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Full text of "The British miscellany, or, Coloured figures of new, rare, or little known animal subjects : many not before ascertained to be inhabitants of the British Isles : and chiefly in the possession of the author, James Sowerby"

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1 



THE 

BRITISH MISCELLANY: 

OK 

COLOURED FIGURES 

OP 

NEW, RARE, OR LITTLE KNOWN 

ANIMAL SUBJECTS; 

MANY NOT BEFORE ASCERTAINED TO BE INHABITANTS 
OF THE BRITISH ISLES; 

AND 

CHIEFLY IN THE POSSESSION OF THE AUTHOR, 

JAMES SOWERBY, F.L.S. 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE PHYSICAL SOCIETY OF GOTTINGEN; 

DESIGNER OF ENGLISH BOTANY AND EXOTIC BOTANY; AND 

AUTHOR OF ENGLISH FUNGI AND BRITISH MINERALOGY. 



Let no presuming impious railer tax 
Creative Wisdom, as if aught was formed 
In vain, or not for admirable ends. 

And lives the man whose universal eye 

Has swept at once th' unbounded scheme of things? 

Thomson's Seasons, Line 318, &fc. 



VOL. I. 



LONDON: 

Printed by R. Taylor & Co., 38, Suoe-Lane, Fleet-Strert ; 

And sold by the Author, J. SowERBY, at No. 2, Mead-Place, 
Lambeth; by White, Fleet-street; Johnson, St. Paul's 
Churcliyard; Symonds, Paternoster Row ; and 
all other Booksellers. 

MDCCCVI. 






TO 

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE 
FRANCIS LORD SEAFORTH, F.R.S. F.L.S. 

GOVERNOR OF BARBADOES, 
AND TO 

JAMES BRODIE, ESQ., F.R.S. F.L.S. 

M. P. FOR FORRES IN NORTH BRITAIN, 

/ beg leave to dedicate these pages. To Jiis Lordship's 
boimti/ I oxte tlie greatest part of 7111/ Collection of 
British Birds; and to the favour of Mr. Brodie I 
am indebted for procuring me such an advantage, as 
-well as for his own personal assistance and zeal in 
furnishing such subjects of Natural Histojy as his 
opportunities admit of ; 

Who am 

their most grateful humble Servant, 



JAMES SOWERBY. 

Mead Place, Lambeth, 
Feb. 1, 1806. 



PREFACE. 



Whilst so many new and iateresting objects in 
Natural History are constantly unfolded to our view, 
it is astonishing to find how often the same subject is 
displayed in different works. The author of The Bri- 
tish Miscellany considers himself as the first who has 
undertaken to collect for publication, merely the 
new and rare productions of Great Britain ; and he 
has great pleasure in finding his exertions repaid by 
the stimulus they have given to the followers of Na- 
ture in every department. Objects which in former 
ages were passed over as too minute or too insignifi- 
cant for observation, are generally found to repay the 
investigator of them either by their beauty or utility. 
The present enlightened age seems very desirous of 
elucidating the obscurities of former times ; since it 
is become very evident, that the least as well as the 
largest work of nature is equally the production of 
an all -wise Creator. 

Upon Natural History all the most useful arts are 
dependent J it is also the greatest reflecter of that 



VI PREFACE. 

wisdom which man alone is allowed to contemplate. 
Philosophers, both of antient and modern times, have 
endeavoured to show, that to study Nature is the most 
effectual way to produce in our minds a veneration 
for the omnipotent Creator. The more we investigate 
the wonders of his bounty, the more convinced we 
shall feel that it is our duty to explore and examine 
the treasures which are at present dormant. 

To the numerous friends who have honoured me 
with patronage and assistance in the present work I 
beg leave to offer my most grateful thanks ; and can 
only assure them that my abilities shall be most 
strenuously exerted to render the future volumes of it 
deserving the encouragement that has been given to 
the present one. 

With regard to the execution, the best criterion is, 
that the most perfect judges have thought it worthy 
of encouragement, and the enlightened assistance it 
has received will be readily discerned by the true 
critic. 



127 

TAB. LIX. 

CARABUS chrysostomos. 
Gold en -mouthed Carahus. 



Spec. Char. Blue-green: with the mouth, antennas 

and feet rufous. Head and thorax deeply punctate. 

Elytra truncate at the end, and subemarglnate. 

Syn. Carabus chrysostomos. Marsh. Ent. Brit. i. 

469. iOl. 

Carabus dentatus. Ross. Faun. Etrusc. i. 222. 551. 

t.o.f.u. ^ 
Drypta emarginata. Fab. Syst. Eleuih.i. 'ISO. 1. 
Latreille Hist. Nat. &c. viii. 264. 1. t. 72./. 7. 
Cicindela emarginata. Fab. Ent. Syst. Em.'i. 111. 
37. Panz. Faun. Ins. Germ. Init. n. 28./. 15. 
Length of the body 4 



Length or the body 4 "^ 
■D 1,1 r of the thorax 1- > lines, 
^^^^'^^n of the elytra l| J 



1 HE specimen from which our figure of this very rare and 
most elegant little insect was taken is in the rich cabinet of 
Alexander MacLeay, Esq., to whom it came amongst the 
insects of the late Mr. Lewin. Mr. Marsham described it 
from one in the collection of that intelligent and indefa- 
tigable entomologist, the lamented John Bcckwith : these 
are the only two British specimens that are at present 
known to have been taken. The Rev. W. Kirby possesses 
one from Italy, which was sent him by a Swedish entomo- 
logist. Major Gyllenhal, as the Drypta emarginata of Fa- 
bricius. This specimen is bluer than ours, and answers 
exactly to that author's description of his insect. M. La- 
treille observes that it is rare in France, and found under 
stones. 

The entomologist of Kiel originally gave this insect as a 

Cicindela: Mr. Marsham, with more reason perhaps, has 

VOL. I. O 



128 



considered it as a Caral'w;, to which genus it is certainly 
more nearly related both by habit and habitat than to Ci- 
cbidela : still, however, it has considerable affinity with 
the latter genus, and may be regarded as one of the links 
which connect it with the former. In the Systeina Eleu- 
theratorum, Fabricius has placed this insect in the genus 
Drypla, which he adopted from that most accurate ento- 
mologist M. Latreilie, who in his late work [Hist, not. 
gcnirale et particuliere des Cn/s faces et Insectes, torn. iii. 
p. 87) has placed it in the third family {Carahici) of his 
first Section [Feelers six, all the Tarsi 5-articulale) of his 
first Order (Coleoptera). Under this it belongs to his 
Division A, (Celeripedes) , and subdivision Iv (Longipalpati) . 

The most striking circumstances in which this insect 
diflers from Caralms are its feelers, which instead of being 
filiform, with the intermediate ones not remarkably more 
slender than the others, are elongate and subcapitate; the 
last joint being much larger than the rest, and securiform or 
Iwtchet-shaped ; and the intermediate ones, which are fili- 
form, and longer than in Caralms, are much slenderer 
than the others. The antennas are strikingly distinguished 
from tliose of every other Caruhiis, by the remarkable 
length of the first joint. The thorax, though it is rather 
obcordate, has no margin, and is subcylindrical. The maxillae 
also are protended, and the eyes very prominent. We shall 
now give a very particular description of this singular in- 
sect, that our readers may be better able to judge of its claim 
to be considered as belonging to a distinct genus. 

Body depressed, blue-green, rather hairy, hairs diverging. 
Head elongate, very narrow-, covered with iinpressed 
points. Mouth rufous. Jaws protended, toothless, acu- 
minate, forcipate at the end. Apex of the valvulce hooked, 
on the inner side setoso-pectinate. Feelers elongate, ru- 
fous.. The exteiior, or valvular, consisting of three joints; 
the first elongate, subelavate; the intermediate snbclavate ; 
the last large, compressed, nearly triangular : the two last 



129 

joints form stn angle with the first. The intermediate 
feslers consist of two joints ; the first fiUform, the second 
very slightly clavate. The interior or labial feelers consist 
of three joints, the first very short and rather conical, the 
second long and nearly filiform, the third large hatchet- 
shaped ; the first forms an angle with the second, and the 
second with the third. Labrum, or upper-lip, transverse, 
depressed, at the end obsoletely three-lobed, surface un- 
even, without points. Labium, or under-lip, minute, 
very slender, nearly filiform, protended between the in- 
terior feelers. Chin obcordate, at the end three-lobed; la- 
teral lobes longest and acute. Antennae lateral, inserted 
just above the labrum, filiform, covered with short hairs, 
rufous, consisting of eleven joints : first joint very long, 
occupying more than a fourth part of the whole antenna, 
thicker than the following ones, subclavate, black at the 
end; the second very short, turbinato-conical ; the third 
longer, and growing gradually thicker to the end; the rest 
of nearly equal size and filiform — the last rather acute. 
Eyes lateral, hemispherical, veiy prominent. Neck and 
throat distinct, narrower than the head, without points, 
shining. Trunk very narrow, subcylindrical, not margined, 
widest at the head, rather obcordate, covered with deeply 
impressed points, distinguished on the thorax by a longi- 
tudinal channel. Breast-bone not remarkable. Legs ru- 
fous, nearly of the same length. First joint of the hips 
large, nearly hemispherical; the second smaller and obco- 
nical. Thighs thickest in the middle. Tibiae growing 
gradually thicker from the base to the apex — the anterior 
pair distinguished by an internal lateral notch or sinus; 
terminal spines very short. Tarsi consisting of five joints; 
the last but one bipartite with long lobes; the last ascend- 
ing, curved, subclavate, armed at the end with a double 
crooked claw. The first joint of the hips of the posterior 
legs is flatfish, and rather triangular ; the second is oblong- 
oval and placed under the thigh longitudinally, so as to be 



130 



a kind of support to it. The scutellum is obsolete. The 
elytra are shorter than the abdomen, slightly margined, 
at the end rather widest, truncate and subemarginate, 
taken together of an oblong-oval shape. Their surface 
is distinguished by nine lines of deeply impressed points; 
the line nearest the suture towards the base diverges a little, 
so as to give room for another very short line of points, 
running from the base a little way down the suture : in the 
space between this and the diverging line two impressed 
points are observable. The interstices between the lines are 
rather convex, and very minutely punctulate. The abdomen 
consists of five segments with a very obtuse anus. 

Fabricius describes the tarsi of this insect as consisting 
only of four joints, with the last bilobed; from which it is 
plain he did not take into the account the terminal or un- 
guicular joint. Without this, however, no insect has five 
joints in its tarsi. In Panzer's figure, which, although 
too blue, is certainly intended for our insect, the tarsi have 
only four joints with the last but one bilobed. This is 
clearly a mistake. M. Latreille corrects this error, by 
placing it in a section in which the species have all the tarsia 
of five joints. 

Explanation of the Plate. 

Fig. 1 . Carabus chrysostomos, of its natural size. 

2. Ditto, magnified. 

3. a. Labrum or Upper-lip. 

Z*. Maxillae or Jaws. {Mandihulce Fab.) 

4. a Exterior Feeler. 
b Intermediate Do. 
c Interior Do. 

d Labium or Under-lip. ( Ligula Fab. Levre 

inftrieure Latr.) 
e Mentum, or Chin. ( Labium Fab. Ganache 

Latr.) 

5. Apex of one of the Valvula. {MaxillcB Fab.) 

6. One of the Tarsi of five joints. 

7. The Antenna. 

8. One of theEIvtra. 



131 



TAB. LX. 



SPONGIA cancellata. 
Cancellated Sponge. 



Class 6. Vermes. Order 4. Zoophyta. 
Gen. Spongia. Spec. cancellata. 



This remarkable Sponge was brought me fresh from 
Brighton by Mr. Fellows, September 17th 1805. Its can- 
cellated structure distinguishes it at first sight from all 
others that I have seen either specimens or figures of, 
■especially as British. Besides this structure in the general 
habit, its fibres are also cancellated or reticulated with a 
horny appearance when magnified. All spongiae seem to 
betray more or less the habitation or nidus of some animal, 
in the general structure. The kneed appearance and the 
swelling at the bend of the knee, with the inverted conical 
aperture, give this assurance. It is rather astonishing 
that this circumstance has not been ascertained with any 
certainty. 

In the present laudably inquisitive age there is little doubt 
but it is likely to be found out. 



V 






^^^ 



TAB. I. 

PHYSETER bidens. 
Two-toothed Cachalot. 



Class 1. Mammalia. Order J. Cete. 

Gen. Char. Teeth bony, only in the lower jaw. A 
spiracle in the fore part of the head. 

Spec. Char. Teeth two, one on each side the jaw. 



For this animal I am indebted to that zealous promoter 
of natural history, my very kind friend James Brodie, Esq. 
F. L. S., who has made every exertion in his power to show 
the world that it may be added to the present list of British 
zoological subjects j and indeed, as far as we know, it is quite 
a new species. It was observed by this gentleman, cast on 
his own estate, near Brodie-house, Elginshire. On account of 
its weight and bulk, he sent me only the head; a sufficient 
mark to distinguish it from all others of this genus, and to 
serve as a specimen for my museum. I was much pleased 
and astonished when I found, from the extraordinary for- 
mation of its mouth, and the situation of its teeth, that this 
was likely to prove a species not yet described ; and I was 
soon confirmed in that opinion by examination, and compa- 
rison at that great source of knowledge and instruction in 
Soho Square. 

Mr. Brodie (who assisted me with the sketch and de- 
scription of the rest of this animal) observes, that the cuticle 
on every part of the head and body was perfectly pellucid 
ind satinv, reflecting the sun to a y;reat distance. Immc- 



2 



diatelv under the cuticle, the sides were completely covered 
with white vermicular streaks, in every direction, which at 
a little distance appeared like irregular cuts with a small 
sharp instrument. It was a male animal. 

We know of no whale, with only two teeth in the lower 
jaw, described by any author. Gmelin mentions one with two 
teeth in the upper jaw, which he calls Balcena rostrata. 
Johnson has figured what he calls Delphlnus foemina with 
apparently two teeth in the vpper jaw, and impressions in 
the lower one*. We cannot be mistaken as to the position 
of the head in our figure, for the spiracle was sufficiently 
conspicuous when it was received. We might have called 
it Physeter rostrahis, with some propriety; but this might 
have created confusion. It is however a curious circum- 
stance, that such an appellation would suit better if it w^ere 
described with the wrong side upwards ', which will be easily 
observed, if the plate be reversed : and the jaws, in this 
case, very aptly resemble a bird's beak. 

Animal oblong, black above, nearly white below, 16 feet 
long, 11 feet in circumference at the thickest part, with 
1 fin on the back. Head acuminated. Lower jaw blunt, 
longer than the upper, with two short lateral bony teeth. 
Upper jaw sharp, let into the lower one by two lateral im- 
pressions corresponding with the teeth. Opening of the 
mouth 1 foot 6 inches. Tongue smooth, vascular, small. 
Throat very vascular, rough. Under the throat are found 
two diverging furrows, terminating below the eyes ; which 
are small, and placed 6 inches behind the mouth. 

Spiracle lunate, the ends pointing forwards. 

• These appear to be the same as Schreber's figure, which is marked Del~ 
fhimts hidens ; but we have not seen his description. 

It is not unlike our animal, but, if meant for the same, is represented rather 
too short, with the head the wrong side upv/ards ! 





-Zi^rj-2*'*j?i.j5^^ /'>.'j;»v7-*,.^<..u&=^ 



TAB. 11. 
PAPILIO Blandina. 



Class 5. Insecta. Order 3. Lepidoptera. 

Gen. Char. Antennae thicker towards the end, 
and generally ending in a knob. IVings erect 
when sitting. 

Spec. Char. Upper wings dentated, fuscous; with 
a rufous stripe, and three eye-like spots. Lower 
wings fuscous beneath, with a grey stripe, and 
white mark. 

Syn. p. Blandina. Fah. Ent. Syst. iii. 1. p. 236. 
n. 736. not Turt, Linn. v. 3. 108. 
P. Ligea. Scop. Cam. n. 436. 
P. jEthiops. Esper. t. 25. f. 3. t. 63./. 1. 
P Medea. JVien. Schmetterl. 167. n. 7. 



This newly discovered species of Papilioj as a native of 
Britain, was caught in the Isle of Arran, one of the Western 
Islands of Scotland. The specimen from which our drawing 
was taken is in the cabinet of our kind friend A, MacLeay, 
Esq. Seer. Linn. Soc, 

The upper wings have a dentated appearance at the edges, 
are fuscous on the upper side, with a sort of orange-coloured 
irregular stripe, on which are three black rings, with a white 



spot in the middle of each, and a small black spot ; beneath 
paler fuscous, with an orange-coloured stripe and three 
black rings, white in the middle. Lower wings fuscous 
above, with an orange stripe and a black spot; with a light 
brown stripe beneath, a black spot, and an irregularly scal- 
loped white mark. 





fctTJU^Ol.TiJly'Kca Jk ,7»'' i/%«'«i-f>-, ^■■mS'-t- 



TAB. III. 

COLUBER Dumfrisiensis. 
Dumfriesshire Snake, 



Class 3. Amphibia. Order i. Reptilia. 

Gen. Char. Plates on the belly. Scales under 
the tail. 

Spec. Char. Plates on the belly 162. Scales under 
the tail about 80. 



JLhis Coluber seems to be entirely new, and was discovered 
by T. W, Simmons J near Dumfries. As only one specimen 
has been seen, we cannot say much with regard to its usual 
size. The figures are pretty accurately drawn, as to the 
size of the specimen. The scales of the back are extremely 
simple, not carinated — see the lowest Jigure, 

It is of a pale brown colour, with pairs of reddish brown 
Stripes from side to side over the back, somewhat zigzag ; 
with intervening spots on the sides. 





k^T4^W/ 



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TAB. IV. 
ACTINIA equina. 

Class 6. Vermes. Order 3. Mollusca. 

Gen. Char. Body warted, fixed by the base, with 
one terminal aperture or mouth, surrounded by 
numerous cirrhi. 

Spec. Char. Greenish, with a rosy foramen or 
mouth, pale rosy cirrhi, with an aperture at the 
extremity of each. 

Syn, Actinia rufa? Gmel. v, l.p.SlSl. 

Actinia equina ? Linn. Sijst. ed. 12. v. I. p. 1088. 
Dicqiiem. Phil. Trans, v. 63. p. 361. t. 16, 17. 
/ 10-12. 



1 HESE have been found several times of late, generally 
after the most violent storms, by Dr. Smith of Yarmouth ; 
who has occasionally kept them for a twelvemonth or more, 
giving them fresh sea water every day, and feeding them 
with oysters or muscles. Like others of ihe genus, this 
animal forms a sort of ball when at rest — see tlie bottom 
Jigure ; and it is curious to observe the various appearances 
it assumes while expanding to the size of the upper figure. 
'I'he cirrhi, being formed as it were for arms to the animal, 
are often displayed in so deliberate a manner that it would 
seem to have very little sensibility, were it not often very quick 
in drawing them in when disturbed. When touched at the 



8 



extremity, they remind us of the conductor of a weak 
electrifying machine, while in action ; but adhere to the 
fingers. It often protrudes its stomach and expands it over 
its whole surface ; at which time, if a fresh oyster or muscle 
be taken from its shell, and thrown to it, it envelops and 
draws it into its body; from whence, in a few days, it is 
again discharged by the same channel, altered and very 
much diminished. If the food given it be not quite fresh, 
it throws it to a distance and appears uneasy. 

Body greenish above, variegated with orange -coloured 
stripes, and covered with minute white specks ; when closed, 
roundish, warted, flat at the base with a narrow rim, grey 
beneath, and formed for attaching itself to stones. Mouth 
soft, red, surrounded by ] 38 cirrhi of a light rose-colour, 
cylindrical, perforated at the end. A red line runs nearly 
to the base of each, and is lost towards the mouth. Stomach 
light brown, plaited. 




yitH.lBoS ^tabii&/. ?>- 7*fJon"ri;' Z^i'^n^. 



TAB. V. 
VESPERTILIO Barbastellus. 



Class 1. Mammalia. Order 1, Primates. 

Gen. Char. Teeth erect, acuminated, approximated. 
Fore feet fitted for flying, covered with a mem- 
brane. 

Spec. Char. Caudated. Cheeks tumid, hairy. Ears 
large, angulated near the base. Nose flat. Fore- 
head bald. Two inches long. 

Syn. V. Barbastellus. Gmel. v. \.p. 48. 

Barbastelle. Buff. Hist. Nat. viii. 130. t. 19./. 1. 



1 HIS new animal, now added to the British catalogue, was 
communicated by my friend Mr. Peete,F.'L. S., of Dartford, 
to whom I applied to help me to the Horse-shoe Bat. He 
kindly used his interest at the powder-mills there, whence 
Dr. Latham vised to procure it, and luckily sent me for it 
this more rare animal, the only one yet preserved or known 
in this country. 

Teeth small, all, except the canine, notched. Above the 
nose, to a little beyond the ears, it is bald and flat. The 
nose is smooth and concave. The ears are the length of the 
head, with a notch at each edge, undulated at the outer 
edge^ hairy at the back, and having an auricle within (in 
which it differs particularly from the Horse- shoe Bat). The 
eyes are placed within the ear. The hair all over is dark 
brown at the base, and white at the tip. It is much smaller, 
and the teeth are sharper than in the Horse-shoe Bat. 



