (Colydiidae), Selborne Common, N. Hants, 9.vii.l998, beating oak 
bough; Pseudocistela ceramboides (L.) (Tenebrionidae), Hanbury Park, Worcs, 
17. vi. 1998, inside hollow oak trunk; Lissodema cursor (Gyll.) (Salpingidae), 
Berrington Hall Park, Hereford, 4.viii.l998; Abdera biflexuosa (Curtis) (Melandryi- 
dae), St. Helens Duver, Isle of Wight, 2.vi.l998, from oak at woodland/saltmarsh 
transition; Phaedon concinmis Steph. (Chrysomelidae), Mwche saltmarshes, Car- 
marthen, 17.viii.l998, common by suction sampling; Trachyphloeiis asperatus Boh. 
(Curculionidae), Cley Hill, S. Wilts. 30. vi. 1998, common by suction sampling; 
Rhinocylhis conicus (Froelich) (Curculionidae), Melbury Down, Wilts, 9.vi.l998, on 
spear thistle Cirsiuni vulgare; Cionus nigritarsis Reitter (Curculionidae), Haresfield 
Hill, E. Glos, 28.vii.1998, on Verbascum nigrum; Trachodes hispidus (L.) (Curculio- 
nidae), Gentle's Copse, Ludshott, N. Hants, 10.vii.l998, commonly by beating oak 
boughs; Rhynchaemis pratensis (Germar) (Curculionidae), Wicken Fen, Cambs, 
12.viii.l998, swept from open ride with devil's-bit scabious Succisa pratensis; 
Taphrorychus bicolor (Herbst) (Scolytidae), Hatchlands Park, Surrey, 17.vii.l998. 

Allen, A. J. W. — Some beetles found during 1997 and 1998. New vice-county 
records are marked with an asterisk (*). Carabidae: Bembidion nigropiceum (Marsh.), 
Durdle Door, Dorset, viii.1998; B. virens Gyll., near Oykel Bridge, Sutherland, 
viii.1998; Pterostichus lepidus (Leske), Alderholt, Dorset, vii.1998; Harpahis honestus 
(Duft.), St. Bee's Head, Cumberland, viii.1998; H. tenebrosus Dejean, Durdle Door, 
Dorset, viii.1998; Dytiscidae: Graptodytes bilineatus (Sturm), Cogden Beach, Dorset, 
ii.l998; Oreodytes alpinus (Payk.), Loch More, Caithness, viii.1998; Leiodidae: 
Leiodes picea (Panz.), Dorback, Nethy Bridge, Elgin, viii.1998; Staphylinidae: 
Bledius arcticus Sahib., Dorback, Nethy Bridge, Elgin, viii.1998; *B. dissimdis Er. 
near Ringwood, S. Hants, v. 1998; Rugihis geniculatus (Er.), Alderholt, Dorset, 
X.1998, in tussock; Pseudopasilia lestacea (Bris.). Grain, W. Kent, v. 1998, near shore; 
Elmidae: Oulinmius rivularis (Rosen.), TL49, Cambs, v. 1998; Stenehnis cancdiculata 
(Gyll.), Water Newton, Cambs, ix.l998; Coccinellidae: Nephus quadrimaculatus 
(Herbst), West Molesey, Surrey, xi.l997; Chrysomelidae: Calomicrus circumfusus 
(Marsh.), Alderholt, Dorset, vii.1998; Longitarsus quadriguttatus (Pont.), Barton 
Mills, W. Suffolk, ix.l998; Curculionidae: Magdalis barbicornis (Lat.). East Hemsey, 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 !71 

Oxon, vii.1998; Baris analis (Ol.), Eype's Mouth, Dorset, vi.l998; Scolytidae: 
Trypophloeus asperatus (Gyll.)- Alderholt. Dorset, vii.1998. 

Booth, R. G. — (1) Three species of Coleoptera new to Britain. Placusa 
complauata Er. and Phloeopora nitidiventris Fauvel (StaphyUnidae), Brentmoor 
Heath NR (a Surrey Wildhfe Trust Reserve), Lightwater, SU9361, 30.xi.l997, 
several specimens from frass under bark of felled scots pine Pinus syhestris trunk 
attacked by Ips sexdentatiis (Boerner) (Scolytidae) (taken in company with Placusa 
depressa Makhn and Phloeopora testacea (Mann.) which were shown for 
comparison); Tychiiis breviusculus Desb. (Curculionidae), Eype's Mouth, Dorset, 
SY4491, 3.vi.l993, a single male swept. 

(2) A selection of rare or notable Coleoptera, including new county or vice-county 
records. Agathidium confusum Bris. (Leiodidae), Burnham Beeches, Bucks, SU9584, 
25. vi. 1994, one male; Halacritm pimctum (Aube) (Histeridae), Crymlyn Burrows, 
Glamorgan, SS7192, 16.V.1998, four specimens under strandline debris; Ptenidium 
brenskei Flach (Ptiliidae), Bossington, S. Somerset, SS893484, 6.vii.l997, one in river 
shingle, new to Somerset and the most southerly British record; Ptinella britannica 
Matt. (Ptiliidae), Thompson Common, W. Norfolk, TL9396, 8.iv.l998, sieving sedge 
litter; Acrotrichis liicidiila Rossk. (Ptiliidae), Thompson Common, W. Norfolk, 
TL9396, 8.iv.l998, sieving sedge litter; Scopaeus laevigatus (Gyll.) (Staphylinidae), 
edge of Bayfield Pond, Bookham Common, Surrey, TQ1255, 28.vii.1996, one female; 
S. minutus Er. (Staphylinidae), Pignal, New Forest, SU3 13036, 10. iv. 1997, one male 
landed on sieving sheet in late afternoon, new to Hampshire; Rugilus geriiculatus 
(Er.) (Staphylinidae), Brentmoor Heath NR (a Surrey Wildlife Trust Reserve), 
Lightwater, SU9361, 30. xi. 1997, one male sieved from Formica riifa L. (Hymenop- 
tera: Formicidae) nest material; Ocypiis nero (Fald.) (Staphylinidae), Bradenham, 
Bucks, SU8297, 16. ii. 1998, one female from pitfall trap on set-aside land at edge of 
cereal field, probably new to Bucks; Gnypeta ripicola (Kies.) (Staphylinidae), Dinefwr 
Park, Carmarthen, SN6022, 16.V.1998, one female from soft wet mud, new to Wales; 
Atheta hybrida (Sharp) (Staphylinidae), Haddenham, Cambs, TL4676, 13.vii.l997, 
one female from fallen rotting elm trunk; Brachygluta pandellei (Saulcy) (Pselaphi- 
dae), Ardrhu Onich, Westerness, NN0161, 16.viii.l995, one male by sieving old 
seaweed; Laricobius erichsoni Rosen. (Derodontidae). Loch an Eilein, Easterness, 
NH8808, 22.viii.1995; Abernethy Forest NR, Easterness. NH91 and NJOl, 
24.viii.1995 and vi.l996; Loch Vaa, Moray, NH91, 19.vi.l996; abundant by beating 
pine Pinus, alder Alnus glutinosa and birch Betula; Dorcatoma dresdensis Herbst 
(Anobiidae), Ashtead Common, Surrey, TQ1659, 13. ii. 1998, several larvae in old 
Ganoderma bracket on beech tree, adults emerged v-vi.l998; Atomaria lohsei Johnson 
& Strand (Cryptophagidae), Ashtead Common, Surrey, TQ1659, 18. vi. 1995, one 
female; and Esher Common, Surrey, TQ1362, 17.1.1998, two females sieved from 
mouldy Formica rufa L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) nest material; Atomaria 
scutellaris Mots. (Cryptophagidae), Pegwell Bay, Ramsgate, E. Kent, TR372640, 
29. ix. 1996, two males by searching at base of cliff; Nephus quadrimctculatus (Herbst) 
(Coccinellidae), Hackbridge, Surrey, TQ2866, 24. ix. 1977, several by beating ivy- 
covered garden fence; Anaspis septentrioncdis Champ. (Scraptiidae), Abernethy 
Forest NR, Easterness, NH998178, 16.vi.l996, one female beaten off pine Pinus. first 
Scottish record for over 100 years; Saperda carcharias (L.) (Cerambycidae), 
Grantown-on-Spey, Elgin, NJ0226, 23.viii.1995, one male beaten off aspen Populus 
tremula sapling at dusk; Oberea oculata (L.) (Cerambycidae), Cambs, vii.1998, recent 
larval borings in willow branch; Longitarsus nigerrimus (Gyll.) (Chrysomelidae), near 
Hurn, S. Hants, SZ19, 1996, a small colony, the first British record for over 60 years; 
Bagous puncticoUis Boh. (Curculionidae), Thompson Common, W. Norfolk, 



172 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

TL9396. 8.iv.l998, sieving sedge litter; Ramphus oxyacanthae (Marsh.) (Curculioni- 
dae), Ardrhu Onich, Westerness, NN0161. 16.viii.l995, several beating alder Alnus 
glutinosa and rowan Sorhus aitciiparia. 

(3) A selection of Coleoptera from a flight-interception trap at Silwood Park, 
Berks, vi-viii.l998: Choleva glaiica Britten (Leiodidae), Catopidius depressus 
(Murray) (Leiodidae), Neuraphes talparum Lokay (Scydmaenidae), Eiiconmis duboisi 
Meq. (Scydmaenidae), Hypomedou dehUkornis (Woll.) (Staphylinidae), Xantholitms 
angularis Gangl. (StaphyUnidae), Atheta parens (Muls. & Rey) (Staphylinidae), 
Euplectus bonvouloiri Reitter (Pselaphidae), E. duponti Aube (Pselaphidae), E. 
infirmus Raffay (Pselaphidae), E. karsteni (Reich.) (Pselaphidae), E. kirbyi Denny 
(Pselaphidae), E. nanus (Reich.) (Pselaphidae), E. piceus Mots. (Pselaphidae), 
Trichonyx sulcicoUis (Reich.) (Pselaphidae), Aulonothroscus brevicollis (de Bonv.) 
(Throscidae), Hylis olexai (Palm), (Eucnemidae), Lymexylon navale (L.) (Lymex- 
ylidae), Phalacrus bninnipes Bris. (Phalacridae), Latridhis consimilis Mann. 
(Latridiidae), Synchita separanda (Reitt.) (Colydiidae), Anoplodera scutellata (F.) 
(Cerambycidae). 

BowDREY, J. P. — Nests of a solitary bee Megachile sp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae, 
Megachilinae), constructed from yellow hollyhock Althea petals and lined with 
sections of rose Rosa leaves, collected from behind an outdoor security light at Mill 
End, Bradwell-on-Sea, Essex, TL9905, by Mr & Mrs T. White and brought to 
Colchester Museum for identification. After overwintering in a cool room around 60 
Crypt ophagus popidi Paykull emerged during May 1998. 

CUMMING. N. St. J. — Some recent notable Coleoptera from north-east Essex and 
south-east Suffolk. Carabidae: Harpalus servits (Duft.), Thorpeness, E. Suffolk, 
TM4760, 9. v. 1998, under stones on upper beach area; Odacantha melanura (L.), Old 
Hall, N. Essex, TL9911, 24.viii.1986, reed litter in reed-bed; Masoreus wetterhalli 
(Gyll.), Colne Point, N. Essex, TM1012, 21. vi. 1995, under beach debris; Demetrias 
imperialis (Gerniar), Old Hall, N. Essex, TL9612, 12.iii.l998, hibernating in Typha 
latifolia stems; Lionychus quadrillum (Duft.), Colne Point, N. Essex, TM1012, 
10.iv.l997, running on sand on upper beach; Microlestes minutuhis (Goeze), 
Fingringhoe, N. Essex, TM0419, 9. v. 1997, on sparsely vegetated set-aside arable 
land; Brachinus crepitans (L.), Old Hall, N. Essex, TL9612, 8. v. 1998, under concrete 
blocks; Silphidae: Aclypea opaca (L.), Sizewell. E. Suffolk, TM4761, 5.vii.l998, on 
sand above high water mark, also on a sandy track between arable crops; Anobiidae: 
Caenocara bovistae (Hoff.), Sizewell, E. Suffolk, TM4764, 16. ix. 1998, emerged from 
earth-ball Bovista plumbea\ Caenocara sp., Sizewell, E. Suffolk, TM4764, 24.ix.1998, 
emerged from earth-ball Bovista phimbea (much smaller than normal C bovistae 
(1.5 mm) with piceous brown elytra); Cleridae: OpUo mollis (L.), Old Hall, N. Essex, 
TL9512, 14. ii. 1998, under bark of elm infected with Dutch Elm Disease; Cucujidae: 
Uleiota planata (L.), Friday Wood, Colchester, N. Essex, TL9920. Il.ii.l998, under 
bark of a recently wind-blown oak; Colydiidae: Synchita hwneralis (F.), Aldringham, 
E. Suffolk, TM4661, 17.vi.l998, on sawn birch log; Cicones imdatiis (Guer.), Friday 
Wood, Colchester, N. Essex, TL9920, lO.i.1998, under bark of dead fallen sycamore 
Acer pseudoplatanus infected with Sooty Bark Disease; Chrysomelidae: Plateunmris 
braccata (Scop.), Minsmere, E. Suffolk, TM4766, l.vii.l998, on marsh mallow 
Althea officinalis; Curculionidae: Notaris scirpi (F.), Fingringhoe. N. Essex, TM0419, 
9.ii.l998, hibernating in Juncus tussock; Magdalis cerasi (L.), Fingringhoe, N. Essex, 
TM0419, 9. V. 1997, on silver birch Betula pendula; Baris scolopacea Germar, Old 
Hall, N. Essex, TL9512, 15.vii.l998, swept off sea wormwood Seriphidium 
maritimum, possibly new to N. Essex; Trichosirocalus barnevillei (Bris.), Colchester, 
N. Essex, TM0124, 16.vii.l997, swept off yarrow Achillea millefolium. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 173 

EvERSHAM, B. C. — Three scarce species of ground beetle (Carabidae) from man- 
made habitats near Peterborough. Amara cwta Dej. and Badister dilatatus Chaud., 
Sainton Pits (a gravel-pit complex north of Peterborough), Cambs, 19.iv.l998 and 
3.vi.l998: Harpalus nipicola Sturm, Orton Pits, south of Peterborough, Cambs, 
16.vi.l998. 

EvERSHAM, B. C. & Sharpe, P. R. — Recent finds of scarce, rare or unusual 
ground beetles (Carabidae) at Pitsford Reservoir, Northants in 1998: Blethisa 
multipimctata (L.), Bembidion quadripustulatwn Serv., Plerosticlms an thr acinus 
(Panz.), P. gracilis (Dej.), Agomim piceiim (L.), Badister imipustidatiis Bonelli, 
Dromius august us Brulle. 

Hackett, D. — (1) A selection of scarce beetles. Bembidion quadripustulatum Serv. 
(Carabidae), Fryent Park, Middx, TQ389880, 30.vi.l996, on bare cracking clay 
beside pond; Panagaeus bipustulatus (F.) (Carabidae), Dagenham Brook, S. Essex, 
TQ373866. 9.ix.l998, under litter on river bank; Ochthebius exaratus Muls. 
(Hydraenidae), Rainham Marsh SSSI, S. Essex, TQ515812, 20.V.1998, in reed 
Phragmites litter in ditch; Saprosites mendax Black. (Scarabaeidae), Highgate Wood, 
Middx, TQ283887, 26. vi. 1998, in low-level flight-interception trap; Prionocvphon 
serricornis (Miiller, P. W. J.) (Scirtidae), Highgate Wood, Middx, TQ283887, 
6.vii.l998, in low-level flight-interception trap; Melasis buprestoides (L.) (Eucnemidae), 
Highgate Wood, Middx, TQ283887, 3.vi.l998, ovipositing in dying hornbeam Carpinus 
betulus; Malthinus frontalis (Marsh.) (Cantharidae), Highgate Wood, Middx, 
TQ283887, 26. vi. 1998, walking up oak Quercus trunk; Ptinus subpilosus Sturm 
(Ptinidae), Croft Castle, Hereford, 4.iv.l998, in sap mixture in hollow oak; Korvnetes 
caeruleus (Degeer) (Cleridae), Rainham Marsh SSSI, S. Essex, TQ515812, 20.V.1998, in 
reed Phragmites litter in ditch; Aplocnemus pini Redtenb. (Melyridae), Highgate Wood, 
Middx, TQ283887, 13.V.1998, swept off oak; Glischrochilus hortensis (Fourc.) 
(Nitidulidae), Croft Castle, Hereford, 4.iv.l998, in sap mixture in hollow oak; G. 
cpiadriguttatus (F.) (Nitidulidae), Croft Castle, Hereford, 4.iv.l998, in sap mixture in 
hollow oak; Pediacus dermestoides (F.) (Cucujidae), Croft Castle, Hereford, 4.iv. 1998, in 
sap mixture in hollow oak; Silvanus bidentatus (F.) (Silvanidae), Highgate Wood, 
Middx, TQ283887, 31.vii.l998, between sections of cut oak logs; Oxvlaemus variolosus 
Dufour (Colydiidae), Highgate Wood, Middx, TQ283887, 19.x. 1998, in Owen 
Hypogean Trap; Tetratoma ancora F. (Tetratomidae), Broxbourne Woods, 16. v. 1998, 
beaten off dense honeysuckle Lonicera; Abdera biflexuosa (Curtis) (Melandryidae), 
Wolves Wood, S. Essex, 6.vi.l998, on coppice logs; Phloiotrya vaudoueri Muls. 
(Melandryidae), Highgate Wood, Middx, TQ283887, 22.vii.1998, in sap mixture trap; 
Rhynchites cavifrons Gyll. (Attelabidae), Wolves Wood, S. Essex, 6.vi.l998, beaten off 
oak Quercus near car park; Rhynchites nanus (Payk.). (Attelabidae), Black Park, Slough, 
Bucks, 18.vii.l998, beaten; Rhynchites olivaceus Gyll. (Attelabidae), Black Park, Slough, 
Bucks, 18.vii. 1998, beaten. 

(2) Progress of The Great Stag Hunt' organised by the Peoples Trust for 
Endangered Species. Display included a summary of the number of records received, 
draft maps, and a literature review by Andrew Tullet, University of East Anglia. 

Halstead, a. J. — (1) Some scarce or local Coleoptera taken in 1998. Cicindela 
sylvatica L. (Carabidae), Sopley Common, Hurn. Dorset, 2.vii.l998, on bare sandy 
soil; Anomala dubia (Scop.) (Scarabaeidae), Whitmoor Common, Surrey, 9.viii.l998, 
taken in flight; Selatosomus bipustulatus L. (Elateridae), Melcombe Park Wood, 
Melcombe Bingham, Dorset, l.vii.l998; Hylis olexai Palm (Eucnemidae), Horsell 
Common, Surrey, 9.viii.l998, on dead standing pine; Dermestes murinus L. 
(Dermestidae), RHS Garden, Wisley, Surrey, 13.V.1998, on honeybee combs 
containing dead bee larvae; Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls. (Coccinellidae), RHS 



174 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

Garden, Wisley, Surrey, ll.ii.l998, on an outdoor plant Phormium tenax infested 
with mealybug Balanococcus dimimitus; Donacia bicolor Zsch. (Chrysomelidae), 
Merritown Heath, near Hurn Airport, Dorset, 2.vii.l998, swept by stream; 
Cryptocephalus bipunctatus (L.) (Chrysomelidae), Brentmoor Heath, West End, 
Surrey, 30.V.1998, swept; Chrysolina amerkana (L.) (Chrysomelidae), beside entrance 
to Pelham CUnton Building, Dinton Pastures CP, Winnersh, Berks, 21.ii.l998, found 
by K. Merrifield; C oricalcia (Miiller, O. F.) (Chrysomelidae), Warren Farm, 
Nonsuch Park, Surrey, 16.V.1998, swept; Longitarsus dor salts (F.) (Chrysomelidae), 
Barley Mow Wood, Knaphill, Surrey, 19. iv. 1998, on ragwort Senecio leaves; 
Otiorhynchus nodosus (Muller, O. F.) (Curculionidae), The Hermitage near Dunkeld, 
East Perth, 7.ix.l998, under bark of conifer stump; O. scaber (L.) (Curculionidae), 
near Enochdhu, East Perth, 6.ix.l998, on Solidago virgaurea flower. 

(2) A live specimen of the cellar beetle Blaps mucronata Latr. (Tenebrionidae), 
which had deformed elytra, found in a shed being used as an apple store at Ewdness 
near Bridgnorth, Shropshire. 

Harman, T. W. — A specimen of Agrilus pannonicus (Pill. & Mitt.) (Buprestidae) 
taken in sunshine at Turville Heath, Bucks on 20.vii.l998. 

Harvey, M. C. — A specimen of Prionus coriarius (Cerambycidae), found dead by 
Mrs Shirley Scrivener near her house in Beaconsfield. Bucks, SU929905, 14.viii.l997 
and posted to the exhibitor. The associated parasite Megaselia giraudii (Egger) 
(Diptera: Phoridae) subsequently emerged, and from these, two species of braconid 
wasps, Dinotrema lineola (Thoms.) and Aphaereta mimita (Nees) (Hymenoptera: 
Braconidae), were reared. 

Henderson, M. — Some beetles from Hampshire. Platycis minutus (F.) (Lycidae), 
Chandler's Ford, 26.viii.1991, on nettle leaf near bracken on road verge; Coccinella 
septempunctata L. (Coccinellidae), Shawford, bank of River Itchen, 27.iv.1991, 
parasitised by Perilitus coccinellae (parasite emerged from ladybird and pupated on 
28.iv.1991, imago wasp emerged 17.V.1991); Mycetophagus atomariiis (F.) (Myceto- 
phagidae), Barrow Door, New Forest, 28. iv. 1991, under bark of dead wood; 
Strangalia cpiadrifasciata (L.) (Cerambycidae), Shawford, bank of River Itchen, 
25.vii. 1992, on flower of umbellifer; Leptura scutellata F. (Cerambycidae), Mark Ash 
Wood, New Forest, 17.vii.l998, flying in sunshine in beech wood; Plateumaris sericea 
(L.) (Chrysomelidae), Shawford, bank of River Itchen, 30.V.1998, abundant on 
yellow flag Iris pseudacorus; Cassida mwraea L. (Chrysomelidae), Shawford, bank of 
River Itchen, 25.vii.1992, on common fleabane Pulicaria dysenterica. 

Hodge, P. J. — Twenty species of Coleoptera from various locations in southern 
Britain. New vice-county records are marked with an asterisk (*). Paralister neglectiis 
(Germ.) (Histeridae), Denbigh, Talacre Warren, SJl 185, 27.iv.1998, crawling on fore 
dunes; Zyras haworthi Steph. (Staphylinidae), S. Hants, West Wood, Netley, 
SU4509, 19. vi. 1998, swept off grass beneath ancient oak; *Agrilus sulcicollis Lac. 
(Buprestidae), Middx, Forty Hall, Enfield, TQ3398, 19.vii.l998, on trunk of dead 
standing oak; Panspoeus guttatus Sharp (Elateridae), N. Hants, Eelmoor Marsh 
SSSI, 28.vi.1998, swept from heathy woodland glade; *Hylis olexai (Palm) 
(Eucnemidae), E. Sussex, Sedlescombe, TQ7917, 15.vii.l998, on Salix\ *Dryophilus 
anobioides Chev. (Anobiidae), S. Hants, Netley Common, SU4711, 27.iv.1998, on 
broom Cytisus scoparius; and West Wood, Netley, SU4509, 17.V.1998, on broom 
Cytisus scoparius; * Lymexylon navale (L.) (Lymexylidae), Middx, Forty Hall, 
Enfield, TQ3398, 19.vii.l998, flying around dead standing oak; Colvdium elongatum 
(F.) (Colydiidae), S. Hants, West Wood, Netley, SU4509, 19.vi.l998, swept off grass 
beneath ancient oak; Mordellistena pseudoparvida Ermisch (formerly M. parvuloides 
Ermisch) (Mordellidae), E. Sussex, Pebsham Wood, Bexhill-on-Sea, TQ766093, 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 175 

21. vi. 1998, two males swept off creeping thistle Cirsium arvense; and W. Kent, Bewl 
Water, TQ683337, 26.vi.1998, male swept off thistles; Grammoptera variegata 
(Germ.) (Cerambycidae), S. Hants, West Wood, Netley, SU4409, 17.V.1998, on 
grass; Bruchidius varius (Olivier) (Chrysomelidae), Surrey, Colley Hill, Reigate, 
TQ248520, 12.vi.l998, female swept off red clover; Cryptocephalus biguttatus (Scop.) 
(Chrysomelidae), N. Hants, Eelmoor Marsh SSSI, 28.vi.1998, swept off Erica 
tetralix; *Cassida sangiiinosa Suff. (Chrysomelidae), N. Somerset, Staithe, ST370294, 
6.vi.l998, female on tansy Tanacetum vulgare on bank of R. Parrett; Anthribus 
fasciatus (Forst.) (Anthribidae), Isle of Wight, Nunwell Estate, Brading, 21. v. 1998, 
swept off grass under ancient oak by M. Edwards; *Bruchela rufipes (Olivier) 
(Urodontidae), Cambs, Kennett Sand-pit, 19. ix. 1998, on Reseda lutea; and Middx, 
Park Royal, 16.ix.l998, on Reseda lutea; Cathormiocerus attaphilus Bris. (Curculio- 
nidae), W. Cornwall, Predannack, SW666158, 19.ix.l998, in suction sample from 
cliff-top dominated by Plantago coronopus; Tanymecus palliatus (F.) (Curculionidae), 
Monmouth, Llangua, S0388254, swept near bank of R. Monnow; Tropiphorus 
terricola (New.) (Curculionidae), Monmouth, Llangua, S0388254, swept near bank 
of R. Monnow; Lixus scabricoUis Boh. (Curculionidae), Dorset, East Fleet, 
Weymouth, SY6279, 4.iii.l998, on sea beet Beta vulgaris on edge of lagoon; 
*Magdalis memnonia (Gyll.) (Curculionidae), N. Hants, Eelmoor Marsh SSSI, 
23. V. 1998, male swept near pine plantation. 

Levey, B. — 19 species of Buprestidae collected in the Algarve, Portugal between 
3/9.V.1998. The following species were collected in open woodland of umbrella pine 
Pinus pinea, with both grass-rich and maquis-type vegetation, in the Parque Natural 
da Ria Formosa, Quinta de Marim, near Olhao. Julodis onopordi fidelissima Rosen., 
Acmaeodera nigellata Abeille, Acmaeoderella moroderi (Reitt.), A. adspersula (III.), A. 
coarctata (Lucas), Anthaxia parallela Castelnau & Gory, A. scutellaris Gene, A. 
funerula (111.), A. nigritula Ratz., A. niarnwttani hispanica Cobos, Agrilus elegans 
Muls. & Rey. Species collected at other locaUties were as follows; Acmaeodera 
rubromacidata Lucas, A, nigellata Abeille, Acmaeoderella adspersula (111.), Anthaxia 
funerula (111.), Praia Verde, W. of Villa Real, sand dunes with Pinus pinea woodland 
and understorey of Lygos monosperma (L.) (Papilionaceae); Acmaeodera cylindrica 
(F.), Anthaxia scutellaris Gene, 1km S. of Santa Catarina da Fonte de Bispo, flower- 
rich area at edge of orchard; Acmaeodera nigellata Abeille, Anthaxia millefolii 
polychloros Abeille, A. parallela Castelnau & Gory, A. scutellaris Gene, A. funerula 
(111.), A. marmottani hispanica Cobos, A. nigritula Ratz., 7 km E. of Monchique, 
flowery edge of pine wood; Acmaeodera degener quattuordecimpimctata (Villers), 
Anthaxia funerula (111.), A. nigritula Ratz., Agrilus angustulus (111.), Trachys coruscus 
Ponza, 10 km N. of Sao Bras de Alportel, in forest of cork oak Quercus suber; 
Sphenoptera rauca (F.), Trachys coruscus Ponza, Bensafrim, in flowery meadow; 
Aphanisticus emarginatus Ol., Trachys coruscus Ponza, Sierra de Monchique, Foia; 
Acmaeoderella adspersula (111.), Cape St Vincent, 5 km W. of Sagres, in heathland; 
Anthaxia millefolii polychloros Abeille, 3 km S. of Barranco Velho, in damp flowery 
meadow. 

Levey, B. & Pavett, P. M. — Two species of Coleoptera new to Britain 
from Wales. They were collected while surveying two Welsh parklands on behalf 
of the Countryside Council for Wales. Bembidion ( Pseudolimnaeum) inustum 
Duval (Carabidae), Dinefwr Deer Park, Carmarthen, SN6122, and Llanover, 
Gwent, SO3108, vi.l996, single specimens collected in flight-interception traps; 
Atomaria turgida Er. (Cryptophagidae), Llanover, Gwent, SO3108, vi.l996, 
specimens collected in flight-interception trap at edge of Nothophagus and Larix 
plantation. 



176 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

Lewis. K. C. — Notable Coleoptera found in 1998 from the conservation area at 
the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Surrey. Two aberrant specimens of Harpalus 
azureus (F.) (Carabidae), vi.l998, one in pitfall trap and one under bark; Scybalicus 
oblongiusculus (Dejean) (Carabidae), found outside conservation area, vi.l998, under 
beech bark; Rhytideres plicatus (Gy.) (Curculionidae), vii.1998, beaten off black 
walnut Juglcms nigra (L.); Otiorhynchus parvicollis (Ol.) (Curculionidae), vi.l998, 
swept from mixed grass and flora, the first British record. 

LOTT, D. A. — (1) Beetles collected on 17. vi. 1998 between 1400m and 1900m on 
Kralova Hola in the Nizky Tatras in Slovakia. Carabidae: Trechiis latus Putzeys, T. 
striatulus Putzeys, Pterostichus foveolatus (Duft.), P. morio carpathicus Kult, P. 
pilosus (Host), Calathus metallicus Dejean; Staphylinidae: Philonthus mareki Coiff., 
Quedius subunicolor Korge (= unicolor sensu Kr.), Q. alpestris (Heer), Q. cincticollis 
Kr., Q. collaris Er., Aleochara verna Say. 

(2) Beetles collected on 29.vii.1998 in Sphagnum pools in an old cut-over peat bog 
in the national nature reserve of Lac de Remoray, 850m, in the Jura (department: 
Doubs), France. Staphylinidae: Stenus excubitor Er., Acylophonis wagenschieberi 
Kies. (new to France?); Scirtidae: Cyphon kongsbergensis Munster. 

(3) Beetles collected in May and September 1998 using an underground pitfall trap 
(see Owen, 1995, Ent. Rec. J. Var. 107: 225-228) set by old coppice stools in ancient 
woodland, Launde Big Wood, Leics, SK70. Nitidulidae: Epuraea fiiscicollis (Steph.); 
Rhizophagidae: Rhizophagus parallelocollis Gyll. (new to Leics). 

(4) Saproxylic beetles collected in Sherwood Forest, Notts, SK66 (* = no recent 
records from Notts, ** = new to Notts according to MS Ust by Sheila Wright). 
Scydmaenidae: *Neuraphes plicicollis Reitt., 12.viii.l998; Mkroscydmiis minimus 
(Chaud.), 12.viii.l998, **Microscydmus nanus (Schaum), 29. iv. 1998; Pselaphidae: 
Euplectus nanus (Reich.), 12.viii.l998; Euplectus punctatus tholini Guill., I.vi.l998; 
Batrisodes venustus (Reich.), 12.viii.l998; Nitidulidae: Cryptarcha strigata (F.), 
29. iv. 1998; Cryptophagidae: **Atomaria morio Kolenati, l.vi.l998; Tenebrionidae: 
Corticeus unicolor Pill. & Mitt., 12.viii.l998; Mycetochara humeralis (F.),: I.vi.l998; 
Melandryiidae Abdera quadrifasciata (Curtis), 4. vii.1998; Scraptiidae: Anaspis 
septentrionalis Champion, 4. vii.1998; Cerambycidae: Saperda scalaris (L.), 
4. vii.1998; Chrysomelidae: Cryptoceplialus querceti Suff., I.vi.l998; CurcuHonidae: 
*Trachodes hispidus (L.), 29. iv. 1998. 

