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Full text of "The British Museum with Bible in hand, being an interesting and intelligent survey of all the exhibits on view at the British Museum which confirm the absolute accuracy of the Holy Scriptures"

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4CS1MILE OF LETTER RECEIVED FROM SiR FREDERIC G. KENYON. K.C.B. LL.D.. etC. 

(Director and Principal Librarian of the British Museum.). 

BRITISH MUSEUM, 

LoNDOU : W.C.J. 



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Author's Preface 

Altliougli this Handbook has received a hearty 
welcome from the British Museum Authorities, 
it has not been compiled for Egj-ptologists or 
Assyriologists, but for Bib]e-loving visitors to the 
Museum ; therefore, I am not troubled because the 
Directors have not removed the " III " after " Tiglath 
Pileser"; or the " lY " after " Shalmaneser "; or 
at their spelling " Khu-en-Aten " thus. iVIy 
sA'mpathies are ^vith Sam Weller, who, so long as 
his friends knew he was Sam AVeller, didn't cure 
whether the)' spelt his name " n'Jih a double U 01 
a Wee." Therefore, I leave those Avho do care, to 
consult such eminent authorities as Sir E. A. Wallis 
Budge, Dr. H. R. Hall, and others. 

Many thanks are tendered to the B. M. 
Authorities, and the Oxford University Press, for 
permission to reproduce their illustrations. 

Especial gratitude is felt to Sir F. G. Kenyon 
for his help and encouragement — better felt than 
expressed : also, to his very able staff from whom I 
have received much valuable afc^sistance. 

FBANK G. JANNAWAY 

London, SAW Q 



Memoranda 



HOW TO GET TO 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

FROM THE 
PRINCIPAL LONEON RAILWAY TERMINI. 




The British Museum can be reached 
follows : — 

CHARING CROSS (S. E. & C.) 

EUSTON (L. & N, W.) 

KING'S CROSS (G. N.) 
LIVERPOOL STREET (G.E.) 
MARYLEBONE (G.C.) 

PADDINGTON (G. W.) 
ST. PANCRAS (Mid.). 
VICTORIA (L. B.&S. C, & S. E. 
WATERLOO (L. & S. W.) 



from the various London Termini as 

Tube to Tottenham Court Road 
Station. 

Tube to Tottenham Court Road 
Station. 

Tube to Holborn Station. 
Tube to British Museum Station. 
Tube to British Museum Station, 
changing at Oxford Circus. 
Ditto. 

Tube to Holborn Station. 
& C) Bus to Tottenham Court Road- 
Tube to Tottenham Court Road 
Station, changing at Charing 
Cross. 







! 




Phcenician 


Phoenician 


Hebrew 






Hieroglyphic. 


Hieratic. 


(Moabite 
stone). 


(Siloam 
Inscription). 


(square 
cliaracter). 


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Hebrew and Phcenecian Alphabets 

as derived from 
The Egyptian Hieratic Characters 

(See also page 38). 



THE 

BRITISH MUSEUM 

WITH 

BIBLE IN HAND 



being 

An interesting and intelligent survey 
of all the exhibits on view at the British 
Museum which confirm the absolute 
accuracy of the Ploly Scriptures. 



bv 



FRANK G. JANNAWAY 

Author of 
'Palestine and the Powers", and other works. 



ILLUSTRATED I 'I S'S ^^ ^ 



See what manner of stones and what buildings are here " 



LONDON- 
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON & CO., LTD. 



Contents 



PAGE 

How TO GET TO THE BRITISH MUSEUM ... 5 

Publishers' Note n 

Roman Gallery 14 

Assyrian Transept 16 

Ephesus Room 18 

Elgin Room 19 

Nineveh Gallery 21 

Nimroud Central Saloon 22 

Assyrian Saloon 29 

Nimroud Gallery 31 

Southern Egyptian Gallery 35 

Egyptian Central Saloon 44 

Northern Egyptian Gallery 47 

First Egyptian Room 51 

Second Egyptian Room 53 

Third Egyptian Room 57 

Fourth Egyptian Room 58 

Fifth Egyptian Room 60 

Sixth Egyptian Room 61 

Fourth Room (North Gallery) 62 

Third Room (North Gallery) 68 

Second Room (North Gallery) 79 

First Room (North Gallery) 79 

North-West Landing 81 

Room of Greek and Roman Life 82 

Room of Gold Ornaments and Gems ... 84 

Manuscript Room 84 

Room of Inscriptions 86 

Comprehensive Index ... 89 



Illustrations 



British Museum and District 
Hebrew and Phcenician Alphabets 

Black Obelisk 

Colossal Human-headed and Winged Bull 

Assyrian God Nebo 

Sennacherib before Lachish 

Siege of Lachish 

Assyrian Sacred Tree 

Assyrian Altar and Sculptured Slab 

Cartouche of Ptolemy 

Cartouche of Cleopatra 

RossETTA Stone 

Egyptian Nile-god, Hapi 

Egyptian Bull-god, Apis 

Tablet of Abydos 

Egyptian Brickmakers 

Siloam Inscription 

Cyrus Cylinder 

Embalmers AT work on A Mummy ... 
Egyptians painting a Mummy 

Mummy of Rameses H 

Mummy case of Rameses H 

Cartouche of Rameses H 

Egyptian brick of Rameses H. 
Clay Cylinder of Sennacherib 
Sculptured seal of Khammu-rabi ... 
Brick of Nebuchadnezzar H 
Cuneiform Text 
Behistun Inscriptions 
Tel-el-Amarna Tablet 
Moabite Stone ... 
Denarius, a Penny 
AssARioN, A Farthing 
Emperor Titus ... 
Emperor Tiberius 
Wycliffe's Bible 



Publishers' Note 



No apology is needed for this work, seeing rt 
supplies an absolute need. Every " Guide " of its 
kind is now out of date. A guide that leads one into 
a gallery and describes what is not there is a nuisance, 
fills the visitor with disgust, and causes him to leave 
the Museum with a bad, but undeserved^ opinion of 
what is the finest Bible collection in the whole world. 

Not only is this " Guide " based upon forty years' 
intimate acquaintance with the Museum, but aiso 
upon more than thirty years' practical experience 
in conducting thousands of Bible students through 
its galleries, and periodically lecturing therein to 
Some of the largest gatherings ever seen in the 
Museum's Lecture Saloon. The writer of these 
pages moreover, has had the advantage of 
personally visiting (in many cases three or four 
times) most of the districts from whence the 
monuments came — Syria, and the Holy Land ; 
Egypt, and Arabia ; Ammon, and Moab, and Edom ; 
Athens, and Rome ; and having, too, inspected 
similar museums in Paris, TJerlin, Vienna, Petrograd, 
Constantinople, Rome (The Vatican), Naples, Cairo, 
and New York^ he can assure the visitor to the British 
Museum^ that no where else is to be seen such a 
magnificent collection of Biblically related monuments, 
or a museum so well arranged and so well maintained. 

Many thanks are tendered to the British Museum 
Authorities, and the Oxford University Press for 
permission to reproduce their illustrations. 



The British Museum 
with Bible in hand 

FRANK G. J ANN AWAY 



BRITISH MUSEUM DRY! Not a bit of it; 
and so you will say before we finish our visit — that 
is, if you are really interested in God's dealings with 
the Earth and Man in the past, present and future, 
and are not merely one of the thoughtless and godless 
multitude, whose chief aim in life seems to be to eat, 
drink and be merry, because to-morrow they die. 

It is nearly forty years ago, since the writer of 
the following pages, was first asked to take a party 
of Bible Students — real Bible lovers to the British 
Museum, and point out and describe some of the 
objects of interest and profit therein to be seen — and 
what a feast of fat things it proved to be. The party 
numbered about fifty, but 'ere we reached the last 
gallery, it numbered nearer a hundred, for " outsiders " 
kept attaching themselves to our party, including a 
" Rev." and his three boys. I can even now, with my 
mind's eye, see him standing in front of one of the 
Assyrian exhibits, which I was about to explain, 
calling to his boys — " Here, my boys, keep up close ; 
here's someone that can tell us all about them ". 

Evidently the gentleman mistook me for one of the 
Museum's professional guides, which of course I was 



14 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

not, and am not. But, although that be so, I can 
promise you that even if I cannot tell you " all about 
them", I will at any rate, if you "keep up close", 
make you feel Hke Oliver Twist, " want more ", and 
appreciate, as you never did before, both the British 
Museum and Bible history. 

So please keep up close ; and do not trouble about 
asking questions until we have got through ; and even 
then, first commit your proposed questions to writing, 
because when that is done usually either the answer 
suggests itself, or the question was not worth 
putting. As umbrellas and sticks are however not 
allowed in the galleries for obvious reasons — people 
get too interested sometimes, and in their excitement, 
unwittingly take to poking the objects, and in their 
familiarity with the Royalties of B.C. times do much 
damage ; so please hand your sticks, &c., to the officer 
at the counter, and take, in exchange, a metal and 
numbered ticket, so that you may have your property 
returned to you when you leave the Museum. 

This way please — the first door on the left of the 
main entrance — here we are in 

The Roman Gallery 

Let us walk to the other end, so that we may be 
the better able to look face to face some of the 
Caesars of Rome in their chronological order.* 

* Unfortunately we shall not be able to view all the galleries 
and exhibits in chronological order; to do so would not only mean 
visiting this gallery last, but would necessitate our visiting and 
revisiting some of the galleries several times. Consideration for 
time, progress and comfort has necessitated the plan adopted, 
leaving it to the visitors to note chronology where necessary. 
— F .G. J. 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 15 

Julius C^SAR (b.C. ? - 44).! Although he is first 
and represented by " a very characteristic portrait ", he 
has very Httle interest for a Bible student, so we will 
not dwell upon him, but pass on to some of his 
successors whom we can stay to look at and 
contemplate ; for instance : 

Augustus C^sar (b.c. 29 — a.d. 14). It was in 
the reign of this king that there went out a decree 
that "all the world should be taxed" (Luke ii. i). 

Tiberius C^sar (a.d. 14—37). In the fifteenth 
year of his reig^, Pontius Pilate was Governor of 
Judea, and Herod was Tetrarch of Gahlee (Luke iii. i). 
And it was the image and superscription of Tiberius 
that was on the penny which the messengers of the 
Pharisees produced to Christ (Matt. xxii. 19), Also 
it was Tiberius that the Jews referred to when they 
cried out " we have no king but Caesar " (John xix. 15). 

Claudius Caesar (a.d. 41 — 54). In his reign 
there came to pass the great dearth predicted by the 
New Testament prophet Agabus (Acts xi. 28). This 
king also commanded all the Jews to depart from 
Rome, among whom were Aquila and Priscilla^ whom 
Paul met with on his visit to Corinth (Acts xviii. 2). 

Nero (a.d. 54 — 68). This is the Caesar who it 
is alleged "fiddled while Rome was burning". Be 
that so or not, he was a brute of unrefined cruelty, 
and the most hated and infamous of the Cassars. 
Possibly his true character did not reveal itself all 
at once, or Paul would scarcely have appealed to him 
as is recorded in Acts xxv. 11. Paul himself refers 
to this Appeal in 2 Tim. iv. 16, 17. Doubtless, many 

tin almost all cases we have given the generally accepted dates, 
without in any way committing ourselves to them — F. G. J. 



16 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

of the believers named by Paul in Romans xyi, were 
servants of Nero's household. 

Vespasian (a.D. 69—79). He it was who carried 
out the work concerning the overrunning of the Holy 
Land, and scattering of the Jews, predicted by Christ, 
and recorded in Matt. xxii. /, and Luke xxi. 24, which 
work of invasion and desolation had been foretold by 
God through Moses in Deut. xxviii. 49. 

Titus (A.D. 79 — 81). This man, the son of 
Vespasian, completed the work begun by his father. 
He was general in his father's army in A.D. 70. 

Hadrian (a.D. 117 — 138). It was during the reign 
of tliis monarch that the exasperated Jews (under 
Barcochba), broke out in open rebellion, and 
endeavoured to throw off the Roman yoke, resulting 
in a slaughter and devastation only second to the 
terrible work of Vespasian and Titus. 

Let us now retrace our steps, and passing through 
the doorway by the bust of Julius Caesar turn 
immediately to the right into 

The Assyrian Transept 

Here we have some valuable specimens of the 
wonderful finds m Babylonia by Sir Henry Layard 
and Sir Henry Rawlinson in the year 1849 and 
onwards. 