I 




?s 



11 

TAB. VI. 

ANAS histrionica. 
Harlequin Duck. 



Class 3. Aves. Orders. Anseres. 

Gen. Char. Beak with lamellar teeth, convex, obtuse. 
Nostrils ovate. Tongue ciliated, obtuse. Feet 
palmated; the three front toes united by a mem- 
brane ; hind ones without a membrane. 
Spec. Char. Male fuscous, varied with white and 
blue; ears with a white line; neck and breast 
with a white stripe. Female grey; ears white ; 
first wing-coverts blackish. 
Male. 

Syn. Anas histrionica. Linv. Si/st. i. 204. 35. 
Briin. Orn. no. S4!, 85. Mull. no. 127. Faun. 
Grcenl. no. 46. Georgi Reise, p. 166. Phil. 
Trans. Ixii. 417. Frisch. t. 151. 

Brimond. Olaff. Icel. ii. t. 34. 

Le Canard a Collier de Terre Neuve. Bris, Orn. vi. 
362. 14. Buff. Ois. ix. 250. PL Enl. 798. 

Stone Duck. Hist. Ka7ntsch. 160. 

Dusky and spotted Duck. Edw. pi. 99. 

Harlequin Duck. ^rct. Zool. no. 490. Lath. Syn. 
vi. 484. 38. 
Female. 

Anas minuta. Linn. Syst. i. 204. ^G. Brun. no. 86. 
Faun. Grocnl. no. 46. 

La Sarcelle de la Baye de Hudson. Bris. Orn. vi. 
469. 41. 

Le Canard brun. Buff. Ois. ix. 252. PL Enl. 1007. 

brun et blanc. Biff. Ois. ix. 287. PL 

EnL 799. 

Little brown and white Duck. Echu. pi. 157. 
Catesh. Car. 1. 98. 

Harlequin Duck female. Lath. Syn. vi. 485, 38. 



12 

The male and female of this were by Linnaeus thought to 
be different species. We are however well assured of the 
contrary by our most kind friend Lord Seaforth^ who pro- 
cured and favoured me with these specimens from Scotland. 

Mr. Simmons gave me a young female which he shot in 
one of the Orkneys. 

Dr. Latham's description of it in his Synopsis is so good, 
that we cannot do better than follow him. 

Male. — ** Size of a Wigeon. Length one foot five inches : 
breadth twenty-six inches : weight eighteen ounces and three 
quarters, troy. Bill near an inch and half long, and black : 
irides hazel : between the bill and eye white, in some yel- 
lowish, or saffron colour*, extending a little over the eyes, 
and beyond. Crown of the head black, bounded by a reddish 
streak : on each side of the neck a perpendicular line of white, 
and above it a white spot ; except this, the whole of the necic 
is black : round the breast is a white collar, broadest be- 
hind, where it is marked with black dots, and is bounded 
by a black band: between this and the wings is a transverse 
mark of white. The breast, below the collar, blueish ash 
colour. The back dusky brown, inclined to purple. Rump 
deep blue black. Belly and thighs black. Sides dull orange: 
on each side of the tail a spot of white. The prime quills 
dusky ash colour, some of them tipped with white. Tail 
brown. Legs blueish black." 

Female. — *^ Length thirteen inches and a half. Bill black : 

irides hazel: the forehead and between the bill and eye 

white : on the ear a spot of the same : head, neck, and back 

brown; palest on the fore part of the neck: upper part of 

the breast and rump rufous brown : lower part of the breast 

and belly barred with pale rufous and white, but the lower 

belly and thighs with rufous and brown: scapulars and 

wing-coverts rufous brown ; the outer greater ones blackish : 

quills and tail dusky, the last inclined to rufous: legs 

dusky." 

♦ Muller. 





Ja/t^J.-jSos- 2?^^f^^ iv ,7i£ 'SoH'^rir.^ffu^'t 



13 



TAB. VII. 



PAPILIO Ligea. 



Class 5. Insecta. Orders. Lepidoptera. 

Spec. Char. Wings dentated, fuscous, with a rufous 
stripe ; on each side of the upper wing three eye- 
like spots ; on the lower four ; under side marked 
with grey. 

Syn. PapilioL'gea. Linn. Syst. Nat. 2. 772. 144. 

— — Faun. Suec. 1050. 

Fab. Ent. Syst. iii. \.p. 234. ??. 

732. 
P. Alexis. Esp. Tab. 4>4^.f. 1. 2. 



1 HIS is another new British Insect, procured by 
A. MacLeay, Esq. Sec. L. S., from the same place as the 
one figured in tab. 3. of this Work. 




J^uz?".! jQos. ^a^^^%^ ^-- ^'a'f t.f<r**'er^p. J^^c/xdrny- 



15 



TAB. vm. 

L I N E U S longissimus. 
Black Lhie-JVorm. 



Class 5. Vermes. Order 1. Intestina. 

Gen. Char. Animal naked, simple, not attached. 
Body linear, smooth, depressed. Mouth beneath 
longitudinal. 

Syn. Linens longissimus. T. W, Simmons'* s MSS. 
Sea Longworm. Borlase's Cornwall, pi. 26./. 13. 



1 HE first intelligence I had of this animal was from 
Colonel Montague, who informed me also of their great 
length, but found it difficult, from their rotting, to preserve 
them to send me. 

It seems to have been long and well known to the fisher- 
men of the coast; but after they have told one that it is 
many fathoms in length, and that though they are continually 
bawling them in as they would a rope, they never find the 
extremity, they arc then sufficiently satisfied that one knows 
enough of the matter ; and persuasion or money will scarcely 
procure specimens from them. 

*' Length many feet. Breadth one-third of an inch. Colour 
towards the head black ; towards the opposite extremity it 
becomes gradually of a light brown with paler longitudinal 
streaks. The extremity nearest the mouth is slightly tapering, 
emarginate, and marked with a transverse semicircular line. 



16 



It appears capable of elongating itself, something in the 
manner of a leech. The mouth is situated half an inch 
distant from the apex, and forms a longitudinal aperture of 
three-quarters of an inch in length (to us it did not appear 
to be above a quarter of an inch). Motion very slow. 

^' This animal is frequently dredged up by the fishermen 
at Newhaven in the Frith of Forth. If plunged whilst living 
into alcohol, it contracts, and appears to be irregularly an- 
nulated. When permitted to remain in the same water 
many days, the posterior extremity becomes putrid and 
decomposed, whilst the other part remains entire and ca- 
pable of motion. It is so fragile that the entire animal has 
not yet been procured. A detached piece measured twelve 
feet, and the fishermen at Newhaven assert that they have 
met with pieces more than as vadiny fathom in length." 
The above description was taken from the MSS. of Mr. 
T. W. Simmons of Edinburgh, to whom I am indebted for 
specimens of this extraordinary animal. 



Je^.-'^.^SoS' JPi-Uyhtii. If ^'Sfrrerlr. ^.^ainn: 



17 



TAB. IX. 



M N D N Monoceros. 
Sea Unicorn, or Narwhal. 



Class 1. Mammalia. Order 7. Cete. 

Gen. Char. Teeth two, long, spiral, projected for- 
wards from the front of the upper jaw, through 
the lip. 

Syn. Monodon Monoceros. Linn, Syst. Nat. ed. 13. 
V. 1. 222. Tart. v. 1. 127. 



1 HIS animal was cast on the coast atFriestone, in Boston- 
Deeps, on Feb. 15, 1800. It perfectly agreed with the 
name given by Linnseus, in having but one tooth, looking 
like a horn; but, on examining the upper jaw, it was 
very evident that the other tooth had been lost; and we 
have since seen a perfect skeleton of the head of this ani- 
mal with the two teeth fixed in their proper sockets. The 
present specimen was 25 feet in length, and the tooth seven 
feet six inches. The teeth are spirally twisted, with a slight 
groove, terminating in a smooth point, as if worn down, 
and consist of very hard, compact ivory. Mouth rather 
small. Front of the head much rounded and blunt. Eyes 
black and small, considering the size of the animal, as in 
all the Order Cete. We observed the rudiment of a fin on 
the back, and a hard ridge near the tail. Black above from 
the nose to the tail, softened with streaky spots towards the 
sides, which are white, with a few spots. Belly white. 
VOL. I. c 



18 



Pins black. The whole animal was covered with a black 
and white horny substance, like some kinds of tortoise- 
shell, comi)osed of laminae for an inch or more in depth. 
In the stomach were found the horny beaks of cuttle-fish 
in great quantity. 

It was shown in Cockspur-street for some time, also at 
Cambridge. This animal is said to be most frequently 
i'ound with only one tooth. It will occasionally pierce the 
bottom of a ship with its teeth ; which circmiistance may 
account for the frequent loss of one of them. 




Jei^j jSas ^I'W^A^ J, ^f ,r,,„„,/^, J,„r^^, 



19 



TAB. X. 

PHALAROPUS Hyperboreus. 

Red-necked Phalarope, or Coot-footed Tringa, 



Class 2. Aves. Order 18, Pinnatipedes. 

Gen. Char. Bill straight. Nostrils minute. Toes 

furnished with a broad and generally scalloped 

membrane. 

Spec. Char. Male gray, a white stripe on the wing, 

and white beneath the rump. Breast gray. Sides 

of the neck ferruginous. Eyelashes white. Fe^ 

male. Body gray beneath. Rump rufous. White 

stripe on the wing. Eyebrows and base of the 

greater wing-coverts reddish. Sides of the neck 

ferruginous. 

Syn. Male. Tringa hyperborea. Linn. Sijst. i, 

249. 9. Faun. Suec. no. 179. (descr. posterior.') 

Brun. 172. Midi. 196. Faun. GrcenL no. 15, 

Gmel. Syst. i. 675. 

Phalaropus cinereus. Briss.wi. 15. 2. Id. 8vo. ii. 

362. 
Larus fidipes alter nostras. Raii Syn. 1 32, a. 7. 

JVdlugh. 270. 
Le Phalarope cendre. Buff. viii. 224. PL Enl. 766. 
Cock Coot-footed Tringa. Ediu. t. 143. 
Red Phalarope. Br. Zool ii. no. 219. t. 76. Lath. 
Syn. V. 270. 1. 

C 2 



20 



Female. Tringa fulicaria. Linn. Syst. i. 249. 10, 
Faun. Groenl. no. 76. Gmel. Syst. i. 676. 6. 

Phalaropus rufescens. Briss. vi. 20. 4. /c/. 8vo. 
ii. 2,65. 

Le Phalarope rouge. Buff. viii. 225. 

Red Coot-footed Tringa. Ediv. t. 142. 

Phalaropus hyperboreus. Latli. Ind. Orn. v. 2. 775. 
T. IV. Simmons' s MSS. 



This bird is 7 inches in length. Bill f inch, black. Eye- 
lids white. Tarsi black, compressed. Toes united as far 
as the first, second, and third phalanx of the inner, middle, 
and outermost toes respectively ; the unconnected part of 
the toes webbed j margins of the web scalloped and pec- 
tinated. Claws black. The female differs from the male 
in havino- the head of a dusky black, and the throat of a 
white colour ; also on the fore part a bright ferruginous 
spot, extending upwards on each side towards the head, 
but which is prevented from encircling the neck by a very 
narrow streak of a dark cinereous colour. This is con- 
tinued from the head to the back. The dusky streaks on 
the back are fewer and paler. The cinereous colour is every 
where much darker than that of the male. 

This species was procured In July 1 803, at the edges of the 
fresh-water lochs in the Islands of Sunda and N. Ro- 
naldsha. 

Six females and two males were dissected, and remains 
of fresh-water insects were found in their stomachs. From 
the small size of the ovaria, and the leagth and thickness of 
the oviduct, it was concluded that the eggs had been lately 
laid. It was sufficiently evident from dissection that the 



21 



males were adult birds. From the deficiency of feathers ou 
the breasts of the males, from their less bright plumage, 
and from the disproportion of their number to that of the fe- 
males, it is not unreasonable to suppose that the males alone 
perform the business of incubation. 

As none of the inhabitants had observed them, they had 
gained no provincial name, nor was it possible to ascertain 
whether they were residents, or summer birds of passage. 
It is much to be regretted that the search after their nests 
was not attended with the desired success. 

The above description was taken from the MSS. of Mr. 
T. W. Simmons, by whom we were favoured with the 
specimens. 

The figure was taken from a female specimen. 



// 





_:Fei'^J.-lSoi. J'uSI'/?>m(, ly T-^ o'ox-er-Zy. JZ'ftJon 



23 

TAB. XI. 
PAPILIO Charlotta. 



Class 5 . Insects. Orders. Lepidoptera. 
Spec. Char. Above dull orange, \^ith black marks; 
nineteen silver spots on the lower wing beneath. 



Some years ago the Rev. Dr. Charles Abbott discovered 
tills curious fritillar)- in Bedfordshire; and we do not know 
that it has been found by anyone else. The 19 silver spots 
on the under part of the lower wing are very constant *. It 
is an elegant insect, well deserving an honourable name, 
and comes near to P. Aglaia in the System. As we have, 
comparatively speaking, but few Papilios in Great Britain, it 
is a very desirable acquisition. This gentleman likewise 
first added P. paniscus to the British list, and was so kind 
as to favour me with several pairs of them. 

* There are several other diiFerences, which may be observed in the 





SFeiC'-l-JlS/fS-^^i^'^^ 'fy Taf •foiva-h; ^on^eTi,'. 



25 

TAB. XII. 
AMPHITRITE Vcntilabmm. 



Class 6. Vermes. Orda- 2. MoUusca. 
Gen. Char. Bodij projecting from a tube, annu- 
lated. Feet small, numerous. Feelers two, ap- 
proximate, feathered. Ej/es none. — Turt. 

Spec. Char. Fibres of the feelers ciliate on the 
inner edge, one feeler with 54 fibres, the other 
only 36. Proboscis none. 

Syn. Amphitrlte Ventilabrum. Linn. Sj/st Nat. ed. 1 3. 
V. 1. 3111. Turt. Linn. v. 1. 82. 
Maltese Tubular Coralline? Ellists Coral. 92. t. 34.* 



Our ingenious countryman Mr. Ellis, famous for his ac- 
curate work on Corallines, figured this animal from one 
found on the Maltese coast. We are obliged to Mr. T. W. 
Simmons for this specimen, taken in a net off Dysart, near 
Inch-Keith. The two coats are somewhat lacerated; but as 
we see more of the construction of the animal, it is so far 
an advantage. These coats are somewhat cartilaginous, 
and the outermost is roughest. It has 51 branches to the 
feeler on one side and 36 to that on the other. 

* Ellis has made the case of one coat only, whereas it has two in our 
specimen. 






^fa^C^JL.XSoS. Z'tSlf/^.^ ir Titr^, -ff-^^y. Z^nAr^ 



27 



TAB. XIII. 
PAPILIO Chryseis. 



Class 5. Insecta. Order 3. Lepidoptera. 

Spec. Char. Male. Wings orange above, with black 
margins, and a black spot on the upper ones, 
which are of a blue colour. Female, orange 
above, clouded and spotted with black. Both 
brown beneath, with 27 eye-like spots. 

Syn. p. Chryseis. Fab, Mant. Ins. 2. 79. n. 725. 

Gmel. Syst. Nat. ed. 13. v. 1. 

2359. n. 815. 
JVein. Sclnnetterl. 181. n. 3. 



Anxious that no discovery in Natural History should 
escape us, we are happy in presenting this insect to the 
public; and the valuable communications of our friends 
have helped us to many things that might have lain long 
dormant, or perhaps have been totally lost and forgotten. 

This new British Papilio was caught by Mr. Plasted of 
Chelsea, in Ashdown forest, Sussex, 





_3fa>;^ljSag.Tui^^t^ i^ .^mf JfH^fr^^J.. 



29 

TAB. XIV. 
PHALiENA Catena. 



Class 5. Insecta. Order 3. Lepidoptera. 

Gen. Char. Antenna.' gradually tapering from the 
base to the tip. Tongue spiral. IFingSy when 
at rest, generally deflected. 

Spec. Char. Wings white above, lateral margin 
brownish, with 7 white marks resembling a chain : 
upper margin with 2 brown spots. 



1 HIS new moth was likewise taken by Mr. Plasted at 
Brixton, Surry. It is a very curious one, and has not yet 
been described by any author. 

It comes among the Noctnce in the Linncean System, 





Ji&rt^a-Z^oS y-^^^ceoL iy ^/ ^f"«^«r3p'._Z:.>^»<t>7i^. 



TAB. XV. 



ONISCUS lonoicornis. 



Class 5. Insecta. Order /. Aptera. 

Gen. Char. Jmvs truncate, denticulate. Lip bifid. 
Antennce setaceous, from 2 to 4. Body oval, 
consisting of about 14 transverse segments. 

Sp c. Char. Segments of the body 10 ; the fourth 
is the length of six others. Antennae consisting 
of five joints. The eight fore legs hairy in the 
inside, the others smooth. Eyes black. 



By Mr. T. W. Simmons's indefatigable industn,', iu 
laudably searching into the knowledge of the natural pro- 
ductions of Great Britain, whenever he had an opportunity, 
we are enabled to figure this species. He observed thi& 
strange-looking animal entangled in the nets off Dysart, 
near Inch-Keith. 

It has an appearance that may often cause one to mistake 
the head for the tail : see the upper figure. In the middle 
figure it seems like a tumbler, or master of attitudes j in the 
lower figure it appears to be at rest. 

The eggs are red, and adhere to the under side of the 
largest segment of the body. 



r, 



TAr>. xvr. 

MYTILUS staonalis. 



Class 6. Vermes. Order 3. Testacea. 

Gen. Char. Animal an Ascidia ? Shell bivalve, 
rough, generally affixed by a beard of silky fila- 
ments ; hinge generally without teeth, with an 
awl-shaped excavated longitudinal line. 

Spec. Char. Shell ovate, rather smooth, gibbous, 
with a flat space near the hinge. 

'Syn. Mytilus stagnalis. Linn. Si/st. Nat.ed. 13. v. 1. 
3362. 
Mytilus maximus planior viridescens edentulus. 
Schroei.JIusconch. 159. t. \.f. \. 



i HE pair of shells from which these were drawn appear to 
be unique as British. They much resemble those of My- 
tilus Cyg7ieuSy but are however more gibbous, and more 
pointed on one side. There is also a flat space near the 
hinge towards the broader side. The description, in Linn. 
Syst. Nat. ed. 13, which follows, agrees nearly with our 
shell, and we make no scruple of considering them as the 
same : — " Like M. Cygneus, but the shell Is much larger, 
being eight inches broad and four and half long, less con- 
vex*, greenish, with obscure green rays, and the margin is 
vcllowish brown." In the copy of Schroeter at Sir Joseph 

* This is the only part of the description which dilTers from our shell, wluch 
is more convex tliau M. Ci/puiu<. 
VOL. I. D 



34 



Banks's, the figure is larger than ours, but does not look too 
large in comparison to it : mine is measured by the edge of 
the shell, and is therefore accurate; but for something of a 
deception, not readily accounted for, it looks smaller than 
the real shell. There are in Schroeter's figure a few longi- 
tudinal stripes, which appear by the description to be too 
strong*. My kind friend, the Rev. Charles Sutton, A. M. 
of Norfolk, found it by the side of the lake in Kew Gardens 
which is now filled up. I have found smaller shells that 
nearly resemble, but I do not know of any pair like it as 
British. 

* These stripes are common to most species of this genus. 



^7 




J&^v, J, iS us. J'fi'^'!^ if ^'iSSe^'i^iy, Z^"^'' 



TAB. XVII. 

TANTALUS Falcinellus 
Bay Ibis. 



Class '1. Aves. Order J . Grallse, 

Gen. Char. Btak long, subulate, roundish, sub- 
arcuate. Face naked. Tongue small. Jugular 
pouch naked. Feet four-toed, palmated at their 
bases. 
Spec. Char. Face black. Wings and tail dusky- 
green, shining. Body dark-chesnut, mixed with 
green above, beneath paler. 
Syn. Tantalus Falcinellus, Linn. Sysi. Nat. i. 241. 2. 
Gmel. Syst. i. 648. Scop. Ann. i. no. 131. Kram. 
El. 350. 2. Boroivsk. Nat, iii. 72. 2. Faun. 
Helvet. Lath. Ind. 707. 

Numenius viridis. Bris. v. 326. 4. Id. 8vo. ii. 293. 

N. subaquilus. Klein. Av. 1 10. 8. 

Falcinellus. Raii Syn. 103. 3. IFillugh. 218. t. 54. 
Id. {Angl.) 295. 

Le Courlis verd. Buf. viii. 29. 

d'ltalie. PL Enl. 819. 

Bay Ibis. Lath Syn. v. 113. 12. Arct. Zoo/, ii, 
460. A. Id. Suppl. 67. 



Dr. Lamb, who possesses this bird, and has been so good 
as to lend it us to figure, has also favoured us with the fol- 
lowing account. It is the only British specimen known. 