Menzies, L S. — Some scarce Coleoptera from Surrey. Agrilus sinuatus (01.) 
(Buprestidae), Hogsmill Stream, Berrylands, Surbiton, TQ200678, 19.vii.l997, four 
beaten off old hawthorn Crataegus; and Nonsuch Park, Cheam, TQ235640, 
12.viii.l998, one beaten off hawthorn; Uleiota planata (L.) (Cucujidae), Bookham 
Common, TQ 125561, 30.V.1998, l.vi.l998 and 31.viii.l998, single examples under 
bark of oak logs; Henosepilaclma argus (Geoff.) (Coccinellidae) (Plate 1, Fig. 3), a 
species new to Britain: West Molesey, TQ133678, 14.V.1997 and l.viii.l997, single 
examples discovered by Alysia Menzies (the exhibitor's granddaughter) in her 
garden; and l.xi.l997, nine beaten off ivy Hedera growing in the same garden 
(subsequently found in large numbers on ivy at Molesey Heath, TQ 133673); 
Rhyzobius chrysomeloides (Herbst) (Coccinellidae), West Molesey, TQ 133678, 
6.xii.l997 and 12.x. 1998, beaten off ivy Hedera and old hawthorn Crataegus in 
private garden; Rhyzobius litura (F.) (Coccinellidae), by River Mole, Molesey Heath, 
8.xi.l998 [for comparison with R. chrysomeloides]; Stethorus punctiUum (Weise), 
(Coccinellidae), West Molesey, TQ133678, 6.xii.l997 and 12.X.1998, beaten off ivy 
Hedera in private garden; Nephus quadrimaculatus (Herbst) (Coccinellidae), Book- 
ham Common, TQ 127560, l.vi.l998, one beaten off ivy; Grammoptera variegata 
(Germar) (Cerambycidae), Bookham Common, TQ 125564, 15.V.1998, one beaten 



BR J. ENT NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 177 

off hawthorn Crataegus blossom; Epsom Common, TQ183610, 25.V.1998, one 
beaten off oak Quercus; and White Downs, TQ124495, 17.vi.l998, one beaten off 
hazel Corylus; Pogonocherus fasciculatus (Degeer) (Cerambycidae), Wisley Common, 
TQ067587, 26.iv.1998, two specimens beaten off recently fallen scots pine Pinus 
svlvestris branch by Maxwell Barclay; Donacia obscura Gyll (Chrysomelidae), 
Thundry Meadows, Elstead, 7.viii.l995. normal golden-green coloured specimens 
were exhibited next to greenish-blue and dark blue examples (the exhibitor states that 
the blue colour is due to prolonged exposure to sunlight); Chrysolina americana (L.) 
(Chrysomehdae), outside Shell Building, York Road, London SEl (VC 17: Surrey) 
TQ368799, 15.viii.l997, crushed specimen found on pavement, and 3.vi.l998, many 
adults (some teneral) on flower heads of lavender plants in formal flower bed; 
Cryptocephalus nitidulus F. (Chrysomelidae), White Downs, between TQ 105487 
(east) and TQ130497 (west), 4.vi.l998 (a typical specimen) and 28.viii.1998 (a very 
dark specimen with purple reflection), by beating birch Betula and hazel Corylus; C. 
parvulus Muller, O. F. (Chrysomelidae), Ashtead Common, TQ 167595, 23. v. 1998, 
several beaten off birch Betula, single examples off hazel Corylus and hawthorn 
Crataegus blossom; Pilemostoma fastuosa (Schall) (Chrysomelidae), on the steep 
slope of Lamb's Leys, White Downs, TQ124495, 17. vi. 1998, in large numbers on 
young ploughman's spikenard Inula conyza plants; Byctiscus betulae (L.) (Attelabi- 
dae), Pigden, Ranmore Common, TQ 124505, 20. ix. 1992, one beaten off aspen 
Popuhis tremula; Bookham Common, TQ125564, 17.V.1998, one on aspen leaf; and 
Ashtead Common, TQ166593, 23. vi. 1998, one adult and several characteristic 'leaf- 
rolls' seen on hazel Corylus. 

Owen, J. A. — Some uncommon beetles. Carabidae: Bradycellus csikii Laczo, 
Wangford Warren, W. Suffolk, xii.1997, under stone on waste ground; Lebia 
cyanocephala (L.), Thursley, Surrey, iii.1998, amongst vegetation on the ground; 
Histeridae: Halacritus punctum (Aube), Crymlyn Burrows, Glamorgan, iv.l998, in 
buried driftwood on beach; Staphylinidae: Anotylus mutator (Lohse), Lundy, N. 
Devon, vii.1998, in grass; Euryporus picipes (Payk.), Linton Loch, Roxburgh, 
iv.l998, shaken from thick moss; Medon dilutus (Er.), Richmond Park, Surrey, 
vii.1997, in trap at roots of old oak; M. pocoferus (Peyron), Durdle Door, Dorset, 
vii.1998, in coarse shingle; Pselaphidae: Euplectus punctatus tholini Guillebeau, 
Richmond Park, Surrey, xii.1997, under bark of oak log; Rhizophagidae: 
Rhizophagus oblongicollis Blatch & Horner, Richmond Park, Surrey, xi.l997, in 
underground trap; Latridiidae: Melanophthalma distinguenda (Comolli), Lundy, N. 
Devon, vii.1998, in grass; M. curticollis (Mann.), Holkham, W. Norfolk, viii.1982, at 
roots of vegetation on sand; M. suturalis (Mann.), West Molesey, Surrey, xi.l997, 
overwintering in ivy; Colydiidae: Oxylaemus variolosus (Dufour), Richmond Park, 
Surrey, vii.1997, in underground trap; Mordellidae: Mordellistena pseudoparvula 
Ermisch (= M. parvuloides Ermisch), near Santon Downham, W. Norfolk, viii.1983, 
in malaise trap; Anthicidae: Anthicus angustatus Curtis, Durdle Door, Dorset, 
viii.1998, in dry sea weed on beach; A. scoticus Rye, Annan, Dumfries, viii.1998, 
among beach debris; A. tristis Schmidt, Weymouth, Dorset, vi.l992, in shingle near 
sea; Cerambycidae: Prionus coriarius (L.), Wimbledon, viii.1998, at MV Hght; 
Tetropium castaneum (L.), Loch Arkaig, Westerness. v. 1998, under bark of spruce 
log; Saperda populnea (L.), Bookham, Surrey, vi.l997, beaten from aspen sapling; 5. 
scalaris (L.), Struan, Mid Perth, reared from larva found v. 1997, in Salix log; S. 
carcharias (L.), Speyside, viii.1998, beaten from aspen; Chrysomelidae: Psylliodes 
luridipennis Kuts, Lundy, N. Devon, vii.1998, off lundy cabbage Coineya wrightii; 
Curculionidae: Otiorhynchus crataegi Germar, West Molesey, Surrey, vi.l998, on 
lilac suckers. 



178 BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST.. 12: 1999 

Plant, C. W. — (1) Water beetles from field drain at Bourne, S. Lines, 9.ix.l998: 
Scarodytes halensis (F.) (Dytiscidae), Anacaena bipitstulata (Marsh.) and Laccobius 
sinualiis Mots. (Hydrophilidae). 

(2) Water beetles from fire pond at Elstow Storage Depot, Beds, 23. ix. 1998: 
Haliplus heydeni Wehncke (Haliplidae), H. laminatus (Schall.) (Haliplidae), Hydro- 
glyphiis pusillus (F.) (Dytiscidae), Graptodytes gramdaris (L.) (Dytiscidae), Ilybius 
subaeneus Er. (Dytiscidae), Anacaena bipitstulata (Marsh.) (Hydrophilidae). Lacco- 
bius sinuatus Mots. (Hydrophilidae), Enochrus mekmocephalus (Ol.) (Hydrophilidae), 
Helochares lividus (Forst.) (Hydrophilidae). 

(3) Water beetles from Rainham Marshes, S. Essex, 12.x. 1998: Agahus conspersus 
(Marsh.) (Dytiscidae), Rhantus frontalis (Marsh.) (Dytiscidae). 

(4) Some notable terrestrial beetles captured during 1998. Co/enis immunda 
(Sturm) (Leiodidae), Therfield Heath, Herts, 16.ix-l l.x.1998, pitfall trap, chalk 
grassland; Quedius brevicornis (Thorns.) (Staphylinidae), Froxen Copse, Arne, 
Dorset, 8.vi.l998, on oak Quercus infested by Cossus (Lepidoptera: Cossidae); 
Gyrophaena joyi Wendeler (Staphylinidae), Monkfield Wood, Cambs, vi.l998. 
Malaise trap; Atheta pervagata Benick (Staphylinidae), Therfield Heath, Herts, 
16.ix-l l.x.1998, pitfall trap, calcareous grassland at beech wood margin; Cryptarcha 
imperialis (Ol.) (Nitidulidae), Froxen Copse, Arne, Dorset, 8.vi.l998, on Cossus 
(Lepidoptera: Cossidae) infested oak Quercus; Olibrus flavicornis (Sturm) (Phalacri- 
dae), old hospital site, Bexley, W. Kent, 8 15.vii.l998, pan traps; Hallomemis 
binotatus (Quens.) (Melandryidae), Monkfield Wood, Cambs, vi.l998, malaise trap; 
Mordellistena ?acuticoUis Ermisch (Mordellidae), old hospital site, Bexley, W. Kent, 
8-1 S.vii. 1998, pan traps; M. brevicauda (Boh.) (Mordellidae), Bishops Bowl Lakes, 
Warks, 10.vii.l998; Bruchus rufipes Herbst (Chrysomelidae), Bexley Gun Club sand 
pit, W. Kent, 5.vi.l998; Cryptocephalus aureolus Suff. (Chrysomelidae), Blackbushe 
Aerodrome, N. Hants, 5.vi.l998; Chrysolina oricalcia (Miiller, O. F.) (Chrysome- 
lidae), Tottenham Hale, Middx, 20. ix. 1995; Strophosoma faber (Herbst) (Curculio- 
nidae), Blackbushe Aerodrome, N. Hants, 9.vii.I998. 

Salisbury, A. — Some noteworthy Coleoptera found in the RHS Garden, 
Wisley, Surrey in 1998. Gnathoncus huyssoni Auzat (Histeridae), Stage 4 Arboretum, 
TQ0658, 5.viii.l998, several by sieving nest material containing small mammal bones 
from hollow oak; Agrilus laticornis (111.) (Buprestidae), Wildlife area. River Wey 
embankment, TQ0659, 24.vii.1998. swept; Dorcatoma flavicornis (F.) (Anobiidae). 
Stage 4 Arboretum, TQ0658, 31.vii.l998, beaten off moribund oak twig; D. serra 
Panz. (Anobiidae), Stage 4 Arboretum, TQ0658, 5.viii.l998, three specimens found 
in large, recently fallen, hollow oak branch by A. J. Halstead; Ptinus sexpunctatus 
Panz. (Ptinidae), Laboratory Building, TQ066583, 30.vi.l998, among herbarium 
specimens; Lymexylon navale L. (Lymexylidae), Battleston Hill, TQ066581, 
16.vii.l998, alighted on the exhibitor's hair in a wooded part of the garden. 

Smith. M. — A selection of uncommon Coleoptera taken in 1998. Graptodytes 
bilineatus (Sturm) (Dytiscidae). Vimpennys Lane. ICI Severnside Estate, Easter 
Compton, S. Glos, 23. vi. 1998; Hydaticus seminiger (Degeer) (Dytiscidae), Wildmoor 
Heath, Crowthorne, Berks. 10. vi. 1998; Onthophagus vacca (L.) (Scarabaeidae), ICI 
Severnside Estate, Pilning, S. Glos, 3.vi.l998; Anomala dubia (Scop.) (Scarabaeidae), 
Englemere Pond, Bracknell, Berks, 21. vi. 1998; Gnorimus nobilis (L.) (Scarabaeidae), 
Peppard Common, Rotherfield Peppard, Oxford, S.vii. 1998, ?new to Oxon; Ampedus 
sanguinolentus (Schrank) (Elateridae), Wildmoor Heath, Crowthorne, Berks, 
13.V.1998; Coccinella magniflca Redt. (Coccinellidae), Englemere Pond, Bracknell, 
Berks, 8. v. 1998; Variinwrda villosa (Schrank) (Mordellidae), River Nadder. Salis- 
bury, Wilts, 21.vi.l998; Grammoptera ustulata (Schall.) (Cerambycidae), Blackwater 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 179 

Reach Copse, Sandhurst, Berks, 16. v. 1998; Platystomos albinus (L.) (Anthribidae), 
Englemere Pond, Bracknell, Berks, 8.V.1998. 

Whitton, p. — (1) Carabidae taken in flood refuse from the River Cherwell, 
Sparsey Bridge, Oxford SP518119. in April 1998. Trechus micros (Herbst), Tachys 
parvulus (Dejean), Pterostichus macer (Marsh.), Harpalus ardosiacus (Luts.), 
*Anisodactylus hinotatiis (F.) and Aciipalpus consputus (Duft.). 

(2) Other Carabidae collected during 1997 and 1998. Nebria livida (L.), Mundesley, 
E. Norfolk, TG285383. 26.viii.1997, at base of cliffs; Trechus ruhens (F.), Grisedale, 
Mid-west York, SD922774, 5.vi.l998, under stone; Bembidion fiiiviatile Dejean, 
Gressingham, N. Lanes, SD581699, 5.vi.l998, bank of River Lune; B. nigropiceum 
(Marsh.), Whitesand Bay, E. Cornwall, SX414505, 13.vii.l998, from beach shingle; 
*B. quadripiistulatum Serv., Otmoor, Oxford, SP582143, 12.iv.l997, on bare mud in 
drainage ditch; Agomim ericeti (Panz.), Burns Beck Moss NR, Westmorland, 
SD594874, 7.vi.l998, in Sphagnum; Harpalus serripes (Quens.), West Bay, Dorset, 
SY473897, 17. ix. 1997, at base of sandstone cliff; H. tenebrosus (Dejean), Whitesand 
Bay, E. Cornwall, SX414505, 19.vii.l998, from sandy cliff base. 

Species marked with an asterisk (*) are possibly new vice-county records. 

Wright, S. — Some beetles found in imported timber products — from the 
collections at Nottingham Natural History Museum, Wollaton Hall. 

(1) A specimen o{ Anaplophora glabripennis Motsch., (Cerambycidae) taken to the 
RSPCA at Leicester in vii.1998 after being found at a local factory in a wooden 
packing case from China. It survived for about a week and featured on the 'Pet 
Rescue' programme (Channel 4 on 22.ix.1998) when the specimen was donated to 
Nottingham Natural History Museum. 

(2) An unidentified longhorn beetle (Cerambycidae) and the leg of a piano stool 
from which it emerged. The leg was brought into the museum after the owner heard 
rasping sounds from within and noticed a small pile of sawdust accumulating on the 
living room carpet. The stool had been purchased in the UK 14 years previously but 
the origin of the wood used in its construction is unknown. A pupa was extracted 
from the leg and the beetle emerged a week later. 

(3) An aboriginal carving of a snake, purchased at Ayer's Rock, Australia on 
22.viii.1983 together with a specimen of Bostrychus jesuita (Bostrichidae) which 
emerged from it in ix.l985, whilst sitting on its owner's mantlepiece in Nottingham. 
The carving was donated to Nottingham Natural History Museum, where loud 
munching sounds could be heard emanating from within for about a year afterwards 
but no more beetles emerged and the noises eventually ceased. 



Hemiptera 

Alexander, K. N. A., Foster, A. P. & Goddard, D. G. — A selection of the 
more interesting bugs found during the work of the National Trust's Biological 
Survey Team in 1998: Odontoscelis lineola Rambur (Scutelleridae), Frensham 
Common, Surrey, rabbit-grazed turf beside sandy path, 15.vii.l998; Odontoscelis 
fuliginosa (L.) (Scutelleridae), Sutton Hoo, East Suffolk, pitfall traps, vi-vii, 1998; 
Dicranocephalus medius (Mulsant & Rey) (Stenocephalidae), Randwick, Glos., 
suction sample, 25.x. 1998; Aphanus rolandri (L.) (Lygaeidae), Woolacombe, N. 
Devon, 19. v. 1998; Dufouriellus ater (Dufour) (Cimicidae), Castle Ward Park, Co. 
Down, adult with nymphs beneath sappy bark on recently fallen oak trunk, 
22.viii.1998, new to Ireland; Globiceps juniperi (Reuter) (Miridae), Ludshott 
Common, N. Hants., sweeping regenerating Callunaj Erica heath, 7. vii.1998. 



180 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

Badmin, J. S. — Exhibit describing life cycle and behaviour of Issus coleoptratus 
(Fab.) (Issidae). 

BowDREY, J. P. — Stictopleurus punctatonervosus (Goeze) (Rhopalidae), West 
Bergholt Heath, Essex, TL9527, 23. ix. 1997, new county record. Other specimens: 
Colchester, post-industrial site, 1997, West Mersea, grassy bank, 1998. 

Hodge, P. J. — Two species of Hemiptera from Middlesex (both are new county 
records). Deraeocoris flavilinea (Costa) (Miridae), Forty Hall, Enfield, TQ3398, 
19.vii.l998, beaten off aphid infested sycamore foliage; Fieberiella sp. (Cicadellidae), 
Park Royal, TQ1982, 16.ix.l998, beaten off cherry saplings, the first confirmed 
British record of the genus (Plate 2, Fig. 6). 

Knill- Jones, S. A. — Enoplops scapha (Fab.) (Coreidae), Freshwater, Isle of 
Wight, 13.x. 1998. 

Shardlow, M. E. a. — Hydrometra gracilenta Horvath (Hydrometridae), Catfield 
Fen, Norfolk, 1998, first British record for nine years; Hydrometra stagnorum (L.) 
(Hydrometridae) Catfield Fen, Norfolk, 1998, Dungeness, Kent, 1998. 



Hymenoptera 

Archer, M. — (a) Some aculeate bees and wasps from France, Hungary and 
Crete. Eumenidae: female Discoelius zonatus (Panz.), 12.viii.93, near Tousac, 
Dordogne, France; male Alastor atropos Lepeletier, 21.vii.95, Pont d'Alleyras, 
Haute Loire, France; female Pterocheilus phaleralus (Panz.), 19.vii.95, near Naussac, 
Haute Loire, France; female Euodynerus dantici (Rossi), 24.viii.79, Pornichet, Loire- 
Atlantique, France; female Allodynerus rossi (Lepeletier), 19.viii.87, Dirac, Angou- 
leme, Charente, France; female Eiimenes coronatus (Panz.), 29.viii.85, Menil, near 
Chateau-Gontier, Sarthe, France, and male, 24.viii.87, Sergeac, Montignac, 
Dordogne, France; female Eunienes mediterraneus Kreichbaumer, 9.iv.96, and male, 
14.iv.96, PaUochora, Crete; female Odynerus albopictus de Saussure, 6.iv.88, near 
Anatoh, Crete, and male, 8.iv.88, Makriyalas, Crete; male and female Odynerus 
reniformis (Gmel.), 14.V.97, Lajosmizse, Hungary. Chrysididae: female Parnopes 
grandior (Pall.), 25.vii.95, Sonzay, Maine-et-Loire, France and male, 21.viii.87, 
Musset, Gironde, France; female Holopyga amoenula Dahlbom, 30.vii.90, near 
Montendre, Charente-Mer, France, and male, l.viii.90. La Reole, Gironde, France; 
female Chrysis comparata Lepeletier, 14.viii.93, Castelnaud, Dordogne, France; male 
Chrysis dichroa Dahlbom, 6.iv.88, near Anatoli, Crete; Hedychridium valesiense 
Linsenmaier, 25.vii.95, Sonzay, Maine-et-Loire, France; Hedychridium flavipes 
(Evers.), 26.vii.95, Sonzay, Maine-et-Loire, France. Colletidae: female Hylaeus 
difformis Evers., 5.viii.83, Aizier, Foret de Brotonne, Seine-Maritime, France, and 
male, 20.vii.95, Manisfrol d'Allier, Hautc-Loire, France; female Hylaeus variegatus 
(F.), 24.vii.95, near Boussay, Indre-et-Loire, France; female Hylaeus sinuatus 
(Schenck), 14.viii.93, Castelnaud, Dordogne, France; female Hylaeus brachycephalus 
Morawitz, 14.viii.93, St Cernin de THerm, Dordogne. France. 

(b) Some British aculeate wasps and bees from 1997. Chrysididae: Hedychridium 
cupreum (Dahlbom), 10.vii.97, Sandscale Haws, Cumbria; female Hedychrum 
niemelai Linsenmaier, 2.ix.97, Broom Hill, Essex; female Chrysis hellani Linsenmaier, 
23.vii.97, West Stow Country Park, Breckland. Eumenidae: female Microdynerus 
exilis (H.-S.), 23.vii.97, West Stow Country Park, Breckland. Sphecidae: male 
Ectemnius sexcinctus (F.), 5.vii.97, Lindrick Common, S. Yorks.; female Podalonia 
affinis (Kirby), 29. v. 97, Hartlebury Common, Worcs.; female Argogorytes fargei 
(Shuck.), 18.vi.97, Reighton Chffs, N. Yorks.; female Philanthus triangulum (F.), 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 181 

20.vii.97, Rauceby Warren, Lines. Apidae: female Colletes floralis Evers., 10.vii.97, 
Sandscale Haws, Cumbria; male Andrena argentata Smith, 22.vii.97, Roydon 
Common, Norf.; male Andrena nigrospina Thom., 29.V.97, Highgate Common, 
Staffs.; male Andrena ocreata (Christ), 29.V.97, Hednesford Hills, Cannock Chase, 
Staffs.; female Andrena tibialis (Kirby). 16.iv.97, Hartlebury Common, Worcs.; 
female Lasioglossum qiiadrinotatum (Kirby), 16.iv.97, Devil's Spittleful, Worcs.; male 
Lasioglossum pauperatum (Brulle), 2.ix.97, Broom Hill, Essex; female Melitta 
haemorrhoidalis {¥.), 2.viii.97, Cheswick Dunes, Northumbria; female Megachile 
leachella Curt., 23.vii.97, Rampart Field, Breckland; male Nomada fulvicornis P., 
20.vii.97, Kirkby Moor, Lines.; male Psithyrus rupestris (P.), 17.vi.97, Brayton Barff, 
S. Yorks. 

BowDREY, J. P. — A female of the RDBl sphecid wasp, Cerceris quadricincta 
(Panz.) taken 20.vii.96 on a sunny bank behind the Roman Wall in Castle Park, 
Colchester, Essex. It was found frequently in Colchester up to about 1920 when it 
was thought to have died out. 

Collins, G. A. — Some RDB aculeate bees and wasps recorded in 1998, mostly in 
Surrey. Chrysididae: Hedychrum niemelai Linsenmaier, 20.vii.98, Horsell Common, 
Woking, Surrey; Chrysogona gracillima (Porster), 5.viii.98, on carrot flower. Spur 
Hill, Mytchett, Surrey. Pompilidae: Cryptocheilus notatus (Rossius) (Plate 2, Pig. 3), 
19.viii.98, Bagmoor Common, Surrey. Apidae: Andrena ferox Smith, P. (Plate 2, Pig. 
2), 7.V.98, Brockenhurst, S. Hants, (not recorded in the New Forest since 1966); 
Andrena hattorfiana (P.), 16.vii.98, Westcott Downs, Surrey; Sphecodes niger Sichel, 
23.ix.98, Box Hill, Surrey; Sphecodes spinulosus von Hagens, 29.V.98, Westcott 
Downs, Surrey (new to the county). 

Halstead, a. J. — Some sawflies and aculeate wasps and bees taken in 1998 in 
Surrey, Dorset, Herts, and Middx. Pamphiliidae: female Pamphilius varius 
(Lepeletier), 28.viii.98, swept, Wisley Common, Surrey. Cimbicidae: female yellow 
form of Cimbex femoratus (L.), 3.vii.98, swept from birch, Winfrith Heath, Dorset. 
Tenthredinidae: female Pachyprotasis variegata (Fall.), emerged 10. v. 98, bred from 
larvae on foxglove {Digitalis x mertonensis), RHS Garden, Wisley, Surrey. Vespidae: 
worker Vespa crabro L., 6.viii.98 from a nest in a building at RHS Garden, Wisley, 
Surrey — this is the first nest there for at least 26 years. Sapygidae: male Sapyga 
quinquepimctata (P.), 17. v. 98, on a pine stump, Brentmoor Heath, near West End, 
Surrey. Tiphiidae: female Tiphia mimita V. d. Lind., l.vii.98, swept, Melcombe Park 
Wood, near Melcombe Bingham, Dorset. Mutilhdae: male Mutilla europaea L., 
3.vii.98, in sand quarry near Binnegar, Dorset. Eumenidae: female Pseudepipona 
herrichii (Saussure), 4.vii.98, at nest site, Hartland Moor, Dorset. Chrysididae: 
Omalus violaceus (Scop.), 17.V.98, on a pine stump, Brentmoor Heath, near West 
End, Surrey; Chrysis viridula L., 21.vi.98, swept, Brentmoor Heath, near West End, 
Surrey; male Cleptes semiauratus (L.), l.vi.98, swept, Buckingham Palace Garden, 
London SWl. Apidae: female Melecta albifrons (Forst.), 4.V.98, on old brick wall 
with nesting Anthophora plumipes (Pall.), Royston, Herts.; female Heriades 
truncorum (L.), 29.viii.98, nesting in a drilled fence post, Knaphill, Surrey. 

Harvey, M. C. — Some scarce aculeate bees and a spider wasp taken in 1998. 
Pompilidae: Priocnemis coriacea Dahlbom, 4. v. 98, in a rural garden. Upper 
Basildon, Berks. Apidae: female Andrena hattorfiana (P.), 22.viii.98, on field 
scabious flower, Knautia arvensis, Hartslock SSSL Oxon; Sphecodes crassus Thom., 
30.viii.98, Swain's Wood SSSI, S. Bucks.; Osmia bicolor (Schr.), 25.V.98, North 
Unhill Bank, Berks. 

Hawkins, R. D. — Some Hymenoptera, mostly aculeates, taken during 1998 at 
Bagmoor Common (SU9242), a reserve of the Surrey Wildlife Trust. Management to 



182 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

restore heathland has created some excellent habitats for nesting Hymenoptera. 
Cimbicidae: female Zaraea fasciata (L.), 19.vi.98. Chrysididae: female Chrysis fulgida 
L. (Plate 2, Fig. 5), 19.vi.98, at stump of dead birch (see Miles, 1998, Br. J. Ent. Nat. 
Hist. 11: 113); Chrysis helleni Linsenmaier, 29.viii.98, at root mound of wind-blown 
pine; Chrysis viridula L., 19.vii.98 and 14.viii.98 (male), at root mound. Tiphiidae: 
female Methocha ichneumonoides Lat., 19.vi.98, on bare sand of 'scrape' (area with 
turf removed). Pompilidae: Anoplius viaticus (L.), 4.V.98, one female of two, very 
active on mounds; Priocnemis coriacea Dahlbom, 4.vi.98, on bare sand of 'scrape'; 
Cryptocheihis notatus (Rossius), 19.vii.98, at root mound, 29.viii.98, on bare sand of 
'scrape'. Vespidae: Dolichovespula saxonica (F.), 2.viii.98, at flowers of alder 
buckthorn, Frcmgida ahnis. Sphecidae: female PhUanthus triangulum (F.), 14.viii.98, 
at flowers of heather, Calluna vulgaris (not nesting at this site). Xylocopidae: female 
Ceratina cyanea (Kirby), 15. v. 98, at flowers of ground ivy, Glechoma hederacea. 

Hodge, P. J. — Some aculeate Hymenoptera mostly taken in S.E. England in 
1998. Chrysididae: Chrysis helleni Linsenmaier, 24.vi.98, swept from south-facing 
chalk grassland, Ranmore Common, Surrey; Chrysogona gracillima (Forst.), on 
trunk of dead lime tree {Tilia) and Cleptes semiauratus (L.), beaten off oak, both 
31.vii.98, by Turkey Brook, Forty Hall, Mickleham, Surrey; Chrysura radians (Har.), 
24.vi.98, on a log. White Hill, Mickleham, Surrey; Omalus aeneus (F.) and O. 
puncticollis (Mocsary), 28.vi.98, swept from willow (Sali.x), Wicken Fen, Cambs. 
Sphecidae: male Alysson lunicornis (F.), 25.vii.98, swept from a steep south-facing 
clay bank, Claylands Nature Reserve, Bishop's Walton, S. Hants., and a female of 
this species beaten from grey poplar Populus canescens near recently disturbed 
grassland, 16.ix.98, Park Royal, Middx.; female Stigmus pendulus (F.), 20.vii.98, one 
of many females nesting in a dead pine trunk, Forty Hall, Middx. 

Marshall, T. & V. — Some Australian ants. An "empty" shell of the mollusc 
Thersites fraseri was collected August 1997 on the beach at Nelly Bay, Magnetic 
Island, off the coast of Queensland, Australia. Four months later back in Britain the 
shell was found to contain a colony of an unidentified ant with a queen and 12 
workers. Also shown from the Queensland rain forest were specimens of the green 
tree ant {Oecophylla smaragdina), the golden or golden bum ant {Polyrachis sp.) and 
an unidentified species. 

Roberts, S. M. — (a) A selection of aculeate Hymenoptera from various localities 
in England, Scotland and Wales. Chrysididae: female Omalus violaceus (Scop.), 
19.viii.98, Feltham, Middx. Pompilidae: male Ceropales maculata (F.), 13.viii.98, 
Kenfig Burrows, Glam.; female Homonotus sanguinolentus (F.), emerged 2.vii.98 
from host spider's egg nest collected 20.vii.97, Bloxworth Heath, Dorset, also a male 
collected under similar circumstances 24.vii.98 and emerged 14.viii.98, Talbot Heath, 
Dorset. Eumenidae: female Pseudepipona herrichii (Saussure), 18.vi.98, Hartland 
Moor, Dorset, and male, ll.vii.97, Bloxworth Heath, Dorset. Tiphiidae: female 
Tiphia femorata ¥., 13.viii.98, Kenfig Burrows, Glam. Sphecidae: male Crossocerus 
walkeri (Shuck.) and female Pemphredon lugubris (F.), 25.viii.97, Ancrum, near 
Melrose, Rox.; female Ectemnius dives (Lepeletier & Brulle), 20.vii.98, Feltham, 
Middx.; female Ectemnius sexcinctus (F.), 7.viii.98, Salisbury, Wilts.; female 
Mimumesa littoralis (Bond.), 13.viii.98, Kenfig Burrows, Glam.; male PhUanthus 
triangulum (F.), ll.viii.98, Margam Moors, Glam. Vespidae: male Vespula rufa (L.), 
male and worker Dolichovespula norwegica (F.) and male Dolichovespula sylvestris 
(Scop.), 28.viii.97, Hartwoodmyres, near Selkirk, Selk.; worker Vespula rufa (L.), 
28.viii.97, Ettrickbridge, Selk; male Dolichovespula saxonica (F.), 28.vii.98, Fovant 
Down, Wilts. Apidae: male and female Colletes succinctus (L.), 30.viii.98, Rashiel, 
near Langholm, Dumf., also male, 18.vii.98, Feltham, Middx.; female Colletes 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12; 1999 183 

fodiens (Geoff, in Fourc), 13.viii.98, Margam Moors, Glam.; female Colletes 
marginatus Smith, 13.viii.98, Kenfig Burrows, Glam., also female, ll.viii.98, 
Margam Moors, Glam.; male and female Halictus rubicundus (Christ), 25.viii.97, 
Ancrum, near Melrose, Rox.; female Lasioglossum cupromicans (Perez), 30.viii.98, 
Rashiel, near Langholm, Dumf.; Lasioglossum fratellum (Perez), female 30.viii.98, 
male 3.ix.98, Rashiel, near Langholm. Dumf., also female 25.viii.97, Ancrum, near 
Melrose, Rox., male 28.viii.97, Ettrickbridge, Selk.; male Lasioglossum rufitarse 
(Zett.), 28.viii.97, Ettrickbridge, Selk.; female Lasioglossum brevicorne (Schenck), 
25. v. 98, Parley Heath, Dorset; female Andrena fuscipes (Kirby), 30.viii.98, Rashiel, 
near Langholm, Dumf.; female Andrena nigriceps (Kirby), 13.viii.98, Kenfig 
Burrows, Glam.; female Andrena tibialis (Kirby), 13.iv.98, Coombe Bissett Down, 
Wilts.; male and female Melitta leporina (Panz.), female Sphecodes crassus Thorn., 
18.vii.98 and male Sphecodes niger Sichel, 19.vii.98, Feltham, Middx.; female 
Sphecodes scabricollis Wesm., 5.vii.98, Uddens, Dorset; female Nomada rufipes P., 
30.viii.98, male 3 1.x. 98, Rashiel, near Langholm, Dumf.; female Epeolus cruciger 
(Panz.), 13.viii.98, Kenfig Burrows, Glam.; male Megachile maritima (Kirby), male 
Coelioxys mandibularis Nylander, male and female Coelioxys conoidea (111.), 
13.viii.98, Crymlyn Burrows, Glam., also female C conoidea, 20.vii.98, Feltham, 
Middx.; worker Bombus terrestris (L.), male Bombus hortorum (L.), 26.viii.97, 
Lindisfarne, Northumb.; male Bombus bohemicus Seidl, 25.viii.97, Ancrum, near 
Melrose, Rox., also male 26.viii.97, Lindisfarne, Northumb.; male Bombus 
campestris (Panz.), 25.viii.97, Ancrum, near Melrose, Northumb., also male 
13.viii.98, Crymlyn Burrows, Glam.; male Bombus muscorum (L.), 26.viii.97, 
Lindisfarne, Northumb., also male, ll.viii.98, Margam Moors, Glam.; male Bombus 
humilis 111., 13.viii.98, Kenfig Burrows, Glam.; also male, ll.viii.98, Margam Moors, 
Glam.; male Bombus sylvarum (L.), 13.viii.98, Kenfig Burrows, Glam.; male Bombus 
soroeensis (F.), 19.ix.98, Great Cheverell Hill, Wilts, {leg. M Edwards). 

(b) A display of distribution maps of aculeate Hymenoptera for inclusion in Part 3 
of the Provisional Atlas of British Aculeates due for publication in 2000. 

Shardlow, M. E. a. — Some rare and unusual aculeates, mostly ants, recorded on 
RSPB reserves in 1997 and 98. Formicidae: Leptothorax tuberum (F.), L. interruptus 
(Schenck), Tetramorium caespitum (L.), 1998, Dungeness, Kent; Leptothorax 
nylanderi (Forst.), 1998, Wolves Wood, Essex; Formica exsecta Nylander, F. lugubris 
Zett., Leptothorax acervorum (F.), Myrmica sulcinodis Nylander, 1998, Abernethy, 
Fife. Mutillidae: Mutilla europaea L., 1997, Havergate Island, Suff. 

Smith, M. — Some uncommon bees and wasps mostly taken in 1998. Chrysididae: 
Omalus violaceus (Scop.), 25.viii.98, Evercreech, Som. Eumenidae: Eumenes 
coarctatus (L.), 30.vi.98, Wildmoor Heath, Crowthorne, Berks. Sphecidae: Ectemnius 
ruficornis (Zett.), 22.vi.98, Englemere Pond, Bracknell, Berks.; Nysson dimidiatus 
Jurine and A'^. trimaculatus (Rossius), 12.viii.98, disused railway shunting yard, 
Radstock, Som. Apidae: Hylaeus signatus (Panz.), 20.vii.97, on Reseda flowers. River 
Nadder, Sahsbury, Wilts.; Andrena argentata Smith, F., 30.vi.98, and its 
cleptoparasite Nomada baccata Smith, F., 6.viii.98, Wildmoor Heath, Crowthorne, 
Berks.; Stelis punctulatissima (Kirby) and Heriades truncorum (L.) — possibly first 
county record for the latter, 2.viii.98, Sonning Common, Oxon; Bombus (Psithyrus) 
rupestris (F.), 18.vii.98, Nettlebed, Oxon. 