Two HUMAN-HEADED BULLS, with wings of birds. 
These flanked an Assyrian palace in the district of 
Nineveh. Between the legs will be seen much 
writing — inscription in the cuneiform lettering, full 
of information confirming what the Bible tells us, in 
2 Kings xviii, as to Hezekiah, King of Judah, 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 17 

submitting to the Assyrian yoke, and paying the 
tribute demanded by the successful invaders. 
On the far end wall of this Transept is a 
Large sculptured Slab, on which is represented, 
Sargon, King of Assyria, conferring with his 
commander-in-chief. This Sargon is the king spoken 
of in Isaiah xx. i, and who completed the work of 
his predecessor, Shalmaneser IV., in invading 
Samaria and taking the Ten Tribes of Israel into 
captivity, as recorded in 2 Kings xvii. i, etc. Upon 
a critical reading of the divine account in 2 Kings 
xviii. 9, you will notice it sa^^s " Shalmaneser " came 
up, but in the details following, it reads, " they " — the 
Assyrians, and "the King of Assyria", not 
Shalmaneser the King. Sargon, which by interpretation 
means " son of no one ", was doubtless a successful 
interloper, not of royal blood. His existence was long 
doubted by the so-called " Higher Critics ", whose 
right to be so regarded has been impeached by so 
eminent an authority as Professor Sayce. As usual, 
the inspired history, as found in Isaiah xx. i, has 
come out " on top ". 

On the other side of the Transept are 
Two COLOSSAL Lions, with men's heads, and 
birds' wings. These lions flanked the entrance to 
another palace near Nineveh, excavated by Sir Henry 
Layard, in 1847. They remind us of the dream 
experienced by Daniel, in which he beheld " a lion 
with eagles' wings " (Daniel vii.). 

In another comer of the Transept we see 
An Assyrian Altar, standing in front of a large 
stele or slab, just as discovered at the entrance to 
an Assyrian Temple ; a fair sample no doubt of what 



18 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

was transplanted to Samaria when, as we read in 
2 Kings xvii. 29, they " made gods of their own, and 
put them in the houses of the high places which the 
Samaritans had made, every nation in their cities 
wherein they dwelt". 

Passing between the Assyrian Lions through the 
doorway, and crossing the room and ante-room in 
which is much Archaic Greek sculpture of no particular 
interest to Bible students, we enter 

The Ephesus Room 

Here we feel very much " at home," not because of 
any affinity with the idolatrous Ephesians, or 
admiration for their goddess Diana, but because of 
the exciting adventures of the Apostle Paul in that 
wonderful city Ephesus as narrated in Acts xix. The 
exhibits also remind us that the church, or ecclesia, 
was situated there to which Paul wrote the Epistle, 
known as The Ephesians. Later too, the Lord 
addressed one of his " letters " to the church at 
Ephesus (Rev. ii. i). 

In this Room we behold some of the remains of 
the great 

Temple of Diana. Look at those immense 
pillars, and the huge bases on which they once stood. 
Look too, at the beautiful column, with its Ionic 
capital. They all go to show what a magnificent 
Temple the Ephesians had. Little wonder at the 
consternation and indignation of the shrine-makers, 
when they heard what Paul had to say about such 
worship. 

Did time and opportunity permit, we could well 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 19 

afford to sit down on one of the seats in this Room, 
and quietly read, and meditate upon. Acts xix., the 
Epistle to the Ephesians, and Revelation ii. i — 7 ; but^ 
we must pass on to what is termed 

The Elgin Room 

The writer is not alone in thinking it is about time 
the British Museum authorities changed the name of 
this storehouse of these world-renowned specimens of 
architecture. It would be just as seemly to speak of 
St. Paul's Cathedral as " Wren's Church", for the only 
connection of Lord Elgin with these precious 
fragments was, that, with the permission of the 
Ottoman Porte, and in the course of his diplomatic 
mission to Greece in 1802, he collected these marbles, 
and subsequently sold them to the British Government 
for ;6^3 5,000, by whose order they were placed here, 
in the British Museum, in 1816. 

The Parthenon. Thii was the Temple at Athens 
dedicated to Athene or, Minerva, the goddess of, 
among other things, war. It was erected about B.C. 442, 
and in it was placed a statue of the goddess about 
14 feet high. The Turks, two or tliree centuries ago, 
used it as a powder magazine, and the roof was blown 
off by the Venetians in 1687. The magnificence of 
the Temple can be better appreciated by a careful 
examination of the marvellous frieze, of which about 
four-fifths are to be seen on the walls of this room. 
The sculptured work represents a procession in the 
Festival, which v.'as celebrated every two years in 
Athens, the principal feature of which was the offering 
of a new robe to the goddess. 



20 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

In looking at these marbles, we are looking at the 
very objects which the Apostle Paul gazed at, when 
" his spirit was stirred in him " as he beheld " the city 
wholly given to idolatry " (Acts xvii. 16). 

Let us now turn our attention for a few minutes, 
to the very fine model of the hill on which the 
Parthenon stood : 

The Acropolis, on our right, at the end of the 
room. It is well worthy of our attention being so 
realistic, as the writer can testify from his personal 
visit to Athens ; in fact, it was the study of this plan 
that aroused his desire to visit the Grecian capital, 
and walk round about the Acropwlis, and see the city 
in which were dedicated altars to " the unknown god "'. 
In one comer of the plan is to be seen Mars Hill, or 
the Aj-eopagus, on which Paul preached to the 
Athenians, who were ever ready to hear about " some 
new thing" (Acts xvii. 21). With wonderful tact 
Paul referred to their religious proclivities, and 
proclaimed the self-evident truth that, the Godhead 
is not " like unto gold, or silver, or stone, graven by 
art and man's device " (Acts xvii. 29). 

Now let us 'cross to the opposite comer of the room, 
and look at the excellent MODEL OF THE PARTHENON 
from whence these exhibits came. In the centre of 
the model you will see marked on the floor where 
the statue of Diana stood. A miniature statue of the 
goddess is to be seen on the floor of the room, close 
by the door to the new room on the right, and which 
gives one a good idea of what this ivory and gilt 
statue, 14 feet high, looked hke. 

Leaving the Elgin Room at the northern end we 
pass through the Phigaleian Room, turn sharp to the 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 21 

ri^ht, cross gallery of the Mausoleum Room to the 
Northern Egyptian Vestibule turn into the Northern 
Egyptian Gallery, and enter the first doorway on our 
right into 

The Nineveh Gallery 

The bas-reliefs (or sculptured wall slabs) in this 
gallery are from ancient palaces of Nineveh — palaces 
of Sennacherib and other Assyrian monarchs. You 
will notice that almost all of them have been burnt, 
or fractured, by fire and heat ; no doubt when Nineveh 
was destroyed, according to the prophecies of Nahum, 
whose book opens with, " The burden of Nineveh ", 
and among the many predictions we find the 
following — " The gates of the rivers shall be opened, 
and the palace shall be dissolved" — marg. molten 
(Nahum ii. 6) ; " The fire shall de\'our thy bars *" 
(Nahum iii. 13) ; "There shall the fire devour thee" 
(Nahum iii. 15;. 

On the west side of the GaUery, in the bas-reliefs, 
Sennacherib is represented seated on his throne, 
evidently watching building operations and in 
particular the erection of one of the large bulls. Note 
the inclined planes of earth, the labourers raising the 
latter, the ropes, pulleys, levers, wheels or rollers, and 
especially the taskmasters, with their whips with which 
they urge on the slaves at the work. No doubt in 
these sculptures we have here represented the " stones 
of roUing" (Ezra v. 8, marg.) used in the building 
of the House of God. 

On the opposite side of the gallfery, one of the 
bas-reliefs represents the assault of a city called in 



22 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

the inscription {Urus)* — alammu, which it is concluded 
stands for Jerusalem. In the slab, No. 27, Jewish 
features are clearly discernible. In slabs 27 and 28 
note the heads of the slain, illustrating 2 Kings x. 6 — 8, 
where we read that Jehu commanded that the heads 
of Ahab's sons were to be laid in heaps at the entering 
in of the gate. The damage done by the fire of the 
Babylonians and Medes, B.C. 609 is very manifest in 
these slabs, they are blacker than any of the others. 

By the side of the doorway at the south end of the 
gallery, is a cast of a bas-rehef of Esar-haddon, the 
son of Sennacherib ; the original from which the cast 
was taken being one of several which the writer 
surveyed in 1902 on the occasion of his visit to 
north Syria. 

Passing through the aforesaid doorway wc find 
ourselves in the 

Nimroud Central Saloon 

Of course the first exhibit that attracts our attention 
in this saloon is the monument known as 

The Black Obelisk. This is recognised as one 
of the most important witnesses to the truth of Bible 
histor>\ On each of its four sides are five rows of 
sculpture depicting scenes in the various expeditions 
engaged in by Shalmaneser II. during his thirty-five 
years reign (B.C. 860 — 825). On the second row from 
the top, on the side facing us, we see " Jehu the son 
of Omri " paying tribute. In the cuneiform inscription 
thereon we have "the tribute of Yana" (Jehu) 
expressly detailed. Hazael, another Bible character 

* Tha bttginning of the came is lost. 



(Page 23 









r-i^':-^3,„_^ 








The Black Obelisk. 
{Sec page 22). 



Page 24) 




Colossal Human-Headed and Winged Bull 
(See pa^c 16). 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 25 

is also mentioned. In connection with the pictorial, and 
written evidence, contained on this monument it will 
be found both interesting and profitable, at one's 
leisure, to turn up and read the following Scripture : 
I Kings xvi. 23; xix. 15 — 17; 2 Kings viii. 7 — 15; 
ix. •:— 6; x. 31, 32; xiii. 3, 22, 23. 

To the right of this obelisk will be noticed what is 
not unlike a headstone of a grave, with a rounded top. 
It is described in the Museum Catalogue as 

Tfe Stele of Shalmaneser II. (b.c. 860 — 825). 
On it^ in cuneiform writing, are recorded Shalmaneser's 
conquests. The names of both Ahab, Kmg of Israel, 
and Benhadad, King of Syria, are included, details by 
no means unimportant in view of the facts recorded 
in I Kings xx. 34 which reads " And Benhadad said 
unto him (Ahab), The cities which my father took 
from thy father, I will restore ; and thou shalt make 
streets for thee in Damascus, as my father made in 
Samaria. Then said Ahab, I will send thee away with 
this covenant. So he made a covenant with him and 
sent him away." Also in i Kings xxii. i we have the 
matter referred to thus, "And they continued three 
years without war between Syria and Israel ". So 
that, in both the divine history and the monumental 
record on the slab, we have the war and covenant 
between Syria and Israel testified to. 

But what is still more interesting, and equally 
important in connection with this slab, is the fact that 
it affords overwhelming evidence that Assyrian 
scholars are able, without the slightest doubt, to 
correctly decipher these cuneiform writings or 
inscriptions. When this slab was excavated at Kurkh, 
on the bank of the Tigris, and brought to the Museum, 



26 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Sir Henry Rawlinson read from the inscription that 
Shalmaneser II. had set it up by the side of a similar 
monument which had been erected by his father and 
predecessor, Asliur-nasir-pal. Orders were at once 
issued to the excavators to proceed with the work and 
make thorough search for the missing stele, with the 
result that the monument erected by Ashur-nasir-pal 
was discovered and conveyed to London, and is now 
on view as you see in the gallery, adjoining the stele 
of Shalmaneser. How the cuneiform inscriptions came 
to be deciphered I will explain upstairs later on. 

By now turning right-about-face we are confronted 
with two statues of" 

The god Nebo. Note how upright he is. In view 
of the fact the cuneiform inscriptions depict him as 
"the lofty inteUigence and the lord of tablets", and 
that in the monuments he is always erect as you now 
see, it is very interesting to read in the divine 
prophecies, that the day was to come when " Nebo 
stoopeth" (Isaiah xlvi. i). How expressive! In the 
inscriptions on these statues, Nebo is associated with 
Bel, another Assyrian god, and so, too, we find they 
are associated in the Bible, " Bel boweth down, Nebo 
stoopeth" (Isaiah xlvi. i). The names of these two 
gods occur in many Babylonian and Assyrian 
names, for instance Nebuchadnezzar, Nebuzaradan, 
Nabopolasser, Belshazzar, Belteshazzar, Bel-Merodach, 
etc. 