** Length 2 feet 6 inches. Breadth 3 feet 2 inches. 
Weight 18 ounces. Bill 3 inches long, incurvated, of a 
pale horn colour, rather darker and much thicker towards 
the base. Eyes as it were in the base ol" the bill. Irides dark. 
Face naked. Head and neck of a pale ferruginous colour, 
with fine transverse bars of white below the chin. General 



56 



plumage on the upper parts dusky black, glossed with green 
and purple. Wings and tail the same. The whole under parts 
much duller, with scarcely any bronze. Thighs rather paler, 
half way naked. Legs and feet long. Claws much crooked, 
the inside of the middle one pectinated. Legs, feet, and 
claws of a dingey black or horn colour. 

" This Ibis was shot, September 28, 1 793? vvhile skimming 
with another over the river Thames, between Henley and 
Readino-, and was supposed to be a bittern. I found nothing 
in his stomach but undigested plants. He had many pedi- 
culi, and a vast number of other small insects about him, 
which I sent to my learned friend and patron T. Marsham, 
Esq., Tr. L. S." 

That this bird was held in the highest estimation 
amongst the antient Egyptians, is clearly demonstrated by 
the following account given of him by one of their kings : — 

Kap/ay fiov\6i/.£voi ypd(pziv, ''Kiv ^ujypa(pov(ri, to ydp ^wov 
'EpiJ^T} ixKilwtai, irda-r^g KOCpSlas kx\ Xoyitrp^yj '^sffitotr., stei xs.) t) 
"^Ifi? auTO y.o'S avTO rr, xccpSloc s<rr\v 3y.(pBprj;' Ttspi ov Aoyo; scrr) 
'TrXslcrtos Ttap Alyvirrloig (pspof^svos. 

'D.pov 'AiroXXwyo; "NeiXmov 'IspoyXvipiiia.. Ed. Par. 1551. 

'' When they wish to signify the heart they draw an Ibis : 
for that animal is dedicated to Mercury, the sovereign of 
every heart and thought ; also because the Ibis of itself* is 
very like the heart : about which much is said among the 
Egyptians." 

We consider this as one of the same genus with the fa- 
mous bird which the Egyptians worshipped, but not the 
identical species, about which there is so much dispute. 
This one is rather smaller than those preserved among the 
mummies. We are doubtful whether it is the same bird 
that Latham describes; for he says " pedibus cseruleis, alis 
caudaque violaceis," in his Specific Character. Lath. Ind. 
Orn. 2. 707. 

• Or perhaps folded up into itself, that is, with its head under its wing, in 
which posture jEiian says that it resembles a heart. — R.T. 



^8 




-.^^UJ-ZeoS.^A'iiA^ i- J'a.-f .J't^e^^. ^« 



37 

TAB. XVIII. 
CICINDELA hjbrida. 



Class 5. Insecta. Order I. Coleoptera. 

Gen. Cfiar. AntenncE setaceous. Palpi six, fili- 
form. Jmvs prominent. Eijes large. Thorax 
rounded, marginated. 

Spec. Char. Purplish. Elytra with a lunulaied spot 
at their base, an undulated white stripe in the 
middle, and a lunuiated spot at the end of each. 

Syn. Cicindela hybrida. Liiin. Sj/st. ed. 1.1. ?'. 1. 1920. 
Faun. Suec. 74;~.* Scop. Ent. cam. iS3. Fab. 
Sp. ins. I. 185. n. 6. 
Cicindela maculata. Degerr Ins. v. 4. 1 i .5. n. 3. 
t. 4./. 8. Schcvff. elem. t. 43. Icon. t. Q5.f. IQ. 
Bergstr. Nomencl. i. 26. t. 4^./. 5. 



AIr. L. W. DiLLWYN first found the two specimens of 
this new insect, one evening in May 1S03, on the Crumlyn 
Burrows about three miles from Swansea. One of these 
specimens was accidentally lost, but my son G. B. Sowerbv 
had the good fortune to find another next morning. These 
are all that have been taken of this beautiful insect, that we 
know of, in Great Britain. 

Above purplish, beneath green gold. Thighs and legs 
bright red gold. Elytra punctulatcd, the hollows green gold, 
and risings purple gold. Suture and margin of the elytra 
purple gold. Face yellow. .Taws black, wiih an undulated 
stripe, and a lunuiated spot at each end of each elytron. 



-Z<? 




^^iritJ-XSoS.IZ'-il'y'li^ ^.^•'■.'V^**-^,. _Z»/.*«<- 



39 

TAB. XIX. 
APIS flavicollis. 



Class 5. Insecta. Order 5. Hymenoptera. 

Gen. Char. Proboscis broken, inflexed. Tongue 
elongated, cylindrical, exserted. j4nienncr mid- 
dling; the males have 14 joints, the females 13. 
Eyes lateral, suboval, entire. Wings plain. Sting 
pungent, hidden. 

Spec. Char. Hairy, black. Front of the thorax and 
scutellum pale yellow. Abdomen, all but the 
first joint, red. Anus black. 

Very few species of bees were described in Great Britain 
until that indefatigable and most excellent inquirer into all 
subjects of Entomology, the Rev. W. Kirby, F. L. S., pub- 
lished his Monograpliia Apum Anglice, in which more 
than 220 species are noticed, of which 200 at least had not 
been before described as English. We now add another by 
the help of Mr. Jonathan Salt, of Sheffield. It is remarkable 
chiefly on account of the thorax being yellow. 




^^rzZ^^^9t>S. :i?ZiiZr/iie^ }f J^iit ,Sfwer^yJZt">i^>B^ 



41 

TAB. XX. 
PHALANGIUM Diadema. 



Class 5. Insecta. Order y. Aptera. 

Gen. Char. P«//jz two, filiform. /<rmvf homy, second 
joint armed with an acute cheliferous tooth. u4ji- 
tennce none. Eijes two on the crown and two 
at the sides. Feelers filiform. Legs eight. Ab- 
domen generally rounded. 

Spec. Char. Thorax with an elevated spinous tu- 
bercle on the back, and an eye on each side of it. 
Palpi large, first joint spinous. 

Syn. Phalangium Diadema. Linn. Si/st. Nat. ed. \S. 
V. 1. 2944. Fabr. Sp. Ins. i. 548. n.. 5. Mant. 
List. i. 347. n. 5. Stroem. Act. Hafn. 9. 583. 
t. (S. Mull. 7.ool. Dan. Prodr.Add. 280. ??. 192. 



Every thing created has some attraction for the inquiring 
mind ; even the spider tribe, often most abhorred, and con- 
sidered as noxious, has occasionally sonie beauties. 

The present animal, nearly allied to the spider, might be 
shunned as hideous, and may perhaps for that reason have 
been unexamined. Even the Diadem does not remove its 
grim appearance, although it atlds greatly to its oddity. It 
has however been recognised abroad, but not in Great 
Britain, as far as we knov/, until my eldest son, James 
Sowerby, found it on oak-trees in Hainaull forest in 1802, 
and G. B. Sowerby in 1803 in South Wales, on dripping 
rocks at a water-fall called Usgoed-Eynon-Garv. 

VOL. I. E 



ZJ 



'*-*^-^. 



-^y Z.JttS ^-JT-A-tJ, ty X'^'- ■-^'•^criy -Zrr<^i^ 



43 



TAB. XXI. 

ANAS Njroca. 
Olive-tufted Duck. 

Class 2. Aves. Order Anseres. 

Gen. Char. Beak with lamellar teeth, convex, 
obtuse. Tongue ciliated, obtuse. 

Spec. Char. Blackish olivaceous. Head, throat, 
breast, and flanks chesnut. Belly whitish. Rump 
black. Vent snowy. 

Syn. Anas Nyraca. Guldenstoedt Nov. Comment. 
Petrop. xiv. 1. 403. 
AnasNyroca. Gmel. 1. 542. Turi. 1. 332. 



1 HIS bird, by Dr. Latham, has been thought a variety of 
the Tufted Duck, Anasfuligala ; but he appears not to have 
seen it. The bill seems partly to warrant his opinion; but 
if any thing is to be depended on in the plumage, we must 
consider it a different species. It was sent from Yarmouth 
by our friend D. Turner, Esq. 




AUmJ. jS!,s ^.J!i'X«' f' 



45 

TAB. XXII. 

ZEUS Opah. 
Opah, or Kiiig-JisJi. 



Class 4. Pisces. Order 3. Tnoracicl. 

Gen. Char. Bodi/ very deep, compressed sideways, 
consisting of seven branchiostegious rays. 

Generally with very long filaments from the 
first dorsal fin. 

Spec. Char. Tail bifurcate, red, dorsal finl. anal fin 1. 
Fins red. Back green. Sides pale red, with silvery 
and golden spots, 

Syn. Opah, or King-fish. Phil. Trans. Ahr. xl. 879. 
t. 5. Penn. Brit. Zool. 3. 223. 
Zeus Cauda bifurca, colore argenteo purpureo splen- 
dens. Stroi?i. Sondmor. 323. 325. t. 1./. 20. 



Wk know of no coloured figure of this most singular and 
beautiful fish, which seems only an hihabitant, and a very 
rare one too, of our seas ; so strikingly beautiful are its lustre 
and colours that all are amazed with its splendour at first 
sight. 

The fishermen who are so lucky as to procure these fish, 
have always made a show of them, A few only at different 
periods have been seen, viz. not more than seven or eight. 

The present specimen was found near Weymouth, and 
was procured for me, as soon as the fishermen would part 
with it, by my friend S. P. Brycr, Esq., of that place. 



46 



The back fin at its origin is very high, but slopes very 
suddenly towards the tail, where it grows rather higher. 

Anal fin long. 

These animals measure from 3 to 5 feet, and weigh from 
70 to 140 pounds. 

It seems most proper to retain the generic name Zeus, as 
it pretty well agrees with it. It is rather astonishing that 
Linnaeus, Gmelin, or Turton do not mention it. 




Ji/tAl.jS£>S TuiH^^^ ^y ^** O'n^fcriy J^Mftdm 



47 



TAB. XXIII. 

CANCER Spinus. 
Spine-backed Shrhnp. 



Class 5. Insecta. Order 7- Aptera. 

Gen. Char. Feet 8 (rarely 6 or 10). Claivs 2. 
Palpi 6 unequal. Ei/es 2, distant, generally pe- 
dunculated, elongated, moveable. Jaws horny, 
thick. Lip triple. Tail jointed, unarmed. 

Spec. Char. Thorax with a serrated ridge and a 
tooth on each side of it. Third joint of the ab- 
domen with a spine. 



We should be glad, by Mr. Simmons's example, to awaken 
the zeal of naturalists, that we may have the pleasure to see 
our native rarities made public. It is a laudable endeavour 
to inquire into what we possess, and in time many useful 
discoveries may ensue. The present species would, by its 
extraordinary yet certainly curious formation, never tempt 
any one ; yet custom, and the delicacy of most of the genus 
as a viand, have made it agreeable to many, nor do we know 
of any that are liable to be particularly hurtful, for the 
supposed danger from a crab in the nuiscle is a vulgar 
error. 

(The wolf-fish, at Scarborough, is despised for its clumsy 
and voracious-looking jaws J l)ut, though ugly in appearance, 
it is equal to most fish in the opinion of the unprejudiced.) 



48 



We have only seen this one of the present species, there- 
fore little is known but of its formation ; and that soon at- 
tracts the attention, as peculiarly different from the common 
forms. 

Mr. Simmons discovered this species among oysters on 
the Scottish coast. 



rJ>iftg jajv^; 



2A 




Z-'n^ i slScs. :r^I.y>,^j, iy 7-! ■.^'•r^fr, ^.^'.^ 



49 



TAB. XXIV. 



ASTERIAS endeca. 
Nine-rayed Starjish, or Sea Star. 



Class 6. Yermes. Order 2. MoUusca. 

Gen. Char. Body depressed, covered with a mu- 
ricated coiiaceous crust, sulcated beneath, with 
tentacula. Mouth central, 5-valved. 

Spec. Char. With 9 rays, everywhere covered with 
pectinated tubercles. 

Syn, Asterias endeca, GmeL Syst. Nat. v. 1. 3162. 
/S. Rumph. Mils. t. IS.f.Y. 



We are indebted to the zeal and friendship of James Brodie, 
Esq., F. L. S., for the first discovery of Asterias endeca as a 
tiative of Great Britain. It was alive when he picked it up 
on the Nairn coast, in the Moray Firth. It is remarkable 
for the number of rays being mostly nine, and generally in 
the same position, in fives, threes and ones. They are 
thus represented in Rumphius's figure, and are so in my spe- 
cimen ; but are said occasionally to vary in number. The back 
is regularly covered with small, rough, somewhat pectinated 
tubercles, and the body has nine prominences placed a 
little above and between the divisions of the rays. It is of 
a purplish brown colour. The under side is lighter coloured, 

VOL. I. F 



50 

and the edges of the rays have two rows of smaller pecti- 
nated prominences. In the centre of the rays the promi- 
nences are more deeply pectinated, opposite, and continuing 
to the mouth, where they divide a little, and the centre is 
more simple. It has seemingly a fleshy lip. Our specimen is 
smaller than that of Rumphius. The concordance of atti- 
tude is remarkahlc, as at first sight there does not seem any 
rcffularitv. 




7il^2 iSoS. J-alff^^ iy ^-■'J''~»rij:-i"^->. 



01 



TAB. XXV. 

PENNATULA mirabilis? 
Slender Sea Pen. 



Class 6. Vermes. Order 4. Zoophyta. 

Gen. Char. Animal not affixed, of various shapes, 
supported by a bone running through the middle, 
naked at the base, the upper part generally with 
lateral ramifications, furnished with rows of tu- 
bular denticles, producing radiate polypes from 
each tube. 

Spec. Char. Stem nliform, with lunate, denticulated, 
alternate ramifications at the top, growing smaller 
towards the bottom, which is naked. 

Syn. Pennatula mirabilis. Gmel. Syst, Nat. v. 1. 3865. 



1 HE natural construction of these aiumals is curiously 
imitative of a quill not stripped of its feathers, in most ol" 
the species ; but the one before us seems to represent a quill 
stripped of its feathers. The base looks like a pen in this 
as well as in the other species, swelling a little from the 
end, and then tapering. The upper part is thicker, with 
alternate semicircular pectinated swellings, larger towards the 
middle_, tapering upwards, and terminating in a thin bony 



52 

substance, which passes through the whole. We are not 
sure that this is the true P. mirabilis of Linnaeus, as the 
figures quoted will not allow us to be so. It is apparently 
very rare as British; for I do not know of any but the one in 
our possession dredged up by Mr. Simmons off Inch-Keith, 
and presented to me by James Brodie, Esq. F. L. S. 




^7i«tf X- 2B0S. ^«3^A^M^. ^f J*.'f J'<M*^ti^iy. X^fLS^>% 



53 

TAB. XXVI, 
ELATER cyaneus. 



Classy. Insecta. Order I. Coleoptera. 

Gen. Char. Antemice filiform, often serrated. Head 
small, inserted. Thorax oblong, rather convex, 
in the front attenuated, with a prominent angle 
behind on each side. Body elongated : being 
laid on its back, it jumps by means of a mucron 
on the breast being thrown out of a foramen in 
the abdomen. 

Spec. Char. Elytra purplish blue, striated and punc- 
tulated. Thorax blue green, punctulated. 

Syn. Elater cyaneus. Marsham^s Coleopt. 3SS. 



1 HIS insect has been reckoned British^ and is esteemed as 
such in the best works on Coleopterous Insects ; although 
a habitat has not been pointed out. It however was found 
about three years ago by our friend Mr. Dawson under a 
stone in the King's Park at Edinburgh, and is perhaps the 
handsomest of the Elater Genus indigenous to this Island. 

Head and thorax shining blue green. Elytra bright 
blueish purple, very finely punctulated. Beneath dull green. 
Legs dull green. Antennae black. 



Tui,. ^y 




PctT^ jSl>-^.3'ui^9,»£ 3> .^f Sci^r-Zj . j:„nJ^i 



55 

TAB. XXVII. 
CARABUS nitens. 



Classy. Insecta. Order 1. Coleoptera. 

Gen. Char. Antennce filiform. Thorax obcordate, 
behind truncated, marglnated. Elytra marginated. 
Abdomen ovate. Hind-thigh with an appendage 
at the base. 

Spec. Char. Apterous. Elytra porcated : with in- 
terrupted strise, and scabrous golden sulcze. 

Syn. Marsh. Coleopt. 435. and Synonyms. 



Having seen foreign specimens of this beautiful Insect, 

some years since, and being told that it was to be found in 

* 
Great Britain, I was anxious to know the habitat j but the 

most able entomologists at that time could not satisfy me : 
even Mr. Marsham was unacquianted with it. However, 
anxious to collect every thing relating to tlie Natural History 
of Great Britain, I had desired my friend, the Rev. J. Harri- 
man, to send me Insects as well as Plants, whether com- 
mon or uncommon; and it soon after, about the vear 1800, 
happened that this came in a box of his with a Lichen. As 
Mr. Marsham's work was not then in the press, I imme- 
diately inquired of Mr^ Harriman concerning it, who said 
it was not uncommon oil the heaths of Duriiam. I gave 
Mr. Marsham the information, but he has omitted it. 



56 

i have since seen a specimen at Lady Wilson's, who also 
found it in that county. We therefore venture to figure it 
as a new and rare insect to most entomologists, and espe- 
cially as most cabinets have only foreign specimens. 

Head, thorax, abdomen, legs and antennae black be- 
neath. Head and thorax red gold above, with a green 
glare. Elytra sulcated. Sulcse sometimes interrupted. The 
ridges black. The hollows green gold. Margin Elytrae 
gold coloured. 



28 





Ji,Jt^J 2B0S ^'^^^'^'''^^ ?»■ .'«" i-^'^»*'«^-^'^'«<^'^ 



57 



TAB. XXVIII. 

PHAL.ENA N. Bractea. 
The Gold Spangle Moth. 



Class 7. Insecta. Order 3. Lepidoptera, 

Spec. Char. Wings variegated, with a large golden 

shining spot in the middle. 
Syn. Phalsena Bractea. Elements of Nat. Hist. 2. 186. 

720. 197. 

The specimen from which our figure is taken, is in the 
collection of A. MacLeay, Esq., Sec. L. S., who received 
it from Mr. Charles Stewart, A. L. S., the ingenious author 
of the Elements of Natural History, and is the identical 
specimen described in that work. It was taken in the 
neighbourhood of Edinburgh. 



Vol. I. c; 



2Q 




__:f?^.V. -?5.9^. JT'i^iiAtft^' 3*. ^^" t/-* '*'«.'-?« _^<»-'i/^»< 



59 



TAB. XXIX. 

PHAL.^NA N. ^rifera. 
Yorkshire burnished Brass Moth. 



Classy. Insecta. Orders. Lepidoptera. 

Spec. Char. Crested, anterior wings dark brown, 
with a large brassy spot near the apex. 

Syn. Noctua Bracteina. Prod. Lepidopt. Brit. 16. 
720. 103. 

This Insect has long been known to the Enghsh Aurehans 
by the name of the Yorkshire burnished Brass Moth, but 
does not appear to have been hitherto described, in conse- 
quence of its having been always mistaken for P. Bractea, 
figured in the preceding Plate. 




/^PLf^ 7 ^os. ^Z'vJ-l^A^^ S/' t-^y j'o\»-efhy- Xrn. 



61 



TAB. XXX. 



NEREIS lamelligera, 



Class 6. Vermes. Order 2. Mollusca, 

Gen. Char. Body creeping, long. Lateral pe- 
duncles pencilled. Tentacida simple, rarely 
none. Eyes two or four, rarely none. 

Spec. Char. Round, attenuated at both ends. Pro- 
boscis stellated, with four lieshy points. Pe- 
duncles compressed, above furnished with a 
semi-lunate scale, beneath with a larger semi- 
cordate one. 

Syn. Nereis lamelligera. Gmel. Sysi. Nat. v. 1. 3120. 



Nature, ever bountiful beyond our expectations, often 
surprises us with her wonders ; and for some wise end now 
and then adopts forms different from what are familiar to 
u3. It often happens that we are not able to conjecture 
her aim, though we cannot suppose any other than that 
of real excellence, "in this instance she affords us a very 
distinct criterion of the species ; and it often happens 
that construction may be particularly useful to assist 
our discernment; and, if for no other purpose, may be pro- 
vidential where it shows us a difference between the useful 
and the noxious. We are not yet acquainted with any uses 
among the Nereises, therefore can at present only mention 
the appendages to v\;hlch we allude as a means of specific 
difference. We know of no great difference in the construc- 
tion of the other parts from the other Nereises. It it found 
two feet long on other coasts. 











^^u^f^.-lBoS. 7'fA&/?.ed. */- ^^.-^ i/Vw-ap-^*-, :Z^tui^>^ 



63 

TAB. XXXI. 
SERPULA triquetrai 



Class 6. Vermes. Order 3. Testacea. 