Uffen, R. W. J. — (a) Some Symphyta, bees and wasps new to the Hertfordshire 
list or of local interest. Xiphydriidae: female Xiphydria prolongata (Geoff, in Fourc), 
29.viii.98, on a fence post, Tyttenhanger sandpit, Colney Heath, Herts. Tenthredi- 
nidae: male Athalia rosae (L.), 31.viii.98, Therfield Heath, Royston, Herts. — this 
migrant species was of widespread occurrence in 1998 and was frequently seen near 



184 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

the Dorset coast during the Dipterists/Hymenopterists' week 28.vi-3.vii. Chrysididae: 
Chrysogona gracillima (Forst.), 15.viii.98, two females from a water trap on willow 
firewood, Smallford. St. Albans, Herts.; female Hedychridium coriaceum (Dahlbom), 
10.viii.98, on a path with Lindenius panzeri (V. d. Lind.) nests, (L. albilabris (F.) may 
also be present), Aldenham golf course, Herts. Pompilidae: female Anoplius 
nigerrimus (Scop.), 13.viii.98, running among cut branches on the ground, Smallford, 
St. Albans, Herts. — previously erroneously recorded from Letchworth, Herts, by 
Ray Palmer before A. concinmis (Dahlbom) was recognised as British; Priocnemis 
agilis (Shuckard), female 12.viii.98 on carrot flower, male 15.viii.98 in a water trap, 
Smallford, St. Albans, Herts.; female Pompilus cinereus (F.), 29.viii.98, Tyttenhanger 
sandpit, Colney Heath, Herts. Sphecidae: male Astata boops (Schr.), 29.viii.98 
(female also seen nesting in vertical soil face of oak stump), Tyttenhanger sandpit, 
Colney Heath, Herts; female Gorytes quadrifasciatus (F.), 2.ix.98, Commons Fen, 
Welwyn Garden City, Herts.; Spilomena troglodytes (V. d. Lind.) running over leaves 
in the exhibitor's garden, Welwyn, Herts.; missing from the exhibit but recorded at 
Smallford, Herts., 15.viii.98, on a carrot flower, a male of the nationally scarce 
Alysson lunicomis (F.). Vespidae: worker Dolichovespida saxonica (F.), 24.vii.98, 
from a nest in a felled tree, Hatfield Park, Herts. Apidae: male Hylaeus signatus 
(Panz.), 22.vii.98, on flowers of Matricaria inodora and Campanula llatifolia in a 
public garden, Welwyn Garden City, Herts. — no sight of females or their preferred 
pollen source. Reseda; female Hylaeus cornutus Curt., 12.viii.98. on a carrot flower, 
Smallford, St. Albans, Herts.; Melitta tricincta (Kirby), first record for mid-Herts, of 
this bee associated with Odontites, males 12.viii.98 and a single worn female on 
24.viii.98, Smallford, St. Albans, Herts. 

(b) A scarce spider wasp from Bedfordshire. Pompilidae: male Priocnemis 
cordivalvata Haupt, 7.viii.98, from a sunny patch by a woodland path. Kings Wood, 
Heath and Reach, Beds. 

White, J. — Some ants from Sydenham Hill Wood, London SE21 and SE26. 
Formicidae: Lasius niger (L.), L. flavus (F.), L. brunneus (Latr.), L. fuliginosus 
(Latr.), Myrmica ruginodis Nylander, M. scabrinodis Nylander, M. rubra (L.) and 
Stenamma debil (Forster). 

Orthoptera 

Hackett, D. — The stripe-winged grasshopper, Stenobothrus lineatus (Panz.) is a 
species widely regarded as occurring on heathland or chalk grassland in Britain but 
the exhibitor had found it in two London boroughs in recent years, with those in 
Middlesex appearing to be new for the county. These were at Camley Street Nature 
Park, 20.vii.96, and Adelaide Nature Reserve, Chalk Farm, 7.vii.98, both in 
Camden, Middx. The former is recently established grassland on clay in a former 
lorry park and the latter is a south-facing railway embankment, also on clay. It has 
also been found at Wimbledon Common, near the Windmill car park, 5.vii.95. in the 
borough of Wandsworth and Merton, Surrey. The habitat here is heathland/acid 
grassland. The exhibitor would welcome further records from the London area. 

Smith, L F. — Photographs of the grey bush cricket, Platycleis albopunctata 
(Goeze) taken 4.viii.98 at Pared Mawr cliffs, Porth Ceiriad, Lleyn Peninsula, Caer, 
where a large colony was found. 

DiCTYOPTERA 

Marshall, T. & V. — A mantid. Campion sp. from the rain forest on Lizard 
Island, off Queensland, Australia; also the world's largest cockroach. Macro- 



BR J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 185 

pimesthia rhinoceros, which was abundant in the rain forest on Magnetic Island, off 
Queensland, Australia after storms in August 1997. 

Shardlow, M. E. a. — Two native cockroaches, Ectobius panzeri Steph. and E. 
paUidiis (Ol.) taken at Arne RSPB reserve, Dorset, 1998. 



Plecoptera 

Marshall, T. & V. — A stonefly, Dinotoperla sp. from the rain forest on Lizard 
Island, off Queensland, Australia, August 1997. 



Neuroptera 

Barnard, P. — The BENHS logo and a display of Nemopteridae. There has been 
some recent discussion about the origin and identity of the BENHS logo. In 1996 
Richard Jones published an article {Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 9: 1-2) describing how the 
original drawing of the mystery insect was made by Arthur Smith in the early 1960s. 
Apart from its use on the Society's ties, the logo was little used elsewhere, until it was 
recently redrawn by Rob Dyke and incorporated with the Society's name in the form 
now used in all official publications. But what is the mysterious insect? In a later note 
{Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 9: 128) Richard Jones showed that the original was certainly a 
member of the Neuropteran family, the Nemopteridae, none of which occurs in 
Britain, but also showed that it was not the well-known Iberian species Nemoptera 
hipennis Illiger. An example, shown in the exhibit, has been used in the logo of the 
Asociacion Espaiiola de Entomologia. 

There are over 150 species of Nemopteridae world-wide, mostly in the tropics and 
warm temperate regions. The functions of the long narrow hind wings vary: 
sometimes they have an aerodynamic stabilising function, in some species they act as 
visual signals, and the swollen wing-tips of some species may divert the attention of 
predators. One subfamily, the Crocinae, have simple thread-like hind wings, and 
their cave-dwelling larvae have an enormously elongated "neck". Examples of both 
were shown in the exhibit. These larvae were first found in ancient tombs in Egypt, 
and were therefore given the generic name Necrophilus\ The striking appearance of 
the members of this family means that they have often been used as logos: in 1994 the 
International Association for Neuropterology adopted Palmipenna pilicornis Tjeder 
for this purpose. A related species was exhibited. 

The specimen illustrated on the BENHS tie seems to have either a double swelling 
on each hind wing, or else the wing is twisted. Both conditions are found in this 
family, as shown in two of the specimens exhibited. On the new version of the logo 
the hind wings seem to have only a single apical swelling, and the hind wings are 
relatively shorter in comparison to the forewings than in the specimen on the tie. Any 
further attempts to track down the exact species of the logo will probably fail. Let us 
just accept that it is a nemopterid, and that it makes a very striking logo! 

Plant, C. — The ant lion Euroleon nostras (Geoff, in Fourc.) in East Sussex. An 
adult with teneral wing tips was found ahve in a spider's web on 6.ix.98 at St 
Leonards-on-Sea, E. Sx., by Colin Milkins and sent to the exhibitor for 
identification. A few days earlier another specimen had been taken in a light trap 
at Dungeness, Kent, and released. These are the only known British records away 
from the breeding population on the Sandlings around Minsmere Nature Reserve, E. 
Suff. A note has been published in The Entomologist's Record, November 1998. 



186 br. j. ent. nat. hist., 12: 1999 

Raphidioptera 

Shardlow, M. E. a. — Two snake flies, Phaeostigma notata (Fab.) and 
Xanthostigma xanthostigma (Schummel), recorded from the RSPB reserve at Wolves 
Wood, Essex, in 1998. 

Arachnida 

Shardlow, M. E. A. — (a) Some rare and notable shingle-dwelling spiders 
recorded on RSPB reserves in 1997 and 1998. Salticidae: Euophrys browningi 
Millidge & Locket and Sitticus inexpectatus {rupicola C L Koch), 1998, Havergate 
Island, Suff.; Pellenes tripunctatus (Walckenaer) and Phlegra fasciata (Hahn), 1998, 
Dungeness, Kent. Gnaphosidae: Gnaphosa lugubris (C L Koch) and Haplodrassus 
minor (O. P. -Cambridge), 1997, Havergate Island, Suff. Linyphiidae: Trichoncus 
affinis Kulczynski, 1997, Havergate Island, Suff. 

(b) Some notable and uncommon spiders found in other habitats on RSPB 
reserves in 1997 and 1998. Gnaphosidae: Zelotes petrensis (C L Koch), Z. lutetianus 
(CL Koch), Z. subterraneus (CL Koch), 1997, Havergate Island, Suff.; Trachyzelotes 
pedestris (CL Koch), 1998, Wolves Wood, Essex. Pisauridae: Dolomedes fimbriatus 
(Clerck), 1998, Abernethy, Easterness. Linyphiidae: Dismodicus elevatus (CL Koch), 
1998, Abernethy, Easterness. 

ISOPODA 

Shardlow, M. E. A. — Two local woodlice recorded at Dungeness, Kent, during 
the 1998 BENHS field meeting. Oniscidae: Cylisticus convexus (Deg.) and 
Armadillidiidae: Armadillidium nasatum Budde-Lund. 

ACTINARIA 

Shardlow, M. E. A. — An RDB3 BAP priority species of sea anemone, 
Nematostella vectensis Stephenson, found off Havergate Island RSPB reserve, Suff., 
in 1997 and 1998. 

Illustrations 

HiGGS, G. E. — Five watercolour paintings comprising the following species: 
Picture 1. oleander hawk-moth Daphnis nerii L., convolvulus hawk-moth Agrius 
convolvuli L., death's-head hawk-moth Acherontia atropos L., bedstraw hawk-moth 
Hyles gain Rott. Picture 2. least yellow underwing Noctua interjecta caliginosa 
Schaw., lunar yellow underwing A^^. orbona Hufn., large yellow underwing A^. pronuba 
L., lesser yellow underwing A^. comes Hiibn., lesser broad-bordered yellow 
underwing N.janthe Borkh., broad-bordered yellow underwing N.fimbriata Schreb. 
Picture 3. emperor moth Pavonia pavonia L. (print). Picture 4. clouded border 
Lomaspilis marginata L., July highflyer Hydriomena furcata Thunb., bordered beauty 
Epione repandaria Hufn., the chevron Eulithis testata L., scallop shell Rheumaptera 
undulata L. Picture 5. white admiral Limenitis Camilla L. 

Revels, R. — A range of wildlife photographs from Richard Revels library. A 
photograph of Epipagis cancellalis Zeller and Marasmia poeyalis Boisduval, resting 
on a wall at Bo, Sierra Leone. 

WOOLDRIDGE, D.B. — A photograph of Cyclophora puppillaria (Hubn.). Taken at 
mv at The Causeway, Freshwater, Isle of Wight on the 30. vi. 1998. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 187 

BOOK REVIEWS 

The families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago, by P. Oosterbroek. Fauna 
Malesiana Handbooks, Volume 1, xii + 227 pp. Brill, Leiden, £70.00, hardback — The 
volume considered here is the first in the Fauna Malesiana Handbook series, 
intended to 'faciUtate the identification, and thereby the management, of the vast 
zoological diversity of the region'. It covers the order Diptera, the two-winged flies. 
The book contains an introduction, sections on classification, life stages, adult 
morphology, keys to the families, family descriptions and illustrations. The region 
covered extends from Sumatra and Borneo eastwards to the tip of New Guinea, 
excluding the Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomon Islands and the Philippines. It 
thus lies within the Oriental Region and the Australasian/Oceanian Region including 
islands both sides of Weber's line. Dipterists are fortunate that there are catalogues 
available for all Regions (only the Neotropical catalogue is incomplete) and the 
catalogues for the Oriental Region and the Australian/Oceanian Regions were 
published in 1973-7 and 1989 respectively. This gives workers a firm foundation for 
research, but the area covered here is huge and diverse and the present work wisely 
attempts only to give an overview of the state of knowledge to family level. It does 
not give details of the larval morphology of the families included, but most of the 
information available on Diptera larvae is from temperate species and is very 
incomplete. The Malay Archipelago has some of the richest centres of biodiversity in 
the world, with islands rich in endemic species and even single valleys in New Guinea 
with endemics. Although no single island approaches the Afrotropical or 
Neotropical Regions in number of species, the total diversity is nearly as important 
and the fauna is much more fragmented and therefore vulnerable. It is only through 
encouraging local workers that conservation can become effective. Besides the 
scientific interest of biodiversity, the Diptera of this region include very many species 
damaging to man, crops or domestic animals. Examples are mosquitoes as carriers of 
human disease and the screw-worm fly which causes myiasis in stock. There is a 
centre of diversity of dacine fruit-flies in the east of the region, including some of the 
most feared quarantine pests of fruit and vegetables in the tropics. Thus there is a 
clear need for an authoritative account of the Diptera of the region. 

The book contains 109 families known to occur in the region and makes reference 
to six more that probably occur there. The key to families contains 150 couplets, too 
many for inexperienced students, but it is made workable by the excellent range of 
illustrations and the division of the key into seven major divisions. More experienced 
students can go straight to the division they require. This is an excellent key, 
overcoming many of the difficulties of identifying families from the region. There are 
undoubtedly some species that will not key out correctly, but they will be a tiny 
minority. The family accounts are a most useful feature, giving a short diagnosis to 
act as a check on determinations, a simple account of biology and classification and 
what references are available for the region. Many are written by or in collaboration 
with acknowledged experts in the field. It is clear from these accounts that much 
taxonomic and biological research needs to be undertaken in most families. In the 
chapter on classification there is a table of all families giving the number of 
documented genera and species and an estimate of the total number of species. 
Totals of 8811 documented species and 27694 estimated species are given. From the 
standpoint of a temperate dipterist the interesting families are those associated with 
rainforest — for example the estimated number of species of the following families: 
Stratiomyidae (600); Platystomatidae (600); Tephritidae (1400); Lauxaniidae (500); 
Chloropidae (600) and Drosophilidae (1000) indicate a much greater diversity than 



188 BR. J, ENT. NAT. HIST., 12; 1999 

would be found in temperate regions. The estimates are in fact rather conservative as 
they are mostly about double the number of described species. The Malay Archipelago 
has been of great interest to naturalists since Alfred Russel Wallace collected there in 
the nineteenth century — incidentally collecting some of the early type specimens of 
Diptera. There is still great scope for biogeographical work in the region and this 
handbook should stimulate further work. 

The 213 illustrations are largely taken from other works, with acknowledgements, 
and form an invaluable adjunct to the key. The references are extremely com- 
prehensive for an introductory text and are commendably up to date. 

This is a most useful work and will set a hard standard to follow for the remaining 
handbooks in the series. It is thoroughly recommended to workers on Diptera and 
other groups in the region and elsewhere, and as an introduction to one of the most 
diverse and interesting insect faunas in the world. 

John W. Ismay 



Expedition Field Techniques: Insects and other terrestrial arthropods, G. C. 

McGavin. Expedition Advisory Centre, Royal Geographical Society, 1 Kensington 
Gore, London SW7 2AR. Paperback, spiral bound, 94 pp, 1997, £10.00 (incl. p«&p)^ 
The Expedition Advisory Centre of the Royal Geographical Society provides 
training and advice to anyone planning an expedition overseas. Among its services it 
publishes a range of books on field research, including this slim but attractively 
produced spiral-bound volume on insects. George McGavin, the Assistant Curator 
of the Hope Entomological Collections at the Oxford University Museum of Natural 
History, has attempted to gather essential information on what he considers to be the 
most useful field techniques appropriate to expeditions. The result is an enjoyable 
and easily readable account with much sound advice. An exhaustive bibliography 
has deliberately been avoided, but key references are provided as an entry to the 
literature. 

A short introduction to the diversity and importance of insects leads to Section 1, 
in which planning and preparation are discussed. It is stressed that expeditions which 
include an element of collecting have to have clear objectives or scientific justi- 
fication. The chapter includes an interesting table of those expeditions with an 
entomological bias that have been supported by the RGS in recent years. Other 
topics touched upon include data handling, the importance of permits, the 
consideration of the long-term survival of the specimens, and whether the success 
of the expedition will depend on the availability of taxonomic help in the home 
country. Section 2 covers safety in the field, with advice on protecting oneself against 
insect attack, as well as the risks from road traffic accidents. This section is followed 
by a short section on insect conservation, and which provides more detail on the need 
for the correct permits for field research. 

Section 4, the longest in the book at almost 50 pages, is about actually collecting 
insects. A wide range of techniques are covered (and well illustrated with black and 
white photographs), from the use of nets, trays and traps to suction samplers, 
extraction and sampling from live animals. Many of the entries are brief and lead to 
further references to provide more detail on the technique. It is obvious that many of 
the techniques could equally be used nearer to home. It seems that some of the mass- 
trapping or specialized techniques more often used in the tropics are now leading to 
the most striking contributions to field entomology in the UK. There may well be 
other ideas here that could be developed and tried. The chapter ends with a 



BR J ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 189 

discussion on data recording, which is also equally applicable to fieldwork at home. 
After collecting insects it is necessary to kill and preserve them and two short sections 
deal with these topics. I am a little surprised at the advice given on the preference in 
killing using a 'traditional' cyanide jar but ethyl acetate is given as the safest 
alternative and I would have thought that most would use ethyl acetate for this 
purpose. 

Final sections provide information on equipment suppliers, sources of informa- 
tion, internet websites and references. 

I can thoroughly recommend this book to all fieldworkers and not only those who 
are thinking of undertaking an expedition! 

M. R. Wilson 



The Collembola of Fennoscandia and Denmark: Part I. Poduromorpha by Arne 
Fjellberg. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica, Volume 35. Brill, Leiden, 1998, 184 
pages, 112 figures, Nlgl45/US$85, hardback — Collembola, or springtails as they are 
more colloquially known, are abundant in terrestrial ecosystems occurring at 
densities of more than 40,000m~- in most soils. In the 1960s and 1970s, the standard 
work for identification was Hermann Gisin's CoUembolenfaima Europas (1960, 
Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Geneva). However, it is a tribute to Arne Fjellberg 
that when British entomologists need to identify Collembola, most now turn to his 
Identification Keys to Norwegian Collembola (1980, Norsk Entomologisk Forening) 
due to the clarity of the layout and the excellence of the diagrams. Fjellberg's work, 
which includes most of the species also found in the UK, was prepared as camera- 
ready copy on a typewriter. How things have changed! Not only is this new volume 
produced to the very high standards we have come to expect from this series, but the 
number of species now known to occur in this part of Europe has increased 
substantially, several being described as new to science by Fjellberg himself. 

In his 1980 key, Fjellberg included 105 species of Poduromorpha but this new 
volume contains descriptions of 161 species. The book is the first volume of a 
planned trilogy which will eventually cover all Collembola from Fennoscandia and 
Denmark. The Poduromorpha, comprising about a third of the species, are perhaps 
the most difficult to identify as many are small (less than 1 mm in length) poorly- 
pigmented species which spend most of their lives in the soil. Paradoxically, several 
species have lost their springing organ (furca) altogether. These 'springless 
springtails' no longer need this escape mechanism as they move in between soil 
particles. 

After a concise introduction, in which the main characteristics of Collembola are 
described, there is a key to all families found in the region including those to be 
covered in the subsequent two volumes. There are comprehensive keys to genera and 
species within each family of Poduromorpha, and the text includes copious line 
drawings of the main diagnostic features, all of which are excellent (unfortunately 
due to an error by the printer. Fig. 101 of Metaphorwa affinis is missing but this can 
be obtained from Dr Fjellberg on request from the address given on page 4). A 
comprehensive hst of references is followed by several tables indicating presence or 
absence of all species from the provinces of Fennoscandia and Denmark. The 
locahties are thoughtfully provided on a map on the inside front cover. 

It has to be said that beginners will initially find this scholarly work difficult to use. 
However, it is hard to write an easy key to Collembola as they are such small 
animals, require clearing and examination on a microscope slide if one is to see all 



190 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

the diagnostic features, and are difficult to observe alive. Nevertheless, if you feel Hke 
a challenge, why not study Collembola? They are ecologically important, especially 
as grazers of mycorrhizae and fungal diseases of plant roots, and have been 
implicated in assisting the movement of plasmids between bacteria in their guts, a 
possible link in gene transfer between genetically modified crops and native plants. 
Such work requires definitive identification of the species involved and Fjellberg's 
book provides the information one needs to be able to do this accurately. 

Steve Hopkin 



Care and Conservation of Natural History Collections. David Carter and Annette 
Walker (Eds). Butterworth Heinemann, 1998. ISBN 7506 0961 3, £50— Hardback. 
This book is part of a series in Conservation and Muscology and is aimed primarily 
at curators and collection managers of both large and small collections. However, 
there is much that should be read by amateurs. There are 9 contributed chapters, 
covering the physical care and conservation of groups such as vertebrates, insects 
and other invertebrates, vascular plants, and non-vascular plants. These are followed 
by chapters on fluid preservation, genetic material, pest management, prevention and 
control of insect pests, the collection environment, policies and procedures. 

The chapter on "Insects and other invertebrates" (by A. Walker, M. G. Fitton, 
R. I. Vane-Wright and D. J. Carter) should be read by all entomologists who have 
collections or care for them. The emphasis is on good practice, long-term storage and 
accessibiUty to the information the specimen represents. It covers in detail topics 
ranging from preparation, handUng and labelling of specimens, microscope slides, 
how to deal with plant material associated with insects (e.g. galls, leaf mines), 
specimen labels, to storage of specimens. Some of the points clearly need constant 
airing. There is no longer any excuse for specimens not being fully labelled for the 
future. Computer generation of labels is now routine (as long as they are on the right 
sort of thin card and use the right ink; another topic covered in an appendix). I 
believe that for British material the vice-county and a 6-figure grid reference should 
be routinely included. Short pins are the bane of older collections, and while I have 
some sympathy with those who use shallow cabinet drawers, which may not take the 
standard 38 mm pin, there is no excuse for using anything other than a stainless steel 
pin for modern material. Black pins just should not be used. I assume that many 
amateurs hope that their collections may one day be deposited in a public museum. It 
is very disappointing when otherwise superb collections arrive poorly labelled and on 
short black pins. 

Perhaps other chapters of special interest to amateur entomologists will be those on 
the "Collections environment" (D. Carter & A. Walker) and on "Pest management, 
prevention and control" (D. Pinniger & J. Harmon). The emphasis here is very much 
on prevention of pest damage but is also on integrated pest management and the 
reduction of use of traditional pesticides. Amateurs are often rather cavalier in their 
use of chemical treatment, but reading this chapter should give rise to some revision in 
ideas. An example of this is naphthalene, no longer allowed in museums in the UK but 
still widely used by amateurs, even though it may be harmful to health and only a 
repellent to insect pests (and not an especially efficient one at that). I regret I can't 
remember who told me that the best use of naphthalene at the (then) British Museum 
(National History) was for noticing one's colleagues on the tube home in the evening! 
But how does one protect a collection from the ravages of insect pests without the use 
of chemicals? Prevention is better than cure and ii Anthrenus strikes one can resort to 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 191 

freezing the drawers or boxes (which incidentally is what is usually done to incoming 
collections at many museums now). 

Of the 4 appendices the one on papers, inks and label conservation is of particular 
relevance to amateurs, but others on disaster planning and a case history of a flood in 
a museum in Austria make salutary reading. 

Although authoritative, all the contributions are very readable and well 
referenced. Perhaps it is not a book that will find a place in the library of amateur 
entomologists (although the price is reasonable for a reference work), but it should 
be a standard reference wherever natural history collections are housed. 

M. R. Wilson 



Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects. Vol. 12. Checklists of Insects of the 
British Isles (New Series) Part 1: Diptera. ed. Peter Chandler. xx + 234pp. Royal 
Entomological Society, London. A4 paperback, price £21.00, to RES members 
£14.70p plus postage and packing UK £3.70p, elsewhere £4.70p. ISBN 901546 82 8. 

This is a most valuable contribution to the study of British Diptera, updating the 
Kloet & Hincks checklist of 1976, in which interval profound changes have taken 
place in accepted higher classification and the British Diptera fauna has increased 
considerably in the number of species represented. The unfortunate limitation of 
catalogues in general is that they require nomenclatorial changes to be made, but 
without affording the compiler the opportunity for stating the reason why. This 
catalogue is different, citing as it does every paper in which changes have been made, 
apart from adding a large number of additions, corrections, exclusions, explanations 
and useful notes. All papers in which nomenclatorial changes have been made are 
cited in full in the references following each family. Unlike many catalogues, 
synonyms are listed on a world basis. Each family has been checked by a person or 
persons having expert knowledge of it, and where differences of opinion exist these 
are mentioned. In the case of the Syrphidae views differ so greatly as to its phylogeny 
that there is no consensus of opinion. This has required genera to be Usted 
alphabetically, rather than being placed in subfamilies and tribes as elsewhere in the 
catalogue. All in all it is a splendid piece of work and is an essential book for any 
dipterist, whether or not their interests are restricted to the British fauna. 

J. C. Deeming 



Insect pests of food premises, by Peter Meaney. National Britannia Ltd., 
Caerphilly, 1998, 172 pages, including 125 colour plates, paperback, ISBN 1- 
902510-00-3. £35.00. Distributed by E. W. Classey, Oxford House, Marlborough St., 
Faringdon, Oxon SN7 7JP — This book is a lavishly illustrated guide to the 
recognition of the most common arthropod pests of food-handling premises in 
Britain. Most of the illustrations are in colour. Some have been published previously. 
They vary in quality: most are good or at least adequate, but a few (e.g. plate 70) are 
poor. Plate 108 appears a second time as plate 116. Over half of the book is 
concerned with illustrated descriptions of 64 individual pests or groups of related 
pests like mosquitoes, plaster beetles, or storage mites. With the descriptions there 
are brief notes on biology, preferred foods, habitat, and control. 

There follows a series of tables, including a calender (sic) of insect activity in 
different months, and a list of food groups at risk from different pest types. Two 



192 BR J ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

longer tables follow. The first of these (Table 5) lists the pests most likely to be found 
in 27 different types of flood-manufacturing premises. The common names together 
with the Latin names of all the pests are listed on page 120, but despite this both 
names are given throughout this 11 -page table, which is thus twice as long as 
necessary. Table 6 lists the pests most likely to be found in over 170 different food- 
stuffs ranging from alfalfa seed through arcane foods like marchpane and dried rose 
petals to yoghurt powder. Again at every mention the common names of pests are 
invariably followed by the Latin names, resulting in an overlong table extending to 
15 pages. It appears that these tables have been computer-generated without much 
thought about the data or their presentation. The name Fannia canicularis is 
consistently misspelt (9 times) in Table 5, and Oryzaephilus mercator misspelt (8 
times) in Table 6. In this last table minor foods like dried loganberries are included, 
as well as major products like barley, wheat, and maize. These cereals are separately 
Hsted, and also covered by broader food categories Uke 'Grain' and 'Corn, grains, 
flour etc'. No distinction is made between major and minor pests, and some 
omissions are unexpected. Necrohia rufipes appears twice in the list of maize pests, 
but no species of Sitophilus is included under this cereal. In the text (p. 88) the 
preferred foods of Nemapogon granella are stated to include dried meats, spices, and 
oilcake, but in Table 6 this species is not mentioned under any of these foods. 
Combining similar foods, e.g. bacon with ham, powdered goat's milk with dried 
milk, cayenne pepper with ground chilli pepper, and macaroni with dried pasta, 
would further shorten this table without loss. 

There are more errors than is desirable. The house cricket and cockroaches are 
wrongly numbered and the dried bean and coffee bean weevils are confused in Table 
2. The genera Gnatocerus and Rhyzopertha are consistently misspelt. Several printer's 
errors have not been picked up at the proof stage, including one in Table 4 which has 
generated a new pest 'boiled egg flies'. The binding appears to be inadequate for the 
rather thick paper used, and already several pages in the review copy have become 
detached. This, and the profligate use of space are particularly undesirable in a 
softback book of 170 pages (omitting advertisements) expensively priced at £35. 

C. E. Dyte 



BOOK NOTICE 

Checklist of Lepidoptera recorded from the British Isles. J. D. Bradley. 1998. vi+ 106 
pages. A4 paperback. ISBN 0-9532508-6. Antony Rowe Ltd. Available from: D. J. 
Bradley. The Glen, Frogham, Fordingbridge, Hants SP6 2HS. £10.50 + £2.00 
delivery. 

A comprehensive list of the species and subspecies of Butterflies and Moths known 
from Great Britain and Ireland, with Log Book numbers used in recording. 
Nomenclature revised, with current scientific and English names and important 
synonyms indexed. Annotated. 



BRITISH ENTOMOLOGICAL AND NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 

Officers and Council for 1999/2000 

President S.R. Miles. F.R.E.S. 

Vice-presidents B.C. Eversham, B.Sc, F.R.E.S., E.G. Philp. F.R.E.S. 

Treasurer A.J. Pickles, F.C.A., F.R.E.S. 

Secretary J. Muggleton, M.Sc, Ph.D., F.R.E.S., M.I. Biol. 

Editor M.R. Wilson, B.Sc, Ph.D., F.R.E.S. 

Curator P.J. Chandler, B.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

Librarian I.R. Sims. 

Laternist I. E.G. McLean, B.Sc, Ph.D., F.R.E.S. 

Budding manager P.J. Baker, C.Eng., F.R.H.S. 

Ordinary Members of CouncU: J.S. Badmin, B.Sc, F.R.E.S.; G.A. Collins, B.D.S.; 
J.R. Dobson, B.Sc; A.J. Halstead, M.Sc, F.R.E.S.; C. Hart. B.Sc; R.D. Hawkins, 
M.A.; M.R. Honey; R.K.A. Morris, B.Sc, F.R.E.S.; J. W. Phillips. F.R.I.C.S. and 
D.A. Young. 



The Society's Public Liability Insurance 

In 1997 the Society extended its third party liability insurance for cover in respect 
of official Society events to include field work carried out by members as part of their 
personal activities. It was expected that this would cover the insurance obligations, 
which accompany application for collecting and recording permits in many cases. 

The Society has received a number of queries regarding the scope of the cover 
provided and this notice will hopefully clarify the position. 

At events arranged by the Society and its sister organisations, Dipterists' Forum 
and B.W.A.R.S., public liability insurance is in place which covers injury and 
damage to third parties arising from the activities of members and guests. Events 
include both field meetings and indoor events such as workshops and exhibitions. 
The cover provided is £2,000,000. It is important that permits for field meetings are 
issued in the name of the Society, or sister organisation, or to an individual on behalf 
of the Society, not in the name of the leader of the meeting. 

The Society's insurance policy also provides £2,000,000 of public liability 
insurance to individual members of the Society and sister organisations, in respect 
of their own field work and entomological research which is not part of a Society 
activity, providing this is undertaken in the United Kingdom and is not carried out 
with a view to financial reward. 

Members who are contemplating carrying out field work on a paid basis are 
specifically excluded from this cover. We have now procured an arrangement by 
which such members can approach our brokers directly to obtain individual third 
party liability cover under our policy. This will incur the payment of an additional 
premium by the member concerned. We understand this will result in a very marked 
saving compared with obtaining this cover through a fresh policy. 

We must emphasise that the cover referred to above is Public Liability Insurance 
and does not include Professional Indemnity, for which separate arrangements have 
been made. 

Our brokers are John Ehrhardt 

Lansdowne Insurance Brokers 

Bracken House, 14—16 Christchurch Road 

Bournemouth. BHl 3NJ. (Tel. 01202 291161) 



BRITISH JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY 
VOLUME 12, PART 3, NOVEMBER 1999 

ARTICLES 

121 Cyeagdhuhhia mallochorum gen. and sp. n. (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). a remarkable new 

Scottish gnat with a discussion of its relationships. P. J. Chandler 
135 The orange upperwing Jodia croceago ([D.&S.]) (Lep.: Noctuidae) survey — Autumn 1999/ 

Spring 2000. M. Parsons 
138 Observations on the "guest ant" Formicoxenus nitidulus Nylander in nests of the wood ants 

Formica nifa L. and F. higiibris Zetterstedt in 1998. N. A. Robinson 

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS 

134 Cornish large blue butterfly records — appeal for information. M. Lee 

137 A breeding record of Senometopia excisa (Fallen) (Diptera: Tachinidae). G. A. Collins 

140 Recent British records of Gymnosoma nitens Meigen (Diptera: Tachinidae) and some 
comments on its status in Britain. R. A. Jones 

141 Nysius senecionis (Schilling) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in Norfolk. K. N. A. Alexander 

PROCEEDINGS AND TRANSACTIONS 





Annual Exhibition. 31 October 


1998 




142 


British butterflies 


184 


Dictyoptera 


147 


British Macrolepidoptera 


185 


Plecoptera 


152 


British Microlepidoptera 


185 


Neuroptera 


158 


Foreign Lepidoptera 


186 


Raphidioptera 


165 


Diptera 


186 


Arachnida 


169 


Coleoptera 


186 


Isopoda 


179 


Hemiptera 


186 


Actinaria 


180 


Hymenoptera 


186 


Illustrations 


184 


Orthoptera 







BOOK REVIEWS 

187 The families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago by P. Oosterbroek. J. W. IsMAY 

188 Expedition Field Techniques: Insects and other terrestrial arthropods by G. C. McGavin. 
M. R. Wilson 

189 The Collembola of Fennoscandia and Denmark: Part 1 Poduromorpha by A. Fjellberg. 

S. HOPKIN 

190 Care and Conservation of Natural History Collections, eds D. Carter & A. Walker. 
M. R. Wilson 

191 Checkhst of Insects of the British Isles (New Series) Part 1: Diptera, ed. P. Chandler. 
J. C. Deeming 

191 Insect pests of food premises by P. Meaney. C. E. Dyte 

BOOK NOTICE 

192 Checklist of Lepidoptera recorded from the British Isles by J. D. Bradley 

ibc BENHS Officers and Council 1999/2000 
The Society's Public Liability Insurance 



December 1999 



ISSN 0952-7583 



/ ' 










V\)l. 12, Part 4 



3»j 



BRITISH JOURNAL OF 

ENTOMOLOGY 

AND NATURAL HISTORY 




.-^-^OMoi 




BRITISH JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY 

Published by the British Entomological and Natural History Society 

and incorporating its Proceedings and Transactions 

Editor: M. Wilson, Ph.D., F.R.E.S., F.L.S. Department of Biodiversity & Systematic Biology, 
National Musemns & Galleries of Wales, Cardiff CFIO 3NP. (Tel: 02920 573263, Fax: 02920 
239009) email: Mike. Wilson(a nmgw.ac.uk 

Associate Editor: Richard A. Jones, B.Sc, F.R.E.S., F.L.S. 135 Friern Road, East Dulwich, 
London SE22 OAZ. 