The first Assyrian king mentioned in the Bible 
(2 Kings XV. 28*, 29 ; xvi. 7 — 18) is Tiglath Pileser III. 
(B.C. 745 — 727), and he is very much in evidence on 

* Pul. — "He overthrew the old dynasty and usurped the throne 
under the name of Tiglath-Pileser." — Prof. Sayce. 



(Page 27 





The Assvkian god Nebo. 
(See page 26). 



Page 28) 




Sennacherib before Lachish. 
{Sec page JO J. 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 29 

the Assyrian monuments in this saloon, especially in 
these 

Wall Sculptures on the east and west walls. 
Note the armour, the shields, particularly battering 
ram and lorry. Here we see what is considered by 
many to be the origin of the Tanks, which played 
such an important part in the latter part of the great 
European War — read also i Sam. xvii. 41 ; Deut. 
XX. 20 ; Jer. vi. 6 ; Ezek. iv. 2 ; xxi. 22, 27. 

Also note in the sculptures, the prisoners impaled 
on stakes before the enemy's wall, and then read 
Josh. X. 26 ; Deut. xxi. 22 ; Josh. viii. 29. 

Wending our way between the colossal lion 
and bull we enter the Niraroud Gallery, and turning 
immediately to the right, we pass through the 
glass-panelled door and find ourselves in the 



Assyrian Saloon 



Turning immediately to the left, let us make a tour 
of the gallery and note 

The Wall Sculptures. These all depict scenes 
in the hves of Tiglath Pileser III. (B.C. 7AS—7V) \ 
Sennacherib (B.C. 705 — 681); and Ashur-bani-pal 
(B.C. 668 — 626). These bas-rehefs came either from 
one or the other of the palaces in the vicinity 
of Nineveh. The lion-hunting illustrated on the 
slabs is not only interesting as hunting scenes, but 
additionally so because of what we read in the Bible 
about Daniel's experience in one of the royal dens at 
Babylon, for the details of which read Daniel vi. 7, 16, 
17, IQ, 22, 24 and 27). How vividly too, the^e 
sculptures illustrate Ezekiel xxiii, 12 — 15 which tells 



30 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

us how God's chosen people " Doted upon the 
Assyrians her neighbours^ captains and rulers clothed 
most gorgeously, horsemen riding upon horses, all of 

them desirable young men pourtrayed upwa 

the wall, the images of the Chaldeans ", etc. 

Upon reaching the fourth side of the gallery, we 
see oh the north wall, facing us, the celebrated 
bas-relief depicting 

The Assault and Capture of Lachish, by 
Sennacherib, B.C. 701. 

We observe the King Sennacherib seated on his 
throne, close by which are seen vines and hg-trees. 
Officers are reporting to the king details of the Siege 
of Lachish, and behind him are seen representatives 
of the defeated peoples, standing and kneeling. A 
little in front of the king is an inscription^ in cuneiform 
letters, which reads " Sennacherib, king of hosts, 
king of Assyria, sat upon his throne of state, and the 
spoil of the city of Lachish passed before him ". 
What a remarkable confirmation and illustration of 
the Bible accounts which read " After this did 
Sennacherib, king of Assyria, send his servants to 
Jerusalem (but he himself laid siege against Lachish 
and all his power with him) unto Hezekiah, king of 
Judah, and unto all Judah, saying, etc." (2 Chron. xxxii. 
9) ; " And Hezekiah, king of Judah sent to the king 
of Assyria to Lachish, saying, I have offended, 
return from me : that which thou puttest on me will I 
bear. And the king of Assyria appointed unto 
Hezekiah, king of Judah, three hundred talents of 
silver and thirty talents of gold " (2 Kings xviii. 14). 

Let us turn to the right and go downstairs, where, 
among the many interesting exhibitSj we would 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 31 

especially direct attention to the little bas-reliet on 
the left hand wall depicting 

A Banquet Scene (No. 121). In this we behold 
the Assyrian monarch reclining on a couch, under a 
vine, and from one of the adjoining trees we see 
hanging the head of the King of Elam, who it appears, 
had been slain in battle. This sculpture illustrates 
many texts in the Bible ; to wit, the reclining, which 
custom, the Jews took on during their captivity in 
Babylon ; see Luke xxii. 27 (R.v. marg.) ; John xiii. 
23 ; xxi. 20 (r.v.) ; Esther i. 6 ; Mark vii. 4 (marg.) 
As to dwelling under one's own vine, read i Kings iv. 
25, and compare with the many prophecies of a good 
time coming for the whole world, Micah iv. 4 ; 
Zech. iii. 10. And as to the custom of hanging up 
the heads of slain prisoners, we read in i Chron. x. 10 
that the Phihstines hung Saul's head in the temple 
of Dagon. 

To the left of the slab we have just been examining 
we note a large wall 

Inscription of Sargon. This exhibits the largest 
cuneiform writing in the British Museum, possibly 
the largest extant in the world. On it are found 
mentioned both Judah and Hamath, and as 
illustrating what we are told in the Inscription, we 
may profitably read 2 Kings xvii. and Isaiah x. 

Ascending the staircase we pass out of the 
Assyrian Saloon into 

The Nimroud Gallery 

On our right, we have on the walls a scries of 
sculptures arranged just as they stood originally in the 



32 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Assyrian Palace of Ashur-nasir-pal (B.C. 885 — 860). 

In slab numbered No. 2, we behold 

The ^jacred Tree of the Assyrians. It is 
thought by many that this is the god "Asherah", 
translated " grove " in i Kings xvi. 33, and many 
other places in Holy Writ. These groves were 
formerly understood to be places after the character 
of the Druidic worshipping grounds, but such texts 
as 2 Kings xxiii. 6, 7 justify us in concluding that 
" asherah " was an idol in the form of a tree. The text 
just named, says Josiah " brought out the grove 
(asherah) from the house of the Lord, without 
Jerusalem, unto the Brook Kidron, and burned it at 
the Brook Kidron, and cast the powder thereof upon 
the graves of the children of the people ". It is 
noteworthy that in the R.V. the revisers have 
inserted " Asherah " in lieu of the " grove " of the A.V. 

The Hebrew word rendered " grove " in Genesis 
xxi. 33 is a different word {eshd — a tamarisk) and is 
only found there. 

Compare also Deut. xvi. 21 ; Judges vi. 25 — 30. 

On the opposite side of the Gallery, in No. 35, we 
have a sculpture of 

The goddess Istar. In i Kings xi. ^^ it is termed 
" Ashtoreth, the goddess of the Zidonians " ; and is 
claimed as the wife of Tammuz (see Ezek. viii. 14). 

In No. 33 on the same wall we see 

The god NisroCH. It was in the Temple of this 
eagle-headed deity that Sennacherib was murdered 
by his two sons as recorded in 2 Kings xix. 37, which 
reads, " And it came to pass, as he (Sennacherib) was 
worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god, that 
Adrammelech and Sharezer his sons smote him with 



{Page 33 




The Siege of Lachish. 
{See page 30). 




The Assyrian Sacred Tree. 
{See page 32). 



Page 34) 




Assyrian Altar 
AND Sculptured Slab. 

(See page 17). 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 35 

the sword ; and they escaped into the hnd of Armenia. 
And Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead". (This 
is the Esarhaddon whose sculpture and inscription we 
looked at in the Nineveh Gallery — see page 22). 
The murder of Sennacherib in the house of Nisroch 
is ^Iso recorded in Isaiah xxxvii. 38. 

In exhibit No. 30 on the same wall we see 
The god DaGON. This fish-headed deity was 
worshipped by the Philistines, and even a cursory 
glance at the sculpture enables us the better to 
appreciate what we read in i Sam. v. 4, " And when 
they arose early on the morrow morning, behold 
Dagon was fallen upon his face to the ground before 
the ark of the Lord ; and the head of Dagon and 
both the palms of his hands were cut off upon the 
threshold ; only the stump (fishy part — marg.) of 
Dagon was left to him." That happened in the Temple 
dedicated to the worship of Dagon at Ashdod. There 
was also a Temple of Dagon at Gaza, and it was in 
that Temple that Samson did so much damage, as the 
result of the Philistines making sport of him — see 
Judges xvi. 21 — 30. 

Now let us leave the Nimroud Gallery, and by 
turning to the left and creasing the Assyrian Transept 
wc find ourselves in the 

Southern Egyptian Gallery 

On entering the Southern Egyptian Galler}-, facing 
us in the centre is the world famous 

ROSETTA Stone. Tliis is the key which enabled 
Egyptologists to unlock the hitherto undeciphered 



36 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

hieroglyphic inscriptions which abound on the 
monuments we are about to examine. For centuries 
and centuries they had been enigmas. Even so late 
as the i8th century, the hieroglyphics had been looked 
upon as mere pictures, although some learned men 
had come to the conclusion that the signs within the 
cartouches, or oval frames, on the monuments 
contained the name of a monarch, or some other royal 
personage. That was the first step in the decipherment 
of Egyptian inscriptions, and when this Rosetta Stone 
was discovered it v/as not long before Egyptologists 
Were able to read the monuments as easily as you 
and I can read the Bible. 

It was in the year 1798, that a French officer in 
the course of excavations oil the bank of tlie Nile, 
at a place called Rosetta, came across this stone, and 
it was seen, as you can see, that it contained three 
sets of writing, which proved to be — on the top 
Egyptian hieroglyphic, or writing of the priests ; in 
the middle Demotic, or writing of the people ; and 
on the lower part Greek. The value of the stone was 
at once seen, and it was handed over to the National 
Institute at Cairo. On the defeat of the French by 
the British, the stone came into British possession, and 
was deposited in the Museum in 1802. Copies were 
sent to all the learned Societies, and from the 
translations of the Greek portion, which language was 
Well understood, it was seen to be a Decree of the 
Egyptian Priests drawn up in the year B.C. 195 in 
honour of the Pharaoh, Ptolemy Epiphanes, for the 
great things he had done for his kingdom. Among 
the great tinngs he was credited with according to 
this stone were the following : 



WITH BIBLE IN Hx\ND. 37 

Brought peace to Egypt 
Removed heavy taxation. 
Extinguished debts. 
Liberated prisoners. 
Increased the Army. 
Strengthened the Naxy. 

Exempted the priestsfrom taxation, and, above 

all^ provided Uie latter with free hohdays. 

No wonder the pnests smothered him with honours. 

Here are a few of the titles and descriptions they 

gave him, and which are also recorded on thia 

memorial stone : 

Superior to his adversaries. 
Like the resplendent sun. 
Bom of the gods. 
Always living. 
Beloved of Ptah. 
The god Epiphanes. 
The last lines on the Inscription read : 

" That this Decree be engraved on a tablet of 
hard-stone in hieroglyphics, enchorial (or demotic), 
and Greek characters and place it in every Temple 
of the first, second, and third class, near the image 
of the everhving king". 

From the foregoing it was evident that the Decree 
contained in the Greek language, was but a repetition 
of what was contained in the hierogl>T>hics of the 
upper part of the inscription ; and so it proved to be. 
" The method by which the greater part of the 
Egyptian alphabet was recovered is this : It was 
assumed correctly that the cartouche always contamed 
a royal name. The only cartouche on the Rosetta 
stone was assumed to contain the name of Ptolemy. 



38 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

An obelisk brought from Phils about that time, 
contained a hieroglyphic inscription and a translation 
of it in Greek, which mentioned two names, Ptolemy 
and Cleopatra, and one of the cartouches was filled with 
hieroglyphic characters, which were identical with 
those in the cartouche on the Rosetta stone. Thus 
there was good reason to believe that the cartouche on 
the Rosetta stone contained the name of Ptolemy, 
written in hieroglyphic characters. Here is the 
cartouche which was assumed to represent the name 
PtolEMAIOS, or Ptolemy, the hieroglyphics being 
numbered 



^^ .AA vH"^ 



(:°'fl::^'^^p 



and here is the cartouche which was assumed to 
represent the name Cleopatra 



A \\ r ) ^ .i\ "^ <z:=^ ri.K ^°ci > 



i)^il'°'4 



^^ Sol ^^ 8. <r=^ J^'ii.C 



If the assumption be correct, we ought to fmd the 
necessary letters, or signs, in their proper places. Do 
we ? Let us see. Here are the signs which are said 
to spell Cleopatra 

\ 2 34 56 789 

C L EOPATRA 

Now when we look at the Ptolemy cartouche in the 



(Page 39 



lr*l^^^S.n!i'S^;^.£2SE.■!i;^>?l5(l«?5B!f>» 

_jT5s;gr:ttl2£)siyKn(*«ws®*wtT=?f5.=r«iii=ffi*iwi 
fe:M*3rytist;'i:;5Hrvj-i<'vi-<-rs-:£B£i-:a;s;iiii:?i>a:> 

^..i.Ti^B;t^i2£f"KttBrroU'^uUsT^l^■<!,■5i^.s:Tv<^:s•.#.ii;!^(Sl^;VI 
'>?T.=;i((i;*Ktvs3:i/>5^5'>-'E!,::::;<sMifiJi!ir5J^si#i'6»r«,iu<SfnB'.v 




HIKKOGLYPHICS. 