Gen. Char. Animal a terebella. Shell univalve^ 
tubular, generally adhering to other substances ; 
often separated internally by divisions at uncertain 
distances. — Turt. 

Spec. Char. Shell creeping, flexuous^ triangular. 

oYN. Serpula triquetra. Turt. Linn. v. 4. 603. 



1 HOSE who find recreation in admiring the works of 
Nature are seldom at a loss for amusement, and the most 
common circumstances of our lives bring into our way 
something or other to excite curiosity. The present little 
animal was observed fixed to an oyster shell, occasionally 
protruding itself from its own curious shell. T put it into 
some salt and water and preserved it some hours, and oc- 
casionally watched its motions ; which being somewhat 
slow, gave mc an opportunity to examine it more tho- 
roughly, and I was in hopes of seeing it work. The in- 
strument like a proboscis with a bell-shaped end, which is 
but seldom exposed, seemed adapted for assisting in making 
the case : this however is only conjecture, as we could not 
comprehend any thing like the certain use of it. At length 



64 

the animal became enfeebled and nearly dead, with this 
instrument extended. I therefore put a piece of paper 
gently under it, and took it from the water, and dried it 
with this organ in good preservation. The other parts were 
also in great perfection^ and as I did not know such another 
ojjportunity would offer, the sketch was finished at the 
time. The feelers put us in mind of the nectariferous ray* 
in a Pass'iflora, 



32 





A 



^,^f 2 j»t,s J''-' '-/^^ ' iy 7<^'C J"»"-«'^. 



65 

TAB. XXXII. 
CARDIUM spinosum. 



C/aw 6. Vermes. Order 3 . Testzcea. 

Gen. Char. Animal a Tethys. Shell bivalve, nearly 
equilateral, equivalve, generally convex, longitudi- 
nally ribbed, striated or grooved, with a toothed 
margin : hinge with 2 teeth near the beak and a 
large remote lateral one on each side, each lock- 
ing into the opposite. — Turt. 

Spec. Char. Tender, obliquely sub-cordate, one 
side truncate, with 20 prominent ridges, armed 
with long, sharp, flat spines. 



1 HIS very neat, elegant, and curious Cockle seems, by 
some mistake, to have escaped the vigilance of most authors, 
as it does not agree with either the Cardium echinatum or 
C. aculeatiim. 

Our shell is not often found, but among many shells and 
fragments from Torbay on the Devonshire coast, I met 
with only one perfect valve*. It nearest resembles the 
C. aculeahim as to the general contour j but is always a 
more delicate and tender shell; the truncation is more 
abrupt, and forms a right angle with the line of the hinge. 

* Mr. Humphrey supplied me with the specimen figured from the same 
coast. Col. Montague informs me that he has found them on the Devon- 
shire coast. 

VOL. I. H 



66 



The spines are more truly aculeate, or like the prickle on a 
rose-stalk, somewhat flattened longitudinally with the shell, 
seldom contrary, as in the other shells. The larger spines have 
a canal or narrow furrow ; in the other species they are 
often dilated, especially at the narrow side. The spines 
on the narrow side are all curved towards the hinge, and on 
the broadest side they are curved from the hinge. 

We are confirmed in our opinion of its being a species, 
by seeing fine specimens in Lady Wilson's cabinet, and a 
large one which Dr. Grey was so good as to show us at the 
British Museum. The latter is at present without a name, 
and is as large as C. acideatum is commonly found*; other- 
wise the spines near the hinge of C. aculeatum might lead 
us to think them the same species. 

* Above twice the size of the Figure, with all the spines flat. 



33 





.-/■^r.- iSoS Si^S/Tt^d, ly Ji,.-' ^f<,~-a-iy, S., 



67 

TAB. XXXIII. 

Fig. 1.— AMMOPHILA hirsuta. 
Ham/ Sand wasp. 



Class 6. Insecta. Orckr 5. Hymenoptera. 
Gen. Char. Rostrum conical, inflexed, concealing 

a bifid tongue. j4iitenncF filiform in both sexes, 

joints about 14. Ejjes oval. fVings plane. Stirig 

concealed in the abdomen. 
Spec. Char. Antennae of IS joints. Petiole of the 

abdomen short, of 1 joint. Wings equal in 

length to the body. 
Syn. Ammophila hirsuta. Linn. Trans. 4. 206. 



Head large, punctulated, black, villose. Maxillae the length 
of the head, very menacing. Thorax and breast villose. 
Squamce black. Wings the length of the body, subhyaline j 
apex black; veins ferruginous; marginal spot fuscous. 
Abdomen black, lanceolato-ovate ; petiole short, villose ; 
second, third, and base of the fourth segments reddish 
brown. Hind legs half as long again as the abdomen. 
Tarsi very rough with bristles. 



Fig. 2.— AMMOPHILA pulvillata. 

Spec. Char. Antennae of 14 joints. Petiole of the 
abdomen of 2 segments. Wings shorter than 
the body. Pulvilli elongated, bifid. 



XiEAD black, villose. Antennae nearly the length of the 
thorax. Front plane, beneath the antennae, covered with 



61 



dense, decumbent, very bright, shining, silvery hairs. 
Thorax narrow, subvillose, on each side of the breast a 
bright silvery spot. Squamae black. Wings subhyaline; 
apex obscure; nerves ferruginous, about half the length of 
the abdomen. Abdomen clavate ; first segment filiform, 
black; second segment filiform, reddish; third and fourth 
reddish, apex of the fourth black; the other segments black 
with a blue glare. Feet rough with short bristles. Pulvilli 
elongated, bifid. 

The two species abov6 described wefe taken at Reading in 
Berkshire, and communicated to us by our friend Mr. 
James Murray. 

Ammophila pulvillata agrees in many characters with 
A. argentea of the Rev. W. Kirby's ingenious paper in the 
Athvol.of Linn. TraJis. p. 208; but its having two segments 
to the petiole of the abdomen is understood to be a sufficient 
specific difference, as well as the remarkable length of the 
pulvilli, and some difference in the general appearance. The 
vises of these insects, as far as we know, accord with those 
cf many others of the Hymenopterous order. They arc 
found to be great enemies to the caterpillars, which, but 
for these and other means which nature provides, might be 
more mischievous than they are; and we may one day find 
out, by knowing the different species, those which are 
most useful, so as to make ample amends for the trouble 
of investigation. The great Ray and Mr. Curtis have had 
opportunities of detecting them in the act of contriving the 
preservation of their future progeny. They cause the de- 
struction of caterpillars much larger than themselves, by 
preparing, at a certain season, a hole in a generally sandy 
sunny bank, and dragging the caterpillar into the hole, 
having deposited their egg or eggs in the body of it, that 
when the egg is hatched there may be a supply of food for 
the larva, after which they close up the hole, thus burying 
them alive as food for their progeny. 



^ 




^u^y -Z-ZScS. ^t^^f^c^ ^t' ^tL^ j'vfer^y, Jlan^nK 



69 

TAB. XXXIV. 
SCARAB.^US ovalis. 



Class 7. Insecta. Order 1 . Coleoptera. 
Div. 1. TerrestreSj Scutellati, 

Gen. Char. Antennce clavate, capitulum fissile. 
Front feet often dentated. 

Spec. Char. Oval, black. Legs pitch-coloured, 
short, thick, dentated. Elytra sulcated. 



Among other new British Insects which my son found in 
South Wales is this little Scarabaeus from the sandhills, or 
burrows, called Skitty burrows, near Swansea. It is not re- 
markable for its beauty j but any subject in Natural History 
may be so for its locality, and in such case may be found 
useful^ not merely as regarding itself, but the nature of the 
climate, soil, and other circumstances. We do not know 
of any place besides in Great Britain where it has been 
found, except at Christchurch, by the Rev. W. Bingley, 





Jt^' ,■ rSoS J"«*4>*<>^ t, 7kr J'ri^trft. ^r^-^V, 



71 

TAB. XXXV. 

Eig. 1.— SCARAB.^:US spiniger. 



Spec. Char. Black. Thorax with an impressed 

spot on each side, hind thighs bidentated, 
Syn. Sc. spiniger. Marsham^s Coleopt. 21. 



Stalk of the antennae pitch-coloured. Capitulum blackish. 
Thorax obscure, excavato-punctated on each side, with a 
larger impressed spot; hind part of the thorax with an in- 
termediate line, about halfway composed of excavated spots. 
Scutellum longitudinally subdepressed in the middle. 
Elytra obscure, striated, striae subpunctated. Hind thighs 
armed with two teeth, of which the exterior is largest, and 
the interior is a continuation of the appendage at the base 
of the thigh. Fore thighs, which is very singular in this 
genus, are three-sided and seven-toothed, third tooth upright. 
— Mar sham. 



Fig. 2. — S. foveatus. Marsh, Coleopt. 21. 



Spec. Char. Black. Elytra sulcated. Thorax with 
two excavated spots on each side. Scutellum 
violaceous. 

Very like the preceding; but the thorax has four excavated 
spots : the disc slightly and the sides strongly punctulated. 
Scutellum violaceous. Margin of thorax and elytra atro- 
coerulescent. Hind thighs furnished with 1 or 2 teeth. 
Fore feet scxdentate. Tarsi pitch-coloured. — Marsham. 

Our figure is from a specimen in the cabinet of A. Mac 
Leay, Esq. 



3 6~ 




^jA^.'^V. ^Si'S. J'^iaC'it^ it 



73 



TAB. XXXVI. 
CARABUS rotiindicollis. 



Class 6. Insecta. Order 1 . Coleoptera. 

Spec. Char. Head and thorax bright green gold. 
Elytra pale brown with a large black spot at the 
end. 

1 HIS pretty insect was found on Crumlyn bog, by 

Mr. Joseph Woods, F. L. S., whom my son accompanied 

in a little excursion to South Wales, in 1803. 

Base of the antennae brown, end black. Head, thorax, 
and abdomen blue green gold. Elytra, sternum, and legs 
brown. Apex of the thighs and base of the elytra black. 



i 



36- 




^L,j?tf. ifiti^ ^i^dy^^^eA ?f J^Jf KSff**'eri^. J^^nd^ff. 



75 



TAB. XXXVII. 



PHAL.^NA B. oleagina. 



Spec. Char. Crested. Antenna pectinated. Upper 
wings above variegated, with dark brown, lighter 
brown, and white ; nerves yellow green, a 
white spot near the middle of each wing, and 
an obscure whitish ring, with a lightish blot 
below it, nearer the shoulders. Lower wing light 
brown, margin dark brown. Wings dentate be- 
neath, light brown, margin brown, a black spot 
in the middle of the lower wing. 



1 HIS new British Moth was bred by Mr. Plasted of Chelsea, 
who does not remember where he took the caterpillar. It 
very much resembles P. N. Perskarice; but the antennas 
being feathered help to distinguish it. 



i 




(P<j^T £■ ^^^^ _''/--^_^A<V h. 



11 



TAB. XXXVIII. 



MELITTA nigro-jBiiea. 



Gen. Char. Proboscis subcylindrical, extended, 
Tongue short, smooth, exerted. j4ntennce of a 
middling length ; of the females subclavate with 
] 3 joints; of the males, filiform, of 14 joints. 
Eyes lateral, suboval, entire. Wings plane. 
Sting pungent, hidden. — Kirhy. 

Spec. Char. Black, with fulvous pubescence. Head 
and anus black. Abdomen subhirsute, nigro- 
seneous. 

Syn. Melitta nigro-asnea. Kirby^s Monographia 
jipum AngUce, v. 2. 109. 



Ijody black, covered with dense fulvous down. Face 
black-hirsute, beard of the Gense fulvous. Vertex bald. 
Space between the eyes broad. Thorax with red down. 
Squamulae pitch- coloured. Wings subhyallne, nerves testa- 
ceous. Costal nerve black. Anastomosis ferruginous. 
Feet black, above with fuscous down 3 beneath also the down 
is rather fulvous. Thighs with pale down. Hind thighs 
with a dense fulvous scopa. Scopulae ferruginous. Ab- 
domen oval, above nigro-seneous, hairy, with fulvous hairs. 
Anus black. 

Generally found flying about sunny banks. 




^<^r-i.JSos-J'<yiK^-^7- (y rh:' ./iy^^iy, j:,„j^„^ 



79 

TAB. XXXIX. 
CANCER Maja. 



Class 6, Insecta. Order 7. Aptera. 

Gen. Char. Feet eight, rarely six or ten, also two 
claws. Palpi six, unequal. Eyes two, distant, 
generally pedunculated, elongated, moveable. 
Jaws corneous, thick. Lip triple. Tail jointed, 
generally unarmed. 

Spec. Char. Thorax and two first joints of the 
claws spinose. Claws small, finely serrated. 
Feet eight, without spines. Covered, all but the 
claws, with curved hairs. 

Syn. Cancer Maja. Gmel. Syst. v. 1. 2979. Joust. 
Eccsang. t. 5.f. 5. 



We found this Crab on the sea-shore, near Penzance, n\ 
June 1 799? and, on inquiry, found it had been confounded 
with C. horridus of Pennant, and I suppose from that cir- 
cumstance had not been thought new to Great Britain. We 
find that the Cancer Maja of Herhst is the Canter horridui 
of Pennant. The Cancer Maja in the British Museum is 
the same as ours, named from Scdpoli, who refers to Mat- 
thiolus Dioscorldes. The figure of the under side in 
Johnston is very well executed. And Gmel in has strangely 
referred to that figure, which has eight legs, ahhough he 
observes of his, *^ pedibus sex." 
6 



80 



The Cancer horridus of Linnaeus is certainly different 
from the C horridus of Pennant. It is well figm-ed in 
Seba. 

Lady Aylesford and Colonel Montague have found it on 
our coasts; indeed it is not very rare. Pennant's C. horridus, 
under the above circumstances requiring a new name, might 
be called C. spinosissimus. It is again remarkable that 
Gmelin has made a part of his Gfenferic Character in these 
wordsj '' Cauda inermis;" whereas the thorax, legs and tail 
of this are covered with spines. We have some idea of 
fio-urina; it : as there is not a coloured figure of it amons; 
British authors yet; and if we figure it, we may be able to 
clear up all doubts. We have it from Hartlepool by favour 
of our friend the Rev. James Dalton, and we know they 
have been found in Scotland. It has been doubted whether 
it is a British species. 

There is a specimen of our C. Maja in the museum of 
Mr. Heaviside, Surgeon; under the name of C spinosus. 

Fig. 1. One of the hooked hairs magnified. 

Fig. 2. A worn toe of an old Crab, natural size. — The 
callosity at the end becoming more conspicuous, parti- 
cularly well observed in Seba's figures. 




^■.iz^x^, Sf :7i. 



81 



TAB. XL. 



GORGONIA viminalis? 
Slender Gorgonia, 



Class 6. Vermes. Order 4. Zoophyta. 

Gen. Char. Animal growing In the form of a plant. 
Stem coriaceous, corky, woody, homy, or bony, 
composed of glassy fibres, or like stone, striated, 
tapering, dilated at the base, covered with a 
vascular or cellular flesh or bark, and becoming 
spongy and friable when dry. Mouths or florets 
covering the surface of the stem, and polype- 
bearing. Turt. 

Spec. Char. Slender, branched, florets seated all 
round the stem, each with a large valve and 
several smaller ones; bark yellow, 

Syn. Gorgonia viminalis ? Soland. and Ellis, Coral, 
L 12. f. 1. 



This is not rare on our coast, though it is but little known. 
The first specimen I received was by favour of Mr. Batten 
from Mount's Bay in Cornwall. I have also received it 
from Scotland, and Colonel Montague informs me that it 
is plentiful on the Devonshire coast. 

It is somewhat remarkable, that that part which we 
should suppose to be the lodgment of the animal^ commonly 

VOL. I. I 



82 



called the florets, seems formed without sufilclent room or 
opening for it to protrude: but we presume that, although a 
Coralline, it may have the power of opening the larger 
segment when fresh, which a coriaceous substance natu- 
rally admits of; so that the larger valve is a kind of door, 
and is a strong characteristic of the species, although it is 
sometimes much obliterated. We are not sure that this 
has been figured at all, as the segment which is so re- 
markable does not appear to have been noticed. It may be 
worthy of observation here, that in some instances the 
coriaceous substance which covers the darker branches all 
round, and protrudes, as at the right hand figure, often 
appears quite distinct from it, and Naturalists have called 
this blacker substance by the name of Is'is. It may per- 
haps be the work of a separate animal, associated, as in 
these instances, with the Gorgonia. 



■^.L 




#: 



A « if 




C'at^a. Jt&OS- ^^-^^^^t-S^^ ^ v'S'r* .^i'*^Ar|F. -Z*«.ai«^ 



83 

TAB. XLI. 
MILLEPORA compressa? 



Class 6. Vermes. Order 4. Zoophyta. 

Gen. Char. Animal a Hydra. Coral, generally, 
ramose, with round turbinated pores. 

Spec. Char. Stem branched, compressed, truncated; 

pores everywhere a little prominent and rough. 
Syn. Millepora compressa? Gmel. v. 1. 3785. 



1 HOUGH there are some species of coralline, much re- 
sembling this, figured in Esper and other books, yet we can 
by no means identify them as this species. The description 
in Gmelin of Millepora pumila would seem to accord with 
it; but the figure in Marsden, to which he refers, is a very 
different thing. It may therefore be considered as a species 
undescribed, and now first published as British. We do not 
understand that it is uncommon on the Scottish coast, 
especially at Aberdeen. Specimens have been sent us from 
North Wales by favour of the Rev. H. Davles, with some 
other curious corallines which have not been before noticed 
as British*. We hope however to see them from other 
places, that we may have more habitats for them. Perhaps 
many of this curious tribe may have been overlooked. 



84 

The present one is branched, divaricated, compressed, 
truncated, covered all over with small prominent hollow 
tubercles, arranged towards the end in lines crossing each 
other obliquely, from which the animals protrude them- 
selves, so as to appear quite rough ; and some specimens 
are covered with a shining, varnish-like appearance, as if 
the animals had dried when protruded from their little 
holes. 



42 



'-'^fi\ 








£>ctrj.-lSoS J-^e/>Le<l. iy Ti.' 



85 



TAB. XLII. 

SPONGIA compacta. 
Compact Tubular Sponge. 



Class 6. Vermes. Order 4. Zoophyta. 

Gen. Char, minimal fixed, flexile, torpid, of vari- 
ous forms, composed either of reticulate fibres, 
or masses of small spines interwoven together, 
and clothed with a gelatinous flesh full of small 
mouths on its surface, by which it absorbs and 
rejects water. 

Spec. Char. Tubular, ramose, composed of spi- 
culse crossing one another, very compact and 
brittle. 

We suspect this has been much confounded with Spongia 
tomentosa {urens of Ellis) : we however think it at first 
sight sufficiently different. It appears more like the habi- 
tation of an insect with more or less ovate tubular termina- 
tions. It is much tougher and more cottony in its texture, 
has sometimes a smoothish covering towards the mouth of 
the apertures, which occasionally passes into extreme fine 
reticulations, over the coarser reticulations on the surface. 
We have found it in great plenty at Shellness, and other 
parts of Sheppey Island, at different seasons; and we 



86 

have been favoured with it from the Rev. Hugh Daviesj of 
Anglesea. It is generally found attached to shells, and 
other marine productions, but apparently detached from 
rocks, as it is generally among the rejectamenta of the sea. 
Although we think it may have some curious inhabitant, 
we have not been so lucky as to detect any ; nor do we 
know that the inhabitants of Sponges have been detected, 
unless the egg-like substances found in Spongia fluviatilis 
may be such. We hope, however, that those who have 
opportunity will examine into this subject, as it remains in 
great doubt. Many foreign Sponges are tubular, and pro- 
bably ought to be examined on the rocks on which they 
are fprmed, to detect the animal. 




Oot^'U MM-Sf-iiy^Aj ly Zi,;u'r^rj-if .Z^,>J>, 



87 

TAB. XLIII. 
SPONGIA pulchella. 



Spec. Char. Composed of fine reticulations, smooth 
and soft in appearance, generally compressed and 
broad. 

I FIRST received this sponge from Ireland, brought from 
thence by Mr. Browne (who was engaged in the voyage of 
discovery to New South Wales) about the year 1 800 j and 
in 1 802 I received it from North Wales by favour of the 
Rev. Hugh Davies. It is extremely irregular as to shape, 
although sometimes approaching to a fan shape, and some- 
times rather palmate or digitate. Its fibres are delicately 
reticulate. It varies in colour, somewhat like the Spongia 
officinalis or common Sponge, from a palish brown to a 
yellowish or reddish brown. It is however readily discerned 
by its less coarse appearance. Its texture may be some- 
what more rigid. 



89 

TAB. XLIV. 

ECHINUS cidaris? var. u. 



Class 6. Vermes. Order 2. Mollusca. 
Gen. Char. Body roundish, covered with a bony 

sutured crust, and generally furnished with 

moveable spines. Mouth placed beneath, and 

mostly five-valved. — Turt. 
Spec. Char. Hemisphasrical, depressed, with five 

flexuous linear avenues, the spaces alternately 

bifarious. — Turt. 
Syn. Echinus cidaris, var. «? Gj?ieL v. I. p. 3174. 