Editorial Committee: 

D. J. L. Agassiz, M.A.. Ph.D.. F.R.E.S. T. G. Howarth. B.E.M., F.R.E.S. 

R. D. G. Harrington, B.Sc. I. F. G. McLean, Ph.D., F.R.E.S 

P. J. Chandler, B.Sc, F.R.E.S. M. J. Simmons, M.Sc. 

B. Goater. B.Sc, M.I. Biol. P. A. Sokoloff, M.Sc, C.Biol., M.LBiol., F.R.E.S. 

A. J. Halstead, M.Sc, F.R.E.S. T. R. E. Southwood, K.B., D.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

R. D. Hawkins, M.A. R. W. J. Uffen, M.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

P. J. Hodge B. K. West, B.Ed. 



British Journal of Entomology and Natural History is published by the British Entomological and 
Natural History Society, Dinton Pastures Country Park, Davis Street, Hurst, Reading, Berkshire 
RGIO OTH, UK. Tel: 01189-321402. The Journal is distributed free to BENHS members. 

© 1999 British Entomological and Natural History Society. 

Typeset by Dobbie Typesetting Limited, Tavistock. Devon. 
Printed in England by Henry Ling Ltd, Dorchester, Dorset. 

BRITISH ENTOMOLOGICAL AND NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 
Registered charity number: 213149 

Meetings of the Society are held regularly in London, at the rooms of the Royal Entomological 
Society, 41 Queen's Gate, London SW7 and the well-known ANNUAL EXHIBITION is 
planned for Saturday 27 November 1999 at Imperial College, London SW7. Frequent Field 
Meetings are held at weekends in the summer. Visitors are welcome at all meetings. The current 
Programme Card can be had on application to the Secretary, J. Muggleton, at the address given 
below. 

The Society maintains a hbrary, and collections at its headquarters in Dinton Pastures, which 
are open to members on various advertised days each month, telephone 01 189-321402 for the 
latest meeting news. The Society's web site is: http://www.BENHS.org.uk 
Applications for membership to the Membership Secretary: A. Godfrey, 90 Bence Lane, Darton, 
Barnsley, South Yorkshire S75 5DA. 

Subscriptions and changes of address to the Membership Secretary: R. D. Hawkins, 30d 
Meadowcroft Close, Horley, Surrey RH6 9EL. 

Non-arrival of the Journal, faulty copies or other problems arising from distribution of the 
Journal or notices to the Distribution Secretary: D. Young, 9 Marten Place, Tilehurst. Reading, 
Berkshire RG31 6FB. 

Orders for books and back numbers of the Journal and Proceedings to the Sales Secretary: G. 
Boyd, 91 Fullingdale Road, Northampton NN3 2PZ. Tel: 01604 410056. 
General Enquiries to the Secretary: J. Muggleton, 30 Penton Road, Staines, Middlesex TW18 
2LD. Tel: 01784-464537. email: jmuggleton(5:compuserve.com 

Cover illustration: Torymus nitens ? (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) on oak marble gall 
photo: Robin WiUiams 

NOTE: The Editor invites submission of photographs for black and white reproduction on the 
front covers of the journal. The subject matter is open, with an emphasis on aesthetic value 
rather than scientific novelty. Submissions can be in the form of colour or black and white 
prints or colour transparencies. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12; 1999 193 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SURVEYS OF VERTICAL RIVER FLOOD 

DEFENCE WALLS IN URBAN LONDON— BROWNFIELD 

CORRIDORS: PROBLEMS, PRACTICALITIES AND SOME 

PROMISING RESULTS 

Richard A. Jones 

135 Friern Road, East Dulwich, London SE22 OAZ. 

Abstract. Entomological studies of Deptford Creek and River Wandle, two 
tributaries of the River Thames in urban London, have highlighted some of the 
logistical difficulties faced by entomologists undertaking survey work, especially on 
derelict sites in built-up localities. The two sites are essentially vertical river flood 
defence walls, crumbling industrial wharfs and decaying timber frontages. The 
available habitat was limited to small pockets of crumbling wood, some nooks and 
crannies in old concrete, sprouting vegetation and a few small pockets of derelict 
land immediately behind the tops of the walls. Access was difficult and dangerous, 
invertebrates few and far between and normal collecting methods were inadequate. 
This paper reflects on some of the problems encountered, solutions devised and 
creatures discovered. A selective systematic list of uncommon, unusual and 
interesting species illustrates the power of colonization of insects in these ruderal 
sites and includes a nationally rare (red data book) species and 1 1 nationally scarce 
(notable) species. 

Introduction 

There are many practical books on field entomology, handbooks dealing with the 
basic skills of just how and where to find insects. In many of them great store is 
placed on seeking out the right habitat for the right quarry. It is a common feature of 
many of these handbooks to suggest that by exploring prime natural habitats for the 
more unusual or specialist species, the commonplace ones will also be found along 
the way. And so it is that much valuable research is done on the distribution, ecology 
and biology of insects. 

But entomologists who carry out survey work on behalf of some organization, be it 
local authority, national organization or wildlife group, have the hunting equation 
reversed. Rather than seeking out suitable specific habitats for certain particular insect 
species, the habitats are already chosen and the task is to find out what occurs in them. 

For many such surveys, however, this is not a problem and the standard 
techniques of sweeping, chasing, visual searching, grubbing, digging, trapping and all 
those other methods second nature to the naturalist, are perfectly adequate. For 
example, faced with any natural or semi-natural habitat like woodland, grassland, 
heathland, pond or marsh, the location of at least some insects is relatively easy. 
Even more extreme biotopes such as saltmarsh, moor or quarry are more or less 
accessible to these normal entomological techniques. 

However, urban sites, derelict, ruderal, waste or however one might choose to 
describe them, are distinctly less easy to study: vegetation is sparse; soil is often 
littered with rubble, tangled steel and rubbish; the ground is uneven and treacherous 
underfoot; access is often difficult, either because of dangerous physical obstruction 
or the sensitivities of owners and developers. 

Studying insects on derelict industrial sites is fraught with enough difficulties, but 
even several years of "brownfield" entomological work had not prepared me for 



194 BR. J ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

Deptford Creek and the River Wandle, two tributaries of the River Thames. The 
previous unusual and problematic demands of working on desolate habitats paled 
into insignificance beside the peculiar problems of surveying these decaying wharfs. 

The problems of vertical river walls 

When I was first asked, by the south-east London Boroughs of Lewisham and 
Greenwich, to survey the invertebrates of Deptford Creek, my heart sank. What was 
there to survey? Looking over the Creek Road lifting bridge in September 1997, all I 
could see were a few straggUng bits of buddleia hanging down into the gloomy grey 
water, and a few tufts of stinging nettle sprouting from the tops of half-decayed 
timber piles. What sort of habitat was that? 

For one thing, there was hardly any habitat anyway. The vegetation sprouting 
from rotten piles was Spartan in the extreme — a small clump of greenery every few 
yards and some stunted overhanging bushes. A few tiny ledges had accumulated a 
thin layer of wind-blown soil with moss and lichen. Some nooks and crannies in the 
broken brickwork and concrete appeared to be curtained with cobwebs. Near the 
high tide mark some of the wharf timbers were decayed and crumbling. 

The habitat was also inaccessible. Vegetation was growing out at about the mean 
high water mark, 3 to 7 metres above the thick silt mud at low tide and well out of 
reach from the tops of the wharfs. Likewise the crumbling timber and brickwork was 
at the point of greatest weathering from wind and water, at the high tide mark. Many 
of the wharf tops were crumbling and unsafe, ancient access ladders were rusted 
through or now barely attached to the walls by tenuous strands of precarious looking 
metal. The mud below was Uttered with jagged bits of metal rubbish. It presented, to 
say the least, a thoroughly unsavoury appearance. 

After discussion with members of the Creekside Renewal Project, who were 
commissioning the survey, it became clear that, apart from brief forays across the 
thick silt mud at low tide, the only really sensible way to approach the task was to 
visit the walls by boat at high tide. This raised another sheaf of difficulties over the 
safety of the exercise and the logistical nightmare of co-ordinating weather, tide, boat 
hire and on-board help. Luckily a local boatman was found who was enthusiastic 
about the project and knowledgeable about the local boating conditions in the creek. 

Just after this I was asked to do a similar survey of the lower reaches of the River 
Wandle where it enters the Thames at Wandsworth. The tidal stretch of the river was 
similar to Deptford Creek, but shorter and narrower and with more vegetation and 
above two weirs was a narrow canalized non-tidal section with slow-flowing 
freshwater. But it was equally inaccessible and only marginally less dreary looking. 
Similar boating tactics were proposed for the Wandle survey. Figure 1 shows a 
sketch map of London's Thames with the River Wandle and Deptford Creek. 

In the course of a year's work on Deptford Creek and River Wandle, I spent very 
many hours bobbing about in a boat, and became quite adept at not falling in whilst 
leaning out precariously to tube a small fly or poot up a spider. During that time I 
had to adapt my equipment and methods to the odd situation I found myself in. At 
the end of it all I was unprepared for the unusual and exciting results. 

Equipment 

In addition to the usual array of entomological and photographic paraphernalia 
ordinarily carried by naturalists, the following items were found useful or necessary 
for the survey. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 




Fig. 1. Sketch map of the River Thames showing its tributaries the River Wandle (TQ 2575, 
VC 17) and Deptford Creel: (TQ 3777, VC 16). Not to scale. 



Boat. My transport in Deptford Creek and tidal section of the River Wandle was 
an especially buoyant one, a small (4 metres) steel jolly boat with outboard motor, 
from a small commercial ship; it had sealed enclosed voids to ensure flotation even 
if deluged or upturned. This was particularly important when reaching up to 
vegetation on the walls, standing on the edge of the boat and making it Hst 
perilously. Had we turned over, I was assured that there were handrails on its 
underside to cling to and to assist in righting the vessel. We always carried oars, 
and if intending to go out into the Thames also carried a spare outboard motor 
and extra fuel. For the canal section of the Wandle, we used a sturdy inflatable 
craft with wooden floor and reinforcing. We had to manhandle it over an 8-foot 
gate, but luckily it could be deflated and dismantled into manageable pieces. This 
boat had the advantage of being remarkably stable on the slow-flowing water and 
had a very small draught (the part of the boat beneath the water) so managing to 
avoid catching on the upturned supermarket trolleys and other rubbish dumped 
into the shallow water. 

Lifejacket. I was not sitting carefully in the boat like any sensible passenger 
should; I was standing up, moving about, leaning out over the edge, grabbing onto 
overhanging vegetation and wharf timbers and generally acting in what would 
ordinarily be a thoroughly irresponsible manner. Even on the stillest day in the 
calmest stretch of Deptford Creek I would have been foolhardy not to wear some 
sort of flotation jacket. A true lifejacket was rather bulky and cumbersome, so I 
opted for a buoyancy jacket, a safety garment designed to counter my weight in 
the water rather than support me completely. I could wear it under my normal 
coat or jacket and so still make full use of my pockets for lens, tubes etc. It also 
kept me warm, something I had not appreciated I would be thankful for; on even 
warm days, the wind and spray were exceptionally cooling in our exposed situation. 



6 BR J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

Equipment box. In the confines of the boat, I was forever standing on my 
rucksack. It was constantly shifting as the boat rocked about and it frequently got 
wet with spray, splashes from the oars and mud from the river walls. I preferred to 
use a tough plastic flip-top tool box. It was more or less waterproof, it resisted 
being kicked and trodden on, and I could also use it as a seat when most of the rest 
of the boat was wet and muddy. It had small compartments in the lid for tubes and 
pooter. As a precaution against accidental opening when getting in and out of the 
boat, it was secured with a small padlock. After a particular muddy outing it could 
be emptied and hosed down with water to clean it. 

Extra-long pooter. The usual technique of popping a plastic tube over a fly or 
other insect sitting on a tree trunk could not work while the person doing the 
tubing was bobbing up and down in a boat. An extra-long rubber tube on a pooter 
at least allowed a flying suck to be made as an insect sitting on wall, timber or 
vegetation came in and out of reach. 

Washing-up bowl. Sieving onto a plastic sheet was impossible in the boat. There 
was no flat surface except the floor, often muddy, slopping with water or cluttered 
with ropes. Standing precariously on the edge of the boat I could grab handfuls of 
litter, vegetation or rotten wood and pass it down to someone else offering up the 
bowl and sieve to meet me. Even so, no small amount of "habitat" ended up in the 
boat. 

Torch. Holes and crevices in the walls were often occupied by spider webs. A small 
torch was useful when examining these nooks. 

Boat hook. To keep the boat steady against swell and tide, a long-pole boat hook 
jammed into a hole in the wall or hooked over an old wharf fixing was the most 
effective stabilizing device. It could also be used to pull down high branches for 
beating or holding a long stalk steady for a photograph. 

Rope. Apart from its obvious use in mooring the boat while the occupants had a 
cup of tea and a sandwich, rope tied to a fastening up-water could be gently let out 
allowing the boat to drift down slowly on the flow or tide as the passing walls were 
scanned for invertebrate life. It was much easier to control the movement of the 
boat in this way rather than to keep stopping and starting the engine or fiddling 
with oars against the slow but remorseless flow of the water. 
Broom handle. For low-tide visits to Deptford Creek, a long wooden pole was very 
important for testing our footing. At low tide, the centre of the creek had a trickle 
of running water and the ground was more or less firm and pebbly underfoot 
because the silt was washed away. In most places it was a few inches deep but there 
were deep pockets many feet deep. The pole was used to test the river bed as we 
waded through the water. Stretching out on either side of the central channel were 
mud banks of deep silt. In some places the mud was many feet thick, but 
submerged stones and other rubbish under the surface allowed approach to the 
river walls in places. The pole was very important for testing depth and stickiness 
of the silt banks. 

Ladder. For the low-tide visits, a light two-stage aluminium ladder was used to 
climb up the walls to the line of vegetation sprouting around the mean high water 
mark several metres above. 

Mobile phone. Not just a luxury for idle chat, it was felt very important to have at 
least one telephone on board should any accident occur or the boat get into 
difficulties. Wrapped and waterproofed in a sealed plastic bag, it could be used 
even after complete submersion. Such communication was also important for low- 
tide visits should anyone become trapped in the thick silt or get caught short by the 
incoming tide. Luckily I was never called upon to make emergency use of this item. 



BR, J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 197 

Special techniques 

Because of the highly unusual nature of the terrain, standard collecting techniques 
had to be modified. 

• Sieving soil and rotten wood. During the autumn and winter. Deptford Creek was 
especially bleak. Vegetation had died back and the only available habitat was leaf 
litter, soil and decaying vegetable material on the crumbling timbers and ledges. 
Handfuls of this were quite literally snatched from the walls as the bobbing 
movements of the boat allowed and sieved over the plastic bowl. With care, a 
foothold could be found on the wall to reach up higher to grab a handful from 
further up the wall. This was nevertheless rather disconcerting if there was much 
swell, and at any moment I half expected to be either stranded dangling 
precariously from a stunted buddleia bush or tipped into the river. Thankfully the 
latter outcome never occurred. 

• Sweeping. Sweeping is a very awkward procedure when standing up in a boat. A 
swift thrash of the net tended to push the boat in the opposite direction. Too much 
sweeping backwards and forwards made the boat bob unnervingly. A technique of 
gentle sweeping was employed resembling a rather balletic parody of the normal 
aggressive technique. Since vegetation was scarce, thin and stragghng, gentle 
sweeping was usually sufficient to dislodge insects. 

• Beating. Larger overhanging bushes and small trees were beaten, either over a 
sweep net or a plastic bowl. A pale umbrella, upturned to make a large but 
collapsible beating tray was found to be too unwieldy, particularly on blustery 
days when the boat was very exposed. Unfortunately this meant that when 
working under a large bush, the boat tended to accumulate falling leaves, twigs 
and debris and not a few invertebrates. On more than one occasion an insect was 
found scutthng round the gunwales as we puttered back to base. It was sometimes 
impossible to be certain from which particular site it had come. 

• Dissecting rotten timber. Unlike a terrestrial habitat where a log might be casually 
turned over for easy inspection, any examination of rotten wharf timber had to be 
made while leaning out of the boat, or sections had to be examined in the boat. 
This was all very well for small flakes of friable wood crumbling from a rotten 
wooden plank which could be sieved over the plastic bowl. However, the decayed 
nature of the Deptford Wharfs meant that in many places whole timber piles were 
in danger of collapse. On several occasions very large pieces of wood suddenly 
broke loose and a lightning decision had to be made whether to try and manhandle 
them onto the boat for examination or push them away to fall harmlessly into the 
water. 

• Visual searching. On sunny days in spring and summer, the vertical river walls of 
the creek acted as sun traps, and basking insects were visible on the timber, walls 
and herbage. Large umbels of garden angelica were a prominent feature of the 
creek and attracted many insects including bees and hoverflies. It was often 
necessary to stand up in the boat to examine these flowers closely, or they had to 
be gently pulled down by hand or boat hook. 

• Direct pooting. Leaning out from the boat as we manoeuvred at high tide, it was 
possible to suck up insects directly from the herbage using a pooter. Lying down 
on the bow of the boat as we slowly drifted on the flow and tide, no tall human 
silhouette was visible and close approach to dipterons and hymenopterons was 
possible where under other circumstances it would have been very difficult. This 
was a most useful technique for capturing the small flies which seemed to spend all 
their time on the algal coating to the vertical walls, just above the lapping waves of 



198 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

the incoming or outgoing tide, and the spiders which rested inside their funnel and 
sheet webs in the crumbHng walls. 
• Close-up photography. My usual technique for close-up photography requires that 
my hand rests on the plant, log, ground or trunk on which the insect was resting. 
The lens of the camera resting on top of my hand is thus steadied and I could image 
the insect more or less easily in a very shallow field of focus. But with my hand 
resting on the river wall or timber pile to steady the lens, the remainder of my body 
was being forced to bob up and down on the swell of the water. I had to move my 
body up and down with equal and opposite motion to the swell to counter the 
movement of the boat. This was very tiring to the neck and back muscles, but it 
could be done for a few moments. In fact, doing anything in a boat, other than 
sitting calmly, meant a constant working of the head, arms and legs to counteract 
the vessel's bobbing movement. This was surprisingly tiring, even on a still day. 

Safety 

It is hard to imagine that "safety" might be considered an important issue when 
pursuing the gentle art of collecting insects. But the dangerous nature of the 
crumbling wharfs, the hazardous metal rubbish dumped in the water, the treacherous 
nature of the thick and sticky silt and the difficulties of manoeuvring a small boat in 
a tidal waterway all compounded to lift these surveys out of the ordinary. 

It was a prerequisite of the commissioning bodies for both surveys that no activity 
should be construed as dangerous or unsafe. As stated above we always carried life 
jackets, mobile phone and spare motor. I always made sure I had a small first aid kit. 
When in the boat, I was always accompanied by a knowledgeable boatman, and 
often by another person who could hold the boat steady whilst I leant perilously out. 
We always consulted tide tables and kept a wary eye on the movement of the water. 
If the tide left quicker than we anticipated and we suddenly found that we could not 
get back up river to our base, we had already planned to tie up the boat against an 
alternative wharf and return for it at next high water. 

Because of the derelict nature of parts of the Creek, there was always a danger 
from hidden obstructions under the water — mainly dumped supermarket trolleys 
and car bodywork parts, spilled building materials from a neighbouring merchant 
warehouse and dropped steelwork from the Docklands Light Railway bridges being 
constructed over the Creek whilst the survey was progressing. Reconnaissance at low 
water revealed where particular hazards were, so that we could avoid them when they 
were covered by the tide. 

Low-tide visits were also only made when I could be accompanied, and working in 
pairs we constantly tested the water through which we were wading and the mud 
over which we ventured, with a long wooden pole. We had to be particularly careful 
when walking under the newly built railway bridges because of the danger of 
snagging our waders on the pieces of sharp metalwork which fell from the scaffold, 
gantries and welding work all too frequently. We also had to be careful of sudden 
deep water where vortices had created hidden and treacherous pools. 

Results 

Having established an approach to surveying the unusual terrain of these decaying 
wharfs, the learning process of finding invertebrates took several visits. The Deptford 
Creek survey began in September 1997. The start was very slow. On some visits, 
during the first few months, I was lucky to finish a day with more than 10 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST , 12: 1999 199 

invertebrate finds, most of which would be immature spiders and virtually impossible 
for me to name anyway. By the end of the preliminary survey, in December 1997, 
after 3 months of very poor insect-hunting weather, the 92 species recorded seemed a 
not unsatisfactory list (Jones, 1997). Given the incredibly small areas of habitat, the 
lateness of the season and the severe harshness of the environment, this was about 90 
species more than I had expected. 

At the end of a full year's worth of fairly intensive recording, with about 30 site 
visits, the list increased to 287 species (Jones, 1998a), and included one nationally 
rare (red data book) species and nine nationally scarce (notable) species. I was 
suitably impressed. At the finish, I was at least able to answer my own rhetorical 
question. What sort of habitat was it? It was an astounding habitat. Its capacity to 
astound was based on two conflicting powers: the power of the human mind to 
dismiss it as ugly and unproductive, and the power of nature to carve a foothold on 
even the bleakest strand of earth. As can be seen from Figs 2 and 3, some areas of the 
creek had plants growing out of every available cranny, notably buddleia 
overhanging from above and garden angelica sprouting up from the mean high 
water mark. 

The Wandsworth River Wandle survey was less intensive, but at the end of one 
season, 5 day visits had produced 153 species (Jones, 1998b); they included the same 
nationally rare (red data book) species as found at Deptford, one of the same and 
two further nationally scarce (notable) species. There was generally a great deal of 




Fig. 2. General view of the central reach of Deptford Creek, looking north. The tide is about 
half out. and the silt mudbanks are beginning to be exposed. At low tide, the water is confined 
to a small flowing channel in the centre of the creek, about 3 metres wide and 30 cm deep. 
Buddleia grows out from the tops of the wharfs, there is some sprouting vegetation from the old 
timber frontages (left and far distance), but virtually none from the sterile sheet metal piling 
(centre). Photo N. Bertrand. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 




Fig. 3. Herbage growing out of a ledge just below one of the Deptford wharf tops, and 
sprouting out from decayed timber piles. The tide is virtually at the mean high water mark. The 
most prominent plants are cascading hops (right), garden angelica umbels half submerged and 
ivy (far end of ledge). Photo N. Bertrand. 



Table of species. The Deptford survey shows two columns, one for the total species at the end 
of 1998 and one for the species recorded by the end of the preliminary survey to December 1997. 







Deptford 


Creek 


River 


Species in 


Invertebrate order 




Total 


(1997) 


Wandle 


common 


Collembola (springtails) 




2 


(2) 





— 


Coleoptera (beetles) 




63 


(22) 


53 


23 


Dermaptera (earwigs) 




1 


(1) 


1 


1 


Diptera (flies) 




78 


(10) 


27 


13 


Hemiptera (bugs, hoppers. 


aphids etc) 


39 


(17) 


31 


12 


Hymenoptera (bees, wasps. 


ants etc) 


44 


(6) 


11 


8 


Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) 


19 


(5) 


9 


4 


Neuroptera (lacewings) 




2 


(2) 


5 


2 


Odonata (dragonflies) 




1 


(0) 


3 





Orthoptera (grasshoppers) 




1 


(0) 





— 


Thysanura (bristletails) 




2 


(1) 





— 


Aranaea (spiders) 




15 


(10) 


6 


3 


Opiliones (harvestmen) 




1 


(0) 


1 


1 


Acari (mites) 




1 


(0) 





— 


Isopoda (woodlice) 




10 


(10) 


5 


3 


Chilopoda (centipedes) 




1 


(0) 





— 


Myriapoda (millipedes) 




2 


(2) 





— 


Amphipoda (sandhoppers) 




2 


(2) 





— 


Mollusca (slugs, snails and shells) 


3 


(2) 


1 







Total 


287 


(92) 


153 


70 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 201 

overlap (70 species in common) between the two surveys reflecting the similar nature 
of the habitats, but because of the greater flow of freshwater down the Wandle, and 
its less tidal estuarine character, a greater proportion of what might be termed more 
characteristically "riverine" species occurred. But in both cases, a remarkable 
diversity of species demonstrated the powerful colonization abilities of invertebrates 
to discover available niches and to eke out a hving in the relatively harsh and 
exposed conditions of the decaying man-made habitats. 

Many of the species from both tributaries were very common and widespread and 
were what might be termed ubiquitous garden species, occurring throughout the area 
of urban and suburban London on almost any patch of disused, ruderal or disturbed 
ground. There were some straightforward characteristic species of estuaries, rivers 
and exposed marine habitats, but there were also unusual finds which came as a real 
surprise. Rather than repeat the complete systematic lists which contained all these 
commonplace creatures, a table of species and a selective systematic list is included 
here with comments on a few noteworthy and interesting species. 

Selective systematic list 
Collembola 

At least two unidentified springtail species were found in leaf litter on ledges or 
beaten from overhanging vegetation in Deptford Creek. 



Coleoptera 

Anobiidae. Anobiiim punctatum (Deg.) and PtiUmis pectinicornis (L.) were both 
found in decaying timber piles on the Wandle. Burrows and larvae of an Anobium 
species were also found in a driftwood log which had become caught up in a large fig 
tree growing out from one of the crumbling Deptford wharfs. Stegobium paniceum 
(L.) was beaten from overhanging vegetation at Deptford; it is unusual to find it in 
the open. On the River Wandle, this species was common in pigeon nests on deep 
ledges underneath a broad road bridge over the river and was presumably feeding on 
grass seeds from nesting material and other spilled food brought back by the birds to 
their young. 

Apionidae. Kakapiou semivittatum (Gyll.), by sweeping annual mercury sprouting 
above one of the Deptford wharfs, 6.ix.l997; notable A (Hyman & Parsons, 1992), but 
fairly frequent in the London area. Taenapion urticarium (Herbst), by sweeping and 
beating overhanging nettles and other vegetation at Deptford, 1 & 8.vi.l998; generally 
a very local species despite its common foodplant, although provisionally listed as 
notable B by Hyman (1986), this was not confirmed by Hyman & Parsons (1992). 

Biphyllidae. Biphyllus lunatus (Fab.), several were found in crampball fungus, 
Daldinia concentrica, l.iv.l998, on a small log apparently dumped on a site on the 
Thames just near the mouth of Deptford Creek. An ancient woodland "indicator" 
species, this beetle is highly unlikely to have got to the site naturally, and on the same 
day, a few feet away I found the wood-boring sawfly Xiphydria camelus an equally 
odd find. 

Carabidae. Various common species were found under planks, stones and rubble 
above the wharfs. The most frequent carabid in both surveys was Bembidion 
harpaloides Serville which occurred in the rotten timber piles, in the splash zone near 
the mean high water mark upwards. According to Luff (1998) this is mainly a species 
of woodland, but it is obviously very tolerant of the sahne conditions. 



202 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

Chrysomelidae. Chrysomelids were very few and far between. On the Wandle a 
medium-sized willow growing from one of the banks was covered with many 
hundreds of Plagiodera versicolora (Laicharting); although provisionally given 
notable B status by Hyman (1985), this was not confirmed by Hyman & Parsons 
(1992), and it is fairly frequent on willows even in suburban London. 

Coccinellidae. Adonia variegata (Goeze) occurred at both Deptford (two speci- 
mens, 20. V and 23. vi. 1998) and Wandsworth (many seen on 15. vi, 24. vi, 5.viii. & 
22.ix.1998); notable B (Hyman & Parsons, 1992). According to Majerus et al. (1997) 
this ladybird has numbers and populations which fluctuate, boosted by regular 
migrations from the Continent, and is fairly widely distributed in the Thames 
Estuary. Halyzia sedecimguttata (L.) was beaten from overhanging vegetation at 
Deptford, possibly associated with the several small stunted sycamores growing out 
from the wharf tops. Although provisionally given notable A status by Hyman 
(1986), this species has been found to be quite widespread and this status was not 
confirmed by Hyman & Parsons (1992). Stethorus punctillum Weise, several by 
beating overhanging vegetation, on both sides of Deptford Creek. Provisionally given 
notable B status by Hyman (1985), this was not confirmed by Hyman & Parsons 
(1992). Coccinella septempunctata L. was astonishingly common at both Deptford 
and Wandsworth, with hundreds of larvae, pupae and adults often crowded together 
on the stunted buddleia bushes which carried a very heavy aphid load. 

Curculionidae. Euophryum confine (Broun) was dug out of rotten timber piles on 
some of the Deptford Wharfs, but I was slightly surprised not to find Pselactus 
spadix (Herbst). Notaris scirpi (Fab.), one beaten from small garden angelica plant 
growing out from brick wall on Deptford Creek, 23. vi. 1998; notable B (Hyman & 
Parsons, 1992), and associated with lesser pond sedge Carex acutiformis and 
reedmace Typha latifolia. Neither plant occurs in the Deptford area, however, 
reedmace does occur further up the Ravensbourne River system in Lewisham 
(Burton, 1983) and it therefore seems likely that the weevil may have been washed 
down the river from above. 

HalipHdae. Haliplus confinis Stephens occurred in small numbers in the non-tidal 
part of the River Wandle above the weirs. This was the only true water beetle found 
in the surveys. 

Lucanidae. Lucanus cervus (L.), the stag beetle, a large male found crawling up the 
brick wall of Mumford's Mill, Deptford, 23. vi. 1998, inches above the incoming tide; 
notable B (Hyman & Parsons, 1992), but fairly common in south-east London. 
There is no suitable habitat anywhere in Deptford Creek for this beetle which is 
essentially a garden species in the London area. The tall warehouse buildings of the 
mill produce strong down-draughts when the wind is from the south-west and it is 
likely that the flying beetle was caught in the draughts and blown into the water from 
where it crawled up to safety. 

Nitidulidae. Meligethes rotimdkoUis Brisout, swept from ruderal vegetation 
growing at the confluence of the Wandle and the Thames, 24.vi.1998; notable 
(Hyman & Parsons, 1994) associated with various crucifers including charlock 
Sinapis arvensis which was present on the site. 

Oedemeridae. Nacerdes melanura (L.), the wharf borer, a few adults were seen 
crawling on the vertical timbers and metal sheet piles of both Deptford Creek and the 
River Wandle. At Deptford, larvae (Fig. 4) were dug out at around mean high water 
level from timbers throughout the more tidal reaches of the creek. It is a fairly 
common species in the London area and Thames Estuary. 

Phalacridae. Olihrus flavicornis (Sturm), several were beaten from overhanging 
vegetation in various areas of Deptford Creek and many were swept from rough 



BR J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 203 

ground on either side of the Wandle where it empties into the Thames. AUhough not 
listed by Shirt (1987) this beetle was allocated status RDB-K, insufficiently known, 
by Hyman & Parsons (1992). It is thought to be associated with smooth hawkbit 
Leontodon autumnalis and ox-tongues Picris species, and is obviously well established 
in the London area. Olibrus affims (Sturm) was also beaten from overhanging 
vegetation at Deptford. Although provisionally given notable B status by Hyman 
(1986), this was not confirmed by Hyman & Parsons (1992). 

Diptera 

Bombyliidae. Bombylius major L. was seen on the wing above one of the Deptford 
wharfs. Although usually associated with woodland rides and edges, it occurs in 
urban London along railway tracks and occasionally in gardens. 

Dolichopodidae. Several species of Syntormon, characteristic of riverside and 
brackish vegetation, were among the commonest insects in both surveys, resting in 
clouds on the vegetation as it sprouted at the mean high water mark, and running on 
the algal covering of the vertical river walls inches above the outgoing or incoming 
tide. 

Empidae. Hydrodromia stagnalis Haliday, a species of river and stream edges, 
occurred at Deptford. 

Ephydridae. Scatella stagnalis (Fallen) was the commonest fly in Deptford Creek, 
running in untold thousands on the algal covering of the vertical river walls inches 
above the outgoing or incoming tide. It was also common in some areas of the 
Wandle, in similar situations. 

Lauxaniidae. Homoneura tesquae Becker, one by sweeping sprouting vegetation 
above one of the Deptford wharfs, 8.vi.l998; notable (Falk, 1991a), a secretive 
species which breeds in leaf litter and other decaying vegetable matter. 

Sciomyzidae. Pherbellia cinerella (Fallen) occurred in both surveys; the larvae 
attack a variety of snail species in dry and wet habitats. Sepedon sphegea (Fab.) was 
found at Deptford; this widespread but local species is associated with marshes and 
streams where the aquatic larvae are predators of freshwater snails. Its presence here, 
in the tidal reach of the creek, suggests that it had been breeding further up river. 