(See page 35). 



Page 40) 




The Egyptian Nile-god, Hapi. 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 41 

Rosetta stone, we find the sign for P is D which is 
the 5th sign in the Cleopatra Phite cartouche, and 
which should be so, seeing P is the 5th letter in 
Cleopatra. In the Cleopatra cartouche the 2nd letter 
L is represented by a lion J^ ; and, as in Ptolemy 
the 4th letter is an L, we ought to find a lion, which 
we do ; and so on. 

Egyptologists have spent years in studying these 
hieroglyphic inscriptions, and, without tlie slightest 
doubt, they have correctly mastered the subject, with 
results that enable us to rightly appreciate what we 
are now going to examine. 

Here on our right hand, near the wall^ in Bay 28, 
we have a 

Cast of a Decree of Canopus which hke the 
Rosetta stone is inscribed in hieroglyphics, Greek, and 
Demotic. It is a Decree of all the Priests of Egypt in 
honour of the family of Ptolemy III., B.C. 238. 

Near by where we are standing you will notice 
three statues (No. 1478). The centre one affords a 
good example of the Egyptian conception of a 
Triune God. Observe the two faces growing out 
of the sides of the figure's head. 

In Bay 29 on our left we have, 

Bas-Reliefs of Ptolemy II., Philadelphus. It 
was in the reign of this king, and by his command 
that the Hebrew Holy Scriptures were translated into 
the Greek language. It was, and is known, as the 
Septuagint Version, because the translation was 
supposed to have been the work of seventy linguists. 

In between Bays 21 and 23, on our left we have a 

Statue of Pharaoh Hophra, seated (Uah-ab-ra, 
who had filled the office of Commander-in-chief, etc.). 



42 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

This was the Pharaoh who assisted Jehoiakim and 
Zedekiah in their conflict with Babylon, and of whom 
God said, "Behold I will give Pharaoh-hophra into 
the hands of his enemies, and into the hands of them 
that seek his life " (Jer. xliv. 30).* 

On our right, in Bay 22, there is a 

Statue of Hapi. This was the god of the Nile, 
which god was one of the principal idols of Egypt. 
You will remember that the first of the ten plagues 
was directed against the river Nile, by turning its 
waters into blood. No doubt this deliberate blow, 
against the worship of the sacred river of the 
Egyptians, was full of meaning on the part of the 
God of Israel. The divine record reads, "All the 
waters that were in the river were turned into blood. 
And the fish that was in the river died ; and the river 
stank, and the Egyptians could not drink of the water 
of the river" (Exod. vii. 20, 21). 

On our right, beween Bays 19 and 20, we have 
two statues of 

The Goddess Sekhet. The inscriptions hereon, 
bear the name of Shashanq, the Shishak of I Kings 
xiv. 25, who we are there told "came up against 
Jerusalem " in the fifth year of king Rehoboam. And, 
further, m 2 Chroa xii. 5, 7 and 9, we read of the 
princes of Judah being gatliered together because of 
Shishak, and that on account of their repentance God's 
wrath would not be poured upon them by the hands 
of Shisliak, although, he would be permitted to come 
up against Jerusalem and take av/ay various treasures, 

* Sir F. G. Konyon, Director of the British Museum, writes me 
that in view of a doubt as to whether Uah-ab-ra the King, and 
Uah-ab-ra the Commander, are identical, the ofiicial lantern slides 
should have been marked as uncertain- — F. G. J, 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 43 

both from the Temple and the king's house. (On the 
author's visit to Thebes in 1914, he saw a bas-reHef 
in the ruins of the palace on which is a hst of the 
cities taken by Shishak, including " Judah-melek," 
which is identified with Jerusalem, and many other 
cities belonging to Judah). It was in the reign of 
Shishak that Jeroboam fled to Egypt (i Kings xi. 40). 

In Bay 18, on our right, we have a standing 

Statue of Kha-em-Uast. He, it seems, was the 
eldest son of Rameses II., and had the reputation, 
according to the inscription, of being " The Great 
Magician ". The inscription on this statue (on the 
back) is of great interest. It is said that Kha-era-Uast 
claimed to be able to cause the waters of the Nile 
to dry up, so that he might be able to walk in dryshod 
and recover his sister's bracelet, which had fallen from 
her wrist while boating on the river. Of course the 
** Higher Critics " would have us believe that * the 
Red Sea miracle " (Exod. xiv.) was founded on some 
such Egyptian legend, instead of the fairy tale of 
this "magician "-son of Rameses being but a wish, 
the father of a thought; just like the magicians who 
tried to equal, if not out-do Moses in the matter of 
the plagues. 

We cross over to the other side of the gallery to 
Bay 23, where we have on the wall No. 167, a very 
interesting 

Bas-Relief of Rameses II. This "Pharaoh of 
the Oppression ", as there are good grounds to believe 
he was, was not only a very great builder, but a very 
dishonest and jealous one, from what we have seen 
of some of his works. Look at this sculpture. Look 
at the huge cartouche, half of which has been already 



44 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

chiselled down and in the place of the Pharaoh's name, 
which has been erased, the name of Rameses II. is 
being inscribed. This it seems was a by no means 
uncommon trick v/ith some of the monarchs of Egypt, 
when jealous of some big work done by a predecessor. 
Close by, on our right, is a large granite column where 
what we might call the same kind of deception had 
been perpetrated. 
We now enter the 

Egyptian Central Saloon 

Look at that colossal 

Head of Rameses II. It weighs over seven tons. 
As we have said, he is generally credited with being 
the Pharaoh of the Oppression of the Book of Exodus. 
He reigned 67 years, and did not die until a century 
old. His death is thus reported in the Bible, "And 
it came to pass in process of time, that the king of 
Egypt died : and the children of Israel sighed by 
reason of the bondage, and they cried, and their cry 
came up unto God, by reason of the bondage " (Exod. 
ii. 23). 

In the centre of the Saloon, look at that 

Colossal Beetle. It is a symbol of the Egyptian 
god Khepera. How true what Paul wrote of heathen 
idolators, " Professmg themselves to be wise, they 
became fools, and changed the glory of the 
uncorruptible God into an image made like to 
corruptible man, and to birds, and four-footed beasts, 
and creeping things" (Rom. i. 22, 23). 

We now pass on to the 



{Page 45 




Thi: Egyptian bill-god, Apis. 
{See page 49). 



Page 46) 






ST? 
O 1 



«c 



1-5 






H3 



ig 



[ fi^^ ^j 






liJ( ^^D ^ 







^nii^B' 



^ 










o t 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 47 

Northern Egyptian Gallery 

Here on our right we have an excellent seated 

Statue of Amenophis III. (or Amen-hetep, as 
he is sometimes termed). This was the king of Egypt 
who went a hunting in Mesopotamia, and got inveigled 
in a love affair, from which resulted a marriage out 
of the faith with slich momentous issues, as we shall 
see when we look at the Tel-el-Amama tablets, later 
on (see page 74 ). 

Very interesting, too, is that huge 

Arm of Thotmes III. (with the head thereof just 
in the rear). These exhibits are interesting, inasmuch, 
as Thotmes III. shares with Rameses II., the honour 
of being esteemed one of tlie greatest kings. As 
we look at that colossal arm^ we cannot help thinking 
of Ezek. XXX. 21, 22, which reads, "Son of man, I 
have broken the arm of Pharaoh, king of Egypt; 
and, lo, it shall not be bound up to be healed, to put 
a roller to bind it, to make it strong to hold the sword. 
Therefore, thus saith the Lord God ; Behold I am 
against Pharaoh king of Egypt, and I will break his 
arms, the strong and that which was broken, and I will 
cause the sword to fall out of his hands." 

On the wall on our right in Bay 6 we have a very 
valuable exhibit, part of the 

Tablet of Abydos. WTien perfect this large 
tablet contained in chronological order no less than 
52 names of Egyptian kings. The list forms one of 
the principal evidences ( !) for those very ancient dates 
found in some out-of-date British Museum Guides, 
and still seen on a few of the exhibits. In this 



48 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

connection, however, it is profitable to heed what the 
famous Egyptologist has said on this vexed subject 
of chronology. He wrote, " In the age of the first 
seventeen dynasties, there were in existence at one 
time, two, at another three, and at another five, and 
even six parallel and independent kingdoms, existing 
simultaneously in different parts of the land. This 
state of things continued until near the end of the 
1 6th century B.C., when Egypt was united into a single 
realm, the capital of which was Thebes " {Rawlinson s 
Manual of Ancient History"). 

In the next Bay, No. 4, we have some very fine 
Wall Paintings. These and similar wall-paintings 
are of entrancing interest to Bible students by reason 
of the confirmation they give to what the Holy 
Scriptures say about Egyptian life. To quote Sir G. 
Wilkinson : " In the tombs of the Pyramid-period are 
represented the same fishing and fowling scenes ; the 
rearing of cattle and wild animals of the desert ; the 
Scribes using the same kind of reed for writing on 
the papyrus ; the same boats ; the same mode of 
preparation for the entertainment of guests ; the same 
introduction of music and dancing ; the same trades, 
as glass-blowers, cabinet makers, and others ; as well 
as similar agricultural scenes, implements and 
granaries" as in later times — but what is more 
important, they confirm in every detail what we read 
about Egypt and the Egyptians in the Pentateuch. 
As we look at the wall paintings to be seen in these 
galleries, it would be both interesting and profitable 
to have well in mind what is recorded in Genesis 
xxxvii, 25; xl. 2, 16, 22; xh. 8, 34, 45, 46; 
xliii. 6, 24, 33, 34 ; xliv. 2 ; xlv. 21 ; 1. 9, 26. 



(.Page 49 



%AMM 




1. Brinn;inj^ water from a pool. 

2. Mixinjr the mud. 

3. Carrying prepared mud. 



4. ^loulding bricks. 

5. Laying tlie bricks in rows. 

6. Workman mending his mud-hoe. 




1. Overseers or taskmasters. 2. Carrying bricks with a yoke and cordSi 

T,. Returning with empty yoke. 

4. Carrying and dcpof^iting mixed mud for the moul'ipr. 



Egyptian Brickm.\kers. 
(See page 48). 



{Page 50 





The Siloam Inscription. 
{See page 80). 



The Cyrus Cylinder. 
(See page 76). 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 51 

Passing through the Northern Egyptian vestibule, 
we wend our way upstairs, halting at the balcony half 
way, to survey the cast of a colossal 

Head of Rameses II. This cast of the head of 
one of the four seated figures at the entrance to a 
Temple at Abu Simbel, a long way up the Nile in 
Nubia, enables us to realise better what the entire 
statues look hke, each being over 60 feet high. The 
Temple itself is 185 feet long, and 90 feet wide. The 
pillars in its large hall are each 30 feet high. How 
the proud Egyptians must have smiled when God 
said through the prophet, " Son of Man, speak unto 

Pharaoh, king of Egypt Whom art thou Hke in 

thy greatness" (Ezek. xxxi. 2) and when the prophet 
of Israel uttered his "Burden of Egypt" (Isaiah xix. 
i); and when another prophet said of Egypt, "It 
shall be the basest of kingdoms ; neither shall it exalt 
itself any more above the nations" (Ezek. xxix. 14). 
And yet how the burden has been fulfilled, as we 
behold in walking through these galleries. 