Cidaris papillata major. Klein ap. Leske Echinod. 

t. SiK f. 2. t. 51. f. h. 1. h. 2. 



1 HE Echini are pretty well known, from their having 
spines resembling those of a hedgehog, and they have been 
called in common Sea Hedgehogs, Sea Urchins ; and when 
destitute of the spines they are sometimes called Sea Eggs, 
&c. Mr. Pennant took some pains to select the English 
species for the information of his countrymen. 

He, however, does not appear to have known the present 
species, although he travelled in Scotland. Our friend Alex- 
ander M'Leay, Esq. who, laudably, forgoes no researches, 
that his opportunities permit, to investigate the natural 
history of the British Isles, obligingly communicated this 
Echinus, totally new, not only to Great Britain, but differ- 
ing also from any yet found elsewhere; although, from its 
general resemblance to that elegant species brought from 
New Holland (with which I have been able to compare it, 
by favour of Governor Paterson, who presented me with 
a fine specimen from thence, with the spines quite perfect), 
it might be confounded with it. It also differs from those 

VOL. I. K 



90 

found in a fossil state, which much resemble that from 
New Holland ; and much discernment is requisite to di- 
stinguish it from them, and which will be represented at 
tab. 151. British Mineralogy, being the cast of a species 
which existed probably in ante-diluvian times. Their con- 
struction is always singularly uniform and beautiful : the 
present is perhaps as much so as any : we therefore wonder 
that it has escaped the attention of the curious, for we 
know of no other specimen yet brought to London. 

It is a sort of compressed globe, and, as in others, is 
divided into five principal partitions, each of which has 
four rows of perforations, which we believe to be fora- 
mina. These are covered in an elegant manner with minute 
elongated spines, in two rows, with two rows of smaller 
ones at their bases, forming a serpentine line in the centre. 
These smaller ones are somewhat elongated, and in that 
respect differ from the New Holland one. Thus there are 
five grand divisions, which are also subdivided in the cen- 
tre by a serpentine line, differing from the former in having 
six rows of small acute spines, without any perforations 
under them : on each side of these, in the longitudinal di- 
rection of the shell, are six or seven ovate divisions regu- 
larly set round with flat elongated spines fixed on the cir- 
cumference, and inclining towards the centre, somewhat 
conically, surrounding solid spines, from half an inch to 
three inches or more in length. These spines vary a little 
in proportion of thickness; the lower ones are generally 
thickest, most equal, and bluntest ; some diminish towards 
the ends, others thicken a little, those near the mouth are 
sometimes partly spatulate. They are all covered with 
ridges of small tubercles, most prominent towards their 
points, with a spongy appearance surrounding them. The 
mouth is covered with imbricated blunter spines. 

It may be observed that, in describing these, we much 
resemble conchologists, who rather describe the case or 



91 

house of the animal than the animal itself : here, however, 
we have been describing the bone and its appendage^, 
which are the covering of this animal. Linnaeus described 
it as a bony covering ; and analysis, by that accurate che- 
mist Mr. Hatchctt, has shown that Linnaeus was perfectly 
right, seeing that shells are entirely destitute of phosphoric 
acid, and bones have always a portion of it. The bones 
of the mouth of this animal are a curious congeries within 
this* case; the rest of the animal we know very little 
about, and the little there is of it is eaten in some places 
in Scotland and other parts. 

This Echinus was found by some fishermen in the 
islands of Shetland, where it is known by the name of the 
Piper, from the spines being supposed to resemble the 
drones of a bagpipe. The fishermen there say that speci- 
mens are sometimes found with spines nearly a foot in 
length; but some allowance must be made for exaggeration 
in all statements of this nature. The figure is nearly the 
size and proportion of the specimen. 

Since writing the above I have seen a small specimen in 
the possession of Mr. Lee, of Hammersmith, about an 
inch and a quarter in diameter, of which the spines are 
some twice that length, but imperfect, and some deeper 
furrowed. Some parts being nearly destitute of spines, 
we find the bone so nearly resembling our species, that 
we consider them the same, as we could not see any 
specific difierence. The spines seem to be longer in pro- 
portion in this small specimen than in the larger one. From 
their internal structure we should consider them as adapted 
for growth, and in this they somewhat resemble the struc- 
ture of the stems of some plants, having a kind of central 
pith, and radiating in divaricating circles from it. We 

* The five teeth are generally elongated inwards, and are coir.pojed of 
fiae silky filaments resembling asbestus, but are brittle. 



92 



therefore venture to conjecture that they do not cast their 
spines nor case, as lobsters do. 

These things are extremely difficult to make out; and if 
we should make any mistake, it may be so far successful as 
to be the cause of finding out the truth. 

There is the same species recent at the British Museum j 
and one of them has tht; spines over the foraminous aper- 
tures turned back : perhaps, they are commonly so when 
alive. We do not know from whence they come. 

On looking over Klein, we found a figure which appeared 
to be the same as ours, and which Gmelin quotes as 
var. a. of his Echinus cidaris. We also find a specimen in 
Mr. W^oodd's most respectable collection, which seems to 
have been taken in a living stale. On examining all the 
specimens with a great deal of attention, we find the fo- 
ramina constantly different from the New Holland one; we 
therefore suspect that it is another species, and ought to 
have a new name. The double foramina are situated in. 
simpler-formed bones, which are thickest at one of the 
ridges; when the animal's mouth is downwards, jhey seem 
to lap over each other like tiles. The New Holland one has 
strong indentations between the double foramina, and the 
bone forms a kind of beak-like process, curving into the 
holes — see figs. 1. 2. As these animals are often admired 
when destitute of spines, it may be necessary to observe 
another difference in the bones. The five divisions destitute 
of foramina have, as we before observed, six rows of 
spines ; consequently they have six rows of tubercles, 
suited for the sockets of the spines, somewhat distant. 
Those from New Holland are more equal in size, more 
crowded and numerous : see figs. 3.4. 

We do not think that the figure of a petrified specimen 
referred to by Gmelin, in Klein, is the same species. We 
have specimens sufficiently preserved to see the difference, 
which Will be figured in tab. 132 of British Mineralogy, 



4^<5- 




^^ 




:2>ecrJL.j8os. -?W^a««« J/. Jit( o'<"^c^ly, JZ^n^rt 



9S 

TAB. XLV. 
STYLOPS Meliltee. 



Class 5. Insecta. Order 2. Hemiptera. 

Gen. Char, ^ntemicr hip^Ytite. jEt/c? sitting on a 

foot-stalk. Elytra fixed to the sides of the thorax. 

Scutelhim extended, covering the abdomen. 
Spec. Char. Very black. Wings larger than the 

body. 
Syn. Kirhy Monogr. Almm Angl. r. 1. /. 14. tz. 11. 

/. 1—9. V. 2. 110—14. 

Length of the body, l-i- line. 



DODr very black, not shining. The head before obsolelely 
three-lobed. Feelersfour,theexteriorconsistlngof two joints, 
the first subclavate, the second lanceolate, acute; the in- 
terior shorter, not jointed, slender, towards the end a little 
thicker. Antennae longer than the head, with the first 
joint large, short, sending out two branches; the interior 
shorter, wider, without joints ; the exterior longer, more 
slender, consisting of three joints. Eyes large, prominent, 
conspicuously reticulated, sitting on a short thick peduncle. 
Vertex flattish. Elytra small, sublinear, fixed to the sides 
of the thorax. Wings two, large, longer than the body, 
folding, milky white, with a blackish rib and submarginal 
line. Scutellum extended, elongate, slipper-shaped, cover- 
ing the abdomen, strengthened on each side by a corneous 
process. Legs compressed, piceous. Abdomen hid under 
the scutellum, fleshy, with a truncate subemarginate anus. 
The body of the larva is subcylindrical, soft, whitish, 
inserted into the abdomen of the Melitta, the head being 

VOL. I. L 



94 

fxserted, corneous, heart-shaped, iiattlsh, subrufous, black 
behind, underneath concave behind. Mon. Ap. Angl. 

Since I met with the extraordinary insect here described, 
I have had the good fortune to extract a pair of pupse just 
ready to be disclosed, from the body of another Melitta. 
No sooner did I touch them, than they " burst their 
cerements," and I was not slow to prevent their escape. 
One of these is here figured. It seems to vary somewhat 
from my original specimen, but not sufficiently, I think, to 
be deemed a distinct species. The legs are black instead of 
piceous, the abdomen also is not so totally concealed by 
the scutellum, but is rather exserted and acute. This part, 
however, is most probably retractile, for being fleshy, and 
consequently liable to injury, it wants the shelter which 
the scutellum above and the processes on the sides and be- 
neath (fig. 7. Ih.J seem designed to afford it. The velvetty 
blackness of the body makes the sutures of the trunk and 
the inosculations of the first joints of the antennae very 
difficult to distinguish even under a powerful magnifier. 
In my original specimen I discovered only a single joint 
before the antennae branched out. Mr. Sowerby found two, 
as represented \njig. 5. The shape of the lower branch or 
auricle seems different also in the two specimens. 

*' Mr. Sowerby suggested to me that what I took for 
larvae of this insect {A^onogr. Ap. Angl. Ill — 14) were 
really pupae : — To this ingenious conjecture I readily ac- 
cede, as it removes all the difficulty with respect to their 
mode of feeding; the larva living entirely within the body 
till it is rcadv to take the pupa, and then exerting its head 
at the dorsal inosculations of the abdominal segments, that 
the perfect animal may the more readily disengage itself 
when its time for disclosure is come. The pupae are gene- 
rally found in pairs, {fg. 1,2), these may probably be the 
sexes." 

This genus appears not be confined to Melitta, for I 
have more than once found their exuviae in the body of 
foreign Vcspas. 



95 



Where the entomologist may have a chance of meeting 
with these curious insects in their imago state (except, hke 
myself, he seizes the fortunate moment when they are just 
ready to leave the body of the animal that supports them) is 
a question which I wish it were in my power to answer satis- 
factorily. We must first ask, In what state of the Melitta 
does it commit its eggs to it ? If in the larva the ha- 
bitation of this is usually at some depth under ground; and 
perhaps by digging where we observe them flying about a 
bank, and entering their burrows, we might possibly meet 
with some. If in the imago (but it seems not easy to 
conceive that the Stylops with its soft abdomen, furnished 
with no strong aculeus or oviduct, can perforate the scaly 
mail of the Melitta to deposit its eggs, without indeed it 
insinuates them at the inosculations of the abdominal seg- 
ments) — in this case most probably it goes to work when 
the Melitta reposes, and may be a night-flyer; but it 
would not be very easy to see so minute a creature in the 
night. Perhaps a butterfly-net might be used with success 
about banks where we observe many burrows of insects. 

Ols. The Pupae Mr. Sowerby has figured appear to be 
ovate, where as mine were linear. See Jig. 2, and Monogr. 
Ap. Angl. v.\. t. 14. w. 11./. 7. 

Explanation of the Plate. 

Fig. 1 . Male of Melitta albicans with a pair of the Pupae 
of Stylops Melittce in its Abdomen. 

2. Abdomen of ditto magnified. 

3. Stylops Melittce natural size. 

4. Ditto magnified, a a Eyes. I Scutellum. 

5. Head of ditto as seen under a powerful magnifier. 

a a lower branch of the Antennse. h h upper 
ditto, c c exterior Feeler, d d interior ditto. 

6. Part of the Trunk, a Thorax, h h Elytra. 

7. Underside of the Abdomen and Processes, a Ab- 

domen, h b Processes. 

W. KiRBY. 



-^6- 




::^ecflj[^j£oS. J'tc^^^.oA ^j' ^a^f J e'tt^e^^, JZoTtd^n/. 



97 



TAB. XLVI. 

LIBELLULA conspurcata. 
Stained Dragon-fly, 



Class 5. Insecta. Order 4. Neuroptera. 

Gen. Char. Mouth furnished with two pair of jaws. 

jintennce very short, bristle-shaped. JVings 

plane, extended. Front vesicular, uinus of the 

male armed with forceps. 
Spec. Char. Wings with a marginal yellow stripe, 

and a brown spot at their tips. — Fabr. 
Syn. Libellula conspurcata. Fabr. Suppl. 283. n. 1- — 2. 

Length of the body, 1 inch, 6 lines. 
Expansion of the wings^ 2 inches, 10 lines. 



1 HE insect here figured resembles not a little L. 4'7naai- 
lata; but is nevertheless quite distinct from it. The head 
is of a dirty yellow. Trunk downy, of the same colour, with 
black sutures. Abdomen prismatical, dirty yellow, with 
the lateral and dorsal angles black. The wings, a little 
within the anterior margin, are stained with a longitudinal 
yellow stripe, which does not quite reach the tips. The 
anastomosis is black, with a brown cloud terminating the 
wing. The secondary wings have besides a black spot at 
their base. 

We are indebted to Mr. Joseph Hooker of Norwich for 
this insect, who took it in the summer of 1804 in a wood 
at Sprowston near that oily. 




_Z7e<:rz 2^oS ^a^^As^ ^v „<a.f Sc^H'erSy, .Zen^n^ 



99 

TAB. XLVir. 

LIBELLULA «nea; Far, 
Metallic Dragon-fiiJ. 



Class 5. Insecta. Order 4. Neuroptera. 

Spec. Char. Wings unspotted, hyaline. Head and 
trunk metallic green. Abdomen clavate. 

Syn. Lhm. Si/st. Nat. ed. 1 2. 902. n. 8. 
Faun Suec, 1465. Var. /3. 
Fabr. Ent. Syst. m. 2. 381. n. 35. 
Rail Hist. Ins. 49. rz. 2. 
I/Aminthe. Geqfr. Hist. Ins. Par. 2. 226. n. 10. 
Demoiselle doree verte. De Geer. 2. par. 2. 687. 
t. 19./. 8. 

Length of the body, ] inch, 10 lines. 
Expansion of the wings, 2 inches, 8 lines. 



1 HIS insect was taken by Mr. William Jackson Hooker, 
in the summer of 1803, at Starston-Wood near Harleston 
in Norfolk. It has also beeii found at Alartlesham Heath 
near Woodbridge in Suffolk by the Rev. William Kirby. 
Both the specimens taken by these gentlemen are males; 
the female we have not yet had an opportunity of inspect- 
ing. LinnjEus mentions no difference between it and the 
male, except that its anus wants the forceps, being 
furnished with only two lanceolate appendages. 

The body of our specimens, the head and trunk especially, 
is covered with yellowish down. The mouth is yellow. 
The vesicular part of the front before the eyes and the 
thorax are t)f a brilliant metallic green. The sides of the 
trunk glitter with the hue of gold or copper. The legs are 



100 



black. The wings nearly hyaline and unspotted : the se- 
condary pair have the first area of the network at the base 
yellow. The shape of the abdomen is remarkable, re- 
sembling a club with a handle, the first segment being very 
thick, the second very slender; the following ones as they 
approach the anus keep gradually dilating; the sixth and 
seventh being the widest ; the two last diminishing in 
width again. The anus is terminated by four appendages ; 
the upper pair are linear, unarmed, and very hairy; the 
lower pair terminate in two sharp teeth, or a fork. The 
colour of the upper side of the abdomen is metallic, but 
more obscurely so than that of the head and trunk ; its 
underside is black, with two rows of obscure pale spots. 

Linnaeus, in the first edition of his Fauna Suecica, con- 
sidered the insect here figured as distinct from his L. cEiiea^ 
(which appears to diifer from it in having yellow lines upon 
the thorax, and a black abdomen) ; but in the second 
edition of that admirable work he gave thcni as varieties. 
Having never met with a, we cannot venture to give a de- 
cided opinion as to its identity with /3, yet we cannot help 
suspecting that they may be distinct species. Linnceus, 
amongst his synonyms, has referred to the same numbers 
in Ray both for this insect and h. depressa. They belong 
evidently to the latter. Our reference to that illustrious 
father of natural history in E'ngland will, we trust, be 
found perfectly correct. His description so happily pour- 
Irays our insect, that we camiot resist the temptation we 
feel to insert it here. " Thorax pilis crebris hirtus est, 
supine e viridi et cupreo mixto, subtus cupreo colore pilos 
translucente splendcns. Abdomen longum ut in hoc ge- 
nere, tenuc, laeve, ad exortum a thorace et ad caudam in- 
tumescens. Alae mcntbranaceoe pellucidi'c ad exortum 
lutco tinctse, duplici in margine cxteriore lineola nigra, una 
majore pi ope extremum, altera transversa minima et vix 
discernenda circa mediam partem notata?." 




-f8 









■"\c 














^l^/'> 






-CecT^Z. jScS J^aii/Ar^ 



101 



TAB. XLVIII. 

SEPIA octopus. 
Eight-armed Cuttlc-Jish. 



Class 6. Vermes. Order 2. Mollusca. 

Gen. Char. Bochj fleshy, receiving the breast in a 
sheath, with a tubular aperture at its base. Arws 
eight, beset with numerous suckers, and in most 
species two pedunculated tentacula. Head short. 
Eyes large. Moutli resembling a Parrot's beak. 

Turt. 

Spec. Char. Body without tailor appendage. Pe- 
dunculated tentacula, or longer arms, none. 
Arms beset with a double row of tentacula. 

Syn. Seha Mas. v. 3. t. 2./. 1,2, 3. 5. 



This Cutde-fish, commonly so called, was sent me from 
Dover by my friend Mr. Richard Phillips. I received it 
alive. Whether it is a variety of the Sepia octopodia of 
Pennant, I cannot positively determine. It is certainly 
sufficiently distinct from one which I had from my friend 
G. Montague, Esq., which agrees with Pennant's, having 
a single row of suckers upon each arm; for, besides the 
double row of suckers which ours has, it is much more 
coloured, and different in shape, the body being longer. 
There is no mention made of Sepia octopodia with double 
rows of suckers by Pennant. Gmclin and Turton only 
speak of such. There are figures of both in Seba. 



102 



This, for the strangeness of the animal, is both curious 
and pretty, from the colours and contrivance of nature iu 
giving it such arms and so many suckers for its size. 
The whole may seem extremely strange to new ob- 
servers, and more so when we can tell them that these 
arms are in some kinds said to be extended to above 50 feet 
in length, so as to embrace a boat and crew, and pull them 
down to satisfy the animal's voracious appetite*. They are 
said to give a phosphorescent light when opened : this 
might happen to other animals in a certain state of putre- 
faction. Ours had some black inky matter in the pouch, 
said to be the substance used for Indian Ink. It differs very 
little from soot, which there is little doubt may be more 
conuBonly used. 

■* The Indians carry liatcheJs to cut o/f these arms, and relieve the boats* 



103 



TAB. XLIX. 



SOREX ciliatus. 
Fringe-tailed Water Shrew-mouse. 



Class 1. Mammalia, Order 3. Ferae. 

Gen. Char. 

Spec. Char. Black. Toes and tail with a white 
fringe underneath. 



This, probably, new species of Sorex was caught in a ditch 
in Norfolk by W. J. Hooker, Esq. It is larger than the 
Land Shrew, and different in shape and colour. It is 
about the size of the Water Shrew, but is neither so black 
on the back, nor so white on the belly, being very nearly 
of a similar tint all over; a grayish black, scarcely at all 
lighter underneath. It is remarkable for a fringe of shortish 
white hairs on the under side of the tail, which is blackish 
with a white tip. The legs and toes are also fringed under- 
neath with white hairs. 



105 



TAB. L. 



PLEURONECTES Rhombus. 
Fearl, Brill. 



Class 4. Pisces. Order 3 . Thoracici. 
Div. Eyes on the left side. 

Gen. Char. Head small. Eyes spherical, both 
on the same side the head, and near each other. 
Mouth arched : jaws unequal, toothed. Gill- 
membrane with 4 — 7 rays ; the cover mostly of 
three laminae. Bodi/ convex and coloured above, 
flat and paler beneath. Fent near the head. — 
Turt. 

Spec. Char. Body smooth, rhomboidal ; four first 
rays of the dorsal fin ramified, with the mem- 
brane lacerated between each branch. 

Syn. Gmel. V. 1. 1235. 



1 HE London fishermen often call this the Turbot, and to 
those unacquainted with that fish this is sometimes sold as 
such. It is known by the name of the Brill in common. 
It seems, however, to be the Pearl of most authors. It 
is much less esteemed by the epicure than the Turbot, as 
it differs in its flavour as well as in its specific characters. 
It has no spines or conical rough bones in the skin like 



106 



that fish, which is rounder and brighter. The Brill is 
truly rhomboidal, grayish brown with minute and large 
brown spots ; the dorsal fin is curiously lacerated just above 
the head * ; the underside has a delicate pearly whiteness^ 
whence I suppose its name is derived. 

As it is inferior in goodness to the Turbot, so it is com- 
monly sold cheaper. 

It is somewhat remarkable that this has not been before 
figured, although so much spoken of. From the general 
conversation I have had about it, it appears that the term 
Brill has confounded and obscured the name of Pearly 
which is scarcely known at present in London. 

A bad figure, uncoloured, may be seen in Johnstone's 
Fishes, tab. 92. fig. 13. 