Stratiomyidae. Chorisops nagatomii Rozkosny, one by sweeping rough behind one 
of the Deptford wharfs; listed as notable by Falk (1991a), but fairly widespread in 
the London area. 

Syrphidae. Many very common species occurred on flowers of garden angelica and 
other plants growing out from the mean high water mark or growing above the 
wharfs. Chrysotoxum festivum (L.) was seen at Wandsworth. Eupeodes (formerly 
Metasyrphus) latilunulatus (Collin), was found on flowers above one Deptford wharf, 
6.viii.i998; notable (Falk, 1991a), its habitat preferences are uncertain: this site was a 
heat trap with the sun reflected off of sheltered brick walls. Xanthogramma 
pedissequum (Harris) occurred in both surveys and is generally quite common in the 
London area. 

Tephritidae. Oxyna parietina (L.), sweeping above wharfs; although not included 
by Falk (1991a), this species is suggested to be notable B by demons (1996). It is 
fairly widespread in the London area on mugwort Artemisia vulgaris. 

Hemiptera 

Aphididae. At Deptford, Aphis fabae Scopoli completely encrusted some of the 
heads of garden angelica making them appear to be black-flowered. These plants 



204 BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST., 12: 1999 

commonly sprouted out from the rotten timbers at the mean high water mark. The 
stunted buddleia bushes which overhung the creeks also suffered a very heavy aphid 
load, possibly also this common species, and were often dripping with honeydew. 

Cicadellidae. Idiocerus decimusquartus (Schrank) and /. stigmaticalis Lewis were 
beaten from overhanging poplars and willows respectively on the Wandle. 

Coccidae. Pulvinaria vitis (L.), females with their fluffy white egg masses were 
often seen at Deptford on alders growing out from the wharf tops. 

Cimididae. Several common species of Anthocoris and Oriits were found beating 
overhanging vegetation. Lyctocoris campestris (Fab.) was very frequent in pigeon 
nests on ledges under a road bridge where it crossed the Wandle. 

Corixidae. Several specimens of Sigara dorsalis Leach were caught by water 
netting in the non-tidal upper reaches of the Wandle, above the weirs. This was the 
only truly aquatic bug found during the surveys. 

Hydrometridae. One specimen of Hydrometra stagnorum (L.) was found walking 
in matted vegetation on a ledge just above the water line in the non-tidal part of the 
Wandle. 

Lygaeidae. Metapoplax ditomoides (Costa), one specimen sweeping rough ground 
at the confluence of Wandle and Thames, 24. vi. 1998. First discovered in Britain in 
Middlesex in the 1950s, since 1992 it has started to turn up again, apparently 
sometimes in numbers. Nysius senecionis (Schilling), at Deptford several were swept 
above the wharfs and at Wandsworth it was found in countless hundreds of 
thousands on rough ground near the confluence with the Thames (Jones, 1999a); 
although only discovered new to Britain in the early 1990s (Hodge & Porter, 1995), it 
is now seemingly fairly common. 

Miridae. Deraeocoris flavilinea Costa, many swept and beaten from overhanging 
vegetation at Deptford on several occasions. First discovered in Britain in Essex in 
1995 (Miller, in prep.), and until a few years ago confined in western Europe to Italy; 
it has spread across France and Germany and its arrival in Britain was accurately 
predicted. It is associated with sycamores and there are many small saplings growing 
out from the decaying wharfs. 

Pentatomidae. Aelia acuminata (L.) occurred in both surveys on small plots of 
derelict ground adjoining the wharfs; this species is on the increase and is now 
common and widespread in the London area on bits of rough ground, ruderal sites, 
parks and gardens. 

Reduviidae. Empicoris culiciformis (De Geer), several beaten from overhanging 
vegetation and in small pockets of leaf litter in even very exposed parts of Deptford 
Creek. 



Hymenoptera 

Apidae. The honeybee Apis mellifera (L.) and 4 common bumblebees, Bombus 
species, occurred, mainly visiting the flowers of garden angelica growing out from the 
rotten timbers at the mean high water mark. 

Bethylidae. Bethyhis hoops Thomson, sweeping, above one of the Deptford wharfs, 
25.viii.1998. Very little is known about this species which was only recently 
recognized as new to Britain (Burn, 1997). Although this appears to be only the tenth 
British specimen, the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth specimens were recorded from 
my old Nunhead garden in the last 6 years and the ninth was found recently in 
Morden Cemetery, indicating that this creature is well established in south London 
(Jones, 1999b). 



BR J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 205 

Chrysididae. Omalus aiiratus (L.) occurred in both surveys and one specimen of 
Chrysis ignita (L.) was seen flying round a grey drainpipe (mistaken for a tree 
trunk?!), above one of the Deptford wharfs where walls acted as a sun trap. 

Colletidae. Hylaeus signatus (Panzer) was swept on rough ground at the confluence 
of Wandle and Thames, 24. vi. 1998; notable B (Falk, 1991b), it is associated with 
weld and mignonette. Reseda species, and these were present on the site. 

Eumenidae. Microdynenis exilis (Herrich-Schaeffer), found twice on flowers 
growing above the Deptford wharfs; notable B (Falk, 1991b). First discovered in 
Britain in the 1930s and possibly a recent arrival and still spreading, it has turned up 
elsewhere in urban south London. 

Formicidae. Lasius niger (L.) was found throughout both survey areas in almost 
any situation above the mean high water mark including right at the mouth of 
Deptford Creek at the junction with the Thames, on exposed concrete surfaces even 
within the splash zone. 

Pompilidae. Aiiplopiis carbonarius (Scopoli), one found running on the ground 
above one of the Deptford wharfs; notable B (Falk, 1991b), supposedly a woodland 
species and seemingly out of place on the creek, but the area was a bit of a sun trap. 

Sphecidae. Several common species were found including stem-nesting and wood- 
nesting species. Several of the crumbling dry rotten timbers about 1 metre above 
mean high water mark had extensive borings thought to have been made by the 
Ectemuius and Pemphredon species found as adults on leaves and flowers elsewhere 
above the wharfs. 

Xyphydriidae. Xyphydria camelus (L.), crawling in the grass above one of the 
wharfs at Deptford and thought to have emerged from a small log apparently 
dumped there. This log, probably ash, had cramp balls, Daldinia concentrica, 
growing on it and the small fungus beetle Biphyllus hmatiis feeding inside them. 
Both species seem very out of place and are unlikely to have arrived by natural 
means. 



Lepidoptera 

Lycaenidae. Celastrina argiolus (L.), the holly blue, seen flying above the Deptford 
wharfs and a common species of urban south-east London. Poly omnia tus icarus 
Rottemburg, the common blue, was found at Wandsworth. 

Lymantridae. Orgyia antiqua (L.), the vapourer, a caterpillar was found on 
herbage above the walls of the River Wandle. 

Noctuidae. Several common species were found including a fully grown caterpillar 
of the old lady, Mormo maiira L., found in leaf litter on a very narrow ledge on one 
of the most exposed sections of Deptford Creek, near the junction with the Thames. 
At this time, the area above the wall was being developed and had been a busy 
building site for at least 18 months with heavy machinery moving about all the time 
and precious little vegetation. Plants sprouting from wall timbers were also very 
sparse and it is a mystery what the caterpillar had been feeding on. 

Nymphalidae. The usual common species including: Aglais urticae (L.), the small 
tortoiseshell, several adults seen on the wing and a chrysalis found attached to some 
sheet metal piling at Deptford just inches above the mean high water mark. Vanessa 
atalanta (L.), the red admiral and Cynthia cardui (L.), the painted lady, several seen 
visiting flowers above the wharfs and resting on the wooden timber piles in the 
sunshine. Polygonia c-alhum (L.), the comma, one adult seen at Deptford and several 
caterpillars beaten from hop plants overhanging the walls of the creek. The dechne of 
the comma during the end of the 19th century, linked to the decline of the hop 



206 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

industry, and its recovery during the middle part of the 20th century, when it 
appeared to switch to nettles, is well known. How ironic, then, that in Deptford 
Creek it is breeding on the hop plants which overhang the flood defence walls and 
which cascade down into the water where once barge-loads of dried hops from the 
fields of Kent were shipped to the breweries of London. 

Neuroptera 

Sisyridae. Sisyrafuscata (Fab.), was beaten from vegetation overhanging the River 
Wandle. This common species has aquatic larvae which breed inside freshwater 
sponges. 

Odonata 

Aeshnidae. Unidentified blue/green Aeshna species were seen hawking up and 
down the river walls at both Wandsworth and Deptford; they could easily have been 
breeding in the freshwater section of the Wandle. but the Deptford specimen must 
have flown some distance from its breeding site. 

Calopterygidae. Calopteryx splendens (Harris), a female was seen fluttering around 
the freshwater part of the Wandle and was more than likely breeding there. 

Coenagriidae. Enallagma cyathigerum (Charpentier), the common blue damselfly, 
was seen on several occasions on the Wandle and was no doubt breeding there. 

Orthoptera 

Acrididae. Chorthippus parallelus (Zett.), the meadow grasshopper, was found 
above one of the wharfs at Deptford, seemingly very out of place and far from any 
meadow, although it is generally recorded from a variety of rough grassy habitats. 

Thysanura 

Lepismatidae. Lepisma saccharina L., the common household silverfish, one 
beaten from overhanging vegetation at Deptford; it is unusual to find it out of doors, 
but there were many buildings nearby. 

Machilidae. A Petrohius species, probably P. maritimus Leach or P. brevistylis 
Carpenter seen running about in cavities and crawling on the river wall of Deptford 
Creek near the junction with the Thames, just above the mean high water mark, its 
typical habitat. 

Aranaea 

Araneidae. Although the common garden spider Araneus diadematus Clerck was 
found on both surveys, the most obvious orb-web spider on both the Wandle and 
Deptford Creek was Larinioides sclopetarius (Clerck), a very distinctively marked 
species (Fig. 5). It occurred along all banks of both tributaries, sheltering in dry 
crevices and beaten from overhanging vegetation or sitting in its orb webs spun 
across emergent vegetation, decaying timbers, metalwork and crumbling brickwork. 
Although a fairly local species, it is often associated with buildings, bridges, fences 
and walls near water, especially those hning rivers and canals. 

Gnaphosidae. Micaria pulicaria (Sundevall), a warmth-loving species, was found 
once at Deptford, running on bare ground behind a derelict wharf. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 207 

Salticidae. Saltkus scenicus (Clerck), the common zebra spider, occurred on the 
vertical walls of both surveys, even out into the bare and exposed steel and concrete 
of the Thames, inches above the water. 

Segestridae. Segestria florentina (Rossi) was found only on the River Wandle. Here 
it had colonized a short sheltered stretch of non-tidal river, on both banks, where a 
concrete topping overhung the walls creating a sheltered series of nooks and crevices. 
The characteristic spoke-and-hub webs lined this section of the river, many shed 
skins were found in the leaf litter on a small shelf below and one large female was 
discovered in her burrow behind a small piece of wood prised off from the concrete. 
Despite exhaustive searching along seemingly similar habitat at Deptford, none 
could be found there. This very local but fairly widespread species is associated with 
old walls, especially in ports, and is thought to have been originally introduced from 
the Mediterranean in shipping. 

Tetragnathidae. Several immatures of a Tetragnatha species were found in the 
buddleia bushes overhanging a sheltered dock inlet at Deptford; they could not be 
identified. There are several species in the genus, often found near water. 



Isopoda 

Armadillidiidae. The common Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille) was frequent at 
Deptford, but on rough ground above the mouth of the Wandle the very local 
Armadillidium nasatum Budde-Lund was the only species to be found, in large 
numbers under rough concrete rubble. 

Cylisticidae. Cylisticus convexus (De Geer) was found in a decaying timber pile at 
Deptford. It is primarily a coastal species of rocky or stony areas above the tidemark, 
but it has also colonized quarries, walls and waste ground. 

Ligiidae. Ligia ocecmica (L.), the sea slater, was very common on the tidal walls of 
Deptford Creek, occurring in rotten timber and under stones on the foreshore 
exposed at low tide. One was also found crawling up a wall in the tidal part of the 
Wandle. Although completed some time ago, the atlas of woodlouse distributions in 
Britain (Harding & Sutton, 1985) shows Ligia to be a truly marine animal, occurring 
only on the coast. According to that study Ligia was unknown from the Thames in 
London. Wandsworth is by far the furthest inland that this creature has been found, 
but this is not totally unexpected. 

Trichoniscidae. Androniscus dentiger Verhoeff was dug from timber piles at 
Deptford. A widespread and moderately common species, it is associated with old 
walls, coastal cliffs and other exposed habitats. 

Sphaeromatidae. Three common species were found at Deptford Creek, under 
stones on the foreshore exposed at low tide: Sphaeroma hookeri Leach, S. monodi 
Bocquet et al. and S. nigicauda Leach. 



Myriapoda 

Polyxenidae. Polyxemts lagurus (L.), one of Britain's smallest and most curious 
millipedes, was found in very large numbers at Deptford, in soil and leaf htter, 
crawling on bare walls and sheltering in nooks and crannies in even the most exposed 
parts of the creek. A widespread, but rather local species, it has two distinctly 
different habitat types. Inland it is found beneath the bark of old dead trees, but also 
on the ground beneath stones and leaf litter. It also occurs on old walls and in 
exposed coastal habitats beneath spare halophile (salt-tolerating) vegetation, down 



BR J ENT NAT. HIST., 12: 19W 




Fig. 4. Larva of Nacerdes melanura, the "wharf borer", dug out from timbers at and even 
below the mean high water mark. Photo R. A. Jones. 




Fig. 5. The characteristic orb-web spider Larinioides sclopeiarius. a regular inhabitant of the 
riverside, and often found sitting in its webs spun across emergent vegetation, timber piles, 
ironwork and concrete. Photo R. A. Jones. 



BR. J ENT NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 




Fig. 6. The minute millipede Polyxenus lagurus, often found living gregariously in a mess of 
shed skins on exposed vertical timbers. Photo R. A. Jones. 



to the shore. It lives in small colonies, amidst a mess of shed skins (Fig. 6), and feeds 
on decayed plant matter. 



Amphipoda 

Gainmaridae. Very many unidentified Gammarusl species were found at Deptford, 
under stones on the foreshore exposed at low tide. 

Talitridae. Orchestia gammarella (Pallas) was dug out from a timber pile at 
Deptford. 



MoUusca 

Helicellidae. Several specimens of Hygromia cinctella (Draparnaud) were found on 
narrow ledges along part of the non-tidal Wandle. For many years this species was 
confined to a small area of South Devon, but in the last 40 years it has started to 
spread and is now quite widespread in southern England. This was exactly the same 
stretch of the river where the large Mediterranean spider Segestria florentina 
occurred, so it may have been very sheltered. 

Limacidae. A very large specimen of Umax flavus (L.) was seen crawling along one 
of the old brick river walls of Deptford Creek. Although local, it is a widespread 
species usually found near human habitations. 



210 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

Discussion "BROWNFiELD corridors" 

The natural history of both Deptford Creek and the River Wandle today, 
exempHfied by the insects and other invertebrates occurring there, is clearly an 
ecology based on invasion, recolonization and adaptation to decaying man-made 
structures. 

There is little doubt that new things will continue to turn up at both sites. It is 
probably no surprise that the nationally scarce Adonis ladybird, Adonia variegata, 
noted for its migrations, appeared first on that exposed and scruffy foreshore of 
Dreadnought Wharf, at the very north end of Deptford Creek, and on a tiny derelict 
corner near the mouth of the Wandle, for running past both is perhaps the largest 
wildUfe corridor in England — the Thames. True, the river banks in this part of 
London are not what one might describe as prime natural habitats, but they are 
littered and lined with half derelict and overgrown sites along their entire length right 
out into the "proper" countryside of the Thames Estuary in Essex and Kent. 

These derelict plots, formerly described rather disparagingly as "waste" places, 
have long been an overlooked resource for nature conservation. Even today they are 
often dismissed under the heading "brownfield" sites, implying that they are not 
green and therefore ripe for development at no loss to the natural world. Naturalists 
and ecologists tend towards the other direction and prefer to describe sites as 
"ruderal" in an attempt to avoid these negative associations. Study of these sites 
often shows that, just like Deptford Creek and the River Wandle, they may not be as 
aesthetically pleasing as verdant forests, rolling hills, purple moors or green valleys, 
but they do have a valid and varied natural history interest. 

The invertebrate interest of urban derelict sites has generally received scant 
attention. Ironically, London's contribution to this study began long ago, with the 
surveys of the City's bombed sites after the last war by members of the London 
Natural History Society (Le Gros, 1949; Owen. 1951; Parmenter, 1953; Jones, 1954, 
etc). At that time, interest in the sites was limited to an academic study of 
colonization and establishment, and there was no suggestion of preserving the 
broken-down buildings and rubble-strewn areas for their natural history value. 
Attitudes have changed subtly since then. The idea that invertebrates on brownfield 
sites might have some conservation value was explored briefly by Lonsdale (1991) 
and has recently achieved greater status in various reports. Gibson (1998) makes the 
observation that of the nationally rare and scarce species listed by Kirby (1995) in a 
review of habitat preference, an estimated 12-15% of them are recorded from 
artificial (i.e. ruderal) habitats. 

In particular, ruderal sites offer in abundance a habitat which is fast disappearing 
from the countryside at large — bare ground with sparse vegetation. This is important 
for insects because the soil in such a microhabitat is usually warmed by the sun much 
more than a turf of long grass and dense herbage. Changes in grazing practice and 
other land management techniques have meant that what were once much more open 
areas of downland, grassland and heathland are now threatened by scrub invasion. 
Ruderal sites are fast taking over as important habitats in their own right because 
they are home to many warmth-loving invertebrates, perhaps on the northern edge of 
their distribution in Europe. Indeed, an unexpected feature of both tributaries was 
only revealed on warm sunny days when certain south-facing buildings and walls 
reflected the sun's heat and created many blisteringly hot sun-traps. 

This is not to say that the entire fauna of the rivers exists because it needs such a 
microhabitat, but it adds another layer to the habitat complexity which makes up the 
lines of crumbling wharfs, adding to their ability to act as wildlife corridors through 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 211 

London. It is becoming clear from reports of other surveys in the Thames Estuary 
out into Essex (C. W. Plant, pers. comm.), that the chain of these ruderal sites is 
already acting as a corridor, with the discovery of many unusual, uncommon and 
new invertebrates being found right along their length into the heart of the East End. 
The appearance of the "new" bugs Nysius senecionis and Deraeocoris fiavilinea in 
several localities can only support the notion that these small London rivers are 
acting as natural highways, allowing movement of invertebrates along them. 

The vertical flood defence walls and the meagre strips of earth behind are a sorely 
underestimated habitat for wildlife. It has become patently clear that the dowdy 
appearance of these two creeks to the unguided eye should not be allowed to 
overshadow the fact that there is teeming life, diverse biology and important ecology. 

This fact has been ably demonstrated to the Creekside Renewal Programme 
(Steele et al., 1999), the commissioning body for surveys on Deptford Creek which 
included not only terrestrial invertebrates but also marine invertebrates, plants, 
birds, fish and other animals. Such was the interest generated by these surveys that 
the idea of "conserving" the derelict nature of the crumbling walls has emerged. 
Unfortunately, repair of a river flood defence is a major civil engineering project and 
will necessitate complete destruction of certain parts of the walls. But this will be 
done in a piecemeal manner so as not to scour the whole creek clean in one sweep. 
The new walls will include various design features, including wooden uprights and 
horizontal ledges around the mean high water mark to deliberately accumulate silt, 
in the knowledge that these will shortly be colonized by plants, then invertebrates, 
mimicking the decay and colonization which has occurred through neglect during the 
last 50 years. Some of the sound walls, comprising steel sheet piling and engineering 
brick and not in need of repair or renewal, will have timber cladding placed on them 
to encourage this marginal growth specifically as an important and interesting 
wildlife habitat and to maintain the integrity of the "brownfleld corridor". 

The value of ruderal sites for plants, invertebrates and other animals has been 
recognized for many years, but there are few examples, in London at least, of major 
redevelopment projects taking this sort of initiative to allow wildlife to continue 
having its natural colonizing effect on the environment. 

Conclusion 

The study of natural history has long been a pursuit of natural wonder. 
Historically it was spurred by a reverence to the creator subtly revealing his designs 
to the enquiring disciples of natural philosophy. More recently it has been driven by 
the professional engine of biological and ecological science. But wonder is still to be 
had out there: at each visit to Deptford Creek, where most signs of life have been 
buried and shored-up under sheet-pile, concrete and engineering brick, I still wonder 
at the audacity of nature to claw back what was once her own. 

Acknowledgements 

Thanks are offered to the many and various people who helped with these surveys. 
Mr M. Canty was foolhardy enough to ferry an entomologist about in his boat 
during high-tide visits to the river walls, and he did not complain too loudly when 
rotten wood, soil, leaf litter, twigs and live invertebrates showered down into it. Mr J. 
Ducker assisted on some of the field trips. Messrs P. J. Hodge, C. W. Plant, R. D. 
Hawkins and J. Porter identified and confirmed some of the insect specimens. Mr N. 
Bertrand assisted with details of the local flora and allowed me to use his 



212 BR. J. ENT, NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

photographs in this paper. Jill Goddard of the Creekside Renewal Programme, a 
partnership between the London Boroughs of Lewisham and Greenwich, commis- 
sioned the survey of Deptford Creek and arranged access to the various wharf sites. 
Valerie Selby of Wandsworth Borough Council's Nature Conservation Centre 
commissioned the survey of the Wandle and negotiated access to adjoining land. 

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Britain. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 133: 65-66. 
Burton, R. M. Flora of the London area. London: London National History Society, 
demons, L. 1996. A provisional atlas of the Tephritidae (Diptera) of Britain and Ireland. 

British Tephritidae Newsletter 6. 
Falk, S. \99\a. A review of the scarce and threatened flies of Great Britain. Part 1. Peterborough: 

Nature Conservancy Council. 
Falk, S. 1991b. A review of the scarce and threatened bees, wasps and ants of Great Britain. 

Peterborough: Nature Conservancy Council. 
Gibson, C. W. D. 1998. Brownfield: red data. The values artificial habitats have for uncommon 

invertebrates. English Nature Research Report No. 273. Peterborough: English Nature. 
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Abbots Ripton: Biological Records Centre. 
Hodge, P. J. & Porter, D. A. 1997. Nysius senecionis (Schilling) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) new to 

the British Isles. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 10: 1-2. 
Hyman, P. S. 1985. A provisional review of the status of British Coleoptera. Invertebrate Site 

Register, Report Number 60. Peterborough: Nature Conservancy Council. 
Hyman, P. S. 1986. A national review of British Coleoptera. la. A review of the statuses of British 

Coleoptera (in taxonomic order). Invertebrate Site Register, Report Number 64. 

Peterborough: Nature Conservancy Council. 
Hyman, P. S. & Parsons, M. S. 1992. A review of the scarce and threatened Coleoptera of Great 

Britain. Part 1. UK Nature Conservation Number 3. Peterborough: Joint Nature 

Conservation Committee. 
Hyman, P. S. & Parsons, M. S. 1994. A review of the scarce and threatened Coleoptera of Great 

Britain. Part 2. UK Nature Conservation Number 12. Peterborough: Joint Nature 

Conservation Committee. 
Jones, A. W. 1954. Drone-fly visitors to the flowers of the City bombed sites. London Naturalist 

34: 154-157. 
Jones, R. A. 1997. Deptford Creek: terrestrial invertebrate study. Preliminary results — December 

1997. Unpublished report for the Creekside Renewal Programme. 
Jones, R. A. 1998a. Life on the edge. A terrestrial invertebrate survey of Deptford Creek. 

Unpublished report for the Creekside Renewal Programme. 
Jones, R. A. 1998b. Wandsworth's hidden river. A preliminary invertebrate survey of the River 

Wandle. Unpublished report for the London Borough of Wandsworth. 
Jones, R. A. 1999a. Nysius senecionis (Schilling) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) feeding in large numbers 

on Guernsey fleabane. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 12: 229-230. 
Jones, R. A. 1999b. Further records oi Bethylus boops Thomson (Hym., Bethylidae) from south 

London. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 135: 102. 
Kirby, P. 1994. Habitat fragmentation: species at risk: invertebrate group identification. English 

Nature Research Report No. 89. Peterborough: English Nature. 
Le Gros, A. E. 1949. Notes on the spiders of the bombed sites. London Naturalist 28: 37-39. 
Lonsdale, D. 1991. Derelict land and wasteland. In: Habitat conservation for insects — a 

neglected green issue, ed D. Lonsdale and R. Fry. Middlesex: Amateur Entomologists" 

Society, pp. 189-192. 
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Huntingdon: Biological Records Centre. 
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distribution of ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Britain (1984-1994). Entomologist's 

Monthly Magazine 133: 181-203. 



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Miller, D. 1999. [Deraeocoris flavilinea Costa (Hem., Miridae) new to Britain.] in preparation. 
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Publishing. 



SHORT COMMUNICATION 



Scarce wood-decay beetles in a river floodplain farmed landscape in the Upper 
Thames Valley — The National Trust's Coleshill and Buscot Estate near Faringdon in 
the far west of VC22 (Berkshire — but currently within the administrative county of 
Oxfordshire) comprises a very large acreage of intensively managed farmland, 
probably no better or worse than the average farmland of the area. However, a 
recent biological survey revealed a surprisingly interesting range of deadwood- 
breeding beetles, including some generally regarded as collectively indicative of relict 
old forest conditions (Harding & Rose, 1986). In this respect the key feature of the 
estate is that it coincides with low-lying ground along the Thames and its minor 
tributary the River Cole. The two rivers include networks of field drains and 
hedgerows lined by mature and overmature trees, including old pollards as well as 
standards, and with crack willow, ash, oak and native black poplar. Only a few 
hundred years ago this would have been grazing marsh country and effectively an 
open pasture-woodland system — Buckland & Dinnin (1993) have pointed out that 
many localities with relatively rich saproxylic faunas have a core of old wetland, the 
wetness of the ground conditions having protected the tree cover from intensive 
exploitation for timber or small wood products. Thus today's fauna is a survival 
from an earlier landscape. Similarly interesting faunas have been noted also very 
close by to Buscot and Coleshill, along the Thames (M.F.V. Corley, in Peachey, 
1982) and in other river floodplains. e.g. in the Severn Vale of Gloucestershire (Atty, 
1983), the River Teme in Worcestershire (Whitehead, 1996), along the River Cam in 
Cambridgeshire (Kirby & Lambert, 1992) and the Darent in Kent (Williams, 1990). 

Six nationally scarce (Hyman, 1992) beetles were found within the farmland: 

Agrilns pannoniciis (Pill. & Mitt.) (Buprestidae) — Nationally Scarce Category A — 
Kilmester Farm, SU251965, extensive borings and exit holes in bark of dead 
hedgerow oak, 9.viii.l995. 

Agrilus simiatus (Olivier) — Nationally Scarce Category A — Step Farm, SU275951, 
characteristic D-shaped exit holes in dead hawthorns in old pasture, 7.viii.l995; 
Furzehill, Colleymore Farm, SU259940, two adults beaten from old hawthorn in old 
pasture, 8.viii.l995. 

Ctesias serra (Fab.) (Dermestidae) — Nationally Scarce Category B — Step Farm, 
old hedgerow pollard, SU278957; and Manor Farm, old willow pollards, SU264992. 

Anisoxya fusciila (Illiger) (Melandryidae) — Nationally Scarce Category A — 
Furzehill, Colleymore Farm, SU259940, three beaten from dead hawthorn in old 
pasture, 8.viii.l995; Kilmester Farm, SU245974, one beaten from a dead young 
willow, 9.viii.l995; Snowswick Copse, SU229958, one beaten from a dead hawthorn 
at woodland edge, 17.viii.l995. 

Conopalpus testaceus (Olivier) (Melandryidae) — Nationally Scarce Category B — 
Colleymore Farm, one beaten from old oak, SU255924. 

Cossonus parallelepipediis (Herbst) (Curculionidae) — Nationally Scarce Category 
B — Dead adults abundant plus a few Hve in trunk of large fallen poplar along drain 



214 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

south of Waterloo Copse, SU239925, 17.viii.l995; also remains of dead adults in 
trunk of willow pollard at SU257930. 

John Campbell {pers. comm.) of the Oxfordshire Museums Service has 
additionally taken Ischnomera sanguinicoUis (Fab.) (Oedemeridae) — Nationally 
Scarce Category B — on the estate. 

Cossonus parallelepipedus is a regular inhabitant of old crack willow pollards along 
river valleys and in other grazing marsh situations, while Anisoxya fuscida is often 
found in these situations as well, e.g. Alexander (1987). Agrilus pannonicus is, 
however, most likely a recent colonist. Its general increase in the western suburbs of 
London has been well-documented (Hackett, 1995) and the present record suggests 
that the species is moving westwards along the Thames Valley. The estate also 
includes two landscape parks, Coleshill Park and Buscot Park, although neither is 
known to be long-established and few deadwood beetles were found in them. Buscot 
Park had no accessible deadwood at the time of the survey, and the little available in 
Coleshill Park revealed Bitoma crenata (Fab.) (Colydiidae), Pediacus dermestoides 
(Fab.) (Cucujidae) and Phymatodes testacens (L.) (Cerambycidae). Ctesias serra has 
been found at Coleshill previously. Certainly not of the same quality for deadwood 
fauna as the surrounding farmland! A large area of ancient woodland lies to the east 
of Buscot Park — Badbury Forest — but, as with the parkland, the deadwood beetle 
fauna is not exceptional. A long history of exploitation for wood products has 
resulted in a relatively poor fauna. The most interesting species found during the 
survey were Platycis minuta (Fab.) (Lycidae) and Mycetophagus midtipunctatus (Fab.) 
(Mycetophagidae), of which only the former has nationally scarce status. The latter is 
very much a river floodplain species in the western parts of its GB range and likely 
therefore to occur also outside of this woodland, with the fauna described above. 

Thus we have the interesting situation where ancient semi-natural woodland and 
historic parks are relatively poor in wood-decay fauna while the conventional 
farmland is relatively rich. K. N. A. Alexander & A. P. Foster, National Trust, 33 
Sheep Street, Cirencester, Glos GL7 IQW. 

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BR. J ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 215 

MICROPYGUS VAGANS PARENT (DIPTERA: DOLICHOPODIDAE), 
A NEW ZEALAND FLY IN THE BRITISH ISLES 

Peter J. Chandler 

43 East field Road. Bwnham. Slough. Berk.s SLl 7 EL. 

Abstract. A species of Dolichopodidae (Diptera) native to New Zealand, 
Micropygus vagans Parent, has been present in Ireland since 1971. It was found in 
Northern Ireland in 1987 and in several areas of south-west Scotland in 1994. The 
means and timing of introduction and rate of spread are unknown, but it was found 
to be numerous and well established at several sites. 

Introduction 

The occurrence of a dolichopodid of New Zealand origin in the British Isles has 
already been reported in the newsletter of the empid and dolichopodid study group 
(Chandler, 1996) and it was consequently included in the new checklist of British 
Diptera (Chandler, 1998). Here more detail is provided of the characters of this 
species and of the known records. 

This species was first recognised in Irish material and was mentioned as an 
undetermined species of Campsicneminae (now included in Sympycninae) by 
Chandler (1988), when it was thought to be near to Campsicnemus Haliday, with 
which it was compared. The Irish specimens were examined by Peter Dyte, who 
considered that the species was more nearly related to Sympycmis Loew, but clearly 
not any of the known European species of this or related genera. 

The matter rested there until the species was found in numbers in south-west 
Scotland, during the Dipterists Forum summer field meeting based at Ayr in 1995. It 
was then decided to submit specimens to Dan Bickel of the Australian Museum, 
Sydney, who was revising southern hemisphere genera of Sympycninae and he 
rapidly determined them as Micropygus vagans Parent, a species endemic to New 
Zealand. 

It was thought for several reasons that this species had probably been introduced 
to the British Isles. It has been found in numbers at several localities, some of which 
are landscaped parks with gardens associated. It is apparently absent from earlier 
collections and one of the Irish sites is close to the residence of A. H. Haliday, the 
first author to monograph the Dolichopodidae of the British Isles, who might have 
been expected to have found it if it was present in the area in the 19th century. It is 
also well known that a number of other organisms, especially Coleoptera and 
terrestrial planarians, have been introduced to the British Isles from New Zealand, 
although no New Zealand Diptera have previously been recorded here. 

The date and means of introduction of M. vagans is unknown, but it may have 
been brought in with plant material or soil around imported plants. It was already 
present in Ireland by 1971 and is widespread there, at least in the east of the island. In 
Scotland it is still known only from Ayrshire and Kirkcudbright, but is well 
established there. It may be restricted by climatic requirements and it will be 
interesting to see if it is spreads to other parts of the country. 

The genus Micropygus is endemic to New Zealand and not recorded elsewhere. All 
of the 16 known species were described by Parent (1933), most of them being 
recorded from only one or two localities. M. vagans was recorded from six scattered 
localities, mostly in the South Island, taken in x, xii-i and vi. Nothing was recorded 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 



concerning the habitats or biology of any species of Micropygus. Because the genus 
was described after 1930 and Parent did not designate a type-species, the generic 
name was unavailable until it was validated by Bickel & Dyte (1989), from which it 
now dates. 



Description 

This is a rather small fly of undistinguished appearance, the body approximately 
2mm long, the wing 2.6-2.8 mm (male), 2.6^3. 1mm (female). The body is 
predominantly dark greenish, more or less covered with grey dusting, and the legs 
are mainly yellow. The wing is mainly dark grey in appearance with brown veins, but 
with a strip including the posterior crossvein appearing whitish in both sexes, which 
is due to the absence both of pigmentation in the vein and of microtrichia on the 
adjacent part of the wing membrane (Fig. 1). 