Let us continue our walk up the staircase, and 
reaching the landing at the top, bear round to the left, 
and walk through to the 

First Egyptian Room 

In this, and the adjoining rooms, we have some very 
fine specimens of Egyptian mummies and mummy 
cases, carrying our minds back to the times of the 
Patriarchs whose inspired history we have in the book 
of Genesis. When Jacob died, it is recorded In 
Genesis 1. 2, 3, " And Joseph commanded his servants 
the physicians to embalm his father; and tho 



52 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

physicians embalmed Israel, And forty days were 
fulfilled for him ; for so are fulfilled the days of those 
which are embalmed ; and the Egyptians mourned 
for him three-score and ten days ". Concerning 
Joseph's death too, it is recorded, "So Joseph died, 
being a hundred and ten years old ; and they 
embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt " 
(Gen. 1. 26). 

The process of embalming, or transforming the 
corpses into mummies, appears to have been as follows. 
The internal parts were taken out of the side and 
placed in jars dedicated to genii. The brain was 
extracted, and the body soaked in salt for forty days 
(at Thebes it was seventy days). Linen bandages 
were then wound round, interspersed with spices, 
charms and ornaments. In some cases from 400 to 700 
yards of linen bandages were used. The mummy was 
then placed in a cedar or sycamore oofBn ; and in the 
case of a royal or wealthy person the coffin was 
deposited in a stone sarcophagus, such as we saw 
downstairs in the Southern Egyptian Gallery. A much 
simpler, and less expensive method of embalming was 
adopted among the Jews, the body being wrapped in 
linen cloths, spices and ointment distributed in the 
folds thereof, after which the embalmed body was 
speedily buried — see 2 Chron. xvi. 14 ; John xii. 3 — ^ ; 
xix. 39, 40. 

On entering this (First Egyptian) Room, the first 
case on our right, is Case B. We see the remains, 
and the coffin of the builder of the third large pyramid 
at Gizeh. 

King Menkau Ra. They were discovered by 
Colonel Vyse in the year 1837, when he entered the 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 53 

King^s Chamber in the centre of the pyramid. The 
vessel in which the coffin was brought to England was 
wrecked, but the coffin itself was washed ashore near 
Gibraltar. On the end of the coffin is the inscription : 
" Osiris, king of the North and South^ Menkau Ra, 
living for ever " ; and the inscription concludes 
" O, Menkau Ra, living for ever ". 

On the wall at the end of the room is a painting of 
The Judgment Scene. This is an enlargement 
from the papyrus of Ani, a Scribe of the gods, at 
Abydos. On the right is Osiris the god of judgment, 
seated on his throne, and behind him, his two sisters, 
Isis and Nepthys. Before him kneels Ani, praying. 
The dead Ani again appears, led before Osiris by 
Horus. Next is Am-mit, the devourer of the wicked. 
On the left are the balances in one scale of which is 
weighed the heart, or conscience of the deceased, and 
in the other the feather as the emblem of the law. 
Anubis (with the jackal's head) is seen examining 
the indicator^ while the Ibis-headed Thoth is making 
a note of the result, and which note reads, " The heart 
of Ani is weighed, and his soul stands in evidence 
thereof. His case is straight upon the balance ". 
Let us pass on in to the 

Second Egyptian Room 

In this room, we not only have a very fine collection 
of mummies and mummy cases, but in a glass mounted 
frcime on the right hand, there is a series of excellent 
portraits of royal mummies in which the features are 
most distinctly marked. Of particular interest to us, 
as students of Bible history, are the following : 

King Seti I., whose mummy is in the Imperial 



54 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Museum^ at Cairo, and, like all who have seen it, the 
writer can testify as to the extraordinary nobility and 
comeliness of expression. It is considered almost 
beyond all doubt, that he was the Pharaoh whose 
daughter rescued Moses from the waters of the river. 
He was the father of Rameses II. The white alabaster 
sarcophagus, in which his mummy was found, is the 
most wonderful piece of work, covered with pictures 
and hieroglyphics. No one ought to miss seeing it. 
It is on view in Sir John Soane's Museum, Lincoln's 
Inn Fields, London. 

Next to Seti I. we behold 

Rameses II., son of Seti I. and the Sesostris of the 
Greeks. As already stated, he has been identified as 
the Pharaoh who oppressed the children of Israel — 
" he knew not Joseph " (Exod. i. 8). He it was who 
had built by the Israelites, the treasure cities of Pithom 
and Raamses (Exod. i. 1 1). His mummy, like his 
father's, is on view at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. 

In the same frame we also see 

Menephthah, the Pharaoh of the Exodus. In his 
Temple v/hich Professor Flinders Petrie discovered 
among the ruins at Thebes in 1896, and which the 
author visited in 191 4, there is a large sculptured 
granite stele, or slab, on which is engraven a hymn of 
victory commemorating the defeat of Libyan invaders 
who had overran the Delta. At the end of the hymn, 
other victories of Menephthah are touched upon, and it 
states that " The Israehtes are minished so that they 
have no seed ". This is very important as well as 
interesting, having in mind that this Menephthah is the 
Pharaoh of the Exodus, and son of Rameses II., the 
Pharaoh who knew not Joseph. 



{Page 55 




EMBALMERS at work on a MlMMV 

fSee page 52). 




Egyptians painting a Mimmv 
(Sec page 52. J 



Page 56) 



r^^. 



' ^ft 



^1 



vf^^ 




fl 



MlMMV AND MUMMV CaSE OF 

Rameses II. 
(See page 54) . 

CARTorcHE OF I O I l^l iN— ^ I Rameses II, 



Gsa 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 57 

Let us now go into the 

Third Egyptian Room 

On our right, as we enter, we see a case labelled Y, 
in which is the 

Mummy of a Musician, buried with his cymbals, 
just as in ancient times warriors were buried with their 
weapons of war; for instance, we read in Ezekiel 
xxxii. 27, of those " which are gone down to hell 
(sheol — the grave) witli their weapons of war ", and 
" they (their undertakers) have laid their swords under 
their heads." 

Note too, the nngs on the fingers of the mummy. 
Also the comb in its hair ; and the remains of a wreath. 

In Case DD, further along the room, on our left, 
we note a mummy case at the feet end of which are 
paintings, doubtless, of the enemies of the deceased 
ruler whose remains were in this coffin. The picture 
reminds us of various texts of Scripture such as, " He 
shall subdue the people under us, and the nations 
under our feet " (Psalm xlvii. 3) ; also Lamentations 
iii. 34, which refers to the work of one, " To crush 
under his feet all the prisoners of the earth " ; also 
in I Corinthians xv. 25, where we read of Christ, 
" He must reign till he hath put all enemies under 
his feet ". 

In Case DD, too, we have what is considered the 
finest specimen in existence of mummy swathing. 

In Wall Cases 112 — 113 is r very fine specimen 
of an unrolled mummy. 

We now proceed to the 



58 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Fourth Egyptian Room 

In the wall case? of this room are 

Mummied Animals, including bulls (or calves), 
gazelles, cats, dogs, apes, crocodiles, etc., all of which 
were regarded by the Egyptians as sacred, and kept 
in Temples where they were carefully tended. At 
death they were embalmed as we now see them on 
these shelves. No wonder at God saying, "Against 
all the gods of Egypt will I execute judgment " 
(Exod. xii. 12). 

The bull was worshipped throughout Egypt. There 
can be no doubt that from here, sprung the why and 
wherefore of the terrible sin of Israel in demanding 
Aaron to make a golden calf, as recorded in Exodus 
xxxii. I. This hankering after the Egyptian bull-deity, 
again manifested itself, when the Ten Tribes broke 
away from the Two Tribes, on the death of Solomon 
as detailed in i Kings xii. 25 — 33. 

The author will ever remember his visit to the 
Serapeum, near Memphis, which Serapeum was 
discovered by Pasha Mariette, in 1851. This famous 
Egyptologist had learned from Strabo that there was 
a Temple of bull tombs in the vicinity, and that 
leading to the entrance of the Temple was an avenue 
of sphinxes. After two months of searching and 
digging, M. Mariette was rewarded for his labours, 
by coming upon the head of one of the sphinxes, 
and finally had laid bare an avenue of 141, extending 
over a distance of 600 feet. At the end of the avenue 
was a propylon (or gate), with a lion on either side, 
some 70 feet below the ground. Here he found a 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 59 

subterranean passage with huge vaults^ about sixty in 
all, 24 of which contained solid granite sarcophagi, 
which had formerly contained mummified bulls. The 
sacred bull was known as Apis, and was, as we have 
said, embalmed at death, and buried with great pomp 
at this necropolis. These huge coffins, each consists of 
a single block of polished granite or limestone, 
measuring about 1 3 feet long, 7 feet wide, and 1 1 feet 
high, weighing about 65 tons. Many of them bear 
inscriptions. We noticed one such coffin was in the 
subterranean passage, as though when the burying 
place was deserted, the coffin was in course of removal 
to its vault. Another we noticed had the huge cover 
sideways. In connection with the mummihed gols 
which we see on the shelves in this room, the Bible 
student will do well to read, and study at leisure, 
Exodus xii. 12; xx. 4; Deut. iv. 15-20 ; Psalm cvi. 
19, 20; Ezek. viii. 10 ; Rom. 1. 23. 

In Table Case C. we have before us various 
writing materials, pens, tablets, etc. — of the kind used 
by the " officers " (literally Scribes) whom Pharaoh set 
over the Hebrews to record " the tale or number of the 
bricks " (Exod. v. 6-8). 

In Wall Case 169 is an interesting model of an 
Egyptian Granary with seven bins, affording some 
idea of the kind of storehouses used by Joseph in 
making provision for the seven years of famine, as 
recorded in Genesis xli. 

In the Frames F. and L. are to be seen not only 
interesting but important 

Frescoes or Wall Paintings from the tombs at 
Thebes and elsewhere, illustrating Egyptian life as 
so naturally referred to in Genesis (ste page 48 hereof). 



60 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Table Case O. is a very fine collection of Signet 
and other nngs, which carry our minds back to the 
days of Joseph, and such incidents as those referred 
to in Genesis xli, 41, 42, which says, "And Pharaoh 
said unto Joseph, See, I have set thee over all the land 
of Egypt. And Pharaoh took off his ring from his 
hand, and put it upon Joseph's hand, and arrayed him 
in vestures of fine linen, and put a gold chain about 
his neck ". 

As we enter this room, we note the 

Fifth Egyptian Room 

Table Case B. in which are exhibited quite a lot 
of sandals made of palm leaves, fibre, papyrus, etc., 
which enable us to appreciate what we read about 
footgear in such texts as Gen. xix. 2 ; Exod. iii. 5 ; 
Josh. V. 15 ; John i. 27 ; xii. 3 ; xiii. 4, 5. 

But by far the most interesting exhibits in this room 
are the series of the exceeding well-preserved bricks. 

In Wall Cases 246-248. rhese bricks vividly 
bring before our mind's eye the following from the 
book of Exodus (v. 5-12), "And Pharaoh commanded 
the same day the taskmasters of the people, and their 
officers, saying, Ye shall no more gi\ e tTie people straw 
to make brick, as heretofore ; let them go and gather 
straw for themselves. And the tale of bricks, which 
they did make heretofore^ ye shall lay upon them ; ye 
shall not diminish ought thereof ; for they be idle ; 
therefore they cry, saying, Let us go and sacrifice to 
God. Let there more work be laid upon the men, that 
they may labour therein ; and let them not regard vain 
words. And the taskmasters of the people went out, 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 61 

and their officers^ and they spake to the people, saying, 
thus saith Pharaoh, I will not give you straw. Go ye, 
get you straw where ye can find it ; yet not aught of 
your work shall be diminished. So the people were 
scattered abroad throughout all the land of Egypt to 
gather stubble instead of straw". Note these bricks in 
the case, each about 1 8 inches long by about 9 inches 
wide. Many of them bear the stamp of Rameses II., 
who, as we have before said, is generally accepted as 
being the Pharaoh of the Oppression. Not impossible 
that some of these bricks, in which we can see bits of 
straw, were made by the oppressed Israehtes. 
Let us pass on to the 

Sixth Egyptian Room 

There are two sets of exhibits well worthy of our 
attention in this room — the 

Hand Mirrors in Table Cases J. and K. You 
will notice these are not made of glass like modern 
mirrors, but of highly polished metal, so that it is not 
correct to term them looking-glasses as they are in 
Exodus xxxviii. 8 of the A.V. The Revised Version, 
correctly renders the Hebrew original, by the word 
" mirrors ". Being metal they could very well be 
melted down and made into " the laver of brass which 
stood in the court " of the Tabernacle in the Wilder- 
ness. In James i. 23, the A.V. speaks about " a man 
beholding his natural face in a glass ", but the R.V. 
rightly renders it "mirror". Again the same fact is 
seen in the rendering of 2 Cor. iii. 18. 