The Brill seems to be rather a rare fish excepting in the 
London markets. I have had some very small ones, by 
favour of the Rev. Hugh Davies, from Anglesea, under 
the name of the Pearl. 

* A character ■we have observed in no other British flat-fish. 




^e^t.aS0S- ^U^t^^ht-i^- iu ^a^ J'^u/e^iy. ^o^^^Bn.-: 



107 

TAB. LI. 
NEREIS pectinata. 

Class 6. Vermes. Order 4. INIollusca. 

Spec. Char. Smooth, prismatically coloured. Ten- 
tacula 14 on each side, gold-coloured. Legs 
14 on each side, also gold-coloured. 



1 HIS strikingly beautiful and curious annual excited the 
attention of the ingenious Dr. Boys, who was so kind as 
to present me with specimens of it a long time since. The 
tentacula and the peduncles being of a finely golden ap- 
pearance, recall that grand description in the Revelations, 
" his feet were like unto fine brass, as if they were burned 
in a furnace." Whether the inspired writers alluded to 
natural history in their descriptions we do not know ; they 
are however very sublime in some of their comparisons. 
The tentacula appear somewhat solid, but the feet seem 
to be composed of bundles of golden hairs. There are 
numbers of little brown papillas upon what appears to be 
the lip. There are prominent, almost laminated sorts of 
thighs to the feet or bundles of hairs. We could not find 
the organs by which life is sustained such as the mouth, &c. 
The marine animals require much attention to discern 
their functions and manner of living ; but we expect to 
improve in this kind of knowledge, as the present age is 
laudably inquisitive into such subjects^ which can hardly 



108 



fail to be of future use. The case has been indifferently 
figured by Pennant. It is remarkable for its uniformity, 
being perfectly straight, but somewhat conically tubular. 
It is composed of bits of shells and chosen particles of 
sand, so arranged as to form an equal surface ; the gluten 
cementing them together entirely covering the inside, and 
appearing externally between the particles when examined 
by a magnifying glass only. There is little doubt but 
these animals quit their cases, as we have seen fresh water 
animals with tubular cases do, and dexterously recover 
them again. Tlie case of this animal, which is called 
Sahella tuliformis, has with the rest of that genus been 
placed with the Vermes Testacea ; we do not find fault 
with this arrangement, as, perhaps, without the animal, 
there may be no better place for them. 

They are found on the Sandwich and other shores, but 
the cases are oftener found without the animal than with it. 
We have not had the pleasure of seeing this animal in its 
natural situation ; and have therefore placed it as if fallen 
on the shore, with the animal nearly out of the covering ; 
the other animal has fallen carelessly on its back : — thus a 
view is given both of the back and front. The case is 
said to be found immersed perpendicularly in the sand, 
with the broad end and head upwards. 



62 




J^&c^J^jSoS 2'a^7^?i<s^ ^ ^-sci Soi^'e^by. ^orL.<£^T. 



109 

TAB. LIL 
ICHNEUMON persuasorius. 



Class 5. Insecta. Order 5. Hymenoptera. 
Spec. Char. Scutellum with two white spots. Thorax 
spotted. Abdomen black, with the segments 
marked on each side with two white spots. 

Syn. Linn. Si/sL Nat. Ed. 12. 932. ?z. 16. 

Faun. Suec. 1593. 

Fahr. Ent. Syst. Em. 2. 145. n. 49. 

De Geer. 1. t. ^Q. f. 8. 

Panz. Faun. Germ. Mit. n. 19. t. 18. 

Pimpla persuasoria. Fahr. Syst. Piez. 112. n. 1, 

Length of the body without the aculeus, 1 1 lines. 
of the aculeus, 1 inch 1 line. 



JVlR. W. J. Hooker took this rare insect, which we do 
not recollect to have seen in any other English collection, 
in a garden at Coltishall near Norwich. 

Linnaeus describes his insect in these terms : — " Black. 
Lip white. A white line before and behind the eves. 
Thorax with three white stripes (liiuris) on each side. 
Scutellum with two white dots : the anterior the largest. 
Abdomen cylindrical, sessile, with the margin of the first 
segment wholly white, that of the second interruptedly, 
the rest have four white dots. Legs ferruginous. Posterior 
tibiae black. Stature of Ichneumon manifest at oi\" Syst. 
Nat. 

VOL. I. M 



110 

Our specimen varies from this description in the follow- 
ing particulars. The lip, (by which, as appears from the de- 
scription in Faun. Suec.j Linnaeus meant the anterior part 
of the front) is black, as well as the mouth. The trunk, be- 
sides the white lines or stripes mentioned in Syst. Nat., has 
a white tubercle under the insertion of the primary wings, a 
white spot above the base of the intermediate pair of legs, 
two square contiguous spots on each side of the metathorax, 
just at the insertion of the abdomen. The first segment 
of the latter has an interruptedly white margin, and the 
second is distinguished by four white spots like the remain- 
ing segments. The posterior tarsi as well as tlblce are 
black, the latter are yellowish underneath at the base. 
Panzer's figure seems to agree better with the description of 
Linnaeus, whose insect was very much larger than ours. 
Fabrlcius, in his Systema Plezatorum, has placed the Ich- 
neumons with a sessile cylindrical abdomen and very long 
aculeus by themselves, as a distinct genus : this may per- 
haps be going too far ; but at any rate they form a natural 
family in that numerous and perplexing tribe. The very 
long aculeus or oviduct of this insect and its affinities 
enables them to penetrate to a considerable depth into 
holes in wood, to convey their eggs to the body of the larva 
of some bee or other hymenopterous insect concealed in 
them. Mr. Marsham, in his ingenious paper upon Ich^ 
neumon manifestator, in the third volume of the Transac- 
tions of the Linnean Society, gives a very entertaining 
account of the proceedings of that insect to commit its 
eggs to their appropriate larva, which we recommend our 
readers to peruse. 




^^ed'.^ T^ l8co. J'ta^/ve^^ $i, Ja^^ Si^^-^i^hi'. /lefKdon. 



in 

TAI]. LIU. 

APLYSLV lijbrida. 



Class 6. Vermes. Order 2. Mollusea. 

Gen. Char. Bodi/ creeping, covered with reflected 
membranes, with a membranaceous shield on the 
back covering the lun^^s. An aperture on the 
right side. Fbnt above the extremity of the 
back. Feelers 4 resembling ears. 

Spec. Char. Purple all over. 

Syn. Laplysiadepilans? Pennant^ Brit. ZorA. 4. 42. 






VV E may consider the representation of this curious crea- 
ture as under sea-water on a rock, as it is always lound in 
the sea, and is either dragged from thence or left on the 
rocks at low water. It is said to be not unfrequent about 
the rocks near Penzance, and indeed I was told great 
numbers might be got. This was gathered in the year 1799 
on St. Michael's Mount. My friend Mr. Turner pointed it 
out, and my son gathered it at about the length of his arm 
imder water in the hollow of a rock, and I put it into a 
box. We handled it pretty much, and felt no particular 
sensation ; but, looking at my hands after having put it 
by, I found a very copious quantity of purple fluid had 
been deposited by the animal in both our hands. I put 
some of this on a piece of paper, and it remained nearly 
as brilliant for two or three years afterwards. This has 
yoh, I. N 



112 



been thought by some to be the true Tyrian dye of the an- 
tients ; aUhough much has been said about Buccinum pur- 
pureum by Pennant and others, which last affords such a 
trifling quantity. At this age, which improves on every dis- 
covery, it might be worth while to those concerned in dyes, 
perhaps, to learn whether these animals may be acquired 
in suflicient quantities for such purpose. 

Pennant calls his Laphjsia depilans, and compares it 
with Pliny's description of Lepus mar'ums, observing that 
Pliny places it among the venomous marine animals, saying 
that even the touch is infectious. He also says that the 
smell is extremely nauseous. Ours does not agree in any 
of these characters, and I think I should have observed it if 
the smell had been nauseous. We have examined two 
bottles from Grenada, probably containing ^p/iy^ia depilans 
of Linnaeus, by Sir Joseph Banks's favour, who had them 
sent him by Mr. Christ. Rapier with the following account 
in a letter : 

"■ SIR, 
^^ Although I have not the honour of being known to 
you, I have presumed to send you, what I hope will be 
favourably received, specimens of the true Murex of the 
antients. The fish were brought on shore by some fisher- 
men of this place, St. George's, Grenada. The fish are 
known here by a name which I cannot express in English ; 
but may be translated very closely by Vulva mar'ma, and by 
the corrupt French of this country by Pissa-la-mer. The 
liquid which issues from the fish is of the most beautiful 
purple. A considerable quantity had been shed previous to 
its coming into my possession, and I was solicitous that 
what remained might reach you with as little alteration as 
possible. The two fish in No. 1. were put alive into the 
bottle, and very strong rum poured upon them and closed 
up." The rum of course had taken away the beautiful 
purple colour, and they remained of a purplish black. 



11.3 



" Those in No. 2. had been in my possess-^'on for many 
months, and had lost their purple fluid in a great measure. 
I am not even certain that they are the same species as 
No. 1.* They are sent to yow for an accurate examina- 
tion. I can readily believe that the Tyriaa purple dye uas 
first discovered by a dog eating a fish on the sea -shore, 
which tinged his mouth of so beautiful a colour as to excite 
curiosity how it originated. The fish which is now sent 
you, M^hen in the surf of the sea, appears so like the liver 
of a bullock, that a dog might easily mistake it for that 
viscus." 

We do not know why Pennant has made the generic name 
begin Avith an L, as we suspect that the name is derived 
from the Greek word ATrXva-la, signifying immundlties , illotiis, 
from its being unwholesome or filthy. Turton has made it 
Laplisia. 

* We think they may be the same species in a different state of growth: 
the small ones, No. 2 , however, are brown with dark spots. We want 
more light on the subject. 



--^ 





T-f'-N 



^^e/^y^jBo^ fui/y'ft'J Ij- Jhi .f.n^efil' Z^-uion,. 



115 



TAB. LIV. 



STAPHYLINUS concolor. 
Serra ted-liorn ed Stapliylln us. 



Class 5. Insecta. Order I, Coleoptera, 

Gen. Char. Anlennce moniliform. Feelers filiform. 
Elytra halved, covering the wings. Body elon- 
gate. Tail {of the femcdesy simple, exerting 
two oblong vesicles. 
Spec. Char. Black. Antennae serrated. Thorax 
naked, shining, with a dilated margin. Elytra 
downy, opaque. 
Syn. Marsh. Ent. Brit. i. 498. 4. 

Staphylinus dilatatus. Fab. Ent. Syst. Em. I. 6. 
52212.? Syst. Eleuth. ii. .392. 1 4 ? Gmel. Syst. 
Nat. 2027. SO? Payk. Faun. Siiec. iii. 389. 
29. LatreUle Hist. Nat. &c. ix. 326. 74. 



Length of the body Q " 

rof the head 1-^ 

Breadth «| of the thorax 2 j 

Lof the elytra 23- 



luies. 



We were permitted to make a drawing of" this singular and 
very rare Stuphy Linus by our kind friend, the ingenious au- 
thor of Entomolo-jia Britannica, in wh.ose cabinet the only 
British specimen of it ever taken is preserved. It is also 
found in Ge rmanv, Sweden, and France ; for we think it 
is beyond a doubt the Staphylinus dilatatus of Paykull and 



116 



Latreille, and most probably of Fabricius : but we have 
placed a note of interrogation to the synonym of the last 
of these authors, because he describes the colour of the 
elytra by the term fusca, which will not accord well with 
our specimen. Yet his description in every other respect 
agrees with it; mentioning the serrated antennae, the 
dilated margin of the thorax, and the metallic hues that 
in certain lights glitter upon it : on this account we are 
pretty certain that ours can be nothing more than a variety 
of his insect. 

Body black. Head, excluding the neck, cordate, con- 
siderably narrower than the thorax, shining, without 
punctures, one or two excepted on each side between the 
eyes and the neck. Antennae recurved, a little longer than 
the head, hairy, black; with the last joint piceous: their 
three first joints are nearly obconical ; the seven following 
ones on their lower side jut out into an angle, forming so 
many serratures; the last is nearly ovate and acute. The 
thorax is naked, shining and black ; but behind and on 
the sides, in certain lights, it reflects a greenish metallic 
hue; it is rounded, and widest behind, somewhat com- 
pressed before, and truncate with a sinus for the reception 
of the neck ; its disk is very convex, but its sides are de- 
pressed, dilated and flat; its surface is smooth, with about 
twenty-six impressed punctures, viz. eight disposed in two 
triangles on the disk, the acute angle of which is distin- 
guished by two approximate ones, and eighteen in the 
margin, thus disposed, beginning at the anterior angle, 
2. 5. 2. 2. 5. 2. The anterior tarsi are dilated, and fulvous 
underneath. The elytra are rather longer than the thorax, 
but not quite so wide, opaque, black, except the angle at 
the shoulders, which is distinguished by a ferruginous dot 
that is almost concealed by the thorax. The abdomen is 
shining and hairy. The anus is terminated by a rectilinear 
forceps, and two linear and very hairy appendages : these 
are all probably sexual distinctions. 




J^t^r^jZ.^^oS. 2'st^i^^sti- ^ ,^x/ tJ'tf**'^^. ^&n^^n.: 



117 

TAB. LV. 
PHAL.ENA N. Xscriptum. 



Class 6. Insecta. Order 3. Lepidoptera. 

Spec. Char. Crested. Wings fuscous, variegated 
with white and black, in the middle a large white 
spot marked with a letter X. Lower wings fus- 
cous. 



1 HIS rare Moth is in the possession of my friend Thomas 
Marsham^ Esq., Tr. L. S. 

The letter X is a sufficient mark at present to distinguish 
it from its allies, although it is tolerably distinct in other 
respects. We wish we knew the use of this numerous 
tribe of insects, as it is remarkable that only the Silk 
Worm and the Arindey Worm, figured in vol. J. of Linn. 
Trans., have been made subservient to the arts. There 
can be no doubt that every one has its use, although we 
must wait patiently to find it out, and in the mean time 
we can only learn to distinguish their kinds. 

Some of the smaller Tunicece are very fond of cloth, 
feathers, &c., and are always ready to take advantage of 
our inattention or negligence of those things. 












2^af I iScs -F'^lM.af iy Mi'^i't" 



11.9 

TAB. LVL 
CORALLIi^rA auriculariaeformis. 



Class Q. Vermes. Order 4. Zoophyta. 

Gen. Char. Animal growing in the form of a plant 
Stem fixed with calcareous subdivided branches, 
mostly jointed. 

Spec. Char. Stemless, spreading like a Fungus or 
Lichen. 

Syn. Corallium cretaceum lichenoides. Ellis Co- 
rallines, 76. tab. 27. d. D. 



1 HIS little elegant Coralline (for I cannot make it any 
thing else in the present system) is nearest allied to the 
CoraUina Opimt'ia in its young or early state. It is of so 
curious a formationj that I wonder it has not been re- 
cognised as a British species before now. 

I have seen it in some cabinets, but no where with a 
name. It occurs in tolerabl-e abundance on the rocks at 
Kynance Cove, and has a beautiful appearance, hanging 
round the sides in a shelf-like manner, or at the bottom of 
a hole growing horizontally, sometimes rising with the 
assistance of CoraUina officinalis in elegant order — higher 
■up like the top figure. We cannot help remarking the 



120 

resemblance It bears to some of the Fungi. The manner of 
its o-rowth resembles much Boletus versicolor and Hydnum 
Daviesiiy &c.; it also resembles the Auricularice in its 
mode of growth, and like them is smooth on the under 
surface*. It is, however, unlike them, in having the 
upper surface smooth j and it is only its situation, and 
its composition of phosphate of lime and animal gluten, 
that would determine it to be a Coralline. It is more or less 
of a deep pink, like C. officinalisy and like that is liable to 
be bleached. 



* On examining it with the microscope, we see minute cells in transverse 
rows, somewhat in concentric circles, convex towards the outer edges, very 
like those formed by Boletus igniarius, English Fungi, fab. side Jlgure. 
The whole growth is so like a fungus, that those who formerly thought 
fungi of an animal nature might have considered themselves confirmed in 
iheir idea by observing this. See Encyclopcedia Brilannica,, FuNGUa. 




tJSf 



^^ 



J'ei-'UjSoe. Tuiii/hed i^ 7m' Sot^eriv, ^^/xji-n,. 



121 

TAB. LVII. 
SCARAB.^US pumilus. 



Class 5. Insecta, Order 1. Coleoptera. 

Spec. Char. Black. Thorax of the male armed 
with three horns : the intermediate one very short ; 
the lateral ones protended shorter than the head ; 
sides of the thorax rugose. 

Syn. Scarabasus pumilus. Marsh. Eiit. Brit. 1.8. 

71. 2. 

T n r *i, I- J r of the male 64r'\ 
Length of the body -l 

m lie 3- 



-ftmale 7 I r 
, ' >lines. 

temale 4 J 



1 HIS Insect was first taken by the Rev. J. BurrelJ^ in the 
neighbourhood of Holt, in Norfolk. The Rev. R.Sheppard 
jias since found it occasionally in the springs on Rushmere 
and Martlehani heaths, between Ipswich and Woodbridge, 
in Suffolk. 

Although it very nearly resembles Sc. Typhcsus Linn, it 
is, we think, nevertheless, quite distinct; it differs from 
it not only in size, being considerably smaller, but the 
horns of the thorax, compared with the head, are much 
shorter, and the surface of its sides more unequal, rugose, 
with a greater number ot" impressed points. In the female, 
which is larger than the male, instead of lateral horns, the 
thorax is armed on each side with a short tooth, or rather 



12'i 



an acute tubercle; between which, in the place ot" the in- 
termediate horn, there is an elevated transverse line op 
ridge. This sex differs from the female of Sc, Typ/iceus in 
scarcely any thing but size. 

What may be the use of the horns which arm the thorax 
of the male of Sc. Typhceus and pumilus, and the head and 
thorax of many of the same sex in the Fabrician genera 
Copris and Geotnipes, seems at present not ascertained : if, 
however, the insect before us be taken in the hand and 
held fast, he will resist incumbent pressure with great force, 
anfl make way iinder it ; from vi'hich we may conjecture 
that these horns are useful to him in excavating his sub- 
terraneous habitation. 

Our drawing was made from specimens in the cabinet or 
the Rev. W. Kirby. The upper fgure represents the jnale. 
and tJie loicer iht female. 



68 




.J^ei'-^J J8»g. ^uJ-l^Aia fip- Jaf ,>'rlv&ri}; -Zorulon 



123 

TAB. LVIII. 
CERAMBYX fulminans. 



Class 5. Insecta. Order 1. Coleopteva, 

Gen. Char. AntenncF setaceous. Eijcf; lunar, cm- 
bracing the base of the antennse. Thorax partly 
receiving the head. Elytra sublinear. Body 
oblong. 
Spec. Char. Thorax globose, spotted. Elytra black, 

with undulato-angular white bands. 
Syn. Callidium fulminans. Fab. Ent. Syst. Em. ii. 
332. n. 62. 
Cerambyx fulminans. Gmeh Syst. Nat. 1853. ??. 278, 

Oliv. Ins. 70. t. 5.f. 63. 
Cerambyx fulminans. Tiirt. 2. 330. 
Clytus fulminans. Fab. Syst. EleuiJi. ii. 346. n. 4^ 



Length of the Body 8 \ ,. 
Breadth of the Elytra 2 J ^"^^^■ 



The specimen of this elegant insect (which Fabricius 
gives as a native of North America) from wbicli our 
figure was taken, was found by a young lady upon some 
flowers at a garden at Kensington. It is now in tbe 
cabinet of the Rev. W. Kirby. Probably, like Ccramlijx 
violaccus, it was not orio;inally a native of this country, 
but imported in its larva state in timber. We remember 
seeing at A. MacLeay's, Esq., a very large larva of some 
species, of this genus we imagine, which came alive in 
timber from New Holland. 

The insect before us belongs to Mr. Marsham's fillh 
family of Ceramhyx, {Thorax unarmed, globose, not de- 
pressed), consisting of species which Linne had improperly 
considered as belonq-ins; to the eenus Lcpturo, since their 



124 



claim to be regarded as Ccramhyccs is founded not only 
upon oeconomy and habit, but likewise upon character^ 
these insects exhibiting all the genuine characters of that 
genus, pariicuhrly the lunar or reniform eyes, so happily 
noticed by DeGeer, who arranges them with those Ceram- 
lyces that have a globose depressed thorax, from which 
Mr. Marshani has judiciously separated them. 

Fabricius originally considered this family as forming 
part of liis genus CaUid'mm ; but in his Syslema Eleuthe- 
ratorum, after Schrank, he has made a new genus of them, 
under the name of Clytus. Latreille, however, a most 
accurate observer, and who has entered more deeply into 
the anatomy of insects than almost any entomologist of the 
present age, still regards them merely as a family or section 
of CaUidium. {Hist. Nat. Gen. et Part, des Crustac. et des 
Lis. t. iii. p. 217.) 