Unlike many members of the family, there are no obvious secondary sexual 
characters in the male. Apart from genital characters, the female has the face a little 
broader than in the male; Parent referred to presence of a ventral bristle on the mid 
tibia in the female, but this has not been found in the material available. The general 
description below therefore refers to both sexes. 

The head is grey dusted, with areas on the frons appearing dull black when viewed 
from certain angles. The face is whitish grey and is narrow and parallel-sided below 
the antennae (a little broader in the female), then widening sharply to the mouth 
margin. The antennae and palpi are black. The antenna has the scape bare, pedicel 
with short bristles and third segment (first flagellomere) triangular, a little longer 
than broad, bluntly rounded apically and densely covered with hairs; the arista is set 
dorsally at the basal third of the third segment and is slender, about 3 x antennal 
length. The head bears 4 strong black bristles posteriorly, comprising a pair of 
divergent postocellars and an erect outer vertical bristle near the hind corner of each 
eye. 

The thorax is humped, greenish brown in ground colour with thin grey dusting on 
the dorsum, which also bears three vague dark stripes which are widely interrupted 
around the suture, being present anteriorly before the first dorsocentral bristle and 
also posteriorly with the laterals on the dorsocentral rows. Acrostichal bristles are 
absent, but there are 5 pairs of strong erect dorsocentrals, 2 of them being presutural. 
The pleura are more strongly grey dusted. 

The coxae are dark grey; the femora are vaguely greyish dorsally, this dark 
colouring usually not reaching the base or tip of the femur; the legs, including the 
trochanters, are otherwise dull yellow. Mid femur has anterior and posterior 
preapical bristles, the hind femur only an anterior preapical. Mid tibia has 2 long 
anterodorsals, situated at a third and two-thirds of its length, and a single 
posterodorsal basal to the more basal of the anterodorsals: these bristles are longer 
than the tibial width. Hind tibia has a row of about 8 dorsal bristles, of which 4 are 
usually longer and equalling tibial width, and 4 posteroventral bristles. Hind 
basitarsus (first tarsomere) is shorter than the second segment of the hind tarsus. 

The wing (Fig. 1 ) is of grey appearance due to the presence of minute close-set 
microtrichia covering the membrane, except in a strip on either side of the posterior 
crossvein. The anterior crossvein is absent. The wing veins are brown except for the 
greater part of the posterior crossvein, which thus appears white in contrast to the 
rest of the wing. The halteres are yellow. 

The abdomen is dark greenish with thin grey dusting. The male genitalia (Fig. 2) 
are small, black and held vertically; the cerci are relatively large with fine hairs. The 



BR. J ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 




Figs 1-3. Micropygus vagans Parent. 1. Male wing. 2. Male genitalia: a, lateral view; b, ventral 
view. 3. Female genitalia: a. lateral view; b, dorsal view. Abbreviations: aed = aedeagus, 
cer = cercus, et = epiproct, gc = genital capsule, ht = hypoproct, sur = surstylus, S = sternite, 
T = tergite. Scale lines: wing 0.5 mm, others 0.25 mm. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 



female genitalia (Fig. 3) are slender and retracted in situ, with the epiproct bearing 
blunt spinose setae and the cerci strap-shaped and black, with a single apical seta. 



Recognition 

M. vagans runs in the keys by Assis Fonseca (1978) to couplet 12 in the male key to 
genera and couplet 13 in the female key. This is because the "discal vein" (Mj+i) is 
unforked and running straight to the margin parallel to the preceding vein (R4+5), 
antennal scape simple, arista set basally on third antennal segment, proboscis and 
front coxae without spines, a preapical bristle present on the hind femur, acrostichals 
absent and 5 pairs of dorsocentrals present. 

In both male and female keys the choice is then between Campsicnemus, which has 
the face narrowed below the antennae but then immediately broadened to the mouth 
margin, and other genera in which the face is narrowed from the antennae to the 
mouth margin. Micropygus thus differs from both alternatives in having the face 
parallel-sided on the upper part and then sharply broadened to the mouth margin. 

As mentioned above, there is some general resemblance to Sympycims, which runs 
elsewhere in the keys by Assis Fonseca because the British species have uniserial 
acrostichals although these are absent in some exotic species. Sympycnus species also 
have 6 pairs of dorsocentrals. 

According to the key by Parent (1933), M. vagans shares the characters of yellow 
tibiae and the white marking on the posterior crossvein with five other species of the 
genus, but all of these have one or more additional white markings on the wing and 
some also differ in chaetotaxy of the legs. 

This wing character also enables immediate recognition of M. vagans among other 
small nondescript Dolichopodidae found in the British Isles. 



Distribution 

The Irish and British records are listed chronologically. Without recent Irish 
records it is not possible to speculate on how widespread it may now be there. The 
most recent list with locality data of Irish Dolichopodidae was by Dyte (1969), 
following his collecting trip in 1967. I collected Dolichopodidae, among other 
Diptera, widely in Ireland from 1968 to 1987, enabling Assis Fonseca (1978) to add 
six species and over thirty new county records to those previously recorded from 
Ireland. Prior to first finding this species in 1971, I had spent seven weeks collecting 
in Ireland and this find was on my fifth visit. The Irish dolichopodid list was updated 
by Speight & De Courcy Williams (1992) and Speight and others have also published 
several other notes on species additional to the Irish list, but have not reported this 
species. 

The widespread occurrence of the species in Ayrshire and the adjacent part of 
Kirkcudbright suggests that M. vagans has been established in that part of Scotland 
for many years, but has passed unnoticed through lack of previous visits by 
dipterists. It is possible that Culzean (pronounced Cullane) Castle Park was the point 
of introduction, but until more is known of its biological requirements, the means of 
spread must remain uncertain. My records are cited as PJC; most specimens are in 
the collections of the recorders or that of Peter Dyte, but examples will be deposited 
in the National Museums of Scotland and other national collections. 

IRELAND: Dublin, Howth (02837), mixed woods on summit of hill, 17.vii.l971, 
female (PJC); 27.vi.1975, male and female (PJC). 



BR. J ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 219 

Dublin, Slade of Saggart (0033245), 7.viii.l981. female (J. P. O'Connor, to be 
deposited in National Museum of Ireland). 

Down, Crawfordsburn Country Park (J4481), 2 and 3.vii.l987, numerous by 
stream bordered by Rhododendron thicket in beech woodland (PJC). 

SCOTLAND: Ayrshire, Culzean Castle Country Park (NS2209-2310): Swan 
Lake, 5.vii.l995. two females (PJC) and 6.vii.l995, in numbers amongst low 
vegetation around wooded margin of lake (R. Crossley); belt of sycamore woodland 
between shore and Cow Cliffs, vii.1995 (J. H. Cole); amongst Rhododendron by cliff 
path and by ditches near the Carse Walk, 16. vii.1995, numerous (PJC). 

Ayrshire, River Ayr Gorge at Failton (NS458258), vii.1995, numerous below 
overhanging wooded riverbank (J. H. Cole). 

Ayrshire, Bridgend, Loch Winnoch (NS348595), 6.vii.l995, frequent in wooded 
ravine with stony stream; presence of ramsons {Allium ursinum) suggested a base-rich 
influence (C. M. Drake). 

Ayrshire, Sevenacres Mains Wood (NS332452), 6.vii.l995, 2 males, 1 female in 
secondary damp birch woodland on sand (C. M. Drake). 

Ayrshire, North Lissens (NS323479), 6.vii.l995, frequent in oak/beech woodland 
with a stream and a few boggy patches (with Luzula and Phalaris) (C. M. Drake). 

Ayrshire, East Newton Valley (NS5 19383), 8.vii.l995, very abundant by heavily 
shaded wooded stream (C. M. Drake). 

Kirkcudbright (Dumfries & Galloway), Wood of Cree RSPB Reserve (NX3870), 
7. vii.1995, 2 males, 3 females by small stream under oaks (C. M. Drake). 

Kirkcudbright {Dumfries & Galloway), Loch Trool (NX4 15803), 7.vii.l995 male 
and female by wet drainage ditch alongside upland track with moorland vegetation, 
the only open site but near a stream under a few trees (C. M. Drake). 

Wooded streams or ditches are a common factor to a number of the sites and in 
two cases wooded lake margins. However, at least one site lacked open water and the 
last mentioned site was away from trees. The woodland types are quite varied and 
other vegetation also quite variable. As with so many Dolichopodidae, development 
in damp soil or mud seems most likely, but knowledge of the early stages of members 
of the family with this general habitat is very limited. 

Acknowledgements 

I am grateful to the other collectors involved for kindly permitting me to include 
their data. I am especially indebted to Dan Bickel for the determination of this 
species and to Peter Dyte, both for his assistance throughout and for his very useful 
comments on the manuscript. 

References 

Assis Fonseca, E. C. M. d' 1978. Diptera Orthorrhapha Brachycera Dolichopodidae. Handbooks 

for the Identification of British Insects 9. Part 5; 1-90. Royal Entomological Society. 
Bickel, D. J. & Dyte, C. E. 1989. 44. Family Dolichopodidae. pp. 393-418. In Evenhuis, N.L. 

(Ed.) Catalog of the Diptera of the Australasian and Oceanian Regions. Bishop Museum 

Special Publication 86: 1155 pp. Bishop Museum Press and E. J. Brill. 
Chandler, P. J. 1988. Three Campsicneminae recently discovered in Britain and Ireland. Empid 

and dolichopodid study group Newsheet 5: 6. 
Chandler, P. J. 1996. An Irish dolie of antipodean extraction turns up in Scotland. Empid and 

dolichopodid study group Newsheet 14: 2-3. 
Chandler. P. J. 1998. (Ed.) Checklists of Insects of the British Isles (New Series) Part 1: Diptera. 

Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects 12. Part 1: xx +234 pp. Royal 

Entomological Society. 



220 BR. J ENT. NAT. HIST., 12; 1999 

Dyte, C. E. 1969. A provisional list of Irish Dolichopodidae (Diptera). The Entomologist 102: 

40-48. 
Parent, O. 1933. Etude monographique sur les Dipteres Dolichopodides de Nouvelle Zelande. 

Annales de la Societe scientifique de Bruxelles (B) 53: 325^41. 
Speight, M. C. D. & De Courcy Williams, M. 1992. Records of 23 species of Dolichopodidae 

(Diptera) whose presence in Ireland requires confirmation. Irish Naturalist 's Journal 24: 1 7-20. 



SHORT COMMUNICATION 



Procas granulicollis Walton (Col.: Curculionidae) discovered in Surrey — The known 
world distribution of this weevil has until now been the hill country of the north and 
west of Britain — in Cumberland and Kirkcudbrightshire (Hyman, 1992) and three 
Welsh vice-counties (Fowles, 1992). It was therefore a considerable surprise when 
one was found amongst material taken on Holmwood Common (TQ1746), near 
Dorking in Surrey. Just the single specimen had been captured, by sweep-netting 
along a rideside in rather nondescript secondary woodland with open bracken-filled 
glades, 29.vii.1997. The situation of bracken in glades within ungrazed woodland is 
precisely as described for Welsh localities (Fowles, 1992). 

Following up on this discovery, John Owen and other coleopterists visited the spot, 
2. V. 1998, and had no difficulty in finding P. gratmlicoUis in some numbers by sieving 
bracken debris. They saw about 30 examples and estimate the population density at 
some spots to be around 10 per square metre. Only two small spots were closely 
examined. In one, where the weevil was plentiful, there were numerous seedlings of 
Corydalis claviculata. Many seedlings showed signs of being eaten and one weevil was 
found on a plant. At the other spot, about 100 m distant, there were plenty of weevils 
but not a sign of the plant. Corydalis has been identified as a key feature of the known 
sites and is suspected to be the main foodplant of the adult weevil. 

Holmwood Common is a large area of common land, ungrazed since the 1950s, 
which has developed extensive cover of secondary oak and birch woodland. It is 
underlain by Cretaceous Wealden Clay and soils covering the site are mainly poorly 
drained silty or clayey surface water gleys, grading locally to better drained acidic 
sandy soils (Wickham 1 Association). The bulk of the woodland falls within the WIO, 
Quercus robur-Pteridiwn aqiiilinum Rubus frutkosiis coinmunity of the National 
Vegetation Classification (Rodwell, 1991). The WIO community is characteristically 
found on base-poor brown soils throughout the temperate lowlands of southern 
Britain, often in places like Holmwood which have poor drainage and a tendency for 
seasonal waterlogging. The woods are otherwise unremarkable in terms of botanical 
and entomological interest due to their recent secondary origin. 

My thanks to Mike Morris for identifying the weevil, to John Owen for carrying 
out soiTie follow-up recording, and to Janet Lister for information on geology, soils 
and vegetation. — Keith N. A. Alexander, The National Trust, 33 Sheep Street, 
Cirencester, Gloucestershire GL7 IRQ. 

References 

Fowles, A. P. 1992. Observations on Procas granulicollis Walton (Curculionidae). Coleopterist 

1(3): 19-20. 
Hyman, P. S. (revised Parsons, M. S.) 1992. A review of the scarce and threatened Coleoptera of 

Great Britain. Part 1. UK Nature Conservation: 3. Peterborough: Joint Nature 

Conservation Committee. 
Rodwell, J. 1991. British Plant Cotnnmnities. I. Woodlands and scrub. Cambridge University 

Press. 



BR. J. ENT NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 221 

BUCHANAN/ELLA CONTINUA (B. WHITE) (HEMIPTERA: 
ANTHOCORIDAE) ESTABLISHED IN BRITAIN 

P. KiRBY 
21 Grafton Avenue. Netherton, Peterborough, Camhs PES 9PD. UK. 

Abstract. The anthocorid Biichananiella coritiinia (B. White) has been found 
established in Buckingham Palace Garden, London. Characters for identification 
are given. 

Introduction 

Buchananiella continua (B. White) is a pan-tropical species, but has been reported 
quite widely in the western Palaearctic in recent decades, and in some places at least 
has established breeding populations. Pericart (1972) lists records from France, 
Portugal, Italy, Madeira and the Azores. B. continua has previously been reported 
from Britain only as a casual importation at Liverpool Docks (Pericart, 1972). 
Captures of a number of individuals from Buckingham Palace Garden, Middlesex, in 
1995 and 1997 strongly suggest an established population in Britain. Single males 
were captured in malaise-traps operated by Mr C. W. Plant in the periods 3.viii.- 
7.ix.l995 and 7-22.ix.l995; I took a further three males and seven-females by active 
collecting on 21.viii.l997. No nymphs have been found, but the number of 
individuals captured and the time-span over which they have been found makes it 
almost certain that an outdoor breeding population has been estabhshed over at least 
a three-year period. 

Identification 

B. continua is a small and, to the naked eye at least, a rather undistinguished- 
looking bug. The length of the Buckingham Palace specimens varies from 2.2 to 
2.35 mm for males and 2.25 to 2.4 mm for females. The coloration is a little variable. 
The lightest individuals are an almost uniform mid-brown, with the scutellum and 
cuneus rather deeper and more reddish in colour and the head darker black-brown. 
In the darkest individuals head, pronotum and scutellum are a deep rather shining 
brown-black in colour, the rear corners of the pronotum somewhat lighter, the fore- 
wings a somewhat lighter brown, the cuneus darker, somewhat reddish towards the 
tip. The wing membrane is dark grey. The legs are pale yellow-brown, the femora 
sometimes slightly infuscated. The first antennal segment is almost black and shining; 
the second pale at the base and darkened, almost black, at the tip; the third and 
fourth somewhat darkened. The second antennal segment is considerably broader 
than the third and fourth, more so in the male than the female. The males from 
Buckingham Palace Garden are, on the whole, somewhat lighter and more uniform 
in colour than the females, but with more extensively darkened second antennal 
segments, almost the entire segment being darkened in one individual. The whole of 
the dorsal surface has moderately long pale pubescence which, however, is 
sufficiently pale and fine not to be immediately conspicuous in some lights. 

To the naked eye, the size and coloration give B. continua the appearance of a very 
dark Cardiastethus fasciiventris (Garbiglietti). It is also somewhat similar to Orius 
spp., for which it could conceivably be passed over in the field. Under the 
microscope, however, it is immediately distinctive. The pronotum is of different 
appearance to that of any other British anthocorid. A central longitudinal furrow in 
the rear half of the pronotum divides into two widely spread arms running laterally 



222 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

at approximately the mid-point of the pronotal length. Cardiastethus fasciiventris has 
a similarly placed transverse furrow, but only a trace, at most, of a longitudinal 
furrow; Dufouriellus ater (Dufour) has a longitudinal furrow, but lacks the transverse 
arms. The male genitalia of B. continua are also different to those of any other 
member of the British fauna. The shape of the genital capsule, if pulled only slightly 
clear from the abdomen, is sufficient for identification without the need for 
dissection. The overall appearance and chief distinguishing features of B. contmua 
are shown in Fig. 1. 

B. contmua is keyed and illustrated in Pericart (1972). Attempting to identify it 
using the key in Southwood & Leston (1959) would probably lead to an 
unsatisfactory outcome; B. continua does not comfortably fit the couplets. The 
most likely end-point is probably Xylocoridea brevipennis Reuter, depending on what 
opinion were taken of its colour and the length of its pubescence, but since 
X. brevipennis is almost always brachypterous, whereas B. continua is always 
macropterous, there would be immediate cause for doubt. B. continua is a member of 
the tribe Dufouriellini ( = Cardiastethini). If placed in taxonomic order in the 
checklist of Kloet & Hincks (1964) Buchananiella Reuter, 1884 would come 
immediately after Cardiastethus Fieber, 1860. 









Fig. 1. a. fi. continua female, dorsal view: scale bar= 1 mm. b. male antenna, c. female antenna, 
d. pronotum, dorsal view. e. tip of male abdomen, genital capsule pulled slightly back, dorsal 
view. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 223 

B. continua appears to live amongst accumulations of dry vegetation. Pericart 
records it amongst dry cut hay, where it was probably preying on Psocoptera. In 
Buckingham Palace Garden, B. continua was found in an area used for composting. 
All individuals captured were amongst stacked dry branches, still with leaves 
attached, though dry and brittle. The resultant vegetation formed a sizeable 
protected and sheltered volume, but with quite large internal spaces. Though this cut 
and stacked material probably represented the breeding site, there can be no 
guarantee that this was the case. Only adults were captured, and it is possible that the 
nymphs developed elsewhere, perhaps at a greater depth within the piled vegetation, 
and that only adults were active amongst the more accessible branches. However, no 
adults or possible nymphs of B. continua could be found in material of any other sort 
within the composting area, despite specific search by beating and sieving. 

The bugs were readily beaten from the dry branches onto a plastic tray. Their 
behaviour, once on the tray, was quite different to that of any other British 
anthocorid I have encountered. They were very active, moving in a series of very 
short flights of a few centimetres, often with brief rests or short walks between. Such 
behaviour may well be an efficient method of escape from danger in the loosely 
packed dry vegetation where they lived, but is decidedly ineffectual on a plastic tray. 
In my experience, other anthocorids of similar size and shape usually either run to 
shelter, or, if they choose to fly, do so with more determination and are quickly lost. 
This behaviour may not, however, be an infallible method of recognition for 
B. continua: the captures were made on a warm day in August; the insects might well 
be less active and more inclined to run than fly in colder weather. 

The long-term viability of B. continua as an established British species must be 
open to some doubt. It does not appear to be able to diapause in the winter (Pericart, 
1972), which could pose problems in the British climate. The mid 1990s have been 
notable for a succession of mild winters. A single severe winter might pose a problem 
for B. continua. However, its adoption of artificial habitats may faciUtate its finding 
conditions sheltered from extremes of climate, and the relatively warm climate 
provided by the urban complex of London is likely to provide outdoor conditions as 
suitable as can be found anywhere in Britain. B. continua could be considerably more 
widespread, at least in London and the south-east. Habitats similar to that in which 
it was found in Buckingham Palace Garden are by no means scarce in urban and 
suburban areas, and in the wider countryside, though suitable conditions may often 
be of short duration. Moreover, such habitats in urban areas are likely to receive 
rather little attention from heteropterists. 

Acknowledgements 

This publication results from a survey of the natural history of Buckingham Palace 
Garden being undertaken by the London Natural History Society in order to record 
the entire flora and fauna there. This work is being carried out by gracious 
permission of Her Majesty The Queen. 

References 

Kloet, G. S. & Hincks, W. D. 1964. A check list of British insects, part 1. Second edition. 

Handbooks for the identification of Britisli Insects 11(1). 
Pericart, J. 1972. Hemipteres Anthocoridae, Cimicidae, Microphysidae de TOuest Palearctique. 

Faune de I' Europe et du Bassin Mediterranean 7: 1-402. 
Southwood, T. R. E. & Leston, D. 1959. Land and water bugs of tlie Britisli Isles. Warne, 

London. 



224 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS 

Humming-bird hawk-moth Macroglossum stellatarum (L.) (Lep.: Sphingidae) 
probing the ground — A humming-bird hawk-moth was seen hovering and probing 
the ground at Micheldever Wood, Hampshire, along the path between grid reference 
SU533366 and SU531386 at ~15.30h BST on 22. viii.1996. The ground here 
comprised a mixture of compacted earth and, predominantly, stony gravel, with 
sparse ground-lying vegetation. The moth was tracked and observed for several 
minutes during which it would hover and probe the ground, fly for short bursts 
without deviating to seek nectar, and resume probing 3-10 m further NNW. 
Intermittently however, hovering was followed by periods of settling on the spot for 
several seconds with wings in resting posture. These periods were always followed by 
a short burst of flight before hovering and probing resumed. Attempts to approach 
the insect, whether hovering or settled, elicited similar flights. During one period of 
settling the moth was netted with the aim of determining its sex, but forced its way 
out through a hole and flew 10-12 m along the path in an erratic course before 
resuming its prior behaviour. A second capture attempt revealed it to be male. 

M. stellatarum is a mainly diurnal nectar feeder that has been recorded at many 
wild and cultivated plants (Skinner, 1984; Herrera, 1992; Pitt-Payne, 1996). Yet 
despite searching several works on moth biogeography and behaviour (Ford, 1955; 
South, 1977; Heath & Emmet, 1979; Skinner, 1984; D'Abrera, 1986; Pittaway, 1993) 
the author could find no mention of M. stellatarum, or other Palaearctic Sphingidae, 
feeding at the ground; although some tropical species wiU drink eye secretions and 
some North American hawk-moths will probe rotting animal remains (Pittaway, 
1993). 

Ground feeding is better known in butterflies which use it to obtain moisture and 
salts, notably sodium chloride (Adler & Pearson, 1982). Sodium is needed for proper 
muscle function, and for egg production (Porter, 1992) where its precise 
physiological role is poorly understood (House, 1974; Happ, 1984). However, as 
most of the sodium for egg production is obtained during copulation from the males, 
the reserves are more seriously depleted and in need of replenishment in this sex 
(Porter, 1992). Rainwater collecting in puddles elutes salts from the ground, which 
become concentrated as the water evaporates, and it is such damp patches that are 
most attractive (Sevastopulo, 1974). 

Middle Wallop, the nearest meteorological station, recorded 0.6 mm of rain on 20. 
viii.1996, a trace on 21.viii, and prior to this 0.2mm on 17.viii. The ground at 
Micheldever Wood was not visibly damp when the moth was probing, but 
comparable rainfall there may have been sufficient to dissolve surface salts. Sodium 
chloride is hygroscopic, and should M. stellatarum be able to secrete water from its 
proboscis to cope with viscous nectars (see Kevan & Baker, 1983), as its wide range 
of nectar sources might suggest, then hygroscopically bound water could lessen the 
amount of fluid the moth must secrete. 

In day-flying moths, scent may be relatively unimportant for locating nectar 
(Kevan & Baker, 1983), and an instance of M. stellatarum trying to feed from 
coloured lights (Bigger, 1960) demonstrates that visual cues can suffice. However, the 
stimulus for ground-probing, and the means by which moisture and salts are 
detected, remain to be established. Low-level flying and probing for moisture may 
exemplify a generalized response to increased humidity or decreased barometric 
pressure, and the habit of male honeydew-feeding purple hairstreak butterflies 
Quercusia quercus L. (Lycaenidae) to forage lower than usual in the canopy during 
sultry weather is well known (Ford, 1957). Many butterflies can "taste" salt with 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 225 

their feet (Adler & Pearson, 1982) and comparable sense organs in M. stellatanan 
would enable the moth to detect surface salt when settling. The observation that a 
proximity of salt solution will elicit flexing motions of the antennae in purple 
emperor butterflies Apatura iris L. (Martin C. White, pers. comm.), on the other 
hand, suggests that some species may be able to detect short-range gradients in the 
concentration of airborne salt molecules. — Leonard Winokur, 8 Parklands Close, 
Chandlers Ford, Eastleigh, Hants S053 2EQ. 

References 

Adler, P. H. & Pearson, D. L. 1982. Why do male butterflies visit mud puddles? Canadian 

Journal of Zoology 60: 322-325. 
Bigger, T. R. L. 1960. A confused humming-bird hawk-moth {Macroglossum stellatarum L.) 

Entomologist's Gazette 11: 3. 
DAbrera, B. 1986. Sphingidac nnmdi. hawk moths of the world. E. W. Classey, Faringdon. 
Ford, E. B. 1955. Moths. Collins. London. 
Ford, E. B. 1957. Butterflies. 3rd Edition. Collins, London. 
Happ, G. M. 1984. Development and reproduction. In Evans, H. E. (Ed.). Insect biology. 

Addison- Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, Massachusetts, pp. 99-113. 
House, H. L. 1974. Nutrition, hi Rockstein, M. (Ed.). The physiology of Insecta. Vol. 5. 

Academic Press, New York & London, pp. 1-62. 
Herrera, C. M. 1992. Activity pattern and thermal biology of a day-flying hawkmoth 

(Macroglossum stellatarum) under Mediterranean summer conditions. Ecological Entomol- 
ogy 17: 52-56. 
Heath, J. & Emmet, A. M. (Eds.). 1979. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Vol. 9. Sphingidae-Noctuidae (Hadeninae). Curwen Books, Plaistow, London. 
Kevan, P. G. & Baker, H. G. 1983. Insects as flower visitors and pollinators. Annual Review of 

Entomology 28: 407-453. 
Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The hawkmoths of the western Palearctic. Harley Books, Colchester. 
Pitt-Payne, M. 1996. Humming-bird hawkmoth in Aylesbury. Bulletin of the Amateur 

Entomologists' Society 55: 77. 
Porter, K. 1992. Eggs and egg-laying. In Dennis, R. L. H. (Ed.). The ecology of butterflies in 

Britain. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 46-72. 
Sevastopulo, D. G. 1974. Lepidoptera feeding at puddle-margins, dung and carrion. Journal of 

the Lepidopterists' Society 28: 167-168. 
Skinner, B. 1984. Moths of the British Isles. Viking, Harmondsworth. 
South, R. 1977. The moths of the British Isles. 4th Edition, part 1. Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd, 

London & New York. 



A new locality for Cosmotettix caudatus (Flor) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), with a 
note on its ecology — The known distribution of C. caudatus in Britain is very 
scattered, with single localities previously reported in Buckinghamshire, Lancashire, 
Northamptonshire. Oxfordshire and Somerset (Kirby, 1992). The ecology of the 
insect is poorly known. Previous British records are from wet areas and water 
margins. Le Quesne (1969) reports it from "grasses in damp places". Ossiannilsson 
(1983) gives Care.x vesicaria L. as a foodplant, and its habitat as "tall sedge-bogs". 

In 1990 I found C. caudatus at a second Northamptonshire locality. Racecourse 
Farm Fields SSSI, National Grid Reference TFO 18042. My first visit to this site was 
made on 10.vi.l990, close to dusk on a cold evening. Examination of a large 
(approximately two metres across) patch of Care.x hirta L. revealed a considerable 
number of Cicadula persimilis (Edwards), many of them quite high in the vegetation 
and easily caught by sweeping. There were smaller numbers of a similarly sized but 
paler insect without obvious markings on the head. These occurred only low down in 



226 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

the sedge clump. None were taken by sweeping and, because of the dense vegetation, 
they were elusive, even at the low temperature at the time of observation. My initial 
reaction was to dismiss them as teneral Cicadula, hypothesizing that their tendency 
to keep low in the vegetation might be an adaptation to keep them relatively safe 
from predation when their defences were weak and, perhaps, their jumping ability 
limited. I captured two individuals for checking, which proved on my return home to 
be a male and female C. caudatus. 

My next visit to the site was on 20.vii.l990, when I hoped to establish more clearly 
the distribution of the insect and to capture nymphs. Though the weather was better 
than on the June visit and I now had an established search-image for the insect, 
C. caudatus seemed significantly less numerous than on the first occasion, and I was 
unable to find associated nymphs. Once again, the insects were concentrated low 
down in the vegetation. A third visit to the site on 12 September produced no 
C. caudatus despite careful search of its known area of distribution. 

Two points which emerge from these observations are worthy of note. First, 
Racecourse Farm Fields is not a wetland, but an oolitic limestone grassland. Second, 
C. caudatus was found only on Carex hirta (of which only this one patch was found 
on the site). There was a large patch of Carex flacca Schreber adjacent to the C. hirta 
and contiguous with it for a length of about a metre. Cicadula persimilis occurred 
freely and seemingly indifferently in both sedge species, but no C caudatus were 
found on this or on other patches of C. flacca in the vicinity, nor on three other 
Carex species present at the site: C. ericetorum Pollich, C. spicata Hudson and 
C caryophyllea Latourr, all of which grew as scattered plants throughout the 
grassland. 

It seems clear that Carex hirta is a foodplant of C. caudatus, and rather likely that, 
at Racecourse Farm Fields, it is the occurrence of the host plant rather than the 
habitat as such which is the limiting factor in determining the distribution of the 
insect. There is no reason to suppose that C. hirta is the only foodplant, but it does 
seem that the insect does not occur on all sedges. It is possible, also, that it requires 
its foodplants to occur in large dense clumps. If the habits of the insect at this site, in 
remaining very low in the vegetation, are typical, then it could easily be overlooked, 
especially if amongst similarly sized Cicadula species. This could go some way 
towards explaining the widely scattered records of the species. 

The phenology of the insect observed in 1990 may be atypical. The very hot 
summer of that year profoundly affected limestone grasslands in the Peterborough 
area. By early July signs of drought were already apparent, and by September much 
of the vegetation was brown and dry, and finding insects of any sort was difficult. 

My visits to Racecourse Farm Fields were made as part of a survey of oolitic 
limestone grasslands undertaken for the East Midlands Region of the Nature 
Conservancy Council (now English Nature). Thanks go to Burleigh Estates for 
giving permission for the survey, and to Sarah Lambert for identifying the sedges. — 
P. KiRBY, 21 Grafton Avenue, Netherton, Peterborough PE3 9PD. 

References 

Kirby, P. 1992. A review of the scarce and tlireatened Hemiptera of Great Britain. Joint Nature 
Conservation Committee, Peterborough (UK Nature Conservation, no. 2). 

Le Quesne, W. J. 1969. Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha, Deltocephalinae. Handbooic for identifica- 
tion of Britisli Insects 2(2)b. 

Ossiannilsson, F. 1983. The Auchenorryncha (Homoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. 
Part 3: the family Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae, catalogue, literature and index. Fauna 
Entomologica Scandinavica 7(2). 



BR. J ENT NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 227 

MORDELLISTENA SECRETA HORAK (COLEOPTERA: 
MORDELLIDAE), A SPECIES NEW TO BRITAIN 

B. Levey 

Department of Biodiversity & Svsteniatic Biology, National Museums & Galleries of Wales, 

Cardiff CFIO 3NP, UK. 

Abstract. MordellLstena secreta Horak is recorded from Britain for the first time. 
Notes are given to distinguish it from other species with which it is Hkely to be 
confused. 

Introduction 

Batten (1986) in his review of British MordelHdae includes Mordellistena pentas 
Mulsant in his key as a species which might eventually be found in Britain. Amongst 
some Coleoptera collected by me on Epsom Common, Surrey, on 23.vi.1971 were 
two Mordellistena which I had not identified until recently. One of these was a female 
M. puinila (Gyllenhal) and the other a male, keyed out to M. pentas Mulsant using 
Batten (1986). 

However, using Horak's (1983) key to the pentas species group, this specimen 
keyed out to M. secreta Horak, a species described from Slovakia and the Czech 
Republic, and also recorded from Austria, Rumania, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, 
Turkey, the Caucasus and Armenia, but not apparently from western Europe. I sent 
the specimen to Jan Horak who kindly confirmed my identification. 

I was subsequently sent another male of the pentas species group by Daniel 
Hackett, collected on Hounslow Heath, London, on 3.vii.l998. The genitalia of this 
specimen did not match well with that of my specimen of M. secreta; the length to 
width of antennal segments 5-10 was between 1.1 and 1.3 times instead of 1.4-1.6 
times as long as wide, as given for secreta, and the shape of the last segment of the 
maxillary palp was somewhat different. These characters appeared to correspond 
more closely with the figures and description given by Horak for M. berbera Horak, 
described from Algeria. I sent the specimen to Jan Horak who identified it as a 
specimen of M. secreta. It thus appears that M. secreta shows some variation in those 
characters used to identify the species in this group, rendering identification 
problematic in this difficult group. I have figured the antennae, maxillary palpi and 
male genitalia of the two specimens for comparison (Figs 1, 2, 4—8, 11, 12). 

Identification 

In Batten (1986) M. secreta will key to M. pentas. M. secreta can be distinguished 
from M. pentas in that the males of the former species have a brush of longer 
protruding hairs near the base of the fore tibia on the inner part of the anterior face, 
which is absent in M. pentas (Figs 9-10). In the few specimens I have examined the 
elytra of the latter species is also less curved when viewed from the side. Needless to 
say it may not be possible to identify females unequivocally in this group. 