In Wall Cases, 269-271, we see Toilet 
Apparatus including such vamties as eye paint, 



62 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

cosmetics, etc., Jezebel, we read, painted her eyes when 
she expected King Jehu would pay her a visit at 
Jezreel (2 Kings ix. 30, marg.). Also the same practice 
is referred to in Ezek. xxiii. 40, which compare with 
Jer. iv. 30 (marg.). 

In Table Cases E., F. and G. are to be seen some 
beautiful specimens of Egyptian Papyri, which is no 
longer cultivated (see Isaiah xix. 7). 

Now we will cross over the room and leaving by the 
door on our right we enter the 

Fourth Room (North Gallery) 

On our right in those wall cases, are hundreds of 
Assyrian and Babylonian books, in the form of baked 
clay tablets, from the Royal and other Libraries at 
Nmeveh 

In the wall cases on the left hand are more of 
such tablets from Nineveh, as well as sundry earthen- 
ware, upon some of which you will see inscriptions iji 
Hebrew. 

Now let us turn our attention to the centre cases. 

In Table Case H. are several many-sided 
cylinders, numbered one to six. These are of great 
value and of especial interest to Bible students, 
inasmuch as they not only record some of the exploits 
of Sennacherib, but refer to the invasion of Palestine, 
the siege of Jerusalem, and the subjection and tribute 
of King Hezekiah. 

Upon Cylinder No. 6 (22,500), which is also 
known as the Taylor Cylinder, Sennacherib describes 
his victory, in which he says, " I drew nigh to Ekron 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 63 

and I slew the governors and princes who had 
transgressed, and I hung upon poles round about their 
city their dead bodies ... I brought their King 
Padi forth from Jerusalem, and I established him upon 
the throne of dominion over them^ and I laid tribute 
upon him. I then besieged Hezekiah of Judah who 
had not submitted to any yoke and I captured forty- 
six of his strong cities and fortresses, innumerable 
small cities which were round about them, with the 
battering rams and the assaults of engines, and the 
attack of foot soldiers, and by mines and breaches. 
I brought out therefrom two hundred thousand, and 
a hundred and fifty people, both small and great, male 
and female, and horses, and mules and asses, and 
camels and oxen, and innumerable sheep I counted as 
spoil. (Hezekiah) himself like a caged bird, I shut up 
within Jerusalem, his royal city. I threw up mounds 
against him, and I took vengeance upon any man who 
came forth from his city ... I reduced his land. I 
added to their former yearly tribute, and increased the 
gift which they paid unto me. The fear of the majesty 
of my sovereignty overwhelmed Hezekiah, and the 
Urbi and his trusty warriors, whom he had brought 
into his royal city of Jerusalem to protect it, deserted. 
And he despatched after me his messenger to my 
royal city Nineveh to pay tribute and to make sub- 
mission with thirty talents of gold, eight hundred 
talents of silver, precious stones, eye paint .... 
ivory couches and thrones, hides and tusks, precious 
woods, and divers objects, a heavy treasure together 
with his daughters and the women of his palace, and 
male and female musicians ". 

This is very interesting in view of what we read in 



64 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

2 Kings xviii. 19, which reads, "And Rabshakeh said 
unto them, Speak ye now to Hezekiah, Thus saith 
the great King, the King of Assyria^ What confidence 
is this wherein thou trustest " ? and, in 2 Chron. xxxii. i, 
"After these things, and the estabhshment thereof, 
Sennacherib, King of Assyria came and entered 
into Judah, and encamped against the fenced cities 
and thought to win them for himself". But instead 
of being cowed as this cyhnder record would have us 
beliere, Hezekiah, after taking "counsel with his 
princes and his mighty men " (verse 3) " Strengthened 
himself " and " spake comfortably to his people ", 
" Saying be strong and courageous, be not afraid nor 
dismayed for the King of Assyria, nor for all the 
multitude that is with him ; for there be more with us 
than with him. With him is an arm of flesh ; but with 
us is the Lord our God to help us, and to fight our 
battles. And the people rested themselves upon the 
words of Hezekiah, King of Judah " (2 Chron. xxxii. 
5-8). The confidence of Hezekiah was not misplaced 
for the divine record in Isaiah xxxvii. 33, informs us 
that God said, " He shall not come into this city, nor 
shoot an arrow there, nor come before it with shields, 
nor cast a bank against it . . . for I will defend 
this city to save it for mine own sake, and for my 
servant David's sake. Then the angel of the Lord 
went forth, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a 
hundred and four score and five thousand ; and when 
they arose early in the morning, behold they were all 
dead corpses". This latter disaster to the Assyrian 
host, the swaggering Sennacherib did not think worth 
mentioning on his cylinders ! 

In Table Case D., there is another eight-sided 



(Page 65 




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• -,.-.„ '*t*»!' " ' 
- iiTi ititrifc iMiiirii --^ .«.-r-vJi 

Clay Cylinder of Sennacherib 
Recording his Campaigns. 

(see page 62). 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 67 

Cylinder. No. 13 (22,508) recording certain building 
operations of Sennacherib ; and yet another, No. 1 2 
(22,505) recording sundry expeditions of Sargon 
(B.C. 721-705), the successor of Shalmaneser IV. All 
three of these Assyrians are well known to Bible 
students by reason of their Bible history. 

In Table Case A. we have those well known 
Babylonian Tablets setting forth the Babylonian 
accounts of the Creation ; the Tower of Babel ; 
and the Flood. And, here let me reproduce 
the remarks of the late Miss A. Habershon on these 
tablets ; she says, " According to the translations that 
have been made, there are many passages in them 
which remind us of the Bible records, but they are 
mixed up with the Pagan mythology, the legends of 
their gods. The similarities have led some of the 
German professors and so-called ' Higher Critics ' to 
imagine that the inspired account is derived from the 
poluted Pagan source. ' Doth a fountain send forth 
at the same place sweet-water and bitter? . . . 
So can no fountain both yield salt water and fresh ' 
(James iii. Ii, 12). As well might we affirm that the 
ocean receives her supply of seaweed from the shore 
by gathering with her waves the dried dead piles of 
weed that lie upon the beach. The shrivelled weed 
originally came from the ocean. It was once living 
and fresh, but exposure to the air and sun has made 
it dry and putrid, and it only has a slight resemblance 
to what it once was. So with the ancient records of 
the past they too are dead and dry, and con- 
taminated with many traces of heathen religion".* 

* On the subject of Bible Criticism a little work entitled, "My 
New Bible," will be sent free on receipt of addressed label and 
four stamps, to the Author, 99 Stockwell Park Road, S.W. ji 



68 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

We now pass on into the 

Third Room (North Gallery) 

Here we shall have to spend more time, by reason 
of the large number ot exhibits connected with 
Biblical times, matters, and persons. 

In Wall Cases No. 13, on our right hand, we 
have a cast of a stele or sculptured slab, of Khammu- 
Rabi, who has been unmistakably identified by 
Professor Sayce and others, with Amraphel, King of 
Shinar^ referred to in Genesis xiv. i. The Professor 
says, " Khammu-Rabi, like others of his dynasty, 
claimed divine honours, and was addressed by his 
subjects as 'god', the Hebrew el and Ammu-rapi- 
tlu, would be ' Khammu-rapi — the god '. Now 
Ammu-rafi-ilu is letter for letter the Amraphel of 
Genesis ". The slab, of which this exhibit is a cast was 
discovered in the year 1901 by the French Excavator, 
M. de Morgan, among the ruins at Susa (" Shushan the 
Palace " as it is termed in Daniel viii. 2). Beyond all 
doubt, this monument dates back hundreds of years 
before Moses, and " deprives the ' critical theory ' 
which makes the Mosaic Law posterior to the Prophets 
of one of its main supports. The theory was based 
on two denials — (i) that writing was used for literary 
purposes in the time of Moses and (2) that a legal code 
was possible before the period, of the Jewish Kings. 
The discovery of the Tel-el-Amarna tablets disproved 
the first assumption, the discovery of the Code of 
Khammu-rabi has disproved the second ". (Sayce). 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 69 

This slab was set up in the Temple of Esagila, in 
Babylon^ so that it might be consulted by all who had 
need to consult the Babylonian laws. It was after- 
wards carried away by an Elamite King to Susa, 
where it was discovered as already stated. The lower 
part has been obhterated, doubtless to make room for 
later laws^ which laws were never added. 

A little to our right in 

Wall Case, Section i6 is a Boundary Stone of 
Merodach Baladan (about B.C. 1 150). Upon many of 
the Boundary Stones in these galleries there is a curse 
added very similar to the curse in the Mosaic Law, 
which reads " Cursed be he that removeth his 
neighbour's landmark" (Deut. xxvii. 17). 

In the Wall Case on the opposite side of the room 
are scores of 

Babylonian Bricks bearing the names of 
Shalmaneser, Sargon, Sennacherib, Esar-haddon, 
Nebuchadnezzar and other Assyrian and Babylonian 
Kings, which names are household words with Bible 
students. 

In Wall Case Section 37, is an exhibit which 
makes plain how the cuneifonn inscriptions were 
finally and successfully deciphered. In brief the story 
is this : After many guesses as to the solution, a 
German scholar, named Grotefend, hke many other 
scholars^ noticed that numberless inscriptions on 
important monuments began with nearly a line of the 
same signs or words, with the exception of one word ; 
and they rightly assmned such inscriptions were royal 
decrees, or proclamations, beginning with the same 



70 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

sentence, but with the name of a different King, foi 
instance — "I am the great King Darius", or "I am 
the great King Cyrus " as the case might be. A later 
authority, Sir Henry RawHnson wrote, " Professor 
Grotefend has certainly the credit of being the first 
who opened the gallery into this rich treasury house 
of antiquity. In deciphering the names of Cyrus, 
Darius, Xerxes, and Hystaspes, he obtained the true 
determination of nearly a third of the entire alphabet 
and this at once supplied a sure and ample basis for 
Biblical research." It was in the year 1837 the whole 
secret was revealed, by certain inscriptions on a lofty 
rock at Behistun, on the highway from Babylon to 
Persia. There are nine inscriptions in all, five Persian, 
three Assyrian, and one Babylonian. Sir Henry 
Rawlinson, at very great risk, scaled the precipitous 
rocks and took squeezes of all the inscriptions. He 
found that no less than 67 paragraphs began with the 
same four cuneiform words and which are now knowa 
to read, " says Darius the King". To make this matter 
of decipherment quite plain, I will extract from the 
British Museum Official Guide the following groups 
of signs from two inscriptions at Mount Elwend, near 
Hamadan, in 1835. It was noticed that the inscription 
corresponded throughout, with the exception of two 
groups of signs ; each contamed the names of the 
Kings who set up the inscriptions and possibly those 
of their fathers. But in these two inscriptions the 
groups of signs which occupied the second place in 
one of them, and which from its position seemed to 
represent the name of the father of the man who set 
it up, occurred in the first place in the other. This will 
be clear from the following transcriptions of these 



{Page 71 




Sculptured Slab of Khammu-kabi 

The Amraphel of Genesis xiv. 

{Seepage 68). 



Page 72) 












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WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 73 

groups of signs : — 

Inscription I 

"tt" iff H A"!'^ <n << 

£) a TV V u sn. i.e. Darius 

Visktaspky j^ Hystaspes 
Inscription II 

«TT 77 T<- TTt H 7< rfr 

fCh sh y a r sh a ie. Xerxes 

n TTr HI r<- M <n X{ 

Jj a. v y V VL in. i.e. Darius 



It Will be seen that group No. 4 which occupies 
the second place in No. 2 inscription, is identical with 
group No. I which occupies the first place in No. i 
inscription. Thus Rawlinson inferred that the King 
for whom No. i inscription was set up, and that 
groups Nos. 2, and i and 3 gave the names of the 
Persian Kings in consecutive order. But what 
Kings could fhese have been? The most famous 
Kings of the Akhaemenian line were Hystaspes, 
the founder of the dynasty, Darius his son, and 
Xerxes his grandson. On applying these names 
to groups Nos. 2, I and 3, he found that they answered 



74 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

in all respects satisfactorily, and were in fact the true 
identifications*. 