The body of Ceranihjx fuhn'mans is black beset with 
cinereous hairs, which underneath and upon the legs are 
so thinly scattered as scarcely to obscure their blackness. 
Head chanuciled longitudinally. Antennse of the length 
of the body, at the base whitish with cinereous hairs. 
Thorax with a large obcordate velvety black spot, and two 
smaller oblong-oval lateral ones. Scutellum black edged 
with cinereous hair. Elytra dehiscent at their apex, black, 
pencilled with uudulato-angular cinereous transverse lines, 
formed of hair. A cinereous crescent also ornaments their 
tips. Wings black. 

The males in this genus have usually longer antennae 
than the females; a circumstance which will account for a 
difference observable betvi'een the description of Fabricius 
and that above given. He says: " Antermce breves," 
whereas in our specimen they are as long as the insect. 
He also describes the body of his as fuscous : in ours it is 
quite black. Notwithstanding these differences, we make 
our reference to him without hesitation, since in every 
other respect our specimen answers exactly to his descrip- 
tion. 



1^ 



■^d 




J'^i'-!' /: jSoS . ^-^y^^/kac^ ^y ,/iV^ -j'^H^a^^i; ^Zon^c^ 



6o 




^e-^z. t8a£.^^^^^^£^ ?>' t/^'f J^^t^e^^. Z^^*^n. 



6j. 




^^rilJ.^Soe. J'uM-M.e^ if .'T.t'' Soiiej-Hy. ^„n,it>n 



TAB. LXI. 

SALMO Fario; var. 
Gillai'oo Trout. 



Class 4. Pisces. Order 4. Abdominal. 

Gen. Char. Head smooth, compressed. Mouth 
large. Lips small. Tongue white, cartilaginous, 
movable. Eyes moderate, lateral. Teeth in the 
jaws and on the tongue. Gill membrane 4 — 12- 
rayed. The Cover of three laminae. Body long, 
covered with rounded and very finely striated 
scales. Back convex. Lateral line straight, 
nearer the back. Hindmost dorsal Fin fleshy, 
without rays. Ventral Fins of many rays. 

Spec. Char. Body with purple red spots. Lower 
jaw a little longer. Stomach very large. 

Syn. Gillaroo Trout. Daines Barrington, Phil, 
Trans. 64* 116. Henry Watson, ibid. 121. 
Gillaroe Trout. John Hunter, ibid. 310. 



JriAViNG been favoured with a specimen of this fish from 
its proper habitat by Aylmer Bourke Lambert, Esq., V. P. 
L. S., I could not resist giving a figure and some account 
of so interesting a subject. 

VOL. II. B 



2 



Mr. Lambert was so good as to send the following ac- 
count of it : ^^ The Gillaroo Trout which I sent you was 
caught in the lake Carra, situated in the county of Mayo 
in the west of Ireland, while I resided at Castle Bourke, 
situated on the banks of that lake. I had frequent op- 
portunities of observing this singular fish, and hardly a 
day passed without my catching some of them with the 
fly, or having some of them sent me by my tenants. At 
different times I opened several of their enlarged stomachs, 
which I always found full of Helix tentaculata. This 
enlargement of the stomach is no doubt occasioned by 
this kind of food producing a certain degree of irritation 
so as to thicken the coats of it. It is certainly not a disease, 
as the larger the stomach the fatter the fish ; and a Trout 
about two pounds weight with a stomach the size of a 
hen's egg, was so fat and oily as scarcely to be eatable. 
This fish is easily taken with a fly, and I have caught 
several in a day with much coarser tackle than I could 
have taken the Trout with in the rivers of England. It 
is certainly not a distinct species from the common 
Trout, as some have thought it ; for I have found the 
stomach in every state of enlargement from the size of 
a nut to that of a hen's egg; and I have as often caught 
them in the same lake without the least enlargement of the 
stomach. The shell on which they feed seems to be very 
abundant in the lake Carra, as some parts of the shores of it 
are covered with the half-digested shells voided by this fish. 
I have been informed that they are sometimes caught in 
some of the neighbouring lakes.'* 

On examining the stomach of the above specimen I 
found both Helix tentaculata and Nerila Jiuviatilis ; the 
first in the greatest abundance, but both with their oper- 
culums on, and the snail or animal very little altered; a few 
loose operculums and empty shells were among them : 



3 



the shells also are very little altered : the epidermis or 
fine cuticle of the shell is in the prominent parts lacerated, 
and the white lime is apparently in a small degree softened : 
in this state they appear to be voided, as they were much 
in the same state in the extreme gut. These fishes, like 
other fat subjects, seem to require very little food. 

The stomachs of other Trout that I have examined 
contained these and other shelly animals, such as cads * 
with stony and wooden cases, &c., but I did not meet with 
any separate remains of any of the animals so as to identify 
their species. From what John Hunter observes, we may 
conclude that the size of the stomach is owing to its de- 
lighting in coarser food than others. 

• Larva of Phryganea, 



TAB. LXII. 

ANAS fraenata. 
IVliite-faced Duck. 



Class 1. Aves. Order 



Spec. Char. Fusco-ferruginous. A spot on the 
wings, abdomen, and a ring round the head at 
the base of the bill, white. 

Syn. Anas frasnata. Sp arm. Mils, Carls, v. 2, pi. SS. 



1 HE White-faced, or Laughing Goose, {Anas Barnacla,) 
as it is often called, is well known; but we have not seen 
the White-faced Duck mentioned any where as British. 
My good friend the Rev. James Dalton, F. L. S., has 
sent me a young and an old one. As this gentleman does 
not consider them rare in Yorkshire, it is rather to be 
wondered at that there is no account of them except in 
Sparrman's Musaeura Carlsonianum, from specimens shot 
in Aland, in Norway. 

We cannot agree with the idea that it is the female of 
Anas Marila, as upon comparing the essential parts, par- 
ticularly the beak, they do not warrant that idea. Sparr- 
man's description being a good one, we cannot do better 
than merely to make a translation of it. 

Beak black, rather broad. Head brown, with a white 
ring round the base of the beak. Neck ferruginous. The 



6 



back, between the shoulders and tail, fusco-ferruginous. 
Humerus, sides of the breast and hypochondria, interspersed 
with minute white spots. The upper part of the breast in 
the front undulated with white and fuscous. Abdomen, in 
the front, silky white; behind, dull fuscous white. Ten 
primary quill feathers black. Secondary quill feathers 
white, concealed at the base by black covert plumes; 
hence the speculum of the wings is small and white. Feet 
black. Tail rounded. 

I hope before long to see the proper male, and to ascertain 
if it really belongs to Anas Marila. 




Jan^z aSt>£.Jui^^ai ty M-r Sc^t^trfy, X^iJ''^- 



TAB. LXIII. 
ASTERIAS equestris: 



Spec. Char. Rays 5. Disk covered with tubercles. 
Margin with oval plates, each with three to six 
tubercles on each. Tentacula rather clavate. 

Syn. Gmel. 3164. Linck's Stella Marina, t. 12. 
n. 21. /. 26. n. 42. t. 33. n. 53. 



In February 1806 I had the pleasure of receiving this 
superb Asterias from my kind friend and patron, James 
Brodie, Esq., M. P. and F. L. S., which was found on the 
coast near Brodie House. It is certainly one of the hand- 
somest of the genus, and is now first known as a British 
species. The specimen was about the size of the represen- 
tation, an inch thick in the middle, rising somewhat 
cushion-like. The longest spines are rather blunt, and 
about twice their thickness in length, which is al)out one- 
eighth of an inch. These are dispersed on plates sur- 
rounded by little stud-like prominencies, that when fresh 
have a beautiful pearly lustre : see the left hand loiuerjlgiire. 
The plates on the side are ovate, and have often three or more 
spines on them. There are a few scattered forceps-like 
spines on the upper side, and many on the under side : see 
the left hand bottom figure. The feelers are flattish and 
somewhat clavate. The other figure is the little shield-like 
tubecle, generally on the back of this sort of animals. 

The synonyms of Gmelin, which here refer to Linck's 
figurrs above quoted, are right, and belong to the species 
here figured, but the others to a very different species. 




,^t^tAa. 2800. T't^Z-Zy^^^ ^ 



9 



TAB. LXIV. 

LOCUSTA grisea. 
Gray Locust. 



Class 5. Insecta. Order 2. Orthoptera. 

Gen. Char. Feelers long, last joint subclavate, 
truncate at the end. jintennce very long, se- 
taceous. Oviduct ensiform. Posterior thighs 
formed for leaping. 

Spec. Char. Thorax behind carinate, rounded. 
Body brown. Elytra cinereous, spotted. Ovi- 
duct falcate, pale at the base. 

Syn. Fab. Ent. Syst. Em. ii. 41. 31. 



We have adopted Ollvier's order Orthoptera, because we 
conceive that insects which bite their food are essentially 
distinguished from those that take it by suction. This 
order includes such of the Linnsean Hemipterous Genera 
as are furnished with maxillse ; viz. Blatta, Mantis, and 
Gryllus, leaving in Hemlptera those insects only that take 
their food by means of a rostrum. The learned Scopoli, 
led by this circumstance, had long since united the above 
genera to Coleoptera ; but from that order they are evidently 
distinct, not only on account of the different substance of 
the elytra, but likewise by the mode in which they fold 
their wings; Coleopterous insects folding them transversely, 
while those in question fold them longitudinally. Olivier's 
characters of the two orders Orthoptera and Hemlptera are 
as follows : 



10 



Orthoptera. 
Two wings folded longitudinally under soft and almost 
membranaceous elytra. 

Mouth armed with maxillae (mandibulse) and valvulae 
(maxillae). 

Hemiptera. 

Two wings crossed under soft and semi-membranaceous 
elytra- 
Mouth a sharp rostrum bent under the breast. 

The antennae vary so much in the different families into 
which Linnaeus has divided Grylhis, that it is not easy to 
construct a good generic character which will well include 
them all ; we therefore propose adopting the Fabrician ge- 
nera, yet taking our characters from conspicuous parts. 

We cannot here help expressing our opinion, that the 
name Locusta ouo-ht to have been piven to that genus which 
contains the insect which is called by way of eminence the 
Locust, [Gryllus migratorius,) and Gryllus to that which 
contains the cricket {Achcta domestica) . The names of the 
anticnts ought not to be changed but for very weighty 
reasons. 

Body brown. Antennse longer than the body, pale. 
Mouth pale. Thorax subcarinate behind, and rounded. 
The middle deflected part of its posterior margin whitish. 
Legs cinereous, spotted with brown, greenish underneath. 
Elytra cinereous, spotted with brown. Oviduct of the 
female rather longer than the abdomen, falciform, brown, 
with a pale spot at the base. The apex on the under valve 
is serrulate on the lower side. The abdomen of the male 
is paler, and spotted with black ; the anus has four styles 
or appendages. Its legs are not greenish underneath. 

This rare insect, which has never been figured that we 
know of, is in the cabinet of the Rev. W. Kirby, (who re- 
ceived it from the ingenious author of Animal Biography,) 
and in Mr. Sowerby's cabinet. 

Length of the female, including the oviduct, 1 inch. 

Length of the male 11 lines. 




65 



.yiot^ea.j8f>6. J^M^-V^t*^ ?>- ,^«:' JV"'*S^?^; 



11 



TAB. LXV. 

ACHETA campestris. 
Field Cricket. 



Class 5. Insecta. Order 2. Orthoptera. 

Gen. Char. Feelers long, last joint subclavate, 
rounded at the end. Antennce setaceous. Ovi- 
duct with valves, separate, subcapitate, cleft at 
the end. Posterior thighs very large. 

Spec. Char. Wings shorter than the elytra. Head 
immensely large. Body black. Sides and base 
of the elytra pale. Posterior thighs red under- 
neath. 

Syn. Fab, Ent. Syst. Em. ii. 31. 11. Panz, Faun, 
Germ. Init. n. 88. t. 8. c? ^. 9. ? . 
Gryllus campestris. Linn. Syst. Nat. 695. 13. 
Bingley, Anim. Biogr. 1 ed, iii. 252. Mouffet. 1 34. 
Raii Hist. Ins. 63. &c. 

Length of the body without the oviduct 10 lines. 



1^ OR a very entertaining account of the manners of this in- 
sect we refer our readers to the Rev. G. White's Natural 
History of Selhorne, or to Animal Biography as quoted 
above. We have not many particulars to add to its history 
from our own stores. The specimens from which our 
drawings were made (i,n the collection of the Rev. W. Kir- 



12 



by) when taken were put alive into a boxj during their 
confinement together, the male attacked the female and 
nearly devoured one side of her. This is the reverse of a 
fact recorded from Mr. Dorthes by Dr. Smith in the first 
volume of his Tour, (p. 162,) of an insect of the same or- 
der. Mantis religiosa. In this instance, after union the 
female devoured the male. Male Spiders also, as Entomo- 
logists who have attended to their ways relate, at the same 
period are obliged to make their escape with the utmost 
velocity from the murderous fangs of their female partners ; 
who, if they did not, would destroy them without mercy. 
How Crickets produce the unconnnon loud noise which 
they make, seems not certainly ascertained ; Mouffet sup- 
poses it to be the attrition of their wings, and says that a 
friend of his, James Garret, an apothecary, produced the 
same sound by taking off their wings and rubbing them 
against each other. We suspect it to be by the attrition of 
the abdomen against the thorax, having observed that the 
common Grasshopper, when it chirps, vibrates its abdomen 
with great quickness ; and when the noise ceases, this mo- 
tion ceases with it. Scopoli savs, if this Cricket be intro- 
duced inio a house, it will drive away the House Cricket. 

Mr. Curtis and Mr. Sowerby have frequently seen the 
common green Locust, at Battersea, evidently produce this 
noise by the attrition of the shoulder of one wing against 
that of the other. 

Mr. Sowerby's son has observed a small species of Grass- 
hopper, on the Downs at Yarmouth, to produce a noise by 
the rubbing of the rough spines on the wings of that species 
against the spines of the hinder legs. This he has fre- 
quently performed on many of the smaller species. 

Scarabsei produce a certain noise by the forcing of air 
through the respiratory pores of the abdomen. Different 
insects, and even insects of the same genus, may have dif- 
ferent modes of producing their peculiar sounds. 



66- 




^ 






Jim^J. 2806. :3-^Jly?cAa^ iy J,7.: ^I'tu-eriy, ^^n<Z^n . 



13 



TAB. LXVI. 
LARVA of an HEMEROBIUS? 



Jtebruary 6, 1806. — In an obscure corner of a new and 
beautiful Lichen discovered by my friend Charles Lyell,Esq. 
of Lindhurst, Hants, was found this insect. It was very cu- 
riously clothed with scraps of the Lichen ; whether to disguise 
itself, or to answer some other intention, we do not know. 
It was put under a watch-glass ; and as it was not apparently 
disconcerted, we could notice its motions easily. We first 
observed, that it used the hinder extremity of its abdomen 
like a seventh foot, which seemed to give it great power in 
tugging the moss or other things to pieces ; and, after 
having broken off a piece of a proper size, it would fix this 
seventh foot as it were, very firmly. (And indeed this 
hinder extremity seems formed to hold any thing, such as 
the enamel watch-plate, or the glass, as it were by an ope- 
ration like a sucker, or the proboscis or tentacula of some 
insects.) When thus fixed, having secured the fragment 
in its jaws, it dexterously turns its head and places the 
fragments on its back ; where it not only places it, but 
presses it, and appears much dissatisfied if it docs not seem 
firmly fixed*. There are two protuberating parts on the 
shoulders, covered with long hairs, which it very dexte- 
rously avoids in this action, so that they are left free from 
any load. There are two similar ones on the hinder part, 
which it does not cover. It appears to have a series of 

* We were glad to observe so much of the actions of this animal, and it 
helps to elucidate that of the Cancer plialaiigiiim in Linnsean Transactions; 
and since we have been favoured with one of the same species from Scot- 
land, clothed with Sertularia loriculata. 



14 



hairs along the sides, but their bases are covered so that 
they are not visible. It may be observed by some, that 
this is the imperfect or larva state of some insect ; but it is 
scarcely probable that we shall ever see it in its perfect 
state ; and to those who do not know the difference, it 
may be an useful piece of information to show that certain 
insects in the larva state nearly resemble their more perfect 
or latter state*. 

In the lower part of this plate we represent an Acarus, 
which we call A. amictus. It was found among moss, 
Hypnum molluscum, and was not only clothed with a 
high load of fragments, but had bits of beetles, green and 
gold wings, which gave it a brilliant appearance, as it is 
otherwise in itself a very ordinary-looking insect. It puts us 
in mind of the fable of the jackdaw dressed in peacock's 
feathers. 

Acarus corhicula, Little Basket Mite. — This minute ani- 
mal is formed so like a basket, by the flatness of the back, 
and the hairs placed in order round the edges, (some up- 
right and some looped,) that it is distinct from any other 
we know of before described. It does not however seem to 
be used as a basket, nor have we ever seen it clothe itself. 
We find them not so rare as at first suspected. These are 
also from the same place as the last. 

Dr. M'Culloch (in Linn. Trans, v. Q. t. 31. p. 369.) 
has given an account of Cancer phalanghanf a kind of 
spider-like crab, clothing itself to deceive its prey ; and I 
received a specimen lately of the same species of Crab, 
clothed with Sertularia lorlculata, from Scotland, by favour 
of James Brodie, Esq. The Sertularia was laid in tile-like 
order, — a good confirmation of Dr. M'Culloch's position. 

* Insects, such as Beetles, Butterflies, are known to change from the form 
of caterpillars, maggots, or larvas. The chrysalis or pupa to a perfect Beetle 
is seldom seen ; but those of other insects are very common. This is pro- 
bably the larva of an Hemerobius. 



67 




V, 










^^</Re-i J.8o(S. .^vZ^fiii^ ^ J, 



15 

TAB. LXVII. 
AMPHITRITE rosea. 



Class 6. Vermes. Order 2. Molkisca. 

Spec. Char. Spots on the cirrhi red. Feet golden. 



CEASES and shells of annuals are found in great variety and 
number, without any chance of procuring the animal or 
proper inhabitant ; or at best, perhaps, the animal is of such 
a nature that it cannot be found to expose itself so as to be 
sufficiently understood. It is however desirable, when 
the insect is to be procured, to make a memorandum of it, 
as we shall arrive nearer to perfection by describino- the 
animal with its habitation. 

In tab. 31, I have on the old plan given the name to the 
case; but I now give the name to the animal, and that still 
rather imperfectly ; for which, however, there is some ne- 
cessity, as enough of these animals have not been seen to 
make the proper generic distinctions. We therefore con- 
tent ourselves for the present to place these somewhat dif- 
ferently characterized animals as of the same genus. 

This animal differs from that of tab. 31, in not having 
that bell-like instrument: at least with much watchinp- we 

' o 

could not discover any reason to suppose it had such. The 
rays spread more, are narrower, and beautifully spotted with 
bright crimson, and the brush-like feet are of a shining 
golden appearance; the case is apparently made of slime 
and mud. 



16 



It is not a little amusing to obtain a parcel of oysters be- 
fore they are washed : how many pretty objects we may 
see ! and these have a very beautiful appearance when spread 
out, (which they will if they are put into water with a small 
quantity of salt.) It is pleasant, on seeing these little spe- 
cimens in a dish of water, to feed our imaginations with 
the beauty and grandeur that exist in some parts of the 
sea, where there are myriads of such, some of them the 
most splendid of beings. As Gray observes, 

" Full many a gem of purest ray serene 
The dark unfathom'd caves of Ocean bear ; 

Full many a flower is born to blush unseen. 
And waste its sweetness on the desert air." 

I can conceive the bottom of the ocean in some parts to 
exhibit the most wonderful products of the world. 




^ujr^j lS>o6. J*"AltA^^' M' ^^tif. Oot^er-^. ^c/»..^n>'. 



17* 

TAB. LXVIII. 
LERNEA Sprattae. 



Class 6. Vermes. Order 2. Mollusca. 

Gen. Char. Body oblong, roundish, naked. Ten- 
tacula two or threc^, round. Oviducts two. 

Spec. Char. Head with two barbs. Neck notched. 
Body oblong, red, with two green oviducts. 

Syn. Gmelin, 3144. Muller, tab. 33. 



In November 1799 and 1804, I observed this strange and 
curious animal fixed to small Sprats, (Clupea Spratta of 
Linfi.) Its bodv shaped like an oat, and its two green 
tails, might create an idea of its being a vegetable, but that 
the body is red, and has a fleshy aspect; yet the unor- 
ganized appearance is very strange, and sufficient to induce 
any one desirous of information to examine further. If we 
are careful we may detach it, but not without wounding the 
subject it preys upon ; which if we do, so as to kill it, I 
venture to pronounce it as more merciful than otherwise. 
This, which I can but consider as a grievous parasite, like 
a harpoon inflicts a dreadful wound ; but, more fatal than 
that instrument, not only wounds, but preys upon the in- 
nermost part of the wretched victim, probing and feeding 
very deep into any part it pleases. 

VOL. II. *B 



18' 



I found two as figured in the eye of one Sprat. The neck 
is not only long, so as to penetrate deep, but notched to 
secure it, in addition to the barbs on the sides of the head. 
It does not seem to have any eyes, but has a mouth appa- 
rently formed for sucking, rather large, and under the 
head. 