I have figured the parameres of a specimen of M. pentas from Konitsa, loanina, 
Greece from my collection, that was identified by Jan Horak, in case this species 
should be found in Britain (Fig. 3). The figure of the parameres given in Batten 
(1986) which is the same as that given in Batten (1976) from a specimen from Vernet, 
France, and the figure in Ermisch (1969) do not agree well with the specimen I have 



228 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 




Figs 1-12: MordeUistena species. 1-3: Parameres of male. 1-2 M. secreta: 1 Epsom Common 
specimen; 2 Hounslow Heath specimen; 3 M. pentas from Konitsa, Greece. 4-5: Apex of penis 
of M. secreta. 4 Epsom Common specimen; 5 Hounslow heath specimen. 6: Phallobase of 
M. secreta from Hounslow Heath. 7-8: Maxillary palp of M. secreta. 7 Epsom Common 
specimen. 8 Hounslow Heath specimen. 9-10: Fore leg of male. 9 M. secreta. 10 M. pentas. 11- 
12: Segments 5-10 of male antennae of M. secreta. 11 Epsom Common specimen. 12 Hounslow 
Heath specimen. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 229 

figured. This could be due to individual or geographic variation, or possibly the 
specimens figured are another species. 

The pentas group can be distinguished from the pumila group in that members of 
the former group have three ridges on hind tarsal segment two, whereas the latter 
group have only two ridges on this segment. This character can be difficult to see 
unless the specimens are well set. M. secreta in general appearance is very like the 
rather variable M. pumila (Gyllenhal) and the shape of the parameres, phallobase 
and the apical part of the penis are also very similar, so it is possible that M. secreta 
may well turn up amongst material standing as M. pumila in collections. 

Acknowledgements 

I wish to thank Jan Horak for confirming and correcting the identification of 
specimens mentioned in this paper, and Daniel Hackett for allowing me to see his 
specimen. 

References 

Batten, R. 1976. De Nederiandse Soorten van de Keverfamilie Mordellidae. Zoologische 

Bijdragen No. 19, Bijdragen tot de Faunistiek van Nederland, IV. 
Batten, R. 1986. A review of the British Mordellidae (Coleoptera). Entomologist's Gazette, 37: 

225-235. 
Ermisch, K. 1969. Familie Mordellidae. In Freude, H., Harde, K. W. & Lohse, G. A. Die Kdfer 

Mitteleuropas, 8: 160-196. 
Horak, J. 1983. Revision der Mordellistena-Arten aus der pentas-Gruppe (Coleoptera, 

Mordellidae). Entomologische Ahhandlungen Staatliches Museum fiir Tierkunde in Dresden. 

47(1): 1-13. 



SHORT COMMUNICATIONS 



Nysius senecionis (Schilling) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) feeding in large numbers on 
Guernsey fleabane — On 22.ix.1998, whilst visiting a derelict site in Wandsworth, 
West London (VC17, 'Surrey'), I was startled by the abundance of Guernsey 
fleabane, Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E. Walker (Asteraceae). The site, on the River 
Thames at the outlet of the River Wandle (TQ253752), had previously been a storage 
facility for Shell, and the large circular concrete bases of the storage tanks were still 
present amongst the acres of rubble. The fleabane was growing out from almost 
every available crack and piece of bare ground. Thinking it might be a novel 
foodplant for some insect or other I swept a small patch and was rewarded by a 
sweep net crawUng with about 200 specimens of a ground-bug, a Nysius species — 
both adults and nymphs. Beating other patches of the plant over the net confirmed 
that the insect was incredibly abundant. The Nysius was easily determined later as A''. 
senecionis, using the description and figures given by Hodge & Porter (1997). 

As its name suggests, Nysius senecionis is well known to feed on ragworts, Senecio 
species, and since the insect's discovery in Britain in 1992. it has been fairly widely 
recorded in south-east England on these common plants (Hodge, 1997; Kirby, 1997). 

Guernsey fleabane is not unrelated to ragworts, but its use as a foodplant for the 
bug is a little surprising. What is even more surprising, however, is the amazing 
abundance of the bug on the fleabane at this site. It was not possible, in the limited 
circumstances of the visit, to make anything other than a rough guess of the bugs' 
numbers, but a few sweeps of the net produced easily over 100 specimens from a 
small patch of the foodplant. Several hundreds of thousands must be a conservative 
estimate of the insect's numbers at this site. 



BR. J. ENT NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 




Having found this 'new' bug so com- 
monly at Wandsworth, I thought to check 
other Nysius specimens I had collected 
recently. Three of them turned out to be 
N. senecionis: Wandle Mouth, TQ256752, 
VC17, 18.vi.l998 (just the other side of 
the River Wandle from the Shell site); 
Deptford Creek, TQ379779, VC16, 
23. ix. 1997 (also on the River Thames, 
but on the other side of London); Wood- 
lands Farm (Shooters Hill), TQ450765, 
VC16, 18.vi.l998 (about 2 miles from the 
Thames at Woolwich). Unfortunately, 
these specimens had been taken by gen- 
eral sweeping, and there was no clear 
connection to any particular foodplant at 
any of the localities. Ragworts occurred 
at every site, but so too did the Guernsey 
fleabane. 

Despite its English and scientific 
names, Guernsey fleabane is a native of 
South America; it was first introduced 
into the Channel Islands (Stace. 1991), 
and then into the London area (Burton, 
1995). Since its arrival in the capital in 
1983, it has become very common and 
widespread, increasing more rapidly 
than any plant species at least since 
Oxford ragwort in the 1930s and 1940s (Burton, 1995). It is now reckoned to occur in 
over 25% of the 400 or so tetrads which cover the urbanized area of greater London 
(N. Bertrand, personal communication). 

Guernsey fleabane is a large and obvious plant, but because of the insignificant 
flowers (capitula), it is easily overlooked. Since it was first pointed out to me at the 
Shell site, I now see it wherever I go in London. It is rather similar to Canadian 
fleabane, Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq., but is often taller, to 1.5 metres, with a 
more conical inflorescence (Figure 1), and with the phyllaries (green sepal-like 
structures around each capitulum) quite pubescent. 

Since finding Nysius senecionis on Guernsey fleabane, I have been examining the 
plant whenever I come across it, so far without further success. However, given the 
plant's rapid spread across (and out oQ London, and the bug's huge numbers on the 
banks o{ the Thames corridor, it seems quite probable that this South American 
plant will be worth examining by all entomologists wherever they find it. A 
photograph of the plant is included here to stimulate this search. 

My thanks to Valerie Selby of Wandsworth Borough Council's Nature Study 
Centre for negotiating access to the Wandsworth Shell site, and to botanist Nick 
Bertrand for his comments on Guernsey fleabane and for pointing it out to me in the 
field'. — Richard A. Jones, 135 Friern Road, East Dulwich, London SE22 OAZ. 



Fig. 1. Capitula of Guernsey fleabane, Con- 
yza sumatrensis, showing the rather insignif- 
icant 'flowers' as some go to seed at the end of 
September. 



References 

Burton, R. M. 1995. The present distribution of Guernsey fleabane Conyza sumatrensis in the 
London area. London Naturalist 74: 169-170. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 231 

Hodge, P. J. 1997. Additional British records of Nysius seneckmis (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) from 
Hampshire and Kent. British Journol of Entomology and Natural History 10: 2. 

Hodge, P J. & Porter, D. A. 1997. Nysiiis senecionis (Schilling) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) new to 
the British Isles. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 10: 1-2. 

Kirby, P. 1997. News digest. Heteroptera Study Group Newsletter 13 (1996): 1. 

Stace, C. 1991. New flora of the British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 



Oedalea ringdahli Chvala (Diptera: Hybotidae) in northern England. — On 10.vii.95 
at Forge Valley Woods Nature Reserve, near Scarborough (SE984874), I collected a 
female Oedalea which I was subsequently unable to identify. The specimen was swept 
in damp shady deciduous woodland close to the River Derwent, which at that point 
is little more than a shallow stream. 

Attempts to name the specimen using the keys in Collin (1961) and Chvala (1983) 
failed at the first couplet because the antennal style is neither 'bristle-like' (or 
'slender') nor 'stout', but somewhere between the two extremes. As the legs are 
predominantly dark brown I put the specimen on one side for further study and 
noted that it was probably 'close to ringdahlf. 

The Fourth International Congress of Dipterology, which was held at Oxford in 
September 1998, provided an opportunity for me to ask Dr Milan Chvala to look at 
the specimen, which he kindly did, and he suggested that it was probably ringdahli. I 
later submitted it to Dr Adrian Plant who had described the female of this species 
from specimens collected at Cwm Sere in the Brecon Beacons (Plant, 1991), and he 
has confirmed that it is, indeed, Oedalea ringdahli. As far as can be ascertained, this 
record constitutes the first for northern England. 

O. rmgdahli was first described in 1983 from a single male from Sweden (Chvala, 
op. cit.) A single male was found in northern Scotland in 1984 (McLean, 1991), and a 
further single male in the Black Wood of Rannoch (MacGowan, 1991). Subsequently 
both males and females were found at Cwm Sere (Plant, I.e.). 

Two dark-legged male specimens of what were originally taken to be Oedalea 
holmgreni Zett., were noted by Collin (op. cit.). One of these, leg. J. H. Wood at 
Cusop Dingle, Herefordshire, 16. vi. 1914, and now in the collection of the Natural 
History Museum, has proved to be O. ringdahli (McLean, I.e.). The second, which 
might also be of this species, leg. B. R. Laurence at Harpenden. Hertfordshire 
22. vi. 1950, cannot be located at present (MacGowan, I.e.). 

I am obliged to Dr Chvala for his advice, and to Dr Plant for kindly identifying my 
specimen and for helpful comments. — ROY Crossley, 1 The Cloisters, Wilberfoss, 
York Y041 5RF. 

References 

Chvala, M. 1983. The Empidoidea (Diptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. H. Fauna 

Entomologica Scandinavica 12. Klampenborg: Scandinavian Science Press. 
Collin, J. E. 1961. British Flies 6. Empididae. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
MacGowan, I. 1991. A further record of Oedalea ringdahli Chvala (Diptera: Hybotidae) in 

Britain. Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 4: 181-182. 
McLean, L F. G. 1991. Oedalea ringdahli Chvala (Diptera: Hybotidae) new to Britain. Br. J. 

Ent. Nat. Hist. 4: 181. 
Plant, Adrian R. 1991. Oedalea ringdahli Chvala (Diptera: Hybotidae) in Britain. Br. J. Ent. 

Nat. Hist. 4: 183. ' 



232 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

A RECORD OF ECTEMNWS RUFICORNIS (ZETT.) 

(HYMENOPTERA: SPHECIDAE) AND ITS ANTHOMYIID 

CLEPTOPARASITE (DIPTERA) BREEDING IN SOUTHERN 

SCOTLAND 

K. P. Bland 

National Museums of Scotland. Chambers Street, Edinburgh EHl IJF 

While investigating a four-foot-high rotten birch stump at Threepwood Moss, 
Roxburghshire (NT5142; VC.80) on 2. v. 1998, a series of galleries were discovered 
that turned out to be the nest complex of the solitary wasp, Ectemnitis nificornis 
(Zett.). The approximate arrangement of the 3-dimensional nest is shown in Fig. la. 
Several galleries were left undisturbed but in most of those investigated the terminal 
ends of each gallery contained the head capsule and much of the exoskeleton of 2 or 
3 largish flies that had served as the larval food. Next to these was the wasp's cocoon, 
after which the gallery had been sealed with a substantial amount of tightly-packed 
sawdust (Fig. lb). 

The 5 aculeate cocoons collected produced two different species of wasp. Firstly 
on 28. V. 1998 the all-black $ of a Crossocenis megacephahis (Rossius) (Sphecidae) 




Figure la. Diagram showing the lay-out of the galleries made by Ectemnius ruficornis in dead 
birch stump. Scale-bar = 6 cm. 

Figure lb. Enlargement of the terminal end of one of the galleries showing the aculeate cocoon 
(a) with insect prey remains (b) packed into the terminal end and the proximal end sealed with a 
plug of sawdust (c). 



BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST.. 12: 1999 233 

emerged from the smallest cocoon. This presumably was the result of a female 
C. megacephalus finding a ready-made gallery and opportunistically taking it over as 
a brood chamber. Secondly, 2 S-i and 2 9$ Ectemnius ruficomis (Zett.), the rightful 
inhabitants of the nest, emerged between 1-28. vi. 1998. The caches of food provided 
by E. ruficomis for its larvae had consisted entirely of hoverflies (Diptera; 
Syrphidae). The identifiable species present and their numbers were: 



Rhingia campestris Meigen 

Meliscaeva cinctella (Zett.) 

Chrysotoxum bicinctum (L.) 

Platycheirus {Pyrophaena) grcmditarsus (Forster) 



1? 
1? 



The end of the gallery containing the smallest cocoon that produced the 
C megacephalus was not noticeably different in its provisioning to the others. This 
may be a coincidence or it may indicate that it was provisioned by E. ruficomis 
before being taken over by C. megacephalusl 

Ectemnius ruficomis does not appear to have been previously recorded from 
Scotland. However, as the present account indicates, the species is present and 
breeding at least in the Scottish Borders. Previous British records of the species are 
from south of a line from Grange-over-Sands to Scarborough (Edwards, 1998) or 
from north-east Ireland (Richards, 1980). 

The ends of two galleries were almost devoid of larval food remains but were still 
sealed with a sawdust plug. In place of the aculeate cocoon there was a single long 
cylindrical dipteran puparium. These puparia were a shiny dark reddish brown and 
some 9 mm long. Detail of the posterior spiracular region is shown in Fig. 2. Between 




Figure 2. Details of the posterior end of the puparium of Eustalomyia festiva. Scale- 
bar = 1 mm. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12; 1999 



19-23 vi.l998 these puparia produced 2SS Eustalomyia festiva (Zett.) (Diptera: 
Anthomyiidae), a known cleptoparasite of solitary wasps. In spite of its large size, E. 
festiva only appears to have been reported once before from Scotland, namely when 
taken by J. M. Nelson at Methven Wood, Perthshire (VC.88) in 1980 (Nelson, 1984). 



ACKNOWLEDGEM ENTS 

I am very grateful to Michael E. Archer of University College of Ripon & York 
for identifying all the specimens of solitary wasps, to Andrew Whittington of 
National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, for advice and assistance with syrphid 
identification and to Stephen Mitchell of Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, 
Edinburgh for the scanning electron microscope picture. 



References 

Edwards, R. (Ed.), 1998. Provisional Atlas of the aculeate Hymetwptera of Britain and Ireland, 

Part 2, 138 pp. Biological Records Centre, Monks Wood. 
Nelson, J. M. 1984. Records of some uncommon dolichopodids and other Diptera from 

southern Scotland. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 120, 58. 
Richards, O. W. 1980. Scolioidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea; Hymenoptera, Aculeata. 

Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects, 6 pt.3(b), 1-118. 



SHORT COMMUNICATIONS 



Ptomaphagus varicornis (Rosenhauer) (Col: Leiodidae) in North Devon. — Accord- 
ing to Hyman (1994), Ptomaphagus varicornis (Rosenhauer) has been recorded from 
the Isle of Wight, East Kent, Surrey, Berkshire, Oxfordshire, Staffordshire, 
Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire prior to 1970, but since then from Surrey alone. 
On June 6, 1998, I found a single specimen by the quarter wall on Lundy Island, 
North Devon. A large piece of matted sheep's wool on a narrow track through 
heather and bilberry was found to contain this and a number of other beetles 
including Quedius tristis (Gravenhorst), Aphodiits fimetarius (L.) and Tachyporus 
piisillns Gravenhorst. According to Brendell (1976), who reviewed all the known 
records of Coleoptera from Lundy, a number of other leiodid beetles have been 
recorded from the island, and these include Ptomaphagus siibvillosiis (Goeze) var. 
sericatus Chaudoir taken by Norman Joy in 1906. The present specimen of P. 
varicornis is a new record for Lundy. I have been unable to discover any previously 
published records for Devon, but further research revealed a single specimen of P. 
varicornis in the K. G. Blair Collection at the Hampshire County Museum, 
Winchester. The data label shows that Blair collected it at Braunton, North Devon, 
although there is no date attached. A number of other beetles in the collection carry 
similar labels, some of which are clearly marked 1928. As there are no specimens 
from Braunton marked with any other date it seems quite likely that Blair took his 
specimen in that year. The present finding is of considerable interest as Braunton is 
almost the nearest point on the Devon mainland to Lundy, a distance of just 15 
miles. From this observation it would appear that P. varicornis has definite Devonian 
status although its presence, at presumably low density, has threatened to escape 
notice up to the present time. J. F. Campbell-Taylor, who contributed the section on 
Coleoptera to Palmer's (1946) Fauna and Flora of the Ilfracombe District, North 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 235 

Devon, wrote that his hst was "based on, and in fact consists of, an article written by 
K. G. Blair ... under the heading of Braunton . . . ". Although he also included P. 
subvillosus from Lundy, he did not mention P. varkorms from Braunton, a curious 
omission. Hyman (1994) states that "in south-eastern England, this species has been 
recorded from chalky districts. It is usually found in leaf-litter and moss. Adults have 
been recorded in April and May." This is interesting as Lundy is essentially a granite 
island and the area around Braunton is of Devon sandstone. I am grateful to 
Christopher Palmer, Keeper of Biology, for permission to examine the K. G. Blair 
Collection at Winchester. — Dr Michael A. Salmon, Avon Lodge, Woodgreen, 
New Forest, Hampshire, SP6 2AU. 



References 

Blair, K. G. 1931. The Beetles of the Scilly Islands. Proceedings Zoological Society of London 

Part 4: 1211. 
Brendell, M. J. D. 1976. Coleoptera of Lundy. Report of Lundy Field Society. 
Campbell-Taylor, J. E. 1946. Beetles of the Ilfracombe district, pp. 113-147 in Palmer, M. G. 

The Fauna and Flora of the Ilfracombe District of North Devon. Exeter. 
Hyman, P. S. 1994. A review of the scarce and threatened Coleoptera of Great Britain, Part 2. 

JNCC, Peterborough. 
Joy, N. H. 1906. The Coleoptera of Lundy Island. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 42: 1. 
Joy, N. H. 1909. A few additions to the list of Coleoptera of Lundy Island. Entomologist's 

Monthly Magazine 45: 110. 
Joy. N. H. & Tomlin, J. R. le B. 1907. Further notes on the Coleoptera of Lundy Island. 

Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 43: 27. 
Joy, N. H. & Tomlin, J. R. le B. 1908. The Coleoptera of Lundy Island. Entomologist's Monthly 

Magazine 44: 156. 
Last, H. R. 1946. Ptomaphagus varicornis Ros. (Col., Cholevidae) in Surrey. Entomologist's 

Monthly Magazine 82: 24. 



Notes on the habitats of Hebrus ruficeps (Thomson) (Hemiptera: Hebridae) — Hebrus 
ruficeps is usually found amongst Sphagnum at the margins of acid water. So close 
and so frequent is this association that it sometimes seems to be exclusive. Brown 
(1948) for example, states that '^ Sphagnum appears to be an essential complement to 
a habitat for Hebrus ruficeps \ Southwood and Leston (1959) refer to the bug 
occurring in "" Amblystegia"" as well as Sphagnum, but consider that it is confined to 
the margins of acid waters. Macan (1965) places it "usually in wet Sphagnum"'' 
without specifying the alternatives. Butler (1932), while reporting H. ruficeps from 
Sphagnum, suggests that Kirkaldy had found the insect in association with Lemna, 
which would suggest a quite different type of water body. In fact, it is doubtful that 
Kirkaldy really intended to make this association. His writing on the subject 
(Kirkaldy, 1899) is ambiguous, and could refer to either of the British species of the 
genus. Savage (1989) makes no mention of the association with Sphagnum, but the 
entries for H. ruficeps in the table of geographical and ecological distribution suggest 
that it is confined to waters with a pH less than six and a conductivity less than 100 
micro-Sieverts per centimetre. Some authors at least in mainland Europe seem to 
allow H. ruficeps a broader ecological range than has been usual amongst British 
authors. For example, Stichel (1955) says that it occurs amongst Polytrichum, and 
also that it can occur away from moss, amongst plant remains at water margins. 
Wachmann (1989), in a recent popular guide to the German Heteroptera, makes no 
distinction between the habitats of H. ruficeps and H. pusillus (Fallen), whereas in 



236 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

Britain the latter, though rarer, has long seemed much more catholic in its 
environmental tastes. Chalkley (1998) comments on the variation in opinion as to the 
habitat preferences of H. ruficeps, and points to the finding of the species amongst 
brown mosses beside non-acid waters in Northern Ireland reported by Nelson 
(1995). 

In fact, H. ruficeps occurs reasonably frequently in at least some parts of Britain 
beside non-acid waters, and in the absence not only of Sphagnum, but sometimes of 
any moss at all. I have previously reported (Kirby, 1990) the finding of//, ruficeps in 
a saltmarsh. It seems worthwhile now to report a number of other recent records of 
//. ruficeps which, though less extreme, place the species outside the ecological 
conditions with which it is most commonly associated in Britain. 

I took a single specimen of//, ruficeps on 19. iv.l991 from marginal vegetation at 
Holywell Fishponds, Peterborough, Northamptonshire, TL 169980, a series of 
spring-fed medieval fishponds severely modified over the years and now set in 
improved grassland in a public open space. The margins of the pools are abrupt and 
almost devoid of moss. Measurements in one of the ponds on the site by the National 
Rivers Authority in 1990 gave a pH of 7.7 and a conductivity of 1295 micro-Sieverts 
per centimetre (G. E. Young pers. comm.). H. ruficeps was found by working 
partially submerged grasses growing on a slightly overhanging bank. Accidental 
introduction cannot be entirely ruled out at this site; animals and plants have 
certainly been introduced to the site. The possibility seems remote, however, if only 
because the garden ponds and fish tanks of Peterborough seem less likely to have 
suitable conditions for H. ruficeps than the pond in which it was found. 

On 17.V.1992 I found a single H. ruficeps amongst drifted plant material taken 
from the edge of a large shallow pool in Dogsthorpe Star Brickpit, North- 
amptonshire, TF2 15027, a disused clay working. At the point from which the sample 
was taken the drifted material, mostly fragments and whole small plants of Juncus 
articulaius L., formed a band som.e 30 centimetres wide and several centimetres deep 
along a gently shelving margin of almost bare clay. //. ruficeps could, of course, have 
drifted with the plant material from elsewhere around the margin of the pool. No 
part of the pool margin, however, supported any significant amount of moss of any 
species. The conductivity of the pool on 3. v. 1992 was measured as 2200 micro- 
Sieverts per centimetre at 25'C (J. H. Bratton pers. comm.), the high conductivity 
resulting from seepage from a saline aquifer in the Kellaways Beds. I have found 
H. ruficeps at one other flooded clay pit in the Peterborough area: Norman Cross Pit, 
Huntingdonshire, TL162908, 16.viii.l997, again in the complete absence of moss. I 
have no records of conductivity or pH for the Norman Cross Pit, but it is certainly 
not acidic or of low conductivity. 

I have found //. ruficeps at two other, definitely non-acid, localities in the 
Peterborough area in recent years: it was rather common at Stibbington Pits, 
Huntingdonshire, TL098993, on 30.vi.l993, amongst reed litter and marginal 
vegetation in a disused gravel working beside the River Nene. At Sutton Heath & 
Bog SSSI, Northamptonshire, TF089000, //. ruficeps emerged in small numbers from 
sedge litter taken from a large sedge bed in a limestone valley on 28. iv.l996. 

A survey of East Anglian fens undertaken for the Nature Conservancy Council by 
A. P. Foster and D. A. Proctor between 1988 and 1990 recorded H. ruficeps in pitfall 
traps at eleven sites. Of these, three definitely had no Sphagnum (Badley Moor, West 
Norfolk, TG012118, 31.v-13.vi.l989; Foulden Common, West Norfolk, TL760994, 
10.vi-8.vii.l988; Reedham Marshes, East Norfolk, TG361195, 12-26.vi.l989) and 
two more, though supporting carpets of moss, had no Sphagnum in the trapping area 
(Thompson Common, West Norfolk, TL937964, 13-27. xi. 1989; Walberswick, East 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 237 

Suffolk. TM462732, 1-I5.vi.l988, 15-29.vi.l988, 1-I5.vi.l989, 1-I5.vi.l990, 15.vi- 
l.vii.l990). Andrew Foster has also taken H. ruficeps at the margin of a Sphagnum- 
free drainage ditch in grazing levels at Sizewell, East Suffolk, TM467643, 5.vii.l989. 

It is far from clear what environmental constraints determine the occurrence of 
H. ruficeps. The records above clearly show that they do not include water pH or the 
presence of Sphagnum or other mosses. Nor is it apparently unduly restricted by poor 
mobility, as might be considered likely for an habitually wingless species: the clay 
and gravel workings in which it has been recorded near Peterborough are of recent 
origin. Its scarcer congener H. pusillus, despite being winged, seems far more tightly 
confined to old wetland sites. However, even allowing for the fact that is it small and 
easily overlooked, H. ruficeps is clearly decidedly local in non-acid localities. 
Moreover, it appears to be similarly local in acid waters with Sphagnum: it may occur 
in large numbers when found, but the majority of sites investigated in most areas, in 
my experience apparently do not support the species. 

Thanks go to Andrew Foster and Deborah Proctor for their records of H. ruficeps, 
and to Andrew Foster also for extracting the information from their database and 
for permitting me to use his record of H. ruficeps from Sizewell. — P. Kirby, 21 
Grafton Avenue. Netherton, Peterborough PE3 9PD. 



References 

Brown. E. S. 1948. A contribution towards an ecological survey of the aquatic and semi- 

acquatic Hemiptera-Heteroptera (water-bugs) of the British Isles; dealing chiefly with the 

Scottish Highlands, and east and south England. Transactions of the Society for British 

Entomology 9: 152-195. 
Butler, E. A. 1923. A biology of the British Hemiptera-Heteroptera. Witherby, London. 
Chalkley, A. 1996. The aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera of Suffolk. Suffolk Natural 

History 34: 51-68. 
Kirby, P. 1990. An unusual habitat for Hehrus ruficeps (Thomson) (Hemiptera:Hebridae). 

Entomologists Gazette 41: 111. 
Kirkaldy, G. W. 1899. A guide to the study of British water bugs (aquatic Rhynchota). 

Entomologist 32: 3-8. 
Macan. T. T. 1965. A revised key to the British water bugs (Hemiptera-Heteroptera) with notes 

on their ecology. Scientific Publications Freshwater Biological Association 16: 1-74. 
Nelson, B. 1995. The distribution of aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera in Northern Ireland. 

Irish Biogeographical Society Bulletin 18: 66-130. 
Savage, A. A. 1989. Adults of the British aquatic Hemiptera Heteroptera. Scientific Publications 

Freshwater Biological Association 50:1-173. 
Southwood, T, R. E. & Leston, D. 1959. Land and water hugs of the British Isles. Warne, 

London. 
Stichel, W. 1955. Indistrierte Bestimmungstabellen der Wattzen. II. Europa. 4. Amphibicor- 

iomorpha. Hermsdorff, Berlin. 
Wachmann, E. 1989. Wanzen beobachten — kennenlernen. Neumann-Neudamni, Melsungen. 



The specialist Hemiptera associated with mistletoe — Concerns about a supposed 
decline in mistletoe (Viscuni album) led to a new national survey over the winters of 
1995/6 and 1996/7 (Briggs, 1995; 1997). As an adjunct to this survey it was decided to 
look for the insects specifically associated with mistletoe. 

Mistletoe is host to three specialist herbivores; Psylla visci Curtis (Hem.: 
Psyllidae), Orthops viscicola (Puton) (Hem.: Miridae) and Celypha woodiana Barrett 
(Lep.: Tortricidae, Olethreutinae). The predatory species Anthocoris visci Douglas 
(Hem.: Cimicidae) is also restricted to mistletoe, apparently feeding exclusively on 



238 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

Psylla visci. A. visci was classified as a nationally notable species by Kirby (1992). 
This work concentrated on the Hemiptera, for which there are very few recent 
records (Bernard Nau, 1996 pers. comm.), because they seem to have similar life 
cycles, and can all be sampled in the same way. 

Mistletoe was sampled on 31.viii./l.ix.l996 at three locations where access to 
mistletoe was relatively simple, using a beating tray and a sweepnet. Estimates of the 
abundance of the species were recorded, and shown in Table 1 . 



Table 1 . The abundance of the specialist Hemiptera. Present < 5, Occasional 5-50, Frequent > 50 





Painswick 


Kemerton 


The Ladin 


Location 


Gloucester 


Worcester 


Hereford 


National grid ref 


SO 8609 


SO 9436 


SO 6635 


Habitat 


Garden 


Orchard 


Orchard 


Host 


apple 


apple, balsam poplar 


apple 


mistletoe abundance 


1 tree 


>25 trees 


> 35 trees 


Psylla visci 


Present 


Frequent 


Frequent 


Orthops viscicola 


Occasional 


Frequent 


Frequent 


Anthocoris visci 


Absent 


Present 


Present 



As expected the predatory species was the least abundant, and not recorded from 
the smallest sample site. It is not clear if this absence was because the populations of 
prey species were too small to allow A. visci to persist, or a reflection of the chances 
of dispersal to a small habitat patch. 

Most of the previous records for the mistletoe insects are from apple so it may be 
worth noting that all three Hemiptera were recorded from mistletoe growing on 
balsam poplar at Kemerton. Since there are also recent records from poplar and field 
maple (Nau, 1985), it seems likely that the preponderance of apple records reflected 
the accessibility of orchard mistletoe to entomologists (though see Le Quesne, 1954). 
The problem of access to mistletoe is also the most likely reason for the paucity of 
recent records. 

This very limited survey showed that the insects associated with mistletoe are 
relatively easy to find, albeit where mistletoe is most common and abundant. The 
other recent records from Bedfordshire (Nau, 1985) and Warwickshire (Price, 1987), 
where mistletoe is much less widespread, may indicate that similar attention in other 
areas would produce more records. 

We are grateful to the landowners who allowed us to sample mistletoe, and Jackie 
Denman of 'The Big Apple" who helped to arrange this. Thanks are due to Bernard 
Nau for his help over the recent records. — John Hollier, 42 Rue Virginio Melnati, 
1217 Meyrin, Switzerland, Jonathan Briggs, 2 Ledgemoor, Watledge, Nailsworth, 
Gloucester GL6 OAU. 



References 

Briggs, J. D. 1995. Mistletoe — distribution, biology and the National Survey. British Wildlife 7: 

75-82. 
Briggs, J. D. 1997. Mistletoe survey— another update. BSBI News 77: 42^4. 
Kirby, P. 1992. A review of the scarce and threatened Hemiptera of Great Britain. JNCC, 

Peterborough. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST.. 12: 1999 



Le Quesne, W. J. 1954. An easy way of obtaining Lygus viscicola Put. (Hem., Miridae) from 
inaccessabie mistletoe, and a new county record. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 90: 256. 
Nau, B. 1985. Mistletoe bugs. Heteroptera Study Group Newsletter 6: 8. 
Price, J. M. 1987. Mistletoe bugs in Warwickshire. Heteroptera Study Group Newsletter 7: 5. 



Notes on the occurrence of the planthoppers Reptalus panzeri (Low) (Hemiptera: 
Cixiidae) and Asiraca clavicornis (Fab.) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) — The character- 
istic planthoppers Reptalus panzeri (Low) ( = Olianis panzeri) and Asiraca clavicornis 
(Fab.) are considered by many hemipterists to be very uncommon. In the national 
review by Kirby (1992), both are listed as being nationally scarce (notable B). Each is 
reported to be associated with rough grassland, especially dry open areas or where 
patches of bare soil are present. Both entries in the review are based upon very 
limited lists of recent records. However, local survey work has shown that both 
species are widespread and sometimes very abundant in south London. Reptalus 
panzeri also occurs periodically but widely elsewhere in south-east England. The 
following records have been made in the last few years. 



Reptalus panzeri 

Beckenham Place Park, TQ385706, VC16, West Kent, 27.vii.1995, one by 
sweeping rough grass at the edge of a small wooded area and next to a sports 
field. The rough verge-like strip along the edge of the wood was a south-east-facing 
bank with varied grass and herb species. The park comprises a mixture of 
ancient woodland, old hedgerows and modern utilitarian recreational playing 
fields. RAJ. 

Dulwich Park, TQ339736, VC17 Surrey, 8.vii.l996, one photographed sitting on a 
rhododendron leaf in an ornamental garden. This is a most unlikely locality; the 
rhododendron bushes make up part of an extensive series of ornamental beds 
surrounded by closely mown grass. There is, however, something special about the 
site since it supports large colonies of the now scarce rhododendron lacebug 
Stephanitis rhododendri (Horvath), and the elusive rhododendron leafhopper 
Placotettix taeniatifrons (Kirsch.). RAJ. 

Crystal Palace, TQ339709, VC17, Surrey, 24 & 25.vii.1996, 5.viii.l996, very many 
found by sweeping the rough grass and herbage on the derelict top and south-east- 
facing slopes where the Crystal Palace building itself had once stood. On 25.vii.1996, 
several hundred specimens were seen and it was the commonest insect at this 
typically ruderal site. RAJ. 

Pebsham near Bexhill-on-Sea, TQ766093, VC14, East Sussex, 6.viii.l996, 
7.vii.l997, ll.vii.l997. several swept off creeping thistle in a meadow containing a 
south-facing slope. PJH. 

Rocks Farm, Westfield, near River Brede, TQ81 17, VC14, East Sussex, 7.viii.l996, 
one swept in marshy area, possibly off creeping thistle. PJH. 

Par Brook, Billingshurst, TQ081249, VC13, West Sussex, 18.vi.l997, a few swept 
off streamside vegetation in clayey meadow. PJH. 

Windsor Great Park, SU975734, VC22. Berkshire, 24.vi.1997. 19.viii.l998, several 
swept off grass at edge of woodland in deer park. PJH. 

Woodlands Farm (Shooters Hill), near Bexley, TQ449768, VC16, West Kent, 
20.vii.l998, 3.viii.l998, many by sweeping in open meadows, once arable, but disused 
fallow for about 10 years. The fields have apparently been mown once or twice and 



240 BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST.. 12: 1999 

although full of long grass and tall herbage, there are still many patches of bare soil. 
RAJ. 