A portion of the actual squeeze made by Sir Henry 
Rawlinson from the rock at Behistun is exhibited in 
the lower shelf of WALL CASE, 37. 

In Table Case C. (36-96) we have a series of 
interesting letters of Khammu-rabi (Amraphel) and 
other Assyrian Kings, containing agreements, disputes, 
accounts, etc. 

In Table Case E, (number 105) is a lease of land 
in Jerusalem. 

In Table Case F. we see those exceedingly 
important letters known as the 

Tel-EL-Amarna TalBETS, discovered in 1887. 
They are mostly addressed to Amenophis III., and his 
son Amenophis IV. What an impeachment they afford 
to those " literary critics" of the Pentateuch who had 
denied the existence of writing in the days of Moses. 
It appears that Amenophis III. in search of sport which 
was not to be had in Egypt, had gone further afield, 
and while engaged in such in Assyria had come across 
a Princess Ti, which ended as one might expect, in 
courtship and marriage. No doubt there would be the 
usual sophisticated and mutual " understandings " in 
such mixed marriages, Amenophis with his many 
Egyptian gods promising not to interfere with Ti's 
one-god religion — but things had assumed a less 
sentimental^ and more practical shape, when in the 
course of a year a young Amenophis appeared upon 
the scene. " His mother " instructed him both in 
her cuneiform language and in her one-supreme- 
god religion. The result was that when his father 

* See British Museum Guide, page 104. 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 75 

died, and he came to the throne of Egypt, he found 
himself at cross purposes with the many gods of Amen 
at Thebes, quarrelled with the priests there, removed 
his Court and Temple to Tel-el-Amarna, changed his 
name from Amenophis to Khu-en-Aten, thus shewing 
that his mother had not laboured in vain to wean him 
(if there were any weaning needed) from the adoration 
of the Egyptian god Amen to the Assyrian god 
Aten. Not only so, but he preferred the Assyrian 
language to the Egyptian, as the medium of 
correspondence, for all his letters found at Tel-el- 
Amama are in cuneiform inscription and not 
hieroglyphic. 

In this same CASE, F. we might particularly notice 
Exhibit No. I. One of the Tel-el-Amama Tablets 
concerning a love affair of Amenophis III. ; Exhibit 
No. 28, a Tablet mentioning Zimrida (concerning 
whom there is a cuneiform Tablet in the Royal 
Museum at Constantinople), and a cast of which you 
see in this Case, at top ; Exhibit No. 29, a letter from 
Governor of Tyre ; Exhibit No. 53, a letter from the 
the Governor of Askelon ; and Exhibit No. 58, a letter 
from Palestine addressed to the Kings of Canaan. 

As we look at the contents of this case with its 
letters, the identical letters (some written in the days of 
the patriarchs), we do well to remember that within 
the lifetime of many now living, no scholar who 
valued his reputation would have dared to have 
opposed the Higher Critic's contention as to the late 
use of writing. Even so late as 1869 an eminent 
German "scholar" wrote a book : "The Unhistorir- ] 
Character of Genesis Fourteen ", in which we fin ! such 
sentences as — " Criticism has for ever disproved its 



76 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

claim to be historical ", " The whole story is a fiction 
based upon the Assyrian conquest in Palestine in later 
days *', " The names of the Princes commemorated in 
it are etymological inventions", and even as recently 
as 1888 certain Higher Critics asserted that Menes 
the founder of Egypt was an imaginary Pharaoh, 
whereas now the poor old fellow's mummy the writer 
gazed upon at the Egyptian Museum in Gizeh. 

In Table Case G. we have exhibited several 
barrel shaped cylinders recording the building 
operations of Nebuchadnezzar. We can quite under- 
stand the boastful King exclaiming " Is not this great 
Babylon that I have built for the house of the 
Kingdom, by the might of my power, and for the 
honour of my majesty?" (Dan. iv. 30). 

Of particular interest is the baked clay 

Cylinder, No. 67, on which we have the 
conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus recorded, "without 
battle and without fighting". This is more than 
interesting in view of what we read about Cyrus and 
the fall of Babylon in the Bible (see 2 Chron. xxxii. 
22, 23 ; Ezra. i. I-3 ; Isaiah xlv. 1-4, 13 ; Jer. xxv. 12 ; 
li. 32, 33, R.V. ; Dan. v. 30 ; vi. i 2). 

In Table Case G. there are also many tablets 
recording legal transactions of the reigns of 
Nebuchadnezzar and Cyrus, reminding us of what we 
read about in Jeremiah xxxii. 9, " I bought the field 
of Hanameel, my uncle's son, that was in Anathoth, 
and weighed him the money, even seventeen shekels 
of silver. And I subscribed the evidence and sealed it 
and took witnesses and weighed him the money in the 
balances." Also, we are reminded of Jer. xxxii. 44, 
where we read, " Men shall buy fields for money, and 



(Page 77 





< ^ 

1-1 CO 
w ^^ 

j 

H 



Page 78) 




Thk MoABiTE Stone. 
{Seepage 79). 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 79 

subscribe evidences and take witnesses". 
We will now pass into the 

Second Room (North Gallery) 

In passing through this room we might just look in 
the 

Centre Table Case, in which are to be seen some 
good specimens of 

Tear Bottles from Hebron, reminding us of the 
Psalmist's sad cry of " Put thou my tears into thy 
bottle " (Psalm Ivi. 8). There are also some excellent 
Lamps from Palestine^ which make Bible students 
think of Christ's parable of the Wise and Foolish 
Virgins, with lamps which needed replenishing with 
oil (Matt. XXV. I, 7, 8). 

In Wall Cases, 24-27, we may notice some 
interesting pottery from Mesopotamia (Gen. xxiv. 10; 
Acts ii. 9). 

We now enter the 

First Room (North Gallery) 

Of supreme interest in this room is what we see 
on our right in 
Wall Case 5 (No. 362), a cast of 
The Moabite Stone. The original was found at 
Dibon, in Moab, east of the River Jordan, in the 
year 1868, and contains information which supplements 
Bible history by recording the war which Mesha, king 
of Moab, successfully waged against the successors of 
Ahab, kmg of Israel. The Holy Scriptures state, 
" Mesha, king of Moab, was a sheepmaster, and 
rendered unto the king of Israel, a hundred thousand 



80 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

lambs, and a hundred thousand rams with the wool" 
(2 Kings iii, 4). The inscription on this Moabite stone 
begins with, " I am Mesha, son of Chemosh-gad, king 
of Moab. My father reigned over Moab thirty years, 
and I reigned after my father " ; and it goes on to 
say, " Omri, king of Israel, and he oppressed Moab 

many days and his son (Ahab) succeeded him, 

and he, too, said I will oppress Moab And 

Omri occupied the land of Medeba, and he dwelt 
therein, and (they oppressed Moab he and) his son 
forty years ". 

The date of the Moabite stone is about B.C. 900. 

On the left hand of the Moabite stone in 

Wall Case, Section 3 (No. 364) is the famous 
cast of the 

SiLOAM Inscription. The original slab was found 
by some lads, in 1880, when playing in the reputed 
Pool of Siloam. The discovery was quite accidental, 
the outcome of one of the lads slipping and falling into 
the Pool. He noticed the writing while clambering 
out of the Pool. The lad happened to be a pupil of 
Dr. Schick, the well-known architect of Jerusalem, 
who subsequently made a squeeze of the inscription, 
which was of pure Biblical Hebrew of the time of 
Isaiah, and reads thus, " (Behold) the Excavation ! 
Now this is the history of the excavation. While the 
excavators were still lifting up the pick, each towards 
his neighbour, and while there were yet three cubits 
to (excavate, there was heard) the voice of one man 
calling to his neighbour, for there was an excess ( ?) 
in the rock on the right hand (and on the left ?). And 
after that on the day of excavating the excavators had 
struck pick against pick^ one against another, the 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 81 

waters flowed from the Spring to the Pool for a 
distance of 1,200 cubits. And part of a cubit was the 
height of the rock over the head of the excavators" 
(Prof. Sayce's translation). 

It is agreed by all recognised authorities that the 
Inscription has reference to what is recorded in 
2 Chronicles xxxii. 30, " This same Hezekiah also 
stopped the upper water course of Gihon, and brought 
it straight down to the west side of the City of David ". 
Similarly the work is treated of in 2 Kings xx. 20, 
where we read, " And the rest of the acts of Hezekiah, 
and all his might, and how he made a pool, and a 
conduit, and brought water into the City, are they 
not written in the book of the Chronicles of the kings 
of Judah ? " 

The generally accepted date of tne Inscription is 
B.C. 700. 

Let us proceed to the 

Northwest Landing 

In the wall cases here we have what are known 
as the 

HiTTITE Remains, sculptures brought from 
Jerabes, which it has been shown, beyond question, 
is the site of ancient Carchemish, the old Hittile 
capital, the discovery of which, together with mucli 
else, has put to flight, if not to shame, those 
"distinguished scholars " who, even so recently as the 
middle of last century, denied the Bible records of the 
Hittites, and positively asserted that, " No Hittite 
Kings can have compared in power with the Kings 
of Judah " in the day stated in 2 Kings vii. 6, which 



82 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

reads, "For the Lord had made the host of the 
Syrians to hear a noise of chariots, and a noise of 
horses, even the noise of a great host : and they said 
one to another, Lo, the King of Israel hath hired 
against us the Kings of the Hittites, and the Kings 
of the Egyptians, to come upon us ". Commenting on 
that Scriptural record, these " distinguished scholars " 
said, its " unhistorical tone is too manifest to allow of 
our easy belief m it ". The " Higher Critics " 
" professing themselves to be wise " have over-reached 
themselves, and proved themselves to be " fools ", as 
is clearly shown by Professor Sayce in his work 
entitled '"Ike Hittites". 

Just look round this Landing, and note the Hittite 
Remains in the Wall Cases, especially exhibits 
Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and lo. 

We will now enter the Room on our left, and 
walking through the first four Rooms (which are 
known as the Vase Rooms) we reach the fifth, the 

Room of Greek and Roman Life 

On our right hand we see four Standard Cases with 
eight frames. In 

Frame VIII. we find in the lower portion a 
selection of 

Coins illustrating the Bible of which the 
following are the more interesting : 

(l) A SHEKEL, (2) K HALF SHEKEL, (4) A STATER 
or " Piece of money " which Christ told his disciples 
would be found in " the fish that first cometh up ", and 
wherewith they were to pay the tribute (Matt. xvii. 
24—2/). (5) A DENARIUS, or "penny" which Christ 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 83 

referred to in his parable of the two debtors, one of 
whom owed his creditor " a hundred p>ence " (or 
denarii). This, too, was the coin the Lord asked to 
be shewn, when he was questioned by the Pharisees, 
as to their duty about paying the Roman Tribute — 
" They brought unto him a penny " (Matt. xxii. 9 — a 
denarius). Now turn to 

Table Case K. In No. 22 E>dnbit we see a 
SCOURGE with its lash loaded with bronze beads, and 
which scourge was frequently used for the punishment 
of slaves. As we look at this instrument of torture 
which was used by tlie Romans we think of Matt, 
xxvii. 26, where we read that Pilate " scourged Jesus" ; 
also of 2 Corinthians xi. 24, where Paul states that no 
less than five times he received " forty stripes save 
one ". (Under Roman Law no man could be given 
more than forty stripes). 

In Wall Case 97, on the second shelf is seen 
AN ALTAR dedicated to THE UNKNOWN GOD CGreek) 
' — see Acts xvii. (also p. 20 ). 

In Wall Case 109 are samples of Greek Armour 
(made of brass), but none of Roman, for the simple 
reason that the latter having been made of iron, it has 
long since perished. In stating these facts we are 
reminded of the fact that in the divine dream of 
Nebuchadnezzar, God foretold the Greek and Roman 
Empires under the symbols of Brass and Iron — the 
Image's belly and thighs of brass and the legs of iron 
(Dan. li). Even historians, too, write of the " brazen- 
coated Gieeks ". 



84 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

Before leaving this flo-or let us pay a passing visit 
to the 

Room of Gold Ornaments 
and Gems 

In Case X. we see some beautiful little 
Cameos and Intaglios, portraits of (46) Titus, 
Vespasian^ Nero and Hadrian ; (47) Commodus, 
Septimus Severus and Trajan; (52) Nero; (53) 
Tiberius, Augustus and Claudius. 