The peculiar worm added to the plate was found on an 
oyster-shell, and is therefore figured as a curiosity. We 
think of describing it with others that we may hereafter 
meet with. 




Aiiff 2 iS/}6. Ihd'HshS &v Ja / Sanerlry, Linidtm. . 



ir 



TAB. LXIX. 

M E R O P S apiaster. 
Common Bee-eater* 



Gen. Char. Bill curved, quadrangular, compressed, 
carinate, pointed. Nostrils small, at the base of 
the bill. Tongue slender, the tip generally jagged. 
Feet gressorial. — Turton. 

Spec. Char. Back ferruginous. Belly and tail 
blueish green. Two of the tail feathers long. 
Chin pale-yellow. 

Syn. Turton^ v. 1. 284. 



We could not overlook the beauty of the common Bee- 
eater, as it is now entered into the list of British Birds. 

On July 2d, 1794, Dr. Smith, President of the Linnean 
Society, communicated the account of one having been 
shot (for the first time in Great Britain) near Mattishall, 
in the county of Norfolk, by the Rev. G. Smith. The 
identical specimen was exhibited, and I had the pleasure of 
seeing it. A flight of about twenty more were seen in 
June, and the same flight, probably, (much diminished in 
numbers,) was observed passing over the same spot in Oc- 
tober following. Having obtained specimens of both sexes, 

VOL. II. c 



18 

and compared the upper one with that spoken of above, and 
with Dr. Latham's description, we found them to accord 
well together; see Latham, or Montagu's Dictionary, v. 1. 
The females differ a little from the males in not having 
the two long feathers in the tail, and also somewhat in 
colour. 

These birds are said to inhabit the South of France, Italy, 
the islands of the Mediterranean, Sweden, Germany, and 
the southern parts of Russia, particularly about the rivers 
Don and Wolga, in the banks of which they build. They 
are said to be gregarious in their breeding season as well as 
in their migrations. Their nests are excavated about six 
inches deep, and ten of them placed near together, so as 
to appear like a honeycomb. 



70 




Aua.j.i8o6.TuhUs?i^hy J.Sow^^^,Zandan , 



19 



TAB. LXX. 

COLYMBUS hebridicus? 
Small Black-chinned Grebe. 



Gen. Char. Bill toothless, subulate, straight, 
pointed. Throat toothed. Nostrils linear, at 
the base of the bill. Legs fettered. 

Spec. Char. Head smooth. Body blackish. Chin 
black. Throat ferruginous. Belly cinereous, 
mixed with a silvery hue. 

Syn. Black Chin Grebe. — Colymhus Hehridalis, 
Perm. no. 227. 
Colymbus Hebridicus ? Gmel. 594. 



1 HAT a pair of Black-chinued Grebes should be taken with 
nest and eggs at Chelsea, must appear to all a very extra- 
ordinary circumstance, as the bird is understood to have 
been found only on the island of Tirie in Scotland. 

So little has been said of it, that we readily transcribe 
all that is related in Pennant. " Rather larger than the 
Little Grebe or Dobchick ; chin black; fore part of the 
neck ferruginous; hind part mixed with dusky ; belly ci- 
nereous and silver intermixed." Having the birds before 
us, we think it would be unpardonable if we did not add a 
little to this account, by way of ascertaining whether this is 
the same bird as that of the Hebrides. Ours is rather less 

c 2 



20 



than the Dobchick, being only eight inches in length, 
whereas the Dobchick is ten inches. In breadth ours is 
also much less in proportion. The bill is about the length 
of that of the Dobchick, or not quite one inch. Irides 
reddish-hazel. Immediately at the base of the under man- 
dible is a nearly triangular blotch of a yellowish hue. 
The chin under it is black or dark brown. The back is 
dusky brown. The rest is pretty well expressed in the 
figure. The eggs are white, large in proportion to the 
bird, being one inch and a half long, but are figured too 
small. The nest is supported by the herbage immediately 
on the surface of the water, and seems so managed as to 
rise with the tide, though always wet to the very eggs. It 
seems promiscuously made of the rushes, 8cc. about the 
place, and rather rudely, being only rounded, slightly en- 
tangled, and flatted somewhat horizontally, with very little, 
or scarcely any, cavity. 

I am obliged to my friend Mr. Plasted, of whom I have 
spoken before, for the loan of these valuable specimens. 
They were taken in a pond on Chelsea Common about 
June 1805. 



71 





itpjjA'lJ.r^iMijhilbyJa ■: ja„,rfy J^ii.l^,. 



21 

TAB. LXXI. 
FLUSTRA aviciilaris. 



Gen. Char. Animal a polype proceeding from 
porous cells. Stem fixed, foliaceous, membra- 
naceous, consisting of numerous rows of cells 
united together, and woven like a mat. 

Spec. Char. Cells on one side, armed with branched 
spines : branches fasciculate, palmate, dichotomous, 
truncate, smooth on one side, with opaque beaked 
capsules near the edge formed like a parrot's head.. 



1 HAVE been shown this curious Zoophile by my friend 
the Rev. P. Keith, F.L. S., who found it at Seaford bay, 
Sussex, in March 1806, in the most perfect state, forming 
altogether a spherical mass. T consider it as a very extra- 
ordinary production, exhibiting at the same lime two di- 
stinct animal appearances ; one representing an amphitrite, 
the other a living form, like a bird's head, included in the 
same nest or habitation. Mr. Ellis had the gratification of 
seeing these birds' heads move up and down, and the beaks 
open; probably the lower mandible move down and up 
again. Whether his is ihe same species, may admit of a 
doubt, as ours has from two to live appendages at each 
cell ; he regularly represents two. The cells are either 
covered with a convex operculum, or protrude the am- 
phitrite. The head-like animal is attached to the nerves, 
near th3 edges. The habitation is like that of other Flustrae 



22 



in substance, and has a root like a Tubularia, or base be- 
ginning with a stem that divides into branches, widening 
into many rows or series of cells, which are somewhat 
concealed by curving inwards. The outer side is glossy, 
only divided by slight furrows into rows, showing its trans- 
parency with a magnifier. The cells somewhat resemble 
articulations, and are alternate in their position. 

I think this production may lead us to understand some 
petrifactions found in Somersetshire. 

Since writing the above, MissBiddulph of Southampton 
has sent us a piece of this Flustra found at Dover. 



^2 



^^ 



Jtti^ 2.i3^6. Pubb-shA hy Ja:f Stnvirby J^endan. . 



'23 



TAB. LXXII. 
ELATER cbalybcus. 



Class 5 . Insecta. Order i . Coleoptera. 

Spec. Char. jSlneous, with a purple tint. An- 
tennae of the male pectinated. Thorax channelled. 

Syn. Elater cupreus, var. Fab. Ent. Syst. em. ii. 
225. 37 ? Panz. Faun. Germ. init. 77. t. 3. 
E. pectinicornis, var. Payk. Faun. Suec. iii. 9. 
11. ohs. 

Length f 6~ 

Breadth 



r ^^ 

■I of the body > Hnes. 



1 HIS beautiful Elater was taken by the Rev. James Dalton 
of Copgrove in Yorkshire, and by him given to the Rev. 
William Kirby, who has lent it to us to figure. 

The whole body is aeneous, with a fine tint of purple. 
Underneath it is rather hairy. The head and thorax are 
deeply punctated ; the latter elongated, in the disk longitu- 
dinally elevated, with an intermediate channel. The an- 
tennae are black, longer than the thorax, and pectinated. 
The scutellum is rounded. Elytra striated, with obsolete 
punctures in the striae, and punctulated interstices. 



u 

Fabriclus mentions a variety of Elater cupreus with 
simple antennae, and an aeneous body, which may be the fcr- 
male sex of our insect. It is, however, not only distinguish- 
able from that species by the colour of the elytra, but like- 
wise by being broader in proportion to its length. Panzer 
has figured it tolerably well, and appears to have been ac- 
quainted with the other sex, the antennae of which he also 
figures. Paykull says that he has sepn a variety of the male 
of Elater pectinicornis with cupreo-purpurascent elytra, 
which is probably our insect ; but it is certainly distinct 
from Elater pectinicQrnis, being much shorter in proportion 
to its size. 



73 




Auo.zlSrt'^ r,.J h'fhtihvJa '' .7,iw^rhv Ltrtidan . 



25 

TAB. LXXIII. 

GRYLLUS viridulus. 
Green Grasshopper. 



Class 5. Insecta. Order 2. Orthoptera. 

Gen. Char. Feelers short, Antennce short, com- 
presso-filiform, obtuse. No Scutellum. Elytra 
linear. Posterior thighs formed for leaping. 
Oviduct none, or hidden. 

Spec. Char. Thorax cruciate. Body brown, green 
above. Inner margin of the elytra green. Belly 
yellowish. 

Syn. Linn. Syst. Nat. 702. 54. Faun. Suec. 874. 
Fab. Ent. Syst. em, ii. 61. 59. 
Acrydium viridulum. Degeer, iii. 480. 7. 
Length of the body 1 1 lines. 



1 HIS species is not very uncommon on sunny banks in the 
autumn. Our specimen was furnished by the Rev. W, 
Kirby. 

The body is brown. The top of the head green, with a 
longitudinal fulvous line. The back of the trunk, or 
thorax, is green, and tricarinate, or distinguished by three 
elevated lines, the lateral ones curved and white, the in- 
termediate one rectilinear and fulvous. The thorax has also 
on each side behind a black line or spot, through which 
the lateral ridges run. The inner margin of the elytra is 
green, the exterior white with red veins. The thighs in the 
recent insect are green, but they fade to a brown. 



74 






' u:A->t} J^J>Ush'J by Ja ^Sfiira-M 



27 

TAB. LXXIV. 

Fig. 1.— ACRYDIUM subulatum. 
Awl-shaped Acrydium. 

Class 5. Insecta. Order 2. Orthoptera. 
Gen. Char. Feelers short. Antennce short, com- 
presso-filiform. Elytra very minute, lateral. 
Scutellum elongated, covering the wings. Pos- 
terior thighs formed for leaping. Oviduct none, 
or hidden. 
Spec. Char. Scutellum straight, longer than the 
body ; clouded before with black. Body griseous. 
Syn. Degeer, iii. 484. 12. t. 23./. 15. Fab. Ent. 
Syst. em. ii. 26. 3. Geoffr. i. 395. 6. 
Gryllus subulatus. Li)m. Sysi. Nat. 693. 8. Faun. 
Suec. 884. 
Length of the body^ including the scutellum, 6| lines. 



T. HIS genus is more numerous in species than entomo- 
logists at present seem to be aware of. Most of them are 
regarded merely as varieties of the present species, and of 
A. lipunctatum ; but they are distinguished from each other, 
not only by the differences of colour, but likewise of shape. 
The genus might be divided into two families ; one with a 
straight scutellum, the other with an arched one, with the 
carina or keel very much elevated. The present specimen is 
most probably the Gryllus subidatus und Acrydium subulatum 
of Degeer and Fabricius ', although Degeer does not notice 
the black clouds which distinguish the anterior part of the 
thorax. Our figure is taken from a specimen in the cabinet 
of the Rev. W. Kirby. 

The body is cinereous, mottled with a darker colour; 
the scutellum is nearly twice the length of the abdomen, 
acuminated, with its central carina not very much elevated ; 
its anterior part clouded a little with black. The antennae 
are pale, with black tips. 



28 

Fig. 2.—ACRYDIUM undulaturn. 
JVavi/ Acrydium. 



Spec. Char. Scutellum of the length of the body, 
arched, white, with a red keel, and two black, 
undulated, interrupted, longitudinal lines. Body 
griseous. 

Length of the body 4 lines. 



We received this with the preceding. It is principally 
distinguished by the red arched ridge of the scutellum, on 
each side of which there is a longitudinal wavy line, nearly 
in the form of an S, which towards the end is interrupted, 
and then terminates in a short straight line. The dilated 
sides of the scutellum are white. There is also a faint 
white spot on the posterior thighs. 



Fig.3.— ACRYDIUM nigricans. 
Black Acrydium, 



Spec. Char. Scutellum the length of the body, 
arched. The body black. Posterior thighs with 
a whitish spot. 

Length of the body Z\ lines. 



1 HIS was also sent us by the Rev. Mr. Kirby. It is one 
of that order in which the scutellum is arched and very 
much elevated. The body is black. Antennae fulvous, 
black at the end. Scutellum the length of the body. Dorsal 
carina obscurely clouded with white. The margin of the 
scutellum towards the end is pale. Legs pale at the base. 
Posterior thighs with an irregular whitish sdoc. 




7^ 



JUn^ 2.j3o6. JfuiZi^KiO^ 2>. 7''^-' SfHtr\y.:i" 



29 

TAB. LXXV. 
TELLINA similis. 



Class 6. Vermes. Orders. Testacea. 

Spec. Char. Ovate, compressed. Both valves 
diagonally striated five-sixths over the surface. 
Beak not curved. 



"erhaps this very distinct species of shell may now be in 
many cabinets among specimens of that very curious shell 
Tellina Fabula, G we/. 3239, among which I met with this 
when given me by my friend Mr. Charles Stokes, who 
found them all at Brighton. 

It differs at first siQ;ht from Telliva Fabula in bcinof 
less acuminated, and not being curved ; which curve, and a 
slight truncation, seem to have escaped the notice of some 
authors, and would have been of little consequence but for 
this species. This curve turns towards the obtuse or truncated 
end, is bounded by an inner line or ridge terminating at the 
hinge part, near the umbo, and this portion of the shell is 
destitute of these striae. This end in our shell is rounded, 
and has two ridges terminating at the umbo; one reaching 
much further into the shell, and terminating the diagonal 
striae, which are broader in ours at the opposite end of the 
shell. These broad striae are more central in the Tellina 
Fabula. 



30 

One fifth of the margin of our shell shows the diagonal 
strise, nearer approaching those of the common circles re- 
ceding from the hinge. T, Fahula continues the same 
throughout. Both shells are diagonally striated in ours, 
and only one shell in T. Falmla; the other being remark- 
ably smooth and polished, with but few of the common 
concentric striae. Our shell is rather yellower. Both 
require a magnifier to see the striae distinctly, and then 
often show prismatic hues of a pearly nature. 



76 





41 



~^UfS-l.lS00. J^^-^iV^ »y .^,x{ c'ctv-^^'ft ^^r-^<^ 



31 

TAB. LXXVI. 
HIRUDO circulans. 



Gen. Char. Body oblong, truncate at both ends, 
unarmed, cartilaginous, and moves by dilating 
the head and tail, and contracting into an arch. — 
Turton. 

Spec. Char. Oblong, acuminated towards the head, 
convex above, flat beneath, dull red. 



I POUND this curious Leech on the Thames side in 1800^ 
and T believe it is not very rare. It is excellent for showing 
the circulation of the blood, through a curiously disposed 
set of vessels about three quarters of its length, at one pulse. 
The head seems to have two eyes, and the mouth is apparently 
underneath, being a small roundish aperture. The animal 
is about an inch long when stretched out, and only half an 
inch in length when contracted. It is very flexile in its 
motions ; and, like all leeches, it can attach itself by its 
posterior end, but at the head has less of that adhesive 
property, and very seldom uses it. The upper side is 
convex, and obscurely striated across. The under side is flat, 
and appears nearly as in the magnified figure in the middle 
of the plate. 



ALPHABETICAL LNDEX 



TO 



VOL. I. 



A 

Actinia equina 

] rt'fa 

Aminthe U 

Ammophyla hirsuta 

pulvillata 

Amphitrite ventilabrum 

Anas histrionica 

minuta 

— — Nyraca 

Nyroca 

Apis flavicollis 

Aplysia hybrida 

Asterias endeca 

B 

Barlastelle 

Brill 

Brimond 

C 

Cachalot, two-toothed 

CaUidium fulminans 

Canard, Le, Irun 

• et blanc 

a Collier, de Terre neuve 

Cancer Maja 

horridus 

spinas 

Carabus angustatus 

. chrysostomos 

■ • denlatus 

nitens 

Cardium spinosum 

Cerambyx fulminans 

Cidaris papillata major 

Cicindela hybrida 

• emargitiata 

maculala 

VOL, I. 1' 



Tab. 
4 



33/. 1 
33/2 
12 

6 

6 

21 

19 
53 
24 



39 

23 
36 
59 

■17 

32 
58 



Page. 

7 
7 
99 
67 
Q7 
15 
11 
11 
43 
43 

39 
111 

49 



9 

105 

U 



1 

123 
11 
11 
11 

79 
so 

A7 
73 

125 

125 
55 
Q5 

123 
89 
37 

125 

37 



19. 



134 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX, 



Clytus fulminans 

Coluber Dumfrisiensis 

Corallina auriculariaeformis . . . 
Coralline, Maltese luhdar . . . 
CoraUium cretaceum lichenoides 

Courtis, Le, verd 

• d'ltalie 

Cuttle-fish, eight-armed 

D 

Demoiselle doree verte 

Dragon Fly, metallic 

■' — stained 

Drypta emarginata 

Duck, dusky and spotted 

Harlequin 

— — little Iroivn and white . . 

— — olive-tufted 

—— stone 

E 

Echinus cidaris ? var. a 

Eggs, Sea 

Elater cyaneus 

F 
Falcinellus 

G 

Gorgonia, slender 

— — — viminalis? 

H 

Hedgehogs, Sea 

I 

His, Bay 

Ichneumon persuasorius 

K 
King Fish 

L 

Laplysia depilans ? 

Larus alter fidipes nostras .... 

Libellula conspurcata 

' aenea 

Lineus longissimus 

Line-worm 

Long JVbrm, Sea 



Tab. 



3 
56 



44 
26 



40 



52 



46 

47 
8 



Page. 
123 
5 

119 

25 

119 
35 
35 

101 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



135 



M 

Maltese Tulular Coralline 

Melitta nigro-aenea 

Millepora compressa 

Monodon monoceros 

Moth, Gold Spangle 

Yorkshire burnished Brass 

Mytilus maximus planior viridtscens edentulus. . . . 

stagnalis 

N 

Narwhal , 

Nereis lamelligera 

pectinata 

Noctua hracteina 

Numenius suhaqiiilus ") 

viridis J 

o 

Oniscus longicomis 

Opah 

P 

Papilio yEthinps 

Alexis 

Blandina 

Charlotta 

Chryseis 

Ligea 

Ligea 

Medea 

Pearl 

Pen, Slender Sea 

Pennatula mirabilis ? 

Phalaena aerifera 

Bractea 

Catena 

Oleagina 

X. scriptum 

Phalangium Diadema 

Phalarope, red-necked 

— red 

Phalarope, Le, cendre ■) 

rouge J 

Phalaropus cinereus 

hyperboreus 

■ ■ — rujescens 

Physeter bidens 

Pimpla persuasoria 

Pleuronectes rhombus 



Tab. 



38 

41 

9 



16 



30 
51 



15 



11 
13 



25 

29 
28 
14 
37 
55 
20 



10 

1 

50 



Page. 
25 

77 
83 

17 
57 
5[) 
33 
33 



1/ 

6i 

107 

59 



35 



31 

45 



3 
13 

3 
23 

27 

. 13 

13 

3 

105 

51 

51 

59 

57 

29 

75 

117 

41 
19 
19 

19 

^9 

19 

20 

1 

109 

105 



13(> 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



S. 

Sabella tubiformis 

Sand-ivasp, hairy 

Sarcelle, La, de la Baye de Hudsone 

Scai"abaeus foveatus 

• globosus 

pumilus 

spiniger 

Sea- Pen, slender 

Star, nhie-rayed 

Unicorn 

Urchins 

Sepia octopus 

Serpula triquetra 

Shrew-viouse, Fringe-tailed water 

Shrimp, Spine-backed 

Snake, Dumfriesshire 

Sponge, compact tubular 

cancellated 

Spongia cancellata 

compacta 

• pulchella 

Staphylinus concolor 

dilatatus 

Star-fish, nine-rayed 

Stylops Melittae 

T. 

Tantalus Falcinellus 

Tringa, Coot-footed ") 

, Cock J 

. , Red 

fuUcaria 

hyperborea 

V. 

Vespertilio Barbastellus 

Z. 

Zeus, Cauda bifurcata, colore argeiiteo-purpureo . . 

splendens 

Opah 



Tab. 



3o/.2 
34 
5/ 
35/1 



48 
31 



60 
42 
43 
54 



45 



17 



22 



Page, 
108 

Q7 
11 
71 

69 
121 

71 

51 
49 

17 

89 
101 

63 
103 

47 
5 

85 
129 
129 

85 

87 

115 

115 

49 

93 



35 

19 
20 



20 
19 



45 
45 



ERRATA. 

Page 5 Line 4, for Ord. 1. Reptilia, read Ord. 2. Serpentes. 

13 last, for 3, read 2. 

69 2, fur ovatus, read globosus. 

73 2, for rotundicollis, read angustatus. 



rrinledly R. Taylok and Co., '3%, Shoe Lane. 









^'^.^ 



1 




m 



N 



OP 








C-y^ 



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