Morden Cemetery, TQ233672, VC17, Surrey, 15.vii.l998, 5.viii.l998, 5.ix.l998, 
many swept in "nature areas", flowery meadow-like grassland left unmown until late 
summer or autumn. RAJ. 

ASIRACA CLAVICORNIS 

"The Mudchute", Isle of Dogs, TQ380788, VC21, Middlesex, 25.viii.1984, many 
hundreds by sweeping and grubbing on dry sunny bank. The plant life on the bank 
was dominated by a small unidentified spurge species, possibly a garden escape. RAJ. 

Nunhead Cemetery, TQ355755, VC17, Surrey, 9.V.1991, ll.iii.l993, ll.v.1993, 
several by sweeping in rough grassy area behind ruined chapel. A few other 
specimens observed in subsequent years. RAJ. 

Blackheath Hill, TQ383766, VC16, West Kent, 3.x. 1995, one swept on rough grass 
hillside overlooking derelict factory plot and high-rise flats; a very scruffy site. RAJ. 

Chinbrook Orchard, TQ415715, VC16, West Kent, 18 & 27.vi.1996, 10.vii.l996, 
several swept on each occasion from this overgrown allotment plot. RAJ. 

Gargoyle Wharf, TQ262754, VC17, Surrey, 10.vi.l996, one swept from this 
derelict plot, once the site of warehouses and industrial wharfs, and now mainly 
rubble with rough herbage and buddleia growth. RAJ. 

Hither Green "Nature Reserve", TQ402728, VC16, West Kent, 6.vi.l996, several 
swept from this open rough grassland running beside a railway line. RAJ. 

New Cross Railway Cutting, TQ364764, VC16, West Kent, 27.iii.1997, several 
swept from dry open grassy clearing next to railway line. RAJ. 

Both planthoppers used to be more often and more widely recorded (Kirby, 1992), 
but seem to have retreated from previous outlying localities until they are now more 
or less confined to the Home Counties. In his review, Kirby (1992) suggests that 
scrub invasion may be one of the major factors involved with the insects' dechne. 
Certainly, the ruderal habitats in the London area have plenty of bare soil and are 
also sites for many other unusual and warmth-loving species more usually associated 
with dry sandy or heathy areas. The presence of cracks in the ground, or at least bare 
patches of soil, may be extremely important in the life cycle of Reptalus, whose 
nymphs, like those of other cixiids, are thought to be root feeders. Asiraca nymphs 
like many delphacids may be found close to the ground, although the adults may be 
found by sweeping. One wonders whether these curious insects are actually more 
widespread than records indicate, and would be found more readily by grubbing 
rather than by sweeping. — Richard A. Jones, 135 Friern Road, East Dulwich, 
London SE22 OAZ & Peter J. Hodge, 8 Harvard Road, Ringmer, Lewes, East 
Sussex BN8 5HJ 

Reference 

Kirby, P. 1992. A review of the scarce and threatened Hemiptera of Great Britain. UK Nature 
Conservation No. 2. Peterborough, Joint Nature Conservation Committee. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 241 

BENHS INDOOR MEETINGS 

10 November 1998 

Mr R.D. Hawkins showed two species of leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) 
beaten from balsam polar, Populus trichocarpa, at Send. Surrey on 24.ix.98. A 
specimen of Phyllodecta laticollis Suffrian was found to have a deformed left 
antenna. The basal segments were misshapen and enlarged. Beyond that point the 
antenna split into two branches of normal-shaped segments. Also beaten from the 
poplars were two specimens of Zeugophora subspinosa (Fab.). These were 3.7 mm 
long and significantly larger than the published size range of 2.5 3 mm. Mr Hawkins 
also showed an ichneumon wasp, Diphyus quadripimctoriiis (Miiller) taken on 17. v. 98 
at Highridge Wood, near Brockham. Surrey. 

Dr I.F.G. Mclean reported finding a male wasp of Vespula germanica (Fab.) in 
his house at Brampton, Cambs. on 5.xi.98. This is a very late data for this species. 

Dr J. Muggleton reported that the 1998 Exhibition had been a success with the 
number of exhibits (157) slightly up on last year. The event was also better attended 
with 213 members and 68 visitors signing the attendance book (174 and 66 in 
1997). Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera exhibits were well represented but 
Lepidoptera exhibits seemed to take up less bench space than usual. An excellent 
Exhibition Dinner was appreciated by about 45 members and guests. Two problems 
raised were the high cost of parking at Imperial College and the inadequate lighting 
for looking at small insects. Dr Muggleton said that suggestions for alternative 
venues would be considered but it was not easy to find such a place. Ideally the hall 
will be of adequate size with seating and catering faciUties for lunch and the Dinner. 
It also needs to have parking and access by public transport. The University of 
London's Senate House and Kempton Park race course were suggested as possible 
alternatives. 

The Exhibition venue has to be booked well in advance and so Imperial College is 
being booked again for 1999. However, following discussions at the Exhibition, the 
Society will try and book the Sherfield Hall for a Saturday in late November instead 
of October. This will avoid clashes with half-term holidays and Halloween parties, 
and will also give members more time to prepare their exhibits. 

Mr N.A. Callow showed slides of a wide range of insects and other invertebrate 
animals taken in Britain and during a visit to Kazakhstan. 

Mr R. Softly showed slides of five geometrid and five noctuid moths which have 
green coloration or have a green connection through their common or Latin names. 



8 December 1998 

The President, Mr B.C. Eversham announced the death of Mr M. G. Ventom, 
who had died in January 1996. 

Mr S. Falk showed a bee he had collected on 20.viii.96 at the Edge Hill military 
area in mid-Warwickshire. He had been searching flowers for the local bee Hylaeus 
signatus (Panzer) when he was surprised to find a North American carpenter bee, 
Xylocopa virginica. He was even more surprised to find that there was another 
specimen in the museum at Coventry that had been collected locally by J.W. Saunt 
earlier in this century. 

Mr M. Parsons showed a pyralid moth new to Britain which had been taken at 
light at Lydd, Kent between 5-26.viii.1998 and handed to him by Mr S.P. Clancy. It 



242 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

is Vitiila hiviella (Zeller) and it closely resembles Ephestia spp. Vitula hiviella is 
associated with conifers on sandy soils and has been spreading in recent years into 
western Europe from further east. 

Dr J. MuGGLETON announced that next year's Annual Exhibition would be held 
at the later date of 20th November 1999 in the Sherfield Hall, Imperial College. 

Mr S. Miles displayed several conservation publications. These included a JNCC 
Wildlife and Countryside Link project to review the operation of species protection 
legislation in Britain. The BENHS had contributed to this review. Also shown were 
some Butterfly Conservation papers. These were 'Conservation Strategy 1998-2002', 
which outlines action plans for over 40 species of Lepidoptera, and a code of conduct 
on collecting, breeding and photographing. There is also a DETR paper on SSSI 
Consultation — better protection and management. The BENHS will be making a 
response to this paper. 

Mr S. Falk. reported that Coventry City Council had recently reviewed its unitary 
development plan. New sites of importance for nature conservation had been 
designated, including some brown-field sites. Surveys conducted by Mr Falk have 
shown that some post-industrial sites in Warwickshire are of considerable value to 
insects and other invertebrates. 

Mr R. D. Hawkins noted an error in O.W. Richards' R.E.S. key to the 
Scolioidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. The text in the couplet defining male Vespula 
vulgaris (L.) is correct but one figure referred to is inaccurate. 

The following persons have been approved by Council as members: Mr Hugh 
Barton, Dr Roger Booth, Mr Stephen Brady, Dr Peter Costen, Mr Gordon Craine, 
Mr Adrian Dutton, Mr Patrick Goodwin, Mr Rex Harvey, Miss Anna Juvonen- 
Lettington, Mr Roger Kiddie, Mr Tony Lee-Magee, Mr Tom Lloyd, Mr Maurice 
Pledger, Mr Graham Richardson, Mr Peter Taylor, Mr David Warner and Mr 
D. Willetts. 

Mr S. Falk spoke on "Chasing the chestnut sparrow", an account of two visits 
made to China in 1993 and again in the spring of 1998. In addition to pictures of the 
bird life Mr Falk showed many slides of the parks, temples, towns and cities that he 
had visited. 



12 January 1999 

The President, Mr B.C. Eversham announced the death of Mr J.E. Maskrey who 
had died in July 1997. 

Mr B.C. Eversham showed a hve specimen of the snow flea, Boreus hycmalis (L.) 
(Mecoptera: Boreidae). This was collected at Thetford Warren in the Suffolk 
Breckland on lO.i.99 by Wilham Scale and the exhibitor. A large population occurs 
at this site with over 30 being seen in November. The snow flea is relatively inactive 
during the day, when only a few individuals were seen, but larger numbers appear at 
dusk and it remains active for three to four hours after dark. Although tolerant of 
low temperatures and sensitive to overheating, there were more individuals active at 
3-5° C than at or close to freezing point. The snow flea feeds on mosses and appears 
to be associated with Polylrichum spp., including P. commune, P. formosum and 
P. junipermum. 

Mr R.D. Hawkins showed a specimen of the shield bug Holcostethus vernalis 
(Wolff) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). It was one of two specimens swept by P.J. 
Hodge in woodland clearings south of Boulogne near the coast of northern France 
on 12.ix.98. This species has been recorded in Britain but is of rare occurrence. 



BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST . 12: 1999 243 

Mr B.S. Nau showed some photographs of the shield bugs Holcoslethus vemalis 
(Wolff), Dolycoris haccanim (L.) and the winter form of Palomena prasina (L.). The 
last two are common species with which H. vemalis might be confused. Mr Nau also 
displayed some distribution maps for shield bugs in Bedfordshire. This county has 
been well worked for this group of insects. Some species have shown a significant 
increase in their distribution in recent years. 

Mr R. Softly showed colour transparencies of some shield bug adults and 
nymphs. 

Mr R. Softly reported that the dark chestnut moth Conistra ligula (Esper) had 
been taken in his light trap at Hampstead in late December and early January. He 
had also noted a drone fly {Eris talis sp.) on a wall during a spell of mild weather. 

Mr N.A. Callow had seen a peacock butterfly on 6.i.99. 

Mr R.D. Hawkins referred to a radio programme before Christmas that reported 
that the short-haired bumblebee was extinct in Britain. He wondered which species 
had been given this unfamiliar common name. The species concerned is Boinbus 
subterraneus (L.). 

Dr S. JUDD spoke on the subject of "British Shield Bugs". This group of bugs 
comprises the Acanthosomidae, Cydnidae, Scutelleridae and Pentatomidae families. 
These bugs all have five antennal segments and many of the species are shield-shaped 
when viewed from above. There are also some shield-shaped bugs in the Coreidae 
family but these have four antennal segments. The shield bugs are Britain's largest 
bugs and many are easily identified in the field, making them an ideal starting point 
for entomologists wanting to study the Heteroptera. Dr Judd displayed some useful 
books on the Heteroptera and showed slides of adults and nymphs of British shield 
bugs. The nymphs are often of different colour to the adult insects and sometimes 
have bright metallic colours. Most species overwinter as adults, which emerge and 
lay clusters of eggs in the spring and early summer. 

The parent bug, Elasmucha grisea (L.), feeds on birch and shows parental care for 
its eggs and young nymphs, which are covered by the female's body. Another 
member of the Acanthosomidae is the juniper bug, Cyphostethus tristriatus (Fab.). 
This used to be a scarce insect feeding on juniper, but has become widespread in 
gardens since it adapted to feeding on Chamaecyparis spp. The Cydnidae have 
fossorial spines on their tibiae and have a body shape that is more rounded than 
shield-shaped. Some have a much enlarged scutellum which covers most of the 
abdomen. Cydnid bugs deposit their eggs in cavities in the soil and use the spines on 
their legs to burrow into the ground. They feed by sucking sap from plants. The 
Scutelleridae are mainly associated with grasses and the most frequently encountered 
are the tortoise bugs, Eurygaster spp. 

The largest shield bug family in Britain is the Pentatomidae with about 19 species. 
Some, like Picromerus bidens (L.), are predators of soft-bodied insects such as 
caterpillars and chrysomelid beetle larvae. The predatory types have thicker rostrums 
compared with sap-feeding bugs. Exotic species are sometimes imported into Britain 
with vegetables and other plant material. A regular import is a European green shield 
bug, Nezara viridula (L.). 

23 February 1999 

The President, Mr B.C. Eversham announced deaths of Major A. Bedford 
Russell and Mr R.G. Warren. 

Mr A.J. Halstead referred to his article on the mealybug ladybird, Cryptolaemus 
montrouzieri Muls., surviving frosts at RHS Garden, Wisley in the winter of 1997-98 



244 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 

(Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 11, pp. 163-164). He reported that the ladybird had 
recolonized the same plant of New Zealand flax, Phonnium tenax, in the following 
summer and that good numbers of adult and larval C montrouzieri were seen in 
October 1998. A single live adult was seen on the plant on a sunny day on 6.i.99, 
confirming that this Austrahan ladybird is more cold tolerant than is generally 
thought. 

The ordinary meeting was then followed by the Annual General Meeting, Officers' 
Reports and the Presidential Address. [See issue 12:2]. 

16 March 1999 

Mr R. D. Hawkins showed four species of hoverfly collected during 1998 at 
Bagmoor Common, a heathland site in Surrey. These were Chrysotoxum festivum 
(L.), Xanthogramma pedissequum (Harris), Volucella bombylans (L.) and Sericomvia 
silentis (Harris). The freshly killed specimens had been placed in a domestic freezer in 
a small wooden box and covered only by tissue paper. After three months they were 
removed, by which time they were quite dry and with the colours well preserved. 

The following persons have been approved as members by Council: Dr Peter R. 
Brough, Mr Peter H. Clarkson, Mr Andrew D. Law, Mr Jonathan W. Spencer, Mr 
Steven M. Williams, Mr Richard I. Wilson, Mr Robert J. Brooker, Mr Dorje K. 
Mundle and Mr Andrew Salisbury. 

Mr R. Softly reported finding a green shield bug, Palomena prasina (L.) on 
flowers in his home at Hampstead a few days previously. This had the typical green 
summer coloration rather than the dark form encountered during winter diapause. 
In Land and water bugs of the British Isles, Southwood and Leston give May as the 
time that overwintered adults emerge. Dr I. McLean had seen a brimstone butterfly 
in Cambridge on 13.iii.99. Mr S. Miles reported that he and some other members 
involved in the Society's investigation into two heathland Biodiversity Action Plan 
flies had visited Thursley Common, Surrey on 13.iii.99. Several solitary bees, 
Andrena spp. were active, as were brimstone butterfly and the spider wasp Anoplius 
viaticus (L.). Mr R. Uffen said that Andrena clarkella (Kirby) was active on sallow 
catkins in Hertfordshire. 

Dr S. Brooks spoke on "How midges play a key role in our understanding of 
global climate change". There have been some dramatic cHmate changes in the 
Northern Hemisphere since the last Ice Age and there is currently concern that the 
climate is becoming warmer, largely as a result of Man's activities. By recording 
assemblages of chironomid midge species found at the present time in a range of 
water types and temperatures, comparisons can be made with the historic record 
provided by remains of midge larvae found in lake or peat sediments. Similar studies 
have been done with beetles, ostracods and pollen, although these are not always 
accurate indicators of the past climate. Plants, in particular, can be slow to colonize 
new areas in response to climate change and so the pollen record may show a time 
lag. Chironomid midges are particularly suitable for this type of study because they 
are well represented in temperate regions. Their larvae develop in water and have 
hard chitinous head capsules which survive in lake sediments and can be used to 
identify the species present in past times. The winged adults can fly and quickly 
colonize new sites when the opportunity arises. 

Surveys of lakes and other water bodies have been conducted to record modern 
species assemblages and relate these to characteristics such as water temperature, 
type of lake substrate, water depth, pH, salinity and dissolved oxygen levels. The 
lakes chosen for surveying were those with little human disturbance, and core 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 245 

samples were taken from the lake bed to compare with the modern fauna. The 
optimum temperature range for a midge species is taken as being that where the 
greatest numbers are found today. By comparing modern assemblages with those in 
lake sediments it is possible to discover the environmental conditions that occurred 
in the past. 

Dr Brooks described several case studies which showed how the chironomid midge 
fauna had changed in some Scottish and Norwegian lakes in response to changing 
climate and other environmental factors. At Whitrig Bog in Scotland there was a 
change to warmer water species when the last Ice Age ended and then a return to 
colder water species as melting polar ice pushed the Gulf Stream further south. The 
pollen record for the same site suggested a tundra-type vegetation at the time when 
warmer water chironomids were present. This suggests that mobile insects, such as 
these flies, are a more accurate climate indicator when changes occur over a relatively 
short period of time. Some Norwegian lakes in more recent times have shown an 
increase in low pH water species as a result of acidification of the water by acid rain 
and the presence of conifer forests in the water catchment area. A Scottish lake has 
been limed to restore it to its former pH level. This has resulted in changes in the 
chironomid fauna in favour of higher pH species but the historic record shows that 
the species assemblage is not the same as before acidification. 



13 April 1999 

Mr S. Meredith showed some A4-sized pictures made by a colour printer from 
transparencies of butterflies, other insects and orchids seen on the recent BENHS 
expedition to Belize. 

Dr J. MuGGLETON announced that applications for the Society's Research Fund 
should be sent to him by 31.ix.99. There is likely to be £2000 for distribution in sums 
of about £4-500. The Fund, which is also open to non-members of the Society, will 
support research projects relating to conservation, distribution and taxonomy of 
insects and/or spiders. 

Mr S. Miles reported that he had attended a meeting organized by the RSPB on 
Rainham Marshes, Essex, to discuss management of the Marshes and raise awareness 
of their environmental importance. He also drew attention to a publication produced 
by the Ancient Tree Forum. In their Bulletin No. 4, March 1999, was a request from 
Dr M. Simmonds of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Surrey for information on death 
watch beetle, Xestohium nifovillosiim (Degeer) in its natural environment in trees. 

Mr S. Meredith reported seeing a brimstone butterfly and three small tortoise- 
shells on a hillside in Somerset on I4.iii.99. This is a proposed large blue introduction 
site. Heavy rabbit grazing was damaging thyme which had been given some 
protection by covering it with twigs. Mr Meredith noted that blackthorn twigs, 
bearing eggs of the brown hairstreak, were being used! 

Mr R. Uffen reported seeing male Andrena praecox (Scop.) at Frogmore Lakes, 
St. Albans, Herts, on 2.iv.99. A female was seen on 8.iv.99 at Amwell Quarry. 
Although this site has plenty of willows, Mr Uffen only counted four male plants. He 
suspected that the willows had been planted and mostly been propagated from a 
female clone. Female willows are of limited value to sallow-associated bees as they 
produce no pollen. Mr Uffen thought an aggregation of approximately 150 holes in 
the soil between paving stones at Fryent Country Park, Middx. that had been 
reported by another member, was likely to be a nest site of the solitary bee 
Lasioglossum malachwus (Kirby). 



246 BR. J. ENT. NAT HIST., 12; 1999 

Dr K.N. A. Alexander spoke on the subject of "Life in old trees". Britain is 
relatively rich in ancient trees compared with other parts of Western Europe. Such 
trees have a large number of insects that are associated with dead wood and wood- 
rotting fungi. Aging is a natural process and trees such as oak go through 
recognizable stages as their vigour declines. Branches at the top of the tree die back, 
leading to a thinning of the crown. Growth lower down is maintained so that 
ultimately the tree's crown is lowered. Various fungi attack the heartwood, leading 
gradually to the development of a hollow trunk. Although trees in this state may 
look unhealthy, Dr Alexander stressed this was a natural state of affairs and hollow 
trees continue to make active growth. During the early stages of wood decay more 
speciahst insects are likely to be present, often associated with a particular type of 
fungal rot. When the decay is advanced the rotten wood is of a more homogeneous 
nature and supports more general feeders. Dr Alexander made a plea for 
entomologists to identify the species of fungi on trees as well as the type of tree 
when recording dead-wood insects. He showed a series of slides of beetles and other 
insects that are associated with old trees. 

Some attempts at providing artificial breeding sites for rot-hole and other dead- 
wood insects have been successful. The best sites for dead-wood insects have histories 
that date back to medieval times. River banks and old parkland can be good sites 
and may be better than ancient woodland. The ideal site has a mixture of old, young 
and middle-aged trees with nectar plants for the adult insects. New trees must be 
planted to ensure continuity of trees for the future. 

The roots of ancient trees can be damaged by ploughing close to the trunks. 
Overgrazing can also be detrimental by compacting the soil under the canopy and 
harming mycorrhizal fungi through dung causing over-enrichment of the soil. Other 
problems for ancient trees are the removal of lower branches to allow access for farm 
machinery and the excessive removal of dead wood for aesthetic reasons. Careful tree 
surgery can be beneficial in regenerating ancient pollarded trees and clearing scrub 
growth from around veteran trees. Where trees have to be felled for safety reasons it 
is sometimes possible to leave a safe standing trunk after the branches have been 
removed. Caring for ancient trees means rediscovering old skills and management 
techniques need to be appropriate for local environmental conditions. The Ancient 
Tree Forum has been set up as a means of recording and exchanging information on 
this subject. 

11 May 1999 

The following persons have been approved as members by the Council: Mr Ashley 
P. Leftwich and Mr Martin W. George. 

Mr S. Miles displayed a copy of the JNCC Report on the Review into the 
Operation of Species Protection Legislation in Great Britain. He also made available 
Minutes of the March 1999 JCCBI meeting and a list of lead partners for Species 
Action Plans. The letter includes the BENHS as lead partner for three heathland fly 
species. These papers will be placed in the Society's library at Dinton Pastures. 

Dr J. Mclean announced that the JNCC would be reporting to the Department 
of Environment, Transport and Regions (DETR) on the effectiveness of the Wildhfe 
and Countryside Act Schedules. They would use the above mentioned report and 
also incorporate the views of other conservation agencies. Consultation on Part II of 
the Wildlife and Countryside Act. which concerns sites, took place in 1998. Various 
non-governmental organizations are pressing through Wildlife and Countryside Link 
for stronger site protection. Dr McLean noted that there was pressure on the 



BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST., 12: 1999 247 

government's legislation programme. It is possible that there might be some new 
conservation legislation in autumn 1999 as part of the Access to the Countryside 
proposals but it may be delayed for a year. The new Scottish Assembly has powers to 
deal with wildlife legislation but is unlikely to do so before autumn 2000. 

Dr J. MuGGLETON reported taking in his moth trap at Staines, Middx. on 2. v. 99 a 
lesser yellow underwing, Noctiui comes Hiibn. and a sycamore moth, Acronicta aceris 
(L.). These normally appear about the third week of June. The A^. comes was seen on 
the same egg box as an early grey, Xylocampa areola (Esp.). 

Dr N. Ravenscroft spoke on "Micro-habitat overlap in Alpine and Scottish 
Burnet Moths". During the 1990s he had studied Zygaena spp. in Western Scotland 
and in the Alps. Three burnet moths, the transparent burnet {Zygaena purpuralis), 
the slender Scotch burnet (Z. loti) and the New Forest burnet (Z. viciae) are 
restricted in Britain to basalt outcrops on the western coast of Scotland. The Scotch 
burnet (Z. exulans) occurs on mountain tops near Braemar. Of more widespread 
occurrence in Scotland and elsewhere is the six-spot burnet (Z. fiUpendulae). The 
narrow-bordered five-spot burnet (Z. lonicerae) occurs in the Isle of Skye as a 
separate subspecies. In Scotland Z. viciae has just one site, lonicerae has three (all on 
Skye) and loti has ten sites (all on Mull); purpuralis has 30 sites and fiUpendulae 
occurs on over 100 sites. There is no overlap in sites with the three rarest species. 

Dr Ravenscroft studied the vegetation at burnet sites on the undercliffs and on 
land shps and found the distribution of the moths was related to plant height. Z. loti 
occurs in less acidic areas with short vegetation; Z. purpuralis is found in more acid 
areas with bell heather, and Z. fiUpendulae, lonicerae and viciae occur where there is 
tall vegetation. In the Alps, Dr Ravenscroft found that the distribution of these 
species was related to altitude. Up to 800 m, all five species occur together. In terms 
of abundance at increasing altitude the ranking of the five species is viciae, lonicerae, 
fiUpendulae, loti and purpuralis, with viciae being most abundant at lower altitudes 
and purpuralis going highest up the mountains up to an altitude of about 2400 m. 



15 June 1999 

Mr S. Miles showed an egg and adults of the hoverfly Chrysotoxum cautum 
(Harris) and adults of Chrysotoxum octomaculatum Curtis. As part of the BENHS 
Heathland Flies Biodiversity Project, he had visited a known Surrey locality of 
C. octomaculatum on 27. v. 99. At 9.30 am, with the temperature at about 23° C, a 
number of this rare and elusive heathland fly were seen visiting the flowers of broom. 
In a small area of sedges, Carex spp., both hoverflies were seen visiting buttercup 
flowers and sitting on the foliage of sedges and bramble. At 3.20 pm, a C. cautum was 
observed depositing eggs on the foliage of Carex acutiformis. The eggs are sausage- 
shaped, white, 0.75-1 mm long and deposited vertically on to the leaf blade. The 
sedge was growing in a damp but not wet area with fine silty soil where ants 
commonly build up soil around the stems of Carex. 

Mr R.D. Hawkins showed specimens of the hoverflies Brachyopa pilosa CoUin 
and Brachypalpus laphriformis (Fall.). These resemble respectively a muscid fly and a 
mining bee, and because of this may be overlooked. Both were taken at Nower 
Wood, near Leatherhead, Surrey. The B. pilosa, a male, was taken on beech logs on 
3.V.99 and B. laphriformis, a female, on 22.V.99 at the base of an oak tree. 

Mr S. Miles stated that English Nature has offered matching funds for the 
BENHS five-year Heathland Diptera Study. 



248 BR. J. ENT. NAT. HIST.. 12: 1999 

Mr S. Paston reported finding the yponomeutid moth, Argyresthia trifasciata 
(Staudinger), on 28. v. 99 at Norwich, Norfolk. This mines the shoots of juniper and 
has been known in recent years from the London area, N. Hants and Cheshire. 

Mr P. Barnard introduced a programme of talks under the heading "What 
future for British insect checklists?' by presenting a historical review of British insect 
checklists. This was followed by Martin Honey with a review of Lepidoptera 
checklists, and finally, Ian McLean spoke about Diptera checklists and about the use 
of electronic databases for checklists. 

Peter Barnard's historical review of British insect checklists began with Forster's 
catalogue of about 1000 names published in 1770. Subsequent authors added more 
species, more synonyms, and more additional information. A recurrent theme was of 
over-ambitious projects never being finished. In more recent times, Kloet and 
Hincks' checklist (1945) included about 20000 insects. During the 1970s, a second 
edition was produced in parts, and with the publication of Peter Chandler's Diptera 
checklist (1998), the Royal Entomological Society has started a third series of British 
insect checkhsts. 

In summing up, Peter Barnard referred to the trade-off between keeping a list up- 
to-date, and maintaining nomenclatural stability. The Natural History Museum has 
a co-ordinating role to play in future checklist developments through the National 
Biodiversity Network (NBN: see http://www.nbn.org.uk/) checklist project. 

Martin Honey reviewed the recent history of British Lepidoptera checklists. 
Lepidopterists have been particularly prolific at producing local lists, and have also 
been notable for assigning English names and code numbers to many species. The 
numbering system introduced by the 1979 Recorder's log book and label list (Bradley 
and Fletcher) is widely used today. Emmet's life history chart in MBGBI Vol. 7(2) is 
a checklist with very detailed ecological information. Recent continental Lepidoptera 
checklists have opted for full synonymy, and the European checkhst is being 
published on CD-ROM as well as paper format. 

Ian McLean described the work leading up to the publication of a British Diptera 
checklist in 1998. Following on from work done for the Palaearctic Catalogue, three 
years of intensive work on a British checklist started in 1994. In 1997 alone, the 
editor, Peter Chandler, visited RES and NHM hbraries 30 times, and co-ordinated a 
major collaborative effort, with 48 specialist contributors and 100 worldwide 
correspondents. This checkhst provides explanatory notes for changes and quotes 
sources. 

Computers have many advantages for those who compile and use checklists, 
though they may never entirely replace paper lists. JNCC is actively involved in 
developing computerized checklists with the NBN. 

Open discussions were held, with all present contributing their views on a range of 
issues, including the pro's and con's of computers and of English names. Checklists 
can take a global, continental or national perspective. Though it is laudable to 
attempt a global checkhst, this approach is very complex. National lists have an 
important part to play but should be integrated with larger projects. 



BRITISH ENTOMOLOGICAL AND NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 

PUBLICATIONS 

A field guide to the smaller British Lepidoptera — edited by A. M. Emmet. 

2nd edition, 1988. 288 pages. 

Paperback £18.00 (plus £1.60 p.&p.) (members £12.00 + £1.60 p.&p.). Case bound 

£22.50 (plus £2.00 p.&p.) (members £15.00 + £2.00 p.&p.). 

This book is packed with information about the life histories of almost all the 1500 species of 

micro-lepidoptera recorded from the British Isles. An index of foodplants refers the reader to all 

spp. known to feed on each particular plant; this makes possible the speedy identification of 

larvae found (or at least narrows the field to a small number of spp.). 

British hoverflies: an illustrated identification guide — by A. Stubbs, with colour plates 

by S. Falk. 

2nd edition. 1996, incorporating the first supplement as an appendix, 270 pages of 

text plus 12 colour plates. Casebound £26.00 (plus £3.15 p.&p.) (members 

£18.00 + £3.15p.&p.). 

This is the most comprehensive book yet published on the British hoverflies. 256 spp. are 

described and their identification is made easy by the extensive keys, profusely illustrated with 

line figures. The superb plates show 263 specimens, depicting 190 different spp. 

British hoverflies: second supplement — by A. Stubbs. 

Published 1996, 55 pages. 

Paperback £6.00 (plus £0.55 p.&p.) (members £4.00 + £0.55 p.&p.). 

Among the features of this supplement: 

A review of some advances in the study of the biology of hoverflies 

Advances in conservation studies and methods 

Guides for identification of the 15 spp. new to the list since 1983. This includes 

new, fully revised, illustrated keys to British Sphaerophoria and Platycheirus. 

A key to female Neocnemodon (which could not be identified before) 

A further bibliography of about 300 references. Over 100 fine figures. 

New British beetles: species not in Joy's practical handbook — by P. J. Hodge and 

R. A. Jones 

Pubhshed 1995, 192 pages. 

Casebound £24.00 (now out of print). Paperback £18.00 (plus £2.00 p.&p.) (members 

£12.00 + £2.00 p.&p.). 

There are over 650 British beetles not included in Norman Joy's Practical handbook of British 

beetles. Some of these are new arrivals from the continent or further afield; others have been 

confused or overlooked. Many groups have undergone revision and spp. have been 'split'. Joy 

omitted many rare or doubtfully indigenous spp. Several of these have recently increased or 

been confirmed as certainly occurring (or having once occurred) in Britain. Many modern keys 

have been published since Joy's book, but these are often scattered through (sometimes obscure) 

journals. 

New British beetles puts these changes into perspective and offers a new look at the changes 
that have taken place in the 63 years since Joy's publication. The most up-to-date and useful 
keyworks are listed, together with other helpful and interesting references, or each 'new' species, 
a short description and comparison with other related spp. is followed by journal and book 
references through which identification can be made and confirmed. 

All prices are for single copies dispatched to addresses in the UK. Postage will be 
higher for multiple copy orders or where delivery is required overseas. Send orders to 
Mr G. Boyd, Sales Secretary, 91 Fullingdale Road, Northampton NN3 2PZ. Tel. 
01604 410056. 



BRITISH JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY 
VOLUME 12, PART 4, DECEMBER 1999 

ARTICLES 

193 Entomological surveys of vertical river flood defence walls in urban London — brownfield 

corridors: problems, practicalities and some promising results. R. A. Jones 
215 Micropygiis vagans Parent (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), a New Zealand fly in the British Isles. 

P. J. Chandler 
221 Biicluiiuiiiiella contimia (B. White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) established in Britain. P. Kirby 
227 Mordellistena secreta Horak (Coleoptera: Mordellidae), a species new to Britain. B. Levey 
232 A record of Ectemnius ruficornis (Zett.) (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) and its anthomyiid 
cleptoparasite (Diptera) breeding in southern Scotland. K. P. Bland 

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS 

213 Scarce wood-decay beetles in a river floodplain farmed landscape in the Upper Thames Valley. 

K. N. A. Alexander & A. P. Foster 
220 Procas gramilicollis Walton (Col.: Curculionidae) discovered in Surrey. K. N. A. Alexander 

224 Humming-bird hawk-moth Macroglossiim stellatariim (L.) (Lep.: Sphingidae) probing the 
ground. L. Winokur 

225 A new locality for Cosmotettix ccnidatus (Flor) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), with a note on its 
ecology. P. Kirby 

229 Nysius senecionis (SchiUing) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) feeding in large numbers on Guernsey 

fleabane. R. A. Jones 
231 Oedalea ringdahli Chvala (Diptera: Hybotidae) in northern England. R. Crossley 

234 Ptomaphagus varicomis (Rosenhauer) (Col.: Leiodidae) in North Devon. M. A. Salmon 

235 Notes on the habitats of Hebrus ruficeps (Thomson) (Hemiptera: Hebridae). P. Kirby 
237 The specialist Hemiptera associated with mistletoe. J. Hollier & J. Briggs 

239 Notes on the occurrence of the planthoppers Reptahis panzeri (Low) (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) and 
Asiiaca clavicornis (Fab.) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). R. A. Jones & P. J. Hodge 

PROCEEDINGS AND TRANSACTIONS 

241 BENHS Indoor meetings November 1998-June 1999 

ibc British Entomological and Natural History Society Publications 



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