Coming out of the Gem Room we turn to the left 
and then to the right, and walking through the Room 
of Terra Cottas into the Room of Greek and Roman 
Antiquities, we turn immediately to the left, and 
descend the Principal Staircase. Arriving on the 
Ground Floor, we cross the Main Entrance Hall, and 
walking through the Grenville Library we reach the 

Manuscript Room 

Here we find much to interest us as Bible students. 
Let us turn our attention to 

Case G. No. i Exhibit is 

The Pentateuch (or Five Books of Moses) in 
Hebrew. Its date is the Ninth Century A.D., and it 
is claimed to be the old MS. now in existence of any 
substantial part of the Holy Scriptures in Hebrew. 

No. 2. The Codex Alexandrinus ; the Bible in 
Greek, dating back to the middle of the Fifth Century 
A.D. It is one of the three earliest and most important 



WITH BIBLE IN HAND. 85 

MSS. of the Holy Scriptures containing both the Old 
and the New Testaments. 

(Photographic specimen pages of the other two 
oldest — the Codex Vaticanus and the Codex Sinaiticus 
— are shewn in the same case. The originals thereof 
are respectively in the custody of the Vatican Library, 
at Rome, and in the Imperial Library, at Petrograd, 
each of which it has been the author's privilege to 
inspect). 

No 6. The Septuagint Version, the Old 
Testament Scriptures in Greek. This copy was 
written in the 13th Century A.D. This version of the 
Hebrew Scriptures, was made by order of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus (see page 41 of this Guide). 

No. 9. The Pentateuch in Syriac, also called, 
The Peshitto. This copy was made in A.D. 464, and 
is the earliest known MS. of the Bible in any language 
of which the date is known. 

Now we will turn to 

Case D., where there are several Latin Bibles 
known as the Latin Vulgates, the work of Jerome 
(Saint Jerome as some prefer to call him). This 
version formed the basis of 

Wycliffe's Bible, which we also can see a copy 
of in Case I. It is the first English Version of the 
Holy Scriptures, and bears date of the 14th Century 
A.D. 

An interesting exhibit is to be seen in 

Case V. No. 38. The Bull of Pope Innocent III. 
ratifying the grant by King John ot " England and 
Ireland " to the Holy Roman Church in return for 
" the protection of St. Peter and himself ". It is 
attested by the " sentence " of the Pope — viz., " Fac 



86 THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

mecum, domine^ signum in bomim " (Psalm Ixxxv. 17).* 
Case VII. No. 2'6. An agreement by Edward 

Gibbon, the historian^ for the sale of his work the 

" His/or y of the Docline and Fall of the Roman 

Empire'' dated i6th August, 1787. 

And now, last but not least, there is something we 

must look at in the 

Room of Inscriptions 

This way please — to tlie Entrance Hall, in between 
which and the Reading Room, just behind where 
some of you left your umbrellas, is a 

Cast of an Inscribed Stone. The original, 
which is m the Museum at Constantinople, was dug 
up by excavators on the Temple Area in Jerusalem. 
It contains 7 lines of Greek, forbidding Gentiles, on 
pain of death, to go within the Sanctuary. The 
Greek word (on this stone) for sanctuary {heiron) is 
the same as translated '' Temple " in Matt. xxi. 12 and 
Acts xxi. 28, and the same as used by Titus and 
Josephus (see " Wars of the Jews ", v. v. 2 ; v. xi. 4 ; 
and "Antiquities of the Jews'\ xv. xi. 5). After 
looking at this stone you will enjoy reading Paul's 
exciting adventures with Trophimus (Acts xxi. 29) ; 
also compare with Ephes. ii. 11 -16. 



Who now will say the British 
%:J _ Museum is a dry place to visit ? 

* That is, in the Latin Vulgate; in the A. v. it is Pfahn Ixxxvi. 
17, the first six words of which read, "Shew me a token for 



(Page 87 




The Denarius ok Penny, Matt, xvii, 24. 
(Sec page SJ) . 





The AssAKiON or Fakthinc;, matt. x. 29. 




The Emperor Titus. 
(See page 16). 



The Emperor Tiberius 

as a young man. 

(Seepage 15), 



Page 88) 

tTpucvcj)oiir yat 19' mxmjfflv^nyvc 
lm\v am cncti^ ii^t? grtt? vot^fei^T^t 

ct)cmtt2:()tiD ie:ii/vgoD.nn?5oO*^ 
m}i p2ij^i}^t)a{t vcnr fefaucii 
in t r^tCifme of mm (tonOfgc ftt^otrte* 
IjcrtynstrCfj^tra/ loo i/ertqj:); •help/ 
fo)?U oon m!Kngrt:Attji>n3rfl{|jpiT 
ge ^uiV \n|hrg^ t Vtrttffft nt^oiitt tc fi 
itctr/^ancijitn DiyiMfC)ni\sc/(ii( 
frc?cr^fttifec;if ijel;; njmrfintpto 
l)rfn CDtl/fotfovtitfr* nsixrt? voir? 
fcBtc otrfcrDpett oifcnto titycl^iccy, 
ivcwl opvttemplc t^liit m totitio. 
fro re Vfmfr tlto »tT/5;t:^J!^^ 

ctntiino icmjgerf iei^ri)c(tote eiifti 

vvtlj> rt^mmi \ijftrgoOOitfoiie/fovl^ 
^er wncn tor Wjhncn.lnljoliJjnise 
nu ft ft! re motigc. itn;tcl)eABarniar(f' 
iimivlclQni vi-tnftnr of ^ftincs r^lcflh 
tuiomr of ^ofq)l) tfaHom^/t^ftljant 
i^fpiufts m eaiiicrvn fo^nmtmMn • 
tm;>nvftntcntolnin%^nimTK^tBp^ 
ntw VRt^togpo' TO5rtcniq)i9tr]nln 



Wvcliffe's Bible, 
MARK XV. 33 — 41. 

{See page 85). 



Comprehensive Index 



PAGE 

Abu Simbel 51 

Abydos 47 

Acropolis 20 

Ahab 25, 22, 80 

Altar to Unknown God 20 

Amen — the god 75 

Amenophis 111 47, 74 

Amenophis IV' 74 

Am-mit 53 

Amraphel 68, 74 

Ani 53 

Anubis 53 

Apis 59 

Areopagus 20 

Armour 83 

Ashdod 35 

Asherah 32 

Ashtoreth 32 

Ashur-bani-pal 29 

Ashur-nasir-pal ... 26^ 32 



Askelon — Tablet from. 75 

Assarion 82 

Assyrian Altar 17 

Atea — the god 75 

Athene 19 

Augustus Cassar ... 15, 84 

Babel Tablets 67 

Babylon— Fall of 76 

Banqueting Scene 31 

Barcochba 16 

Behistun 70, 74 

Bel 26 

Bel Merodach 26 

Belteshazzar 26 

Benhadad 25 

Bible— My New 67 

Black Obelisk 22 

Boundary Stones 69 

Brass Armour.(Grecian) 83 
Bricks — Babylonian ... 69 



^0 



Index Continued. 



PAGE 

Bricks — Egyptian 60 

B.ull— The Sacred 58 

Calves and Bulls 58 

Canopus — Decree of 36, 41 

Cartouche 38, 41 

Claudius Caesar ... 15, 84 

Cleopatra 38 

Codex Alexandrinus... 84 

Codex Sinaiticus 85 

Codex Vaticanus 85 

Coins 82 

Commodus 84 

Creation Tablets 67 

Cuneiform Inscrip- 
tions 25, 69 

Cylinder — Sennacherib 67 

Cyrus 70, 76 

Cyrus Cylinder 76 

Dagon 31, 35 

Darius 7^, 73 

Deluge Tablets 67 

Demotic 36 

Denarius 82 

Diana — Goddess 18 

Diana — Temple of 18 

Earthenware 62 

Elam 3i> 69 

Elgin Marbles 19 

Elwend 7^ 

Embalming 5^ 

Enemies under feet ..57 
Esar-Haddon ... 22, 35,69 

Eye Paint 61 

Farthing 82 

Flood Tablets 67 

Frescoes 4^, 59 

German Higher 

Criticism 75 



PAGE 

Gaza 35 

Gibbon the Historian... 86 

Granary 59 

Grotefend 69, 70 

Habershon — Miss A. ... 67 

Hadrian 16, 84 

Hamath 31 

Hand Mirrors 61 

Hapi 42 

Hazael 22 

Hezekiah ... 16, 30, 62, 81 

Hezekiah Cylinder 62 

Hieroglyphics 36 

Higher Critics ...17, 67, 75 
Hittite Remains .... 81, 82 

Hophra 41 

Horus 53 

Hystaspes 70, 73 

Innocent III. — Pope ... 84 
Iron Armour (Koman) .. 83 

Isis 53 

Istar 32 

Jehoiakim 42 

Jehu 22 

Jerabes 81 

Jeroboam 43 

Jerome 85 

Jerusalem 22, 30 

Judah 30 

Judgment Scene 53 

Juhus Caesar 15 

Kha-em-Uast 43 

Kenyon — ^^Sir F. G 42 

Khammu-Rabi 68, 74 

Khepera 44 

Khu-en-Aten 75 

Lachish 3° 

Lamps 79 



Index Continued. 



91 



Latin Vulgate 85 

Layard— Sir H 16, 17 

Lions — Colossal 17 

Lion-Hunting 29 

Looking-Cjlasses 61 

Mariette, M 58 

Mars Hill 20 

Memphis— Priests of... 36 

Menephtha 54 

Menkau-Ra 52 

Merodach Baladan 69 

Mesha 79 

Mesopotamia 79 

Minerva 19 

Mirrors 61 

Moabite Stone 79 

Morgan — M. de 68 

Moses and the Higher 

Critics 68 

Mummied Animals 5^ 

Mummies 51. 57 

My New Bible 67 

Nabopolassar 26 

Nebo 26 

Nebuchadnezzar 26, 69, 76 

Nebuzaradan 26 

Nepthys 53 

Nero 15. 84 

Nineveh 21 

Nisroch 32 

Obehsk— Black 22 

Omri 22 

Osiris 53 

Papyrus 62 

Parthenon 19 

Penny — Roman 82 

Pentateuch 84 

Pentateuch in Syraic ... 85 



Peshitto 85 

Petrie-Flinders — Prof. 54 

Pharaoh Hophra 41 

Pharaoh of the Exodus 54 
Pharaoh of the Oppres- 
sion 43 

Philae 38 

Pontius Pilate 15 

Ptolemaios 38 

Ptolemy Epiphanes .... 36 
Ptolemy Philadelphus... 41 

Pul 26 

Rawlinson — Sir H. 

16, 26, 48, 70, 74 
RamesesII. 43, 44, 5 1. 54 

Rehoboam 42 

Rosetta Stone 35 

Samson 35 

Sandals 60 

Sargon 17, 31, 67, 69 

Sayce — Professor 

17, 26, 68 

Schick— Dr 80 

Scourge 83 

Sekhet 42 

Sennacherib 

21, 29, 30, 35, 67, 6q 

Septimus Severus 84 

Septuagint 41, 85 

Serapeum 5^ 

Sesostris 54 

Setil 54 

Shalmaneser H. 

25, 26, 69 
Shalmaneser IV. ... 17, ^7 

Shekel 82 

Shishak 42 

Signet Rings 60 



92 



Index Continued, 



PAGE 

Siloam Inscription 80 

Soanes (Sir J.) Museum 54 

Stater 82 

Strabo 58 

Susa (Shushan) 69 

Tablets (Babylonian) 67 

Tammuz 32 

Taylor Cylinder 62 

Tear Bottles 79 

Tel-el-Amarna ...47, 68, 74 

Temple Inscription 86 

Thoth 53 

Thotmes III 47 

Ti Princess 85, 74 

Tiberius Caesar 15, 84 

Tiglath Pileser III. 26, 29 



PAGE 

Titus 16, 84 

Toilet Apparatus 61 

Trajan 84 

Tree (Sacred) 32 

Tyre — Tablet from ... 75 

Uah-ab-Ra 41, 42 

Unknown God 20, 83 

Vespasian 84, 16 

Vulgates — Latin 85 

Wall Paintings 48, 59 

Wilkinson — Sir G 48 

Writing Materials 59 

Wycliffe's Bible 85 

Xerxes 73 

Zedekiah 42 

Zimrida 75 



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